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Sample records for nikolai vasiliev alar

  1. Alar

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Alar ; CASRN 1596 - 84 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects ) a

  2. [Correction of severe alar retraction with alar rotation flap].

    PubMed

    Hong, Chun; Zheng, Dongxue; Lu, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effect of alar rotation flap for severe alar retraction. Patients with severely retracted alar underwent ala reconstruction using alar rotation flaps and autogenous cartilage batten grafts. First, costal cartilage was used to reshape the nasal tip and nasal dorsum. Then cartilage patch was used to extend and thicken the retracted alar. Then the alar rotation flap was transferred to correct retracted alar. Fourteen patients with severe alar retraction underwent alar reconstruction with alar rotation flap and alar batten grafts. The alar retraction was corrected in all cases, with improvements functionally and aesthetically. No recurrence of alar retraction was noted. The incision healed with acceptable cosmetic results, with obvious scar in only one patient (one side). The alar rotation flap is an effective and reliable surgical option to correct severe alar retraction. Scar can be kept inconspicuous by precise placement of the incision within the junction of the ala and the nasal dorsum, following principles of the aesthetic nasal subunits.

  3. Towards the Fradkin-Vasiliev formalism in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinoviev, Yu. M.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we show that using frame-like gauge invariant formulation for the massive bosonic and fermionic fields in three dimensions the free Lagrangians for these fields can be rewritten in the explicitly gauge invariant form in terms of the appropriately chosen set of gauge invariant objects. This in turn opens the possibility to apply the Fradkin-Vasiliev formalism to the investigation of possible interactions of such fields.

  4. Alar Rim Deformities.

    PubMed

    Totonchi, Ali; Guyuron, Bahman

    2016-01-01

    The alar rim plays an important role in nasal harmony. Alar rim flaws are common following the initial rhinoplasty. Classification of the deformities helps with diagnosis and successful surgical correction. Diagnosis of the deformity requires careful observation of the computerized or life-sized photographs. Techniques for treatment of these deformities can easily be learned with attention to detail. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Traumatology of the alar ligaments].

    PubMed

    Saternus, K S; Thrun, C

    1987-10-01

    A postmortem study of craniocerebral traumas of varying severity was done to determine the pattern of injury of the alar ligaments. It was found that in the entire group of patients (n = 30) the alar ligaments were ruptured or suffused with blood 11 times. No close relationship was found between the massive nature of the cranial trauma and the severity of the injury of the alar ligaments. In some cases the alar ligaments were not at all involved even though the skull had suffered extensive osseous lesions, whereas on the other hand the ligaments were injured even though only soft parts had been involved (e.g., haematoma or dehiscent wounds of the scalp). Ruptures of the alar ligaments were typically involved in extended ruptures of the ligamentous apparatus (see Figure 6a involving the ligamentum apicis dentis, ligamentum transversum atlantis, m.atlanto-occipitalis anterior, m.tectoria, m.atlanto-axialis anterior et posterior). In some cases the pattern of injury of the alar ligaments was found to be decisive in enabling reconstruction of the course of the accident. Damage to the alar ligaments near the dens axis represent rotation injuries. On the other hand, insertion tears out of the condyli occipitales must be related to a lateral thrust tendency in indirect fracture of the skull (bursting fracture). Within this overall framework a new mechanism of fracture of the condylus occipitalis is described. As a matter of principle, the alar ligaments can become involved in consequence of rotation, traction and compression of the cranium.

  6. New classes of bi-axially symmetric solutions to four-dimensional Vasiliev higher spin gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundell, Per; Yin, Yihao

    2017-01-01

    We present new infinite-dimensional spaces of bi-axially symmetric asymptotically anti-de Sitter solutions to four-dimensional Vasiliev higher spin gravity, obtained by modifications of the Ansatz used in arXiv:1107.1217, which gave rise to a Type-D solution space. The current Ansatz is based on internal semigroup algebras (without identity) generated by exponentials formed out of the bi-axial symmetry generators. After having switched on the vacuum gauge function, the resulting generalized Weyl tensor is given by a sum of generalized Petrov type-D tensors that are Kerr-like or 2-brane-like in the asymptotic AdS4 region, and the twistor space connection is smooth in twistor space over finite regions of spacetime. We provide evidence for that the linearized twistor space connection can be brought to Vasiliev gauge.

  7. [Nikolai Astrup and his asthma].

    PubMed

    Romslo, I

    1990-12-10

    Nikolai Astrup (1880-1928) is recognized as one of the most famous Norwegian painters of his time. He grew up in Jłlster, in the western part of Norway, and has become known as the painter of the West Coast, not only because of his landscapes but even more so because of the atmosphere and special mood reflected in his paintings. Most of his paintings depict scenes from spring and summer nights in Jłlster. From a medical point of view it is interesting to know that Astrup suffered from asthma all his life, and one wonders whether his motives appeared to him during long walks at night while plagued by severe attacks of asthma. One also wonders what sort of impact the disease had on the composition of his paintings. There is reason to believe that his asthma not only hampered his creative activity and brought his life to a premature end, but also influenced his visionary imagination and helped him to discover the motives for his pictures.

  8. Reconstruction of the alar groove.

    PubMed

    Chait, L A; Fayman, M S

    1989-05-01

    The obliteration of a well-defined alar groove is common after nasal alar reconstruction. A method is described that can be used at the time of reconstruction to ensure the continued definition of the groove or to restore it in cases where it has been obliterated. The technique is based on the natural tendency of the skin to tube itself. Cheek skin is advanced beneath the posterior free edge of the reconstructed ala so that this edge now comes into contact with an epidermal surface. As this edge now tends to tube itself, a natural alar groove is produced. This method has been used successfully in six cases.

  9. An Alternative Alar Cinch Suture

    PubMed Central

    Rauso, Raffaele; Freda, Nicola; Curinga, Giuseppe; Del Pero, Claudio; Tartaro, Gianpaolo

    2010-01-01

    Nasal widening is commonly associated to maxillary osteotomies, but it is only partially dependent on the amount of skeletal movement. Techniques for controlling lateralization of the ala, including the alar base cinch technique, originally described by Millard, have been well reported by Collins and Epker and later modified by others. In this article, authors report the effect of a new alar cinch suture technique on a sample of 32 patients. PMID:21187940

  10. Alar retraction: etiology, treatment, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Ashlin J; Shah, Anil R; Constantinides, Minas S

    2013-01-01

    The effect of different rhinoplasty maneuvers on alar retraction remains to be elucidated. To determine the etiology and treatment of alar retraction based on a series of specific rhinoplasty maneuvers. Retrospective review of a single surgeon's rhinoplasty digital photo database, examining preoperative alar retraction from January 1, 2002, to December 31, 2005, in 520 patients. Patients with more than 1 mm of alar retraction on preoperative photographs were identified. Postoperative photographs were examined to determine the effect of specific rhinoplasty maneuvers on the position of the alar margin; these maneuvers included cephalic trim, cephalic positioning of the lower lateral cartilage, composite grafts, alar rim grafts, alar batten grafts, and overlay of the lower lateral cartilage. Tertiary care academic health center. Forty-five patients with alar retraction met inclusion criteria, resulting in 63 nasal halves with alar retraction. Intraoperative findings, postoperative results. Forty-seven percent of the patients (n = 21) had prior surgery; 47% also had cephalically positioned lower lateral cartilages. Among patients with less than 4 mm of cartilage width at the outset, 46% of those who received supportive grafts achieved target correction vs only 7% for patients who did not undergo supportive cartilage grafting. In patients who underwent more than 4 mm of cephalic trim, those who received supportive grafts achieved 46% of target correction vs 11% among those who did not. Ninety-five percent of composite grafts, 69% of alar strut grafts, 47% of alar rim grafts, 43% of vertical lobule division, and 12% of alar batten grafts achieved their target correction values. Alar retraction is a highly complex problem. It can be seen de novo and is associated with cephalically positioned lower lateral cartilages. Structurally supportive grafting-including composite grafts, alar strut grafts, alar rim grafts, vertical lobule division, and alar batten grafts

  11. General results for higher spin Wilson lines and entanglement in Vasiliev theory

    SciTech Connect

    Hegde, Ashwin; Kraus, Per; Perlmutter, Eric

    2016-01-28

    Here, we develop tools for the efficient evaluation of Wilson lines in 3D higher spin gravity, and use these to compute entanglement entropy in the hs[λ ] Vasiliev theory that governs the bulk side of the duality proposal of Gaberdiel and Gopakumar. Our main technical advance is the determination of SL(N) Wilson lines for arbitrary N, which, in suitable cases, enables us to analytically continue to hs[λ ] via N→ -λ. We then apply this result to compute various quantities of interest, including entanglement entropy expanded perturbatively in the background higher spin charge, chemical potential, and interval size. This includes a computation of entanglement entropy in the higher spin black hole of the Vasiliev theory. Our results are consistent with conformal field theory calculations. We also provide an alternative derivation of the Wilson line, by showing how it arises naturally from earlier work on scalar correlators in higher spin theory. The general picture that emerges is consistent with the statement that the SL(N) Wilson line computes the semiclassical WN vacuum block, and our results provide an explicit result for this object.

  12. General results for higher spin Wilson lines and entanglement in Vasiliev theory

    DOE PAGES

    Hegde, Ashwin; Kraus, Per; Perlmutter, Eric

    2016-01-28

    Here, we develop tools for the efficient evaluation of Wilson lines in 3D higher spin gravity, and use these to compute entanglement entropy in the hs[λ ] Vasiliev theory that governs the bulk side of the duality proposal of Gaberdiel and Gopakumar. Our main technical advance is the determination of SL(N) Wilson lines for arbitrary N, which, in suitable cases, enables us to analytically continue to hs[λ ] via N→ -λ. We then apply this result to compute various quantities of interest, including entanglement entropy expanded perturbatively in the background higher spin charge, chemical potential, and interval size. This includesmore » a computation of entanglement entropy in the higher spin black hole of the Vasiliev theory. Our results are consistent with conformal field theory calculations. We also provide an alternative derivation of the Wilson line, by showing how it arises naturally from earlier work on scalar correlators in higher spin theory. The general picture that emerges is consistent with the statement that the SL(N) Wilson line computes the semiclassical WN vacuum block, and our results provide an explicit result for this object.« less

  13. Nikolai Fedorovich Gamaliya (1932-2016).

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Professor Nikolai Fedorovich Gamaliya, well-known scientist in the field of laser biomedical research, biophysicist, authority in experimental oncology, Laureate of the State Prize in Science and Techno-logy of Ukraine, Head of the Department of Biological Effects of Ionizing and Non-Ionizing Radiation of R.E. Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) of Ukraine died on June 14, 2016 at the age of 83.

  14. To the memory of Nikolai Aleksandrovich Borisevich

    SciTech Connect

    Krokhin, O N

    2015-12-31

    Invaluable is the contribution of academician Borisevich to the development of optics, spectroscopy and their applications. He is the author of scientific discoveries and more than 600 scientific papers. For outstanding scientific achievements Nikolai Aleksandrovich was awarded the Lenin Prize, State Prize of the USSR and the Republic of Belarus. His scientific school gave a start in life to more than 30 candidates of science, 12 doctors, including 4 members of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. (obituary)

  15. Dynamics of the alar rim graft.

    PubMed

    Guyuron, Bahman; Bigdeli, Yaas; Sajjadian, Ali

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the dynamics and frequency of the use of the alar rim graft. The recorded intraoperative information for the purpose of rhinoplasty research was reviewed to investigate the frequency of the use of alar rim grafts. Intraoperative observations were also made while inserting the alar rim graft to identify the changes that occur in the structures that could be influenced by placement of this graft. The data were tabulated in an Excel file and analyzed. Of the 1427 patients who underwent nose reconstruction or rhinoplasty in this study, 565 (39.56 percent) received alar rim grafts. This included 73 primary nose reconstructions, 20 secondary nose reconstructions, two revision nose reconstructions, 304 primary rhinoplasties, 107 secondary rhinoplasties, 43 revision operations following primary rhinoplasties, and seven revision operations following secondary rhinoplasties. However, when 100 more recent consecutive cases were reviewed, 88 percent of primary rhinoplasty patients and 67 percent of secondary rhinoplasty patients received alar rim grafts. The observed dynamic changes after insertion of each graft included (1) correction of the concavity of the ala, (2) caudal advancement of the alar rim, (3) elongation of nostril, and (4) widening of the nostril. The majority of patients who undergo rhinoplasty would benefit from the alar rim graft, and this study demonstrates a steady increase in its use. Placement of an alar rim graft results in elongation of the short nostril, correction of the alar concavity, widening of the nostril, and slight caudal transposition of the alar rim.

  16. Anatomy of the alar ligament.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga, Joe; Sardi, Juan P; Laws, Tyler; Chapman, Jens R; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2017-08-18

    There are four layers of ligamentous stabilizers at the cranio-cervical junction and the second layer is comprised of the apical and paired alar ligaments. The purpose of this study is to establish the tensile strength of the alar ligaments for better understanding the implications that can arise from trauma and other pathologies in the craniocervical region. Nineteen sides from ten fresh frozen adult cadaveric Caucasian heads were used in this study. The specimens were derived from six males and four females, and the age of the cadavers at death ranged from 67 to 90-years-old to measure the tensile strength, a tensile testing machine (M2-200, Mark-10 corporation, USA) was used in this study. The force (N) necessary until failure for all alar ligaments ranged from 87 to 346 N with a mean of 186.9±69.7 N. There was a significant difference when comparing tensile strength between males and females. Further studies will be needed to determine their importance as secondary stabilizers and measure their ability to support similar forces when subject to rotation and lateral bending forces, as well as with flexion-extension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Update in alar base reduction in rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Lima, Leila Freire Rego; Arroyo, Helena Hotz; Jurado, José Roberto Parisi

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to further explore the techniques available for alar base reduction by a recent review in this topic, focusing in the current advances in the field, in a clear and readable format. Among the numerous techniques available, the management of cases with wide nasal base and alar flaring remains limited to three options: cinching sutures to pull in the alae together; or to use alar base excisions that remove tissue from the alar lobule to decrease flare and from inside the nostril to decrease width; and flap advancement. Surgical modification of the nasal base is not a routine part of rhinoplasty and should be performed in a conservative manner to prevent complications like nasal stenosis. Moreover, this maneuver should always be the last one in rhinoplasty, as alar base modifications cannot be properly assessed until all other steps have been carried out. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

  18. New classification for correction of alar retraction using the alar spreader graft.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hoon; Park, Sung Wan; Oh, Won Suk; Lee, Joo Heon

    2012-08-01

    Identifying the cause of alar retraction is essential for proper correction of this deformity. In secondary surgery, aimed primarily at cephalic orientation and medialization of the lateral crus, corrections involving spreading and lateralization of the lateral crus can achieve a more horizontal orientation. In their clinic, the authors have practiced the use of an alar spreader graft to support the spread of the lateral crus. For the lateral crus to move freely without any resistance, it is critical to release the nasal hinge and pyriform ligament. A frontal view of the alar notching and the direction of the lateral crus are highly important factors needed to determine the cause of alar retraction. This report describes a new classification system for alar retractions viewed from the front to aid in determining the cause of the retraction and the surgical management. From March 2008 to July 2010, 31 alar retractions were corrected using alar spreader grafts for patients showing clear alar retractions in frontal views. Satisfactory results without severe complications were obtained in 30 cases, with undercorrection in only 1 case. The alar cartilage was completely released to facilitate lateralization and caudal mobilization. An alar spreader graft then was used to support the lateral crus until a biologic scar cast was formed. The use of alar spreader grafts to correct alar retractions provided consistently good results. The attempt also was made to enhance the treatment strategy based on this classification system derived from frontal views of alar retraction. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors at www.springer.com/00266 .

  19. Alar flap combined with free auricular composite flap for the reconstruction of nasal alar defect.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wentao; Qing, Yong; Liu, Jia; Cen, Ying

    2015-03-01

    The nasal ala plays an important role in the aesthetic appearance of the nose. Repairing the nasal alar defect, especially full-thickness alar defect, is one of the difficulties of plastic surgeons. In this article, a new surgical method is introduced about repairing full-thickness alar defect with free auricular composite flaps and local nasal alar rotation and advancement tissue flaps. We retrospectively reviewed 6 patients with a diagnosis of full-thickness alar defect between 2010 and 2013. All of them accepted this new surgical method. The patients were followed up for 6 to 12 months. The method used local nasal alar rotation and advancement tissue flap to form new nasal rim and made the defect of nasal rim shift to alar groove region. After that, we harvested free auricular composite flap to repair the new defect. All patients attained relatively symmetrical nostrils with a natural, smooth, integrated alar rim and inconspicuous scars. All the reconstructed nasal alae were aesthetically satisfactory. Slight atrophy of grafts was observed in all patients. The shape of the donor ear changed a little. Two patients experienced hyperpigmentation change and one patient presented slight hypertrophic scar in the suture site. No other complications were observed. This simple method not only reconstructed almost normal nasal alar rims and alar grooves but also improved the survival rate of the composite grafts without any free edges. This method also changed the traditional free auricular tissue flap location from the nasal alar rim to the upper alar groove region, which would help achieve more aesthetic appearance. This new method is a creative and useful technique for the repair of full-thickness alar defect.

  20. Anterior septal deviation and contralateral alar collapse.

    PubMed

    Schalek, P; Hahn, A

    2011-01-01

    Septal deviation is often found in conjunction with other pathological conditions that adversely affect nasal patency. Anterior septal deviation, together with contralateral alar collapse, is a relatively rare type of anatomical and functional incompetence. In our experience, it can often be resolved with septoplasty, without the necessity of surgery involving the external valve. The aim of this paper was to verify this hypothesis prospectively. Twelve patients with anterior septal deviation and simultaneous alar collapse on the opposite side were prospectively enrolled in the study. Subjective assessment of nasal patency was made on post-operative day 1, and again 6 months after surgery, using a subjective evaluation of nasal breathing. The width of the nostril (alar-columellar distance) on the side with the alar collapse was measured during inspiration pre-operatively, 1 day after surgery and again 6 months after surgery. Immediately after surgery, all patients reported improved or excellent nasal breathing on the side of the original septal deviation. On the collapsed side, one patient reported no change in condition. With the exception of one patient, all measurements showed some degree of improvement in the extension of the alar-columellar distance. The average benefit 6 months after surgery was an improvement of 4.54 mm. In our group of patients (anterior septal deviation and simultaneous contralateral alar collapse and no obvious structural changes of the alar cartilage) we found septoplasty to be entirely suitable and we recommend it as the treatment of choice in such cases.

  1. Nasal base narrowing: the alar flap advancement technique.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Ahmed Soliman

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the role of creating an alar-based advancement flap in narrowing the nasal base and correcting excessive alar flare. Case series with chart review. This is a retrospective record review study. The study included 35 cases presenting with a wide nasal base and excessive alar flaring. The surgical procedure combined the alar base reduction with alar flare excision by creating a single laterally based alar flap. Any caudal septal deformities and any nasal tip modification procedures were corrected before the nasal base narrowing. The mean follow-up period was 23 months. The mean alar flap narrowing was 6.3 mm, whereas the mean width of sill narrowing was 2.9 mm. This single laterally based advancement alar flap resulted in a more conservative external resection, thus avoiding alar wedge overresection or blunting of the alar-facial crease. No cases of postoperative bleeding, infection, or keloid were encountered, and the external alar wedge excision healed with no apparent scar that was hidden in the depth of the alar-facial crease. The risk of notching of the alar rim at the sill incision is reduced by adopting a 2-layer closure of the vestibular floor. The alar base advancement flap is an effective technique in narrowing both the nasal base and excessive alar flare. It adopts a single skin excision to correct the 2 deformities while commonly feared complications were avoided.

  2. Novel technique and simple approach for supra-alar region and supra-alar crease correction by supra-alar cinching

    PubMed Central

    Selvaraj, Loganathan

    2016-01-01

    This technical report describes a simple and innovative surgical technique for supra-alar sidewall region constriction and supra-alar crease attenuation by cinching technique through intraoral approach. PMID:28163492

  3. Novel technique and simple approach for supra-alar region and supra-alar crease correction by supra-alar cinching.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, Loganathan

    2016-01-01

    This technical report describes a simple and innovative surgical technique for supra-alar sidewall region constriction and supra-alar crease attenuation by cinching technique through intraoral approach.

  4. Assessment of Alar Flare and Efficacy of Alar Cinch Suture in the Management of Alar Flare Following Le Fort 1 Superior Repositioning: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, K; Shehzana, Fatima; Bhat, H Hari Kishore

    2016-12-01

    To prospectively analyze the amount of alar flare, factors contributing to alar flare and efficacy of cinch suture as an adjunctive procedure for alar flare reduction. Thirty adult patients with vertical maxillary excess, who underwent Le Fort 1 impaction, were divided into 2 groups of 15 each. Alar cinch was performed as an adjunct procedure in group 2 patients and results were compared to group 1 which was the control group. Measurements were made on the patients and on 1:1 standardized photographs. Group 2 showed a near pre-operative alar position compared to group 1. The alar flare resulting from every millimeter of impaction was significantly less in group 2 compared to group 1. Alar cinch suture restores the normal alar width by preventing the lateral drift of the naso-labial muscle and thereby reducing the postoperative nasal flare significantly.

  5. The Articulated Alar Rim Graft: Reengineering the Conventional Alar Rim Graft for Improved Contour and Support.

    PubMed

    Ballin, Annelyse C; Kim, Haena; Chance, Elizabeth; Davis, Richard E

    2016-08-01

    Surgical refinement of the wide nasal tip is challenging. Achieving an attractive, slender, and functional tip complex without destabilizing the lower nasal sidewall or deforming the contracture-prone alar rim is a formidable task. Excisional refinement techniques that rely upon incremental weakening of wide lower lateral cartilages (LLC) often destabilize the tip complex and distort tip contour. Initial destabilization of the LLC is usually further exacerbated by "shrink-wrap" contracture, which often leads to progressive cephalic retraction of the alar margin. The result is a misshapen tip complex accentuated by a conspicuous and highly objectionable nostril deformity that is often very difficult to treat. The "articulated" alar rim graft (AARG) is a modification of the conventional rim graft that improves treatment of secondary alar rim deformities, including postsurgical alar retraction (PSAR). Unlike the conventional alar rim graft, the AARG is sutured to the underlying tip complex to provide direct stationary support to the alar margin, thereby enhancing graft efficacy. When used in conjunction with a well-designed septal extension graft (SEG) to stabilize the central tip complex, lateral crural tensioning (LCT) to tighten the lower nasal sidewalls and minimize soft-tissue laxity, and lysis of scar adhesions to unfurl the retracted and scarred nasal lining, the AARG can eliminate PSAR in a majority of patients. The AARG is also highly effective for prophylaxis against alar retraction and in the treatment of most other contour abnormalities involving the alar margin. Moreover, the AARG requires comparatively little graft material, and complications are rare. We present a retrospective series of 47 consecutive patients treated with the triad of AARG, SEG, and LCT for prophylaxis and/or treatment of alar rim deformities. Outcomes were favorable in nearly all patients, and no complications were observed. We conclude the AARG is a simple and effective method for

  6. Bilateral alar cartilage reduction rhinoplasty allows primary repair of alar defects in the bulbous nose.

    PubMed

    Al-Benna, Sammy

    2012-01-01

    Plastic surgeons have many reconstructive options for lower nasal skin defects, but given the unique aesthetic features of nasal skin the best source for reconstruction is nasal skin itself, when sufficient quantity exists. The purpose of this study is to determine the outcome of bilateral alar cartilage reduction rhinoplasty in combination with a nasal flap to facilitate immediate reconstruction of defects of the nasal tip, soft triangle and alar margin. This prospective study analyzed the aesthetic outcome after reconstruction with bilateral alar cartilage reduction rhinoplasty to reduce the nasal rim and create an excess of skin sufficient to facilitate immediate reconstruction of defects of the nasal tip, soft triangle and alar margin. All wounds healed primarily and patient satisfaction was achieved. Bilateral alar cartilage reduction rhinoplasty allows single-stage reconstruction of defects of the nasal tip, soft triangle, and medial alar rim in the bulbous nose. By placing incisions along the borders of the aesthetic subunits, this novel approach to primary reconstruction of the nasal tip, soft triangle, and medial alar rim provides skin with a superior color and texture match, maintains a satisfactory contour of the nasal rim, and optimizes the likelihood of good scar quality.

  7. Rhinoplasty: the lateral crura-alar ring.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Rollin K; Palhazi, Peter; Gerbault, Olivier; Kosins, Aaron M

    2014-05-01

    Rhinoplasty surgeons routinely excise or incise the lateral crura despite nostril rim retraction, bossa, and collapse. Given recent emphasis on preserving the lateral crura, a review of the lateral crura's anatomy is warranted. The authors quantify specific anatomical aspects of the lateral crura in cadavers and clinical patients. This was a 2-part investigation, consisting of a prospective clinical measurement study of 40 consecutive rhinoplasty patients (all women) and 20 fresh cadaver dissections (13 males, 1 female). In the clinical phase, the alar cartilages were photographed intraoperatively and alar position (ie, orientation), axis, and width were measured. Cadaver dissections concentrated on parts of the lateral crura (alar cartilages and alar ring) that were inaccessible clinically. Average clinical patient age was 28 years (range, 14-51 years). Average cadaver age was 74 (range, 57-88 years). Clinically, the distance of the lateral crura from the mid-nostril point averaged 5.9 mm, and the cephalic orientation averaged 43.6 degrees. The most frequent configuration of the axis was smooth-straight in the horizontal axis and a cephalic border higher than the caudal border in the vertical axis. Maximal lateral crura width averaged 10.1 mm. In the cadavers, average lateral crural dimensions were 23.4 mm long, 6.4 mm wide at the domal notch, 11.1 mm wide at the so-designated turning point (TP), and 0.5 mm thickness. The accessory cartilage chain was present in all dissections. The lateral crura-alar ring was present in all dissections as a circular ring continuing around toward the anterior nasal spine but not abutting the pyriform. The lateral crura (1) begins at the domal notch and ends at the accessory cartilages, (2) exhibits a distinct TP from the caudal border, (3) has distinct horizontal and vertical vectors, and (4) should have a caudal border higher than the cephalic border. Alar malposition may be associated with position, orientation, or configuration.

  8. Rhinoplasty: congenital deficiencies of the alar cartilage.

    PubMed

    Kosins, Aaron M; Daniel, Rollin K; Sajjadian, Ali; Helms, Jill

    2013-08-01

    Congenital deficiencies of the alar cartilages are rare and often visible at birth but can occasionally present later. The authors review the anatomical development and discuss the incidence and treatment of congenital defects within the alar cartilages seen in rhinoplasty cases. The charts of 869 consecutive patients who underwent open rhinoplasty were retrospectively reviewed, and 8 cases of congenital defects of the alar cartilage within the middle crura were identified. Intraoperative photographs were taken of the alar deformities, and each patient underwent surgical correction. To simplify analysis, a classification of the defects was developed. A division was a cleft in the continuity of the alar cartilage with the 2 ends separate. A gap was a true absence of cartilage ranging from 1 to 4 mm, which can be accurately assessed in unilateral cases. A segmental loss was a defect greater than 4 mm. The 8 cases of deformity could be classified as 4 divisions, 3 gaps, and 1 segmental loss. None of the patients had a history of prior nasal trauma or nasal surgery. Six patients were women and 2 patients were men. In all cases, adequate projection and stability were achieved with a columellar strut. Asymmetry was minimized through concealer or tip grafts. There were no complications. Surgeons performing rhinoplasty surgery will encounter and should be prepared to deal with unexpected congenital defects of the alar cartilage. These defects within the middle crura will require stabilization with a columellar strut and, often, coverage with a concealer tip graft. We speculate that the cause of these defects is a disruption of the hedgehog signals that may arrest the condensation or block the differentiation of the underlying neural crest cells.

  9. Alar Contour Grafts in Rhinoplasty: A Safe and Reproducible Way to Refine Alar Contour Aesthetics.

    PubMed

    Unger, Jacob G; Roostaeian, Jason; Small, Kevin H; Pezeshk, Ronnie A; Lee, Michael R; Harris, Ryan; Rohrich, Rod J

    2016-01-01

    Alar rim deformities such as retraction, notching, collapse, and asymmetry are common problems in rhinoplasty patients. Although alar rim deformities may be improved through rhinoplasty, this area is prone to late changes because of scarring of the soft triangles and a paucity of native structural support. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of alar contour grafts on primary rhinoplasty. Fifty consecutive primary rhinoplasty patients with preoperative and postoperative photographs who received alar contour grafts were evaluated for alar aesthetics; 50 consecutive primary rhinoplasty patients without such grafts served as controls. Differences among alar retraction, notching, collapse, and asymmetry from anterior, lateral, and basal views were evaluated. Follow-up ranged from 1 to 4 years and was graded on a four-point scale. The average difference between the two groups' aggregate preoperative scores was 0.21 (p = 0.24). The average preoperative and postoperative scores in the nongraft group were significant for worsening retraction, notching, and collapse but insignificant for asymmetry. The preoperative and postoperative scores for the graft group were insignificant for retraction but improved significantly for notching, collapse, and asymmetry. Postoperatively, the aggregate average of the scores in the nongroup was 0.32 points worse (p < 0.01), whereas the graft group had a 0.33-point improvement (p < 0.01). Alar contour grafts have a clear and important impact on cosmetic results of primary rhinoplasty. Use of alar contour grafts has been shown to improve aesthetics, whereas there is a worsening of the measured parameters postoperatively without use of these grafts. Therapeutic, III.

  10. Functional anatomy of the alar ligaments.

    PubMed

    Dvorak, J; Panjabi, M M

    1987-03-01

    Nineteen upper cervical spine specimens were dissected to examine the macroscopic and functional anatomy of alar ligaments. They are on both sides, symmetrically placed, approximately 10-13 mm long and elliptical in cross-section 3 X 6 mm in diameter. The fiber orientation is dependent on the height of dens axis, mostly in the cranial caudal direction. In 12 specimens there was a ligamentous connection between dens and lateral mass of the atlas as a part of the alar ligament. In 2 specimens anterior atlanto-dental ligament was identified. The computerized tomographic (CT) images can clearly show alar ligaments in axial, coronal, and sagittal planes. The ligaments limit the axial rotation in the occipito-atlanto-axial complex (to the right by left alar and vice versa) as well as in side bending. The ligament is most stretched, and consequently most vulnerable, when the head is rotated and in addition flexed. This mechanism, common in whiplash injuries, could lead to irreversible overstretching or rupture of the ligaments especially as the ligaments consist of mainly collagen fibers.

  11. OBITUARY: To the memory of Nikolai Aleksandrovich Borisevich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krokhin, O. N.

    2015-12-01

    Invaluable is the contribution of academician Borisevich to the development of optics, spectroscopy and their applications. He is the author of scientific discoveries and more than 600 scientific papers. For outstanding scientific achievements Nikolai Aleksandrovich was awarded the Lenin Prize, State Prize of the USSR and the Republic of Belarus. His scientific school gave a start in life to more than 30 candidates of science, 12 doctors, including 4 members of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus.

  12. Nasal base narrowing: the combined alar base excision technique.

    PubMed

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the role of the combined alar base excision technique in narrowing the nasal base and correcting excessive alar flare. The study included 60 cases presenting with a wide nasal base and excessive alar flaring. The surgical procedure combined an external alar wedge resection with an internal vestibular floor excision. All cases were followed up for a mean of 32 (range, 12-144) months. Nasal tip modification and correction of any preexisting caudal septal deformities were always completed before the nasal base narrowing. The mean width of the external alar wedge excised was 7.2 (range, 4-11) mm, whereas the mean width of the sill excision was 3.1 (range, 2-7) mm. Completing the internal excision first resulted in a more conservative external resection, thus avoiding any blunting of the alar-facial crease. No cases of postoperative bleeding, infection, or keloid formation were encountered, and the external alar wedge excision healed with an inconspicuous scar that was well hidden in the depth of the alar-facial crease. Finally, the risk of notching of the alar rim, which can occur at the junction of the external and internal excisions, was significantly reduced by adopting a 2-layered closure of the vestibular floor (P = .01). The combined alar base excision resulted in effective narrowing of the nasal base with elimination of excessive alar flare. Commonly feared complications, such as blunting of the alar-facial crease or notching of the alar rim, were avoided by using simple modifications in the technique of excision and closure.

  13. Isolated unilateral rupture of the alar ligament.

    PubMed

    Wong, Sui-To; Ernest, Kimberly; Fan, Grace; Zovickian, John; Pang, Dachling

    2014-05-01

    Only 6 cases of isolated unilateral rupture of the alar ligament have been previously reported. The authors report a new case and review the literature, morbid anatomy, and pathogenesis of this rare injury. The patient in their case, a 9-year-old girl, fell head first from a height of 5 feet off the ground. She presented with neck pain, a leftward head tilt, and severe limitation of right rotation, extension, and right lateral flexion of the neck. Plain radiographs and CT revealed no fracture but a shift of the dens toward the right lateral mass of C-1. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine showed signal hyperintensity within the left dens-atlas space on both T1- and T2-weighted sequences and interruption of the expected dark signal representing the left alar ligament, suggestive of its rupture. After 12 weeks of immobilization in a Guilford brace, MRI showed lessened dens deviation, and the patient attained full and painless neck motion. Including the patient in this case, the 7 patients with this injury were between 5 and 21 years old, sustained the injury in traffic accidents or falls, presented with marked neck pain, and were treated with external immobilization. All patients had good clinical outcome. The mechanism of injury is hyperflexion with rotation. Isolated unilateral alar ligament rupture is a diagnosis made by excluding associated fracture, dislocation, or disruption of other major ligamentous structures in the craniovertebral junction. CT and MRI are essential in establishing the diagnosis. External immobilization is adequate treatment.

  14. Alar base reduction: the boomerang-shaped excision.

    PubMed

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2011-04-01

    A boomerang-shaped alar base excision is described to narrow the nasal base and correct the excessive alar flare. The boomerang excision combined the external alar wedge resection with an internal vestibular floor excision. The internal excision was inclined 30 to 45 degrees laterally to form the inner limb of the boomerang. The study included 46 patients presenting with wide nasal base and excessive alar flaring. All cases were followed for a mean period of 18 months (range, 8 to 36 months). The laterally oriented vestibular floor excision allowed for maximum preservation of the natural curvature of the alar rim where it meets the nostril floor and upon its closure resulted in a considerable medialization of alar lobule, which significantly reduced the amount of alar flare and the amount of external alar excision needed. This external alar excision measured, on average, 3.8 mm (range, 2 to 8 mm), which is significantly less than that needed when a standard vertical internal excision was used ( P < 0.0001). Such conservative external excisions eliminated the risk of obliterating the natural alar-facial crease, which did not occur in any of our cases. No cases of postoperative bleeding, infection, or vestibular stenosis were encountered. Keloid or hypertrophic scar formation was not encountered; however, dermabrasion of the scars was needed in three (6.5%) cases to eliminate apparent suture track marks. The boomerang alar base excision proved to be a safe and effective technique for narrowing the nasal base and elimination of the excessive flaring and resulted in a natural, well-proportioned nasal base with no obvious scarring.

  15. Expedition 6 Crew Interviews: Nikolai Budarin FEI (Flight Engineer 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Expedition 6 Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin is seen during a prelaunch interview. He provides details on the mission's goals and significance, his role in the mission, what his responsibilities will be, what the crew activities will be like (docking of a Progress unpiloted supply vehicle, maintaining the space station, conducting science experiments and performing one spacewalk), the day-to-day life on an extended stay mission, and the experiments he will be conducting on board. Budarin also discusses how his previous experiences on mir space missions will help him and ends his thoughts on how valuable the International Space Station has proven.

  16. Expedition 6 Crew Interviews: Nikolai Budarin FEI (Flight Engineer 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Expedition 6 Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin is seen during a prelaunch interview. He provides details on the mission's goals and significance, his role in the mission, what his responsibilities will be, what the crew activities will be like (docking of a Progress unpiloted supply vehicle, maintaining the space station, conducting science experiments and performing one spacewalk), the day-to-day life on an extended stay mission, and the experiments he will be conducting on board. Budarin also discusses how his previous experiences on mir space missions will help him and ends his thoughts on how valuable the International Space Station has proven.

  17. Optimizing the Soft Tissue Triangle, Alar Margin Furrow, and Alar Ridge Aesthetics: Analysis and Use of the Articulate Alar Rim Graft.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, Jennifer L; Wong, B J F

    2016-12-01

    The alar lobule, alar margin, and soft triangle facet are receiving more attention in the literature as critical elements to address both preoperatively and during rhinoplasty. We have found that the use of the articulated alar rim graft (AARG) corrects deficiencies in these areas as well as provides mechanical stability to the external valve. In this article, we describe indications for AARG, describe in detail the procedure for AARG placement, and highlight the transformation AARGs can achieve in two illustrated case studies. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  18. Alar and Apples: Newspaper Coverage of a Major Risk Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Sharon M.; And Others

    A study reviewed coverage in 13 newspapers during 1989 of the issue of spraying the pesticide Alar on apples. Using VU/TEXT, a newspaper database, 297 articles in 13 newspapers that included the specified code words "Alar" with or without "apple" or "apples" were retrieved and analyzed using a 33-question coding…

  19. The Seesaw Technique for Correction of Vertical Alar Discrepancy.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Sang Min; Medikeri, Gaurav Shankar; Jung, Dong-Hak

    2015-09-01

    Alar vertical discrepancy including alar base has been viewed as one of the most challenging reconstructive problems in rhinoplasty. The authors have created a simple technique that consistently gives aesthetically acceptable results. The authors have designed the seesaw technique to correct alar discrepancy (type 1 to 3). Type 1 has been used in 14 patients, type 2 has been used in three patients, and type 3 has been used in seven patients. Alar discrepancy was corrected satisfactorily in all cases, with good cosmetic outcome. One case required scar revision and another case required revision for overcorrection; satisfactory results were ultimately achieved in both cases. This new technique is quite easy to design and is effective in the correction of alar discrepancy. It yields good postoperative results along with satisfactory aesthetic outcomes.

  20. Modified versus classic alar base sutures after LeFort I osteotomy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianwen; Zhu, Songsong; Hu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate the efficacy of a new modified alar base cinch suture by comparing it with the commonly used classic alar base suture after LeFort I osteotomy. A comprehensive search strategy was performed to include interventional studies involving the comparisons of alar base suturing methods after LeFort I osteotomy. Data analyses were conducted using the random-effects model. Three studies with 146 participants undergoing LeFort I maxillary osteotomy were included in this review. The results showed that, compared with the classic method, both modified transseptal alar base suture and modified reinsertion sutures significantly decreased postoperative alar and alar base widening. The modified alar base cinch suture was more effective than the classic alar base suture in maintaining preoperative alar and alar base width after LeFort I osteotomy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Preventing alar retraction by preservation of the lateral crus.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Ronald P; Zhang, Andrew Y; Zang, Andrew; Mohebali, Khashayar

    2010-08-01

    Resecting the cephalic component of the lateral crus in an attempt to reduce tip bulbosity has the potential to aggravate and/or cause alar retraction. It is a more serious problem for those patients who exhibit borderline alar retraction. Fourteen primary rhinoplasty patients with borderline alar/columellar relationships for alar retraction formed the study. They did not warrant frank treatment of alar retraction but did exhibit tip bulbosity. An "island" of cephalic lateral crus was developed by an intercartilaginous incision and another 6 mm cephalic to the caudal border of the lateral crus. One or more mattress sutures were placed in the main body of the lateral crus to stiffen and straighten it. The "island" of cephalic crus was then slipped under the main body of the lateral crus. At 11 months to 2(1/2) years, 13 of the 14 patients demonstrated no significant change in their preoperative alar/columellar relationships. Bulbosity was corrected in all patients. One patient, however, required a revision using an alar contour rim graft. The mean preoperative alar-nostril axis measurement was 1.48 mm (range, 1.3 to 1.9 mm) in contrast to a mean postoperative measurement of 1.71 mm (range, 1.5 to 2.2 mm). A one-tailed paired t test indicated no statistically significant difference between preoperative and postoperative values. The cephalic part of the lateral crus can act as a lateral crural strut to maintain the ala in a more caudal position. The technique is useful for borderline alar retraction and when lengthening the short nose for which there is a need to preserve side wall length.

  2. Simple Correction of Alar Retraction by Conchal Cartilage Extension Grafts.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yong Jun; Kim, Sung Min; Lew, Dae Hyun; Song, Seung Yong

    2016-11-01

    Alar retraction is a challenging condition in rhinoplasty marked by exaggerated nostril exposure and awkwardness. Although various methods for correcting alar retraction have been introduced, none is without drawbacks. Herein, we report a simple procedure that is both effective and safe for correcting alar retraction using only conchal cartilage grafting. Between August 2007 and August 2009, 18 patients underwent conchal cartilage extension grafting to correct alar retraction. Conchal cartilage extension grafts were fixed to the caudal margins of the lateral crura and covered with vestibular skin advancement flaps. Preoperative and postoperative photographs were reviewed and analyzed. Patient satisfaction was surveyed and categorized into 4 groups (very satisfied, satisfied, moderate, or unsatisfied). According to the survey, 8 patients were very satisfied, 9 were satisfied, and 1 considered the outcome moderate, resulting in satisfaction for most patients. The average distance from the alar rim to the long axis of the nostril was reduced by 1.4 mm (3.6 to 2.2 mm). There were no complications, except in 2 cases with palpable cartilage step-off that resolved without any aesthetic problems. Conchal cartilage alar extension graft is a simple, effective method of correcting alar retraction that can be combined with aesthetic rhinoplasty conveniently, utilizing conchal cartilage, which is the most similar cartilage to alar cartilage, and requiring a lesser volume of cartilage harvest compared to previously devised methods. However, the current procedure lacks efficacy for severe alar retraction and a longer follow-up period may be required to substantiate the enduring efficacy of the current procedure.

  3. Simple Correction of Alar Retraction by Conchal Cartilage Extension Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yong Jun; Kim, Sung Min; Lew, Dae Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Alar retraction is a challenging condition in rhinoplasty marked by exaggerated nostril exposure and awkwardness. Although various methods for correcting alar retraction have been introduced, none is without drawbacks. Herein, we report a simple procedure that is both effective and safe for correcting alar retraction using only conchal cartilage grafting. Methods Between August 2007 and August 2009, 18 patients underwent conchal cartilage extension grafting to correct alar retraction. Conchal cartilage extension grafts were fixed to the caudal margins of the lateral crura and covered with vestibular skin advancement flaps. Preoperative and postoperative photographs were reviewed and analyzed. Patient satisfaction was surveyed and categorized into 4 groups (very satisfied, satisfied, moderate, or unsatisfied). Results According to the survey, 8 patients were very satisfied, 9 were satisfied, and 1 considered the outcome moderate, resulting in satisfaction for most patients. The average distance from the alar rim to the long axis of the nostril was reduced by 1.4 mm (3.6 to 2.2 mm). There were no complications, except in 2 cases with palpable cartilage step-off that resolved without any aesthetic problems. Conclusions Conchal cartilage alar extension graft is a simple, effective method of correcting alar retraction that can be combined with aesthetic rhinoplasty conveniently, utilizing conchal cartilage, which is the most similar cartilage to alar cartilage, and requiring a lesser volume of cartilage harvest compared to previously devised methods. However, the current procedure lacks efficacy for severe alar retraction and a longer follow-up period may be required to substantiate the enduring efficacy of the current procedure. PMID:27896189

  4. Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin floats in the SM during Expedition Six

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-03-21

    ISS006-E-45289 (21 March 2003) --- Cosmonaut Nikolai M. Budarin, Expedition Six flight engineer, floats in the Zvezda Service Module on the International Space Station (ISS). Budarin represents Rosaviakosmos.

  5. Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin operates hand controllers on the Robotic System in the SM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-03-20

    ISS006-E-45260 (20 March 2003) --- Cosmonaut Nikolai M. Budarin, Expedition Six flight engineer, is pictured in the Zvezda Service Module on the International Space Station (ISS). Budarin represents Rosaviakosmos.

  6. Expedition 6 flight engineer Nikolai Budarin suits up for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Expedition 6 flight engineer Nikolai Budarin relaxes during suitup for launch. Budarin, who is with the Russian Space Agency, will be making his second Shuttle flight. The primary mission for the crew is bringing the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and returning the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. The major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is scheduled for 8:15 p.m. EST.

  7. Expedition 6 flight engineer Nikolai Budarin suits up for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Expedition 6 flight engineer Nikolai Budarin gets help with his helmet during suitup for launch on mission STS-113. Budarin, who represents the Russian Space Agency, will be making his second Shuttle flight. The primary mission is bringing the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and returning the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. The major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is scheduled for Nov. 11 at 12:58 a.m. EST.

  8. Feasibility and accuracy of nasal alar pulse oximetry.

    PubMed

    Morey, T E; Rice, M J; Vasilopoulos, T; Dennis, D M; Melker, R J

    2014-06-01

    The nasal ala is an attractive site for pulse oximetry because of perfusion by branches of the external and internal carotid arteries. We evaluated the accuracy of a novel pulse oximetry sensor custom designed for the nasal ala. After IRB approval, healthy non-smoking subjects [n=12; aged 28 (23-41) yr; 6M/6F] breathed hypoxic mixtures of fresh gas by a facemask to achieve oxyhaemoglobin saturations of 70-100% measured by traditional co-oximetry from radial artery samples. Concurrent alar and finger pulse oximetry values were measured using probes designed for these sites. Data were analysed using the Bland-Altman method for multiple observations per subject. Bias, precision, and accuracy root mean square error (ARMS) over a range of 70-100% were significantly better for the alar probe compared with a standard finger probe. The mean bias for the alar and finger probes was 0.73% and 1.90% (P<0.001), respectively, with corresponding precision values of 1.65 and 1.83 (P=0.015) and ARMS values of 1.78% and 2.72% (P=0.047). The coefficients of determination were 0.96 and 0.96 for the alar and finger probes, respectively. The within/between-subject variation for the alar and finger probes were 1.14/1.57% and 1.87/1.47%, respectively. The limits of agreement were 3.96/-2.50% and 5.48/-1.68% for the alar and finger probes, respectively. Nasal alar pulse oximetry is feasible and demonstrates accurate pulse oximetry values over a range of 70-100%. The alar probe demonstrated greater accuracy compared with a conventional finger pulse oximeter. © The Author [2014]. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Alar Pinning in Rigid External Distraction for Midfacial Hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jenny L; Woo, Albert S

    2017-09-01

    Distraction osteogenesis with a rigid external distractor is a widely accepted treatment for midfacial hypoplasia. In this study, the authors introduce the utilization of alar pinning with the external halo distractor for maxillary advancement, in place of an oral splint. A retrospective chart review was conducted of 7 patients who successfully underwent distraction osteogenesis using the alar pinning technique. Midfacial hypoplasia was secondary to Crouzon syndrome (n = 4), Apert syndrome (n = 1), Pfeiffer syndrome (n = 1), or bacterial meningitis (n = 1). Three patients were managed with monobloc osteotomies, 2 with Le Fort III osteotomies, 1 with Le Fort III osteotomy and frontoorbital advancement, and 1 with Le Fort I osteotomy alone. Patient charts were analyzed for postoperative course and complications relating to the alar pins. Two patients had minor complications specifically related to the alar pins. One patient had concern for a mild skin infection at a pin site that resolved with oral antibiotics. The other patient had loosening of an alar pin, which did not require operative management. Retrospective chart review indicated that all patients were pleased with their results from the distraction, and no patients opted for further advancement. Utilization of alar pin sites for external distraction is a feasible and reasonable option for treatment of midfacial hypoplasia involving a Le Fort osteotomy or monobloc procedure. Fixation sites within the alar crease minimize the visibility of pin site scars and eliminate the need for a custom-made oral splint, which prevents usage of the upper dentition and frequently requires consulting a dentist or orthodontist for fabrication. Alar pinning with an external halo distraction system for management of midfacial hypoplasia has minimal complications and is an alternative to using a custom-made oral splint.

  10. Revisiting the clinical anatomy of the alar ligaments.

    PubMed

    Osmotherly, Peter G; Rivett, Darren A; Mercer, Susan R

    2013-01-01

    The morphology of the alar ligaments has been inconsistently described, particularly with regard to the existence of an atlantal portion. Despite these inconsistencies, these descriptions have been used to develop physical tests for the integrity of these ligaments in patients with cervical spine problems. The purpose of this study was to describe the detailed macrostructure of the alar ligaments. The alar ligaments of 11 cervical spine specimens from embalmed adult cadavers were examined by fine dissection. A detailed description of the macrostructure of these ligaments and their attachment sites was recorded. Measurements were performed with respect to ligament dimensions and relations with selected bony landmarks. No atlantal portion of the alar ligament was viewed in any specimen. The attachment of the ligaments on the odontoid process occurred on its lateral and posterolateral aspects, frequently below the level of the apex. The occipital attachment was on the medial surface of the occipital condyles in close proximity to the atlanto-occipital joints. The orientation of the ligaments was primarily horizontal. The presence of transverse bands extending occiput to occiput with minimal or no attachment to the odontoid process was a common variant. The absence of findings with respect to the atlantal portion of the alar ligament suggests that it may be considered an anatomical variant, not an essential component for stability of the craniocervical complex. These findings may inform the use and interpretation of clinical tests for alar ligament integrity.

  11. Alar setback technique: a controlled method of nasal tip deprojection.

    PubMed

    Foda, H M

    2001-11-01

    To describe an alar cartilage-modifying technique aimed at decreasing nasal tip projection in cases with overdeveloped alar cartilages and to compare it with other deprojection techniques used to correct such deformity. Selected case series. University and private practice settings in Alexandria, Egypt. Twenty patients presenting for rhinoplasty who had overprojected nasal tips primarily due to overdeveloped alar cartilages. All cases were primary cases except for one patient, who had undergone 2 previous rhinoplasties. An external rhinoplasty approach was used to set back the alar cartilages by shortening their medial and lateral crura. The choice of performing a high or low setback depended on the preexisting lobule-to-columella ratio. Following the setback, the alar cartilages were reconstructed in a fashion that increased the strength and stability of the tip complex. Subjective evaluation included clinical examination, analysis of preoperative and postoperative photographs, and patient satisfaction. Objective evaluation of nasal tip projection, using the Goode ratio and the nasofacial angle, was performed preoperatively and repeated at least 6 months postoperatively. A low setback was performed in 16 cases (80%) and a high setback in 4 (20%). The mean follow-up period was 18 months (range, 6-36 months). The technique effectively deprojected the nasal tip as evidenced by the considerable postoperative decrease in values of the Goode ratio and the nasofacial angle. No complications were encountered and no revision surgical procedures were required. The alar setback technique has many advantages; it results in precise predictable amounts of deprojection, controls the degree of tip rotation, preserves the natural contour of the nasal tip, respects the tip support mechanisms, increases the strength and stability of nasal tip complex, preserves or restores the normal lobule-to-columella proportion, and does not lead to alar flaring. However, the technique requires

  12. Correction of Alar Retraction Based on Frontal Classification.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hoon; Song, Jin Woo; Park, Sung Wan; Bartlett, Erica; Nguyen, Anh H

    2015-11-01

    Among the various types of alar deformations in Asians, alar retraction not only has the highest occurrence rate, but is also very complicated to treat because the ala is supported only by cartilage and its soft tissue envelope cannot be easily stretched. As patients' knowledge of aesthetic procedures is becoming more extensive due to increased information dissemination through various media, doctors must give more accurate, logical explanations of the procedures to be performed and their anticipated results, with an emphasis on relevant anatomical features, accurate diagnoses, detailed classifications, and various appropriate methods of surgery.

  13. Correction of Alar Retraction Based on Frontal Classification

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Hoon; Song, Jin Woo; Park, Sung Wan; Bartlett, Erica; Nguyen, Anh H.

    2015-01-01

    Among the various types of alar deformations in Asians, alar retraction not only has the highest occurrence rate, but is also very complicated to treat because the ala is supported only by cartilage and its soft tissue envelope cannot be easily stretched. As patients' knowledge of aesthetic procedures is becoming more extensive due to increased information dissemination through various media, doctors must give more accurate, logical explanations of the procedures to be performed and their anticipated results, with an emphasis on relevant anatomical features, accurate diagnoses, detailed classifications, and various appropriate methods of surgery. PMID:26648808

  14. Alar Suspension Sutures in the Management of Nasal Valve Collapse.

    PubMed

    Manickavasagam, Jaiganesh; Iqbal, Isma; Wong, Smeeta; Raghavan, Ullas

    2015-09-01

    This study assesses the efficacy of alar suspension sutures in the management of nasal valve collapse causing nasal obstruction. These sutures are inserted between the vestibular skin and lateral crura and hitched to the periosteum of the medial inferior orbital margin; this is a variation of the alar (change everywhere) suspension suture technique. A retrospective review of patients who underwent alar suspension suture insertion between January 2009 and December 2010 in the management of nasal obstruction was undertaken. Symptoms of nasal obstruction were assessed using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and peak inspiratory flow rate (PIFR). This was measured preprocedure and repeated at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. A total of 35 patients were identified, and 26 were included in the study; 90% of patients were satisfied with the outcome of surgery, supported by improvement in the VAS and PIFR scores. The mean difference in VAS preprocedure and postprocedure was 4.97 (P value = 0.00), and the average improvement in PIFR was 25.5 L/min (P value = 0.00). Our study shows a significant improvement in patient's symptoms following insertion of alar suspension sutures. It is, therefore, a reliable, safe, and effective technique in treating nasal obstruction secondary to nasal valve collapse. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Grafting the alar rim: application as anatomical graft.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Ronald P; Fox, Paige; Peled, Anne; Belek, Kyle A

    2014-12-01

    Alar rim contour and alar rim grafts have become essential components of rhinoplasty. Ideally, grafts of the nose should be anatomical in shape. So doing might make grafts of the alar rim more robust. The authors considered doing that by applying the graft as a continuous extension of the lateral crus. Twelve patients (two men and 10 women) constituted the study group (seven primary and five secondary cases). Of those, there were five concave rims, two concave rims with rim retraction, two boxy tips, and three cephalically oriented lateral crura. Surgical technique included the following: (1) an open approach was used; (2) a marginal incision that ignored the caudal margin of the lateral crus (the incision went straight posteriorly to a point 5 to 6 mm from the rim margin) was used; (3) a triangular graft was made to cover the exposed vestibular skin; (4) it was secured end to end to the caudal border of the lateral crus; and (5) the poster end was allowed to sit in a small subcutaneous pocket. Follow-up was 11 to 19 months. All 12 patients exhibited good rims as judged by a blinded panel. Rim retraction was not fully corrected in one patient, but no further treatment was required. One patient did require a secondary small rim graft for residual rim concavity. The concept of grafting the alar rim is strongly supported by the authors' results. The modifications the authors applied by designing the graft to be anatomical in shape has been a technical help.

  16. Nikolai Vasilyevich Lazarev, toxicologist and pharmacologist, comes in from the cold.

    PubMed

    Lipnick, R L; Filov, V A

    1992-02-01

    Important and pioneering work on the physicochemical properties underlying the biological activity of nonelectrolytes was performed 'behind the iron curtain' by Soviet scientist Nikolai Vasilyevich Lazarev. In this Special Feature, Robert Lipnick and Vladimir Filov examine the contribution of Lazarev's numerous observations to the knowledge base in pharmacology and toxicology, which has only recently gained recognition in the West.

  17. Anatomy of the Alar Ligament: Part II: Variations of Its Attachment onto the Dens.

    PubMed

    Sardi, Juan P; Iwanaga, Joe; Schmidt, Cameron; Rustagi, Tarush; Chapman, Jens R; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2017-08-09

    Various authors have described the morphology of the alar ligaments; however, there are no reports of a cadaveric study focusing on their attachments onto the dens. The purpose of this study was to use fresh cadaveric specimens to describe in detail different attachment patterns of the alar ligaments onto the dens. This study used 22 sides from 11 fresh frozen cadaveric heads. Specimens were obtained from 8 men and 3 women who were 67-99 years old at death. Dissection of the exact attachment of the alar ligaments onto the dens was observed from posterior, superior, and anterior views under the surgical microscope. From a posterior view, 6 alar ligaments passed over the tip of the dens, and 16 alar ligaments attached onto the posterolateral part of the dens; the right and left ligaments had no continuity. From a superior view, the alar ligament was classified in 2 ways: depending on the covered area of the dens (entirely or posterior two thirds) and continuity of the alar ligament (transversely, separately, or combination). Fourteen alar ligaments covered the posterior two thirds of the dens. From an anterior view, in 1 specimen, the alar ligament extended to the anterior surface of the dens. Wide posterolateral anchoring to the dens coupled with the nearly horizontal trajectory explains the biomechanical advantage of the alar ligaments in undertaking a stabilizing function in limiting head rotation that would otherwise be ineffective in the case of weaker attachments or a more vertical orientation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reconstruction of nasal alar defects in asian patients.

    PubMed

    Han, Doo Hee; Mangoba, Dennis Cristobal S; Lee, Doh Young; Jin, Hong Ryul

    2012-01-01

    To present the aesthetic and functional outcomes of nasal alar reconstruction in Asian patients and to propose a working surgical algorithm. Seventeen patients underwent nasal alar reconstruction at a university-based facial plastic surgery practice from March 1, 1998, through February 28, 2010. The male-female ratio was 10:7, with a median age of 59 years (range, 34-78 years), and the mean follow-up duration was 64 months. The defect was mostly caused by basal cell carcinoma resection (14 of 17 [82%]), followed by the resection of squamous cell carcinoma, trauma, and excision of a previous scar. The mean defect size was 1.71 cm (range, 1-4 cm). The full-thickness defects were noted for 8 patients, whereas 9 had partial-thickness defects. The choice of reconstruction method was primarily based on the size and depth of the surgical defect. Most of the defects 1 to 2 cm in diameter needed nasolabial flaps (10 of 17 [59%]), whereas full-thickness defects larger than 2 cm needed forehead flaps (3 of 17 [18%]) to reconstruct the external defect. Smaller defects less than 1 cm were reconstructed with composite grafts (2 of 17 [12%]), a bilobed flap (1 of 17 [6%]), or primary closure (1 of 17 [6%]). Seven of 8 full-thickness defects had the internal nasal lining reconstructed using a septal mucoperichondrial flap, and 1 case was reconstructed using a cutaneous turn-in flap. Reinforcement cartilage graft was used in 8 patients. No flap failure occurred except in 1 case, in which necrosis of the internal lining flap caused contraction of the external flap with resultant alar rim elevation. An elevation of the alar margin and alar groove blunting occurred in 3 cases. No functional problems emerged. Subjective surgical outcome on a 4-point satisfaction scale revealed that 5 patients (29%) were much satisfied, 10 patients (59%) were satisfied, 1 patient (6%) was fairly satisfied, and 1 patient (6%) was dissatisfied. The choice of reconstruction method of nasal alar defect in

  19. Relationship between Hyperactivity of Depressor Septi Nasi Muscle and Changes of Alar Base and Flaring during Smile

    PubMed Central

    Beiraghi-Toosi, Arash; Rezaei, Ezatollah; Zanjani, Elham

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hyperactivity of depressor septi nasi muscle leads to smiling deformity and nasal tip depression. Lateral fascicles of this muscle help in widening the nostrils. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the nasal length changes and the alar base and the alar flaring changes during smile. METHODS Standard photographs are performed in the face and lateral views with forward gaze in the repose and maximum smile. Nasal length, alar base, and alar flaring were measured on the prints of the photographs. To decrease possible errors in the size of the printed photographs, middle face height from glabella to ANS was measured in the lateral view and the interpupil distance in the face view to standardize the measurements. RESULTS Fifty cases were enrolled in this study. In 39 cases (78%), the nasal length was increased during smile. Forty-six cases (92%) had an increase in alar base diameter during smile. Alar flaring during smile increased in 48 cases (96%). Nasal length and alar base changes during smiling were not significantly correlated. Nasal length and alar flaring changes during smiling were not significantly related too. On the other hand, alar base and alar flaring changes during smile showed correlation. Alar base and alar flaring changes during smile were not significantly different in hyperactive and non-hyperactive cases. CONCLUSION Nasal length change during smiling and hypertrophy of the medial fascicles of depressor septi nasi were not related to alar base or alar flaring change during smile. PMID:27308240

  20. Relationship between Hyperactivity of Depressor Septi Nasi Muscle and Changes of Alar Base and Flaring during Smile.

    PubMed

    Beiraghi-Toosi, Arash; Rezaei, Ezatollah; Zanjani, Elham

    2016-01-01

    Hyperactivity of depressor septi nasi muscle leads to smiling deformity and nasal tip depression. Lateral fascicles of this muscle help in widening the nostrils. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the nasal length changes and the alar base and the alar flaring changes during smile. Standard photographs are performed in the face and lateral views with forward gaze in the repose and maximum smile. Nasal length, alar base, and alar flaring were measured on the prints of the photographs. To decrease possible errors in the size of the printed photographs, middle face height from glabella to ANS was measured in the lateral view and the interpupil distance in the face view to standardize the measurements. Fifty cases were enrolled in this study. In 39 cases (78%), the nasal length was increased during smile. Forty-six cases (92%) had an increase in alar base diameter during smile. Alar flaring during smile increased in 48 cases (96%). Nasal length and alar base changes during smiling were not significantly correlated. Nasal length and alar flaring changes during smiling were not significantly related too. On the other hand, alar base and alar flaring changes during smile showed correlation. Alar base and alar flaring changes during smile were not significantly different in hyperactive and non-hyperactive cases. Nasal length change during smiling and hypertrophy of the medial fascicles of depressor septi nasi were not related to alar base or alar flaring change during smile.

  1. [Injuries of the alar ligaments in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Briem, D; Linhart, W; Dickmann, C; Rueger, J M

    2002-06-01

    Cervical spine trauma most commonly involves the lower parts in adults. In children lesions of the cervical spine can predominantly be found in the region of C1/C2 including ligament injuries at this level. However such injuries are difficult to detect and only few data are available concerning therapy and prognosis of atlantoxial ligament lesions. We report on two children suffering from isolated rupture of the alar ligaments. Both injuries were proven by magnetic resonance imaging which is recommended as the resource of choice for the evaluation of the cervical spine soft tissues in children. Although the biomechanic properties of the alar ligaments remain unclear non-operative treatment for the rupture of these ligaments seems to be adequate. In order to avoid neurologic symptoms or long term complications an immediate diagnosis is indispensable.

  2. Alar and apples: newspapers, risk and media responsibility.

    PubMed

    Friedman, S M; Villamil, K; Suriano, R A; Egolf, B P

    1996-01-01

    During 1989, a major environmental and health risk issue, the spraying of Alar on apples, created a furor among the American people. After hearing charges from the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) that eating Alar-laden apples significantly increased a child's risk of developing cancer, numbers of school districts dropped apples from their menus and parents poured apple juice down the drains. Apple sales plummeted. The NRDC's charges, which were disseminated by a well-planned and effective public relations campaign, brought counter-charges from the US environmental Protection Agency, which accused the NRDC of basing its study on poor data, among other things. The core of the dispute was in the risk figures and risk interpretations being used by each organization.

  3. Radiologic misunderstanding of cutaneous angiomyolipoma in the alar base.

    PubMed

    Han, Hyun Ho; Choi, Jong Yun; Seo, Bommie F; Mun, Suk Ho; Rhie, Jong Won; Ahn, Sang Tae; Oh, Deuk Young

    2014-07-01

    In this article, we will examine a case of cutaneous angiomyolipoma in the right nasal alar base area of a 36-year-old man. Generally, angiomyolipoma occurs in the kidney and, histologically, has features that are similar to cutaneous angiomyolipoma: smooth muscle cells, mature adipose cells, and a convoluted thick-walled blood vessel. Clinically, renal angiomyolipoma is related to tuberous sclerosis, but cutaneous angiomyolipomas occur very rarely, with a total of only 23 cases documented in the literature, with 39% (9/23) of those cases occurring in the ear or surrounding areas. In particular, the abundance of blood vessels inside a cutaneous angiomyolipoma produces good enhancement on computed tomographic image, making it easy for the tumor to be mistaken for a vascular tumor. In this particular case, we will report about a previously unheard case of cutaneous angiomyolipoma occurring in the nasal alar base that was mistaken for a vascular tumor.

  4. New mapping near Iron Creek, Talkeetna Mountains, indicates presence of Nikolai greenstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Werdon, Melanie B.; Wardlaw, Bruce R.

    2003-01-01

    Detailed geologic mapping in the Iron Creek area, Talkeetna Mountains B-5 Quadrangle, has documented several intrusive bodies and rock units not previously recognized and has extended the geologic history of the area through the Mesozoic and into the Tertiary era. Greenschist-facies metabasalt and metagabbro previously thought to be Paleozoic are intruded by Late Cretaceous to Paleocene dioritic to granitic plutons. The metabasalts are massive to amygdaloidal, commonly contain abundant magnetite, and large areas are patchily altered to epidote ± quartz. They host numerous copper oxide–copper sulfide–quartz–hematite veins and amygdule fillings. These lithologic features, recognized in the field, suggested a correlation of the metamafic rocks with the Late Triassic Nikolai Greenstone, which had not previously been mapped in the Iron Creek area. Thin, discontinuous metalimestones that overlie the metabasalt sequence had previously been assigned a Pennsylvanian(?) and Early Permian age on the basis of correlation with marbles to the north, which yielded Late Paleozoic or Permian macrofossils, or both. Three new samples from the metalimestones near Iron Creek yielded Late Triassic conodonts, which confirms the correlation of the underlying metamafic rocks with Nikolai Greenstone. These new data extend the occurrence of Nikolai Greenstone about 70 km southwest of its previously mapped extent.Five to 10 km north of the conodont sample localities, numerous microgabbro and diabase sills intrude siliceous and locally calcareous metasedimentary rocks of uncertain age. These sills probably represent feeder zones to the Nikolai Greenstone. In the Mt. Hayes quadrangle 150 km to the northeast, large sill-form mafic and ultramafic feeders (for example, the Fish Lake complex) to the Nikolai Greenstone in the Amphitheatre Mountains host magmatic sulfide nickel–copper–platinum-group-element (PGE) mineralization. This new recognition of Nikolai Greenstone and possible

  5. Delayed diagnosis of isolated alar ligament rupture: A case report.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Robin A; Marzi, Ingo; Vogl, Thomas J

    2015-10-28

    Ligament disruptions at the craniovertebral junction are typically associated with atlantoaxial rotatory dislocation during upper cervical spine injuries and require external orthoses or surgical stabilization. Only in few patients isolated ruptures of the alar ligament have been reported. Here we present a further case, in which the diagnosis was initially obscured by a misleading clinical symptomatology but finally established six month following the trauma, demonstrating the value of contrast-enhanced high resolution 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging in identifying this particular lesion.

  6. Aesthetic Outcomes of Alar Base Resection in Asian Patients Undergoing Rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Heui; Park, Joon Pyo; Jang, Yong Ju

    2016-12-01

    Combined sill and alar excision is a useful procedure for correcting a wide nasal base and flared alar lobules. However, the aesthetic outcomes of this technique remain poorly reported. To evaluate the aesthetic outcomes of combined sill and alar excision in Asian patients undergoing rhinoplasty. A retrospective cohort study of 73 consecutive patients who underwent combined sill and alar excision from March 1, 2004, to January 31, 2013, was conducted at a tertiary referral hospital in Korea. Combined sill and alar excision. Changes in the ratio of the interalar distance to intercanthal distance and frequencies of alar flaring, nostril symmetry, and nostril shape, as measured by reviewing photographs taken before and after the surgery. Among the 73 patients (50 men and 23 women; mean [SD] age, 36.5 [12.3] years) the mean (SD) ratio of interalar distance to intercanthal distance changed significantly from 1.07 (0.11) to 1.04 (0.08) (P < .001). Of the 60 patients with alar flaring, 45 (75%) no longer had flaring after the procedure. The frequency of nostril symmetry increased from 38 patients (52%) to 46 (63%) (P < .001). The frequency of horizontally shaped nostrils decreased from 21 patients (29%) to 2 (3%), while the frequency of the preferred pear-shaped nostrils increased from 20 patients (27%) to 35 (48%) (odds ratio, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.63-2.14; P = .02). There were 4 cases of complications, namely, alar deformity (1 patient [1%]), unsatisfactory correction of asymmetrical nostrils (1 [1%]), and unsatisfactory correction of alar flaring (2 [3%]). Combined sill and alar excision was a useful technique with a low complication rate for correcting wide alar base, alar flaring, nostril asymmetry, and nostril shape. 4.

  7. [The anatomical structure similarity research on auricular cartilage and nasal alar cartilage].

    PubMed

    Chen, Changyong; Fan, Fei; Li, Wenzhi; Li, Binbin; You, Jianjun; Wang, Huan

    2015-09-01

    There are many scaffold materials of repairing nasal alar cartilage defects. Auricuiar cartilage was used extensively in terms of its abundant tissues, good elasticity, little donor-site malformation, good plasticity etc. The authors dissected auricular cartilage and nasal alar cartilage, measured cartilage's morphous data and found some similar territories with nasal alar cartilage in the structure of auricular cartilage. An anatomical study was performed using 10 adult cadavers acquired through Plastic Surgery Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China. Seven male and three female cadav-ers were included in the study. Harvest 20 auricular cartilage specimens and 20 nasal alar cartilage specimens. Then, Computed Tomography Scan on the auricular cartilage and nasal alar cartilage were performed. The datas were imported into mimics and three-dimensional reconstructions of the auricular cartilage and nasal alar cartilage were carried on. Parts of the auricular cartilage, such as conchal fossa, tragus, intertragic notch, and cymba of auricular concha, curs of helix and curs of helix, triangular fossa, are ana-tomically similar to nasal alar cartilage. This study reports the anatomy of auricular cartilage and nasal alar cartilage, found some territories in the auricular cartilage, such as conchal fossa, tragus, intertragic notch, and cymba of auricular concha, curs of helix and curs of helix, triangular fossa, are anatomically similar to nasal alar cartilage. This research provides the anatomical basis that auricular cartilage was used to repair the nasal cartilage defect.

  8. Is the Pyriform Ligament Important for Alar Width Maintenance After Le Fort I Osteotomy?

    PubMed

    Peacock, Zachary S; Susarla, Srinivas M

    2015-12-01

    To determine whether identification and incorporation of the pyriform ligament in the alar cinch results in decreased alar base widening compared with standard alar cinch techniques. This was a retrospective case series and the sample was composed of patients undergoing Le Fort I osteotomy. Intraoperatively, the pyriform ligament was identified and incorporated in the alar cinch suture. Greatest alar width (GAW) measured immediately after closure was compared with GAW measured at least 5 months postoperatively. The change in alar base width was compared with that reported in the literature using other alar cinch techniques. Two case examples are reported. The sample was composed of 15 patients (mean age, 27.1 yr; 27% female). The mean postoperative change in GAW was 1.0 ± 0.6 mm (2.59 ± 1.59%). Postoperative change in alar base width reported in the literature ranged from 0.5 to 10.8%. The pyriform ligament is easily identified during exposure of the maxilla and pyriform aperture and can be used to control widening of the alar base after Le Fort I osteotomy. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Correction of unilateral cleft lip nose deformity using nasal alar rim flap.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan; Fan, Fei; You, Jianjun; Wang, Sheng

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to show the use and effectiveness of nasal alar rim flap on the correction of unilateral cleft lip nasal deformity. Thirty-one patients (age range, 10-29 years; mean, 15.1 years; 14 male and 17 female patients) with unilateral cleft lip underwent rhinoplasty surgery using alar rim flap. The excessive skin of nasal alar was marked, then a skin flap was raised. This flap can be transferred medially (type 1) or laterally (type 2) to narrow the nostril or to augment the nasal sill and, of course, to correct the alar web deformity. Preoperative and postoperative photographs were measured for photogrammetric analysis in 16 patients. The alar rim flap used in patients with unilateral cleft lip made the nostrils more symmetrical. The nostril sill was augmented with flap type 1. The alar base width was narrowed with flap type 2 (P = 0.03). The alar web deformity was corrected. The alar rim flap could be an ideal treatment option for correction of alar web deformity in patients of unilateral cleft lip.

  10. The alar rim flap: a novel technique to manage malpositioned lateral crura.

    PubMed

    Kemaloğlu, Cemal Alper; Altıparmak, Mehmet

    2015-11-01

    Alar cartilage malposition is a common anatomic variation in which the axis of the lateral crus lies cephalically and may be parallel to the cephalic septum. Malposition of the lateral crura may produce inward collapse of the alae that is observable on deep inspiration. The authors performed the alar rim flap technique to treat patients with alar malposition and assessed functional and aesthetic outcomes. Twelve patients who underwent primary open rhinoplasty with the alar rim flap technique were evaluated in a prospective study. A 2- or 3-mm caudal portion of the lateral crus was elevated from the underlying mucosa, pulled caudally, and extended with a cartilage graft. This extension of the alar rim flap was placed through the pyriform aperture for additional support. Patients completed pre- and postoperative questionnaires addressing nasal obstruction and underwent paranasal computed tomography. Patients received follow-up for an average of 16 months (range, 8-27 months). Patients with alar cartilage malposition and external valve insufficiency experienced aesthetic and functional improvements after rhinoplasty with the alar rim flap technique. No patients developed alar rim collapse or flap displacement. The alar rim flap technique is effective for the correction of malpositioned lateral crura and external valve insufficiency. Because this technique does not damage the scroll area, disruption of the internal valve area is avoided. 4 Therapeutic. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Alar web in cleft lip nose deformity: study in adult unilateral clefts.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Rajiv; Chandra, Ramesh

    2012-09-01

    The correction of alar webbing in unilateral cleft lip nose deformity is challenging because of progressive distortions in the alar web region during the period of growth. Alar webbing is a persistent universal deformity in both the primary and secondary cleft lip noses. The purpose of this article is to study the alar web deformity in adult patients with unilateral cleft lip noses. Twenty-five patients aged 13 years and older presenting with unilateral cleft nasal deformity were included. Preoperative and postoperative measurements of the nose, along with detailed intraoperative recording of the deformed anatomy, were done. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging was also done in selected cases. Transcolumellar open rhinoplasty was performed in all the cases, and nasal septal straightening with centralization was done. Cleft alar base augmentation was done using bone graft to restore symmetry of the nasal tripod. Both the cleft and noncleft alar cartilages were extensively mobilized from the skin and mucosal sides. The overgrown and caudally slumped cleft-side alar cartilage was resected caudally and was then resuspended in a symmetrical position with the noncleft alar cartilage. A midline-strut septal cartilage extension graft was used to restore the tip aesthetics. The skin overlying the alar web was in-rolled after semilunar cartilage resection, and skin excision was also done to restore symmetry with the opposite vestibule. The remaining secondary cleft nasal and lip deformities were corrected depending upon the specific presenting pathologic abnormality. The cleft alar cartilage was found to be caudally displaced in all the cases. The caudal border of the lateral crus was prolapsing in the cavity of the vestibule on the superomedial aspect and was tenting the skin in the area of the weak triangle, producing the characteristic alar web deformity. In the study group, the maximum width of the cleft alar cartilage at the level of the lateral crus was increased by

  12. [Alar ligaments: radiological aspects in the diagnosis of patients with whiplash injuries].

    PubMed

    Muhle, C; Brossmann, J; Biederer, J; Jahnke, Th; Grimm, J; Heller, M

    2002-04-01

    Post-traumatic changes of the alar ligaments have been proposed to be the cause of chronic pain in patients after whiplash injury of the cervical spine. In addition to an asymmetric dens position, widening of the atlantodental distance to more than 12 mm can be an indirect sign of an alar ligament rupture. CT is recommended for detection of a avulsion fracture of the occipital condyle. Isolated ruptures of the alar ligaments are best visualized on MRI. In patients with chronic impairments after whiplash injuries changes of the alar ligaments on MRI must be differentiated from normal variants in healthy individuals.

  13. Calcification of the alar ligament of the cervical spine in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Soubai, Rahma Boussaadani; Tahiri, Latifa; Abourazzak, Fatima Zahra; Tizniti, Siham; Harzy, Taoufik

    2012-01-01

    Calcification of the alar ligament is rare. It usually develops as a result of traumatic injury and is especially prominent in the elderly. CT scanning is the gold standard of the diagnosis. We report a case of a calcification of the transverse and alar ligament in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:23330032

  14. [Influence of different surgeries on growth and development of alar cartilage in young-rabbit].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lian; Dong, Xiqian; Song, Qinggao; Chen, Shang; Zou, Sihai

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to observe the affection of different clinical surgeries on alar nasal cartilages' growth and development. The experimental results can provide some theory basis for clinical surgeries. Twenty-eight New Zealand immature rabbits were used in this study, and divided into normal control group, hidden dissection group and cutting off alar nasal cartilages group randomly, which included 4,12 and 12 rabbits, separately. Arc incision were made on the mucous membrane of nasal cavity,and then dissect the alar nasal cartilages hidden or cut off the alar nasal cartilages, separately. The growth and development of the alar cartilage were observed at different stages after the surgery using histological and immuno-histochemical methods. Four weeks, eight weeks, twelve weeks and sixteen weeks after surgery, there were no significant differences in the indexes of chondrocytes between hidden dissection group and control group. In cutting off alar nasal cartilages group, fiber tissue were observed in the vacancy left after being cut off cartilages, and even mucous membrane tissue could be seen in some slices. There is no adverse influence on the growth and development of the alar cartilage after being hidden dissected. Contrarily, the restoring capability of transparent cartilage cannot counteract the injury resulted form the surgery after the alar nasal cartilages being cut off.

  15. Defining the Morphology and Distribution of the Alar Fascia: A Sheet Plastination Investigation.

    PubMed

    Scali, Frank; Nash, Lance G; Pontell, Matthew E

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to delineate the morphology, integrity, and distribution of the alar fascia using dissection and E12 sheet plastination. This is the first study that employs E12 sheet plastination to investigate the alar fascia and its adjacent potential spaces. Twenty-nine manual dissections and 3 sets of E12 sheet plastinations were used to examine the posterior pharyngeal region for the architecture and distribution of the alar fascia. Specimens were examined from the inferior nuchal line to C6. The alar fascia originated as a well-defined midline structure at the level of C1 and could be identified down to C6. There was no evidence of the alar fascia between the inferior nuchal line and the base of the skull. Notably, the alar fascia permitted resistance to manual traction. E12 sheet plastination allowed for visualization of the alar fascia's superior attachments within the deep cervical region. Resistance to traction suggests that the alar fascia may be more than just a loose fibroareolar matrix. The findings in this study suggest an alternative point of entry into the danger space. Understanding the continuity of this fascial layer is critically important with regard to the pathophysiology of deep neck space infections. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Delayed diagnosis of isolated alar ligament rupture: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, Robin A; Marzi, Ingo; Vogl, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    Ligament disruptions at the craniovertebral junction are typically associated with atlantoaxial rotatory dislocation during upper cervical spine injuries and require external orthoses or surgical stabilization. Only in few patients isolated ruptures of the alar ligament have been reported. Here we present a further case, in which the diagnosis was initially obscured by a misleading clinical symptomatology but finally established six month following the trauma, demonstrating the value of contrast-enhanced high resolution 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging in identifying this particular lesion. PMID:26516433

  17. Anatomy of the alar ligamentPart I: Morphometrics and variants.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga, Joe; Sardi, Juan; Voin, Vlad; Chapman, Jens R; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2017-08-18

    The alar ligaments are one of the primary ligamentous structures contributing to craniovertebral stability. The purpose of this study is to clarify the morphology of the alar ligament using fresh cadaveric specimens. Twenty-two fresh frozen cadaveric alar ligaments were used in this study. The occiput, C1 and C2 were removed en bloc from each specimen and various measurements and observations, including variations, were documented. The angle formed by both alar ligaments was measured in a neutral position (149±24.19°), as well as during forced flexion (134.18±27.08°) and extension (163.81±24.54°). The current cadaveric evaluation offers an interesting window into better understanding the anatomy of the alar ligaments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Mystery of alar ligament rupture: value of MRI in whiplash injuries--biomechanical, anatomical and clinical studies].

    PubMed

    Bitterling, H; Stäbler, A; Brückmann, H

    2007-11-01

    Whiplash injury of the cervical spine is a frequent issue in medical expertise and causes enormous consequential costs for motor insurance companies. Some authors accuse posttraumatic changes of alar ligaments to be causative for consequential disturbances. Review of recent studies on biomechanics, anatomical and clinical MR imaging. Biomechanical experiments can not induce according injuries of alar ligaments. Although MRI provides excellent visualization of alar ligaments, the range of normal variants is high. Biomechanical studies give no evidence of alar ligament involvement in whiplash disease. Using MRI, signal alterations of alar ligaments can hardly be differentiated from common normal variants. Functional MRI provides no diagnostic yield.

  19. Three-dimensional evaluation of the alar cinch suture after Le Fort I osteotomy.

    PubMed

    van Loon, B; Verhamme, L; Xi, T; de Koning, M J J; Bergé, S J; Maal, T J J

    2016-10-01

    Orthognathic surgery has an influence on the overlying soft tissues of the translated bony maxillomandibular complex. Improvements in both function and facial appearance are the goals of surgery. However, unwanted changes to the soft tissues, especially in the nose region, frequently occur. The most common secondary change in the nasolabial region is widening of the alar base. Various surgical techniques have been developed to minimize this effect. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in the nasal region due to orthognathic surgery, especially the alar width and nasal volume, using combined cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and three-dimensional (3D) stereophotogrammetry datasets. Twenty-six patients who underwent a Le Fort I advancement osteotomy between 2006 and 2013 were included. From 2006 to 2010, no alar base cinch sutures were performed. From 2010 onwards, alar base cinch sutures were used. Preoperative and postoperative documentation consisted of 3D stereophotogrammetry and CBCT scans. 3D measurements were performed on the combined datasets, and the alar base width and nose volume were analyzed. No difference in alar base width or nose volume was observed between patients who had undergone an alar cinch and those who had not. Postoperatively the nose widened and the volume increased in both groups. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Correction of an alar web with a feather-edge rolled-in flap.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Lim; Oh, Chang Hyun; Hwang, Kun; Kim, Dae Joong; Jeong, Ji Myeong; Heo, Won Young; Park, Chul Gyoo

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to see the histological nature of the alar web and to introduce a featheredged rolled-in flap to reduce the alar web.On a cadaver, the perpendicular section of the alar web revealed a thickened dermis portion on both the skin side and the nasal side distal to the alar cartilage. According to histological results, we thought the thinning and rolling in of the distal margin of the end of the open rhinoplasty incision could reduce the alar web. An open rhinoplasty incision was made just distal to the hair-bearing vestibular skin and a V-Y shape incision created at the alar base. After the cartilage work, the skin of the distal end of the flap was featheredged to a 0.5-mm thickness. The distal margin was rolled in and sutured to the nasal lining. A bolster dressing was applied using a 4-0 nylon suture.Thirteen patients (8 males, 5 females) were operated on, and 8 patients were followed up for more than 12 months. Their preoperative and postoperative worm's eye views were compared. Four anthropometric distances were measured preoperatively and postoperatively. The columellar length increased significantly after the operation (P = 0.001 [independent 2-sample t test]) on the cleft side. Preoperatively, the alar width was significantly greater (P = 0.02 [paired-samples t test]) on the cleft side (0.17 ± 0.03 of an intercanthal distance) than the noncleft side (0.14 ± 0.03). After the operations, they became similar (0.16 ± 0.03 on cleft side, 0.16 ± 0.04 on the noncleft side; P = 1.00 [paired-samples t test]).We think this featheredged rolling-in flap might be a good method for the correction of an alar web since this technique increased the columellar length and decreased the alar width on the cleft side.

  1. A Composite Buccal Flap for Alar Based Defect Reconstruction: A Technical Note

    PubMed Central

    Pourdanesh, F.; Khojasteh, A.

    2011-01-01

    It is difficult to reconstruct an alar defect with cartilage involvement. Here in the authors report a case of traumatic alar loss during childhood in which an alar reconstruction was carried out with a composite auricular graft put over the pedicle buccal flap which was rotated and passed through the intraoral side. The lining skin and auricular cartilage for the flap was obtained from the auricular region which was acceptable for the patient. All procedures were performed under general anesthesia. One year follow up revealed satisfactory results with minimal contracture of the graft. PMID:22509460

  2. Are We Doing Everything We Should for the Health of Our Children? An Interview with Nikolai Nikolaevich Baganov.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russian Education and Society, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Presents an interview with Nikolai Nikolaevich Baganov addressing the presidential program "Russia's Children" that is made up of nine subprograms: Children of Chernobyl, Children of the North, Family Planning, The Baby-food Industry, Orphaned Children, Handicapped Children, Gifted Children, Children of Refugee Families, and Children's…

  3. Are We Doing Everything We Should for the Health of Our Children? An Interview with Nikolai Nikolaevich Baganov.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russian Education and Society, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Presents an interview with Nikolai Nikolaevich Baganov addressing the presidential program "Russia's Children" that is made up of nine subprograms: Children of Chernobyl, Children of the North, Family Planning, The Baby-food Industry, Orphaned Children, Handicapped Children, Gifted Children, Children of Refugee Families, and Children's…

  4. Sliding alar cartilage (SAC) flap: a new technique for nasal tip surgery.

    PubMed

    Ozmen, Selahattin; Eryilmaz, Tolga; Sencan, Ayse; Cukurluoglu, Onur; Uygur, Safak; Ayhan, Suhan; Atabay, Kenan

    2009-11-01

    Congenital anatomic deformities or acquired weakness of the lateral crura of the lower lateral cartilages after rhinoplasty could cause alar rim deformities. As lower lateral cartilages are the structural cornerstone of the ala and tip support, deformities and weakness of the alar cartilages might lead to both functional and esthetic problems. In this article, we are introducing sliding alar cartilage flap as a new technique to reshape and support nasal tip. One hundred sixty consecutive patients between 18 and 55 years of age (mean age: 27.51) were included in the study between January 2007 and May 2008. Of the total number of patients 60 were male and 100 of them were female. None of the patients had rhinoplasty procedure including lower lateral cartilage excision previously. Sliding alar cartilage technique was used in an open rhinoplasty approach to shape the nasal tip in all patients. This technique necessitates about 2 to 3 minutes for suturing and undermining the alar cartilages. The follow-up period was between 4 and 18 months. In no patients any revision related to the sliding alar cartilage technique was required. Revision was applied in 3 patients due to thick nasal tip skin and in one patient due to unpleasant columellar scar. In this article, we are presenting the "sliding alar cartilage flap" as a new technique for creating natural looking nasal tip. This technique shapes and supports nasal tip by spontaneous sliding of the cephalic portion of the lower lateral cartilage beneath the caudal alar cartilage, with minimal manipulation, without any cartilage resection, or cartilage grafting.

  5. Resonant photoionization spectroscopy of refractory metal-rare gas complexes: AlAr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, John M.; Lester, Marsha I.

    1987-06-01

    Mass-resolved resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization is used to probe AlAr complexes in the spectral region about the Al 2S 1/2- 2P 1/2 transition. Analysis of a vibrational progression in the AlAr 2Σ +state provides lower limits for binding energies in the X 2Π 1/2and B 2Σ + states of 133 and 373 cm -1, respectively.

  6. A geometrical model of vertical translation and alar ligament tension in atlanto-axial rotation.

    PubMed

    Boszczyk, B M; Littlewood, A P; Putz, R

    2012-08-01

    While allowing the greatest range of axial rotation of the entire spine with 40° to each side, gradual restraint at the extremes of motion by the alar ligaments is of vital importance. In order for the ligaments to facilitate a gradual transition from the neutral to the elastic zone, a complex interaction of axial rotation and vertical translation via the biconvex articular surfaces is essential. The aim of this investigation is to establish a geometrical model of the intricate interaction of the alar ligaments and vertical translatory motion of C1/C2 in axial rotation. Bilateral alar ligaments including the odontoid process and condylar bony entheses were removed from six adult cadavers aged 65-89 years within 48 h of death. All specimens were judged to be free of abnormalities with the exception of non-specific degenerative changes. Dimensions of the odontoid process and alar ligaments were measured. Graphical multiplanar reconstruction of atlanto-axial rotation was done in the transverse and frontal planes for the neutral position and for rotation to 40° with vertical translation of 3 mm. The necessary fibre elongation of the alar ligaments in the setting with and without vertical translation of the atlas was calculated. The mean diameter of the odontoid process in the sagittal plane was 10.6 mm (SD 1.1). The longest fibre length was measured from the posterior border of the odontoid enthesis to the posterior border of the condylar enthesis with an average of 13.2 mm (SD 2.5) and the shortest between the lateral (anterior) border odontoid enthesis and the anterior condylar enthesis with an average of 8.2 mm (SD 2.2). In graphical multiplanar reconstruction of atlanto-axial rotation to 40° without vertical translation of C1/C2, theoretical alar fibre elongation reaches 27.1% for the longest fibres, which is incompatible with the collagenous structure of the alar ligaments. Allowing 3 mm caudal translation of C1 on C2 at 40° rotation, as facilitated by the

  7. Expedition 6 flight engineer Nikolai Budarin in White Room before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the White Room on Launch Pad 39A, Expedition 6 flight engineer Nikolai Budarin is helped with his launch and entry suit before entering Space Shuttle Endeavour. Closeout Crew members helping are (left) Rene Arriens, United Space Alliance mechanical technician, (right) Danny Wyatt, NASA Quality Assurance specialist, and (background) Rick Welty, United Space Alliance Vehicle Closeout chief. The launch will carry the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and return the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. The major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is scheduled for Nov. 23 at 7:50 p.m. EST.

  8. Expedition 6 flight engineer Nikolai Budarin suits up for the second launch attempt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Expedition 6 flight engineer Nikolai Budarin is stoic as he suits up for a second launch attempt on mission STS-113. The launch on Nov. 22 was scrubbed due to poor weather conditions at the Transoceanic Abort Landing sites. Budarin, who is with the Russian Space Agency, will be making his second Shuttle flight. The primary mission for the crew is bringing the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and returning the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. The major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is scheduled for 7:50 p.m. EST.

  9. Expedition 6 crew member Nikolai Budarin during TCDT suit fit check

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Expedition 6 crew member Nikolai Budarin smiles during fit check of his helmet, part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. He and the rest of the crew are preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10. The TCDT includes emergency egress training and a launch countdown. The Expedition 6 crew will travel on Space Shuttle Endeavour to the International Space Station to replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Launch is scheduled for Nov. 10, 2002.

  10. Expedition 6 crew member Nikolai Budarin during TCDT suit fit check

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Expedition 6 crew member Nikolai Budarin smiles during fit check of his helmet, part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. He and the rest of the crew are preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10. The TCDT includes emergency egress training and a launch countdown. The Expedition 6 crew will travel on Space Shuttle Endeavour to the International Space Station to replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Launch is scheduled for Nov. 10, 2002.

  11. Expedition 6 flight engineer Nikolai Budarin in White Room before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the White Room on Launch Pad 39A, Expedition 6 flight engineer Nikolai Budarin is helped with his launch and entry suit before entering Space Shuttle Endeavour. Closeout Crew members helping are (left) Rene Arriens, United Space Alliance mechanical technician, (right) Danny Wyatt, NASA Quality Assurance specialist, and (background) Rick Welty, United Space Alliance Vehicle Closeout chief. The launch will carry the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and return the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. The major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is scheduled for Nov. 23 at 7:50 p.m. EST.

  12. Alar soft-tissue techniques in rhinoplasty: algorithmic approach, quantifiable guidelines, and scar outcomes from a single surgeon experience.

    PubMed

    Warner, Jeremy P; Chauhan, Nitin; Adamson, Peter A

    2010-01-01

    To describe various techniques, including alar base reduction, alar flaring reduction, and alar hooding reduction and present a decision-making treatment algorithm and quantifiable guidelines for soft-tissue excision, along with scar outcomes from a single-surgeon practice. The soft tissue of the nasal tip, ala, and nostrils is important in overall nasal tip dynamics. Excisional alar contouring is an essential part of many successful cosmetic rhinoplasty outcomes. The various soft-tissue excision techniques are described in detail and an algorithm is provided. Quantitative analysis of excision parameters was performed using statistical analysis. Finally, qualitative scar analysis was performed and scar outcomes were statistically derived. Seventy-four patients were female and 26 were male. Of the procedures reviewed, 47% involved alar soft-tissue excision. Alar base reduction was performed in 46 patients (46%). Alar flare reduction was performed in 16 patients (16%). Alar hooding reduction was performed in 2 patients (2%). Mean scar outcome scores ranged from 0.55 to 0.69. Alar soft-tissue techniques are often necessary to achieve a balanced outcome and superior results when performing rhinoplasty surgery. Therefore, they should be an integral part of every rhinoplasty evaluation and surgical plan as indicated.

  13. Comparative analysis of two different alar base sutures after Le Fort I osteotomy: randomized double-blind controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ritto, Fabio G; Medeiros, Paulo José; de Moraes, Márcio; Ribeiro, Danilo Passeado Branco

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to analyze the efficacy of a new alar base cinch suture by comparing it with the commonly used cinch suture described by Schendel and Delaire in Dr. William Bell's book. Thirty-five patients submitted to maxillary impaction and/or advancements of ≥ 3 mm were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group 1 received an extra oral alar base cinch suture, and patients from group 2 received the classic intraoral suture. Alar and alar base width were measured before and after surgery in digital photographs, with the patient's head in a submental oblique view. Data were reported as means and standard deviations, and difference between groups were determined using Welch t test. A P value of <.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Mean alar base widening was 1.38 mm in group 1 and 2.5 mm in group 2, and mean alar widening was 1.40 mm in group 1 and 2.31 mm in group 2. The difference was statistically significant (P < .05). Extraoral alar base cinch suture was more effective in maintaining preoperative Alar and alar base width compared with classic intraoral nasal suture. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of modified nasal to oral endotracheal tube switch-For modified alar base cinching after maxillary orthognathic surgery.

    PubMed

    Shaik, Taj Nizam Shakeel; Meka, Sridhar; Ch, Pavan Kumar; Kolli, Naga Neelima Devi; Chakravarthi, P Srinivas; Kattimani, Vivekanand S; L, Krishna Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Soft tissue changes secondary to Maxillary orthognathic surgery are many fold. The alar flare is one among them, which affects the appearance of the patient. Cinch suture has been used to prevent alar flare; but the presence of anaesthetic tube hinders cinching. So, the study was aimed to assess an efficacy of modified nasal to oral tube switch technique for modified alar cinching to prevent alar flare after orthognathic and nasal corrective surgeries. Patients were randomly allocated in each group, who underwent modified alar base cinching with and without nasal to oral tube switch. Changes in alar base width, upper lip length was measured with Digital Vernier Caliper and nasolabial angle (Cotg-Sn-Ls) on lateral cephalogram at 1st, 3rd, 6th, and 12th months after surgery. The time taken and ease of tube switch were noted. The data obtained were tabulated and interpreted using a test of significance. Study results showed no statistical significant difference in perinasal soft changes among both groups. But tube switch appears to be beneficial to prevent alar flare. Modified alar base cinching was performed effectively in patients with a modified tube switch technique. It increased positive results in comparison with non-shift. The technique of tube switch used is effective in prevention of alar flare. Because of small sample size and limited period of follow up, our study suggests multi centre, randomized studies to know the technical difficulties of tube switch for cinching and aesthetic results with varying anaesthetist and the surgeon's experience.

  15. Along-Strike Geochemical Variations in the Late Triassic Nikolai Magmatic System, Wrangellia, Central Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wypych, A.; Twelker, E.; Lande, L. L.; Newberry, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Nikolai Basalt and related mafic to ultramafic intrusions are one of the world's most complete and best exposed sections of a large igneous province (Amphitheater Mountains, Alaska), and have been explored for magmatic Ni-Cu-Co-PGE mineralization (Wellgreen deposit in the Kluane Ranges, Yukon Territory, and Eureka zone in the Eastern Alaska Range). The full extent of the basalts and the intrusions, as well as along-strike variations in the geochemical and petrological composition and the causes for those variations has yet to be fully established. To better understand the extent and magmatic architecture of this system, the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys conducted mapping and geochemical investigations of the province from 2013 through 2015 field seasons. We present major and trace element data from whole rock, olivine, and chromite from samples of Triassic basalts and intrusives collected over a 250 km along-strike transect. This data is used to answer questions about variations in magma generation, temperature of crystallization, and degree of fractional crystallization required to produce the Nikolai Basalts. Using chalcophile elements, we examine the history of sulfide solubility, further adding to our understanding of the processes of magma evolution and its influence on the formation of economic mineral deposits. Our initial findings corroborate the presence of two phases of magma generation and eruption, as well as along-strike variation in composition of these phases. We propose that the major along-strike variations are due to differences in amount of cumulate olivine and other late-stage processes. This magmatic architecture has important implications for exploration for magmatic sulfide deposits of nickel-copper and strategic and critical platinum group elements (PGEs) as it can help to better understand the occurrences and point to future possible deposits within the system.

  16. Variability of morphology and signal intensity of alar ligaments in healthy volunteers using MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Lummel, N; Zeif, C; Kloetzer, A; Linn, J; Brückmann, H; Bitterling, H

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of alar traumatic injuries by using MR imaging is frequently performed. This study investigates the variability of morphology and signal intensity of alar ligaments in healthy volunteers so that pathology can be more accurately defined. Fifty healthy volunteers were examined on a 1.5T MR imaging scanner with 2-mm PD-weighted sequences in 3 planes. Delineation of the alar ligaments in 3 planes and signal-intensity characteristics on sagittal planes were analyzed by using a 4-point grading scale. Variability of courses and morphologic characteristics were described. Delineation of alar ligaments was best viewed in the coronal plane, followed by the sagittal and axial planes. In the sagittal view, 6.5% of alar ligaments appeared homogeneously dark. Hyperintense signal intensity in up to one-third of the cross-sectional area was present in 33% of cases; in up to two-thirds of the cross-sectional area, in 45% of cases; and in more than two-thirds of the cross-sectional area, in 15% of cases. Of alar ligaments, 58.5% ascended laterally, 40.5% ran horizontally, and 1% descended laterally. The cross-sectional area was round in 41.5%, oval in 51.5%, and winglike in 6.5%. On 1.5T MR imaging, the alar ligaments can be delineated best in the coronal and sagittal planes. Our data indicate a remarkable variability of morphology and course as well as signal intensity. This finding is contradictory to former publications assigning such alterations exclusively to patients with trauma.

  17. MR investigation in evaluation of chronic whiplash alar ligament injury in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianqiang; Wang, Wei; Han, Guibin; Han, Xiangjun; Li, Xiangying; Zhan, Yuefu

    2015-01-01

    To observe the imaging features for chronic whiplash alar ligament injury in elderly patients and to provide an effective diagnostic method for long-term neck pain and headaches due to alar ligament injury in elderly patients. A total of 134 elderly patients, who engaged in the work or activities related to whiplash motion and suffered from chronic neck pain, were enrolled for the study. All patients were performed comprehensive health examination (CT, MR, ultrasound and laboratory examination) and high resolution PDWI. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the results of comprehensive health examination: a clear etiology group(CE group, n=96) and an unknown etiology group(UE group, n=38). Th e characteristics of PDWI signal in the ligament were analyzed between the 2 groups. Th e anatomy and signal characteristics of the alar ligament were clearly displayed by high resolution PDWI. Th e alar ligaments were effectively displayed by oblique coronal image. In the CE group, 7 patients (7/96) showed the positive sign of ligament injured, while 21 (21/38) patients showed positive sign of ligament injured in the UE group (P<0.01). Chronic whiplash ligament injury was proved to be the reason for long-term neck pain and headaches in 15.7% patients. Th e whiplash injury of alar ligament is an important reason for chronic neck pain in elderly patients. High resolution PDWI is an effective method to evaluate the image features of alar ligament and can provide an accurate diagnosis for chronic neck pain and headaches caused by the alar ligament whiplash injury.

  18. Versatility of three-dimensional total alar cartilage dissection in aesthetic rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Yun, In Sik; Rah, Dong Kyun; Kim, Sung Min

    2010-11-01

    In many cases, Asians' noses are shorter; their nasal tips have a bulbous shape and typically lack the projection. To correct these problems, we completely dissected the alar cartilage in a three-dimensional manner by which the alar cartilage could be repositioned. Thus, no external force was exerted to the alar cartilage. For approximately 4 years, a total of 502 patients were treated with this surgical method. Using the open rhinoplasty, the alar cartilage was dissected in such a manner that it should be completely isolated from the skin, nasal mucosa, and upper lateral cartilage in 3 layers. Thereafter, using various nasal tip plasty techniques, the alar cartilage was reshaped and then repositioned. Patients were followed up for a mean period of 18 months. Then, the degree of subjective satisfaction of patients was analyzed with the use of 4-point visual analog scale scores. On the assessment of the degree of subjective satisfaction of patients, of a total of 502 patients, 87% responded as "very satisfactory" or "satisfactory." Through an analysis of the photographs taken before and after surgery, in patients with a short nose, the current surgical procedure was effective in extending the length of nose without the septal extension graft. The nasolabial angle was ideally expressed. Through meticulous cartilage manipulation, the tip projection improved and a bulbous shape of the nasal tip was resolved. In an aesthetic rhinoplasty for Asians, if plastic surgery of the nasal tip should be performed using a three-dimensional dissection of the alar cartilage, it would be helpful for surgeons to effectively and freely manipulate the alar cartilage according to their plans.

  19. [Static-dynamic computerized tomography in the diagnosis of traumatic lesions of alar ligaments. Preliminary results].

    PubMed

    Urso, S; Pacciani, E; Ascani, E; Salsano, M L; Randisi, F; Fassari, F M

    1994-12-01

    The patients affected with cervical injuries often complain of cervical pain, headache and dizziness even when no bone fractures are detected. Such patients are likely to have a post-traumatic injury of the cervical ligaments. Twenty-five symptomatic patients (19 women and 6 men) were examined with upper spine CT and functional CT scans (right and left rotation) to detect ligament injuries and hypermotility of the craniocervical junction, both related to traumatic events. Eleven patients showed no alterations, while unilateral densitometric alterations of the alar ligaments were observed in 14 cases and thought to be related to trauma. On axial CT scans, the normal alar ligaments were identified as paramedian, quadrangular soft-tissue structures at the apex of the dens epistrophei and right above it. In 14 patients with alar ligament injuries, CT showed incomplete ligament interruption and thinning in 12 cases and its total absence on all images in 2 cases. The laterodental space in the affected side was hypodense due to fat tissue replacement. Of 14 patients with alar ligament injuries, only 14 patients with alar ligament injuries, only 4 exhibited rotatory hypermotility at C0-C1 and C1-C2. The low frequency of rotatory hypermotility is probably due to the high rate of incomplete alar ligament injuries as well as to cervical muscle stiffness, which is marked in some subjects. In conclusion, static and functional CT of the upper spine is not only useful to predict trauma outcome, but also allows the detection of the alar ligaments, of their morphodensitometric changes and of the segmental instability of the craniocervical junction.

  20. A new modification of Doyle splint (Hemi-split Doyle) in rhinoplasty with alar base reduction.

    PubMed

    Koçak, İlker; Şentürk, E

    2017-08-09

    Patients perceive the pulling of a nasal splints as the most feared and stressful part of nasal surgery. Even the incisions made for alar base surgery can partly or entirely dehisce. So, we have been using modified Doyle silicone splints. We compared the modified Doyle silicone splints with conventional Doyle silicone splint. Included in the study were 64 patients undergoing alar base surgery together with open septorhinoplasty. Group 1 (n = 32) patients received a conventional Doyle intranasal silicone splint and group 2 (n = 32) received modified splint that we call a hemi-split Doyle splint. The pain felt by the patients during the removal of the splints was recorded according to the visual analogue scale (VAS). On days two and four postoperatively, the nasal stuffiness score (NOSE) was recorded. On day four postoperatively an intranasal examination was conducted to establish if dehiscence had occurred on the alar base incision line. In group 2, the pain scores during splints removal were significantly lower than those in group 1. Whereas no dehiscence on the alar base incision line was observed after tampon removal in group 2, the incision dehisced in eight patients in group 1. The NOSE scores on postoperative days two and four showed no difference between the groups. The hemi-split Doyle splint causes less pain during removal and particularly does not lead to dehiscence of incisions made during alar base surgery in rhinoplasty patients.

  1. Three-dimensional virtual simulation of alar width changes following bimaxillary osteotomies.

    PubMed

    Liebregts, J; Xi, T; Schreurs, R; van Loon, B; Bergé, S; Maal, T

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of three-dimensional (3D) soft tissue simulation of nose width changes following bimaxillary osteotomies and to identify patient- and surgery-related factors that may affect the accuracy of simulation. Sixty patients (mean age 26 years) who underwent bimaxillary osteotomies participated in this study. Cone beam computed tomography scans were acquired preoperatively and at 1-year postoperative. The 3D hard and soft tissue rendered preoperative and postoperative virtual head models were superimposed, after which the maxilla and mandible were segmented and aligned to the postoperative position. The postoperative changes in alar width were simulated using a mass tensor model (MTM)-based algorithm and compared with the postoperative outcome. 3D cephalometric analyses were used to quantify the simulation error. The postoperative alar width was increased by 1.6±1.1mm and the mean error between the 3D simulation and the actual postoperative alar width was 1.0±0.9mm. The predictability was not correlated to factors such as age, sex, alar cinch suture, VY closure, maxillary advancement, or a history of surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion. The MTM-based simulation model of postoperative alar width change was found to be reasonably accurate, although there is room for further improvement. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Three-dimensional model of an ultramafic feeder system to the Nikolai Greenstone mafic large igneous province, central Alaska Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glen, J.M.G.; Schmidt, J.M.; Connard, G.G.

    2011-01-01

    The Amphitheater Mountains and southern central Alaska Range expose a thick sequence of Triassic Nikolai basalts that is underlain by several mafic-ultramafic complexes, the largest and best exposed being the Fish Lake and Tangle (FL-T) mafic-ultramafic sills that flank the Amphitheater Mountains synform. Three-dimensional (3-D) modeling of gravity and magnetic data reveals details of the structure of the Amphitheater Mountains, such as the orientation and thickness of Nikolai basalts, and the geometry of the FL-T intrusions. The 3-D model (50 ?? 70 km) includes the full geographic extent of the FL-T complexes and consists of 11 layers. Layer surfaces and properties (density and magnetic susceptibility) were modified by forward and inverse methods to reduce differences between the observed and calculated gravity and magnetic grids. The model suggests that the outcropping FL-T sills are apparently connected and traceable at depth and reveals variations in thickness, shape, and orientation of the ultramafic bodies that may identify paths of magma flow. The model shows that a significant volume (2000 km3) of ultramafic material occurs in the subsurface, gradually thickening and plunging westward to depths exceeding 4 km. This deep ultramafic material is interpreted as the top of a keel or root system that supplied magma to the Nikolai lavas and controlled emplacement of related magmatic intrusions. The presence of this deep, keel-like structure, and asymmetry of the synform, supports a sag basin model for development of the Amphitheater Mountains structure and reveals that the feeders to the Nikolai are much more extensive than previously known. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. The Effects of Secondary Cleft Procedures on Alar Base Position and Nostril Morphology in Patients with Unilateral Clefts.

    PubMed

    Power, Stephanie M; Matic, Damir B

    2017-07-01

    To compare effects of secondary cleft procedures on alar base position and nostril morphology. Retrospective review. Multidisciplinary cleft clinic at tertiary center. Seventy consecutive patients with unilateral clefts were grouped according to secondary procedure. Alveolar bone graft versus total lip takedown with anatomic muscle repair versus single-stage total lip with cleft septorhinoplasty (nose-lip) versus rhinoplasty alone. Anthropometric measurements were recorded from pre- and postoperative photographs. Ratios of cleft to noncleft side were compared within and across groups pre- and postoperatively using parametric and nonparametric tests. Within the bone graft group, no differences were seen postoperatively in alar base position in long-term follow-up. The total lip group demonstrated greater symmetry at the alar base (P < .001), increased vertical lip dimension (P < .001), and decreased nostril height (P = .004) postoperatively. Within the nose-lip group, increased vertical dimension and alar base support (P < .001) were also seen postoperatively. Across groups, the single-stage nose-lip group demonstrated greatest alar base symmetry on worm's-eye view (P < .04). Alar base asymmetry in patients with unilateral clefts may be related to soft tissue deficiency and was not affected by alveolar bone grafting. Total lip takedown with anatomic muscle reapproximation was associated with increased alar base symmetry and vertical lip dimension on cleft to noncleft side. Greatest symmetry at the alar base was seen following single-stage nose-lip reconstruction, which may be an effective technique for correcting the secondary cleft lip nasal deformity.

  4. Forensic Facial Reconstruction: Relationship Between the Alar Cartilage and Piriform Aperture.

    PubMed

    Strapasson, Raíssa Ananda Paim; Herrera, Lara Maria; Melani, Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff

    2017-03-29

    During forensic facial reconstruction, facial features may be predicted based on the parameters of the skull. This study evaluated the relationships between alar cartilage and piriform aperture and nose morphology and facial typology. Ninety-six cone beam computed tomography images of Brazilian subjects (49 males and 47 females) were used in this study. OsiriX software was used to perform the following measurements: nasal width, distance between alar base insertion points, lower width of the piriform aperture, and upper width of the piriform aperture. Nasal width was associated with the lower width of the piriform aperture, sex, skeletal vertical pattern of the face, and age. The current study contributes to the improvement of forensic facial guides by identifying the relationships between the alar cartilages and characteristics of the biological profile of members of a population that has been little studied thus far. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. Z-plasty of the alar subunit to correct nasal vestibular stenosis.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Natasha; Hariri, Ahmad; Saleh, Hesham

    2014-04-01

    Nasal vestibular stenosis can result in a challenging cosmetic deformity, for which a variety of techniques have been described, including scar excision and replacement with local flaps, composite or cartilage grafts, with or without stents. We describe the Z-plasty technique to widen the alar base and assess patient satisfaction from the surgery. A retrospective review of patients who underwent Z-plasty to the alar subunit for nasal vestibular stenosis over a 4-year period was conducted. Demographic data and patient satisfaction were evaluated using pre- and postoperative visual analog scores and Rhinoplasty Outcome Evaluation questionnaires. Eight patients underwent the procedure, and all confirmed significant improvement in their esthetic outcome. We describe our Z-plasty technique to the alar base and review patient satisfaction.

  6. Metallogeny of the nikolai large igneous province (LIP) in southern alaska and its influence on the mineral potential of the talkeetna mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, J.M.; Rogers, R.K.

    2007-01-01

    Recent geologic mapping has identified areas of extrusive basalts of the Middle to Late Triassic Nikolai Greenstone within the Wrangellia terrane that extend at least 80 km southwest of their previously known extent. Abundant dolerite sills of similar composition intrude Paleozoic and Mesozoic stratigraphy below the Nikolai throughout the central Talkeetna Mountains. The Talkeetna Mountains, therefore, have newly identified potential for copper, nickel, and platinum-group elements (PGEs) as disseminated, net-textured, or massive magmatic sulfide deposits hosted in mafic and ultramafic sill-form complexes related to emplacement of the Nikolai. Because of their potential high grades, similar magmatic sulfide targets have been the focus of increasing mineral exploration activity over the last decade in the Amphitheater Mountains and central Alaska Range, 100-200 km to the northeast. The Nikolai Greenstone, associated intrusions, and their metamorphosed equivalents also have potential to host stratabound disseminated "basaltic copper" deposits. Sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks overlying the Nikolai have the potential to host stratabound, disseminated, or massive "reduced-facies" type Cu-Ag deposits. Ultramafic rocks have been identified only in the extreme northeastern Talkeetna Mountains to date. However, coincident gravity and magnetic highs along the leading (northwestern) edge of and within Wrangellia in the Talkeetna and Clearwater Mountains suggest several areas that are highly prospective for ultramafic rocks related to extrusion of Nikolai lavas. In particular, the distribution, geometry, and composition of sills within the pre-Nikolai stratigraphy and the structural and tectonic controls on intrusive versus extrusive rock distribution deserve serious examination. Copyright ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  7. The dissociation energies of AlH 2 and AlAr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partridge, Harry; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Visscher, Luuk

    1995-11-01

    The D0 values for AlH 2 and AlAr are computed using the coupled cluster approach in conjunction with large basis sets. Basis set superposition and spin-orbit effects are accounted for, as they are significant due to the small binding energy. The computed dissociation energy ( D0) for AlAr is 114 cm -1, which is 93% of the experimental value (122.4 cm -1). Our best estimate for the AlH 2 binding energy is 38 ± 26 cm -1.

  8. The Dissociation Energies of AlH2 and AlAr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricca, Alessandra; Partridge, Harry; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Visscher, Luuk; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The D(sub 0) values for AlH2 and AlAr are computed using the coupled cluster approach in conjunction with large basis sets. Basis set superposition and spin-orbit effects are accounted for as they are sizeable due to the small binding energy. The computed dissociation energy for AlAr is 101 /cm , which is 83% of the experimental value (122.4/ cm). Our best estimate for the H2 binding energy in AlH2 is 40 +/- 28 /cm.

  9. A modified nasolabial flap for reconstruction of transfixing alar wing defects.

    PubMed

    Bouhassira, J; Hersant, B; Noel, W; Aguilar, P; Niddam, J; Meningaud, J-P

    2017-08-22

    Reconstruction of an entire alar wing is a frequently encountered reconstructive challenge in onco-dermatologic surgery. The aim of this technical note was to describe a surgical technique total for reconstruction of the alar wing, with a modified nasolabial flap with an inferior pedicle associated with a cartilaginous graft. This rapid procedure seems to be a well alternative for elderly people and patients who do not want a forehead flap. The aesthetic and functional outcomes of the donor and recipient sites were satisfactory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Nasal alar necrosis following hyaluronic Acid injection into nasolabial folds: a case report.

    PubMed

    Manafi, Ali; Barikbin, Behrooz; Manafi, Amir; Hamedi, Zahra Sadat; Ahmadi Moghadam, Shokoofeh

    2015-01-01

    Injection of synthetic fillers for soft tissue augmentation is increasing over the last decade. One of the most common materials used is hyaluronic acid (HA) that is safe and temporary filler for soft tissue augmentation. We present a case of 54-year-old female who experienced vascular occlusion and nasal alar necrosis following HA injection to the nasolabial folds. She suffered from pain, necrosis, infection, and alar loss that finally required a reconstructive surgery for cosmetic appearance of the nose. The case highlights the importance of proper injection technique by an anesthesiologist, as well as the need for immediate recognition and treatment of vascular occlusion.

  11. Nasal Alar Necrosis Following Hyaluronic Acid Injection into Nasolabial Folds: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Manafi, Ali; Barikbin, Behrooz; Manafi, Amir; Hamedi, Zahra Sadat; Ahmadi Moghadam, Shokoofeh

    2015-01-01

    Injection of synthetic fillers for soft tissue augmentation is increasing over the last decade. One of the most common materials used is hyaluronic acid (HA) that is safe and temporary filler for soft tissue augmentation. We present a case of 54-year-old female who experienced vascular occlusion and nasal alar necrosis following HA injection to the nasolabial folds. She suffered from pain, necrosis, infection, and alar loss that finally required a reconstructive surgery for cosmetic appearance of the nose. The case highlights the importance of proper injection technique by an anesthesiologist, as well as the need for immediate recognition and treatment of vascular occlusion. PMID:25606480

  12. The Dissociation Energies of AlH2 and AlAr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricca, Alessandra; Partridge, Harry; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Visscher, Luuk; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The D(sub 0) values for AlH2 and AlAr are computed using the coupled cluster approach in conjunction with large basis sets. Basis set superposition and spin-orbit effects are accounted for as they are sizeable due to the small binding energy. The computed dissociation energy for AlAr is 101 /cm , which is 83% of the experimental value (122.4/ cm). Our best estimate for the H2 binding energy in AlH2 is 40 +/- 28 /cm.

  13. 3D potential-field model of a Triassic Nikolai large igneous province vent, central Alaska Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glen, J. M.; Schmidt, J. M.; Connard, G. G.

    2009-12-01

    The southern flank of the Alaska Range in south central Alaska exposes a thick, fresh sequence of Middle to Late Triassic Nikolai Greenstone. At least 5 ultramafic intrusive complexes and numerous gabbroic sills of similar age intrude Pennsylvanian to Triassic volcanogenic and sedimentary rocks below the Nikolai. The 2 largest and best exposed ultramafic complexes are the Fish Lake and Tangle ultramafic sills on the north, and south flanks, respectively of the Amphitheater Mountains synform. Three-dimensional (3D) modeling of gravity and magnetic data, using the GMSYS-3D modeling software, shows details of the Amphitheater Mountains structure, Nikolai basalt thickness, and geometry of the apparently connected Fish Lake and Tangle ultramafic sills. Modeling is based on a compilation of existing regional and newly-acquired detailed profile gravity data, a compilation of regional and high-resolution aeromagnetic surveys, and numerous rock-property data (including density, susceptibility, and magnetic remanence measurements of outcrops, hand samples, and drill cores). Eight intersecting 2D models, constructed prior to the 3D model, suggested the presence of an elongate ultramafic keel below the Amphitheater synform axis and extensive gabbroic satellite sills below the Fish Lake and Tangle ultramafic complexes. The 3D model (50x70km) includes the full geographic extent of the Fish Lake and Tangle bodies, as well as parts of the Rainy and Canwell complexes to the north and east of the Amphitheater Mountains. Eleven layers were initially constructed from horizons we exported from the 2D models and gridded to form layer surfaces. Individual 3D model layers were subsequently modified by both forward and inverse methods applied to the layer surfaces and properties (density and magnetic susceptibility) to reduce differences between the observed and calculated gravity and magnetic grids. Up to 2 km of Nikolai basalts form the center of the asymmetric, west-plunging, 50 km long

  14. Contributions of the surgeon Nikolai Korotkov (1874-1920) to the management of extremity vascular injury.

    PubMed

    Samokhvalov, Igor M; Reva, Viktor A; Fomin, Nikolai F; Rasmussen, Todd E

    2016-02-01

    The Russian military surgeon Nikolai Korotkov is known worldwide, mainly among internists and cardiovascular specialists, as the discoverer of the auscultatory method of measuring arterial blood pressure in 1905. This article reveals him as one of the first military vascular surgeons to carefully investigate, analyze, and register cases of vascular injury during his voluntarily trips to the Russian Far East in 1900 to 1901 and the Russo-Japanese War of 1904 to 1905. Examining 44 patients with extremity arterial and arterial-venous pseudoaneurysms following war-related injury, he routinely performed a measure termed the "arterial pressure index" using "Korotkov sounds." This pioneering approach to assessing extremity perfusion was the precursor to the modern-day ankle-brachial and injured extremity indices, and it initiated the quantitative assessment of the compensatory ability of the vascular system to restore circulation following axial artery ligation. Because of high thrombosis rates following direct vessel repair during his day, he proposed use of pharmacologic substances such as digitalis and amyl nitrite to improve extremity perfusion. As evidence of his innovative nature, Korotkov even proposed the use of "oxygenated nutrient solutions" in the future to improve extremity circulation. More than 100 years after his work, as continuous wave Doppler ultrasound, contrast angiography, and computed tomography are ubiquitous as diagnostic tools, the practice of surgery would be well served to recall Korotkov's foundational work and the rule of thumb for any physician: examine the patient.

  15. Comparison between the classical and a modified trans-septal technique of alar cinching for Le Fort I osteotomies: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nirvikalpa, N; Narayanan, V; Wahab, A; Ramadorai, A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this prospective randomized control trial was to analyse the efficacy of a new trans-septal alar base cinch suture in controlling alar width in patients undergoing maxillary intrusion and setback by comparing it with the traditional cinch suture. Statistical evaluation was carried out in 62 of 76 patients. Group I (31 patients) received the traditional alar base cinch suture, and group II (31 patients) received the alar base cinch suture with an anchoring bite taken through the nasal septum 10mm behind its anterior edge. In both groups the accurate identification of alar fibroareolar tissue was facilitated by an 18 gauge green needle passed extra orally. Alar base width was measured before and 6 months after surgery using Vernier callipers. Preoperative alar base width for group I was 29.76 mm (1.901SD) and for group II 29.79 mm (3.141SD); the postoperative values were 32.42 mm (1.858SD) and 29.94 mm (2.568SD), respectively. Mean alar base widening was 2.661 mm (0.800SD) in group I and 0.145 mm (2.050) in group II. The difference in alar widening was statistically significant (p<0.001). In conclusion, the trans-septal modified alar cinch suture offers better control of alar base architecture in maxillary intrusion and setback. Copyright © 2012 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Refinement of Nasal Reconstruction with a V/Y-alar-perforator Flap

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Martin F.; Roldán, J. Camilo

    2017-01-01

    Background: The ala of the nose is vascularized by a dense net of perforators originating from the lateral nasal artery or the angular artery. These vessels reach the ala in a cascade fashion from the alar groove/lateral nasal wall. Based on these vessels, a V/Y flap can be dissected with a wide range of mobility. Materials and Methods: Nineteen patients underwent reconstruction of the nose by means of a V/Y-alar-perforator flap alone or in combination with a myocutaneous rotation flap from the lateral nasal wall and/or from the nasal dorsum for reconstruction of defects at the nasal tip, ala of the nose, and/or lateral nasal wall. All patients were followed up 8 months after surgery in average. Results: There was no prolonged congestion or any tissue loss. All patients presented postoperatively with excellent aesthetic results, and no nasal distortion was observed. Conclusion: The V/Y-alar-perforator flap alone or in combination with a myocutaneous rotation flap proved to be a reliable tool in the armamentarium for reconstruction of nasal tip and alar defects providing good aesthetic results. PMID:28203497

  17. Refinement of Nasal Reconstruction with a V/Y-alar-perforator Flap.

    PubMed

    Feinendegen, Dominik L; Langer, Martin F; Roldán, J Camilo

    2017-01-01

    The ala of the nose is vascularized by a dense net of perforators originating from the lateral nasal artery or the angular artery. These vessels reach the ala in a cascade fashion from the alar groove/lateral nasal wall. Based on these vessels, a V/Y flap can be dissected with a wide range of mobility. Nineteen patients underwent reconstruction of the nose by means of a V/Y-alar-perforator flap alone or in combination with a myocutaneous rotation flap from the lateral nasal wall and/or from the nasal dorsum for reconstruction of defects at the nasal tip, ala of the nose, and/or lateral nasal wall. All patients were followed up 8 months after surgery in average. There was no prolonged congestion or any tissue loss. All patients presented postoperatively with excellent aesthetic results, and no nasal distortion was observed. The V/Y-alar-perforator flap alone or in combination with a myocutaneous rotation flap proved to be a reliable tool in the armamentarium for reconstruction of nasal tip and alar defects providing good aesthetic results.

  18. Reconstruction of Congenital Isolated Alar Defect Using Mutaf Triangular Closure Technique in Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Temel, Metin; Gunal, Ertan; Kahraman, Serif Samil

    2016-06-01

    Congenital isolated alar defects are extremely rare, occurring in approximately 1 in 20,000 to 40,000 live births. The patients are presented here of 2 pediatric patients operated on for congenital isolated alar defect. The reconstruction of congenital isolated alar defects was made in a 3-layered fashion. The skin defects were covered using the Mutaf triangular closure technique in which 2 cutaneous local flaps are designed in an unequal Z-plasty manner. Conchal cartilage graft was used between the skin and mucosal closure to replace the missing part of the lower lateral cartilage in these patients. The early results were promising in Patient 1, but sufficient improvement was detected in the alar cartilage postoperative follow-up period in Patient 2. Hence, this patient required revision 1 to 2 years postoperatively. This technique provides excellent aesthetic and functional results, except for this problem in Tessier 2 cleft patients. The use of the Stair step flap technique with Mutaf triangle closure technique achieved cosmetically and functionally excellent results in the reconstruction and repair of a large, irregular, narrow cleft, in the inadequate rotation of the lateral part of the lower lateral cartilage. However, because of this problem, evaluation of the long-term follow-up of patients is necessary.

  19. New anatomical profile of the nasal musculature: dilator naris vestibularis, dilator naris anterior, and alar part of the nasalis.

    PubMed

    Hur, Mi-Sun; Hu, Kyung-Seok; Youn, Kwan-Hyun; Song, Wu-Chul; Abe, Shinichi; Kim, Hee-Jin

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the morphology and topography of the dilator naris vestibularis, dilator naris anterior, and alar part of the nasalis. Anatomical variations in the topographic relationships are also described to provide critical data for understanding nasal muscular functions. Anatomical and histological examinations were performed on 40 specimens of embalmed Korean adult cadavers. The dilator naris vestibularis muscle (named by the present authors) was located between the external and vestibular skin of the alar lobule. The muscle fibers radiated along the dome-shaped nasal vestibule. The dilator naris anterior muscle originated from the frontal surfaces of the lateral half of the lateral crus and the accessory alar cartilage adjacent to the lateral crus. The extent of the lower insertion of the dilator naris anterior muscle was at the alar groove. The alar part of the nasalis originated with the transverse part of nasalis from the maxilla. It ascended to attach to the alar crease and the adjacent deep surface of external skin of the alar lobule. These findings may provide anatomical knowledge required to understand the structure and function of these nasal muscles such as during rhinoplasty or other surgery of the face. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Delineation of alar ligament morphology: comparison of magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 and 3 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Peter; Mayer, Thomas E; Drescher, Robert

    2012-11-01

    Rupture of the alar and transverse ligaments due to whiplash injury can lead to upper cervical spine instability and subsequent neurological deterioration. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the normal anatomical variability of the alar ligaments in asymptomatic individuals with 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to compare the findings with standard 1.5-T examinations. Thirty-six participants underwent 3-T and 1.5-T MRIs. Magnetic resonance imaging findings were analyzed by classifying the alar ligaments with regard to the features detectability, signal intensity compared with muscle tissue, homogeneity, shape, spatial orientation, and symmetry. Delineation of the alar ligaments was significantly better on 3-T images, which were subjectively preferred for evaluation. The alar ligaments showed great variability. In the majority of participants, the alar ligaments were hypointense to muscle tissue, inhomogeneous, and different in shape and orientation. A statistically significantly higher number of ligaments appeared symmetric on 3-T imaging, indicating that 1.5-T imaging may underestimate the proportion of patients with normal, symmetric ligaments. This study demonstrates that high-field 3-T MRI provides better visualization of the alar ligaments compared with 1.5-T MRI. The higher signal-to-noise ratio allows detection of small signal changes. A great interindividual variety of the MRI morphology of the alar ligaments was found in participants with no history of neck trauma. Further studies with more participants are necessary to evaluate alar ligament pathologies in patients with a history of whiplash injury. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Evaluation of soft tissue morphologic changes after using the alar base cinch suture in Le Fort I osteotomy in mandibular prognathism with and without asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Moroi, Akinori; Ishihara, Yuri; Sotobori, Megumi; Nakazawa, Ryuichi; Higuchi, Masatoshi; Nakano, Yoshio; Marukawa, Kohei; Ueki, Koichiro

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of alar base cinch suture in Le Fort I osteotomy in mandibular prognathism with and without asymmetry. Forty patients who underwent Le Fort I osteotomy were divided into an asymmetry group and a symmetry group (n = 20 each). Computed tomography (CT) was taken in all patients before and 1 year after surgery. The CT-3D volume rendering data with Aquarius Net (TeraRecon, Foster City, CA, USA) was reconstructed and the soft tissue was measured as follows, the distance between the bilateral alar base (Alar base width), the distance between the bilateral alar (Alar width), the angles between the FH plane and the line between the bilateral alar base (Alar base angle), the angle between the FH plane and the line between the bilateral alar (Alar angle), the angle between the FH plane and the line between the bilateral corners of the mouth (Lip angle), and the angle between the perpendicular line to the FH plane and the Philtrum (Philtrum angle). Significant differences were observed in the Alar width (P = 0.0448), the Alar angle (P = 0.0044), the Lip angle (P < 0.0001), and the Philtrum angle (P = 0.0057) between before and after surgery in the asymmetry group. This study suggested that the alar base cinch suture could prevent increases in the alar base width in both groups and help to improve the angle of soft tissue in the asymmetry group, although alar width significantly increases after surgery. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of the hypothalamus of Xenopus laevis during development. I. The alar regions.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Laura; Morona, Ruth; González, Agustín; Moreno, Nerea

    2013-03-01

    The patterns of expression of a set of conserved developmental regulatory transcription factors and neuronal markers were analyzed in the alar hypothalamus of Xenopus laevis throughout development. Combined immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization techniques were used for the identification of subdivisions and their boundaries. The alar hypothalamus was located rostral to the diencephalon in the secondary prosencephalon and represents the rostral continuation of the alar territories of the diencephalon and brainstem, according to the prosomeric model. It is composed of the supraoptoparaventricular (dorsal) and the suprachiasmatic (ventral) regions, and limits dorsally with the preoptic region, caudally with the prethalamic eminence and the prethalamus, and ventrally with the basal hypothalamus. The supraoptoparaventricular area is defined by the orthopedia (Otp) expression and is subdivided into rostral and caudal portions, on the basis of the Nkx2.2 expression only in the rostral portion. This region is the source of many neuroendocrine cells, primarily located in the rostral subdivision. The suprachiasmatic region is characterized by Dll4/Isl1 expression, and was also subdivided into rostral and caudal portions, based on the expression of Nkx2.1/Nkx2.2 and Lhx1/7 exclusively in the rostral portion. Both alar regions are mainly connected with subpallial areas strongly implicated in the limbic system and show robust intrahypothalamic connections. Caudally, both regions project to brainstem centers and spinal cord. All these data support that in terms of topology, molecular specification, and connectivity the subdivisions of the anuran alar hypothalamus possess many features shared with their counterparts in amniotes, likely controlling similar reflexes, responses, and behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The Shark Alar Hypothalamus: Molecular Characterization of Prosomeric Subdivisions and Evolutionary Trends.

    PubMed

    Santos-Durán, Gabriel N; Ferreiro-Galve, Susana; Menuet, Arnaud; Quintana-Urzainqui, Idoia; Mazan, Sylvie; Rodríguez-Moldes, Isabel; Candal, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The hypothalamus is an important physiologic center of the vertebrate brain involved in the elaboration of individual and species survival responses. To better understand the ancestral organization of the alar hypothalamus we revisit previous data on ScOtp, ScDlx2/5, ScTbr1, ScNkx2.1 expression and Pax6 immunoreactivity jointly with new data on ScNeurog2, ScLhx9, ScLhx5, and ScNkx2.8 expression, in addition to immunoreactivity to serotonin (5-HT) and doublecortin (DCX) in the catshark Scyliorhinus canicula, a key species for this purpose since cartilaginous fishes are basal representatives of gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates). Our study revealed a complex genoarchitecture for the chondrichthyan alar hypothalamus. We identified terminal (rostral) and peduncular (caudal) subdivisions in the prosomeric paraventricular and subparaventricular areas (TPa/PPa and TSPa/PSPa, respectively) evidenced by the expression pattern of developmental genes like ScLhx5 (TPa) and immunoreactivity against Pax6 (PSPa) and 5-HT (PPa and PSPa). Dorso-ventral subdivisions were only evidenced in the SPa (SPaD, SPaV; respectively) by means of Pax6 and ScNkx2.8 (respectively). Interestingly, ScNkx2.8 expression overlaps over the alar-basal boundary, as Nkx2.2 does in other vertebrates. Our results reveal evidences for the existence of different groups of tangentially migrated cells expressing ScOtp, Pax6, and ScDlx2. The genoarchitectonic comparative analysis suggests alternative interpretations of the rostral-most alar plate in prosomeric terms and reveals a conserved molecular background for the vertebrate alar hypothalamus likely acquired before/during the agnathan-gnathostome transition, on which Otp, Pax6, Lhx5, and Neurog2 are expressed in the Pa while Dlx and Nkx2.2/Nkx2.8 are expressed in the SPa.

  4. The Shark Alar Hypothalamus: Molecular Characterization of Prosomeric Subdivisions and Evolutionary Trends

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Durán, Gabriel N.; Ferreiro-Galve, Susana; Menuet, Arnaud; Quintana-Urzainqui, Idoia; Mazan, Sylvie; Rodríguez-Moldes, Isabel; Candal, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The hypothalamus is an important physiologic center of the vertebrate brain involved in the elaboration of individual and species survival responses. To better understand the ancestral organization of the alar hypothalamus we revisit previous data on ScOtp, ScDlx2/5, ScTbr1, ScNkx2.1 expression and Pax6 immunoreactivity jointly with new data on ScNeurog2, ScLhx9, ScLhx5, and ScNkx2.8 expression, in addition to immunoreactivity to serotonin (5-HT) and doublecortin (DCX) in the catshark Scyliorhinus canicula, a key species for this purpose since cartilaginous fishes are basal representatives of gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates). Our study revealed a complex genoarchitecture for the chondrichthyan alar hypothalamus. We identified terminal (rostral) and peduncular (caudal) subdivisions in the prosomeric paraventricular and subparaventricular areas (TPa/PPa and TSPa/PSPa, respectively) evidenced by the expression pattern of developmental genes like ScLhx5 (TPa) and immunoreactivity against Pax6 (PSPa) and 5-HT (PPa and PSPa). Dorso-ventral subdivisions were only evidenced in the SPa (SPaD, SPaV; respectively) by means of Pax6 and ScNkx2.8 (respectively). Interestingly, ScNkx2.8 expression overlaps over the alar-basal boundary, as Nkx2.2 does in other vertebrates. Our results reveal evidences for the existence of different groups of tangentially migrated cells expressing ScOtp, Pax6, and ScDlx2. The genoarchitectonic comparative analysis suggests alternative interpretations of the rostral-most alar plate in prosomeric terms and reveals a conserved molecular background for the vertebrate alar hypothalamus likely acquired before/during the agnathan-gnathostome transition, on which Otp, Pax6, Lhx5, and Neurog2 are expressed in the Pa while Dlx and Nkx2.2/Nkx2.8 are expressed in the SPa. PMID:27932958

  5. A centenary of auscultatory blood pressure measurement: a tribute to Nikolai Korotkoff.

    PubMed

    Paskalev, Dobrin; Kircheva, Anna; Krivoshiev, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    In 1905, Dr. Nikolai Korotkoff (1874-1920), a Russian surgeon, discovered a simple and precise technique to measure arterial pressure. He was born on 26th February 1874 in the central Russian city of Kursk. Korotkoff graduated from the Medical Faculty of Moscow University in 1898, but he worked later in the Surgical Clinic at the Imperial Military Medical Academy in St. Petersburg (Russia). Korotkoff served as a military surgeon during the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) and his major efforts were to find reliable clinical signs that could predict whether limb flow would be viable after vascular surgery of traumatic aneurysm. He found that after complete compression, the aneurysm of the arm (i.e. distal pulse on a. brachialis) disappeared with Riva-Rocci cuff and then gradually decreasing the pressure, a series of sounds could be heard by stethoscope under the artery distal to the compression. Korotkoff described four distinct phases of sounds: first sound, then compression murmurs, second tone, and disappearance of sounds. Korotkoff was also able to demonstrate the same auscultatory finding in healthy persons. He failed to notice only the muffled second sound, which was demonstrated a little later. These classical observations are now well known as the five different phases of Korotkoff sounds. In November 1905, during a conference of the Imperial Military Medical Academy, he reported his discovery in a short presentation entitled 'On the issue of the methods for measuring blood pressure'. In 1939, the Joint Committee of the American Heart Association and the Cardiac Society of Great Britain and Ireland recognized officially and accepted worldwide Korotkoff's method for blood pressure determining.

  6. Nasolabial-alar crease: a natural line to facilitate transposition of the nasolabial flap for lower nasal reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Bi, Hongda; Xing, Xin; Li, Junhui

    2014-11-01

    Nasolabial flaps have been widely used for nasal reconstruction. However, transposition of the nasolabial flap to lower nasal defects may be challenging because of functional and aesthetic concerns. The upper part of the alar crease joins with the nasolabial fold seamlessly, forming the nasolabial-alar crease line, which provides a natural strategy for easy concealment of the surgical scar. In this article, we would like to introduce a method for transferring a nasolabial flap along the nasolabial-alar crease to reconstruct lower nasal defects. Incision was made along the nasolabial-alar crease, and the nasolabial flap was transferred for lower nasal reconstruction in 9 patients. Subcutaneously based nasolabial flaps were designed, and undermining of the superolateral skin was made along the nasolabial-alar crease to obtain a robust subcutaneously based pedicle, so as to readily achieve flap transposition without tension and concealment of the subcutaneous pedicle. The nasolabial fold could be reproduced by closing the donor site. Lower nasal defects were successfully repaired with nasolabial flap in 9 patients. Good nasal contour and appropriate symmetry of the reconstructed nasolabial fold were achieved, and there were no conspicuous scars in the 9 cases. The natural nasolabial-alar crease can serve as a useful incision line to facilitate the nasolabial flap transposition for lower nasal reconstruction while minimizing the scar.

  7. Spectroscopy of AlAr and AlKr from 31 000 cm-1 to the ionization limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidecke, Scott A.; Fu, Zhenwen; Colt, John R.; Morse, Michael D.

    1992-08-01

    Spectra of jet-cooled AlAr and AlKr have been collected over the range from 31 000 cm-1 to the ionization limit, using the technique of resonant two-photon ionization spectroscopy with mass spectrometric detection. Adiabatic ionization potentials have been accurately measured for both molecules, and have been estimated for AlAr2 and AlAr3. The spin-orbit splittings in the X 2Π ground state have been determined for both AlAr and AlKr, and ground-state bond strengths have been accurately measured as D0[AlAr, X1 2Π1/2(3p)] =122.4±4 cm-1 and D0[27Al 84Kr, X1 2Π1/2(3p)] =194.7±0.8 cm-1. These values have also been combined with the measured ionization potentials to derive D0(Al+-Ar)=982.3± 5 cm-1 and D0(Al+-Kr)=1528.5±2 cm-1.

  8. [Reconstruction of full-thickness nasal alar defect with combined nasolabial flap and free auricular composite flap].

    PubMed

    Peng, Weihai; Rong, Li; Wang, Wangshu; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Duo

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the technique and its effect of combined nasolabial flap and free auricular composite flap for full-thickness nasal alar defect. From March 2010 to March 2013, 9 patients with full-thickness nasal alar defects were treated with combined nasolabial flaps and free auricular composite flaps. Composite auricular flap was used as inner lining and cartilage framework. The nasolabial flap at the same side was used as outer lining. All the patients were followed up for 6-18 months (average, 12 months). All the 9 composite auricular flaps survived completely. Epidermal necrosis happened at the distal end of 1 nasolabial flap. Alar rim was almost normal and symmetric nose was achieved in 6 cases. The arc and the thickness of the alar rim was not enough in 3 cases, resulting in asymmetric appearance. The survival area of auricular composite flap can be enlarged with nasolabial flap. The auricular helix edge can be reserved to reconstruct nasal alar rim with smooth and natural arc. Large full-thickness nasal alar defedts can be reconstructed with combined nasolabial flaps and free auricular composite flaps.

  9. Repair of Full-Thickness Nasal Alar Defects Using Nasolabial Perforator Flaps.

    PubMed

    Durgun, Mustafa; Özakpınar, Hülda Rıfat; Selçuk, Caferi Tayyar; Sari, Elif; Seven, Ergin; İnözü, Emre

    2015-10-01

    The repair of full-thickness nasal alar defects presents difficulties because of their complex 3-dimensional structure. Reconstructions using inappropriate methods may lead to asymmetries and dissatisfying functional results. In this study, our aim was to present the repairs of full-thickness alar defects performed using cartilage-supported nasolabial perforator flaps. Eight patients who presented to our clinic between January 2011 and April 2014 with full-thickness defects in the alar wings were included in this study. The nasolabial perforator flap was prepared on the basis of the closest perforator to the defect area and in a way to include 2 to 3 mm of subcutaneous adipose tissue. The medial section of the flap was adapted to form the nasal lining. In the 7 patients in whom cartilage support was used, the cartilage graft was obtained from the septum nasi. After the cartilage was placed on the flap, the lateral section of the flap was folded over the medial section and the defect was repaired. In 1 patient in whom cartilage support was not required, the flap was folded over itself before the repair was performed. The flap donor area was primarily repaired. No detachment around the suture lines, infection, venous insufficiency in the flap, or partial or total flap losses were observed in any of the patients. Retraction developed in 1 patient in whom no cartilage support was used. No retraction was observed in any of the patients in whom cartilage support was used. The results were functionally and esthetically satisfying in all the patients. The greatest advantage of perforator-based nasolabial flaps is the greater mobilization achieved in comparison with the other nasolabial flaps. Thus, full-thickness defects can be repaired in 1 session in some patients, no revision is required around the flap pedicle, and much less donor area morbidity occurs. Nasal alar reconstructions performed using this type of flap lead to both esthetically and functionally satisfying

  10. Sacral-Alar-Iliac Fixation in Children with Neuromuscular Scoliosis: Minimum 5-Year Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Jain, Amit; Sullivan, Brian T; Kuwabara, Anne; Kebaish, Khaled; Sponseller, Paul D

    2017-09-05

    The aim of our study was to investigate the 5-year outcomes of children with neuromuscular scoliosis treated with sacral-alar-iliac screws. We reviewed clinical and radiographic records of patients ≤18 years old treated by 1 pediatric orthopaedic surgeon for neuromuscular scoliosis with spinal fusion using sacral-alar-iliac pelvic anchors. Thirty-eight patients, with a minimum 5-year radiographic follow-up (6.0 ± 1.2 years), were studied. Mean patient age was 13 ± 2.0 years and 47% were female. The mean number of levels fused was 18 ± 0.7. The diagnosis was cerebral palsy in 66% of patients. Between the preoperative period and final follow-up there was a mean 79% correction of the major coronal curve (85° to 18°) and 57% correction of the pelvic obliquity (16° to 7°). Patients maintained correction of mean pelvic obliquity from the early postoperative period (6°) to final follow-up (7°). Preoperatively, 76% of patients had pelvic obliquity of >10°compared with 26% after surgery. There were no cases of neurologic or vascular complications or pseudarthrosis. Radiographs revealed bilateral sacral-alar-iliac screw lucency in 8 patients; 4 of these patients had deep wound infections, and the other 4 were asymptomatic. Unilateral screw fracture was found in 1 patient with an 8-mm screw diameter (1.3%, 1 of 76 screws); the patient was observed and remained asymptomatic. There were no cases of set screw displacement, screw back-out, or rod dislodgement. Sacral-alar-iliac screws are safe and effective pelvic anchors for use in children with neuromuscular scoliosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. [Middle third of the nose and internal valve. Alar wall and external valve].

    PubMed

    Duron, J B; Nguyen, P S; Jallut, Y; Bardot, J; Aiach, G

    2014-12-01

    To many surgeons, nasal airway obstruction is synonymous with either septal deviation or inferior turbinate hypertrophy. The role of internal and external nasal valves is often less known by surgeons even if it is crucial in nasal breathing and strongly interrelated with esthetic of the middle third of the nose and alar wall. Therefore, precise examination of the two valves and conservative surgery should help to avoid many functional and esthetic problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Management of the droopy tip: a comparison of three alar cartilage-modifying techniques.

    PubMed

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2003-10-01

    The droopy tip is a common nasal deformity in which the tip is inferiorly rotated. Five hundred consecutive rhinoplasty cases were studied to assess the incidence and causes of the droopy tip deformity and to evaluate the role of three alar cartilage-modifying techniques--lateral crural steal, lateral crural overlay, and tongue in groove--in correcting such a deformity. The external rhinoplasty approach was used in all cases. Only one of the three alar cartilage-modifying techniques was used in each case, and the degree of tip rotation and projection was measured both preoperatively and postoperatively. The incidence of droopy tip was 72 percent, and the use of an alar cartilage-modifying technique was required in 85 percent of these cases to achieve the desired degree of rotation. The main causes of droopy tip included inferiorly oriented alar cartilages (85 percent), overdeveloped scrolls of upper lateral cartilages (73 percent), high anterior septal angle (65 percent), and thick skin of the nasal lobule (56 percent). The lateral crural steal technique increased nasal tip rotation and projection, the lateral crural overlay technique increased tip rotation and decreased tip projection, and the tongue-in-groove technique increased tip rotation without significantly changing the amount of projection. The lateral crural overlay technique resulted in the highest degrees of rotation, followed by the lateral crural steal and finally the tongue-in-groove technique. According to these results, the lateral crural steal technique is best indicated in cases with droopy underprojected nasal tip, the lateral crural overlay technique in cases of droopy overprojected nasal tip, and the tongue-in-groove technique in cases where the droopy nasal tip is associated with an adequate amount of projection.

  13. Primary rhinocheiloplasty: Comparison of open and closed methods of alar cartilage reposition

    PubMed Central

    Yasonov, S. A.; Lopatin, A. V.; Kugushev, A. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To establish which rhinoplasty method for primary repairing of unilateral cleft lip (UCL) is better. Settings and Design: Two patient groups with cleft lip were compared. Each group was operated on either by McComb's technique as closed rhinoplasty method or by Vissarionov–Kosin technique as an open method. Subjects and Methods: First group included 29 patients and the second consisted of 31. All patients were operated on by single surgeon over 10 years. Randomization was based on wishes and intention of surgeon to use one of two methods. Evaluation of results was based on impartial data, and subjective information collected from respondents with different levels of knowledge about UCL. The objective scale was based on the evaluation of five noticeable residual deformations of nose that usually appear after primary lip-nose surgery: Alar flattening, low position of alar, widening or narrowing of nostril, and deformation of the upper part of nostril rim. Subjective evaluation was based on the opinion of respondents who were ranged every case depending on own judgment. Statistical Analysis: Was performed using Fisher method and Chi-square by Statistica 10.0, StatSoft Inc. Results: Approach with general analysis indicated no difference between two methods. Despite of absence of clear differences between two groups we consider the closed rhinoplasty more favorable due to less damage to alar cartilages and no scars inside nostrils. Conclusions: We think that mentioned scarring may complicate secondary rhinoplasty, which is often needed to correct nose deformation. PMID:27563601

  14. MRI and Additive Manufacturing of Nasal Alar Constructs for Patient-specific Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Visscher, Dafydd O; van Eijnatten, Maureen; Liberton, Niels P T J; Wolff, Jan; Hofman, Mark B M; Helder, Marco N; Don Griot, J Peter W; Zuijlen, Paul P M van

    2017-08-30

    Surgical reconstruction of cartilaginous defects remains a major challenge. In the current study, we aimed to identify an imaging strategy for the development of patient-specific constructs that aid in the reconstruction of nasal deformities. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was performed on a human cadaver head to find the optimal MRI sequence for nasal cartilage. This sequence was subsequently used on a volunteer. Images of both were assessed by three independent researchers to determine measurement error and total segmentation time. Three dimensionally (3D) reconstructed alar cartilage was then additively manufactured. Validity was assessed by comparing manually segmented MR images to the gold standard (micro-CT). Manual segmentation allowed delineation of the nasal cartilages. Inter- and intra-observer agreement was acceptable in the cadaver (coefficient of variation 4.6-12.5%), but less in the volunteer (coefficient of variation 0.6-21.9%). Segmentation times did not differ between observers (cadaver P = 0.36; volunteer P = 0.6). The lateral crus of the alar cartilage was consistently identified by all observers, whereas part of the medial crus was consistently missed. This study suggests that MRI is a feasible imaging modality for the development of 3D alar constructs for patient-specific reconstruction.

  15. Paradox of mistranslation of serine for alanine caused by AlaRS recognition dilemma.

    PubMed

    Guo, Min; Chong, Yeeting E; Shapiro, Ryan; Beebe, Kirk; Yang, Xiang-Lei; Schimmel, Paul

    2009-12-10

    Mistranslation arising from confusion of serine for alanine by alanyl-tRNA synthetases (AlaRSs) has profound functional consequences. Throughout evolution, two editing checkpoints prevent disease-causing mistranslation from confusing glycine or serine for alanine at the active site of AlaRS. In both bacteria and mice, Ser poses a bigger challenge than Gly. One checkpoint is the AlaRS editing centre, and the other is from widely distributed AlaXps-free-standing, genome-encoded editing proteins that clear Ser-tRNA(Ala). The paradox of misincorporating both a smaller (glycine) and a larger (serine) amino acid suggests a deep conflict for nature-designed AlaRS. Here we show the chemical basis for this conflict. Nine crystal structures, together with kinetic and mutational analysis, provided snapshots of adenylate formation for each amino acid. An inherent dilemma is posed by constraints of a structural design that pins down the alpha-amino group of the bound amino acid by using an acidic residue. This design, dating back more than 3 billion years, creates a serendipitous interaction with the serine OH that is difficult to avoid. Apparently because no better architecture for the recognition of alanine could be found, the serine misactivation problem was solved through free-standing AlaXps, which appeared contemporaneously with early AlaRSs. The results reveal unconventional problems and solutions arising from the historical design of the protein synthesis machinery.

  16. Alar-columellar and lateral nostril changes following tongue-in-groove rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ajul; Pfaff, Miles; Kinsman, Gianna; Steinbacher, Derek M

    2015-04-01

    Repositioning the medial crura cephalically onto the caudal septum (tongue-in-groove; TIG) allows alteration of the columella, ala, and nasal tip to address alar-columellar disproportion as seen from the lateral view. To date, quantitative analysis of nostril dimension, alar-columellar relationship, and nasal tip changes following the TIG rhinoplasty technique have not been described. The present study aims to evaluate post-operative lateral morphometric changes following TIG. Pre- and post-operative lateral views of a series of consecutive patients who underwent TIG rhinoplasty were produced from 3D images at multiple time points (≤2 weeks, 4-10 weeks, and >10 weeks post-operatively) for analysis. The 3D images were converted to 2D and set to scale. Exposed lateral nostril area, alar-columellar disproportion (divided into superior and inferior heights), nasolabial angle, nostril height, and nostril length were calculated and statistically analyzed using a pairwise t test. A P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Ninety-four lateral views were analyzed from 20 patients (16 females; median age: 31.8). One patient had a history of current tobacco cigarette use. Lateral nostril area decreased at all time points post-operatively, in a statistically significant fashion. Alar-columellar disproportion was reduced following TIG at all time points. The nasolabial angle significantly increased post-operatively at ≤2 weeks, 4-10 weeks, and >10, all in a statistically significant fashion. Nostril height and nostril length decreased at all post-operative time points. Morphometric analysis reveals reduction in alar-columellar disproportion and lateral nostril shows following TIG rhinoplasty. Tip rotation, as a function of nasolabial angle, also increased. These results provide quantitative substantiation for qualitative descriptions attributed to the TIG technique. Future studies will focus on area and volumetric measurements, and assessment of long

  17. An Analysis of Lateral Crural Repositioning and Its Effect on Alar Rim Position.

    PubMed

    Paquet, Christian A; Choroomi, Sim; Frankel, Andrew S

    2016-01-01

    Cephalically malpositioned lateral crura are a frequent cause of alar rim retraction during both primary and revision rhinoplasty. To demonstrate the efficacy of lateral crural repositioning as an isolated maneuver as and combined with adjunctive grafts for lowering the alar rim. From August through December 2014, we retrospectively reviewed the cases of 54 patients (102 hemi-noses) who had lateral crural repositioning performed by the same surgeon between 2007 and 2013. Only patients with standardized photographs taken preoperatively and at least 6 months postoperatively were included in the study. All primary and revision cases were completed via an open rhinoplasty approach and had lateral crural repositioning performed. Preoperative and postoperative photographs were compared using Adobe Photoshop CS via a modified Gunter technique to measure the degree of alar rim retraction on lateral views. The change in angle was then calculated, and statistical analysis conducted using a paired t test. A total of 54 patients (102 hemi-noses) met inclusion criteria; 42 (79%) were women, and the average patient age was 41.3 years. Forty-five (83%) of the cases were revision rhinoplasties, and the average time to obtaining postoperative photographs was 11.3 months. The mean (SD) anterior nostril apex angles preoperatively (31.3° [8.9°]) and postoperatively (24.5° [6.8°]) indicated a net decrease of 6.8° (P < .001). Excluding patients who had other rim-lowering grafts (alar rim and/or composite grafts), we saw a similar result comparing preoperative (31.1° [8.2°]) and postoperative (24.5° [6.7°]) angles, with a net decrease of 6.6° degrees (P < .001). When examining patients who underwent lateral crural repositioning alone compared with those who also had lateral crural strut grafts, we saw a decrease of 6.9° (P < .001) and 6.7° degrees (P < .001), respectively. Repositioning of the lower lateral cartilages results in a statistically significant

  18. Natan 'Nikolai' Abramovich Vigdorchik (1874-1954): social activism and public health in early 20th-century Russia.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Dan S; Tauger, Mark B

    2009-05-01

    Virtually unknown in the West, the physician Nikolai Vigdorchik is recognized in Russian-Soviet history for his role in introducing social security into Russia. He rose from Jewish working-class origins to a career that combined activism in labour rights and public health with extensive and path-breaking publications in social security, occupational safety and public health. He contributed more than 30 years of leadership to Soviet research and educational institutions devoted to occupational safety and health. Vigdorchik's 1935 publication on lead and hypertension is illustrative of his contribution to modern epidemiological methods, describing a statistical bias in the study of hospitalized patients. It predates by 11 years Joseph Berkson's paper, after whom the bias is named. Vigdorchik's life illustrates a modern-day conundrum: social activism comes with political cost -- by virtue of its evidence-based orientation, public health science is safer but both are necessary to move a culture towards health and stability.

  19. The correction of alar-columella web deformities in unilateral cleft-lip nasal deformities with web graft technique.

    PubMed

    Go, Ju Young; Mun, Goo-Hyun; Bang, Sa Ik; Oh, Kap Sung; Lim, So Young

    2014-10-01

    Among the many secondary deformities in cleft-lip nose, the alar-columella web is unsightly and is a recurrent deformity. The purpose of this article is to revisit the correction of alar web deformity in patients with cleft-lip nasal deformities and to introduce our web graft technique. Thirteen patients with alar webbing underwent surgery between June 2012 and February 2013. The age range of the patients at the time of surgery was 14-29 years. An open rhinoplasty incision, including a reverse-U incision, was made and cartilage work was performed. After the cleft side was equalized with the dome angle of the healthy side, we used contralateral alar or auricular cartilage grafts as a stiff batten to stabilize the converted web skin. The web graft was fixed to the cleft-side web skin's inner side with at least three sutures to maintain the tucking of the vestibular skin. The follow-up period ranged from 1 to 20 months. The postoperative frontal and basal views showed that the nostrils and columella had better shape. Most patients demonstrated correction of the drooping alar rim and satisfactory symmetry of the nostrils. A web graft supports the vestibular lining of the reverse-U incision and increases the strength of the new concavity of the tucked skin. We expect that a long-lasting concave web contour could be achieved with this technique.

  20. Large Auricular Chondrocutaneous Composite Graft for Nasal Alar and Columellar Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Minho; Yun, Sangho; Yeo, Hyeonjung; Kim, Junhyung; Han, Kihwan

    2012-01-01

    Background Among the various methods for correcting nasal deformity, the composite graft is suitable for the inner and outer reconstruction of the nose in a single stage. In this article, we present our technique for reconstructing the ala and columella using the auricular chondrocutaneous composite graft. Methods From 2004 to 2011, 15 cases of alar and 2 cases of columellar reconstruction employing the chondrocutaneous composite graft were studied, all followed up for 3 to 24 months (average, 13.5 months). All of the patients were reviewed retrospectively for the demographics, graft size, selection of the donor site and outcomes including morbidity and complications. Results The reasons for the deformity were burn scar (n=7), traumatic scar (n=4), smallpox scar (n=4), basal cell carcinoma defect (n=1), and scar contracture (n=1) from implant induced infection. In 5 cases of nostril stricture and 6 cases of alar defect and notching, composite grafts from the helix were used (8.9×12.5 mm). In 4 cases of retracted ala, grafts from the posterior surface of the concha were matched (5×15 mm). For the reconstruction of the columella, we harvested the graft from the posterior scapha (9×13.5 mm). Except one case with partial necrosis and delayed healing due to smoking, the grafts were successful in all of the cases and there was no deformity of the donor site. Conclusions An alar and columellar defect can be reconstructed successfully with a relatively large composite graft without donor site morbidity. The selection of the donor site should be individualized according to the 3-dimensional configuration of the defect. PMID:22872834

  1. Tissue engineering of human nasal alar cartilage precisely by using three-dimensional printing.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yihao; Fan, Fei; Kang, Ning; Wang, Sheng; You, Jianjun; Wang, Huan; Zhang, Bo

    2015-02-01

    Tissue engineering strategies hold promise for the restoration of damaged cartilage. However, the results of most studies report irregularly shaped beads of cartilage, which are not precise enough. Thus, a precise shape of cartilage graft must be taken into consideration. The goal of this study was to develop a simple method of creating a precisely predetermined nasal alar shape with the aid of three-dimensional printing. Lower lateral cartilage from cadavers was observed and scanned by computed tomography. Molds of the lower lateral cartilage were achieved by using three-dimensional printing. Human nasal cartilage was obtained and chondrocytes were harvested. Then, the mixture of cells and poly(glycolic acid)/poly-L-lactic acid was cultured in vitro and implanted into the subcutaneous tissue of nude mice. After subcutaneous implantation, the length and width of the samples were measured, and the results were not statistically significantly different from the native lower lateral cartilage (p > 0.05). Their thickness was measured and the results were statistically different from the native lower lateral cartilage (p < 0.05). Histologic examination of the engineered constructs revealed that both the cell and tissue morphologic features of engineered cartilage were similar to those of native lower lateral cartilage. The biomechanical properties of the engineered cartilage exceeded those of native cartilage. This study demonstrates that three-dimensional printing-aided tissue engineering can achieve precise three-dimensional shapes of human nasal alar cartilage. To our knowledge, this is the first reported creation of a precise nasal alar cartilage with a tissue-engineering strategy and three-dimensional printing technique.

  2. Securing aesthetic outcomes for composite grafts to alar margin and columellar defects: A long term experience.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Rajeev B; Gupta, Rajat; Chatterjee, Pallab; Shrivastava, Prabhat

    2014-01-01

    Composite grafts for nasal reconstruction have been around for over a century but the opinion on its virtues and failings keeps vacillating with a huge difference on the safe size of the graft for transfer. Alar margin and columellar defects are more distinct than dorsal nasal defects in greater difficulty in ensuring a good aesthetic outcome. We report our series of 19 consecutive patients in whom a composite graft was used to reconstruct a defect of alar margin (8 patients), alar base (7 patients) or columella (4 patients). Patient ages ranged from 3-35 years with 5 males and 14 females. The grafts to alar margin and base ranged 0.6-1 cm in width, while grafts to columella were 0.7-1.2 cm. The maximum dimension of the graft in this series was 0.9 mm x 10 mm. Composite grafts were sculpted to be two layered (skin + cartilage), three layered wedges (skin + cartilage + skin) or their combination (two layered in a portion and three layered in another portion). All grafts were cooled in postoperative period for three days by applying an indigenous ice pack of surgical glove. The follow up ranged from 3-9 months with an average of 4.5 months. All of our 19 composite grafts survived completely but they all shrank by a small percentage of their bulk. Eleven patients rated the outcome between 90-95% improvement. We noticed that composite grafts tended to show varied pigmentation in our patients, akin to split skin grafts. In our opinion, most critical to graft survival is its size and the ratio of the marginal raw area to the graft bulk. We recommend that graft width should not exceed 1 cm to ensure complete survival even though larger sized grafts have been reported to survive. We recommend cooling of the graft and justify it on the analogy of 'warm ischemia time' for a replantation, especially in warmer climes like ours in India. We have outlined several considerations in the technique, with an analysis of differing opinions that should facilitate a surgeon in making an

  3. Securing aesthetic outcomes for composite grafts to alar margin and columellar defects: A long term experience

    PubMed Central

    Ahuja, Rajeev B.; Gupta, Rajat; Chatterjee, Pallab; Shrivastava, Prabhat

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Composite grafts for nasal reconstruction have been around for over a century but the opinion on its virtues and failings keeps vacillating with a huge difference on the safe size of the graft for transfer. Alar margin and columellar defects are more distinct than dorsal nasal defects in greater difficulty in ensuring a good aesthetic outcome. We report our series of 19 consecutive patients in whom a composite graft was used to reconstruct a defect of alar margin (8 patients), alar base (7 patients) or columella (4 patients). Patients and Methods: Patient ages ranged from 3-35 years with 5 males and 14 females. The grafts to alar margin and base ranged 0.6-1 cm in width, while grafts to columella were 0.7-1.2 cm. The maximum dimension of the graft in this series was 0.9 mm x 10 mm. Composite grafts were sculpted to be two layered (skin + cartilage), three layered wedges (skin + cartilage + skin) or their combination (two layered in a portion and three layered in another portion). All grafts were cooled in postoperative period for three days by applying an indigenous ice pack of surgical glove. The follow up ranged from 3-9 months with an average of 4.5 months. Results: All of our 19 composite grafts survived completely but they all shrank by a small percentage of their bulk. Eleven patients rated the outcome between 90-95% improvement. We noticed that composite grafts tended to show varied pigmentation in our patients, akin to split skin grafts. Conclusion: In our opinion, most critical to graft survival is its size and the ratio of the marginal raw area to the graft bulk. We recommend that graft width should not exceed 1 cm to ensure complete survival even though larger sized grafts have been reported to survive. We recommend cooling of the graft and justify it on the analogy of ‘warm ischemia time’ for a replantation, especially in warmer climes like ours in India. We have outlined several considerations in the technique, with an analysis of

  4. Follow-up MR imaging of the alar and transverse ligaments after whiplash injury: a prospective controlled study.

    PubMed

    Vetti, N; Kråkenes, J; Ask, T; Erdal, K A; Torkildsen, M D N; Rørvik, J; Gilhus, N E; Espeland, A

    2011-01-01

    The cause and clinical relevance of upper neck ligament high signal intensity on MR imaging in WAD are controversial. The purpose of this study was to explore changes in the signal intensity of the alar and transverse ligaments during the first year after a whiplash injury. Dedicated high-resolution upper neck proton attenuation-weighted MR imaging was performed on 91 patients from an inception WAD1-2 cohort, both in the acute phase and 12 months after whiplash injury, and on 52 controls (noninjured patients with chronic neck pain). Two blinded radiologists independently graded alar and transverse ligament high signal intensity 0-3, compared initial and follow-up images to assess alterations in grading, and solved any disagreement in consensus. The Fisher exact test was used to compare proportions. Alar and transverse ligament grading was unchanged from the initial to the follow-up images. The only exceptions were 1 alar ligament changing from 0 to 1 and 1 ligament from 1 to 0. The prevalence of grades 2-3 high signal intensity in WAD was thus identical in the acute phase and after 12 months, and it did not differ from the prevalence in noninjured neck pain controls (alar ligaments 33.0% versus 46.2%, P = .151; transverse ligament 24.2% versus 23.1%, P = 1.000). Alar and transverse ligament high signal intensity in patients with WAD1-2 observed within the first year after injury cannot be explained by the trauma. Dedicated upper neck MR imaging cannot be recommended as a routine examination in these patients.

  5. Association of Skin Thickness With Alar Base Reduction in Patients Undergoing Lateral Crural Repositioning and Strut Grafting.

    PubMed

    Ilhan, A Emre; Sozen, Tevfik; Caypinar Eser, Basak; Cengiz, Betul

    2017-07-27

    Knowing the operation plan is important for rhinoplasty surgeons to prevent unpredictable results. To investigate the frequency of alar base resection in patients with different skin thickness who underwent lateral crural repositioning and lateral crural strut graft and to evaluate the results in the context of the current literature. This retrospective case series study included 621 patients who underwent primary open septorhinoplasty by the same surgeon between January 1, 2012, and June 30, 2015. From the surgical notes, operation type (lateral crural repositioning [LCrep] with lateral crural strut grafting [LCSG] and with or without alar base resection) and skin type were recorded. Study participants' skin types were determined intraoperatively and divided into 3 groups: (1) thick skin (the tip definition was limited by skin thickness and subcutaneous tissue), (2) thin skin (the tip cartilage was visible and could be observed despite overlying soft tissue and skin), and (3) normal skin (the tip cartilage during the procedure had no effect on the tip definition). Of the 621 patients in the study, 95 (15.3%) were men and 526 (84.7%) were women. Lateral crural repositioning with LCSG was performed in 319 surgical procedures (51.4%), and alar base reduction was performed in 329 (53.0%). The rate of alar base resection differed significantly on the basis of whether LCrep with LCSG was performed (odds ratio [OR], 1.82; 95% CI, 1.32-2.50; P < .001). In patients with thin skin, there was no significant difference in the incidence of alar base resection associated with LCrep with LCSG (OR, 2.034; 95% CI, 0.912-4.539; P = .08). In patients with thick skin, a significant difference in the frequency of alar base resection was associated with the application of LCrep with LCSG (OR, 1.995; 95% CI, 1.228-3.241; P = .005). In patients with normal skin, LCrep with LCSG had no significant association with the frequency of alar base resection (OR, 1.557; 95% CI, 0

  6. Rhinoplasty. The difficult nasal tip: total resection of the alar cartilages.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Camps, Salvador

    2009-01-01

    There are many ways to reconstruct and make nasal tips more attractive. Sometimes we cannot find the best way unless we at least remove all surplus from the tip. This may occur in primary or secondary rhinoplasty. In principle, anything is possible when relocating and reconstructing. However, sometimes we face reality when we uncover the tip: broken or bulging cartilages that are difficult to put right. For this reason, in 1987 we thought of totally resectioning the alar cartilages in a case of secondary rhinoplasty with an unsightly appearance. After a year the result was seen to be correct from an aesthetic and a functional perspective and is still so today. Aesthetically, it kept its shape and did not collapse with nasal respiratory failure. We covered the end of the crus medialis with a small, temporary, one- to two-layered fascia patch. Except in exceptional cases, we now use this procedure: Total sectioning of the alar cartilages including the domes, or maintenance of them by preserving the fibroadipose tip tissue with a suture in the middle of the end of the crus medialis and by covering this with temporary fascia, which usually has two layers depending on the thickness of the skin of the tip. This procedure is indicated mainly in secondary rhinoplasty when the cartilages of the tip are completely destroyed, and in primary rhinoplasty when the tip is excessively wide and bulbous. Our philosophy is, therefore, elegance and beauty of the nasal tip with a solid and equilateral base without prejudices.

  7. Postoperative alar base symmetry in complete unilateral cleft lip and palate:A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Vyloppilli, Suresh; Krishnakumar, K S; Sayd, Shermil; Latheef, Sameer; Narayanan, Saju V; Pati, Ajit

    2017-06-09

    In the evolution of cleft lip repair, there have been continuous attempts to minimize local trauma and to improve lip and nasal appearances. In order to obtain an aesthetically balanced development of midface, the primary surgical correction of the nasolabial area is of paramount importance. In this study, the importance of a back-cut extending cephalically above the inferior turbinate at the mucocutaneous junction which elevates the nostril floor on the cleft side for the purpose of achieving symmetry of the alar bases are analyzed by pre and postoperative photographic anthropometry. This study comprised of fifty cases of the unilateral complete cleft lip. At the time of surgery, the patient age ranged from 3-9 months. The surgeries, performed by a single surgeon, employed the standard Millard technique, incorporating Mohler modifications of lip repair. Anthropometric analysis revealed that the preoperative mean difference between the normal side and the cleft side was 0.2056 with a standard deviation of 0.133. In the postoperative analysis, the mean difference was reduced to 0.0174 with a standard deviation of 0.141. The paired t-test showed that the p-value is <0.001, indicating high statistical significance. To conclude, in complete unilateral cleft lip and palate, the geometrically placed nasal back-cut incision has a definite role in the correction of the alar base symmetry during primary surgery. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Functional results in airflow improvement using a "flip-flap" alar technique: our experience.

    PubMed

    Di Stadio, Arianna; Macro, Carlo

    2017-02-21

    Pinched nasal point can be arising as congenital malformation or as results of unsuccessfully surgery. The nasal valve alteration due to this problem is not only an esthetic problem but also a functional one because can modify the nasal airflow. Several surgical techniques were proposed in literature, we proposed our. The purpose of the study is the evaluation of nose airway flow using our flip-flap technique for correction of pinched nasal tip. This is a retrospective study conducted on twelve patients. Tip cartilages were remodeled by means of autologous alar cartilage grafting. The patients underwent a rhinomanometry pre and post-surgery to evaluate the results, and they performed a self-survey to evaluate their degree of satisfaction in term of airflow sensation improvement. Rhinomanometry showed improved nasal air flow (range from 25% to 75%) in all patients. No significant differences were showed between unilateral and bilateral alar malformation (p=0.49). Patient's satisfaction reached the 87.5%. Our analysis on the combined results (rhinomanometry and surveys) showed that this technique leads to improvement of nasal flow in patients affected by pinched nasal tip in all cases. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Designing and Implementing Collaborative Improvement in the Extended Manufacturing Enterprise: Action Learning and Action Research (ALAR) in CO-IMPROVE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coghlan, David; Coughlan, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to provide a design and implementation framework for ALAR (action learning action research) programme which aims to address collaborative improvement in the extended manufacturing enterprise. Design/methodology/approach: This article demonstrates the design of a programme in which action learning and action…

  10. Is Early Nasal Shaping With a Limited Alar Base Incision Possible in the Repair of Cleft Lips?

    PubMed

    Kapi, Emin; Bozkurt, Mehmet; Ozer, Torun; Celik, Mehmet Yusuf

    2016-05-01

    The repair of cleft lips has an important place in plastic and reconstructive surgery. In the treatment of these deformities, the aim was to restore the normal lip morphology in the cleft area as well as repairing any coexisting nasal deformities. Various methods are in use for this purpose. One of the most commonly employed surgical methods is Millard repair. However, this method may lead to additional scarring in the alar base on the cleft side subsequent to the incision. In this study, the results obtained from a group who have been applied alar base incisions during the modified Millard repair are compared to a group who have undergone intranasal wide dissections.The patients enrolled in the study were randomized into 2 groups. The first group were applied the modified Millard repair. In the second group, the rotation, advancement, and C-flaps were prepared according to Millard surgical repair technique; however, instead of an alar base and nasofacial groove incision on the cleft side, a nasal and maxillary supraperiosteal wide dissection was made through the incision in the mucosa of the nostril.The intranasal dissection performed during the study was observed to provide the targeted outcome and a more satisfactory cosmetic result through the modified Millard repair. In conclusion, the authors are of the opinion that the limited alar base incision and the wide supraperiosteal dissection performed in patients with cleft lips is an alternative method that can be employed in a wide range of patients.

  11. [Repair of middle and lower face scars using alar thin expanded cervical flap with pedicle in anterior neck].

    PubMed

    Xu, Lisi; Li, Yangqun; Tang, Yong; Chen, Wen; Yang, Zhe; Zhao, Muxin; Ma, Ning; Feng, Jun

    2014-04-01

    To explore the application of alar thin expanded cervical flap with pedicle in anterior neck for large scars on middle and lower face. From February 2000 to July 2013, 26 patients with scars on the middle and lower face were treated with the alar thin expanded cervical flaps with pedicle in anterior neck. After the skin of anterior neck was expanded by implanting skin expanders, alar thin expanded cervical flap with pedicle in anterior neck was obtained with size of 163-275 cm(2). Then the scars on the middle and lower face with the size of 135-196 cm(2) were excised, with the area of excision allowing full coverage of the expanded flap. The flap was rotated and advanced to the middle and lower face, and the incision was closed in layers. The 26 patients were followed up for 2 to 24 months. Twenty-one flaps survived, with good appearance and function. Four flaps showed venous retardation at distal part, and only one flap showed necrosis of the right edge. They were healed by free skin grafting. The alar thin expanded cervical flap not only makes maximum use of expanded flap on the premise of ensuring blood supply, but also guarantees good color, texture, and contour of face and neck.

  12. A Novel Approach for Full-Thickness Defect of the Nasal Alar Rim: Primary Closure of the Defect and Reduction of the Contralateral Normal Ala for Symmetry.

    PubMed

    Choe, Yun Seon; Kim, Min-Woo; Jo, Seong Jin

    2015-12-01

    In full-thickness defects of the nasal alar rim, to achieve projection and maintain airway patency, cartilage graft is frequently needed. However, cartilage graft presents a challenge in considerations such as appropriate donor site, skeletal shape and size, and healing of the donor area. To avoid these demerits, we tried primary closure of alar rim defects by also making the contralateral normal ala smaller. We treated two patients who had a full-thickness nasal alar defect after tumor excision. Cartilage graft was considered for the reconstruction. However, their alar rims were overly curved and their nostril openings were large. To utilize their nasal shape, we did primary closure of the defect rather than cartilage graft, and then downsized the contralateral nasal ala by means of wedge resection to make the alae symmetric. Both patients were satisfied with their aesthetic results, which showed a smaller nostril and nearly straight alar rims. Moreover, functionally, there was no discomfort during breathing in both patients. We propose our idea as one of the reconstruction options for nasal alar defects. It is a simple and easy-to-perform procedure, in addition to enhancing the nasal contour. This method would be useful for patients with a large nostril and an overly curved alar rim.

  13. The Wave Flap: A Single-Stage, Modified Nasal Sidewall Rotation Flap for the Repair of Defects Involving the Mid-Alar Groove.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Zachary T; Garrett, Algin B; Lavigne, Kerry; Trace, Anthony; Maher, Ian A

    2016-02-01

    Reconstruction of defects straddling the alar groove presents the dual challenges of resurfacing the nasal sidewall and alar subunits while simultaneously recreating the alar groove. The wave flap (WF) is a modified, medially based, nasal sidewall rotation flap that uses locally recruited tissue from the nasal sidewall to facilitate color and texture match and permit camouflage of scars. To detail a surgical repair for defects in the horizontally oriented middle third of the alar groove. This retrospective case series describes a technique for repair of defects involving the alar groove. Using postoperative photographs, outcomes were assessed by blinded noninvestigator dermatologist raters using the Observer Scar Assessment Scale. Between February 2012 and June 2013, 10 patients were reconstructed using a WF design. Subjective assessment of scar vascularity, pigment, pliability, relief, and thickness by 3 independent reviewers yielded an overall cosmesis score of 11.1 (out of 50). No complications were noted. The WF provides an excellent reconstructive option for Mohs defects of the middle third of the alar groove by recruiting local tissue and permitting maximum scar camouflage. A well-designed and executed WF provides cosmetically exceptional results for defects of the alar groove.

  14. A Novel Approach for Full-Thickness Defect of the Nasal Alar Rim: Primary Closure of the Defect and Reduction of the Contralateral Normal Ala for Symmetry

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Yun Seon; Kim, Min-Woo

    2015-01-01

    In full-thickness defects of the nasal alar rim, to achieve projection and maintain airway patency, cartilage graft is frequently needed. However, cartilage graft presents a challenge in considerations such as appropriate donor site, skeletal shape and size, and healing of the donor area. To avoid these demerits, we tried primary closure of alar rim defects by also making the contralateral normal ala smaller. We treated two patients who had a full-thickness nasal alar defect after tumor excision. Cartilage graft was considered for the reconstruction. However, their alar rims were overly curved and their nostril openings were large. To utilize their nasal shape, we did primary closure of the defect rather than cartilage graft, and then downsized the contralateral nasal ala by means of wedge resection to make the alae symmetric. Both patients were satisfied with their aesthetic results, which showed a smaller nostril and nearly straight alar rims. Moreover, functionally, there was no discomfort during breathing in both patients. We propose our idea as one of the reconstruction options for nasal alar defects. It is a simple and easy-to-perform procedure, in addition to enhancing the nasal contour. This method would be useful for patients with a large nostril and an overly curved alar rim. PMID:26719646

  15. Exploring the nature of science through courage and purpose: a case study of Nikolai Vavilov and plant biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joel I; Loskutov, Igor G

    2016-01-01

    Historical biographies facilitate teaching the 'nature of science'. This case study focuses on how Nikolai Vavilov's unrelenting sense of purpose, courage, and charismatic personality was maintained during violent revolutionary change in Russia. The rediscovery of Gregor Mendel's laws of inheritance provided Vavilov with a scientific foundation for crop improvement, this foundation was later bolstered by Vavilov's personal drive to conserve plant biodiversity. As he advanced theories and pragmatic approaches for genetic improvement and conservation of plants, political leaders in Russian came to reject Mendel's principles and eventually Vavilov's work. This rejection occurred because Joseph Stalin was desperate for a quick remedy to the famine and suffering from forced collective agriculture. Vavilov's work continued, modernizing Russian crop research while inspiring other scientists to save seeds stored in the world's first gene bank. Three themes illustrating the nature of science help examine Vavilov's life: explaining natural phenomena, uncompromising human endeavor, and revising scientific knowledge. The case study concludes with four questions to stimulate student inquiry and self-guided research. They also deepen student understanding of Vavilov's personal sacrifices to ensure use and conservation of plant biodiversity.

  16. Fractional photothermolysis improves a depressed alar scar following Mohs micrographic surgery.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Kimberly K; Walling, Hobart W

    2010-01-01

    Fractional photothermolysis (FPT; Fraxel SR laser) is a 1550 nm non-ablative erbium laser device with a variety of clinical applications. FPT has been used to treat photodamage, photoaging, melasma, actinic keratoses and acne scarring. We present the case of a 49-year-old woman with a depressed 0.7 x 0.5 cm alar scar resulting from Mohs micrographic surgery for basal cell carcinoma with secondary intention healing. She was treated with FPT initially eight weeks post-operatively. FPT was performed a total of five times at four-week intervals. At the completion of FPT, the scar was nearly imperceptible and has remained so eighteen months later. To the authors' knowledge, treatment of facial scars resulting from Mohs micrographic surgery for cutaneous malignancy has not previously been reported.

  17. S2 Alar-iliac Fixation: A Powerful Procedure for the Treatment of Kyphoscoliosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Qiu, Yong; Yan, Huang; Hu, Zong-shan; Zhu, Feng; Qiao, Jun; Xu, Lei-lei; Wang, Bin; Yu, Yang; Qian, Bang-ping; Zhu, Ze-zhang

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to introduce a powerful technique for the treatment of kyphoscoliosis. There are currently multiple techniques for sacropelvic fixation, including trans-iliac bars and iliac and iliosacral screws. Several studies have documented the use of these instrumentation techniques; however, a ubiquitous problematic issue concerns the need for separate incisions for the use of offset connectors, which add to surgical time and morbidity. Any additional dissection of the skin, subcutaneous tissue or muscle in this area is believed to increase the incidence of complications of wound healing. However, as stated above, the above-mentioned techniques require separate incisions for the use of offset connectors, which add to surgical time and morbidity. The novel technique of S2 alar-iliac (S2AI) pelvic fixation has been developed to address some of these issues. However, a technique for achieving correction of kyphoscoliosis with pelvic obliquity in adult patients with spinal deformity has not previously been described. Our entry point is based on the S1 foramen and is typically up to 5 mm caudal and 2 to 3 mm lateral to that foramen. Once the S1 foramen has been identified, a blunt instrument can be used to probe the alar ridge. The screw trajectory is 40°-50° from horizontal and 20°-30° caudal, aimed toward the greater trochanter and rostral to the sciatic notch. A 36-year-old female patient presented with a 3-year history of low back pain, and progressive thoracolumbar kyphoscoliosis. In this typical case, we performed S2AI fixation with transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion and hemivertebra resection technique to treat her lumbosacral kyphoscoliosis. Satisfactory improvement in her preoperative lumbar kyphoscoliosis was found at 3-month follow-up. © 2016 Chinese Orthopaedic Association and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Arthroscopic lateral acromion resection (ALAR) optimizes rotator cuff tear relevant scapula parameters.

    PubMed

    Altintas, Burak; Kääb, Max; Greiner, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    The acromion index (AI), critical shoulder angle (CSA) and lateral acromion angle (LAA) are predictive for degenerative rotatory cuff tears. Their unfavorable values are associated with a suboptimal deltoid force vector. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether an optimization of the radiological parameters could be achieved through a specific arthroscopic lateral acromion resection (ALAR). The procedure was performed in eight fresh frozen cadaver shoulders. True a.p. and axial radiographs were taken before and after the intervention for radiological evaluation. The anterior and posterior acromion edges were marked with a spinal needle. Then 1 cm of the lateral acromion was resected with a 5.0 acromionizer (Arthrex Inc., Naples, FL, USA) beginning from the anterior aspect. The resection was completed over the total width of 1 cm from anterior to posterior. Finally the deltoid insertion was dissected via an open approach to ensure its integrity. The fluoroscopy images were evaluated regarding the pre- and postinterventional parameters AI, CSA and LAA. After the intervention, the mean AI could be significantly reduced from 0.62 ± 0.11 to 0.40 ± 0.15 (p = 0.012). Also the mean CSA was significantly reduced from 35.0° ± 7.65° to 25.12° ± 8.29° (p = 0.018). The LAA could not be significantly changed (76.5° ± 14.02° vs. 82.13 ± 8.93; p = 0.107). There was no injury to the deltoid insertion. The radiographic parameters AI und CSA can be optimized significantly by ALAR without macroscopic discontinuity of the deltoid insertion. Level IV, case series without comparison group.

  19. Toward less misleading comparisons of uncertain risks: the example of aflatoxin and alar.

    PubMed Central

    Finkel, A M

    1995-01-01

    Critics of comparative risk assessment (CRA), the increasingly common practice of juxtaposing disparate risks for the purpose of declaring which one is the "larger" or the "more important," have long focused their concern on the difficulties in accommodating the qualitative differences among risks. To be sure, people may disagree vehemently about whether "larger" necessarily implies "more serious," but the attention to this aspect of CRA presupposes that science can in fact discern which of two risks has the larger statistical magnitude. This assumption, encouraged by the indiscriminate calculation of risk ratios using arbitrary point estimates, is often incorrect: the fact that environmental and health risks differ in unknown quantitative respects is at least as important a caution to CRA as the fact that risks differ in known qualitative ways. To show how misleading CRA can be when uncertainty is ignored, this article revisits the claim that aflatoxin contamination of peanut butter was "18 times worse" than Alar contamination of apple juice. Using Monte Carlo simulation, the number 18 is shown to lie within a distribution of plausible risk ratios that ranges from nearly 400:1 in favor of aflatoxin to nearly 40:1 in the opposite direction. The analysis also shows that the "best estimates" of the relative risk of aflatoxin to Alar are much closer to 1:1 than to 18:1. The implications of these findings for risk communication and individual and societal decision-making are discussed, with an eye toward improving the general practice of CRA while acknowledging that its outputs are uncertain, rather than abandoning it for the wrong reasons. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:7607139

  20. Subcutaneous C Shape Muscular Flap for Correcting the Depression of Alar Base in Affected Side in Patients With Unilateral Complete Cleft Lip/Palate During Primary Surgery.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dandan; Wang, Guomin; Ouyang, Ningjuan; Lin, Yuhen; Chen, Yang; Dai, Jiewen

    2017-06-01

    The depression of alar base in affected side in patients with unilateral complete cleft lip/palate (CL/P) is one of common clinical features. In this study, the authors try to explore the effect of subcutaneous C shape muscular flap for correcting the depression of alar base in affected side in patients with unilateral complete CL/P during primary surgery. A total of 30 patients with unilateral complete CL/P who received primary correction of the lip nose deformity were included in this study. The C flap was used to drop and lengthen the height of upper lip in unaffected side, and the subcutaneous muscular flap was dissected from the C flap and positioned at the alar base in the affected side of upper lip to correct the depression. Then the surgical effect was evaluated based on clinical examination during follow-up. Alar base symmetry was obtained in 26 patients of this case series, and 4 patients showed slight improvement in alar base symmetry. No major complications such as flap necrosis, infection, or hypertrophic scars were observed during surgery and follow-up. No additional incisions and operative time were necessary. The subcutaneous C shape muscular flap described in this article could offer enough muscular support and markedly correct the depression of nostril and alar base in affected side in primary lip nose repair with no additional incisions and operative time for patients with unilateral complete CL/P.

  1. Feasibility, repeatability, and safety of ultrasound-guided stimulation of the first cervical nerve at the alar foramen in horses.

    PubMed

    Mespoulhès-Rivière, Céline; Brandenberger, Olivier; Rossignol, Fabrice; Robert, Céline; Perkins, Justin D; Marie, Jean-Paul; Ducharme, Norm

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To develop and assess the feasibility, repeatability, and safety of an ultrasound-guided technique to stimulate the first cervical nerve (FCN) at the level of the alar foramen of the atlas of horses. ANIMALS 4 equine cadavers and 6 clinically normal Standardbreds. PROCEDURES In each cadaver, the FCN pathway was determined by dissection, and any anastomosis between the first and second cervical nerves was identified. Subsequently, each of 6 live horses underwent a bilateral ultrasound-guided stimulation of the FCN at the alar foramen 3 times at 3-week intervals. After each procedure, horses were examined daily for 5 days. RESULTS In each cadaver, the FCN passed through the alar foramen; a communicating branch between the FCN and the accessory nerve and anastomoses between the ventral branches of the FCN and second cervical nerve were identified. The anastomoses were located in the upper third of the FCN pathway between the wing of the atlas and the nerve's entry in the omohyoideus muscle. Successful ultrasound-guided electrical stimulation was confirmed by twitching of the ipsilateral omohyoideus muscle in all 6 live horses; this finding was observed bilaterally during each of the 3 experimental sessions. No complications developed at the site of stimulation. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that ultrasound-guided stimulation of the FCN at the alar foramen appears to be a safe and straightforward procedure in horses. The procedure may have potential for use in horses with naturally occurring recurrent laryngeal neuropathy to assess reinnervation after FCN transplantation or nerve-muscle pedicle implantation in the cricoarytenoideus dorsalis muscle.

  2. Full-Thickness Entire Nasal Alar Reconstruction Using a Forehead Flap in Asians: No Cartilaginous Infrastructural Lining Is Necessary.

    PubMed

    Funayama, Emi; Yamamoto, Yuhei; Furukawa, Hiroshi; Murao, Naoki; Shichinohe, Ryuji; Yamao, Takeshi; Hayashi, Toshihiko; Oyama, Akihiko

    2017-05-01

    Full-thickness defects of the entire nasal ala, including the rim, can be challenging to reconstruct. A forehead flap may provide a more imperceptible and natural-appearing reconstructed nasal ala. Previously, many authors have insisted adding cartilaginous infrastructural support for an entire, full-thickness defect to keep the postoperative alar structure symmetrical. They finally use a forehead flap after thinning of the distal covering portion subcutaneously, possibly for a Caucasian-type nasal ala. However, Asian skin has a thicker and more compact dermis than that of Caucasian skin, and the Asian ala is rounder and thicker. There may be another approach for an Asian-type nasal ala. The authors propose the possibility of nasal alar reconstruction for an entire, full-thickness defect in Asians using a forehead flap without structural support. Six patients with entire full-thickness nasal alar defects treated with full-thickness forehead flaps above the periosteum without structural support were reviewed. Five patients demonstrated esthetically good to excellent outcomes in color, texture, and symmetry. Their nasal linings were reconstructed using mucoperiosteal flaps or mucosal grafts. One patient treated with a nasal lining using a local flap showed a fair result esthetically. Asians forehead above the periosteum has adequate thickness and supportability to reconstruct the entire full-thickness nasal ala in Asians. No cartilage support is necessary.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging signal changes of alar and transverse ligaments not correlated with whiplash-associated disorders: a meta-analysis of case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Quan; Shen, Hongxing; Li, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Hypothesis that loss of integrity of the membranes in the craniocervical junction might be the cause of neck pain in patients with whiplash-associated disorders (WADs) has been proposed. In recent years, with development of more detailed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, morphologic changes of the ligaments and membranes in the craniocervical junction, especially alar and transverse ligaments have been discussed. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship of MRI signal changes of alar and transverse ligaments and WADs. A systematic search of EMBASE, PUBMED, and Cochrane Library and references from eligible articles were conducted. Comparative studies reporting on evaluating the relationship between MRI high-signal changes of alar and transverse ligaments and WADs were regarded eligible. A pooled estimate of effect size was produced. Alar ligaments: Six studies (total n = 622) were included. MRI signal changes of alar ligaments did not appear to be related with WADs (P = 0.20, OR = 1.54, 95 % CI = 0.80-2.94). Heterogeneity was present (I (2) = 46 %, P = 0.10), which was eliminated upon sensitivity analysis bringing the OR to 1.27 (95 % CI = 0.87-1.86, I (2) = 0 %). Transverse ligaments: Four studies (total n = 489) were included. MRI signal changes of transverse ligament did not appear to be related with WADs (P = 0.51, OR = 1.44, 95 % CI = 0.49-4.21). Heterogeneity was present (I (2) = 77 %, P = 0.005), which was eliminated upon sensitivity analysis bringing the OR to 0.79 (95 % CI = 0.49-1.28, I (2) = 0 %). MRI signal changes of alar and transverse ligaments are not supposed to be caused by whiplash injury, and MRI examination of alar and transverse ligaments should not be used as the routine workup of patients with WADs.

  4. A novel approach to navigated implantation of S-2 alar iliac screws using inertial measurement units.

    PubMed

    Jost, Gregory F; Walti, Jonas; Mariani, Luigi; Cattin, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    The authors report on a novel method of intraoperative navigation with inertial measurement units (IMUs) for implantation of S-2 alar iliac (S2AI) screws in sacropelvic fixation of the human spine and its application in cadaveric specimens. Screw trajectories were planned on a multiplanar reconstruction of the preoperative CT scan. The pedicle finder and screwdriver were equipped with IMUs to guide the axial and sagittal tilt angles of the planned trajectory, and navigation software was developed. The entry points were chosen according to anatomical landmarks on the exposed spine. After referencing, the sagittal and axial orientation of the pedicle finder and screwdriver were wirelessly monitored on a computer screen and aligned with the preoperatively planned tilt angles to implant the S2AI screws. The technique was performed without any intraoperative imaging. Screw positions were analyzed on postoperative CT scans. Seventeen of 18 screws showed a good S2AI screw trajectory. Compared with the postoperatively measured tilt angles of the S2AI screws, the IMU readings on the screwdriver were within an axial plane deviation of 0° to 5° in 15 (83%) and 6° to 10° in 2 (11%) of the screws and within a sagittal plane deviation of 0° to 5° in 15 (83%) and 6° to 10° in 3 (17%) of the screws. IMU-based intraoperative navigation may facilitate accurate placement of S2AI screws.

  5. Fetal development of the transverse atlantis and alar ligaments at the craniovertebral junction.

    PubMed

    Abe, Hiroshi; Ishizawa, Akimitsu; Cho, Kwang Ho; Suzuki, Ryoji; Fujimiya, Mineko; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Jose Francisco; Murakami, Gen

    2012-09-01

    Although the fetal development of the craniovertebral junction has long been of major interest to embryologists from the viewpoint of segmentation, development of the associated ligaments has received scant attention. Using semiserial horizontal sections from 18 embryos and fetuses (six embryos with a crown-rump length (CRL) of 20-26 mm or ~6-7 weeks of gestation; five fetuses with a CRL of 32-58 mm or 8-9 weeks; seven fetuses with a CRL of 90-115 mm or 14-15 weeks) without any abnormalities of cartilage configuration such as atlas assimilation, we studied the ligamentous structures along and around the odontoid process of the axis. The transverse atlantis and alar ligaments originated from a common mesenchymal condensation possibly corresponding to the proatlas segment: the former started to develop slightly earlier than the latter, and the morphologies of both were established at 7 weeks of gestation. Development of the joint cavitation around the odontoid process began in the mid-anterior area at 6 weeks, but was not fully completed even at 15 weeks (115 mm CRL). The presumptive joint cavity expressed vimentin and CD34 and contained abundant CD68-positive macrophages. We always found a mid-anterior joint cavitation facing the basi-occipital, but the embryological meaning remained unclear. The apical ligament appeared most likely to originate from the notochord sheath. The notochord was exposed from the tip of the odontoid process toward the loose epidural tissue and entered the occipital bone, but was difficult to trace to the anterior surface of the basi-occipital. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Are MRI high-signal changes of alar and transverse ligaments in acute whiplash injury related to outcome?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Upper neck ligament high-signal changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been found in patients with whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) but also in non-injured controls. The clinical relevance of such changes is controversial. Their prognostic role has never been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to examine if alar and transverse ligament high-signal changes on MRI immediately following the car accident are related to outcome after 12 months for patients with acute WAD grades 1-2. Methods Within 13 days after a car accident, 114 consecutive acute WAD1-2 patients without prior neck injury or prior neck problems underwent upper neck high-resolution proton-weighted MRI. High-signal changes of the alar and transverse ligaments were graded 0-3. A questionnaire including the impact of event scale for measuring posttraumatic stress response and questions on patients' expectations of recovery provided clinical data at injury. At 12 months follow-up, 111 (97.4%) patients completed the Neck Disability Index (NDI) and an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS-11) on last week neck pain intensity. Factors potentially related to these outcomes were assessed using multiple logistic regression analyses. Results Among the 111 responders (median age 29.8 years; 63 women), 38 (34.2%) had grades 2-3 alar ligament changes and 25 (22.5%) had grades 2-3 transverse ligament changes at injury. At 12 months follow-up, 49 (44.1%) reported disability (NDI > 8) and 23 (20.7%) neck pain (NRS-11 > 4). Grades 2-3 ligament changes in the acute phase were not related to disability or neck pain at 12 months. More severe posttraumatic stress response increased the odds for disability (odds ratio 1.46 per 10 points on the impact of event scale, p = 0.007) and so did low expectations of recovery (odds ratio 4.66, p = 0.005). Conclusions High-signal changes of the alar and transverse ligaments close after injury did not affect outcome for acute WAD1-2 patients without previous

  7. [Expert reconstruction of the true circumstances of the shooting of the Emperor Nikolai II, members of his family, and those who accompanied them into exile at Ekaterinburg].

    PubMed

    Kovalev, A V; Kolkutin, V V

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of the materials of the criminal case, historical, archive, and forensic medical documents permitted for the first time to reconstruct the circumstances of the shooting of Emperor Nikolai II, members of the royal family, and those who chose to accompany them into exile in the house of the engineer N.N. Ipatiev, Ekaterinburg, on the night of 16-17th July (Grigorian calendar) 1918. The results of the study allowed the true picture of the assassination to be reconstructed including the mutual positions of the victims and the executors in the semi-basement room No 2, the total number of participants, the number and direction of shots, the types of the weapons used, and the sequence of actions of each person involved in the event. It was shown, that in the beginning most shots had been fired at the emperor and tsarevich Alexei.

  8. Keystone Perforator Island Flap as an Alternative Reconstructive Option for Partial Thickness Alar Defects Up to 1.5 Centimeters.

    PubMed

    Kostopoulos, Epameinondas; Agiannidis, Christos; Konofaos, Petros; Kotsakis, Ioannis; Champsas, Grigorios; Frangoulis, Marios; Papadopoulos, Othon; Casoli, Vincent

    2016-07-01

    The ala is a unique landmark of the nose disposing aesthetic and functional properties. The head and neck area is the main site of appearance of nonmelanoma skin cancer. One third of them are located in the nose with an alar preponderance compared with other nasal subunits. Correction of alar defects is a challenging reconstructive task. The keystone perforator island flap (KPIF) was introduced as an alternative in nasal reconstruction by senior authors. In the present case series, KPIFs' application is introduced into the alar subunit as an alternative, versatile, and reproducible reconstructive option, even for the novice plastic surgeon. From April 2014 to September 2015, patients presenting with partial thickness alar defects (≤1.5 cm) secondary to tumor extirpation sustained reconstruction with different types of KPIF. A total of 31 patients (mean age of 72 years) were treated with various types of KPIF. The mean diameter of the defect was 1.14 cm. The vast majority of reconstructions concerned a type IV KPIF (18/31 or 58.1%). Sometimes an upward alar retraction was noted. A minimal rim wedge excision was performed (≤0.3 mm) using counterbalancing correcting sutures. All flaps survived without any sign of venous congestion, whereas the rim healed uneventfully. The mean follow-up period was 6.5 months. KPIF was introduced as a single-stage alternative reconstructive option for partial thickness alar defects, completing author's experience with this flap into such a challenging and aesthetically critical anatomic area.

  9. The sudden death of Alaric I (c. 370-410AD), the vanquisher of Rome: A tale of malaria and lacking immunity.

    PubMed

    Galassi, Francesco M; Bianucci, Raffaella; Gorini, Giacomo; Paganotti, Giacomo M; Habicht, Michael E; Rühli, Frank J

    2016-06-01

    Alaric I (c. 370-410AD), King of the Visigoths, sacked Rome for the second time in over eight centuries of history. Historians suggest that malaria, probably contracted either in Rome or in the Pontine Marshes, was responsible for his sudden death in Cosenza (Calabria) in the autumn of 410AD, where he was allegedly buried in the River Busento. In this article, we aim to examine this hypothesis through a full pathographic reassessment of the most likely cause of Alaric's demise. To achieve this, we resorted to a dual philological-medical approach: clinical likelihood and malaria seasonality coupled with primary historical sources (mainly Jordanes' work De origine actibusque Getarum) and the reconstruction of the itineraries followed by Alaric and his army after the sack of Rome. Sudden death is caused by several factors. The possibility that Alaric died of a cardiovascular disease was discarded since no description of potentially pathological signs emerged from the available sources. Given his lack of semi-immunity, falciparum malaria was considered as the most likely cause of his demise. It took him over two months to reach the coasts of Calabria during the peak of malaria's transmission (summer-autumn). During the march, Alaric did not suffer from recurrent fevers or other ailments, which would have been reported by historians. The scenario emerging from this multidisciplinary reanalysis allows us to hypothesise that Plasmodium falciparum malaria, contracted during his journey through Calabria, was the most likely candidate responsible for Alaric's unexpected demise. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Short Segment Stabilization by Protecting the Alar Ligaments in a Case of Eosinophilic Granuloma Involving the C2 Spine.

    PubMed

    Ilik, Mustafa Kemal; Tumturk, Abdülfettah; Ulutabanca, Halil; Kücük, Ahmet; Koc, Rahmi Kemal

    2016-07-01

    The craniocervical junction is a complex anatomic location that contains the occipital bone, atlas, axis, and important complex ligamentous structures. The stability of this region is ensured only with the help of ligaments. A 6-year-old boy was admitted to our clinic for neck pain. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a lytic bone lesion involving the C2 vertebral body and pedicle without odontoid tip. The tumor was resected using an anterior retropharyngeal approach and a wide marginal resection method. The odontoid tip and alar ligaments were protected, and the costal autografts were located between the C1-odontoid tip and the C3 body. The costal graft was stabilized in the C3 body with a miniplate. Then, C1-C3 posterior fixation with fusion was performed. The craniocervical junction was not considered unstable because the occipital bone was not involved in the fusion. Histologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of eosinophilic granuloma. Fusion was detected on a 1-year postoperative cervical computed tomography scan. The occiput should not be involved in the fusion area when the alar ligaments are preserved during surgery for a C2 lesion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Morphology of the transverse ligament of the atlas and the alar ligaments in the silver fox (Vulpes vulpes var)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent new anatomical and histological features of craniocervical junction in dogs and cats were described providing evidence of differences between the carnivore species. No information on these structures in foxes exists. Results Two parts of the alar ligaments were found. A longer one aroused from dens of axis to the internal (medial) surface of the occipital condyles and was called apical part. A shorter part originated from the entire length of the lateral edge of the dens of axis and terminated on the internal wall of the vertebral foramen of atlas and thus was called the lateral part. The transverse ligament of the atlas was widened in the mid region, above the dens of axis, and thickened at enthesis. Periosteal fibrocartilage was detected in the transverse ligament of the atlas at the enthesis, and sesamoid fibrocartilage was present on periphery in the middle of the ligament. Conclusions The craniocervical junction in foxes differs in part from other carnivores such as dogs and cats but resembles that of mesaticephalic dogs. The sesamoid and periosteal fibrocartilage supports the transverse ligament of the atlas whereas the alar ligaments have no cartilage. PMID:23557095

  12. A Refined Technique for Management of Nasal Flaring: The Quest for the Holy Grail of Alar Base Modification.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Kapil S; Pabari, Mansi; Shrotriya, Raghav

    2016-11-01

    "A smile is happiness you'll find right under your nose"- Tom Wilson. This quote holds true just for patients, not for surgeons. The correction of the nose always poses a challenge to the cosmetic surgeon. Deformities of the external and internal nose may be congenital or acquired and may be secondary to soft tissue and/or osseo-cartilaginous abnormalities, leading to aesthetic and/or functional consequences. Alar flare poses a common problem, sometimes alone and sometimes in conjunction with other external deformities. Alar base reduction is generally considered when the interalar distance exceeds the intercanthal distance. It has been well documented that this simple additional procedure brings about a substantial enhancement in the nose. Various techniques have been described and used in the past, each having their benefits and drawbacks, with the modified Weir wedge excision, Aufricht nasal sill excision, and Bernstein V-Y advancement being the common ones. We hereby describe a technique that is simple yet effective in achieving the desired results and at the same time aims at preventing relapse to obtain satisfactory long term results.

  13. Wnt signal specifies the intrathalamic limit and its organizer properties by regulating Shh induction in the alar plate.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Ferre, Almudena; Navarro-Garberi, Maria; Bueno, Carlos; Martinez, Salvador

    2013-02-27

    The structural complexity of the brain depends on precise molecular and cellular regulatory mechanisms orchestrated by regional morphogenetic organizers. The thalamic organizer is the zona limitans intrathalamica (ZLI), a transverse linear neuroepithelial domain in the alar plate of the diencephalon. Because of its production of Sonic hedgehog, ZLI acts as a morphogenetic signaling center. Shh is expressed early on in the prosencephalic basal plate and is then gradually activated dorsally within the ZLI. The anteroposterior positioning and the mechanism inducing Shh expression in ZLI cells are still partly unknown, being a subject of controversial interpretations. For instance, separate experimental results have suggested that juxtaposition of prechordal (rostral) and epichordal (caudal) neuroepithelium, anteroposterior encroachment of alar lunatic fringe (L-fng) expression, and/or basal Shh signaling is required for ZLI specification. Here we investigated a key role of Wnt signaling in the molecular regulation of ZLI positioning and Shh expression, using experimental embryology in ovo in the chick. Early Wnt expression in the ZLI regulates Gli3 and L-fng to generate a permissive territory in which Shh is progressively induced by planar signals of the basal plate.

  14. Morphology of the transverse ligament of the atlas and the alar ligaments in the silver fox (Vulpes vulpes var).

    PubMed

    Kupczynska, Marta; Barszcz, Karolina; Janczyk, Pawel; Wasowicz, Michal; Czubaj, Norbert

    2013-04-04

    Recent new anatomical and histological features of craniocervical junction in dogs and cats were described providing evidence of differences between the carnivore species. No information on these structures in foxes exists. Two parts of the alar ligaments were found. A longer one aroused from dens of axis to the internal (medial) surface of the occipital condyles and was called apical part. A shorter part originated from the entire length of the lateral edge of the dens of axis and terminated on the internal wall of the vertebral foramen of atlas and thus was called the lateral part. The transverse ligament of the atlas was widened in the mid region, above the dens of axis, and thickened at enthesis. Periosteal fibrocartilage was detected in the transverse ligament of the atlas at the enthesis, and sesamoid fibrocartilage was present on periphery in the middle of the ligament. The craniocervical junction in foxes differs in part from other carnivores such as dogs and cats but resembles that of mesaticephalic dogs. The sesamoid and periosteal fibrocartilage supports the transverse ligament of the atlas whereas the alar ligaments have no cartilage.

  15. A Refined Technique for Management of Nasal Flaring: The Quest for the Holy Grail of Alar Base Modification

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Kapil S; Pabari, Mansi

    2016-01-01

    “A smile is happiness you'll find right under your nose”– Tom Wilson. This quote holds true just for patients, not for surgeons. The correction of the nose always poses a challenge to the cosmetic surgeon. Deformities of the external and internal nose may be congenital or acquired and may be secondary to soft tissue and/or osseo-cartilaginous abnormalities, leading to aesthetic and/or functional consequences. Alar flare poses a common problem, sometimes alone and sometimes in conjunction with other external deformities. Alar base reduction is generally considered when the interalar distance exceeds the intercanthal distance. It has been well documented that this simple additional procedure brings about a substantial enhancement in the nose. Various techniques have been described and used in the past, each having their benefits and drawbacks, with the modified Weir wedge excision, Aufricht nasal sill excision, and Bernstein V-Y advancement being the common ones. We hereby describe a technique that is simple yet effective in achieving the desired results and at the same time aims at preventing relapse to obtain satisfactory long term results. PMID:27896197

  16. Effects of two alar base suture techniques suture techniques on nasolabial changes after bimaxillary orthognathic surgery in Taiwanese patients with class III malocclusions.

    PubMed

    Chen, C Y-H; Lin, C C-H; Ko, E W-C

    2015-07-01

    A randomized controlled trial was designed to assess the effectiveness of two alar base cinch techniques on the changes in nasolabial morphology after bimaxillary orthognathic surgery. Sixty patients requiring a Le Fort I osteotomy to correct skeletal discrepancies were selected randomly to receive either conventional or modified alar base cinching during the intraoral wound closure procedure. Conventional cinching passed through nasalis muscle and anterior nasal spine. Modified cinching also passed through dermis tissue to increase the anchorage. Postoperative hard and soft tissue changes were evaluated using cone beam computed tomography and three-dimensional stereophotogrammetry at predefined time points. Forty-eight patients with a skeletal class III malocclusion were included. In the conventional group, there was an increase of 0.31 ± 1.31 mm in nasal width and an increase of 0.97 ± 1.60mm in columellar length. In the modified group, there was an increase of 0.81 ± 1.87 mm in the cutaneous height of the upper lip and a decrease of 0.76 ± 1.56 mm in lower prolabial width. Patients with an initial narrow nasal width, alar base width, and less vertical nostril show were more susceptible to a greater degree of change after surgery. Both alar base suture techniques are effective at controlling nasolabial form changes resulting from class III dual-jaw orthognathic surgery. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Long-term stability of limiting nasal alar base width changes with a cinch suture following Le Fort I osteotomy with submental intubation.

    PubMed

    Raithatha, R; Naini, F B; Patel, S; Sherriff, M; Witherow, H

    2017-06-29

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the nasal alar base cinch suture following Le Fort I osteotomy at long-term follow-up. One hundred and forty participants (89 female, 51 male) aged between 16 and 51 years underwent Le Fort I osteotomy with submental intubation. Anthropometric measurements of the nose were taken intraoperatively, immediately postoperative, and for up to 3 years postoperative: the maximum lateral convexity of the alae (Al-Al) and the lateral extremity of the alar base curvature at the alar groove (Ac-Ac). The use of a cinch suture was recorded. The results were analysed using a linear mixed-effects model analysis. One hundred and six participants had cinch sutures and 34 had no cinch sutures. Following Le Fort I osteotomy, there were significant increases in Ac-Ac (by 4.29mm) and Al-Al (by 3.70mm) (both P<0.0001). Cinch sutures significantly reduced the widths back to preoperative values (P<0.0001). Alar width remained stable over 3 years, with an increase of 0.36mm for Al-Al (P>0.05) and 1.03mm for Ac-Ac (P<0.05) compared to the postoperative measurement. In conclusion, a cinch suture was helpful in reducing the unwanted alar base width changes, which were found to be relatively stable at 3 years. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Signal changes of the alar ligament in a healthy population: a dispositional or degenerative consequence?

    PubMed

    Wenz, Holger; Kerl, Hans Ulrich; Maros, Mate Elod; Wenz, Ralf; Kalvin, Kira; Groden, Christoph; Nölte, Ingo

    2015-07-17

    OBJECT The alar ligaments (ALs) are vital for stabilizing the craniocervical junction. In terms of morphology, their appearance varies and is visible on MRI. Dark signal of the AL on proton-density (PD)-weighted images is generally considered the norm, but the etiology of frequently observed signal hyperintensities is poorly understood. Using spectral fat suppression, signal hyperintensities can be differentiated into fat- and nonfat-related hyperintensities (NFH). Although signal hyperintensities have no evident association with whiplash-associated disorder, age-related degeneration has often been theorized. Therefore, this study investigates the signal intensities of the ALs on 3.0-T MRI with special reference to age. Expanding thereon, the authors investigated the relationship between signal hyperintensities and patient characteristics, such as height, weight, and sex. METHODS Sixty-six healthy volunteers were scanned using 3.0-T PD-weighted MRI, including spectral fat suppression of the craniocervical junction. The study population was separated into 2 groups (old vs young) using 2 approaches: dichotomization at the median age (40.0 years) and the calculated threshold (28.5 years) using receiver operating characteristics (ROC). The AL was independently characterized with respect to continuity, course, shape, signal intensity, and graduation of homogeneity by 2 experienced neuroradiologists. Signal intensity was differentiated into fat-related hyperintensity and NFH. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were employed to investigate the relationship between patient characteristics and signal intensities. RESULTS Two different AL patterns were observed: inhomogeneous (33.3%) and homogeneous (66.7%). The latter pattern was mostly surrounded by a small dark rim (56.8%). Fat could be identified in 15.9% of all ALs (21 of 132 patients), and NFH was identified in 17.4% of all ALs (23 of 132 patients). Here, 28.5 years was the preferred threshold

  19. Three-dimensional image-guided placement of S2 alar screws to adjunct or salvage lumbosacral fixation.

    PubMed

    Nottmeier, Eric W; Pirris, Stephen M; Balseiro, Sarah; Fenton, Douglas

    2010-07-01

    Achieving fusion across the lumbosacral junction is challenging because of the unfavorable biomechanics associated with ending a fusion at this level. Bicortical placement of S1 pedicle screws can increase the construct stability at the lumbosacral junction; however, construct failure and pseudoarthrosis can still result. Iliac screws have been shown to increase the stiffness of lumbosacral constructs, but disadvantages include difficulty in connecting the iliac screw to adjacent sacral screws, painful screw loosening or prominence requiring removal, and the inability to place the screws in some patients with previous iliac crest autograft harvest. The purpose of the study is to describe a technique of S2 alar screw placement using three-dimensional image guidance. The study design is a retrospective analysis. Twenty patients undergoing lumbosacral fusion had 32 screws placed using this technique. An independent radiologist graded screw placement and lumbosacral fusion on thin-cut postoperative computed tomographic (CT) scans. Image guidance in this study was accomplished with the Medtronic Stealth Station Treon (Medtronic Inc., Littleton, MA, USA) used in conjunction with the O-ARM (Medtronic Inc.). Indications for placement of S2 alar screws included the following: to adjunct S1 pedicle screws in multilevel fusion cases; as an adjunct or alternative to S1 pedicle screws in pseudoarthrosis revision cases in which the S1 screws had loosened; as an alternative to S1 pedicle screws in cases where medial trajectory of an S1 pedicle screw was difficult to obtain because of a low-set lumbosacral junction; and a combination of the above. The entry point of the screw was typically chosen lateral and superior to the S2 dorsal foramen with the trajectory directed anterior, inferior, and lateral. Attempt was made to place the screw with the tip purchasing, but not penetrating through, the triangular area of cortical bone that can be found at the anterior, inferior, and

  20. Haplopacha (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) reviewed: four new species, first descriptions of the genitalia of both sexes, and unique alar scale organs.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Steen; Simonsen, Thomas J; Zilli, Alberto

    2016-05-10

    The collection of five specimens of Haplopacha at Ndumo Nature Reserve in South Africa highlights unknown species diversity in the monotypic genus. A total of four new species; H. riftensis sp. nov., H. tangani sp. nov., H. lunata sp. nov. and H. ndoumoi sp. nov., were identified in the Natural History Museum of London collection and the study of fresh specimens also revealed the presence of uniquely characteristic alar scale patches absent from the original species description of the genus type species H. cinerea. Based on the new species the descriptions of Haplopacha is amended. The identification of the new species was done using conventional light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy of the general morphology, wing venation and genitalia observations.

  1. Two-photon excitation of the 2Π(4p)-X2Π(3p) transition of AlAr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascaritolo, Kyle J.; Antonov, Ivan O.; Heaven, Michael C.

    2014-03-01

    The 2Π(4p)-X2Π(3p) band system of AlAr has been observed using two-photon excitation. The spectrum consists of a short progression of doublet bands, with spin-orbit intervals that are close to that of Al(4p). Potential energy curve fitting yielded a bond dissociation energy for 2Π(4p) of De = 495(5) cm-1 and an approximate bond length of Re = 3.33(4) Å.

  2. Ablative fractionated erbium:YAG laser for the treatment of ice pick alar scars due to neodymium:YAG laser burns.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joel L; Babcock, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    The authors present a case of ice pick scars forming in the nasal alar grooves of a patient who was treated with a 1064-nm neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser for facial telangiectasias. Treatment options for these types of scars are reviewed and specifically we report the success of an ablative fractionated 2940-nm erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser.

  3. Anatomical variations of the anterior atlanto-dental joint and relations to the apical and alar ligaments in a geriatric population.

    PubMed

    Rustagi, Tarush; Iwanaga, Joe; Sardi, Juan P; Alonso, Fernando; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2017-08-17

    Degenerative changes in the upper cervical spine may be age related degeneration or a pathological process such as rheumatoid arthritis. However, to our knowledge, the relationship between the apical and alar ligaments and these anomalies has not been discussed. We present anatomical variations of the anterior atlanto-dental joint observed during cadaveric dissection of adult craniovertebral junctions, the relationship with the alar and apical ligaments and discuss possible origins and clinical implications. The upper cervical spine including part of the occiput was dissected from cadavers whose mean age at death was 78.9 years-old. The anterior atlanto-dental joint and apical and alar ligaments were observed and any atypical findings were noted. In eleven specimens, seven had a dens corona, three had an os odontoideum and one had a dens aureola, which arose from the upper part of the anterior arch of the atlas. Only four specimens had an apical ligament. The possible etiologies and the clinical applications of these craniovertebral anomalies in a geriatric population should be appreciated by the clinician treating patients with disease in this area or interpreting imaging in the region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The influence of a Le Fort I impaction and advancement osteotomy on smile using a modified alar cinch suture and V-Y closure: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Muradin, M S M; Rosenberg, A J W P; van der Bilt, A; Stoelinga, P J W; Koole, R

    2012-05-01

    A previous report from the authors' department showed that a modified alar cinch suture combined with a muco-musculo-periosteal V-Y closure (mACVY) improves nasolabial mobility. To test if the improvements were equal to the range of nasolabial mobility in non-dysgnathic persons, a prospective study was carried out in 56 patients: 31 with mACVY, 25 with simple closing sutures (SCS) and 18 non-operated, angle class I volunteers. Standardized full facial frontal photographs, taken immediately preoperatively and 18 months postoperatively were used. The landmarks, alare, crista philtri and cheilion were analysed. The test has a standard deviation of 0.9 mm. Intra-group changes, paired t-test, and inter-group differences, unpaired t-test (p<0.05) were statistically analysed. The results show significant preoperative differences in nasolabial mobility compared with the control group, for both groups. Postoperative mobility improved in both groups, but significantly with mACVY with horizontal movement of cheilion and alare, and the vertical movement of crista philtri and less so for the vertical movement of crista philtri with SCS. Postoperative inter-group differences in mobility were small and significant for SCS vs the control group. It can be concluded that using mACVY improves orofacial movement to the level of normal class I volunteers. Copyright © 2011 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Measurement and evaluation of the alar base in unilateral secondary lip nasal deformities by three-dimensional computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yilai; Yang, Yusheng; Chen, Yang; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Guomin

    2013-11-01

    Objective : This study aimed to analyze the asymmetry of the pyriform aperture and alar base in patients with unilateral secondary nasal deformities by three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT). Methods : 3D-CT images of the subject group of 101 adult patients and of a control group of 65 normal adults were examined. Sixty-nine patients without alveolar bone grafting (ABG) were classified as Group A, and 32 patients with ABG were classified as Group B. Seven landmarks (INM, LPA, IPA, Gbase, Gsup, Glat, and Sbal) were measured for both the subject and control groups, and comparative analyses were done to assess the degree of asymmetry in the subject group. Results : For over 95% of Group A and 80% to 85% of Group B, the index of LPA and IPA showed asymmetry or marked asymmetry. The index of Gbase, Glat, Gsup, and Sbal showed symmetry for around 50% of Group A and about 60% of Group B. In Group A, dorsal, lateral, and caudal translocation was found on the cleft side in LPA and IPA, while all soft landmarks showed dorsal translocation. In Group B, caudal translocation was found in both LPA and IPA, but only LPA appeared dorsal on the cleft side, while Glat showed dorsal and caudal translocation. Conclusion : The results indicated that the degree of asymmetry of hard tissue landmarks far exceeded that of the soft tissue landmarks, and the degree of asymmetry of pyriform aperture was higher than expected for patients after ABG.

  6. Higher spin interactions in four-dimensions: Vasiliev versus Fronsdal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulanger, Nicolas; Kessel, Pan; Skvortsov, Evgeny; Taronna, Massimo

    2016-03-01

    We consider four-dimensional higher-spin (HS) theory at the first nontrivial order corresponding to the cubic action. All HS interaction vertices are explicitly obtained from Vasiliev’s equations. In particular, we obtain the vertices that are not determined solely by the HS algebra structure constants. The dictionary between the Fronsdal fields and HS connections is found and the corrections to the Fronsdal equations are derived. These corrections turn out to involve derivatives of arbitrary order. We observe that the vertices not determined by the HS algebra produce naked infinities, when decomposed into the minimal derivative vertices and improvements. Therefore, standard methods can only be used to check a rather limited number of correlation functions within the HS AdS/CFT duality. A possible resolution of the puzzle is discussed.

  7. On big crunch solutions in Prokushkin-Vasiliev theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iazeolla, Carlo; Raeymaekers, Joris

    2016-01-01

    We construct simple solutions of three-dimensional higher spin gravity interacting with matter in which only the scalar and spin-two fields are excited. They preserve Lorentz symmetry and are similar to the four-dimensional solutions constructed by Sezgin and Sundell, with the difference that the additional twisted sectors of the three-dimensional theory are excited. Furthermore, the three-dimensional system contains an extra parameter λ which allows us to vary the mass of the scalar. Among other reasons, the resulting solutions are interesting for the holographic study of cosmological singularities: they describe the growth of a Coleman-De Luccia bubble in anti-de Sitter space, ending in a big crunch singularity. We initiate the holographic study of these solutions, finding evidence for their interpretation within a multi-trace deformation which renders the dual field theory unstable. The limit λ → 0 is particularly interesting as it captures effects of a running coupling in a large- N interacting fermion model. We also propose a generalization of our solutions, consisting of a dressing with Lorentz-invariant projectors. This additional sector remains non-trivial when the scalar field is turned off.

  8. Hochschild cohomology of the Weyl algebra and Vasiliev's equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharapov, Alexey A.; Skvortsov, Evgeny D.

    2017-09-01

    We propose a simple injective resolution for the Hochschild complex of the Weyl algebra. By making use of this resolution, we derive explicit expressions for nontrivial cocycles of the Weyl algebra with coefficients in twisted bimodules as well as for the smash products of the Weyl algebra and a finite group of linear symplectic transformations. A relationship with the higher-spin field theory is briefly discussed.

  9. Utilization of a Technique of Percutaneous S2 Alar-Iliac Fixation in Immunocompromised Patients with Spondylodiscitis.

    PubMed

    Funao, Haruki; Kebaish, Khaled M; Isogai, Norihiro; Koyanagi, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Morio; Ishii, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Spondylodiscitis still remains a serious problem, especially in immunocompromised patients. Surgery is necessary when nonsurgical treatment is unsuccessful. Although minimally invasive spine stabilization (MISt) with percutaneous pedicle screws is less invasive, percutaneous sacropelvic fixation techniques are not common practice. Here, we describe 2 cases in which spondylodiscitis in the lumbosacral spine was treated with percutaneous stabilization using an S2 alar-iliac (S2AI) screw technique. Case 1 is a 77-year-old man who presented with low back pain and high fever. He was diagnosed with spondylodiscitis at L4-5. He had a history of lung cancer, which was complicated by the recurrence. Because nonsurgical treatment failed, MISt with percutaneous S2AI screws was performed. The patient's low back pain subsided markedly 1 week after surgery, and there was no screw/rod breakage or recurrence of infection during the follow-up period. Case 2 is a 71-year-old man who presented with hemiparesis because of a stroke. He also developed high fever and was diagnosed with spondylodiscitis at L5-S1. Because nonsurgical treatment failed, the patient was treated by MISt with percutaneous S2AI screws while being maintained on anticoagulants for stroke. Although his clinical symptoms had markedly improved, a postoperative lumbar computed tomography scan demonstrated a bone defect at L5-S1. An anterior spinal fusion with an iliac bone graft at L5-S1 was performed when a temporary cessation of anticoagulants was permitted. Both patients tolerated the procedures well and had no major perioperative complications. MISt with percutaneous S2AI screws was less invasive and efficacious for lumbosacral spondylodiscitis in providing rigid percutaneous sacropelvic fixation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. AlAr3(THF): highly efficient reagents for cross-couplings with aryl bromides and chlorides catalyzed by the economic palladium complex of PCy3.

    PubMed

    Ku, Shih-Lun; Hui, Xin-Ping; Chen, Chien-An; Kuo, Yi-Ying; Gau, Han-Mou

    2007-10-07

    Novel and highly efficient cross couplings of aryl bromides and chlorides with AlAr3(THF) (Ar = Ph, 2,4,6-Me3C6H2, 2-naphthyl or 4-Me3SiC6H4) catalyzed by the economic palladium catalyst of PCy3 are reported without the use of a base and under mild reaction conditions at room temperature or temperatures < or = 60 degrees C even for couplings of bulky aryl halides and the Al(2,4,6-Me3C6H2)3(THF) reagent.

  11. Modified alar base cinch suture fixation at the bilateral lower border of the piriform rim after a maxillary Le Fort I osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Yen, C Y; Kuo, C L; Liu, I H; Su, W C; Jiang, H R; Huang, I G; Liu, S Y; Lee, S Y

    2016-11-01

    Classic cinch suture narrowing of the nasal alar base by medially suturing the bilateral nasolabial soft tissue with one long suture has a limited effect. The modified cinch method described in the present study anchors non-absorbable sutures to the bilateral lower border of the piriform rim and provides optimal direction, position, and stability. The sutures can be shortened and the strength kept stable while the surgical wounds heal. Separate bilateral sutures can also reduce interference and distortion from nasotracheal intubation and make the nasolabial profile more symmetrical. Seventeen consecutive cases of maxillary Le Fort I osteotomy were analyzed. The nasal and alar base width changes were 0.4±1.2mm and 0.1±1.1mm, respectively, and the widening rate was only 1.1%. Compared with the results of other studies, postoperative nasal flaring was well controlled using the modified cinch suture anchored to the bilateral lower border of the piriform rim described in this study. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nostril and alar reshaping.

    PubMed

    Planas, J; Planas, J

    1993-01-01

    The authors recommend, when necessary, the use of external excisions for correcting variations in the shape of the nostrils and alae in the cleft lip-nose deformity, in primary rhinoplasties, and in secondary rhinoplasties. Their experience in the use of external incisions was originally stimulated by Millard's paper of 1960 which recommended different types of remodeling external excisions in his analysis of how to handle variations in the shape of the nostrils and alae.

  13. Spectroscopy of the AlAr van der Waals complex: Rotationally resolved B 2Σ+←X 2Π1/2 electronic transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuaid, Michael J.; Gole, James L.; Heaven, Michael C.

    1990-03-01

    Rotationally resolved spectra were recorded for six bands of the AlAr B 2Σ+←X 2Π1/2 transition. Vibrational and rotational constants derived from these spectra were used to determine the upper and lower state potential energy curves. The accuracy of these potentials was assessed through calculations of the spectroscopic constants and Franck-Condon factors. Dissociation energies of D'e=440+35-8 cm-1 and D'e=180+40-10 cm-1 were obtained for the B and X states, respectively. The interaction between X 2Π1/2 and the low-lying A 2Σ+ state has been characterized by analysis of the ground-state lambda doublet splitting.

  14. Calcification of the Alar Ligament Mimics Fracture of the Craniovertebral Junction (CVJ): An Incidental Finding from Computerised Tomography of the Cervical Spine Following Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Che Mohamed, Siti Kamariah; Abd. Aziz, Azian

    2009-01-01

    When performing a radiological assessment for a trauma case with associated head injury, a fragment of dense tissue detected near the craniovertebral junction would rapidly be assessed as a fractured bone fragment. However, if further imaging and evaluation of the cervical spine with computerised tomography (CT) did not demonstrate an obvious fracture, then the possibility of ligament calcification would be considered. We present a case involving a previously healthy 44-yearold man who was admitted following a severe head injury from a road traffic accident. CT scans of the head showed multiple intracranial haemorrhages, while scans of the cervical spine revealed a small, well-defined, ovoid calcification in the right alar ligament. This was initially thought to be a fracture fragment. Although such calcification is uncommon, accident and emergency physicians and radiologists may find this useful as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with neck pain or traumatic head injury. PMID:22135515

  15. Calcification of the Alar Ligament Mimics Fracture of the Craniovertebral Junction (CVJ): An Incidental Finding from Computerised Tomography of the Cervical Spine Following Trauma.

    PubMed

    Che Mohamed, Siti Kamariah; Abd Aziz, Azian

    2009-10-01

    When performing a radiological assessment for a trauma case with associated head injury, a fragment of dense tissue detected near the craniovertebral junction would rapidly be assessed as a fractured bone fragment. However, if further imaging and evaluation of the cervical spine with computerised tomography (CT) did not demonstrate an obvious fracture, then the possibility of ligament calcification would be considered. We present a case involving a previously healthy 44-yearold man who was admitted following a severe head injury from a road traffic accident. CT scans of the head showed multiple intracranial haemorrhages, while scans of the cervical spine revealed a small, well-defined, ovoid calcification in the right alar ligament. This was initially thought to be a fracture fragment. Although such calcification is uncommon, accident and emergency physicians and radiologists may find this useful as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with neck pain or traumatic head injury.

  16. Single-stage reconstruction of a full-thickness alar defect using a folded nasolabial flap combined with a redundant skin turnover flap.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Akira; Akimoto, Minekatsu; Park, Keiichi; Kounoike, Natsuko; Shimakura, Yasuhito; Nemoto, Mitsuru; Uchinuma, Eiju

    2014-11-01

    The reconstructive strategy for full-thickness nasal skin defects should include recreation of a cutaneous cover, support, and internal nasal lining. The most challenging aspect of this procedure is provision of the nasal lining. These reconstructions typically require a 2-step process. Satisfactory nasal skin reconstruction in a single operation is ideal. We used a folded nasolabial flap combined with a turnover flap for reconstruction of full-thickness alar defects. The donor material of the lining flap was a combination of the distal portion of the nasolabial flap and redundant skin resected during its transposition. The redundant skin flap was turned upside down, with the skin surface inside the nasal cavity. The remaining portion of the defect was covered with a folded nasolabial flap. This procedure was successful in all 5 patients. All flaps survived completely without evidence of necrosis or narrowing of airways. Aesthetic concerns, including effacement of the nasofacial sulcus, were minor. This method has the advantage of providing well-vascularized tissue of appropriate color, texture, and thickness for external coverage, as well as a satisfactory internal lining in a single-stage procedure.

  17. Free Hand Insertion Technique of S2 Sacral Alar-Iliac Screws for Spino-Pelvic Fixation: Technical Note, Acadaveric Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Hwa; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Jahng, Tae-Ahn

    2015-01-01

    A rigid spino-pelvic fixation to anchor long constructs is crucial to maintain the stability of long fusion in spinal deformity surgery. Besides obtaining immediate stability and proper biomechanical strength of constructs, the S2 alar-iliac (S2AI) screws have some more advantages. Four Korean fresh-frozen human cadavers were procured. Free hand S2AI screw placement is performed using anatomic landmarks. The starting point of the S2AI screw is located at the midpoint between the S1 and S2 foramen and 2 mm medial to the lateral sacral crest. Gearshift was advanced from the desired starting point toward the sacro-iliac joint directing approximately 20° angulation caudally in sagittal plane and 30° angulation horizontally in the coronal plane connecting the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS). We made a S2AI screw trajectory through the cancellous channel using the gearshift. We measured caudal angle in the sagittal plane and horizontal angle in the coronal plane. A total of eight S2AI screws were inserted in four cadavers. All screws inserted into the iliac crest were evaluated by C-arm and naked eye examination by two spine surgeons. Among 8 S2AI screws, all screws were accurately placed (100%). The average caudal angle in the sagittal plane was 17.3±5.4°. The average horizontal angle in the coronal plane connecting the PSIS was 32.0±1.8°. The placement of S2AI screws using the free hand technique without any radiographic guidance appears to an acceptable method of insertion without more radiation or time consuming. PMID:26819698

  18. [Reconstruction of superficial defects from the crossroad of nasal subunits, tip, alar lobule and lateral side wall: Study of 36 patients].

    PubMed

    Grandpierre, X; Sartre, J Y; Duteille, F

    2016-08-01

    Conventionally, articles dealing with nasal defects plan reconstructions regarding the aesthetic subunits, imposing their systematic respect. We propose to study the reconstruction of a crossroad region of three subunits, tip, alar lobule and lateral sidewall, where that full compliance is not possible, in our experience of 36 patients. Our retrospective study from January 2011 to December 2012 focused on patients with a defect in this crossroad region that was repaired by skin graft or flap. We described the population of the study, histological type of the lesions, surgical procedures and complications. We evaluated the reconstructions performed with a photographic review 1 year post-surgery according to the criteria of symmetry, discoloration, thickness, shrinkage, and rating on the Vancouver Scar Scale, which helped create an overall aesthetic score for the reconstruction. Of 144 patients with a nasal defect, 36 of them (25%) were included, presenting a defect in our study area. The reconstruction was made by eight hatchet flaps, eight frontal flaps, seven bilobed flaps, five advanced-rotated lateronasal flaps, four nasolabial flaps, two Rybka flaps and two total skin grafts. The advanced-rotated flap, hatchet flap and bilobed flap had the highest results and scores, according to the criteria assessed. Rybka flap and total skin grafts had the lowest results. The occurrence of a defect in the crossroads seems common. In this indication, specific local flaps had a favourable outcome, including review of the overall esthetic score which was created to standardize the assessment of reconstructions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Combined S-1 and S-2 sacral alar-iliac screws as a salvage technique for pelvic fixation after pseudarthrosis and lumbosacropelvic instability: combined S-1 and S-2 sacral alar-iliac screws as a salvage technique for pelvic fixation after pseudarthrosis and lumbosacropelvic instability: technical note.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Tobias A; Fassett, Daniel R

    2013-09-01

    Lumbosacropelvic pseudarthrosis after long spinal fusions for treatment of adult degenerative scoliosis remains a challenging condition. Moreover, although pelvic fixation with iliac screws is widely used in deformity surgery to provide a biomechanically strong distal anchor for long thoracolumbar constructs, there are very few options available after failed pelvic fixation with iliac screws. The authors conducted a retrospective review of the surgical charts and imaging findings of patients subjected to revision surgery for lumbosacropelvic pseudarthrosis from August 2011 to August 2012. This review identified 5 patients in whom a salvage technique combining both S-1 and S-2 sacral alar-iliac (SAI) screws had been performed. In this technical note, the authors present a detailed anatomical discussion and an appraisal of the sequential intraoperative steps of this new technique involving a combination of S-1 and S-2 SAI screws. The discussion is illustrated with a surgical case in which this technique was used to treat a patient with pseudarthrosis that had developed after fixation with classic iliac screws. In conclusion, although S-2 SAI screws have previously been reported as an interesting alternative to classic iliac wing screws, this report is the first on the use of combined S-1 and S-2 SAI screws for pelvic fixation as a salvage technique for lumbosacropelvic instability. According to the reported experience, this technique provides a biomechanically robust construct for definitive pelvic fixation during revision surgeries in the challenging scenarios of pseudarthrosis and instability of the lumbosacropelvic region.

  20. Reconstruction of Alar Nasal Cartilage Defects Using a Tissue Engineering Technique Based on a Combined Use of Autologous Chondrocyte Micrografts and Platelet-rich Plasma: Preliminary Clinical and Instrumental Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Scioli, Maria G.; Bielli, Alessandra; Orlandi, Augusto; Cervelli, Valerio

    2016-01-01

    Background: Developing cartilage constructs with injectability, appropriate matrix composition, and persistent cartilaginous phenotype remains an enduring challenge in cartilage repair. The combined use of autologous chondrocyte micrografts and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an alternative that opens a new era in this field. Methods: At the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy, 11 patients underwent nasal alar reconstruction with chondrocyte micrografts gently poured onto PRP in solid form. A computed tomographic scan control was performed after 12 months. Pearson’s Chi-square test was used to investigate difference in cartilage density between native and newly formed cartilages. Results: The constructs of chondrocyte micrografts–PRP that were subcutaneously injected resulted in a persistent cartilage tissue with appropriate morphology, adequate central nutritional perfusion without central necrosis or ossification, and further augmented nasal dorsum without obvious contraction and deformation. Conclusion: This report demonstrated that chondrocyte micrografts derived from nasal septum poured onto PRP in solid form are useful for cartilage regeneration in patients with external nasal valve collapse. PMID:27826462

  1. A comparative study to find out the relationship between the inner inter-canthal distance, interpupillary distance, inter-commissural width, inter-alar width, and the width of maxillary anterior teeth in Aryans and Mongoloids

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Meena Kumari; Singh, Raj Kumar; Suwal, Pramita; Parajuli, Prakash Kumar; Shrestha, Pragya; Baral, Dharanidhar

    2016-01-01

    Background One of the most confusing and difficult aspects of complete denture prosthodontics is the selection of appropriately sized maxillary anterior denture teeth. Various guidelines have been suggested for determining the size of anterior teeth, but different opinions have been reported regarding their significance. In the study reported here, the relationships between facial measurements and the width of maxillary anterior teeth in two ethnic groups, namely Aryans and Mongoloids, were determined. Objective The aims of the study were to determine the inner inter-canthal distance (ICAD), inter-pupillary distance (IPD), inter-commissural width (ICOW), inter-alar width (IAW), and the combined width of maxillary anterior teeth (CW) in Aryans and Mongoloids and to determine the relationships between these measurements. Materials and methods Impressions of the teeth of 170 dentulous subjects (85 males and 85 females) were made with alginate then Type IV gypsum product was poured in. Measurements of the cast maxillary anterior teeth at their widest dimension (contact areas) were made with the Boley gauge. ICAD, IPD, ICOW, and IAW distances were also measured with a Boley gauge. Results For all 170 subjects, 85 Aryans and 85 Mongoloids, Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) for IAW, IPD, ICOW, ICAD, and CW was calculated. In Aryans, highly significant (P<0.001) but weak correlations were found between CW and IAW, IPD, and ICOW. In Mongoloids, a highly significant (P<0.001) and weak correlation was found only between CW and IPD. Conclusion Within the limitations of this study, the results suggest that the IAW, IPD, and ICOW for Aryans and IPD for Mongoloids can be used as a preliminary method for determining the width of the maxillary anterior teeth in edentulous patients. PMID:26955292

  2. NIKOLAI NIKOLAEVICH LUZIN: Modifications of functions and Fourier series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olevskii, A. M.

    1985-06-01

    CONTENTSIntroduction § 1. The correction problem and the space U(\\mathbf T) § 2. Irremovable singularities § 3. Homeomorphisms of the circle: Bohr's theorem and Luzin's problem § 4. The generalized Bohr theorem § 5. Singularity of homeomorphisms transforming into A_p(\\mathbf T) § 6. SupplementsReferences

  3. "The Storyteller: Reflections on the Works of Nikolai Leskov."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Journal of Oral History, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Presents 11 selections from Walter Benjamin's essay "The Storyteller" which illustrate how the work milieu and the significance of death are incorporated into stories. Benjamin compares historiography to traditional storytelling, and discusses the effect of the storyteller's need to maintain the listener's interest upon the story's style…

  4. "The Storyteller: Reflections on the Works of Nikolai Leskov."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Journal of Oral History, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Presents 11 selections from Walter Benjamin's essay "The Storyteller" which illustrate how the work milieu and the significance of death are incorporated into stories. Benjamin compares historiography to traditional storytelling, and discusses the effect of the storyteller's need to maintain the listener's interest upon the story's style…

  5. NIKOLAI NIKOLAEVICH LUZIN: Luzin's work on the metric theory of functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ul'yanov, P. L.

    1985-06-01

    CONTENTS § 1. Introduction § 2. Definitions and auxiliary results § 3. Luzin's theorem on the primitive function § 4. Luzin's theorem on the representation of functions by trigonometric series and its development § 5. Correction of functions § 6. Divergent trigonometric seriesReferences

  6. On the work of Nikolai Nikolaevich Bogolyubov in the theory of almost periodic functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitan, B. M.

    1994-10-01

    CONTENTS §1. Preliminaries from the theory of almost periodic functions §2. Bogolyubov's contribution to the theory of almost periodic functions §3. The influence of Bogolyubov's research on further development in the theory of almost periodic functions References Appendix 1. Bogolyubov's proof of the approximation theorem Appendix 2. The proof of Bogolyubov's theorem on arithmetic properties of relatively dense sets

  7. NIKOLAI NIKOLAEVICH LUZIN: Luzin's contribution to the descriptive theory of sets and functions: concepts, problems, predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uspenskii, V. A.

    1985-06-01

    This paper is based on the author's lecture "N.N. Luzin and the descriptive theory of sets" delivered on 13 December 1983 at the meeting of the Moscow Mathematical Society dedicated to the centenary of Luzin's birth. The paper is aimed at a wide readership and is regarded by the author as one of the means of introducing a reader to the sphere of ideas of the descriptive theory.

  8. Academician Nikolai Nikolaevich Bogolyubov (for the 100th anniversary of his birth)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martynyuk, A. A.; Mishchenko, E. F.; Samoilenko, A. M.; Sukhanov, A. D.

    2009-07-01

    This paper is dedicated to the memory of N. N. Bogolyubov in recognition of his towering stature in nonlinear mechanics and theoretical physics, his remarkable many-sided genius, and the originality and depth of his contribution to the world's science. The paper briefly describes Bogolyubov's achievements in nonlinear mechanics, classical statistical physics, theory of superconductivity, quantum field theory, and strong interaction theory

  9. NIKOLAI NIKOLAEVICH LUZIN: The development of the descriptive theory of sets under the influence of the work of Luzin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanovei, Vladimir G.

    1985-06-01

    CONTENTSIntroduction § 0. Euclidean and Baire spaces § 1. Research on the structure of Borel classes § 2. Projective sets. Construction of the hierarchy § 3. The sieve operation and its applications to projective sets of the first level § 4. The first projective level: sets with special sections § 5. The theory of operations on sets. C-sets and R-sets. The second projective level § 6. Difficulties of the classical theory of projective sets. Search for new paths. The main trends of the contemporary development of the descriptive theory § 7. Luzin's problems on the sequence of constituents § 8. Equivalence relations: Luzin's remarks and contemporary research § 9. Problems and results connected with the axiom of choice and transfinite constructionsReferences

  10. AlAr X 2П1/2 Aluminum - argon (1/1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hüttner, W.

    This document is part of Subvolume A1 'Diamagnetic Diatomic Molecules. Part 1' of Volume 29 'Molecular Constants Mostly from Microwave, Molecular Beam, and Sub-Doppler Laser Spectroscopy' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group II 'Molecules and Radicals'.

  11. Transformation of the plant growth regulator daminozide (Alar) and structurally related compounds with CuII ions: oxidation versus hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ching-Hua; Stone, Alan T

    2003-05-01

    As part of a study of metal ion effects on chemical transformations of nitrogen-containing agrochemicals, conversion of daminozide to succinate via cleavage of the hydrazide C-N bond was examined in the presence and absence of divalent metal ions. No conversion was observed in metal ion-free solutions or in the presence of 1.0 mM NiII, ZnII, and PbII. CuII, in contrast, markedly increased rates of daminozide to succinate conversion. Halide ions (CI-, Br-) had no effect on daminozide conversion in the absence of metal ions but markedly increased conversion rates observed in the presence of CuII. The nitrogen-donor ligands ethylenediamine, N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine, and 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane decreased rates of CuII-facilitated conversion, while 1,5,9-triazacyclododecane actually increased rates of conversion. H NMR and UV spectroscopy provide evidence for the formation of 1:1 CuII-daminozide complexes. Halide ion effects and nitrogen-donor ligand effects point to an oxidative mechanism for CuII-facilitated daminozide breakdown, rather than hydrolysis. The structurally related compound butyric acid 2,2-dimethylhydrazide (BH) is subject to the same CuII-facilitated breakdown via an oxidative mechanism. N,N-Dimethylsuccinamic acid (SA), in contrast, breaks down via a hydrolytic mechanism.

  12. [Nikolai Illarionovich Kozlov--a scientist, a doctor, an outstanding organizer of Military Medicine (To the 200th anniversary of the birth)].

    PubMed

    Egorysheva, I V

    2014-11-01

    To Kozlov N.I. (1814-1889) belong numerous achievements in the organization of military medical unit during the Crimean (1853-1856) and the Russian-Turkish (1877-1878) wars, the introduction of women's medical education in Russia, establishment of an improvement system for the military doctors, edition for their medical guidelines, the organization of military health care in Russia.

  13. 77 FR 34997 - Notice of June 30, 2012, Meeting for Denali National Park Subsistence Resource Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... Nikolai Tribal Council Office in Nikolai, AK. Proposed Agenda The proposed meeting agenda for each meeting includes the following: 1. Call to order--Confirm Quorum 2. Welcome and Introductions (SRC Chair...

  14. A HEL Testbed for High Accuracy Beam Pointing and Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    43  4.1.4.  ALAR ...n wG w f f s w s w π ξ ξ = = = + + = 4.1.4. ALAR The ALAR which is direct drive rotary stage, provides superior angular positioning and velocity...vibrations. Applications of the ALAR include single and multi-axis electro optical sensor testing, missile seeker testing, antenna testing

  15. Interatomic potentials for van der Waals complexes of group 13 metal atoms: AlAr, AlKr, and AlXe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callender, C. L.; Mitchell, S. A.; Hackett, P. A.

    1989-05-01

    Interatomic potential parameters for the ground X1,2 2Π1/2,3/2 and excited B 2Σ+1/2 states of jet-cooled van der Waals complexes of Al atoms with rare gases have been determined from fluorescence excitation and emission spectra. Vibrational numbering in the B states is established from isotopic and rotational broadening of fluorescence excitation line shapes. Bond distances are estimated by comparison with analogous states of alkali-rare gas molecules, and by modeling observed relative emission intensities with calculated Franck-Condon factors. Morse potentials are found to adequately describe the data for the ground states, but for the excited states there are indications of departures from Morse functions at large internuclear distances. Dissociation energies De are estimated from Birge-Sponer extrapolations. Multiplet splittings in Al-rare gas complexes are compared to those in In-rare gas complexes and are discussed in terms of an empirical treatment of spin-orbit coupling, which assumes that the spin-orbit coupling constant for the molecule is the same as that for the atom. The ground X1 state of each Al-rare gas molecule is more stable than that of the analogous In complex, whereas the spin-orbit excited X2 state is less stable. This is explained by the greater mixing between the X1 state and the dissociative A 2Σ+1/2 state for indium over aluminum, caused by the greater spin-orbit coupling constant for the heavier metal.

  16. Range of motion, sacral screw and rod strain in long posterior spinal constructs: a biomechanical comparison between S2 alar iliac screws with traditional fixation strategies

    PubMed Central

    Field, Antony; Ferrara, Lisa A.; Freeman, Andrew L.; Phan, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Background S1 screw failure and L5/S1 non-union are issues with long fusions to S1. Improved construct stiffness and S1 screw offloading can help avoid this. S2AI screws have shown to provide similar stiffness to iliac screws when added to L3–S1 constructs. We sought to examine and compare the biomechanical effects on an L2–S1 pedicle screw construct of adding S2AI screws, AxiaLIF, L5–S1 interbody support via transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF), and to examine the effect of the addition of cross connectors to each of these constructs. Methods Two S1 screws and one rod with strain gauges (at L5/S1) were used in L2–S1 screw-rod constructs in 7 L1-pelvis specimens (two with low BMD). ROM, S1 screw and rod strain were assessed using a pure-moment flexibility testing protocol. Specimens were tested intact, and then in five instrumentation states consisting of: (I) Pedicle screws (PS) L2–S1; (II) PS + S2AI screws; (III) PS + TLIF L5/S1; (IV) PS + AxiaLIF L5/S1; (V) PS + S2AI + AxiaLIF L5/S1. The five instrumentation conditions were also tested with crosslinks at L2/3 and S1/2. Tests were conducted in flexion-extension, lateral bending and axial torsion with no compressive preload. Results S2A1 produces reduced S1 screw strain for flexion-extension, lateral bending and axial torsion, as well as reduced rod strain in lateral bending and axial torsion in comparison to AxiaLIF and interbody instrumentation, at the expense of increased rod flexion-extension strain. Cross-connectors may have a role in further reduction of S1 screw and rod strain. Conclusions From a biomechanical standpoint, the use of the S2AI technique is at least equivalent to traditional iliac screws, but offers lower prominence and ease of assembly compared to conventional sacroiliac stabilization. PMID:28097243

  17. Correlation consistent basis sets for molecular core-valence effects with explicitly correlated wave functions: The atoms B-Ne and Al-Ar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, J. Grant; Mazumder, Shivnath; Peterson, Kirk A.

    2010-02-01

    Correlation consistent basis sets have been optimized for accurately describing core-core and core-valence correlation effects with explicitly correlated F12 methods. The new sets, denoted cc-pCVnZ-F12 (n =D, T, Q) and aug-cc-pCF12VnZ (n =D, T, Q, 5), were developed by augmenting the cc-pVnZ-F12 and aug-cc-pVnZ families of basis sets with additional functions whose exponents were optimized based on the difference between all-electron and valence-electron correlation energies. The number of augmented functions added is fewer, in general, than in the standard cc-pCVnZ and cc-pwCVnZ families of basis sets. Optimal values of the geminal Slater exponent for use with these basis sets in MP2-F12 calculations are presented and are also recommended for CCSD-F12b calculations. Auxiliary basis sets for use in the resolution of the identity approximation in explicitly correlated calculations have also been optimized and matched to the new cc-pCVnZ-F12 series of orbital basis sets. The cc-pCVnZ-F12 basis sets, along with the new auxiliary sets, were benchmarked in CCSD(T)-F12b calculations of spectroscopic properties on a series of homo- and heteronuclear first and second row diatomic molecules. Comparing the effects of correlating the outer core electrons in these molecules with those from conventional CCSD(T) at the complete basis set limit, which involved calculations with new cc-pCV6Z basis sets for the second row elements that were also developed in the course of this work, it is observed that the F12 values are reasonably well converged already at just the triple-ζ level.

  18. Differences over Economics in the Soviet Leadership, 1988-1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    discussion among specialists. The most influential articles were written by Professor Nikolai Shmelev of the USA and Canada 1Pravda, July 24, 1990. 2Pravda...simply produce more! It is true that Gorbachev did, sensibly, link the normalization of the market to financial 4Nikolai P. Shmelev , "Avansy i dolgi...increased deficit was the anti-alcohol campaign. That campaign was little criticized in public until Nikolai Shmelev did so with vigor in June 1987.17

  19. Direct Nanoscale Conversion of Biomolecular Signals into Electronic Information

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-22

    Dwight S. Seferos, Martin Moore, Daniel A. Lowy, Guillermo C. Bazan , James G. Kushmerick, and Nikolai Lebedev: Proton-Coupled Electron-Transfer...Dwight S. Seferos, Martin Moore, Daniel A. Lowy, Guillermo C. Bazan , James G. Kushmerick, and Nikolai Lebedev: Proton-Coupled Electron-Transfer...Guillermo C. Bazan , and Nikolai Lebedev: Heterogeneous electron transfer of quinone-hydroquinone in alkaline solutions at gold electrode surfaces

  20. Higher spin double field theory: a proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekaert, Xavier; Park, Jeong-Hyuck

    2016-07-01

    We construct a double field theory coupled to the fields present in Vasiliev's equations. Employing the "semi-covariant" differential geometry, we spell a functional in which each term is completely covariant with respect to O(4, 4) T-duality, doubled diffeomorphisms, Spin(1, 3) local Lorentz symmetry and, separately, HS(4) higher spin gauge symmetry. We identify a minimal set of BPS-like conditions whose solutions automatically satisfy the full Euler-Lagrange equations. As such a solution, we derive a linear dilaton vacuum. With extra algebraic constraints further supplemented, the BPS-like conditions reduce to the bosonic Vasiliev equations.

  1. Evaluation and Improvement of Spectral Features for the Detection of Buried Explosive Hazards Using Forward-Looking Ground-Penetrating Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    ROC) curves, and Section 5 is the conclusion. 1.1 ALARIC FLGPR The FLGPR images we use in this paper were collected using a system called ALARIC ...classifier Figure 1. FLGPR explosive hazard detection block diagram The ALARIC system is equipped with an accurate GPS system. As a result, it...the 32 T/R images which adaptively suppresses artifacts such as sidelobes and aliasing ghosts. Table 1 contains the parameters of the ALARIC FLGPR

  2. Asteroid Polarimetric Database V6.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupishko, D. F.; Vasilyev, S. V.

    2008-07-01

    The Asteroid Polarimetric Database (APD) is a collection of asteroid polarimetry results compiled by D.F. Lupishko and S.V. Vasiliev of Karazin Kharkiv National University, Ukraine. It is intended to include most asteroid polarimetry available through January 22, 2008.

  3. Asteroid Polarimetric Database V7.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupishko, D. F.; Vasilyev, S. V.

    2012-06-01

    The Asteroid Polarimetric Database (APD) is a collection of asteroid polarimetry results compiled by D.F. Lupishko and S.V. Vasiliev of Karazin Kharkiv National University, Ukraine. It is intended to include most asteroid polarimetry available through March 7, 2012.

  4. In Vitro and In Vivo Studies of Alar-Nasal Cartilage Using Autologous Micro-Grafts: The Use of the Rigenera® Protocol in the Treatment of an Osteochondral Lesion of the Nose

    PubMed Central

    Ceccarelli, Gabriele; Gentile, Pietro; Marcarelli, Marco; Balli, Martina; Ronzoni, Flavio Lorenzo; Benedetti, Laura; Cusella De Angelis, Maria Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    Cartilage defects represent a serious problem due to the poor regenerative properties of this tissue. Regarding the nose, nasal valve collapse is associated with nasal blockage and persistent airway obstruction associated with a significant drop in the quality of life for patients. In addition to surgical techniques, several cell-based tissue-engineering strategies are studied to improve cartilage support in the nasal wall, that is, to ameliorate wall insufficiency. Nevertheless, there are no congruent data available on the benefit for patients during the follow-up time. In this manuscript, we propose an innovative approach in the treatment of cartilage defects in the nose (nasal valve collapse) based on autologous micro-grafts obtained by mechanical disaggregation of a small portion of cartilage tissue (Rigenera® protocol). In particular, we first analyzed in vitro murine and human cartilage micro-grafts; secondly, we analyzed the clinical results of a patient with pinched nose deformity treated with autologous micro-grafts of chondrocytes obtained by Rigenera® protocol. The use of autologous micro-graft produced promising results in surgery treatment of cartilage injuries and could be safely and easily administrated to patients with cartilage tissue defects. PMID:28608799

  5. Biomechanical Comparison of Sacral Fixation Characteristics of Standard S1-Pedicle Screw Fixation versus a Novel Constrained S1-Dual-Screw Anchorage in the S1-Pedicle and S1-Alar Bone.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Michael; Stephan, Daniel; Resch, Herbert; Augat, Peter; Auffarth, Alexander; Blocher, Martina; Ernstbrunner, Lukas; Hitzl, Wolfgang; Defossez, Henri; Rouge, Renaud; Koller, Heiko

    2015-12-01

    Biomechanical Laboratory Study. Analysis of the biomechanical characteristics of a novel sacral constrained dual-screw fixation device (S1-PALA), combining a S1-pedicle screw and a S1-ala screw, compared to a standard bicortical S1-pedicle screw (S1-PS) fixation. Instrumented fusions to the sacrum are biomechanically challenging and plagued by a high risk of nonunion when S1-PS is used as the sole means of fixation. Thus, lumbopelvic fixation is increasingly selected instead, although associated with a reasonable number of instrumentation-related complications. Around 30 fresh-frozen human sacral bones were harvested and embedded after CT scans. Instrumentation was conducted in alternating order with bicortical 7.0 mm S1-PS and with the S1-PALA including a S1-PS screw and a S1-ala screw, of 7.0 and 6.0 mm diameter, respectively. Specimens were subjected to cyclic loading with increasing loads (25-250 N) until a maximum of 2000 cycles or displacement >2 mm occurred. All implant sacral units (ISUs) were subject to coaxial pullout tests. Failure load, number of ISUs surpassing 2000 cycles, number of cycles, and loads at failure were recorded and compared. Donors' age averaged 77 ± 14.2 years, and BMD was 115 ± 64.8 mgCA-HA/ml. Total working length of screws implanted was 90 ± 8.6 mm in the S1-PALA group and 46 ± 5 mm in the S1-PS group (P = 0.0002). In the S1-PALA group, displacement >2 mm occurred after 845 ± 325 cycles at 149 ± 41 N compared to 512 ± 281 cycles at 106 ± 36 N in the S1-PS group (P = 0.004; P = 0.002). In coaxial pull-out testing, failure load was 2118.1 ± 1166 N at a displacement of 2.5 ± 1 mm in the S1-PALA group compared to 1375.6 ± 750.1 N at a displacement of 1.6 ± 0.5 mm in the S1-PS group (P = 0.0007; P = 0.0003). The novel sacral constrained dual-screw anchorage (S1-PALA) significantly improved holding strength after cyclic loading compared to S1-PS. The S1-PALA demonstrated mechanical potential as a useful adjunct in the armamentarium of lumbosacral fixations indicated in cases that need advanced construct stability, but where instrumentation to the ilium or distal dissection to S2 should be avoided. N/A.

  6. ABJ triality: from higher spin fields to strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chi-Ming; Minwalla, Shiraz; Sharma, Tarun; Yin, Xi

    2013-05-01

    We demonstrate that a supersymmetric and parity violating version of Vasiliev’s higher spin gauge theory in AdS4 admits boundary conditions that preserve N=0,1,2,3,4 or 6 supersymmetries. In particular, we argue that the Vasiliev theory with U(M) Chan-Paton and N=6 boundary condition is holographically dual to the 2+1 dimensional U(N)k × U(M)-k ABJ theory in the limit of large N, k and finite M. In this system all bulk higher spin fields transform in the adjoint of the U(M) gauge group, whose bulk t’Hooft coupling is M/N. Analysis of boundary conditions in Vasiliev theory allows us to determine exact relations between the parity breaking phase of Vasiliev theory and the coefficients of two and three point functions in Chern-Simons vector models at large N. Our picture suggests that the supersymmetric Vasiliev theory can be obtained as a limit of type IIA string theory in AdS_4\\times {CP}^3, and that the non-Abelian Vasiliev theory at strong bulk ’t Hooft coupling smoothly turn into a string field theory. The fundamental string is a singlet bound state of Vasiliev’s higher spin particles held together by U(M) gauge interactions. This is illustrated by the thermal partition function of free ABJ theory on a two sphere at large M and N even in the analytically tractable free limit. In this system the traces or strings of the low temperature phase break up into their Vasiliev particulate constituents at a U(M) deconfinement phase transition of order unity. At a higher temperature of order T=\\sqrt{\\frac{N}{M}} Vasiliev’s higher spin fields themselves break up into more elementary constituents at a U(N) deconfinement temperature, in a process described in the bulk as black hole nucleation. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Higher spin theories and holography’.

  7. Flight Engineer Budarin uses a laptop computer in the SM during Expedition Six

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-03-21

    ISS006-E-45279 (21 March 2003) --- Cosmonaut Nikolai M. Budarin, Expedition Six flight engineer, uses a computer as he talks on a communication system in the Zvezda Service Module on the International Space Station (ISS). Budarin represents Rosaviakosmos.

  8. Flight Engineer Budarin is changing a part in the water recycling system in the SM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-03-21

    ISS006-E-45275 (21 March 2003) --- Cosmonaut Nikolai M. Budarin, Expedition Six flight engineer, holds a piece of hardware near a worktable in the Zvezda Service Module on the International Space Station (ISS). Budarin represents Rosaviakosmos.

  9. 03pd1540

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-06

    May 6, 2003. Star City, Russia. Expedition Six Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin speaks during a Press Conference at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: "NASA/Bill Ingalls"

  10. Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-03

    William Potter , and Nikolai Sokov, Reducing and Regulating Tactical (Nonstrategic) Nuclear Weapons in Europe, The James Martin Center For...See William C. Potter and Nikolai Sokov, “Nuclear Weapons that People Forget,” International Herald Tribune, May 31, 2000. 87 Sam Nunn, Igor...their security.97 94 Kent Harris , “NATO Allies Want U.S. Nuclear Weapons out of Europe

  11. A Strategic Appraisal of Russia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-06

    Soviet Union, 1992, 64. 13. Current Geographic Issues, Geographic Notes, Volume 2, # 2, Summer 1992, 15. 14. Nikolai Petrov and Andrei Treivish, "Praise...34 The Rise of Nations in the Soviet Union, 1992. Petrov , Nikolai and Treivish Andrei , "Praise for Isolationism," Russian Weekly News magazine "New Times...Muslim world. Russia, probably, has lost all influence in this strategically important area. Only the leader of Kazakhstan, N . Nazarbaev, and the leader

  12. Locally Adaptive Detection Algorithm for Forward-Looking Ground-Penetrating Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-22

    the ground. This results in an excessive number of FAs. The FLGPR images we present in this paper were collected by a system called ALARIC . This...intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) applications. The ALARIC system is equipped with an accurate GPS system. As a result, we are capable...effective system for improving the detection capabilities of the ALARIC system. Figure 5 showed that the locally- adaptive prescreener not only enabled

  13. Detection of Explosive Hazards Using Spectrum Features From Forward-Looking Ground Penetrating Radar Imagery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    applications such as a vehicle traveling a road in which mines are buried. The data used for this paper was collected in this way. A system called ALARIC ...research. The ALARIC system used to collect the data for our research is still under development. Currently, more field tests are being conducted to...improve the system. Our algorithms were developed using the limited amount of data so far collected by ALARIC . These data have given us a chance to

  14. ABJ theory in the higher spin limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Shinji; Honda, Masazumi; Okuyama, Kazumi; Shigemori, Masaki

    2016-08-01

    We study the conjecture made by Chang, Minwalla, Sharma, and Yin on the duality between the {N}=6 Vasiliev higher spin theory on AdS4 and the {N}=6 Chern-Simons-matter theory, so-called ABJ theory, with gauge group U( N) × U( N + M). Building on our earlier results on the ABJ partition function, we develop the systematic 1 /M expansion, corresponding to the weak coupling expansion in the higher spin theory, and compare the leading 1 /M correction, with our proposed prescription, to the one-loop free energy of the {N}=6 Vasiliev theory. We find an agreement between the two sides up to an ambiguity that appears in the bulk one-loop calculation.

  15. Higher spins on AdS3 from the worldsheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Kevin; Gaberdiel, Matthias R.; Jottar, Juan I.

    2017-07-01

    It was recently shown that the CFT dual of string theory on AdS3 × S3 × T 4, the symmetric orbifold of T 4, contains a closed higher spin subsector. Via holography, this makes precise the sense in which tensionless string theory on this background contains a Vasiliev higher spin theory. In this paper we study this phenomenon directly from the worldsheet. Using the WZW description of the background with pure NS-NS flux, we identify the states that make up the leading Regge trajectory and show that they fit into the even spin N=4 Vasiliev higher spin theory. We also show that these higher spin states do not become massless, except for the somewhat singular case of level k = 1 where the theory contains a stringy tower of massless higher spin fields coming from the long string sector.

  16. Higher spin realization of the DS/CFT correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anninos, Dionysios; Hartman, Thomas; Strominger, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    We conjecture that Vasiliev’s theory of higher spin gravity in four-dimensional de Sitter space (dS4) is holographically dual to a three-dimensional conformal field theory (CFT3) living on the spacelike boundary of dS4 at future timelike infinity. The CFT3 is the Euclidean Sp(N) vector model with anticommuting scalars. The free CFT3 flows under a double-trace deformation to an interacting CFT3 in the IR. We argue that both CFTs are dual to Vasiliev dS4 gravity but with different future boundary conditions on the bulk scalar field. Our analysis rests heavily on analytic continuations of bulk and boundary correlators in the proposed duality relating the O(N) model with Vasiliev gravity in AdS4.

  17. Electromagnetic Fields and Human Health: Fundamental and Applied Research. Proceeding of the International Conference (3rd) Held in Moscow and St. Petersburg, Russia, September 17-25 2002

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-10-28

    standards from regional meetings into a "framework" document that will form the basis of an internationally agreed standard. 3. Providing the facility...Program − — Director of Institute of Biophysics Cell RAS, Puschino Moscow region − Murphy M.P. — Chief, Radio Frequency Radiation Branch, US... BASIS OF PRECAUTIONARY POLICY REALISATION IN PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICES Grigoriev O.A., Vasiliev O.A., Bichelday E.P

  18. Is Hideki Yukawa's explanation of the strong force correct?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, Victor; Moon, Russell

    2006-11-01

    Reexamining Hideki Yukawa's explanation of the strong force using the principles of the Quark Theory and the Vortex Theory, it was discovered that it is possible for a virtual particle to be passed back and forth between the proton and the neutron. This discovery creates a new and revolutionary explanation of the strong force of nature. The creation of the strong force appears to be the combination of four processes at work in the nucleus: virtual particles, intrinsic magnetism, ``nuclear gravity'', and gluons. 1. V.V. Vasiliev, R.G. Moon, The bases of the vortex theory, Book of abstracts The 53 International Meeting on Nuclear Spectroscopy and Nuclear structure St. Petersburg, Russia, 2003, p.251. 2. H. Yukawa, Tabibito, (World Scientific, Singapore, 1982), p. 190-202. 3. K. Gridnev, V.V. Vasiliev, R.G. Moon, The Photon Acceleration Effect, Book of abstracts, OMEGA 5 -- Symposium on Origin of Matter and Evolution of Galaxies, Nov 8-11, University of Tokyo, Tokyo Japan. 4. R.G. Moon, V.V. Vasiliev. Explanation of the Conservation of Lepton Number, Book of abstracts LV. National Conference on Nuclear Physics, Frontiers in the Physics of Nucleus, June 28-July 1, 2005, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 2005, p. 347.5. .

  19. Is Hideki Yukawa's explanation of the strong force correct?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, Victor; Moon, Russell

    2006-10-01

    Reexamining Hideki Yukawa's explanation of the strong force using the principles of the Quark Theory and the Vortex Theory, it was discovered that it is possible for a virtual particle to be passed back and forth between the proton and the neutron. This discovery creates a new and revolutionary explanation of the strong force of nature. The creation of the strong force appears to be the combination of four processes at work in the nucleus: virtual particles, intrinsic magnetism, ``nuclear gravity'', and gluons. 1. V.V. Vasiliev, R.G. Moon, The bases of the vortex theory, Book of abstracts The 53 International Meeting on Nuclear Spectroscopy and Nuclear structure St. Petersburg, Russia, 2003, p.251. 2. H. Yukawa, Tabibito, (World Scientific, Singapore, 1982), p. 190-202. 3. K. Gridnev, V.V. Vasiliev, R.G. Moon, The Photon Acceleration Effect, Book of abstracts, OMEGA 5 -- Symposium on Origin of Matter and Evolution of Galaxies, Nov 8-11, University of Tokyo, Tokyo Japan. 4. R.G. Moon, V.V. Vasiliev. Explanation of the Conservation of Lepton Number, Book of abstracts LV. National Conference on Nuclear Physics, Frontiers in the Physics of Nucleus, June 28-July 1, 2005, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 2005, p. 347.5. .

  20. Partially massless higher-spin theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brust, Christopher; Hinterbichler, Kurt

    2017-02-01

    We study a generalization of the D-dimensional Vasiliev theory to include a tower of partially massless fields. This theory is obtained by replacing the usual higher-spin algebra of Killing tensors on (A)dS with a generalization that includes "third-order" Killing tensors. Gauging this algebra with the Vasiliev formalism leads to a fully non-linear theory which is expected to be UV complete, includes gravity, and can live on dS as well as AdS. The linearized spectrum includes three massive particles and an infinite tower of partially massless particles, in addition to the usual spectrum of particles present in the Vasiliev theory, in agreement with predictions from a putative dual CFT with the same symmetry algebra. We compute the masses of the particles which are not fixed by the massless or partially massless gauge symmetry, finding precise agreement with the CFT predictions. This involves computing several dozen of the lowest-lying terms in the expansion of the trilinear form of the enlarged higher-spin algebra. We also discuss nuances in the theory that occur in specific dimensions; in particular, the theory dramatically truncates in bulk dimensions D = 3 , 5 and has non-diagonalizable mixings which occur in D = 4 , 7.

  1. A Flexible Distributed Scheduling Scheme for Dynamic ESG Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    Branke, and H. Abbass, “Multi-objective opti- mization for dynamic environments”, The Artificial Life and Adaptive Robotics Laboratory ALAR Technical...Report Series TR- ALAR -200504007, Northcott Drive, Campbell, Canberra, Aus- tralia, 2005. [27] K. Yamasaki, “Dynamic Pareto optimum GA against the changing

  2. Improved Detection and False Alarm Rejection Using FLGPR and Color Imagery in a Forward-Looking System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    called ALARIC . This system is an FLGPR system that is composed of a physical array of sixteen receivers and two transmitters. In the past decade...for airborne intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) applications. The ALARIC system is equipped with an accurate GPS system. As a result

  3. [E.S.BOTKIN, A SPECIMEN OF FIDELITY TO PROFESSIONAL DUTY AND OATH OF LOYALTY, AN EXAMPLE OF COURAGE AND HONOUR OF THE RUSSIAN DOCTOR].

    PubMed

    Vologdin, A A; Simonenko, V B

    2015-01-01

    Evgeny Sergeevch Botkin, son of the legendary Russian internist Sergey Petrovich Botkin, was a court physician for Tsar Nikolai II. After Nikolai abdicated the throne on 15 March (2 March in the Julian calendar) 1917, E.S. Botkin felt it was his duty to accompany the Romanovs into exile to Siberia and continued to selflessly treat the crown prince Aleksey, other members of the Romanov family and all those who applied for his advice. He was shot together with the Romanovs in the basement room of the Ipatiev house, Ekaterinburg, remaining loyal to professional duty and the word given to the Emperor.

  4. Lower lateral crural reverse plasty.

    PubMed

    Kubilay, Utku; Azizli, Elad; Erdoğdu, Suleyman

    2013-11-01

    The lateral crus plays a significant role in the aesthetic appearance of the nose. Excessive concavities of the lower lateral crura can lead to heavy aesthetic disfigurement of the nasal tip and to insufficiencies of the external nasal valve. The lateral crus of the alar cartilage may also cause a concavity of the alar rim and even collapse of the alar rim in severe cases. Surgical techniques performed on the lateral crus help to treat both functional and aesthetic deformities of the lateral nasal tip. We present a reverse plasty technique for the lateral crus, and we evaluated the advantages and disadvantages of the technique.

  5. One-loop tests of the supersymmetric higher spin AdS4/CFT3 correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Yi; Sezgin, Ergin; Zhu, Yaodong

    2017-01-01

    We compute one-loop free energy for D =4 Vasiliev higher spin gravities based on Konstein-Vasiliev algebras h u (m ;n |4 ) , h o (m ;n |4 ) , or h u s p (m ;n |4 ) and subject to higher spin-preserving boundary conditions, which are conjectured to be dual to the U (N ) , O (N ) or U S p (N ) singlet sectors, respectively, of free conformal field theories (CFTs) on the boundary of AdS4 . Ordinary supersymmetric higher spin theories appear as special cases of Konstein-Vasiliev theories, when the corresponding higher spin algebra contains O S p (N |4 ) as a subalgebra. In AdS4 with an S3 boundary, we use a regularization scheme for individual spins that employs their character such that the subsequent sum over all spins is finite, thereby avoiding the need for additional regularization. We find that the contribution of the infinite tower of bulk fermions vanishes. As a result, the free energy is the sum of those which arise in type A and type B models with internal symmetries, the known mismatch between the bulk and boundary free energies for type B model persists, and ordinary supersymmetric higher spin theories exhibit the mismatch as well. The only models that have a match are type A models with internal symmetries, corresponding to n =0 . The matching requires identification of the inverse Newton constant GN-1 with N plus a proper integer as was found previously for special cases. In AdS4 with an S1×S2 boundary, the bulk one-loop free energies match those of the dual free CFTs for arbitrary m and n . We also show that a supersymmetric double-trace deformation of free CFT based on O S p (1 |4 ) does not contribute to the O (N0) free energy, as expected from the bulk.

  6. Supersymmetric higher spin theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sezgin, Ergin; Sundell, Per

    2013-05-01

    We revisit the higher spin extensions of the anti de Sitter algebra in four dimensions that incorporate internal symmetries and admit representations that contain fermions, classified long ago by Konstein and Vasiliev. We construct the dS4, Euclidean and Kleinian version of these algebras, as well as the corresponding fully nonlinear Vasiliev type higher spin theories, in which the reality conditions we impose on the master fields play a crucial role. The N=2 supersymmetric higher spin theory in dS4, on which we elaborate further, is included in this class of models. A subset of the Konstein-Vasiliev algebras are the minimal higher spin extensions of the AdS4 superalgebra osp(4|N ) with N=1, 2, 4 mod 4, whose R-symmetry can be realized using fermionic oscillators. We tensor these algebras with appropriate internal symmetry algebras, namely u(n) for N= 2 mod 4 and so(n) or usp(n) for N=1,4 mod 4. We show that the N= 3 mod 4 higher spin algebras are isomorphic to those with N = 4 mod 4. We describe the fully nonlinear higher spin theories based on these algebras, including the coupling between the adjoint and twisted-adjoint master fields. We elaborate further on the N = 6 model in AdS4, and provide two equivalent descriptions one of which exhibits manifestly its relation to the N = 8 model. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Higher spin theories and holography’.

  7. A new instability of the topological black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belin, Alexandre; Maloney, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the stability of massless topological black holes in {{{AdS}}}d when minimally coupled to a scalar field of negative mass-squared. In many cases such black holes are unstable even though the field is above the BF bound and the geometry is locally AdS. The instability depends on the choice of boundary conditions for the scalars: scalars with non-standard (Neumann) boundary conditions tend to be more unstable, though scalars with standard (Dirichlet) boundary conditions can be unstable as well. This leads to an apparent mismatch between boundary and bulk results in the Vasiliev/vector-like matter duality.

  8. Yes You Can! Personal Experience of Writing for "School Science Review"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Alaric; Auty, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Alaric Thompson describes his experience of writing for "School Science Review" for the first time in the hope that his experience will encourage others. Geoff Auty introduces his piece and explains how it came about.

  9. Yes You Can! Personal Experience of Writing for "School Science Review"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Alaric; Auty, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Alaric Thompson describes his experience of writing for "School Science Review" for the first time in the hope that his experience will encourage others. Geoff Auty introduces his piece and explains how it came about.

  10. Russian Flight Control Room

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-20

    NASA Deputy Administrator Fred Gregory, left, joins Russian Federal Space Agency Deputy General-Director Nikolai Moiseev, Wednesday, April 21, 2004, at the Russian Mission Control Center outside Moscow to view the docking of the Expedition 9 crew to the International Space Station in a Russian Soyuz spacecraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Renormalization of the Graphene Dispersion Velocity Determined from Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-14

    Young,4 Cory R. Dean,5,6 Lei Wang,6 Yuanda Gao,6 Kenji Watanabe,7 Takashi Taniguchi,7 James Hone,6 Kenneth L. Shepard,5 Phillip Kim,4 Nikolai B. Zhitenev...relative strength of the Coulomb interactions and is given by the ratio of potential to kinetic energies [13]. In graphene, both the kinetic and

  12. Alienation, Servility and Amorality: Relating Gogol's Portrayal of Bureaupathology to an Accountability Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samier, Eugenie; Lumby, Jacky

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the insights literature can bring to administrative and bureaucratic critique, focusing on the work of Nikolai Gogol. Gogol's satire of bureaucracy presages many subsequent social science analyses. These encompass the fundamental ruptures in society caused by a surfeit of bureaucracy in "The Nose" and, on a more psychological…

  13. Alienation, Servility and Amorality: Relating Gogol's Portrayal of Bureaupathology to an Accountability Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samier, Eugenie; Lumby, Jacky

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the insights literature can bring to administrative and bureaucratic critique, focusing on the work of Nikolai Gogol. Gogol's satire of bureaucracy presages many subsequent social science analyses. These encompass the fundamental ruptures in society caused by a surfeit of bureaucracy in "The Nose" and, on a more psychological…

  14. Sustaining Professional Dance Companies in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straits, Sue Ann

    1982-01-01

    A university dance program conducted at the University of Wisconsin--Madison, the 1978 residency of the Alwin Nikolais Company, is described. Collaboration between the company and university personnel is described in the areas of: (1) creating a working environment; (2) participating in residency events; and (3) fulfilling expectations. (CJ)

  15. Soyez Departs From International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Expedition Seven photographed the Soyez TMA-1 Capsule through a window of the International Space Station (ISS) as it departed for Earth. Aboard were Expedition Six crew members, astronauts Kerneth D. Bowersox and Donald R. Pettit, and cosmonaut Nikolai M. Budarin. Expedition Six served a 5 and 1/2 month stay aboard the ISS, the longest stay to date.

  16. Expedition 6 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-05

    Expedition 6 Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin, left, Commander Ken Bowersox and International Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit, right, pose for photos at a press conference at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia, Thursday, May 6, 2003. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. KSC-03pd1538

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-06

    STAR CITY, RUSSIA - Expedition Six Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin (left), Commander Ken Bowersox (center), and NASA ISS Science Officer Don Pettit (right) pose for photos at a Press Conference at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia. The Expedition Six crew spent 161 days in space, 159 manning the International Space Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  18. KSC-03pd1537

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-06

    STAR CITY, RUSSIA - Expedition Six Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin (large), Commander Ken Bowersox (center), and NASA ISS Science Officer Don Pettit (right) pose for photos at a Press Conference at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia. The Expedition Six crew spent 161 days in space, 159 manning the International Space Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  19. 03pd1538

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-06

    May 6, 2003. Star City, Russia. Expedition Six Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin (L), Commander Ken Bowersox (C), and NASA ISS Science Officer Don Pettit (R) pose for photos at a Press Conference at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: "NASA/Bill Ingalls"

  20. KSC-03pd1542

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-06

    STAR CITY, RUSSIA - Expedition Six Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin (left), Commander Ken Bowersox (center), and NASA ISS Science Officer Don Pettit (right) answer questions during a Press Conference at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia. The Expedition Six crew spent 161 days in space, 159 manning the International Space Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  1. 03pd1537

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-06

    May 6, 2003. Star City, Russia. Expedition Six Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin (L), Commander Ken Bowersox (C), and NASA ISS Science Officer Don Pettit (R) pose for photos at a Press Conference at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia. Photo Credit: "NASA/Bill Ingalls"

  2. Expedition 6 Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-05

    Expedition 6 Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin, left, Commander Ken Bowersox and NASA International Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit, right, answer questions during a press conference at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia, Thursday, May 6, 2003. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. KSC-03pd1540

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-06

    STAR CITY, RUSSIA - Expedition Six Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin speaks during a Press Conference at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia. The Expedition Six crew spent 161 days in space, 159 manning the International Space Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  4. Expedition 13 Preflight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-03-26

    Nikolai Zelenschikov, Deputy General Designer, RSA- Energia, listens to the Expedition 13 crew members talk about their final check of the Soyuz spacecraft at building 254 of the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Sunday, March 26, 2006. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-03

    Expedition Seven photographed the Soyez TMA-1 Capsule through a window of the International Space Station (ISS) as it departed for Earth. Aboard were Expedition Six crew members, astronauts Kerneth D. Bowersox and Donald R. Pettit, and cosmonaut Nikolai M. Budarin. Expedition Six served a 5 and 1/2 month stay aboard the ISS, the longest stay to date.

  6. Dagestan: Moscow’s Risk Versus Gain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    id=16904&Itemid=65 (accessed 9 February 2010). 21 Nikolai Petrov , ‘‘From Managed Democracy to Sovereign Democracy: Putin’s Regime Evolution in 2005...35 Andrei Okara, ‘‘Sovereign Democracy: A New Russian Idea or a PR Project,’’ Journal on Foreign Affairs and International Relations, 8 August 2007

  7. STS-71 cosmonauts and astronauts greet news media during break in training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-06-11

    Crew members for two joint Space Shuttle/Mir missions greet the press during a break in medical operations training at JSC. Left to right are Nikolai M. Budarin, Anatoly Y. Solovyev, Bonnie J. Dunbar, Gennadiy M. Strekalov, Norman E. Thagard and Vladimir N. Dezhurov.

  8. Soyez Departs From International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Expedition Seven photographed the Soyez TMA-1 Capsule through a window of the International Space Station (ISS) as it departed for Earth. Aboard were Expedition Six crew members, astronauts Kerneth D. Bowersox and Donald R. Pettit, and cosmonaut Nikolai M. Budarin. Expedition Six served a 5 and 1/2 month stay aboard the ISS, the longest stay to date.

  9. Bounding the space of holographic CFTs with chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlmutter, Eric

    2016-10-01

    Thermal states of quantum systems with many degrees of freedom are subject to a bound on the rate of onset of chaos, including a bound on the Lyapunov exponent, λ L ≤ 2π/ β. We harness this bound to constrain the space of putative holographic CFTs and their would-be dual theories of AdS gravity. First, by studying out-of-time-order four-point functions, we discuss how λ L = 2π/ β in ordinary two-dimensional holographic CFTs is related to properties of the OPE at strong coupling. We then rule out the existence of unitary, sparse two-dimensional CFTs with large central charge and a set of higher spin currents of bounded spin; this implies the inconsistency of weakly coupled AdS3 higher spin gravities without infinite towers of gauge fields, such as the SL( N) theories. This fits naturally with the structure of higher-dimensional gravity, where finite towers of higher spin fields lead to acausality. On the other hand, unitary CFTs with classical W ∞ [ λ] symmetry, dual to 3D Vasiliev or hs[ λ] higher spin gravities, do not violate the chaos bound, instead exhibiting no chaos: λ L = 0. Independently, we show that such theories violate unitarity for | λ| > 2. These results encourage a tensionless string theory interpretation of the 3D Vasiliev theory.

  10. Bounding the space of holographic CFTs with chaos

    DOE PAGES

    Perlmutter, Eric

    2016-10-13

    In this study, thermal states of quantum systems with many degrees of freedom are subject to a bound on the rate of onset of chaos, including a bound on the Lyapunov exponent, λL ≤ 2π/β. We harness this bound to constrain the space of putative holographic CFTs and their would-be dual theories of AdS gravity. First, by studying out-of-time-order four-point functions, we discuss how λL = 2π/β in ordinary two-dimensional holographic CFTs is related to properties of the OPE at strong coupling. We then rule out the existence of unitary, sparse two-dimensional CFTs with large central charge and a setmore » of higher spin currents of bounded spin; this implies the inconsistency of weakly coupled AdS3 higher spin gravities without infinite towers of gauge fields, such as the SL(N) theories. This fits naturally with the structure of higher-dimensional gravity, where finite towers of higher spin fields lead to acausality. On the other hand, unitary CFTs with classical W∞[λ] symmetry, dual to 3D Vasiliev or hs[λ] higher spin gravities, do not violate the chaos bound, instead exhibiting no chaos: λL = 0. Independently, we show that such theories violate unitarity for |λ| > 2. These results encourage a tensionless string theory interpretation of the 3D Vasiliev theory.« less

  11. Bounding the space of holographic CFTs with chaos

    SciTech Connect

    Perlmutter, Eric

    2016-10-13

    In this study, thermal states of quantum systems with many degrees of freedom are subject to a bound on the rate of onset of chaos, including a bound on the Lyapunov exponent, λL ≤ 2π/β. We harness this bound to constrain the space of putative holographic CFTs and their would-be dual theories of AdS gravity. First, by studying out-of-time-order four-point functions, we discuss how λL = 2π/β in ordinary two-dimensional holographic CFTs is related to properties of the OPE at strong coupling. We then rule out the existence of unitary, sparse two-dimensional CFTs with large central charge and a set of higher spin currents of bounded spin; this implies the inconsistency of weakly coupled AdS3 higher spin gravities without infinite towers of gauge fields, such as the SL(N) theories. This fits naturally with the structure of higher-dimensional gravity, where finite towers of higher spin fields lead to acausality. On the other hand, unitary CFTs with classical W[λ] symmetry, dual to 3D Vasiliev or hs[λ] higher spin gravities, do not violate the chaos bound, instead exhibiting no chaos: λL = 0. Independently, we show that such theories violate unitarity for |λ| > 2. These results encourage a tensionless string theory interpretation of the 3D Vasiliev theory.

  12. The Explanation of the Pauli Exclusion Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, Victor; Moon, Russell

    2006-11-01

    Using the principles of the Vortex Theory, the construction of the alpha particle, and the theory that the nucleus is constructed out of alpha particles, the explanation of the Pauli Exclusion Principle is explained. If protons and electrons are connected to each other via fourth dimensional vortices, they spin in opposite directions. Since the alpha particle possesses two protons possessing opposite spins, their electrons also possess opposite spins. With a nucleus constructed out of alpha particles, all paired electrons in shells and sub-shells will spin in opposite directions. 1. Victor Vasiliev, Russell Moon. Controversy surrounding the Experiment conducted to prove the Vortex Theory, 2006 8th Annual Meeting of the Northwest Section, May 18-20, 2006, University of Puget Sound, Tacoma, Washington, USA, Abstract C1.00009. 2. Russell Moon. To the Photon Acceleration Effect, 2006 Texas Section APS/AAPT/SPS Joint Spring Meeting, Thursday--Saturday, March 23--25, 2006; San Angelo, Texas, Abstract: POS.00008. 3. Russell Moon, Fabian Calvo, Victor Vasiliev. The Neutral Pentaquark, 2006 APS March Meeting, March 13-17, Baltimore, MD, USA, Session Q1: GENERAL POSTER SESSION, Abstract Q1.00147.

  13. An action for matter coupled higher spin gravity in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonezzi, Roberto; Boulanger, Nicolas; Sezgin, Ergin; Sundell, Per

    2016-05-01

    We propose a covariant Hamiltonian action for the Prokushkin and Vasiliev's matter coupled higher spin gravity in three dimensions. The action is formulated on {{X}}_4× {{Z}}_2 where {{X}}_4 is an open manifold whose boundary contains spacetime and {{Z}}_2 is a noncommutative twistor space. We examine various consistent truncations to models of BF type in {{X}}_4 and {{Z}}_2 with B2 terms and central elements. They are obtained by integrating out the matter fields in the presence of a vacuum expectation value ν ∈ {R} for the zero-form master field. For ν = 0, we obtain a model on {{X}}_4 containing Blencowe's action and a model on {{Z}}_2 containing the Prokushkin-Segal-Vasiliev action. For generic ν (including ν = 0), we propose an alternative model on {{X}}_4 with gauge fields in the Weyl algebra of Wigner's deformed oscillator algebra and Lagrange multipliers in the algebra of operators acting in the Fock representation space of the deformed oscillators.

  14. Auto-Rim Flap Technique for Lateral Crura Caudal Excess Treatment.

    PubMed

    Çakır, Barış; Küçüker, İsmail; Aksakal, İbrahim Alper; Sağır, Hacı Ömer

    2017-01-01

    There are many variables that influence nose tip harmony. Even in a rhinoplasty that appears successful in profile, one may see nostril asymmetries, alar retractions, or irregularities in the soft triangle, and patients express their dissatisfaction with these simple deformities. In this study, we define the ratio of caudal and cephalic excess of the lower lateral cartilage. We evaluate whether it is possible to eliminate nostril asymmetries and alar retractions by means of supporting the facet polygon with the help of a lower lateral cartilage auto-rim flap, a technique we have developed in our rhinoplasties. The auto-rim flap was used successively on 498 primary rhinoplasty patients on whom the same surgeon operated between May 2013 and June 2015, performing marginal incisions. Of the 498 patients in the series, only 1 of the first 10 required a revision due to tip asymmetry related to the auto-rim flap. A minimal nostril asymmetry that did not require intervention occurred in 10 patients. In none of the patients could an increased alar retraction be seen postoperatively. All patients exhibited alar cartilage in the anatomically correct position. With the auto-rim flap technique, a part of the caudal excess of the alar cartilage remains as a flap in the facet region; therefore, there is no need in the cephalic region to perform more of an excision than what is strictly necessary. 4 Therapeutic. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. To the Photon Acceleration Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Russell

    2006-03-01

    Using the principles of the Vortex Theory, it was theorized that when a photon encounters an electromagnetic field, both the velocity and the frequency of the photon will increase. To prove this revolutionary idea an experiment was devised using a laser interferometer and two electromagnets. The electromagnets were arranged so that when the beam splitter divided the initial beam of laser light into two secondary beams; one of the two secondary beams passed back and forth between the two magnets. With the DC current to the electromagnets turned off, the two beams formed an interference pattern on the target screen. When the current to the electromagnets was suddenly turned on, the pattern fluctuated wildly until the two beams again reached a quiescent state creating a stable pattern on the screen; when the current to the electromagnets was suddenly turned off, again the pattern fluctuated wildly until it reached a quiescent state forming the initial stable pattern on the screen. It was determined that this new effect was a phenomenon created by the increasing frequency of the laser light whose velocity is increasing as it passes between the expanding electromagnetic field of the magnets. Because it is a new phenomenon in science revealing that the speed of light is not a constant but indeed can be varied, it possesses great historical significance. It is called the Photon Acceleration Effect. Although much more detailed work needs to be done investigating this new and revolutionary phenomenon in nature, it is reasonable to conclude that it was created by an increase in the frequency of the photons passing through the electromagnetic. Also, it must be stated that the discovery of this effect was predicted and discovered using the principles of the Vortex Theory. 1. . Konstantin A. Gridnev, Russell G. Moon, Victor V. Vasiliev. Experiment that discovered the Photon Acceleration Effect, Book of abstracts International Symposium on Origin of Matter and Evolution of

  16. The Effects on Recall and Recognition of Simple and Complex Numbers in Arithmetic Problems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    Nikolai, & Grove., 1988; Davidson, Stickney, & Weil, 1988; Horngren & Sundem, 1990) and those in statistics (see, e.g., Rosenberg, 1990; Runyon & Haber...and Cognition, 14, 484-494. Horngren , C. T., & Sundem, G. L. (1990). Introduction to financial accounting (Fourth Edition ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ...Research Institute Contract MDA903-90-K-0066 to the Institute of Cognitive Science at the University of Colorado. The authors thank Charles Judd for

  17. Ciprofloxacin Modulates Cytokine/Chemokine Profile in Serum, Improves Bone Marrow Repopulation, and Limits Apoptosis and Autophagy in Ileum after Whole Body Ionizing Irradiation Combined with Skin-Wound Trauma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-08

    human body by a combination of radiation exposure and other insults that include physical wounds and thermal burns , namely radiation combined injury...Res 173: 319–332. 4. Kiang JG, Garrison BR, Burns TM, Zhai M, Dews IC, et al. (2012) Wound trauma alters ionizing radiation dose assessment. Cell...Whole Body Ionizing Irradiation Combined with Skin- Wound Trauma Risaku Fukumoto1, Lynnette H. Cary2, Nikolai V. Gorbunov1, Eric D. Lombardini3, Thomas B

  18. Expedition 9 Russian News Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-20

    NASA Deputy Administrator Fred Gregory, second from right, and Russian Federal Space Agency Deputy General-Director Nikolai Moiseev, center, answer questions from reporters along with other Russian space officials at a news conference, Wednesday, April 21, 2004, at the Russian Mission Control Center outside Moscow following the docking of the Expedition 9 crew and a European Space Agency astronaut to the International Space Station in a Russian Soyuz spacecraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Expedition 9 Russian News Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-20

    NASA Deputy Administrator Fred Gregory, far right, and Russian Federal Space Agency Deputy General-Director Nikolai Moiseev, second from right, answer questions from reporters along with other Russian space officials at a news conference, Wednesday, April 21, 2004, at the Russian Mission Control Center outside Moscow following the docking of the Expedition 9 crew and a European Space Agency astronaut to the International Space Station in a Russian Soyuz spacecraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. Assessment of the Genotoxic Effects of High Peak-Power Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-01

    the Genotoxic Effects of High Peak-Power Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5d. TASK NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Dr... Genotoxic Effects of High Peak-Power Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs) (From 1 June 2002 to 31 May 2003 for 12 months) Nikolai Konstantinovich Chemeris...International Science and Technology Center (ISTC), Moscow. 2 ISTC 2350 Assessment of the Genotoxic Effects of High Peak-Power Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields

  1. OpenFlow Extensions for Programmable Quantum Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-19

    ARL-TR-8043 JUN 2017 US Army Research Laboratory OpenFlow Extensions for Programmable Quantum Networks by Venkat Dasari...Extensions for Programmable Quantum Networks by Venkat Dasari, Nikolai Snow, and Billy Geerhart Computational and Information Sciences Directorate...DATES COVERED (From - To) June 2015–March 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE OpenFlow Extensions for Programmable Quantum Networks 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  2. Competitive Strategies and NATO Central Region Air Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-15

    Strategies. The most-often quoted, and perhaps most eloquent expositor of this trend has been Marshal Nikolai Ogarkov. John G. Hines has laid out...in John M. Halliday, "Tactical Dispersal of Fighter Aircraft: Risk, Uncertainty and Policy Recommendations," (Rand Note, RAND Corp. 1987), 44-45. 24...Department of the Army, U.S. Army Field Artillery School, "Deep Battle," Briefing, Ft. Sill, OK, 15 June 1988. 30. John G. Hines and Phillip A. Petersen, "Is

  3. Informal portrait of Pettit, Budarin, and Bowersox in the SM during Expedition Six

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-04-14

    ISS006-E-45809 (14 April 2003) --- Attired in their Russian Sokol suits, the Expedition Six crewmembers are pictured in the Zvezda Service Module on the International Space Station (ISS) as they rehearse for their return flight home onboard the Soyuz TMA-1 spacecraft scheduled for May 3, 2003. From the left are cosmonaut Nikolai M. Budarin, flight engineer; astronauts Donald R. Pettit, NASA ISS science officer, and Kenneth D. Bowersox, mission commander. Budarin represents Rosaviakosmos.

  4. Informal portrait of Pettit, Budarin, and Bowersox in the SM during Expedition Six

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-04-14

    ISS006-E-45812 (14 April 2003) --- Attired in their Russian Sokol suits, the Expedition Six crewmembers pose for a crew photo in the Zvezda Service Module on the International Space Station (ISS). From the left are astronaut Donald R. Pettit, NASA ISS science officer; cosmonaut Nikolai M. Budarin, flight engineer; and astronaut Kenneth D. Bowersox, mission commander. The crewmembers are making preparations for their return flight home scheduled for May 3, 2003. Budarin represents Rosaviakosmos.

  5. Calculations of the self-amplified spontaneous emission performance of a free-electron laser.

    SciTech Connect

    Dejus, R. J.

    1999-04-20

    The linear integral equation based computer code (RON: Roger Oleg Nikolai), which was recently developed at Argonne National Laboratory, was used to calculate the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) performance of the free-electron laser (FEL) being built at Argonne. Signal growth calculations under different conditions are used for estimating tolerances of actual design parameters. The radiation characteristics are discussed, and calculations using an ideal undulator magnetic field and a real measured magnetic field will be compared and discussed.

  6. The Future of the Ballistic Missile Submarine Force in the Russian Nuclear Triad

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    development of the Yankee I class in 1958. These ships of the Project 667A ( Yankee I) class were first commissioned in 1967 and were armed with 16 R...74 Robert S. Norris and Hans M. Kristensen, “Russian Nuclear Forces, 2008,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 84, no. 2 (May/June 2008), 57. 75...Nikolai Sokov, this debate resulted in questions about a rapid 130 Federation of Atomic Scientists

  7. Frequency Mapping for the Operational Frequency Manager

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    waves by Heinrich Hertz. Created radio waves using a Spark Gap Transmitter. 1893 Nikolai Tesla transmits radio waves. 1896 Guglielmo M. Marconi ...radio. Cellular technology can trace it roots to two very pioneering inventors Nokolai Tesla and Guglielimo Marconi . The first generation of cell...shoulders of Tesla, Marconi and many others that are unnamed. The technology included above, cellular technology and packet data are key components of

  8. Expedition 9 Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-10-24

    Russian Federal Space Agency Deputy General-Director Nikolai Moiseev, center, Renita Fincke, wife of Expedition 9 Flight Engineer Michael Fincke, second from right with baby, and other officials and family members celebrate the return of the Expedition 9 crew to Star City, Russia after their Soyuz capsule landed safely approximately 85 kilometers northeast of Arkalyk in northern Kazakhstan, Sunday, October 24, 2004. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Muzzling the Bear: Gorbachev’s Program to Restructure the Soviet Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    zhizni i deyatelnosti sovetskikh vooruzhennikh sil" Krasnaya zvezda 6 July 1989, p. 2. 66 David Remnick "Supreme Soviet Bows to Gorbachev, Renames Yazov...Nikolai Shilucyov, liberal economist, predicts economic collapse if more radical measures are not taken. See Remnick , David "Economy Faces Crash, Soviet...decisional trajectory model of David Finley and Jan Triska. In this paradigm, all decisions move along two axes- a horizontal axis representing time

  10. Adaptive Redox Response of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells to Stimulation with Lipopolysaccharide Inflammagen: Mechanisms of Remodeling of Tissue Barriers in Sepsis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-08

    Mechanisms of Remodeling of Tissue Barriers in Sepsis Nikolai V. Gorbunov1*, Bradley R. Garrison1, Dennis P. McDaniel2, Min Zhai1, Pei-Jyun Liao1... sepsis [2, 5]. This problem leads to the searching for other potential mechanisms that could produce adverse effects on host metabolome resulting...understanding of the basic cellular mechanisms implicated in redox adaptive responses in 16 tissue barriers. This particular area of the molecular

  11. Space Threat Warning: Foundation for Space Superiority, Avoiding a Space Pearl Harbor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-17

    Space Management and Organization. 11 January 2001,100. 29 Nikolai Poroskov, “The Yogurt of Volley Fire,” Vremya Novostei, February 6, 2003. The...Grego, “A History of US and Soviet ASAT Programs”, Global Security. http://www.ucsusa.org/global_security/space_weapons/a- history -of-asat...34A History of US and Soviet ASAT Programs." Global Security. http://www.ucsusa.org/global_security/space_weapons/a- history -of-asat-programs.html

  12. Remembrances of a UK scientist in Russia. 1966-67.

    PubMed

    Phillips, David

    2014-01-01

    David Phillips was a post-doctoral fellow on a Fulbright Scholarship at the University of Texas, Austin, where he acted as host and chauffeur to one of the IUPAC representatives, the Soviet delegate, Professor Nikolai N. Kondratiev, then Deputy Director of the Institute of Chemical Physics in Moscow. During the course of ferrying him around, Nikolai asked .David about his plans after his two-year stay in Texas, David replied that he had intended to return to Europe, but was looking for one more year as a post-doctoral fellow before seeking an academic position probably back in the UK Nikolai invited him to spend time in his Institute, and eventually, through the Royal Society/Academy of Sciences Exchange programme, this came to pass. Professor Phillips now describes his experiences, both cultural and scientific, in Russia during 1966-67 where he learned much about the Russian people, and also about himself. He returned with a taste for good music, Russian literature and language, and travel generally, and for taking chances in life.

  13. [Standard rhinoplasty].

    PubMed

    Bardot, J; Jallut, Y; Nguyen, P-S

    2014-12-01

    Most patients who consult a surgeon for rhinoplasty do not want a radical change in their nose. They seek a reduction in the volume of the nasal pyramid and correction of a precise element that they judge to be ungainly--most often an osteocartilaginous hump. The procedure that we qualify as "standard" will eliminate the osteocartilaginous hump, decrease the dimensions of the septum and reduce the size of the alar crus of the alar cartilage. Although the required technical maneuvers are simple, their sequence must be coherent with a few basic rules that are simple but rarely explained in order to avoid defects linked to excessive, or on the contrary, insufficient corrections.

  14. Formal higher-spin theories and Kontsevich-Shoikhet-Tsygan formality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharapov, Alexey; Skvortsov, Evgeny

    2017-08-01

    The formal algebraic structures that govern higher-spin theories within the unfolded approach turn out to be related to an extension of the Kontsevich formality, namely, the Shoikhet-Tsygan formality. Effectively, this allows one to construct the Hochschild cocycles of higher-spin algebras that make the interaction vertices. As an application of these results we construct a family of Vasiliev-like equations that generate the Hochschild cocycles with sp (2 n) symmetry from the corresponding cycles. A particular case of sp (4) may be relevant for the on-shell action of the 4d theory. We also give the exact equations that describe propagation of higher-spin fields on a higher-spin flat background. The consistency of formal higher-spin theories turns out to have a purely geometric interpretation: there exists a certain symplectic invariant associated to cutting a polytope into simplices, namely, the Alexander-Spanier cocycle.

  15. Linear connections with a propagating spin-3 field in gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Baekler, Peter; Boulanger, Nicolas; Hehl, Friedrich W.

    2006-12-15

    We show that Fronsdal's Lagrangian for a free massless spin-3 gauge field in Minkowski spacetime is contained in a general Yang-Mills-like Lagrangian of metric-affine gravity (MAG), the gauge theory of the general affine group in the presence of a metric. Because of the geometric character of MAG, this can best be seen by using Vasiliev's frame formalism for higher-spin gauge fields in which the spin-3 frame is identified with the tracefree nonmetricity one-form associated with the shear generators of GL(n,R). Furthermore, for specific gravitational gauge models in the framework of full nonlinear MAG, exact solutions are constructed, featuring propagating massless and massive spin-3 fields.

  16. EPM-ERA 2011 Lunar theory and selenodynamical parameters from LLR (1970-2011) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagudina, E. I.; Krasinsky, G. A.; Prokhorenko, S. O.

    2012-12-01

    The modern Lunar ephemerides are constructed at JPL,USA (DE403,DE405, DE421); in Institute of Celestial Mechanics, France (series of INPOP) and at the Institute of Applied Astronomy RAS in the framework of ERA system (Krasinsky and Vasiliev, 1996). The dynamical model EPM-ERA has been constructed by simultaneous numerical integration of equations of orbital motion of the Moon, major planets, the biggest asteroids, and the lunar rotation. The dissipative effect of lunar rotation was included in the new version of ephemeris with retarded argument under integration of orbital and rotational Lunar motion. The comparison of improved dynamical model was made with 17742 LLR observations (1970-2011) for obtaining selenodynamical parameters. The version has been compared with three versions of the DE ephemerides and French ephemeris INPOP10.

  17. Theoretical/Computational Studies of High-Temperature Superconductivity from Quantum Magnetism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-09

    Wang, Z. Li, W.-H. Zhang, Z.-C. Zhang, J.-S. Zhang, W. Li, H. Ding, Y.-B. Ou, P. Deng, K. Chang, J. Wen, C.-L. Song , K. He, J.-F. Jia, S.-H. Ji, Y...10608 (2016). 7 X.H. Niu, R. Peng, H.C. Xu, Y.J. Yan, J. Jiang, D.F. Xu, T.L. Yu, Q. Song , Z.C. Huang, 5DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for...Q. Song , B.P. Xie, M. Abdel- Hafiez, D.A. Chareev, A.N. Vasiliev, R. Peng, and D.L. Feng, “Anomalous correlation effects and unique phase diagram of

  18. Action Principles for Higher and Fractional Spin Gravities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, Cesar; Bonezzi, Roberto; Boulanger, Nicolas; Sezgin, Ergin; Sundell, Per; Torres-Gomez, Alexander; Valenzuela, Mauricio

    We review various off-shell formulations for interacting higher-spin systems in dimensions 3 and 4. Associated with higher-spin systems in spacetime dimension 4 is a Chern-Simons action for a superconnection taking its values in a direct product of an infinite-dimensional algebra of oscillators and a Frobenius algebra. A crucial ingredient of the model is that it elevates the rigid closed and central two-form of Vasiliev's theory to a dynamical 2-form and doubles the higher-spin algebra, thereby considerably reducing the number of possible higher spin invariants and giving a nonzero effective functional on-shell. The two action principles we give for higher-spin systems in 3D are based on Chern-Simons and BF models. In the first case, the theory we give unifies higher-spin gauge fields with fractional-spin fields and an internal sector. In particular, Newton-s constant is related to the coupling constant of the internal sector. In the second case, the BF action we review gives the fully nonlinear Prokushkin-Vasiliev, bosonic equations for matter-coupled higher spins in 3D. We present the truncation to a single, real matter field relevant in the Gaberdiel-Gopakumar holographic duality. The link between the various actions we present is the fact that they all borrow ingredients from Topological Field Theory. It has been conjectured that there is an underlying and unifying 2-dimensional first-quantised description of the previous higher-spin models in 3D and 4D, in the form of a Cattaneo-Felder-like topological action containing fermionic fields.

  19. Reflecting on a Leadership Development Programme: A Case Study in South African Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louw, Ina; Zuber-Skeritt, Ortrun

    2009-01-01

    Leadership development in higher education is of vital importance to South Africa's future. We present a case study that focuses on a leadership development programme (LDP) through action learning and action research (ALAR) for women academics in South Africa during 2000 and 2001. It identifies the effects of the LDP on participants five years…

  20. Traumatic vertical atlantoaxial dislocation.

    PubMed

    Payer, M; Wetzel, S; Kelekis, A; Jenny, B

    2005-08-01

    We present a case of traumatic vertical atlantoaxial dislocation of 16 millimetres with a fatal outcome. We hypothesize that this extremely rare traumatic vertical atlantoaxial dislocation results from insufficiency of the C1/C2 facet capsules after rupture of the tectorial membrane and the alar ligaments.

  1. Atlantoaxial rotatory dislocation. A case report.

    PubMed

    Niibayashi, H

    1998-07-01

    Report of a child who sustained an acute atlantoaxial rotatory dislocation, associated with fractures of the clavicle and the temporal bone, and rupture of the alar ligament demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging. To describe the radiographic and pathoanatomic characteristics of the injury process. Only five cases of traumatic atlantoaxial rotatory dislocation associated with fracture of the clavicle have been reported previously. This is the first report of a ruptured alar ligament demonstrated on magnetic resonance imaging in a patient with atlantoaxial rotatory dislocation associated with fractures of the clavicle and the temporal bone. Computed tomography revealed the Type 1 rotatory dislocation described by Fielding and Hawkins, and magnetic resonance imaging delineated the ruptured alar ligament. Traction in a halter, followed by 6 weeks of immobilization with a cervical collar, was successful in the management of the injury. Concomitant fractures of the right temporal bone and the right clavicle may yield excessive left rotation of the atlas on the axis, resulting in the rupture of the right alar ligament. Awareness of this condition allows early diagnosis and effective conservative treatment.

  2. CT-functional diagnostics of the rotatory instability of upper cervical spine. 1. An experimental study on cadavers.

    PubMed

    Dvorak, J; Panjabi, M; Gerber, M; Wichmann, W

    1987-04-01

    Twelve specimens of the upper cervical spine were functionally examined by using radiography, cineradiography and computerized tomographic (CT) scan. The range of rotation was measured from CT images after maximal rotations to both sides. The left alar ligament was then cut and the examination repeated. The alar and transverse ligaments could be differentiated on CT images in axial, sagittal, and coronal views. Rotation at occiput-atlas was 4.35 degrees to the right and 5.9 degrees to the left and at atlas-axis it was 31.4 degrees to the right and 33 degrees to the left. After one-sided lesion of the alar ligament, there was an overall increase of 10.8 degrees or 30% of original rotation to the opposite side, divided about equally between the occiput-atlas and the atlas-axis. It is concluded that a lesion (irreversible overstretching or rupture of alar ligaments) can result in rotatory hypermobility or instability of the upper cervical spine.

  3. Reflecting on a Leadership Development Programme: A Case Study in South African Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louw, Ina; Zuber-Skeritt, Ortrun

    2009-01-01

    Leadership development in higher education is of vital importance to South Africa's future. We present a case study that focuses on a leadership development programme (LDP) through action learning and action research (ALAR) for women academics in South Africa during 2000 and 2001. It identifies the effects of the LDP on participants five years…

  4. The Learning Conference: Knowledge Creation through Participation and Publication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louw, Ina; Zuber-Skerritt, Ortrun

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to identify the principles and characteristics of a learning conference which uses action learning and action research (ALAR) processes to create: optimal learning for all participants through a collaborative, inclusive conference culture; further knowledge creation in publishing conference papers post-conference…

  5. Descending Mediastinitis in Epstein-Barr Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    van Driel, E. M.; Janssen, M. J. F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Our case report describes a previously healthy 34-year-old male who develops a descending mediastinitis as a complication of an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. The mediastinitis was suspected to have developed by a breakthrough of a peritonsillar abscess through the space between the alar and prevertebral space. PMID:25740774

  6. Lower lateral crural turnover flap in open rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Janis, Jeffrey E; Trussler, Andrew; Ghavami, Ashkan; Marin, Vincent; Rohrich, Rod J; Gunter, Jack P

    2009-06-01

    Lower lateral crural deformities are common problems in rhinoplasty. The shape and position of the lower lateral crura directly influence the alar contour and external valve function. This study reviews an extensive experience with the lower lateral crural turnover flap, which represents a versatile and reproducible technique for correction of lower lateral crural deformities and improvement of external valve function. A retrospective review of our experience with the lateral crural turnover flap in consecutive primary (n = 21), secondary (n = 2), and tertiary (n = 1) open rhinoplasties was conducted to evaluate the indications, contraindications, and long-term outcomes of this technique. Patient case examples are used to illustrate this technique and its results. The lower lateral crural turnover flap is beneficial for deformities, weakness, and collapse of the lower lateral crura. It can also be used to improve lower lateral crural strength during tip reshaping. It is contraindicated when there is insufficient width of the lower lateral crura. A lower lateral crural turnover flap can complement other external valve and alar arch supporting techniques, such as placement of alar contour grafts and/or alar batten grafts. The shape and position of the lower lateral crural turnover flaps have had long-lasting results (>1 year) after open rhinoplasty. The lower lateral crural turnover flap is a useful and reproducible technique in rhinoplasty with enduring results. The use of adjacent cartilage provides a local source of viable tissue to correct and support the lower lateral crura in both primary and revision rhinoplasty.

  7. Pelvic Fixation in Adult and Pediatric Spine Surgery: Historical Perspective, Indications, and Techniques: AAOS Exhibit Selection.

    PubMed

    Jain, Amit; Hassanzadeh, Hamid; Strike, Sophia A; Menga, Emmanuel N; Sponseller, Paul D; Kebaish, Khaled M

    2015-09-16

    Achieving solid osseous fusion across the lumbosacral junction has historically been, and continues to be, a challenge in spine surgery. Robust pelvic fixation plays an integral role in achieving this goal. The goals of this review are to describe the history of and indications for spinopelvic fixation, examine conventional spinopelvic fixation techniques, and review the newer S2-alar-iliac technique and its outcomes in adult and pediatric patients with spinal deformity. Since the introduction of Harrington rods in the 1960s, spinal instrumentation has evolved substantially. Indications for spinopelvic fixation as a means to achieve lumbosacral arthrodesis include a long arthrodesis (five or more vertebral levels) or use of three-column osteotomies in the lower thoracic or lumbar spine, surgical treatment of high-grade spondylolisthesis, and correction of lumbar deformity and pelvic obliquity. A variety of techniques have been described over the years, including Galveston iliac rods, Jackson intrasacral rods, the Kostuik transiliac bar, iliac screws, and S2-alar-iliac screws. Modern iliac screws and S2-alar-iliac screws are associated with relatively low rates of pseudarthrosis. S2-alar-iliac screws have the advantages of less implant prominence and inline placement with proximal spinal anchors. Collectively, these techniques provide powerful methods for obtaining control of the pelvis in facilitating lumbosacral arthrodesis.

  8. Urea Unfolding Study of E. coli Alanyl-tRNA Synthetase and Its Monomeric Variants Proves the Role of C-Terminal Domain in Stability

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Baisakhi; Banerjee, Rajat

    2015-01-01

    E. coli alanyl-tRNA exists as a dimer in its native form and the C-terminal coiled-coil part plays an important role in the dimerization process. The truncated N-terminal containing the first 700 amino acids (1–700) forms a monomeric variant possessing similar aminoacylation activity like wild type. A point mutation in the C-terminal domain (G674D) also produces a monomeric variant with a fivefold reduced aminoacylation activity compared to the wild type enzyme. Urea induced denaturation of these monomeric mutants along with another alaRS variant (N461 alaRS) was studied together with the full-length enzyme using various spectroscopic techniques such as intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, 1-anilino-8-naphthalene-sulfonic acid binding, near- and far-UV circular dichroism, and analytical ultracentrifugation. Aminoacylation activity assay after refolding from denatured state revealed that the monomeric mutants studied here were unable to regain their activity, whereas the dimeric full-length alaRS gets back similar activity as the native enzyme. This study indicates that dimerization is one of the key regulatory factors that is important in the proper folding and stability of E. coli alaRS. PMID:26617997

  9. A peculiar new Helina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Muscidae) from Mexico and Panama.

    PubMed

    Couri, M S

    2012-12-01

    Helina sinaloensis n. sp. (Diptera: Muscidae) is described and illustrated from Mexico and Panama. The new species shows a unique combination of characters and can be distinguished from the other species of the genus by the prosternum with lateral cilia, pre-alar seta absent, anepimeron bare, katepimeron setulose, postalar wall setulose and scutellum with setulae on lateroventral margin.

  10. The Learning Conference: Knowledge Creation through Participation and Publication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louw, Ina; Zuber-Skerritt, Ortrun

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to identify the principles and characteristics of a learning conference which uses action learning and action research (ALAR) processes to create: optimal learning for all participants through a collaborative, inclusive conference culture; further knowledge creation in publishing conference papers post-conference…

  11. Unilateral cleft nasal deformity correction using conchal cartilage lily flower graft.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Kim, Han Joon; Paik, Moo Hyun

    2012-11-01

    We present a conchal cartilage lily flower graft for correcting depressed and laterally displaced alar cartilage for correction of unilateral cleft nasal deformity.After making a V incision at the base of the columellar and then marginal incisions, the alar cartilages were exposed. A fusiform-shaped cartilage larger than 2.5 cm in length and 1 cm in width was obtained. The midline long axis was scored with a No. 15 knife, and the lateral one third was split. Two-thirds length portions were folded in half, and they became straightened in the shape of a stalk of a lily flower. Two symmetrical one-third length portions were fanned out bilaterally in the shape of the leaf of a lily flower. The stalk portion was positioned in a pocket between the medial crura, and the 2 leaf portions were placed on the dome of the alar cartilages. The marked points of the cleft side and contralateral side were secured with sutures. The V incision at the base of the columellar and the marginal incisions were closed with a V-Y shape. In this technique, the 2 leaf portions were placed on the dome of the alar cartilages and sutured; therefore, the suture holds the dome of the cleft side to the contralateral side without peaking.Thirteen patients (6 male and 7 female subjects; age range, 13-30 years) were operated. Among them, 6 patients were very satisfied, and 5 patients were satisfied with the results. Two patients felt they were improved.We think the conchal cartilage lily flower graft might be a good method for correction of depressed and laterally displaced alar cartilage in unilateral cleft nasal deformity.

  12. A 3D analysis of Caucasian and African American facial morphologies in a US population.

    PubMed

    Talbert, Leslie; Kau, Chung How; Christou, Terpsithea; Vlachos, Christos; Souccar, Nada

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to compare facial morphologies of an adult African-American population to an adult Caucasian-American population using three-dimensional (3D) surface imaging. The images were captured using a stereophotogrammetric system (3dMDface(TM) system). Subjects were aged 19-30 years, with normal body mass index and no gross craniofacial anomalies. Images were aligned and combined using RF6 Plus Pack 2 software to produce a male and female facial average for each population. The averages were superimposed and the differences were assessed. The most distinct differences were in the forehead, alar base and perioricular regions. The average difference between African-American and Caucasian-American females was 1·18±0·98 mm. The African-American females had a broader face, wider alar base and more protrusive lips. The Caucasian-American females had a more prominent chin, malar region and lower forehead. The average difference between African-American and Caucasian-American males was 1·11±1·04 mm. The African-American males had a more prominent upper forehead and periocular region, wider alar base and more protrusive lips. No notable difference occurred between chin points of the two male populations. Average faces were created from 3D photographs, and the facial morphological differences between populations and genders were compared. African-American males had a more prominent upper forehead and periocular region, wider alar base and more protrusive lips. Caucasian-American males showed a more prominent nasal tip and malar area. African-American females had broader face, wider alar base and more protrusive lips. Caucasian-American females showed a more prominent chin point, malar region and lower forehead.

  13. jsc2016e107486

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-30

    At the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia, Expedition 49-50 backup crewmembers Mark Vande Hei of NASA (left) and Alexander Misurkin (center) and Nikolai Tikhonov (right) of Roscosmos answer reporters’ questions Aug. 30 at the start of final qualification exams. They are serving as backups to prime crewmembers Shane Kimbrough of NASA and Andrey Borisenko and Sergey Ryzhikov of Roscosmos who will launch on Sept. 24 (Kazakh time) on their Soyuz MS-02 vehicle from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan for a five-month mission on the International Space Station. NASA/Stephanie Stoll

  14. jsc2016e107483

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-30

    At the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia, Expedition 49-50 backup crewmembers Mark Vande Hei of NASA (right, far left) and Alexander Misurkin (right, center) and Nikolai Tikhonov (right, far right) of Roscosmos report to officials Aug. 30 at the start of final qualification exams. They are serving as backups to prime crewmembers Shane Kimbrough of NASA and Andrey Borisenko and Sergey Ryzhikov of Roscosmos who will launch on Sept. 24 (Kazakh time) on their Soyuz MS-02 vehicle from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan for a five-month mission on the International Space Station. NASA/Stephanie Stoll

  15. Natural Gas as an Instrument of Russian State Power (Letort Paper)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    to affect a policy change by the target,”9 and will complement that definition with that of Ivan Eland, who sees the purpose of sanctions “to have...Chan and Drury, p. 2. 10. Ivan Eland, “Economic Sanctions as Tools of Foreign Poli- cy,” in Lopez and Cortright, p. 37. 11. Edward D. Mansfield...Larrabee, p. 47. 41. Nikolai Pavlov , “Twenty Years of German Unity,” Interna- tional Affairs, Vol. 57, No. 1, 2011, p. 84. 42. Matthew Clements, ed., Country

  16. Expedition 9 Russian News Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-20

    NASA Deputy Administrator Fred Gregory, right, and Nikolai Moiseev, Deputy General-Director of the Russian Federal Space Agency, center, share a light-hearted moment at the Russian Mission Control Center outside Moscow, Wednesday, April 21, 2004, following the successful docking of a Russian Soyuz spacecraft to the International Space Station. The Soyuz brought the new Expedition 9 crew and a European Space Agency researcher to the Station following their launch from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. Gibson, Solovyev, Budarin and Precourt enter Astrovan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    STS-71 Mission Commander Robert L. 'Hoot' Gibson; Mir 19 Mission Commander Anatoly Y. Solovyev and Flight Engineer Nikolai M. Budarin; and STS-71 Pilot Charles J. Precourt get ready to enter the Astrovan parked outside the Operations and Checkout Building. The seven-member STS-71 crew is headed for the Space Shuttle Atlantis at Launch Pad 39A, destined for an historic rendezvous and docking with the Russian Space Station Mir. Atlantis is scheduled to lift off during a 10-minute window opening at 4:43:02 p.m. EDT on 6/24/95.

  18. STS-113 TCDT emergency exit training at Launch Pad 39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - As part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities, the STS-113 and Expedition 6 crews receive training in emergency exit from the orbiter on Launch Pad 39A. Shown are (from left) Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox; STS-113 Pilot Paul Lockhart; astronaut Donald Pettit; Mission Specialist Michael Lopez-Alegria, Commander James Wetherbee and Mission Specialist John Herrington; and cosmonaut Nikolai Budarin. The TCDT also includes a simulated launch countdown. The 16th assembly flight to the International Space Station, STS-113 will carry the Port 6 crew, who will replace Expedition 5 on the Station. Mission STS-113 is scheduled to launch Nov. 10, 2002.

  19. A reappraisal of Theroteinus (Haramiyida, Mammaliaformes) from the Upper Triassic of Saint-Nicolas-de-Port (France)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The earliest mammaliaforms are difficult to assess because the fossil record is poor and because their distinctive morphologies cannot be directly compared with more recent mammaliaforms. This is especially true for the haramiyid genus Theroteinus, only known in the Saint-Nicolas-de-Port locality (Rhaetian, France). This study presents a new definition of the type-species Theroteinus nikolai. A new species Theroteinus rosieriensis, sp. nov., is named and distinguished by the lingual shift of distal cusps, a larger size, and a stockier occlusal outline. Comparisons with Eleutherodon, Megaconus and Millsodon suggest that Theroteinus has potential close relatives among the Jurassic haramiyids. PMID:27781174

  20. The study of coastal meromictic water basins in the Kandalaksha Gulf of the White Sea by spectral and physicochemical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharcheva, Anastasia V.; Meschankin, Andrey V.; Lyalin, Igor I.; Krasnova, Elena D.; Voronov, Dmitry A.; Patsaeva, Svetlana V.

    2014-01-01

    Research is initiated to study water samples from stratified water basins in the Kandalaksha Gulf of the White Sea at different stages of their separation from the sea. The objects of research are lakes Elovoe and Nizhnee Ershovskoe located close to the Nikolai Pertsov White Sea Biological Station. Depth profiles of physico-chemical characteristics such as temperature, salinity, pH and dissolved oxygen were measured. Brightly colored green water layers were found in both lakes. Concentrations of photosynthetic organisms were estimated using absorption and fluorescence spectra of water samples from various depths.

  1. Cosmonauts Solovyev and Dezhurov exchange information on Mir

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-07-10

    STS071-118-007 (27 June - 7 July 1995) --- Onboard the Russia?s Mir Space Station Mir Base Block, cosmonauts Anatoly Y. Solovyev (left) and Vladimir N. Dezhurov, Mir 19 and 18 commanders, respectively, exchange information about their research tasks. The two represent a change of guard aboard Mir, as Dezhurov prepares to come back to Earth with the STS-71 crew aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis. Nikolai M. Budarin and Gennadiy M. Strekalov - cosmonaut/flight engineers making the same exchange -- are out of frame.

  2. Edward Lu floats in SM assisted by Kenneth Bowersox

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-04-28

    ISS006-E-50604 (28 April 2003) --- Astronaut Edward T. Lu, Expedition 7 NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer, floats into the Zvezda Service Module on the International Space Station (ISS), assisted by astronaut Kenneth D. Bowersox, Expedition 6 mission commander. Also pictured are cosmonauts Nikolai M. Budarin (left foreground), Expedition 6 flight engineer, and Yuri I. Malenchenko, Expedition 7 mission commander. Astronaut Donald R. Pettit (out of view), Expedition 6 NASA ISS science officer, photographed this image. Budarin and Malenchenko represent Rosaviakosmos.

  3. STS-113 Flight Day 2 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The second flight day of the STS-113 mission begins with a shot inside of the Destiny Laboratory Module. NASA ISS Science Officer Peggy Whitson is seen inside of the Destiny Laboratory where scientific research is performed. Mission Specialists John Herrington and Michael Lopez-Alegria are seen at the Mid-deck of the Space Shuttle Endeavor. Commander Jim Wetherbee and Ken Bowersox are also shown. Pilot Paul Lockhart is the EVA coordinator for this mission. Ken Bowersox, Don Pettit and Nikolai Budarin of the Space Station Expedition Six crew answer questions about the launch.

  4. Geochemistry of Triassic flood basalts from the Yukon (Canada) segment of the accreted Wrangellia oceanic plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Andrew R.; Scoates, James S.; Weis, Dominique; Israel, Steve

    2009-06-01

    A large part of the accreted Middle to Late Triassic Wrangellia oceanic plateau is exposed as a linear belt (< 30 km × 300 km) in southwest Yukon. The first major- and trace-element, and isotopic compositions of the Nikolai Formation in Yukon are presented here, along with compositions for underlying Paleozoic arc rocks. The Nikolai Formation in Yukon is predominantly massive tholeiitic subaerial flows (~ 1000 m) with no intervening sediments and a thin zone of pillow breccia along the base (< 100 m). The Nikolai basalts unconformably overlie Late Paleozoic volcanic arc and marine sedimentary sequences and are overlain by Late Triassic limestone, which grades upwards into pelagic sediments. The Nikolai Formation is comprised of two distinct lava types: low-titanium basalts form most of the lower stratigraphy and high-titanium basalts form the upper parts of the volcanic stratigraphy. All of the low-titanium basalts (0.5-1.0 wt.% TiO 2; 5.6-11.3 wt.% MgO) have prominent negative HFSE anomalies, whereas the high-titanium basalts (1.4-2.3 wt.% TiO 2; 5.8-8.7 wt.% MgO) do not have HFSE anomalies and are more LREE-enriched. The low-titanium basalts are characterized by mostly higher initial ɛHf (+ 11.1 to + 15.8) and lower initial ɛNd (+ 2.3 to + 6.8) than the high-titanium basalts (initial ɛHf = + 10.4 to + 12.0; initial ɛNd = + 6.6 to + 9.0), and their Pb isotopic compositions overlap. Incongruent dynamic melting modeling of trace element compositions indicate the low-titanium basalts could have been derived from small degrees of melting (< 5%) of Paleozoic sub-arc lithospheric mantle that was HFSE-depleted and evolved with high 176Hf/ 177Hf. The high-titanium basalts formed from melting of Pacific plume-type mantle, similar to the source of the Caribbean Plateau. Plume-derived melts dominated the upper stratigraphy of the oceanic plateau as a result of increased decompression melting of the underlying mantle plume in response to thinning of the lithosphere.

  5. STS-113 Flight Day 2 Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-11-01

    The second flight day of the STS-113 mission begins with a shot inside of the Destiny Laboratory Module. NASA ISS Science Officer Peggy Whitson is seen inside of the Destiny Laboratory where scientific research is performed. Mission Specialists John Herrington and Michael Lopez-Alegria are seen at the Mid-deck of the Space Shuttle Endeavor. Commander Jim Wetherbee and Ken Bowersox are also shown. Pilot Paul Lockhart is the EVA coordinator for this mission. Ken Bowersox, Don Pettit and Nikolai Budarin of the Space Station Expedition Six crew answer questions about the launch.

  6. STS-113 Flight Day 1 Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-11-01

    The first flight day of the STS-113 begins with a live shot of the Space Shuttle Endeavor at the Kennedy Space Center. The STS-113 crew consists of Commander Jim Wetherbee, Pilot Paul Lockhart, and Mission Specialists Michael Lopez-Alegria, and John Herrington. The STS-113 crewmembers are accompanied Expedition 6 astronauts Kenneth Bowersox, Donald Pettit and Nikolai Budarin. The purpose of this flight is to carry the P1 truss segment to the International Space Station along with the Expedition 6 flight crew. The crewmembers are shown getting suited for the space flight. Countdown and lift off of the Space Shuttle Endeavor is also shown.

  7. jsc2011e027535

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-21

    At the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, Expedition 27 Flight Engineer Ron Garan of NASA (left), Soyuz Commander Alexander Samokutyaev (center) and Flight Engineer Andrey Borisenko (right) are greeted upon their arrival March 21, 2011 by RSC-Energia Vice-President Nikolai Zelenchikov after their flight to the launch site from Star City, Russia. The trio, and their backups, Anatoly Ivanishin, Anton Shkaplerov and Dan Burbank are in the final weeks of training for their launch April 5 (April 4, U.S. time) on the Soyuz TMA-21 spacecraft to the International Space Station. Credit: NASA/Victor Zelentsov

  8. jsc2011e215337

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-12-08

    The three crewmembers who will round out the Expedition 30 crew on the International Space Station are greeted by Nikolai Zelinchikov of Soyuz spacecraft manufacturer RSC-Energia upon their arrival in Baikonur, Kazakhstan Dec. 8, 2011 for final pre-launch preparations. From left to right are NASA Flight Engineer Don Pettit, Soyuz Commander Oleg Kononenko, Flight Engineer Andre Kuipers of the European Space Agency and Zelinchikov. Pettit, Kononenko and Kuipers will launch to the station on Dec. 21 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome on the Soyuz TMA-03M spacecraft. Courtesy: NASA

  9. STS-113 crew during TCDT emergency egress training at LC39-A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Expedition 6 crew adjust their gloves during emergency egress practice from the 195-foot level of the Fixed Service Structure on Launch Pad 39A. From left are astronaut Donald Pettit, cosmonaut Nikolai Budarin and Commander Ken Bowersox. The crew, travelers on Mission STS-113, will be replacing Expedition 5 on the International Space Station. Along with Expedition 6, STS-113 will carry the Port 1 (P1) truss aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour. Mission STS-113 is scheduled to launch Nov. 10, 2002.

  10. Expedition 6 crew practice emergency egress from LC39-A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The Expedition 6 crew practice emergency egress from the 195-foot level of the Fixed Service Structure on Launch Pad 39A. In the slidewire basket are (from left) cosmonaut Nikolai Budarin, astronaut Donald Pettit and Commander Ken Bowersox. The crew, travelers on Mission STS-113, will be replacing Expedition 5 on the International Space Station. Along with Expedition 6, STS-113 will carry the Port 1 (P1) truss aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour. Mission STS-113 is scheduled to launch Nov. 10, 2002.

  11. STS-113 crew during TCDT emergency egress training at LC39-A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Expedition 6 cosmonaut Nikolai Budarin (center) holds a mini-mascot during a break in emergency egress practice from the 195-foot level of the Fixed Service Structure on Launch Pad 39A. Behind him are STS-113 Pilot Paul Lockhart (left) and Commander James Wetherbee. Expedition 6 will be replacing Expedition 5 on the International Space Station. The 16th assembly flight to the International Space Station, STS-113 will carry the Port 1 (P1) truss aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour. The mission is scheduled to launch Nov. 10, 2002.

  12. Nonlinear Maps for Design of Discrete-Time Models of Neuronal Network Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-31

    2016 Performance/Technic~ 03-01-2016- 03-31-2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Nonlinear Maps for Design of Discrete-Time Models of...Neuronal Network Dynamics Sb. GRANT NUMBER N00014-16-1-2252 Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR{S) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER Nikolai Rulkov Se. TASK NUMBER...they apperar in the report, e.g . 1F665702D1257. Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER. Enter all program element numbers as they appear in the report, e.g

  13. Nonlinear Maps for Design of Discrete Time Models of Neuronal Network Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-29

    Performance/Technic~ 02-01-2016- 02-29-2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Nonlinear Maps for Design of Discrete-Time Models of Neuronal...Network Dynamics Sb. GRANT NUMBER N00014-16-1-2252 Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER Nikolai Rulkov Se. TASK NUMBER Sf...N00014-16-1-2252 Report #1 Performance/Technical Monthly Report Nonlinear Maps for Design of Discrete-Time Models of Neuronal Network Dynamics

  14. jsc2016e109856

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-10

    The Expedition 49 backup crewmembers lay flowers at the statue of Soviet rocket Great Designer Sergey Korolev during a tour of the city of Baikonur, Kazakhstan Sept. 10. From left to right in their flight suits are Mark Vande Hei of NASA and Alexander Misurkin and Nikolai Tikhonov of Roscosmos. They are serving as backups to Shane Kimbrough of NASA and Sergey Ryzhikov and Andrey Borisenko of Roscosmos, who will launch on Sept. 24, Kazakh time from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on the Soyuz MS-02 vehicle for a five-month mission on the International Space Station. NASA/Victor Zelentsov

  15. Rocketry, film and fiction: the road to Sputnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brake, Mark; Hook, Neil

    2007-07-01

    The launch of Sputnik 1 in 1957 was fuelled by science fiction as well as science fact. The field of early rocketry included the work of Russians Nikolai Rynin and Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, American Robert Goddard, and German engineers Herman Oberth and Wernher Von Braun. All were directly inspired and influenced by early science fiction that heralded a space age decades ahead of time. The work of these pioneers led directly to the development of the technology needed to boost Sputnik skyward. After the launch of Sputnik, the context of the nuclear arms race opened the floodgates for a new wave of apocalyptic fiction.

  16. jsc2016e109858

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-10

    Wearing native garb, Expedition 49 backup crewmembers Mark Vande Hei of NASA and Alexander Misurkin and Nikolai Tikhonov of Roscosmos enjoy a cup a tea in a traditional Kazakh setting at a local museum Sept. 10 while on a tour of the city of Baikonur, Kazakhstan. They are serving as backups to Shane Kimbrough of NASA and Sergey Ryzhikov and Andrey Borisenko of Roscosmos, who will launch on Sept. 24, Kazakh time from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on the Soyuz MS-02 vehicle for a five-month mission on the International Space Station. NASA/Victor Zelentsov

  17. STS-113 TCDT emergency exit training at Launch Pad 39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - As part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities, the STS-113 and Expedition 6 crews receive training in emergency exit from the orbiter on Launch Pad 39A. Shown are (from left) Mission Commander James Wetherbee and cosmonaut Nikolai Budarin and astronaut Donald Pettit of the Expedition 6 crew. The TCDT also includes a simulated launch countdown. The 16th assembly flight to the International Space Station, STS-113 will carry the Port 1 (P1) truss aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour as well as the Expedition 6 crew, who will replace Expedition 5 on the Station. Mission STS-113 is scheduled to launch Nov. 10, 2002.

  18. Russia at War, Imperial or Soviet: A Bibliography of Periodical Articles.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-12

    1940 . Donnelly, Edward T. "Russian Field Artillery Drill Regulations, 1912," FAJ, 5:403-406, Apr 1915. "The Eastern Front in the First World War...34Portrait of a Soldier," QMRVW, 18:42-44, 62, 63, Sep 1938. "The German Landing in Finland, April, 1918," A, 27:88-92, Oct 1933. Golovin , Nikolai N...Situation," ILLG, 7:15-17, Mar 1940 . Smirnoff, Alexander. "A New Light upon the Invasion of East Prussia by the Russians in August, 1914," Aq, 12:96-105

  19. The loyal dissident: N.A. Bernstein and the double-edged sword of Stalinism.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Onno G; Bruijn, Sjoerd M

    2007-01-01

    Nikolai Aleksandrovich Bernstein (1896-1966) studied movement in order to understand the brain. Contra Pavlov, he saw movements (thus, the brain) as coordinated. For Bernstein, the cortex was a stochastic device; the more cortexes an animal species has, the more variable its actions will be. Actions are planned with a stochastic "model of the future," and relevance is established through blind mathematical search. In the 1950 neoPavlovian affair, he came under strong attack and had to stop experimenting. It is argued that the consistency of his work derived both from both dialectical materialism and the relentless attacks of the neoPavlovians.

  20. STS-113 TCDT emergency exit training at Launch Pad 39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - STS-113 Mission Specialist John Herrington (left) and cosmonaut Nikolai Budarin (center) listen to instructions from a trainer on the emergency egress system on Launch Pad 39A. They are other crew members are taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities, which also include a simulated launch countdown. The 16th assembly flight to the International Space Station, STS-113 will carry the Port 1 (P1) truss aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour as well as the Expedition 6 crew, who will replace Expedition 5 on the Station. Mission STS-113 is scheduled to launch Nov. 10, 2002.

  1. In memory of V L Ginzburg (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 27 October 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-06-01

    The scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division (PSD) of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), dedicated to the memory of V L Ginzburg, took place in the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS on 27 October 2010.The agenda of the session announced on the website www.gpad.ac.ru of the RAS Physical Sciences Division listed the following reports: (1) Mesyats G A (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Introductory word"; (2) Rubakov V A (Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, Moscow) "Cosmology and the Large Hadron Collider"; (3) Gurevich A V (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow), Zelenyi L M (Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Intense gamma bursts in Earth's atmosphere (TGE) and the mission 'Chibis'"; (4) Vasiliev M A (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Higher-spin theory"; (5) Maksimov E G (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "What is and what is not known about HTSC"; (6) Pudalov V M (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow, and Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology) "V L Ginzburg and the development of experimental work on high-temperature superconductivity at LPI: 'iron superconductors'". Papers based on talks 2, 4, and 6 are published below.For several reasons, L P Pitaevskii was unable to attend the session. He presented a paper dedicated to the memory of V L Ginzburg, which is published in this issue of Physics-Uspekhi (p. 625). • Cosmology and the Large Hadron Collider, V A Rubakov Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 6, Pages 633-641 • V L Ginzburg and higher-spin fields, M A Vasiliev Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 6, Pages 641-648 • V L Ginzburg and the development of experimental work on high-temperature superconductivity at LPI: 'iron superconductors', V M Pudalov, O E Omel'yanovskii, E P Khlybov, A V Sadakov, Yu F El'tsev, K V Mitsen, O M Ivanenko, K S Pervakov, D R Gizatulin, A S Usol'tsev, A S Dormidontov, S Yu Gavrilkin, A Yu Tsvetkov, Ya G Ponomarev, S A Kuzmichev, M G Mikheev

  2. Thorns and dermal denticles of skates Atlantoraja cyclophora and A. castelnaui: Microscopic features and functional implications.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Bianca de Sousa; Wosnick, Natascha; Magdanelo Leandro, Rafael; Amorim, Alberto Ferreira de; Kfoury Junior, José Roberto; Rici, Rose Eli Grassi

    2016-12-01

    Some batoid species are covered with dermal denticles (or placoid scales) that occasionally develop into thorns. In sexually mature males, sharp teeth and alar thorns found on the apex of the lateral disc are used to hold the female during copulation. This study set out to analyze microscopic features of modified dermal denticles and thorns and to investigate sexual dimorphism in Atlantoraja cyclophora and A. castelnaui species. Skin samples collected from areas covered with thorns were fixed in 10% formaldehyde, processed and analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. Alar thorn morphology varied within species, while caudal thorn, rostral and caudal dermal denticle morphology varied within and between species. These structures play an important role in the protection and reproduction of the species studied and constitute important taxonomic information, given they are often the only elements preserved in archaeological sites and fossil records.

  3. Description of Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) tolimensis, a new species of phlebotomine sandfly (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Carrasquilla, María C; Munstermann, Leonard; Marín, Dairo; Ocampo, Clara; Ferro, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    A description is presented of Lutzomyia tolimensis sp. nov., a new species of the subgenus Helcocyrtomyia, series sanguinaria. It was collected in dwellings, peridomestic environment and in nearby forest patches located in the foothills of the Andean Central Cordillera, where in 2004–2006 occurred the largest epidemic ever recorded of leishmaniasis in Colombia. The male of this species is differentiated from other members of the series sanguinaria based on the following combination of characters: (i) base of coxite with 0–3 subequal setae, (ii) spines of gonostyle organized in positions 2.1.2, (iii) spines inserted on distal half of gonostyle and (iv) relationship of alar indices. The female is recognized principally by the following characters: (i) palpomere V longer than III, (ii) length of labro-epipharynx and (iii) relationship of the alar indices. PMID:23295748

  4. Embryonic rationale for the primary correction of classical congenital clefts of the lip and palate.

    PubMed Central

    Millard, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    Primary correction of congenital clefts of the lip and palate should be designed to carry the interrupted embryonic process to normal completion. This is best accomplished by maxillary alignment with presurgical orthodontics, stabilisation of the maxillary alignment, obliteration of the alveolar cleft and construction of the nasal floor with periosteoplasty. This allows early construction of the lip by rotation and advancement and correction of the nose with columella lengthening, alar cartilage positioning and alar base cinching. This can be accomplished before school age. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 PMID:8017808

  5. Modeling the Biodynamical Response of the Human Head for Injury Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-01

    Human Spine. From Ref. [3]. .......................6 Figure 3. Occiput-Atlas-Axis Articulation. The Attachment of the Alar Ligaments to the...Figure 6. Intervertebral Disk Sectioned to Expose the Annular Organization. From Ref. [3]. .............11 Figure 7. Ligaments of the Spine. From Ref...sacral vertebrae, which are fused. The vertebrae and disks along with seven intervertebral ligaments spanning each set of adjacent vertebrae, and two

  6. A structure-based design approach for the identification of novel inhibitors: application to an alanine racemase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustata, Gabriela Iurcu; Briggs, James M.

    2002-12-01

    We report a new structure-based strategy for the identification of novel inhibitors. This approach has been applied to Bacillus stearothermophilus alanine racemase (AlaR), an enzyme implicated in the biosynthesis of the bacterial cell wall. The enzyme catalyzes the racemization of l- and d-alanine using pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) as a cofactor. The restriction of AlaR to bacteria and some fungi and the absolute requirement for d-alanine in peptidoglycan biosynthesis make alanine racemase a suitable target for drug design. Unfortunately, known inhibitors of alanine racemase are not specific and inhibit the activity of other PLP-dependent enzymes, leading to neurological and other side effects. This article describes the development of a receptor-based pharmacophore model for AlaR, taking into account receptor flexibility (i.e. a `dynamic' pharmacophore model). In order to accomplish this, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed on the full AlaR dimer from Bacillus stearothermophilus (PDB entry, 1sft) with a d-alanine molecule in one active site and the non-covalent inhibitor, propionate, in the second active site of this homodimer. The basic strategy followed in this study was to utilize conformations of the protein obtained during MD simulations to generate a dynamic pharmacophore model using the property mapping capability of the LigBuilder program. Compounds from the Available Chemicals Directory that fit the pharmacophore model were identified and have been submitted for experimental testing. The approach described here can be used as a valuable tool for the design of novel inhibitors of other biomolecular targets.

  7. Job Language Performance Requirements for MOS 13B, Cannon Crewman. Volume I & II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    broken manage . brought medic S but mouth to mouth resuscitation causes obstruction certain pause checking pinched check pliable * chest position... woods super user vehicle I \\S 51 • o - M OS : TASK: 031-503-1006 TASK TITLE: GIVE VOCAL, VISUAL AND OR SOUND ALAR.MS FOR CHL11CAL OR BIOLOGCAL ATTACK...examine handcrank holes insulating inspection insulation I.N’ knot pliers maintenance reels rt/splice operator section sections pass (v) sets perform

  8. The tripod graft: nasal tip cartilage reconstruction during revision rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Pedroza, Fernando; Pedroza, Luis Fernando; Achiques, Maria Teresa; Felipe, Edgar; Becerra, Felix

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Nasal tip revision remains one of the most challenging surgical procedures for facial plastic surgeons to perform. OBJECTIVE To describe preoperative and postoperative findings related to nasal tip functional and aesthetic aspects following revision rhinoplasty using the "tripod" technique. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A retrospective descriptive study was performed in patients who underwent revision rhinoplasty between 2007 and 2012 at a clinic in Bogota, Colombia. A preoperative diagnosis of nasal tip deformity was made on the basis of photographic records and compared with postoperative nasal tip findings in patients who required the tripod technique. Photographs were evaluated before and after surgery every month for the first 3 months, and after 6, 9, and 12 months postoperatively. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Nasal projection, tip rotation, columellar and alar retraction, alar pinch, lack of tip definition, and nasal tip asymmetry. RESULTS Sixty-four of the 69 patients who received revision rhinoplasty using the tripod technique during the study period were enrolled in the study. The tripod technique improved all of the following aesthetic and functional parameters (all P < .001). Nasal tip definition improved in 43 of 49 patients (88%). After surgery, projection was normal in 28 of 40 patients (70%) who had underprojection and overprojection preoperatively, and rotation improved in 29 of 38 patients (76%) who had overrotation or underrotation preoperatively. Columellar retraction improved after surgery in 18 of 24 patients (75%). The alar region improved in 41 of 52 patients (79%) who had alar retraction and/or pinch preoperatively, and inspiratory collapse improved in 49 of 50 patients (98%). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The tripod technique is an efficient surgical alternative for nasal tip reconstruction during revision rhinoplasty. This technique allows the destroyed cartilaginous framework to be recreated and returns original nasal tip

  9. Offpost Operable Unit Remedial Investigation and Chemical Specific Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements, Version 3.1. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    3 Sodium cabomate,..I.........................................3 Sodium methy late, alcohol mixture...Potential Biota ARAR: No 53. P•PTARY NAME: Sodium methylate, alcohol mixture CERCL,\\ Hazardous Substance: Yes Ranking on ATSDR Priority List: No Air Aralyte...ARARs for Chromium Ill. Whether these potential ARARs merit selection as AlARs will be determined in the context of the Feasibility Study/Endan- erment

  10. Aesthetic proportions of the nasal aperture in 3 different racial groups of men.

    PubMed

    Abdelkader, Maged; Leong, Samuel; White, Paul S

    2005-01-01

    To define baseline aesthetic dimensions of the nasal aperture in 3 different racial groups. Healthy volunteers from 3 different racial groups (15 white, 15 Chinese, and 15 Indian men) were enrolled in the study at the Department of Otolaryngology, University of Dundee, Dundee, Scotland. Those with a history of nasal or facial surgery or trauma were excluded from the study. Images were obtained and stored in a digital format. The dimensions of nasal aperture were defined by the length of the columella at the narrowest point, the width of the columella at the narrowest point, the length of the nasal aperture at the maximum length, the width of the nasal aperture at the maximum width, and the width of the alar cartilage base. There was no significant difference in the length or the width of the columella for the 3 racial groups. There was no significant difference in the length of the nasal aperture between the Chinese and the white groups. The nasal aperture was longer in the Indian group compared with the other 2 groups (P<.002). The nasal aperture at the maximum width was narrower in the Chinese group compared with the other groups (P<.002); there was no significant difference between the white and Indian groups. The nasal alar width was slightly narrower at the alar base in the Chinese group compared with other racial groups (P<.001). The aesthetic dimensions of the nasal aperture differ between racial groups. The nasal aperture and the alar base were narrower in the Chinese group, and the nasal aperture was longer in the Indian group. The aesthetic surgeon should ideally have an understanding of these ethnic variations.

  11. A Literature Review of Musculoskeletal Injuries to the Human Neck and the Effects of Head-Supported Mass Worn by Soldier

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    1298-1310. Panjabi, M.M., Crisco, J.J., Lydon, C., and Dvorak, J. (1998) The Mechanical Properties of Human Alar and Transverse Ligaments at Slow and...Biomechanics Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering 460 Turner Street CR-2006-01 Blacksburg, VA 24061 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND...develop a complete model of the biomechanical mechanism or structure of interest. Each of these rigid bodies may have different inertial or stiffness

  12. Depicting the inner and outer nose: the representation of the nose and the nasal mucosa on the human primary somatosensory cortex (SI).

    PubMed

    Gastl, Mareike; Brünner, Yvonne F; Wiesmann, Martin; Freiherr, Jessica

    2014-09-01

    The nose is important not only for breathing, filtering air, and perceiving olfactory stimuli. Although the face and hands have been mapped, the representation of the internal and external surface of the nose on the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) is still poorly understood. To fill this gap functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to localize the nose and the nasal mucosa in the Brodman areas (BAs) 3b, 1, and 2 of the human postcentral gyrus (PG). Tactile stimulation during fMRI was applied via a customized pneumatically driven device to six stimulation sites: the alar wing of the nose, the lateral nasal mucosa, and the hand (serving as a reference area) on the left and right side of the body. Individual representations could be discriminated for the left and right hand, for the left nasal mucosa and left alar wing of the nose in BA 3b and BA 1 by comparing mean activation maxima and Euclidean distances. Right-sided nasal conditions and conditions in BA 2 could further be separated by different Euclidean distances. Regarding the alar wing of the nose, the results concurred with the classic sensory homunculus proposed by Penfield and colleagues. The nasal mucosa was not only determined an individual and bilateral representation, its position on the somatosensory cortex is also situated closer to the caudal end of the PG compared to that of the alar wing of the nose and the hand. As SI is commonly activated during the perception of odors, these findings underscore the importance of the knowledge of the representation of the nasal mucosa on the primary somatosensory cortex, especially for interpretation of results of functional imaging studies about the sense of smell.

  13. n-3 Fatty acids preserve muscle mass and insulin sensitivity in a rat model of energy restriction.

    PubMed

    Galmiche, Guillaume; Huneau, Jean-François; Mathé, Véronique; Mourot, Jacques; Simon, Noémie; Le Guillou, Céline; Hermier, Dominique

    2016-10-01

    In obese subjects, the loss of fat mass during energy restriction is often accompanied by a loss of muscle mass. The hypothesis that n-3 PUFA, which modulate protein homoeostasis via effects on insulin sensitivity, could contribute to maintain muscle mass during energy restriction was tested in rats fed a high-fat diet (4 weeks) rich in 18 : 1 n-9 (oleic acid, OLE-R), 18 : 3 n-3 (α-linolenic acid, ALA-R) or n-3 long-chain (LC-R) fatty acid and then energy restricted (8 weeks). A control group (OLE-ad libitum (AL)) was maintained with AL diet throughout the study. Rats were killed 10 min after an i.v. insulin injection. All energy-restricted rats lost weight and fat mass, but only the OLE-R group showed a significant muscle loss. The Gastrocnemius muscle was enriched with ALA in the ALA-R group and with LC-PUFA in the ALA-R and LC-R groups. The proteolytic ubiquitin-proteasome system was differentially affected by energy restriction, with MAFbx and muscle ring finger-1 mRNA levels being decreased in the LC-R group (-30 and -20 %, respectively). RAC-α serine/threonine-protein kinase and insulin receptor substrate 1 phosphorylation levels increased in the LC-R group (+70 %), together with insulin receptor mRNA (+50 %). The ALA-R group showed the same overall activation pattern as the LC-R group, although to a lesser extent. In conclusion, dietary n-3 PUFA prevent the loss of muscle mass associated with energy restriction, probably by an improvement in the insulin-signalling pathway activation, in relation to enrichment of plasma membranes in n-3 LC-PUFA.

  14. Classification of Chronic Whiplash Associated Disorders With Artificial Neural Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    J. Hayek, T. Ettlin, “"Whiplash" injury of the cervical spine: value of modern diagnostic imaging ”, Schweiz -Med- Wochenschr, vol 127, pp 1643-51...standard X-ray. Instead other imaging techniques e.g., MRT can in some instances show changes [10]. Despite absence of abnormal imaging findings, patients...1997. [11] C.W. Pfirrmann, C.A. Binkert, M. Zanetti, N. Boos, J. Hodler, “Functional MR imaging of the craniocervical junction. Correlation with alar

  15. Paleogeographic implications of high latitude and middle latitude affinities of the ammonoid Uraloceras

    SciTech Connect

    Spinosa, C.; Gallegos, D.M. ); Nassichuk, W.W. ); Snyder, W.S.

    1991-02-01

    The ammonoid genus Uraloceras characterized a Lower Permian Boreal paleogeographic realm. Reported Lower Permian Pangaean uraloceras occurrences have a Boreal or high-latitude distribution. Additional Lower Permian occurrences in Alaska, dominated by Boreal species, are compatible with and reinforce the Boreal distribution of the genus. In contrast, a new Uraloceras species from Nevada and from the Yukon, as well as representatives of the genus form Nei Monggol, inhabited regions of lower latitudes. The latter ammonoid faunas, geographically and paleoecologically transitional between boreal and equatorial realms, include the genus Uraloceras as well as abundant other ammonoid taxa and representatives of equatorial perinitid ammonoids. The lower assemblage of Wrangellia terrane in eastern Alaska, consisting of the Lower Permian Mankomen Group (Slana Spur and Eagle Creek formations), contains abundant Uraloceras and Paragastrioceras of high-latitude affinities. Published paleomagnetic data indicate that the Nikolai Greenstone is of equatorial origin, with paleolatitudes 10 to 17{degree}. The Nikolai Greenstone seems to have a far-traveled history incompatible with ammonoid evidence suggesting cool-water setting on the Pangaean continental shelf. A reinterpretation for the origin of Wrangellia or its magnetic signature may be in order. Alternative hypotheses suggest that the Eagle Creek Uraloceras-Paragastrioceras Boreal fauna was scraped off the craton at higher latitudes (possible 30-45{degree}) and carried with Wrangellia to its present location.

  16. Preliminary report on the Nelson and Radovan copper prospects, Nizina district, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sainsbury, C.J.

    1952-01-01

    Renewed copper exploration by Alaska Copper Mines, Incorporated, at the Nelson and Radovan prospects, Nizina district, Alaska, led the Geological Survey in 1951 to map in detail the Nelson fault block, and to re-examine the old workings. In addition, two new prospects were studied. The Nelson fault block is cut by many dominantly strike-slip faults of small displacement, and by bedding faults. Slickensided chalcocite shows post-mineral movement, and chalcocite veinlet in a filled solution cavity indicates that some of the chalcocite is secondary, perhaps very recent. Structural relations indicate two overthrust faults cut the block. The Radovan Greenstone prospect shows massive chalcocite, up to 3 feet wide, in a silicified, epidotized fault zone in the Nikolai greenstone. Ore indicated by surface exposures may amount to 450 tons of chalcocite. The Radovan Low-Contact prospect is on a continuation of the same fault approximately 3 miles southwest of the Greenstone prospect, and 150 feet above the contact of the Nikolai greenstone and the overlying Chitistone limestone. Limonite staining is widespread in bedding planes and small faults near the fault zone; mineralization in the fault zone consists of pyrite, chalcocite, bornite, malachite, realgar, orpiment and stibnite. The sulphides in the fault zone, plus the widespread silicification and epidotization indicate a strong zone of hydrothermal activity which merits extensive prospecting.

  17. The same Arabidopsis gene encodes both cytosolic and mitochondrial alanyl-tRNA synthetases.

    PubMed Central

    Mireau, H; Lancelin, D; Small, I D

    1996-01-01

    In plants, all aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are nuclearly encoded, despite the fact that their activities are required in the three protein-synthesizing cell compartments (cytosol, mitochondria, and chloroplasts). To investigate targeting of these enzymes, we cloned cDNAs encoding alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AlaRS) and the corresponding nuclear gene, ALATS, from Arabidopsis by using degenerate polymerase chain reaction primers based on highly conserved regions shared between known AlaRSs from other organisms. Analysis of the transcription of the gene showed the presence of two potential translation initiation codons in some ALATS mRNAs. Translation from the upstream AUG would generate an N-terminal extension with features characteristic of mitochondrial targeting peptides. A polyclonal antibody raised against part of the Arabidopsis AlaRS revealed that the Arabidopsis cytosolic and mitochondrial AlaRSs are immunologically similar, suggesting that both isoforms are encoded by the ALATS gene. In vitro experiments confirmed that two polypeptides can be translated from AlATS transcripts, with most ribosomes initiating on the downstream AUG to give the shorter polypeptide corresponding in size to the cytosolic enzyme. The ability of the presequence encoded between the two initiation codons to direct polypeptides to mitochondria was demonstrated by expression of fusion proteins in tobacco protoplasts and in yeast. We conclude that the ALATS gene encodes both the cytosolic and the mitochondrial forms of AlaRS, depending on which of the two AUG codons is used to initiate translation. PMID:8672889

  18. Nose tip refinement using interdomal suture in caucasian nose

    PubMed Central

    Pasinato, Rogério; Mocelin, Marcos; Berger, Cezar Augusto Sarraf

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Refinement of the nose tip can be accomplished by a variety of techniques, but currently, the use of sutures in the nasal tip with conservative resection of the alar cartilage is the most frequently recommended approach. Objective: To classify the nasal tip and to demonstrate the interdomal suture applied to nasal tip refinement in the Caucasian nose, as well as to provide a simple and practical presentation of the surgical steps. Method: Development of surgical algorithm for nasal tip surgery: 1. Interdomal suture (double binding suture), 2. Interdomal suture with alar cartilage weakening (cross-hatching), 3. Interdomal suture with cephalic removal of the alar cartilage (McIndoe technique) based on the nasal tip type classification. This classification assesses the interdomal distance (angle of domal divergence and intercrural distance), domal arch width, cartilage consistency, and skin type. Interdomal suture is performed through endonasal rhinoplasty by basic technique without delivery (Converse-Diamond technique) under local anesthesia. Conclusion: This classification is simple and facilitates the approach of surgical treatment of the nasal tip through interdomal suture, systematizing and standardizing surgical maneuvers for better refinement of the Caucasian nose. PMID:25991963

  19. The transverse occipital ligament: anatomy and potential functional significance.

    PubMed

    Tubbs, R Shane; Griessenauer, Christoph J; McDaniel, Jenny Gober; Burns, Amanda M; Kumbla, Anjali; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2010-03-01

    Knowledge of the anatomy of ligaments that bind the craniocervical junction is important for treating patients with lesions of this region. Although the anatomy and function of these ligaments have been well described, those of the transverse occipital ligament (TOL) have remained enigmatic. To describe the anatomy and functions of the transverse occipital ligament. Via a posterior approach, 9 cadaveric specimens underwent dissection of the craniocervical junction with special attention to the presence and anatomy of the TOL. The TOL was identified in 77.8% of the specimens. The ligament was found to be rectangular with fibers running horizontally between the lateral aspects of the foramen magnum. The attachment of each ligament near the occipital condyle was consistent, and each ligament was found superior to the transverse portion of the cruciform ligament and inserted just posterior to the lateral attachment sites of the alar ligaments. The average width, length, and thickness of the TOL was 0.34, 1.94, and 0.13 cm, respectively. The TOL in some specimens also had connections to the alar and transverse ligaments. The TOL was found in the majority of our specimens. The possible functions of this ligament when attached to the alar ligaments include providing additional support to these structures in stabilizing lateral bending, flexion, and axial rotation of the head. Knowledge of this ligament may aid in further understanding craniocervical stability and help in differentiating normal from pathology via imaging modalities.

  20. Mesencephalic basolateral domain specification is dependent on Sonic Hedgehog

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Lopez, Jesus E.; Moreno-Bravo, Juan A.; Madrigal, M. Pilar; Martinez, Salvador; Puelles, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    In the study of central nervous system morphogenesis, the identification of new molecular markers allows us to identify domains along the antero-posterior and dorso-ventral (DV) axes. In the past years, the alar and basal plates of the midbrain have been divided into different domains. The precise location of the alar-basal boundary is still under discussion. We have identified Barhl1, Nhlh1 and Six3 as appropriate molecular markers to the adjacent domains of this transition. The description of their expression patterns and the contribution to the different mesencephalic populations corroborated their role in the specification of these domains. We studied the influence of Sonic Hedgehog on these markers and therefore on the specification of these territories. The lack of this morphogen produced severe alterations in the expression pattern of Barhl1 and Nhlh1 with consequent misspecification of the basolateral (BL) domain. Six3 expression was apparently unaffected, however its distribution changed leading to altered basal domains. In this study we confirmed the localization of the alar-basal boundary dorsal to the BL domain and demonstrated that the development of the BL domain highly depends on Shh. PMID:25741244

  1. Fetal anatomy of the lower cervical and upper thoracic fasciae with special reference to the prevertebral fascial structures including the suprapleural membrane.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Naritomo; Takeuchi, Hiromi; Cho, Baik Hwan; Murakami, Gen; Fujimiya, Mineko; Kitano, Hiroya

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to find basic rules governing the fetal anatomy of the deep cervical fasciae and their connections to the mediastinal fasciae. We examined the histology of paraffin-embedded preparations of 18 mid-term fetuses (5 between 9 and 12 weeks of gestation, 3 between 15 and 18 weeks, and 10 between 20 and 25 weeks). The prevertebral lamina of the deep cervical fasciae (PLDCF) developed as an intermediate aponeurosis for the bilateral bellies of the longus colli muscles. In contrast, the alar fascia developed as a connecting band between the bilateral adventitiae of the common carotid artery. The retropharyngeal fascia became evident much later than the latter two fasciae. The fascia covering the thymus was thicker than the fascia for the strap muscles (the pretracheal lamina of the cervical fascia). The primitive suprapleural membrane, or Sibson's fascia, contained veins and fatty tissues, and was composed of the alar fascia rather than the PLDCF, tranversalis fascia, or endothoracic fascia. The prevertebral two-laminar configuration was rather evident in the early stages of development because, in the later stages, the fasciae together provided a multilaminar structure, especially in the lateral area in front of the longus colli, which suspended the cupula pleurae. To consider a continuation from the base of the neck to the upper mediastinum, the alar fascia seems to be a key structure for connecting the vascular sheath to the parietal pleura.

  2. The selective tRNA aminoacylation mechanism based on a single G•U pair.

    PubMed

    Naganuma, Masahiro; Sekine, Shun-ichi; Chong, Yeeting Esther; Guo, Min; Yang, Xiang-Lei; Gamper, Howard; Hou, Ya-Ming; Schimmel, Paul; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2014-06-26

    Ligation of tRNAs with their cognate amino acids, by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, establishes the genetic code. Throughout evolution, tRNA(Ala) selection by alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AlaRS) has depended predominantly on a single wobble base pair in the acceptor stem, G3•U70, mainly on the kcat level. Here we report the crystal structures of an archaeal AlaRS in complex with tRNA(Ala) with G3•U70 and its A3•U70 variant. AlaRS interacts with both the minor- and the major-groove sides of G3•U70, widening the major groove. The geometry difference between G3•U70 and A3•U70 is transmitted along the acceptor stem to the 3'-CCA region. Thus, the 3'-CCA region of tRNA(Ala) with G3•U70 is oriented to the reactive route that reaches the active site, whereas that of the A3•U70 variant is folded back into the non-reactive route. This novel mechanism enables the single wobble pair to dominantly determine the specificity of tRNA selection, by an approximate 100-fold difference in kcat.

  3. The selective tRNA aminoacylation mechanism based on a single G•U pair

    PubMed Central

    Naganuma, Masahiro; Sekine, Shun-ichi; Chong, Yeeting Esther; Guo, Min; Yang, Xiang-Lei; Gamper, Howard; Hou, Ya-Ming; Schimmel, Paul; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2015-01-01

    Ligation of tRNAs with their cognate amino acids, by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, establishes the genetic code. Throughout evolution, tRNAAla selection by alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AlaRS) has depended predominantly on a single wobble base pair in the acceptor stem, G3•U70, mainly on the kcat level. Here we report the crystal structures of an archaeal AlaRS in complex with tRNAAla with G3•U70 and its A3•U70 variant. AlaRS interacts with both the minor- and major-groove sides of G3•U70, widening the major groove. The geometry difference between G3•U70 and A3•U70 is transmitted along the acceptor stem to the 3′-CCA region. Thus, the 3′-CCA region of tRNAAla with G3•U70 is oriented to the reactive route that reaches the active site, whereas that of the A3•U70 variant is folded back into the “non-reactive route”. This novel mechanism enables the single wobble pair to dominantly determine the specificity of tRNA selection, by an approximate 100-fold difference in kcat. PMID:24919148

  4. Investigation of whiplash injuries in the upper cervical spine using a detailed neck model.

    PubMed

    Fice, Jason B; Cronin, Duane S

    2012-04-05

    Whiplash injuries continue to have significant societal cost; however, the mechanism and location of whiplash injury is still under investigation. Recently, the upper cervical spine ligaments, particularly the alar ligament, have been identified as a potential whiplash injury location. In this study, a detailed and validated explicit finite element model of a 50th percentile male cervical spine in a seated posture was used to investigate upper cervical spine response and the potential for whiplash injury resulting from vehicle crash scenarios. This model was previously validated at the segment and whole spine levels for both kinematics and soft tissue strains in frontal and rear impact scenarios. The model predicted increasing upper cervical spine ligament strain with increasing impact severity. Considering all upper cervical spine ligaments, the distractions in the apical and alar ligaments were the largest relative to their failure strains, in agreement with the clinical findings. The model predicted the potential for injury to the apical ligament for 15.2 g frontal or 11.7 g rear impacts, and to the alar ligament for a 20.7 g frontal or 14.4 g rear impact based on the ligament distractions. Future studies should consider the effect of initial occupant position on ligament distraction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Massive and massless higher spinning particles in odd dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastianelli, Fiorenzo; Bonezzi, Roberto; Corradini, Olindo; Latini, Emanuele

    2014-09-01

    We study actions for massive bosonic particles of higher spins by dimensionally reducing an action for massless particles. For the latter we take a model with a SO( N) extended local supersymmetry on the worldline, that is known to describe massless (conformal) particles of higher spins in flat spacetimes of even dimensions. Dimensional reduction produces an action for massive spinning particles in odd dimensions. The field equations that emerge in a quantization à la Dirac are shown to be equivalent to the Fierz-Pauli ones. The massless limit generates a multiplet of massless states with higher spins, whose first quantized field equations have a geometric form with fields belonging to various types of Young tableaux. These geometric equations can be partially integrated to show their equivalence with the standard Fronsdal-Labastida equations. We covariantize our model to check whether an extension to curved spacetimes can be achieved. Restricting to (A)dS spaces, we find that the worldline gauge algebra becomes nonlinear, but remains first class. This guarantees consistency on such backgrounds. A light cone analysis confirms the presence of the expected propagating degrees of freedom. A covariant analysis is worked out explicitly for the massive case, which is seen to give rise to the Fierz-Pauli equations extended to (A)dS spaces. It is worth noting that in D = 3 the massless limit of our model with N → ∞ has the same field content of the Vasiliev's theory that accommodates each spin exactly once.

  6. Three-dimensional fractional-spin gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulanger, Nicolas; Sundell, Per; Valenzuela, Mauricio

    2014-02-01

    Using Wigner-deformed Heisenberg oscillators, we construct 3D Chern-Simons models consisting of fractional-spin fields coupled to higher-spin gravity and internal nonabelian gauge fields. The gauge algebras consist of Lorentz-tensorial Blencowe-Vasiliev higher-spin algebras and compact internal algebras intertwined by infinite-dimensional generators in lowest-weight representations of the Lorentz algebra with fractional spin. In integer or half-integer non-unitary cases, there exist truncations to gl(ℓ , ℓ ± 1) or gl(ℓ|ℓ ± 1) models. In all non-unitary cases, the internal gauge fields can be set to zero. At the semi-classical level, the fractional-spin fields are either Grassmann even or odd. The action requires the enveloping-algebra representation of the deformed oscillators, while their Fock-space representation suffices on-shell. The project was funded in part by F.R.S.-FNRS " Ulysse" Incentive Grant for Mobility in Scientific Research.

  7. Frobenius-Chern-Simons gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonezzi, Roberto; Boulanger, Nicolas; Sezgin, Ergin; Sundell, Per

    2017-02-01

    Given a set of differential forms on an odd-dimensional noncommutative manifold valued in an internal associative algebra H , we show that the most general cubic covariant Hamiltonian action, without mass terms, is controlled by an {{{Z}}2} -graded associative algebra F with a graded symmetric nondegenerate bilinear form. The resulting class of models provide a natural generalization of the Frobenius-Chern-Simons model (FCS) that was proposed in (arXiv:1505.04957) as an off-shell formulation of the minimal bosonic four-dimensional higher spin gravity theory. If F is unital and the {{{Z}}2} -grading is induced from a Klein operator that is outer to a proper Frobenius subalgebra, then the action can be written on a form akin to topological open string field theory in terms of a superconnection valued in H\\otimes F . We give a new model of this type based on a twisting of {C}≤ft[{{{Z}}2}× {{{Z}}4}\\right] , which leads to self-dual complexified gauge fields on AdS 4. If F is 3-graded, the FCS model can be truncated consistently as to contain no zero-form constraints on-shell. Two examples thereof are a twisting of {C}[{{({{{Z}}2})}3}] that yields the original model, and the Clifford algebra C{{\\ell}2n} which provides an FCS formulation of the bosonic Konstein-Vasiliev model with gauge algebra hu≤ft({{4}n-1},0\\right) .

  8. Evolution of massive black hole binaries in rotating stellar nuclei: Implications for gravitational wave detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasskazov, Alexander; Merritt, David

    2017-04-01

    We compute the isotropic gravitational wave (GW) background produced by binary supermassive black holes (SBHs) in galactic nuclei. In our model, massive binaries evolve at early times via gravitational-slingshot interaction with nearby stars, and at later times by the emission of GWs. Our expressions for the rate of binary hardening in the "stellar" regime are taken from the recent work of Vasiliev et al., who show that in the nonaxisymmetric galaxies expected to form via mergers, stars are supplied to the center at high enough rates to ensure binary coalescence on Gyr timescales. We also include, for the first time, the extra degrees of freedom associated with evolution of the binary's orbital plane; in rotating nuclei, interaction with stars causes the orientation and the eccentricity of a massive binary to change in tandem, leading in some cases to very high eccentricities (e >0.9 ) before the binary enters the GW-dominated regime. We argue that previous studies have over-estimated the mean ratio of SBH mass to galaxy bulge mass by factors of 2-3. In the frequency regime currently accessible to pulsar timing arrays (PTAs), our assumptions imply a factor 2-3 reduction in the characteristic strain compared with the values computed in most recent studies, removing the tension that currently exists between model predictions and the nondetection of GWs.

  9. Partially massless higher-spin theory II: one-loop effective actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brust, Christopher; Hinterbichler, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    We continue our study of a generalization of the D-dimensional linearized Vasiliev higher-spin equations to include a tower of partially massless (PM) fields. We compute one-loop effective actions by evaluating zeta functions for both the "minimal" and "non-minimal" parity-even versions of the theory. Specifically, we compute the log-divergent part of the effective action in odd-dimensional Euclidean AdS spaces for D = 7 through 19 (dual to the a-type conformal anomaly of the dual boundary theory), and the finite part of the effective action in even-dimensional Euclidean AdS spaces for D = 4 through 8 (dual to the free energy on a sphere of the dual boundary theory). We pay special attention to the case D = 4, where module mixings occur in the dual field theory and subtlety arises in the one-loop computation. The results provide evidence that the theory is UV complete and one-loop exact, and we conjecture and provide evidence for a map between the inverse Newton's constant of the partially massless higher-spin theory and the number of colors in the dual CFT.

  10. Three dimensional laser scan assessment of the Oriental nose with a new classification of Oriental nasal types.

    PubMed

    Aung, S C; Foo, C L; Lee, S T

    2000-03-01

    The Oriental nose, which has been broadly classified as mesorrhine, differs in anatomy and morphology from other racial groups. The objective of this study is to carry out anthropometric measurements in the nose region, in order to establish norms for the Oriental nose and also to identify the variations that might occur within this group. Knowledge of the unique shape, anatomy and dimensions of the Oriental nose would be very useful for surgeons undertaking repair and reconstruction of Oriental noses. Ninety, normal Oriental subjects were scanned using a laser surface scanner, and the assessments were then carried out on the laser scan images. The 3-D laser scan images permit adjustment and positioning to achieve the correct standard views for assessment. Subjective assessment of the nose shape, as well as linear and angular measurements were carried out. Depending on the fullness and roundness of the nasal tip and the prominence of the alar lobules on either side, the Oriental nasal base may take on varied shapes and accordingly, three distinct shapes have been identified. They have been classified into types A, B and C where type A has a very prominent alar lobule and a full and rounded nasal tip. In type B, the alar lobule was less prominent and the nasal tip was more defined while in type C the alar lobule was the least prominent resulting in the lateral walls forming a relatively straight slope from the tip to the alar base. The linear and angular measurements for Oriental noses were also obtained and compared to values for other racial groups. The proportion indices for the Oriental nose showed that it was broader in relation to the nose height, and had less tip protrusion in relation to both the height and width of the nose. The data collected from this study can be used as norms for Oriental cases and the simple classification of the nose shape will serve as a guide for quick reference, when planning aesthetic or reconstructive rhinoplasties for the

  11. Preliminary evaluation of a differential effect of an α-linolenate-rich supplement on ketogenesis and plasma ω-3 fatty acids in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Hennebelle, Marie; Courchesne-Loyer, Alexandre; St-Pierre, Valérie; Vandenberghe, Camille; Castellano, Christian-Alexandre; Fortier, Mélanie; Tessier, Daniel; Cunnane, Stephen C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of an α-linolenic acid-rich supplement (ALA-RS) on the ketogenic response and plasma long-chain ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in healthy young adults and older individuals. Ten young (25 ± 0.9 y) and 10 older adults (73.1 ± 2.2 y) consumed a flaxseed oil supplement providing 2 g/d of ALA for 4 wk. Plasma ketones, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), triacylglycerols, glucose, and insulin were measured over 6 h, before and after supplementation. Total body fat mass was assessed before and after the ALA-RS. The ALA-RS did not significantly modify fasting ketones but postprandial production of β-hydroxybutyrate was increased by 26% (P = 0.037) only in the young adult group. Fasting plasma ketones were positively correlated to fasting plasma NEFA (P < 0.01) in both groups. However, the relation was shifted to the right in the older group, suggesting that older adults needed higher plasma NEFA levels to achieve the same ketone amounts as young adults. At baseline, the older group had 47% higher total plasma fatty acids than the young group (P = 0.007). After the ALA-RS, plasma ALA doubled in both groups (P < 0.01), an effect that was associated in the older group with a 40% higher eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; P = 0.004), but no difference in docosahexaenoic acid. The postsupplementation increase in plasma ALA correlated positively with percent total body fat, especially in the older group (r(2) = 0.77; P = 0.0016). In young adults, ALA-RS mildly stimulated postprandial ketogenesis, whereas in the older group, it favored increased plasma ALA and EPA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Higher-spin theory and holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaberdiel, Matthias; Vasiliev, Mikhail

    2013-05-01

    This special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical reviews recent developments in higher-spin gauge theories and their applications to holographic dualities. The analysis of higher-spin theories has a very long history, but it took until the mid 1980s for the first consistent higher-spin interactions to be constructed by Bengtsson, Bengtsson and Brink [1] and Berends, Burgers and van Dam [2]. Somewhat later it was shown by Fradkin and Vasiliev [3] that consistent higher-spin gauge theories that involve gravity should necessarily be defined on a curved background. The first consistent interacting higher-spin theories were then formulated at the classical level by Vasiliev in the early 1990s [4]. These higher-spin theories involve an infinite number of massless higher-spin fields that support higher-spin gauge symmetries, and indeed, are largely characterized by this underlying gauge symmetry. The simplest examples are provided by higher-spin theories on (anti)-de Sitter spaces, and in a sense, this anticipated the AdS/CFT correspondence. Indeed, in the tensionless limit of string theory, the massive excitations of string theory become massless, and hence define higher-spin gauge fields. On the other hand, from the dual gauge theory perspective, this is the limit in which the field theory becomes free, and therefore has many conserved higher-spin currents. By the usual AdS/CFT dictionary, these are dual to the higher-spin gauge symmetries of the bulk description. Following this line of argument, Sundborg [5] and Witten [6] suggested in 2001 that a duality relating a higher-spin theory on AdSd to a weakly coupled (d - 1)-dimensional conformal field theory should exist. A concrete proposal was then made by Klebanov and Polyakov [7] who conjectured that the simplest version of a higher-spin gauge theory on AdS4 should be dual to the 3d O(N ) vector model. Recently, much support for this conjecture was obtained by Giombi and Yin [8], and in turn

  13. EPR in the USSR: the thorny path from birth to biological and chemical applications.

    PubMed

    Ptushenko, Vasily Vitalievich; Zavoiskaya, Nataliya Evgenievna

    2017-08-25

    In 1944, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) was discovered by Evgenii Konstantinovich Zavoisky in the USSR (Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics). Since then, magnetic resonance methods have contributed invaluably to our knowledge in many areas of Life Sciences and Chemistry, and particularly in the area of photosynthesis research. However, the road of the magnetic resonance methods, as well as its acceptance in Life Sciences and Chemistry, was not smooth and prompt in the (former) USSR. We discuss the role played by many including Jakov K. Syrkin, Nikolai N. Semenov, Vladislav V. Voevodsky, Lev A. Blumenfeld, Peter L. Kapitza, and Alexander I. Shalnikov during the early stages of biological and chemical EPR spectroscopy in the USSR.

  14. Cosmonauts Solovyev and Budarin check out hardware to be flown on STS-71

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-11-01

    S94-47071 (Nov. 1994) --- In a Shuttle mockup trainer at the Johnson Space Center (JSC), two Russian cosmonauts assigned to Russia's Mir 19 mission check out hardware like that to be flown onboard NASA's Space Shuttle Atlantis, the spacecraft that will take the pair to their orbital destination. Anatoly Y. Solovyev, mission commander; and Nikolai M. Budarin (nearest camera), flight engineer, practice using the Recumbent Seating System (RSS). RSS has been manifest to be carried on the Space Shuttle Atlantis for the STS-71 mission. When Atlantis docks with the Mir space station in 1995, a NASA astronaut and two other Russian cosmonauts, who will have been onboard Mir for a long duration stay, will join the STS-71 crew for the return to Earth. Solovyev and Budarin will remain aboard Mir, to return to Earth later in one of Russia's Soyuz spacecraft.

  15. STS-113 Mission Highlights Resource Tape Flight Days 1-3. Tape: 1 of 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This video, part 1 of 4, shows the activities of the crew of Space Shuttle Endeavour during flight days 1-3 of STS-113. The crew consists of Commander Jim Wetherbee, Pilot Paul Lockhart, Mission Specialists Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington. With them were the Expedition 6 crewmembers of the International Space Station (ISS), Ken Bowersox, Nikolai Budarin, and Don Pettit. Pre-launch procedures are shown, and the rain-delayed night launch is shown from several camera angles. On flight day 2 there was a check out of the Canadarm on Endeavour, and some intravehicular activity. Flight day 3 highlights the docking of Endeavour and the ISS, and preparation for an extravehicular activity (EVA) the following day. Earth views include the English Channel at night with a close-up of London, the coast of Ecuador, and some views of Endeavour with the Earth in the background.

  16. STS-113 Flight Day 9 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This video shows the activities of the STS-113 (Jim Wetherbee, Commander; Paul Lockhart, Pilot; Michael Lopez-Alegria, John Herrington, Mission Specialists) crew during flight day 9. Also seen are the outgoing Expedition 5 (Valeri Korzun, Commander; Peggy Whitsun, ISS Science Officer/Flight Engineer; Sergei Treschev, Flight Engineer) and incoming Expedition 6 (Kenneth Bowersox, Commander; Donald Pettit, Nikolai Budarin, Flight Engineers) crews of the ISS (International Space Station). Flight day 9 is a relatively inactive day, with some off-time scheduled for crew bonding and enjoying views. Seven of the joint crew members, including Lopez-Alegria, Wetherbee, Herrington, and Whitsun, pose together and answer questions. Footage shows ISS Science Officers Whitsun and Pettit troubleshooting equipment. The video also contains a clear view of southern South America, a cloudy view of the South Pacific, and external footage of the ISS including the Canadarm robotic arm. The payload bay of the shuttle Endeavour is also shown.

  17. STS-113 Flight Day 9 Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-12-01

    This video shows the activities of the STS-113 (Jim Wetherbee, Commander; Paul Lockhart, Pilot; Michael Lopez-Alegria, John Herrington, Mission Specialists) crew during flight day 9. Also seen are the outgoing Expedition 5 (Valeri Korzun, Commander; Peggy Whitsun, ISS Science Officer/Flight Engineer; Sergei Treschev, Flight Engineer) and incoming Expedition 6 (Kenneth Bowersox, Commander; Donald Pettit, Nikolai Budarin, Flight Engineers) crews of the ISS (International Space Station). Flight day 9 is a relatively inactive day, with some off-time scheduled for crew bonding and enjoying views. Seven of the joint crew members, including Lopez-Alegria, Wetherbee, Herrington, and Whitsun, pose together and answer questions. Footage shows ISS Science Officers Whitsun and Pettit troubleshooting equipment. The video also contains a clear view of southern South America, a cloudy view of the South Pacific, and external footage of the ISS including the Canadarm robotic arm. The payload bay of the shuttle Endeavour is also shown.

  18. Astronomical Books in Virtual Library of Faculty of Mathematics in Belgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pejovic, N.; Mijajlovic, Z.

    2012-12-01

    The Virtual Library of the Faculty of Mathematics in Belgrade, at the address http://elibrary.matf.bg.ac.rs, contains about 100 digitized books related to astronomy. These books are written mostly by Serbian scientists but there are also translations into Serbian by foreign authors. This article presents a list of books written by the following authors: Rudjer Bo\\vsković, Zaharije Orfelin, Atanasije Stojković, Djordje Stanojević, Milan Andonović, Kosta Stojanović, Nikolai Tsinger, Milutin Milanković, Milan Nedeljković, Pavle Vujević, Vojislav Minković, Zaharije Brkić, Branislav Ševarlić, Jovan Simovljević and Sergei Blažko. Some of these books had the great influence on the development of astronomy, geodesy and mathematical geography in Serbia. The full list of these books is given and a selection of them is presented and commented.

  19. STS-113 crew breakfast before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The STS-113 crew enjoys a snack before suiting up for launch. Seated left to right are Mission Specialists John Herrington and Michael Lopez-Alegria, Pilot Paul Lockhart and Commander James Wetherbee; Expedition 6 flight engineer Donald Pettit, Commander Ken Bowersox and flight engineer Nikolai Budarin. STS-113 is the 16th American assembly flight to the International Space Station. The primary mission is bringing the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and returning the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. The major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is scheduled for Nov. 11 at 12:58 a.m. EST.

  20. STS-113 and Expedition 6 crews leave the O&C building for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The STS-113 and Expedition 6 crews head for the Astrovan to transport them to Launch Pad 39A and Space Shuttle Endeavour. In the foreground, from left, are Mission Specialist Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington, and Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox. In the background, from left, are Expedition 6 flight engineers Donald Pettit and Nikolai Budarin, Pilot Paul Lockhart and Commander James Wetherbee. The primary mission for the crew is bringing the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and returning the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. The major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is scheduled for Nov. 22, 2002, at 8:15 p.m. EST.

  1. STS-107 Flight Day 12 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This video shows the activities of the STS-107 crew (Rick Husband, Commander; William McCool, Pilot; Kalpana Chawla, David Brown, Michael Anderson, Laurel Clark, Mission Specialists; Ilan Ramon, Payload Specialist) during flight day 12 of the Columbia orbiter's final mission. The primary activities are spaceborne experiments in the SpaceHab RDM (Research Double Module). Experiments shown in the video include SOFBALL (Structure of Flame Balls at Low Lewis-Number), an experiment to grow cancer cells in microgravity, and the STARS (Space Technology and Research Students) experiments, including bees, ants, chemical gardens, fish, and spiders. Crew Members are shown working on MIST (Water Mist Fire Suppression), a commercial experiment. Red Team crew members (Husband, Chawla, Clark, Ramon) are shown conversing through a handset with the Expedition 6 crew (Kenneth Bowersox, Commander; Donald Pettit, Nikolai Budarin; Flight Engineers) of the ISS (International Space Station).

  2. STS-107 Flight Day 12 Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    This video shows the activities of the STS-107 crew (Rick Husband, Commander; William McCool, Pilot; Kalpana Chawla, David Brown, Michael Anderson, Laurel Clark, Mission Specialists; Ilan Ramon, Payload Specialist) during flight day 12 of the Columbia orbiter's final mission. The primary activities are spaceborne experiments in the SpaceHab RDM (Research Double Module). Experiments shown in the video include SOFBALL (Structure of Flame Balls at Low Lewis-Number), an experiment to grow cancer cells in microgravity, and the STARS (Space Technology and Research Students) experiments, including bees, ants, chemical gardens, fish, and spiders. Crew Members are shown working on MIST (Water Mist Fire Suppression), a commercial experiment. Red Team crew members (Husband, Chawla, Clark, Ramon) are shown conversing through a handset with the Expedition 6 crew (Kenneth Bowersox, Commander; Donald Pettit, Nikolai Budarin; Flight Engineers) of the ISS (International Space Station).

  3. Division B Commission 6: Astronomical Telegrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaoka, H.; Green, D. W. E.; Samus, N. N.; Aksnes, K.; Gilmore, A. C.; Nakano, S.; Sphar, T.; Tichá, J.; Williams, G. V.

    2016-04-01

    IAU Commission 6 ``Astronomical Telegrams'' had a single business meeting during Honolulu General Assembly of the IAU. It took place on Tuesday, 11 August 2015. The meeting was attended by Hitoshi Yamaoka (President), Daniel Green (Director of the Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams, CBAT, via Skype), Steven Chesley (JPL), Paul Chodas (JPL), Alan Gilmore (Canterbury University), Shinjiro Kouzuma (Chukyo University), Paolo Mazzali (Co-Chair of the Supernova Working Group), Elena Pian (Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa), Marion Schmitz (chair IAU Working Group Designations + NED), David Tholen (University of Hawaii), Jana Ticha (Klet Observatory), Milos Tichy (Klet Observatory), Giovanni Valsecchi (INAF\\slash Italy), Gareth Williams (Minor Planet Center). Apologies: Nikolai Samus (General Catalogue of Variable Stars, GCVS).

  4. A linear integral-equation-based computer code for self-amplified spontaneous emission calculations of free-electron lasers.

    SciTech Connect

    Dejus, R. J.; Shevchenko, O. A.; Vinokurov, A.

    1999-09-16

    The linear integral-equation-based computer code RON (Roger Oleg Nikolai), which was recently developed at Argonne National Laboratory, was used to calculate the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) performance of the free-electron laser (FEL) being built at Argonne. Signal growth calculations under different conditions were used to estimate tolerances of actual design parameters and to estimate optimal length of the break sections between undulator segments. Explicit calculation of the radiation field was added recently and a typical angular distribution in the break section is shown. The measured magnetic fields of five undulators were used to calculate the gain for the Argonne FEL. The result indicates that the real undulators for the Argonne FEL (the effect of magnetic field errors alone) will not significantly degrade the FEL performance. The capability to calculate the small-signal gain for an FEL-oscillator is also demonstrated.

  5. Korotkoff Sounds - The Improbable also Occurs

    PubMed Central

    Estañol, Bruno; Delgado, Guillermo; Borgstein, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Very few discoveries have had such a large impact on and relevance to clinical medicine as the noninvasive measurement of the diastolic blood pressure. A number of gifted physiologists and clinicians were ineffectively in search of a noninvasive method to determine the diastolic pressure. Nonetheless, the quantification of the diastolic BP was not achieved by any of these clinical or physiological researchers, but by an unlikely and unexpected figure: Nikolai Sergeevich Korotkoff (1874-1920), a young Russian army surgeon, working under precarious conditions in the hardship of diverse wars. It is easy to dismiss the achievement of Korotkoff as a serendipitous discovery, similar to that of Alexander Fleming in the discovery of penicillin. However, Nassim N. Taleb's recent black swan theory may serve to illustrate his discovery in a new and, perhaps, surprising way. PMID:24343557

  6. STS-113 Flight Day 5 Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-11-01

    This video shows the activities of the STS-113 crew (Jim Wetherbee, Commander; Paul Lockhart, Pilot; Michael Lopez-Alegria, John Herrington, Mission Specialists) during flight day 5. The crew is seen together with the Expedition 5 (Valeri Korzun, Commander; Peggy Whitsun, ISS Science Officer/Flight Engineer; Sergei Treschev, Flight Engineer) and Expedition 6 (Kenneth Bowersox, Commander; Donald Pettit, Nikolai Budarin, Flight Engineers) crews of the ISS (International Space Station) preparing for an EVA (extravehicular activity) the following day, and performing tasks on board the ISS. The changing of valves on the ISS carbon dioxide removal assembly is shown. The STS-113 crew is seen together answering numerous questions from the general public, with Lopez-Alegria answering all but one. There is also a clip of Jay Leno congratulating Wetherbee on his fiftieth birthday. Inside views of the Endeavour orbiter and the ISS modules are shown, as well as a view of the coast of Chile.

  7. sts113-s-012

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-11-23

    STS113-S-012 (23 November 2002) --- The Space Shuttle Endeavour is pictured on a lighted launch pad at Kennedy Space Center’s (KSC) Launch Complex 39 with a gibbous moon shining brightly in the night sky. Liftoff from KSC occurred at 7:49:47 p.m. (EST), November 23, 2002. The launch is the 19th for Endeavour, and the 112th flight in the Shuttle program. Mission STS-113 is the 16th assembly flight to the International Space Station, carrying another structure for the Station, the P1 integrated truss. Crewmembers onboard were astronauts James D. Wetherbee, commander; Paul S. Lockhart, pilot, along with astronauts Michael E. Lopez-Alegria and John B. Herrington, both mission specialists. Also onboard were the Expedition 6 crewmembers--astronauts Kenneth D. Bowersox and Donald R. Pettit, along with cosmonaut Nikolai M. Budarin--who went on to replace Expedition 5 aboard the Station.

  8. Plant breeding on the front: imperialism, war, and exploitation.

    PubMed

    Elina, Olga; Heim, Susanne; Roll-Hansen, Nils

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the development of plant-breeding science in the context of the booming genetic research and autarky policy of the 1930s as well as during World War II in National Socialist-occupied Europe. Soviet scientists, especially Nikolai Vavilov and his VIR institute, had a leading position in the international plant-breeding science of the 1920s. During World War II, German scientists, namely experts from the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Plant Breeding, usurped Soviet institutes and valuable seed collections. In contrast, plant-breeding research in occupied Scandinavia continued with relatively little disturbance. The paper compares behavior of German, Soviet, and Norwegian plant-breeding scientists under the Nazi regime.

  9. KSC-02pd1687

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-11-07

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Expedition 6 Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin, who represents the Russian Space Agency, arrives at KSC to prepare for launch. The primary mission of STS-113 is bringing the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and returning the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. In addition, the major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is scheduled for Nov. 11 between midnight and 4 a.m. EST.

  10. KSC-02pd1786

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-11-22

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Expedition 6 flight engineer Nikolai Budarin relaxes during suitup for launch. Budarin, who is with the Russian Space Agency, will be making his second Shuttle flight. The primary mission for the crew is bringing the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and returning the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. The major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is scheduled for 8:15 p.m. EST.

  11. KSC-02pd1702

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-11-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Expedition 6 flight engineer Nikolai Budarin gets help with his helmet during suitup for launch on mission STS-113. Budarin, who represents the Russian Space Agency, will be making his second Shuttle flight. The primary mission is bringing the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and returning the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. The major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is scheduled for Nov. 11 at 12:58 a.m. EST.

  12. [Scientific, pedagogical, and surgical work of professor V.F.Voyno-Yasenetsky during the Great Patriotic War].

    PubMed

    Kosachev, I D; Gladkikh, P F; Iakovlev, A E

    2011-08-01

    The article is devoted to activities in the period 1941-1945. Krasnoyarsk and Tambov, a professor of surgery Valentine Feliksovich Voyno-Yasenetsky (Archbishop Luka)--doctor of medical sciences, laureate of the State (Stalin) Prize of the USSR, who made a significant contribution to the success of modern surgical science. A brilliant scholar and successor of the ideas of the outstanding scientist and surgeon Nikolai Pirogov, as in the Great Patriotic War surgeon and consultant evacuation hospitals, along with leading surgeons in the Soviet Union had a significant impact on the results of treatment of wounded soldiers and officers, thereby affecting the development of military field surgery. In our country it is rightfully considered the founder of contaminated surgery.

  13. STS-114 Crew Interview: Stephen Robinson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    Stephen Robinson, Mission Specialist 2 (MS2), of the STS-114 space mission is seen during a prelaunch interview. He discusses his duties as flight engineer, Extravehicular Activity 2 (EVA 2) spacewalker, and medical officer. Robinson answers questions about his interests in spaceflight and the specific goals of the mission. He identifies this mission as the International Space Station Resupply Mission because supplies and experiments are brought to the International Space Station and Expedition 6 crew of Commander Kenneth Bowersox, and Flight Engineers Donald Pettit and Nikolai Budarin are returning to Earth. Lastly, he talks about the docking of the Space Shuttle Atlantis with the International Space Station. He looks forward to this experience in space.

  14. Planeten beobachten. Praktische Anleitung für Amateurbeobachter und solche, die es werden wollen.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, G. D.

    Contents: 1. Amateurastronomie und Planetenbeobachtung (H.-J. Mettig, G. D. Roth). 2. Die visuelle Beobachtung (G. D. Roth). 3. Mond- und Planetenphotographie (B. Koch). 4. Die CCD-Bildbearbeitung (R. A. Hillebrecht). 5. Tabellen zur Ermittlung der Belichtungszeiten für Mond- und Planetenaufnahmen (W. Gruschel). 6. Die lichtelektrische Beobachtung (G. D. Roth). 7. Die Objekte in Einzeldarstellungen: Merkur (D. Niechoy); Venus (D. Niechoy); Erdmond (G. D. Roth); Mars (C. M. Schambeck); Kleine Planeten (M. Hoffmann, G. D. Roth, J. Meeus); Jupiter (H.-J. Mettig, R. C. Stoyan, A. Nikolai, C. Kowalec, G. Hahn); Saturn (R. C. Stoyan, G. Hahn, H.-J. Mettig); Uranus (R. C. Stoyan); Neptun (R. C. Stoyan); Pluto (R. C. Stoyan). 8. Adressen, Literaturhinweise, Register.

  15. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Expedition 6 crew member Nikolai Budarin stands ready for a practice drive in an M-113 armored personnel carrier during emergency egress training at the pad, one of the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities in preparation for launch. The TCDT also includes a simulated launch countdown. The Expedition 6 crew will travel on Space Shuttle Endeavour to the International Space Station to replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Launch is scheduled for Nov. 10, 2002.

  16. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Expedition 6 crew member Nikolai Budarin takes his turn driving an M-113 armored personnel carrier during emergency egress training at the pad. The crew is preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10, by taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. The TCDT includes a simulated launch countdown.. The Expedition 6 crew will travel on Space Shuttle Endeavour to the International Space Station to replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Launch is scheduled for Nov. 10, 2002.

  17. STS-113 cosmonaut Budarin during suit check for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Expedition 6 crew member Nikolai Budarin relaxes during fit check of his launch and entry suit, part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. He and the rest of the crew are preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10. The TCDT includes emergency egress training and a launch countdown. The Expedition 6 crew will travel on Space Shuttle Endeavour to the International Space Station to replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Launch is scheduled for Nov. 10, 2002.

  18. STS-114 Crew Interview: Soichi Noguchi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Soichi Noguchi, Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) representing Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA) is seen during a prelaunch interview. He discusses the main goals of this flight which are to take expedition 7 to the International Space Station and bring back expedition 6 to the Earth. He is also responsible for all Extravehicular (EVA) work on this mission. Expedition seven includes: Mission Specialist and Commander Yuri Malenchenko; NASA ISS Science Officer Edward Lu; and Flight Engineer Alexander Kaleri. Expedition Six includes: Commander Kenneth Bowersox; NASA ISS Science Officer Donald Petit; and Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin. Noguchi explains the Utilization and Logistics Flight 1 (ULF1) Mission which entails the exchange of crewmembers, various supplies and experiments and the replacement of a control component on the International Space Station. This is also will be Soichi Noguchi's first spacewalk.

  19. Collembola of the genus Protaphorura Absolon, 1901 (Onychiuridae) in the Eastern Palearctic: morphology, distribution, identification key

    PubMed Central

    Kaprus’, Igor; Weiner, Wanda; Paśnik, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Seven new species, Protaphorura jernika sp. n., Protaphorura abscondita sp. n., Protaphorura tuvinica sp. n., Protaphorura vasilinae sp. n., Protaphorura sayanica sp. n., Protaphorura oligopseudocellata sp. n. and Protaphorura nikolai sp. n. from different habitats of the southern Siberia and Far East of Russia, are described. Protaphorura ombrophila (Stach, 1960) is redescribed based on the type specimens. These species differ one from other and from all known species by dorsal and ventral pseudocellar formulae, number of pseudocelli on subcoxae 1 of legs I–III, parapseudocellar formula, chaetotaxy of body, structure of claw, size of postantennal organ and body length. Geographical distribution of all known Protaphorura species of Eastern Palearctic was analysed and an identification key to 50 species was provided. PMID:27853409

  20. KSC-03PD-1273

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- The Russian Soyuz TMA-2 rocket is erected at the launch pad. Expedition Seven is scheduled to launch onboard the Soyuz April 26, 2003. Veteran Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko and veteran NASA astronaut Ed Lu were named as the primary crew for the launch to the International Space Station. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  1. KSC-03PD-1264

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- Building 254, Soyuz Integration Facility. Veteran Russian Cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko has a leak check performed on the Russian Sokol suit. Malenchenko and veteran NASA astronaut Ed Lu were named as the primary crew, Expedition 7, for the launch to the International Space Station. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  2. KSC-03PD-1265

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- Building 254, Soyuz Integration Facility. Cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Expedition Seven commander, dons his Russian Sokol suit for the leak check and Soyuz inspection, seat liner check. Malenchenko and veteran NASA astronaut Ed Lu were named as the primary crew, Expedition 7, for the launch to the International Space Station. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS- 114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  3. STS-113 Mission Highlights Resource Tape Flight Days 1-3. Tape: 1 of 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This video, part 1 of 4, shows the activities of the crew of Space Shuttle Endeavour during flight days 1-3 of STS-113. The crew consists of Commander Jim Wetherbee, Pilot Paul Lockhart, Mission Specialists Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington. With them were the Expedition 6 crewmembers of the International Space Station (ISS), Ken Bowersox, Nikolai Budarin, and Don Pettit. Pre-launch procedures are shown, and the rain-delayed night launch is shown from several camera angles. On flight day 2 there was a check out of the Canadarm on Endeavour, and some intravehicular activity. Flight day 3 highlights the docking of Endeavour and the ISS, and preparation for an extravehicular activity (EVA) the following day. Earth views include the English Channel at night with a close-up of London, the coast of Ecuador, and some views of Endeavour with the Earth in the background.

  4. Blood pressure measurement: lessons learned from our ancestors.

    PubMed

    Karamanou, Marianna; Papaioannou, Theodore G; Tsoucalas, Gregory; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Androutsos, George

    2015-01-01

    The profound observations of William Harvey (1578-1657), in blood circulation and the progress of physical science laid the foundation for the development of the Iatrophysical School that contributed to the evolution of clinical sphygmomanometry. The pioneer work of Reverend Stephen Hales (1677-1761) demonstrated the dynamics of the vascular system. One century later the French physician Jean-Léonard-Marie Poiseuille (1797-1867) invented a U-tube mercury manometer and in 1860 the physiologist Etienne- Jules Marey (1830-1904) devised the first portable sphygmograph for recording the pulse wave. The non-invasive techniques of blood pressure measurement were completed by Scipione Riva-Rocci (1896-1937) sphygmomanometer and the description of "Korotkov sounds" by the Russian surgeon Nikolai- Sergeyevich Korotkov (1874-1920).

  5. STS-113 crew group photo at SLF before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - After their arrival at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility, the crews of mission STS-113 pause for a group photo. From left are STS-113 Commander James Wetherbee, Pilot Paul Lockhart, and Mission Specialists Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington; and the Expedition 6 crew, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin, Commander Ken Bowersox and Flight Engineer Donald Pettit. Budarin represents the Russian Space Agency. The primary mission of STS-113 is bringing the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and returning the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. In addition, the major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is scheduled for Nov. 11 between midnight and 4 a.m. EST.

  6. KSC-02pd1782

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-11-22

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The STS-113 crew pause after a meal for a group photo. From left are Mission Specialists Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington, Pilot Paul Lockhart and Commander James Wetherbee; plus the Expedition 6 crew, Nikolai Budarin, Commander Ken Bowersox and Donald Pettit. On mission STS-113, the astronauts will deliver the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Structure to the International Space Station. During the seven days Endeavour will be docked to the Station, three spacewalks will be performed dedicated to connecting the P1 truss to the port side of the S0 truss, already in place on the Station. This mission marks the 16th Shuttle flight to the International Space Station and the fifth Shuttle mission this year. Mission STS-113 is the 19th flight of the orbiter Endeavour and the 112th flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle program.

  7. Astronauts & cosmonauts sign Gagarin's diary

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-02-22

    S95-04323 (22 Feb 1995) --- In keeping with Russian tradition, astronaut Norman E. Thagard (seated, left), guest researcher, watches as Vladimir N. Dezhurov (seated, center), signs the diary of the late Yuriy A. Gagarin, the first Russian cosmonaut, as his Mir 18 crew mates and the subsequent Mir crewmembers look on. Cosmonauts Dezhurov, mission commander, and Gennadiy M. Strekalov (seated right, partially obscured), flight engineer, have been training with Thagard in both the United States and Russia for the past several months. Watching are, standing left to right, astronaut Bonnie J. Dunbar, Thagard?s alternate crew member; and cosmonauts Anatoliy Y. Solovyev, Mir 19 mission commander, and Nikolai M. Budarin, flight engineer.

  8. STS-113 Flight Day 7 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The STS-113 seventh flight day begins with a view of the Russian Segment of the International Space Station from a camera at the end of the S1 truss. Live footage of Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington are shown aboard the International Space Station. A change of command ceremony is presented to welcome the Expedition Six Crew and to say farewell to the Expedition Five crew. Commander Valery Korzun, Flight Engineer Sergei Treschev, NASA ISS Science Officer Peggy Whitson, Expedition Six Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin, NASA ISS Science Officer Don Pettit, Commander Jim Wetherbee, Pilot Paul Lockhart and Mission Specialists Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington are all are shown during the ceremony.

  9. STS-114 Crew Interview: Soichi Noguchi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Soichi Noguchi, Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) representing Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA) is seen during a prelaunch interview. He discusses the main goals of this flight which are to take expedition 7 to the International Space Station and bring back expedition 6 to the Earth. He is also responsible for all Extravehicular (EVA) work on this mission. Expedition seven includes: Mission Specialist and Commander Yuri Malenchenko; NASA ISS Science Officer Edward Lu; and Flight Engineer Alexander Kaleri. Expedition Six includes: Commander Kenneth Bowersox; NASA ISS Science Officer Donald Petit; and Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin. Noguchi explains the Utilization and Logistics Flight 1 (ULF1) Mission which entails the exchange of crewmembers, various supplies and experiments and the replacement of a control component on the International Space Station. This is also will be Soichi Noguchi's first spacewalk.

  10. KSC-03PD-1265

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- Building 254, Soyuz Integration Facility. Cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Expedition Seven commander, dons his Russian Sokol suit for the leak check and Soyuz inspection, seat liner check. Malenchenko and veteran NASA astronaut Ed Lu were named as the primary crew, Expedition 7, for the launch to the International Space Station. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS- 114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  11. KSC-03PD-1273

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- The Russian Soyuz TMA-2 rocket is erected at the launch pad. Expedition Seven is scheduled to launch onboard the Soyuz April 26, 2003. Veteran Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko and veteran NASA astronaut Ed Lu were named as the primary crew for the launch to the International Space Station. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  12. KSC-03PD-1264

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- Building 254, Soyuz Integration Facility. Veteran Russian Cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko has a leak check performed on the Russian Sokol suit. Malenchenko and veteran NASA astronaut Ed Lu were named as the primary crew, Expedition 7, for the launch to the International Space Station. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  13. On behalf of tradition: An analysis of medical student and physician beliefs on how anatomy should be taught.

    PubMed

    Marom, Assaf; Tarrasch, Ricardo

    2015-11-01

    Human anatomy, one of the basic medical sciences, is a time-honored discipline. As such, it is taught using traditional methods, cadaveric dissection chief among them. Medical imaging has recently gained popularity as a teaching method in anatomy courses. In light of a general tendency to reduce course hours, this has resulted in a decrease of dissection time and intense debates between traditional and modern approaches to anatomy teaching. In an attempt to explore trends in the attitudes of medical professionals toward the various methods of anatomy teaching, medical imaging in particular, the authors constructed a questionnaire and conducted a nationwide survey among medical students (in all stages at medical school), residents, and specialists in all fields of medicine. The survey results demonstrated indisputable appreciation of traditional methods of anatomy teaching, particularly cadaveric dissection, and showed that specialists believe significantly more strongly than clinical or preclinical students that anatomy and medical imaging should be taught separately. Strong correlations among the components of the traditional approach to anatomy instruction were also found. In light of the results, it was recommended that imaging should be incorporated into anatomy courses with caution, and, as far as possible, not at the expense of dissection time. It was advised that medical imaging has to be taught as a separate course, parallel to a traditional anatomy course. This will allow anatomical principles to be appreciated, which in turn will serve the students when they study radiology. "And we proceed in the following order: in front walks Nikolai with the slides or atlases, I come after him, and after me, his head humbly lowered, strides the cart horse; or else, if necessary, a cadaver is carried in first, after the cadaver walks Nikolai, and so on. At my appearance, the students rise, then sit down, and the murmur of the sea suddenly grows still. Calm ensues

  14. NMR studies of protonation and hydrogen bond states of internal aldimines of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate acid-base in alanine racemase, aspartate aminotransferase, and poly-L-lysine.

    PubMed

    Chan-Huot, Monique; Dos, Alexandra; Zander, Reinhard; Sharif, Shasad; Tolstoy, Peter M; Compton, Shara; Fogle, Emily; Toney, Michael D; Shenderovich, Ilya; Denisov, Gleb S; Limbach, Hans-Heinrich

    2013-12-04

    Using (15)N solid-state NMR, we have studied protonation and H-bonded states of the cofactor pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) linked as an internal aldimine in alanine racemase (AlaR), aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT), and poly-L-lysine. Protonation of the pyridine nitrogen of PLP and the coupled proton transfer from the phenolic oxygen (enolimine form) to the aldimine nitrogen (ketoenamine form) is often considered to be a prerequisite to the initial step (transimination) of the enzyme-catalyzed reaction. Indeed, using (15)N NMR and H-bond correlations in AspAT, we observe a strong aspartate-pyridine nitrogen H-bond with H located on nitrogen. After hydration, this hydrogen bond is maintained. By contrast, in the case of solid lyophilized AlaR, we find that the pyridine nitrogen is neither protonated nor hydrogen bonded to the proximal arginine side chain. However, hydration establishes a weak hydrogen bond to pyridine. To clarify how AlaR is activated, we performed (13)C and (15)N solid-state NMR experiments on isotopically labeled PLP aldimines formed by lyophilization with poly-L-lysine. In the dry solid, only the enolimine tautomer is observed. However, a fast reversible proton transfer involving the ketoenamine tautomer is observed after treatment with either gaseous water or gaseous dry HCl. Hydrolysis requires the action of both water and HCl. The formation of an external aldimine with aspartic acid at pH 9 also produces the ketoenamine form stabilized by interaction with a second aspartic acid, probably via a H-bond to the phenolic oxygen. We postulate that O-protonation is an effectual mechanism for the activation of PLP, as is N-protonation, and that enzymes that are incapable of N-protonation employ this mechanism.

  15. Patterns of hypothalamic regionalization in amphibians and reptiles: common traits revealed by a genoarchitectonic approach

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez, Laura; González, Agustín; Moreno, Nerea

    2015-01-01

    Most studies in mammals and birds have demonstrated common patterns of hypothalamic development highlighted by the combination of developmental regulatory genes (genoarchitecture), supporting the notion of the hypothalamus as a component of the secondary prosencephalon, topologically rostral to the diencephalon. In our comparative analysis we have summarized the data on the expression patterns of different transcription factors and neuroactive substances, used as anatomical markers, in the developing hypothalamus of the amphibian Xenopus laevis and the juvenile turtle Pseudemys scripta. This analysis served to highlight the organization of the hypothalamus in the anamniote/amniotic transition. We have identified supraoptoparaventricular and the suprachiasmatic regions (SCs) in the alar part of the hypothalamus, and tuberal and mammillary regions in the basal hypothalamus. Shared features in the two species are: (1) The supraoptoparaventricular region (SPV) is defined by the expression of Otp and the lack of Nkx2.1/Isl1. It is subdivided into rostral, rich in Otp and Nkx2.2, and caudal, only Otp-positive, portions. (2) The suprachiasmatic area contains catecholaminergic cell groups and lacks Otp, and can be further divided into rostral (rich in Nkx2.1 and Nkx2.2) and a caudal (rich in Isl1 and devoid of Nkx2.1) portions. (3) Expression of Nkx2.1 and Isl1 define the tuberal hypothalamus and only the rostral portion expresses Otp. (4) Its caudal boundary is evident by the lack of Isl1 in the adjacent mammillary region, which expresses Nkx2.1 and Otp. Differences in the anamnio-amniote transition were noted since in the turtle, like in other amniotes, the boundary between the alar hypothalamus and the telencephalic preoptic area shows distinct Nkx2.2 and Otp expressions but not in the amphibian (anamniote), and the alar SPV is defined by the expression of Otp/Pax6, whereas in Xenopus only Otp is expressed. PMID:25691860

  16. Lipid II-independent trans editing of mischarged tRNAs by the penicillin resistance factor MurM.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Jennifer; Ibba, Michael

    2013-09-06

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a causative agent of nosocomial infections such as pneumonia, meningitis, and septicemia. Penicillin resistance in S. pneumoniae depends in part upon MurM, an aminoacyl-tRNA ligase that attaches L-serine or L-alanine to the stem peptide lysine of Lipid II in cell wall peptidoglycan. To investigate the exact substrates the translation machinery provides MurM, quality control by alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AlaRS) was investigated. AlaRS mischarged serine and glycine to tRNA(Ala), as observed in other bacteria, and also transferred alanine, serine, and glycine to tRNA(Phe). S. pneumoniae tRNA(Phe) has an unusual U4:C69 mismatch in its acceptor stem that prevents editing by phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (PheRS), leading to the accumulation of misaminoacylated tRNAs that could serve as substrates for translation or for MurM. Although the peptidoglycan layer of S. pneumoniae tolerates a combination of both branched and linear muropeptides, deletion of MurM results in a reversion to penicillin sensitivity in strains that were previously resistant. However, because MurM is not required for cell viability, the reason for its functional conservation across all strains of S. pneumoniae has remained elusive. We now show that MurM can directly function in translation quality control by acting as a broad specificity lipid-independent trans editing factor that deacylates tRNA. This activity of MurM does not require the presence of its second substrate, Lipid II, and can functionally substitute for the activity of widely conserved editing domain homologues of AlaRS, termed AlaXPs proteins, which are themselves absent from S. pneumoniae.

  17. The principle of rotation advancement for repair of unilateral complete cleft lip and nasal deformity: technical variations and analysis of results.

    PubMed

    Mulliken, J B; Martínez-Pérez, D

    1999-10-01

    This is an assessment of one surgeon's 15-year experience (1981-1995) using the Millard rotation-advancement principle for repair of unilateral complete cleft lip and nasal deformity. All infants underwent a prior labio-nasal adhesion. Since 1991, dentofacial orthopedics with a pin-retained (Latham) appliance was used for infants with a cleft of the lip and palate. Technical variations are described, including modifications in sequence of closure. A high rotation and releasing incision in the columella lengthens the medial labial element and produces a symmetric prolabium with minimal transgression of the upper philtral column by the advancement flap. Orbicularis oris muscle is everted, from caudad to cephalad, to form the philtral ridge. A minor variation of unilimb Z-plasty is used to level the cleft side of Cupid's bow handle, and cutaneous closure proceeds superiorly from this junction. The dislocated alar cartilage is visualized though a nostril rim incision and suspended to the ipsilateral upper lateral cartilage. Symmetry of the alar base is addressed in three dimensions, including maneuvers to position the deviated anterior-caudal septum, configure the sill, and efface the lateral vestibular web. Secondary procedures were analyzed in 105 consecutive patients, both revised (n = 30) and unrevised (n = .75). The possible need for revision in the latter group was determined by panel assessment of six indicators of nasolabial asymmetry, documented by frontal and submental photographs. In the entire study period, a total of 80 percent of children required or will need nasal revision, and a total of 42 percent required or will require labial revision. In the last 5 years, as compared with the earlier decade, there was a significantly diminished incidence of patients requiring labial revision (54 percent to 21 percent) and alar suspension (63 percent to 32 percent). These improvements are attributable to technical refinements and experience, although dentofacial

  18. Head position and impact direction in whiplash injuries: associations with MRI-verified lesions of ligaments and membranes in the upper cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Kaale, Bertel Rune; Krakenes, Jostein; Albrektsen, Grethe; Wester, Knut

    2005-11-01

    In the present study, we compared magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of soft tissue structures in the upper cervical spine between whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) patients and population-based control persons, and examined whether MRI-verified abnormalities in WAD patients were related to accident-related factors hypothesized to be of importance for severity of injury. A total of 92 whiplash patients and 30 control persons, randomly drawn, were included. Information on the accident-related factors (i.e., head position and impact direction) was obtained by a questionnaire that was answered within 1 week after the accident. The MRI examination was performed 2-9 (mean 6) years after the accident. Focus was on MRI abnormalities of the alar and the transverse ligaments, and the tectorial and posterior atlanto-occipital membranes, graded 0-3. For all neck structures, the whiplash patients had more high-grade lesions (grade 2 or 3) than the control persons (Chi-square test, p < 0.055). An abnormal alar ligament was most common (66.3% graded 2 or 3). Whiplash patients who had been sitting with their head/neck turned to one side at the moment of collision more often had high-grade lesions of the alar and transverse ligaments (p < 0.001, p = 0.040, respectively). Severe injuries to the transverse ligament and the posterior atlanto-occipital membrane were more common in front than in rear end collisions (p < 0.001, p = 0.001, respectively). In conclusion, the difference in MRI-verified lesions between WAD patients and control persons, and in particular the association with head position and impact direction at time of accident, indicate that these lesions are caused by the whiplash trauma.

  19. A Collaborative Study of Source Apportionment and Total City Emissions of CH4 from Indianapolis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajny, K. D.; Davis, K. J.; Franklin, J. E.; Harvey, R. M.; Lavoie, T. N.; Miles, N. L.; Richardson, S.; Salmon, O. E.; Sarmiento, D. P.; Shepson, P. B.; Stirm, B. H.; Wofsy, S.

    2016-12-01

    Methane (CH4) is the second most important greenhouse gas emitted in the United States, accounting for about 11% of all US greenhouse gas emissions in 2014. Over 60% of CH4 emissions globally are due to human activity and two of the largest anthropogenic sources of CH4 are waste decomposition in landfills and losses from the energy sector. Indianapolis has been a testbed site for development of methods for quantitative urban-scale greenhouse gas emissions measurements, through the Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) since 2010. Multiple airborne mass balance experiments with Purdue University's Airborne Laboratory for Atmospheric Research (ALAR) have been performed in the area to quantify greenhouse gas emissions, since 2008. Previous research has shown that the large landfill in Indianapolis is the only significant point source, emitting 45 ± 14 mols CH4/s or roughly 1/3 of all CH4 emissions. Propane/methane ratios have indicated that all other CH4 emissions were due to leaks in the natural gas distribution system in the city, but not all the sources have been identified. A recent collaborative effort aimed to investigate this further using tower based inversions from INFLUX data, ground based Lagrangian transport modeling using Fourier Transform Spectrometers, and airborne based mass balance experiments using ALAR. Within the 2-week long project there were 4 days with atmospheric conditions that allowed for simultaneous airborne and ground based measurements. Here we will discuss selected outcomes from this effort, including city-wide mass balance measurements from ALAR, our results in light of the FTS observations, and how the results compare to the historical data base for Indianapolis.

  20. Topography of Somatostatin Gene Expression Relative to Molecular Progenitor Domains during Ontogeny of the Mouse Hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Delgado, Nicanor; Merchan, Paloma; Bardet, Sylvia M.; Ferrán, José L.; Puelles, Luis; Díaz, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    The hypothalamus comprises alar, basal, and floor plate developmental compartments. Recent molecular data support a rostrocaudal subdivision into rostral (terminal) and caudal (peduncular) halves. In this context, the distribution of neuronal populations expressing somatostatin (Sst) mRNA was analyzed in the developing mouse hypothalamus, comparing with the expression pattern of the genes Orthopedia (Otp), Distal-less 5 (Dlx5), Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), and Nk2 homeobox 1 (Nkx2.1). At embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5), Sst mRNA was first detectable in the anterobasal nucleus, a Nkx2.1-, Shh-, and Otp-positive basal domain. By E13.5, nascent Sst expression was also related to two additional Otp-positive domains within the alar plate and one in the basal plate. In the alar plate, Sst-positive cells were observed in rostral and caudal ventral subdomains of the Otp-positive paraventricular complex. An additional basal Sst-expressing cell group was found within a longitudinal Otp-positive periretromamillary band that separates the retromamillary area from tuberal areas. Apart of subsequent growth of these initial populations, at E13.5 and E15.5 some Sst-positive derivatives migrate tangentially into neighboring regions. A subset of cells produced at the anterobasal nucleus disperses ventralward into the shell of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus and the arcuate nucleus. Cells from the rostroventral paraventricular subdomain reach the suboptic nucleus, whereas a caudal contingent migrates radially into lateral paraventricular, perifornical, and entopeduncular nuclei. Our data provide a topologic map of molecularly defined progenitor areas originating a specific neuron type during early hypothalamic development. Identification of four main separate sources helps to understand causally its complex adult organization. PMID:21441981

  1. Patterns of hypothalamic regionalization in amphibians and reptiles: common traits revealed by a genoarchitectonic approach.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Laura; González, Agustín; Moreno, Nerea

    2015-01-01

    Most studies in mammals and birds have demonstrated common patterns of hypothalamic development highlighted by the combination of developmental regulatory genes (genoarchitecture), supporting the notion of the hypothalamus as a component of the secondary prosencephalon, topologically rostral to the diencephalon. In our comparative analysis we have summarized the data on the expression patterns of different transcription factors and neuroactive substances, used as anatomical markers, in the developing hypothalamus of the amphibian Xenopus laevis and the juvenile turtle Pseudemys scripta. This analysis served to highlight the organization of the hypothalamus in the anamniote/amniotic transition. We have identified supraoptoparaventricular and the suprachiasmatic regions (SCs) in the alar part of the hypothalamus, and tuberal and mammillary regions in the basal hypothalamus. Shared features in the two species are: (1) The supraoptoparaventricular region (SPV) is defined by the expression of Otp and the lack of Nkx2.1/Isl1. It is subdivided into rostral, rich in Otp and Nkx2.2, and caudal, only Otp-positive, portions. (2) The suprachiasmatic area contains catecholaminergic cell groups and lacks Otp, and can be further divided into rostral (rich in Nkx2.1 and Nkx2.2) and a caudal (rich in Isl1 and devoid of Nkx2.1) portions. (3) Expression of Nkx2.1 and Isl1 define the tuberal hypothalamus and only the rostral portion expresses Otp. (4) Its caudal boundary is evident by the lack of Isl1 in the adjacent mammillary region, which expresses Nkx2.1 and Otp. Differences in the anamnio-amniote transition were noted since in the turtle, like in other amniotes, the boundary between the alar hypothalamus and the telencephalic preoptic area shows distinct Nkx2.2 and Otp expressions but not in the amphibian (anamniote), and the alar SPV is defined by the expression of Otp/Pax6, whereas in Xenopus only Otp is expressed.

  2. A Reliable Method to Measure Lip Height Using Photogrammetry in Unilateral Cleft Lip Patients.

    PubMed

    van der Zeeuw, Frederique; Murabit, Amera; Volcano, Johnny; Torensma, Bart; Patel, Brijesh; Hay, Norman; Thorburn, Guy; Morris, Paul; Sommerlad, Brian; Gnarra, Maria; van der Horst, Chantal; Kangesu, Loshan

    2015-09-01

    There is still no reliable tool to determine the outcome of the repaired unilateral cleft lip (UCL). The aim of this study was therefore to develop an accurate, reliable tool to measure vertical lip height from photographs. The authors measured the vertical height of the cutaneous and vermilion parts of the lip in 72 anterior-posterior view photographs of 17 patients with repairs to a UCL. Points on the lip's white roll and vermillion were marked on both the cleft and the noncleft sides on each image. Two new concepts were tested. First, photographs were standardized using the horizontal (medial to lateral) eye fissure width (EFW) for calibration. Second, the authors tested the interpupillary line (IPL) and the alar base line (ABL) for their reliability as horizontal lines of reference. Measurements were taken by 2 independent researchers, at 2 different time points each. Overall 2304 data points were obtained and analyzed. Results showed that the method was very effective in measuring the height of the lip on the cleft side with the noncleft side. When using the IPL, inter- and intra-rater reliability was 0.99 to 1.0, with the ABL it varied from 0.91 to 0.99 with one exception at 0.84. The IPL was easier to define because in some subjects the overhanging nasal tip obscured the alar base and gave more consistent measurements possibly because the reconstructed alar base was sometimes indistinct. However, measurements from the IPL can only give the percentage difference between the left and right sides of the lip, whereas those from the ABL can also give exact measurements. Patient examples were given that show how the measurements correlate with clinical assessment. The authors propose this method of photogrammetry with the innovative use of the IPL as a reliable horizontal plane and use of the EFW for calibration as a useful and reliable tool to assess the outcome of UCL repair.

  3. Short-term evaluation of tegumentary changes of the nose in oral breathers undergoing rapid maxillary expansion.

    PubMed

    Badreddine, Fauze Ramez; Fujita, Reginaldo Raimundo; Cappellette, Mario

    2017-06-26

    Rapid maxillary expansion is an orthodontic and orthopedic procedure that can change the form and function of the nose. The soft tissue of the nose and its changes can influence the esthetics and the stability of the results obtained by this procedure. The objective of this study was to assess the changes in nose dimensions after rapid maxillary expansion (RME) in oral breathers with maxillary atresia, using a reliable and reproducible methodology through computed tomography. A total of 30 mouth-breathing patients with maxillary atresia were analyzed and divided into a treatment group who underwent RME (20 patients, 10 of which were male and 10 female, with a MA of 8.9 years and a SD of 2.16, ranging from 6.5 to 12.5 years) and a Control Group (10 patients, 5 of which were male and 5 female, with a MA of 9.2 years, SD of 2.17, ranging from 6.11 to 13.7 years). In the treatment group, multislice computed tomography scans were obtained at the start of the treatment (T1) and 3 months after expansion (T2). The patients of the control group were submitted to the same exams at the same intervals of time. Four variables related to soft tissue structures of the nose were analyzed (alar base width, alar width, height of soft tissue of the nose and length of soft tissue of the nose), and the outcomes between T1 and T2 were compared using Osirix MD software. In the TG, the soft tissues of the nose exhibited significant increases in all variables studied (p<0.05), whereas, changes did not occur in the control group (p>0.05). In the treatment group, mean alar base width increased by 4.87% (p=0.004), mean alar width increased by 4.04% (p=0.004), mean height of the soft tissues of the nose increased by 4.84% (p=0.003) and mean length of the soft tissues of the nose increased by 4.29% (p=0.012). In short-term, RME provided a statistically significant increase in the dimensions of the soft tissues of the nose. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e

  4. Spectroscopic Characterization of Metal-Based Complexes and Metal-Based Complex Oxidation Processes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuaid, Michael James

    The entrainment in carbon monoxide of metal (M) vaporized from an oven based source was used to create M(CO)_{rm x} complexes. The optical signatures associated with their oxidation to form chemiluminescing reaction products were analyzed to evaluate the nature of the M(CO)_{rm x } adducts and study MOcdotCO solvation complexes. The study was facilitated by comparing the optical signatures for the chemiluminescent oxidation of rare gas entrained metal atoms. Oxidation processes involving vanadium, chromium, and aluminum complexes were studied. In the case of vanadium, transitions associated with two previously unreported states of vanadium monoxide (VO) were observed and characterized. Transitions which may be associated with a VOcdotCO complex were also observed. For the case of chromium, three previously unreported states of chromium monofluoride (CrF) were characterized. Two band systems, which are tentatively ascribed to Cr_2F, were also observed. For the case of aluminum, the differences in the AlO B state population distribution formed in the Al+CO+O_3 and Al+Ar+O_3 systems provided a means of evaluating the binding energy of the Al(CO)_2 complex. Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) was used to probe the van der Waals complex AlAr formed in a free jet expansion. Based on rotationally resolved B^2Sigma ^{+} >=ts X^2 Pi_{1/2} electronic transitions, definitive interatomic potential parameters were developed for the AlAr B^2Sigma^{+ } state. AlAr X^2Pi_ {1/2} state interatomic potential parameter were developed assuming a Morse potential. Lambda doubling of the X^2Pi_ {1/2} state is evident, consistent with the presence of an unobserved repulsive AlAr A ^2Sigma^{+} state. Finally, the LIF excitation and emission spectra obtained for Fe/Ar and photolyzed Fe(CO)_5 /Ar matrices were compared. Previously unreported transitions associated with matrix-isolated Fe atoms were observed in the range from 500 to 1600 nm. Differences were observed in the spectra characterizing

  5. Electronic spectroscopy of the Al +-Ar complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Jie; Dagdigian, Paul J.

    1999-05-01

    The laser fluorescence excitation spectrum of the Al +-Ar complex near the Al + ion 3s3p 1P ← 3s 2 1S resonance transition is reported. An excited-state ( v', 0) progression and the (0, 1) hot band were observed. Rotational analysis revealed that these bands involve an electronic transition from the Al +-Ar X 1Σ+ ground state to the 1Σ+ state correlating with the Al +( 1P)+Ar asymptote. Rotational constants and upper-state vibrational constants and the dissociation energy were determined. The spectroscopic constants of the two observed Al +-Ar electronic states are compared with those for neutral AlAr states.

  6. Fire Protection System for Hardened Aircraft Shelters. Volume 1. Discussion and Appendixes A-C

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    in any configuration, for exanple IR, lR-lR, UV -IR, UV , UV -IR- UV . The advantage of multiwavelength detectors is a reduced likelihood of false alarm. B...11late is ,ai led the work function if the metal. Th, operating envelope of a UV detector is . function u (i) the Inc-tal used fir the cathode, and Ŗ...second or two longer. E. DI1AL-CHANNEL UV /IR JETIT .OIRS iiarmy false alar.m sources for UV and IR detectors are mutally exclusive. Th -. has led to the

  7. A Model for Predicting Late Prehistoric Architectural Sites at the Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site in Southeastern Colorado

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Topography in the project area consists of flat-topped hills, grassy steppes dissected by numerous canyons, and an igneous hogback ridge (Schuldenrien et al...are steppe, Hogback , arroyo/canyon, and hill. I predict that site elevation will be an easily patterned variable linked to food and water resources...Cedar Hills and on the Hogback . Lower elevations, like those between 4,400 and 4,800 ft, were recorded inside the canyons. 60 50 S40 0 30 10 oW v 0 .0

  8. Easy removal of nasal magnets.

    PubMed

    Starke, Lori

    2005-09-01

    This article uses a case report and discussion to demonstrate the removal of magnets which have become lodged in the nasal cavity as a result of using magnet-backed earrings to decorate the alae. If bi-alar decoration is used, removal of nasal magnets can present more of a challenge than other nasal foreign bodies. This is because of their attraction to each other through the septum and because of the edema that can form around the magnets. This case discusses that removal of magnets lodged in the nares can be easily achieved with minimal trauma, by the use of a household pocket magnet.

  9. Three-dimensional nasal changes following maxillary advancement in cleft patients.

    PubMed

    Stewart, A; McCance, A M; James, D R; Moss, J P

    1996-06-01

    Three-dimensional laser surface scanning of the face was performed before and after Le Fort I maxillary advancement in 24 patients with replaced clefts of the lip and palate. The surgery resulted in advancement of the upper lip and para-alar tissues and an increase in the relative prominence of the nose within the face. These changes were produced at the expense of an increase in nasal width and a reduction in nasal tip protrusion. The changes in nasal morphology showed significant variation among patients.

  10. Characterization of ultradispersed aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, R.L.; Maienschein, J.L.; Swansiger, R.W.; Garcia, F.; Darling, D.H.

    1994-12-08

    Samples of ultradispersed Al were received, which were produced by electrically exploding Al wires in argon. These samples comprised very small particles that were not significantly oxidized and that were stable in air. Particle morphology were studied with SE, micropycnometry, and gas adsorption surface area. Composition were determined using various techniques, as were thermal stability and reaction exotherms. The inexplicable reports of an Al-Ar compound and of an exothermic reaction were not confirmed. The material is a stable, nonoxidized, small-particle, highly reactive form of aluminum that is of interest in energetic materials formulations.

  11. Comparing Ada and FORTRAN Lines of Code: Some Experimental Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-01

    34"yseidued predisute IA ohilews’ fhey usually eam"d resuts sfts 0is "let 11h14h (8) haew a direst bud"e SO decIsIons a1146t10g MWjo 1 0ra, (hi addrees...or IDA Document are nsed for the cowaveniene of the spoases or the analysts ( a ) to record substantive work done in quick reaction studies, (h) to...orm &j rey alar Ia i I* a embedo., -d w~ma. in"Ag suagaulbota Worduutg thills d , Wasllhirtgb d•ead s ft8mseewbas. 01 N IVm -1 sadm O W R9e 1216

  12. Digital Servocontroller System. Volume 1. Operations Manual.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-01

    8217Op fw c Ian , A ftP ate error lop rate,el"Or VA, bre. CWt I* I Tr V dump rate x/S Obd abort W. 0 ,,vtvgral oad c 󈧬. Lrkln Cm f ST&TIK oad abort X...14.0?04V _Z(.W -k047 44 -load alar% X -M.0 _ W. 0 -%. D -ft. 0-load abort Z JDO G . J00.0 100.0 -tD-D. 0 zuwm LLILL Cyn f RTATHK LL = error abort Z LO.0

  13. A New Classification System for Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Infants to assist Presurgical Infant Orthopedics.

    PubMed

    Daigavane, P S; Hazarey, P V; Niranjane, P; Vasudevan, S D; Thombare, B R; Daigavane, S

    2015-01-01

    The proposed advantages of pre-surgical naso-alveolar moulding (PNAM) are easy primary lip repair which heals under minimum tension reducing the scar formation and improving the aesthetic results in addition to reshaping of alar cartilage and improvement of nasal symmetry.However, the anatomy and alveolar morphology varies for each cleft child; the procedure for PNAM differs accordingly. In an attempt to categorize unilateral cleft lip and palate cases as per anatomical variations, a new classification system has been proposed. This classification aims to give an insight in unilateral cleft morphology based on which modification in PNAM procedure could be done.

  14. Quantifying K, U and Th contents of marine sediments using shipboard natural gamma radiation spectra measured on DV JOIDES Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vleeschouwer, David; Dunlea, Ann G.; Auer, Gerald; Anderson, Chloe H.; Brumsack, Hans; de Loach, Aaron; Gurnis, Michael C.; Huh, Youngsook; Ishiwa, Takeshige; Jang, Kwangchul; Kominz, Michelle A.; März, Christian; Schnetger, Bernhard; Murray, Richard W.; Pälike, Heiko; Expedition 356 shipboard scientists, IODP

    2017-04-01

    During International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) expeditions, shipboard-generated data provide the first insights into the cored sequences. The natural gamma radiation (NGR) of the recovered material, for example, is routinely measured on the ocean drilling research vessel DV JOIDES Resolution. At present, only total NGR counts are readily available as shipboard data, although full NGR spectra (counts as a function of gamma-ray energy level) are produced and archived. These spectra contain unexploited information, as one can estimate the sedimentary contents of potassium (K), thorium (Th), and uranium (U) from the characteristic gamma-ray energies of isotopes in the 40K, 232Th, and 238U radioactive decay series. Dunlea et al. [2013] quantified K, Th and U contents in sediment from the South Pacific Gyre by integrating counts over specific energy levels of the NGR spectrum. However, the algorithm used in their study is unavailable to the wider scientific community due to commercial proprietary reasons. Here, we present a new MATLAB algorithm for the quantification of NGR spectra that is transparent and accessible to future NGR users. We demonstrate the algorithm's performance by comparing its results to shore-based inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), inductively coupled plasma-emission spectrometry (ICP-ES), and quantitative wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses. Samples for these comparisons come from eleven sites (U1341, U1343, U1366-U1369, U1414, U1428-U1430, U1463) cored in two oceans during five expeditions. In short, our algorithm rapidly produces detailed high-quality information on sediment properties during IODP expeditions at no extra cost. Dunlea, A. G., R. W. Murray, R. N. Harris, M. A. Vasiliev, H. Evans, A. J. Spivack, and S. D'Hondt (2013), Assessment and use of NGR instrumentation on the JOIDES Resolution to quantify U, Th, and K concentrations in marine sediment, Scientific Drilling, 15, 57-63.

  15. AdS/CFT for 3D higher-spin gravity coupled to matter fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujisawa, Ippei; Nakagawa, Kenta; Nakayama, Ryuichi

    2014-03-01

    New holographic prescription for the model of 3d higher-spin gravity coupled to real matter fields Bμν and C, which was introduced in Fujisawa and Nakayama (2014 Class. Quantum Grav. 31 015003), is formulated. By using a local symmetry, two of the components of Bμν are eliminated, and gauge-fixing conditions are imposed such that the non-vanishing component, Bϕρ, satisfies a covariantly-constancy condition in the background of Chern-Simons gauge fields Aμ, \\bar{A}_{\\mu }. In this model, solutions to the classical equations of motion for Aμ and \\bar{A}_{\\mu } are non-flat due to the interactions with matter fields. The solutions for the gauge fields can, however, be split into two parts, flat gauge fields A_{\\mu }, \\bar{A}_{\\mu }, and those terms that depend on the matter fields. The equations for the matter fields then coincide with covariantly-constancy equations in the flat backgrounds A_{\\mu } and \\bar{A}_{\\mu }, which are exactly the same as those in linearized 3d Vasiliev gravity. The two- and three-point correlation functions of the single-trace operators and the higher-spin currents in the boundary CFT are computed by using an on-shell action tr (Bϕρ C). This term does not depend on coordinates due to the matter equations of motion, and it is not necessary to take the near-boundary limit ρ → ∞. Analysis is presented for SL(3,R) × SL(3,R) as well as HS[\\frac{1}{2}] \\times HS[\\frac{1}{2}] higher-spin gravity. In the latter model, scalar operators with scaling dimensions Δ+ = 3/2 and Δ- = 1/2 appear in a single quantization.

  16. Prediction of natural disasters basing of chrono-and-information field characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapunov, Valentin

    2013-04-01

    Living organisms are able to predict some future events particular catastrophic incidents. This is adaptive characters producing by evolution. The more energy produces incident the more possibility to predict one. Wild animals escaped natural hazards including tsunami (e.g. extremal tsunami in Asia December 2004). Living animals are able to predict strong phenomena of obscure nature. For example majority of animals escaped Tungus catastrophe taking place in Siberia at 1908. Wild animals are able to predict nuclear weapon experiences. The obscure characters are not typical for human, but they are fixed under probability 15%. Such were summarized by L.Vasiliev (1961). Effective theory describing such a characters is absent till now. N.Kozyrev (1991) suggested existence of unknown physical field (but gravitation and electro magnetic). The field was named "time" or "chrono". Some characters of the field appeared to be object of physical experiment. Kozyrev suggested specific role of the field for function of living organisms. Transition of biological information throw space (telepathy) and time (proscopy) may be based on characters of such a field. Hence physical chrono-and-information field is under consideration. Animals are more familiar with such a field than human. Evolutionary process experienced with possibility of extremal development of contact with such a field using highest primates. This mode of evolution appeared to stay obscure producing probable species "Wildman" (Bigfoot). Specific adaptive fitches suggest impossibility to study of such a species by usual ecological approaches. The perspective way for study of mysterious phenomena of physic is researches of this field characters.

  17. Multifactorial Approaches for Correction of the Drooping Tip of a Long Nose in East Asians

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hoijoon; Ye, Choon Ho

    2014-01-01

    A long nose with a drooping tip is a major aesthetic problem. It creates a negative and aged appearance and looks worse when smiling. In order to rectify this problem, the underlying anatomical causes should be understood and corrected simultaneously to optimize surgical outcomes. The causes of a drooping tip of a long nose are generally classified into two mechanisms. Static causes usually result from malposition and incorrect innate shape of the nasal structure: the nasal septum, upper and lower lateral cartilages, and the ligaments in between. The dynamic causes result from the facial expression muscles, the depressor septi nasi muscle, and the levator labii superioris alaeque nasi muscle. The depressor septi nasi depresses the nasal tip and the levator labii superioris alaeque nasi pulls the alar base upwards. Many surgical methods have been introduced, but partial approaches to correct such deformities generally do not satisfy East Asians, making the problem more challenging to surgeons. Typically, East Asians have thick nasal tip soft tissue and skin, and a depressed columella and alar bases. The authors suggest that multifactorial approaches to static and dynamic factors along with ancillary causes should be considered for correcting the drooping tip of the long noses of East Asians. PMID:25396173

  18. [Morphometric analysis of nasal shapes and angles in young adults].

    PubMed

    Uzun, Ahmet; Ozdemir, Fikri

    2014-01-01

    The size, angle, shape and type of nose are a signature indicating race, age and sex. Describe and compare nasal angles, nose types, nostril models, and nasal profiles in young Turkish males and females. The study group consisted of university students, 56 males and 59 females. Nasal measurements were obtained from all subjects, using anthropometric methods. The nose types of females and males were 78% and 70% narrow nose, respectively. The means of females' nasofrontal, nasal tip, nasolabial, and alar slope angles were 133.16° ± 8.88°; 77.91° ± 9.80°; 98.91° ± 10.01°, and 80.89° ± 8.33°, respectively. The means of males' nasofrontal, nasal tip, nasolabial, and alar slope angles were 123.85° ± 13.23°; 82.16° ± 9.98°; 97.91° ± 8.78° and 85.98° ± 8.72°, respectively. The average values of the nose in this population may be used as a guide to plan corrective esthetic-cosmetic surgery and for burn scars of the nose. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of rapid maxillary expansion effects on nasal soft tissues widths.

    PubMed

    Santariello, C; Nota, A; Baldini, A; Ballanti, F; Cozza, P

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the variations in nasal dimensions in prepubertal patients associated with RME therapy compared with an untreated age matched control group. A group of 61 subjects (26 F, 35 M; mean age 10.5±1.8 years) was enrolled in the study to undergo a rapid maxillary expansion therapy; 41 subjects (26 F, 15 M; mean age 10.7±2.2 years) were enrolled as a control group. Both groups underwent nasal soft tissues width measurements using a caliper at three separate time points: T0 - prior to the placement of RME; T1 - after completion of active expansion phase; T2 - at the removal of the expander (nearly 6 months after T1). The ANOVA showed statistically significant increments (P<0.0001) of the greater alar cartilage (GAC) measurement (0.8±0.2 mm) in the study group, differences for the AB measurements were not statistically significant (P=0.0784). The treatment of rapid maxillary expansion can induce an increase in GAC soft tissues width of about 1 mm in prepubertal patients. This increase could not be considered of clinical impact. The alar base width increase less than GAC, this increase is without statistical significance.

  20. A 20 year audit of nose-tip symmetry in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Timoney, N; Smith, G; Pigott, R W

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to audit the process and outcome in terms of nasal-tip symmetry of the first 20 patients with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate treated by the Pigott alar leapfrog primary nasal correction in the early 1970s and followed for 20 years. Symmetry was assessed using the Coghlan computer-based analysis of frontal and basal views to determine the stability of the correction. The Abyholm technique of alveolar bone grafting was performed in 12 of the 20 patients. Various other secondary procedures have been performed on the nose tip and septum to improve the airway or appearance. Photographs were taken within one year of ages 5, 10, 15 and 20 years, and the lower border of the nose, the alar domes and the nostrils were assessed. To assess the overall change from 5 years to 20 years, both views were available for 17 patients. No significant change was found in the lower border or nostril symmetry, but significant deterioration at the P< 0.01 level was found on the basal view. We assessed the 10, 15 and 20 year views of all 12 patients who had undergone alveolar bone grafting to determine early and late changes. No significant benefit was found from alveolar bone grafting or minor secondary procedures for appearance. Consequently, our criteria for undertaking minor adjustments to improve appearance have become more stringent. We consider that objective reporting of appearance should become essential in peer-reviewed journals.

  1. [A nasal congenital malformation not published in the literature: About 5 cases].

    PubMed

    Colson, T R; Bertrand, B; Degardin, N; Bardot, J; Casanova, D

    2017-02-01

    Five cases of the same congenital malformation of the nose, affecting the nasal dorsum and the supra-tip, were supported in our university plastic surgery center. This malformation has not been described in the literature known to the authors. The aim of this study is to analyze this nasal deformity. Five children presented this congenital deformity between 1994 and 2014. The patients were examined and the malformation precisely described. Genetic and histological examinations were carried on. The diagnosis and treatment of this pathology were discussed. This malformation associated 4 anomalies: hypertrophy of soft tissue of the dorsum located in the middle third of the nasal bridge, deformed alar cartilages turned back downward and outside, advanced support default and median skin brand similar to a scar. These patients showed no other abnormalities of the midline or respiratory disorders. No genetic disorder was found for these five patients, and no histological arguments were found. Three patients were operated, one until adulthood with a satisfying cosmetic result. Bibliographic research has not allowed us to make an accurate diagnosis of this malformation that appears to be non-syndromic and to have a genetic origin. Our therapeutic approach became more clear and it now seems legitimate to propose early excision of fat mass to prevent alar deformations, associated with a cortico-cancellous graft, which in our experience grows with age, to support the tip. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Measuring the nose in septorhinoplasty patients: ultrasonographic standard values and clinical correlations.

    PubMed

    Stenner, Markus; Koopmann, Mario; Rudack, Claudia

    2017-02-01

    Although septorhinoplasty is the most commonly performed operation in plastic surgery, and the surgical plan as well as its outcome is directly related to the configuration of the anatomical structures in the nose, these are not routinely assessed preoperatively. The aim of our study was to evaluate the nasal soft tissue and cartilaginous structures by means of high-resolution ultrasonography to set up clinical correlations and standard values. We examined 44 patients before septorhinoplasty by high-resolution ultrasonography in noncontact mode. All pictures were quantitatively evaluated by measuring 13 lengths and 4 ratios. All patients underwent a rhinomanometry measuring the nasal air flow. Besides others, men as well as older patients have a significantly thicker alar cartilage. Patients with thinner alar cartilages have a significantly smaller interdomal distance as well as significantly thinner upper lateral cartilages. The soft tissue above the bony dorsum was significantly thicker in older patients. Younger patients have significantly thicker soft tissue in relation to their cartilage. Patients with thicker soft tissue and thinner cartilage have a smaller tip. The interdomal distance and the thickness of the cartilaginous septum significantly correlated with the nasal air flow. We set up standard values of nasal structures in septorhinoplasty patients which can be used as reference values. By judging cartilage and soft tissue characteristics preoperatively, relevant factors for distinct procedures could be analyzed and the surgical steps can be better planned. Visualization by ultrasonography enables the surgeon to achieve treatment goals in a more predictable fashion.

  3. Rigid Posterior Lumbopelvic Fixation without Formal Debridement for Pyogenic Vertebral Diskitis and Osteomyelitis Involving the Lumbosacral Junction: Technical Report.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Marcus D; Ravindra, Vijay M; Dailey, Andrew T; McEvoy, Sara; Schmidt, Meic H

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic fixation with S2-alar-iliac (S2AI) screws can increase the rigidity of a lumbosacral construct, which may promote bone healing, improve antibiotic delivery to infected tissues, and avoid L5-S1 pseudarthrosis. To describe the use of single-stage posterior fixation without debridement for the treatment of pyogenic vertebral diskitis and osteomyelitis (PVDO) at the lumbosacral junction. Technical report. We describe the management of PVDO at the lumbosacral junction in which the infection invaded the endplates, disk space, vertebrae, prevertebral soft tissues, and epidural space. Pedicle involvement precluded screw fixation at L5. Surgical management consisted of a single-stage posterior operation with rigid lumbopelvic fixation augmented with S2-alar-iliac screws and without formal debridement of the infected area, followed by long-term antibiotic treatment. At 2-year follow-up, successful fusion and eradication of the infection were achieved. PVDO at the lumbosacral junction may be treated successfully using rigid posterior-only fixation without formal debridement combined with antibiotic therapy.

  4. Ontogenetic Expression of Sonic Hedgehog in the Chicken Subpallium

    PubMed Central

    Bardet, Sylvia M.; Ferran, José L. E.; Sanchez-Arrones, Luisa; Puelles, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Sonic hedgehog (SHH) is a secreted signaling factor that is implicated in the molecular patterning of the central nervous system (CNS), somites, and limbs in vertebrates. SHH has a crucial role in the generation of ventral cell types along the entire rostrocaudal axis of the neural tube. It is secreted early in development by the axial mesoderm (prechordal plate and notochord) and the overlying ventral neural tube. Recent studies clarified the impact of SHH signaling mechanisms on dorsoventral patterning of the spinal cord, but the corresponding phenomena in the rostral forebrain are slightly different and more complex. This notably involves separate Shh expression in the preoptic part of the forebrain alar plate, as well as in the hypothalamic floor and basal plates. The present work includes a detailed spatiotemporal description of the singular alar Shh expression pattern in the rostral preoptic forebrain of chick embryos, comparing it with FoxG1, Dlx5, Nkx2.1, and Nkx2.2 mRNA expression at diverse stages of development. As a result of this mapping, we report a subdivision of the preoptic region in dorsal and ventral zones; only the dorsal part shows Shh expression. The positive area impinges as well upon a median septocommissural preoptic domain. Our study strongly suggests tangential migration of Shh-positive cells from the preoptic region into other subpallial domains, particularly into the pallidal mantle and the intermediate septum. PMID:20700498

  5. Ontogeny of gamma-aminobutyric acid-immunoreactive neurons in the rhombencephalon and spinal cord of the sea lamprey.

    PubMed

    Meléndez-Ferro, Miguel; Pérez-Costas, Emma; Villar-Cheda, Begoña; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Rolando; Anadón, Ramón; Rodicio, María Celina

    2003-09-08

    The development of neurons expressing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the rhombencephalon and spinal cord of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) was studied for the first time with an anti-GABA antibody. The earliest GABA-immunoreactive (GABAir) neurons appear in late embryos in the basal plate of the isthmus, caudal rhombencephalon, and rostral spinal cord. In prolarvae, the GABAir neurons of the rhombencephalon appear to be distributed in spatially restricted cellular domains that, at the end of the prolarval period, form four longitudinal GABAir bands (alar dorsal, alar ventral, dorsal basal, and ventral basal). In the spinal cord, we observed only three GABAir longitudinal bands (dorsal, intermediate, and ventral). The larval pattern of GABAir neuronal populations was established by the 30-mm stage, and the same populations were observed in premetamorphic and adult lampreys. The ontogeny of GABAergic populations in the lamprey rhombencephalon and spinal cord is, in general, similar to that previously described in mouse and Xenopus. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Unilateral cleft lip/nose repair using an equal bows /straight line advancement technique - A preliminary report and postoperative symmetry-based anthropometry.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Samer George; Aschoff, Horst Heinrich; Jacobsen, Hans-Christian; Sieg, Peter

    2014-04-01

    In the evolution of cleft lip repair there has been continuous attempt to minimize local trauma, improve lip and nasal appearance and, especially, prevent conspicuous scars. The surgical technique presented meets these criteria, resulting in an appropriate scar course in children with a specific philtral ridge shape. Postoperative digital anthropometry was performed in 18 patients who underwent unilateral cleft lip repair using the equal bows/straight line advancement technique and in matched healthy control individuals. Symmetry values were assessed for lip length, philtral ridge length, vermilion height, width of the alar base, nasocanthal length, circumference of the nostrils, nostril width and height in both cleft and control groups. Evaluation revealed no significant differences in the symmetry values between cleft patients and control group (lip length: p = 0.71, philtral ridge length: p = 0.52, vermilion height: p = 0.23, alar base width: p = 0.69, nasocanthal length: p = 0.25, nostril circumference: p = 0.17, nostril width: p = 0.34, nostril height: p = 0.33). Principles of cleft lip repair can be achieved using the described technique which provides adequate lip length and natural nasal appearance in patients with a parallel-shaped philtral ridge.

  7. Nasal Soft Tissue Change Following Bimaxillary Orthognathic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hye-In; Lee, Ho-Sung; Jung, Young-Soo; Park, Hyung-Sik; Jung, Hwi-Dong

    2017-05-31

    The purpose of this study is to identify the correlation between maxillary movement and nasal soft tissue changes on three-dimensional reconstructed cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images after Le Fort I osteotomy. The authors also investigate the long-term change of alar base width (ABW) to determine the effect of cinch suture. The authors retrospectively studied 52 subjects (14 males and 38 females) who were treated by bimaxillary orthognathic surgery including Le Fort I osteotomy and mandibular ramus surgery. The landmarks and planes were established on three-dimensional reconstructed CBCT images. The authors measured each parameters preoperatively, 1 month postoperatively, and 1 year postoperatively. There was no significant correlation between the horizontal movement of A-point and the widening of ABW (P < 0.038), nor was there a significant correlation between the vertical movement of A-point and the change of ABW (P < 0.61). There was no significant correlation between horizontal and vertical movement of anterior nasal spine and the widening of ABW, nor was there a significant correlation between the nasal tip length and the vector of maxillary movement. There was no significant correlation between the ABW widening and the vector of surgical maxillary movement. The effect and stability of the alar base cinch suture is difficult to determine and require further investigation.

  8. Facial surface changes after cleft alveolar bone grafting.

    PubMed

    Krimmel, Michael; Schuck, Nils; Bacher, Margit; Reinert, Siegmar

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the 3-dimensional facial surface changes after cleft alveolar bone grafting with digital surface photogrammetry. In a prospective study, 22 patients with cleft lip and palate underwent alveolar bone grafting. Before the procedure and 6 weeks postoperatively and before the continuation of orthodontic treatment, 3-dimensional images were taken with digital surface photogrammetry. Seven standard craniofacial landmarks on the nose and the upper lip were identified. Their spatial change because of bone grafting was assessed. Statistical analysis was performed with analysis of variance and t test. A significant increase in anterior projection on the operative side (P < .05) was found for the labial insertion points of the alar base (subalare). No significant changes were detected for the position of the labial landmarks. Our results show 3-dimensionally that there is a positive influence of the alveolar bone graft on the projection of the alar base on the cleft side. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Acoustic behavior of Fenestra bohlsii Giglio-Tos (Orthoptera: Acrididae: Gomphocerinae)].

    PubMed

    Lorier, Estrellita; Clemente, Maria E; García, Maria D; Presa, Juan J

    2010-01-01

    The acoustic behavior of Fenestra bohlsii Giglio-Tos is described for the first time. The sounds and behaviors were observed and registered in captivity. The signals were digitized with the Sound-Blaster AWE64 Gold program and analysed with the Avisoft SAS Lab Pro 30 PC for MS Windows software. Seven different types of sounds are described as produced by males: spontaneous song (also used during the courtship), two different types of courtship song, assault song, tapping associated to the courtship, interaction between males and fly crackling. For each one, the characteristic oscillograms and frequency spectra are given. Sounds are produced by different mechanisms: femoro-tegminal stridulation, typical for Gomphocerinae, fly crackling, hind tarsi tapping and alar beat, the last produced by the beat and clash of hind alae, that is, the castanet method which up to now was only known, among Orthoptera, in Stenobothrus rubicundulus Kruseman & Jeekel. A description of the stridulatory file of male and female is given, as well as that of the alar special structures. Behavioral units and their sequence during the courtship are defined. There, in addition to the acoustic signals, visual signals are present, referring to positions, hind legs, antennae and palpi movements and body vibrations.

  10. Analysis of the cleft-lip nose in submental-vertical view, Part I--reliability of a new measurement instrument.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Krisztián; Mommaerts, Maurice Y

    2007-01-01

    Objective evaluation of nasal form and symmetry in cleft patients is difficult. The aim of this study was to establish a computer analysis of nasal form and symmetry (intranasal symmetry and symmetrical position of the nose), in order to evaluate primary and secondary cleft rhinoplasty outcomes. Indirect anthropometric measurements were performed on digital photographs processed by Photoshop 7.0 (Adobe Systems Inc., San Jose, California) with the help of Scion Image software (National Institutes of Health, Maryland, USA). For assessing intranasal symmetry, the ratio of nasal tip projection to total nasal width, the ratio of nostril widths, the ratio of nostril heights, the ratio of mid-alar widths and nostril symmetry were determined. Bifidity of the nose, columellar deviation and angulations of the nostrils were also measured. For assessing the symmetrical position of the nose, the ratio of the distances of alar points to the endocanthial lines and nasal base inclination were determined. The reliability of this analysis was tested by using submento-vertical photographs of bilateral cleft noses, of which the lips were primarily operated on by different techniques and different surgeons in Zurich and Bruges. There were highly significant intraobserver (ICC=0.994) and interobserver reliabilities (ICC=0.893). This nasal analysis is appropriate for comparing results of different surgical techniques.

  11. Seagull wing graft: a technique for the replacement of lower lateral cartilages.

    PubMed

    Pedroza, Fernando; Anjos, Gustavo Coelho; Patrocinio, Lucas Gomes; Barreto, Jose M; Cortes, Jorge; Quessep, Suad H

    2006-01-01

    To present and evaluate outcomes with the seagull wing technique, which was designed to replace the lower lateral cartilages and to reconstruct the nasal tip. The seagull wing technique is illustrated and described in detail. Sixty patients who underwent surgery 1981 and 2002 were retrospectively evaluated. A preoperative diagnosis of tip deformities was made based on photographs, which were compared with the postoperative results. Patient satisfaction was subjectively evaluated. The postoperative results showed a significant statistical improvement in the following tip deformities: underprojected tip (P<.001), poorly defined tip (P<.001), alar retraction (P<.001), alar pinch (P<.001), overrotated tip (P<.001), and tip ptosis (P<.01). The average follow-up period was 14.6 months. Fifty-five patients (92%) stated that they were very satisfied with the surgical results; they required no additional revision surgery. The seagull wing technique is a safe and efficient reconstructive treatment for the aesthetic and functional problems that were caused by the overresection of the nasal tip cartilaginous framework. The outcomes were pleasing, and the results were stable during the follow-up period. Patient satisfaction was high.

  12. Aesthetic and functional restoration using dorsal saddle shaped Medpor implant in secondary rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Turegun, Murat; Acarturk, Tahsin Oguz; Ozturk, Serdar; Sengezer, Mustafa

    2008-06-01

    Functional disorders due to alar valve collapse and cosmetic unsatisfactory results can be seen after rhinoplasty operation in some patients. Because of overresection of the upper and lower lateral cartilages, nasal lateral walls may collapse during inspiration pressing against the septum and obstructing airway. On the other hand, overresection may result in several cosmetic deformities. Fourteen patients presenting with nasal deformation and functional insufficiency, were treated using thin sheet porous polyethylene (Medpor). Cottle sign was positive in all patients. On examination, collapse during inspiration, depression at the supratip area, and asymmetry were common findings. Saddle shaped implants, 1.2 x 40 mm in dimension, were introduced into pouches prepared via bilateral rim incision. After suturing incisions, bandage and cast were applied. In the mean 14-month follow-up period, 1 implant malposition was seen in a patient because of larger planning the pocket that was corrected by a subsequent shaving of the implant. Asymmetries of the noses were totally corrected. No exposition was found. Alar collapse and respiration impairment had disappeared in all patients. Although, autologous tissue is known as the best material, Medpor can be used safely regarding its low complication rate because of its porotic architecture and low morbidity in donors. Medpor implant provides functional improvement by its strength body. Its smooth surface helps to correct the asymmetry by filling the defects. Using a saddle shape enabled us to treat different components of the postrhinoplasty deformity with a single implant.

  13. Evidence that tRNA synthetase-directed proton transfer stops mistranslation.

    PubMed

    Waas, William F; Schimmel, Paul

    2007-10-30

    To prevent mistranslation, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARSs) discriminate against noncognate amino acids and cellular metabolites. Defects in specificity produce statistical proteins which, in mammalian cells, lead to activation of the unfolded protein response and cell death. Because of inherent limitations in amino acid discrimination by a single active site, AARSs evolved a separate domain to clear mischarged amino acids. Although the structure of a widely distributed editing domain for ThrRS and AlaRS is known, the mechanism of amino acid clearance remains elusive. This domain has two motifs that together have four conserved residues in the pocket used to clear serine from mischarged tRNAs. Here, using ThrRS as an example, rapid single-turnover kinetics, mutagenesis, and solvent isotope analysis show that a strictly conserved histidine (between ThrRS and AlaRS) extracts a proton in the chemical step of the editing reaction. Three other conserved residues, and two additional residues in the editing pocket, are not directly implicated in the chemical step. These results are relevant to the previously reported mutagenesis of the homologous editing pocket of alanyl-tRNA synthetase, where even a mild defect in editing causes neurodegeneration in the mouse. Thus, a single proton-transfer event needed to prevent mistranslation can have profound implications for disease.

  14. External rhinoplasty: a critical analysis of 500 cases.

    PubMed

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2003-06-01

    The study presents a comprehensive statistical analysis of a series of 500 consecutive rhinoplasties of which 380 (76 per cent) were primary and 120 (24 per cent) were secondary cases. All cases were operated upon using the external rhinoplasty technique; simultaneous septal surgery was performed in 350 (70 per cent) of the cases. Deformities of the upper two-thirds of the nose that occurred significantly more in the secondary cases included; dorsal saddling, dorsal irregularities, valve collapse, open roof and pollybeak deformities. In the lower third of the nose; secondary cases showed significantly higher incidences of depressed tip, tip over-rotation, tip asymmetry, retracted columella, and alar notching. Suturing techniques were used significantly more in primary cases, while in secondary cases grafting techniques were used significantly more. The complications encountered intra-operatively included; septal flap tears (2.8 per cent) and alar cartilage injury (1.8 per cent), while post-operative complications included; nasal trauma (one per cent), epistaxis (two per cent), infection (2.4 per cent), prolonged oedema (17 per cent), and nasal obstruction (0.8 per cent). The overall patient satisfaction rate was 95.6 per cent and the transcolumellar scar was found to be unacceptable in only 0.8 per cent of the patients.

  15. Topological analysis of the brain stem of the frogs Rana esculenta and Rana catesbeiana.

    PubMed

    Opdam, R; Kemali, M; Nieuwenhuys, R

    1976-02-01

    The ventricular sulcal pattern and the cytoarchitectonic organization of the brain stem of the frogs Rana esculenta and Rana catesbeiana have been studied in transversely cut, Nissl stained serial sections. Four longitudinal sulci, the sulcus medianus inferior, the sulcus intermedius ventralis, the sulcus limitans and the sulcus medianus superior could be distinguished in both species. A fifth longitudinal groove, the sulcus intermedius dorsalis, was found only in Rana esculenta. With the aid of the usual cytoarchitectonic criteria 25 cell masses have been delineated in Rana esculenta and 27 in Rana catesbeiana. These cell masses can be distributed over the following categories (numbers added in brackets for Rana catesbeiana, if different from those in Rana esculenta): primary efferent or motor, 8; primary afferent or sensory, 4(6); "relay" centers, 7. Contrary to statements in the literature the reticular formation can be divided into six separate cell groups. The majority of the nuclei form part of the central gray, which constitutes a rather wide zone in anurans; three reticular nuclei lie partly within the stratum griseum and partly within the stratum album; six nuclei are entirely embedded in the stratum album. The morphological pattern of the cell masses and their relationship to the ventricular sulci were studied with the aid of a graphical reconstruction procedure termed topological analysis (cf. Nieuwenhuys, '74 and figs. 15, 16). This analysis yielded the following results: The sulcus limitans extends throughout the rhombencephalon, dividing this brain part into a basal plate and an alar plate. The cell masses in the basal plate fit into two longitudinal zones, a medial area ventralis and a lateral area intermedioventralis. The area ventralis contains three somatic motor nuclei (IV, VI and XII) and the rhombencephalic medial reticular zone. The latter may be primarily considered as a somatic motor coordinating center. The area intermedioventralis contains

  16. Quantifying Optimal Columellar Strut Dimensions for Nasal Tip Stabilization After Rhinoplasty via Finite Element Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gandy, Jessica R; Manuel, Cyrus T; Leary, Ryan P; Wong, Brian J F

    2016-05-01

    The contribution of columellar strut grafts (CSGs) to nasal tip support has not been determined via structural mechanics. Optimal graft dimensions have yet to be objectively determined. To use a finite element model (FEM) of the human nose to (1) determine the effect of the CSG on nasal tip support and (2) identify how suture placement contributes to tip support. A multiple-component FEM of the human nose consisting of bone, skin/soft tissue, and cartilage was rendered from a computed tomographic scan. Then, CSGs of varying sizes were created, ranging from 15 × 4 × 1 mm to 25 × 8 × 1 mm, and placed in the model between the medial crura. Two FEMs were constructed for each strut size: (1) CSGs that were physically attached to the nasal spine, medial crura, and caudal septum and (2) CSGs that were not in direct contact with these structures and free to move within the soft tissue. A control model was also constructed wherein no graft was placed. Nasal tip support for each model was assessed, and the resultant distribution of von Mises stress, reaction force, and strain energy density with respect to the alar cartilages were calculated. Compared with the control, the reaction force increased with increasing strut volume, while the strain energy density (calculated over the alar cartilages) generally decreased with increasing CSG volume. Simulations with struts that had suture attachments along the entire length of the graft generated a larger reaction force than the models without any suture attachments. Models with anteriorly placed sutures generated reaction forces similar to that of the fully sutured model, whereas the models with posterior sutures showed reaction forces similar to the fully disconnected model. Insertion of CSGs does effect the amount of force the nasal tip can withstand post rhinoplasty. Moreover, anteriorly placed sutures incur reaction forces similar to struts that are fully connected to the alar cartilage. Thus, our

  17. Aspects of Symmetry in de Sitter Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Gim Seng

    We study various aspects of symmetry in four-dimensional de Sitter space (dS4). The asymptotic symmetry group at future null infinity (I+) of dS4 is shown to be given by the group of three-dimensional diffeomorphisms acting on I+. However, for physics relevant to an eternal observatory in dS4, we should instead impose unconventional future boundary conditions at I+. These boundary conditions violate conventional causality, but we argue the causality violations cannot be detected by any experiment in the observatory. As the next step, we study the relevant dynamics in quantum dS4 by illuminating some previously inaccessible aspects of the dS/CFT dictionary in the context of the higher spin dS4/CFT3 correspondence relating Vasiliev's higher-spin gravity on dS4 to a Euclidean Sp(N) CFT3 . We found that CFT3 states created by operator insertions are found to be dual to (anti) quasinormal modes (QNM) in the bulk. A R-norm is defined on the R3 bulk Hilbert space and shown for the scalar case to be equivalent to both the Zamolodchikov and pseudounitary C-norm of the Sp(N) CFT3. The QNMs are found to lie in two complex highest-weight representations of the dS4 isometry group and form a complete orthogonal basis with respect to the R-norm. The conventional Euclidean vacuum may be defined as the state annihilated by half of the QNMs, and the Euclidean Green function is obtained from a simple mode sum. Finally, as a step towards understanding non-linear dynamics of dS 4 we study both linear and non-linear deformations of dS4 which leave the induced conformal metric and trace of the extrinsic curvature unchanged for a fixed hypersurface. These deformations are required to be regular at the future horizon of the static patch observer. When the slices are arbitrarily close to the cosmological horizon, the finite deformations are characterized by solutions to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation.

  18. Integration and Testing of a Disjunct Eddy Accumulation VOC Flux Measurement System in a Research Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garman, K.; Everly, M.; Wyss, P.; Carlsen, M.; Zimmerman, J.; Stirm, B.; Carney, T.; Santini, R.; Shepson, P.

    2005-12-01

    Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) fluxes can now be measured using Disjunct Eddy Accumulation (DEA). This method is primarily applied from fixed towers above forest canopies to study biosphere-atmosphere exchange processes. To expand these tower-based BVOC measurements to spatial scales beyond the tower footprint, an aircraft-based DEA platform is required. Among the significant challenges to such an approach is the capability to determine the vertical component of atmospheric wind from the aircraft with adequate precision and accuracy. The design of a suitable airborne sampling system is another significant challenge. The development of the Airborne Laboratory for Atmospheric Research (ALAR) is described herein. We describe the DEA design and installation along with calibration results which characterize the uncertainties of the vertical wind component measurement. We also describe initial tests of the DEA sampling system, the capabilities of the final installation, and the expected flux uncertainties.

  19. Computed tomography of the craniocervical junction in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Castor, W R; Miller, J D; Russell, A S; Chiu, P L; Grace, M; Hanson, J

    1983-02-01

    Thirty-three patients with rheumatoid arthritis had computed tomographic examination of the craniocervical junction. This demonstrated soft tissue features which have not previously been described in published reports. A low attenuation lesion between the odontoid and the transverse ligament shown in 11 patients was considered a premonitory sign of rupture of the transverse ligament or a manifestation of active disease. Computed tomography revealed spinal cord compression in 3 patients and ligamentous changes in the transverse ligament and the alar and spinal ligaments in 26 patients. Erosion of the odontoid was shown in 19 patients and subluxation in 20 patients. No relationship could be found between the clinical signs and symptoms and the radiological abnormalities except in the case of cord compression.

  20. Value of cephalic part of lateral crus in functional rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Sazgar, Amir A; Amali, Amin; Peyvasty, Mina Najarzad

    2016-12-01

    Reshaping of the nasal tip is the most difficult part of rhinoplasty. Over the years, there have been many advances in the field of rhinoplasty, including tip plasty. The goal of these continuous refinements in existing procedures has been to improve both aesthetic and functional outcomes. The cephalic part of the lateral crus of the lower lateral cartilage is what mainly contributes to nasal tip deformity. Various surgical techniques have been reported that used the cephalic part of lateral crus to refine the nasal tip and preserve alar integrity and nasal breathing function. In this review article, we have attempted to show the evolution of these methods while focusing on development of approaches that are basic for "modern rhinoplasty" and presenting our personal preferences. We have also endeavored to categorize these methods and clarify some misconceptions and inaccuracies in their descriptions.

  1. Nasal reconstruction using porous polyethylene implants.

    PubMed

    Romo, T; Sclafani, A P; Jacono, A A

    2000-01-01

    Nasal reconstruction presents a significant challenge to the facial plastic surgeon. The dual goals of reconstruction are restoration of the desired aesthetic nasal contour and an improved nasal airway. Autologous cartilage and bone are considered optimal grafting material, but their supply is often limited and harvesting entails additional morbidity. Many synthetic materials have been introduced in nasal reconstruction, but high infection and extrusion rates limited their use. Porous high density polyethylene implants present an alternative to autologous material as they allow for fibrovascular ingrowth, leading to stability of the implant and decreased rates of infection. Herein we describe the use of porous high density polyethylene implants for reconstruction of the platyrrhine nose and in revision rhinoplasty. The use of preformed nasal-dorsal tip and alar batten implants are described, as well as the use of columellar strut and premaxillary plumper implants. We believe that porous high density polyethylene implants provide a safe, desirable alternative in functional and aesthetic nasal reconstruction.

  2. A comparison of aesthetic proportions between the Oriental and Caucasian nose.

    PubMed

    Leong, S C L; White, P S

    2004-12-01

    Differences in aesthetics between the Oriental and Caucasian nose were examined from a cohort of 118 healthy volunteers of which 61 had an Oriental and 57 had a Caucasian racial origin. The oriental nose projected less from the face, and was broader at the intercanthal level (P < 0.001) and the alar base (P < 0.001), but not at the bony base. The oriental nose projected less at all levels: nasion projection (P < 0.001) and tip projection (P < 0.001). The naso-labial angles for the Orientals in this study exhibited a wider range of variation than the Caucasians, with the oriental male exhibiting the most acute angle (average 86.2 degrees ), because of the forward angulation of the upper lip. Many of the average aesthetic parameters obtained from these two cohorts of healthy subjects did not conform to the published aesthetic standards, set out as the ideal goals for rhinoplasty.

  3. Three-dimensional analysis techniques--Part 4: Three-dimensional analysis of bone and soft tissue to bone ratio of movements in 24 cleft palate patients following Le Fort I osteotomy: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    McCance, A M; Moss, J P; Fright, W R; Linney, A D; James, D R; Coghlan, K; Mars, M

    1997-01-01

    The three-dimensional changes in the bone and the ratio of soft tissue to bone movement were investigated in a group of 24 cleft palate patients following Le Fort I osteotomy. CT scans were taken for each patient preoperatively and 1 year postoperatively. The scans were superimposed, radial measurements calculated, and the changes illustrated by two separate color scales. In all of the groups, there was a fairly consistent pattern of movement over the mandible. The soft tissues moved in a 1.25:1 ratio over the chin and canine regions, and reduced to 1:1 over the body. In the maxilla, there was a 1:1 movement in the midline increasing to 1.25:1 bilaterally over the alar bases for both the bilateral clefts and clefts of the secondary palate groups. In the unilateral cleft group, however, there was a greater degree of movement over the cleft than over the noncleft side.

  4. Expression of chick Fgf19 and mouse Fgf15 orthologs is regulated in the developing brain by Fgf8 and Shh.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, L; Martinez, S

    2007-08-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (Fgfs) constitute a family of signaling molecules that play essential roles in development. We have studied the expression pattern of mouse Fgf15 in the developing brain. Fgf19 is another member of the FGF family that has been suggested as the chick and human ortholog of mouse and rat Fgf15. Here, we compare the expression pattern during neural development of chick Fgf19 with mouse Fgf15. Unlike Fgf15, Fgf19 presents an expression in the isthmic alar plate, diencephalic and mesencephalic parabasal plates, hindbrain basal plate, as well as in the zona limitans intrathalamica (zli). Moreover, we explored the regulation between Fgf19 and the signaling molecules of the isthmic and zli organizers: Fgf8 and Shh, respectively. Considering the possibility that Fgf19 plays a similar role in humans and chicks, this finding could explain the significant diencephalic phenotypic differences between humans and mice in models and diseases where the Shh pathway is affected.

  5. Nasolabial Cyst Associated with Odontogenic Infection

    PubMed Central

    Martini, Eveline Claudia; Coppla, Fabiana Madalozzo; Campagnoli, Eduardo Bauml; Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The nasolabial cyst or Klestadt cyst is a relatively uncommon nonodontogenic cyst that develops in the nasal alar region; it has uncertain pathogenesis. This lesion has slow growth and variable dimensions and is characterized clinically by a floating tumefaction in the nasolabial fold area around the bridge of the nose, causing an elevation of the upper lip and relative facial asymmetry. Diagnosis is primarily made clinically; if necessary, this is complemented by imaging. This paper reports the case of a 39-year-old male patient who complained of pain in the right upper premolar region and poor aesthetics due to a firm tumor in the right wing of the nose. Initially, this was thought to be due to an odontogenic abscess; however, the differential diagnosis was that a nasolabial cyst was communicating with the apex of teeth 14 and 15. Surgical treatment was carried out, followed by histopathological examination and concomitant endodontic treatment of the teeth involved. PMID:26904312

  6. An assessment of grafts in the posterior cricoid lamina.

    PubMed

    Strome, M; Norris, C M; Joseph, M P; Brodsky, G; Eavey, R D

    1982-10-01

    Subglottic stenosis is a recognized complication of prolonged intubation. To date, there is no uniformly successful operative procedure for severe subglottic stenosis, fulfilling the criteria of decannulation and a serviceable voice. The surgical ideals for such a procedure should include the use of autogenous grafting material, avoidance of internal stenting, and limited manipulation of the mucosa. This study was intended to assess the fate of isolated hyoid and thyroid alar grafts interposed in the posterior cricoid lamina. Additionally, anterior/posterior splits with and without anterior grafting were evaluated. Seventeen dogs were used in the determinate animal model. Vocal cord mobility was evaluated by direct laryngoscopy prior to sacrifice. Graphic gross anatomical specimens depict the effects of anterior/posterior splitting on the cricoid cartilage. Clinical correlations are suggested.

  7. Infiltrating intramuscular spindle cell lipoma of the face.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Rajni V; Duncan, Lyn M; Austen, William G; Nielsen, G Petur

    2009-10-01

    Spindle cell lipoma is a benign lipomatous tumor, which usually arises on the back of the neck, shoulder or upper back of males in the third to seventh decade of life. We report herein an unusual infiltrating intramuscular spindle cell lipoma arising in the nose of a 53-year-old man. The patient presented with a 0.5-cm 'cyst' of the nose, just above the right alar crease, which was removed. Four years later, the lesion recurred and was re-excised. Histologically, a proliferation of mature adipocytes, ropey collagen fibers and spindle cells within a myxoid stroma was present in the subcutaneous tissue and infiltrated between skeletal muscle fibers. Nine cases of intramuscular spindle cell lipoma with histological examination have previously been reported and have involved the oral cavity and muscles of the extremities. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an infiltrating intramuscular spindle cell lipoma arising on the face.

  8. Intra And Extra Nasal Laser Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selking, Stuart G.

    1988-06-01

    The author describes his experience with 400 intranasal laser surgical procedures done with the carbon dioxide laser and the surgical microscope. Procedures include excision and vaporization of polyps, turbinates, tumors, telangiectasia, synechia, nasal stenosis, intranasal cysts, papillomata, and septal spurs. The author describes a suction speculum and drape of his own design which provide smoke free access to the internal nose, and protection of the alar rim and the face from laser energy. Relief of obstruction is comparable to that obtained from the more traditional means of intranasal surgery. Intraoperative and early and delayed post operative bleeding is less with laser surgery than with any other means. Avoidance of technical problems is emphasized in this manuscript, since intranasal laser surgery is in some respects difficult to perform. Included are practical suggestions about patient positioning, use of protective devices, and patient selection.

  9. [Nasal mucosa in patients with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Müller, Maciej; Betlejewski, Stanisław

    2003-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrinologic disease all over the world. 150 million people suffer from this disease, in Poland about 2 million. The disease on the basis of the onset and pathophysiology may be divided into type I and type II. Pathophysiologic changes include diabetic microangiopathy, macroangiopathy and neuropathy. The most common presentations in head and neck are otitis externa, hypoacusis, vertigo, disequilibrium, xerostomia, dysphagia, fungal and recurrent infections. The changes in nasal mucosa are not very well known. Only few papers concerned the problem. The main complaints of patients regarding the nose are xeromycteria, hyposmia and various degree of decreased patency of the nose. Chronic atrophic rhinitis, septal perforation, ulceration of nasal mucosa, alar necrosis, symptoms of staphylococcal or fungal infection can be found during otolaryngologic examination. The treatment in this group of patients should consist of systemic therapy of diabetes mellitus and on the other hand focal therapy with the use of a solution to moisten the nasal mucosa.

  10. Prime Contractors with Awards Over $25,000 by Name, Location, and Contract Number, Fiscal Year 87. Part 9. Pacific Coast Sales & Service-Rockwell International Corporation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    8217 ID W E (1 0 ~ Ecc 0 ’-’GE N4 cc cc~ c- cc c 1ALar T . 6z- -%L __ !L S :a *4m to~’) 00IN 4 m (n4 CnO WC N 0 - F - -N LC to C >c 0 ID a I > U- R) I6 L...I 44 Hot D0-D 3 o 00 00 2 0 HOMO MO M 00C 0.. C C0U 00 0*0 0 4o rF. 0 010eW 23 - ixI - - 8w~d IO 0 U)LIko0 LOO W c 0000 080W0).0000 oomo r- 0 m 5 I

  11. Humans are born too soon: impact on pediatric otolaryngology.

    PubMed

    Bluestone, Charles D

    2005-01-01

    Humans are born 12 months too early. Gestation should be 21 months. Humans evolved to become the pre-eminent animal in the world, but our big brain, bipedalism, and small female pelvic outlet have caused us to pay the price of being born too soon with all of its disadvantages. Early birth has an impact on diseases and disorders encountered by the otolaryngologist, including otitis media, laryngomalacia, tracheomalacia, congenital vocal cord paralysis, subglottic and tracheal stenosis, gastroesophageal reflux, congenital micrognathia, and congenital nasal alar collapse. Many of these conditions improve or resolve completely in the first year of life as an infant's immune system and anatomy matures. Knowledge of this evolutionary process can help us understand why some infants will grow out of certain diseases and disorders encountered in pediatric otolaryngology, while others will not.

  12. Aesthetic and functional outcome following nasal reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Mureau, Marc A M; Moolenburgh, Sanne E; Levendag, Peter C; Hofer, Stefan O P

    2007-10-01

    Few reports on outcome of aesthetic nasal reconstruction exist. Therefore, subjective and objective aesthetic and functional outcome following nasal reconstruction was assessed. Outcome was assessed in 38 consecutive patients treated for subtotal nasal defects using standardized semistructured interviews. Standardized physical examination forms and photographs were used. In six patients, one aesthetic subunit was involved; in 14, two; and in 18, three or more. Defects were classified as skin only (13 percent), skin/cartilage (21 percent), and full thickness (66 percent). Some defects (32 percent) involved adjacent aesthetic units. Inner lining was reconstructed with local mucosa or turnover skin flaps. Support was provided with regional cartilage grafts and/or composite septal flaps. Skin defects were reconstructed with forehead, nasolabial, cheek advancement, Abbé, facial artery perforator, or free radial forearm flaps. Nasal reconstructions required 116 procedures. Thirty-three patients participated in the follow-up study. Mucosal crusting was noted in 36 percent, passage difficulties in 31 percent, and worse olfaction in 16 percent. Phonation was unchanged. Eighty-one percent were very satisfied with nasal function. Flap color match was moderate to good in 97 percent; hair growth occurred in 61 percent. At critical inspection, a thicker flap (58 percent), smaller ostium nasi (77 percent), thicker alar rim (86 percent), and minor alar rim retraction (46 percent) were noted. Seventy-nine percent were very satisfied with total nasal appearance. Although objective functional and aesthetic outcome following nasal reconstruction sometimes shows impairment compared with the normal situation, it gives high subjective patient satisfaction with function and aesthetics.

  13. Functional magnetic resonance imaging--video diagnosis of soft-tissue trauma to the craniocervical joints and ligaments.

    PubMed

    Volle, E

    2000-01-01

    Patients suffering from distortion of the cervical spine after an acceleration trauma present problems with respect to the correct diagnostic recognition of the existing injuries. To define instability of the craniocervical junction, attention should be given to the position of the dens and the dimension of its subarachnoid space during the entire rotational maneuver. Our diagnosis via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with video did not focus on injuries to the ligamentous microstructure as visualized with high-resolution MRI. Our purpose was to demonstrate the cause of instability of the craniocervical junction by direct visualization during fMRI-video technique. Between December 1997 and March 1999, 200 patients were studied using fMRI on a 0.2-Tesla Magnetom Open. Routine evaluation of the extracranial vertebral circulation by MRI angiography as an additional preinvestigative requirement is recommended. The earliest examination time from injury to MRI evaluation was 3 months and the maximum, 5 years (average, 2.6 years). Among the 200 patients investigated, 30 showed instability of the ligamentous dens complex. Of the same 200, 8 (4%) had a complete rupture and 22 (11%) an incomplete rupture of the alar ligament, with instability signs. In another 45 patients (22.5%), fMRI-video showed evidence of instability, and all these patients had coexisting intraligamentous signal pattern variation, probably due to granulation tissue. Eighty patients of the 200 (40%) had signal indifference without demonstrable video instability signs, and 43 patients (21.5%) showed no evidence of instability and no signal variation in the alar ligaments. On the basis of recognition of instability and the malfunction of the ligaments, the fibrous capsula, and the tiny dens capsula, we now can distinguish between lesions caused by rotatory trauma to the craniocervical junction and those from classic whiplash injury.

  14. MRI video diagnosis and surgical therapy of soft tissue trauma to the craniocervical junction.

    PubMed

    Volle, E; Montazem, A

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated objective diagnostic methods for patients with possible upper cervical spine instability caused by trauma and correlated them with subsequent neurosurgical findings and outcomes. Between November 1995 and May 1998, we investigated 420 patients with functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the craniocervical junction. We evaluated the extracranial vertebral circulation by MRI angiography, with focus on the position of the dens and on the subarachnoid space during entire rotational maneuvers. We documented 72 cases (17.1%) of injuries to the alar ligaments that were accompanied by signs of instability. Twenty patients (4.8%) had a complete alar ligament rupture, and 52 (12.4%) had an incomplete rupture with coexisting instability. We referred these patients to a neurosurgeon. Surgery was eventually chosen for 42 patients (10.0%) with the intention of obtaining dorsal occipitocervical stabilization. The duration of time between the MRI evaluation and surgery ranged from 1 week to 1.5 years (mean: 3.5 mo). After the fifth postoperative day, almost all symptoms had disappeared. One year following surgery, 34 of the 42 patients (80.9%) still demonstrated successful fusion and an alleviation of their sensation of instability. Twenty-five of these patients (59.5%)--all of whom were unemployed before surgery--were able to resume a professional activity. In the eight patients (19.0%) who still had a loss of stability during the second and 14th weeks, we noticed that there were some negative effects of rehabilitation. Six of these patients developed pseudarthrosis or osteolysis of their bone grafts during the first 3 months after fusion, and three required a repeat operation. We conclude that functional MRI with lateral tilting and rotatory evaluation is a useful tool for investigating craniocervical instability. For patients who are recalcitrant to following a program of conservative therapy, surgical stabilization of the craniocervical junction appears to

  15. Clone and functional analysis of Seryl-tRNA synthetase and Tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase from silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jingsheng; Tian, Jianghai; Li, Fanchi; Xue, Bin; Hu, Jiahuan; Cheng, Xiaoyu; Li, Jinxin; Shen, Weide; Li, Bing

    2017-01-30

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are the key enzymes for protein synthesis. Glycine, alanine, serine and tyrosine are the major amino acids composing fibroin of silkworm. Among them, the genes of alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AlaRS) and glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS) have been cloned. In this study, the seryl-tRNA synthetase (SerRS) and tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS) genes from silkworm were cloned. Their full length are 1709 bp and 1868 bp and contain open reading frame (ORF) of 1485 bp and 1575 bp, respectively. RT-PCR examination showed that the transcription levels of SerRS, TyrRS, AlaRS and GlyRS are significantly higher in silk gland than in other tissues. In addition, their transcription levels are much higher in middle and posterior silk gland than in anterior silk gland. Moreover, treatment of silkworms with phoxim, an inhibitor of silk protein synthesis, but not TiO2 NP, an enhancer of silk protein synthesis, significantly reduced the transcription levels of aaRS and content of free amino acids in posterior silk gland, therefore affecting silk protein synthesis, which may be the mechanism of phoxim-silking disorders. Furthermore, low concentration of TiO2 NPs showed no effect on the transcription of aaRS and content of free amino acids, suggesting that TiO2 NPs promotes silk protein synthesis possibly by increasing the activity of fibroin synthase in silkworm.

  16. Clone and functional analysis of Seryl-tRNA synthetase and Tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase from silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jingsheng; Tian, Jianghai; Li, Fanchi; Xue, Bin; Hu, Jiahuan; Cheng, Xiaoyu; Li, Jinxin; Shen, Weide; Li, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are the key enzymes for protein synthesis. Glycine, alanine, serine and tyrosine are the major amino acids composing fibroin of silkworm. Among them, the genes of alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AlaRS) and glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS) have been cloned. In this study, the seryl-tRNA synthetase (SerRS) and tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS) genes from silkworm were cloned. Their full length are 1709 bp and 1868 bp and contain open reading frame (ORF) of 1485 bp and 1575 bp, respectively. RT-PCR examination showed that the transcription levels of SerRS, TyrRS, AlaRS and GlyRS are significantly higher in silk gland than in other tissues. In addition, their transcription levels are much higher in middle and posterior silk gland than in anterior silk gland. Moreover, treatment of silkworms with phoxim, an inhibitor of silk protein synthesis, but not TiO2 NP, an enhancer of silk protein synthesis, significantly reduced the transcription levels of aaRS and content of free amino acids in posterior silk gland, therefore affecting silk protein synthesis, which may be the mechanism of phoxim-silking disorders. Furthermore, low concentration of TiO2 NPs showed no effect on the transcription of aaRS and content of free amino acids, suggesting that TiO2 NPs promotes silk protein synthesis possibly by increasing the activity of fibroin synthase in silkworm. PMID:28134300

  17. The Structural, Functional, and Molecular Organization of the Brainstem

    PubMed Central

    Nieuwenhuys, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    According to His (1891, 1893) the brainstem consists of two longitudinal zones, the dorsal alar plate (sensory in nature) and the ventral basal plate (motor in nature). Johnston and Herrick indicated that both plates can be subdivided into separate somatic and visceral zones, distinguishing somatosensory and viscerosensory zones within the alar plate, and visceromotor and somatomotor zones within the basal plate. To test the validity of this “four-functional-zones” concept, I developed a topological procedure, surveying the spatial relationships of the various cell masses in the brainstem in a single figure. Brainstems of 16 different anamniote species were analyzed, and revealed that the brainstems are clearly divisible into four morphological zones, which correspond largely with the functional zones of Johnston and Herrick. Exceptions include (1) the magnocellular vestibular nucleus situated in the viscerosensory zone; (2) the basal plate containing a number of evidently non-motor centers (superior and inferior olives). Nevertheless the “functional zonal model” has explanatory value. Thus, it is possible to interpret certain brain specializations related to particular behavioral profiles, as “local hypertrophies” of one or two functional columns. Recent developmental molecular studies on brains of birds and mammals confirmed the presence of longitudinal zones, and also showed molecularly defined transverse bands or neuromeres throughout development. The intersecting boundaries of the longitudinal zones and the transverse bands appeared to delimit radially arranged histogenetic domains. Because neuromeres have been observed in embryonic and larval stages of numerous anamniote species, it may be hypothesized that the brainstems of all vertebrates share a basic organizational plan, in which intersecting longitudinal and transverse zones form fundamental histogenetic and genoarchitectonic units. PMID:21738499

  18. The effect of Le Fort I maxillary impaction on nasal airway resistance.

    PubMed

    Guenthner, T A; Sather, A H; Kern, E B

    1984-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of maxillary superior movement via Le Fort I osteotomy on nasal airway resistance, eleven Caucasian patients whose surgical orthodontic treatment included Le Fort I impaction (range 2 to 8 mm, mean 5.3 mm) were selected. Nasal airway resistance in these patients was determined a few days before and approximately 8 weeks after the Le Fort I surgical procedure. Nasal airway resistance was determined by means of a uninasal active mask rhinomanometric technique. Contrary to the predicted negative effects of maxillary superior movement on nasal airway function, there was a statistically significant improvement in nasal airway resistance (P less than 0.01) after maxillary superior movement. This rather unexpected finding can be explained by examining the effect of maxillary superior movement on the nasal valve area in the anterior nose. The nasal valve area is a teardrop-shaped area bordered by the nasal septum, the caudal end of the upper lateral nasal cartilage, the floor of the nose, and the soft fibrofatty tissue on the lateral aspect of the nose. The apex of the teardrop-shaped area (the angle between the nasal septum and the upper lateral cartilage) is called the nasal valve. In the Caucasian type of nose, the nasal valve accounts for most of the inspiratory resistance to airflow. Maxillary superior movement increases the alar width. It is proposed that this increase in alar width is transmitted at least partially to the nasal valve angle, causing it to widen slightly, paradoxically reducing nasal airway resistance while reducing skeletal intranasal dimensions.

  19. Biomechanical characterisation of the human nasal cartilages; implications for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Griffin, M F; Premakumar, Y; Seifalian, A M; Szarko, M; Butler, P E M

    2016-01-01

    Nasal reconstruction is currently performed using autologous grafts provides but is limited by donor site morbidity, tissue availability and potentially graft failure. Additionally, current alternative alloplastic materials are limited by their high extrusion and infection rates. Matching mechanical properties of synthetic materials to the native tissue they are replacing has shown to be important in the biocompatibility of implants. To date the mechanical properties of the human nasal cartilages has not been studied in depth to be able to create tissue-engineered replacements with similar mechanical properties to native tissue. The young's modulus was characterized in compression on fresh-frozen human cadaveric septal, alar, and lateral cartilage. Due to the functional differences experienced by the various aspects of the septal cartilage, 16 regions were evaluated with an average elastic modulus of 2.72 ± 0.63 MPa. Furthermore, the posterior septum was found to be significantly stiffer than the anterior septum (p < 0.01). The medial and lateral alar cartilages were tested at four points with an elastic modulus ranging from 2.09 ± 0.81 MPa, with no significant difference between the cartilages (p < 0.78). The lateral cartilage was tested once in all cadavers with an average elastic modulus of 0.98 ± 0.29 MPa. In conclusion, this study provides new information on the compressive mechanical properties of the human nasal cartilage, allowing surgeons to have a better understanding of the difference between the mechanical properties of the individual nasal cartilages. This study has provided a reference, by which tissue-engineered should be developed for effective cartilage replacements for nasal reconstruction.

  20. Airborne Observations of Urban-Derived Water Vapor and Potential Impacts on Chemistry and Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, O. E.; Shepson, P. B.; Grundman, R. M., II; Stirm, B. H.; Ren, X.; Dickerson, R. R.; Fuentes, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric conditions typical of wintertime, such as lower boundary layer heights and reduced turbulent mixing, provide a unique environment for anthropogenic pollutants to accumulate and react. Wintertime enhancements in water vapor (H2O) have been observed in urban areas, and are thought to result from fossil fuel combustion and urban heat island-induced evaporation. The contribution of urban-derived water vapor to the atmosphere has the potential to locally influence atmospheric chemistry and weather for the urban area and surrounding region due to interactions between H2O and other chemical species, aerosols, and clouds. Airborne observations of urban-derived H2O, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone, and aerosols were conducted from Purdue University's Airborne Laboratory for Atmospheric Research (ALAR) and the University of Maryland's (UMD) Twin Cessna research aircraft during the winter of 2015. Measurements were conducted as part of the collaborative airborne campaign, Wintertime INvestigation of Transport, Emissions, and Reactivity (WINTER), which investigated seasonal trends in anthropogenic emissions and reactivity in the Northeastern United States. ALAR and the UMD aircraft participated in mass balance experiments around Washington D.C.-Baltimore to determine total city emission rates of H2O and other greenhouse gases. Average enhancements in H2O mixing ratio of 0.048%, and up to 0.13%, were observed downwind of the urban centers on ten research flights. In some cases, downwind H2O concentrations clearly track CO2 and NO2 enhancements, suggesting a strong combustion signal. Analysis of Purdue and UMD data collected during the WINTER campaign shows an average urban-derived H2O contribution of 5.3%, and as much as 13%, to the local boundary layer from ten research flights flown in February and March of 2015. In this paper, we discuss the potential chemical and physical implications of these results.

  1. The conserved barH-like homeobox-2 gene barhl2 acts downstream of orthodentricle-2 and together with iroquois-3 in establishment of the caudal forebrain signaling center induced by Sonic Hedgehog.

    PubMed

    Juraver-Geslin, Hugo A; Gómez-Skarmeta, José Luis; Durand, Béatrice C

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the gene regulatory network that governs formation of the Zona limitans intrathalamica (ZLI), a signaling center that secretes Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) to control the growth and regionalization of the caudal forebrain. Using loss- and gain-of-function, explants and grafting experiments in amphibians, we demonstrate that barhl2 acts downstream of otx2 and together with the iroquois (irx)-3 gene in establishment of the ZLI compartment initiated by Shh influence. We find that the presumptive (pre)-ZLI domain expresses barhl2, otx2 and irx3, whereas the thalamus territory caudally bordering the pre-ZLI expresses barhl2, otx2 and irx1/2 and early on irx3. We demonstrate that Barhl2 activity is required for determination of the ZLI and thalamus fates and that within the p2 alar plate the ratio of Irx3 to Irx1/2 contributes to ZLI specification and size determination. We show that when continuously exposed to Shh, neuroepithelial cells coexpressing barhl2, otx2 and irx3 acquire two characteristics of the ZLI compartment-the competence to express shh and the ability to segregate from anterior neural plate cells. In contrast, neuroepithelial cells expressing barhl2, otx2 and irx1/2, are not competent to express shh. Noteworthy in explants, under Shh influence, ZLI-like cells segregate from thalamic-like cells. Our study establishes that Barhl2 activity plays a key role in p2 alar plate patterning, specifically ZLI formation, and provides new insights on establishment of the signaling center of the caudal forebrain.

  2. When Aesthetics, Surgery, and Psychology Meet: Aesthetic Nasal Proportions in Patients Having Rhinoplasty and Normal Adults.

    PubMed

    Naraghi, Mohsen; Atari, Mohammad; Asadollahi, Hossein

    2016-03-01

    The aesthetic nasal proportions have played a significant role in rhinoplasty practice. On the other hand, psychological variables also play a crucial role in rhinoplasty. It is of paramount importance for facial plastic surgeons to consider both sides to achieve a more satisfactory outcome. The present study aimed to compare aesthetic nasal proportions between primary rhinoplasty candidates and a demographically matched control group to determine whether patients having rhinoplasty have different aesthetic nasal proportions compared with healthy adults who are not interested in rhinoplasty. Sixty patients having rhinoplasty were selected consecutively from a surgical clinic. A control group ( n  = 60) with the same demographic characteristics was selected. Photographs were taken using a digital camera on a fixed zoom setting. All images were captured at a distance of 1.5 m. Frontal and right lateral views were used to compare nasolabial angle, nasofrontal angle, nasofacial angle, alar width, intercanthal distance, nasal length, and width-to-length ratio. Independent t tests were used for comparisons. Independent t tests verified that nasofrontal angle, nasal length, and width-to-length ratio were significantly different between the two groups ( p  < 0.01). Effect sizes ranged between 0.11 and 0.69. Aesthetic proportions were not significantly different in four factors. Nasolabial angle, nasofacial angle, alar width, and intercanthal distance were not different ( p  > 0.05). Four major aesthetic nasal proportions were statistically similar in a group of patients having rhinoplasty and a control group with no interest in rhinoplasty. Surprisingly, the patients having rhinoplasty showed a mean width-to-length ratio closer to aesthetic ideal. Therefore, applying for rhinoplasty may have strong psychological reasons (e.g., body dysmorphic symptoms) compared with realistic aesthetic appraisals.

  3. When Aesthetics, Surgery, and Psychology Meet: Aesthetic Nasal Proportions in Patients Having Rhinoplasty and Normal Adults

    PubMed Central

    Naraghi, Mohsen; Atari, Mohammad; Asadollahi, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    The aesthetic nasal proportions have played a significant role in rhinoplasty practice. On the other hand, psychological variables also play a crucial role in rhinoplasty. It is of paramount importance for facial plastic surgeons to consider both sides to achieve a more satisfactory outcome. The present study aimed to compare aesthetic nasal proportions between primary rhinoplasty candidates and a demographically matched control group to determine whether patients having rhinoplasty have different aesthetic nasal proportions compared with healthy adults who are not interested in rhinoplasty. Sixty patients having rhinoplasty were selected consecutively from a surgical clinic. A control group ( n  = 60) with the same demographic characteristics was selected. Photographs were taken using a digital camera on a fixed zoom setting. All images were captured at a distance of 1.5 m. Frontal and right lateral views were used to compare nasolabial angle, nasofrontal angle, nasofacial angle, alar width, intercanthal distance, nasal length, and width-to-length ratio. Independent t tests were used for comparisons. Independent t tests verified that nasofrontal angle, nasal length, and width-to-length ratio were significantly different between the two groups ( p  < 0.01). Effect sizes ranged between 0.11 and 0.69. Aesthetic proportions were not significantly different in four factors. Nasolabial angle, nasofacial angle, alar width, and intercanthal distance were not different ( p  > 0.05). Four major aesthetic nasal proportions were statistically similar in a group of patients having rhinoplasty and a control group with no interest in rhinoplasty. Surprisingly, the patients having rhinoplasty showed a mean width-to-length ratio closer to aesthetic ideal. Therefore, applying for rhinoplasty may have strong psychological reasons (e.g., body dysmorphic symptoms) compared with realistic aesthetic appraisals. PMID:28824980

  4. Eppur Si Muove: Evidence for an External Granular Layer and Possibly Transit Amplification in the Teleostean Cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Biechl, Daniela; Dorigo, Alessandro; Köster, Reinhard W.; Grothe, Benedikt; Wullimann, Mario F.

    2016-01-01

    The secreted signaling factor Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) acts in the floor plate of the developing vertebrate CNS to promote motoneuron development. In addition, shh has dorsal expression domains in the amniote alar plate (i.e., in isocortex, superior colliculus, and cerebellum). For example, shh expressing Purkinje cells act in transit amplification of external granular layer (EGL) cells of the developing cerebellum. Our previous studies had indicated the presence of an EGL in anamniote zebrafish, but a possible role of shh in the zebrafish cerebellar plate remained elusive. Therefore, we used an existing zebrafish transgenic line Tg(2.4shha-ABC-GFP)sb15; Shkumatava et al., 2004) to show this gene activity and its cellular localization in the larval zebrafish brain. Clearly, GFP expressing cells occur in larval alar zebrafish brain domains, i.e., optic tectum and cerebellum. Analysis of critical cerebellar cell markers on this transgenic background and a PH3 assay for mitotic cells reveals that Purkinje cells and eurydendroid cells are completely non-overlapping postmitotic cell populations. Furthermore, shh-GFP cells never express Zebrin II or parvalbumin, nor calretinin. They are thus neither Purkinje cells nor calretinin positive migrating rhombic lip derived cells. The shh-GFP cells also never correspond to PH3 positive cells of the ventral cerebellar proliferative zone or the upper rhombic lip-derived EGL. From this marker analysis and the location of shh-GFP cells sandwiched between calretinin positive rhombic lip derived cells and parvalbumin positive Purkinje cells, we conclude that shh-GFP expressing cells qualify as previously reported olig2 positive eurydendroid cells, which are homologous to the amniote deep cerebellar nuclei. We confirm this using double transgenic progeny of shh-GFP and olig2-dsRed zebrafish. Thus, these zebrafish eurydendroid cells may have the same role in transit amplification as Purkinje cells do in amniotes. PMID:27199681

  5. Fifteen-Year Follow-Up Results of Presurgical Orthopedics Followed by Primary Correction for Unilateral Cleft Lip Nose in Program SEHATI in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Farida Kamil; Haryanto, Inge Gustiningsih; Hak, Syafrudin; Nakamura, Norifumi; Sasaguri, Masaaki; Ohishi, Masamichi

    2013-03-01

    Objective : To assess long-term effects of nasal correction in infancy on nasal form and growth in patients with unilateral cleft lip, alveolus, and palate (UCLP). Design : Retrospective longitudinal study. Patients : Seventeen patients with complete UCLP treated in Program SEHATI in Harapan Kita Children and Maternity Hospital, Indonesia, and followed for approximately 15 years were enrolled. Interventions : Subjects received presurgical orthopedics using a Hotz's plate and simultaneous primary lip and nose repair in which the lower lateral cartilage was repositioned through a reverse-U incision. Main Outcome Measures : Preoperative and postoperative nasal forms, including the nostril height and width ratio, the ratio of the height of the top of the alar groove, and the ratio of nostril surface areas were analyzed using color photos taken serially. One-way analysis of variance was used for statistical analyses. Results : The nostril height and width ratio and the height of the alar groove were significantly improved postoperatively and maintained for 15 years. The mean ratio of nostril surface areas was 1.01 ± 0.12 fifteen years postoperatively, and there was no significant difference from the ratio 1 year postoperatively. The major persistent deformities were septal deviation and a small skin web on the nostril rim. Conclusions : Our primary cleft lip nose correction has provided an acceptable nose form and absence of disturbance of the nasal growth in patients with UCLP. However, the repositioning of the nasal cartilage at infancy might not eliminate the need for secondary correction after puberty.

  6. Presurgical nasoalveolar moulding in unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Zuhaib, Mohammed; Bonanthaya, Krishnamurthy; Parmar, Renu; Shetty, Pritham N; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Presurgical nasoalveolar moulding (PNAM) is a non-surgical method of reshaping the cleft lip, alveolus, palate and the nose to minimize the severity of the cleft deformity, before primary cheiloplastyand palatoplasty. In this context, PNAM proves to be an invaluable asset in the management of unilateral cleft lip and palate. The study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of PNAM in the management of unilateral cleft lip and palate with the following objectives: (1) To assess and compare the degree of reduction in the size of cleft palate and alveolus (pre-PNAM and post-PNAM). (2) To evaluate and compare the improvement in columellar length and correction of columellar deviation (pre-PNAM and post-PNAM). (3) To assess the changes in the position of the alar base and the alar cartilages. Prospective study. A prospective study consisting of, which included 20 patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate was conducted. The age at the start of PNAM treatment of the infants ranged from 2 to 44 days of age reporting to our institute between December 2011 and August 2013. All the patients underwent PNAM therapy before primary cheiloplasty at 6 months of age; clinical parameters were assessed pre- and post-therapy using photographs and dental study models of the maxilla. Student's t-test for paired comparisons. Results of the study showed a promising reduction in the cleft size before the surgery, significant improvement in nasal symmetry, including the columellar length on the cleft side. PNAM is a valuable adjunct to our surgical armamentarium in dealing with the challenges of primary closure of unilateral cleft lip and palate thereby enhancing the overall surgical outcome. The advantages of this method include the simplicity of the procedure and improving the quality of surgical repair, particularly in obtaining tension free muscle closure in unilateral clefts.

  7. Cognitive deficits and ALA-D-inhibition in children exposed to multiple metals.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Sabrina N; Barth, Anelise; Göethel, Gabriela; Baierle, Marília; Charão, Mariele F; Brucker, Natália; Moro, Angela M; Bubols, Guilherme B; Sobreira, Johanna S; Sauer, Elisa; Rocha, Rafael; Gioda, Adriana; Dias, Ana Cristina; Salles, Jerusa F; Garcia, Solange C

    2015-01-01

    Children are especially vulnerable to adverse effects of multiple metals exposure. The aim of this study was to assess some metals concentrations such as lead (Pb), arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) in whole blood, serum, hair and drinking water samples using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in rural and urban children. In addition, evaluate the adverse effects of multiple metals exposure on cognitive function and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) activity. The cognitive ability assessment was performed by the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM) test. The ALA-D activity and ALA-D reactivation index (ALA-RE) activity with DTT and ZnCl2 also were determined. Forty-six rural children and 23 urban children were enrolled in this study. Rural children showed percentile IQ scores in the RCPM test significantly decreased in relation to urban children. According to multiple linear regression analysis, the Mn and Fe in hair may account for the cognitive deficits of children. Manganese and Fe in hair also were positively correlated with Mn and Fe in drinking water, respectively. These results suggest that drinking water is possibly a source of metals exposure in children. ALA-D activity was decreased and ALA-RE with DTT and ZnCl2 was increased in rural children in comparison to urban children. Moreover, ALA-D inhibition was correlated with Cr blood levels and ALA-RE/DDT and ALA-RE/ZnCl2 were correlated with levels of Cr and Hg in blood. Thus, our results indicated some adverse effects of children's exposure to multiple metals, such as cognitive deficits and ALA-D inhibition, mainly associated to Mn, Fe, Cr and Hg. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Reconnaissance for radioactive deposits in Alaska, 1953

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matzko, John J.; Bates, Robert G.

    1955-01-01

    During the summer of 1953 the areas investigated for radioactive deposits in Alaska were on Nikolai Creek near Tyonek and on Likes Creek near Seward in south-central Alaska where carnotite-type minerals had been reported; in the headwaters of the Peace River in the eastern part of the Seward Peninsula and at Gold Bench on the South Fork of the Koyukuk River in east-central Alaska, where uranothorianite occurs in places associated with base metal sulfides and hematite; in the vicinity of Port Malmesbury in southeastern Alaska to check a reported occurrence of pitchblende; and, in the Miller House-Circle Hot Springs area of east-central Alaska where geochemical studies were made. No significant lode deposits of radioactive materials were found. However, the placer uranothorianite in the headwaters of the Peace River yet remains as an important lead to bedrock radioactive source materials in Alaska. Tundra cover prevents satisfactory radiometric reconnaissance of the area, and methods of geochemical prospecting such as soil and vegetation sampling may ultimately prove more fruitful in the search for the uranothorianite-sulfide lode source than geophysical methods.

  9. Plaster of Paris: the orthopaedic surgeon heritage.

    PubMed

    Hernigou, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    Plastering is one of the most ancient of the building handicrafts. Plaster is the common name for calcium sulphate hemi hydrate made by heating the mineral gypsum, the common name for sulphate of lime. In the tenth century the Arabs used liquid plaster in orthopaedic treatment. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, patients with fractures of the lower extremities-and often of the upper extremities as well-were treated in bed with restriction of all activity for many weeks until the fractures united. It was the practice of surgeons to dress wounds and fractures at frequent intervals. The bandages, pads, and splints were removed, the fractures manipulated, and the dressings reapplied. The search for simpler, less cumbersome methods of treatment led to the development of occlusive dressings, stiffened at first with starch and later with plaster of Paris. The ambulatory treatment of fractures was the direct result of these innovations. Two military surgeons, Antonius Mathijsen of the Netherlands, and Nikolai Ivanovitch Pirogov of Russia, were responsible for the introduction of the new plaster bandage technique. At the beginning of the twentieth century the technique was improved by Jean-François Calot, a French surgeon, who invented the hand manufacture of plaster bandage as a roll. During the twentieth century, walking cast and ambulation for fresh fractures were developed with plaster and pin incorporated in plaster; the open fracture care concept was introduced with plaster of Paris by Trueta before the external fixation.

  10. STS-113 Flight Day 3 Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-11-01

    This video shows the activities of the STS-113 crew (Jim Wetherbee, Commander; Paul Lockhart, Pilot; Michael Lopez-Alegria, John Herrington, Mission Specialists) during flight day 3. The major tasks of flight day 3 were rendezvous and docking with the ISS (International Space Station), the transfer of the Expedition 6 crew (Kenneth Bowersox, Commander; Donald Pettit, Nikolai Budarin, Flight Engineers) to the ISS, and preparations for an EVA (extravehicular activity) scheduled for the following day. The approach of Space Shuttle Endeavour to the ISS is shown in detail, including the firing of the Left Orbital Maneuvering System, and the aiming maneuvers the orbiter makes to dock with the ISS. There are centerline views of the ISS before and during the final docking maneuver. The new ISS crew is received by the Expedition 5 crew (Valeri Korzun, Commander; Peggy Whitsun, Sergei Treschev; Flight Engineers), and the transfer of EVA suits is shown. Earth views include a pan along a reddish Earth limb, and the Pacific Ocean with Endeavour's Canadarm robotic arm in the foreground.

  11. STS-113 Flight Day 3 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This video shows the activities of the STS-113 crew (Jim Wetherbee, Commander; Paul Lockhart, Pilot; Michael Lopez-Alegria, John Herrington, Mission Specialists) during flight day 3. The major tasks of flight day 3 were rendezvous and docking with the ISS (International Space Station), the transfer of the Expedition 6 crew (Kenneth Bowersox, Commander; Donald Pettit, Nikolai Budarin, Flight Engineers) to the ISS, and preparations for an EVA (extravehicular activity) scheduled for the following day. The approach of Space Shuttle Endeavour to the ISS is shown in detail, including the firing of the Left Orbital Maneuvering System, and the aiming maneuvers the orbiter makes to dock with the ISS. There are centerline views of the ISS before and during the final docking maneuver. The new ISS crew is received by the Expedition 5 crew (Valeri Korzun, Commander; Peggy Whitsun, Sergei Treschev; Flight Engineers), and the transfer of EVA suits is shown. Earth views include a pan along a reddish Earth limb, and the Pacific Ocean with Endeavour's Canadarm robotic arm in the foreground.

  12. STS-113 Post Flight Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The STS-113 post-flight presentation begins with a view of Mission Specialists Michael E. Lopez-Alegria and John B. Herrington getting suited for the space mission. The STS-113 crew consists of: Commander James D. Wetherbee, Pilot Paul Lockhart, Mission Specialists Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington. Cosmonauts Valery Korzun, and Sergei Treschev, and astronaut Peggy Whitson who are all members of the expedition five crew, and Commander Kenneth Bowersox, Flight Engineers Nikolai Budarin and Donald Pettit, members of Expedition Six. The main goal of this mission is to take Expedition Six up to the International Space Station and Return Expedition Five to the Earth. The second objective is to install the P(1) Truss segment. Three hours prior to launch, the crew of Expedition Six along with James Wetherbee, Paul Lockhart, Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington are shown walking to an astrovan, which takes them to the launch pad. The actual liftoff is presented. Three Extravehicular Activities (EVA)'s are performed on this mission. Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington are shown performing EVA 1 and EVA 2 which include making connections between the P1 and S(0) Truss segments, and installing fluid jumpers. A panoramic view of the ISS with the Earth in the background is shown. The grand ceremony of the crew exchange is presented. The astronauts performing everyday duties such as brushing teeth, washing hair, sleeping, and eating pistachio nuts are shown. The actual landing of the Space Shuttle is presented.

  13. STS-71 Mission Highlights Resource Tape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This video highlights the international cooperative Shuttle/Mir mission of the STS-71 flight. The STS-71 flightcrew consists of Cmdr. Robert Hoot' Gibson, Pilot Charles Precourt, and Mission Specialists Ellen Baker, Bonnie Dunbar, and Gregory Harbaugh. The Mir 18 flightcrew consisted of Cmdr. Vladamir Dezhurov, Flight Engineer Gennady Strekalov, and Cosmonaut-Research Dr. Norman Thagard. The Mir 18 crew consisted of Cmdr. Anatoly Solovyev and Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin. The prelaunch, launch, shuttle in-orbit, and in-orbit rendezvous and docking of the Mir Space Station to the Atlantis Space Shuttle are shown. The Mir 19 crew accompanied the STS-71 crew and will replace the Mir 18 crew upon undocking from the Mir Space Station. Shown is on-board footage from the Mir Space Station of the Mir 18 crew engaged in hardware testing and maintenance, medical and physiological tests, and a tour of the Mir. A spacewalk by the two Mir 18 cosmonauts is shown as they performed maintenance of the Mir Space Station. After the docking between Atlantis and Mir is completed, several mid-deck physiological experiments are performed along with a tour of Atlantis. Dr Thagard remained behind with the Shuttle after undocking to return to Earth with reports from his Mir experiments and observations. In-cabin experiments included the IMAX Camera Systems tests and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2). There is footage of the shuttle landing.

  14. STS-113 and Expedition 6 crews leave the O&C building for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The STS-113 and Expedition 6 crews leave the Operations and Checkout Building, heading for Launch Pad 39A and Space Shuttle Endeavour. In front, left to right, are Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox and Mission Commander James Wetherbee; next row, Mission Specialist John Herrington and Pilot Paul Lockhart; third row, Mission Specialist Michael Lopez-Alegria and Expedition 6 flight engineer Nikolai Budarin; and finally, Expedition 6 flight engineer Donald Pettit. The primary mission for the crew is bringing the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and returning the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. The major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is scheduled for Nov. 22, 2002, at 8:15 p.m. EST.

  15. The New High Ground: An Analysis of Space-Based Systems in the Information Revolution'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Olivia S.

    2002-09-01

    The Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) was developed in 1989 by Andrew Marshall of the Office of Net Assessment in Washington. Based on Marshal Nikolai Ogarkov's doctrine of the Military-Technical Revolution, the RMA is defined as: A major change in the nature of warfare brought about by the innovative application of new technologies which, combined with dramatic changes in military doctrine, operations, and organizational concepts, fundamentally alters the character and conduct of military operations. Though no official definition exists, these requirements of technological innovation, new doctrine and operations concepts, and organizational change were used in the analysis of the 1991 Gulf War, resulting in the conclusion of the existence of a new RMA. Known as the Information Revolution, this RMA is centered on stealth technology, precision munitions, advanced sensors and increased communications, command, control, computer and intelligence (C4I). From these advancements, doctrinal development has taken place in both joint and service centered documents. These new doctrines have introduced the operational concepts of dominant maneuver, precision engagement, focused logistics and full-dimensional protection, culminating in the new core competency of full-spectrum dominance. Organizational changes to allow for the achievement of these new concepts consists of an increased focus on inter-service connectivity for joint operations and the mutation of the traditional military hierarchy into smaller, more mobile forces deployable for rapid reactions and tailored to the specific threat.

  16. High Accuracy Potential Energy Surface, Dipole Moment Surface, Rovibrational Energies and Line List Calculations for ^{14}NH_3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coles, Phillip; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Polyansky, Oleg; Kyuberis, Aleksandra; Ovsyannikov, Roman I.; Zobov, Nikolay Fedorovich; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2017-06-01

    We present a new spectroscopic potential energy surface (PES) for ^{14}NH_3, produced by refining a high accuracy ab initio PES to experimental energy levels taken predominantly from MARVEL. The PES reproduces 1722 matched J=0-8 experimental energies with a root-mean-square error of 0.035 cm-1 under 6000 cm^{-1} and 0.059 under 7200 cm^{-1}. In conjunction with a new DMS calculated using multi reference configuration interaction (MRCI) and H=aug-cc-pVQZ, N=aug-cc-pWCVQZ basis sets, an infrared (IR) line list has been computed which is suitable for use up to 2000 K. The line list is used to assign experimental lines in the 7500 - 10,500 cm^{-1} region and previously unassigned lines in HITRAN in the 6000-7000 cm^{-1} region. Oleg L. Polyansky, Roman I. Ovsyannikov, Aleksandra A. Kyuberis, Lorenzo Lodi, Jonathan Tennyson, Andrey Yachmenev, Sergei N. Yurchenko, Nikolai F. Zobov, J. Mol. Spec., 327 (2016) 21-30 Afaf R. Al Derzia, Tibor Furtenbacher, Jonathan Tennyson, Sergei N. Yurchenko, Attila G. Császár, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Trans., 161 (2015) 117-130

  17. Fourth Report of the Task Force on the Shuttle-Mir Rendezvous and Docking Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    On December 6, 1994, the NASA Administrator, Mr. Daniel Goldin, requested that Lt. Gen. Thomas P. Stafford, in his role as the Chairman of the NASA Advisory Council Task Force on the Shuttle-Mir Rendezvous and Docking Missions, lead a team composed of several Task Force members and technical advisors' to Russia with the goal of reviewing preparations and readiness for the upcoming international Space Station Phase 1 missions. In his directions to Gen. Stafford, Mr. Goldin requested that the review team focus its initial efforts on safety of flight issues for the following Phase 1A missions: the Soyuz TM-21 mission which will carry U.S. astronaut Dr. Norman Thagard and cosmonauts Lt. Col. Vladimir Dezhurov and Mr. Gennady Strekalov aboard a Soyuz spacecraft to the Mir Station; the Mir 18 Main Expedition during which Thagard and his fellow cosmonauts, Dezhurov and Strokalov, will spend approximately three months aboard the Mir Station; the STS-71 Space Shuttle mission which will perform the first Shuttle-Mir docking, carry cosmonauts Col. Anatoly SoloViev and Mr. Nikolai Budarin to the Mir Station, and return Thagard, Dezhurov, and Strekalov to Earth.

  18. STS-71 mission highlights resource tape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-09-01

    This video highlights the international cooperative Shuttle/Mir mission of the STS-71 flight. The STS-71 flightcrew consists of Cmdr. Robert Hoot' Gibson, Pilot Charles Precourt, and Mission Specialists Ellen Baker, Bonnie Dunbar, and Gregory Harbaugh. The Mir 18 flightcrew consisted of Cmdr. Vladamir Dezhurov, Flight Engineer Gennady Strekalov, and Cosmonaut-Research Dr. Norman Thagard. The Mir 18 crew consisted of Cmdr. Anatoly Solovyev and Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin. The prelaunch, launch, shuttle in-orbit, and in-orbit rendezvous and docking of the Mir Space Station to the Atlantis Space Shuttle are shown. The Mir 19 crew accompanied the STS-71 crew and will replace the Mir 18 crew upon undocking from the Mir Space Station. Shown is on-board footage from the Mir Space Station of the Mir 18 crew engaged in hardware testing and maintenance, medical and physiological tests, and a tour of the Mir. A spacewalk by the two Mir 18 cosmonauts is shown as they performed maintenance of the Mir Space Station. After the docking between Atlantis and Mir is completed, several mid-deck physiological experiments are performed along with a tour of Atlantis. Dr Thagard remained behind with the Shuttle after undocking to return to Earth with reports from his Mir experiments and observations. In-cabin experiments included the IMAX Camera Systems tests and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2). There is footage of the shuttle landing.

  19. [Neurosciences and the ravings of the Soviet era. Spanish Republican physicians, a set of privileged witnesses].

    PubMed

    Marco-Igual, Miguel

    2011-08-16

    This study analyses the links between the Russian and Soviet neurosciences and their Spanish counterpart, especially with regard to the experiences of the Spanish Republican physicians exiled in the USSR. The Russian neurosciences, which date back to the second half of the 19th century, followed a path that ran parallel to the discipline throughout the rest of Europe and finally displayed signs of being influenced by the German and French schools. Important figures include Alexei Kojevnikov and Vladimir Bekhterev in neurology, Sergei Korsakov in psychiatry, Ivan Pavlov and his disciple Piotr Anojin in neurophysiology, Lev Vygotsky and Alexander Luria in neuropsychology, and Nikolai Burdenko in neurosurgery. When the Bolsheviks came to power, they brought with them a progressive conception of health care, which was modified during the Stalinist era to serve political interests, above all in the case of psychiatry. During the first third of the 20th century, Spanish scientists became interested in Pavlov's reflexology and the Soviets took a similar interest in Spanish histology. Among the 4500 Spanish Republicans who emigrated to the USSR because of the Spanish Civil War, there were several dozen physicians who were privileged witnesses of the madness that shook the science and the health care of that period. Relevant names worth citing here from the field of the neurosciences include Juan Planelles and Ramon Alvarez-Buylla in neurophysiology, Federico Pascual and Florencio Villa Landa in psychiatry, Angel Escobio and Maria Perez in neurology, Julian Fuster in neurosurgery and Manuel Arce in neuroimaging.

  20. STS-113 Post Flight Presentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-01-01

    The STS-113 post-flight presentation begins with a view of Mission Specialists Michael E. Lopez-Alegria and John B. Herrington getting suited for the space mission. The STS-113 crew consists of: Commander James D. Wetherbee, Pilot Paul Lockhart, Mission Specialists Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington. Cosmonauts Valery Korzun, and Sergei Treschev, and astronaut Peggy Whitson who are all members of the expedition five crew, and Commander Kenneth Bowersox, Flight Engineers Nikolai Budarin and Donald Pettit, members of Expedition Six. The main goal of this mission is to take Expedition Six up to the International Space Station and Return Expedition Five to the Earth. The second objective is to install the P(1) Truss segment. Three hours prior to launch, the crew of Expedition Six along with James Wetherbee, Paul Lockhart, Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington are shown walking to an astrovan, which takes them to the launch pad. The actual liftoff is presented. Three Extravehicular Activities (EVA)'s are performed on this mission. Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington are shown performing EVA 1 and EVA 2 which include making connections between the P1 and S(0) Truss segments, and installing fluid jumpers. A panoramic view of the ISS with the Earth in the background is shown. The grand ceremony of the crew exchange is presented. The astronauts performing everyday duties such as brushing teeth, washing hair, sleeping, and eating pistachio nuts are shown. The actual landing of the Space Shuttle is presented.