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Sample records for nikolai vasiliev alar

  1. Alar

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Alar ; CASRN 1596 - 84 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects ) a

  2. Reconstruction of the alar groove.

    PubMed

    Chait, L A; Fayman, M S

    1989-05-01

    The obliteration of a well-defined alar groove is common after nasal alar reconstruction. A method is described that can be used at the time of reconstruction to ensure the continued definition of the groove or to restore it in cases where it has been obliterated. The technique is based on the natural tendency of the skin to tube itself. Cheek skin is advanced beneath the posterior free edge of the reconstructed ala so that this edge now comes into contact with an epidermal surface. As this edge now tends to tube itself, a natural alar groove is produced. This method has been used successfully in six cases.

  3. [Nikolai Astrup and his asthma].

    PubMed

    Romslo, I

    1990-12-10

    Nikolai Astrup (1880-1928) is recognized as one of the most famous Norwegian painters of his time. He grew up in Jłlster, in the western part of Norway, and has become known as the painter of the West Coast, not only because of his landscapes but even more so because of the atmosphere and special mood reflected in his paintings. Most of his paintings depict scenes from spring and summer nights in Jłlster. From a medical point of view it is interesting to know that Astrup suffered from asthma all his life, and one wonders whether his motives appeared to him during long walks at night while plagued by severe attacks of asthma. One also wonders what sort of impact the disease had on the composition of his paintings. There is reason to believe that his asthma not only hampered his creative activity and brought his life to a premature end, but also influenced his visionary imagination and helped him to discover the motives for his pictures.

  4. New classes of bi-axially symmetric solutions to four-dimensional Vasiliev higher spin gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundell, Per; Yin, Yihao

    2017-01-01

    We present new infinite-dimensional spaces of bi-axially symmetric asymptotically anti-de Sitter solutions to four-dimensional Vasiliev higher spin gravity, obtained by modifications of the Ansatz used in arXiv:1107.1217, which gave rise to a Type-D solution space. The current Ansatz is based on internal semigroup algebras (without identity) generated by exponentials formed out of the bi-axial symmetry generators. After having switched on the vacuum gauge function, the resulting generalized Weyl tensor is given by a sum of generalized Petrov type-D tensors that are Kerr-like or 2-brane-like in the asymptotic AdS4 region, and the twistor space connection is smooth in twistor space over finite regions of spacetime. We provide evidence for that the linearized twistor space connection can be brought to Vasiliev gauge.

  5. Nikolai Fedorovich Gamaliya (1932-2016).

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Professor Nikolai Fedorovich Gamaliya, well-known scientist in the field of laser biomedical research, biophysicist, authority in experimental oncology, Laureate of the State Prize in Science and Techno-logy of Ukraine, Head of the Department of Biological Effects of Ionizing and Non-Ionizing Radiation of R.E. Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) of Ukraine died on June 14, 2016 at the age of 83.

  6. To the memory of Nikolai Aleksandrovich Borisevich

    SciTech Connect

    Krokhin, O N

    2015-12-31

    Invaluable is the contribution of academician Borisevich to the development of optics, spectroscopy and their applications. He is the author of scientific discoveries and more than 600 scientific papers. For outstanding scientific achievements Nikolai Aleksandrovich was awarded the Lenin Prize, State Prize of the USSR and the Republic of Belarus. His scientific school gave a start in life to more than 30 candidates of science, 12 doctors, including 4 members of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. (obituary)

  7. General results for higher spin Wilson lines and entanglement in Vasiliev theory

    DOE PAGES

    Hegde, Ashwin; Kraus, Per; Perlmutter, Eric

    2016-01-28

    Here, we develop tools for the efficient evaluation of Wilson lines in 3D higher spin gravity, and use these to compute entanglement entropy in the hs[λ ] Vasiliev theory that governs the bulk side of the duality proposal of Gaberdiel and Gopakumar. Our main technical advance is the determination of SL(N) Wilson lines for arbitrary N, which, in suitable cases, enables us to analytically continue to hs[λ ] via N→ -λ. We then apply this result to compute various quantities of interest, including entanglement entropy expanded perturbatively in the background higher spin charge, chemical potential, and interval size. This includesmore » a computation of entanglement entropy in the higher spin black hole of the Vasiliev theory. Our results are consistent with conformal field theory calculations. We also provide an alternative derivation of the Wilson line, by showing how it arises naturally from earlier work on scalar correlators in higher spin theory. The general picture that emerges is consistent with the statement that the SL(N) Wilson line computes the semiclassical WN vacuum block, and our results provide an explicit result for this object.« less

  8. General results for higher spin Wilson lines and entanglement in Vasiliev theory

    SciTech Connect

    Hegde, Ashwin; Kraus, Per; Perlmutter, Eric

    2016-01-28

    Here, we develop tools for the efficient evaluation of Wilson lines in 3D higher spin gravity, and use these to compute entanglement entropy in the hs[λ ] Vasiliev theory that governs the bulk side of the duality proposal of Gaberdiel and Gopakumar. Our main technical advance is the determination of SL(N) Wilson lines for arbitrary N, which, in suitable cases, enables us to analytically continue to hs[λ ] via N→ -λ. We then apply this result to compute various quantities of interest, including entanglement entropy expanded perturbatively in the background higher spin charge, chemical potential, and interval size. This includes a computation of entanglement entropy in the higher spin black hole of the Vasiliev theory. Our results are consistent with conformal field theory calculations. We also provide an alternative derivation of the Wilson line, by showing how it arises naturally from earlier work on scalar correlators in higher spin theory. The general picture that emerges is consistent with the statement that the SL(N) Wilson line computes the semiclassical WN vacuum block, and our results provide an explicit result for this object.

  9. Alar base reduction: the boomerang-shaped excision.

    PubMed

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2011-04-01

    A boomerang-shaped alar base excision is described to narrow the nasal base and correct the excessive alar flare. The boomerang excision combined the external alar wedge resection with an internal vestibular floor excision. The internal excision was inclined 30 to 45 degrees laterally to form the inner limb of the boomerang. The study included 46 patients presenting with wide nasal base and excessive alar flaring. All cases were followed for a mean period of 18 months (range, 8 to 36 months). The laterally oriented vestibular floor excision allowed for maximum preservation of the natural curvature of the alar rim where it meets the nostril floor and upon its closure resulted in a considerable medialization of alar lobule, which significantly reduced the amount of alar flare and the amount of external alar excision needed. This external alar excision measured, on average, 3.8 mm (range, 2 to 8 mm), which is significantly less than that needed when a standard vertical internal excision was used ( P < 0.0001). Such conservative external excisions eliminated the risk of obliterating the natural alar-facial crease, which did not occur in any of our cases. No cases of postoperative bleeding, infection, or vestibular stenosis were encountered. Keloid or hypertrophic scar formation was not encountered; however, dermabrasion of the scars was needed in three (6.5%) cases to eliminate apparent suture track marks. The boomerang alar base excision proved to be a safe and effective technique for narrowing the nasal base and elimination of the excessive flaring and resulted in a natural, well-proportioned nasal base with no obvious scarring.

  10. Alar and Apples: Newspaper Coverage of a Major Risk Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Sharon M.; And Others

    A study reviewed coverage in 13 newspapers during 1989 of the issue of spraying the pesticide Alar on apples. Using VU/TEXT, a newspaper database, 297 articles in 13 newspapers that included the specified code words "Alar" with or without "apple" or "apples" were retrieved and analyzed using a 33-question coding…

  11. Simple Correction of Alar Retraction by Conchal Cartilage Extension Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yong Jun; Kim, Sung Min; Lew, Dae Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Alar retraction is a challenging condition in rhinoplasty marked by exaggerated nostril exposure and awkwardness. Although various methods for correcting alar retraction have been introduced, none is without drawbacks. Herein, we report a simple procedure that is both effective and safe for correcting alar retraction using only conchal cartilage grafting. Methods Between August 2007 and August 2009, 18 patients underwent conchal cartilage extension grafting to correct alar retraction. Conchal cartilage extension grafts were fixed to the caudal margins of the lateral crura and covered with vestibular skin advancement flaps. Preoperative and postoperative photographs were reviewed and analyzed. Patient satisfaction was surveyed and categorized into 4 groups (very satisfied, satisfied, moderate, or unsatisfied). Results According to the survey, 8 patients were very satisfied, 9 were satisfied, and 1 considered the outcome moderate, resulting in satisfaction for most patients. The average distance from the alar rim to the long axis of the nostril was reduced by 1.4 mm (3.6 to 2.2 mm). There were no complications, except in 2 cases with palpable cartilage step-off that resolved without any aesthetic problems. Conclusions Conchal cartilage alar extension graft is a simple, effective method of correcting alar retraction that can be combined with aesthetic rhinoplasty conveniently, utilizing conchal cartilage, which is the most similar cartilage to alar cartilage, and requiring a lesser volume of cartilage harvest compared to previously devised methods. However, the current procedure lacks efficacy for severe alar retraction and a longer follow-up period may be required to substantiate the enduring efficacy of the current procedure. PMID:27896189

  12. OBITUARY: To the memory of Nikolai Aleksandrovich Borisevich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krokhin, O. N.

    2015-12-01

    Invaluable is the contribution of academician Borisevich to the development of optics, spectroscopy and their applications. He is the author of scientific discoveries and more than 600 scientific papers. For outstanding scientific achievements Nikolai Aleksandrovich was awarded the Lenin Prize, State Prize of the USSR and the Republic of Belarus. His scientific school gave a start in life to more than 30 candidates of science, 12 doctors, including 4 members of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus.

  13. Expedition 6 Crew Interviews: Nikolai Budarin FEI (Flight Engineer 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Expedition 6 Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin is seen during a prelaunch interview. He provides details on the mission's goals and significance, his role in the mission, what his responsibilities will be, what the crew activities will be like (docking of a Progress unpiloted supply vehicle, maintaining the space station, conducting science experiments and performing one spacewalk), the day-to-day life on an extended stay mission, and the experiments he will be conducting on board. Budarin also discusses how his previous experiences on mir space missions will help him and ends his thoughts on how valuable the International Space Station has proven.

  14. Alar and apples: newspapers, risk and media responsibility.

    PubMed

    Friedman, S M; Villamil, K; Suriano, R A; Egolf, B P

    1996-01-01

    During 1989, a major environmental and health risk issue, the spraying of Alar on apples, created a furor among the American people. After hearing charges from the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) that eating Alar-laden apples significantly increased a child's risk of developing cancer, numbers of school districts dropped apples from their menus and parents poured apple juice down the drains. Apple sales plummeted. The NRDC's charges, which were disseminated by a well-planned and effective public relations campaign, brought counter-charges from the US environmental Protection Agency, which accused the NRDC of basing its study on poor data, among other things. The core of the dispute was in the risk figures and risk interpretations being used by each organization.

  15. Relationship between Hyperactivity of Depressor Septi Nasi Muscle and Changes of Alar Base and Flaring during Smile

    PubMed Central

    Beiraghi-Toosi, Arash; Rezaei, Ezatollah; Zanjani, Elham

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hyperactivity of depressor septi nasi muscle leads to smiling deformity and nasal tip depression. Lateral fascicles of this muscle help in widening the nostrils. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the nasal length changes and the alar base and the alar flaring changes during smile. METHODS Standard photographs are performed in the face and lateral views with forward gaze in the repose and maximum smile. Nasal length, alar base, and alar flaring were measured on the prints of the photographs. To decrease possible errors in the size of the printed photographs, middle face height from glabella to ANS was measured in the lateral view and the interpupil distance in the face view to standardize the measurements. RESULTS Fifty cases were enrolled in this study. In 39 cases (78%), the nasal length was increased during smile. Forty-six cases (92%) had an increase in alar base diameter during smile. Alar flaring during smile increased in 48 cases (96%). Nasal length and alar base changes during smiling were not significantly correlated. Nasal length and alar flaring changes during smiling were not significantly related too. On the other hand, alar base and alar flaring changes during smile showed correlation. Alar base and alar flaring changes during smile were not significantly different in hyperactive and non-hyperactive cases. CONCLUSION Nasal length change during smiling and hypertrophy of the medial fascicles of depressor septi nasi were not related to alar base or alar flaring change during smile. PMID:27308240

  16. Nikolai Vasilyevich Lazarev, toxicologist and pharmacologist, comes in from the cold.

    PubMed

    Lipnick, R L; Filov, V A

    1992-02-01

    Important and pioneering work on the physicochemical properties underlying the biological activity of nonelectrolytes was performed 'behind the iron curtain' by Soviet scientist Nikolai Vasilyevich Lazarev. In this Special Feature, Robert Lipnick and Vladimir Filov examine the contribution of Lazarev's numerous observations to the knowledge base in pharmacology and toxicology, which has only recently gained recognition in the West.

  17. Forensic Facial Reconstruction: Relationship Between the Alar Cartilage and Piriform Aperture.

    PubMed

    Strapasson, Raíssa Ananda Paim; Herrera, Lara Maria; Melani, Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff

    2017-03-29

    During forensic facial reconstruction, facial features may be predicted based on the parameters of the skull. This study evaluated the relationships between alar cartilage and piriform aperture and nose morphology and facial typology. Ninety-six cone beam computed tomography images of Brazilian subjects (49 males and 47 females) were used in this study. OsiriX software was used to perform the following measurements: nasal width, distance between alar base insertion points, lower width of the piriform aperture, and upper width of the piriform aperture. Nasal width was associated with the lower width of the piriform aperture, sex, skeletal vertical pattern of the face, and age. The current study contributes to the improvement of forensic facial guides by identifying the relationships between the alar cartilages and characteristics of the biological profile of members of a population that has been little studied thus far.

  18. The Dissociation Energies of AlH2 and AlAr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricca, Alessandra; Partridge, Harry; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Visscher, Luuk; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The D(sub 0) values for AlH2 and AlAr are computed using the coupled cluster approach in conjunction with large basis sets. Basis set superposition and spin-orbit effects are accounted for as they are sizeable due to the small binding energy. The computed dissociation energy for AlAr is 101 /cm , which is 83% of the experimental value (122.4/ cm). Our best estimate for the H2 binding energy in AlH2 is 40 +/- 28 /cm.

  19. Refinement of Nasal Reconstruction with a V/Y-alar-perforator Flap

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Martin F.; Roldán, J. Camilo

    2017-01-01

    Background: The ala of the nose is vascularized by a dense net of perforators originating from the lateral nasal artery or the angular artery. These vessels reach the ala in a cascade fashion from the alar groove/lateral nasal wall. Based on these vessels, a V/Y flap can be dissected with a wide range of mobility. Materials and Methods: Nineteen patients underwent reconstruction of the nose by means of a V/Y-alar-perforator flap alone or in combination with a myocutaneous rotation flap from the lateral nasal wall and/or from the nasal dorsum for reconstruction of defects at the nasal tip, ala of the nose, and/or lateral nasal wall. All patients were followed up 8 months after surgery in average. Results: There was no prolonged congestion or any tissue loss. All patients presented postoperatively with excellent aesthetic results, and no nasal distortion was observed. Conclusion: The V/Y-alar-perforator flap alone or in combination with a myocutaneous rotation flap proved to be a reliable tool in the armamentarium for reconstruction of nasal tip and alar defects providing good aesthetic results. PMID:28203497

  20. The Shark Alar Hypothalamus: Molecular Characterization of Prosomeric Subdivisions and Evolutionary Trends.

    PubMed

    Santos-Durán, Gabriel N; Ferreiro-Galve, Susana; Menuet, Arnaud; Quintana-Urzainqui, Idoia; Mazan, Sylvie; Rodríguez-Moldes, Isabel; Candal, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The hypothalamus is an important physiologic center of the vertebrate brain involved in the elaboration of individual and species survival responses. To better understand the ancestral organization of the alar hypothalamus we revisit previous data on ScOtp, ScDlx2/5, ScTbr1, ScNkx2.1 expression and Pax6 immunoreactivity jointly with new data on ScNeurog2, ScLhx9, ScLhx5, and ScNkx2.8 expression, in addition to immunoreactivity to serotonin (5-HT) and doublecortin (DCX) in the catshark Scyliorhinus canicula, a key species for this purpose since cartilaginous fishes are basal representatives of gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates). Our study revealed a complex genoarchitecture for the chondrichthyan alar hypothalamus. We identified terminal (rostral) and peduncular (caudal) subdivisions in the prosomeric paraventricular and subparaventricular areas (TPa/PPa and TSPa/PSPa, respectively) evidenced by the expression pattern of developmental genes like ScLhx5 (TPa) and immunoreactivity against Pax6 (PSPa) and 5-HT (PPa and PSPa). Dorso-ventral subdivisions were only evidenced in the SPa (SPaD, SPaV; respectively) by means of Pax6 and ScNkx2.8 (respectively). Interestingly, ScNkx2.8 expression overlaps over the alar-basal boundary, as Nkx2.2 does in other vertebrates. Our results reveal evidences for the existence of different groups of tangentially migrated cells expressing ScOtp, Pax6, and ScDlx2. The genoarchitectonic comparative analysis suggests alternative interpretations of the rostral-most alar plate in prosomeric terms and reveals a conserved molecular background for the vertebrate alar hypothalamus likely acquired before/during the agnathan-gnathostome transition, on which Otp, Pax6, Lhx5, and Neurog2 are expressed in the Pa while Dlx and Nkx2.2/Nkx2.8 are expressed in the SPa.

  1. The Shark Alar Hypothalamus: Molecular Characterization of Prosomeric Subdivisions and Evolutionary Trends

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Durán, Gabriel N.; Ferreiro-Galve, Susana; Menuet, Arnaud; Quintana-Urzainqui, Idoia; Mazan, Sylvie; Rodríguez-Moldes, Isabel; Candal, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The hypothalamus is an important physiologic center of the vertebrate brain involved in the elaboration of individual and species survival responses. To better understand the ancestral organization of the alar hypothalamus we revisit previous data on ScOtp, ScDlx2/5, ScTbr1, ScNkx2.1 expression and Pax6 immunoreactivity jointly with new data on ScNeurog2, ScLhx9, ScLhx5, and ScNkx2.8 expression, in addition to immunoreactivity to serotonin (5-HT) and doublecortin (DCX) in the catshark Scyliorhinus canicula, a key species for this purpose since cartilaginous fishes are basal representatives of gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates). Our study revealed a complex genoarchitecture for the chondrichthyan alar hypothalamus. We identified terminal (rostral) and peduncular (caudal) subdivisions in the prosomeric paraventricular and subparaventricular areas (TPa/PPa and TSPa/PSPa, respectively) evidenced by the expression pattern of developmental genes like ScLhx5 (TPa) and immunoreactivity against Pax6 (PSPa) and 5-HT (PPa and PSPa). Dorso-ventral subdivisions were only evidenced in the SPa (SPaD, SPaV; respectively) by means of Pax6 and ScNkx2.8 (respectively). Interestingly, ScNkx2.8 expression overlaps over the alar-basal boundary, as Nkx2.2 does in other vertebrates. Our results reveal evidences for the existence of different groups of tangentially migrated cells expressing ScOtp, Pax6, and ScDlx2. The genoarchitectonic comparative analysis suggests alternative interpretations of the rostral-most alar plate in prosomeric terms and reveals a conserved molecular background for the vertebrate alar hypothalamus likely acquired before/during the agnathan-gnathostome transition, on which Otp, Pax6, Lhx5, and Neurog2 are expressed in the Pa while Dlx and Nkx2.2/Nkx2.8 are expressed in the SPa. PMID:27932958

  2. Management of the droopy tip: a comparison of three alar cartilage-modifying techniques.

    PubMed

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2003-10-01

    The droopy tip is a common nasal deformity in which the tip is inferiorly rotated. Five hundred consecutive rhinoplasty cases were studied to assess the incidence and causes of the droopy tip deformity and to evaluate the role of three alar cartilage-modifying techniques--lateral crural steal, lateral crural overlay, and tongue in groove--in correcting such a deformity. The external rhinoplasty approach was used in all cases. Only one of the three alar cartilage-modifying techniques was used in each case, and the degree of tip rotation and projection was measured both preoperatively and postoperatively. The incidence of droopy tip was 72 percent, and the use of an alar cartilage-modifying technique was required in 85 percent of these cases to achieve the desired degree of rotation. The main causes of droopy tip included inferiorly oriented alar cartilages (85 percent), overdeveloped scrolls of upper lateral cartilages (73 percent), high anterior septal angle (65 percent), and thick skin of the nasal lobule (56 percent). The lateral crural steal technique increased nasal tip rotation and projection, the lateral crural overlay technique increased tip rotation and decreased tip projection, and the tongue-in-groove technique increased tip rotation without significantly changing the amount of projection. The lateral crural overlay technique resulted in the highest degrees of rotation, followed by the lateral crural steal and finally the tongue-in-groove technique. According to these results, the lateral crural steal technique is best indicated in cases with droopy underprojected nasal tip, the lateral crural overlay technique in cases of droopy overprojected nasal tip, and the tongue-in-groove technique in cases where the droopy nasal tip is associated with an adequate amount of projection.

  3. Primary rhinocheiloplasty: Comparison of open and closed methods of alar cartilage reposition

    PubMed Central

    Yasonov, S. A.; Lopatin, A. V.; Kugushev, A. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To establish which rhinoplasty method for primary repairing of unilateral cleft lip (UCL) is better. Settings and Design: Two patient groups with cleft lip were compared. Each group was operated on either by McComb's technique as closed rhinoplasty method or by Vissarionov–Kosin technique as an open method. Subjects and Methods: First group included 29 patients and the second consisted of 31. All patients were operated on by single surgeon over 10 years. Randomization was based on wishes and intention of surgeon to use one of two methods. Evaluation of results was based on impartial data, and subjective information collected from respondents with different levels of knowledge about UCL. The objective scale was based on the evaluation of five noticeable residual deformations of nose that usually appear after primary lip-nose surgery: Alar flattening, low position of alar, widening or narrowing of nostril, and deformation of the upper part of nostril rim. Subjective evaluation was based on the opinion of respondents who were ranged every case depending on own judgment. Statistical Analysis: Was performed using Fisher method and Chi-square by Statistica 10.0, StatSoft Inc. Results: Approach with general analysis indicated no difference between two methods. Despite of absence of clear differences between two groups we consider the closed rhinoplasty more favorable due to less damage to alar cartilages and no scars inside nostrils. Conclusions: We think that mentioned scarring may complicate secondary rhinoplasty, which is often needed to correct nose deformation. PMID:27563601

  4. Paradox of mistranslation of serine for alanine caused by AlaRS recognition dilemma.

    PubMed

    Guo, Min; Chong, Yeeting E; Shapiro, Ryan; Beebe, Kirk; Yang, Xiang-Lei; Schimmel, Paul

    2009-12-10

    Mistranslation arising from confusion of serine for alanine by alanyl-tRNA synthetases (AlaRSs) has profound functional consequences. Throughout evolution, two editing checkpoints prevent disease-causing mistranslation from confusing glycine or serine for alanine at the active site of AlaRS. In both bacteria and mice, Ser poses a bigger challenge than Gly. One checkpoint is the AlaRS editing centre, and the other is from widely distributed AlaXps-free-standing, genome-encoded editing proteins that clear Ser-tRNA(Ala). The paradox of misincorporating both a smaller (glycine) and a larger (serine) amino acid suggests a deep conflict for nature-designed AlaRS. Here we show the chemical basis for this conflict. Nine crystal structures, together with kinetic and mutational analysis, provided snapshots of adenylate formation for each amino acid. An inherent dilemma is posed by constraints of a structural design that pins down the alpha-amino group of the bound amino acid by using an acidic residue. This design, dating back more than 3 billion years, creates a serendipitous interaction with the serine OH that is difficult to avoid. Apparently because no better architecture for the recognition of alanine could be found, the serine misactivation problem was solved through free-standing AlaXps, which appeared contemporaneously with early AlaRSs. The results reveal unconventional problems and solutions arising from the historical design of the protein synthesis machinery.

  5. Are We Doing Everything We Should for the Health of Our Children? An Interview with Nikolai Nikolaevich Baganov.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russian Education and Society, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Presents an interview with Nikolai Nikolaevich Baganov addressing the presidential program "Russia's Children" that is made up of nine subprograms: Children of Chernobyl, Children of the North, Family Planning, The Baby-food Industry, Orphaned Children, Handicapped Children, Gifted Children, Children of Refugee Families, and Children's…

  6. Expedition 6 crew member Nikolai Budarin during TCDT suit fit check

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Expedition 6 crew member Nikolai Budarin smiles during fit check of his helmet, part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. He and the rest of the crew are preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10. The TCDT includes emergency egress training and a launch countdown. The Expedition 6 crew will travel on Space Shuttle Endeavour to the International Space Station to replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Launch is scheduled for Nov. 10, 2002.

  7. Expedition 6 flight engineer Nikolai Budarin in White Room before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the White Room on Launch Pad 39A, Expedition 6 flight engineer Nikolai Budarin is helped with his launch and entry suit before entering Space Shuttle Endeavour. Closeout Crew members helping are (left) Rene Arriens, United Space Alliance mechanical technician, (right) Danny Wyatt, NASA Quality Assurance specialist, and (background) Rick Welty, United Space Alliance Vehicle Closeout chief. The launch will carry the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and return the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. The major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is scheduled for Nov. 23 at 7:50 p.m. EST.

  8. Along-Strike Geochemical Variations in the Late Triassic Nikolai Magmatic System, Wrangellia, Central Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wypych, A.; Twelker, E.; Lande, L. L.; Newberry, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Nikolai Basalt and related mafic to ultramafic intrusions are one of the world's most complete and best exposed sections of a large igneous province (Amphitheater Mountains, Alaska), and have been explored for magmatic Ni-Cu-Co-PGE mineralization (Wellgreen deposit in the Kluane Ranges, Yukon Territory, and Eureka zone in the Eastern Alaska Range). The full extent of the basalts and the intrusions, as well as along-strike variations in the geochemical and petrological composition and the causes for those variations has yet to be fully established. To better understand the extent and magmatic architecture of this system, the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys conducted mapping and geochemical investigations of the province from 2013 through 2015 field seasons. We present major and trace element data from whole rock, olivine, and chromite from samples of Triassic basalts and intrusives collected over a 250 km along-strike transect. This data is used to answer questions about variations in magma generation, temperature of crystallization, and degree of fractional crystallization required to produce the Nikolai Basalts. Using chalcophile elements, we examine the history of sulfide solubility, further adding to our understanding of the processes of magma evolution and its influence on the formation of economic mineral deposits. Our initial findings corroborate the presence of two phases of magma generation and eruption, as well as along-strike variation in composition of these phases. We propose that the major along-strike variations are due to differences in amount of cumulate olivine and other late-stage processes. This magmatic architecture has important implications for exploration for magmatic sulfide deposits of nickel-copper and strategic and critical platinum group elements (PGEs) as it can help to better understand the occurrences and point to future possible deposits within the system.

  9. Rhinoplasty. The difficult nasal tip: total resection of the alar cartilages.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Camps, Salvador

    2009-01-01

    There are many ways to reconstruct and make nasal tips more attractive. Sometimes we cannot find the best way unless we at least remove all surplus from the tip. This may occur in primary or secondary rhinoplasty. In principle, anything is possible when relocating and reconstructing. However, sometimes we face reality when we uncover the tip: broken or bulging cartilages that are difficult to put right. For this reason, in 1987 we thought of totally resectioning the alar cartilages in a case of secondary rhinoplasty with an unsightly appearance. After a year the result was seen to be correct from an aesthetic and a functional perspective and is still so today. Aesthetically, it kept its shape and did not collapse with nasal respiratory failure. We covered the end of the crus medialis with a small, temporary, one- to two-layered fascia patch. Except in exceptional cases, we now use this procedure: Total sectioning of the alar cartilages including the domes, or maintenance of them by preserving the fibroadipose tip tissue with a suture in the middle of the end of the crus medialis and by covering this with temporary fascia, which usually has two layers depending on the thickness of the skin of the tip. This procedure is indicated mainly in secondary rhinoplasty when the cartilages of the tip are completely destroyed, and in primary rhinoplasty when the tip is excessively wide and bulbous. Our philosophy is, therefore, elegance and beauty of the nasal tip with a solid and equilateral base without prejudices.

  10. Three-dimensional model of an ultramafic feeder system to the Nikolai Greenstone mafic large igneous province, central Alaska Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glen, J.M.G.; Schmidt, J.M.; Connard, G.G.

    2011-01-01

    The Amphitheater Mountains and southern central Alaska Range expose a thick sequence of Triassic Nikolai basalts that is underlain by several mafic-ultramafic complexes, the largest and best exposed being the Fish Lake and Tangle (FL-T) mafic-ultramafic sills that flank the Amphitheater Mountains synform. Three-dimensional (3-D) modeling of gravity and magnetic data reveals details of the structure of the Amphitheater Mountains, such as the orientation and thickness of Nikolai basalts, and the geometry of the FL-T intrusions. The 3-D model (50 ?? 70 km) includes the full geographic extent of the FL-T complexes and consists of 11 layers. Layer surfaces and properties (density and magnetic susceptibility) were modified by forward and inverse methods to reduce differences between the observed and calculated gravity and magnetic grids. The model suggests that the outcropping FL-T sills are apparently connected and traceable at depth and reveals variations in thickness, shape, and orientation of the ultramafic bodies that may identify paths of magma flow. The model shows that a significant volume (2000 km3) of ultramafic material occurs in the subsurface, gradually thickening and plunging westward to depths exceeding 4 km. This deep ultramafic material is interpreted as the top of a keel or root system that supplied magma to the Nikolai lavas and controlled emplacement of related magmatic intrusions. The presence of this deep, keel-like structure, and asymmetry of the synform, supports a sag basin model for development of the Amphitheater Mountains structure and reveals that the feeders to the Nikolai are much more extensive than previously known. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Metallogeny of the nikolai large igneous province (LIP) in southern alaska and its influence on the mineral potential of the talkeetna mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, J.M.; Rogers, R.K.

    2007-01-01

    Recent geologic mapping has identified areas of extrusive basalts of the Middle to Late Triassic Nikolai Greenstone within the Wrangellia terrane that extend at least 80 km southwest of their previously known extent. Abundant dolerite sills of similar composition intrude Paleozoic and Mesozoic stratigraphy below the Nikolai throughout the central Talkeetna Mountains. The Talkeetna Mountains, therefore, have newly identified potential for copper, nickel, and platinum-group elements (PGEs) as disseminated, net-textured, or massive magmatic sulfide deposits hosted in mafic and ultramafic sill-form complexes related to emplacement of the Nikolai. Because of their potential high grades, similar magmatic sulfide targets have been the focus of increasing mineral exploration activity over the last decade in the Amphitheater Mountains and central Alaska Range, 100-200 km to the northeast. The Nikolai Greenstone, associated intrusions, and their metamorphosed equivalents also have potential to host stratabound disseminated "basaltic copper" deposits. Sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks overlying the Nikolai have the potential to host stratabound, disseminated, or massive "reduced-facies" type Cu-Ag deposits. Ultramafic rocks have been identified only in the extreme northeastern Talkeetna Mountains to date. However, coincident gravity and magnetic highs along the leading (northwestern) edge of and within Wrangellia in the Talkeetna and Clearwater Mountains suggest several areas that are highly prospective for ultramafic rocks related to extrusion of Nikolai lavas. In particular, the distribution, geometry, and composition of sills within the pre-Nikolai stratigraphy and the structural and tectonic controls on intrusive versus extrusive rock distribution deserve serious examination. Copyright ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  12. 3D potential-field model of a Triassic Nikolai large igneous province vent, central Alaska Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glen, J. M.; Schmidt, J. M.; Connard, G. G.

    2009-12-01

    The southern flank of the Alaska Range in south central Alaska exposes a thick, fresh sequence of Middle to Late Triassic Nikolai Greenstone. At least 5 ultramafic intrusive complexes and numerous gabbroic sills of similar age intrude Pennsylvanian to Triassic volcanogenic and sedimentary rocks below the Nikolai. The 2 largest and best exposed ultramafic complexes are the Fish Lake and Tangle ultramafic sills on the north, and south flanks, respectively of the Amphitheater Mountains synform. Three-dimensional (3D) modeling of gravity and magnetic data, using the GMSYS-3D modeling software, shows details of the Amphitheater Mountains structure, Nikolai basalt thickness, and geometry of the apparently connected Fish Lake and Tangle ultramafic sills. Modeling is based on a compilation of existing regional and newly-acquired detailed profile gravity data, a compilation of regional and high-resolution aeromagnetic surveys, and numerous rock-property data (including density, susceptibility, and magnetic remanence measurements of outcrops, hand samples, and drill cores). Eight intersecting 2D models, constructed prior to the 3D model, suggested the presence of an elongate ultramafic keel below the Amphitheater synform axis and extensive gabbroic satellite sills below the Fish Lake and Tangle ultramafic complexes. The 3D model (50x70km) includes the full geographic extent of the Fish Lake and Tangle bodies, as well as parts of the Rainy and Canwell complexes to the north and east of the Amphitheater Mountains. Eleven layers were initially constructed from horizons we exported from the 2D models and gridded to form layer surfaces. Individual 3D model layers were subsequently modified by both forward and inverse methods applied to the layer surfaces and properties (density and magnetic susceptibility) to reduce differences between the observed and calculated gravity and magnetic grids. Up to 2 km of Nikolai basalts form the center of the asymmetric, west-plunging, 50 km long

  13. Toward less misleading comparisons of uncertain risks: the example of aflatoxin and alar.

    PubMed Central

    Finkel, A M

    1995-01-01

    Critics of comparative risk assessment (CRA), the increasingly common practice of juxtaposing disparate risks for the purpose of declaring which one is the "larger" or the "more important," have long focused their concern on the difficulties in accommodating the qualitative differences among risks. To be sure, people may disagree vehemently about whether "larger" necessarily implies "more serious," but the attention to this aspect of CRA presupposes that science can in fact discern which of two risks has the larger statistical magnitude. This assumption, encouraged by the indiscriminate calculation of risk ratios using arbitrary point estimates, is often incorrect: the fact that environmental and health risks differ in unknown quantitative respects is at least as important a caution to CRA as the fact that risks differ in known qualitative ways. To show how misleading CRA can be when uncertainty is ignored, this article revisits the claim that aflatoxin contamination of peanut butter was "18 times worse" than Alar contamination of apple juice. Using Monte Carlo simulation, the number 18 is shown to lie within a distribution of plausible risk ratios that ranges from nearly 400:1 in favor of aflatoxin to nearly 40:1 in the opposite direction. The analysis also shows that the "best estimates" of the relative risk of aflatoxin to Alar are much closer to 1:1 than to 18:1. The implications of these findings for risk communication and individual and societal decision-making are discussed, with an eye toward improving the general practice of CRA while acknowledging that its outputs are uncertain, rather than abandoning it for the wrong reasons. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:7607139

  14. Contributions of the surgeon Nikolai Korotkov (1874-1920) to the management of extremity vascular injury.

    PubMed

    Samokhvalov, Igor M; Reva, Viktor A; Fomin, Nikolai F; Rasmussen, Todd E

    2016-02-01

    The Russian military surgeon Nikolai Korotkov is known worldwide, mainly among internists and cardiovascular specialists, as the discoverer of the auscultatory method of measuring arterial blood pressure in 1905. This article reveals him as one of the first military vascular surgeons to carefully investigate, analyze, and register cases of vascular injury during his voluntarily trips to the Russian Far East in 1900 to 1901 and the Russo-Japanese War of 1904 to 1905. Examining 44 patients with extremity arterial and arterial-venous pseudoaneurysms following war-related injury, he routinely performed a measure termed the "arterial pressure index" using "Korotkov sounds." This pioneering approach to assessing extremity perfusion was the precursor to the modern-day ankle-brachial and injured extremity indices, and it initiated the quantitative assessment of the compensatory ability of the vascular system to restore circulation following axial artery ligation. Because of high thrombosis rates following direct vessel repair during his day, he proposed use of pharmacologic substances such as digitalis and amyl nitrite to improve extremity perfusion. As evidence of his innovative nature, Korotkov even proposed the use of "oxygenated nutrient solutions" in the future to improve extremity circulation. More than 100 years after his work, as continuous wave Doppler ultrasound, contrast angiography, and computed tomography are ubiquitous as diagnostic tools, the practice of surgery would be well served to recall Korotkov's foundational work and the rule of thumb for any physician: examine the patient.

  15. A Novel Approach for Full-Thickness Defect of the Nasal Alar Rim: Primary Closure of the Defect and Reduction of the Contralateral Normal Ala for Symmetry

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Yun Seon; Kim, Min-Woo

    2015-01-01

    In full-thickness defects of the nasal alar rim, to achieve projection and maintain airway patency, cartilage graft is frequently needed. However, cartilage graft presents a challenge in considerations such as appropriate donor site, skeletal shape and size, and healing of the donor area. To avoid these demerits, we tried primary closure of alar rim defects by also making the contralateral normal ala smaller. We treated two patients who had a full-thickness nasal alar defect after tumor excision. Cartilage graft was considered for the reconstruction. However, their alar rims were overly curved and their nostril openings were large. To utilize their nasal shape, we did primary closure of the defect rather than cartilage graft, and then downsized the contralateral nasal ala by means of wedge resection to make the alae symmetric. Both patients were satisfied with their aesthetic results, which showed a smaller nostril and nearly straight alar rims. Moreover, functionally, there was no discomfort during breathing in both patients. We propose our idea as one of the reconstruction options for nasal alar defects. It is a simple and easy-to-perform procedure, in addition to enhancing the nasal contour. This method would be useful for patients with a large nostril and an overly curved alar rim. PMID:26719646

  16. A centenary of auscultatory blood pressure measurement: a tribute to Nikolai Korotkoff.

    PubMed

    Paskalev, Dobrin; Kircheva, Anna; Krivoshiev, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    In 1905, Dr. Nikolai Korotkoff (1874-1920), a Russian surgeon, discovered a simple and precise technique to measure arterial pressure. He was born on 26th February 1874 in the central Russian city of Kursk. Korotkoff graduated from the Medical Faculty of Moscow University in 1898, but he worked later in the Surgical Clinic at the Imperial Military Medical Academy in St. Petersburg (Russia). Korotkoff served as a military surgeon during the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) and his major efforts were to find reliable clinical signs that could predict whether limb flow would be viable after vascular surgery of traumatic aneurysm. He found that after complete compression, the aneurysm of the arm (i.e. distal pulse on a. brachialis) disappeared with Riva-Rocci cuff and then gradually decreasing the pressure, a series of sounds could be heard by stethoscope under the artery distal to the compression. Korotkoff described four distinct phases of sounds: first sound, then compression murmurs, second tone, and disappearance of sounds. Korotkoff was also able to demonstrate the same auscultatory finding in healthy persons. He failed to notice only the muffled second sound, which was demonstrated a little later. These classical observations are now well known as the five different phases of Korotkoff sounds. In November 1905, during a conference of the Imperial Military Medical Academy, he reported his discovery in a short presentation entitled 'On the issue of the methods for measuring blood pressure'. In 1939, the Joint Committee of the American Heart Association and the Cardiac Society of Great Britain and Ireland recognized officially and accepted worldwide Korotkoff's method for blood pressure determining.

  17. Feasibility, repeatability, and safety of ultrasound-guided stimulation of the first cervical nerve at the alar foramen in horses.

    PubMed

    Mespoulhès-Rivière, Céline; Brandenberger, Olivier; Rossignol, Fabrice; Robert, Céline; Perkins, Justin D; Marie, Jean-Paul; Ducharme, Norm

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To develop and assess the feasibility, repeatability, and safety of an ultrasound-guided technique to stimulate the first cervical nerve (FCN) at the level of the alar foramen of the atlas of horses. ANIMALS 4 equine cadavers and 6 clinically normal Standardbreds. PROCEDURES In each cadaver, the FCN pathway was determined by dissection, and any anastomosis between the first and second cervical nerves was identified. Subsequently, each of 6 live horses underwent a bilateral ultrasound-guided stimulation of the FCN at the alar foramen 3 times at 3-week intervals. After each procedure, horses were examined daily for 5 days. RESULTS In each cadaver, the FCN passed through the alar foramen; a communicating branch between the FCN and the accessory nerve and anastomoses between the ventral branches of the FCN and second cervical nerve were identified. The anastomoses were located in the upper third of the FCN pathway between the wing of the atlas and the nerve's entry in the omohyoideus muscle. Successful ultrasound-guided electrical stimulation was confirmed by twitching of the ipsilateral omohyoideus muscle in all 6 live horses; this finding was observed bilaterally during each of the 3 experimental sessions. No complications developed at the site of stimulation. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that ultrasound-guided stimulation of the FCN at the alar foramen appears to be a safe and straightforward procedure in horses. The procedure may have potential for use in horses with naturally occurring recurrent laryngeal neuropathy to assess reinnervation after FCN transplantation or nerve-muscle pedicle implantation in the cricoarytenoideus dorsalis muscle.

  18. Natan 'Nikolai' Abramovich Vigdorchik (1874-1954): social activism and public health in early 20th-century Russia.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Dan S; Tauger, Mark B

    2009-05-01

    Virtually unknown in the West, the physician Nikolai Vigdorchik is recognized in Russian-Soviet history for his role in introducing social security into Russia. He rose from Jewish working-class origins to a career that combined activism in labour rights and public health with extensive and path-breaking publications in social security, occupational safety and public health. He contributed more than 30 years of leadership to Soviet research and educational institutions devoted to occupational safety and health. Vigdorchik's 1935 publication on lead and hypertension is illustrative of his contribution to modern epidemiological methods, describing a statistical bias in the study of hospitalized patients. It predates by 11 years Joseph Berkson's paper, after whom the bias is named. Vigdorchik's life illustrates a modern-day conundrum: social activism comes with political cost -- by virtue of its evidence-based orientation, public health science is safer but both are necessary to move a culture towards health and stability.

  19. Are MRI high-signal changes of alar and transverse ligaments in acute whiplash injury related to outcome?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Upper neck ligament high-signal changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been found in patients with whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) but also in non-injured controls. The clinical relevance of such changes is controversial. Their prognostic role has never been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to examine if alar and transverse ligament high-signal changes on MRI immediately following the car accident are related to outcome after 12 months for patients with acute WAD grades 1-2. Methods Within 13 days after a car accident, 114 consecutive acute WAD1-2 patients without prior neck injury or prior neck problems underwent upper neck high-resolution proton-weighted MRI. High-signal changes of the alar and transverse ligaments were graded 0-3. A questionnaire including the impact of event scale for measuring posttraumatic stress response and questions on patients' expectations of recovery provided clinical data at injury. At 12 months follow-up, 111 (97.4%) patients completed the Neck Disability Index (NDI) and an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS-11) on last week neck pain intensity. Factors potentially related to these outcomes were assessed using multiple logistic regression analyses. Results Among the 111 responders (median age 29.8 years; 63 women), 38 (34.2%) had grades 2-3 alar ligament changes and 25 (22.5%) had grades 2-3 transverse ligament changes at injury. At 12 months follow-up, 49 (44.1%) reported disability (NDI > 8) and 23 (20.7%) neck pain (NRS-11 > 4). Grades 2-3 ligament changes in the acute phase were not related to disability or neck pain at 12 months. More severe posttraumatic stress response increased the odds for disability (odds ratio 1.46 per 10 points on the impact of event scale, p = 0.007) and so did low expectations of recovery (odds ratio 4.66, p = 0.005). Conclusions High-signal changes of the alar and transverse ligaments close after injury did not affect outcome for acute WAD1-2 patients without previous

  20. Morphology of the transverse ligament of the atlas and the alar ligaments in the silver fox (Vulpes vulpes var)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent new anatomical and histological features of craniocervical junction in dogs and cats were described providing evidence of differences between the carnivore species. No information on these structures in foxes exists. Results Two parts of the alar ligaments were found. A longer one aroused from dens of axis to the internal (medial) surface of the occipital condyles and was called apical part. A shorter part originated from the entire length of the lateral edge of the dens of axis and terminated on the internal wall of the vertebral foramen of atlas and thus was called the lateral part. The transverse ligament of the atlas was widened in the mid region, above the dens of axis, and thickened at enthesis. Periosteal fibrocartilage was detected in the transverse ligament of the atlas at the enthesis, and sesamoid fibrocartilage was present on periphery in the middle of the ligament. Conclusions The craniocervical junction in foxes differs in part from other carnivores such as dogs and cats but resembles that of mesaticephalic dogs. The sesamoid and periosteal fibrocartilage supports the transverse ligament of the atlas whereas the alar ligaments have no cartilage. PMID:23557095

  1. Wnt signal specifies the intrathalamic limit and its organizer properties by regulating Shh induction in the alar plate.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Ferre, Almudena; Navarro-Garberi, Maria; Bueno, Carlos; Martinez, Salvador

    2013-02-27

    The structural complexity of the brain depends on precise molecular and cellular regulatory mechanisms orchestrated by regional morphogenetic organizers. The thalamic organizer is the zona limitans intrathalamica (ZLI), a transverse linear neuroepithelial domain in the alar plate of the diencephalon. Because of its production of Sonic hedgehog, ZLI acts as a morphogenetic signaling center. Shh is expressed early on in the prosencephalic basal plate and is then gradually activated dorsally within the ZLI. The anteroposterior positioning and the mechanism inducing Shh expression in ZLI cells are still partly unknown, being a subject of controversial interpretations. For instance, separate experimental results have suggested that juxtaposition of prechordal (rostral) and epichordal (caudal) neuroepithelium, anteroposterior encroachment of alar lunatic fringe (L-fng) expression, and/or basal Shh signaling is required for ZLI specification. Here we investigated a key role of Wnt signaling in the molecular regulation of ZLI positioning and Shh expression, using experimental embryology in ovo in the chick. Early Wnt expression in the ZLI regulates Gli3 and L-fng to generate a permissive territory in which Shh is progressively induced by planar signals of the basal plate.

  2. A Refined Technique for Management of Nasal Flaring: The Quest for the Holy Grail of Alar Base Modification

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Kapil S; Pabari, Mansi

    2016-01-01

    “A smile is happiness you'll find right under your nose”– Tom Wilson. This quote holds true just for patients, not for surgeons. The correction of the nose always poses a challenge to the cosmetic surgeon. Deformities of the external and internal nose may be congenital or acquired and may be secondary to soft tissue and/or osseo-cartilaginous abnormalities, leading to aesthetic and/or functional consequences. Alar flare poses a common problem, sometimes alone and sometimes in conjunction with other external deformities. Alar base reduction is generally considered when the interalar distance exceeds the intercanthal distance. It has been well documented that this simple additional procedure brings about a substantial enhancement in the nose. Various techniques have been described and used in the past, each having their benefits and drawbacks, with the modified Weir wedge excision, Aufricht nasal sill excision, and Bernstein V-Y advancement being the common ones. We hereby describe a technique that is simple yet effective in achieving the desired results and at the same time aims at preventing relapse to obtain satisfactory long term results. PMID:27896197

  3. Signal changes of the alar ligament in a healthy population: a dispositional or degenerative consequence?

    PubMed

    Wenz, Holger; Kerl, Hans Ulrich; Maros, Mate Elod; Wenz, Ralf; Kalvin, Kira; Groden, Christoph; Nölte, Ingo

    2015-07-17

    OBJECT The alar ligaments (ALs) are vital for stabilizing the craniocervical junction. In terms of morphology, their appearance varies and is visible on MRI. Dark signal of the AL on proton-density (PD)-weighted images is generally considered the norm, but the etiology of frequently observed signal hyperintensities is poorly understood. Using spectral fat suppression, signal hyperintensities can be differentiated into fat- and nonfat-related hyperintensities (NFH). Although signal hyperintensities have no evident association with whiplash-associated disorder, age-related degeneration has often been theorized. Therefore, this study investigates the signal intensities of the ALs on 3.0-T MRI with special reference to age. Expanding thereon, the authors investigated the relationship between signal hyperintensities and patient characteristics, such as height, weight, and sex. METHODS Sixty-six healthy volunteers were scanned using 3.0-T PD-weighted MRI, including spectral fat suppression of the craniocervical junction. The study population was separated into 2 groups (old vs young) using 2 approaches: dichotomization at the median age (40.0 years) and the calculated threshold (28.5 years) using receiver operating characteristics (ROC). The AL was independently characterized with respect to continuity, course, shape, signal intensity, and graduation of homogeneity by 2 experienced neuroradiologists. Signal intensity was differentiated into fat-related hyperintensity and NFH. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were employed to investigate the relationship between patient characteristics and signal intensities. RESULTS Two different AL patterns were observed: inhomogeneous (33.3%) and homogeneous (66.7%). The latter pattern was mostly surrounded by a small dark rim (56.8%). Fat could be identified in 15.9% of all ALs (21 of 132 patients), and NFH was identified in 17.4% of all ALs (23 of 132 patients). Here, 28.5 years was the preferred threshold

  4. Ablative fractionated erbium:YAG laser for the treatment of ice pick alar scars due to neodymium:YAG laser burns.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joel L; Babcock, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    The authors present a case of ice pick scars forming in the nasal alar grooves of a patient who was treated with a 1064-nm neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser for facial telangiectasias. Treatment options for these types of scars are reviewed and specifically we report the success of an ablative fractionated 2940-nm erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser.

  5. [Expert reconstruction of the true circumstances of the shooting of the Emperor Nikolai II, members of his family, and those who accompanied them into exile at Ekaterinburg].

    PubMed

    Kovalev, A V; Kolkutin, V V

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of the materials of the criminal case, historical, archive, and forensic medical documents permitted for the first time to reconstruct the circumstances of the shooting of Emperor Nikolai II, members of the royal family, and those who chose to accompany them into exile in the house of the engineer N.N. Ipatiev, Ekaterinburg, on the night of 16-17th July (Grigorian calendar) 1918. The results of the study allowed the true picture of the assassination to be reconstructed including the mutual positions of the victims and the executors in the semi-basement room No 2, the total number of participants, the number and direction of shots, the types of the weapons used, and the sequence of actions of each person involved in the event. It was shown, that in the beginning most shots had been fired at the emperor and tsarevich Alexei.

  6. Nostril and alar reshaping.

    PubMed

    Planas, J; Planas, J

    1993-01-01

    The authors recommend, when necessary, the use of external excisions for correcting variations in the shape of the nostrils and alae in the cleft lip-nose deformity, in primary rhinoplasties, and in secondary rhinoplasties. Their experience in the use of external incisions was originally stimulated by Millard's paper of 1960 which recommended different types of remodeling external excisions in his analysis of how to handle variations in the shape of the nostrils and alae.

  7. AlAr3(THF): highly efficient reagents for cross-couplings with aryl bromides and chlorides catalyzed by the economic palladium complex of PCy3.

    PubMed

    Ku, Shih-Lun; Hui, Xin-Ping; Chen, Chien-An; Kuo, Yi-Ying; Gau, Han-Mou

    2007-10-07

    Novel and highly efficient cross couplings of aryl bromides and chlorides with AlAr3(THF) (Ar = Ph, 2,4,6-Me3C6H2, 2-naphthyl or 4-Me3SiC6H4) catalyzed by the economic palladium catalyst of PCy3 are reported without the use of a base and under mild reaction conditions at room temperature or temperatures < or = 60 degrees C even for couplings of bulky aryl halides and the Al(2,4,6-Me3C6H2)3(THF) reagent.

  8. Modified alar base cinch suture fixation at the bilateral lower border of the piriform rim after a maxillary Le Fort I osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Yen, C Y; Kuo, C L; Liu, I H; Su, W C; Jiang, H R; Huang, I G; Liu, S Y; Lee, S Y

    2016-11-01

    Classic cinch suture narrowing of the nasal alar base by medially suturing the bilateral nasolabial soft tissue with one long suture has a limited effect. The modified cinch method described in the present study anchors non-absorbable sutures to the bilateral lower border of the piriform rim and provides optimal direction, position, and stability. The sutures can be shortened and the strength kept stable while the surgical wounds heal. Separate bilateral sutures can also reduce interference and distortion from nasotracheal intubation and make the nasolabial profile more symmetrical. Seventeen consecutive cases of maxillary Le Fort I osteotomy were analyzed. The nasal and alar base width changes were 0.4±1.2mm and 0.1±1.1mm, respectively, and the widening rate was only 1.1%. Compared with the results of other studies, postoperative nasal flaring was well controlled using the modified cinch suture anchored to the bilateral lower border of the piriform rim described in this study.

  9. Calcification of the Alar Ligament Mimics Fracture of the Craniovertebral Junction (CVJ): An Incidental Finding from Computerised Tomography of the Cervical Spine Following Trauma.

    PubMed

    Che Mohamed, Siti Kamariah; Abd Aziz, Azian

    2009-10-01

    When performing a radiological assessment for a trauma case with associated head injury, a fragment of dense tissue detected near the craniovertebral junction would rapidly be assessed as a fractured bone fragment. However, if further imaging and evaluation of the cervical spine with computerised tomography (CT) did not demonstrate an obvious fracture, then the possibility of ligament calcification would be considered. We present a case involving a previously healthy 44-yearold man who was admitted following a severe head injury from a road traffic accident. CT scans of the head showed multiple intracranial haemorrhages, while scans of the cervical spine revealed a small, well-defined, ovoid calcification in the right alar ligament. This was initially thought to be a fracture fragment. Although such calcification is uncommon, accident and emergency physicians and radiologists may find this useful as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with neck pain or traumatic head injury.

  10. On big crunch solutions in Prokushkin-Vasiliev theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iazeolla, Carlo; Raeymaekers, Joris

    2016-01-01

    We construct simple solutions of three-dimensional higher spin gravity interacting with matter in which only the scalar and spin-two fields are excited. They preserve Lorentz symmetry and are similar to the four-dimensional solutions constructed by Sezgin and Sundell, with the difference that the additional twisted sectors of the three-dimensional theory are excited. Furthermore, the three-dimensional system contains an extra parameter λ which allows us to vary the mass of the scalar. Among other reasons, the resulting solutions are interesting for the holographic study of cosmological singularities: they describe the growth of a Coleman-De Luccia bubble in anti-de Sitter space, ending in a big crunch singularity. We initiate the holographic study of these solutions, finding evidence for their interpretation within a multi-trace deformation which renders the dual field theory unstable. The limit λ → 0 is particularly interesting as it captures effects of a running coupling in a large- N interacting fermion model. We also propose a generalization of our solutions, consisting of a dressing with Lorentz-invariant projectors. This additional sector remains non-trivial when the scalar field is turned off.

  11. Higher spin interactions in four-dimensions: Vasiliev versus Fronsdal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulanger, Nicolas; Kessel, Pan; Skvortsov, Evgeny; Taronna, Massimo

    2016-03-01

    We consider four-dimensional higher-spin (HS) theory at the first nontrivial order corresponding to the cubic action. All HS interaction vertices are explicitly obtained from Vasiliev’s equations. In particular, we obtain the vertices that are not determined solely by the HS algebra structure constants. The dictionary between the Fronsdal fields and HS connections is found and the corrections to the Fronsdal equations are derived. These corrections turn out to involve derivatives of arbitrary order. We observe that the vertices not determined by the HS algebra produce naked infinities, when decomposed into the minimal derivative vertices and improvements. Therefore, standard methods can only be used to check a rather limited number of correlation functions within the HS AdS/CFT duality. A possible resolution of the puzzle is discussed.

  12. Reconstruction of Alar Nasal Cartilage Defects Using a Tissue Engineering Technique Based on a Combined Use of Autologous Chondrocyte Micrografts and Platelet-rich Plasma: Preliminary Clinical and Instrumental Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Scioli, Maria G.; Bielli, Alessandra; Orlandi, Augusto; Cervelli, Valerio

    2016-01-01

    Background: Developing cartilage constructs with injectability, appropriate matrix composition, and persistent cartilaginous phenotype remains an enduring challenge in cartilage repair. The combined use of autologous chondrocyte micrografts and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an alternative that opens a new era in this field. Methods: At the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy, 11 patients underwent nasal alar reconstruction with chondrocyte micrografts gently poured onto PRP in solid form. A computed tomographic scan control was performed after 12 months. Pearson’s Chi-square test was used to investigate difference in cartilage density between native and newly formed cartilages. Results: The constructs of chondrocyte micrografts–PRP that were subcutaneously injected resulted in a persistent cartilage tissue with appropriate morphology, adequate central nutritional perfusion without central necrosis or ossification, and further augmented nasal dorsum without obvious contraction and deformation. Conclusion: This report demonstrated that chondrocyte micrografts derived from nasal septum poured onto PRP in solid form are useful for cartilage regeneration in patients with external nasal valve collapse. PMID:27826462

  13. NIKOLAI NIKOLAEVICH LUZIN: Modifications of functions and Fourier series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olevskii, A. M.

    1985-06-01

    CONTENTSIntroduction § 1. The correction problem and the space U(\\mathbf T) § 2. Irremovable singularities § 3. Homeomorphisms of the circle: Bohr's theorem and Luzin's problem § 4. The generalized Bohr theorem § 5. Singularity of homeomorphisms transforming into A_p(\\mathbf T) § 6. SupplementsReferences

  14. "The Storyteller: Reflections on the Works of Nikolai Leskov."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Journal of Oral History, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Presents 11 selections from Walter Benjamin's essay "The Storyteller" which illustrate how the work milieu and the significance of death are incorporated into stories. Benjamin compares historiography to traditional storytelling, and discusses the effect of the storyteller's need to maintain the listener's interest upon the story's style…

  15. NIKOLAI NIKOLAEVICH LUZIN: Luzin's work on the metric theory of functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ul'yanov, P. L.

    1985-06-01

    CONTENTS § 1. Introduction § 2. Definitions and auxiliary results § 3. Luzin's theorem on the primitive function § 4. Luzin's theorem on the representation of functions by trigonometric series and its development § 5. Correction of functions § 6. Divergent trigonometric seriesReferences

  16. On the work of Nikolai Nikolaevich Bogolyubov in the theory of almost periodic functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitan, B. M.

    1994-10-01

    CONTENTS §1. Preliminaries from the theory of almost periodic functions §2. Bogolyubov's contribution to the theory of almost periodic functions §3. The influence of Bogolyubov's research on further development in the theory of almost periodic functions References Appendix 1. Bogolyubov's proof of the approximation theorem Appendix 2. The proof of Bogolyubov's theorem on arithmetic properties of relatively dense sets

  17. NIKOLAI NIKOLAEVICH LUZIN: Luzin's contribution to the descriptive theory of sets and functions: concepts, problems, predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uspenskii, V. A.

    1985-06-01

    This paper is based on the author's lecture "N.N. Luzin and the descriptive theory of sets" delivered on 13 December 1983 at the meeting of the Moscow Mathematical Society dedicated to the centenary of Luzin's birth. The paper is aimed at a wide readership and is regarded by the author as one of the means of introducing a reader to the sphere of ideas of the descriptive theory.

  18. NIKOLAI NIKOLAEVICH LUZIN: The development of the descriptive theory of sets under the influence of the work of Luzin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanovei, Vladimir G.

    1985-06-01

    CONTENTSIntroduction § 0. Euclidean and Baire spaces § 1. Research on the structure of Borel classes § 2. Projective sets. Construction of the hierarchy § 3. The sieve operation and its applications to projective sets of the first level § 4. The first projective level: sets with special sections § 5. The theory of operations on sets. C-sets and R-sets. The second projective level § 6. Difficulties of the classical theory of projective sets. Search for new paths. The main trends of the contemporary development of the descriptive theory § 7. Luzin's problems on the sequence of constituents § 8. Equivalence relations: Luzin's remarks and contemporary research § 9. Problems and results connected with the axiom of choice and transfinite constructionsReferences

  19. Range of motion, sacral screw and rod strain in long posterior spinal constructs: a biomechanical comparison between S2 alar iliac screws with traditional fixation strategies

    PubMed Central

    Field, Antony; Ferrara, Lisa A.; Freeman, Andrew L.; Phan, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Background S1 screw failure and L5/S1 non-union are issues with long fusions to S1. Improved construct stiffness and S1 screw offloading can help avoid this. S2AI screws have shown to provide similar stiffness to iliac screws when added to L3–S1 constructs. We sought to examine and compare the biomechanical effects on an L2–S1 pedicle screw construct of adding S2AI screws, AxiaLIF, L5–S1 interbody support via transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF), and to examine the effect of the addition of cross connectors to each of these constructs. Methods Two S1 screws and one rod with strain gauges (at L5/S1) were used in L2–S1 screw-rod constructs in 7 L1-pelvis specimens (two with low BMD). ROM, S1 screw and rod strain were assessed using a pure-moment flexibility testing protocol. Specimens were tested intact, and then in five instrumentation states consisting of: (I) Pedicle screws (PS) L2–S1; (II) PS + S2AI screws; (III) PS + TLIF L5/S1; (IV) PS + AxiaLIF L5/S1; (V) PS + S2AI + AxiaLIF L5/S1. The five instrumentation conditions were also tested with crosslinks at L2/3 and S1/2. Tests were conducted in flexion-extension, lateral bending and axial torsion with no compressive preload. Results S2A1 produces reduced S1 screw strain for flexion-extension, lateral bending and axial torsion, as well as reduced rod strain in lateral bending and axial torsion in comparison to AxiaLIF and interbody instrumentation, at the expense of increased rod flexion-extension strain. Cross-connectors may have a role in further reduction of S1 screw and rod strain. Conclusions From a biomechanical standpoint, the use of the S2AI technique is at least equivalent to traditional iliac screws, but offers lower prominence and ease of assembly compared to conventional sacroiliac stabilization. PMID:28097243

  20. [Nikolai Illarionovich Kozlov--a scientist, a doctor, an outstanding organizer of Military Medicine (To the 200th anniversary of the birth)].

    PubMed

    Egorysheva, I V

    2014-11-01

    To Kozlov N.I. (1814-1889) belong numerous achievements in the organization of military medical unit during the Crimean (1853-1856) and the Russian-Turkish (1877-1878) wars, the introduction of women's medical education in Russia, establishment of an improvement system for the military doctors, edition for their medical guidelines, the organization of military health care in Russia.

  1. 77 FR 34997 - Notice of June 30, 2012, Meeting for Denali National Park Subsistence Resource Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... Nikolai Tribal Council Office in Nikolai, AK. Proposed Agenda The proposed meeting agenda for each meeting includes the following: 1. Call to order--Confirm Quorum 2. Welcome and Introductions (SRC Chair...

  2. Differences over Economics in the Soviet Leadership, 1988-1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    discussion among specialists. The most influential articles were written by Professor Nikolai Shmelev of the USA and Canada 1Pravda, July 24, 1990. 2Pravda...simply produce more! It is true that Gorbachev did, sensibly, link the normalization of the market to financial 4Nikolai P. Shmelev , "Avansy i dolgi...increased deficit was the anti-alcohol campaign. That campaign was little criticized in public until Nikolai Shmelev did so with vigor in June 1987.17

  3. Higher spin double field theory: a proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekaert, Xavier; Park, Jeong-Hyuck

    2016-07-01

    We construct a double field theory coupled to the fields present in Vasiliev's equations. Employing the "semi-covariant" differential geometry, we spell a functional in which each term is completely covariant with respect to O(4, 4) T-duality, doubled diffeomorphisms, Spin(1, 3) local Lorentz symmetry and, separately, HS(4) higher spin gauge symmetry. We identify a minimal set of BPS-like conditions whose solutions automatically satisfy the full Euler-Lagrange equations. As such a solution, we derive a linear dilaton vacuum. With extra algebraic constraints further supplemented, the BPS-like conditions reduce to the bosonic Vasiliev equations.

  4. Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-03

    William Potter , and Nikolai Sokov, Reducing and Regulating Tactical (Nonstrategic) Nuclear Weapons in Europe, The James Martin Center For...See William C. Potter and Nikolai Sokov, “Nuclear Weapons that People Forget,” International Herald Tribune, May 31, 2000. 87 Sam Nunn, Igor...their security.97 94 Kent Harris , “NATO Allies Want U.S. Nuclear Weapons out of Europe

  5. Higher spin realization of the DS/CFT correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anninos, Dionysios; Hartman, Thomas; Strominger, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    We conjecture that Vasiliev’s theory of higher spin gravity in four-dimensional de Sitter space (dS4) is holographically dual to a three-dimensional conformal field theory (CFT3) living on the spacelike boundary of dS4 at future timelike infinity. The CFT3 is the Euclidean Sp(N) vector model with anticommuting scalars. The free CFT3 flows under a double-trace deformation to an interacting CFT3 in the IR. We argue that both CFTs are dual to Vasiliev dS4 gravity but with different future boundary conditions on the bulk scalar field. Our analysis rests heavily on analytic continuations of bulk and boundary correlators in the proposed duality relating the O(N) model with Vasiliev gravity in AdS4.

  6. ABJ theory in the higher spin limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Shinji; Honda, Masazumi; Okuyama, Kazumi; Shigemori, Masaki

    2016-08-01

    We study the conjecture made by Chang, Minwalla, Sharma, and Yin on the duality between the {N}=6 Vasiliev higher spin theory on AdS4 and the {N}=6 Chern-Simons-matter theory, so-called ABJ theory, with gauge group U( N) × U( N + M). Building on our earlier results on the ABJ partition function, we develop the systematic 1 /M expansion, corresponding to the weak coupling expansion in the higher spin theory, and compare the leading 1 /M correction, with our proposed prescription, to the one-loop free energy of the {N}=6 Vasiliev theory. We find an agreement between the two sides up to an ambiguity that appears in the bulk one-loop calculation.

  7. Partially massless higher-spin theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brust, Christopher; Hinterbichler, Kurt

    2017-02-01

    We study a generalization of the D-dimensional Vasiliev theory to include a tower of partially massless fields. This theory is obtained by replacing the usual higher-spin algebra of Killing tensors on (A)dS with a generalization that includes "third-order" Killing tensors. Gauging this algebra with the Vasiliev formalism leads to a fully non-linear theory which is expected to be UV complete, includes gravity, and can live on dS as well as AdS. The linearized spectrum includes three massive particles and an infinite tower of partially massless particles, in addition to the usual spectrum of particles present in the Vasiliev theory, in agreement with predictions from a putative dual CFT with the same symmetry algebra. We compute the masses of the particles which are not fixed by the massless or partially massless gauge symmetry, finding precise agreement with the CFT predictions. This involves computing several dozen of the lowest-lying terms in the expansion of the trilinear form of the enlarged higher-spin algebra. We also discuss nuances in the theory that occur in specific dimensions; in particular, the theory dramatically truncates in bulk dimensions D = 3 , 5 and has non-diagonalizable mixings which occur in D = 4 , 7.

  8. Is Hideki Yukawa's explanation of the strong force correct?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, Victor; Moon, Russell

    2006-11-01

    Reexamining Hideki Yukawa's explanation of the strong force using the principles of the Quark Theory and the Vortex Theory, it was discovered that it is possible for a virtual particle to be passed back and forth between the proton and the neutron. This discovery creates a new and revolutionary explanation of the strong force of nature. The creation of the strong force appears to be the combination of four processes at work in the nucleus: virtual particles, intrinsic magnetism, ``nuclear gravity'', and gluons. 1. V.V. Vasiliev, R.G. Moon, The bases of the vortex theory, Book of abstracts The 53 International Meeting on Nuclear Spectroscopy and Nuclear structure St. Petersburg, Russia, 2003, p.251. 2. H. Yukawa, Tabibito, (World Scientific, Singapore, 1982), p. 190-202. 3. K. Gridnev, V.V. Vasiliev, R.G. Moon, The Photon Acceleration Effect, Book of abstracts, OMEGA 5 -- Symposium on Origin of Matter and Evolution of Galaxies, Nov 8-11, University of Tokyo, Tokyo Japan. 4. R.G. Moon, V.V. Vasiliev. Explanation of the Conservation of Lepton Number, Book of abstracts LV. National Conference on Nuclear Physics, Frontiers in the Physics of Nucleus, June 28-July 1, 2005, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 2005, p. 347.5. .

  9. Is Hideki Yukawa's explanation of the strong force correct?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, Victor; Moon, Russell

    2006-10-01

    Reexamining Hideki Yukawa's explanation of the strong force using the principles of the Quark Theory and the Vortex Theory, it was discovered that it is possible for a virtual particle to be passed back and forth between the proton and the neutron. This discovery creates a new and revolutionary explanation of the strong force of nature. The creation of the strong force appears to be the combination of four processes at work in the nucleus: virtual particles, intrinsic magnetism, ``nuclear gravity'', and gluons. 1. V.V. Vasiliev, R.G. Moon, The bases of the vortex theory, Book of abstracts The 53 International Meeting on Nuclear Spectroscopy and Nuclear structure St. Petersburg, Russia, 2003, p.251. 2. H. Yukawa, Tabibito, (World Scientific, Singapore, 1982), p. 190-202. 3. K. Gridnev, V.V. Vasiliev, R.G. Moon, The Photon Acceleration Effect, Book of abstracts, OMEGA 5 -- Symposium on Origin of Matter and Evolution of Galaxies, Nov 8-11, University of Tokyo, Tokyo Japan. 4. R.G. Moon, V.V. Vasiliev. Explanation of the Conservation of Lepton Number, Book of abstracts LV. National Conference on Nuclear Physics, Frontiers in the Physics of Nucleus, June 28-July 1, 2005, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 2005, p. 347.5. .

  10. [E.S.BOTKIN, A SPECIMEN OF FIDELITY TO PROFESSIONAL DUTY AND OATH OF LOYALTY, AN EXAMPLE OF COURAGE AND HONOUR OF THE RUSSIAN DOCTOR].

    PubMed

    Vologdin, A A; Simonenko, V B

    2015-01-01

    Evgeny Sergeevch Botkin, son of the legendary Russian internist Sergey Petrovich Botkin, was a court physician for Tsar Nikolai II. After Nikolai abdicated the throne on 15 March (2 March in the Julian calendar) 1917, E.S. Botkin felt it was his duty to accompany the Romanovs into exile to Siberia and continued to selflessly treat the crown prince Aleksey, other members of the Romanov family and all those who applied for his advice. He was shot together with the Romanovs in the basement room of the Ipatiev house, Ekaterinburg, remaining loyal to professional duty and the word given to the Emperor.

  11. Lower lateral crural reverse plasty.

    PubMed

    Kubilay, Utku; Azizli, Elad; Erdoğdu, Suleyman

    2013-11-01

    The lateral crus plays a significant role in the aesthetic appearance of the nose. Excessive concavities of the lower lateral crura can lead to heavy aesthetic disfigurement of the nasal tip and to insufficiencies of the external nasal valve. The lateral crus of the alar cartilage may also cause a concavity of the alar rim and even collapse of the alar rim in severe cases. Surgical techniques performed on the lateral crus help to treat both functional and aesthetic deformities of the lateral nasal tip. We present a reverse plasty technique for the lateral crus, and we evaluated the advantages and disadvantages of the technique.

  12. Yes You Can! Personal Experience of Writing for "School Science Review"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Alaric; Auty, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Alaric Thompson describes his experience of writing for "School Science Review" for the first time in the hope that his experience will encourage others. Geoff Auty introduces his piece and explains how it came about.

  13. Sustaining Professional Dance Companies in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straits, Sue Ann

    1982-01-01

    A university dance program conducted at the University of Wisconsin--Madison, the 1978 residency of the Alwin Nikolais Company, is described. Collaboration between the company and university personnel is described in the areas of: (1) creating a working environment; (2) participating in residency events; and (3) fulfilling expectations. (CJ)

  14. Soyez Departs From International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Expedition Seven photographed the Soyez TMA-1 Capsule through a window of the International Space Station (ISS) as it departed for Earth. Aboard were Expedition Six crew members, astronauts Kerneth D. Bowersox and Donald R. Pettit, and cosmonaut Nikolai M. Budarin. Expedition Six served a 5 and 1/2 month stay aboard the ISS, the longest stay to date.

  15. Renormalization of the Graphene Dispersion Velocity Determined from Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-14

    Young,4 Cory R. Dean,5,6 Lei Wang,6 Yuanda Gao,6 Kenji Watanabe,7 Takashi Taniguchi,7 James Hone,6 Kenneth L. Shepard,5 Phillip Kim,4 Nikolai B. Zhitenev...relative strength of the Coulomb interactions and is given by the ratio of potential to kinetic energies [13]. In graphene, both the kinetic and

  16. Alienation, Servility and Amorality: Relating Gogol's Portrayal of Bureaupathology to an Accountability Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samier, Eugenie; Lumby, Jacky

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the insights literature can bring to administrative and bureaucratic critique, focusing on the work of Nikolai Gogol. Gogol's satire of bureaucracy presages many subsequent social science analyses. These encompass the fundamental ruptures in society caused by a surfeit of bureaucracy in "The Nose" and, on a more psychological…

  17. 75 FR 28853 - Quarterly Publication of Individuals, Who Have Chosen To Expatriate, as Required by Section 6039G

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ... United States citizenship (within the meaning of section 877(a) or 877A) with respect to whom the... MARGARET DEUCHER FIONA CLARINA DEUCHER ANNINA XENIA CONCHITA DEVOURDY CHRISTINE DODDS BARRY A DUDLEY SON...-MERZBACHER JESSICA HENTSCH NIKOLAI HO EUNICE YUK LING HOTTINGER PETER A HUANG YU-CHING IKEDA MAKIKO...

  18. One-loop tests of the supersymmetric higher spin AdS4/CFT3 correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Yi; Sezgin, Ergin; Zhu, Yaodong

    2017-01-01

    We compute one-loop free energy for D =4 Vasiliev higher spin gravities based on Konstein-Vasiliev algebras h u (m ;n |4 ) , h o (m ;n |4 ) , or h u s p (m ;n |4 ) and subject to higher spin-preserving boundary conditions, which are conjectured to be dual to the U (N ) , O (N ) or U S p (N ) singlet sectors, respectively, of free conformal field theories (CFTs) on the boundary of AdS4 . Ordinary supersymmetric higher spin theories appear as special cases of Konstein-Vasiliev theories, when the corresponding higher spin algebra contains O S p (N |4 ) as a subalgebra. In AdS4 with an S3 boundary, we use a regularization scheme for individual spins that employs their character such that the subsequent sum over all spins is finite, thereby avoiding the need for additional regularization. We find that the contribution of the infinite tower of bulk fermions vanishes. As a result, the free energy is the sum of those which arise in type A and type B models with internal symmetries, the known mismatch between the bulk and boundary free energies for type B model persists, and ordinary supersymmetric higher spin theories exhibit the mismatch as well. The only models that have a match are type A models with internal symmetries, corresponding to n =0 . The matching requires identification of the inverse Newton constant GN-1 with N plus a proper integer as was found previously for special cases. In AdS4 with an S1×S2 boundary, the bulk one-loop free energies match those of the dual free CFTs for arbitrary m and n . We also show that a supersymmetric double-trace deformation of free CFT based on O S p (1 |4 ) does not contribute to the O (N0) free energy, as expected from the bulk.

  19. An action for matter coupled higher spin gravity in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonezzi, Roberto; Boulanger, Nicolas; Sezgin, Ergin; Sundell, Per

    2016-05-01

    We propose a covariant Hamiltonian action for the Prokushkin and Vasiliev's matter coupled higher spin gravity in three dimensions. The action is formulated on {{X}}_4× {{Z}}_2 where {{X}}_4 is an open manifold whose boundary contains spacetime and {{Z}}_2 is a noncommutative twistor space. We examine various consistent truncations to models of BF type in {{X}}_4 and {{Z}}_2 with B2 terms and central elements. They are obtained by integrating out the matter fields in the presence of a vacuum expectation value ν ∈ {R} for the zero-form master field. For ν = 0, we obtain a model on {{X}}_4 containing Blencowe's action and a model on {{Z}}_2 containing the Prokushkin-Segal-Vasiliev action. For generic ν (including ν = 0), we propose an alternative model on {{X}}_4 with gauge fields in the Weyl algebra of Wigner's deformed oscillator algebra and Lagrange multipliers in the algebra of operators acting in the Fock representation space of the deformed oscillators.

  20. The Explanation of the Pauli Exclusion Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, Victor; Moon, Russell

    2006-11-01

    Using the principles of the Vortex Theory, the construction of the alpha particle, and the theory that the nucleus is constructed out of alpha particles, the explanation of the Pauli Exclusion Principle is explained. If protons and electrons are connected to each other via fourth dimensional vortices, they spin in opposite directions. Since the alpha particle possesses two protons possessing opposite spins, their electrons also possess opposite spins. With a nucleus constructed out of alpha particles, all paired electrons in shells and sub-shells will spin in opposite directions. 1. Victor Vasiliev, Russell Moon. Controversy surrounding the Experiment conducted to prove the Vortex Theory, 2006 8th Annual Meeting of the Northwest Section, May 18-20, 2006, University of Puget Sound, Tacoma, Washington, USA, Abstract C1.00009. 2. Russell Moon. To the Photon Acceleration Effect, 2006 Texas Section APS/AAPT/SPS Joint Spring Meeting, Thursday--Saturday, March 23--25, 2006; San Angelo, Texas, Abstract: POS.00008. 3. Russell Moon, Fabian Calvo, Victor Vasiliev. The Neutral Pentaquark, 2006 APS March Meeting, March 13-17, Baltimore, MD, USA, Session Q1: GENERAL POSTER SESSION, Abstract Q1.00147.

  1. Bounding the space of holographic CFTs with chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlmutter, Eric

    2016-10-01

    Thermal states of quantum systems with many degrees of freedom are subject to a bound on the rate of onset of chaos, including a bound on the Lyapunov exponent, λ L ≤ 2π/ β. We harness this bound to constrain the space of putative holographic CFTs and their would-be dual theories of AdS gravity. First, by studying out-of-time-order four-point functions, we discuss how λ L = 2π/ β in ordinary two-dimensional holographic CFTs is related to properties of the OPE at strong coupling. We then rule out the existence of unitary, sparse two-dimensional CFTs with large central charge and a set of higher spin currents of bounded spin; this implies the inconsistency of weakly coupled AdS3 higher spin gravities without infinite towers of gauge fields, such as the SL( N) theories. This fits naturally with the structure of higher-dimensional gravity, where finite towers of higher spin fields lead to acausality. On the other hand, unitary CFTs with classical W ∞ [ λ] symmetry, dual to 3D Vasiliev or hs[ λ] higher spin gravities, do not violate the chaos bound, instead exhibiting no chaos: λ L = 0. Independently, we show that such theories violate unitarity for | λ| > 2. These results encourage a tensionless string theory interpretation of the 3D Vasiliev theory.

  2. The Future of the Ballistic Missile Submarine Force in the Russian Nuclear Triad

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    development of the Yankee I class in 1958. These ships of the Project 667A ( Yankee I) class were first commissioned in 1967 and were armed with 16 R...74 Robert S. Norris and Hans M. Kristensen, “Russian Nuclear Forces, 2008,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 84, no. 2 (May/June 2008), 57. 75...Nikolai Sokov, this debate resulted in questions about a rapid 130 Federation of Atomic Scientists

  3. Frequency Mapping for the Operational Frequency Manager

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    waves by Heinrich Hertz. Created radio waves using a Spark Gap Transmitter. 1893 Nikolai Tesla transmits radio waves. 1896 Guglielmo M. Marconi ...radio. Cellular technology can trace it roots to two very pioneering inventors Nokolai Tesla and Guglielimo Marconi . The first generation of cell...shoulders of Tesla, Marconi and many others that are unnamed. The technology included above, cellular technology and packet data are key components of

  4. Space Threat Warning: Foundation for Space Superiority, Avoiding a Space Pearl Harbor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-17

    Space Management and Organization. 11 January 2001,100. 29 Nikolai Poroskov, “The Yogurt of Volley Fire,” Vremya Novostei, February 6, 2003. The...Grego, “A History of US and Soviet ASAT Programs”, Global Security. http://www.ucsusa.org/global_security/space_weapons/a- history -of-asat...34A History of US and Soviet ASAT Programs." Global Security. http://www.ucsusa.org/global_security/space_weapons/a- history -of-asat-programs.html

  5. Assessment of the Genotoxic Effects of High Peak-Power Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-01

    the Genotoxic Effects of High Peak-Power Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5d. TASK NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Dr... Genotoxic Effects of High Peak-Power Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs) (From 1 June 2002 to 31 May 2003 for 12 months) Nikolai Konstantinovich Chemeris...International Science and Technology Center (ISTC), Moscow. 2 ISTC 2350 Assessment of the Genotoxic Effects of High Peak-Power Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields

  6. Competitive Strategies and NATO Central Region Air Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-15

    Strategies. The most-often quoted, and perhaps most eloquent expositor of this trend has been Marshal Nikolai Ogarkov. John G. Hines has laid out...in John M. Halliday, "Tactical Dispersal of Fighter Aircraft: Risk, Uncertainty and Policy Recommendations," (Rand Note, RAND Corp. 1987), 44-45. 24...Department of the Army, U.S. Army Field Artillery School, "Deep Battle," Briefing, Ft. Sill, OK, 15 June 1988. 30. John G. Hines and Phillip A. Petersen, "Is

  7. Nonlinear Maps for Design of Discrete-Time Models of Neuronal Network Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-31

    Neurobiological Networks 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF 18. NUMBER 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS...Neuronal Network Dynamics Sb. GRANT NUMBER N00014-16-1-2252 Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR{S) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER Nikolai Rulkov Se. TASK NUMBER...distribution unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT A new promising way to significantly improve computational efficiency of neurobiological network

  8. Adaptive Redox Response of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells to Stimulation with Lipopolysaccharide Inflammagen: Mechanisms of Remodeling of Tissue Barriers in Sepsis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-08

    Mechanisms of Remodeling of Tissue Barriers in Sepsis Nikolai V. Gorbunov1*, Bradley R. Garrison1, Dennis P. McDaniel2, Min Zhai1, Pei-Jyun Liao1... sepsis [2, 5]. This problem leads to the searching for other potential mechanisms that could produce adverse effects on host metabolome resulting...understanding of the basic cellular mechanisms implicated in redox adaptive responses in 16 tissue barriers. This particular area of the molecular

  9. Remembrances of a UK scientist in Russia. 1966-67.

    PubMed

    Phillips, David

    2014-01-01

    David Phillips was a post-doctoral fellow on a Fulbright Scholarship at the University of Texas, Austin, where he acted as host and chauffeur to one of the IUPAC representatives, the Soviet delegate, Professor Nikolai N. Kondratiev, then Deputy Director of the Institute of Chemical Physics in Moscow. During the course of ferrying him around, Nikolai asked .David about his plans after his two-year stay in Texas, David replied that he had intended to return to Europe, but was looking for one more year as a post-doctoral fellow before seeking an academic position probably back in the UK Nikolai invited him to spend time in his Institute, and eventually, through the Royal Society/Academy of Sciences Exchange programme, this came to pass. Professor Phillips now describes his experiences, both cultural and scientific, in Russia during 1966-67 where he learned much about the Russian people, and also about himself. He returned with a taste for good music, Russian literature and language, and travel generally, and for taking chances in life.

  10. [Standard rhinoplasty].

    PubMed

    Bardot, J; Jallut, Y; Nguyen, P-S

    2014-12-01

    Most patients who consult a surgeon for rhinoplasty do not want a radical change in their nose. They seek a reduction in the volume of the nasal pyramid and correction of a precise element that they judge to be ungainly--most often an osteocartilaginous hump. The procedure that we qualify as "standard" will eliminate the osteocartilaginous hump, decrease the dimensions of the septum and reduce the size of the alar crus of the alar cartilage. Although the required technical maneuvers are simple, their sequence must be coherent with a few basic rules that are simple but rarely explained in order to avoid defects linked to excessive, or on the contrary, insufficient corrections.

  11. EPM-ERA 2011 Lunar theory and selenodynamical parameters from LLR (1970-2011) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagudina, E. I.; Krasinsky, G. A.; Prokhorenko, S. O.

    2012-12-01

    The modern Lunar ephemerides are constructed at JPL,USA (DE403,DE405, DE421); in Institute of Celestial Mechanics, France (series of INPOP) and at the Institute of Applied Astronomy RAS in the framework of ERA system (Krasinsky and Vasiliev, 1996). The dynamical model EPM-ERA has been constructed by simultaneous numerical integration of equations of orbital motion of the Moon, major planets, the biggest asteroids, and the lunar rotation. The dissipative effect of lunar rotation was included in the new version of ephemeris with retarded argument under integration of orbital and rotational Lunar motion. The comparison of improved dynamical model was made with 17742 LLR observations (1970-2011) for obtaining selenodynamical parameters. The version has been compared with three versions of the DE ephemerides and French ephemeris INPOP10.

  12. Linear connections with a propagating spin-3 field in gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Baekler, Peter; Boulanger, Nicolas; Hehl, Friedrich W.

    2006-12-15

    We show that Fronsdal's Lagrangian for a free massless spin-3 gauge field in Minkowski spacetime is contained in a general Yang-Mills-like Lagrangian of metric-affine gravity (MAG), the gauge theory of the general affine group in the presence of a metric. Because of the geometric character of MAG, this can best be seen by using Vasiliev's frame formalism for higher-spin gauge fields in which the spin-3 frame is identified with the tracefree nonmetricity one-form associated with the shear generators of GL(n,R). Furthermore, for specific gravitational gauge models in the framework of full nonlinear MAG, exact solutions are constructed, featuring propagating massless and massive spin-3 fields.

  13. Action Principles for Higher and Fractional Spin Gravities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, Cesar; Bonezzi, Roberto; Boulanger, Nicolas; Sezgin, Ergin; Sundell, Per; Torres-Gomez, Alexander; Valenzuela, Mauricio

    We review various off-shell formulations for interacting higher-spin systems in dimensions 3 and 4. Associated with higher-spin systems in spacetime dimension 4 is a Chern-Simons action for a superconnection taking its values in a direct product of an infinite-dimensional algebra of oscillators and a Frobenius algebra. A crucial ingredient of the model is that it elevates the rigid closed and central two-form of Vasiliev's theory to a dynamical 2-form and doubles the higher-spin algebra, thereby considerably reducing the number of possible higher spin invariants and giving a nonzero effective functional on-shell. The two action principles we give for higher-spin systems in 3D are based on Chern-Simons and BF models. In the first case, the theory we give unifies higher-spin gauge fields with fractional-spin fields and an internal sector. In particular, Newton-s constant is related to the coupling constant of the internal sector. In the second case, the BF action we review gives the fully nonlinear Prokushkin-Vasiliev, bosonic equations for matter-coupled higher spins in 3D. We present the truncation to a single, real matter field relevant in the Gaberdiel-Gopakumar holographic duality. The link between the various actions we present is the fact that they all borrow ingredients from Topological Field Theory. It has been conjectured that there is an underlying and unifying 2-dimensional first-quantised description of the previous higher-spin models in 3D and 4D, in the form of a Cattaneo-Felder-like topological action containing fermionic fields.

  14. Defense Health Care. Improvements Needed in Occupational and Environmental Health Surveillance during Deployments to Address Immediate and Long-term Health Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    Navy preventive medicine units generally have included a preventive medicine physician, an industrial hygienist , a microbiologist, and an entomologist...medical/ dental x -ray and OSI operations, and low-level radioactive materials present in equipment such as chemical ag ent monitors and alar ms. No

  15. Pelvic Fixation in Adult and Pediatric Spine Surgery: Historical Perspective, Indications, and Techniques: AAOS Exhibit Selection.

    PubMed

    Jain, Amit; Hassanzadeh, Hamid; Strike, Sophia A; Menga, Emmanuel N; Sponseller, Paul D; Kebaish, Khaled M

    2015-09-16

    Achieving solid osseous fusion across the lumbosacral junction has historically been, and continues to be, a challenge in spine surgery. Robust pelvic fixation plays an integral role in achieving this goal. The goals of this review are to describe the history of and indications for spinopelvic fixation, examine conventional spinopelvic fixation techniques, and review the newer S2-alar-iliac technique and its outcomes in adult and pediatric patients with spinal deformity. Since the introduction of Harrington rods in the 1960s, spinal instrumentation has evolved substantially. Indications for spinopelvic fixation as a means to achieve lumbosacral arthrodesis include a long arthrodesis (five or more vertebral levels) or use of three-column osteotomies in the lower thoracic or lumbar spine, surgical treatment of high-grade spondylolisthesis, and correction of lumbar deformity and pelvic obliquity. A variety of techniques have been described over the years, including Galveston iliac rods, Jackson intrasacral rods, the Kostuik transiliac bar, iliac screws, and S2-alar-iliac screws. Modern iliac screws and S2-alar-iliac screws are associated with relatively low rates of pseudarthrosis. S2-alar-iliac screws have the advantages of less implant prominence and inline placement with proximal spinal anchors. Collectively, these techniques provide powerful methods for obtaining control of the pelvis in facilitating lumbosacral arthrodesis.

  16. Descending Mediastinitis in Epstein-Barr Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    van Driel, E. M.; Janssen, M. J. F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Our case report describes a previously healthy 34-year-old male who develops a descending mediastinitis as a complication of an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. The mediastinitis was suspected to have developed by a breakthrough of a peritonsillar abscess through the space between the alar and prevertebral space. PMID:25740774

  17. Urea Unfolding Study of E. coli Alanyl-tRNA Synthetase and Its Monomeric Variants Proves the Role of C-Terminal Domain in Stability

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Baisakhi; Banerjee, Rajat

    2015-01-01

    E. coli alanyl-tRNA exists as a dimer in its native form and the C-terminal coiled-coil part plays an important role in the dimerization process. The truncated N-terminal containing the first 700 amino acids (1–700) forms a monomeric variant possessing similar aminoacylation activity like wild type. A point mutation in the C-terminal domain (G674D) also produces a monomeric variant with a fivefold reduced aminoacylation activity compared to the wild type enzyme. Urea induced denaturation of these monomeric mutants along with another alaRS variant (N461 alaRS) was studied together with the full-length enzyme using various spectroscopic techniques such as intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, 1-anilino-8-naphthalene-sulfonic acid binding, near- and far-UV circular dichroism, and analytical ultracentrifugation. Aminoacylation activity assay after refolding from denatured state revealed that the monomeric mutants studied here were unable to regain their activity, whereas the dimeric full-length alaRS gets back similar activity as the native enzyme. This study indicates that dimerization is one of the key regulatory factors that is important in the proper folding and stability of E. coli alaRS. PMID:26617997

  18. Reflecting on a Leadership Development Programme: A Case Study in South African Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louw, Ina; Zuber-Skeritt, Ortrun

    2009-01-01

    Leadership development in higher education is of vital importance to South Africa's future. We present a case study that focuses on a leadership development programme (LDP) through action learning and action research (ALAR) for women academics in South Africa during 2000 and 2001. It identifies the effects of the LDP on participants five years…

  19. The Learning Conference: Knowledge Creation through Participation and Publication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louw, Ina; Zuber-Skerritt, Ortrun

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to identify the principles and characteristics of a learning conference which uses action learning and action research (ALAR) processes to create: optimal learning for all participants through a collaborative, inclusive conference culture; further knowledge creation in publishing conference papers post-conference…

  20. Unilateral cleft nasal deformity correction using conchal cartilage lily flower graft.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Kim, Han Joon; Paik, Moo Hyun

    2012-11-01

    We present a conchal cartilage lily flower graft for correcting depressed and laterally displaced alar cartilage for correction of unilateral cleft nasal deformity.After making a V incision at the base of the columellar and then marginal incisions, the alar cartilages were exposed. A fusiform-shaped cartilage larger than 2.5 cm in length and 1 cm in width was obtained. The midline long axis was scored with a No. 15 knife, and the lateral one third was split. Two-thirds length portions were folded in half, and they became straightened in the shape of a stalk of a lily flower. Two symmetrical one-third length portions were fanned out bilaterally in the shape of the leaf of a lily flower. The stalk portion was positioned in a pocket between the medial crura, and the 2 leaf portions were placed on the dome of the alar cartilages. The marked points of the cleft side and contralateral side were secured with sutures. The V incision at the base of the columellar and the marginal incisions were closed with a V-Y shape. In this technique, the 2 leaf portions were placed on the dome of the alar cartilages and sutured; therefore, the suture holds the dome of the cleft side to the contralateral side without peaking.Thirteen patients (6 male and 7 female subjects; age range, 13-30 years) were operated. Among them, 6 patients were very satisfied, and 5 patients were satisfied with the results. Two patients felt they were improved.We think the conchal cartilage lily flower graft might be a good method for correction of depressed and laterally displaced alar cartilage in unilateral cleft nasal deformity.

  1. STS-113 Flight Day 2 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The second flight day of the STS-113 mission begins with a shot inside of the Destiny Laboratory Module. NASA ISS Science Officer Peggy Whitson is seen inside of the Destiny Laboratory where scientific research is performed. Mission Specialists John Herrington and Michael Lopez-Alegria are seen at the Mid-deck of the Space Shuttle Endeavor. Commander Jim Wetherbee and Ken Bowersox are also shown. Pilot Paul Lockhart is the EVA coordinator for this mission. Ken Bowersox, Don Pettit and Nikolai Budarin of the Space Station Expedition Six crew answer questions about the launch.

  2. A reappraisal of Theroteinus (Haramiyida, Mammaliaformes) from the Upper Triassic of Saint-Nicolas-de-Port (France)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The earliest mammaliaforms are difficult to assess because the fossil record is poor and because their distinctive morphologies cannot be directly compared with more recent mammaliaforms. This is especially true for the haramiyid genus Theroteinus, only known in the Saint-Nicolas-de-Port locality (Rhaetian, France). This study presents a new definition of the type-species Theroteinus nikolai. A new species Theroteinus rosieriensis, sp. nov., is named and distinguished by the lingual shift of distal cusps, a larger size, and a stockier occlusal outline. Comparisons with Eleutherodon, Megaconus and Millsodon suggest that Theroteinus has potential close relatives among the Jurassic haramiyids. PMID:27781174

  3. Geochemistry of Triassic flood basalts from the Yukon (Canada) segment of the accreted Wrangellia oceanic plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Andrew R.; Scoates, James S.; Weis, Dominique; Israel, Steve

    2009-06-01

    A large part of the accreted Middle to Late Triassic Wrangellia oceanic plateau is exposed as a linear belt (< 30 km × 300 km) in southwest Yukon. The first major- and trace-element, and isotopic compositions of the Nikolai Formation in Yukon are presented here, along with compositions for underlying Paleozoic arc rocks. The Nikolai Formation in Yukon is predominantly massive tholeiitic subaerial flows (~ 1000 m) with no intervening sediments and a thin zone of pillow breccia along the base (< 100 m). The Nikolai basalts unconformably overlie Late Paleozoic volcanic arc and marine sedimentary sequences and are overlain by Late Triassic limestone, which grades upwards into pelagic sediments. The Nikolai Formation is comprised of two distinct lava types: low-titanium basalts form most of the lower stratigraphy and high-titanium basalts form the upper parts of the volcanic stratigraphy. All of the low-titanium basalts (0.5-1.0 wt.% TiO 2; 5.6-11.3 wt.% MgO) have prominent negative HFSE anomalies, whereas the high-titanium basalts (1.4-2.3 wt.% TiO 2; 5.8-8.7 wt.% MgO) do not have HFSE anomalies and are more LREE-enriched. The low-titanium basalts are characterized by mostly higher initial ɛHf (+ 11.1 to + 15.8) and lower initial ɛNd (+ 2.3 to + 6.8) than the high-titanium basalts (initial ɛHf = + 10.4 to + 12.0; initial ɛNd = + 6.6 to + 9.0), and their Pb isotopic compositions overlap. Incongruent dynamic melting modeling of trace element compositions indicate the low-titanium basalts could have been derived from small degrees of melting (< 5%) of Paleozoic sub-arc lithospheric mantle that was HFSE-depleted and evolved with high 176Hf/ 177Hf. The high-titanium basalts formed from melting of Pacific plume-type mantle, similar to the source of the Caribbean Plateau. Plume-derived melts dominated the upper stratigraphy of the oceanic plateau as a result of increased decompression melting of the underlying mantle plume in response to thinning of the lithosphere.

  4. STS-113 Flight Day 2 Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-11-01

    The second flight day of the STS-113 mission begins with a shot inside of the Destiny Laboratory Module. NASA ISS Science Officer Peggy Whitson is seen inside of the Destiny Laboratory where scientific research is performed. Mission Specialists John Herrington and Michael Lopez-Alegria are seen at the Mid-deck of the Space Shuttle Endeavor. Commander Jim Wetherbee and Ken Bowersox are also shown. Pilot Paul Lockhart is the EVA coordinator for this mission. Ken Bowersox, Don Pettit and Nikolai Budarin of the Space Station Expedition Six crew answer questions about the launch.

  5. STS-113 Flight Day 1 Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-11-01

    The first flight day of the STS-113 begins with a live shot of the Space Shuttle Endeavor at the Kennedy Space Center. The STS-113 crew consists of Commander Jim Wetherbee, Pilot Paul Lockhart, and Mission Specialists Michael Lopez-Alegria, and John Herrington. The STS-113 crewmembers are accompanied Expedition 6 astronauts Kenneth Bowersox, Donald Pettit and Nikolai Budarin. The purpose of this flight is to carry the P1 truss segment to the International Space Station along with the Expedition 6 flight crew. The crewmembers are shown getting suited for the space flight. Countdown and lift off of the Space Shuttle Endeavor is also shown.

  6. STS-113 TCDT emergency exit training at Launch Pad 39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - As part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities, the STS-113 and Expedition 6 crews receive training in emergency exit from the orbiter on Launch Pad 39A. Shown are (from left) Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox; STS-113 Pilot Paul Lockhart; astronaut Donald Pettit; Mission Specialist Michael Lopez-Alegria, Commander James Wetherbee and Mission Specialist John Herrington; and cosmonaut Nikolai Budarin. The TCDT also includes a simulated launch countdown. The 16th assembly flight to the International Space Station, STS-113 will carry the Port 6 crew, who will replace Expedition 5 on the Station. Mission STS-113 is scheduled to launch Nov. 10, 2002.

  7. Transformation in Russian and Soviet Military History,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    NJ: Princeton University Pi-ess, 1985. (on order) Golovin , Nikolai N. The Russian army in the World War. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1931...S45 1973) Shaskol’skii, Igor P. Bor’ba russkogo naroda za nevskie berega. Moskva: Gos. voen. izd-vo, 1940 . (DK 51.7 S53) Smith, Clarence J. The...perspective. Newport, bI: Naval War 2ol~e re, 1973. (AD-A044 938/9) 9 II. The Development of Soviet Military Doctrine (1918- 1940 ) Based upon her rich

  8. Russia at War, Imperial or Soviet: A Bibliography of Periodical Articles.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-12

    1940 . Donnelly, Edward T. "Russian Field Artillery Drill Regulations, 1912," FAJ, 5:403-406, Apr 1915. "The Eastern Front in the First World War...34Portrait of a Soldier," QMRVW, 18:42-44, 62, 63, Sep 1938. "The German Landing in Finland, April, 1918," A, 27:88-92, Oct 1933. Golovin , Nikolai N...Situation," ILLG, 7:15-17, Mar 1940 . Smirnoff, Alexander. "A New Light upon the Invasion of East Prussia by the Russians in August, 1914," Aq, 12:96-105

  9. STS-113 TCDT emergency exit training at Launch Pad 39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - As part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities, the STS-113 and Expedition 6 crews receive training in emergency exit from the orbiter on Launch Pad 39A. Shown are (from left) Mission Commander James Wetherbee and cosmonaut Nikolai Budarin and astronaut Donald Pettit of the Expedition 6 crew. The TCDT also includes a simulated launch countdown. The 16th assembly flight to the International Space Station, STS-113 will carry the Port 1 (P1) truss aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour as well as the Expedition 6 crew, who will replace Expedition 5 on the Station. Mission STS-113 is scheduled to launch Nov. 10, 2002.

  10. Rocketry, film and fiction: the road to Sputnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brake, Mark; Hook, Neil

    2007-07-01

    The launch of Sputnik 1 in 1957 was fuelled by science fiction as well as science fact. The field of early rocketry included the work of Russians Nikolai Rynin and Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, American Robert Goddard, and German engineers Herman Oberth and Wernher Von Braun. All were directly inspired and influenced by early science fiction that heralded a space age decades ahead of time. The work of these pioneers led directly to the development of the technology needed to boost Sputnik skyward. After the launch of Sputnik, the context of the nuclear arms race opened the floodgates for a new wave of apocalyptic fiction.

  11. STS-113 crew during TCDT emergency egress training at LC39-A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Expedition 6 crew adjust their gloves during emergency egress practice from the 195-foot level of the Fixed Service Structure on Launch Pad 39A. From left are astronaut Donald Pettit, cosmonaut Nikolai Budarin and Commander Ken Bowersox. The crew, travelers on Mission STS-113, will be replacing Expedition 5 on the International Space Station. Along with Expedition 6, STS-113 will carry the Port 1 (P1) truss aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour. Mission STS-113 is scheduled to launch Nov. 10, 2002.

  12. Expedition 6 crew practice emergency egress from LC39-A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The Expedition 6 crew practice emergency egress from the 195-foot level of the Fixed Service Structure on Launch Pad 39A. In the slidewire basket are (from left) cosmonaut Nikolai Budarin, astronaut Donald Pettit and Commander Ken Bowersox. The crew, travelers on Mission STS-113, will be replacing Expedition 5 on the International Space Station. Along with Expedition 6, STS-113 will carry the Port 1 (P1) truss aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour. Mission STS-113 is scheduled to launch Nov. 10, 2002.

  13. STS-113 crew during TCDT emergency egress training at LC39-A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Expedition 6 cosmonaut Nikolai Budarin (center) holds a mini-mascot during a break in emergency egress practice from the 195-foot level of the Fixed Service Structure on Launch Pad 39A. Behind him are STS-113 Pilot Paul Lockhart (left) and Commander James Wetherbee. Expedition 6 will be replacing Expedition 5 on the International Space Station. The 16th assembly flight to the International Space Station, STS-113 will carry the Port 1 (P1) truss aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour. The mission is scheduled to launch Nov. 10, 2002.

  14. Natural Gas as an Instrument of Russian State Power (Letort Paper)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    to affect a policy change by the target,”9 and will complement that definition with that of Ivan Eland, who sees the purpose of sanctions “to have...Chan and Drury, p. 2. 10. Ivan Eland, “Economic Sanctions as Tools of Foreign Poli- cy,” in Lopez and Cortright, p. 37. 11. Edward D. Mansfield...Larrabee, p. 47. 41. Nikolai Pavlov , “Twenty Years of German Unity,” Interna- tional Affairs, Vol. 57, No. 1, 2011, p. 84. 42. Matthew Clements, ed., Country

  15. STS-113 TCDT emergency exit training at Launch Pad 39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - STS-113 Mission Specialist John Herrington (left) and cosmonaut Nikolai Budarin (center) listen to instructions from a trainer on the emergency egress system on Launch Pad 39A. They are other crew members are taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities, which also include a simulated launch countdown. The 16th assembly flight to the International Space Station, STS-113 will carry the Port 1 (P1) truss aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour as well as the Expedition 6 crew, who will replace Expedition 5 on the Station. Mission STS-113 is scheduled to launch Nov. 10, 2002.

  16. Description of Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) tolimensis, a new species of phlebotomine sandfly (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Carrasquilla, María C; Munstermann, Leonard; Marín, Dairo; Ocampo, Clara; Ferro, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    A description is presented of Lutzomyia tolimensis sp. nov., a new species of the subgenus Helcocyrtomyia, series sanguinaria. It was collected in dwellings, peridomestic environment and in nearby forest patches located in the foothills of the Andean Central Cordillera, where in 2004–2006 occurred the largest epidemic ever recorded of leishmaniasis in Colombia. The male of this species is differentiated from other members of the series sanguinaria based on the following combination of characters: (i) base of coxite with 0–3 subequal setae, (ii) spines of gonostyle organized in positions 2.1.2, (iii) spines inserted on distal half of gonostyle and (iv) relationship of alar indices. The female is recognized principally by the following characters: (i) palpomere V longer than III, (ii) length of labro-epipharynx and (iii) relationship of the alar indices. PMID:23295748

  17. Thorns and dermal denticles of skates Atlantoraja cyclophora and A. castelnaui: Microscopic features and functional implications.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Bianca de Sousa; Wosnick, Natascha; Magdanelo Leandro, Rafael; Amorim, Alberto Ferreira de; Kfoury Junior, José Roberto; Rici, Rose Eli Grassi

    2016-12-01

    Some batoid species are covered with dermal denticles (or placoid scales) that occasionally develop into thorns. In sexually mature males, sharp teeth and alar thorns found on the apex of the lateral disc are used to hold the female during copulation. This study set out to analyze microscopic features of modified dermal denticles and thorns and to investigate sexual dimorphism in Atlantoraja cyclophora and A. castelnaui species. Skin samples collected from areas covered with thorns were fixed in 10% formaldehyde, processed and analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. Alar thorn morphology varied within species, while caudal thorn, rostral and caudal dermal denticle morphology varied within and between species. These structures play an important role in the protection and reproduction of the species studied and constitute important taxonomic information, given they are often the only elements preserved in archaeological sites and fossil records.

  18. Embryonic rationale for the primary correction of classical congenital clefts of the lip and palate.

    PubMed Central

    Millard, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    Primary correction of congenital clefts of the lip and palate should be designed to carry the interrupted embryonic process to normal completion. This is best accomplished by maxillary alignment with presurgical orthodontics, stabilisation of the maxillary alignment, obliteration of the alveolar cleft and construction of the nasal floor with periosteoplasty. This allows early construction of the lip by rotation and advancement and correction of the nose with columella lengthening, alar cartilage positioning and alar base cinching. This can be accomplished before school age. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 PMID:8017808

  19. Paleogeographic implications of high latitude and middle latitude affinities of the ammonoid Uraloceras

    SciTech Connect

    Spinosa, C.; Gallegos, D.M. ); Nassichuk, W.W. ); Snyder, W.S.

    1991-02-01

    The ammonoid genus Uraloceras characterized a Lower Permian Boreal paleogeographic realm. Reported Lower Permian Pangaean uraloceras occurrences have a Boreal or high-latitude distribution. Additional Lower Permian occurrences in Alaska, dominated by Boreal species, are compatible with and reinforce the Boreal distribution of the genus. In contrast, a new Uraloceras species from Nevada and from the Yukon, as well as representatives of the genus form Nei Monggol, inhabited regions of lower latitudes. The latter ammonoid faunas, geographically and paleoecologically transitional between boreal and equatorial realms, include the genus Uraloceras as well as abundant other ammonoid taxa and representatives of equatorial perinitid ammonoids. The lower assemblage of Wrangellia terrane in eastern Alaska, consisting of the Lower Permian Mankomen Group (Slana Spur and Eagle Creek formations), contains abundant Uraloceras and Paragastrioceras of high-latitude affinities. Published paleomagnetic data indicate that the Nikolai Greenstone is of equatorial origin, with paleolatitudes 10 to 17{degree}. The Nikolai Greenstone seems to have a far-traveled history incompatible with ammonoid evidence suggesting cool-water setting on the Pangaean continental shelf. A reinterpretation for the origin of Wrangellia or its magnetic signature may be in order. Alternative hypotheses suggest that the Eagle Creek Uraloceras-Paragastrioceras Boreal fauna was scraped off the craton at higher latitudes (possible 30-45{degree}) and carried with Wrangellia to its present location.

  20. Preliminary report on the Nelson and Radovan copper prospects, Nizina district, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sainsbury, C.J.

    1952-01-01

    Renewed copper exploration by Alaska Copper Mines, Incorporated, at the Nelson and Radovan prospects, Nizina district, Alaska, led the Geological Survey in 1951 to map in detail the Nelson fault block, and to re-examine the old workings. In addition, two new prospects were studied. The Nelson fault block is cut by many dominantly strike-slip faults of small displacement, and by bedding faults. Slickensided chalcocite shows post-mineral movement, and chalcocite veinlet in a filled solution cavity indicates that some of the chalcocite is secondary, perhaps very recent. Structural relations indicate two overthrust faults cut the block. The Radovan Greenstone prospect shows massive chalcocite, up to 3 feet wide, in a silicified, epidotized fault zone in the Nikolai greenstone. Ore indicated by surface exposures may amount to 450 tons of chalcocite. The Radovan Low-Contact prospect is on a continuation of the same fault approximately 3 miles southwest of the Greenstone prospect, and 150 feet above the contact of the Nikolai greenstone and the overlying Chitistone limestone. Limonite staining is widespread in bedding planes and small faults near the fault zone; mineralization in the fault zone consists of pyrite, chalcocite, bornite, malachite, realgar, orpiment and stibnite. The sulphides in the fault zone, plus the widespread silicification and epidotization indicate a strong zone of hydrothermal activity which merits extensive prospecting.

  1. Depicting the inner and outer nose: the representation of the nose and the nasal mucosa on the human primary somatosensory cortex (SI).

    PubMed

    Gastl, Mareike; Brünner, Yvonne F; Wiesmann, Martin; Freiherr, Jessica

    2014-09-01

    The nose is important not only for breathing, filtering air, and perceiving olfactory stimuli. Although the face and hands have been mapped, the representation of the internal and external surface of the nose on the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) is still poorly understood. To fill this gap functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to localize the nose and the nasal mucosa in the Brodman areas (BAs) 3b, 1, and 2 of the human postcentral gyrus (PG). Tactile stimulation during fMRI was applied via a customized pneumatically driven device to six stimulation sites: the alar wing of the nose, the lateral nasal mucosa, and the hand (serving as a reference area) on the left and right side of the body. Individual representations could be discriminated for the left and right hand, for the left nasal mucosa and left alar wing of the nose in BA 3b and BA 1 by comparing mean activation maxima and Euclidean distances. Right-sided nasal conditions and conditions in BA 2 could further be separated by different Euclidean distances. Regarding the alar wing of the nose, the results concurred with the classic sensory homunculus proposed by Penfield and colleagues. The nasal mucosa was not only determined an individual and bilateral representation, its position on the somatosensory cortex is also situated closer to the caudal end of the PG compared to that of the alar wing of the nose and the hand. As SI is commonly activated during the perception of odors, these findings underscore the importance of the knowledge of the representation of the nasal mucosa on the primary somatosensory cortex, especially for interpretation of results of functional imaging studies about the sense of smell.

  2. Classification of Chronic Whiplash Associated Disorders With Artificial Neural Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    J. Hayek, T. Ettlin, “"Whiplash" injury of the cervical spine: value of modern diagnostic imaging ”, Schweiz -Med- Wochenschr, vol 127, pp 1643-51...standard X-ray. Instead other imaging techniques e.g., MRT can in some instances show changes [10]. Despite absence of abnormal imaging findings, patients...1997. [11] C.W. Pfirrmann, C.A. Binkert, M. Zanetti, N. Boos, J. Hodler, “Functional MR imaging of the craniocervical junction. Correlation with alar

  3. The tripod graft: nasal tip cartilage reconstruction during revision rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Pedroza, Fernando; Pedroza, Luis Fernando; Achiques, Maria Teresa; Felipe, Edgar; Becerra, Felix

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Nasal tip revision remains one of the most challenging surgical procedures for facial plastic surgeons to perform. OBJECTIVE To describe preoperative and postoperative findings related to nasal tip functional and aesthetic aspects following revision rhinoplasty using the "tripod" technique. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A retrospective descriptive study was performed in patients who underwent revision rhinoplasty between 2007 and 2012 at a clinic in Bogota, Colombia. A preoperative diagnosis of nasal tip deformity was made on the basis of photographic records and compared with postoperative nasal tip findings in patients who required the tripod technique. Photographs were evaluated before and after surgery every month for the first 3 months, and after 6, 9, and 12 months postoperatively. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Nasal projection, tip rotation, columellar and alar retraction, alar pinch, lack of tip definition, and nasal tip asymmetry. RESULTS Sixty-four of the 69 patients who received revision rhinoplasty using the tripod technique during the study period were enrolled in the study. The tripod technique improved all of the following aesthetic and functional parameters (all P < .001). Nasal tip definition improved in 43 of 49 patients (88%). After surgery, projection was normal in 28 of 40 patients (70%) who had underprojection and overprojection preoperatively, and rotation improved in 29 of 38 patients (76%) who had overrotation or underrotation preoperatively. Columellar retraction improved after surgery in 18 of 24 patients (75%). The alar region improved in 41 of 52 patients (79%) who had alar retraction and/or pinch preoperatively, and inspiratory collapse improved in 49 of 50 patients (98%). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The tripod technique is an efficient surgical alternative for nasal tip reconstruction during revision rhinoplasty. This technique allows the destroyed cartilaginous framework to be recreated and returns original nasal tip

  4. n-3 Fatty acids preserve muscle mass and insulin sensitivity in a rat model of energy restriction.

    PubMed

    Galmiche, Guillaume; Huneau, Jean-François; Mathé, Véronique; Mourot, Jacques; Simon, Noémie; Le Guillou, Céline; Hermier, Dominique

    2016-10-01

    In obese subjects, the loss of fat mass during energy restriction is often accompanied by a loss of muscle mass. The hypothesis that n-3 PUFA, which modulate protein homoeostasis via effects on insulin sensitivity, could contribute to maintain muscle mass during energy restriction was tested in rats fed a high-fat diet (4 weeks) rich in 18 : 1 n-9 (oleic acid, OLE-R), 18 : 3 n-3 (α-linolenic acid, ALA-R) or n-3 long-chain (LC-R) fatty acid and then energy restricted (8 weeks). A control group (OLE-ad libitum (AL)) was maintained with AL diet throughout the study. Rats were killed 10 min after an i.v. insulin injection. All energy-restricted rats lost weight and fat mass, but only the OLE-R group showed a significant muscle loss. The Gastrocnemius muscle was enriched with ALA in the ALA-R group and with LC-PUFA in the ALA-R and LC-R groups. The proteolytic ubiquitin-proteasome system was differentially affected by energy restriction, with MAFbx and muscle ring finger-1 mRNA levels being decreased in the LC-R group (-30 and -20 %, respectively). RAC-α serine/threonine-protein kinase and insulin receptor substrate 1 phosphorylation levels increased in the LC-R group (+70 %), together with insulin receptor mRNA (+50 %). The ALA-R group showed the same overall activation pattern as the LC-R group, although to a lesser extent. In conclusion, dietary n-3 PUFA prevent the loss of muscle mass associated with energy restriction, probably by an improvement in the insulin-signalling pathway activation, in relation to enrichment of plasma membranes in n-3 LC-PUFA.

  5. Offpost Operable Unit Remedial Investigation and Chemical Specific Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements, Version 3.1. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    3 Sodium cabomate,..I.........................................3 Sodium methy late, alcohol mixture...Potential Biota ARAR: No 53. P•PTARY NAME: Sodium methylate, alcohol mixture CERCL,\\ Hazardous Substance: Yes Ranking on ATSDR Priority List: No Air Aralyte...ARARs for Chromium Ill. Whether these potential ARARs merit selection as AlARs will be determined in the context of the Feasibility Study/Endan- erment

  6. Multi-Decadal Variability in the Bering Sea: A Synthesis of Model Results and Observations from 1948 to the Present

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Alaska from 1948–2009. .............................36 Figure 21. H1 case run monthly mean heat content and ice thickness anomalies with 13, 37, and...atmospheric loading, clouds and fronts, ice sheets/ caps , permafrost, river runoff, and air-sea ice -land interactions and coupling (Maslowski et al...are addition of model components for ice sheets, ice caps , mountain glaciers, and dynamic vegetation (Maslowski et al. 2012). The RASM model domain

  7. Fetal anatomy of the lower cervical and upper thoracic fasciae with special reference to the prevertebral fascial structures including the suprapleural membrane.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Naritomo; Takeuchi, Hiromi; Cho, Baik Hwan; Murakami, Gen; Fujimiya, Mineko; Kitano, Hiroya

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to find basic rules governing the fetal anatomy of the deep cervical fasciae and their connections to the mediastinal fasciae. We examined the histology of paraffin-embedded preparations of 18 mid-term fetuses (5 between 9 and 12 weeks of gestation, 3 between 15 and 18 weeks, and 10 between 20 and 25 weeks). The prevertebral lamina of the deep cervical fasciae (PLDCF) developed as an intermediate aponeurosis for the bilateral bellies of the longus colli muscles. In contrast, the alar fascia developed as a connecting band between the bilateral adventitiae of the common carotid artery. The retropharyngeal fascia became evident much later than the latter two fasciae. The fascia covering the thymus was thicker than the fascia for the strap muscles (the pretracheal lamina of the cervical fascia). The primitive suprapleural membrane, or Sibson's fascia, contained veins and fatty tissues, and was composed of the alar fascia rather than the PLDCF, tranversalis fascia, or endothoracic fascia. The prevertebral two-laminar configuration was rather evident in the early stages of development because, in the later stages, the fasciae together provided a multilaminar structure, especially in the lateral area in front of the longus colli, which suspended the cupula pleurae. To consider a continuation from the base of the neck to the upper mediastinum, the alar fascia seems to be a key structure for connecting the vascular sheath to the parietal pleura.

  8. The selective tRNA aminoacylation mechanism based on a single G•U pair.

    PubMed

    Naganuma, Masahiro; Sekine, Shun-ichi; Chong, Yeeting Esther; Guo, Min; Yang, Xiang-Lei; Gamper, Howard; Hou, Ya-Ming; Schimmel, Paul; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2014-06-26

    Ligation of tRNAs with their cognate amino acids, by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, establishes the genetic code. Throughout evolution, tRNA(Ala) selection by alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AlaRS) has depended predominantly on a single wobble base pair in the acceptor stem, G3•U70, mainly on the kcat level. Here we report the crystal structures of an archaeal AlaRS in complex with tRNA(Ala) with G3•U70 and its A3•U70 variant. AlaRS interacts with both the minor- and the major-groove sides of G3•U70, widening the major groove. The geometry difference between G3•U70 and A3•U70 is transmitted along the acceptor stem to the 3'-CCA region. Thus, the 3'-CCA region of tRNA(Ala) with G3•U70 is oriented to the reactive route that reaches the active site, whereas that of the A3•U70 variant is folded back into the non-reactive route. This novel mechanism enables the single wobble pair to dominantly determine the specificity of tRNA selection, by an approximate 100-fold difference in kcat.

  9. The selective tRNA aminoacylation mechanism based on a single G•U pair

    PubMed Central

    Naganuma, Masahiro; Sekine, Shun-ichi; Chong, Yeeting Esther; Guo, Min; Yang, Xiang-Lei; Gamper, Howard; Hou, Ya-Ming; Schimmel, Paul; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2015-01-01

    Ligation of tRNAs with their cognate amino acids, by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, establishes the genetic code. Throughout evolution, tRNAAla selection by alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AlaRS) has depended predominantly on a single wobble base pair in the acceptor stem, G3•U70, mainly on the kcat level. Here we report the crystal structures of an archaeal AlaRS in complex with tRNAAla with G3•U70 and its A3•U70 variant. AlaRS interacts with both the minor- and major-groove sides of G3•U70, widening the major groove. The geometry difference between G3•U70 and A3•U70 is transmitted along the acceptor stem to the 3′-CCA region. Thus, the 3′-CCA region of tRNAAla with G3•U70 is oriented to the reactive route that reaches the active site, whereas that of the A3•U70 variant is folded back into the “non-reactive route”. This novel mechanism enables the single wobble pair to dominantly determine the specificity of tRNA selection, by an approximate 100-fold difference in kcat. PMID:24919148

  10. Investigation of whiplash injuries in the upper cervical spine using a detailed neck model.

    PubMed

    Fice, Jason B; Cronin, Duane S

    2012-04-05

    Whiplash injuries continue to have significant societal cost; however, the mechanism and location of whiplash injury is still under investigation. Recently, the upper cervical spine ligaments, particularly the alar ligament, have been identified as a potential whiplash injury location. In this study, a detailed and validated explicit finite element model of a 50th percentile male cervical spine in a seated posture was used to investigate upper cervical spine response and the potential for whiplash injury resulting from vehicle crash scenarios. This model was previously validated at the segment and whole spine levels for both kinematics and soft tissue strains in frontal and rear impact scenarios. The model predicted increasing upper cervical spine ligament strain with increasing impact severity. Considering all upper cervical spine ligaments, the distractions in the apical and alar ligaments were the largest relative to their failure strains, in agreement with the clinical findings. The model predicted the potential for injury to the apical ligament for 15.2 g frontal or 11.7 g rear impacts, and to the alar ligament for a 20.7 g frontal or 14.4 g rear impact based on the ligament distractions. Future studies should consider the effect of initial occupant position on ligament distraction.

  11. Mesencephalic basolateral domain specification is dependent on Sonic Hedgehog

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Lopez, Jesus E.; Moreno-Bravo, Juan A.; Madrigal, M. Pilar; Martinez, Salvador; Puelles, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    In the study of central nervous system morphogenesis, the identification of new molecular markers allows us to identify domains along the antero-posterior and dorso-ventral (DV) axes. In the past years, the alar and basal plates of the midbrain have been divided into different domains. The precise location of the alar-basal boundary is still under discussion. We have identified Barhl1, Nhlh1 and Six3 as appropriate molecular markers to the adjacent domains of this transition. The description of their expression patterns and the contribution to the different mesencephalic populations corroborated their role in the specification of these domains. We studied the influence of Sonic Hedgehog on these markers and therefore on the specification of these territories. The lack of this morphogen produced severe alterations in the expression pattern of Barhl1 and Nhlh1 with consequent misspecification of the basolateral (BL) domain. Six3 expression was apparently unaffected, however its distribution changed leading to altered basal domains. In this study we confirmed the localization of the alar-basal boundary dorsal to the BL domain and demonstrated that the development of the BL domain highly depends on Shh. PMID:25741244

  12. The same Arabidopsis gene encodes both cytosolic and mitochondrial alanyl-tRNA synthetases.

    PubMed Central

    Mireau, H; Lancelin, D; Small, I D

    1996-01-01

    In plants, all aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are nuclearly encoded, despite the fact that their activities are required in the three protein-synthesizing cell compartments (cytosol, mitochondria, and chloroplasts). To investigate targeting of these enzymes, we cloned cDNAs encoding alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AlaRS) and the corresponding nuclear gene, ALATS, from Arabidopsis by using degenerate polymerase chain reaction primers based on highly conserved regions shared between known AlaRSs from other organisms. Analysis of the transcription of the gene showed the presence of two potential translation initiation codons in some ALATS mRNAs. Translation from the upstream AUG would generate an N-terminal extension with features characteristic of mitochondrial targeting peptides. A polyclonal antibody raised against part of the Arabidopsis AlaRS revealed that the Arabidopsis cytosolic and mitochondrial AlaRSs are immunologically similar, suggesting that both isoforms are encoded by the ALATS gene. In vitro experiments confirmed that two polypeptides can be translated from AlATS transcripts, with most ribosomes initiating on the downstream AUG to give the shorter polypeptide corresponding in size to the cytosolic enzyme. The ability of the presequence encoded between the two initiation codons to direct polypeptides to mitochondria was demonstrated by expression of fusion proteins in tobacco protoplasts and in yeast. We conclude that the ALATS gene encodes both the cytosolic and the mitochondrial forms of AlaRS, depending on which of the two AUG codons is used to initiate translation. PMID:8672889

  13. Nose tip refinement using interdomal suture in caucasian nose

    PubMed Central

    Pasinato, Rogério; Mocelin, Marcos; Berger, Cezar Augusto Sarraf

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Refinement of the nose tip can be accomplished by a variety of techniques, but currently, the use of sutures in the nasal tip with conservative resection of the alar cartilage is the most frequently recommended approach. Objective: To classify the nasal tip and to demonstrate the interdomal suture applied to nasal tip refinement in the Caucasian nose, as well as to provide a simple and practical presentation of the surgical steps. Method: Development of surgical algorithm for nasal tip surgery: 1. Interdomal suture (double binding suture), 2. Interdomal suture with alar cartilage weakening (cross-hatching), 3. Interdomal suture with cephalic removal of the alar cartilage (McIndoe technique) based on the nasal tip type classification. This classification assesses the interdomal distance (angle of domal divergence and intercrural distance), domal arch width, cartilage consistency, and skin type. Interdomal suture is performed through endonasal rhinoplasty by basic technique without delivery (Converse-Diamond technique) under local anesthesia. Conclusion: This classification is simple and facilitates the approach of surgical treatment of the nasal tip through interdomal suture, systematizing and standardizing surgical maneuvers for better refinement of the Caucasian nose. PMID:25991963

  14. Massive and massless higher spinning particles in odd dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastianelli, Fiorenzo; Bonezzi, Roberto; Corradini, Olindo; Latini, Emanuele

    2014-09-01

    We study actions for massive bosonic particles of higher spins by dimensionally reducing an action for massless particles. For the latter we take a model with a SO( N) extended local supersymmetry on the worldline, that is known to describe massless (conformal) particles of higher spins in flat spacetimes of even dimensions. Dimensional reduction produces an action for massive spinning particles in odd dimensions. The field equations that emerge in a quantization à la Dirac are shown to be equivalent to the Fierz-Pauli ones. The massless limit generates a multiplet of massless states with higher spins, whose first quantized field equations have a geometric form with fields belonging to various types of Young tableaux. These geometric equations can be partially integrated to show their equivalence with the standard Fronsdal-Labastida equations. We covariantize our model to check whether an extension to curved spacetimes can be achieved. Restricting to (A)dS spaces, we find that the worldline gauge algebra becomes nonlinear, but remains first class. This guarantees consistency on such backgrounds. A light cone analysis confirms the presence of the expected propagating degrees of freedom. A covariant analysis is worked out explicitly for the massive case, which is seen to give rise to the Fierz-Pauli equations extended to (A)dS spaces. It is worth noting that in D = 3 the massless limit of our model with N → ∞ has the same field content of the Vasiliev's theory that accommodates each spin exactly once.

  15. Partially massless higher-spin theory II: one-loop effective actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brust, Christopher; Hinterbichler, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    We continue our study of a generalization of the D-dimensional linearized Vasiliev higher-spin equations to include a tower of partially massless (PM) fields. We compute one-loop effective actions by evaluating zeta functions for both the "minimal" and "non-minimal" parity-even versions of the theory. Specifically, we compute the log-divergent part of the effective action in odd-dimensional Euclidean AdS spaces for D = 7 through 19 (dual to the a-type conformal anomaly of the dual boundary theory), and the finite part of the effective action in even-dimensional Euclidean AdS spaces for D = 4 through 8 (dual to the free energy on a sphere of the dual boundary theory). We pay special attention to the case D = 4, where module mixings occur in the dual field theory and subtlety arises in the one-loop computation. The results provide evidence that the theory is UV complete and one-loop exact, and we conjecture and provide evidence for a map between the inverse Newton's constant of the partially massless higher-spin theory and the number of colors in the dual CFT.

  16. Frobenius-Chern-Simons gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonezzi, Roberto; Boulanger, Nicolas; Sezgin, Ergin; Sundell, Per

    2017-02-01

    Given a set of differential forms on an odd-dimensional noncommutative manifold valued in an internal associative algebra H , we show that the most general cubic covariant Hamiltonian action, without mass terms, is controlled by an {{{Z}}2} -graded associative algebra F with a graded symmetric nondegenerate bilinear form. The resulting class of models provide a natural generalization of the Frobenius-Chern-Simons model (FCS) that was proposed in (arXiv:1505.04957) as an off-shell formulation of the minimal bosonic four-dimensional higher spin gravity theory. If F is unital and the {{{Z}}2} -grading is induced from a Klein operator that is outer to a proper Frobenius subalgebra, then the action can be written on a form akin to topological open string field theory in terms of a superconnection valued in H\\otimes F . We give a new model of this type based on a twisting of {C}≤ft[{{{Z}}2}× {{{Z}}4}\\right] , which leads to self-dual complexified gauge fields on AdS 4. If F is 3-graded, the FCS model can be truncated consistently as to contain no zero-form constraints on-shell. Two examples thereof are a twisting of {C}[{{({{{Z}}2})}3}] that yields the original model, and the Clifford algebra C{{\\ell}2n} which provides an FCS formulation of the bosonic Konstein-Vasiliev model with gauge algebra hu≤ft({{4}n-1},0\\right) .

  17. STS-107 Flight Day 12 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This video shows the activities of the STS-107 crew (Rick Husband, Commander; William McCool, Pilot; Kalpana Chawla, David Brown, Michael Anderson, Laurel Clark, Mission Specialists; Ilan Ramon, Payload Specialist) during flight day 12 of the Columbia orbiter's final mission. The primary activities are spaceborne experiments in the SpaceHab RDM (Research Double Module). Experiments shown in the video include SOFBALL (Structure of Flame Balls at Low Lewis-Number), an experiment to grow cancer cells in microgravity, and the STARS (Space Technology and Research Students) experiments, including bees, ants, chemical gardens, fish, and spiders. Crew Members are shown working on MIST (Water Mist Fire Suppression), a commercial experiment. Red Team crew members (Husband, Chawla, Clark, Ramon) are shown conversing through a handset with the Expedition 6 crew (Kenneth Bowersox, Commander; Donald Pettit, Nikolai Budarin; Flight Engineers) of the ISS (International Space Station).

  18. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Expedition 6 crew member Nikolai Budarin stands ready for a practice drive in an M-113 armored personnel carrier during emergency egress training at the pad, one of the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities in preparation for launch. The TCDT also includes a simulated launch countdown. The Expedition 6 crew will travel on Space Shuttle Endeavour to the International Space Station to replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Launch is scheduled for Nov. 10, 2002.

  19. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Expedition 6 crew member Nikolai Budarin takes his turn driving an M-113 armored personnel carrier during emergency egress training at the pad. The crew is preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10, by taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. The TCDT includes a simulated launch countdown.. The Expedition 6 crew will travel on Space Shuttle Endeavour to the International Space Station to replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Launch is scheduled for Nov. 10, 2002.

  20. STS-113 cosmonaut Budarin during suit check for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Expedition 6 crew member Nikolai Budarin relaxes during fit check of his launch and entry suit, part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. He and the rest of the crew are preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10. The TCDT includes emergency egress training and a launch countdown. The Expedition 6 crew will travel on Space Shuttle Endeavour to the International Space Station to replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Launch is scheduled for Nov. 10, 2002.

  1. Planeten beobachten. Praktische Anleitung für Amateurbeobachter und solche, die es werden wollen.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, G. D.

    Contents: 1. Amateurastronomie und Planetenbeobachtung (H.-J. Mettig, G. D. Roth). 2. Die visuelle Beobachtung (G. D. Roth). 3. Mond- und Planetenphotographie (B. Koch). 4. Die CCD-Bildbearbeitung (R. A. Hillebrecht). 5. Tabellen zur Ermittlung der Belichtungszeiten für Mond- und Planetenaufnahmen (W. Gruschel). 6. Die lichtelektrische Beobachtung (G. D. Roth). 7. Die Objekte in Einzeldarstellungen: Merkur (D. Niechoy); Venus (D. Niechoy); Erdmond (G. D. Roth); Mars (C. M. Schambeck); Kleine Planeten (M. Hoffmann, G. D. Roth, J. Meeus); Jupiter (H.-J. Mettig, R. C. Stoyan, A. Nikolai, C. Kowalec, G. Hahn); Saturn (R. C. Stoyan, G. Hahn, H.-J. Mettig); Uranus (R. C. Stoyan); Neptun (R. C. Stoyan); Pluto (R. C. Stoyan). 8. Adressen, Literaturhinweise, Register.

  2. STS-114 Crew Interview: Stephen Robinson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    Stephen Robinson, Mission Specialist 2 (MS2), of the STS-114 space mission is seen during a prelaunch interview. He discusses his duties as flight engineer, Extravehicular Activity 2 (EVA 2) spacewalker, and medical officer. Robinson answers questions about his interests in spaceflight and the specific goals of the mission. He identifies this mission as the International Space Station Resupply Mission because supplies and experiments are brought to the International Space Station and Expedition 6 crew of Commander Kenneth Bowersox, and Flight Engineers Donald Pettit and Nikolai Budarin are returning to Earth. Lastly, he talks about the docking of the Space Shuttle Atlantis with the International Space Station. He looks forward to this experience in space.

  3. KSC-03PD-1273

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- The Russian Soyuz TMA-2 rocket is erected at the launch pad. Expedition Seven is scheduled to launch onboard the Soyuz April 26, 2003. Veteran Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko and veteran NASA astronaut Ed Lu were named as the primary crew for the launch to the International Space Station. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  4. Blood pressure measurement: lessons learned from our ancestors.

    PubMed

    Karamanou, Marianna; Papaioannou, Theodore G; Tsoucalas, Gregory; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Androutsos, George

    2015-01-01

    The profound observations of William Harvey (1578-1657), in blood circulation and the progress of physical science laid the foundation for the development of the Iatrophysical School that contributed to the evolution of clinical sphygmomanometry. The pioneer work of Reverend Stephen Hales (1677-1761) demonstrated the dynamics of the vascular system. One century later the French physician Jean-Léonard-Marie Poiseuille (1797-1867) invented a U-tube mercury manometer and in 1860 the physiologist Etienne- Jules Marey (1830-1904) devised the first portable sphygmograph for recording the pulse wave. The non-invasive techniques of blood pressure measurement were completed by Scipione Riva-Rocci (1896-1937) sphygmomanometer and the description of "Korotkov sounds" by the Russian surgeon Nikolai- Sergeyevich Korotkov (1874-1920).

  5. Korotkoff Sounds - The Improbable also Occurs

    PubMed Central

    Estañol, Bruno; Delgado, Guillermo; Borgstein, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Very few discoveries have had such a large impact on and relevance to clinical medicine as the noninvasive measurement of the diastolic blood pressure. A number of gifted physiologists and clinicians were ineffectively in search of a noninvasive method to determine the diastolic pressure. Nonetheless, the quantification of the diastolic BP was not achieved by any of these clinical or physiological researchers, but by an unlikely and unexpected figure: Nikolai Sergeevich Korotkoff (1874-1920), a young Russian army surgeon, working under precarious conditions in the hardship of diverse wars. It is easy to dismiss the achievement of Korotkoff as a serendipitous discovery, similar to that of Alexander Fleming in the discovery of penicillin. However, Nassim N. Taleb's recent black swan theory may serve to illustrate his discovery in a new and, perhaps, surprising way. PMID:24343557

  6. [Scientific, pedagogical, and surgical work of professor V.F.Voyno-Yasenetsky during the Great Patriotic War].

    PubMed

    Kosachev, I D; Gladkikh, P F; Iakovlev, A E

    2011-08-01

    The article is devoted to activities in the period 1941-1945. Krasnoyarsk and Tambov, a professor of surgery Valentine Feliksovich Voyno-Yasenetsky (Archbishop Luka)--doctor of medical sciences, laureate of the State (Stalin) Prize of the USSR, who made a significant contribution to the success of modern surgical science. A brilliant scholar and successor of the ideas of the outstanding scientist and surgeon Nikolai Pirogov, as in the Great Patriotic War surgeon and consultant evacuation hospitals, along with leading surgeons in the Soviet Union had a significant impact on the results of treatment of wounded soldiers and officers, thereby affecting the development of military field surgery. In our country it is rightfully considered the founder of contaminated surgery.

  7. Collembola of the genus Protaphorura Absolon, 1901 (Onychiuridae) in the Eastern Palearctic: morphology, distribution, identification key

    PubMed Central

    Kaprus’, Igor; Weiner, Wanda; Paśnik, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Seven new species, Protaphorura jernika sp. n., Protaphorura abscondita sp. n., Protaphorura tuvinica sp. n., Protaphorura vasilinae sp. n., Protaphorura sayanica sp. n., Protaphorura oligopseudocellata sp. n. and Protaphorura nikolai sp. n. from different habitats of the southern Siberia and Far East of Russia, are described. Protaphorura ombrophila (Stach, 1960) is redescribed based on the type specimens. These species differ one from other and from all known species by dorsal and ventral pseudocellar formulae, number of pseudocelli on subcoxae 1 of legs I–III, parapseudocellar formula, chaetotaxy of body, structure of claw, size of postantennal organ and body length. Geographical distribution of all known Protaphorura species of Eastern Palearctic was analysed and an identification key to 50 species was provided. PMID:27853409

  8. Plant breeding on the front: imperialism, war, and exploitation.

    PubMed

    Elina, Olga; Heim, Susanne; Roll-Hansen, Nils

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the development of plant-breeding science in the context of the booming genetic research and autarky policy of the 1930s as well as during World War II in National Socialist-occupied Europe. Soviet scientists, especially Nikolai Vavilov and his VIR institute, had a leading position in the international plant-breeding science of the 1920s. During World War II, German scientists, namely experts from the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Plant Breeding, usurped Soviet institutes and valuable seed collections. In contrast, plant-breeding research in occupied Scandinavia continued with relatively little disturbance. The paper compares behavior of German, Soviet, and Norwegian plant-breeding scientists under the Nazi regime.

  9. Division B Commission 6: Astronomical Telegrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaoka, H.; Green, D. W. E.; Samus, N. N.; Aksnes, K.; Gilmore, A. C.; Nakano, S.; Sphar, T.; Tichá, J.; Williams, G. V.

    2016-04-01

    IAU Commission 6 ``Astronomical Telegrams'' had a single business meeting during Honolulu General Assembly of the IAU. It took place on Tuesday, 11 August 2015. The meeting was attended by Hitoshi Yamaoka (President), Daniel Green (Director of the Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams, CBAT, via Skype), Steven Chesley (JPL), Paul Chodas (JPL), Alan Gilmore (Canterbury University), Shinjiro Kouzuma (Chukyo University), Paolo Mazzali (Co-Chair of the Supernova Working Group), Elena Pian (Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa), Marion Schmitz (chair IAU Working Group Designations + NED), David Tholen (University of Hawaii), Jana Ticha (Klet Observatory), Milos Tichy (Klet Observatory), Giovanni Valsecchi (INAF\\slash Italy), Gareth Williams (Minor Planet Center). Apologies: Nikolai Samus (General Catalogue of Variable Stars, GCVS).

  10. STS-114 Crew Interview: Soichi Noguchi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Soichi Noguchi, Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) representing Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA) is seen during a prelaunch interview. He discusses the main goals of this flight which are to take expedition 7 to the International Space Station and bring back expedition 6 to the Earth. He is also responsible for all Extravehicular (EVA) work on this mission. Expedition seven includes: Mission Specialist and Commander Yuri Malenchenko; NASA ISS Science Officer Edward Lu; and Flight Engineer Alexander Kaleri. Expedition Six includes: Commander Kenneth Bowersox; NASA ISS Science Officer Donald Petit; and Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin. Noguchi explains the Utilization and Logistics Flight 1 (ULF1) Mission which entails the exchange of crewmembers, various supplies and experiments and the replacement of a control component on the International Space Station. This is also will be Soichi Noguchi's first spacewalk.

  11. STS-113 Flight Day 5 Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-11-01

    This video shows the activities of the STS-113 crew (Jim Wetherbee, Commander; Paul Lockhart, Pilot; Michael Lopez-Alegria, John Herrington, Mission Specialists) during flight day 5. The crew is seen together with the Expedition 5 (Valeri Korzun, Commander; Peggy Whitsun, ISS Science Officer/Flight Engineer; Sergei Treschev, Flight Engineer) and Expedition 6 (Kenneth Bowersox, Commander; Donald Pettit, Nikolai Budarin, Flight Engineers) crews of the ISS (International Space Station) preparing for an EVA (extravehicular activity) the following day, and performing tasks on board the ISS. The changing of valves on the ISS carbon dioxide removal assembly is shown. The STS-113 crew is seen together answering numerous questions from the general public, with Lopez-Alegria answering all but one. There is also a clip of Jay Leno congratulating Wetherbee on his fiftieth birthday. Inside views of the Endeavour orbiter and the ISS modules are shown, as well as a view of the coast of Chile.

  12. KSC-03PD-1264

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- Building 254, Soyuz Integration Facility. Veteran Russian Cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko has a leak check performed on the Russian Sokol suit. Malenchenko and veteran NASA astronaut Ed Lu were named as the primary crew, Expedition 7, for the launch to the International Space Station. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  13. KSC-03PD-1265

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- Building 254, Soyuz Integration Facility. Cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Expedition Seven commander, dons his Russian Sokol suit for the leak check and Soyuz inspection, seat liner check. Malenchenko and veteran NASA astronaut Ed Lu were named as the primary crew, Expedition 7, for the launch to the International Space Station. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS- 114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  14. A Reliable Method to Measure Lip Height Using Photogrammetry in Unilateral Cleft Lip Patients.

    PubMed

    van der Zeeuw, Frederique; Murabit, Amera; Volcano, Johnny; Torensma, Bart; Patel, Brijesh; Hay, Norman; Thorburn, Guy; Morris, Paul; Sommerlad, Brian; Gnarra, Maria; van der Horst, Chantal; Kangesu, Loshan

    2015-09-01

    There is still no reliable tool to determine the outcome of the repaired unilateral cleft lip (UCL). The aim of this study was therefore to develop an accurate, reliable tool to measure vertical lip height from photographs. The authors measured the vertical height of the cutaneous and vermilion parts of the lip in 72 anterior-posterior view photographs of 17 patients with repairs to a UCL. Points on the lip's white roll and vermillion were marked on both the cleft and the noncleft sides on each image. Two new concepts were tested. First, photographs were standardized using the horizontal (medial to lateral) eye fissure width (EFW) for calibration. Second, the authors tested the interpupillary line (IPL) and the alar base line (ABL) for their reliability as horizontal lines of reference. Measurements were taken by 2 independent researchers, at 2 different time points each. Overall 2304 data points were obtained and analyzed. Results showed that the method was very effective in measuring the height of the lip on the cleft side with the noncleft side. When using the IPL, inter- and intra-rater reliability was 0.99 to 1.0, with the ABL it varied from 0.91 to 0.99 with one exception at 0.84. The IPL was easier to define because in some subjects the overhanging nasal tip obscured the alar base and gave more consistent measurements possibly because the reconstructed alar base was sometimes indistinct. However, measurements from the IPL can only give the percentage difference between the left and right sides of the lip, whereas those from the ABL can also give exact measurements. Patient examples were given that show how the measurements correlate with clinical assessment. The authors propose this method of photogrammetry with the innovative use of the IPL as a reliable horizontal plane and use of the EFW for calibration as a useful and reliable tool to assess the outcome of UCL repair.

  15. The principle of rotation advancement for repair of unilateral complete cleft lip and nasal deformity: technical variations and analysis of results.

    PubMed

    Mulliken, J B; Martínez-Pérez, D

    1999-10-01

    This is an assessment of one surgeon's 15-year experience (1981-1995) using the Millard rotation-advancement principle for repair of unilateral complete cleft lip and nasal deformity. All infants underwent a prior labio-nasal adhesion. Since 1991, dentofacial orthopedics with a pin-retained (Latham) appliance was used for infants with a cleft of the lip and palate. Technical variations are described, including modifications in sequence of closure. A high rotation and releasing incision in the columella lengthens the medial labial element and produces a symmetric prolabium with minimal transgression of the upper philtral column by the advancement flap. Orbicularis oris muscle is everted, from caudad to cephalad, to form the philtral ridge. A minor variation of unilimb Z-plasty is used to level the cleft side of Cupid's bow handle, and cutaneous closure proceeds superiorly from this junction. The dislocated alar cartilage is visualized though a nostril rim incision and suspended to the ipsilateral upper lateral cartilage. Symmetry of the alar base is addressed in three dimensions, including maneuvers to position the deviated anterior-caudal septum, configure the sill, and efface the lateral vestibular web. Secondary procedures were analyzed in 105 consecutive patients, both revised (n = 30) and unrevised (n = .75). The possible need for revision in the latter group was determined by panel assessment of six indicators of nasolabial asymmetry, documented by frontal and submental photographs. In the entire study period, a total of 80 percent of children required or will need nasal revision, and a total of 42 percent required or will require labial revision. In the last 5 years, as compared with the earlier decade, there was a significantly diminished incidence of patients requiring labial revision (54 percent to 21 percent) and alar suspension (63 percent to 32 percent). These improvements are attributable to technical refinements and experience, although dentofacial

  16. Patterns of hypothalamic regionalization in amphibians and reptiles: common traits revealed by a genoarchitectonic approach.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Laura; González, Agustín; Moreno, Nerea

    2015-01-01

    Most studies in mammals and birds have demonstrated common patterns of hypothalamic development highlighted by the combination of developmental regulatory genes (genoarchitecture), supporting the notion of the hypothalamus as a component of the secondary prosencephalon, topologically rostral to the diencephalon. In our comparative analysis we have summarized the data on the expression patterns of different transcription factors and neuroactive substances, used as anatomical markers, in the developing hypothalamus of the amphibian Xenopus laevis and the juvenile turtle Pseudemys scripta. This analysis served to highlight the organization of the hypothalamus in the anamniote/amniotic transition. We have identified supraoptoparaventricular and the suprachiasmatic regions (SCs) in the alar part of the hypothalamus, and tuberal and mammillary regions in the basal hypothalamus. Shared features in the two species are: (1) The supraoptoparaventricular region (SPV) is defined by the expression of Otp and the lack of Nkx2.1/Isl1. It is subdivided into rostral, rich in Otp and Nkx2.2, and caudal, only Otp-positive, portions. (2) The suprachiasmatic area contains catecholaminergic cell groups and lacks Otp, and can be further divided into rostral (rich in Nkx2.1 and Nkx2.2) and a caudal (rich in Isl1 and devoid of Nkx2.1) portions. (3) Expression of Nkx2.1 and Isl1 define the tuberal hypothalamus and only the rostral portion expresses Otp. (4) Its caudal boundary is evident by the lack of Isl1 in the adjacent mammillary region, which expresses Nkx2.1 and Otp. Differences in the anamnio-amniote transition were noted since in the turtle, like in other amniotes, the boundary between the alar hypothalamus and the telencephalic preoptic area shows distinct Nkx2.2 and Otp expressions but not in the amphibian (anamniote), and the alar SPV is defined by the expression of Otp/Pax6, whereas in Xenopus only Otp is expressed.

  17. Patterns of hypothalamic regionalization in amphibians and reptiles: common traits revealed by a genoarchitectonic approach

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez, Laura; González, Agustín; Moreno, Nerea

    2015-01-01

    Most studies in mammals and birds have demonstrated common patterns of hypothalamic development highlighted by the combination of developmental regulatory genes (genoarchitecture), supporting the notion of the hypothalamus as a component of the secondary prosencephalon, topologically rostral to the diencephalon. In our comparative analysis we have summarized the data on the expression patterns of different transcription factors and neuroactive substances, used as anatomical markers, in the developing hypothalamus of the amphibian Xenopus laevis and the juvenile turtle Pseudemys scripta. This analysis served to highlight the organization of the hypothalamus in the anamniote/amniotic transition. We have identified supraoptoparaventricular and the suprachiasmatic regions (SCs) in the alar part of the hypothalamus, and tuberal and mammillary regions in the basal hypothalamus. Shared features in the two species are: (1) The supraoptoparaventricular region (SPV) is defined by the expression of Otp and the lack of Nkx2.1/Isl1. It is subdivided into rostral, rich in Otp and Nkx2.2, and caudal, only Otp-positive, portions. (2) The suprachiasmatic area contains catecholaminergic cell groups and lacks Otp, and can be further divided into rostral (rich in Nkx2.1 and Nkx2.2) and a caudal (rich in Isl1 and devoid of Nkx2.1) portions. (3) Expression of Nkx2.1 and Isl1 define the tuberal hypothalamus and only the rostral portion expresses Otp. (4) Its caudal boundary is evident by the lack of Isl1 in the adjacent mammillary region, which expresses Nkx2.1 and Otp. Differences in the anamnio-amniote transition were noted since in the turtle, like in other amniotes, the boundary between the alar hypothalamus and the telencephalic preoptic area shows distinct Nkx2.2 and Otp expressions but not in the amphibian (anamniote), and the alar SPV is defined by the expression of Otp/Pax6, whereas in Xenopus only Otp is expressed. PMID:25691860

  18. Lipid II-independent trans editing of mischarged tRNAs by the penicillin resistance factor MurM.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Jennifer; Ibba, Michael

    2013-09-06

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a causative agent of nosocomial infections such as pneumonia, meningitis, and septicemia. Penicillin resistance in S. pneumoniae depends in part upon MurM, an aminoacyl-tRNA ligase that attaches L-serine or L-alanine to the stem peptide lysine of Lipid II in cell wall peptidoglycan. To investigate the exact substrates the translation machinery provides MurM, quality control by alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AlaRS) was investigated. AlaRS mischarged serine and glycine to tRNA(Ala), as observed in other bacteria, and also transferred alanine, serine, and glycine to tRNA(Phe). S. pneumoniae tRNA(Phe) has an unusual U4:C69 mismatch in its acceptor stem that prevents editing by phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (PheRS), leading to the accumulation of misaminoacylated tRNAs that could serve as substrates for translation or for MurM. Although the peptidoglycan layer of S. pneumoniae tolerates a combination of both branched and linear muropeptides, deletion of MurM results in a reversion to penicillin sensitivity in strains that were previously resistant. However, because MurM is not required for cell viability, the reason for its functional conservation across all strains of S. pneumoniae has remained elusive. We now show that MurM can directly function in translation quality control by acting as a broad specificity lipid-independent trans editing factor that deacylates tRNA. This activity of MurM does not require the presence of its second substrate, Lipid II, and can functionally substitute for the activity of widely conserved editing domain homologues of AlaRS, termed AlaXPs proteins, which are themselves absent from S. pneumoniae.

  19. Head position and impact direction in whiplash injuries: associations with MRI-verified lesions of ligaments and membranes in the upper cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Kaale, Bertel Rune; Krakenes, Jostein; Albrektsen, Grethe; Wester, Knut

    2005-11-01

    In the present study, we compared magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of soft tissue structures in the upper cervical spine between whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) patients and population-based control persons, and examined whether MRI-verified abnormalities in WAD patients were related to accident-related factors hypothesized to be of importance for severity of injury. A total of 92 whiplash patients and 30 control persons, randomly drawn, were included. Information on the accident-related factors (i.e., head position and impact direction) was obtained by a questionnaire that was answered within 1 week after the accident. The MRI examination was performed 2-9 (mean 6) years after the accident. Focus was on MRI abnormalities of the alar and the transverse ligaments, and the tectorial and posterior atlanto-occipital membranes, graded 0-3. For all neck structures, the whiplash patients had more high-grade lesions (grade 2 or 3) than the control persons (Chi-square test, p < 0.055). An abnormal alar ligament was most common (66.3% graded 2 or 3). Whiplash patients who had been sitting with their head/neck turned to one side at the moment of collision more often had high-grade lesions of the alar and transverse ligaments (p < 0.001, p = 0.040, respectively). Severe injuries to the transverse ligament and the posterior atlanto-occipital membrane were more common in front than in rear end collisions (p < 0.001, p = 0.001, respectively). In conclusion, the difference in MRI-verified lesions between WAD patients and control persons, and in particular the association with head position and impact direction at time of accident, indicate that these lesions are caused by the whiplash trauma.

  20. Comparing Ada and FORTRAN Lines of Code: Some Experimental Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-01

    34"yseidued predisute IA ohilews’ fhey usually eam"d resuts sfts 0is "let 11h14h (8) haew a direst bud"e SO decIsIons a1146t10g MWjo 1 0ra, (hi addrees...or IDA Document are nsed for the cowaveniene of the spoases or the analysts ( a ) to record substantive work done in quick reaction studies, (h) to...orm &j rey alar Ia i I* a embedo., -d w~ma. in"Ag suagaulbota Worduutg thills d , Wasllhirtgb d•ead s ft8mseewbas. 01 N IVm -1 sadm O W R9e 1216

  1. Characterization of ultradispersed aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, R.L.; Maienschein, J.L.; Swansiger, R.W.; Garcia, F.; Darling, D.H.

    1994-12-08

    Samples of ultradispersed Al were received, which were produced by electrically exploding Al wires in argon. These samples comprised very small particles that were not significantly oxidized and that were stable in air. Particle morphology were studied with SE, micropycnometry, and gas adsorption surface area. Composition were determined using various techniques, as were thermal stability and reaction exotherms. The inexplicable reports of an Al-Ar compound and of an exothermic reaction were not confirmed. The material is a stable, nonoxidized, small-particle, highly reactive form of aluminum that is of interest in energetic materials formulations.

  2. A New Classification System for Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Infants to assist Presurgical Infant Orthopedics.

    PubMed

    Daigavane, P S; Hazarey, P V; Niranjane, P; Vasudevan, S D; Thombare, B R; Daigavane, S

    2015-01-01

    The proposed advantages of pre-surgical naso-alveolar moulding (PNAM) are easy primary lip repair which heals under minimum tension reducing the scar formation and improving the aesthetic results in addition to reshaping of alar cartilage and improvement of nasal symmetry.However, the anatomy and alveolar morphology varies for each cleft child; the procedure for PNAM differs accordingly. In an attempt to categorize unilateral cleft lip and palate cases as per anatomical variations, a new classification system has been proposed. This classification aims to give an insight in unilateral cleft morphology based on which modification in PNAM procedure could be done.

  3. Digital Servocontroller System. Volume 1. Operations Manual.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-01

    8217Op fw c Ian , A ftP ate error lop rate,el"Or VA, bre. CWt I* I Tr V dump rate x/S Obd abort W. 0 ,,vtvgral oad c 󈧬. Lrkln Cm f ST&TIK oad abort X...14.0?04V _Z(.W -k047 44 -load alar% X -M.0 _ W. 0 -%. D -ft. 0-load abort Z JDO G . J00.0 100.0 -tD-D. 0 zuwm LLILL Cyn f RTATHK LL = error abort Z LO.0

  4. Fire Protection System for Hardened Aircraft Shelters. Volume 1. Discussion and Appendixes A-C

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    in any configuration, for exanple IR, lR-lR, UV -IR, UV , UV -IR- UV . The advantage of multiwavelength detectors is a reduced likelihood of false alarm. B...11late is ,ai led the work function if the metal. Th, operating envelope of a UV detector is . function u (i) the Inc-tal used fir the cathode, and Ŗ...second or two longer. E. DI1AL-CHANNEL UV /IR JETIT .OIRS iiarmy false alar.m sources for UV and IR detectors are mutally exclusive. Th -. has led to the

  5. Three-dimensional nasal changes following maxillary advancement in cleft patients.

    PubMed

    Stewart, A; McCance, A M; James, D R; Moss, J P

    1996-06-01

    Three-dimensional laser surface scanning of the face was performed before and after Le Fort I maxillary advancement in 24 patients with replaced clefts of the lip and palate. The surgery resulted in advancement of the upper lip and para-alar tissues and an increase in the relative prominence of the nose within the face. These changes were produced at the expense of an increase in nasal width and a reduction in nasal tip protrusion. The changes in nasal morphology showed significant variation among patients.

  6. Prediction of natural disasters basing of chrono-and-information field characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapunov, Valentin

    2013-04-01

    Living organisms are able to predict some future events particular catastrophic incidents. This is adaptive characters producing by evolution. The more energy produces incident the more possibility to predict one. Wild animals escaped natural hazards including tsunami (e.g. extremal tsunami in Asia December 2004). Living animals are able to predict strong phenomena of obscure nature. For example majority of animals escaped Tungus catastrophe taking place in Siberia at 1908. Wild animals are able to predict nuclear weapon experiences. The obscure characters are not typical for human, but they are fixed under probability 15%. Such were summarized by L.Vasiliev (1961). Effective theory describing such a characters is absent till now. N.Kozyrev (1991) suggested existence of unknown physical field (but gravitation and electro magnetic). The field was named "time" or "chrono". Some characters of the field appeared to be object of physical experiment. Kozyrev suggested specific role of the field for function of living organisms. Transition of biological information throw space (telepathy) and time (proscopy) may be based on characters of such a field. Hence physical chrono-and-information field is under consideration. Animals are more familiar with such a field than human. Evolutionary process experienced with possibility of extremal development of contact with such a field using highest primates. This mode of evolution appeared to stay obscure producing probable species "Wildman" (Bigfoot). Specific adaptive fitches suggest impossibility to study of such a species by usual ecological approaches. The perspective way for study of mysterious phenomena of physic is researches of this field characters.

  7. AdS/CFT for 3D higher-spin gravity coupled to matter fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujisawa, Ippei; Nakagawa, Kenta; Nakayama, Ryuichi

    2014-03-01

    New holographic prescription for the model of 3d higher-spin gravity coupled to real matter fields Bμν and C, which was introduced in Fujisawa and Nakayama (2014 Class. Quantum Grav. 31 015003), is formulated. By using a local symmetry, two of the components of Bμν are eliminated, and gauge-fixing conditions are imposed such that the non-vanishing component, Bϕρ, satisfies a covariantly-constancy condition in the background of Chern-Simons gauge fields Aμ, \\bar{A}_{\\mu }. In this model, solutions to the classical equations of motion for Aμ and \\bar{A}_{\\mu } are non-flat due to the interactions with matter fields. The solutions for the gauge fields can, however, be split into two parts, flat gauge fields A_{\\mu }, \\bar{A}_{\\mu }, and those terms that depend on the matter fields. The equations for the matter fields then coincide with covariantly-constancy equations in the flat backgrounds A_{\\mu } and \\bar{A}_{\\mu }, which are exactly the same as those in linearized 3d Vasiliev gravity. The two- and three-point correlation functions of the single-trace operators and the higher-spin currents in the boundary CFT are computed by using an on-shell action tr (Bϕρ C). This term does not depend on coordinates due to the matter equations of motion, and it is not necessary to take the near-boundary limit ρ → ∞. Analysis is presented for SL(3,R) × SL(3,R) as well as HS[\\frac{1}{2}] \\times HS[\\frac{1}{2}] higher-spin gravity. In the latter model, scalar operators with scaling dimensions Δ+ = 3/2 and Δ- = 1/2 appear in a single quantization.

  8. Higher-spin theory and holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaberdiel, Matthias; Vasiliev, Mikhail

    2013-05-01

    This special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical reviews recent developments in higher-spin gauge theories and their applications to holographic dualities. The analysis of higher-spin theories has a very long history, but it took until the mid 1980s for the first consistent higher-spin interactions to be constructed by Bengtsson, Bengtsson and Brink [1] and Berends, Burgers and van Dam [2]. Somewhat later it was shown by Fradkin and Vasiliev [3] that consistent higher-spin gauge theories that involve gravity should necessarily be defined on a curved background. The first consistent interacting higher-spin theories were then formulated at the classical level by Vasiliev in the early 1990s [4]. These higher-spin theories involve an infinite number of massless higher-spin fields that support higher-spin gauge symmetries, and indeed, are largely characterized by this underlying gauge symmetry. The simplest examples are provided by higher-spin theories on (anti)-de Sitter spaces, and in a sense, this anticipated the AdS/CFT correspondence. Indeed, in the tensionless limit of string theory, the massive excitations of string theory become massless, and hence define higher-spin gauge fields. On the other hand, from the dual gauge theory perspective, this is the limit in which the field theory becomes free, and therefore has many conserved higher-spin currents. By the usual AdS/CFT dictionary, these are dual to the higher-spin gauge symmetries of the bulk description. Following this line of argument, Sundborg [5] and Witten [6] suggested in 2001 that a duality relating a higher-spin theory on AdSd to a weakly coupled (d - 1)-dimensional conformal field theory should exist. A concrete proposal was then made by Klebanov and Polyakov [7] who conjectured that the simplest version of a higher-spin gauge theory on AdS4 should be dual to the 3d O(N ) vector model. Recently, much support for this conjecture was obtained by Giombi and Yin [8], and in turn

  9. Unilateral cleft lip/nose repair using an equal bows /straight line advancement technique - A preliminary report and postoperative symmetry-based anthropometry.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Samer George; Aschoff, Horst Heinrich; Jacobsen, Hans-Christian; Sieg, Peter

    2014-04-01

    In the evolution of cleft lip repair there has been continuous attempt to minimize local trauma, improve lip and nasal appearance and, especially, prevent conspicuous scars. The surgical technique presented meets these criteria, resulting in an appropriate scar course in children with a specific philtral ridge shape. Postoperative digital anthropometry was performed in 18 patients who underwent unilateral cleft lip repair using the equal bows/straight line advancement technique and in matched healthy control individuals. Symmetry values were assessed for lip length, philtral ridge length, vermilion height, width of the alar base, nasocanthal length, circumference of the nostrils, nostril width and height in both cleft and control groups. Evaluation revealed no significant differences in the symmetry values between cleft patients and control group (lip length: p = 0.71, philtral ridge length: p = 0.52, vermilion height: p = 0.23, alar base width: p = 0.69, nasocanthal length: p = 0.25, nostril circumference: p = 0.17, nostril width: p = 0.34, nostril height: p = 0.33). Principles of cleft lip repair can be achieved using the described technique which provides adequate lip length and natural nasal appearance in patients with a parallel-shaped philtral ridge.

  10. [Acoustic behavior of Fenestra bohlsii Giglio-Tos (Orthoptera: Acrididae: Gomphocerinae)].

    PubMed

    Lorier, Estrellita; Clemente, Maria E; García, Maria D; Presa, Juan J

    2010-01-01

    The acoustic behavior of Fenestra bohlsii Giglio-Tos is described for the first time. The sounds and behaviors were observed and registered in captivity. The signals were digitized with the Sound-Blaster AWE64 Gold program and analysed with the Avisoft SAS Lab Pro 30 PC for MS Windows software. Seven different types of sounds are described as produced by males: spontaneous song (also used during the courtship), two different types of courtship song, assault song, tapping associated to the courtship, interaction between males and fly crackling. For each one, the characteristic oscillograms and frequency spectra are given. Sounds are produced by different mechanisms: femoro-tegminal stridulation, typical for Gomphocerinae, fly crackling, hind tarsi tapping and alar beat, the last produced by the beat and clash of hind alae, that is, the castanet method which up to now was only known, among Orthoptera, in Stenobothrus rubicundulus Kruseman & Jeekel. A description of the stridulatory file of male and female is given, as well as that of the alar special structures. Behavioral units and their sequence during the courtship are defined. There, in addition to the acoustic signals, visual signals are present, referring to positions, hind legs, antennae and palpi movements and body vibrations.

  11. Ontogenetic Expression of Sonic Hedgehog in the Chicken Subpallium

    PubMed Central

    Bardet, Sylvia M.; Ferran, José L. E.; Sanchez-Arrones, Luisa; Puelles, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Sonic hedgehog (SHH) is a secreted signaling factor that is implicated in the molecular patterning of the central nervous system (CNS), somites, and limbs in vertebrates. SHH has a crucial role in the generation of ventral cell types along the entire rostrocaudal axis of the neural tube. It is secreted early in development by the axial mesoderm (prechordal plate and notochord) and the overlying ventral neural tube. Recent studies clarified the impact of SHH signaling mechanisms on dorsoventral patterning of the spinal cord, but the corresponding phenomena in the rostral forebrain are slightly different and more complex. This notably involves separate Shh expression in the preoptic part of the forebrain alar plate, as well as in the hypothalamic floor and basal plates. The present work includes a detailed spatiotemporal description of the singular alar Shh expression pattern in the rostral preoptic forebrain of chick embryos, comparing it with FoxG1, Dlx5, Nkx2.1, and Nkx2.2 mRNA expression at diverse stages of development. As a result of this mapping, we report a subdivision of the preoptic region in dorsal and ventral zones; only the dorsal part shows Shh expression. The positive area impinges as well upon a median septocommissural preoptic domain. Our study strongly suggests tangential migration of Shh-positive cells from the preoptic region into other subpallial domains, particularly into the pallidal mantle and the intermediate septum. PMID:20700498

  12. A 20 year audit of nose-tip symmetry in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Timoney, N; Smith, G; Pigott, R W

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to audit the process and outcome in terms of nasal-tip symmetry of the first 20 patients with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate treated by the Pigott alar leapfrog primary nasal correction in the early 1970s and followed for 20 years. Symmetry was assessed using the Coghlan computer-based analysis of frontal and basal views to determine the stability of the correction. The Abyholm technique of alveolar bone grafting was performed in 12 of the 20 patients. Various other secondary procedures have been performed on the nose tip and septum to improve the airway or appearance. Photographs were taken within one year of ages 5, 10, 15 and 20 years, and the lower border of the nose, the alar domes and the nostrils were assessed. To assess the overall change from 5 years to 20 years, both views were available for 17 patients. No significant change was found in the lower border or nostril symmetry, but significant deterioration at the P< 0.01 level was found on the basal view. We assessed the 10, 15 and 20 year views of all 12 patients who had undergone alveolar bone grafting to determine early and late changes. No significant benefit was found from alveolar bone grafting or minor secondary procedures for appearance. Consequently, our criteria for undertaking minor adjustments to improve appearance have become more stringent. We consider that objective reporting of appearance should become essential in peer-reviewed journals.

  13. External rhinoplasty: a critical analysis of 500 cases.

    PubMed

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2003-06-01

    The study presents a comprehensive statistical analysis of a series of 500 consecutive rhinoplasties of which 380 (76 per cent) were primary and 120 (24 per cent) were secondary cases. All cases were operated upon using the external rhinoplasty technique; simultaneous septal surgery was performed in 350 (70 per cent) of the cases. Deformities of the upper two-thirds of the nose that occurred significantly more in the secondary cases included; dorsal saddling, dorsal irregularities, valve collapse, open roof and pollybeak deformities. In the lower third of the nose; secondary cases showed significantly higher incidences of depressed tip, tip over-rotation, tip asymmetry, retracted columella, and alar notching. Suturing techniques were used significantly more in primary cases, while in secondary cases grafting techniques were used significantly more. The complications encountered intra-operatively included; septal flap tears (2.8 per cent) and alar cartilage injury (1.8 per cent), while post-operative complications included; nasal trauma (one per cent), epistaxis (two per cent), infection (2.4 per cent), prolonged oedema (17 per cent), and nasal obstruction (0.8 per cent). The overall patient satisfaction rate was 95.6 per cent and the transcolumellar scar was found to be unacceptable in only 0.8 per cent of the patients.

  14. Measuring the nose in septorhinoplasty patients: ultrasonographic standard values and clinical correlations.

    PubMed

    Stenner, Markus; Koopmann, Mario; Rudack, Claudia

    2017-02-01

    Although septorhinoplasty is the most commonly performed operation in plastic surgery, and the surgical plan as well as its outcome is directly related to the configuration of the anatomical structures in the nose, these are not routinely assessed preoperatively. The aim of our study was to evaluate the nasal soft tissue and cartilaginous structures by means of high-resolution ultrasonography to set up clinical correlations and standard values. We examined 44 patients before septorhinoplasty by high-resolution ultrasonography in noncontact mode. All pictures were quantitatively evaluated by measuring 13 lengths and 4 ratios. All patients underwent a rhinomanometry measuring the nasal air flow. Besides others, men as well as older patients have a significantly thicker alar cartilage. Patients with thinner alar cartilages have a significantly smaller interdomal distance as well as significantly thinner upper lateral cartilages. The soft tissue above the bony dorsum was significantly thicker in older patients. Younger patients have significantly thicker soft tissue in relation to their cartilage. Patients with thicker soft tissue and thinner cartilage have a smaller tip. The interdomal distance and the thickness of the cartilaginous septum significantly correlated with the nasal air flow. We set up standard values of nasal structures in septorhinoplasty patients which can be used as reference values. By judging cartilage and soft tissue characteristics preoperatively, relevant factors for distinct procedures could be analyzed and the surgical steps can be better planned. Visualization by ultrasonography enables the surgeon to achieve treatment goals in a more predictable fashion.

  15. Topological analysis of the brain stem of the frogs Rana esculenta and Rana catesbeiana.

    PubMed

    Opdam, R; Kemali, M; Nieuwenhuys, R

    1976-02-01

    The ventricular sulcal pattern and the cytoarchitectonic organization of the brain stem of the frogs Rana esculenta and Rana catesbeiana have been studied in transversely cut, Nissl stained serial sections. Four longitudinal sulci, the sulcus medianus inferior, the sulcus intermedius ventralis, the sulcus limitans and the sulcus medianus superior could be distinguished in both species. A fifth longitudinal groove, the sulcus intermedius dorsalis, was found only in Rana esculenta. With the aid of the usual cytoarchitectonic criteria 25 cell masses have been delineated in Rana esculenta and 27 in Rana catesbeiana. These cell masses can be distributed over the following categories (numbers added in brackets for Rana catesbeiana, if different from those in Rana esculenta): primary efferent or motor, 8; primary afferent or sensory, 4(6); "relay" centers, 7. Contrary to statements in the literature the reticular formation can be divided into six separate cell groups. The majority of the nuclei form part of the central gray, which constitutes a rather wide zone in anurans; three reticular nuclei lie partly within the stratum griseum and partly within the stratum album; six nuclei are entirely embedded in the stratum album. The morphological pattern of the cell masses and their relationship to the ventricular sulci were studied with the aid of a graphical reconstruction procedure termed topological analysis (cf. Nieuwenhuys, '74 and figs. 15, 16). This analysis yielded the following results: The sulcus limitans extends throughout the rhombencephalon, dividing this brain part into a basal plate and an alar plate. The cell masses in the basal plate fit into two longitudinal zones, a medial area ventralis and a lateral area intermedioventralis. The area ventralis contains three somatic motor nuclei (IV, VI and XII) and the rhombencephalic medial reticular zone. The latter may be primarily considered as a somatic motor coordinating center. The area intermedioventralis contains

  16. Nasolabial Cyst Associated with Odontogenic Infection

    PubMed Central

    Martini, Eveline Claudia; Coppla, Fabiana Madalozzo; Campagnoli, Eduardo Bauml; Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The nasolabial cyst or Klestadt cyst is a relatively uncommon nonodontogenic cyst that develops in the nasal alar region; it has uncertain pathogenesis. This lesion has slow growth and variable dimensions and is characterized clinically by a floating tumefaction in the nasolabial fold area around the bridge of the nose, causing an elevation of the upper lip and relative facial asymmetry. Diagnosis is primarily made clinically; if necessary, this is complemented by imaging. This paper reports the case of a 39-year-old male patient who complained of pain in the right upper premolar region and poor aesthetics due to a firm tumor in the right wing of the nose. Initially, this was thought to be due to an odontogenic abscess; however, the differential diagnosis was that a nasolabial cyst was communicating with the apex of teeth 14 and 15. Surgical treatment was carried out, followed by histopathological examination and concomitant endodontic treatment of the teeth involved. PMID:26904312

  17. Prime Contractors with Awards Over $25,000 by Name, Location, and Contract Number, Fiscal Year 87. Part 9. Pacific Coast Sales & Service-Rockwell International Corporation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    8217 ID W E (1 0 ~ Ecc 0 ’-’GE N4 cc cc~ c- cc c 1ALar T . 6z- -%L __ !L S :a *4m to~’) 00IN 4 m (n4 CnO WC N 0 - F - -N LC to C >c 0 ID a I > U- R) I6 L...I 44 Hot D0-D 3 o 00 00 2 0 HOMO MO M 00C 0.. C C0U 00 0*0 0 4o rF. 0 010eW 23 - ixI - - 8w~d IO 0 U)LIko0 LOO W c 0000 080W0).0000 oomo r- 0 m 5 I

  18. Expression of chick Fgf19 and mouse Fgf15 orthologs is regulated in the developing brain by Fgf8 and Shh.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, L; Martinez, S

    2007-08-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (Fgfs) constitute a family of signaling molecules that play essential roles in development. We have studied the expression pattern of mouse Fgf15 in the developing brain. Fgf19 is another member of the FGF family that has been suggested as the chick and human ortholog of mouse and rat Fgf15. Here, we compare the expression pattern during neural development of chick Fgf19 with mouse Fgf15. Unlike Fgf15, Fgf19 presents an expression in the isthmic alar plate, diencephalic and mesencephalic parabasal plates, hindbrain basal plate, as well as in the zona limitans intrathalamica (zli). Moreover, we explored the regulation between Fgf19 and the signaling molecules of the isthmic and zli organizers: Fgf8 and Shh, respectively. Considering the possibility that Fgf19 plays a similar role in humans and chicks, this finding could explain the significant diencephalic phenotypic differences between humans and mice in models and diseases where the Shh pathway is affected.

  19. [Nasal mucosa in patients with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Müller, Maciej; Betlejewski, Stanisław

    2003-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrinologic disease all over the world. 150 million people suffer from this disease, in Poland about 2 million. The disease on the basis of the onset and pathophysiology may be divided into type I and type II. Pathophysiologic changes include diabetic microangiopathy, macroangiopathy and neuropathy. The most common presentations in head and neck are otitis externa, hypoacusis, vertigo, disequilibrium, xerostomia, dysphagia, fungal and recurrent infections. The changes in nasal mucosa are not very well known. Only few papers concerned the problem. The main complaints of patients regarding the nose are xeromycteria, hyposmia and various degree of decreased patency of the nose. Chronic atrophic rhinitis, septal perforation, ulceration of nasal mucosa, alar necrosis, symptoms of staphylococcal or fungal infection can be found during otolaryngologic examination. The treatment in this group of patients should consist of systemic therapy of diabetes mellitus and on the other hand focal therapy with the use of a solution to moisten the nasal mucosa.

  20. Infiltrating intramuscular spindle cell lipoma of the face.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Rajni V; Duncan, Lyn M; Austen, William G; Nielsen, G Petur

    2009-10-01

    Spindle cell lipoma is a benign lipomatous tumor, which usually arises on the back of the neck, shoulder or upper back of males in the third to seventh decade of life. We report herein an unusual infiltrating intramuscular spindle cell lipoma arising in the nose of a 53-year-old man. The patient presented with a 0.5-cm 'cyst' of the nose, just above the right alar crease, which was removed. Four years later, the lesion recurred and was re-excised. Histologically, a proliferation of mature adipocytes, ropey collagen fibers and spindle cells within a myxoid stroma was present in the subcutaneous tissue and infiltrated between skeletal muscle fibers. Nine cases of intramuscular spindle cell lipoma with histological examination have previously been reported and have involved the oral cavity and muscles of the extremities. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an infiltrating intramuscular spindle cell lipoma arising on the face.

  1. Nasal reconstruction using porous polyethylene implants.

    PubMed

    Romo, T; Sclafani, A P; Jacono, A A

    2000-01-01

    Nasal reconstruction presents a significant challenge to the facial plastic surgeon. The dual goals of reconstruction are restoration of the desired aesthetic nasal contour and an improved nasal airway. Autologous cartilage and bone are considered optimal grafting material, but their supply is often limited and harvesting entails additional morbidity. Many synthetic materials have been introduced in nasal reconstruction, but high infection and extrusion rates limited their use. Porous high density polyethylene implants present an alternative to autologous material as they allow for fibrovascular ingrowth, leading to stability of the implant and decreased rates of infection. Herein we describe the use of porous high density polyethylene implants for reconstruction of the platyrrhine nose and in revision rhinoplasty. The use of preformed nasal-dorsal tip and alar batten implants are described, as well as the use of columellar strut and premaxillary plumper implants. We believe that porous high density polyethylene implants provide a safe, desirable alternative in functional and aesthetic nasal reconstruction.

  2. Value of cephalic part of lateral crus in functional rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Sazgar, Amir A; Amali, Amin; Peyvasty, Mina Najarzad

    2016-12-01

    Reshaping of the nasal tip is the most difficult part of rhinoplasty. Over the years, there have been many advances in the field of rhinoplasty, including tip plasty. The goal of these continuous refinements in existing procedures has been to improve both aesthetic and functional outcomes. The cephalic part of the lateral crus of the lower lateral cartilage is what mainly contributes to nasal tip deformity. Various surgical techniques have been reported that used the cephalic part of lateral crus to refine the nasal tip and preserve alar integrity and nasal breathing function. In this review article, we have attempted to show the evolution of these methods while focusing on development of approaches that are basic for "modern rhinoplasty" and presenting our personal preferences. We have also endeavored to categorize these methods and clarify some misconceptions and inaccuracies in their descriptions.

  3. STS-113 Flight Day 6 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This video shows the activities of the STS-113 crew (Jim Wetherbee, Commander; Paul Lockhart, Pilot; Michael Lopez-Alegria, John Herrington, Mission Specialists) during flight day 6. Also shown are the Expedition 5 (Valeri Korzun, Commander; Peggy Whitsun, ISS Science Officer/Flight Engineer; Sergei Treschev, Flight Engineer) and Expedition 6 (Kenneth Bowersox, Commander; Donald Pettit, Nikolai Budarin, Flight Engineers) crews of the ISS (International Space Station). The primary activity of flight day 6 is the outfitting of the P1 (Port 1) Truss Structure. The suiting up and departure of Lopez-Alegria and Herrington through the ISS Quest airlock is shown. The departure is shown through sequential still video. The ISS CETA handrail cart is shown in use, as is a pistol-grip space tool. At the end of the EVA, the astronauts are shown cleaning up outside the ISS. The video also contains a Thanksgiving message about the importance of technological advances in spaceflight, and footage of the Moon disappearing behind the Earth's limb.

  4. Plaster of Paris: the orthopaedic surgeon heritage.

    PubMed

    Hernigou, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    Plastering is one of the most ancient of the building handicrafts. Plaster is the common name for calcium sulphate hemi hydrate made by heating the mineral gypsum, the common name for sulphate of lime. In the tenth century the Arabs used liquid plaster in orthopaedic treatment. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, patients with fractures of the lower extremities-and often of the upper extremities as well-were treated in bed with restriction of all activity for many weeks until the fractures united. It was the practice of surgeons to dress wounds and fractures at frequent intervals. The bandages, pads, and splints were removed, the fractures manipulated, and the dressings reapplied. The search for simpler, less cumbersome methods of treatment led to the development of occlusive dressings, stiffened at first with starch and later with plaster of Paris. The ambulatory treatment of fractures was the direct result of these innovations. Two military surgeons, Antonius Mathijsen of the Netherlands, and Nikolai Ivanovitch Pirogov of Russia, were responsible for the introduction of the new plaster bandage technique. At the beginning of the twentieth century the technique was improved by Jean-François Calot, a French surgeon, who invented the hand manufacture of plaster bandage as a roll. During the twentieth century, walking cast and ambulation for fresh fractures were developed with plaster and pin incorporated in plaster; the open fracture care concept was introduced with plaster of Paris by Trueta before the external fixation.

  5. STS-71 mission highlights resource tape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-09-01

    This video highlights the international cooperative Shuttle/Mir mission of the STS-71 flight. The STS-71 flightcrew consists of Cmdr. Robert Hoot' Gibson, Pilot Charles Precourt, and Mission Specialists Ellen Baker, Bonnie Dunbar, and Gregory Harbaugh. The Mir 18 flightcrew consisted of Cmdr. Vladamir Dezhurov, Flight Engineer Gennady Strekalov, and Cosmonaut-Research Dr. Norman Thagard. The Mir 18 crew consisted of Cmdr. Anatoly Solovyev and Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin. The prelaunch, launch, shuttle in-orbit, and in-orbit rendezvous and docking of the Mir Space Station to the Atlantis Space Shuttle are shown. The Mir 19 crew accompanied the STS-71 crew and will replace the Mir 18 crew upon undocking from the Mir Space Station. Shown is on-board footage from the Mir Space Station of the Mir 18 crew engaged in hardware testing and maintenance, medical and physiological tests, and a tour of the Mir. A spacewalk by the two Mir 18 cosmonauts is shown as they performed maintenance of the Mir Space Station. After the docking between Atlantis and Mir is completed, several mid-deck physiological experiments are performed along with a tour of Atlantis. Dr Thagard remained behind with the Shuttle after undocking to return to Earth with reports from his Mir experiments and observations. In-cabin experiments included the IMAX Camera Systems tests and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2). There is footage of the shuttle landing.

  6. KSC-03PD-1254

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan. Building 254, Soyuz Integration Facility. Astronaut Edward T. Lu, NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer for Expedition Seven, dons his Russian Sokol suit for the leak check and Soyuz inspection, seat liner check. Veteran Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko and veteran NASA astronaut Ed Lu have been named as the primary crew for the planned April 26, 2003, launch of a Russian Soyuz TMA-2 spacecraft to the International Space Station. Malenchenko and Lu will be called the Expedition 7 crew. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  7. Chandra Observations of the Nearest Type Ia SN in 25 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, John

    2010-09-01

    No SN Ia has been detected in the X-ray band during outburst. The most careful limits have been set using a 20 ks Chandra observation of SN 2002bo in NGC 3190 (22 Mpc), which was observed 9.3 days after explosion (Hughes et al. 2007), resulting in limits on the circumstellar medium (CSM) of w = dot M/ v_w < 1.2E15 g/cm, assuming a wind density profile rho_w = dot M/(4pi v_w r^2). This limit is comparable to the limits set by the nondetection of Halpha flux from SN 1994D and SN 2001el, although they are less constraining than limits set in the radio (Panagia et al. 2006). X-ray constraints are based on direct calculation of the expected emission using well-understood physics (i.e., bremsstrahlung emission, Comptonization), while radio limits are subject to large systematic uncertainties because the efficiency for generating synchrotron radiation in the shocked wind and ejecta is not known. We will work with Nikolai Chugai to model and intepret the results.

  8. KSC-03PD-1263

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- Building 254, Soyuz Integration Facility. Cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko (right), Expedition Seven commander, and astronaut Edward T. Lu, NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer for Expedition Seven, pause for a photograph on the Soyuz stand after the Soyuz inspection, seat liner check. Veteran Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko and veteran NASA astronaut Ed Lu were named as the primary crew for the planned April 26, 2003, launch of a Russian Soyuz TMA-2 spacecraft to the International Space Station. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  9. KSC-03PD-1256

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- Cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Expedition Seven commander dons his Russian Sokol suit for the leak check and Soyuz inspection, seat liner check. Veteran Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko and veteran NASA astronaut Ed Lu have been named as the primary crew for the planned April 26, 2003, launch of a Russian Soyuz TMA-2 spacecraft to the International Space Station. Malenchenko and Lu will be called the Expedition 7 crew. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  10. KSC-03PD-1261

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- Building 254, Soyuz Integration Facility. Astronaut Edward T. Lu, NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer for Expedition Seven, has a leak check performed on the Russian Sokol suit. Veteran Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko and veteran NASA astronaut Ed Lu have been named as the primary crew for the planned April 26, 2003, launch of a Russian Soyuz TMA-2 spacecraft to the International Space Station. Malenchenko and Lu will be called the Expedition 7 crew. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  11. KSC-03PD-1268

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- Astronaut Michael Foale (left standing), backup crew for Expedition Seven, talks with astronaut Edward T. Lu, NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer for Expedition Seven. Seated on the right is Cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Expedition Seven commander. The crew is reviewing documents prior to entering the Soyuz TMA-2 capsule for inspection and seat liner check. Malenchenko and Lu were named as the primary crew, Expedition 7, for the launch to the International Space Station. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  12. KSC-03PD-1258

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- Cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko (left), Expedition Seven commander, and astronaut Ed Lu have their Russian Sokol suits checked for leaks, as well as Soyuz inspection and seat liner check. Veteran Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko and veteran NASA astronaut Ed Lu have been named as the primary crew for the planned April 26, 2003, launch of a Russian Soyuz TMA-2 spacecraft to the International Space Station. Malenchenko and Lu will be called the Expedition 7 crew. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  13. Heat flow through the sea bottom around the Yucatan Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khutorskoy, M. D.; Fernandez, R.; Kononov, V. I.; Polyak, B. G.; Matveev, V. G.; Rot, A. A.

    1990-02-01

    Heat flow studies were conducted in January-February 1987, off the Atlantic Coast of Mexico on board the R/V Akademik Nikolai Strakhov. Two areas were surveyed, one transecting the Salt Dome Province and the Campeche Canyon, in the Gulf of Mexico, and the other, on the eastern flank of the Yucatan Peninsula. Conductive heat flow through the bottom sediments was determined as the product of vertical temperature gradient and in situ thermal conductivity, measured with a thermal probe using a multithermistor array and real-time processing capabilities. Forward two-dimensional modeling allows us to estimate heat flow variations at both sites from local disturbances and to obtain average heat flow values of 51 mW/m2 for the transect within the Gulf of Mexico and 38 and 69 mW/m2 for two basins within the Yucatan area. Sea bottom relief has a predominant effect over other environmental factors in the scatter of heat flow determination in the Gulf of Mexico.

  14. KSC-03PD-1255

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- Astronaut Edward T. Lu, NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer for Expedition Seven dons his Russian Sokol suit for the leak check and Soyuz inspection, seat liner check. Veteran Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko and veteran NASA astronaut Ed Lu have been named as the primary crew for the planned April 26, 2003, launch of a Russian Soyuz TMA-2 spacecraft to the International Space Station. Malenchenko and Lu will be called the Expedition 7 crew. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  15. KSC-03PD-1257

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- Cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Expedition Seven commander, dons his Russian Sokol suit for the leak check and Soyuz inspection, seat liner check. Veteran Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko and veteran NASA astronaut Ed Lu have been named as the primary crew for the planned April 26, 2003, launch of a Russian Soyuz TMA-2 spacecraft to the International Space Station. Malenchenko and Lu will be called the Expedition 7 crew. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  16. KSC-03PD-1260

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- Building 254, Soyuz Integration Facility. Astronaut Edward T. Lu, NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer for Expedition Seven, has a leak check performed on the Russian Sokol suit. Veteran Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko and veteran NASA astronaut Ed Lu have been named as the primary crew for the planned April 26, 2003, launch of a Russian Soyuz TMA-2 spacecraft to the International Space Station. Malenchenko and Lu will be called the Expedition 7 crew. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  17. KSC-03PD-1259

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- Building 254, Soyuz Integration Facility. Cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Expedition Seven commander dons his Russian Sokol suit for the leak check and Soyuz inspection, seat liner check. Veteran Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko and veteran NASA astronaut Ed Lu have been named as the primary crew for the planned April 26, 2003, launch of a Russian Soyuz TMA-2 spacecraft to the International Space Station. Malenchenko and Lu will be called the Expedition 7 crew. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  18. The Strength of a Loosely Defined Movement: Eugenics and Medicine in Imperial Russia

    PubMed Central

    Krementsov, Nikolai

    2015-01-01

    This essay examines the ‘infiltration’ of eugenics into Russian medical discourse during the formation of the eugenics movement in western Europe and North America in 1900–17. It describes the efforts of two Russian physicians, the bacteriologist and hygienist Nikolai Gamaleia (1859–1949) and the psychiatrist Tikhon Iudin (1879–1949), to introduce eugenics to the Russian medical community, analysing in detail what attracted these representatives of two different medical specialties to eugenic ideas, ideals, and policies advocated by their western colleagues. On the basis of a close examination of the similarities and differences in Gamaleia’s and Iudin’s attitudes to eugenics, the essay argues that lack of cohesiveness gave the early eugenics movement a unique strength. The loose mix of widely varying ideas, ideals, methods, policies, activities and proposals covered by the umbrella of eugenics offered to a variety of educated professionals in Russia and elsewhere the possibility of choosing, adopting and adapting particular elements to their own national, professional, institutional and disciplinary contexts, interests and agendas. PMID:25498435

  19. Heat flow through the sea bottom around the Yucatan Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Khutorskoy, M.D.; Kononov, V.I.; Polyak, B.G. ); Fernandez, R. ); Matveev, V.G.; Rot, A.A. )

    1990-02-10

    Heat flow studies were conducted in January-February 1987, off the Atlantic Coast of Mexico on board the R/V Akademik Nikolai Strakhov. Two areas were surveyed, one transecting the Salt Dome Province and the Campeche Canyon, in the Gulf of Mexico, and the other, on the eastern flank of the Yucatan Peninsula. Conductive heat flow through the bottom sediments was determined as the product of vertical temperature gradient and in situ thermal conductivity, measured with a thermal probe using a multithermistor array and real-time processing capabilities. Forward two-dimensional modeling allows one to estimate heat flow variations at both sites from local disturbances and to obtain average heat flow values of 51 mW/m{sup 2} for the transect within the Gulf of Mexico and 38 and 69 mW/m{sup 2} for two basins within the Yucatan area. Sea bottom relief has a predominant effect over other environmental factors in the scatter of heat flow determination in the Gulf of Mexico.

  20. A topaz international program overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thome, Frank V.; Wyant, Francis J.; Mulder, Daniel; McCarson, T. D.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, Nikolai Nikolaevich

    1995-01-01

    Five years ago, during the 8th Symposium on Space Nuclear Power Systems, in Albuquerque, NM, Academician Nikolai Nikolaevich Ponomarev-Stepnoi, First Deputy Director of the Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute, proposed the sale of the Soviety Union's TOPAZ II technology to the United States. This proposal, made at great personal risk, was initially viewed with much skepticism by most Americans attending that conference since the Cold War was still in full swing. There were, however, a few visionaries, some would say fanatics, that set about to make this sale possible. Even these visionaries did not anticipate the collapse of the Soviet Union or the subsequent efforts by the U.S. and other Western powers to help the Newly Independent States transition to a market economy. Little did these visionaries know that the formation of the ``TOPAZ II Program,'' using former military space power technology of the Soviet Union, would become the preeminent example of technology cooperation between two former adversaries. A unique teaming arrangement formed in New Mexico, called the New Mexico Strategic Alliance and consisting of the Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, the University of New Mexico, and Los Alamos Nationalo Laboratory, was a key ingredient in making this program a success. A brief summary of some of the highlights of this technology partnership is given to explain how international patnerships of this type can enable commercialization and technology transfer.

  1. Reconnaissance for radioactive deposits in Alaska, 1953

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matzko, John J.; Bates, Robert G.

    1955-01-01

    During the summer of 1953 the areas investigated for radioactive deposits in Alaska were on Nikolai Creek near Tyonek and on Likes Creek near Seward in south-central Alaska where carnotite-type minerals had been reported; in the headwaters of the Peace River in the eastern part of the Seward Peninsula and at Gold Bench on the South Fork of the Koyukuk River in east-central Alaska, where uranothorianite occurs in places associated with base metal sulfides and hematite; in the vicinity of Port Malmesbury in southeastern Alaska to check a reported occurrence of pitchblende; and, in the Miller House-Circle Hot Springs area of east-central Alaska where geochemical studies were made. No significant lode deposits of radioactive materials were found. However, the placer uranothorianite in the headwaters of the Peace River yet remains as an important lead to bedrock radioactive source materials in Alaska. Tundra cover prevents satisfactory radiometric reconnaissance of the area, and methods of geochemical prospecting such as soil and vegetation sampling may ultimately prove more fruitful in the search for the uranothorianite-sulfide lode source than geophysical methods.

  2. The strength of a loosely defined movement: eugenics and medicine in imperial Russia.

    PubMed

    Krementsov, Nikolai

    2015-01-01

    This essay examines the 'infiltration' of eugenics into Russian medical discourse during the formation of the eugenics movement in western Europe and North America in 1900-17. It describes the efforts of two Russian physicians, the bacteriologist and hygienist Nikolai Gamaleia (1859-1949) and the psychiatrist Tikhon Iudin (1879-1949), to introduce eugenics to the Russian medical community, analysing in detail what attracted these representatives of two different medical specialties to eugenic ideas, ideals, and policies advocated by their western colleagues. On the basis of a close examination of the similarities and differences in Gamaleia's and Iudin's attitudes to eugenics, the essay argues that lack of cohesiveness gave the early eugenics movement a unique strength. The loose mix of widely varying ideas, ideals, methods, policies, activities and proposals covered by the umbrella of eugenics offered to a variety of educated professionals in Russia and elsewhere the possibility of choosing, adopting and adapting particular elements to their own national, professional, institutional and disciplinary contexts, interests and agendas.

  3. [Neurosciences and the ravings of the Soviet era. Spanish Republican physicians, a set of privileged witnesses].

    PubMed

    Marco-Igual, Miguel

    2011-08-16

    This study analyses the links between the Russian and Soviet neurosciences and their Spanish counterpart, especially with regard to the experiences of the Spanish Republican physicians exiled in the USSR. The Russian neurosciences, which date back to the second half of the 19th century, followed a path that ran parallel to the discipline throughout the rest of Europe and finally displayed signs of being influenced by the German and French schools. Important figures include Alexei Kojevnikov and Vladimir Bekhterev in neurology, Sergei Korsakov in psychiatry, Ivan Pavlov and his disciple Piotr Anojin in neurophysiology, Lev Vygotsky and Alexander Luria in neuropsychology, and Nikolai Burdenko in neurosurgery. When the Bolsheviks came to power, they brought with them a progressive conception of health care, which was modified during the Stalinist era to serve political interests, above all in the case of psychiatry. During the first third of the 20th century, Spanish scientists became interested in Pavlov's reflexology and the Soviets took a similar interest in Spanish histology. Among the 4500 Spanish Republicans who emigrated to the USSR because of the Spanish Civil War, there were several dozen physicians who were privileged witnesses of the madness that shook the science and the health care of that period. Relevant names worth citing here from the field of the neurosciences include Juan Planelles and Ramon Alvarez-Buylla in neurophysiology, Federico Pascual and Florencio Villa Landa in psychiatry, Angel Escobio and Maria Perez in neurology, Julian Fuster in neurosurgery and Manuel Arce in neuroimaging.

  4. STS-113 Post Flight Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The STS-113 post-flight presentation begins with a view of Mission Specialists Michael E. Lopez-Alegria and John B. Herrington getting suited for the space mission. The STS-113 crew consists of: Commander James D. Wetherbee, Pilot Paul Lockhart, Mission Specialists Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington. Cosmonauts Valery Korzun, and Sergei Treschev, and astronaut Peggy Whitson who are all members of the expedition five crew, and Commander Kenneth Bowersox, Flight Engineers Nikolai Budarin and Donald Pettit, members of Expedition Six. The main goal of this mission is to take Expedition Six up to the International Space Station and Return Expedition Five to the Earth. The second objective is to install the P(1) Truss segment. Three hours prior to launch, the crew of Expedition Six along with James Wetherbee, Paul Lockhart, Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington are shown walking to an astrovan, which takes them to the launch pad. The actual liftoff is presented. Three Extravehicular Activities (EVA)'s are performed on this mission. Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington are shown performing EVA 1 and EVA 2 which include making connections between the P1 and S(0) Truss segments, and installing fluid jumpers. A panoramic view of the ISS with the Earth in the background is shown. The grand ceremony of the crew exchange is presented. The astronauts performing everyday duties such as brushing teeth, washing hair, sleeping, and eating pistachio nuts are shown. The actual landing of the Space Shuttle is presented.

  5. The New High Ground: An Analysis of Space-Based Systems in the Information Revolution'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Olivia S.

    2002-09-01

    The Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) was developed in 1989 by Andrew Marshall of the Office of Net Assessment in Washington. Based on Marshal Nikolai Ogarkov's doctrine of the Military-Technical Revolution, the RMA is defined as: A major change in the nature of warfare brought about by the innovative application of new technologies which, combined with dramatic changes in military doctrine, operations, and organizational concepts, fundamentally alters the character and conduct of military operations. Though no official definition exists, these requirements of technological innovation, new doctrine and operations concepts, and organizational change were used in the analysis of the 1991 Gulf War, resulting in the conclusion of the existence of a new RMA. Known as the Information Revolution, this RMA is centered on stealth technology, precision munitions, advanced sensors and increased communications, command, control, computer and intelligence (C4I). From these advancements, doctrinal development has taken place in both joint and service centered documents. These new doctrines have introduced the operational concepts of dominant maneuver, precision engagement, focused logistics and full-dimensional protection, culminating in the new core competency of full-spectrum dominance. Organizational changes to allow for the achievement of these new concepts consists of an increased focus on inter-service connectivity for joint operations and the mutation of the traditional military hierarchy into smaller, more mobile forces deployable for rapid reactions and tailored to the specific threat.

  6. Spectroscopic study of the microbial community in chemocline zones of relic meromictic lakes separating from the White Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharcheva, Anastasia V.; Krasnova, Elena D.; Voronov, Dmitry A.; Patsaeva, Svetlana V.

    2015-03-01

    As a result of a recent years study on the Karelia shore of the White Sea more than ten relict lakes in different stages of separation from the sea have been discovered. Five of them are located close to the Nikolai Pertsov White Sea Biological Station of Moscow State University. Such separated lakes are interesting to explore for their firm vertical stratification. Water layers differ not only by temperature, salinity and other physic and chemical characteristics and optical properties, but also by ibhabiting microorganisms and by the quality of dissolved organic matter. To study phototropic organisms in water sampled from different depths we used spectroscopic techniques. Identification of the main bands in the absorption and fluorescence spectra showed that there are two main groups of photosynthetic organisms in the redox zone (chemocline): unicellular algae containing chlorophyll a and green sulfur bacteria with bacteriochlorophylls c, d, e. Spectral data were compared with physical and chemical characteristics of the water layer (temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen and sunlight illumination at certain depth). It gave an opportunity to compare vertical profiles of oxygen and hydrogen sulphide concentration with the number and distribution of oxygenic and anoxygenic phototrophic microorganisms. Maximum abundance of both algae and green sulfur bacteria were achieved within the redox zone. Typical thickness of the layer with the highest concentration of microorganisms did not exceed 10-20 cm.

  7. Fourth Report of the Task Force on the Shuttle-Mir Rendezvous and Docking Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    On December 6, 1994, the NASA Administrator, Mr. Daniel Goldin, requested that Lt. Gen. Thomas P. Stafford, in his role as the Chairman of the NASA Advisory Council Task Force on the Shuttle-Mir Rendezvous and Docking Missions, lead a team composed of several Task Force members and technical advisors' to Russia with the goal of reviewing preparations and readiness for the upcoming international Space Station Phase 1 missions. In his directions to Gen. Stafford, Mr. Goldin requested that the review team focus its initial efforts on safety of flight issues for the following Phase 1A missions: the Soyuz TM-21 mission which will carry U.S. astronaut Dr. Norman Thagard and cosmonauts Lt. Col. Vladimir Dezhurov and Mr. Gennady Strekalov aboard a Soyuz spacecraft to the Mir Station; the Mir 18 Main Expedition during which Thagard and his fellow cosmonauts, Dezhurov and Strokalov, will spend approximately three months aboard the Mir Station; the STS-71 Space Shuttle mission which will perform the first Shuttle-Mir docking, carry cosmonauts Col. Anatoly SoloViev and Mr. Nikolai Budarin to the Mir Station, and return Thagard, Dezhurov, and Strekalov to Earth.

  8. Maximum Jailbreak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singleton, B.

    First formulated one hundred and fifty years ago by the heretical scholar Nikolai Federov, the doctrine of cosmism begins with an absolute refusal to treat the most basic factors conditioning life on Earth ­ gravity and death ­ as necessary constraints on action. As manifest through the intoxicated cheers of its early advocates that humans should storm the heavens and conquer death, cosmism's foundational gesture was to conceive of the earth as a trap. Its duty was therefore to understand the duty of philosophy, economics and design to be the creation of means to escape it. This could be regarded as a jailbreak at the maximum possible scale, a heist in which the human species could steal itself from the vault of the Earth. After several decades of relative disinterest new space ventures are inspiring scientific, technological and popular imaginations, this essay explores what kind of cosmism might be constructed today. In this paper cosmism's position as a means of escape is both reviewed and evaluated by reflecting on the potential of technology that actually can help us achieve its aims and also through the lens and state-ofthe-art philosophy of accelerationism, which seeks to outrun modern tropes by intensifying them.

  9. KSC-03PD-1266

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- Building 254, Soyuz Integration Facility. Cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko (right), Expedition Seven commander, and astronaut Edward T. Lu, NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer for Expedition Seven, pause for a photograph after the Soyuz inspection, seat liner check. Malenchenko and Lu were named as the primary crew, Expedition 7, for the launch to the International Space Station. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS- 114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  10. KSC-03PD-1270

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- The Soyuz rocket is rolled out of the assembly building and travels via rail to the launch pad. Expedition Seven is scheduled to launch onboard the Soyuz April 26, 2003. Cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko, commander, and astronaut Ed Lu, NASA science officer and flight engineer, were named as the primary crew, Expedition 7, for the launch to the International Space Station. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  11. KSC-03PD-1253

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan. Building 254, Soyuz Integration Facility. Astronaut Edward T. Lu, NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer for Expedition Seven, dons his Russian Sokol suit for the leak check and Soyuz inspection, seat liner check. Veteran Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko and veteran NASA astronaut Ed Lu have been named as the primary crew for the planned April 26, 2003, launch of a Russian Soyuz TMA-2 spacecraft to the International Space Station. Malenchenko and Lu will be called the Expedition 7 crew. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  12. KSC-03PD-1269

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- Cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko (foreground), Expedition Seven commander, and astronaut Edward T. Lu, NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer for Expedition Seven, walk down the Soyuz stand after the Soyuz inspection, seat liner checkMalenchenko and Lu were named as the primary crew, Expedition 7, for the launch to the International Space Station. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  13. KSC-03PD-1271

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- The Soyuz rocket is rolled out of the assembly building and travels via rail to the launch pad. Expedition Seven is scheduled to launch onboard the Soyuz April 26, 2003. Cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko, commander, and astronaut Ed Lu, NASA science officer and flight engineer, were named as the primary crew, Expedition 7, for the launch to the International Space Station. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  14. KSC-03PD-1267

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- Building 254, Soyuz Integration Facility. Cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko (foreground), Expedition Seven commander, and astronaut Edward T. Lu, NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer, walk out for Soyuz inspection, seat liner check. The Soyuz is in the workstand in the background. Malenchenko and Lu were named as the primary crew, Expedition 7, for the launch to the International Space Station. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  15. KSC-03PD-1272

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- The Soyuz rocket is erected at the launch pad. Expedition Seven is scheduled to launch onboard the Soyuz April 26, 2003. Cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko, commander, and astronaut Ed Lu, NASA science officer and flight engineer, were named as the primary crew, Expedition 7, for the launch to the International Space Station. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  16. KSC-03PD-1262

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- Building 254, Soyuz Integration Facility. Astronaut Edward T. Lu, NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer for Expedition Seven, has a leak check performed on the Russian Sokol suit. Veteran Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko and veteran NASA astronaut Ed Lu have been named as the primary crew for the planned April 26, 2003, launch of a Russian Soyuz TMA-2 spacecraft to the International Space Station. Malenchenko and Lu will be called the Expedition 7 crew. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  17. Kardashev's Classification at 50+: A Fine Vehicle With Room for Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćirković, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    We review the history and status of the famous classification of extraterrestrial civilizations given by the great Russian astrophysicist Nikolai Semenovich Kardashev, roughly half a century after it has been proposed. While Kardashev's classification (or Kardashev's scale) has often been seen as oversimplified, and multiple improvements, refinements, and alternatives to it have been suggested, it is still one of the major tools for serious theoretical investigation of SETI issues. During these 50+ years, several attempts at modifying or reforming the classification have been made; we review some of them here, together with presenting some of the scenarios which present difficulties to the standard version. Recent results in both theoretical and observational SETI studies, especially the {Ĝ infrared survey (2014-2015), have persuasively shown that the emphasis on detectability inherent in Kardashev's classification obtains new significance and freshness. Several new movements and conceptual frameworks, such as the Dysonian SETI, tally extremely well with these developments. So, the apparent simplicity of the classification is highly deceptive: Kardashev's work offers a wealth of still insufficiently studied methodological and epistemological ramifications and it remains, in both letter and spirit, perhaps the worthiest legacy of the SETI "founding fathers".

  18. Hydrologic and mass-movement hazards near McCarthy Wrangell-St Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, S.H.; Glass, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    At the confluence of McCarthy Creek and the Kennicott River, about 1 mile from the terminus of Kennicott Glacier, Alaska, McCarthy Creek and Kennicott River basins are prone to several natural hazards including floods; formation and failure of natural dams; stream erosion and sediment deposi- tion; snow avalanches; aufeis; and the mass wasting of rock, soil, and debris. Low-lying areas along the Kennicott River flood annually, commonly during late July or early August, as a result of outbursts from glacier-dammed lakes, but these floods can occur during any month of the year. Flood plains along McCarthy Creek and its tributaries are frequently flooded and prone to rapid erosion and deposition during intense rainfall and periods of rapid snow- melt. Sediments from continual mass wasting accumu- late in stream channels and are mobilized during floods. Several lateral erosion, scour, and deposition resulting from floods in September 1980 and August 1985 destroyed bridges and several historic structures at McCarthy were jeopardized by the rapidly eroding northern streambank of McCarthy Creek. Flood discharges were determined indirectly using the slope-area method at two high-gradient reaches on the Kennicott River, four on McCarthy Creek, and one on Nikolai Creek. During the flood of September 13, 1980, peak discharge for McCarthy Creek at McCarthy was 4,500 cubic feet per second.

  19. Clone and functional analysis of Seryl-tRNA synthetase and Tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase from silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jingsheng; Tian, Jianghai; Li, Fanchi; Xue, Bin; Hu, Jiahuan; Cheng, Xiaoyu; Li, Jinxin; Shen, Weide; Li, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are the key enzymes for protein synthesis. Glycine, alanine, serine and tyrosine are the major amino acids composing fibroin of silkworm. Among them, the genes of alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AlaRS) and glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS) have been cloned. In this study, the seryl-tRNA synthetase (SerRS) and tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS) genes from silkworm were cloned. Their full length are 1709 bp and 1868 bp and contain open reading frame (ORF) of 1485 bp and 1575 bp, respectively. RT-PCR examination showed that the transcription levels of SerRS, TyrRS, AlaRS and GlyRS are significantly higher in silk gland than in other tissues. In addition, their transcription levels are much higher in middle and posterior silk gland than in anterior silk gland. Moreover, treatment of silkworms with phoxim, an inhibitor of silk protein synthesis, but not TiO2 NP, an enhancer of silk protein synthesis, significantly reduced the transcription levels of aaRS and content of free amino acids in posterior silk gland, therefore affecting silk protein synthesis, which may be the mechanism of phoxim-silking disorders. Furthermore, low concentration of TiO2 NPs showed no effect on the transcription of aaRS and content of free amino acids, suggesting that TiO2 NPs promotes silk protein synthesis possibly by increasing the activity of fibroin synthase in silkworm. PMID:28134300

  20. Eppur Si Muove: Evidence for an External Granular Layer and Possibly Transit Amplification in the Teleostean Cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Biechl, Daniela; Dorigo, Alessandro; Köster, Reinhard W.; Grothe, Benedikt; Wullimann, Mario F.

    2016-01-01

    The secreted signaling factor Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) acts in the floor plate of the developing vertebrate CNS to promote motoneuron development. In addition, shh has dorsal expression domains in the amniote alar plate (i.e., in isocortex, superior colliculus, and cerebellum). For example, shh expressing Purkinje cells act in transit amplification of external granular layer (EGL) cells of the developing cerebellum. Our previous studies had indicated the presence of an EGL in anamniote zebrafish, but a possible role of shh in the zebrafish cerebellar plate remained elusive. Therefore, we used an existing zebrafish transgenic line Tg(2.4shha-ABC-GFP)sb15; Shkumatava et al., 2004) to show this gene activity and its cellular localization in the larval zebrafish brain. Clearly, GFP expressing cells occur in larval alar zebrafish brain domains, i.e., optic tectum and cerebellum. Analysis of critical cerebellar cell markers on this transgenic background and a PH3 assay for mitotic cells reveals that Purkinje cells and eurydendroid cells are completely non-overlapping postmitotic cell populations. Furthermore, shh-GFP cells never express Zebrin II or parvalbumin, nor calretinin. They are thus neither Purkinje cells nor calretinin positive migrating rhombic lip derived cells. The shh-GFP cells also never correspond to PH3 positive cells of the ventral cerebellar proliferative zone or the upper rhombic lip-derived EGL. From this marker analysis and the location of shh-GFP cells sandwiched between calretinin positive rhombic lip derived cells and parvalbumin positive Purkinje cells, we conclude that shh-GFP expressing cells qualify as previously reported olig2 positive eurydendroid cells, which are homologous to the amniote deep cerebellar nuclei. We confirm this using double transgenic progeny of shh-GFP and olig2-dsRed zebrafish. Thus, these zebrafish eurydendroid cells may have the same role in transit amplification as Purkinje cells do in amniotes. PMID:27199681

  1. The effect of Le Fort I maxillary impaction on nasal airway resistance.

    PubMed

    Guenthner, T A; Sather, A H; Kern, E B

    1984-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of maxillary superior movement via Le Fort I osteotomy on nasal airway resistance, eleven Caucasian patients whose surgical orthodontic treatment included Le Fort I impaction (range 2 to 8 mm, mean 5.3 mm) were selected. Nasal airway resistance in these patients was determined a few days before and approximately 8 weeks after the Le Fort I surgical procedure. Nasal airway resistance was determined by means of a uninasal active mask rhinomanometric technique. Contrary to the predicted negative effects of maxillary superior movement on nasal airway function, there was a statistically significant improvement in nasal airway resistance (P less than 0.01) after maxillary superior movement. This rather unexpected finding can be explained by examining the effect of maxillary superior movement on the nasal valve area in the anterior nose. The nasal valve area is a teardrop-shaped area bordered by the nasal septum, the caudal end of the upper lateral nasal cartilage, the floor of the nose, and the soft fibrofatty tissue on the lateral aspect of the nose. The apex of the teardrop-shaped area (the angle between the nasal septum and the upper lateral cartilage) is called the nasal valve. In the Caucasian type of nose, the nasal valve accounts for most of the inspiratory resistance to airflow. Maxillary superior movement increases the alar width. It is proposed that this increase in alar width is transmitted at least partially to the nasal valve angle, causing it to widen slightly, paradoxically reducing nasal airway resistance while reducing skeletal intranasal dimensions.

  2. The conserved barH-like homeobox-2 gene barhl2 acts downstream of orthodentricle-2 and together with iroquois-3 in establishment of the caudal forebrain signaling center induced by Sonic Hedgehog.

    PubMed

    Juraver-Geslin, Hugo A; Gómez-Skarmeta, José Luis; Durand, Béatrice C

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the gene regulatory network that governs formation of the Zona limitans intrathalamica (ZLI), a signaling center that secretes Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) to control the growth and regionalization of the caudal forebrain. Using loss- and gain-of-function, explants and grafting experiments in amphibians, we demonstrate that barhl2 acts downstream of otx2 and together with the iroquois (irx)-3 gene in establishment of the ZLI compartment initiated by Shh influence. We find that the presumptive (pre)-ZLI domain expresses barhl2, otx2 and irx3, whereas the thalamus territory caudally bordering the pre-ZLI expresses barhl2, otx2 and irx1/2 and early on irx3. We demonstrate that Barhl2 activity is required for determination of the ZLI and thalamus fates and that within the p2 alar plate the ratio of Irx3 to Irx1/2 contributes to ZLI specification and size determination. We show that when continuously exposed to Shh, neuroepithelial cells coexpressing barhl2, otx2 and irx3 acquire two characteristics of the ZLI compartment-the competence to express shh and the ability to segregate from anterior neural plate cells. In contrast, neuroepithelial cells expressing barhl2, otx2 and irx1/2, are not competent to express shh. Noteworthy in explants, under Shh influence, ZLI-like cells segregate from thalamic-like cells. Our study establishes that Barhl2 activity plays a key role in p2 alar plate patterning, specifically ZLI formation, and provides new insights on establishment of the signaling center of the caudal forebrain.

  3. Cognitive deficits and ALA-D-inhibition in children exposed to multiple metals.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Sabrina N; Barth, Anelise; Göethel, Gabriela; Baierle, Marília; Charão, Mariele F; Brucker, Natália; Moro, Angela M; Bubols, Guilherme B; Sobreira, Johanna S; Sauer, Elisa; Rocha, Rafael; Gioda, Adriana; Dias, Ana Cristina; Salles, Jerusa F; Garcia, Solange C

    2015-01-01

    Children are especially vulnerable to adverse effects of multiple metals exposure. The aim of this study was to assess some metals concentrations such as lead (Pb), arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) in whole blood, serum, hair and drinking water samples using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in rural and urban children. In addition, evaluate the adverse effects of multiple metals exposure on cognitive function and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) activity. The cognitive ability assessment was performed by the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM) test. The ALA-D activity and ALA-D reactivation index (ALA-RE) activity with DTT and ZnCl2 also were determined. Forty-six rural children and 23 urban children were enrolled in this study. Rural children showed percentile IQ scores in the RCPM test significantly decreased in relation to urban children. According to multiple linear regression analysis, the Mn and Fe in hair may account for the cognitive deficits of children. Manganese and Fe in hair also were positively correlated with Mn and Fe in drinking water, respectively. These results suggest that drinking water is possibly a source of metals exposure in children. ALA-D activity was decreased and ALA-RE with DTT and ZnCl2 was increased in rural children in comparison to urban children. Moreover, ALA-D inhibition was correlated with Cr blood levels and ALA-RE/DDT and ALA-RE/ZnCl2 were correlated with levels of Cr and Hg in blood. Thus, our results indicated some adverse effects of children's exposure to multiple metals, such as cognitive deficits and ALA-D inhibition, mainly associated to Mn, Fe, Cr and Hg.

  4. Aspects of Symmetry in de Sitter Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Gim Seng

    We study various aspects of symmetry in four-dimensional de Sitter space (dS4). The asymptotic symmetry group at future null infinity (I+) of dS4 is shown to be given by the group of three-dimensional diffeomorphisms acting on I+. However, for physics relevant to an eternal observatory in dS4, we should instead impose unconventional future boundary conditions at I+. These boundary conditions violate conventional causality, but we argue the causality violations cannot be detected by any experiment in the observatory. As the next step, we study the relevant dynamics in quantum dS4 by illuminating some previously inaccessible aspects of the dS/CFT dictionary in the context of the higher spin dS4/CFT3 correspondence relating Vasiliev's higher-spin gravity on dS4 to a Euclidean Sp(N) CFT3 . We found that CFT3 states created by operator insertions are found to be dual to (anti) quasinormal modes (QNM) in the bulk. A R-norm is defined on the R3 bulk Hilbert space and shown for the scalar case to be equivalent to both the Zamolodchikov and pseudounitary C-norm of the Sp(N) CFT3. The QNMs are found to lie in two complex highest-weight representations of the dS4 isometry group and form a complete orthogonal basis with respect to the R-norm. The conventional Euclidean vacuum may be defined as the state annihilated by half of the QNMs, and the Euclidean Green function is obtained from a simple mode sum. Finally, as a step towards understanding non-linear dynamics of dS 4 we study both linear and non-linear deformations of dS4 which leave the induced conformal metric and trace of the extrinsic curvature unchanged for a fixed hypersurface. These deformations are required to be regular at the future horizon of the static patch observer. When the slices are arbitrarily close to the cosmological horizon, the finite deformations are characterized by solutions to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation.

  5. E906/SeaQuest MARS15 Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, David; Geelhoed, Mike; /Fermilab

    2011-02-01

    The E906/SeaQuest spectrometer is designed to measure high energy muons produced in the forward direction by interactions of the 120 GeV Main Injector proton beam with a variety of targets. The spectrometer consists of two dipole magnets (both of which deflect charged particles in the horizontal plane) and a collection of tracking detectors. The first spectrometer magnet (FMAG) is a solid iron magnet. This magnet serves as a beam dump as well as a muon analysis magnet. A series of MARS15 simulations were done by Nikolai Mokhov to verify and guide the design of concrete shielding around FMAG and the target area immediately upstream of FMAG. The result of the fourth and last round of simulations is summarized here. This was a high statistics simulation that required approximately 48 cpu-weeks of computing time on the APC Energy Deposition Group cluster. The MARS15 simulation used a model of FMAG and its surroundings. The model includes air gaps in the concrete shielding, the largest of which are required because of the geometry of the saddle coils. A small volume surrounding the beam line just upstream of the magnet is filled with borated polyethylene. The borated polyethylene extends into the air gap necessitated by the saddle coils. With the exception of the top layer of six 'H' blocks, the concrete shielding is modeled in detail. The top layer of blocks are intended to shield the roof and downstream end of NM4 in the event of a loss of beam accident well upstream of the target; they provide only a small benefit in the normal running condition simulated by MARS.

  6. Ernst Julius Öpik's (1916) note on the theory of explosion cratering on the Moon's surface—The complex case of a long-overlooked benchmark paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racki, Grzegorz; Koeberl, Christian; Viik, Tõnu; Jagt-Yazykova, Elena A.; Jagt, John W. M.

    2014-10-01

    High-velocity impact as a common phenomenon in planetary evolution was ignored until well into the twentieth century, mostly because of inadequate understanding of cratering processes. An eight-page note, published in Russian by the young Ernst Julius Öpik, a great Estonian astronomer, was among the key selenological papers, but due to the language barrier, it was barely known and mostly incorrectly cited. This particular paper is here intended to serve as an explanatory supplement to an English translation of Öpik's article, but also to document an early stage in our understanding of cratering. First, we outline the historical-biographical background of this benchmark paper, and second, a comprehensive discussion of its merits is presented, from past and present perspectives alike. In his theoretical research, Öpik analyzed the explosive formation of craters numerically, albeit in a very simple way. For the first time, he approximated relationships among minimal meteorite size, impact energy, and crater diameter; this scaling focused solely on the gravitational energy of excavating the crater (a "useful" working approach). This initial physical model, with a rational mechanical basis, was developed in a series of papers up to 1961. Öpik should certainly be viewed as the founder of the numerical simulation approach in planetary sciences. In addition, the present note also briefly describes Nikolai A. Morozov as a remarkable man, a forgotten Russian scientist and, surprisingly, the true initiator of Öpik's explosive impact theory. In fact, already between 1909 and 1911, Morozov probably was the first to consider conclusively that explosion craters would be circular, bowl-shaped depressions even when formed under different impact angles.

  7. Bortnikovite, Pd4Cu3Zn, a new mineral species from the unique Konder placer deposit, Khabarovsk krai, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochalov, A. G.; Tolkachev, M. D.; Polekhovsky, Yu. S.; Goryacheva, E. M.

    2007-08-01

    Bortnikovite, a new mineral species that is an intermetallic compound of Pd, Cu, and Zn with the simplified formula Pd4Cu3Zn has been detected at the unique Konder placer deposit in the Ayan-Maya district, Khabarovsk krai. The primary source of this placer is a concentrically zoned alkaline ultramafic massif. The X-ray diffraction pattern is indexed on the assumption of a tetragonal unit cell: a = 6.00 ± 0.02 Å and c = 8.50 ± 0.03 Å, V = 306 ± 0.01 Å3, Z = 3, probable space group P4/mmm. The calculated density is 11.16 g/cm3; the mean microhardness VHN is 368 kg/mm2. In reflected light, the new mineral is white with a slight grayish beige tint; bireflectance, anisotropy, and internal reflections are not observed. The reflectance spectrum belongs to the concave group of the anomalous type. The measured values of reflectance are as follows: 56.9 (470 nm), 61.7 (546 nm), 63.4 (589 nm), and 65.4% (650 nm). The new mineral is intergrown with isoferroplatinum, titanite, perovskite, V-bearing magnetite, bornite, and chlorite. The origin of bortnikovite is related to the effect of alkaline fluid on ultramafic rocks. The new mineral is named in honor of Professor Nikolai Stefanovich Bortnikov, a prominent mineralogist and researcher of ore deposits and a corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Bortnikovite is the first platinum group mineral that contains Zn as a major mineralforming element.

  8. Electrical Transport and Thermal Expansion in van der Waals Materials: Graphene and Topological Insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Lei

    Novel two-dimensional materials with weak interlayer Van der Waals interaction are fantastic platforms to study novel physical phenomena. This thesis describes our investigation on two different Van der Waals materials: graphene and bismuth selenide with calcium doping (CaxBi 2-xSe3, x as the doping level) in the topological insulator family. Firstly, we characterize the electrical transport behaviors of high-quality substrate-supported bilayer graphene devices with suspended metal gates. The device exhibits a transport gap induced by external electric field with an on/off ratio of 20,000, which could be explained by variable range hoping between localized states or disordered charge puddles. At large magnetic field, the device presents quantum Hall plateau at fractional values of conductance quantum, which arises from the equilibration of edge states between differentially doped regions. Secondly, we present our study on the electronic transport of CaxBi 2-xSe3 thin films, which are three-dimensional topological insulators and coupled with superconducting leads. In these novel Josephson transistors, we observe different characteristic features by energy dispersion spectrum (EDS) and Raman spectroscopy, and the weak suppression in the critical current Ic. Thirdly, we explore the thermal expansion of suspended graphene. By in-situ scanning electron microscope (SEM), we measure the thickness-dependence of graphene's negative thermal expansion coefficient (TEC). We propose that there is a competitive relation between the intrinsic TEC and the friction from the substrate and the graphene. Lastly, in collaboration with Dr. Nikolai Kalugin from New Mexico Tech., we explore the graphene's application as a quantum Hall effect infrared photodetector. This graphene-based detector can be operated at higher temperature (liquid nitrogen) and wider frequency than the previous implementations of quantum Hall detector.

  9. Petrology and tectonic significance of gabbros, tonalites, shoshonites, and anorthosites in a late Paleozoic arc-root complex in the Wrangellia Terrane, southern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, J.S. ); Barker, F. )

    1989-11-01

    Plutonic rocks intrusive into the late Paleozoic Tetelna Formation of southern Alaska are the underpinnings of the late Paleozoic Skolai arc of the Wrangellia Terrane. There are four groups of intrusive rocks within the Skolai arc: (1) Gabbro-diorite plutons that contain gabbroic to anorthositic cumulates along with a differentiated series of gabbros and diorites of basaltic to andesitic composition; (2) Silicic intrusions including tonalite, granodiorite, and granite; (3) Monzonitic to syenitic plutonic rocks of the Ahtell complex and related dikes and sills; (4) Fault-bounded bytownite anorthosite of uncertain age and association. These anorthosites may be related to post-Skolai, Nikolai Greenstone magmatism. The silicic rocks yield discordant U-Pb zircon ages of 290-320 Ma (early to late Pennsylvanian). The monzonitic rocks of the Ahtell complex have shoshonitic chemistry. Similar shoshonitic rocks are widespread in both the Wrangellia terrane and the neighboring Alexander terrane and intrude the contact between the two. In modern oceanic arcs, shoshonitic rocks are typically associated with tectonic instability occurring during the initial stages of subduction or just prior to or during termination or flip of an established subduction zone. The nature of any tectonic instability which may have led to the cessation of subduction in the Skolai arc is unclear. Possibilities include collision of the arc with a ridge, an oceanic plateau, another arc, or a continental fragment. One possibility is that the shoshonitic magmatism marks the late Paleozoic amalgamation of Wrangellia and the Alexander terrane. The scarcity of arc rocks predating the shoshonites in the Alexander terrane supports this possibility, but structural corroboration is lacking.

  10. Low-dimensional control: tonus (1963).

    PubMed

    Meijer, O G; Kots, Y M; Edgerton, V R

    2001-01-01

    In 1963, an article on "Tonus" (tone), written by Nikolai A. Bernstein and Yakov M. Kots, appeared in the second edition of the Bols'aja Medicinskaja Enciclopedija [Grand Medical Encyclopedia]. The paper is now published for the first time in the English language, with Mark L. Latash as translator. In accordance with then contemporary neurophysiology and neuropsychology, the paper presented "tone" as a graded phenomenon (as opposed to all-or-none), serving to prepare the segmental level for phasic contractions. Influenced by Granit and Matthews, the authors proposed that the suprasegmental level controls the threshold and the slope of the stretch reflex. In their introduction to the present edition, the editors understand this proposal in the context of low-dimensional control, that is, control in terms of one or a few variables (as opposed to central commands specifying all the details). Selected episodes from the history of low dimensional control and its logical counterpart, spinal intelligence, are used to illustrate how difficult these ideas were to accept. As so often in new scientific developments, confusion was the rule, and in this respect the paper on "Tonus" is no exception. In the epilogue, Kots gives his personal memories of the context in which the paper was written. At the time, he was working on "equitonometry" (equi-tono-metry), measuring tonic balance with gravity eliminated. Results of equitonometric research quite naturally led to the idea that suprasegmental centers control the threshold and the slope of the tonic stretch reflex. As Kots remembers, that was "no big deal".

  11. The 100th anniversary of the birth of N E Alekseevskii (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 23 May 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-02-01

    The scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) commemorating the 100th anniversary of the birth of RAS Corresponding Member N E Alekseevskii took place on 23 May 2012 at the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS. The following reports were put on the session agenda as posted on the website http://www.gpad.ac.ru of the RAS Physical Sciences Division: (1) Kopaev Yu V (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "About N E Alekseevskii" (2) Brandt N B (Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow) "My teacher Nikolai Evgen'evich Alekseevskii"; (3) Peschansky V G (B I Verkin Physical-Technical Institute of Low Temperatures of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkov, Ukraine) "Galvanomagnetic effects in layered conductors"; (4) Krasnoperov E P (The National Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute', Moscow) "First steps of technical superconductivity in the USSR"; (5) Nizhankovsky V I (International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures, Wroclaw, Poland), Tsebro V I (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "History of creation and growth of the International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures".Papers written on the basis of oral presentations 2 - 5 are printed below. • The best years of my life, N B Brandt Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 2, Pages 192-198 • Galvanomagnetic phenomena in layered conductors, V G Peschansky Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 2, Pages 198-201 • At the origins of applied superconductivity, E P Krasnoperov Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 2, Pages 202-204 • International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures: how it was set up and how it evolved, V I Nizhankovskii, V I Tsebro Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 2, Pages 204-210

  12. Costs and deaths of landslides in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haque, Ubydul; Blum, Philipp

    2016-04-01

    Landslides cause human and large economic losses worldwide and also in Europe. However, the quantification of associated costs and deaths is highly underestimated and still incomplete, thus the estimation of landslide costs and risk is still rather ambitious. Hence, in this study a spatio-temporal analysis of fatal landslides is presented for 27 European countries from 1995-2014. These landslides are mainly concentrated in mountainous areas. A total of 1370 fatalities are reported resulting from 476 landslides. The highest fatalities with 335 are observed in Turkey. In general, an increasing trend of fatal landslides is recognized starting in 2008. The latter is almost certainly triggered by an increase in natural extreme events such as storms (i.e. heavy rainfall) and floods. The highest annual economic loss is observed in Italy with 3.9 billion Euro per year. In contrast, in Germany the annual total loss is only about 0.3 billion Euro. The results of this study serves as an initial baseline information for further risk studies integrating landslide locations, local land use data, cost data, and will therefore certainly support the studied countries to better protect their citizens and assets. Acknowledgements We would like to acknowledge the valuable contributions by Paula F. da Silva, Peter Andersen, Jürgen Pilz, Ali Ardalan, Sergey R. Chalov, Jean-Philippe Malet, Mateja Jemec Auflič, Norina Andres, Eleftheria Poyiadji, Pedro C. Lamas, Wenyi Zhang, Igor Pesevski, Halldór G. Pétursson, Tayfun Kurt, Nikolai Dobrev, Juan Carlos García Davalillo, Matina Halkia, Stefano Ferri, George Gaprindashvili, Johanna Engström and David Keellings.

  13. The geophysical character of southern Alaska-Implications for crustal evolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saltus, R.W.; Hudson, T.L.; Wilson, F.H.

    2007-01-01

    The southern Alaska continental margin has undergone a long and complicated history of plate convergence, subduction, accretion, and margin-parallel displacements. The crustal character of this continental margin is discernible through combined analysis of aeromagnetic and gravity data with key constraints from previous seismic interpretation. Regional magnetic data are particularly useful in defining broad geophysical domains. One of these domains, the south Alaska magnetic high, is the focus of this study. It is an intense and continuous magnetic high up to 200 km wide and ∼1500 km long extending from the Canadian border in the Wrangell Mountains west and southwest through Cook Inlet to the Bering Sea shelf. Crustal thickness beneath the south Alaska magnetic high is commonly 40–50 km. Gravity analysis indicates that the south Alaska magnetic high crust is dense. The south Alaska magnetic high spatially coincides with the Peninsular and Wrangellia terranes. The thick, dense, and magnetic character of this domain requires significant amounts of mafic rocks at intermediate to deep crustal levels. In Wrangellia these mafic rocks are likely to have been emplaced during Middle and (or) Late Triassic Nikolai Greenstone volcanism. In the Peninsular terrane, the most extensive period of mafic magmatism now known was associated with the Early Jurassic Talkeetna Formation volcanic arc. Thus the thick, dense, and magnetic character of the south Alaska magnetic high crust apparently developed as the response to mafic magmatism in both extensional (Wrangellia) and subduction-related arc (Peninsular terrane) settings. The south Alaska magnetic high is therefore a composite crustal feature. At least in Wrangellia, the crust was probably of average thickness (30 km) or greater prior to Triassic mafic magmatism. Up to 20 km (40%) of its present thickness may be due to the addition of Triassic mafic magmas. Throughout the south Alaska magnetic high, significant crustal growth

  14. Palynostratigraphical correlation of the excavated Miocene lignite seams of the Yataǧan basin (Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Grímsson, Friðgeir; Denk, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The excavated main lignite seams and overlying lacustrine sediments of the opencast mines Eskihisar, Salihpaşalar, and Tı naz, Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey were investigated using a high taxonomic resolution palynological approach. The Eskihisar section comprises 47m and 56 samples of which 30 were usable for palynological analysis. The Tı naz section comprises 75 m and 29 samples of which 15 were usable for palynological analysis. Finally, the Salihpaşalar section comprises 25 m and 26 samples of which 16 were usable for palynological analysis. The age of the palynological sections is middle to late Miocene based on radiometric dating and vertebrate fossils. In order to investigate dispersed pollen and spores and their botanical affinities a combined light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy approach was used. The rich palynoflora comprises: seven types of algal cysts (Botryococcus, Zygnemataceae), seventeen spore types belonging to Lycopsida (club mosses), Marsileaceae (water-clover), Osmundaceae, Pteridaceae (brake), and Polypodiaceae; 14 types of gymnosperm pollen belonging to Ephedraceae (Mormon tea), Cupressaceae, Pinaceae (Cathaya, cedar, hemlock, pine, spruce); five types of monocotyledone pollen belonging to Poaceae (grasses, common reed), and Typhaceae (bulrush, bur-reed); ca 90 dicotyledone pollen types belonging to Altingiaceae (sweet gum), Amaranthaceae (goosefoot), Anacardiaceae (sumac family), Apiaceae (parsley family), Aquifoliaceae (holly), Asteraceae (sunflower family), Betulaceae (alder, birch, hazel, hophornbeam, hornbeam), Campanulaceae (bellflower family), Cannabaceae (hackberries), Caprifoliaceae (honeysuckle, teasel family), Caryophyllaceae (pink family), Ericaceae (heather family), Eucommiaceae, Euphorbiaceae (spurge family), Fabaceae (bean family), Fagaceae (beech, oak), Geraniaceae (storkbills), Juglandaceae (hickory, walnut, wingnut), Lamiaceae (bagflower), Linaceae (flax), Lythraceae (waterwillow), Malvaceae

  15. Middle Miocene dispersals of apes.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Peter; Kelley, Jay

    2007-01-01

    The earliest record of fossil apes outside Africa is in the latest early Miocene of Turkey and eastern Europe. There were at least 2, and perhaps 4, species of ape, which were found associated with subtropical mixed environments of forest and more open woodland. Postcranial morphology is similar to that of early Miocene primates and indicates mainly generalized arboreal quadrupedal behaviours similar to those of less specialized New World monkeys such as Cebus. Robust jaws and thick enamelled teeth indicate a hard fruit diet. The 2 best known species of fossil ape are known from the site of Paşalar in Turkey. They have almost identical molar and jaw morphology. Molar morphology is also similar to that of specimens from Germany and Slovakia, but there are significant differences in the anterior teeth of the 2 Paşalar species. The more common species, Griphopithecus alpani, shares mainly primitive characters with early and middle Miocene apes in Africa, and it is most similar phenetically to Equatorius africanus from Maboko Island and Kipsaramon. The second species is assigned to a new species of Kenyapithecus, an African genus from Fort Ternan in Kenya, on the basis of a number of shared derived characters of the anterior dentition, and it is considered likely that there is a phylogenetic link between them. The African sites all date from the middle Miocene, similar in age to the Turkish and European ones, and the earliest emigration of apes from Africa coincides with the closure of the Tethys Sea preceding the Langhian transgression. Environments indicated for the African sites are mixtures of seasonal woodlands with some forest vegetation. The postcrania of both African taxa again indicate generalized arboreal adaptation but lacking specialized arboreal function. This middle Miocene radiation of both African and non-African apes was preceded by a radiation of arboreal catarrhine primates in the early Miocene, among which were the earliest apes. The earliest

  16. Outcome of modified turn in flaps for the lining with primary cartilage support in nasal reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Muhammad Mustehsan; Khan, Bilal Ahmad; Abbas, Muhammad; Khan, Farid Ahmad

    2013-03-01

    Turning in adjacent skin from the residual nose to line a full-thickness defect is still a controversial option. Text books continue to perpetuate that such flaps are poorly vascularized and may not survive if longer than 1.5 cm. The rationale of our study was to challenge the traditional thoughts about the turn-in flaps for the lining and describe our modified technique of raising these flaps so that well-vascularized thin tissue can be provided for the lining. The study was conducted at the Department of Plastic Surgery, KEMU, Lahore, from January 2007 to March 2011. Eighteen patients were included. They had posttraumatic full-thickness nasal defect of variable extent, involving the lower third of the nose. In the first stage of reconstruction, the epithelialized portion and 5-mm portion of normal adjoining skin were dermabraded. The residual skin of nasal dorsum, side walls, and alae was turned in to form inner lining of 2 nostrils. These flaps were based on healthy dermabraded skin to ensure adequate blood supply. Residual septal and conchal cartilages were used for primary support. Standard ipsilateral paramedian forehead flap with slight oblique design was used for resurfacing. Final assessment of airway patency and alar rim contour was made by the patient at 6 months as satisfactory, just satisfactory, and not satisfactory. There were 12 female and 6 male patients. There was necrosis of distal portion of the forehead flap in 1 case. Partial graft loss at the donor site with bone exposure was noted in another case. There was partial dehiscence and necrosis of turndown flap in 3cases. Mean flap size was 2.05 ± 0.28 cm. As regards airway patency, 12 patients were satisfied, 4 patients were just satisfied, and 2 patients were unsatisfied. When asked about alar rim contour, 3 patients said it to be satisfactory, 9 patients found it just satisfactory, and 6 patients declared it unsatisfactory. Nasal turndown flaps provide reliable tissue for the lining and allow

  17. Early Pleistocene climate cycles in continental deposits of the Lesser Caucasus of Armenia inferred from palynology, magnetostratigraphy, and 40Ar/39Ar dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joannin, Sebastien; Cornée, Jean-Jacques; Münch, Philippe; Fornari, Michel; Krijgsman, Wout; Nahapetyan, Samuel; Gabrielyan, Ivan; Ollivier, Vincent; Roiron, Paul; Chataignier, Christine

    2010-05-01

    obliquity orbital parameter. The influence of precession could not be established from the Shamb data. Pollen and macroflora both indicate that glacial periods were cold and dry and that interglacials were warm with local humidity. The early Pleistocene climatic model for Western Asia is thus similar to the climatic model for the Mediterranean area. Bruch, A., Gabrielyan, I.G., 2002. Quantitative data of the Neogene climatic development in Armenia and Nakhichevan. Acta Universitatis Carolinae - Geologica 46, 41-48. Joannin, S., Cornée, J.J., Münch, P., Fornari, M., Vasiliev, J., Krijgsman, W., Nahapetyan, S., Gabrielyan, Y., Ollivier, V., Roiron, P., Chataignier, C. In press. Early Pleistocene climatic cycles in continental deposits of the Lesser Caucasus of Armenia inferred from palynology, magnetostratigraphy, and 40Ar/39Ar dating. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. Mitchell, J., Westaway, R., 1999. Chronology of Neogene and Quaternary uplift and magmatism in the Caucasus: constraints from K-Ar dating of volcanism in Armenia. Tectonophysics 304, 157-186.

  18. Minerals and melt inclusions as keys to understanding magma reservoir processes during formation of volcanic and plutonic mafic-ultramafic complexes in the Maimecha Kotui Province (Polar Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonov, Vladimir; Vasiliev, Yurii; Kotlyarov, Alexey; Stupakov, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    Magmatic complexes in the Maimecha Kotui Province (Polar Siberia) attract attention of researchers because they contain ultramafic volcanic rocks - meimechites, being products of crystallization of the ultrabasic deep mantle melts (Sobolev et al., 1991, 2009, 2011; Ryabchikov et al., 2002; Vasiliev, Gora, 2014). Effusive meimechites together with intrusive dunites of the Guli massif form ancient (253-246 Ma) volcanic and plutonic association, in which also pyroxenites and alkaline rocks are situated. Conditions of formation of this association were established with the help of minerals and melt inclusions study. The cumulative structure of the Guli massif dunites consists of rather large (2-4 mm) olivine crystals and dividing them zones (0.5-0.7 mm), filled with fine grains of clinopyroxenes and ore minerals (magnetite, ilmenite and chromite). The extended forms of well faceted pyroxene crystals testify to their fast growth from melt between cumulative olivines. Thus, crystallization of clinopyroxenes and ore minerals leads to formation between olivines ore pyroxenites, which are presented in the Guli massif by independent bodies. Analysis of olivine, Cr-spinel and clinopyroxene compositions testify to similarity of conditions of the Guli massif dunites crystallization on the one hand with formation of platinum-bearing Uralian-Alaskan-type mafic-ultramafic complexes and with another - show participation of meimechite magma. Major element composition of melt inclusions in Cr-spinel has shown that dunites of the Guli massif were crystallized with participation of subalkaline picrite magmatic systems, that are relative to melts, responsible of formation of platinum-bearing mafic-ultramafic complexes and meimechites. Peculiarities of trace and rare-earth elements distribution in melt inclusions in Cr-spinel of dunites are actually similar to inclusions in olivine of meimechites. Overall, data on composition of inclusions directly testify to formation of considered

  19. On the combined use of radar systems for multi-scale imaging of transport infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catapano, I.; Bavusi, M.; Loperte, A.; Crocco, L.; Soldovieri, F.

    2012-04-01

    all, to detect hidden anomalies and then to provide a high resolution image of their geometrical features. Therefore, reliable and efficient diagnostic surveys devoted to state the healthy state of a structure can be scheduled. Numerical examples and on field validations assessing the achievable reconstruction capabilities will be provided at the conference. [1] D. J. Daniels, Ground Penetrating Radar, in IEE Radar, Sonar and Navigation Series 15, London, U.K.: IEE, 2004. [2] M. Proto, M. Bavusi, R. Bernini et al., Transport Infrastructure Surveillance and Monitoring by Electromagnetic Sensing: The ISTIMES Project, Sensors, vol.10, n.12, pp.10620-10639, 2010. [3] S. Ivashov, I. A. Vasiliev, T. D. Bechtel, C. Snapp, Comparison between impulse and holographic subsurface radar for NDT of space vehicle structural materials, Progress In Electromagnetic Research, vol.3, pp.658-661, 2004. [4] I. Catapano. L. Crocco, A. F. Morabito, F. Soldovieri, Tomographic imaging of holographic GPR data for non-invasive structural assessment: the Musmeci Bridge investigation, submitted to Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation Acknowledgement The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under Grant Agreement no 225663.

  20. Effects of maxillary advancement and impaction on nasal airway function.

    PubMed

    Pourdanesh, F; Sharifi, R; Mohebbi, A; Jamilian, A

    2012-11-01

    The effects of Le Fort I osteotomy on the nasal airway are controversial. This study aimed to evaluate nasal airway changes after Le Fort I. 25 patients underwent conventional Le Fort I osteotomy and were separated into three groups depending on the type of surgery they underwent. 11 patients needed maxillary impaction, 9 underwent maxillary advancement, and 5 had both maxillary impaction and advancement. Rhinological examinations, anterior rhinomanometry and acoustic rhinometry were carried out 1 week before surgery and 3 months after that. Wilcoxon and χ(2) tests were used for data analysis. The samples included 19 females and 6 males with a mean age of 22.4 ± 3.32 years. Rhinomanometric assessment showed that total nasal airflow was increased from 406 ± 202 ml/s to 543 ± 268 ml/s in all three groups. Significant decrease in nasal airway resistance was seen in all three groups. Acoustic rhinometry revealed a significant decrease in total nasal volume but an increase in the cross-sectional areas of isthmus nasi (IN) and inferior concha. The rhinomanometric measurements showed improvements in the total nasal airflow after Le Fort I osteotomy with alar base cinch suture in cases where the impaction was not higher than 5.5mm.

  1. Assessment of the 18-month permanence of onlay tip cartilage grafts following rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Persichetti, Paolo; Simone, Pierfranco; Carusi, Carlo

    2013-09-01

    Augmentation rhinoplasty requires addition of materials of various natures to reshape the nasal pyramid. Onlay tip grafts are single or multilayered grafts placed horizontally over the alar domes. The aim of the present study was to assess the 18-month permanence of onlay septal cartilage grafts. Twenty-eight patients underwent rhinoplasty with onlay tip cartilage graft, between June 2008 and November 2008 at the Campus Bio-Medico University in Rome, Italy. They were reviewed and photographed 6 months and 18 months postoperatively. Comparison of 6-month and 18-month postoperative pictures was performed with Adobe Photoshop CS. Measurements on pictures were taken with AutoCAD. Comparison of photographs showed no visible difference in nasal tip projection. Comparison of the measurements of tip projection showed a mean reduction of 0.06 mm (0.19%). Considerable stability of nasal tip projection after rhinoplasty with onlay tip grafts was observed postoperatively. Comparison of standardised digital photographs is a valid procedure to assess contour alterations of various anatomical structures after plastic surgery.

  2. Prosomeric organization of the hypothalamus in an elasmobranch, the catshark Scyliorhinus canicula.

    PubMed

    Santos-Durán, Gabriel N; Menuet, Arnaud; Lagadec, Ronan; Mayeur, Hélène; Ferreiro-Galve, Susana; Mazan, Sylvie; Rodríguez-Moldes, Isabel; Candal, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The hypothalamus has been a central topic in neuroanatomy because of its important physiological functions, but its mature organization remains elusive. Deciphering its embryonic and adult organization is crucial in an evolutionary approach of the organization of the vertebrate forebrain. Here we studied the molecular organization of the hypothalamus and neighboring telencephalic domains in a cartilaginous fish, the catshark, Scyliorhinus canicula, focusing on ScFoxg1a, ScShh, ScNkx2.1, ScDlx2/5, ScOtp, and ScTbr1 expression profiles and on the identification α-acetylated-tubulin-immunoreactive (ir), TH-ir, 5-HT-ir, and GFAP-ir structures by means of immunohistochemistry. Analysis of the results within the updated prosomeric model framework support the existence of alar and basal histogenetic compartments in the hypothalamus similar to those described in the mouse, suggesting the ancestrality of these subdivisions in jawed vertebrates. These data provide new insights into hypothalamic organization in cartilaginous fishes and highlight the generality of key features of the prosomeric model in jawed vertebrates.

  3. Investigating the case of human nose shape and climate adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Arslan A.; Claes, Peter; McEcoy, Brian; Shriver, Mark D.

    2017-01-01

    The evolutionary reasons for variation in nose shape across human populations have been subject to continuing debate. An import function of the nose and nasal cavity is to condition inspired air before it reaches the lower respiratory tract. For this reason, it is thought the observed differences in nose shape among populations are not simply the result of genetic drift, but may be adaptations to climate. To address the question of whether local adaptation to climate is responsible for nose shape divergence across populations, we use Qst–Fst comparisons to show that nares width and alar base width are more differentiated across populations than expected under genetic drift alone. To test whether this differentiation is due to climate adaptation, we compared the spatial distribution of these variables with the global distribution of temperature, absolute humidity, and relative humidity. We find that width of the nares is correlated with temperature and absolute humidity, but not with relative humidity. We conclude that some aspects of nose shape may indeed have been driven by local adaptation to climate. However, we think that this is a simplified explanation of a very complex evolutionary history, which possibly also involved other non-neutral forces such as sexual selection. PMID:28301464

  4. Pattern of calbindin-D28k and calretinin immunoreactivity in the brain of Xenopus laevis during embryonic and larval development.

    PubMed

    Morona, Ruth; González, Agustín

    2013-01-01

    The present study represents a detailed spatiotemporal analysis of the localization of calbindin-D28k (CB) and calretinin (CR) immunoreactive structures in the brain of Xenopus laevis throughout development, conducted with the aim to correlate the onset of the immunoreactivity with the development of compartmentalization of distinct subdivisions recently identified in the brain of adult amphibians and primarily highlighted when analyzed within a segmental paradigm. CR and CB are expressed early in the brain and showed a progressively increasing expression throughout development, although transient expression in some neuronal subpopulations was also noted. Common and distinct characteristics in Xenopus, as compared with reported features during development in the brain of mammals, were observed. The development of specific regions in the forebrain such as the olfactory bulbs, the components of the basal ganglia and the amygdaloid complex, the alar and basal hypothalamic regions, and the distinct diencephalic neuromeres could be analyzed on the basis of the distinct expression of CB and CR in subregions. Similarly, the compartments of the mesencephalon and the main rhombencephalic regions, including the cerebellum, were differently highlighted by their specific content in CB and CR throughout development. Our results show the usefulness of the analysis of the distribution of these proteins as a tool in neuroanatomy to interpret developmental aspects of many brain regions.

  5. Three-dimensional facial analysis of Chinese children with repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, Siti Adibah; Aidil Koay, Noor Airin

    2016-08-01

    We analyzed the facial features of Chinese children with repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and compared them with a normal control group using a three-dimensional (3D) stereophotogrammetry camera. This cross-sectional study examined 3D measurements of the facial surfaces of 20 Chinese children with repaired UCLP and 40 unaffected Chinese children aged 7 to 12 years old, which were captured using the VECTRA 3D five-pod photosystem and analyzed using Mirror software. Twenty-five variables and two ratios were compared between both groups using independent t-test. Intra- and inter-observer reliability was determined using ten randomly selected images and analyzed using intra-class correlation coefficient test (ICC). The level of significance was set at p < 0.0018. Intra- and inter-observers’ reliability was considered fair to excellent with an ICC value ranging from 0.54 to 0.99. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.0018) were found mainly in the nasolabial region. The cleft group exhibited wider alar base root width, flattened nose and broader nostril floor width on the cleft side. They tended to have shorter upper lip length and thinner upper vermillion thickness. Faces of Chinese children with repaired UCLP displayed meaningful differences when compared to the normal group especially in the nasolabial regions.

  6. Crocodilian Forebrain: Evolution and Development

    PubMed Central

    Pritz, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Organization and development of the forebrain in crocodilians are reviewed. In juvenile Caiman crocodilus, the following features were examined: identification and classification of dorsal thalamic nuclei and their respective connections with the telencephalon, presence of local circuit neurons in the dorsal thalamic nuclei, telencephalic projections to the dorsal thalamus, and organization of the thalamic reticular nucleus. These results document many similarities between crocodilians and other reptiles and birds. While crocodilians, as well as other sauropsids, demonstrate several features of neural circuitry in common with mammals, certain striking differences in organization of the forebrain are present. These differences are the result of evolution. To explore a basis for these differences, embryos of Alligator misissippiensis were examined to address the following. First, very early development of the brain in Alligator is similar to that of other amniotes. Second, the developmental program for individual vesicles of the brain differs between the secondary prosencephalon, diencephalon, midbrain, and hindbrain in Alligator. This is likely to be the case for other amniotes. Third, initial development of the diencephalon in Alligator is similar to that in other amniotes. In Alligator, alar and basal parts likely follow a different developmental scheme. PMID:25829019

  7. Differential requirements for Gli2 and Gli3 in the regional specification of the mouse hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Haddad-Tóvolli, Roberta; Paul, Fabian A.; Zhang, Yuanfeng; Zhou, Xunlei; Theil, Thomas; Puelles, Luis; Blaess, Sandra; Alvarez-Bolado, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    Secreted protein Sonic hedgehog (Shh) ventralizes the neural tube by modulating the crucial balance between activating and repressing functions (GliA, GliR) of transcription factors Gli2 and Gli3. This balance—the Shh-Gli code—is species- and context-dependent and has been elucidated for the mouse spinal cord. The hypothalamus, a forebrain region regulating vital functions like homeostasis and hormone secretion, shows dynamic and intricate Shh expression as well as complex regional differentiation. Here we asked if particular combinations of Gli2 and Gli3 and of GliA and GliR functions contribute to the variety of hypothalamic regions, i.e., we wanted to approach the question of a possible hypothalamic version of the Shh-Gli code. Based on mouse mutant analysis, we show that: (1) hypothalamic regional heterogeneity is based in part on differentially stringent requirements for Gli2 or Gli3; (2) another source of diversity are differential requirements for Shh of neural vs. non-neural origin; (3) the medial progenitor domain known to depend on Gli2 for its development generates several essential hypothalamic nuclei plus the pituitary and median eminence; (4) the suppression of Gli3R by neural and non-neural Shh is essential for hypothalamic specification. Finally, we have mapped our results on a recent model which considers the hypothalamus as a transverse region with alar and basal portions. Our data confirm the model and are explained by it. PMID:25859185

  8. Embryonic and early fetal period development and morphogenesis of human craniovertebral junction.

    PubMed

    Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Roda, Olga; Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Cruz-Díaz, David; Mérida-Velasco, Juan A; Sánchez-Montesinos, Indalecio

    2014-04-01

    Several studies have focused on the cartilaginous, articular, and ligamentous development of the craniovertebral joint (CVJ), but there are no unifying criteria regarding the origin and morphogenetic timetable of the structures that make up the CVJ. In our study, serial sections of 53 human embryonic (n = 27) and fetal (n = 26) specimens from O'Rahilly stages 17-23 and 9-13 weeks, respectively, have been analyzed. Our results demonstrate that the chondrification of the pars basioccipitalis and exoccipitalis becomes observable at stage 19, and all future bones in the CVJ are in their cartilaginous form except for the future odontoid process. In addition, two chondrification centers appear for the body of the axis. From stage 21, the apical, alar, and transverse atlantal ligaments begin to acquire a ligamentous structure and the odontoid process initiates its chondrogenic phase. Stage 22 witnesses the first signs of the articular cavities of the atlanto-occipital joint, and by stage 23 all joints have cavities except for the transverse-odontoid joint, which will wait until week 9. In week 10, the ossification of the basilar part of the occipital bone begins, followed by the rest of the structures except for the odontoid process, which will start at week 13, thus completing the osteogenesis of all bones in the CVJ. The results of this study could help in establishing the anatomical basis of the normally functioning CVJ and for detecting its related pathologies, abnormalities, and malformations.

  9. Evidencia de alta concentración de masa en la región nuclear de una galaxia liner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, R.; Carranza, G.; Dottori, H.; Goldes, G.

    Usando técnicas de espectroscopía bidimensional en el telescopio de 1.54 m de Bosque Alegre, se obtuvo el campo de velocidades de la región nuclear de NGC 1672, galaxia LINER con un anillo circumnuclear de regiones HII. La curva de rotación media para los 2 kpc centrales sugiere la presencia de una gran concentración de masa (ρc~ 1011Msolar /kpc3). Este resultado es respaldado por la presencia de ciertos caracteres morfológicos detectados en imágenes obtenidas con el mencionado telescopio. Según recientes simulaciones hidrodinámicas de galaxias barreadas, estos caracteres sugieren la presencia de altas densidades en las regiones nucleares. El análisis espectrofotométrico indicaría, además, la presencia de dos componentes en la emisión nuclear, con una diferencia de velocidades de ~ 200 km/s. La velocidad circular del gas ionizado a 125 pc del centro señalaría la existencia de una masa interior de ~ 7× 108Msolar .

  10. Interdomal Suture through a Nondelivery Endonasal Approach: A New Technique

    PubMed Central

    Leibou, Lior

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of interdomal sutures for tip refinement is common in open rhinoplasty and in endonasal rhinoplasty using a delivery technique, but there is paucity of reports in the literature regarding the use of interdomal suturing techniques when the nondelivery endonasal approach is chosen. Objective: The authors describe a technique designed to refine the nasal tip with an interdomal suture placed through a nondelivery endonasal approach. Methods: In this study, the authors retrospectively review the cases of 45 patients who underwent endonasal rhinoplasty with the authors’ interdomal suturing technique between the years 2011 and 2013. The average age of the patients was 25.3 years. Intercrural sutures (PDS 4.0 straight needle, Cincinnati, Ohio) were placed as mattress-like suture in the tip region, with the knot buried between both alar cartilages. The suture is tightened progressively according to the tip definition and narrowing sought. Results: The patients were followed for 12 months. All of the patients demonstrated a significant reduction in lobule and tip widths. This series had only 1 complication of tip asymmetry that was revised 1 year after the initial operation. There were no cases of infection, allergic reaction, or extrusion of the suture. Conclusions: Despite the lack of a large volume of patients, our study confirms that this technique is indeed an attractive and highly predictable option for achieving adequate tip refinement and definition when using a nondelivery endonasal rhinoplasty. PMID:27622086

  11. Prosomeric organization of the hypothalamus in an elasmobranch, the catshark Scyliorhinus canicula

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Durán, Gabriel N.; Menuet, Arnaud; Lagadec, Ronan; Mayeur, Hélène; Ferreiro-Galve, Susana; Mazan, Sylvie; Rodríguez-Moldes, Isabel; Candal, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The hypothalamus has been a central topic in neuroanatomy because of its important physiological functions, but its mature organization remains elusive. Deciphering its embryonic and adult organization is crucial in an evolutionary approach of the organization of the vertebrate forebrain. Here we studied the molecular organization of the hypothalamus and neighboring telencephalic domains in a cartilaginous fish, the catshark, Scyliorhinus canicula, focusing on ScFoxg1a, ScShh, ScNkx2.1, ScDlx2/5, ScOtp, and ScTbr1 expression profiles and on the identification α-acetylated-tubulin-immunoreactive (ir), TH-ir, 5-HT-ir, and GFAP-ir structures by means of immunohistochemistry. Analysis of the results within the updated prosomeric model framework support the existence of alar and basal histogenetic compartments in the hypothalamus similar to those described in the mouse, suggesting the ancestrality of these subdivisions in jawed vertebrates. These data provide new insights into hypothalamic organization in cartilaginous fishes and highlight the generality of key features of the prosomeric model in jawed vertebrates. PMID:25904850

  12. Infrared laser therapy after surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion to diminish pain and accelerate bone healing.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Marcelo Emir Requia; Viegas, Vinicius Nery; Pagnoncelli, Rogerio Miranda; de Lima, Eduardo Martinelli Santayama; Farret, Alessandro Marchiori; Kulczynski, Fernando Zugno; Farret, Marcel Marchiori

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to illustrate how gallium arsenite aluminum diode laser (824 nm) irradiation can reduce postsurgical edema and discomfort and accelerate sutural osseous regeneration after surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion (SARPE). An adult patient with an 8-mm transverse maxillary discrepancy was treated with SARPE. Infrared laser therapy was started on the 7th postoperative day, with a total of eight sessions at intervals of 48 hours. The laser probe spot had a size of 0.2827 cm2 and was positioned in contact with the following (bilateral) points: infraorbital foramen, nasal alar, nasopalatine foramen, median palatal suture at the height of the molars, and transverse palatine suture distal to the second molars. The laser was run in continuous mode with a power of 100 mW and a fluency of 1.5 J/cm2 for 20 seconds at each point. Subsequently, an absence of edema and pain was observed. Further, fast bone regeneration in the median palatal suture could be demonstrated by occlusal radiographs. These findings suggest that laser therapy can accelerate bone regeneration of the median palatal suture in patients who have undergone SARPE.

  13. Identification of the optic recess region as a morphogenetic entity in the zebrafish forebrain.

    PubMed

    Affaticati, Pierre; Yamamoto, Kei; Rizzi, Barbara; Bureau, Charlotte; Peyriéras, Nadine; Pasqualini, Catherine; Demarque, Michaël; Vernier, Philippe

    2015-03-04

    Regionalization is a critical, highly conserved step in the development of the vertebrate brain. Discrepancies exist in how regionalization of the anterior vertebrate forebrain is conceived since the "preoptic area" is proposed to be a part of the telencephalon in tetrapods but not in teleost fish. To gain insight into this complex morphogenesis, formation of the anterior forebrain was analyzed in 3D over time in zebrafish embryos, combining visualization of proliferation and differentiation markers, with that of developmental genes. We found that the region containing the preoptic area behaves as a coherent morphogenetic entity, organized around the optic recess and located between telencephalon and hypothalamus. This optic recess region (ORR) makes clear borders with its neighbor areas and expresses a specific set of genes (dlx2a, sim1a and otpb). We thus propose that the anterior forebrain (secondary prosencephalon) in teleosts contains three morphogenetic entities (telencephalon, ORR and hypothalamus), instead of two (telencephalon and hypothalamus). The ORR in teleosts could correspond to "telencephalic stalk area" and "alar hypothalamus" in tetrapods, resolving current inconsistencies in the comparison of basal forebrain among vertebrates.

  14. La Observación Sistemática de Vecindarios: El caso de Chile y sus perspectivas para Trabajo Social

    PubMed Central

    Sanhueza, Guillermo E.; Delva, Jorge; Andrade, Fernando H.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Bares, Cristina; Castillo, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    El estudio acerca de las características de los vecindarios y sus efectos sobre las personas ha llegado a ser un área de creciente atención por parte de investigadores de diversas disciplinas en países desarrollados. Aunque actualmente existen diversas metodologías para estudiar efectos del vecindario, una de las más utilizadas es la Observación Sistemática de Vecindarios –Systematic Social Observation SSO, en inglés—porque permite recolectar información acerca de diversas características del entorno físico, social, ambiental y económico de los vecindarios donde se aplica. El objetivo de este artículo es (i) dar a conocer sumariamente algunas investigaciones influyentes sobre efectos del vecindario en Estados Unidos, ii) describir cómo se diseñó e implementó la Observación Sistemática de Vecindarios en la ciudad de Santiago de Chile, iii) señalar algunos facilitadores y obstaculizadores de la implementación del proyecto y, finalmente iv) enunciar posibles contribuciones y limitaciones que esta metodología ofrecería al trabajo social en Chile. PMID:24791060

  15. Endoscopic Endonasal Transplanum Approach to the Paraclinoid Internal Carotid Artery

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Leon T.; Morgan, Michael K.; Snidvongs, Kornkiat; Chin, David C. W.; Sacks, Ray; Harvey, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate the relevance of an endoscopic transnasal approach to the surgical treatment of paraophthalmic aneurysms. Setting Binasal endoscopic transplanum surgery was performed. Participants Seven cadaver heads were studied. Main Outcome Measures (1) Dimensions of the endonasal corridor, including the operative field depth, lateral limits, and the transplanum craniotomy. (2) The degree of vascular exposure. (3) Surgical maneuverability and access for clip placements. Results The mean operative depth was 90 ± 4 mm. The lateral corridors were limited proximally by the alar rim openings (29 ± 4 mm) and distally by the distance between the opticocarotid recesses (19 ± 2 mm). The mean posteroanterior distance and width of the transplanum craniotomy were 19 ± 2 mm and 17 ± 3 mm, respectively. Vascular exposure was achieved in 100% of cases for the clinoidal internal carotid artery (ICA), ophthalmic artery, superior hypophyseal artery, and the proximal ophthalmic ICA. Surgical access and clip placement was achieved in 97.6% of cases for vessels located anterior to the pituitary stalk (odds ratio [OR] 73.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.66 to 710.8; p = 0.00). Conclusion The endoscopic transnasal approach provides excellent visualization of the paraclinoid region vasculature and offers potential surgical alternative for paraclinoid aneurysms. PMID:24436941

  16. Natural reassignment of CUU and CUA sense codons to alanine in Ashbya mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Jiqiang; Daoud, Rachid; Lajoie, Marc J.; Church, George M.; Söll, Dieter; Lang, B. Franz

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of diverse codon reassignment events has demonstrated that the canonical genetic code is not universal. Studying coding reassignment at the molecular level is critical for understanding genetic code evolution, and provides clues to genetic code manipulation in synthetic biology. Here we report a novel reassignment event in the mitochondria of Ashbya (Eremothecium) gossypii, a filamentous-growing plant pathogen related to yeast (Saccharomycetaceae). Bioinformatics studies of conserved positions in mitochondrial DNA-encoded proteins suggest that CUU and CUA codons correspond to alanine in A. gossypii, instead of leucine in the standard code or threonine in yeast mitochondria. Reassignment of CUA to Ala was confirmed at the protein level by mass spectrometry. We further demonstrate that a predicted is transcribed and accurately processed in vivo, and is responsible for Ala reassignment. Enzymatic studies reveal that is efficiently recognized by A. gossypii mitochondrial alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AgAlaRS). AlaRS typically recognizes the G3:U70 base pair of tRNAAla; a G3A change in Ashbya abolishes its recognition by AgAlaRS. Conversely, an A3G mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae confers tRNA recognition by AgAlaRS. Our work highlights the dynamic feature of natural genetic codes in mitochondria, and the relative simplicity by which tRNA identity may be switched. PMID:24049072

  17. Introduction to Lumbosacral and Sacropelvic Fixation Strategies.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Patrick C; Mummaneni, Praveen V

    2016-07-01

    We are pleased to present this Neurosurgical Focus video supplement on lumbosacral and sacropelvic fixation strategies. Despite advancement in surgical techniques and technologies in spine, achieving consistent solid fusion across the lumbosacral junction remains a major challenge. The anatomy of the lumbosacral junction allows for a higher range of motion compared to other areas of the thoracolumbar spine. The L5-S1 interspace is exposed to significant shear forces. As a result, complications such as pseudoarthrosis, screw pull-out, implant fracture, or sacral fractures can occur. Complications are particularly seen in long fusion constructs ending across the lumbosacral junction. To reduce these complications, various lumbosacral and sacropelvic fixation techniques have been developed and utilized. The current supplement is intended to provide instructional videos that illustrate several current techniques for lumbosacral and sacropelvic fixation. The collection includes techniques for anterior L5-S1 interbody fusion, minimally invasive L5-S1 interbody fusions, lumbosacral pedicle screw placement, sacroiliac fusion, and sacro-alar-iliac screw placement. The authors of the videos in the supplement have provided detailed narration and video illustration to describe the nuances of the various open and minimally invasive techniques for lumbosacral and sacral-pelvic fixation. We are pleased to have such a collection of quality video illustration from experts in the field. It's been our privilege to serve as guest editors for this supplement and we believe that you will enjoy the contents of this supplement.

  18. Aesthetic septorhinoplasty in the burned nose.

    PubMed

    Hafezi, Farhad; Karimi, Hamid; Nouhi, Amirhosein

    2005-03-01

    Patients who have survived thermal injuries to the face suffer severe disfigurement from the devastating deformities of full-thickness facial burns. The nose is the prominent central organ of the face, which has crucial effect on Aesthetic appearance. The plastic surgeon's role to deal with such cases is to undertake procedures to produce a more pleasant look although the target organ could be the non-burned areas of the face. It is a common belief that surgical intervention under the scarred or grafted nose is risky and may result in skin or covering graft necrosis. For this reason, plastic surgeons are cautious and hesitate to perform Aesthetic surgery on burn scarred tissue. We present 13 cases, 10 women and three men with complete or subtotal nasal burn. Classic Aesthetic Rhinoplasty operations were performed to create a better appearance and correct any internal or external deviations. These procedures are carried out under severely burned skins, or previously grafted and reconstructed noses. Cases were followed for about a one-year period. There was no necrosis in any part of skin after surgery. We believe that Aesthetic rhinoplasty can be done safely in these victims with pleasing outcome. The problems that we encountered in these cases were irregularities of burned alar margins, multiple operations and intractable nasal deviation in severe cases.

  19. A fugacity approach for modeling the transport of airborne organic chemicals in an air/plant/soil system

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, L.D. ); McKone, T.E. )

    1991-05-01

    An important issue facing both public and private agencies is the identification and quantification of exposures by indirect pathways to toxic chemicals released to the atmosphere. With recent public concerns over pesticides such as malathion and alar in foods, greater attention is being given to the process of chemical uptake by plants. Whether chemicals taken up by plants can accumulate and ultimately enter the human food chain are important questions for determining health risks and safe levels of toxic air-pollutant emissions and pesticide application. A number of plant-toxicokinetic, or botanicokinetic,'' models have been developed to give estimates of how chemicals are partitioned and transported within plants. In this paper, we provide a brief review of these models, describing their main features and listing some of their advantages and disadvantages. We then describe and demonstrate a five-compartment air/plant/soil model, which builds on and extends the features included in previous models. We apply this model to the steady-state chemical partitioning of perchloroethylene, hexachlorobenzene, and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in grass as test cases. We conclude with a discussion of the advantages and limitations of the model.

  20. A fugacity approach for modeling the transport of airborne organic chemicals in an air/plant/soil system

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, L.D.; McKone, T.E.

    1991-05-01

    An important issue facing both public and private agencies is the identification and quantification of exposures by indirect pathways to toxic chemicals released to the atmosphere. With recent public concerns over pesticides such as malathion and alar in foods, greater attention is being given to the process of chemical uptake by plants. Whether chemicals taken up by plants can accumulate and ultimately enter the human food chain are important questions for determining health risks and safe levels of toxic air-pollutant emissions and pesticide application. A number of plant-toxicokinetic, or ``botanicokinetic,`` models have been developed to give estimates of how chemicals are partitioned and transported within plants. In this paper, we provide a brief review of these models, describing their main features and listing some of their advantages and disadvantages. We then describe and demonstrate a five-compartment air/plant/soil model, which builds on and extends the features included in previous models. We apply this model to the steady-state chemical partitioning of perchloroethylene, hexachlorobenzene, and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in grass as test cases. We conclude with a discussion of the advantages and limitations of the model.

  1. Accessory atlantoaxial ligament avulsion fracture of the axis: Are there any clinical implications?

    PubMed Central

    Niknejad, Hamid Reza; van Calenbergh, Frank; Demaerel, Philippe; van Loon, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Injuries to the craniocervical support structures are frequently observed in neurotrauma cases. Stability of this region is of vital importance. Literature has mainly focused on three major ligaments of the craniocervical junction: The tectorial membrane, the transverse ligament, and the alar ligaments. However, the accessory atlantoaxial ligament (ALL) also seems to be involved in craniocervical stability as shown in cadaveric specimens. Still, the biomechanical importance of this structure needs to be determined, especially in trauma settings. Here, we describe a case of isolated traumatic injury to this structure and discuss the clinical outcome. A 64-year-old polytrauma patient with a remarkable avulsion fracture at the site of the insertion of the ALL was admitted to our center. We evaluated the patient both clinical and radiological at admission, after 3 months and after 1 year. We clinically assessed the upper cervical rotational stability using the cervical flexion-rotation test. We observed no rotational instability or any other clinical repercussions at the long-term after an isolated ALL injury. This case shows that isolated traumatic damage to the ALL is possible. Unilateral damage to the ALL probably does not cause rotational instability of the craniocervical junction. In case a similar avulsion fracture is observed, we recommend performing a magnetic resonance imaging of the craniovertebral region to assess for any ligamentous lesions. PMID:27891038

  2. Studies of Arctic Tropospheric Halogen Chemistry via Field Measurements and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, K.; von Glasow, R.; Custard, K. D.; Boone, E.; Shepson, P. B.; Tanner, D.; Nenes, A.

    2013-12-01

    With surfaces covered by ice and snow, the polar regions are characterized by unique atmospheric photochemistry in the springtime, and with the rapid transformation and loss of sea ice in the Arctic, there is an urgent need to characterize these chemical interactions with the snow and sea ice surface. During the NASA Bromine, Ozone, and Mercury Experiment (BROMEX) in March 2012, we utilized chemical ionization mass spectrometry to measure the near-surface temporal variability of a variety of species (e.g., Br2, BrO, HOBr, Cl2, ClO, HO2NO2) characterized by unique photochemistry in the Arctic. To probe the roles of ozone, bromine, chlorine, and nitrogen chemistry during BROMEX, we use the one-dimensional model MISTRA with vertical mixing and aerosols described based on vertical profiles of potential temperature and size-resolved aerosol number concentrations measured aboard the Purdue University Airborne Laboratory for Atmospheric Research (ALAR) during BROMEX. Modeling is utilized to estimate the required Br2 and Cl2 fluxes necessary to explain observations, as well as examine the vertical extent of halogen chemistry. In particular, the near-surface (within 30 m) distribution of chlorine- and bromine-containing trace gases are investigated.

  3. Investigating the case of human nose shape and climate adaptation.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Arslan A; Mattern, Brooke C; Claes, Peter; McEcoy, Brian; Hughes, Cris; Shriver, Mark D

    2017-03-01

    The evolutionary reasons for variation in nose shape across human populations have been subject to continuing debate. An import function of the nose and nasal cavity is to condition inspired air before it reaches the lower respiratory tract. For this reason, it is thought the observed differences in nose shape among populations are not simply the result of genetic drift, but may be adaptations to climate. To address the question of whether local adaptation to climate is responsible for nose shape divergence across populations, we use Qst-Fst comparisons to show that nares width and alar base width are more differentiated across populations than expected under genetic drift alone. To test whether this differentiation is due to climate adaptation, we compared the spatial distribution of these variables with the global distribution of temperature, absolute humidity, and relative humidity. We find that width of the nares is correlated with temperature and absolute humidity, but not with relative humidity. We conclude that some aspects of nose shape may indeed have been driven by local adaptation to climate. However, we think that this is a simplified explanation of a very complex evolutionary history, which possibly also involved other non-neutral forces such as sexual selection.

  4. Aircraft-based measurements of the carbon footprint of Indianapolis.

    PubMed

    Mays, Kelly L; Shepson, Paul B; Stirm, Brian H; Karion, Anna; Sweeney, Colm; Gurney, Kevin R

    2009-10-15

    The quantification of greenhouse gas emissions requires high precision measurements made with high spatial resolution. Here we describe measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) conducted using Purdue University's Airborne Laboratory for Atmospheric Research (ALAR), aimed at the quantification of the "footprints" for these greenhouse gases for Indianapolis, IN. A cavity ring-down spectrometer measured atmospheric concentrations, and flask samples were obtained at various points for comparison. Coupled with pressure, temperature, and model-derived horizontal winds, these measurements allow for flux estimation. Long horizontal transects were flown perpendicular to the wind downwind of the city. Emissions were calculated using the wind speed and the difference between the concentration in the plume and the background concentration. A kriging method is applied to interpolate the measured values to a vertical plane traced out by the flight pattern within the mixed layer. Results show the urban plume is clearly distinguishable in the downwind concentrations for most flights. Additionally, there is large variability in the measured day-to-day emissions fluxes as well as in the relative CH4 and CO2 fluxes. Uncertainties in the method are discussed, and its potential utilityin determining sector-based emission factors is shown.

  5. Transnasal endoscopic repair of pediatric meningoencephalocele

    PubMed Central

    Keshri, Amit Kumar; Shah, Saurin R.; Patadia, Simple D.; Sahu, Rabi N.; Behari, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Encephaloceles in relation to the nose are rare lesions affecting the skull base. In the pediatric population, majority are congenital lesions manifesting as nasal masses requiring surgical intervention. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of 6 consecutive patients below 12 years of age with intranasal meningoencephalocele treated by endonasal endoscopic approach at our tertiary centre was done. The follow up period ranged from 6 months to 2 years. A detailed clinical and radiological evaluation of these cases was done. Endonasal endoscopic repair (gasket seal/fat plug) was carried out in all cases. Results: Out of 6 patients, 4 patients had post-traumatic and rest 2 cases had congenital meningo-encephaloceles. All patients were asymptomatic in post-operative follow up period. One patient had minor complication of nasal alar collapse due to intra-operative adherence of encephalocele to cartilaginous framework. Conclusion: Transnasal endoscopic repair of anterior skull base meningoencephalocele is a minimally invasive single stage surgery, and has advantage in terms of lesser hospital stay, cost of treatment, and better cosmesis. The repair technique should be tailored to the size of defect to provide a water-tight seal for better outcome. PMID:27195032

  6. The development of the thalamic motor learning area is regulated by Fgf8 expression.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Ferre, Almudena; Martinez, Salvador

    2009-10-21

    Habenular nuclei play a key role in the control of motor and cognitive behavior, processing emotion, motivation, and reward values in the brain. Thus, analysis of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the development and evolution of this region will contribute to a better understanding of brain function. The Fgf8 gene is expressed in the dorsal midline of the diencephalon, close to the area in which the habenular region will develop. Given that Fgf8 is an important morphogenetic signal, we decided to investigate the role of Fgf8 signaling in diencephalic development. To this end, we analyzed the effects of altered Fgf8 expression in the mouse embryo, using molecular and cellular markers. Decreasing Fgf8 activity in the diencephalon was found to be associated with dosage-dependent alterations in the epithalamus: the habenular region and pineal gland are reduced or lacking in Fgf8 hypomorphic mice. Actually, our findings indicate that Fgf8 may be the master gene for these diencephalic domains, acting as an inductive and morphogenetic regulator. Therefore, the emergence of the habenular region in vertebrates could be understood in terms of a phylogenetic territorial addition caused by de novo expression of Fgf8 in the diencephalic alar plate. This region specializes to permit the development of adaptive control of the motor function in the vertebrate brain.

  7. Is alveolar cleft reconstruction still controversial? (Review of literature)

    PubMed Central

    Seifeldin, Sameh A.

    2015-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate (CL/P) is a frequent congenital malformation that manifests in several varieties including unilateral or bilateral and complete or incomplete. Alveolar cleft reconstruction remains controversial with regard to timing, graft materials, surgical techniques, and methods of evaluation. Many studies have been conducted addressing these points to develop an acceptable universal protocol for managing CL/P. The primary goal of alveolar cleft reconstruction in CL/P patients is to provide a bony bridge at the cleft site that allows maxillary arch continuity, oronasal fistula repair, eruption of the permanent dentition into the newly formed bone, enhances nasal symmetry through providing alar base support, orthodontic movement and placement of osseointegrated implants when indicated. Other goals include improving speech, improvement of periodontal conditions, establishing better oral hygiene, and limiting growth disturbances. In order to rehabilitate oral function in CL/P patients alveolar bone grafting is necessary. Secondary bone grafting is the most widely accepted method for treating alveolar clefts. Autogenous bone graft is the primary source for reconstructing alveolar cleft defects and is currently the preferred grafting material. PMID:26792963

  8. Giant Rhinophyma: A Rare Case of Total Nasal Obstruction and Restitutio Ad Integrum.

    PubMed

    Wolter, Andreas; Scholz, Till; Liebau, Jutta

    2017-03-24

    Rhinophyma is considered the end stage in the development of rosacea, accompanied by hypertrophy of the sebaceous glands, which causes an enlargement of the nose. It is an uncommon condition that often results in both functional and cosmetic impairment. A large variety of surgical and nonsurgical treatments have been published to treat it. Closure is usually obtained by wound granulating in by secondary intention, skin grafting or local flaps. Rarely these lesions can attain a giant size and pose a challenge in surgical treatment. We present a 63-year-old male with the necessity for tracheostomy at the ICU due to total nasal obstruction and recurrent episodes of pneumonia caused by a huge giant rhinophyma, which had undergone extreme growth in the last five years. The tumor was removed under general anesthesia by decortication with an electrosurgical wire loop to recreate the aesthetic units of the nose preserving the alar cartilage as well as the pilosebaceous appendages. The wounds healed in by secondary intention with a very pleasant cosmetic and improved functional result. The relevant literature is discussed. Level of Evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  9. Three-dimensional facial analysis of Chinese children with repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate

    PubMed Central

    Othman, Siti Adibah; Aidil Koay, Noor Airin

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the facial features of Chinese children with repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and compared them with a normal control group using a three-dimensional (3D) stereophotogrammetry camera. This cross-sectional study examined 3D measurements of the facial surfaces of 20 Chinese children with repaired UCLP and 40 unaffected Chinese children aged 7 to 12 years old, which were captured using the VECTRA 3D five-pod photosystem and analyzed using Mirror software. Twenty-five variables and two ratios were compared between both groups using independent t-test. Intra- and inter-observer reliability was determined using ten randomly selected images and analyzed using intra-class correlation coefficient test (ICC). The level of significance was set at p < 0.0018. Intra- and inter-observers’ reliability was considered fair to excellent with an ICC value ranging from 0.54 to 0.99. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.0018) were found mainly in the nasolabial region. The cleft group exhibited wider alar base root width, flattened nose and broader nostril floor width on the cleft side. They tended to have shorter upper lip length and thinner upper vermillion thickness. Faces of Chinese children with repaired UCLP displayed meaningful differences when compared to the normal group especially in the nasolabial regions. PMID:27507713

  10. The history of memory arts.

    PubMed

    Patten, B M

    1990-02-01

    Ancient humans, lacking devices to store large amounts of information, invented and developed a system of mnemonics which evolved and passed to modern times. The mnemonics, collectively known as the Ancient Art of Memory, were discovered in 447 BC by a Greek poet, Simonides, and were adequately described by Cicero, Quintilian, and Pliny. These arts fell into neglect after Alaric sacked Rome in 410 AD, but were subsequently revived in 1323 by Saint Thomas Aquinas, who transferred them from a division of rhetoric to ethics and used them to recall Catholic doctrine and versions of biblical history. In 1540 Saint Ignatius Loyola used mnemonic images to affirm the faith with his newly formed Society of Jesus and tried to convert the Ming dynasty in China by teaching these memory skills to Chinese nobles. Today, the ancient memory arts have applications in pilot training, gambling, mentalism and telepathy demonstrations, and may have a role in the rehabilitation of brain-damaged patients. Objective testing confirms that with the use of these memory skills, recall is increased, at least 10-fold, and the memory deficits of proactive and retroactive inhibition do not exist.

  11. Experimental infection of Didelphis marsupialis with vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Carlos M; Rodriguez, Luis; Rodas, Juan D; Arboleda, John Jairo

    2010-01-01

    Although vesicular stomatitis has been present for many years in the Americas, many aspects of its natural history remain undefined. In this study, we challenged five adult Virginia opossums (Didelphis marsupialis) with vesicular stomatitis New Jersey serotype virus (VSNJV). Opossums had no detectable antibodies against VSNJV prior to being inoculated with 10(6.5) median tissue culture infective doses (TCID(50)) of VSNJV by two routes; intraepithelial/subepithelial (IE/SE) inoculation and scarification in the muzzle (SM). Clinical response was monitored daily and animals were tested for viral shedding. All infected animals developed vesicles and ulcers on the tongue and inflammation of the nasal alar folds. Virus was isolated from esophagus-pharynx, nasal, and from ocular swabs and lesions samples. The failure to detect viremia in these animals indicates that a source other than blood may be required for transmission to insect vectors. Our results suggest that D. marsupialis could play a role in the maintenance of VSNJV outside of domestic animal populations and could provide a model to study vesicular stomatitis virus pathogenesis.

  12. Morphogenesis of the medaka cerebellum, with special reference to the mesencephalic sheet, a structure homologous to the rostrolateral part of mammalian anterior medullary velum.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Yuji; Yamamoto, Naoyuki; Yasuda, Takako; Yoshimoto, Masami; Ito, Hironobu

    2010-01-01

    We have examined cerebellar morphogenesis after neural tube stage in medaka (Oryzias latipes), a ray-finned fish, by conventional histology and immunohistochemistry using anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and anti-acetylated tubulin antibodies. Our results indicate that the medaka cerebellum is formed in 4 successive stages: (1) formation and enlargement of the cerebellar primordia; (2) rostral midline fusion of the left/right halves of the cerebellar primordia; (3) formation of the cerebellar matrix zones in the midline and caudalmost regions of the primitive cerebellum, and (4) growth and differentiation of the cerebellum. Our results also show that cerebellar morphogenesis is different from that in mammals in 3 important points: the developmental origins of the primordia, directions along which cerebellar fusion proceeds, and number, locations and duration of the cerebellar matrix zones. During the course of this study, an alar-derived membranous structure between the cerebellum and the midbrain in the adult medaka brain was identified as the structure homologous to the rostrolateral part of the mammalian anterior medullary velum. We have named this structure in the adult teleostean brains as the 'mesencephalic sheet'. The present study indicates that there exists both conserved and divergent patterns in cerebellar morphogenesis in vertebrates.

  13. Lack of carcinogenicity of daminozide, alone or in combination with its contaminant 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, in a medium-term bioassay.

    PubMed

    Cabral, R; Hakoi, K; Hoshiya, T; Hasegawa, R; Ito, N

    The carcinogenicity of daminozide (succinic acid-2,2-dimethylhydrazide; Alar), a plant growth regulator used primarily in apple orchards, has been the subject of recent investigations by several national and international organizations because of contradictory study results. The aim of the present study was to assess the carcinogenicity of daminozide alone and in combination with 1,1-dimethylhydrazine (UDMH), its major contaminant, in a novel medium-term bioassay in Fischer 344 rats, the DEN-PH model. Rats were given diethylnitrosamine (DEN) at 200 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally and then 2 weeks later were given daminozide at 20,000 ppm or daminozide plus UDMH at 75, 150, or 300 ppm in the diet for 6 weeks and were then killed; all rats underwent a partial (two-thirds) hepatectomy (PH) at week 3. Hepatocarcinogenic potential was assessed by comparing the number and area of preneoplastic foci positive for the glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P+) in the liver of treated rats, with those in controls given DEN alone. Daminozide, UDMH, and the combination were not carcinogenic in this model. This novel medium-term bioassay for carcinogenicity is considered to be practical for the rapid evaluation of both agrochemical formulations and contaminants found in agrochemicals and other compounds.

  14. Basic tectonic features of the Knipovich Ridge (North Atlantic) and its neotectonic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peive, A. A.; Chamov, N. P.

    2008-01-01

    The geological and geophysical data primarily on the structure of the upper sedimentary sequence of the northern Knipovich Ridge (Norwegian-Greenland Basin) that were obtained during Cruise 24 of the R/V Akademik Nikolai Strakhov are considered. These data indicate that the recent kinematics of the northern Knipovich Ridge is determined by dextral strike-slip displacements along the Molloy Fracture Zone (315° NW). This stress field is superimposed by a system related to rifting and latitudinal opening of rifts belonging to the ridge proper. Thus, the structural elements formed under the effect of two stress fields are combined in this district. Several stages of tectonic movements are definable. The first stage (prior to 500 ka ago) is marked by the dominant normal faults, which are overlain by the lower and upper sedimentary sequences. The second stage (prior to 120-100 ka ago) is characterized by development of normal and reverse faults, which displace the lower sequence and are overlain by the upper sequence. Both younger and older structural features reveal peaks of tectonic activity separated by intermediate quiet periods 50-60 ka long. The stress field of the regional strike-slip faulting is realized in numerous oblique NE-trending normal and normal-strike-slip faults that divide the rift valley and its walls into the segments of different sizes. Their strike (20°-30° NE) is consistent with a system of secondary antithetic sinistral strike-slip faults. The system of depressions located 40 km west of the rift valley axis may be considered a paleorift zone that is conjugated at 78°07' N and 5°20' W with the NW-trending fault marked by the main dextral offset. The stress field that existed at this stage was identical to the recent one. The rift valley axis migrated eastward to its present-day position approximately 2 Ma ago (if the spreading rate of ˜0.7 cm/yr is accepted). The obtained data substantially refine the understanding of the initial breakup of

  15. Southeast Directed Thrusting Associated With the Leading Edge of the Wrangellia Composite Terrane: The Chulitna Block South Central Alaska.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilman, T. L.; Fisher, D.

    2005-12-01

    Structural mapping of the Chulitna block in south central Alaska reveals a regional scale southeast-vergent, anticline-syncline pair and a series of related southeast-directed thrusts that record the imbrication of the leading edge of the Wrangellia Composite Terrane (WCT). The Chulitna block has been recognized as an unusual Paleozoic through Mesozoic collage of oceanic and clastic rocks that are not found anywhere else in Alaska or the North American Cordilleran. The distribution of these rocks varies across strike from southeast to northwest. In the southeast portion of the field area the oceanic rocks are a Late Devonian (Famennian) ophiolitic sequence including highly sheared serpentinite that is typically altered to magnesite and quartz, basalt (occasionally pillowed), gabbro (with possible cumulate texture), and red radiolarian chert. In the northwest of the map area, the marine rocks are composed of pillow basalts, basalts, and weakly metamorphosed limestones with Norian age fossils. Trace element chemistry of the basalts has been likened to the Late Triassic Nikolai greenstone of the WCT (Clautice et al., 2001). Conformably overlying the oceanic rocks in the northwest of the map area are Triassic red colored conglomerates, sandstones, and siltstones. In the southeast of the field area, these Triassic red rocks unconformably overlie the ophiolitic sequence. The clasts of the Triassic red beds are primarily composed of the underlying red radiolarian chert, basalt, and serpentinite. The main structure in the map area is an anticline-syncline pair that folds all the strata within the Chulitna block. The structure has a steep overturned limb, with a wavelength of ~2 km and an amplitude of ~1 km. To the southeast, there are a pair of out-of-syncline thrusts that juxtapose the serpentinites with overlying units. Large asymmetric folds in the area show a reversal in vergence across the hinge of the larger scale anticline and syncline pair, suggesting they are

  16. Astronomy education and scientific schools in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatskiv, Yaroslav S.; Vavilova, Iryna B.

    2011-06-01

    We describe briefly the current state of astronomical education in Ukraine, namely the secondary, higher, and post-graduating education systems. A special attention is paid to so called ``scientific schools'', non-formal groups of scientists formed by recognised astronomers, which have played and continue to play an important rôle in development of the astronomy education system. Among the founders of scientific schools were the well-known professors Alexander Ya. Orlov (Odessa University), Nikolai P. Barabashov (Kharkiv University), Sergei K. Vsekhsvyatsky (Kyiv University), Semen Ya. Braude (Kharkiv Polytechnical Institute), and Vladimir P. Tsesevich (Odessa University). We also give a general review on the history of astronomy education during the 16th-18th centuries. In 2000 astronomy was reinstated into the current 12-year secondary education curriculum of Ukraine. At present, some elements of astronomical knowledge are included in the lessons of ``Natural Sciences'' for pupils in the 5th - 10th grades. Astronomy is included as a basic course both in general (non-specialised) schools (17 academic hours in the last 11th or 12th grade) and in lyceums of the natural sciences (34 academic hours in the 12th grade). It is included also as an optional course in the educational program of gymnasiums in humanities. Every year about 75 young persons enter the Ukrainian universities to become astronomers. Results of our monitoring of the efficiency of astronomical higher educational system indicate that about 80% of the entered university students finish their education in 5 years; 50% of those who finished the cursus were working in astronomy. Since 1992 more then 100 astronomers defend Theses of Cand. Sci. (similar to Ph.D) and about 40 astronomers defend Theses of Dr. Sci. (topmost scientific degree, similar to Dr. Hab.). One of our present-day problems is a brain drain of young scientists. About 50% of those who obtained Cand. Sci. degree work outside Ukraine. At

  17. Back-arc with frontal-arc component origin of Triassic Karmutsen basalt, British Columbia, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, F.; Sutherland, Brown A.; Budahn, J.R.; Plafker, G.

    1989-01-01

    The largely basaltic, ???4.5-6.2-km-thick, Middle to Upper Triassic Karmutsen Formation is a prominent part of the Wrangellian sequence. Twelve analyses of major and minor elements of representative samples of pillowed and massive basalt flows and sills from Queen Charlotte and Vancouver Islands are ferrotholeiites that show a range of 10.2-3.8% MgO (as normalized, H2O- and CO2-free) and related increases in TiO2 (1.0-2.5%), Zr (43-147 ppm) and Nb (5-16 ppm). Other elemental abundances are not related simply to MgO: distinct groupings are evident in Al2O3, Na2O and Cr, but considerable scatter is present in FeO* (FeO + 0.9Fe2O3) and CaO. Some of the variation is attributed to alteration during low-rank metamorphism or by seawater - including variation of Ba, Rb, Sr and Cu, but high-field-strength elements (Sc, Ti, Y, Zr and Nb) as well as Cr, Ni, Cu and rare-earth elements (REE's) were relatively immobile. REE's show chondrite-normalized patterns ranging from light-REE depleted to moderately light-REE enriched. On eleven discriminant plots these analyses fall largely into or across fields of within-plate basalt (WIP), normal or enriched mid-ocean-ridge tholeiite (MORB) and island-arc tholeiite (IAT). Karmutsen basalts are chemically identical to the stratigraphically equivalent Nikolai Greenstone of southern Alaska and Yukon Territory. These data and the fact that the Karmutsen rests on Sicker Group island-arc rocks of Paleozoic age suggest to us that: 1. (1) the basal arc, after minor carbonate-shale deposition, underwent near-axial back-arc rifting (as, e.g., the Mariana arc rifted at different times); 2. (2) the Karmutsen basalts were erupted along this rift or basin as "arc-rift" tholeiitite; and 3. (3) after subsequent deposition of carbonates and other rocks, and Jurassic magmatism, a large fragment of this basalt-sediment-covered island arc was accreted to North America as Wrangellia. The major- and minor-elemental abundances of Karmutsen basalt is modeled

  18. Extreme weather impacts on European networks of transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leviakangas, P.

    2012-04-01

    : Pekka Leviäkangas, Anu Tuominen, Riitta Molarius, Heta Kojo, Jari Schabel, Sirra Toivonen, Jaana Keränen, Johanna Ludvigsen, Andrea Vajda, Heikki Tuomenvirta, Ilkka Juga, Pertti Nurmi, Jenni Rauhala, Frank Rehm, Thomas Gerz, Thorsten Muehlhausen, Juha Schweighofer, Silas Michaelides, Matheos Papadakis, Nikolai Dotzek (†), Pieter Groenemeijer.

  19. A new perspective on the Guerrero gap: Slow slip events and tremors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radiguet, Mathilde; Campillo, Michel

    2010-05-01

    -UNAM-IPGP-EOST): Michel Campillo, Nathalie Cotte, Fabrice Cotton, Allen Husker,Vladimir Kostoglodov, Isabelle Manighetti,Erwan Pathier, Juan Payero, Mathilde Radiguet, Luis Rivera, Nikolai Shapiro, Bernard Valette, Mathilde Vergnolle, Andrea Walpersdorf

  20. THE SIZE AND EXTENT OF THE INTERSTELLAR GAS CLOUD SURROUNDING THE SUN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Two astronomical observatories in orbit around the Earth, the Hubble Space Telescope and the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer, have been used to investigate the structure of the interstellar gas cloud in which the Sun resides. A compilation and interpretation of the results of these studies is being presented today at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Madison, WI by Drs. Jeffrey L. Linsky, Nikolai Piskunov, and Brian E. Wood of JILA and the University of Colorado. Measuring the properties of the local interstellar medium (LISM) is important for understanding how the LISM interacts with the solar wind and for investigating the possibility that changes in the LISM in the immediate vicinity of the Sun could have an effect on the Earth's atmosphere and climate. When astronomers observe the ultraviolet light emitted by nearby stars, it is always found that some of the light is absorbed by atoms and ions in the LISM. The properties of the LISM can therefore be investigated by measuring the amount of absorption observed. Using ultraviolet spectra taken by the Hubble Space Telescope and the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer, the total amount of local interstellar matter has been measured for many lines of sight through the LISM. These studies suggest that the interstellar gas surrounding the Sun has a temperature of about 7000 K (about 12,000 degrees Fahrenheit) and has a velocity of about 16 miles per second relative to the Sun. Measurements made for very short (less than 10 light years) lines of sight toward very nearby stars suggest an average density of about 0.1 hydrogen atoms per cubic centimeter for the local interstellar gas, hydrogen being by far the most abundant atom in the LISM. Measurements made for lines of sight toward more distant stars suggest lower average densities. This suggests that parts of the lines of sight to these more distant stars are in regions of space with extremely low densities. We believe this means that these stars lie outside the local

  1. Structural Insights into the Polyphyletic Origins of Glycyl tRNA Synthetases.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Sánchez, Marco Igor; Rodríguez-Hernández, Annia; Ferreira, Ruben; Santamaría-Suárez, Hugo Aníbal; Arciniega, Marcelino; Dock-Bregeon, Anne-Catherine; Moras, Dino; Beinsteiner, Brice; Mertens, Haydyn; Svergun, Dmitri; Brieba, Luis G; Grøtli, Morten; Torres-Larios, Alfredo

    2016-07-08

    Glycyl tRNA synthetase (GlyRS) provides a unique case among class II aminoacyl tRNA synthetases, with two clearly widespread types of enzymes: a dimeric (α2) species present in some bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes; and a heterotetrameric form (α2β2) present in most bacteria. Although the differences between both types of GlyRS at the anticodon binding domain level are evident, the extent and implications of the variations in the catalytic domain have not been described, and it is unclear whether the mechanism of amino acid recognition is also dissimilar. Here, we show that the α-subunit of the α2β2 GlyRS from the bacterium Aquifex aeolicus is able to perform the first step of the aminoacylation reaction, which involves the activation of the amino acid with ATP. The crystal structure of the α-subunit in the complex with an analog of glycyl adenylate at 2.8 Å resolution presents a conformational arrangement that properly positions the cognate amino acid. This work shows that glycine is recognized by a subset of different residues in the two types of GlyRS. A structural and sequence analysis of class II catalytic domains shows that bacterial GlyRS is closely related to alanyl tRNA synthetase, which led us to define a new subclassification of these ancient enzymes and to propose an evolutionary path of α2β2 GlyRS, convergent with α2 GlyRS and divergent from AlaRS, thus providing a possible explanation for the puzzling existence of two proteins sharing the same fold and function but not a common ancestor.

  2. [Lacosamide and neuropathic pain, a review].

    PubMed

    Alcántara-Montero, Antonio; Sánchez-Carnerero, Clara I

    2016-03-01

    Introduccion. La mayor parte de las guias de practica clinica consultadas coinciden en señalar que los antidepresivos triciclicos, duales (venlafaxina/duloxetina), antiepilepticos gabapentina/pregabalina, apositos de lidocaina al 5% y parches de capsaicina al 8% constituyen los farmacos de primera linea en el tratamiento del dolor neuropatico periferico, y el tramadol y algunos opioides potentes (morfina, oxicodona y tapentadol) son farmacos de segunda linea. Por otra parte, la prevalencia de dolor neuropatico refractario al tratamiento se acerca al 1,5% de la poblacion, de forma que se calcula que un 50% de los pacientes no responde al tratamiento prescrito. Existen otros antiepilepticos que no tienen indicacion en el dolor neuropatico por las agencias reguladoras, como la lamotrigina, el topiramato o la oxcarbacepina, pero se utilizan en la practica clinica habitual fuera de indicacion. Desarrollo. Tras una busqueda bibliografica, se realizo una revision sobre el empleo de la lacosamida en el dolor neuropatico, tanto en distintos modelos animales como en diferentes estudios en humanos. Conclusiones. El tratamiento con lacosamida en el dolor neuropatico de diferentes etiologias podria considerarse como una alternativa efectiva para los pacientes que no respondan o no toleren los tratamientos estandares. Sin embargo, la mayor parte de la evidencia disponible, a excepcion de los ensayos clinicos en fase II/III realizados en el dolor neuropatico diabetico, corresponde a estudios abiertos y observacionales, sin grupo control y con bajo numero de pacientes, pero los resultados favorables obtenidos invitan a seguir investigando la utilidad de la lacosamida en el dolor neuropatico.

  3. [Desvenlafaxine and neuropathic pain: additional clinical benefits of a second generation serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor].

    PubMed

    Alcantara-Montero, A

    2017-03-01

    Introduccion. La desvenlafaxina es el tercer antidepresivo incluido entre los inhibidores de la recaptacion de serotonina y noradrenalina. Las ultimas guias de practica clinica consultadas coinciden en señalar que los antidepresivos triciclicos, los duales (venlafaxina/duloxetina) y los antiepilepticos gabapentina y pregabalina constituyen los farmacos de primera linea en el tratamiento del dolor neuropatico. El tramadol, los apositos de lidocaina al 5% y los parches de capsaicina al 8% son los farmacos de segunda linea, mientras que los opioides potentes constituirian una tercera linea de tratamiento. La interaccion entre el binomio dolor y depresion es muy habitual y representa la complicacion psicologica mas frecuente en los pacientes con dolor cronico. Desarrollo. Tras una busqueda bibliografica, en este articulo se resumen los datos farmacologicos mas relevantes de la desvenlafaxina y su utilidad en la practica clinica, asi como la bibliografia especifica de este farmaco en el dolor neuropatico y el dolor cronico. Conclusiones. Aunque la evidencia de la desvenlafaxina en el dolor neuropatico es escasa, presenta unas caracteristicas farmacocineticas interesantes, como son no ser sustrato ni actuar sobre la glicoproteina P y tener un metabolismo que practicamente no depende del sistema del citocromo P450, lo que limita el riesgo de interacciones farmacocineticas y los potenciales problemas de tolerabilidad asociados cuando se administra con farmacos que sean inhibidores moderados o potentes del CYP2D6 o con otros sustratos de esta isoenzima. Estas caracteristicas hacen de la desvenlafaxina un antidepresivo distinto y especialmente util en algunos subgrupos de pacientes con dolor cronico (como polimedicados y pacientes con insuficiencia hepatica), donde la depresion comorbida es frecuente.

  4. Structural Insights into the Polyphyletic Origins of Glycyl tRNA Synthetases*♦

    PubMed Central

    Valencia-Sánchez, Marco Igor; Rodríguez-Hernández, Annia; Ferreira, Ruben; Santamaría-Suárez, Hugo Aníbal; Arciniega, Marcelino; Dock-Bregeon, Anne-Catherine; Moras, Dino; Beinsteiner, Brice; Brieba, Luis G.; Grøtli, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Glycyl tRNA synthetase (GlyRS) provides a unique case among class II aminoacyl tRNA synthetases, with two clearly widespread types of enzymes: a dimeric (α2) species present in some bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes; and a heterotetrameric form (α2β2) present in most bacteria. Although the differences between both types of GlyRS at the anticodon binding domain level are evident, the extent and implications of the variations in the catalytic domain have not been described, and it is unclear whether the mechanism of amino acid recognition is also dissimilar. Here, we show that the α-subunit of the α2β2 GlyRS from the bacterium Aquifex aeolicus is able to perform the first step of the aminoacylation reaction, which involves the activation of the amino acid with ATP. The crystal structure of the α-subunit in the complex with an analog of glycyl adenylate at 2.8 Å resolution presents a conformational arrangement that properly positions the cognate amino acid. This work shows that glycine is recognized by a subset of different residues in the two types of GlyRS. A structural and sequence analysis of class II catalytic domains shows that bacterial GlyRS is closely related to alanyl tRNA synthetase, which led us to define a new subclassification of these ancient enzymes and to propose an evolutionary path of α2β2 GlyRS, convergent with α2 GlyRS and divergent from AlaRS, thus providing a possible explanation for the puzzling existence of two proteins sharing the same fold and function but not a common ancestor. PMID:27226617

  5. Aerosol Production from the Great Lakes Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slade, J. H.; Mwaniki, G.; Bertman, S. B.; Vanreken, T. M.; Shepson, P. B.

    2009-12-01

    It is well understood that oceans generate airborne particulate matter from mechanical processes such as sea spray and bubble bursting. These particles are primarily composed of salts and other nonvolatile inorganic material; however, the organic mass fraction can vary by location and the extent of biological activity. The size distributions of aerosols in these environments depend greatly on relative humidity with diameters ranging from typically several hundred nanometers to several micrometers. There has been much less discussion of particle formation from fresh water ecosystems, a hub for organic activity, and thus a more likely medium for organic aerosol production. We investigated particle formation over the Great Lakes during the summer of 2009 as a part of the Community Atmosphere-Biosphere Interactions Experiments (CABINEX) at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS) in Pellston, MI. With a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) aboard Purdue University’s Airborne Laboratory for Atmospheric Research (ALAR) for size-distribution analysis of accumulation-mode aerosol, we conducted vertical profiles above Lake Michigan and the UMBS deciduous forest, and transects across the peninsula between Lakes Michigan and Huron to study particle formation, transport, and deposition. Preliminary results reveal a well-mixed troposphere above the forest with a mode ~0.1 μm, while in several cases, the total particle concentration over Lake Michigan is an order of magnitude greater than over the forest. There is a consistent bimodal distribution of particle sizes over Lake Michigan the lowest of which is centered at ~0.025 μm, suggesting the possibility of new particle formation. This mode is consistent with the presence of breaking waves on the lake’s surface, and this mode and the vertical structure depend greatly on wind speed. We present here evidence for new particle production from breaking waves on fresh water lakes, and discuss the results

  6. Morphogenetic and Histogenetic Roles of the Temporal-Spatial Organization of Cell Proliferation in the Vertebrate Corticogenesis as Revealed by Inter-specific Analyses of the Optic Tectum Cortex Development

    PubMed Central

    Rapacioli, Melina; Palma, Verónica; Flores, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The central nervous system areas displaying the highest structural and functional complexity correspond to the so called cortices, i.e., concentric alternating neuronal and fibrous layers. Corticogenesis, i.e., the development of the cortical organization, depends on the temporal-spatial organization of several developmental events: (a) the duration of the proliferative phase of the neuroepithelium, (b) the relative duration of symmetric (expansive) versus asymmetric (neuronogenic) sub phases, (c) the spatial organization of each kind of cell division, (e) the time of determination and cell cycle exit and (f) the time of onset of the post-mitotic neuronal migration and (g) the time of onset of the neuronal structural and functional differentiation. The first five events depend on molecular mechanisms that perform a fine tuning of the proliferative activity. Changes in any of them significantly influence the cortical size or volume (tangential expansion and radial thickness), morphology, architecture and also impact on neuritogenesis and synaptogenesis affecting the cortical wiring. This paper integrates information, obtained in several species, on the developmental roles of cell proliferation in the development of the optic tectum (OT) cortex, a multilayered associative area of the dorsal (alar) midbrain. The present review (1) compiles relevant information on the temporal and spatial organization of cell proliferation in different species (fish, amphibians, birds, and mammals), (2) revises the main molecular events involved in the isthmic organizer (IsO) determination and localization, (3) describes how the patterning installed by IsO is translated into spatially organized neural stem cell proliferation (i.e., by means of growth factors, receptors, transcription factors, signaling pathways, etc.) and (4) describes the morpho- and histogenetic effect of a spatially organized cell proliferation in the above mentioned species. A brief section on the OT evolution is

  7. Evaluation of Toxic Metals and Essential Elements in Children with Learning Disabilities from a Rural Area of Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    do Nascimento, Sabrina Nunes; Charão, Mariele Feiffer; Moro, Angela Maria; Roehrs, Miguel; Paniz, Clovis; Baierle, Marília; Brucker, Natália; Gioda, Adriana; Barbosa, Fernando; Bohrer, Denise; Ávila, Daiana Silva; Garcia, Solange Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Children’s exposure to metals can result in adverse effects such as cognitive function impairments. This study aimed to evaluate some toxic metals and levels of essential trace elements in blood, hair, and drinking water in children from a rural area of Southern Brazil. Cognitive ability and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) activity were evaluated. Oxidative stress was evaluated as a main mechanism of metal toxicity, through the quantification of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. This study included 20 children from a rural area and 20 children from an urban area. Our findings demonstrated increase in blood lead (Pb) levels (BLLs). Also, increased levels of nickel (Ni) in blood and increase of aluminum (Al) levels in hair and drinking water in rural children were found. Deficiency in selenium (Se) levels was observed in rural children as well. Rural children with visual-motor immaturity presented Pb levels in hair significantly increased in relation to rural children without visual-motor immaturity (p < 0.05). Negative correlations between BLLs and ALA-D activity and positive correlations between BLLs and ALA-RE activity were observed. MDA was significantly higher in rural compared to urban children (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that rural children were co-exposed to toxic metals, especially Al, Pb and Ni. Moreover, a slight deficiency of Se was observed. Low performance on cognitive ability tests and ALA-D inhibition can be related to metal exposure in rural children. Oxidative stress was suggested as a main toxicological mechanism involved in metal exposure. PMID:25329533

  8. Identification of genes differentially expressed in dorsal and ventral chick midbrain during early Development

    PubMed Central

    Chittka, A; Volff, JN; Wizenmann, A

    2009-01-01

    Background During the development of the central nervous system (CNS), patterning processes along the dorsoventral (DV) axis of the neural tube generate different neuronal subtypes. As development progresses these neurons are arranged into functional units with varying cytoarchitecture, such as laminae or nuclei for efficient relaying of information. Early in development ventral and dorsal regions are similar in size and structure. Different proliferation rates and cell migration patterns are likely to result in the formation of laminae or nuclei, eventually. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms that establish these different structural arrangements are not well understood. We undertook a differential display polymerase chain reaction (DD-PCR) screen to identify genes with distinct expression patterns between dorsal and ventral regions of the chick midbrain in order to identify genes which regulate the sculpturing of such divergent neuronal organisation. We focused on the DV axis of the early chick midbrain since mesencephalic alar plate and basal plate develop into laminae and nuclei, respectively. Results We identified 53 differentially expressed bands in our initial screen. Twenty-six of these could be assigned to specific genes and we could unambiguously show the differential expression of five of the isolated cDNAs in vivo by in situ mRNA expression analysis. Additionally, we verified differential levels of expression of a selected number of genes by using reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR method with gene-specific primers. One of these genes, QR1, has been previously cloned and we present here a detailed study of its early developmental time course and pattern of expression providing some insights into its possible function. Our phylogenetic analysis of QR1 shows that it is the chick orthologue of Sparc-like 1/Hevin/Mast9 gene in mice, rats, dogs and humans, a protein involved in cell adhesion. Conclusion This study reveals some possible networks, which

  9. Regional distribution of calretinin and calbindin-D28k expression in the brain of the urodele amphibian Pleurodeles waltl during embryonic and larval development.

    PubMed

    Joven, Alberto; Morona, Ruth; Moreno, Nerea; González, Agustín

    2013-07-01

    The sequence of appearance of calretinin and calbindin-D28k immunoreactive (CRir and CBir, respectively) cells and fibers has been studied in the brain of the urodele amphibian Pleurodeles waltl. Embryonic, larval and juvenile stages were studied. The early expression and the dynamics of the distribution of CBir and CRir structures have been used as markers for developmental aspects of distinct neuronal populations, highlighting the accurate extent of many regions in the developing brain, not observed on the basis of cytoarchitecture alone. CR and, to a lesser extent, CB are expressed early in the central nervous system and show a progressively increasing expression from the embryonic stages throughout the larval life and, in general, the labeled structures in the developing brain retain their ability to express these proteins in the adult brain. The onset of CRir cells primarily served to follow the development of the olfactory bulbs, subpallium, thalamus, alar hypothalamus, mesencephalic tegmentum, and distinct cell populations in the rhombencephalic reticular formation. CBir cells highlighted the development of, among others, the pallidum, hypothalamus, dorsal habenula, midbrain tegmentum, cerebellum, and central gray of the rostral rhombencephalon. However, it was the relative and mostly segregated distribution of both proteins in distinct cell populations which evidenced the developing regionalization of the brain. The results have shown the usefulness in neuroanatomy of the analysis during development of the onset of CBir and CRir structures, but the comparison with previous data has shown extensive variability across vertebrate classes. Therefore, one should be cautious when comparing possible homologue structures across species only on the basis of the expression of these proteins, due to the variation of the content of calcium-binding proteins observed in well-established homologous regions in the brain of different vertebrates.

  10. Molecular codes defining rostrocaudal domains in the embryonic mouse hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Ferran, José L; Puelles, Luis; Rubenstein, John L R

    2015-01-01

    The prosomeric model proposes that the hypothalamus is a rostral forebrain entity, placed ventral to the telencephalon and rostral to the diencephalon. Gene expression markers differentially label molecularly distinct dorsoventral progenitor domains, which represent continuous longitudinal bands across the hypothalamic alar and basal regions. There is also circumstantial support for a rostrocaudal subdivision of the hypothalamus into transverse peduncular (caudal) and terminal (rostral) territories (PHy, THy). In addition, there is evidence for a specialized acroterminal domain at the rostral midline of the terminal hypothalamus (ATD). The PHy and THy transverse structural units are presently held to form part of two hypothalamo-telencephalic prosomeres (hp1 and hp2, respectively), which end dorsally at the telencephalic septocommissural roof. PHy and THy have distinct adult nuclei, at all dorsoventral levels. Here we report the results of data mining from the Allen Developing Mouse Brain Atlas database, looking for genes expressed differentially in the PHy, Thy, and ATD regions of the hypothalamus at several developmental stages. This search allowed us to identify additional molecular evidence supporting the postulated fundamental rostrocaudal bipartition of the mouse hypothalamus into the PHy and THy, and also corroborated molecularly the singularity of the ATD. A number of markers were expressed in Thy (Fgf15, Gsc, Nkx6.2, Otx1, Zic1/5), but were absent in PHy, while other genes showed the converse pattern (Erbb4, Irx1/3/5, Lmo4, Mfap4, Plagl1, Pmch). We also identified markers that selectively label the ATD (Fgf8/10/18, Otx2, Pomc, Rax, Six6). On the whole, these data help to explain why, irrespective of the observed continuity of all dorsoventral molecular hypothalamic subdivisions across PHy and THy, different nuclear structures originate within each of these two domains, and also why singular structures arise at the ATD, e.g., the suprachiasmatic nuclei, the

  11. Contribution of genoarchitecture to understanding forebrain evolution and development, with particular emphasis on the amygdala.

    PubMed

    Medina, Loreta; Bupesh, Munisamy; Abellán, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The amygdala is a forebrain center involved in functions and behaviors that are critical for survival (such as control of the neuroendocrine system and homeostasis, and reproduction and fear/escape responses) and in cognitive functions such as attention and emotional learning. In mammals, the amygdala is highly complex, with multiple subdivisions, neuronal subtypes, and connections, making it very difficult to understand its functional organization and evolutionary origin. Since evolution is the consequence of changes that occurred in development, herein we review developmental data based on genoarchitecture and fate mapping in mammals (in the mouse model) and other vertebrates in order to identify its basic components and embryonic origin in different species and understand how they changed in evolution. In all tetrapods studied, the amygdala includes at least 4 components: (1) a ventral pallial part, characterized by expression of Lhx2 and Lhx9, that includes part of the basal amygdalar complex in mammals and a caudal part of the dorsal ventricular ridge in sauropsids and also produces a cell subpopulation of the medial amygdala; (2) a striatal part, characterized by expression of Pax6 and/or Islet1, which includes the central amygdala in different species; (3) a pallidal part, characterized by expression of Nkx2.1 and, in amniotes, Lhx6, which includes part of the medial amygdala, and (4) a hypothalamic part (derived from the supraoptoparaventricular domain or SPV), characterized by Otp and/or Lhx5 expression, which produces an important subpopulation of cells of the medial extended amygdala (medial amygdala and/or medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis). Importantly, the size of the SPV domain increases upon reduction or lack of Nkx2.1 function in the hypothalamus. It appears that Nkx2.1 expression was downregulated in the alar hypothalamus during evolution to mammals, which may have produced an enlargement of SPV and the amygdalar cell subpopulation

  12. Nasal correction in nasomaxillary hypoplasia (Binder's syndrome): An optimised classification and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yamani, Venkata Ramana; Ghosh, Shakuntala; Tirunagari, Shreekumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nasomaxillary hypoplasia is a rare congenital disorder involving the central face. It imparts a distinctive appearance to the individual face as the age advances. Severity of the disorder varies, so do the manifestations. Methods: This was a retrospective study conducted on the records and photographic data of 560 rhinoplasty cases performed between 2006 March and 2016 March. About 16 cases of nasomaxillary hypoplasia were selected from the group and they were classified based on the severity of the features. Surgical correction performed in each group was detailed. Results: Three percent of the 560 rhinoplasties performed in our centre turned out to be cases of Binder's syndrome. Nasal correction with locoregional autologous cartilage grafts was sufficient in mild cases. Loco-regional cartilage grafts along with costal cartilage grafts were needed for moderate and severe cases. Anterior nasal floor along with alar base augmentation was performed to achieve a proper aesthetic profile in moderate and severe cases. Post-operative results were excellent in mild and moderate cases and acceptable in severe cases. Discussion: We attempted to correct the deformity only after growth of the nose and maxilla was completed. We used cartilage grafts as a mainstay as cartilage has long-term stability without resorption unlike bone grafts. Instead of following en bloc technique of cartilage assembly, we have reconstructed the nasal dorsum, columella and tip separately as this principle is more functionally acceptable with less warping or stiffness of the nose. Importance was given to proper anchorage of grafts. Conclusion: We have attempted to put together the various features into three categories of mild/moderate/severe based on previous anthropometric studies of nasal anatomical parameters. The second objective of our study was to advise a logical surgical protocol for each group so that future surgeons can follow an easy surgical guideline to attain optimal

  13. Molecular codes defining rostrocaudal domains in the embryonic mouse hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Ferran, José L.; Puelles, Luis; Rubenstein, John L. R.

    2015-01-01

    The prosomeric model proposes that the hypothalamus is a rostral forebrain entity, placed ventral to the telencephalon and rostral to the diencephalon. Gene expression markers differentially label molecularly distinct dorsoventral progenitor domains, which represent continuous longitudinal bands across the hypothalamic alar and basal regions. There is also circumstantial support for a rostrocaudal subdivision of the hypothalamus into transverse peduncular (caudal) and terminal (rostral) territories (PHy, THy). In addition, there is evidence for a specialized acroterminal domain at the rostral midline of the terminal hypothalamus (ATD). The PHy and THy transverse structural units are presently held to form part of two hypothalamo-telencephalic prosomeres (hp1 and hp2, respectively), which end dorsally at the telencephalic septocommissural roof. PHy and THy have distinct adult nuclei, at all dorsoventral levels. Here we report the results of data mining from the Allen Developing Mouse Brain Atlas database, looking for genes expressed differentially in the PHy, Thy, and ATD regions of the hypothalamus at several developmental stages. This search allowed us to identify additional molecular evidence supporting the postulated fundamental rostrocaudal bipartition of the mouse hypothalamus into the PHy and THy, and also corroborated molecularly the singularity of the ATD. A number of markers were expressed in Thy (Fgf15, Gsc, Nkx6.2, Otx1, Zic1/5), but were absent in PHy, while other genes showed the converse pattern (Erbb4, Irx1/3/5, Lmo4, Mfap4, Plagl1, Pmch). We also identified markers that selectively label the ATD (Fgf8/10/18, Otx2, Pomc, Rax, Six6). On the whole, these data help to explain why, irrespective of the observed continuity of all dorsoventral molecular hypothalamic subdivisions across PHy and THy, different nuclear structures originate within each of these two domains, and also why singular structures arise at the ATD, e.g., the suprachiasmatic nuclei, the

  14. MRI morphometric characterisation of the paediatric cervical spine and spinal cord in children with MPS IVA (Morquio-Brailsford syndrome).

    PubMed

    Solanki, Guirish A; Lo, William B; Hendriksz, Christian J

    2013-03-01

    Nearly all children with MPS IVA develop skeletal deformities affecting the spine. At the atlanto-axial spine, odontoid hypoplasia occurs. GAG deposition around the dens, leads to peri-odontoid infiltration. Transverse/alar ligament incompetence causes instability. Atlanto-axial instability is associated with cord compression and myelopathy, leading to major morbidity and mortality. Intervention is often required. Does the presence of widened bullet shaped vertebra in platyspondily encroach on the spinal canal and cause spinal stenosis in MPS IVA? So far, there have been no standardised morphometric measurements of the paediatric MPS IVA cervical spine to evaluate whether there is pre-existing spinal stenosis predisposing to compressive myelopathy or whether this is purely an acquired process secondary to instability and compression. This study provides the first radiological quantitative analysis of the cervical spine and spinal cord in a series of affected children. MRI morphometry indicates that the MPS IVA spine is narrower at C1-2 level giving an inverted funnel shape. There is no evidence of a reduction in the Torg ratio (canal-body ratio) in the cervical spine. The spinal canal does not exceed 11 mm at any level, significantly smaller than normal historical cohorts (14 mm). The sagittal diameter and axial surface area of both spinal canal and cord are reduced. C1-2 level cord compression was evident in the canal-cord ratio but the Torg ratio was not predictive of cord compression. In MPS IVA the reduction in the space available for the cord (SAC) is multifactorial rather than due to congenital spinal stenosis.

  15. Disparidad en Salud: Un Fenómeno Multidimensional.

    PubMed

    Urrutia, Maria-Teresa; Cianelli, Rosina

    2010-03-01

    La Disparidad en Salud (DS) ha llamado la atención pública desde el siglo pasado, ha sido analizada desde diversas perspectivas y enfoques incluso variados términos han sido utilizados como sinónimos pudiendo llevar a confusión e inequidades al momento de su operacionalización. Sin embargo es importante señalar que las publicaciones coinciden en que la DS es uno de las determinantes esenciales a considerar al momento de definir polĺticas públicas. El propósito de esta publicación es analizar la disparidad en salud incorporando; a) los aspectos claves de su conceptualización, b) la evolución histórica del concepto, c) las estrategias que se han generado para enfrentarla, d) los factores considerados determinantes, y e) los aspectos éticos y la contribución de la investigación en la disminución de la DS.Health Disparities (HD) have been at the center of public attention for the past century. They have been analyzed from diverse perspectives utilizing various terms as synonyms that can lead to confusion and inequality at the moment of operationalization. Despite this, it is important to indicate that publications agree that HD are essential determinants that must be considered in the definition of public policy. The objective of this publication is to analyze health disparities incorporating; (a) key aspects in their conceptualization, (b) the historic evolution of the concept, (c) strategies that have been generated to confront them, (d) determining factors, and (e) ethical aspects and the contribution of research in decreasing HD.

  16. Clinical assessment techniques for detecting ligament and membrane injuries in the upper cervical spine region--a comparison with MRI results.

    PubMed

    Kaale, Bertel Rune; Krakenes, Jostein; Albrektsen, Grethe; Wester, Knut

    2008-10-01

    In this study we examined whether results from a clinical test of passive mobility of soft tissue structures in the upper cervical spine, corresponded with signs of physical injuries, as judged by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results were based on examinations of 122 study participants, 92 with and 30 without a diagnosis of whiplash-associated disorder, type 2. The structures considered were the alar and the transverse ligaments, and the tectorial and the posterior atlanto-occipital membranes. Ordinary and weighted kappa coefficients were used as a measure of agreement, whereas McNemar's test was used for evaluating differences in rating. The clinical classification and the MRI examination both comprised four response categories (grades 0-3), with 0 representing a normal structure, and 3 indicating a structure with pronounced abnormality. In our sample, an abnormal clinical test reflected a hyper- rather than hypo-mobility. Considering all four-response categories, the kappa coefficient indicated moderate agreement (range 0.45-0.60) between the clinical and the MRI classification. The results for the membranes appeared somewhat better than for the ligaments. When there was disagreement, the classifications obtained by the clinical test were significantly lower than the MRI grading, but mainly within one grade difference. When combining grade 0-1 (normal) and 2-3 (abnormal), the agreement improved considerably (range 0.70-0.90). Although results from the clinical test seem to be slightly more conservative than the MRI assessment, we believe that a clinical test can serve as valuable clinical tool in the assessment of WAD patients. However, further validity- and reliability studies are needed.

  17. Characterization of the hypothalamus of Xenopus laevis during development. II. The basal regions.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Laura; González, Agustín; Moreno, Nerea

    2014-04-01

    The expression patterns of conserved developmental regulatory transcription factors and neuronal markers were analyzed in the basal hypothalamus of Xenopus laevis throughout development by means of combined immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization techniques. The connectivity of the main subdivisions was investigated by in vitro tracing techniques with dextran amines. The basal hypothalamic region is topologically rostral to the basal diencephalon and is composed of the tuberal (rostral) and mammillary (caudal) subdivisions, according to the prosomeric model. It is dorsally bounded by the optic chiasm and the alar hypothalamus, and caudally by the diencephalic prosomere p3. The tuberal hypothalamus is defined by the expression of Nkx2.1, xShh, and Isl1, and rostral and caudal portions can be distinguished by the distinct expression of Otp rostrally and Nkx2.2 caudally. In the mammillary region the xShh/Nkx2.1 combination defined the rostral mammillary area, expressing Nkx2.1, and the caudal retromammillary area, expressing xShh. The expression of xLhx1, xDll4, and Otp in the mammillary area and Isl1 in the tuberal region highlights the boundary between the two basal hypothalamic territories. Both regions are strongly connected with subpallial regions, especially those conveying olfactory/vomeronasal information, and also possess abundant intrahypothalamic connections. They show reciprocal connections with the diencephalon (mainly the thalamus), project to the midbrain tectum, and are bidirectionally related to the rhombencephalon. These results illustrate that the basal hypothalamus of anurans shares many features of specification, regionalization, and hodology with amniotes, reinforcing the idea of a basic bauplan in the organization of this prosencephalic region in all tetrapods.

  18. Repositioned lateral crural flap technique for cephalic malposition in rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Mohebbi, A; Azizi, A; Tabatabaiee, S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cephalic malposition of the lower lateral cartilage (CMLLC) is a relatively common anatomical variant, particularly in Middle Eastern patients. The characteristics of CMLLC include long alar creases, a boxy and ball-shaped nasal tip, parenthesis tip deformity and external valvular incompetence. The gold standard for correcting CMLLC is the lateral crural strut graft (Gunter graft), but many patients experience problems after this technique. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of the repositioned lateral crural flap (RLCF) technique in correcting CMLLC, and to discuss the cosmetic and functional results. METHODS: In the present study, 123 primary septorhinoplasty operations using the RLCF technique were performed between May 2012 and March 2013. The mean follow-up period was 11.4 months (range nine to 24 months). Four parameters were measured and compared pre- and postoperatively: the angle between the line connecting the maximum convexity of the lower lateral cartilage (LLC) to the tip-defining point and midline on each side (angle of rotation); the total distance between the maximum convexity of LLC right and left to midline (representing the size of the parenthesis deformity); satisfaction scale rating of the patients’ nasal tip appearance; and the satisfaction scale rating of patients’ breathing through their nostrils. RESULTS: The mean angle of the LLC to the midline significantly increased and the mean distance between the maximum convexities was significantly reduced, indicating correction of the malposition and reduction of the parenthesis deformity, respectively. The mean satisfactory scale ratings of nasal tip appearance and breathing quality were also significantly improved. CONCLUSION: CMLLC can be corrected using the RLCF technique, resulting in both aesthetic and functional improvements. PMID:26361626

  19. [Is it enough to recommend to patients take a walk? Importance of the cadence].

    PubMed

    Cristi-Montero, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Existe fuerte evidencia científica sobre los beneficios que conlleva seguir un estilo de vida activo. La actividad física más característica e inherente al ser humano es la marcha, la que hoy en día es promovida por diversos profesionales para mejorar el estado de salud de la población. No obstante, al parecer no solo basta con sugerir “salga a caminar” pues es necesario alcanzar cierta cantidad de pasos y cadencia con la finalidad de inducir en el organismo una serie de efectos beneficiosos. Objetivos: El objetivo del presente trabajo es dar a conocer los últimos avances relacionados con esta materia, con el propósito de poder entregar a la población y pacientes recomendaciones más detalladas a la hora de prescribir y sugerir caminar. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en Pubmed y Scielo, así como una búsqueda manual entre las referencias de los estudios seleccionados. Resultados: Tras analizar la literatura se puede señalar que no solo parece ser importante cumplir cierta cantidad de pasos durante el día con la finalidad de mejorar el estado de salud de las personas, además parece ser indispensable sugerir la cadencia a la que se debiera caminar. Conclusiones: “Salga a caminar” es una efectiva y contrastada recomendación para lograr beneficios en la salud de la población, no obstante lo anterior, los profesionales de la salud podrían además sugerir alcanzar cierta cadencia o intensidad mínima para asegurarse de que sus pacientes logren dichos efectos favorables en el organismo.

  20. Disparidad en Salud: Un Fenómeno Multidimensional

    PubMed Central

    Urrutia, Maria-Teresa; Cianelli, Rosina

    2012-01-01

    La Disparidad en Salud (DS) ha llamado la atención pública desde el siglo pasado, ha sido analizada desde diversas perspectivas y enfoques incluso variados términos han sido utilizados como sinónimos pudiendo llevar a confusión e inequidades al momento de su operacionalización. Sin embargo es importante señalar que las publicaciones coinciden en que la DS es uno de las determinantes esenciales a considerar al momento de definir polĺticas públicas. El propósito de esta publicación es analizar la disparidad en salud incorporando; a) los aspectos claves de su conceptualización, b) la evolución histórica del concepto, c) las estrategias que se han generado para enfrentarla, d) los factores considerados determinantes, y e) los aspectos éticos y la contribución de la investigación en la disminución de la DS. Health Disparities (HD) have been at the center of public attention for the past century. They have been analyzed from diverse perspectives utilizing various terms as synonyms that can lead to confusion and inequality at the moment of operationalization. Despite this, it is important to indicate that publications agree that HD are essential determinants that must be considered in the definition of public policy. The objective of this publication is to analyze health disparities incorporating; (a) key aspects in their conceptualization, (b) the historic evolution of the concept, (c) strategies that have been generated to confront them, (d) determining factors, and (e) ethical aspects and the contribution of research in decreasing HD. PMID:22581053

  1. Morphogenetic and Histogenetic Roles of the Temporal-Spatial Organization of Cell Proliferation in the Vertebrate Corticogenesis as Revealed by Inter-specific Analyses of the Optic Tectum Cortex Development.

    PubMed

    Rapacioli, Melina; Palma, Verónica; Flores, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The central nervous system areas displaying the highest structural and functional complexity correspond to the so called cortices, i.e., concentric alternating neuronal and fibrous layers. Corticogenesis, i.e., the development of the cortical organization, depends on the temporal-spatial organization of several developmental events: (a) the duration of the proliferative phase of the neuroepithelium, (b) the relative duration of symmetric (expansive) versus asymmetric (neuronogenic) sub phases, (c) the spatial organization of each kind of cell division, (e) the time of determination and cell cycle exit and (f) the time of onset of the post-mitotic neuronal migration and (g) the time of onset of the neuronal structural and functional differentiation. The first five events depend on molecular mechanisms that perform a fine tuning of the proliferative activity. Changes in any of them significantly influence the cortical size or volume (tangential expansion and radial thickness), morphology, architecture and also impact on neuritogenesis and synaptogenesis affecting the cortical wiring. This paper integrates information, obtained in several species, on the developmental roles of cell proliferation in the development of the optic tectum (OT) cortex, a multilayered associative area of the dorsal (alar) midbrain. The present review (1) compiles relevant information on the temporal and spatial organization of cell proliferation in different species (fish, amphibians, birds, and mammals), (2) revises the main molecular events involved in the isthmic organizer (IsO) determination and localization, (3) describes how the patterning installed by IsO is translated into spatially organized neural stem cell proliferation (i.e., by means of growth factors, receptors, transcription factors, signaling pathways, etc.) and (4) describes the morpho- and histogenetic effect of a spatially organized cell proliferation in the above mentioned species. A brief section on the OT evolution is

  2. [Therapeutic possibilities in refractory epilepsy in tuberous sclerosis complex].

    PubMed

    Puertas-Martin, Verónica; Carreras-Saez, Inmaculada; Marana, Ana; Ruiz-Falco Rojas, M Luz; Cantarin-Extremera, Verónica; Calleja-Gero, M Lourdes

    2014-06-16

    Introduccion. El complejo esclerosis tuberosa (CET) cursa frecuentemente con epilepsia de dificil control, lo que condiciona la calidad de vida y el nivel cognitivo de estos pacientes. Objetivo. Describir las caracteristicas epidemiologicas, clinicas y el tratamiento de los pacientes afectos de CET con epilepsia. Pacientes y metodos. Se han revisado retrospectivamente las historias clinicas de 30 pacientes menores de 18 años, diagnosticados de CET y epilepsia registrados en nuestra base de datos. Resultados. La edad de inicio de la epilepsia en los pacientes con CET en nuestra serie esta comprendida entre el primer mes de vida y los 4 años. Todos comenzaron con crisis parciales. Dos presentaron sindrome de West y cuatro, espasmos infantiles sin hipsarritmia. En 19 de los pacientes, la epilepsia se comporto como farmacorresistente. Respecto al tratamiento con farmacos antiepilepticos, 11 estan en monoterapia, 10 en biterapia, siete en triterapia y uno con cuatro farmacos. Dos recibieron ACTH, dos tienen implantado un estimulador del nervio vago, cuatro reciben tratamiento con everolimus y ocho han sido sometidos a cirugia. Conclusiones. La epilepsia es un problema muy frecuente y de inicio en los primeros años de vida en el CET. Las opciones terapeuticas actuales son muchas, sin embargo el 63,3% de los pacientes tiene una epilepsia no controlada y la mayoria de ellos presenta crisis diarias. El mal control de las crisis se correlaciona con retraso mental y trastorno del espectro autista. Señalar la respuesta positiva obtenida con otras posibilidades terapeuticas: inhibidores de la via mTOR, cirugia y el estimulador del nervio vago.

  3. External rhinoplasty for the Arabian nose: a columellar scar analysis.

    PubMed

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate columellar scar problems after external rhinoplasty in the Arabian population, and to analyze the technical factors that help prevent such problems and maximize the scar cosmesis. The investigation was conducted in university and private practice settings of the author in Alexandria, Egypt. A total of 600 Arab patients who underwent external rhinoplasty were included in the study. All the patients underwent surgery using the external rhinoplasty approach, in which bilateral alar marginal incisions were connected by an inverted V-shaped transcolumellar incision. At completion of the procedure, a two-layer closure of the columellar incision was performed. At a minimum of 1 year postoperatively, the columellar scar was evaluated subjectively by means of a patient questionnaire, and objectively by clinical examination and comparison of the close-up pre- and postoperative basal view photographs. Objectively, anything less than a barely visible, leveled, thin, linear scar was considered unsatisfactory. Subjectively, 95.5% of the patients rated the scar as unnoticeable, 3% as noticeable but acceptable, and 1.5% as unacceptable. Objectively, the scar was unsatisfactory in 7% of the cases. This was because of scar widening with or without depression (5%), hyperpigmentation (1.5%), and columellar rim notching (0.5%). The use of a deep 6/0 polydioxanon (PDS) suture significantly decreased the incidence of scar widening (p < 0.005).The columellar incision can be used safely in the Arab population regardless of their thick, dark, and oily skin. Technical factors that contributed to the favorable outcome of the columellar scar included proper planning of location and design of the incision used, precise execution, meticulous multilayered closure, and good postoperative care.

  4. Introducing a Favourite Tip Definition and Projection with Tripod Suture in Rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Motamed, Sadrollah; Niazi, Feizollah; Moosavizadeh, Seyed Mehdi; Motaghedi, Babak; Tizmaghz, Adnan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Surgical manipulation of the lower lateral cartilages of nasal tip could cause subtle but significant responses to the manipulation. The suture-techniques almost always offer a reliable and dramatic method of tip reshaping without a need to break or interrupt the alar rim strip or even adding tip graft. Aim The aim of this study was to describe and assess outcomes of a new suture technique in rhinoplasty by using cephalic dome septal rotation suture for better tip definition. Materials and Methods All consecutive women (62 women) who attended our centre with nasal tip drooping and some degree of columellar retraction, underwent this technique from January 2005 to September 2009. Their ages ranged from 17 to 32 years old. Fifty one primary open and 11 secondary open rhinoplasties were performed using the conventional techniques and then the new suture technique was applied before closing the incisions on each patient. Results The patients were followed-up from 22 to 72 months (mean = 52.3). The projection and rotation was satisfactory in all patients and the final results persisted with only minimal changes over time. Conclusion It is important to say that this new suture is different from ‘tip rotation suture’ that was described by Tebbets. Our suture maintains the favorite tip definition with slight dorsal tip inclination. Indeed, it causes a two-point definition as the columellar lobular angle and the supra tip break definition. In addition, long-term follow-up has shown that this new suture (i.e., cephalic dome-septal rotation suture) is able to maintain optimal position of the nasal tip projection and definition. PMID:28273999

  5. Comparison of effects of spreader grafts and flaring sutures on nasal airway resistance in rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Mir Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    Cephalic resection of the lateral crura of the alar cartilages, lateral osteotomies, and removal of the nasal hump during rhinoplasty may cause collapse of the internal nasal valve angle. This study was performed to compare preventive effects of two techniques (spreader grafts and flaring sutures) on rhinoplasty by rhinomanometry. Two hundred and forty-eight patients participated in this semi-experimental study. The patients were assigned into two groups. 28 of them were not available for follow-up. All patients had a straight nose in the midline and no severe septal deviations. 87 of 220 patients underwent the spreader grafts technique and the flaring sutures technique was performed in 133 patients. The nasal airway resistance was calculated by active anterior rhinomanometry on admission to hospital and again between 3 and 6 months following surgery. The mean of follow-up was 20.9 ± 2.9 weeks. After rhinoplasty, nasal airway resistance decreased in 46 patients (52.9 percent) of spreader grafts group and in 84 patients (63.2 percent) of flaring sutures group. The median nasal airway resistance difference (before-after surgery) of spreader grafts and flaring sutures groups was 0.027 Pa/ml/s (range -110 to 130) and 0.017 Pa/ml/s (range -0.690 to 0.790), respectively. The difference of nasal airway resistance between before and after rhinoplasty in two groups was insignificance (Mann-Whitney U test, P = 0.5). The spreader grafts and flaring sutures move the dorsal border of the upper lateral cartilage in a lateral direction and had similar preventive effect on nasal airway resistance after rhinoplasty.

  6. [Prevalence of undernutrition in hospital patients with unbalanced heart failure; subjective global assessment like prognosis sign].

    PubMed

    Guerra-Sánchez, Luis; Martinez-Rincón, Carmen; Fresno-Flores, Mar

    2015-04-01

    Introducción: Existe una gran variabilidad en los estudios sobre la prevalencia de malnutrición en pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca crónica. La proporción de pacientes desnutridos depende del método de valoración utilizado y del momento en que se realice. Se ha descrito la relación entre desnutrición y aumento de las complicaciones, de la estancia hospitalaria, de la mortalidad y de reingreso hospitalario. Por lo que merece la pena señalar y tratar a estos pacientes. Objetivos: El objetivo fue aproximarnos a la prevalencia de la desnutrición, en los pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca crónica ingresados por descompensación, en nuestro medio y analizar cuál de los dos métodos de valoración nutricional utilizados, era mejor predictor de mortalidad. Métodos: Estudio observacional, transversal, en el que se evaluaron mediante la Valoración Subjetiva Global y Mini Nutritional Assesment , el estado nutricional de 377 pacientes ingresados en un hospital terciario de alta complejidad con diagnósticos compatibles con descompensación de insuficiencia cardiaca crónica. Resultados: La edad media fue de 75±10. El 51,5%(n=194) fueron hombres. Según la Valoración Subjetiva Global, el 50,7% (45,6%-55,7%) estaban normonutridos, el 41,9% (37,0%-46,9%) presentaban riesgo o sospecha de desnutrición y el 7,4% (5,2%-10,5%) presentaban desnutrición franca. Conclusiones: La prevalencia de desnutrición de los pacientes hospitalizados por descompensación de Insuficiencia Cardiaca crónica en nuestro ámbito es alta. La Valoración Subjetiva Global es un buen predictor de la mortalidad.

  7. Anatomical and Biomechanical Analyses of the Unique and Consistent Locations of Sacral Insufficiency Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Linstrom, Nathan J.; Heiserman, Joseph E.; Kortman, Keith E.; Crawford, Neil R.; Baek, Seungwon; Anderson, Russell L.; Pitt, Alan M.; Karis, John; Ross, Jeff S.; Lekovic, Gregory P.; Dean, Bruce L.

    2009-01-01

    Study Design Correlation of locations of sacral insufficiency fractures are made to regions of stress depicted by finite element analysis derived from biomechanical models of patient activities. Objective Sacral insufficiency fractures occur at consistent locations. It was postulated that sacral anatomy and sites of stress within the sacrum with routine activities in the setting of osteoporosis are foundations for determining patterns for the majority of sacral insufficiency fractures. Summary of Background Data The predominant vertical components of sacral insufficiency fractures most frequently occur bilaterally through the alar regions of the sacrum which are the thickest and most robust appearing portions of the sacrum instead of subjacent to the central sacrum which bears the downward force of the spine. Methods First, the exact locations of 108 cases of sacral insufficiency fractures were catalogued and compared to sacral anatomy. Second, different routine activities were simulated by pelvic models from CT scans of the pelvis and finite element analysis. Analyses were done to correlate sites of stress with activities within the sacrum and pelvis compared to patterns of sacral insufficiency fractures from 108 cases. Results The sites of stress depicted by the finite element analysis walking model strongly correlated with identical locations for most sacral and pelvic insufficiency fractures. Consistent patterns of sacral insufficiency fractures emerged from the 108 cases and a biomechanical classification system is introduced. Additionally, alteration of walking mechanics and asymmetric sacral stress may alter the pattern of sacral insufficiency fractures noted with hip pathology (p=.002). Conclusions Locations of sacral insufficiency fractures are nearly congruous with stress depicted by walking biomechanical models. Knowledge of stress locations with activities, cortical bone transmission of stress, usual fracture patterns, intensity of sacral stress with

  8. The human vertebral column at the end of the embryonic period proper. 2. The occipitocervical region.

    PubMed Central

    O'Rahilly, R; Müller, F; Meyer, D B

    1983-01-01

    The present investigation of the cervical region of the vertebral column at eight post-ovulatory weeks is the first such study based on precise reconstructions of staged embryos. At the end of the embryonic period proper, a typical vertebra is a U-shaped piece of cartilage characterized by spina bifida occulta. The notochord ascends through the centra and leaves the dens to enter the basal plate of the skull. The median column of the axis comprises three parts (designated X, Y, Z) which persist well into the fetal period. They are related to the first, second and third cervical nerves, respectively. Part X may project into the foramen magnum and form an occipito-axial joint. Part Z appears to be the centrum of the axis. The articular columns of the cervical vertebrae are twofold, as in the adult: an anterior (atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial) and a posterior (from the lower aspect of the axis downwards). Alar and transverse ligaments are present. Cavitation is not found in the embryonic period in either the atlanto-occipital or zygapophysial joints, and is generally not present in the median atlanto-axial joint either. Most of the transverse processes exhibit anterior and posterior tubercles. An 'intertubercular lamella' may or may not be present, i.e. the foramina transversaria are being formed around the vertebral artery. The spinal ganglia are generally partly in the vertebral canal and partly on the neural arches, medial to the articular processes. During the fetal period, the articular processes shift to a coronal position and this alteration appears to be associated with a corresponding change in the location of the spinal ganglia. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 7 PMID:6833119

  9. Bilateral cleft lip nasal deformity

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Arun Kumar; Nandini, R.

    2009-01-01

    Bilateral cleft lip nose deformity is a multi-factorial and complex deformity which tends to aggravate with growth of the child, if not attended surgically. The goals of primary bilateral cleft lip nose surgery are, closure of the nasal floor and sill, lengthening of the columella, repositioning of the alar base, achieving nasal tip projection, repositioning of the lower lateral cartilages, and reorienting the nares from horizontal to oblique position. The multiplicity of procedures in the literature for correction of this deformity alludes to the fact that no single procedure is entirely effective. The timing for surgical intervention and its extent varies considerably. Early surgery on cartilage may adversely affect growth and development; at the same time, allowing the cartilage to grow in an abnormal position and contributing to aggravation of deformity. Some surgeons advocate correction of deformity at an early age. However, others like the cartilages to grow and mature before going in for surgery. With peer pressure also becoming an important consideration during the teens, the current trend is towards early intervention. There is no unanimity in the extent of nasal dissection to be done at the time of primary lip repair. While many perform limited nasal dissection for the fear of growth retardation, others opt for full cartilage correction at the time of primary surgery itself. The value of naso-alveolar moulding (NAM) too is not universally accepted and has now more opponents than proponents. Also most centres in the developing world have neither the personnel nor the facilities for the same. The secondary cleft nasal deformity is variable and is affected by the extent of the original abnormality, any prior surgeries performed and alteration due to nasal growth. This article reviews the currently popular methods for correction of nasal deformity associated with bilateral cleft lip, it's management both at the time of cleft lip repair and also secondarily

  10. Evaluation of surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion and orthodontic treatment. Effects on dental, skeletal and nasal structures and rhinological findings.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Anders

    2013-01-01

    . The most obvious changes were at the most lateral alar-bases. The difference in lateral displacement profoundly influenced the perception of a more rounded nose. There were no predictive correlations between the changes. Patients with narrow and constrained nostrils can benefit from these changes with respect to the subjective experience of nasal obstruction. It is questionable whether an alar-cinch suture will prevent widening at the alar-base. The 3D superimposition applied in Study II is a reliable method, circumventing projection and measurement errors. In conclusion, SARME and orthodontic treatment normalize the transverse deficiency, with long-term stability. SARME has a favourable effect on the subjective perception of nasal respiration. SARME significantly affects dental, skeletal and nasal structures.

  11. EDITORIAL: Invited review and topical lectures from the 13th International Congress on Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagorodny, A.; Kocherga, O.

    2007-05-01

    The 13th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2006) was organized, on behalf of the International Advisory Committee of the ICPP series, by the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and the Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics (BITP) and held in Kiev, Ukraine, 22 26 May 2006. The Congress Program included the topics: fundamental problems of plasma physics; fusion plasmas; plasmas in astrophysics and space physics; plasmas in applications and technologies; complex plasmas. A total of 305 delegates from 30 countries took part in the Congress. The program included 9 invited review lectures, 32 invited topical and 313 contributed papers (60 of which were selected for oral presentation). The Congress Program was the responsibility of the International Program Committee: Anatoly Zagorodny (Chairman) Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ukraine Olha Kocherga (Scientific Secretary) Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ukraine Boris Breizman The University of Texas at Austin, USA Iver Cairns School of Physics, University of Sydney, Australia Tatiana Davydova Institute for Nuclear Research, Ukraine Tony Donne FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics, Rijnhuizen, The Netherlands Nikolai S Erokhin Space Research Institute of RAS, Russia Xavier Garbet CEA, France Valery Godyak OSRAM SYLVANIA, USA Katsumi Ida National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan Alexander Kingsep Russian Research Centre `Kurchatov Institute', Russia E P Kruglyakov Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Russia Gregor Morfill Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Germany Osamu Motojima National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan Jef Ongena ERM-KMS, Brussels and EFDA-JET, UK Konstantyn Shamrai Institute for Nuclear Research, Ukraine Raghvendra Singh Institute for Plasma Research, India Konstantyn Stepanov Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology, Ukraine Masayoshi Tanaka National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan Nodar Tsintsadze Physics Institute, Georgia The

  12. Construction of an Oceanic Plateau: Stratigraphic and Geochemical Perspectives from the Accreted Triassic Wrangellia Flood Basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scoates, J. S.; Greene, A. R.; Weis, D. A.

    2009-12-01

    The accreted Wrangellia flood basalts and associated pre- and post-volcanic sedimentary rocks provide an unparalleled view of the architecture and compositional evolution of an oceanic plateau. Wrangellia may ultimately hold keys to answering some of the major questions about the development of oceanic plateaus, including how these large oceanic features initiate, build-up, and terminate, the timescale of eruptions, and the impact of very large-scale melting events and associated volcanism on the environment. The Wrangellia plateau extends ~2300 km in the Pacific Northwest as a discontinuous belt from central Alaska and western Yukon (Nikolai Formation: <3.5 km) to Vancouver Island (Karmutsen Formation: ~6 km). Wrangellia flood basalts are bounded by Middle to Late Triassic marine sediments and unconformably overlie Paleozoic arc volcanic sequences of different age. Based on combined radiometric (U-Pb, 40Ar/39Ar, K-Ar), paleontological, and magnetostratigraphic age constraints, the Wrangellia basalts were emplaced during a single phase of tholeiitic volcanism at ca. 230-225 Ma, and possibly within as little as 2 Myr, onto pre-existing submerged arc crust. The vast majority of the flood basalts are LREE-enriched high-Ti basalt (1.6-2.4 wt% TiO2; 6-8 wt% MgO) with relatively uniform isotopic compositions at 230 Ma (ɛHf = +9.1 to +12.6; ɛNd = +6.0 to +8.7). The lowest part of the stratigraphy in areas of Alaska and Yukon is LREE-depleted low-Ti basalt (0.4-1.2 wt% TiO2) with pronounced negative-HFSE anomalies and Hf isotopic compositions (ɛHf = +13.7 to +18.4) that are decoupled from Nd (ɛNd = +4.6 to +5.4) and displaced well above the OIB mantle array (ΔɛHf = +4 to +8). Submarine stratigraphy on northern Vancouver Island contains picritic basalts (9-20 wt%) depleted in LREE (La/YbCN = 0.5 ± 0.2) with overlapping initial ɛHf (+10.3 ± 2.1) and ɛNd (+7.7 ± 1.3) to the high-Ti basalts. A mantle plume initiation model for the Wrangellia flood basalts is

  13. [Hans Berger (1873-1941)--the history of electroencephalography].

    PubMed

    Tudor, Mario; Tudor, Lorainne; Tudor, Katarina Ivana

    2005-01-01

    The discovery of electroencephalography (EEG) in 1929 by the German psychiatrist Hans Berger was a historical breakthrough providing a new neurologic and psychiatric diagnostic tool at the time, especially considering the lack of all those now available in daily practice (EP, CT, MRI, DSA, etc.) whithout which the making of neurologic diagnosis and planning neurosurgical operative procedures would now be unconceivable. There are no recent reports on the topic in the Croatian medical literature. The methods used in the study included search through previous reports, bibliographic notes, Internet sources, and analysis of continuous scientific attempts made through centuries to discover the real nature and meaning of electrical activity. Galvani's accidental discovery of "biological electricity" led to Volta's discovery of the battery (voltaic pile). Using it, Rolando was the first to stimulate cerebral surface. Thus, enabling Fritsch and Hitzig and Ferrier to develop the idea of cerebral localization (Jackson, Gowers, Gotch and Horsley). It was understandable that brain electrical stimulation produces contralateral motor response, but it was unknown whether there was a spontaneous (intrinsic) brain electrical current that could be recorded. Caton was the first to report on the "current in the brain gray substances onto open brain. Based on Caton's discovery and of those of Beck, Danilevsky, Prawdicz-Neminsky and others, Berger made the first EEG (electrocorticogram) recording on July 6, 1924, during a neurosurgical operation on a 17-year-old boy, performed by the neurosurgeon Nikolai Guleke. He reported on the topic in 1929, using the terms alpha and beta waves. The "spike and waves" (Spitzenwellen) were described shortly thereafter by the American group of EEG pioneers (H. and P. Davies, F. and E. Gibbs, Lenox and Jasper), although Berger had also observed them but considered them artifacts. The discovery of electroencephalography was a milestone for the advancement

  14. PREFACE: International Conference on Many Particle Spectroscopy of Atoms, Molecules, Clusters and Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowek, Danielle; Bennani, Azzedine; Lablanquie, Pascal; Maquet, Alfred

    2008-12-01

    The 2008 edition of the International Conference on Many Particle Spectroscopy of Atoms, Molecules, Clusters and Surfaces was held in Paris from 30 June to 2 July 2008. This biennial conference alternates with the International Symposium on (e,2e), Double Photoionization and Related Topics which is a satellite of the International Conference on Photonic, Electronic and Atomic Collisions (ICPEAC) conference. Over 110 participants from 20 countries gathered to examine the latest developments in the field of radiation interactions with matter. These include electron-electron correlation effects in excitation and in single and multiple ionization of atoms, molecules, clusters and surfaces with various projectiles: electrons, photons and ions. The present proceedings gathers the contributions of invited speakers and is intended to provide a detailed state-of-the-art account of the various facets of the field. Special thanks are due to Université Paris Sud XI, CNRS, and the laboratories LCAM, LIXAM and LCPMR which provided financial support for the organization of the conference. We are also grateful to the contribution of the companies Varian and RoentDek Handels GmbH. Guest Editors: Danielle Dowek and Azzedine Bennani LCAM, Université Paris Sud XI, France Pascal Lablanquie and Alfred Maquet LCPMR, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE Lorenzo Avaldi, (Italy) Alexei Grum Grzhimailo, (Russia) Klaus Bartschat, (USA) Nikolai Kabachnik, (Russia) Jamal Berakdar, (Germany) Birgit Lohmann, (Australia) Nora Berrah, (USA) Don H Madison, (USA) Michael Brunger, (Australia) Francis Penent, (France) Albert Crowe, (UK) Bernard Piraux, (Belgium) Claude Dal Cappello, (France) Roberto Rivarola, (Argentina) JingKang Deng, (China) Emma Sokkel, (Ireland) Alexander Dorn, (Germany) Giovanni Stefani, (Italy) Reinhardt Dorner, (Germany) Noboru Watanabe, (Japan) François Frémont, (France) LOCAL ORGANIZING COMMITTEE Azzedine BENNANI (Chair

  15. Chandra Looks Back At The Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-12-01

    -investigator on this project and worked with Dr. Elsner at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center while this research was conducted. The research team also includes Randy Gladstone (Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas); Nikolai Østgaard (University of Bergen, Norway); Hunter Waite and Tariq Majeed (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor); Thomas Cravens (University of Kansas, Lawrence); Shen-Wu Chang (University of Alabama, Huntsville); and, Albert E. Metzger (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for the agency's Science Mission Directorate. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations from the Chandra X-ray Center in Cambridge, Mass. Additional information and images are available at: http://chandra.harvard.edu and http://chandra.nasa.gov For information about NASA and agency programs on the Web, visit: http://www.nasa.gov

  16. PREFACE: SPIN2010 - Preface for Conference Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ströher, Hans; Rathmann, Frank

    2011-03-01

    facilities at FZJ, and many made the most of the opportunity. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL, USA), Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ), the International Union of Pure And Applied Physics (IUPAP), Thomas Jefferson Laboratory (JLab, USA), Helmholtz Institute Mainz (HIM, Germany) and the Virtual Institute on Spin and Strong QCD (VI-QCD) of the Helmholtz Association (HGF). We would also like to thank the local people from IKP and other institutions of FZJ for their contributions and help - without them we would not have been able to organize this great meeting. The current proceedings comprise written contributions of many of the presentations during SPIN2010; however, due to the recent incident in Japan, a number of our colleagues from there were unfortunately not able to deliver their write-ups in due time. This volume was edited by Ralf Gebel, Christoph Hanhart, Andro Kacharava, Andreas Lehrach, Bernd Lorentz, Nikolai N Nikolaev, Andreas Nogga, Frank Rathmann, and Hans Ströher. The next symposium - SPIN2012 - will be held at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna (Russia) in 2012. We are looking forward to meeting you there. Important conference-related links: SPIN2010 Web-site: https://www.congressa.de/SPIN2010/ Article in CERN Courier: http://cerncourier.com/cws/article/cern/45451 Spin Physics Committee: http://www.spin-community.org Jülich, April 2011 - Hans Ströher, Frank Rathmann (Chairs SPIN2010) Conference photograph

  17. Disseminated lupus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Garg, Taru; Ramchander; Shrihar, Rashmi; Gupta, Tanvi Pal; Aggarwal, Shilpi

    2011-01-01

    A 28-year-old woman presented with reddish raised, shiny lesions over the face and ears present for the past 3 years. Four years ago, she developed in her left axilla a nodule that became fluctuant and tender, which ruptured to discharge seropurulent material. It subsided after the patient had received antibiotics for 6 months, leaving puckered scarring. There was no history of antituberculous treatment. After 1 year, she developed papulonodular lesions on her face, nose, and ears. There was now a history of malaise, fever, dry cough, and anorexia and weight loss for the past 2 months. The patient was fully vaccinated in childhood, including against varicella infection. The general physical examination revealed lymphadenopathy involving cervical, axillary, and inguinal lymph nodes 0.5 x 0.5 cm to 1 x 1.5 cm, firm in consistency, and nontender. They were discrete except in the left axilla where multiple matted lymph nodes were present with overlying scarring and a papule. Her systemic examination was normal. Cutaneous examination showed a shiny erythematous plaque 3x2 cm with central atrophy and scarring on the face (Figure). It was comprised of multiple shiny nontender soft papules arranged in annular configuration. Similar discrete papules and nodules with adherent fine scaling were seen bilaterally on the alar prominence of the nose, lower lip, and post-auricular area. On diascopy, apple jelly nodules were seen. The hemogram, liver function tests, and renal function tests were normal, except for an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The Mantoux test showed erythema and an induration of 20 x 20 cm. A posteroanterior view on the chest x-ray showed fibrotic changes suggestive of pulmonary tuberculosis. Ultrasonography of the abdomen and pelvis showed no tubercular foci. Human immunodeficiency virus serology by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with 3 different kits was nonreactive. Histopathology from a nodule showed a focally thinned-out epidermis with

  18. Efficiency of Natural Gas Flares Associated with Shale Formation Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stirm, B.; Caulton, D.; Shepson, P.; Cambaliza, M. L.; Mccabe, D. C.; Baum, E.

    2012-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing has increased access and economic viability of shale oil reserves. Currently the Bakken Oil field in North Dakota is experiencing a rapid increase in the drilling of shale oil wells. However, this process typically results in the simultaneous release of natural gas. Low natural gas prices and the lack of local gas pipeline infrastructure have decreased the incentive for companies to capture this natural gas, with many opting to vent or flare the natural gas instead. The impact of these operations on greenhouse gas emissions has not been well characterized. An undocumented variable of interest is the destruction efficiency of methane in active oil field flares. In situ measurements of flare efficiency are difficult to obtain because of the inaccessibility of the flares. In June of 2012 we conducted flights over shale oil wells and flares in the Bakken Formation near Williston, ND using Purdue University's Airborne Laboratory for Atmospheric Research (ALAR) which is equipped with a 0.5 Hz Picarro CO2/CH4/H2O analyzer and a Best Air Turbulence (BAT) probe that measures the wind vectors. In addition, one flare in the Marcellus Formation near Washington, PA was also sampled. Flare signals were identified based on the enhancements of CO2 above the ambient background signal and the corresponding colocated CH4 concentration. Enhancements were isolated by subtracting the background concentrations of CO2 and CH4 to obtain delta CO2 and delta CH4 values. Emission factors to be reported are obtained as the ratio delta CH4 divided by delta CO2. We will report first in situ measurements of natural gas flare efficiency. We observed a variety of meteorological conditions with winds ranging from 4 to 15 m/s and will report on the relationship between wind speed and flare efficiency. We observed very high flare efficiency even under strong winds (at least 99.8% CO2 for all flares). During flare sampling, we observed a number of CH4 enhancements that were

  19. Spatiotemporal Development of the Orexinergic (Hypocretinergic) System in the Central Nervous System of Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    López, Jesús M; Morales, Lorena; González, Agustín

    2016-01-01

    The present immunohistochemical study represents a detailed spatiotemporal analysis of the localization of orexin-immunoreactive (OX-ir) cells and fibers throughout development in the brain of the anuran amphibian Xenopus laevis, a model frequently used in developmental studies. Anurans undergo remarkable physiological changes during the early life stages, and very little is known about the ontogeny and the localization of the centers that control functions such as appetite and feed ingestion in the developing brain. We examined the onset of the orexinergic system, demonstrated to be involved in appetite regulation, using antibodies against mammalian orexin-A and orexin-B peptides. Simultaneous detection of orexins with other territorial markers was used to assess the precise location of the orexinergic cells in the hypothalamus, analyzed within a segmental paradigm. Double staining of orexins and tyrosine hydroxylase served to evaluate possible interactions with the catecholaminergic systems. At early embryonic stages, the first OX-ir cells were detected in the hypothalamus and, soon after, long descending projections were observed through the brainstem to the spinal cord. As brain development proceeded, the double-staining techniques demonstrated that this OX-ir cell group was located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus within the alar hypothalamus. Throughout larval development, the number of OX-ir cells increased notably and a widespread fiber network that innervated the main areas of the forebrain and brainstem was progressively formed, including innervation in the posterior tubercle and mesencephalon, the locus coeruleus, and the nucleus of the solitary tract where catecholaminergic cells are present. In addition, orexinergic cells were detected in the preoptic area and the tuberal hypothalamus only at late prometamorphic stages. The final distribution pattern, largely similar to that of the adult, was achieved through metamorphic climax. The early expression of

  20. Crystal structures of three protozoan homologs of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Ethan A; Arakaki, Tracy L; Gillespie, Robert; Napuli, Alberto J; Kim, Jessica E; Buckner, Frederick S; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Verlinde, Christophe L M J; Fan, Erkang; Zucker, Frank; Hol, Wim G J

    2011-05-01

    Tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) is an essential enzyme that is recognizably conserved across all forms of life. It is responsible for activating and attaching tryptophan to a cognate tRNA(Trp) molecule for use in protein synthesis. In some eukaryotes this original core function has been supplemented or modified through the addition of extra domains or the expression of variant TrpRS isoforms. The three TrpRS structures from pathogenic protozoa described here represent three illustrations of this malleability in eukaryotes. The Cryptosporidium parvum genome contains a single TrpRS gene, which codes for an N-terminal domain of uncertain function in addition to the conserved core TrpRS domains. Sequence analysis indicates that this extra domain, conserved among several apicomplexans, is related to the editing domain of some AlaRS and ThrRS. The C. parvum enzyme remains fully active in charging tRNA(Trp) after truncation of this extra domain. The crystal structure of the active, truncated enzyme is presented here at 2.4Å resolution. The Trypanosoma brucei genome contains separate cytosolic and mitochondrial isoforms of TrpRS that have diverged in their respective tRNA recognition domains. The crystal structure of the T. brucei cytosolic isoform is presented here at 2.8Å resolution. The Entamoeba histolytica genome contains three sequences that appear to be TrpRS homologs. However one of these, whose structure is presented here at 3.0Å resolution, has lost the active site motifs characteristic of the Class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase catalytic domain while retaining the conserved features of a fully formed tRNA(Trp) recognition domain. The biological function of this variant E. histolytica TrpRS remains unknown, but, on the basis of a completely conserved tRNA recognition region and evidence for ATP but not tryptophan binding, it is tempting to speculate that it may perform an editing function. Together with a previously reported structure of an unusual Trp

  1. Photo anthropometric variations in Japanese facial features: Establishment of large-sample standard reference data for personal identification using a three-dimensional capture system.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Y; Wada, B; Taniguchi, K; Miyasaka, S; Imaizumi, K

    2015-12-01

    This study clarifies the anthropometric variations of the Japanese face by presenting large-sample population data of photo anthropometric measurements. The measurements can be used as standard reference data for the personal identification of facial images in forensic practices. To this end, three-dimensional (3D) facial images of 1126 Japanese individuals (865 male and 261 female Japanese individuals, aged 19-60 years) were acquired as samples using an already validated 3D capture system, and normative anthropometric analysis was carried out. In this anthropometric analysis, first, anthropological landmarks (22 items, i.e., entocanthion (en), alare (al), cheilion (ch), zygion (zy), gonion (go), sellion (se), gnathion (gn), labrale superius (ls), stomion (sto), labrale inferius (li)) were positioned on each 3D facial image (the direction of which had been adjusted to the Frankfort horizontal plane as the standard position for appropriate anthropometry), and anthropometric absolute measurements (19 items, i.e., bientocanthion breadth (en-en), nose breadth (al-al), mouth breadth (ch-ch), bizygomatic breadth (zy-zy), bigonial breadth (go-go), morphologic face height (se-gn), upper-lip height (ls-sto), lower-lip height (sto-li)) were exported using computer software for the measurement of a 3D digital object. Second, anthropometric indices (21 items, i.e., (se-gn)/(zy-zy), (en-en)/(al-al), (ls-li)/(ch-ch), (ls-sto)/(sto-li)) were calculated from these exported measurements. As a result, basic statistics, such as the mean values, standard deviations, and quartiles, and details of the distributions of these anthropometric results were shown. All of the results except "upper/lower lip ratio (ls-sto)/(sto-li)" were normally distributed. They were acquired as carefully as possible employing a 3D capture system and 3D digital imaging technologies. The sample of images was much larger than any Japanese sample used before for the purpose of personal identification. The

  2. Airborne Measurements of CO2 Exchange above a Heterogeneous Northern-latitude Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, O. E.; Caulton, D.; Shepson, P. B.; Stirm, B. H.; Metzger, S.; Musinsky, J.; Munger, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Northern latitude forests represent an important global sink for carbon dioxide (CO2). Estimating the landscape-scale exchange of CO2 is complicated by the heterogeneity of forested areas. Airborne eddy-covariance measurements can complement continuous tower-based measurements for determining the magnitude and spatial variability of carbon uptake in forested areas, and to assess means for scaling-up. While aircraft provide accessibility, the resulting flux measurements represent a narrow time slice, and average over a comparatively large source area. The goal of this study is to improve our ability to attribute aircraft flux data to finer spatial scales. We hypothesize that this can be achieved by (i) improving the spatial scale of the sampling method, (ii) examining inter-day variability, and (iii) relating airborne eddy-covariance flux estimates to remote sensing determinations of the land cover. For this purpose identical flight experiments were conducted on May 29 and June 1, 2014 over a 240 km2 region encompassing the Harvard University EMS eddy flux tower at Harvard Forest, MA, using the Purdue University ALAR aircraft. In the early afternoon of each day, 19 flight legs, 20 km in length, were flown over the heterogeneous forest canopy. The two replicate experiments allow assessment of inter-day variability in CO2 exchange under similar meteorological conditions. Furthermore, the experiments were coordinated with high-resolution (≤1 m) and medium-resolution (≤100 m) remote sensing retrievals of forest canopy structure and composition (NEON AOP) and soil moisture (NASA AirMOSS), respectively. This unprecedented hierarchy of observations enables evaluation of the ability of different data processing approaches to calculate finer scale CO2 exchange with the surface. Analyses of the flights conducted on May 29 and June 1 show a transect-averaged (± 1σ) CO2 uptake of 13 ± 3 µmol m-2s-1 and 11 ± 2 µmol m-2s-1, respectively. In complement to the aircraft

  3. Configuration of water resources for a typical river basin in an arid region of China based on the ecological water requirements (EWRs) of desert riparian vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Hongbo; Guo, Bin; Xu, Hailiang; Fu, Jinyi

    2014-11-01

    Desert riparian vegetation is a natural cover promoting the stability and development of inland river ecosystems in arid regions. Calculating the ecological water requirements (EWRs) of desert riparian vegetation is an important step in achieving reasonable water utilization. Therefore, this study examined the Tarim River, located in an extremely arid region of China, and collected relevant data on hydrology, weather and vegetation using remote sensing. Subsequently, we analyzed the spatial distribution of the desert riparian vegetation in four sections of the Tarim River and calculated the EWR of the desert riparian vegetation using the phreatic evaporation model; additionally, we determined the required runoffs at five hydrologic stations based on the water balance principle. Ultimately, the necessary protection ranges and goals for desert riparian vegetation were established according to the water resource variations in the Tarim River. Our research showed that the total area of desert riparian vegetation along the Tarim River is 16,285.3 km2; this distribution area gradually decreased as the distance from the river increased, and areas varied in the different river sections. The EWRs of desert riparian vegetation from Sections 1 to 5 are 5.698 × 108, 7.585 × 108, 4.900 × 108, 4.101 × 108 m3 and 1.078 × 108 m3, respectively. Therefore, the total EWR of the study region is 23.362 × 108 m3. In terms of the transpiration law of the "unimodal type", the peak value of EWR of natural vegetation occurs in July, and the decreasing trend appears in the other months. Based on the water balance principle, the required runoffs in Alar, Xinquman, Yingbaza, Wusiman and Qiala were determined to be 47.105 × 108, 35.174 × 108, 22.734 × 108, 15.775 × 108 and 7.707 × 108 m3, respectively. According to the water resource frequency and the EWR of the desert riparian vegetation along the Tarim River, we divided the region into three protection ranges: key protection (8

  4. Water resource management in river oases along the Tarim River in North-West of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kliucininkaite, Lina; Disse, Markus

    2013-04-01

    Tarim River is one of the longest inland rivers in the world. It flows its water in the northern part of the Taklamakan desert in Xinjiang, North-west of China, which is a very hostile region due its climatic conditions and particularly due to low precipitation and very high evaporation rates. During the past five decades intensive exploitation of water resources, mainly by agricultural activities, has changed the temporal and spatial distribution of them and caused serious environmental problems in the Tarim River Basin. The support measures for oasis management along the Tarim River under climatic and societal changes became the overarching goal of this research. The temperature has risen by nearly 1° C over the past 50 years in the Tarim River Basin so more water was available in the mountainous areas of Xinjiang, leading to an increasing trend of the headstream discharges of the Tarim Basin. Aksu, Hotan and Yarkant Rivers are three tributaries of the Tarim River, as well as its main water suppliers. However, under the condition of water increase with the volume of 25×108 m3 in headstreams in recent 10 years, the water to the mainstream has increased less than 108 m3 (in Alar hydrological station), which is less than 3% of the increased water volume of runoff. Moreover, the region is one of the biggest cotton and other cash crops producers in China. In addition, expansion of urban and, in particular, of irrigation areas have caused higher water consumption at different parts of the river, leading to severe ecological effects on rural areas, especially in the lower reaches. Moreover, it also highly affects groundwater level and quality. The aim of this research is to support decision makers, planners and engineers to find right measures in the area for the further development of the region, as well as adaptation to changing climate. Different scenarios for water resource management, as well as water distribution and allocation in a more efficient and water

  5. Frontal soft tissue analysis using a 3 dimensional camera following two-jaw rotational orthognathic surgery in skeletal class III patients.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jong Woo; Lee, Jang Yeol; Oh, Tae-Suk; Kwon, Soon Man; Yang, Sung Joon; Koh, Kyung Suk

    2014-04-01

    Although two dimensional cephalometry is the standard method for analyzing the results of orthognathic surgery, it has potential limits in frontal soft tissue analysis. We have utilized a 3 dimensional camera to examine changes in soft tissue landmarks in patients with skeletal class III dentofacial deformity who underwent two-jaw rotational setback surgery. We assessed 25 consecutive Asian patients (mean age, 22 years; range, 17-32 years) with skeletal class III dentofacial deformities who underwent two-jaw rotational surgery without maxillary advancement. Using a 3D camera, we analyzed changes in facial proportions, including vertical and horizontal dimensions, facial surface areas, nose profile, lip contour, and soft tissue cheek convexity, as well as landmarks related to facial symmetry. The average mandibular setback was 10.7 mm (range: 5-17 mm). The average SNA changed from 77.4° to 77.8°, the average SNB from 89.2° to 81.1°, and the average occlusal plane from 8.7° to 11.4°. The mid third vertical dimension changed from 58.8 mm to 57.8 mm (p = 0.059), and the lower third vertical dimension changed from 70.4 mm to 68.2 mm (p = 0.0006). The average bigonial width decreased from 113.5 mm to 109.2 mm (p = 0.0028), the alar width increased from 34.7 mm to 36.1 mm (p-value = 0.0002), and lip length was unchanged. Mean mid and lower facial surface areas decreased significantly, from 171.8 cm(2) to 166.2 cm(2) (p = 0.026) and from 71.23 cm(2) to 61.9 cm(2) (p < 0.0001), respectively. Cheek convexity increased significantly, from 171.8° to 155.9° (p = 0.0007). The 3D camera was effective in frontal soft tissue analysis for orthognathic surgery, and enabled quantitative analysis of changes in frontal soft tissue landmarks and facial proportions that were not possible with conventional 2D cephalometric analysis.

  6. Review of secondary alveolar cleft repair

    PubMed Central

    Cho-Lee, Gui-Youn; García-Díez, Eloy-Miguel; Nunes, Richard-Agostinho; Martí-Pagès, Carles; Sieira-Gil, Ramón; Rivera-Baró, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    achieves all these several objectives: (1) to obtain maxillary arch continuity, (2) to maximize bone support for the dentition, (3) to stabilize the maxillary segments after orthodontic treatment, (4) to eliminate oronasal fistulae, (5) to provide nasal alar cartilage support, (6) to establish ideal alveolar morphology, and (7) to provide available bone with attached soft tissue for future endosteal implant placement in cases where there is a residual dental space. We advocate for the use of a minimal incision to obtain the iliac crest bone graft and for the use of a corticocancellous block of bone in combination with bone chips. PMID:23662259

  7. PREFACE: International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littlewood, P. B.; Lonzarich, G. G.; Saxena, S. S.; Sutherland, M. L.; Sebastian, S. E.; Artacho, E.; Grosche, F. M.; Hadzibabic, Z.

    2012-11-01

    , Pittsburgh P. Chandra, PiscatawayN. Mathur, CambridgeJ.C. Gomez-Sal, Santander S-W. Cheong, RutgersK. Miyake, OsakaV. Tripathi, Mumbai P. Coleman, PiscatawayA Navrotsky, DavisA. Vasiliev, Moscow M. Vojta, Cologne Local Committee S. E. Sebastian (chair)R. NeedsJ. Keeling N. MathurE. PughD. Khmelnitskii M. ParishM. CarpenterM. Koehl M. AtatureR. CowburnW. Milne C. BarnesJ. McManus DriscollS. Redfern N. BerloffA. FerrariD. Ritchie M. BlamireC. GreyJ. Robertson J. BaumbergZ. HadzibabicB. Simons A. Cheetham National Advisory Committee G. Aeppli, LondonV. Falko, LancasterM. Pepper, Cambridge A. Ardavan, OxfordR. Friend, CambridgeT. Perring, Didcot P. Attfield, EdinburghC. Frost, RutherfordJ. Saunders, London A. Boothroyd, OxfordG. Gehring, ShefieldA. Schofield, Birmingham A. Coldea, OxfordS. Hayden, BristolN. Shannon, Bristol L. Eaves, NottinghamN. Hussey, BristolM. Skolnick, Sheffield D. Edwards, LondonA. Huxley, EdinburghS. Thompson, York M. Ellerby, LondonH. Wilhelm, Didcot International Advisory Committee E. Abrahams, UCLAG. Kotliar, Piscataway E. V. Sampathkumaran, Mumbai G. Aeppli, LondonD. Khmelnitskii, CambridgeUK J. Sarrao, Los Alamos J. W. Allen, Ann ArborK. Kugel, MoscowJ. Schilling, St. Louise P. W. Anderson, Princeton C. Lacroix, Grenoble A. Schofield, Birmingham M. Aronson, Stony Brook P. A. LeeCambridge, USA V. Sechovsky, Prague Y. K. Bang, Kwangju and Pohang C.T. Liang, Taipei T. Senthil, Cambridge, USA M. Barma, Mumbai P. Majumdar, Allahabad J. G. Sereni, Bariloche G. Baskaran, Chennai Y. Maeno, Kyoto K. Shimizu, Osaka E. Bauer, Vienna J. Mannhart, Augsburg Q. Si, Houston G. Boebinger, Tallahassee M. B. Maple, San Diego M. Sigrist, Zurich R. Budhani, Delhi Y. Matsuda, Kyoto A. Simoni, Trento P. Canfield, Ames R. Moessner, Dresden D. Singh, Oak Ridge M. Continentino, Rio di Janiero A. Millis, New York A. Sood, Bangalore S. Coppersmith, Madison J. Mydosh, Leiden J. Spalek, Krakow B. Coqblin, Paris S. Nakatsuji, Tokyo F. Steglich, Dresden A. Chubukov, Madison G. Oomi

  8. Toward a W4-F12 approach: Can explicitly correlated and orbital-based ab initio CCSD(T) limits be reconciled?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvetsky, Nitai; Peterson, Kirk A.; Karton, Amir; Martin, Jan M. L.

    2016-06-01

    In the context of high-accuracy computational thermochemistry, the valence coupled cluster with all singles and doubles (CCSD) correlation component of molecular atomization energies presents the most severe basis set convergence problem, followed by the (T) component. In the present paper, we make a detailed comparison, for an expanded version of the W4-11 thermochemistry benchmark, between, on the one hand, orbital-based CCSD/AV{5,6}Z + d and CCSD/ACV{5,6}Z extrapolation, and on the other hand CCSD-F12b calculations with cc-pVQZ-F12 and cc-pV5Z-F12 basis sets. This latter basis set, now available for H-He, B-Ne, and Al-Ar, is shown to be very close to the basis set limit. Apparent differences (which can reach 0.35 kcal/mol for systems like CCl4) between orbital-based and CCSD-F12b basis set limits disappear if basis sets with additional radial flexibility, such as ACV{5,6}Z, are used for the orbital calculation. Counterpoise calculations reveal that, while total atomization energies with V5Z-F12 basis sets are nearly free of BSSE, orbital calculations have significant BSSE even with AV(6 + d)Z basis sets, leading to non-negligible differences between raw and counterpoise-corrected extrapolated limits. This latter problem is greatly reduced by switching to ACV{5,6}Z core-valence basis sets, or simply adding an additional zeta to just the valence orbitals. Previous reports that all-electron approaches like HEAT (high-accuracy extrapolated ab-initio thermochemistry) lead to different CCSD(T) limits than "valence limit + CV correction" approaches like Feller-Peterson-Dixon and Weizmann-4 (W4) theory can be rationalized in terms of the greater radial flexibility of core-valence basis sets. For (T) corrections, conventional CCSD(T)/AV{Q,5}Z + d calculations are found to be superior to scaled or extrapolated CCSD(T)-F12b calculations of similar cost. For a W4-F12 protocol, we recommend obtaining the Hartree-Fock and valence CCSD components from CCSD-F12b/cc-pV{Q,5}Z-F12

  9. Seasonal changes of whole root system conductance by a drought-tolerant grape root system

    PubMed Central

    Alsina, Maria Mar; Smart, David R.; Bauerle, Taryn; de Herralde, Felicidad; Biel, Carme; Stockert, Christine; Negron, Claudia; Save, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The role of root systems in drought tolerance is a subject of very limited information compared with above-ground responses. Adjustments to the ability of roots to supply water relative to shoot transpiration demand is proposed as a major means for woody perennial plants to tolerate drought, and is often expressed as changes in the ratios of leaf to root area (AL:AR). Seasonal root proliferation in a directed manner could increase the water supply function of roots independent of total root area (AR) and represents a mechanism whereby water supply to demand could be increased. To address this issue, seasonal root proliferation, stomatal conductance (gs) and whole root system hydraulic conductance (kr) were investigated for a drought-tolerant grape root system (Vitis berlandieri×V. rupestris cv. 1103P) and a non-drought-tolerant root system (Vitis riparia×V. rupestris cv. 101-14Mgt), upon which had been grafted the same drought-sensitive clone of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot. Leaf water potentials (ψL) for Merlot grafted onto the 1103P root system (–0.91±0.02 MPa) were +0.15 MPa higher than Merlot on 101-14Mgt (–1.06±0.03 MPa) during spring, but dropped by approximately –0.4 MPa from spring to autumn, and were significantly lower by –0.15 MPa (–1.43±0.02 MPa) than for Merlot on 101-14Mgt (at –1.28±0.02 MPa). Surprisingly, gs of Merlot on the drought-tolerant root system (1103P) was less down-regulated and canopies maintained evaporative fluxes ranging from 35–20 mmol vine−1 s−1 during the diurnal peak from spring to autumn, respectively, three times greater than those measured for Merlot on the drought-sensitive rootstock 101-14Mgt. The drought-tolerant root system grew more roots at depth during the warm summer dry period, and the whole root system conductance (kr) increased from 0.004 to 0.009 kg MPa−1 s−1 during that same time period. The changes in kr could not be explained by xylem anatomy or conductivity changes of individual root

  10. Systematics within Gyps vultures: a clade at risk

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jeff A; Lerner, Heather RL; Rasmussen, Pamela C; Mindell, David P

    2006-01-01

    molecular phylogenies strongly support the treatment of indicus and tenuirostris as separate species, as does morphological data showing that these two taxa of similar overall size differ in proportions, especially in rostral, alar, and pedal characters. In addition, grouping of bengalensis and africanus together in the genus Pseudogyps, as historically proposed, is not upheld based on mitochondrial data. Conclusion Both molecular and morphological data provide strong support for considering the "Long-billed" Vulture to be comprised of two species (G. indicus and G. tenuirostris), and further analysis is warranted to determine the taxonomic distinctiveness of G. f. fulvescens. Our phylogenetic analyses and conservative estimates suggest the diversification of Gyps taxa to be within the past 6 million years. Diclofenac susceptibility has been previously demonstrated for four Gyps species (G. indicus, G. fulvus, G. africanus, G. bengalensis), and the phylogenetic position of these species each forming a sister relationship with at least one of the remaining species, support concern that other Gyps taxa may be susceptible as well. Determining genetic and evolutionary distinctiveness for Gyps lineages is increasingly important as a breeding program is being established to prevent extinction.

  11. Seasonal changes of whole root system conductance by a drought-tolerant grape root system.

    PubMed

    Alsina, Maria Mar; Smart, David R; Bauerle, Taryn; de Herralde, Felicidad; Biel, Carme; Stockert, Christine; Negron, Claudia; Save, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The role of root systems in drought tolerance is a subject of very limited information compared with above-ground responses. Adjustments to the ability of roots to supply water relative to shoot transpiration demand is proposed as a major means for woody perennial plants to tolerate drought, and is often expressed as changes in the ratios of leaf to root area (A(L):A(R)). Seasonal root proliferation in a directed manner could increase the water supply function of roots independent of total root area (A(R)) and represents a mechanism whereby water supply to demand could be increased. To address this issue, seasonal root proliferation, stomatal conductance (g(s)) and whole root system hydraulic conductance (k(r)) were investigated for a drought-tolerant grape root system (Vitis berlandieri×V. rupestris cv. 1103P) and a non-drought-tolerant root system (Vitis riparia×V. rupestris cv. 101-14Mgt), upon which had been grafted the same drought-sensitive clone of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot. Leaf water potentials (ψ(L)) for Merlot grafted onto the 1103P root system (-0.91±0.02 MPa) were +0.15 MPa higher than Merlot on 101-14Mgt (-1.06±0.03 MPa) during spring, but dropped by approximately -0.4 MPa from spring to autumn, and were significantly lower by -0.15 MPa (-1.43±0.02 MPa) than for Merlot on 101-14Mgt (at -1.28±0.02 MPa). Surprisingly, g(s) of Merlot on the drought-tolerant root system (1103P) was less down-regulated and canopies maintained evaporative fluxes ranging from 35-20 mmol vine(-1) s(-1) during the diurnal peak from spring to autumn, respectively, three times greater than those measured for Merlot on the drought-sensitive rootstock 101-14Mgt. The drought-tolerant root system grew more roots at depth during the warm summer dry period, and the whole root system conductance (k(r)) increased from 0.004 to 0.009 kg MPa(-1) s(-1) during that same time period. The changes in k(r) could not be explained by xylem anatomy or conductivity changes of individual root

  12. THE SIZE AND EXTENT OF THE INTERSTELLAR GAS CLOUD SURROUNDING THE SUN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Two astronomical observatories in orbit around the Earth, the Hubble Space Telescope and the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer, have been used to investigate the structure of the interstellar gas cloud in which the Sun resides. A compilation and interpretation of the results of these studies is being presented today at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Madison, WI by Drs. Jeffrey L. Linsky, Nikolai Piskunov, and Brian E. Wood of JILA and the University of Colorado. Measuring the properties of the local interstellar medium (LISM) is important for understanding how the LISM interacts with the solar wind and for investigating the possibility that changes in the LISM in the immediate vicinity of the Sun could have an effect on the Earth's atmosphere and climate. When astronomers observe the ultraviolet light emitted by nearby stars, it is always found that some of the light is absorbed by atoms and ions in the LISM. The properties of the LISM can therefore be investigated by measuring the amount of absorption observed. Using ultraviolet spectra taken by the Hubble Space Telescope and the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer, the total amount of local interstellar matter has been measured for many lines of sight through the LISM. These studies suggest that the interstellar gas surrounding the Sun has a temperature of about 7000 K (about 12,000 degrees Fahrenheit) and has a velocity of about 16 miles per second relative to the Sun. Measurements made for very short (less than 10 light years) lines of sight toward very nearby stars suggest an average density of about 0.1 hydrogen atoms per cubic centimeter for the local interstellar gas, hydrogen being by far the most abundant atom in the LISM. Measurements made for lines of sight toward more distant stars suggest lower average densities. This suggests that parts of the lines of sight to these more distant stars are in regions of space with extremely low densities. We believe this means that these stars lie outside the local

  13. Non-thermal processes on ice and liquid micro-jet surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olanrewaju, Babajide O.

    acknowledge that the instrumentation and data acquisition were done in collaboration with Nikolai Pet

  14. PREFACE: Scientific and Technical Challenges in the Well Drilling Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-02-01

    The Conference "Advanced Engineering Problems in Drilling" was devoted to the 60th anniversary of the Drilling Department, Institute of Natural Resources. Today this Department is the "descendant" of two existing departments - Mining Exploration Technology and Oil and Gas Drilling. It should be mentioned that this remarkable date is associated with the first graduation class of mining engineers in "Mining Exploration Technologies", as well as the 30th anniversary of the Oil and Gas Well Drilling Department. Anniversary is an excellent occasion to remember one's historical past. At the beginning of the last century within the Tomsk Technological Institute n.a. Emperor Nikolai II the Mining Department was established which soon embraced the Obruchev-Usov Mining-Geological School. This School became the parent of mining-geological education in the Asian region of Russia, as well as the successor of mining-geological science. It was and is today one of the leading schools in the spheres of mineral resources exploration, surveying and mining. 1927 is the year of the establishment of the Department of Technology in Mineral Exploration. SibGeokom (Western-Siberia branch of the Geological Committee) under the supervision of M.A. Usov obtained the first Krelis rotary boring drill. Prior to that only the Keystone cable drilling rig was used in exploration. It was I.A. Molchanov who was responsible for the development and implementation of new technology in the field of exploration. In the yard of SibGeokom (now it is Building № 6, Usov St.) the first drilling rig was mounted. This was the beginning of the first training courses for Krelis drilling foremen under the supervision of I.A. Molchanov. In 1931 I.A. Molchanov headed the Department of Exploration which was located in Building № 6. In the outside territory of this building a drilling site was launched, including Keystone cable drilling rig, CAM-500 drilling rig and others. In the Building itself, i.e. in one study

  15. PREFACE: A Stellar Journey A Stellar Journey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asplund, M.

    2008-10-01

    appreciated non-astronomical session on Tuesday afternoon; Sigbritt Ernald provided a rich source of suggestions for suitable interesting persons to invite for the stimulating and highly enjoyable oral and musical presentations. While the responsibilities of the SOC are quite pleasant and frankly not particularly demanding, the heavy burden with organizing a conference falls squarely with the Local Organizing Committee, which has to deal with a seemingly never-ending stream of practicalities and more mundane chores. The main reason the Stellar Journey conference was such an astounding success and ran so smoothly is the tireless work by the whole LOC. All of us owe a great deal of gratitude to Paul Barklem, Nils Bergvall, Norbert Christlieb, Bengt Edvardsson (Chair), Kjell Eriksson, Ulrike Heiter, Susanne Höfner, Andreas Korn, Nikolai Piskunov, Bertrand Plez and Astrid Wachter for their extensive efforts. I'd like to also extend a special acknowledgement to all of the Uppsala students who helped out during the reception, registration and various sessions. Last but not the least, I'd like to thank all of the conference participants for giving such excellent talks and for providing stimulating discussions throughout the week. It is telling that essentially everyone invited to participate in the conference almost immediately accepted while the very few who declined did so only reluctantly due to other prior commitments. Bengt is a highly regarded colleague and friend, whom we all wished to celebrate this special occasion with. This conference represented merely one brief stop on a marvellous and truly stellar journey. I dare say that without exception we are all deeply thankful for having been able to join Bengt Gustafsson on at least some of his many cosmic adventures during the past decades. We trust that this exciting odyssey will continue for many years.

  16. Obituary: Martha Locke Hazen, 1931-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Thomas R.; Willson, Lee Anne

    2007-12-01

    Digital Access to a Sky Century from Harvard (DASCH) project will owe much to Martha's efforts in this regard. Another important contribution to progress in astronomy from the plate stacks came as Martha engaged in what she called Forensic Astronomy. Over the years, a great many variable stars that had been discovered on the Harvard plates had since been "lost," i. e. could not be found or verified. At the request of Nikolai Samus, General Editor of the General Catalogue of Variable Stars (GCVS), Martha found the original discovery plates on these stars together with sufficient relevant information from other sources, and was successful in re-establishing credible identifications and accurate coordinates for 1,174 of the nearly 1,200 "lost" variable stars on the GCVS list. This required looking at multiple plates of the field involved to sort out whether the problem was an erroneous identification, inappropriate coordinates for the star, or some other problem. Many astronomers, professional and amateur, have relied on Martha to teach them the now arcane skills of photovisual photometry using a time series of plates and a "fly swatter" to discover variable stars, confirm a period or period change, or simply to construct a historical light curve to fit with modern observations. The range of co-authors on Martha's many publications illustrates how useful her chosen specialization was to the field. She served as a portal to otherwise difficult-to-access but very valuable (and irreplaceable) data, particularly the Harvard Plate Collection. In the 1970s, when interest in improving the status of women in astronomy arose, along with the desire to recruit more women into astronomy, Martha was appointed as Harvard College Observatory's representative to a university-wide coordination committee on the status of women in university life generally. Working with Ursula Marvin, who had similar responsibilities for the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Martha played a leadership

  17. Speaking, writing, and memory span in children: output modality affects cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Joachim

    2010-02-01

    franceses quiénes compararon la ejecución en la capacidad de retención en la memoria oral y escrita. Las dificultades observadas en niños, pero no en adultos, en procesos de bajo nivel en la escritura pueden derivarse de la inadecuación grafomotriz u ortográfica. Informamos sobre cinco experimentos diseñados para replicar y ampliar los resultados originales. Primero, los resultados franceses fueron replicados con éxito para alemanes en tercer curso y para estudiantes universitarios. Después, los cambios evolutivos en costes cognitivos en la escritura fueron estudiados durante la educación primaria, comparando la ejecución de los alumnos del segundo y cuarto curso. Posteriormente, demostramos que las formas de escribir no practicadas, que se han inducido experimentalmente, conducen a la disminución de la ejecución en la memoria también en adultos, lo cual apoya la hipótesis de que la falta de la automatización grafomotriz es la responsable de los efectos encontrados en niños. Sin embargo, la escritura a mano muestra resultados más claros que la escritura a máquina. Por último, hemos intentado separar la influencia de la grafomotricidad frente a las dificultades ortográficas componiendo las palabras señalando en una "pizarra de ortografía". Este intento, sin embargo, no ha tenido éxito, probablemente porque señalar letras ha introducido otros costes de bajo nivel. Resumiendo, a lo largo de los cuatro años de la educación primaria, los niños alemanes muestran peor ejecución en retención en memoria en la escritura, en comparación con el recuerdo oral, con un incremento general en ambas modalidades. Por tanto, al final de la educación primaria, la escritura no ha igualado todavía el habla en cuanto a los costes cognitivos. Por consiguiente, las conclusiones están relacionadas con la cuestión de cómo evaluar cualquier tipo de conocimiento o habilidades mediante la producción de lenguaje. Les processus de bas niveau de la production du langage