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Sample records for nikolai vasiliev alar

  1. Alar

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Alar ; CASRN 1596 - 84 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects ) a

  2. Towards the Fradkin-Vasiliev formalism in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinoviev, Yu. M.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we show that using frame-like gauge invariant formulation for the massive bosonic and fermionic fields in three dimensions the free Lagrangians for these fields can be rewritten in the explicitly gauge invariant form in terms of the appropriately chosen set of gauge invariant objects. This in turn opens the possibility to apply the Fradkin-Vasiliev formalism to the investigation of possible interactions of such fields.

  3. The Articulated Alar Rim Graft: Reengineering the Conventional Alar Rim Graft for Improved Contour and Support.

    PubMed

    Ballin, Annelyse C; Kim, Haena; Chance, Elizabeth; Davis, Richard E

    2016-08-01

    Surgical refinement of the wide nasal tip is challenging. Achieving an attractive, slender, and functional tip complex without destabilizing the lower nasal sidewall or deforming the contracture-prone alar rim is a formidable task. Excisional refinement techniques that rely upon incremental weakening of wide lower lateral cartilages (LLC) often destabilize the tip complex and distort tip contour. Initial destabilization of the LLC is usually further exacerbated by "shrink-wrap" contracture, which often leads to progressive cephalic retraction of the alar margin. The result is a misshapen tip complex accentuated by a conspicuous and highly objectionable nostril deformity that is often very difficult to treat. The "articulated" alar rim graft (AARG) is a modification of the conventional rim graft that improves treatment of secondary alar rim deformities, including postsurgical alar retraction (PSAR). Unlike the conventional alar rim graft, the AARG is sutured to the underlying tip complex to provide direct stationary support to the alar margin, thereby enhancing graft efficacy. When used in conjunction with a well-designed septal extension graft (SEG) to stabilize the central tip complex, lateral crural tensioning (LCT) to tighten the lower nasal sidewalls and minimize soft-tissue laxity, and lysis of scar adhesions to unfurl the retracted and scarred nasal lining, the AARG can eliminate PSAR in a majority of patients. The AARG is also highly effective for prophylaxis against alar retraction and in the treatment of most other contour abnormalities involving the alar margin. Moreover, the AARG requires comparatively little graft material, and complications are rare. We present a retrospective series of 47 consecutive patients treated with the triad of AARG, SEG, and LCT for prophylaxis and/or treatment of alar rim deformities. Outcomes were favorable in nearly all patients, and no complications were observed. We conclude the AARG is a simple and effective method for

  4. General results for higher spin Wilson lines and entanglement in Vasiliev theory

    DOE PAGES

    Hegde, Ashwin; Kraus, Per; Perlmutter, Eric

    2016-01-28

    Here, we develop tools for the efficient evaluation of Wilson lines in 3D higher spin gravity, and use these to compute entanglement entropy in the hs[λ ] Vasiliev theory that governs the bulk side of the duality proposal of Gaberdiel and Gopakumar. Our main technical advance is the determination of SL(N) Wilson lines for arbitrary N, which, in suitable cases, enables us to analytically continue to hs[λ ] via N→ -λ. We then apply this result to compute various quantities of interest, including entanglement entropy expanded perturbatively in the background higher spin charge, chemical potential, and interval size. This includesmore » a computation of entanglement entropy in the higher spin black hole of the Vasiliev theory. Our results are consistent with conformal field theory calculations. We also provide an alternative derivation of the Wilson line, by showing how it arises naturally from earlier work on scalar correlators in higher spin theory. The general picture that emerges is consistent with the statement that the SL(N) Wilson line computes the semiclassical WN vacuum block, and our results provide an explicit result for this object.« less

  5. Isolated unilateral rupture of the alar ligament.

    PubMed

    Wong, Sui-To; Ernest, Kimberly; Fan, Grace; Zovickian, John; Pang, Dachling

    2014-05-01

    Only 6 cases of isolated unilateral rupture of the alar ligament have been previously reported. The authors report a new case and review the literature, morbid anatomy, and pathogenesis of this rare injury. The patient in their case, a 9-year-old girl, fell head first from a height of 5 feet off the ground. She presented with neck pain, a leftward head tilt, and severe limitation of right rotation, extension, and right lateral flexion of the neck. Plain radiographs and CT revealed no fracture but a shift of the dens toward the right lateral mass of C-1. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine showed signal hyperintensity within the left dens-atlas space on both T1- and T2-weighted sequences and interruption of the expected dark signal representing the left alar ligament, suggestive of its rupture. After 12 weeks of immobilization in a Guilford brace, MRI showed lessened dens deviation, and the patient attained full and painless neck motion. Including the patient in this case, the 7 patients with this injury were between 5 and 21 years old, sustained the injury in traffic accidents or falls, presented with marked neck pain, and were treated with external immobilization. All patients had good clinical outcome. The mechanism of injury is hyperflexion with rotation. Isolated unilateral alar ligament rupture is a diagnosis made by excluding associated fracture, dislocation, or disruption of other major ligamentous structures in the craniovertebral junction. CT and MRI are essential in establishing the diagnosis. External immobilization is adequate treatment.

  6. Nikolai Konstantinovich Kulchitsky (1856-1925).

    PubMed

    Drozdov, Ignat; Modlin, Irvin M; Kidd, Mark; Goloubinov, Victor V

    2009-02-01

    Nikolai Kulchitsky is best remembered for his identification of the Kulchitsky (enterochromaffin) cell. His life spanned a teaching and scientific career at Kharkov University, employment as the Imperial Minister of Education for all Russia, work in a soap factory and flight from the Russian Revolution to London, and a position at the University College with Elliot Smith. His subsequent contributions to the anatomic delineation of dual nerve-endings in the muscle were highly regarded, although his identification of the enterochromaffin cell (1897) remains his enduring scientific legacy. The observation of a cardinal neuroendocrine cell of the gut formed the basis for the subsequent delineation of the diffuse neuroendocrine system and provided the cellular framework on which the discipline of gut neuroendocrinology would be established. Kulchitsky's mysterious demise in a bizarre lift-shaft accident at UCL on his 69th birthday tragically terminated a life of service to science.

  7. Alar and Apples: Newspaper Coverage of a Major Risk Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Sharon M.; And Others

    A study reviewed coverage in 13 newspapers during 1989 of the issue of spraying the pesticide Alar on apples. Using VU/TEXT, a newspaper database, 297 articles in 13 newspapers that included the specified code words "Alar" with or without "apple" or "apples" were retrieved and analyzed using a 33-question coding instrument which recorded general…

  8. OBITUARY: To the memory of Nikolai Aleksandrovich Borisevich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krokhin, O. N.

    2015-12-01

    Invaluable is the contribution of academician Borisevich to the development of optics, spectroscopy and their applications. He is the author of scientific discoveries and more than 600 scientific papers. For outstanding scientific achievements Nikolai Aleksandrovich was awarded the Lenin Prize, State Prize of the USSR and the Republic of Belarus. His scientific school gave a start in life to more than 30 candidates of science, 12 doctors, including 4 members of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus.

  9. Expedition Six crew member Nikolai Budarin at pad before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Expedition Six crew member Nikolai Budarin, of the Russian Space Agency, pauses in front of Space Shuttle Endeavour at Launch Pad 39A during a tour of Kennedy Space Center prior to his launch. The primary mission of STS-113 is bringing the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and returning the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. Another major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is scheduled for Nov. 11 between midnight and 4 a.m. EST.

  10. Expedition 6 flight engineer Nikolai Budarin suits up for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Expedition 6 flight engineer Nikolai Budarin relaxes during suitup for launch. Budarin, who is with the Russian Space Agency, will be making his second Shuttle flight. The primary mission for the crew is bringing the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and returning the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. The major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is scheduled for 8:15 p.m. EST.

  11. Nikolai Terebinski: a pioneer of the open valve operation.

    PubMed

    Alexi-Meskishvili, V V; Potapov, E V; Beyer, E A; Hetzer, R

    1998-10-01

    On the occasion of the hundredth anniversary of heart surgery, this article presents the remarkable work of the Russian scientist and surgeon Nikolai Terebinski. The medical world today remains largely unaware that he performed the first successful open valve operations. These experimental operations were conducted in Russia between 1926 and 1937 through the use of an extracorporeal circulation device known as the autojector. The experiments were reviewed based on Terebinski's original articles and experimental notes. Here we present the techniques and results of his landmark open valve operations on dogs. He performed more than 250 open valve operations, which were the first of their kind. In his attempt to create and then later correct tricuspid and mitral valve stenosis and insufficiency, Terebinski developed many principles of open heart surgery that are valid today. His work represents a milestone in the history of heart surgery.

  12. Relationship between Hyperactivity of Depressor Septi Nasi Muscle and Changes of Alar Base and Flaring during Smile

    PubMed Central

    Beiraghi-Toosi, Arash; Rezaei, Ezatollah; Zanjani, Elham

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hyperactivity of depressor septi nasi muscle leads to smiling deformity and nasal tip depression. Lateral fascicles of this muscle help in widening the nostrils. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the nasal length changes and the alar base and the alar flaring changes during smile. METHODS Standard photographs are performed in the face and lateral views with forward gaze in the repose and maximum smile. Nasal length, alar base, and alar flaring were measured on the prints of the photographs. To decrease possible errors in the size of the printed photographs, middle face height from glabella to ANS was measured in the lateral view and the interpupil distance in the face view to standardize the measurements. RESULTS Fifty cases were enrolled in this study. In 39 cases (78%), the nasal length was increased during smile. Forty-six cases (92%) had an increase in alar base diameter during smile. Alar flaring during smile increased in 48 cases (96%). Nasal length and alar base changes during smiling were not significantly correlated. Nasal length and alar flaring changes during smiling were not significantly related too. On the other hand, alar base and alar flaring changes during smile showed correlation. Alar base and alar flaring changes during smile were not significantly different in hyperactive and non-hyperactive cases. CONCLUSION Nasal length change during smiling and hypertrophy of the medial fascicles of depressor septi nasi were not related to alar base or alar flaring change during smile. PMID:27308240

  13. Delayed diagnosis of isolated alar ligament rupture: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, Robin A; Marzi, Ingo; Vogl, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    Ligament disruptions at the craniovertebral junction are typically associated with atlantoaxial rotatory dislocation during upper cervical spine injuries and require external orthoses or surgical stabilization. Only in few patients isolated ruptures of the alar ligament have been reported. Here we present a further case, in which the diagnosis was initially obscured by a misleading clinical symptomatology but finally established six month following the trauma, demonstrating the value of contrast-enhanced high resolution 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging in identifying this particular lesion. PMID:26516433

  14. [Static-dynamic computerized tomography in the diagnosis of traumatic lesions of alar ligaments. Preliminary results].

    PubMed

    Urso, S; Pacciani, E; Ascani, E; Salsano, M L; Randisi, F; Fassari, F M

    1994-12-01

    The patients affected with cervical injuries often complain of cervical pain, headache and dizziness even when no bone fractures are detected. Such patients are likely to have a post-traumatic injury of the cervical ligaments. Twenty-five symptomatic patients (19 women and 6 men) were examined with upper spine CT and functional CT scans (right and left rotation) to detect ligament injuries and hypermotility of the craniocervical junction, both related to traumatic events. Eleven patients showed no alterations, while unilateral densitometric alterations of the alar ligaments were observed in 14 cases and thought to be related to trauma. On axial CT scans, the normal alar ligaments were identified as paramedian, quadrangular soft-tissue structures at the apex of the dens epistrophei and right above it. In 14 patients with alar ligament injuries, CT showed incomplete ligament interruption and thinning in 12 cases and its total absence on all images in 2 cases. The laterodental space in the affected side was hypodense due to fat tissue replacement. Of 14 patients with alar ligament injuries, only 14 patients with alar ligament injuries, only 4 exhibited rotatory hypermotility at C0-C1 and C1-C2. The low frequency of rotatory hypermotility is probably due to the high rate of incomplete alar ligament injuries as well as to cervical muscle stiffness, which is marked in some subjects. In conclusion, static and functional CT of the upper spine is not only useful to predict trauma outcome, but also allows the detection of the alar ligaments, of their morphodensitometric changes and of the segmental instability of the craniocervical junction. PMID:7878229

  15. Three-dimensional virtual simulation of alar width changes following bimaxillary osteotomies.

    PubMed

    Liebregts, J; Xi, T; Schreurs, R; van Loon, B; Bergé, S; Maal, T

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of three-dimensional (3D) soft tissue simulation of nose width changes following bimaxillary osteotomies and to identify patient- and surgery-related factors that may affect the accuracy of simulation. Sixty patients (mean age 26 years) who underwent bimaxillary osteotomies participated in this study. Cone beam computed tomography scans were acquired preoperatively and at 1-year postoperative. The 3D hard and soft tissue rendered preoperative and postoperative virtual head models were superimposed, after which the maxilla and mandible were segmented and aligned to the postoperative position. The postoperative changes in alar width were simulated using a mass tensor model (MTM)-based algorithm and compared with the postoperative outcome. 3D cephalometric analyses were used to quantify the simulation error. The postoperative alar width was increased by 1.6±1.1mm and the mean error between the 3D simulation and the actual postoperative alar width was 1.0±0.9mm. The predictability was not correlated to factors such as age, sex, alar cinch suture, VY closure, maxillary advancement, or a history of surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion. The MTM-based simulation model of postoperative alar width change was found to be reasonably accurate, although there is room for further improvement.

  16. Reconstruction of Congenital Isolated Alar Defect Using Mutaf Triangular Closure Technique in Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Temel, Metin; Gunal, Ertan; Kahraman, Serif Samil

    2016-06-01

    Congenital isolated alar defects are extremely rare, occurring in approximately 1 in 20,000 to 40,000 live births. The patients are presented here of 2 pediatric patients operated on for congenital isolated alar defect. The reconstruction of congenital isolated alar defects was made in a 3-layered fashion. The skin defects were covered using the Mutaf triangular closure technique in which 2 cutaneous local flaps are designed in an unequal Z-plasty manner. Conchal cartilage graft was used between the skin and mucosal closure to replace the missing part of the lower lateral cartilage in these patients. The early results were promising in Patient 1, but sufficient improvement was detected in the alar cartilage postoperative follow-up period in Patient 2. Hence, this patient required revision 1 to 2 years postoperatively. This technique provides excellent aesthetic and functional results, except for this problem in Tessier 2 cleft patients. The use of the Stair step flap technique with Mutaf triangle closure technique achieved cosmetically and functionally excellent results in the reconstruction and repair of a large, irregular, narrow cleft, in the inadequate rotation of the lateral part of the lower lateral cartilage. However, because of this problem, evaluation of the long-term follow-up of patients is necessary. PMID:27192642

  17. Hominoid phalanges from the middle Miocene site of Paşalar, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ersoy, A; Kelley, J; Andrews, P; Alpagut, B

    2008-04-01

    Eleven proximal and ten intermediate partial or complete hominoid phalanges have been recovered from the middle Miocene site of Paşalar in Turkey. Based on species representation at Paşalar, it is likely that most or all of the phalanges belong to Griphopithecus alpani rather than Kenyapithecus kizili, but both species may be represented. All of the complete or nearly complete phalanges appear to be manual, so comparisons to extant and other fossil primate species were limited to manual phalanges. Comparisons were made to extant hominoid and cercopithecoid primate genera expressing a variety of positional repertoires and varying degrees of arboreality and terrestriality. The comparisons consisted of a series of bivariate indices derived from previous publications on Miocene catarrhine phalangeal morphology. The proximal phalanges have dorsally expanded proximal articular surfaces, which is characteristic of cercopithecoids and most other Miocene hominoids, and indicates that the predominant positional behaviors involved pronograde quadrupedalism. Among the extant primates, many of the proximal and intermediate phalangeal indices clearly distinguish more habitually terrestrial taxa from those that are predominantly arboreal, and especially from taxa that commonly engage in suspensory activities. For nearly every index, the values of the Paşalar phalanges occupy an intermediate position-most similar to values for Pan and, to a lesser extent, Macaca-indicating a generalized morphology and probably the use of both arboreal and terrestrial substrates. At least some terrestrial activity is also compatible with reconstructions of the Paşalar habitat. Most proximal and intermediate phalanges of other middle and late Miocene hominoids have similar index values to those of the Paşalar specimens, revealing broadly similar manual phalangeal morphology among many Miocene hominoids.

  18. Are We Doing Everything We Should for the Health of Our Children? An Interview with Nikolai Nikolaevich Baganov.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russian Education and Society, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Presents an interview with Nikolai Nikolaevich Baganov addressing the presidential program "Russia's Children" that is made up of nine subprograms: Children of Chernobyl, Children of the North, Family Planning, The Baby-food Industry, Orphaned Children, Handicapped Children, Gifted Children, Children of Refugee Families, and Children's Summer…

  19. Primary rhinocheiloplasty: Comparison of open and closed methods of alar cartilage reposition

    PubMed Central

    Yasonov, S. A.; Lopatin, A. V.; Kugushev, A. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To establish which rhinoplasty method for primary repairing of unilateral cleft lip (UCL) is better. Settings and Design: Two patient groups with cleft lip were compared. Each group was operated on either by McComb's technique as closed rhinoplasty method or by Vissarionov–Kosin technique as an open method. Subjects and Methods: First group included 29 patients and the second consisted of 31. All patients were operated on by single surgeon over 10 years. Randomization was based on wishes and intention of surgeon to use one of two methods. Evaluation of results was based on impartial data, and subjective information collected from respondents with different levels of knowledge about UCL. The objective scale was based on the evaluation of five noticeable residual deformations of nose that usually appear after primary lip-nose surgery: Alar flattening, low position of alar, widening or narrowing of nostril, and deformation of the upper part of nostril rim. Subjective evaluation was based on the opinion of respondents who were ranged every case depending on own judgment. Statistical Analysis: Was performed using Fisher method and Chi-square by Statistica 10.0, StatSoft Inc. Results: Approach with general analysis indicated no difference between two methods. Despite of absence of clear differences between two groups we consider the closed rhinoplasty more favorable due to less damage to alar cartilages and no scars inside nostrils. Conclusions: We think that mentioned scarring may complicate secondary rhinoplasty, which is often needed to correct nose deformation. PMID:27563601

  20. Expedition 6 crew member Nikolai Budarin during TCDT suit fit check

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Expedition 6 crew member Nikolai Budarin smiles during fit check of his helmet, part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. He and the rest of the crew are preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10. The TCDT includes emergency egress training and a launch countdown. The Expedition 6 crew will travel on Space Shuttle Endeavour to the International Space Station to replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Launch is scheduled for Nov. 10, 2002.

  1. Expedition 6 flight engineer Nikolai Budarin suits up for the second launch attempt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Expedition 6 flight engineer Nikolai Budarin is stoic as he suits up for a second launch attempt on mission STS-113. The launch on Nov. 22 was scrubbed due to poor weather conditions at the Transoceanic Abort Landing sites. Budarin, who is with the Russian Space Agency, will be making his second Shuttle flight. The primary mission for the crew is bringing the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and returning the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. The major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is scheduled for 7:50 p.m. EST.

  2. Expedition 6 flight engineer Nikolai Budarin in White Room before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the White Room on Launch Pad 39A, Expedition 6 flight engineer Nikolai Budarin is helped with his launch and entry suit before entering Space Shuttle Endeavour. Closeout Crew members helping are (left) Rene Arriens, United Space Alliance mechanical technician, (right) Danny Wyatt, NASA Quality Assurance specialist, and (background) Rick Welty, United Space Alliance Vehicle Closeout chief. The launch will carry the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and return the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. The major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is scheduled for Nov. 23 at 7:50 p.m. EST.

  3. Along-Strike Geochemical Variations in the Late Triassic Nikolai Magmatic System, Wrangellia, Central Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wypych, A.; Twelker, E.; Lande, L. L.; Newberry, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Nikolai Basalt and related mafic to ultramafic intrusions are one of the world's most complete and best exposed sections of a large igneous province (Amphitheater Mountains, Alaska), and have been explored for magmatic Ni-Cu-Co-PGE mineralization (Wellgreen deposit in the Kluane Ranges, Yukon Territory, and Eureka zone in the Eastern Alaska Range). The full extent of the basalts and the intrusions, as well as along-strike variations in the geochemical and petrological composition and the causes for those variations has yet to be fully established. To better understand the extent and magmatic architecture of this system, the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys conducted mapping and geochemical investigations of the province from 2013 through 2015 field seasons. We present major and trace element data from whole rock, olivine, and chromite from samples of Triassic basalts and intrusives collected over a 250 km along-strike transect. This data is used to answer questions about variations in magma generation, temperature of crystallization, and degree of fractional crystallization required to produce the Nikolai Basalts. Using chalcophile elements, we examine the history of sulfide solubility, further adding to our understanding of the processes of magma evolution and its influence on the formation of economic mineral deposits. Our initial findings corroborate the presence of two phases of magma generation and eruption, as well as along-strike variation in composition of these phases. We propose that the major along-strike variations are due to differences in amount of cumulate olivine and other late-stage processes. This magmatic architecture has important implications for exploration for magmatic sulfide deposits of nickel-copper and strategic and critical platinum group elements (PGEs) as it can help to better understand the occurrences and point to future possible deposits within the system.

  4. Three-dimensional model of an ultramafic feeder system to the Nikolai Greenstone mafic large igneous province, central Alaska Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glen, J.M.G.; Schmidt, J.M.; Connard, G.G.

    2011-01-01

    The Amphitheater Mountains and southern central Alaska Range expose a thick sequence of Triassic Nikolai basalts that is underlain by several mafic-ultramafic complexes, the largest and best exposed being the Fish Lake and Tangle (FL-T) mafic-ultramafic sills that flank the Amphitheater Mountains synform. Three-dimensional (3-D) modeling of gravity and magnetic data reveals details of the structure of the Amphitheater Mountains, such as the orientation and thickness of Nikolai basalts, and the geometry of the FL-T intrusions. The 3-D model (50 ?? 70 km) includes the full geographic extent of the FL-T complexes and consists of 11 layers. Layer surfaces and properties (density and magnetic susceptibility) were modified by forward and inverse methods to reduce differences between the observed and calculated gravity and magnetic grids. The model suggests that the outcropping FL-T sills are apparently connected and traceable at depth and reveals variations in thickness, shape, and orientation of the ultramafic bodies that may identify paths of magma flow. The model shows that a significant volume (2000 km3) of ultramafic material occurs in the subsurface, gradually thickening and plunging westward to depths exceeding 4 km. This deep ultramafic material is interpreted as the top of a keel or root system that supplied magma to the Nikolai lavas and controlled emplacement of related magmatic intrusions. The presence of this deep, keel-like structure, and asymmetry of the synform, supports a sag basin model for development of the Amphitheater Mountains structure and reveals that the feeders to the Nikolai are much more extensive than previously known. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Metallogeny of the nikolai large igneous province (LIP) in southern alaska and its influence on the mineral potential of the talkeetna mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, J.M.; Rogers, R.K.

    2007-01-01

    Recent geologic mapping has identified areas of extrusive basalts of the Middle to Late Triassic Nikolai Greenstone within the Wrangellia terrane that extend at least 80 km southwest of their previously known extent. Abundant dolerite sills of similar composition intrude Paleozoic and Mesozoic stratigraphy below the Nikolai throughout the central Talkeetna Mountains. The Talkeetna Mountains, therefore, have newly identified potential for copper, nickel, and platinum-group elements (PGEs) as disseminated, net-textured, or massive magmatic sulfide deposits hosted in mafic and ultramafic sill-form complexes related to emplacement of the Nikolai. Because of their potential high grades, similar magmatic sulfide targets have been the focus of increasing mineral exploration activity over the last decade in the Amphitheater Mountains and central Alaska Range, 100-200 km to the northeast. The Nikolai Greenstone, associated intrusions, and their metamorphosed equivalents also have potential to host stratabound disseminated "basaltic copper" deposits. Sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks overlying the Nikolai have the potential to host stratabound, disseminated, or massive "reduced-facies" type Cu-Ag deposits. Ultramafic rocks have been identified only in the extreme northeastern Talkeetna Mountains to date. However, coincident gravity and magnetic highs along the leading (northwestern) edge of and within Wrangellia in the Talkeetna and Clearwater Mountains suggest several areas that are highly prospective for ultramafic rocks related to extrusion of Nikolai lavas. In particular, the distribution, geometry, and composition of sills within the pre-Nikolai stratigraphy and the structural and tectonic controls on intrusive versus extrusive rock distribution deserve serious examination. Copyright ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  6. Formation of cadherin-expressing brain nuclei in diencephalic alar plate divisions.

    PubMed

    Yoon, M S; Puelles, L; Redies, C

    2000-11-01

    During the formation of brain nuclei, the vertebrate neural tube is partitioned into distinct embryonic divisions. In this study, the expression of three members of the cadherin family of adhesion molecules (cadherin-6B, cadherin-7, and R-cadherin) was mapped to study the differentiation of gray matter in the division so that diencephalic alar plate of chicken embryos from embryonic day 3 (E3) to E10. At early stages of development (E3-E4), each cadherin is expressed in restricted regions of the diencephalic wall of the neural tube. The borders of some of the expression domains coincide with divisional boundaries. As the mantle layer is formed and increases in thickness from E4 to E8, morphologically discernible aggregates of cells appear that express the three cadherins differentially. These aggregates represent the anlagen of specific diencephalic brain nuclei, e.g., the lateroanterior nucleus, the ventral geniculate nucleus, the nucleus rotundus, the perirotundic area, the principal precommissural nucleus, and the lateral spiriform nucleus. Most of the cadherin-expressing diencephalic nuclei studied in this work apparently derive from a single embryonic division and remain there. The divisional boundaries are replaced gradually by the borders of cadherin-expressing brain nuclei. The current results support the idea that cadherins confer differential adhesiveness to developing structures of gray matter in the diencephalic alar plate. Moreover, they suggest that each cadherin plays a role in the formation of specific brain nuclei within the diencephalic divisions.

  7. Formation of cadherin-expressing brain nuclei in diencephalic alar plate divisions.

    PubMed

    Yoon, M S; Puelles, L; Redies, C

    2000-06-12

    During the formation of brain nuclei, the vertebrate neural tube is partitioned into distinct embryonic divisions. In this study, the expression of three members of the cadherin family of adhesion molecules (cadherin-6B, cadherin-7, and R-cadherin) was mapped to study the differentiation of gray matter in the divisions of the diencephalic alar plate of chicken embryos from embryonic day 3 (E3) to E10. At early stages of development (E3-E4), each cadherin is expressed in restricted regions of the diencephalic wall of the neural tube. The borders of some of the expression domains coincide with divisional boundaries. As the mantle layer is formed and increases in thickness from E4 to E8, morphologically discernible aggregates of cells appear that express the three cadherins differentially. These aggregates represent the anlagen of specific diencephalic brain nuclei, e.g., the lateroanterior nucleus, the ventral geniculate nucleus, the nucleus rotundus, the perirotundic area, the principal precommissural nucleus, and the lateral spiriform nucleus. Most of the cadherin-expressing diencephalic nuclei studied in this work apparently derive from a single embryonic division and remain there. The divisional boundaries are replaced gradually by the borders of cadherin-expressing brain nuclei. The current results support the idea that cadherins confer differential adhesiveness to developing structures of gray matter in the diencephalic alar plate. Moreover, they suggest that each cadherin plays a role in the formation of specific brain nuclei within the diencephalic divisions.

  8. Contributions of the surgeon Nikolai Korotkov (1874-1920) to the management of extremity vascular injury.

    PubMed

    Samokhvalov, Igor M; Reva, Viktor A; Fomin, Nikolai F; Rasmussen, Todd E

    2016-02-01

    The Russian military surgeon Nikolai Korotkov is known worldwide, mainly among internists and cardiovascular specialists, as the discoverer of the auscultatory method of measuring arterial blood pressure in 1905. This article reveals him as one of the first military vascular surgeons to carefully investigate, analyze, and register cases of vascular injury during his voluntarily trips to the Russian Far East in 1900 to 1901 and the Russo-Japanese War of 1904 to 1905. Examining 44 patients with extremity arterial and arterial-venous pseudoaneurysms following war-related injury, he routinely performed a measure termed the "arterial pressure index" using "Korotkov sounds." This pioneering approach to assessing extremity perfusion was the precursor to the modern-day ankle-brachial and injured extremity indices, and it initiated the quantitative assessment of the compensatory ability of the vascular system to restore circulation following axial artery ligation. Because of high thrombosis rates following direct vessel repair during his day, he proposed use of pharmacologic substances such as digitalis and amyl nitrite to improve extremity perfusion. As evidence of his innovative nature, Korotkov even proposed the use of "oxygenated nutrient solutions" in the future to improve extremity circulation. More than 100 years after his work, as continuous wave Doppler ultrasound, contrast angiography, and computed tomography are ubiquitous as diagnostic tools, the practice of surgery would be well served to recall Korotkov's foundational work and the rule of thumb for any physician: examine the patient. PMID:26545260

  9. Toward less misleading comparisons of uncertain risks: the example of aflatoxin and alar.

    PubMed Central

    Finkel, A M

    1995-01-01

    Critics of comparative risk assessment (CRA), the increasingly common practice of juxtaposing disparate risks for the purpose of declaring which one is the "larger" or the "more important," have long focused their concern on the difficulties in accommodating the qualitative differences among risks. To be sure, people may disagree vehemently about whether "larger" necessarily implies "more serious," but the attention to this aspect of CRA presupposes that science can in fact discern which of two risks has the larger statistical magnitude. This assumption, encouraged by the indiscriminate calculation of risk ratios using arbitrary point estimates, is often incorrect: the fact that environmental and health risks differ in unknown quantitative respects is at least as important a caution to CRA as the fact that risks differ in known qualitative ways. To show how misleading CRA can be when uncertainty is ignored, this article revisits the claim that aflatoxin contamination of peanut butter was "18 times worse" than Alar contamination of apple juice. Using Monte Carlo simulation, the number 18 is shown to lie within a distribution of plausible risk ratios that ranges from nearly 400:1 in favor of aflatoxin to nearly 40:1 in the opposite direction. The analysis also shows that the "best estimates" of the relative risk of aflatoxin to Alar are much closer to 1:1 than to 18:1. The implications of these findings for risk communication and individual and societal decision-making are discussed, with an eye toward improving the general practice of CRA while acknowledging that its outputs are uncertain, rather than abandoning it for the wrong reasons. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:7607139

  10. A centenary of auscultatory blood pressure measurement: a tribute to Nikolai Korotkoff.

    PubMed

    Paskalev, Dobrin; Kircheva, Anna; Krivoshiev, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    In 1905, Dr. Nikolai Korotkoff (1874-1920), a Russian surgeon, discovered a simple and precise technique to measure arterial pressure. He was born on 26th February 1874 in the central Russian city of Kursk. Korotkoff graduated from the Medical Faculty of Moscow University in 1898, but he worked later in the Surgical Clinic at the Imperial Military Medical Academy in St. Petersburg (Russia). Korotkoff served as a military surgeon during the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) and his major efforts were to find reliable clinical signs that could predict whether limb flow would be viable after vascular surgery of traumatic aneurysm. He found that after complete compression, the aneurysm of the arm (i.e. distal pulse on a. brachialis) disappeared with Riva-Rocci cuff and then gradually decreasing the pressure, a series of sounds could be heard by stethoscope under the artery distal to the compression. Korotkoff described four distinct phases of sounds: first sound, then compression murmurs, second tone, and disappearance of sounds. Korotkoff was also able to demonstrate the same auscultatory finding in healthy persons. He failed to notice only the muffled second sound, which was demonstrated a little later. These classical observations are now well known as the five different phases of Korotkoff sounds. In November 1905, during a conference of the Imperial Military Medical Academy, he reported his discovery in a short presentation entitled 'On the issue of the methods for measuring blood pressure'. In 1939, the Joint Committee of the American Heart Association and the Cardiac Society of Great Britain and Ireland recognized officially and accepted worldwide Korotkoff's method for blood pressure determining. PMID:16340219

  11. Peripheral communications of intercostobrachial nerve Peripheral communications of the intercostobrachial nerve in relation to the alar thoracic artery

    PubMed Central

    Rustagi, Shaifaly Madan; Sharma, Mona; Singh, Nidhi; Mehta, Vandana; Suri, Rajesh K; Rath, Gayatri

    2015-01-01

    The intercostobrachial nerve (ICBN) is often encountered during axillary dissection for axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for diagnostic and therapeutic surgery for mastectomy. The present report is a case observed in the Department of Anatomy at Vardhman Mahavir Medical College, Delhi during routine dissection of the upper extremity of a male cadaver for first year undergraduate medical students. On the right side, the medial cord of brachial plexus gave two medial cutaneous nerves of arm. Both the nerves were seen communicating with the branches of the ICBN. The ICBN and one of its branches were surrounding the termination of an alar thoracic artery. These peripheral neural connections of the ICBN with the branches of the medial cord can be a cause of sensory impairment during axillary procedures done for mastectomy or exploration of long thoracic nerves. The alar thoracic artery found in relation to the ICBN could further be a cause of vascular complications during such procedures. PMID:25802820

  12. Peripheral communications of intercostobrachial nerve Peripheral communications of the intercostobrachial nerve in relation to the alar thoracic artery.

    PubMed

    Rustagi, Shaifaly Madan; Sharma, Mona; Singh, Nidhi; Mehta, Vandana; Suri, Rajesh K; Rath, Gayatri

    2015-01-01

    The intercostobrachial nerve (ICBN) is often encountered during axillary dissection for axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for diagnostic and therapeutic surgery for mastectomy. The present report is a case observed in the Department of Anatomy at Vardhman Mahavir Medical College, Delhi during routine dissection of the upper extremity of a male cadaver for first year undergraduate medical students. On the right side, the medial cord of brachial plexus gave two medial cutaneous nerves of arm. Both the nerves were seen communicating with the branches of the ICBN. The ICBN and one of its branches were surrounding the termination of an alar thoracic artery. These peripheral neural connections of the ICBN with the branches of the medial cord can be a cause of sensory impairment during axillary procedures done for mastectomy or exploration of long thoracic nerves. The alar thoracic artery found in relation to the ICBN could further be a cause of vascular complications during such procedures.

  13. The deciduous dentition of Griphopithecus alpani from Paşalar, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Mortzou, Georgia; Andrews, Peter

    2008-04-01

    Seventy-four hominoid primary teeth have been recovered from the middle Miocene site of Paşalar, Turkey, constituting the largest sample of deciduous teeth for any species of fossil ape. Morphological features that characterize the permanent teeth of Griphopithecus alpani from the site have also been identified in some of these deciduous teeth, including a lingual pillar on the di(1)s. These features plus the overwhelming preponderance of G. alpani permanent teeth at the site suggest that all of the deciduous teeth belong to this species. Contrary to the situation in the permanent teeth, nothing in the morphology of the primary dentition suggests the representation of a second species. The age profile of the non-adult hominoids was reconstructed based on the degree and type of wear recorded on the dp4s, the most abundant deciduous tooth in the sample, assuming a similar eruption chronology to that of Pan troglodytes. This analysis indicates underrepresentation of very young individuals in the sample and high mortality for individuals belonging to the 3-5-years age cohort, a situation that could be due to the effects of stress related to weaning. The coefficient of variation and range-index values obtained for the majority of tooth types are equal to or greater than the comparable values in a sample of P. troglodytes, in some cases at much smaller sample sizes. One possible explanation for this is that there was greater sexual dimorphism in the G. alpani deciduous dentition than in Pan, which would mirror the condition of the permanent dentition.

  14. Are MRI high-signal changes of alar and transverse ligaments in acute whiplash injury related to outcome?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Upper neck ligament high-signal changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been found in patients with whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) but also in non-injured controls. The clinical relevance of such changes is controversial. Their prognostic role has never been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to examine if alar and transverse ligament high-signal changes on MRI immediately following the car accident are related to outcome after 12 months for patients with acute WAD grades 1-2. Methods Within 13 days after a car accident, 114 consecutive acute WAD1-2 patients without prior neck injury or prior neck problems underwent upper neck high-resolution proton-weighted MRI. High-signal changes of the alar and transverse ligaments were graded 0-3. A questionnaire including the impact of event scale for measuring posttraumatic stress response and questions on patients' expectations of recovery provided clinical data at injury. At 12 months follow-up, 111 (97.4%) patients completed the Neck Disability Index (NDI) and an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS-11) on last week neck pain intensity. Factors potentially related to these outcomes were assessed using multiple logistic regression analyses. Results Among the 111 responders (median age 29.8 years; 63 women), 38 (34.2%) had grades 2-3 alar ligament changes and 25 (22.5%) had grades 2-3 transverse ligament changes at injury. At 12 months follow-up, 49 (44.1%) reported disability (NDI > 8) and 23 (20.7%) neck pain (NRS-11 > 4). Grades 2-3 ligament changes in the acute phase were not related to disability or neck pain at 12 months. More severe posttraumatic stress response increased the odds for disability (odds ratio 1.46 per 10 points on the impact of event scale, p = 0.007) and so did low expectations of recovery (odds ratio 4.66, p = 0.005). Conclusions High-signal changes of the alar and transverse ligaments close after injury did not affect outcome for acute WAD1-2 patients without previous

  15. Interproximal wear facets and tooth associations in the Paşalar hominoid sample.

    PubMed

    Gençturk, Insaf; Alpagut, Berna; Andrews, Peter

    2008-04-01

    Interproximal wear facets were examined on hominoid teeth from the middle Miocene site at Paşalar, Turkey. The aim was to find matches between adjacent premolar and molar teeth from single individuals that were collected in the field as isolated teeth and use them to reconstruct tooth rows. These were then used to investigate: (1) the wear gradient on the molar teeth; (2) the dispersal of teeth from single mandibles and maxillae; (3) the size ratios among the molars; and (4) the number of individuals represented by the hominoid sample. Facets were scored for size and shape and were assessed visually using photographs and superimposed outline drawings on acetate transparencies. Out of a sample of approximately 1,500 teeth collected between 1983 and 1996, 532 molars and 258 premolars produced apparent matches making up 160 tooth rows. These were then examined rigorously for morphological consistency and state of wear, and, employing the criterion that only the most unequivocal associations should be used, the final number was reduced to 48 tooth rows-31 mandibular and 17 maxillary. The tooth associations represent a minimum of 21 individuals and probably as many as 34. Molar wear was rapid, with M1s having almost twice as much wear as M3s, as measured by a wear-gradient index. The M2s are intermediate but generally closer to M1s in degree of wear, as are P4s. This wear pattern suggests either delayed eruption of M3s or extremely abrasive diets causing rapid, heavy wear. There is some indication that the wear patterns in Griphopithecus alpani and Kenyapithecus kizili are different, with the latter perhaps having a lower wear gradient, but the K. kizili sample is very small. In both species, the M2 is the largest molar and the M1 is the smallest. Separation of individual teeth in the 48 tooth associations varied from widely separated-up to 8.5m apart-to within a few centimeters of each other. One tooth row (D922) was found with the teeth in contact but the maxillary

  16. Morphology of the transverse ligament of the atlas and the alar ligaments in the silver fox (Vulpes vulpes var)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent new anatomical and histological features of craniocervical junction in dogs and cats were described providing evidence of differences between the carnivore species. No information on these structures in foxes exists. Results Two parts of the alar ligaments were found. A longer one aroused from dens of axis to the internal (medial) surface of the occipital condyles and was called apical part. A shorter part originated from the entire length of the lateral edge of the dens of axis and terminated on the internal wall of the vertebral foramen of atlas and thus was called the lateral part. The transverse ligament of the atlas was widened in the mid region, above the dens of axis, and thickened at enthesis. Periosteal fibrocartilage was detected in the transverse ligament of the atlas at the enthesis, and sesamoid fibrocartilage was present on periphery in the middle of the ligament. Conclusions The craniocervical junction in foxes differs in part from other carnivores such as dogs and cats but resembles that of mesaticephalic dogs. The sesamoid and periosteal fibrocartilage supports the transverse ligament of the atlas whereas the alar ligaments have no cartilage. PMID:23557095

  17. Effects of two alar base suture techniques suture techniques on nasolabial changes after bimaxillary orthognathic surgery in Taiwanese patients with class III malocclusions.

    PubMed

    Chen, C Y-H; Lin, C C-H; Ko, E W-C

    2015-07-01

    A randomized controlled trial was designed to assess the effectiveness of two alar base cinch techniques on the changes in nasolabial morphology after bimaxillary orthognathic surgery. Sixty patients requiring a Le Fort I osteotomy to correct skeletal discrepancies were selected randomly to receive either conventional or modified alar base cinching during the intraoral wound closure procedure. Conventional cinching passed through nasalis muscle and anterior nasal spine. Modified cinching also passed through dermis tissue to increase the anchorage. Postoperative hard and soft tissue changes were evaluated using cone beam computed tomography and three-dimensional stereophotogrammetry at predefined time points. Forty-eight patients with a skeletal class III malocclusion were included. In the conventional group, there was an increase of 0.31 ± 1.31 mm in nasal width and an increase of 0.97 ± 1.60mm in columellar length. In the modified group, there was an increase of 0.81 ± 1.87 mm in the cutaneous height of the upper lip and a decrease of 0.76 ± 1.56 mm in lower prolabial width. Patients with an initial narrow nasal width, alar base width, and less vertical nostril show were more susceptible to a greater degree of change after surgery. Both alar base suture techniques are effective at controlling nasolabial form changes resulting from class III dual-jaw orthognathic surgery.

  18. Technique and nuances of an S-2 alar iliac screw for lumbosacral fixation in patients with transitional and normal anatomy.

    PubMed

    Ohya, Junichi; Vogel, Todd D; Dhall, Sanjay S; Berven, Sigurd; Mummaneni, Praveen V

    2016-07-01

    S-2 alar iliac (S2AI) screw fixation has recently been recognized as a useful technique for pelvic fixation. The authors demonstrate two cases where S2AI fixation was indicated: one case was a sacral insufficiency fracture following a long-segment fusion in a patient with a transitional S-1 vertebra; the other case involved pseudarthrosis following lumbosacral fixation. S2AI screws offer rigid fixation, low profile, and allow easy connection to the lumbosacral rod. The authors describe and demonstrate the surgical technique and nuances for the S2AI screw in a case with transitional S-1 anatomy and in a case with normal S-1 anatomy. The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/Sj21lk13_aw . PMID:27364429

  19. Differential utilization of pyrrolizidine alkaloids by males of a danaid butterfly, Parantica sita, for the production of danaidone in the alar scent organ.

    PubMed

    Honda, Keiichi; Honda, Yasuyuki; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Omura, Hisashi

    2005-04-01

    Males of the chestnut tiger butterfly, Parantica sita, secrete danaidone as a major component from the alar androconial organ (sex brand). Since danaidone has been postulated to be derived from various pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), which males ingest as adults from PA-containing plants, we conducted oral administration tests of several PAs to examine their availability for danaidone production by P. sita males. Males fed with a mixture of intermedine (80%) and lycopsamine (20%) produced danaidone at an average of 25.7 microg per individual, which was comparable to that found in field-caught males. In contrast, a smaller amount of danaidone (5.7 to 7.0 microg/ male) was formed when males ingested retronecine or heliotrine, and those fed with an HCI salt of monocrotaline or retrorsine produced only traces of danaidone (<0.5 microg/male). In addition, males showed a strong feeding response to intermedine/lycopsamine, whereas the other PAs elicited no positive feeding behavior. These results indicate that, unlike the arctiid moths, P. sita males can only successfully convert limited chemical types of PAs into danaidone, and further suggest that in the field, males selectively ingest particular PAs that are readily transformable into danaidone.

  20. Higher spin interactions in four-dimensions: Vasiliev versus Fronsdal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulanger, Nicolas; Kessel, Pan; Skvortsov, Evgeny; Taronna, Massimo

    2016-03-01

    We consider four-dimensional higher-spin (HS) theory at the first nontrivial order corresponding to the cubic action. All HS interaction vertices are explicitly obtained from Vasiliev’s equations. In particular, we obtain the vertices that are not determined solely by the HS algebra structure constants. The dictionary between the Fronsdal fields and HS connections is found and the corrections to the Fronsdal equations are derived. These corrections turn out to involve derivatives of arbitrary order. We observe that the vertices not determined by the HS algebra produce naked infinities, when decomposed into the minimal derivative vertices and improvements. Therefore, standard methods can only be used to check a rather limited number of correlation functions within the HS AdS/CFT duality. A possible resolution of the puzzle is discussed.

  1. On big crunch solutions in Prokushkin-Vasiliev theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iazeolla, Carlo; Raeymaekers, Joris

    2016-01-01

    We construct simple solutions of three-dimensional higher spin gravity interacting with matter in which only the scalar and spin-two fields are excited. They preserve Lorentz symmetry and are similar to the four-dimensional solutions constructed by Sezgin and Sundell, with the difference that the additional twisted sectors of the three-dimensional theory are excited. Furthermore, the three-dimensional system contains an extra parameter λ which allows us to vary the mass of the scalar. Among other reasons, the resulting solutions are interesting for the holographic study of cosmological singularities: they describe the growth of a Coleman-De Luccia bubble in anti-de Sitter space, ending in a big crunch singularity. We initiate the holographic study of these solutions, finding evidence for their interpretation within a multi-trace deformation which renders the dual field theory unstable. The limit λ → 0 is particularly interesting as it captures effects of a running coupling in a large- N interacting fermion model. We also propose a generalization of our solutions, consisting of a dressing with Lorentz-invariant projectors. This additional sector remains non-trivial when the scalar field is turned off.

  2. Free Hand Insertion Technique of S2 Sacral Alar-Iliac Screws for Spino-Pelvic Fixation: Technical Note, Acadaveric Study.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Hwa; Hyun, Seung-Jae; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Jahng, Tae-Ahn

    2015-12-01

    A rigid spino-pelvic fixation to anchor long constructs is crucial to maintain the stability of long fusion in spinal deformity surgery. Besides obtaining immediate stability and proper biomechanical strength of constructs, the S2 alar-iliac (S2AI) screws have some more advantages. Four Korean fresh-frozen human cadavers were procured. Free hand S2AI screw placement is performed using anatomic landmarks. The starting point of the S2AI screw is located at the midpoint between the S1 and S2 foramen and 2 mm medial to the lateral sacral crest. Gearshift was advanced from the desired starting point toward the sacro-iliac joint directing approximately 20° angulation caudally in sagittal plane and 30° angulation horizontally in the coronal plane connecting the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS). We made a S2AI screw trajectory through the cancellous channel using the gearshift. We measured caudal angle in the sagittal plane and horizontal angle in the coronal plane. A total of eight S2AI screws were inserted in four cadavers. All screws inserted into the iliac crest were evaluated by C-arm and naked eye examination by two spine surgeons. Among 8 S2AI screws, all screws were accurately placed (100%). The average caudal angle in the sagittal plane was 17.3±5.4°. The average horizontal angle in the coronal plane connecting the PSIS was 32.0±1.8°. The placement of S2AI screws using the free hand technique without any radiographic guidance appears to an acceptable method of insertion without more radiation or time consuming. PMID:26819698

  3. A comparative study to find out the relationship between the inner inter-canthal distance, interpupillary distance, inter-commissural width, inter-alar width, and the width of maxillary anterior teeth in Aryans and Mongoloids

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Meena Kumari; Singh, Raj Kumar; Suwal, Pramita; Parajuli, Prakash Kumar; Shrestha, Pragya; Baral, Dharanidhar

    2016-01-01

    Background One of the most confusing and difficult aspects of complete denture prosthodontics is the selection of appropriately sized maxillary anterior denture teeth. Various guidelines have been suggested for determining the size of anterior teeth, but different opinions have been reported regarding their significance. In the study reported here, the relationships between facial measurements and the width of maxillary anterior teeth in two ethnic groups, namely Aryans and Mongoloids, were determined. Objective The aims of the study were to determine the inner inter-canthal distance (ICAD), inter-pupillary distance (IPD), inter-commissural width (ICOW), inter-alar width (IAW), and the combined width of maxillary anterior teeth (CW) in Aryans and Mongoloids and to determine the relationships between these measurements. Materials and methods Impressions of the teeth of 170 dentulous subjects (85 males and 85 females) were made with alginate then Type IV gypsum product was poured in. Measurements of the cast maxillary anterior teeth at their widest dimension (contact areas) were made with the Boley gauge. ICAD, IPD, ICOW, and IAW distances were also measured with a Boley gauge. Results For all 170 subjects, 85 Aryans and 85 Mongoloids, Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) for IAW, IPD, ICOW, ICAD, and CW was calculated. In Aryans, highly significant (P<0.001) but weak correlations were found between CW and IAW, IPD, and ICOW. In Mongoloids, a highly significant (P<0.001) and weak correlation was found only between CW and IPD. Conclusion Within the limitations of this study, the results suggest that the IAW, IPD, and ICOW for Aryans and IPD for Mongoloids can be used as a preliminary method for determining the width of the maxillary anterior teeth in edentulous patients. PMID:26955292

  4. "The Storyteller: Reflections on the Works of Nikolai Leskov."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Journal of Oral History, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Presents 11 selections from Walter Benjamin's essay "The Storyteller" which illustrate how the work milieu and the significance of death are incorporated into stories. Benjamin compares historiography to traditional storytelling, and discusses the effect of the storyteller's need to maintain the listener's interest upon the story's style and…

  5. [The correction of one cause of the short nose: how to bring the retracted alar rim downwards?].

    PubMed

    Levet, Y

    2009-10-01

    The author reports a genuine procedure called the "sliding flap" used to correct the retraction of the rim of the nostril upward. The new position of the rim is stabilized by a simple resorbable thread through the skin fixing the rim in the new situation. This technique is efficient in both primary and secondary cases.

  6. A Plea for Scientific Ambitions: Reply to Commentaries from Martin Wieser, Nikolai Veresov, Asger Neumann, and Peter Krøjgaard.

    PubMed

    Mammen, Jens

    2016-09-01

    The paper is a reply to commentaries to "Activity theories and the Ontology of Psychology: Learning from Danish and Russian Experiences" (Mammen and Mironenko 2015). At the same time it is an attempt to reply to more general issues raised by the commentators and an attempt to further develop some general ideas from our paper with a focus on the introduction of the new analytical concepts sense and choice categories. These concepts have been elaborated in an axiomatic frame in (Mammen 2016) and the present paper is thus also pointing forwards to that and supporting it with examples from research on adult human relations of love and affection and on infant cognitive development. A few examples from myth and literature are referred to also. The ambition is to introduce new analytical tools across schools and domains of psychology which open for theoretical inclusion of new phenomena and re-structuring of well-known ones. The hope is to surmount some problems, as e.g. the dilemma between dualism and reductionism, which have been obstacles in the search for conceptual and methodological coherence in psychology. In the first place the hope is also to sharpen the analytical, critical and practical potential of psychology as a science. The ambition is not, here and now, to develop a comprehensive general theory as a container for the huge amount of empirical results collected using very heterogeneous criteria for what belongs to the domain of psychology and very heterogeneous conceptual frames. Here we still need some patience following the lesson from natural science, step by step including new domains as the conceptual and practical frames are expanding, but on the other hand not excluding anything apriori.

  7. [Nikolai Illarionovich Kozlov--a scientist, a doctor, an outstanding organizer of Military Medicine (To the 200th anniversary of the birth)].

    PubMed

    Egorysheva, I V

    2014-11-01

    To Kozlov N.I. (1814-1889) belong numerous achievements in the organization of military medical unit during the Crimean (1853-1856) and the Russian-Turkish (1877-1878) wars, the introduction of women's medical education in Russia, establishment of an improvement system for the military doctors, edition for their medical guidelines, the organization of military health care in Russia. PMID:25816684

  8. A Plea for Scientific Ambitions: Reply to Commentaries from Martin Wieser, Nikolai Veresov, Asger Neumann, and Peter Krøjgaard.

    PubMed

    Mammen, Jens

    2016-09-01

    The paper is a reply to commentaries to "Activity theories and the Ontology of Psychology: Learning from Danish and Russian Experiences" (Mammen and Mironenko 2015). At the same time it is an attempt to reply to more general issues raised by the commentators and an attempt to further develop some general ideas from our paper with a focus on the introduction of the new analytical concepts sense and choice categories. These concepts have been elaborated in an axiomatic frame in (Mammen 2016) and the present paper is thus also pointing forwards to that and supporting it with examples from research on adult human relations of love and affection and on infant cognitive development. A few examples from myth and literature are referred to also. The ambition is to introduce new analytical tools across schools and domains of psychology which open for theoretical inclusion of new phenomena and re-structuring of well-known ones. The hope is to surmount some problems, as e.g. the dilemma between dualism and reductionism, which have been obstacles in the search for conceptual and methodological coherence in psychology. In the first place the hope is also to sharpen the analytical, critical and practical potential of psychology as a science. The ambition is not, here and now, to develop a comprehensive general theory as a container for the huge amount of empirical results collected using very heterogeneous criteria for what belongs to the domain of psychology and very heterogeneous conceptual frames. Here we still need some patience following the lesson from natural science, step by step including new domains as the conceptual and practical frames are expanding, but on the other hand not excluding anything apriori. PMID:27251641

  9. Higher spin double field theory: a proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekaert, Xavier; Park, Jeong-Hyuck

    2016-07-01

    We construct a double field theory coupled to the fields present in Vasiliev's equations. Employing the "semi-covariant" differential geometry, we spell a functional in which each term is completely covariant with respect to O(4, 4) T-duality, doubled diffeomorphisms, Spin(1, 3) local Lorentz symmetry and, separately, HS(4) higher spin gauge symmetry. We identify a minimal set of BPS-like conditions whose solutions automatically satisfy the full Euler-Lagrange equations. As such a solution, we derive a linear dilaton vacuum. With extra algebraic constraints further supplemented, the BPS-like conditions reduce to the bosonic Vasiliev equations.

  10. The Danish Folk High School: Key to the Success of Democracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foucault-Mohammed, Clara

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Danish Folk High School that was developed with the ideas of Nikolai Grundtvig. His primary purpose was to deepen the students' understanding of themselves as human beings and to magnify their concept of life. (JOW)

  11. ABJ triality: from higher spin fields to strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chi-Ming; Minwalla, Shiraz; Sharma, Tarun; Yin, Xi

    2013-05-01

    We demonstrate that a supersymmetric and parity violating version of Vasiliev’s higher spin gauge theory in AdS4 admits boundary conditions that preserve N=0,1,2,3,4 or 6 supersymmetries. In particular, we argue that the Vasiliev theory with U(M) Chan-Paton and N=6 boundary condition is holographically dual to the 2+1 dimensional U(N)k × U(M)-k ABJ theory in the limit of large N, k and finite M. In this system all bulk higher spin fields transform in the adjoint of the U(M) gauge group, whose bulk t’Hooft coupling is M/N. Analysis of boundary conditions in Vasiliev theory allows us to determine exact relations between the parity breaking phase of Vasiliev theory and the coefficients of two and three point functions in Chern-Simons vector models at large N. Our picture suggests that the supersymmetric Vasiliev theory can be obtained as a limit of type IIA string theory in AdS_4\\times {CP}^3, and that the non-Abelian Vasiliev theory at strong bulk ’t Hooft coupling smoothly turn into a string field theory. The fundamental string is a singlet bound state of Vasiliev’s higher spin particles held together by U(M) gauge interactions. This is illustrated by the thermal partition function of free ABJ theory on a two sphere at large M and N even in the analytically tractable free limit. In this system the traces or strings of the low temperature phase break up into their Vasiliev particulate constituents at a U(M) deconfinement phase transition of order unity. At a higher temperature of order T=\\sqrt{\\frac{N}{M}} Vasiliev’s higher spin fields themselves break up into more elementary constituents at a U(N) deconfinement temperature, in a process described in the bulk as black hole nucleation. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Higher spin theories and holography’.

  12. Gravitational and gauge couplings in Chern-Simons fractional spin gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulanger, Nicolas; Sundell, Per; Valenzuela, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    We propose an extension of Vasiliev's supertrace operation for the enveloping algebra of Wigner's deformed oscillator algebra to the fractional spin algebra given in arXiv:1312.5700. We provide a necessary and sufficient condition for the consistency of the supertrace, through the existence of a certain ground state projector. We build this projector and check its properties to the first two orders in the number operator and to all orders in the deformation parameter. We then find the relation between the gravitational and internal gauge couplings in the resulting unified three-dimensional Chern-Simons theory for Blencowe-Vasiliev higher spin gravity coupled to fractional spin fields and internal gauge potentials. We also examine the model for integer or half-integer fractional spins, where infinite dimensional ideals arise and decouple, leaving finite dimensional gauge algebras gl(2 ℓ + 1) or gl( ℓ| ℓ + 1) and various real forms thereof.

  13. ABJ theory in the higher spin limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Shinji; Honda, Masazumi; Okuyama, Kazumi; Shigemori, Masaki

    2016-08-01

    We study the conjecture made by Chang, Minwalla, Sharma, and Yin on the duality between the {N}=6 Vasiliev higher spin theory on AdS4 and the {N}=6 Chern-Simons-matter theory, so-called ABJ theory, with gauge group U( N) × U( N + M). Building on our earlier results on the ABJ partition function, we develop the systematic 1 /M expansion, corresponding to the weak coupling expansion in the higher spin theory, and compare the leading 1 /M correction, with our proposed prescription, to the one-loop free energy of the {N}=6 Vasiliev theory. We find an agreement between the two sides up to an ambiguity that appears in the bulk one-loop calculation.

  14. Is Hideki Yukawa's explanation of the strong force correct?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, Victor; Moon, Russell

    2006-11-01

    Reexamining Hideki Yukawa's explanation of the strong force using the principles of the Quark Theory and the Vortex Theory, it was discovered that it is possible for a virtual particle to be passed back and forth between the proton and the neutron. This discovery creates a new and revolutionary explanation of the strong force of nature. The creation of the strong force appears to be the combination of four processes at work in the nucleus: virtual particles, intrinsic magnetism, ``nuclear gravity'', and gluons. 1. V.V. Vasiliev, R.G. Moon, The bases of the vortex theory, Book of abstracts The 53 International Meeting on Nuclear Spectroscopy and Nuclear structure St. Petersburg, Russia, 2003, p.251. 2. H. Yukawa, Tabibito, (World Scientific, Singapore, 1982), p. 190-202. 3. K. Gridnev, V.V. Vasiliev, R.G. Moon, The Photon Acceleration Effect, Book of abstracts, OMEGA 5 -- Symposium on Origin of Matter and Evolution of Galaxies, Nov 8-11, University of Tokyo, Tokyo Japan. 4. R.G. Moon, V.V. Vasiliev. Explanation of the Conservation of Lepton Number, Book of abstracts LV. National Conference on Nuclear Physics, Frontiers in the Physics of Nucleus, June 28-July 1, 2005, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 2005, p. 347.5. .

  15. Is Hideki Yukawa's explanation of the strong force correct?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, Victor; Moon, Russell

    2006-10-01

    Reexamining Hideki Yukawa's explanation of the strong force using the principles of the Quark Theory and the Vortex Theory, it was discovered that it is possible for a virtual particle to be passed back and forth between the proton and the neutron. This discovery creates a new and revolutionary explanation of the strong force of nature. The creation of the strong force appears to be the combination of four processes at work in the nucleus: virtual particles, intrinsic magnetism, ``nuclear gravity'', and gluons. 1. V.V. Vasiliev, R.G. Moon, The bases of the vortex theory, Book of abstracts The 53 International Meeting on Nuclear Spectroscopy and Nuclear structure St. Petersburg, Russia, 2003, p.251. 2. H. Yukawa, Tabibito, (World Scientific, Singapore, 1982), p. 190-202. 3. K. Gridnev, V.V. Vasiliev, R.G. Moon, The Photon Acceleration Effect, Book of abstracts, OMEGA 5 -- Symposium on Origin of Matter and Evolution of Galaxies, Nov 8-11, University of Tokyo, Tokyo Japan. 4. R.G. Moon, V.V. Vasiliev. Explanation of the Conservation of Lepton Number, Book of abstracts LV. National Conference on Nuclear Physics, Frontiers in the Physics of Nucleus, June 28-July 1, 2005, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 2005, p. 347.5. .

  16. Yes You Can! Personal Experience of Writing for "School Science Review"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Alaric; Auty, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Alaric Thompson describes his experience of writing for "School Science Review" for the first time in the hope that his experience will encourage others. Geoff Auty introduces his piece and explains how it came about.

  17. Alienation, Servility and Amorality: Relating Gogol's Portrayal of Bureaupathology to an Accountability Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samier, Eugenie; Lumby, Jacky

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the insights literature can bring to administrative and bureaucratic critique, focusing on the work of Nikolai Gogol. Gogol's satire of bureaucracy presages many subsequent social science analyses. These encompass the fundamental ruptures in society caused by a surfeit of bureaucracy in "The Nose" and, on a more psychological…

  18. A new instability of the topological black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belin, Alexandre; Maloney, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the stability of massless topological black holes in {{{AdS}}}d when minimally coupled to a scalar field of negative mass-squared. In many cases such black holes are unstable even though the field is above the BF bound and the geometry is locally AdS. The instability depends on the choice of boundary conditions for the scalars: scalars with non-standard (Neumann) boundary conditions tend to be more unstable, though scalars with standard (Dirichlet) boundary conditions can be unstable as well. This leads to an apparent mismatch between boundary and bulk results in the Vasiliev/vector-like matter duality.

  19. On locality, holography and unfolding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skvortsov, Evgeny; Taronna, Massimo

    2015-11-01

    We study the functional class and locality problems in the context of higher-spin theories and Vasiliev's equations. A locality criterion that is sufficient to make higher-spin theories well-defined as field theories on Anti-de-Sitter space is proposed. This criterion identifies admissible pseudo-local field redefinitions which preserve AdS/CFT correlation functions as we check in the 3d example. Implications of this analysis for known higher-spin theories are discussed. We also check that the cubic coupling coefficients previously fixed in 3d at the action level give the correct CFT correlation functions upon computing the corresponding Witten diagrams.

  20. Higher spin holography with Galilean symmetry in general dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yang; Peng, Cheng

    2016-07-01

    We construct Schrödinger-like solutions of the Vasiliev higher spin theory in D\\gt 3 dimension. Symmetries of such solutions and the linearized equation of motion for the scalar on such backgrounds are analyzed. We further propose Galilean invariant bosonic and fermionic field theories that could be dual to the two parity invariant higher spin theories on the Schrödinger-like background respectively. The discussion is phrased mainly in D = 4 dimension, while similar constructions follow straightforwardly in higher dimensions.

  1. Unfolding mixed-symmetry fields in AdS and the BMV conjecture: II. Oscillator realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulanger, Nicolas; Iazeolla, Carlo; Sundell, Per

    2009-07-01

    Following the general formalism presented in arXiv:0812.3615 — referred to as Paper I — we derive the unfolded equations of motion for tensor fields of arbitrary shape and mass in constantly curved backgrounds by radial reduction of Skvortsov's equations in one higher dimension. The complete unfolded system is embedded into a single master field, valued in a tensorial Schur module realized equivalently via either bosonic (symmetric basis) or fermionic (anti-symmetric basis) vector oscillators. At critical masses the reduced Weyl zero-form modules become indecomposable. We explicitly project the latter onto the submodules carrying Metsaev's massless representations. The remainder of the reduced system contains a set of Stückelberg fields and dynamical potentials that leads to a smooth flat limit in accordance with the Brink-Metsaev-Vasiliev (BMV) conjecture. In the unitary massless cases in AdS, we identify the Alkalaev-Shaynkman-Vasiliev frame-like potentials and explicitly disentangle their unfolded field equations.

  2. An action for matter coupled higher spin gravity in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonezzi, Roberto; Boulanger, Nicolas; Sezgin, Ergin; Sundell, Per

    2016-05-01

    We propose a covariant Hamiltonian action for the Prokushkin and Vasiliev's matter coupled higher spin gravity in three dimensions. The action is formulated on {{X}}_4× {{Z}}_2 where {{X}}_4 is an open manifold whose boundary contains spacetime and {{Z}}_2 is a noncommutative twistor space. We examine various consistent truncations to models of BF type in {{X}}_4 and {{Z}}_2 with B2 terms and central elements. They are obtained by integrating out the matter fields in the presence of a vacuum expectation value ν ∈ {R} for the zero-form master field. For ν = 0, we obtain a model on {{X}}_4 containing Blencowe's action and a model on {{Z}}_2 containing the Prokushkin-Segal-Vasiliev action. For generic ν (including ν = 0), we propose an alternative model on {{X}}_4 with gauge fields in the Weyl algebra of Wigner's deformed oscillator algebra and Lagrange multipliers in the algebra of operators acting in the Fock representation space of the deformed oscillators.

  3. An approach to aesthetic rhinoplasty in the non-caucasian nose.

    PubMed

    Kabaker, S S

    1977-08-01

    The problem of augmenting the nasal dorsum and columella in the exaggerated Negroid or Oriental nose is presented. Augmentation of the nasal dorsum is routinely performed using polyamide mesh. The lengthening and lowering of the short and sometimes retracted columella and narrowing of the alar bases is performed by making a columellar splitting incision and extending it along the alar sills. A septal cartilage graft is sewn into the new columellar space, and the alar sills are advanced into the columella, thereby lengthening the columella and changing the axis of the nares. The columellar advancement is done after the dorsal implantation is performed, and the projection of the tip is advanced to whatever amount necessary to aesthetically match the dorsal profile line.

  4. Remembrances of a UK scientist in Russia. 1966-67.

    PubMed

    Phillips, David

    2014-01-01

    David Phillips was a post-doctoral fellow on a Fulbright Scholarship at the University of Texas, Austin, where he acted as host and chauffeur to one of the IUPAC representatives, the Soviet delegate, Professor Nikolai N. Kondratiev, then Deputy Director of the Institute of Chemical Physics in Moscow. During the course of ferrying him around, Nikolai asked .David about his plans after his two-year stay in Texas, David replied that he had intended to return to Europe, but was looking for one more year as a post-doctoral fellow before seeking an academic position probably back in the UK Nikolai invited him to spend time in his Institute, and eventually, through the Royal Society/Academy of Sciences Exchange programme, this came to pass. Professor Phillips now describes his experiences, both cultural and scientific, in Russia during 1966-67 where he learned much about the Russian people, and also about himself. He returned with a taste for good music, Russian literature and language, and travel generally, and for taking chances in life.

  5. Alanyl-tRNA synthetase genes of Vanderwaltozyma polyspora arose from duplication of a dual-functional predecessor of mitochondrial origin.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Pei; Tseng, Yi-Kuan; Ko, Chou-Yuan; Wang, Chien-Chia

    2012-01-01

    In eukaryotes, the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial forms of a given aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS) are typically encoded by two orthologous nuclear genes, one of eukaryotic origin and the other of mitochondrial origin. We herein report a novel scenario of aaRS evolution in yeast. While all other yeast species studied possess a single nuclear gene encoding both forms of alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AlaRS), Vanderwaltozyma polyspora, a yeast species descended from the same whole-genome duplication event as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, contains two distinct nuclear AlaRS genes, one specifying the cytoplasmic form and the other its mitochondrial counterpart. The protein sequences of these two isoforms are very similar to each other. The isoforms are actively expressed in vivo and are exclusively localized in their respective cellular compartments. Despite the presence of a promising AUG initiator candidate, the gene encoding the mitochondrial form is actually initiated from upstream non-AUG codons. A phylogenetic analysis further revealed that all yeast AlaRS genes, including those in V. polyspora, are of mitochondrial origin. These findings underscore the possibility that contemporary AlaRS genes in V. polyspora arose relatively recently from duplication of a dual-functional predecessor of mitochondrial origin.

  6. Descending Mediastinitis in Epstein-Barr Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    van Driel, E. M.; Janssen, M. J. F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Our case report describes a previously healthy 34-year-old male who develops a descending mediastinitis as a complication of an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. The mediastinitis was suspected to have developed by a breakthrough of a peritonsillar abscess through the space between the alar and prevertebral space. PMID:25740774

  7. Anatomy-based image processing analysis of the running pattern of the perioral artery for minimally invasive surgery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hee; Lee, Minho; Kim, Hee-Jin

    2014-10-01

    We aimed to elucidate the tortuous course of the perioral artery with the aid of image processing, and to suggest accurate reference points for minimally invasive surgery. We used 59 hemifaces from 19 Korean and 20 Thai cadavers. A perioral line was defined to connect the point at which the facial artery emerged on the mandibular margin, and the ramification point of the lateral nasal artery and the inferior alar branch. The course of the perioral artery was reproduced as a graph based on the perioral line and analysed by adding the image of the artery using MATLAB. The course of the artery could be classified into 2 according to the course of the alar branch - oblique and vertical. Two distinct inflection points appeared in the course of the artery along the perioral line at the ramification points of the alar branch and the inferior labial artery, respectively, and the course of the artery across the face can be predicted based on the following references: the perioral line, the ramification point of the alar branch (5∼10 mm medial to the perioral line at the level of the lower third of the upper lip) and the inferior labial artery (5∼10 mm medial to the perioral line at the level of the middle of the lower lip).

  8. Urea Unfolding Study of E. coli Alanyl-tRNA Synthetase and Its Monomeric Variants Proves the Role of C-Terminal Domain in Stability

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Baisakhi; Banerjee, Rajat

    2015-01-01

    E. coli alanyl-tRNA exists as a dimer in its native form and the C-terminal coiled-coil part plays an important role in the dimerization process. The truncated N-terminal containing the first 700 amino acids (1–700) forms a monomeric variant possessing similar aminoacylation activity like wild type. A point mutation in the C-terminal domain (G674D) also produces a monomeric variant with a fivefold reduced aminoacylation activity compared to the wild type enzyme. Urea induced denaturation of these monomeric mutants along with another alaRS variant (N461 alaRS) was studied together with the full-length enzyme using various spectroscopic techniques such as intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, 1-anilino-8-naphthalene-sulfonic acid binding, near- and far-UV circular dichroism, and analytical ultracentrifugation. Aminoacylation activity assay after refolding from denatured state revealed that the monomeric mutants studied here were unable to regain their activity, whereas the dimeric full-length alaRS gets back similar activity as the native enzyme. This study indicates that dimerization is one of the key regulatory factors that is important in the proper folding and stability of E. coli alaRS. PMID:26617997

  9. Repair of "coup de sabre," a linear form of scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Sengezer, M; Deveci, M; Selmanpakoglu, N

    1996-10-01

    A case of coup de sabre, a linear form of scleroderma, is presented. Treatment consisted of soft-tissue expansion and autologous bone grafting to the forehead, a composite graft for alar reconstruction, and a scalp graft for eyebrow reconstruction. None of the linear scleroderma cases reported in the literature consisted of bony reconstruction.

  10. The Learning Conference: Knowledge Creation through Participation and Publication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louw, Ina; Zuber-Skerritt, Ortrun

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to identify the principles and characteristics of a learning conference which uses action learning and action research (ALAR) processes to create: optimal learning for all participants through a collaborative, inclusive conference culture; further knowledge creation in publishing conference papers post-conference…

  11. A C1-2 locked facet in a child with atlantoaxial rotatory fixation. Case report.

    PubMed

    Missori, Paolo; Miscusi, Massimo; Paolini, Sergio; DiBiasi, Claudio; Finocchi, Vannina; Peschillo, Simone; Delfini, Roberto

    2005-12-01

    Conservative treatment is reported in a child with atlantoaxial rotatory fixation. Three-dimensional (3D) computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated the degree of dislocation and alar ligament damage. A rigid cervical collar and muscle relaxant agents without any traction allowed full recovery. Control 3D CT scanning and MR imaging findings are reported.

  12. How higher-spin gravity surpasses the spin-two barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekaert, Xavier; Boulanger, Nicolas; Sundell, Per A.

    2012-07-01

    Aiming at nonexperts, the key mechanisms of higher-spin extensions of ordinary gravities in four dimensions and higher are explained. An overview of various no-go theorems for low-energy scattering of massless particles in flat spacetime is given. In doing so, a connection between the S-matrix and the Lagrangian approaches is made, exhibiting their relative advantages and weaknesses, after which potential loopholes for nontrivial massless dynamics are highlighted. Positive yes-go results for non-Abelian cubic higher-derivative vertices in constantly curved backgrounds are reviewed. Finally, how higher-spin symmetry can be reconciled with the equivalence principle in the presence of a cosmological constant leading to the Fradkin-Vasiliev vertices and Vasiliev’s higher-spin gravity with its double perturbative expansion (in terms of numbers of fields and derivatives) is outlined.

  13. On matter coupled to the higher spin square

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raeymaekers, Joris

    2016-09-01

    Gaberdiel and Gopakumar recently proposed that the tensionless limit of string theory on {{AdS}}3× {S}3× {T}4 takes the form of a higher spin theory with a gauge algebra that is referred to as the higher spin square (hss). In this note, we formulate the linearized Vasiliev-type equations which describe a matter field coupled to the hss. We study the particle spectrum of this field and show that it accounts for the entire untwisted sector of the dual symmetric orbifold CFT, thereby confirming a conjecture by Gaberdiel and Gopakumar. In doing so, we pinpoint the group-theoretic data which determine the spectrum of a matter field coupled to a general higher spin algebra, which we illustrate by revisiting the theory based on the {hs}[1/2] algebra.

  14. STS-113 Flight Day 2 Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-11-01

    The second flight day of the STS-113 mission begins with a shot inside of the Destiny Laboratory Module. NASA ISS Science Officer Peggy Whitson is seen inside of the Destiny Laboratory where scientific research is performed. Mission Specialists John Herrington and Michael Lopez-Alegria are seen at the Mid-deck of the Space Shuttle Endeavor. Commander Jim Wetherbee and Ken Bowersox are also shown. Pilot Paul Lockhart is the EVA coordinator for this mission. Ken Bowersox, Don Pettit and Nikolai Budarin of the Space Station Expedition Six crew answer questions about the launch.

  15. STS-113 TCDT emergency exit training at Launch Pad 39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - STS-113 Mission Specialist John Herrington (left) and cosmonaut Nikolai Budarin (center) listen to instructions from a trainer on the emergency egress system on Launch Pad 39A. They are other crew members are taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities, which also include a simulated launch countdown. The 16th assembly flight to the International Space Station, STS-113 will carry the Port 1 (P1) truss aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour as well as the Expedition 6 crew, who will replace Expedition 5 on the Station. Mission STS-113 is scheduled to launch Nov. 10, 2002.

  16. STS-113 TCDT emergency exit training at Launch Pad 39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - As part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities, the STS-113 and Expedition 6 crews receive training in emergency exit from the orbiter on Launch Pad 39A. Shown are (from left) Mission Commander James Wetherbee and cosmonaut Nikolai Budarin and astronaut Donald Pettit of the Expedition 6 crew. The TCDT also includes a simulated launch countdown. The 16th assembly flight to the International Space Station, STS-113 will carry the Port 1 (P1) truss aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour as well as the Expedition 6 crew, who will replace Expedition 5 on the Station. Mission STS-113 is scheduled to launch Nov. 10, 2002.

  17. STS-113 Flight Day 1 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The first flight day of the STS-113 begins with a live shot of the Space Shuttle Endeavor at the Kennedy Space Center. The STS-113 crew consists of Commander Jim Wetherbee, Pilot Paul Lockhart, and Mission Specialists Michael Lopez-Alegria, and John Herrington. The STS-113 crewmembers are accompanied Expedition 6 astronauts Kenneth Bowersox, Donald Pettit and Nikolai Budarin. The purpose of this flight is to carry the P1 truss segment to the International Space Station along with the Expedition 6 flight crew. The crewmembers are shown getting suited for the space flight. Countdown and lift off of the Space Shuttle Endeavor is also shown.

  18. STS-113 Flight Day 2 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The second flight day of the STS-113 mission begins with a shot inside of the Destiny Laboratory Module. NASA ISS Science Officer Peggy Whitson is seen inside of the Destiny Laboratory where scientific research is performed. Mission Specialists John Herrington and Michael Lopez-Alegria are seen at the Mid-deck of the Space Shuttle Endeavor. Commander Jim Wetherbee and Ken Bowersox are also shown. Pilot Paul Lockhart is the EVA coordinator for this mission. Ken Bowersox, Don Pettit and Nikolai Budarin of the Space Station Expedition Six crew answer questions about the launch.

  19. STS-113 Flight Day 10 Highlights Replay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-12-01

    The activities of the STS-113 (Jim Wetherbee, Commander; Paul Lockhart, Pilot; Michael Lopez-Alegria, John Herrington, Mission Specialists) crew during flight day 10 are shown. Also seen are the outgoing Expedition 5 (Valeri Korzun, Commander; Peggy Whitsun, ISS Science Officer/Flight Engineer; Sergei Treschev, Flight Engineer) and incoming Expedition 6 (Kenneth Bowersox, Commander; Donald Pettit, Nikolai Budarin, Flight Engineers) crews of the International Space Station (ISS). A panoramic view of the undocking of the Space Shuttle Endeavor from the International Space Station is also presented.

  20. STS-113 Flight Day 10 Highlights Replay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The activities of the STS-113 (Jim Wetherbee, Commander; Paul Lockhart, Pilot; Michael Lopez-Alegria, John Herrington, Mission Specialists) crew during flight day 10 are shown. Also seen are the outgoing Expedition 5 (Valeri Korzun, Commander; Peggy Whitsun, ISS Science Officer/Flight Engineer; Sergei Treschev, Flight Engineer) and incoming Expedition 6 (Kenneth Bowersox, Commander; Donald Pettit, Nikolai Budarin, Flight Engineers) crews of the International Space Station (ISS). A panoramic view of the undocking of the Space Shuttle Endeavor from the International Space Station is also presented.

  1. Rocketry, film and fiction: the road to Sputnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brake, Mark; Hook, Neil

    2007-07-01

    The launch of Sputnik 1 in 1957 was fuelled by science fiction as well as science fact. The field of early rocketry included the work of Russians Nikolai Rynin and Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, American Robert Goddard, and German engineers Herman Oberth and Wernher Von Braun. All were directly inspired and influenced by early science fiction that heralded a space age decades ahead of time. The work of these pioneers led directly to the development of the technology needed to boost Sputnik skyward. After the launch of Sputnik, the context of the nuclear arms race opened the floodgates for a new wave of apocalyptic fiction.

  2. A reappraisal of Theroteinus (Haramiyida, Mammaliaformes) from the Upper Triassic of Saint-Nicolas-de-Port (France)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The earliest mammaliaforms are difficult to assess because the fossil record is poor and because their distinctive morphologies cannot be directly compared with more recent mammaliaforms. This is especially true for the haramiyid genus Theroteinus, only known in the Saint-Nicolas-de-Port locality (Rhaetian, France). This study presents a new definition of the type-species Theroteinus nikolai. A new species Theroteinus rosieriensis, sp. nov., is named and distinguished by the lingual shift of distal cusps, a larger size, and a stockier occlusal outline. Comparisons with Eleutherodon, Megaconus and Millsodon suggest that Theroteinus has potential close relatives among the Jurassic haramiyids. PMID:27781174

  3. STS-113 TCDT emergency exit training at Launch Pad 39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - As part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities, the STS-113 and Expedition 6 crews receive training in emergency exit from the orbiter on Launch Pad 39A. Shown are (from left) Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox; STS-113 Pilot Paul Lockhart; astronaut Donald Pettit; Mission Specialist Michael Lopez-Alegria, Commander James Wetherbee and Mission Specialist John Herrington; and cosmonaut Nikolai Budarin. The TCDT also includes a simulated launch countdown. The 16th assembly flight to the International Space Station, STS-113 will carry the Port 6 crew, who will replace Expedition 5 on the Station. Mission STS-113 is scheduled to launch Nov. 10, 2002.

  4. STS-113 Flight Day 1 Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-11-01

    The first flight day of the STS-113 begins with a live shot of the Space Shuttle Endeavor at the Kennedy Space Center. The STS-113 crew consists of Commander Jim Wetherbee, Pilot Paul Lockhart, and Mission Specialists Michael Lopez-Alegria, and John Herrington. The STS-113 crewmembers are accompanied Expedition 6 astronauts Kenneth Bowersox, Donald Pettit and Nikolai Budarin. The purpose of this flight is to carry the P1 truss segment to the International Space Station along with the Expedition 6 flight crew. The crewmembers are shown getting suited for the space flight. Countdown and lift off of the Space Shuttle Endeavor is also shown.

  5. Technique in Cleft Rhinoplasty: The Foundation Graft.

    PubMed

    Gassner, Holger G; Schwan, Franziska; Haubner, Frank; Suárez, Gustavo A; Vielsmeier, Veronika

    2016-04-01

    Secondary cleft rhinoplasty represents a particular surgical challenge. The authors have identified the deficit in skeletal projection of the cleft-sided piriform rim as an important contributor to the pathology. A graft is described to augment the piriform crest on the cleft side. This foundation graft is suture fixated to the piriform crest after complete release of all soft tissue attachments to the alar base. The foundation graft is articulated with a long alar strut graft, which allows for powerful projection of the cleft-sided nasal tip. An advancement flap of vestibular skin is described to correct the vestibular stenosis. A transplant of diced cartilage in fascia is added to augment maxillary soft tissue volume. Subjective and objective measures of form and function are presented in a retrospective series of five cases, illustrating the efficacy of the techniques described. PMID:27097143

  6. Description of Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) tolimensis, a new species of phlebotomine sandfly (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Carrasquilla, María C; Munstermann, Leonard; Marín, Dairo; Ocampo, Clara; Ferro, Cristina

    2012-12-01

    A description is presented of Lutzomyia tolimensis sp. nov., a new species of the subgenus Helcocyrtomyia, series sanguinaria. It was collected in dwellings, peridomestic environment and in nearby forest patches located in the foothills of the Andean Central Cordillera, where in 2004-2006 occurred the largest epidemic ever recorded of leishmaniasis in Colombia. The male of this species is differentiated from other members of the series sanguinaria based on the following combination of characters: (i) base of coxite with 0-3 subequal setae, (ii) spines of gonostyle organized in positions 2.1.2, (iii) spines inserted on distal half of gonostyle and (iv) relationship of alar indices. The female is recognized principally by the following characters: (i) palpomere V longer than III, (ii) length of labro-epipharynx and (iii) relationship of the alar indices.

  7. Description of Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) tolimensis, a new species of phlebotomine sandfly (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Carrasquilla, María C; Munstermann, Leonard; Marín, Dairo; Ocampo, Clara; Ferro, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    A description is presented of Lutzomyia tolimensis sp. nov., a new species of the subgenus Helcocyrtomyia, series sanguinaria. It was collected in dwellings, peridomestic environment and in nearby forest patches located in the foothills of the Andean Central Cordillera, where in 2004–2006 occurred the largest epidemic ever recorded of leishmaniasis in Colombia. The male of this species is differentiated from other members of the series sanguinaria based on the following combination of characters: (i) base of coxite with 0–3 subequal setae, (ii) spines of gonostyle organized in positions 2.1.2, (iii) spines inserted on distal half of gonostyle and (iv) relationship of alar indices. The female is recognized principally by the following characters: (i) palpomere V longer than III, (ii) length of labro-epipharynx and (iii) relationship of the alar indices. PMID:23295748

  8. Aesthetic considerations of the cleft lip operation.

    PubMed

    Onizuka, T; Keyama, A; Asada, K; Shinomiya, S; Aoyama, R

    1986-01-01

    The results of a cleft lip operation are checked from the anterior, the profile, and the caudal views and even if the deformities are minimal, for aesthetic reasons they should be repaired. Philtrum length, philtrum shape, philtrum depth, nasolabial triangular area, vermilion thickness, Cupid's bow peak, horizontal upper lip groove, vermilion border, alar size, depth of alar groove, nasal deviation, nostril shape, nasal tip, columella height, sill shape, columella width, and facial balance of the anterior, profile, and caudal views are used as aesthetic checkpoints for the results of a cleft lip operation. If deformities are found, the aesthetic plastic surgeon should repair them to achieve a more satisfactory result. In addition, augmentation rhinoplasty, augmentation mentoplasty, or other craniofacial surgery may be performed.

  9. Extending the extended V-Y flap.

    PubMed

    Prowse, Phoebe; Morton, Jonathan

    2012-06-01

    This case report demonstrates a modification of the so-called 'Extended V-Y Flap' used to simultaneously reconstruct a defect involving the upper lip, floor of nose and alar rim following tumour excision. We hope that this case serves as a reminder of the versatility of the V-Y flap in the nasolabial region, and its considerable capacity for augmentation. PMID:22018837

  10. Regionalized differentiation of CRH, TRH, and GHRH peptidergic neurons in the mouse hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Morales-Delgado, Nicanor; Castro-Robles, Beatriz; Ferrán, José L; Martinez-de-la-Torre, Margaret; Puelles, Luis; Díaz, Carmen

    2014-05-01

    According to the updated prosomeric model, the hypothalamus is subdivided rostrocaudally into terminal and peduncular parts, and dorsoventrally into alar, basal, and floor longitudinal zones. In this context, we examined the ontogeny of peptidergic cell populations expressing Crh, Trh, and Ghrh mRNAs in the mouse hypothalamus, comparing their distribution relative to the major progenitor domains characterized by molecular markers such as Otp, Sim1, Dlx5, Arx, Gsh1, and Nkx2.1. All three neuronal types originate mainly in the peduncular paraventricular domain and less importantly at the terminal paraventricular domain; both are characteristic alar Otp/Sim1-positive areas. Trh and Ghrh cells appeared specifically at the ventral subdomain of the cited areas after E10.5. Additional Ghrh cells emerged separately at the tuberal arcuate area, characterized by Nkx2.1 expression. Crh-positive cells emerged instead in the central part of the peduncular paraventricular domain at E13.5 and remained there. In contrast, as development progresses (E13.5-E18.5) many alar Ghrh and Trh cells translocate into the alar subparaventricular area, and often also into underlying basal neighborhoods expressing Nkx2.1 and/or Dlx5, such as the tuberal and retrotuberal areas, becoming partly or totally depleted at the original birth sites. Our data correlate a topologic map of molecularly defined hypothalamic progenitor areas with three types of specific neurons, each with restricted spatial origins and differential migratory behavior during prenatal hypothalamic development. The study may be useful for detailed causal analysis of the respective differential specification mechanisms. The postulated migrations also contribute to our understanding of adult hypothalamic complexity.

  11. Further characterization of Escherichia coli alanyl-tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed

    Sood, S M; Slattery, C W; Filley, S J; Wu, M X; Hill, K A

    1996-04-15

    Selected physical and thermodynamic parameters for Escherichia coli alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AlaRS) have been determined primarily to assess the quaternary structure of this enzyme. The extinction coefficient (epsilon) at 280 nm was determined experimentally to be 0.71 ml mg-1 cm-1, and the partial specific volume (nu) was calculated from the amino acid composition to be 0.73 ml g-1. From viscosity experiments the intrinsic viscosity (eta) of AlaRS was extrapolated to be 3.4 ml g-1 and the degree of hydration (delta 1) estimated to be 0.67 gH2O g(-1)(AlaRS). Laser light-scattering studies indicated some heterogeneity; a radius of 6.3 nm was calculated for the major fraction with a diffusion coefficient (D20,W) of 3.89 x 10(-7) cm2 s-1. In 50 mM Hepes, pH 7.5, 20 mM KCl, 2 mM 2-mercaptoethanol and at a protein concentration of 4.2 mg ml-1 the sedimentation coefficient (S20,W) was 6.36 S; this value increased slightly when the protein concentration was decreased. The combination of S20,W and D20,W under these conditions yielded a molecular weight of approximately 186,000 Da, corresponding to a dimer. The S20,W was virtually independent of temperature in the range of 10-37 degrees C, while an Arrhenius plot of aminoacylation activity was biphasic. The isoelectric point was determined experimentally to be 4.9. Sedimentation equilibrium data were best fit to a decamer association complex in which dimeric AlaRS is the predominant species at 25 degrees C. PMID:8645007

  12. BASAL CELL CARCINOMA OF THE NOSE—Treatment with Chemosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Beirne, Gilbert A.; Beirne, Clinton G.

    1956-01-01

    Basal cell carcinomas of the nose probably originate from embryologic cell rests left between cartilages and bones in the fusion and migration of the nasal precursors. Some carcinomas have been found to invade to the mucosal surface between subcutaneous structures or around the alar margins. Recurrences are particularly likely to develop deep extensions due to overlying scar tissue. In many cases, chemosurgical removal has disclosed unsuspected deep and lateral extensions. It is the treatment method of choice for many such lesions. PMID:13276824

  13. Nasal bone grafts from the removed hump used as overlay grafts to camouflage concave lateral crura.

    PubMed

    Kubilay, Utku; Erdogdu, Suleyman; Sezen, Ozan Seymen

    2014-01-01

    Alar cartilage consists of a medial crus, middle crus and lateral crus. The lateral crus is an important aesthetic and functional structure of the nose. A 32-year-old male patient with concave lateral crura was operated by the authors. An open rhinoplasty with a dorsal approach to the septum is preferred. The nasal bones harvested from the hump, which is an autogenous graft trimmed and sutured on both concave lateral crura as an overlay camouflage grafts. Satisfactory result was achieved.

  14. Oral-facial-digital type 1 syndrome of Papillon-Léage and Psaume.

    PubMed

    Larralde de Luna, M; Raspa, M L; Ibargoyen, J

    1992-03-01

    A female infant was classified as having oral-facial-digital syndrome (OFDS) type 1, with oral (cleft palate, bifid uvula, lingual cleft, numerous hypertrophic frenula), facial (numerous milia on face, scalp, and ears; frontal bossing; hypertelorism; hypoplasia of nasal alar cartilage; micrognathia), and digital (bilateral brachydactyly of hands) symptoms. She also had diffuse, nonscarring alopecia with wiry, dry hair. Results of roentgenographic and ultrasound studies were normal. At her present age of 11 months, her psychomotor development is appropriate for her age.

  15. The selective tRNA aminoacylation mechanism based on a single G•U pair.

    PubMed

    Naganuma, Masahiro; Sekine, Shun-ichi; Chong, Yeeting Esther; Guo, Min; Yang, Xiang-Lei; Gamper, Howard; Hou, Ya-Ming; Schimmel, Paul; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2014-06-26

    Ligation of tRNAs with their cognate amino acids, by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, establishes the genetic code. Throughout evolution, tRNA(Ala) selection by alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AlaRS) has depended predominantly on a single wobble base pair in the acceptor stem, G3•U70, mainly on the kcat level. Here we report the crystal structures of an archaeal AlaRS in complex with tRNA(Ala) with G3•U70 and its A3•U70 variant. AlaRS interacts with both the minor- and the major-groove sides of G3•U70, widening the major groove. The geometry difference between G3•U70 and A3•U70 is transmitted along the acceptor stem to the 3'-CCA region. Thus, the 3'-CCA region of tRNA(Ala) with G3•U70 is oriented to the reactive route that reaches the active site, whereas that of the A3•U70 variant is folded back into the non-reactive route. This novel mechanism enables the single wobble pair to dominantly determine the specificity of tRNA selection, by an approximate 100-fold difference in kcat.

  16. Internal Nasal Valve Incompetence Is Effectively Treated Using Batten Graft Functional Rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Bewick, J. C.; Buchanan, M. A.; Frosh, A. C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Internal nasal valve incompetence (INVI) has been treated with various surgical methods. Large, single surgeon case series are lacking, meaning that the evidence supporting a particular technique has been deficient. We present a case series using alar batten grafts to reconstruct the internal nasal valve, all performed by the senior author. Methods. Over a 7-year period, 107 patients with nasal obstruction caused by INVI underwent alar batten grafting. Preoperative assessment included the use of nasal strips to evaluate symptom improvement. Visual analogue scale (VAS) assessment of nasal blockage (NB) and quality of life (QOL) both pre- and postoperatively were performed and analysed with the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results. Sixty-seven patients responded to both pre- and postoperative questionnaires. Ninety-one percent reported an improvement in NB and 88% an improvement in QOL. The greatest improvement was seen at 6 months (median VAS 15 mm and 88 mm resp., with a P value of <0.05 for both). Nasal strips were used preoperatively and are a useful tool in predicting patient operative success in both NB and QOL (odds ratio 2.15 and 2.58, resp.). Conclusions. Alar batten graft insertion as a single technique is a valid technique in treating INVI and produces good outcomes. PMID:23653651

  17. Paleogeographic implications of high latitude and middle latitude affinities of the ammonoid Uraloceras

    SciTech Connect

    Spinosa, C.; Gallegos, D.M. ); Nassichuk, W.W. ); Snyder, W.S.

    1991-02-01

    The ammonoid genus Uraloceras characterized a Lower Permian Boreal paleogeographic realm. Reported Lower Permian Pangaean uraloceras occurrences have a Boreal or high-latitude distribution. Additional Lower Permian occurrences in Alaska, dominated by Boreal species, are compatible with and reinforce the Boreal distribution of the genus. In contrast, a new Uraloceras species from Nevada and from the Yukon, as well as representatives of the genus form Nei Monggol, inhabited regions of lower latitudes. The latter ammonoid faunas, geographically and paleoecologically transitional between boreal and equatorial realms, include the genus Uraloceras as well as abundant other ammonoid taxa and representatives of equatorial perinitid ammonoids. The lower assemblage of Wrangellia terrane in eastern Alaska, consisting of the Lower Permian Mankomen Group (Slana Spur and Eagle Creek formations), contains abundant Uraloceras and Paragastrioceras of high-latitude affinities. Published paleomagnetic data indicate that the Nikolai Greenstone is of equatorial origin, with paleolatitudes 10 to 17{degree}. The Nikolai Greenstone seems to have a far-traveled history incompatible with ammonoid evidence suggesting cool-water setting on the Pangaean continental shelf. A reinterpretation for the origin of Wrangellia or its magnetic signature may be in order. Alternative hypotheses suggest that the Eagle Creek Uraloceras-Paragastrioceras Boreal fauna was scraped off the craton at higher latitudes (possible 30-45{degree}) and carried with Wrangellia to its present location.

  18. The Triassic Chitistone Limestone, Wrangell Mountains, Alaska: stressing detailed descriptions of sabkha facies and other rocks in lower parts of the Chitistone and their relations to Kennecott-type copper deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, Augustus K.; MacKevett, E.M.

    1977-01-01

    Recent investigations show that sabkha deposits were important in the genesis of Kennecott-type copper ore. Massive chalcocite-rich lodes at Kennecott and nearby deposits formed in the lower 110 meters of the Upper Triassic Chitistone Limestone. The Chitistone and superimposed Upper Triassic and Jurassic sedimentary rocks formed in a marine basin on and surrounded by the Nikolai Greenstone, a thick, extensive, largely subaerial succession of tholeiitic basalt with intrinsically high copper content. Lowermost 110 meters of the Chitistone contains three incomplete upward-shoaling lime mud cyclic sequences that each consist of shallow subtidal limestone grading upward to intertidal stromatolitic fine-grained dolomite. The youngest cycle contains well-developed sabkha features and dolomitic pisolitic and laminate crust caliches and underlies shallow-marine limestone. The ore deposits are related to the youngest supratidal cycle. This carbonate cycle represents a regional sabkha facies that developed between 90-110 meters above the Nikolai Greenstone. This facies, which contained abundant gypsum-anhydrite, was exposed to vadose weathering that leached much gypsum-anhydrite and developed a vuggy zone interbedded with porous dolomitic caliche zones. Subsequent marine deposition capped the porous zone with an impermeable seal. The youngest sabkha horizon served as a permeable conduit for the ore-forming solution and was instrumental in localizing the major Kennecott-type ores.

  19. Preliminary report on the Nelson and Radovan copper prospects, Nizina district, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sainsbury, C.J.

    1952-01-01

    Renewed copper exploration by Alaska Copper Mines, Incorporated, at the Nelson and Radovan prospects, Nizina district, Alaska, led the Geological Survey in 1951 to map in detail the Nelson fault block, and to re-examine the old workings. In addition, two new prospects were studied. The Nelson fault block is cut by many dominantly strike-slip faults of small displacement, and by bedding faults. Slickensided chalcocite shows post-mineral movement, and chalcocite veinlet in a filled solution cavity indicates that some of the chalcocite is secondary, perhaps very recent. Structural relations indicate two overthrust faults cut the block. The Radovan Greenstone prospect shows massive chalcocite, up to 3 feet wide, in a silicified, epidotized fault zone in the Nikolai greenstone. Ore indicated by surface exposures may amount to 450 tons of chalcocite. The Radovan Low-Contact prospect is on a continuation of the same fault approximately 3 miles southwest of the Greenstone prospect, and 150 feet above the contact of the Nikolai greenstone and the overlying Chitistone limestone. Limonite staining is widespread in bedding planes and small faults near the fault zone; mineralization in the fault zone consists of pyrite, chalcocite, bornite, malachite, realgar, orpiment and stibnite. The sulphides in the fault zone, plus the widespread silicification and epidotization indicate a strong zone of hydrothermal activity which merits extensive prospecting.

  20. In memory of V L Ginzburg (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 27 October 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-06-01

    The scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division (PSD) of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), dedicated to the memory of V L Ginzburg, took place in the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS on 27 October 2010.The agenda of the session announced on the website www.gpad.ac.ru of the RAS Physical Sciences Division listed the following reports: (1) Mesyats G A (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Introductory word"; (2) Rubakov V A (Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, Moscow) "Cosmology and the Large Hadron Collider"; (3) Gurevich A V (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow), Zelenyi L M (Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Intense gamma bursts in Earth's atmosphere (TGE) and the mission 'Chibis'"; (4) Vasiliev M A (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Higher-spin theory"; (5) Maksimov E G (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "What is and what is not known about HTSC"; (6) Pudalov V M (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow, and Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology) "V L Ginzburg and the development of experimental work on high-temperature superconductivity at LPI: 'iron superconductors'". Papers based on talks 2, 4, and 6 are published below.For several reasons, L P Pitaevskii was unable to attend the session. He presented a paper dedicated to the memory of V L Ginzburg, which is published in this issue of Physics-Uspekhi (p. 625). • Cosmology and the Large Hadron Collider, V A Rubakov Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 6, Pages 633-641 • V L Ginzburg and higher-spin fields, M A Vasiliev Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 6, Pages 641-648 • V L Ginzburg and the development of experimental work on high-temperature superconductivity at LPI: 'iron superconductors', V M Pudalov, O E Omel'yanovskii, E P Khlybov, A V Sadakov, Yu F El'tsev, K V Mitsen, O M Ivanenko, K S Pervakov, D R Gizatulin, A S Usol'tsev, A S Dormidontov, S Yu Gavrilkin, A Yu Tsvetkov, Ya G Ponomarev, S A Kuzmichev, M G Mikheev

  1. Light states in Chern-Simons theory coupled to fundamental matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Shamik; Hellerman, Simeon; Maltz, Jonathan; Shenker, Stephen H.

    2013-03-01

    Motivated by developments in vectorlike holography, we study SU(N) Chern-Simons theory coupled to matter fields in the fundamental representation on various spatial manifolds. On the spatial torus T 2, we find light states at small `t Hooft coupling λ = N/k, where k is the Chern-Simons level, taken to be large. In the free scalar theory the gaps are of order sqrt{λ }/N and in the critical scalar theory and the free fermion theory they are of order λ /N. The entropy of these states grows like N log( k). We briefly consider spatial surfaces of higher genus. Based on results from pure Chern-Simons theory, it appears that there are light states with entropy that grows even faster, like N 2 log( k). This is consistent with the log of the partition function on the three sphere S 3, which also behaves like N 2 log( k). These light states require bulk dynamics beyond standard Vasiliev higher spin gravity to explain them.

  2. Chern-Simons theory coupled to bifundamental scalars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Shamik; Radičević, Đorđe

    2014-06-01

    We study the three-dimensional theory of two Chern-Simons gauge fields coupled to a scalar field in the bifundamental representation of the SU( N ) k × SU( M )- k gauge group. At small but fixed M ≪ N , this system approaches the theory of a Chern-Simons field coupled to fundamental matter, conjectured to be dual to a parity-violating version of Vasiliev's higher-spin gauge theory in AdS4. At finite M/N and large 't Hooft coupling this theory (or its SUSY version) is expected to be dual to an Einstein-like gravity. We show at two loops that this theory possesses a line of fixed points at any value of M/N . We also prove that turning on a finite but small M/N gaps out the light states that Chern-Simons theory coupled to fundamental matter develops when placed on a torus. We also comment on the higher genus case.

  3. Higher spin contributions to holographic fluid dynamics in AdS5/CFT4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seungjin; Polyakov, Dimitri

    2014-08-01

    We calculate the graviton's β function in the AdS string-theoretic sigma model, perturbed by vertex operators for Vasiliev's higher spin gauge fields in AdS5. The result is given by βmn=Rmn+4Tmn(g ,u) (with the AdS radius set to 1 and the graviton polarized along the AdS5 boundary), with the matter stress-energy tensor given by that of conformal holographic fluid in d =4, evaluated at the temperature given by T =1/π. The stress-energy tensor is given by Tmn=gmn+4umun+∑NTmn(N) where u is the vector excitation satisfying u2=-1 and N is the order of the gradient expansion in the dissipative part of the tensor. We calculate the contributions up to N =2. The higher spin excitations contribute to the β function, ensuring the overall Weyl covariance of the matter stress tensor. We conjecture that the structure of gradient expansion in d =4 conformal hydrodynamics at higher orders is controlled by the higher spin operator algebra in AdS5.

  4. Brane content of branes' states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkrtchyan, Ruben

    2003-04-01

    The problem of decomposition of unitary irreps of (super)tensorial (i.e., extended with tensorial charges) Poincaré algebra w.r.t. its different subalgebras is considered. This requires calculation of little groups for different configurations of tensor charges. Particularly, for preon states (i.e., states with maximal supersymmetry) in different dimensions the particle content is calculated, i.e., the spectrum of usual Poincaré representations in the preon representation of tensorial Poincaré. At d=4 results coincide with (and may provide another point of view on) the Vasiliev's results in field theories in generalized space-time. The translational subgroup of little groups of massless particles and branes is shown to be (and coincide with, at d=4) a subgroup of little groups of “pure branes” algebras, i.e., tensorial Poincaré algebras without vector generators. At 11d it is shown that, contrary to lower dimensions, spinors are not homogeneous space of Lorentz group, and one have to distinguish at least 7 different kinds of preons.

  5. KSC-03PD-1273

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- The Russian Soyuz TMA-2 rocket is erected at the launch pad. Expedition Seven is scheduled to launch onboard the Soyuz April 26, 2003. Veteran Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko and veteran NASA astronaut Ed Lu were named as the primary crew for the launch to the International Space Station. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  6. KSC-03PD-1265

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- Building 254, Soyuz Integration Facility. Cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Expedition Seven commander, dons his Russian Sokol suit for the leak check and Soyuz inspection, seat liner check. Malenchenko and veteran NASA astronaut Ed Lu were named as the primary crew, Expedition 7, for the launch to the International Space Station. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS- 114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  7. KSC-03PD-1264

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- Building 254, Soyuz Integration Facility. Veteran Russian Cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko has a leak check performed on the Russian Sokol suit. Malenchenko and veteran NASA astronaut Ed Lu were named as the primary crew, Expedition 7, for the launch to the International Space Station. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  8. Korotkoff Sounds - The Improbable also Occurs

    PubMed Central

    Estañol, Bruno; Delgado, Guillermo; Borgstein, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Very few discoveries have had such a large impact on and relevance to clinical medicine as the noninvasive measurement of the diastolic blood pressure. A number of gifted physiologists and clinicians were ineffectively in search of a noninvasive method to determine the diastolic pressure. Nonetheless, the quantification of the diastolic BP was not achieved by any of these clinical or physiological researchers, but by an unlikely and unexpected figure: Nikolai Sergeevich Korotkoff (1874-1920), a young Russian army surgeon, working under precarious conditions in the hardship of diverse wars. It is easy to dismiss the achievement of Korotkoff as a serendipitous discovery, similar to that of Alexander Fleming in the discovery of penicillin. However, Nassim N. Taleb's recent black swan theory may serve to illustrate his discovery in a new and, perhaps, surprising way. PMID:24343557

  9. STS-113 Flight Day 5 Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-11-01

    This video shows the activities of the STS-113 crew (Jim Wetherbee, Commander; Paul Lockhart, Pilot; Michael Lopez-Alegria, John Herrington, Mission Specialists) during flight day 5. The crew is seen together with the Expedition 5 (Valeri Korzun, Commander; Peggy Whitsun, ISS Science Officer/Flight Engineer; Sergei Treschev, Flight Engineer) and Expedition 6 (Kenneth Bowersox, Commander; Donald Pettit, Nikolai Budarin, Flight Engineers) crews of the ISS (International Space Station) preparing for an EVA (extravehicular activity) the following day, and performing tasks on board the ISS. The changing of valves on the ISS carbon dioxide removal assembly is shown. The STS-113 crew is seen together answering numerous questions from the general public, with Lopez-Alegria answering all but one. There is also a clip of Jay Leno congratulating Wetherbee on his fiftieth birthday. Inside views of the Endeavour orbiter and the ISS modules are shown, as well as a view of the coast of Chile.

  10. Blood pressure measurement: lessons learned from our ancestors.

    PubMed

    Karamanou, Marianna; Papaioannou, Theodore G; Tsoucalas, Gregory; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Androutsos, George

    2015-01-01

    The profound observations of William Harvey (1578-1657), in blood circulation and the progress of physical science laid the foundation for the development of the Iatrophysical School that contributed to the evolution of clinical sphygmomanometry. The pioneer work of Reverend Stephen Hales (1677-1761) demonstrated the dynamics of the vascular system. One century later the French physician Jean-Léonard-Marie Poiseuille (1797-1867) invented a U-tube mercury manometer and in 1860 the physiologist Etienne- Jules Marey (1830-1904) devised the first portable sphygmograph for recording the pulse wave. The non-invasive techniques of blood pressure measurement were completed by Scipione Riva-Rocci (1896-1937) sphygmomanometer and the description of "Korotkov sounds" by the Russian surgeon Nikolai- Sergeyevich Korotkov (1874-1920). PMID:25341864

  11. Ivan Pavlov on communist dogmatism and the autonomy of science in the Soviet Union in the early 1920s. 1923.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, I P

    1992-01-01

    On 25 September, 1923, two days before his 74th birthday, Ivan Petrovich Pavlov stood before a class of medical students assembled in the auditorium of his Alma Mater, the Military Medical Academy in Leningrad. Pavlov, the recipient of the Nobel prize in medicine in 1904 for his work in physiology, was about to address his first class of the new academic year, and, as was his custom, he had prepared his first lecture on a general theme. This was an especially significant address, however, for in it Pavlov reviewed the impressions he had gathered during his travels in Western Europe and the United States in the summer of 1923, and he criticised the prevailing ideology of Soviet communism by attacking the ideas of Nikolai Ivanovich Bukharin, then the leading expositor of Bolshevik Marxism. An English translation of the lecture is printed below.

  12. Plant breeding on the front: imperialism, war, and exploitation.

    PubMed

    Elina, Olga; Heim, Susanne; Roll-Hansen, Nils

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the development of plant-breeding science in the context of the booming genetic research and autarky policy of the 1930s as well as during World War II in National Socialist-occupied Europe. Soviet scientists, especially Nikolai Vavilov and his VIR institute, had a leading position in the international plant-breeding science of the 1920s. During World War II, German scientists, namely experts from the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Plant Breeding, usurped Soviet institutes and valuable seed collections. In contrast, plant-breeding research in occupied Scandinavia continued with relatively little disturbance. The paper compares behavior of German, Soviet, and Norwegian plant-breeding scientists under the Nazi regime. PMID:20503762

  13. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Expedition 6 crew member Nikolai Budarin takes his turn driving an M-113 armored personnel carrier during emergency egress training at the pad. The crew is preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10, by taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. The TCDT includes a simulated launch countdown.. The Expedition 6 crew will travel on Space Shuttle Endeavour to the International Space Station to replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Launch is scheduled for Nov. 10, 2002.

  14. STS-113 and Expedition 6 crews leave the O&C building for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The STS-113 and Expedition 6 crews head for the Astrovan to transport them to Launch Pad 39A and Space Shuttle Endeavour. In the foreground, from left, are Mission Specialist Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington, and Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox. In the background, from left, are Expedition 6 flight engineers Donald Pettit and Nikolai Budarin, Pilot Paul Lockhart and Commander James Wetherbee. The primary mission for the crew is bringing the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and returning the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. The major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is scheduled for Nov. 22, 2002, at 8:15 p.m. EST.

  15. STS-113 crew group photo during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The crews of Mission STS-113 gather for a group photograph on the 195-foot level of the Fixed Service Structure on Launch Pad 39A. From left are STS-113 Pilot Paul Lockhart; Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox; STS-113 Mission Specialists Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington, and Commander James Wetherbee; Expedition 6 astronaut Donald Pettit and cosmonaut Nikolai Budarin. They have been participating in emergency egress training, part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities in preparation for their launch. The 16th assembly flight to the International Space Station, STS-113 will carry the Port 1 (P1) truss aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, as well as Expedition 6, who will replace Expedition 5 on the Station. The mission is scheduled to launch Nov. 10, 2002.

  16. STS-113 Flight Day 9 Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-12-01

    This video shows the activities of the STS-113 (Jim Wetherbee, Commander; Paul Lockhart, Pilot; Michael Lopez-Alegria, John Herrington, Mission Specialists) crew during flight day 9. Also seen are the outgoing Expedition 5 (Valeri Korzun, Commander; Peggy Whitsun, ISS Science Officer/Flight Engineer; Sergei Treschev, Flight Engineer) and incoming Expedition 6 (Kenneth Bowersox, Commander; Donald Pettit, Nikolai Budarin, Flight Engineers) crews of the ISS (International Space Station). Flight day 9 is a relatively inactive day, with some off-time scheduled for crew bonding and enjoying views. Seven of the joint crew members, including Lopez-Alegria, Wetherbee, Herrington, and Whitsun, pose together and answer questions. Footage shows ISS Science Officers Whitsun and Pettit troubleshooting equipment. The video also contains a clear view of southern South America, a cloudy view of the South Pacific, and external footage of the ISS including the Canadarm robotic arm. The payload bay of the shuttle Endeavour is also shown.

  17. STS-113 crew group photo during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The crews of Mission STS-113 gather for a group photograph on the 195-foot level of the Fixed Service Structure on Launch Pad 39A. From left are Expedition 6 cosmonaut Nikolai Budarin and astronaut Donald Pettit; STS-113 Pilot Paul Lockhart and Commander James Wetherbee; Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox; STS-113 Mission Specialists Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington. They have been participating in emergency egress training, part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities in preparation for their launch. The 16th assembly flight to the International Space Station, STS-113 will carry the Port 1 (P1) truss aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, as well as Expedition 6, who will replace Expedition 5 on the Station. The mission is scheduled to launch Nov. 10, 2002.

  18. STS-113 Flight Day 7 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The STS-113 seventh flight day begins with a view of the Russian Segment of the International Space Station from a camera at the end of the S1 truss. Live footage of Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington are shown aboard the International Space Station. A change of command ceremony is presented to welcome the Expedition Six Crew and to say farewell to the Expedition Five crew. Commander Valery Korzun, Flight Engineer Sergei Treschev, NASA ISS Science Officer Peggy Whitson, Expedition Six Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin, NASA ISS Science Officer Don Pettit, Commander Jim Wetherbee, Pilot Paul Lockhart and Mission Specialists Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington are all are shown during the ceremony.

  19. STS-113 crew breakfast before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The STS-113 crew enjoys a snack before suiting up for launch. Seated left to right are Mission Specialists John Herrington and Michael Lopez-Alegria, Pilot Paul Lockhart and Commander James Wetherbee; Expedition 6 flight engineer Donald Pettit, Commander Ken Bowersox and flight engineer Nikolai Budarin. STS-113 is the 16th American assembly flight to the International Space Station. The primary mission is bringing the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and returning the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. The major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is scheduled for Nov. 11 at 12:58 a.m. EST.

  20. STS-113 Flight Day 7 Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-11-01

    The STS-113 seventh flight day begins with a view of the Russian Segment of the International Space Station from a camera at the end of the S1 truss. Live footage of Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington are shown aboard the International Space Station. A change of command ceremony is presented to welcome the Expedition Six Crew and to say farewell to the Expedition Five crew. Commander Valery Korzun, Flight Engineer Sergei Treschev, NASA ISS Science Officer Peggy Whitson, Expedition Six Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin, NASA ISS Science Officer Don Pettit, Commander Jim Wetherbee, Pilot Paul Lockhart and Mission Specialists Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington are all are shown during the ceremony.

  1. STS-113 Flight Day 5 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This video shows the activities of the STS-113 crew (Jim Wetherbee, Commander; Paul Lockhart, Pilot; Michael Lopez-Alegria, John Herrington, Mission Specialists) during flight day 5. The crew is seen together with the Expedition 5 (Valeri Korzun, Commander; Peggy Whitsun, ISS Science Officer/Flight Engineer; Sergei Treschev, Flight Engineer) and Expedition 6 (Kenneth Bowersox, Commander; Donald Pettit, Nikolai Budarin, Flight Engineers) crews of the ISS (International Space Station) preparing for an EVA (extravehicular activity) the following day, and performing tasks on board the ISS. The changing of valves on the ISS carbon dioxide removal assembly is shown. The STS-113 crew is seen together answering numerous questions from the general public, with Lopez-Alegria answering all but one. There is also a clip of Jay Leno congratulating Wetherbee on his fiftieth birthday. Inside views of the Endeavour orbiter and the ISS modules are shown, as well as a view of the coast of Chile.

  2. STS-113 crew members walk out of O&C building for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The STS-113 and Expedition 6 crews head for the Astrovan to take them to Launch Pad 39A for a simulated launch countdown. From left are STS-113 Mission Specialist Michael Lopez-Alegria, Expedition 6 astronaut Donald Pettit and cosmonaut Nikolai Budarin, Mission Specialist John Herrington and Pilot Paul Lockhart, Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox and STS-113 Commander James Wetherbee. . The countdown is part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities prior to launch. The 16th assembly flight to the International Space Station, STS-113 will carry the Port 6 crew, who will replace Expedition 5 on the Station. Mission STS-113 is scheduled to launch Nov. 10, 2002.

  3. STS-113 crew group photo at SLF before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - After their arrival at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility, the crews of mission STS-113 pause for a group photo. From left are STS-113 Commander James Wetherbee, Pilot Paul Lockhart, and Mission Specialists Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington; and the Expedition 6 crew, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin, Commander Ken Bowersox and Flight Engineer Donald Pettit. Budarin represents the Russian Space Agency. The primary mission of STS-113 is bringing the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and returning the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. In addition, the major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is scheduled for Nov. 11 between midnight and 4 a.m. EST.

  4. STS-113 and Expedition 6 crews head for the Astrovan before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The STS-113 and Expedition 6 crews exit the Operations and Checkout Building on their way to Launch Pad 39A and liftoff of Space Shuttle Endeavour. From front to back are Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox and Mission Commander James Wetherbee; Pilot Paul Lockhart and Mission Specialist Michael Lopez-Alegria; Mission Specialist John Herrington and Expedition 6 flight engineer Nikolai Budarin; and flight engineer Donald Pettit. The primary mission is bringing the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and returning the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. The major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is scheduled for Nov. 11 at 12:58 a.m. EST.

  5. Space Shuttle Endeavour Awaits Liftoff On Moonlit Launch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Endeavour is pictured on a lighted launch pad at Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) Launch Complex 39 with a gibbous moon shining brightly in the night sky. Liftoff from KSC occurred at 7:49:47 p.m. (EST), November 23, 2002. The launch is the 19th for Endeavour, and the 112th flight in the Shuttle program. Mission STS-113 is the 16th assembly flight to the International Space Station (ISS), carrying another structure for the Station, the P1 integrated truss. STS-113 crew members onboard were astronauts James D. Wetherbee, commander; Paul S. Lockhart, pilot, along with astronauts Michael E. Lopez-Alegria and John B. Herrington, both mission specialists. Also onboard were the Expedition 6 crew members: Astronauts Kenneth D. Bowersox and Donald R. Pettit, along with cosmonaut Nikolai M. Budarin, who went on to replace Expedition 5 aboard the Station.

  6. STS-113 Flight Day 9 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This video shows the activities of the STS-113 (Jim Wetherbee, Commander; Paul Lockhart, Pilot; Michael Lopez-Alegria, John Herrington, Mission Specialists) crew during flight day 9. Also seen are the outgoing Expedition 5 (Valeri Korzun, Commander; Peggy Whitsun, ISS Science Officer/Flight Engineer; Sergei Treschev, Flight Engineer) and incoming Expedition 6 (Kenneth Bowersox, Commander; Donald Pettit, Nikolai Budarin, Flight Engineers) crews of the ISS (International Space Station). Flight day 9 is a relatively inactive day, with some off-time scheduled for crew bonding and enjoying views. Seven of the joint crew members, including Lopez-Alegria, Wetherbee, Herrington, and Whitsun, pose together and answer questions. Footage shows ISS Science Officers Whitsun and Pettit troubleshooting equipment. The video also contains a clear view of southern South America, a cloudy view of the South Pacific, and external footage of the ISS including the Canadarm robotic arm. The payload bay of the shuttle Endeavour is also shown.

  7. STS-113 and Expedition 6 crews head for the Astrovan before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The STS-113 and Expedition 6 crews head for the Astrovan that will take them to Launch Pad 39A and Space Shuttle Endeavour. In the foreground, from left to right, are Mission Specialist John Herrington, Pilot Paul Lockhart and Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox. In the back, from left to right, are Expedition 6 flight engineers Donald Pettit and Nikolai Budarin, Mission Specialist Michael Lopez-Alegria and Commander James Wetherbee. The primary mission is bringing the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and returning the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. The major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is scheduled for Nov. 11 at 12:58 a.m. EST.

  8. STS-113 Mission Highlights Resource Tape Flight Days 1-3. Tape: 1 of 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This video, part 1 of 4, shows the activities of the crew of Space Shuttle Endeavour during flight days 1-3 of STS-113. The crew consists of Commander Jim Wetherbee, Pilot Paul Lockhart, Mission Specialists Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington. With them were the Expedition 6 crewmembers of the International Space Station (ISS), Ken Bowersox, Nikolai Budarin, and Don Pettit. Pre-launch procedures are shown, and the rain-delayed night launch is shown from several camera angles. On flight day 2 there was a check out of the Canadarm on Endeavour, and some intravehicular activity. Flight day 3 highlights the docking of Endeavour and the ISS, and preparation for an extravehicular activity (EVA) the following day. Earth views include the English Channel at night with a close-up of London, the coast of Ecuador, and some views of Endeavour with the Earth in the background.

  9. STS-113 crew after arrival at KSC's SLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The STS-113 crew pause after a meal for a group photo. From left are Mission Specialists Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington, Pilot Paul Lockhart and Commander James Wetherbee; plus the Expedition 6 crew, Nikolai Budarin, Commander Ken Bowersox and Donald Pettit. On mission STS-113, the astronauts will deliver the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Structure to the International Space Station. During the seven days Endeavour will be docked to the Station, three spacewalks will be performed dedicated to connecting the P1 truss to the port side of the S0 truss, already in place on the Station. This mission marks the 16th Shuttle flight to the International Space Station and the fifth Shuttle mission this year. Mission STS-113 is the 19th flight of the orbiter Endeavour and the 112th flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle program.

  10. STS-113 crew members walk out of O&C building for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The STS-113 and Expedition 6 crews exit the Operations and Checkout Building on their way to Launch Pad 39A for a simulated launch countdown. On the left, front to back, are Ken Bowersox, commander of Expedition 6, Mission Specialist John Herrington, astronaut Donald Pettit, and Mission Specialist Michael Lopez-Alegria. On the right, front to back, are STS-113 Commander James Wetherbee, Pilot Paul Lockhart, and cosmonaut Nikolai Budarin. The countdown is part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities prior to launch. The 16th assembly flight to the International Space Station, STS-113 will carry the Port 1 (P1) truss aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour as well as the Expedition 6 crew, who will replace Expedition 5 on the Station. Mission STS-113 is scheduled to launch Nov. 10, 2002.

  11. Division B Commission 6: Astronomical Telegrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaoka, H.; Green, D. W. E.; Samus, N. N.; Aksnes, K.; Gilmore, A. C.; Nakano, S.; Sphar, T.; Tichá, J.; Williams, G. V.

    2016-04-01

    IAU Commission 6 ``Astronomical Telegrams'' had a single business meeting during Honolulu General Assembly of the IAU. It took place on Tuesday, 11 August 2015. The meeting was attended by Hitoshi Yamaoka (President), Daniel Green (Director of the Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams, CBAT, via Skype), Steven Chesley (JPL), Paul Chodas (JPL), Alan Gilmore (Canterbury University), Shinjiro Kouzuma (Chukyo University), Paolo Mazzali (Co-Chair of the Supernova Working Group), Elena Pian (Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa), Marion Schmitz (chair IAU Working Group Designations + NED), David Tholen (University of Hawaii), Jana Ticha (Klet Observatory), Milos Tichy (Klet Observatory), Giovanni Valsecchi (INAF\\slash Italy), Gareth Williams (Minor Planet Center). Apologies: Nikolai Samus (General Catalogue of Variable Stars, GCVS).

  12. STS-107 Flight Day 12 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This video shows the activities of the STS-107 crew (Rick Husband, Commander; William McCool, Pilot; Kalpana Chawla, David Brown, Michael Anderson, Laurel Clark, Mission Specialists; Ilan Ramon, Payload Specialist) during flight day 12 of the Columbia orbiter's final mission. The primary activities are spaceborne experiments in the SpaceHab RDM (Research Double Module). Experiments shown in the video include SOFBALL (Structure of Flame Balls at Low Lewis-Number), an experiment to grow cancer cells in microgravity, and the STARS (Space Technology and Research Students) experiments, including bees, ants, chemical gardens, fish, and spiders. Crew Members are shown working on MIST (Water Mist Fire Suppression), a commercial experiment. Red Team crew members (Husband, Chawla, Clark, Ramon) are shown conversing through a handset with the Expedition 6 crew (Kenneth Bowersox, Commander; Donald Pettit, Nikolai Budarin; Flight Engineers) of the ISS (International Space Station).

  13. STS-114 Crew Interview: Stephen Robinson

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Stephen Robinson, Mission Specialist 2 (MS2), of the STS-114 space mission is seen during a prelaunch interview. He discusses his duties as flight engineer, Extravehicular Activity 2 (EVA 2) spacewalker, and medical officer. Robinson answers questions about his interests in spaceflight and the specific goals of the mission. He identifies this mission as the International Space Station Resupply Mission because supplies and experiments are brought to the International Space Station and Expedition 6 crew of Commander Kenneth Bowersox, and Flight Engineers Donald Pettit and Nikolai Budarin are returning to Earth. Lastly, he talks about the docking of the Space Shuttle Atlantis with the International Space Station. He looks forward to this experience in space.

  14. Ivan Pavlov on communist dogmatism and the autonomy of science in the Soviet Union in the early 1920s. 1923.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, I P

    1992-01-01

    On 25 September, 1923, two days before his 74th birthday, Ivan Petrovich Pavlov stood before a class of medical students assembled in the auditorium of his Alma Mater, the Military Medical Academy in Leningrad. Pavlov, the recipient of the Nobel prize in medicine in 1904 for his work in physiology, was about to address his first class of the new academic year, and, as was his custom, he had prepared his first lecture on a general theme. This was an especially significant address, however, for in it Pavlov reviewed the impressions he had gathered during his travels in Western Europe and the United States in the summer of 1923, and he criticised the prevailing ideology of Soviet communism by attacking the ideas of Nikolai Ivanovich Bukharin, then the leading expositor of Bolshevik Marxism. An English translation of the lecture is printed below. PMID:1419871

  15. [Scientific, pedagogical, and surgical work of professor V.F.Voyno-Yasenetsky during the Great Patriotic War].

    PubMed

    Kosachev, I D; Gladkikh, P F; Iakovlev, A E

    2011-08-01

    The article is devoted to activities in the period 1941-1945. Krasnoyarsk and Tambov, a professor of surgery Valentine Feliksovich Voyno-Yasenetsky (Archbishop Luka)--doctor of medical sciences, laureate of the State (Stalin) Prize of the USSR, who made a significant contribution to the success of modern surgical science. A brilliant scholar and successor of the ideas of the outstanding scientist and surgeon Nikolai Pirogov, as in the Great Patriotic War surgeon and consultant evacuation hospitals, along with leading surgeons in the Soviet Union had a significant impact on the results of treatment of wounded soldiers and officers, thereby affecting the development of military field surgery. In our country it is rightfully considered the founder of contaminated surgery. PMID:22164990

  16. NMR studies of protonation and hydrogen bond states of internal aldimines of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate acid-base in alanine racemase, aspartate aminotransferase, and poly-L-lysine.

    PubMed

    Chan-Huot, Monique; Dos, Alexandra; Zander, Reinhard; Sharif, Shasad; Tolstoy, Peter M; Compton, Shara; Fogle, Emily; Toney, Michael D; Shenderovich, Ilya; Denisov, Gleb S; Limbach, Hans-Heinrich

    2013-12-01

    Using (15)N solid-state NMR, we have studied protonation and H-bonded states of the cofactor pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) linked as an internal aldimine in alanine racemase (AlaR), aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT), and poly-L-lysine. Protonation of the pyridine nitrogen of PLP and the coupled proton transfer from the phenolic oxygen (enolimine form) to the aldimine nitrogen (ketoenamine form) is often considered to be a prerequisite to the initial step (transimination) of the enzyme-catalyzed reaction. Indeed, using (15)N NMR and H-bond correlations in AspAT, we observe a strong aspartate-pyridine nitrogen H-bond with H located on nitrogen. After hydration, this hydrogen bond is maintained. By contrast, in the case of solid lyophilized AlaR, we find that the pyridine nitrogen is neither protonated nor hydrogen bonded to the proximal arginine side chain. However, hydration establishes a weak hydrogen bond to pyridine. To clarify how AlaR is activated, we performed (13)C and (15)N solid-state NMR experiments on isotopically labeled PLP aldimines formed by lyophilization with poly-L-lysine. In the dry solid, only the enolimine tautomer is observed. However, a fast reversible proton transfer involving the ketoenamine tautomer is observed after treatment with either gaseous water or gaseous dry HCl. Hydrolysis requires the action of both water and HCl. The formation of an external aldimine with aspartic acid at pH 9 also produces the ketoenamine form stabilized by interaction with a second aspartic acid, probably via a H-bond to the phenolic oxygen. We postulate that O-protonation is an effectual mechanism for the activation of PLP, as is N-protonation, and that enzymes that are incapable of N-protonation employ this mechanism. PMID:24147985

  17. A Reliable Method to Measure Lip Height Using Photogrammetry in Unilateral Cleft Lip Patients.

    PubMed

    van der Zeeuw, Frederique; Murabit, Amera; Volcano, Johnny; Torensma, Bart; Patel, Brijesh; Hay, Norman; Thorburn, Guy; Morris, Paul; Sommerlad, Brian; Gnarra, Maria; van der Horst, Chantal; Kangesu, Loshan

    2015-09-01

    There is still no reliable tool to determine the outcome of the repaired unilateral cleft lip (UCL). The aim of this study was therefore to develop an accurate, reliable tool to measure vertical lip height from photographs. The authors measured the vertical height of the cutaneous and vermilion parts of the lip in 72 anterior-posterior view photographs of 17 patients with repairs to a UCL. Points on the lip's white roll and vermillion were marked on both the cleft and the noncleft sides on each image. Two new concepts were tested. First, photographs were standardized using the horizontal (medial to lateral) eye fissure width (EFW) for calibration. Second, the authors tested the interpupillary line (IPL) and the alar base line (ABL) for their reliability as horizontal lines of reference. Measurements were taken by 2 independent researchers, at 2 different time points each. Overall 2304 data points were obtained and analyzed. Results showed that the method was very effective in measuring the height of the lip on the cleft side with the noncleft side. When using the IPL, inter- and intra-rater reliability was 0.99 to 1.0, with the ABL it varied from 0.91 to 0.99 with one exception at 0.84. The IPL was easier to define because in some subjects the overhanging nasal tip obscured the alar base and gave more consistent measurements possibly because the reconstructed alar base was sometimes indistinct. However, measurements from the IPL can only give the percentage difference between the left and right sides of the lip, whereas those from the ABL can also give exact measurements. Patient examples were given that show how the measurements correlate with clinical assessment. The authors propose this method of photogrammetry with the innovative use of the IPL as a reliable horizontal plane and use of the EFW for calibration as a useful and reliable tool to assess the outcome of UCL repair. PMID:26147027

  18. Patterns of hypothalamic regionalization in amphibians and reptiles: common traits revealed by a genoarchitectonic approach

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez, Laura; González, Agustín; Moreno, Nerea

    2015-01-01

    Most studies in mammals and birds have demonstrated common patterns of hypothalamic development highlighted by the combination of developmental regulatory genes (genoarchitecture), supporting the notion of the hypothalamus as a component of the secondary prosencephalon, topologically rostral to the diencephalon. In our comparative analysis we have summarized the data on the expression patterns of different transcription factors and neuroactive substances, used as anatomical markers, in the developing hypothalamus of the amphibian Xenopus laevis and the juvenile turtle Pseudemys scripta. This analysis served to highlight the organization of the hypothalamus in the anamniote/amniotic transition. We have identified supraoptoparaventricular and the suprachiasmatic regions (SCs) in the alar part of the hypothalamus, and tuberal and mammillary regions in the basal hypothalamus. Shared features in the two species are: (1) The supraoptoparaventricular region (SPV) is defined by the expression of Otp and the lack of Nkx2.1/Isl1. It is subdivided into rostral, rich in Otp and Nkx2.2, and caudal, only Otp-positive, portions. (2) The suprachiasmatic area contains catecholaminergic cell groups and lacks Otp, and can be further divided into rostral (rich in Nkx2.1 and Nkx2.2) and a caudal (rich in Isl1 and devoid of Nkx2.1) portions. (3) Expression of Nkx2.1 and Isl1 define the tuberal hypothalamus and only the rostral portion expresses Otp. (4) Its caudal boundary is evident by the lack of Isl1 in the adjacent mammillary region, which expresses Nkx2.1 and Otp. Differences in the anamnio-amniote transition were noted since in the turtle, like in other amniotes, the boundary between the alar hypothalamus and the telencephalic preoptic area shows distinct Nkx2.2 and Otp expressions but not in the amphibian (anamniote), and the alar SPV is defined by the expression of Otp/Pax6, whereas in Xenopus only Otp is expressed. PMID:25691860

  19. Conserved localization of Pax6 and Pax7 transcripts in the brain of representatives of sarcopterygian vertebrates during development supports homologous brain regionalization

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Nerea; Joven, Alberto; Morona, Ruth; Bandín, Sandra; López, Jesús M.; González, Agustín

    2014-01-01

    Many of the genes involved in brain patterning during development are highly conserved in vertebrates and similarities in their expression patterns help to recognize homologous cell types or brain regions. Among these genes, Pax6 and Pax7 are expressed in regionally restricted patterns in the brain and are essential for its development. In the present immunohistochemical study we analyzed the distribution of Pax6 and Pax7 cells in the brain of six representative species of tetrapods and lungfishes, the closest living relatives of tetrapods, at several developmental stages. The distribution patterns of these transcription factors were largely comparable across species. In all species only Pax6 was expressed in the telencephalon, including the olfactory bulbs, septum, striatum, and amygdaloid complex. In the diencephalon, Pax6 and Pax7 were distinct in the alar and basal parts, mainly in prosomeres 1 and 3. Pax7 specifically labeled cells in the optic tectum (superior colliculus) and Pax6, but not Pax7, cells were found in the tegmentum. Pax6 was found in most granule cells of the cerebellum and Pax7 labeling was detected in cells of the ventricular zone of the rostral alar plate and in migrated cells in the basal plate, including the griseum centrale and the interpeduncular nucleus. Caudally, Pax6 cells formed a column, whereas the ventricular zone of the alar plate expressed Pax7. Since the observed Pax6 and Pax7 expression patterns are largely conserved they can be used to identify subdivisions in the brain across vertebrates that are not clearly discernible with classical techniques. PMID:25147506

  20. A structure-based design approach for the identification of novel inhibitors: application to an alanine racemase.

    PubMed

    Mustata, Gabriela Iurcu; Briggs, James M

    2002-12-01

    We report a new structure-based strategy for the identification of novel inhibitors. This approach has been applied to Bacillus stearothermophilus alanine racemase (AlaR), an enzyme implicated in the biosynthesis of the bacterial cell wall. The enzyme catalyzes the racemization of L- and D-alanine using pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) as a cofactor. The restriction of AlaR to bacteria and some fungi and the absolute requirement for D-alanine in peptidoglycan biosynthesis make alanine racemase a suitable target for drug design. Unfortunately, known inhibitors of alanine racemase are not specific and inhibit the activity of other PLP-dependent enzymes, leading to neurological and other side effects. This article describes the development of a receptor-based pharmacophore model for AllaR, taking into account receptor flexibility (i.e. a 'dynamic' pharmacophore model). In order to accomplish this, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed on the full AlaR dimer from Bacillus stearothermophilus (PDB entry, 1 sft) with a D-alanine molecule in one active site and the non-covalent inhibitor, propionate, in the second active site of this homodimer. The basic strategy followed in this study was to utilize conformations of the protein obtained during MD simulations to generate a dynamic pharmacophore model using the property mapping capability of the LigBuilder program. Compounds from the Available Chemicals Directory that fit the pharmacophore model were identified and have been submitted for experimental testing. The approach described here can be used as a valuable tool for the design of novel inhibitors of other biomolecular targets.

  1. A Reliable Method to Measure Lip Height Using Photogrammetry in Unilateral Cleft Lip Patients.

    PubMed

    van der Zeeuw, Frederique; Murabit, Amera; Volcano, Johnny; Torensma, Bart; Patel, Brijesh; Hay, Norman; Thorburn, Guy; Morris, Paul; Sommerlad, Brian; Gnarra, Maria; van der Horst, Chantal; Kangesu, Loshan

    2015-09-01

    There is still no reliable tool to determine the outcome of the repaired unilateral cleft lip (UCL). The aim of this study was therefore to develop an accurate, reliable tool to measure vertical lip height from photographs. The authors measured the vertical height of the cutaneous and vermilion parts of the lip in 72 anterior-posterior view photographs of 17 patients with repairs to a UCL. Points on the lip's white roll and vermillion were marked on both the cleft and the noncleft sides on each image. Two new concepts were tested. First, photographs were standardized using the horizontal (medial to lateral) eye fissure width (EFW) for calibration. Second, the authors tested the interpupillary line (IPL) and the alar base line (ABL) for their reliability as horizontal lines of reference. Measurements were taken by 2 independent researchers, at 2 different time points each. Overall 2304 data points were obtained and analyzed. Results showed that the method was very effective in measuring the height of the lip on the cleft side with the noncleft side. When using the IPL, inter- and intra-rater reliability was 0.99 to 1.0, with the ABL it varied from 0.91 to 0.99 with one exception at 0.84. The IPL was easier to define because in some subjects the overhanging nasal tip obscured the alar base and gave more consistent measurements possibly because the reconstructed alar base was sometimes indistinct. However, measurements from the IPL can only give the percentage difference between the left and right sides of the lip, whereas those from the ABL can also give exact measurements. Patient examples were given that show how the measurements correlate with clinical assessment. The authors propose this method of photogrammetry with the innovative use of the IPL as a reliable horizontal plane and use of the EFW for calibration as a useful and reliable tool to assess the outcome of UCL repair.

  2. Controversies in the Management of Patients with Cleft Lip and Palate.

    PubMed

    Rodman, Regina E; Tatum, Sherard

    2016-08-01

    Cleft lip and palate is one of the most common congenital anomalies. For many years, surgeons have been attempting to reduce the severity of the deformity before the surgical repair to achieve a better outcome. The nasoalveolar molding technique uses acrylic nasal stents attached to the vestibular shield of an oral molding plate to mold the nasal alar cartilages into a more normal form and position during the presurgical period. Proponents of nasoalveolar molding claim several benefits, including improved aesthetic outcome, reduced overall costs, and a psychosocial benefit to the family. Research on these outcomes is not conclusive. PMID:27400840

  3. Heminasal agenesis: a reconstructive challenge.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Mark; Zelken, Jonathan; Redett, Richard J

    2014-05-01

    Heminasal agenesis is a rare congenital malformation often associated with deformities of the eyes and lacrimal system, midface, and proboscis lateralis. Reconstruction is especially challenging because of missing lining, cartilage, and skin. We present a case of heminasal agenesis in a 5-year-old girl with concomitant hypertelorism, coloboma of the eyelids, and maxillary hypoplasia. The patient underwent facial bipartition for hypertelorism correction and cantilever bone graft. A forehead flap was designed using an anaplastic model from the patient's twin sister. Cartilage harvested from the conchal bowl and rib provided alar and dorsal support. Reconstructive goals, timing, and options are discussed. PMID:24777004

  4. Characterization of ultradispersed aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, R.L.; Maienschein, J.L.; Swansiger, R.W.; Garcia, F.; Darling, D.H.

    1994-12-08

    Samples of ultradispersed Al were received, which were produced by electrically exploding Al wires in argon. These samples comprised very small particles that were not significantly oxidized and that were stable in air. Particle morphology were studied with SE, micropycnometry, and gas adsorption surface area. Composition were determined using various techniques, as were thermal stability and reaction exotherms. The inexplicable reports of an Al-Ar compound and of an exothermic reaction were not confirmed. The material is a stable, nonoxidized, small-particle, highly reactive form of aluminum that is of interest in energetic materials formulations.

  5. Higher-spin theory and holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaberdiel, Matthias; Vasiliev, Mikhail

    2013-05-01

    This special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical reviews recent developments in higher-spin gauge theories and their applications to holographic dualities. The analysis of higher-spin theories has a very long history, but it took until the mid 1980s for the first consistent higher-spin interactions to be constructed by Bengtsson, Bengtsson and Brink [1] and Berends, Burgers and van Dam [2]. Somewhat later it was shown by Fradkin and Vasiliev [3] that consistent higher-spin gauge theories that involve gravity should necessarily be defined on a curved background. The first consistent interacting higher-spin theories were then formulated at the classical level by Vasiliev in the early 1990s [4]. These higher-spin theories involve an infinite number of massless higher-spin fields that support higher-spin gauge symmetries, and indeed, are largely characterized by this underlying gauge symmetry. The simplest examples are provided by higher-spin theories on (anti)-de Sitter spaces, and in a sense, this anticipated the AdS/CFT correspondence. Indeed, in the tensionless limit of string theory, the massive excitations of string theory become massless, and hence define higher-spin gauge fields. On the other hand, from the dual gauge theory perspective, this is the limit in which the field theory becomes free, and therefore has many conserved higher-spin currents. By the usual AdS/CFT dictionary, these are dual to the higher-spin gauge symmetries of the bulk description. Following this line of argument, Sundborg [5] and Witten [6] suggested in 2001 that a duality relating a higher-spin theory on AdSd to a weakly coupled (d - 1)-dimensional conformal field theory should exist. A concrete proposal was then made by Klebanov and Polyakov [7] who conjectured that the simplest version of a higher-spin gauge theory on AdS4 should be dual to the 3d O(N ) vector model. Recently, much support for this conjecture was obtained by Giombi and Yin [8], and in turn

  6. State-of-the-art three-dimensional analysis of soft tissue changes following Le Fort I maxillary advancement.

    PubMed

    Almukhtar, A; Ayoub, A; Khambay, B; McDonald, J; Ju, X

    2016-09-01

    We describe the comprehensive 3-dimensional analysis of facial changes after Le Fort I osteotomy and introduce a new tool for anthropometric analysis of the face. We studied the cone-beam computed tomograms of 33 patients taken one month before and 6-12 months after Le Fort I maxillary advancement with or without posterior vertical impaction. Use of a generic facial mesh for dense correspondence analysis of changes in the soft tissue showed a mean (SD) anteroposterior advancement of the maxilla of 5.9 (1.7) mm, and mean (SD) minimal anterior and posterior vertical maxillary impaction of 0.1 (1.7) mm and 0.6 (1.45) mm, respectively. It also showed distinctive forward and marked lateral expansion around the upper lip and nose, and pronounced upward movement of the alar curvature and columella. The nose was widened and the nostrils advanced. There was minimal forward change at the base of the nose (subnasale and alar base) but a noticeable upward movement at the nasal tip. Changes at the cheeks were minimal. Analysis showed widening of the midface and upper lip which, to our knowledge, has not been reported before. The nostrils were compressed and widened, and the lower lip shortened. Changes at the chin and lower lip were secondary to the limited maxillary impaction.

  7. Three-dimensional Nasolabial Morphologic Alterations Following Le Fort I

    PubMed Central

    DeSesa, Christopher R.; Metzler, Philip; Sawh-Martinez, Rajendra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Le Fort I osteotomy imparts significant changes to the nasolabial region. Past studies have relied on 2-dimensional data and have not delineated differences among various Le Fort I subtypes. The purpose of this study is to 3-dimensionally analyze Le Fort I–induced nasal and lip changes comparing advancement alone versus widening alone [surgically assisted maxillary expansion (SAME)] versus advancement and widening. We hypothesize that the combination of maxillary advancement with widening will result in the most profound changes. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed. Included Le Fort I patients were grouped as: (1) nonsegmental straight advancement, (2) widening without advancement, and (3) segmental advancement and widening. Pre- and postoperative 3-dimensional photogrammetry (Canfield) were analyzed. Anthropometric landmarks were placed and measured by 2 independent observers. Statistics involved both paired and unpaired t tests (significance = P < 0.05). Results: One hundred eight photogrammetric data sets were analyzed, including 46 single-piece, 26 SAME, and 36 segmental. Significant postoperative nasal changes were observed within each intragroup analysis. The most dramatic changes were seen after segmental Le Fort I with advancement and widening, which included alar base width, alar width, nostril width, and soft triangle angle, all P < 0.05. Conclusions: Le Fort I osteotomy results in significant alteration of the nasolabial morphology. This is the first study to 3-dimensionally analyze nasal changes that occur comparing maxillary advancement alone versus widening alone (SAME) versus advancement with widening. These objective data permit improved patient counseling and surgical planning. PMID:27622116

  8. Unilateral cleft lip/nose repair using an equal bows /straight line advancement technique - A preliminary report and postoperative symmetry-based anthropometry.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Samer George; Aschoff, Horst Heinrich; Jacobsen, Hans-Christian; Sieg, Peter

    2014-04-01

    In the evolution of cleft lip repair there has been continuous attempt to minimize local trauma, improve lip and nasal appearance and, especially, prevent conspicuous scars. The surgical technique presented meets these criteria, resulting in an appropriate scar course in children with a specific philtral ridge shape. Postoperative digital anthropometry was performed in 18 patients who underwent unilateral cleft lip repair using the equal bows/straight line advancement technique and in matched healthy control individuals. Symmetry values were assessed for lip length, philtral ridge length, vermilion height, width of the alar base, nasocanthal length, circumference of the nostrils, nostril width and height in both cleft and control groups. Evaluation revealed no significant differences in the symmetry values between cleft patients and control group (lip length: p = 0.71, philtral ridge length: p = 0.52, vermilion height: p = 0.23, alar base width: p = 0.69, nasocanthal length: p = 0.25, nostril circumference: p = 0.17, nostril width: p = 0.34, nostril height: p = 0.33). Principles of cleft lip repair can be achieved using the described technique which provides adequate lip length and natural nasal appearance in patients with a parallel-shaped philtral ridge.

  9. Three-dimensional Nasolabial Morphologic Alterations Following Le Fort I

    PubMed Central

    DeSesa, Christopher R.; Metzler, Philip; Sawh-Martinez, Rajendra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Le Fort I osteotomy imparts significant changes to the nasolabial region. Past studies have relied on 2-dimensional data and have not delineated differences among various Le Fort I subtypes. The purpose of this study is to 3-dimensionally analyze Le Fort I–induced nasal and lip changes comparing advancement alone versus widening alone [surgically assisted maxillary expansion (SAME)] versus advancement and widening. We hypothesize that the combination of maxillary advancement with widening will result in the most profound changes. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed. Included Le Fort I patients were grouped as: (1) nonsegmental straight advancement, (2) widening without advancement, and (3) segmental advancement and widening. Pre- and postoperative 3-dimensional photogrammetry (Canfield) were analyzed. Anthropometric landmarks were placed and measured by 2 independent observers. Statistics involved both paired and unpaired t tests (significance = P < 0.05). Results: One hundred eight photogrammetric data sets were analyzed, including 46 single-piece, 26 SAME, and 36 segmental. Significant postoperative nasal changes were observed within each intragroup analysis. The most dramatic changes were seen after segmental Le Fort I with advancement and widening, which included alar base width, alar width, nostril width, and soft triangle angle, all P < 0.05. Conclusions: Le Fort I osteotomy results in significant alteration of the nasolabial morphology. This is the first study to 3-dimensionally analyze nasal changes that occur comparing maxillary advancement alone versus widening alone (SAME) versus advancement with widening. These objective data permit improved patient counseling and surgical planning.

  10. Facial dimensions of Malay children with repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate: a three dimensional analysis.

    PubMed

    Zreaqat, M; Hassan, R; Halim, A S

    2012-06-01

    This comparative cross-sectional study assessed the facial surface dimensions of a group of Malay children with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and compared them with a control group. 30 Malay children with UCLP aged 8-10 years and 30 unaffected age-matched children were voluntarily recruited from the Orthodontic Specialist Clinic in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM). For the cleft group, lip and palate were repaired and assessment was performed prior to alveolar bone grafting and orthodontic treatment. The investigation was carried out using 3D digital stereophotogrammetry. 23 variables and two ratios were compared three-dimensionally between both groups. Statistically significant dimensional differences (P<0.05) were found between the UCLP Malay group and the control group mainly in the nasolabial region. These include increased alar base and alar base root width, shorter upper lip length, and increased nose base/mouth width ratio in the UCLP group. There were significant differences between the facial surface morphology of UCLP Malay children and control subjects. Particular surgical procedures performed during primary surgeries may contribute to these differences and negatively affect the surgical outcome. PMID:22424709

  11. Primary repair of an incomplete unilateral cleft lip: avoiding an elongated lip and achieving a straight suture line.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, T; Yoshimura, Y; Yoneda, K; Nakanishi, Y

    1998-10-01

    The methods designed for the repair of a complete cleft lip should not be used to repair an incomplete cleft lip. This results too often in the postoperative drooping of the white lip on the affected side because in most incomplete cleft lips there is more tissue on the cleft side than in complete cleft lip. We present and discuss the refinements we made in our original technique for complete cleft lip in order to adapt it to incomplete cleft lip repair. The skin design at the white skin roll follows Cronin's method with an incision perpendicular to the vermilion border. The suture that pulls the edges of the angular incisions together pushes on the white skin roll caudally. This ensures that the peak of the Cupid's bow on the cleft side does not droop postoperatively. It also ensures that it does not take on an acute angle and that the vermilion border will be a continuous line without a break. We do not create a triangular flap at the vermilion border, but we raise a triangular flap at the alar base on the cleft side and advance it to the bottom of the columella. This creates the nostril sill and corrects the flared alar base. The resulting suture line is completely straight and runs along the philtral column. In this way, the postoperative elongation of the white lip on the cleft side can be prevented.

  12. Ontogenetic Expression of Sonic Hedgehog in the Chicken Subpallium

    PubMed Central

    Bardet, Sylvia M.; Ferran, José L. E.; Sanchez-Arrones, Luisa; Puelles, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Sonic hedgehog (SHH) is a secreted signaling factor that is implicated in the molecular patterning of the central nervous system (CNS), somites, and limbs in vertebrates. SHH has a crucial role in the generation of ventral cell types along the entire rostrocaudal axis of the neural tube. It is secreted early in development by the axial mesoderm (prechordal plate and notochord) and the overlying ventral neural tube. Recent studies clarified the impact of SHH signaling mechanisms on dorsoventral patterning of the spinal cord, but the corresponding phenomena in the rostral forebrain are slightly different and more complex. This notably involves separate Shh expression in the preoptic part of the forebrain alar plate, as well as in the hypothalamic floor and basal plates. The present work includes a detailed spatiotemporal description of the singular alar Shh expression pattern in the rostral preoptic forebrain of chick embryos, comparing it with FoxG1, Dlx5, Nkx2.1, and Nkx2.2 mRNA expression at diverse stages of development. As a result of this mapping, we report a subdivision of the preoptic region in dorsal and ventral zones; only the dorsal part shows Shh expression. The positive area impinges as well upon a median septocommissural preoptic domain. Our study strongly suggests tangential migration of Shh-positive cells from the preoptic region into other subpallial domains, particularly into the pallidal mantle and the intermediate septum. PMID:20700498

  13. Quantitative use of photography in orthognathic outcome assessment.

    PubMed

    Edler, R J; Wertheim, D; Greenhill, D; Jaisinghani, A

    2011-03-01

    This study reports an independent audit of two aspects of orthognathic surgery, namely control of inter-alar width and mandibular outline asymmetry. Measurements were taken from standardized photographs of a consecutive series of 27 patients, using an on-screen digitizing program (IPTool). All patients had undergone bimaxillary osteotomies involving maxillary impaction and/or advancement, by one surgeon, using a cinch suture for nasal width control. Nine-twelve months after surgery, inter-alar width had increased by just 0.08 cm mean (SD 0.3). Four patients showed an increase of just over 2mm, whilst six showed a small reduction. Based on ratios of size (area) and shape (compactness) of the right and left mandibular segments, there was a small overall improvement in mandibular symmetry (0.019 and 0.005 respectively). Whilst in most of the patients the need for surgery was primarily the correction of antero-posterior and vertical discrepancies, five patients with demonstrable asymmetry showed a clear improvement. In three patients whose asymmetry scores were very mild pre-treatment, there was a small, measured increase in asymmetry, but not to a degree that would be clinically noticeable. At a time when 3D imaging is still unavailable to many clinicians, the results of this study suggest that appropriate measurements taken from carefully standardized conventional photographs can provide a valid and objective means of assessing treatment outcome.

  14. Contemporary Concepts for the Bilateral Cleft Lip and Nasal Repair

    PubMed Central

    Khosla, Rohit K.; McGregor, Jyoti; Kelley, Patrick K.; Gruss, Joseph S.

    2012-01-01

    The bilateral cleft lip and nasal deformity presents a complex challenge for repair. Surgical techniques continue to evolve and are focused on primary anatomic realignment of the tissues. This can be accomplished in a single-stage or two-stage repair early in infancy to provide a foundation for future growth of the lip and nasal tissue. Most cleft surgeons currently perform a single-stage repair for simplifying patient care. Certain institutions utilize presurgical orthopedics for alignment of the maxillary segments and nasal shaping. Methods for the bilateral cleft lip repair are combined with various open and closed rhinoplasty techniques to achieve improved correction of the primary nasal deformity. There is recent focus on shaping the nose for columellar and tip support, as well as alar contour and alar base position. The authors will present a new technique for closure of the nasal floor to prevent the alveolar cleft fistula. Although the alveolar fistula is closed, alveolar bone grafting is still required at the usual time in dental development to fuse the maxilla. It is paramount to try and minimize the stigmata of secondary deformities that historically have been characteristic of the repaired bilateral cleft lip. A properly planned and executed repair reduces the number of revisions and can spare a child from living with secondary deformities. PMID:24179448

  15. Secondary repair of cleft lip deformity.

    PubMed

    Tessier, P; Tulasne, J F

    1984-10-01

    A considerable number of procedures have been described for secondary improvements of the lip. They involve the scars, the Cupid's bow, the philtrum, the alar base, the vestibulum and the columella. In fact, these procedures may give a good aesthetic result in a static position, but the truly successful results occur with normal movements. A normal motion of the lip is impossible without a proper dissection and reorientation of the muscles. Satisfactory lip motion cannot be realized with a defective alveolus or piriform aperture that retracts the alar base. Consequently, a good lip or nasal base cannot be achieved without bony restoration of the alveolus and piriform aperture. A transversely short lip never has normal mobility, and it must be widened by an Abbé flap. A tight, retruded lip on a retruded maxilla cannot be improved by a prosthetic vestibular plate because a greater tension will restrict movements. The lip must be advanced with the maxilla, then widened if necessary by an Abbé flap. A thick prolapsed lip never has normal movement; it must be raised by an infranasal excision. A cleft lip has nothing to gain from being displayed under a short nose, or, still worse, under a upturned nose. The nose must be kept long enough to cast a shadow on the lip. For the same reason, a bone graft is often necessary in bilateral clefts because the nose is short and retruded.

  16. Facial dimensions of Malay children with repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate: a three dimensional analysis.

    PubMed

    Zreaqat, M; Hassan, R; Halim, A S

    2012-06-01

    This comparative cross-sectional study assessed the facial surface dimensions of a group of Malay children with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and compared them with a control group. 30 Malay children with UCLP aged 8-10 years and 30 unaffected age-matched children were voluntarily recruited from the Orthodontic Specialist Clinic in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM). For the cleft group, lip and palate were repaired and assessment was performed prior to alveolar bone grafting and orthodontic treatment. The investigation was carried out using 3D digital stereophotogrammetry. 23 variables and two ratios were compared three-dimensionally between both groups. Statistically significant dimensional differences (P<0.05) were found between the UCLP Malay group and the control group mainly in the nasolabial region. These include increased alar base and alar base root width, shorter upper lip length, and increased nose base/mouth width ratio in the UCLP group. There were significant differences between the facial surface morphology of UCLP Malay children and control subjects. Particular surgical procedures performed during primary surgeries may contribute to these differences and negatively affect the surgical outcome.

  17. Three-dimensional soft tissue change after paranasal augmentation with porous polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Kwon, T-G; Kang, S-M; Hwang, H-D

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of porous polyethylene (PPE) in paranasal augmentation on midfacial soft tissue architecture. This retrospective study recruited patients with midface retrusion and mandibular prognathism. Twenty adult patients who had undergone bilateral PPE augmentation (ready-made type, thickness 4.5mm, Medpor) to the piriform aperture and simultaneous mandibular setback surgery were included in this study. The soft tissue morphology and thickness of the midface were evaluated using three-dimensional reformatted images from cone beam computed tomography done before and 6 months after surgery. The soft tissue outline of the midface was augmented 1-4mm. The average increase in soft tissue outline near the peri-alar region was 3.1-3.4mm, which comprised 68-74% of the PPE thickness (P<0.01). The nasolabial angle and columellar inclination were increased significantly (2.2° and 1.4°, respectively; both P<0.05), whereas the nasal tip angle, nasal tip protrusion, columellar length, and bilateral nostril axis angle did not change. The alar base became wider on average by 2.2mm (P<0.01). The results showed that paranasal augmentation with PPE significantly increased the overlying soft tissue outline without influencing the nasal projection and could enhance paranasal aesthetics with minimal morbidity.

  18. Multifactorial approaches for correction of the drooping tip of a long nose in East asians.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong Geun; Jeong, Hoijoon; Ye, Choon Ho

    2014-11-01

    A long nose with a drooping tip is a major aesthetic problem. It creates a negative and aged appearance and looks worse when smiling. In order to rectify this problem, the underlying anatomical causes should be understood and corrected simultaneously to optimize surgical outcomes. The causes of a drooping tip of a long nose are generally classified into two mechanisms. Static causes usually result from malposition and incorrect innate shape of the nasal structure: the nasal septum, upper and lower lateral cartilages, and the ligaments in between. The dynamic causes result from the facial expression muscles, the depressor septi nasi muscle, and the levator labii superioris alaeque nasi muscle. The depressor septi nasi depresses the nasal tip and the levator labii superioris alaeque nasi pulls the alar base upwards. Many surgical methods have been introduced, but partial approaches to correct such deformities generally do not satisfy East Asians, making the problem more challenging to surgeons. Typically, East Asians have thick nasal tip soft tissue and skin, and a depressed columella and alar bases. The authors suggest that multifactorial approaches to static and dynamic factors along with ancillary causes should be considered for correcting the drooping tip of the long noses of East Asians.

  19. Independent in vitro assembly of all three major morphological parts of the 30S ribosomal subunit of Thermus thermophilus.

    PubMed

    Agalarov, S C; Selivanova, O M; Zheleznyakova, E N; Zheleznaya, L A; Matvienko, N I; Spirin, A S

    1999-12-01

    Fragments of the 16S rRNA of Thermus thermophilus representing the 3' domain (nucleotides 890-1515) and the 5' domain (nucleotides 1-539) have been prepared by transcription in vitro. Incubation of these fragments with total 30S ribosomal proteins of T. thermophilus resulted in formation of specific RNPs. The particle assembled on the 3' RNA domain contained seven proteins corresponding to Escherichia coli ribosomal proteins S3, S7, S9, S10, S13, S14, and S19. All of them have previously been shown to interact with the 3' domain of the 16S RNA and to be localized in the head of the 30S ribosomal subunit. The particle formed on the 5' RNA domain contained five ribosomal proteins corresponding to E. coli proteins S4, S12, S17, S16, and S20. These proteins are known to be localized in the main part of the body of the 30S subunit. Both types of particle were compact and had sedimentation coefficients of 15.5 S and 13 S, respectively. Together with our recent demonstration of the reconstitution of the RNA particle representing the platform of the T. thermophilus 30S ribosomal subunit [Agalarov, S.C., Zheleznyakova, E.N., Selivanova, O.M., Zheleznaya, L.A., Matvienko, N.I., Vasiliev, V.D. & Spirin, A.S. (1998) Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 95, 999-1003], these experiments establish that all three main structural lobes of the small ribosomal subunit can be reconstituted independently of each other and prepared in the individual state.

  20. Prediction of natural disasters basing of chrono-and-information field characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapunov, Valentin

    2013-04-01

    Living organisms are able to predict some future events particular catastrophic incidents. This is adaptive characters producing by evolution. The more energy produces incident the more possibility to predict one. Wild animals escaped natural hazards including tsunami (e.g. extremal tsunami in Asia December 2004). Living animals are able to predict strong phenomena of obscure nature. For example majority of animals escaped Tungus catastrophe taking place in Siberia at 1908. Wild animals are able to predict nuclear weapon experiences. The obscure characters are not typical for human, but they are fixed under probability 15%. Such were summarized by L.Vasiliev (1961). Effective theory describing such a characters is absent till now. N.Kozyrev (1991) suggested existence of unknown physical field (but gravitation and electro magnetic). The field was named "time" or "chrono". Some characters of the field appeared to be object of physical experiment. Kozyrev suggested specific role of the field for function of living organisms. Transition of biological information throw space (telepathy) and time (proscopy) may be based on characters of such a field. Hence physical chrono-and-information field is under consideration. Animals are more familiar with such a field than human. Evolutionary process experienced with possibility of extremal development of contact with such a field using highest primates. This mode of evolution appeared to stay obscure producing probable species "Wildman" (Bigfoot). Specific adaptive fitches suggest impossibility to study of such a species by usual ecological approaches. The perspective way for study of mysterious phenomena of physic is researches of this field characters.

  1. Age- and sex-related changes in the normal human external nose.

    PubMed

    Sforza, Chiarella; Grandi, Gaia; De Menezes, Marcio; Tartaglia, Gianluca M; Ferrario, Virgilio F

    2011-01-30

    The objective of this study was to measure: (1) normal sex-related dimensions of external nose (linear distances, ratios, angles, volume and surface area); and (2) growth changes between childhood and old age. The three-dimensional coordinates of several soft-tissue landmarks on the external nose were obtained by a non-invasive, computerized digitizer in 519 male and 340 female healthy subjects aged 4-73 years. The subjects were divided into 11 non-overlapping age groups: for children and preadolescent subjects, 2-year spans were used, while larger intervals were used for adolescent and adult subjects. From the landmarks, nasal volume and external surface area; nasal and alar base widths, nasal height, nasal bridge length, philtrum length, nasal tip protrusion, right and left nostril lengths, superior and inferior nostril widths; nasal tip protrusion-to-nasal height, and nasal width-to-nasal height ratios; nasal convexity, alar slope, and nasal tip angles were calculated, and averaged for age and sex. Comparisons were performed by factorial analysis of variance. On average, men had larger nasal external volume and area, linear distances and nasal width-to-height ratio than women (p<0.01); no sex differences were found for the angles and the nasal tip protrusion-to-nasal height ratio. Age significantly influenced all analyzed measurements (p<0.001): nasal volume, area, linear distances increased from childhood to old age, while the nasal tip angle decreased as a function of age. No consistent age related patterns were found for the ratios and the nasal convexity and alar slope angles. Men and women had different age related patterns, with significant sex by age interactions (p<0.001). Overall, in most occasions male increments in nasal dimensions were larger than female ones. Data collected in the present investigation could serve as a database for the quantitative description of human nasal morphology during normal growth, development and aging. Forensic

  2. Supramid tip implants in rhinoplasty. Review of 98 cases.

    PubMed

    Fanous, N; Webster, R

    1987-07-01

    The nasal tip procedure is the most sophisticated aspect of a rhinoplasty, particularly in certain known problem types of nasal tips. A new approach, using Supramid tip implants, is introduced. Precise guidelines for the preoperative planning and operative techniques are developed, and the so-called pocket, experience, positioning, shape and size, and incision (PEPSI) rule is outlined. A comparative discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the Supramid implant vs cartilage grafts and/or repositioning of alar cartilages is presented. The Supramid implant was used in the tip area for nasal tip alteration in a total of 98 cases. Patients were monitored for a period of six months to four years. The results were satisfactory.

  3. Primary Nasal Reconstruction in Self-Inflicted Nasal Injury.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Abizer; John, Jerry R; Gaba, Sunil; Sharma, Ramesh Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Self-inflicted injury of the nose is extremely rare. It may be associated with severe psychopathology and suicidal ideation. The authors report a case of a 24-year-old man, who presented with soft-tissue loss over both the alae of his nose. He had cut off the alar rims with an ordinary razor blade. He was overtly concerned about his nose being excessively broad and fat. A diagnosis of body dysmorphic disorder with nonsuicidal self-injury was made. Patient was observed during 72 hours in hospital with psychiatric support and local dressings. The authors undertook primary nasal reconstruction with nasolabial flaps on both sides for coverage. In conclusion, self-inflicted nasal injury mandates a judicious balancing of psychiatric support and surgical reconstruction. This can prevent untoward sequelae including further self-harm and suicide.

  4. Nasolabial Cyst Associated with Odontogenic Infection

    PubMed Central

    Martini, Eveline Claudia; Coppla, Fabiana Madalozzo; Campagnoli, Eduardo Bauml; Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The nasolabial cyst or Klestadt cyst is a relatively uncommon nonodontogenic cyst that develops in the nasal alar region; it has uncertain pathogenesis. This lesion has slow growth and variable dimensions and is characterized clinically by a floating tumefaction in the nasolabial fold area around the bridge of the nose, causing an elevation of the upper lip and relative facial asymmetry. Diagnosis is primarily made clinically; if necessary, this is complemented by imaging. This paper reports the case of a 39-year-old male patient who complained of pain in the right upper premolar region and poor aesthetics due to a firm tumor in the right wing of the nose. Initially, this was thought to be due to an odontogenic abscess; however, the differential diagnosis was that a nasolabial cyst was communicating with the apex of teeth 14 and 15. Surgical treatment was carried out, followed by histopathological examination and concomitant endodontic treatment of the teeth involved. PMID:26904312

  5. Primary unilateral cleft lip repair

    PubMed Central

    Adenwalla, H. S.; Narayanan, P. V.

    2009-01-01

    The unilateral cleft lip is a complex deformity. Surgical correction has evolved from a straight repair through triangular and quadrilateral repairs to the Rotation Advancement Technique of Millard. The latter is the technique followed at our centre for all unilateral cleft lip patients. We operate on these at five to six months of age, do not use pre-surgical orthodontics, and follow a protocol to produce a notch-free vermillion. This is easy to follow even for trainees. We also perform closed alar dissection and extensive primary septoplasty in all these patients. This has improved the overall result and has no long-term deleterious effect on the growth of the nose or of the maxilla. Other refinements have been used for prevention of a high-riding nostril, and correction of the vestibular web. PMID:19884683

  6. Sacral insufficiency fractures: a case of mistaken identity

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Mathew J; Tucker, Laura J

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sacral insufficiency fractures are an important cause of lower back pain in the elderly. Clinically and radiologically, they must be distinguished from osseous metastases, which frequently coexist. To date, no case report has comprehensively explored the full range of diagnostic hurdles and potential pitfalls. Case presentation We report the case of a 70-year-old Caucasian female who presented to our services with a short history of progressive back pain without any history of trauma. A prior history of breast cancer was noted. Bone scintigraphy was initially reported as consistent with metastatic sacral deposits. Further characterization with magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography revealed bilateral insufficiency fractures of the sacral alar. The patient responded well to conservative management. Conclusion To avoid misdiagnosis, particularly in those who are also at risk of osseous metastases, sacral insufficiency fractures must always be considered as a cause of lower back pain. PMID:24940083

  7. Humans are born too soon: impact on pediatric otolaryngology.

    PubMed

    Bluestone, Charles D

    2005-01-01

    Humans are born 12 months too early. Gestation should be 21 months. Humans evolved to become the pre-eminent animal in the world, but our big brain, bipedalism, and small female pelvic outlet have caused us to pay the price of being born too soon with all of its disadvantages. Early birth has an impact on diseases and disorders encountered by the otolaryngologist, including otitis media, laryngomalacia, tracheomalacia, congenital vocal cord paralysis, subglottic and tracheal stenosis, gastroesophageal reflux, congenital micrognathia, and congenital nasal alar collapse. Many of these conditions improve or resolve completely in the first year of life as an infant's immune system and anatomy matures. Knowledge of this evolutionary process can help us understand why some infants will grow out of certain diseases and disorders encountered in pediatric otolaryngology, while others will not. PMID:15627440

  8. [Accident analytics for structural traumas of the cervical spine].

    PubMed

    Hartwig, E; Elbel, M; Schultheiss, M; Kettler, A; Kinzl, L; Kramer, M

    2004-12-01

    The differentiation between degenerative syndromes of the cervical spine and post-traumatic symptoms requires accident analysis. Experiments with human subjects yield data only in the low-energy range, and there are still no accident analyses of structural traumas of the cervical spine. From 1 January 2000 to 30 April 2002, 15 patients with structural injuries to the cervical spine due to car accidents were treated in the Department of Trauma Surgery of the University of Ulm. In 11 of these cases, the DEKRA Ulm completed an appraisal of the accident process.With lateral impacts, structural injuries to the cervical spine can occur even at speeds of only ca 10 km/h. Injuries to the alar ligaments are produced by frontal collisions with substantial differences in speed. Data from accident analysis of structural injuries to the cervical spine must be taken into consideration in causality examinations of distortions of the cervical spine.

  9. Management of the cleft lip nasal deformity.

    PubMed

    Dutton, J M; Bumsted, R M

    2001-02-01

    Management of the cleft lip nasal deformity offers a unique and ongoing challenge in facial plastic surgery. Although there has been no consensus regarding the optimal timing and technique for surgical repair of this deformity, the authors have found a three-tiered approach to be satisfactory. This approach involves a primary rhinoplasty performed at the time of the initial cleft lip repair to address reconstruction of the nasal floor and sill, columellar lengthening, repositioning of the alar base, and repositioning of the skin and mucosa of the lower lateral cartilage. Following alveolar bone grafting, an intermediate rhinoplasty is often performed at 6 to 10 years of age through an open approach to correct the cartilaginous lower nasal deformity. A delayed rhinoplasty is then performed in the later teenage years to correct the bony dorsal deformity and the various causes of nasal obstruction.

  10. Post-traumatic upper cervical subluxation visualized by MRI: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Demetrious, James

    2007-01-01

    Background This paper describes MRI findings of upper cervical subluxation due to alar ligament disruption following a vehicular collision. Incidental findings included the presence of a myodural bridge and a spinal cord syrinx. Chiropractic management of the patient is discussed. Case presentation A 21-year old female presented with complaints of acute, debilitating upper neck pain with unremitting sub-occipital headache and dizziness following a vehicular collision. Initial emergency department and neurologic investigations included x-ray and CT evaluation of the head and neck. Due to persistent pain, the patient sought chiropractic care. MRI of the upper cervical spine revealed previously unrecognized clinical entities. Conclusion This case highlights the identification of upper cervical ligamentous injury that produced vertebral subluxation following a traumatic incident. MRI evaluation provided visualization of previously undetected injury. The patient experienced improvement through chiropractic care. PMID:18093309

  11. [Over projected tip].

    PubMed

    Duron, J-B; Nguyen, P S; Levet, Y; Bardot, J; Aiach, G

    2014-12-01

    Overprojected tip is a pretty usual request not easy to manage. Preop analysis is crucial in order to evaluate tip support and skin thickness and ability to retract. For example, if the skin is very thick and has poor chance to retract, the surgeon should be very careful in the tip projection decreasing to avoid a skin pollybeak deformity. In such cases, he has to analyze the facial proportions, especially other areas projection (radix, dorsum and chin) and think about augmenting them to balance the profile rather than decreasing tip projection. Correction should always be conducted incrementally, starting with weakening the tip support mechanisms and, only if necessary, continue with alar cartilage interruption. This can be performed on many areas (lateral cruras, domes, medial cruras) and with several techniques (resection or interruption+overlapping).

  12. Three-dimensional analysis techniques--Part 4: Three-dimensional analysis of bone and soft tissue to bone ratio of movements in 24 cleft palate patients following Le Fort I osteotomy: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    McCance, A M; Moss, J P; Fright, W R; Linney, A D; James, D R; Coghlan, K; Mars, M

    1997-01-01

    The three-dimensional changes in the bone and the ratio of soft tissue to bone movement were investigated in a group of 24 cleft palate patients following Le Fort I osteotomy. CT scans were taken for each patient preoperatively and 1 year postoperatively. The scans were superimposed, radial measurements calculated, and the changes illustrated by two separate color scales. In all of the groups, there was a fairly consistent pattern of movement over the mandible. The soft tissues moved in a 1.25:1 ratio over the chin and canine regions, and reduced to 1:1 over the body. In the maxilla, there was a 1:1 movement in the midline increasing to 1.25:1 bilaterally over the alar bases for both the bilateral clefts and clefts of the secondary palate groups. In the unilateral cleft group, however, there was a greater degree of movement over the cleft than over the noncleft side.

  13. Nasolabial Cyst Associated with Odontogenic Infection.

    PubMed

    Martini, Eveline Claudia; Coppla, Fabiana Madalozzo; Campagnoli, Eduardo Bauml; Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The nasolabial cyst or Klestadt cyst is a relatively uncommon nonodontogenic cyst that develops in the nasal alar region; it has uncertain pathogenesis. This lesion has slow growth and variable dimensions and is characterized clinically by a floating tumefaction in the nasolabial fold area around the bridge of the nose, causing an elevation of the upper lip and relative facial asymmetry. Diagnosis is primarily made clinically; if necessary, this is complemented by imaging. This paper reports the case of a 39-year-old male patient who complained of pain in the right upper premolar region and poor aesthetics due to a firm tumor in the right wing of the nose. Initially, this was thought to be due to an odontogenic abscess; however, the differential diagnosis was that a nasolabial cyst was communicating with the apex of teeth 14 and 15. Surgical treatment was carried out, followed by histopathological examination and concomitant endodontic treatment of the teeth involved. PMID:26904312

  14. Organization of hindbrain segments in the zebrafish embryo.

    PubMed

    Trevarrow, B; Marks, D L; Kimmel, C B

    1990-05-01

    To learn how neural segments are structured in a simple vertebrate, we have characterized the embryonic zebrafish hindbrain with a library of monoclonal antibodies. Two regions repeat in an alternating pattern along a series of seven segments. One, the neuromere centers, contains the first basal plate neurons to develop and the first neuropil. The other region, surrounding the segment boundaries, contains the first neurons to develop in the alar plate. The projection patterns of these neurons differ: those in the segment centers have descending axons, while those in the border regions form ventral commissures. A row of glial fiber bundles forms a curtain-like structure between each center and border region. Specific features of the individual hindbrain segments in the series arise within this general framework. We suggest that a cryptic simplicity underlies the eventual complex structure that develops from this region of the CNS.

  15. Evo-devo and the primate isocortex: the central organizing role of intrinsic gradients of neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Charvet, Christine J.; Finlay, Barbara L.

    2014-01-01

    Spatial gradients in the initiation and termination of basic processes, such as cytogenesis, cell-type specification and dendritic maturation are ubiquitous in developing nervous systems. Such gradients can produce a niche adaptation in a particular species. For example, the high density of photoreceptors and neurons in the “area centralis” of some vertebrate retinas result from the early maturation of its center relative to its periphery. Across species, regularities in allometric scaling of brain regions can derive from conserved spatial gradients: longer neurogenesis in the alar versus the basal plate of the neural tube is associated with relatively greater expansion of alar plate derivatives in larger brains. We describe gradients of neurogenesis within the isocortex and their effects on adult cytoarchitecture within and across species. Longer duration of neurogenesis in the caudal isocortex is associated with increased neuron number and density per column relative to the rostral isocortex. Later-maturing features of single neurons, such as soma size and dendritic spine numbers reflect this gradient. Considering rodents and primates, the longer duration of isocortical neurogenesis in each species, the greater the rostral-to-caudal difference in neuron number and density per column. Extended developmental duration produces substantial, predictable changes in the architecture of the isocortex in larger brains, and presumably, a progressively changed functional organization whose properties we do not yet fully understand. Many features of isocortical architecture previously viewed as species- or niche-specific adaptations can now be integrated as the natural outcomes of spatiotemporal gradients that are deployed in larger brains. PMID:25247448

  16. The structural, functional, and molecular organization of the brainstem.

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuys, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    According to His (1891, 1893) the brainstem consists of two longitudinal zones, the dorsal alar plate (sensory in nature) and the ventral basal plate (motor in nature). Johnston and Herrick indicated that both plates can be subdivided into separate somatic and visceral zones, distinguishing somatosensory and viscerosensory zones within the alar plate, and visceromotor and somatomotor zones within the basal plate. To test the validity of this "four-functional-zones" concept, I developed a topological procedure, surveying the spatial relationships of the various cell masses in the brainstem in a single figure. Brainstems of 16 different anamniote species were analyzed, and revealed that the brainstems are clearly divisible into four morphological zones, which correspond largely with the functional zones of Johnston and Herrick. Exceptions include (1) the magnocellular vestibular nucleus situated in the viscerosensory zone; (2) the basal plate containing a number of evidently non-motor centers (superior and inferior olives). Nevertheless the "functional zonal model" has explanatory value. Thus, it is possible to interpret certain brain specializations related to particular behavioral profiles, as "local hypertrophies" of one or two functional columns. Recent developmental molecular studies on brains of birds and mammals confirmed the presence of longitudinal zones, and also showed molecularly defined transverse bands or neuromeres throughout development. The intersecting boundaries of the longitudinal zones and the transverse bands appeared to delimit radially arranged histogenetic domains. Because neuromeres have been observed in embryonic and larval stages of numerous anamniote species, it may be hypothesized that the brainstems of all vertebrates share a basic organizational plan, in which intersecting longitudinal and transverse zones form fundamental histogenetic and genoarchitectonic units. PMID:21738499

  17. Eppur Si Muove: Evidence for an External Granular Layer and Possibly Transit Amplification in the Teleostean Cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Biechl, Daniela; Dorigo, Alessandro; Köster, Reinhard W.; Grothe, Benedikt; Wullimann, Mario F.

    2016-01-01

    The secreted signaling factor Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) acts in the floor plate of the developing vertebrate CNS to promote motoneuron development. In addition, shh has dorsal expression domains in the amniote alar plate (i.e., in isocortex, superior colliculus, and cerebellum). For example, shh expressing Purkinje cells act in transit amplification of external granular layer (EGL) cells of the developing cerebellum. Our previous studies had indicated the presence of an EGL in anamniote zebrafish, but a possible role of shh in the zebrafish cerebellar plate remained elusive. Therefore, we used an existing zebrafish transgenic line Tg(2.4shha-ABC-GFP)sb15; Shkumatava et al., 2004) to show this gene activity and its cellular localization in the larval zebrafish brain. Clearly, GFP expressing cells occur in larval alar zebrafish brain domains, i.e., optic tectum and cerebellum. Analysis of critical cerebellar cell markers on this transgenic background and a PH3 assay for mitotic cells reveals that Purkinje cells and eurydendroid cells are completely non-overlapping postmitotic cell populations. Furthermore, shh-GFP cells never express Zebrin II or parvalbumin, nor calretinin. They are thus neither Purkinje cells nor calretinin positive migrating rhombic lip derived cells. The shh-GFP cells also never correspond to PH3 positive cells of the ventral cerebellar proliferative zone or the upper rhombic lip-derived EGL. From this marker analysis and the location of shh-GFP cells sandwiched between calretinin positive rhombic lip derived cells and parvalbumin positive Purkinje cells, we conclude that shh-GFP expressing cells qualify as previously reported olig2 positive eurydendroid cells, which are homologous to the amniote deep cerebellar nuclei. We confirm this using double transgenic progeny of shh-GFP and olig2-dsRed zebrafish. Thus, these zebrafish eurydendroid cells may have the same role in transit amplification as Purkinje cells do in amniotes. PMID:27199681

  18. Airborne Observations of Urban-Derived Water Vapor and Potential Impacts on Chemistry and Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, O. E.; Shepson, P. B.; Grundman, R. M., II; Stirm, B. H.; Ren, X.; Dickerson, R. R.; Fuentes, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric conditions typical of wintertime, such as lower boundary layer heights and reduced turbulent mixing, provide a unique environment for anthropogenic pollutants to accumulate and react. Wintertime enhancements in water vapor (H2O) have been observed in urban areas, and are thought to result from fossil fuel combustion and urban heat island-induced evaporation. The contribution of urban-derived water vapor to the atmosphere has the potential to locally influence atmospheric chemistry and weather for the urban area and surrounding region due to interactions between H2O and other chemical species, aerosols, and clouds. Airborne observations of urban-derived H2O, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone, and aerosols were conducted from Purdue University's Airborne Laboratory for Atmospheric Research (ALAR) and the University of Maryland's (UMD) Twin Cessna research aircraft during the winter of 2015. Measurements were conducted as part of the collaborative airborne campaign, Wintertime INvestigation of Transport, Emissions, and Reactivity (WINTER), which investigated seasonal trends in anthropogenic emissions and reactivity in the Northeastern United States. ALAR and the UMD aircraft participated in mass balance experiments around Washington D.C.-Baltimore to determine total city emission rates of H2O and other greenhouse gases. Average enhancements in H2O mixing ratio of 0.048%, and up to 0.13%, were observed downwind of the urban centers on ten research flights. In some cases, downwind H2O concentrations clearly track CO2 and NO2 enhancements, suggesting a strong combustion signal. Analysis of Purdue and UMD data collected during the WINTER campaign shows an average urban-derived H2O contribution of 5.3%, and as much as 13%, to the local boundary layer from ten research flights flown in February and March of 2015. In this paper, we discuss the potential chemical and physical implications of these results.

  19. Aesthetic rhinoplasty: Avoiding unfavourable results.

    PubMed

    Bhangoo, Kulwant S

    2013-05-01

    Rhinoplasty is one of the most challenging surgical procedures in plastic surgery. It is not surprising that a significant number of patients end up with unfavourable outcomes. Many of these unfavourable outcomes could be the result of poor judgment and wrong decision making. Most frequently, the unfavourable outcome is the result of errors in surgical technique. In this paper, unfavourable outcomes resulting from errors in surgical technique are discussed under the heading of each operative step. Poor placement of intra-nasal incision can result in internal valve obstruction. Bad columellar scars can result from errors during open rhinoplasty. Unfavourable results associated with skeletonisation are mentioned. Tip plasty, being the most difficult part of rhinoplasty, can result in lack of tip projection, asymmetry and deformities associated with placement of tip grafts. Over-resection of the lower lateral cartilages during tip plasty can also result in pinched nose, alar collapse causing external valve obstruction and other alar rim deformities. Humpectomy can result in open roof deformity, inverted V deformity and over-resection resulting in saddle nose. The so-called poly beak deformity is also a preventable unfavourable outcome when dealing with a large dorsal hump. Complications resulting from osteotomies include narrowing of nasal airway, open roof deformity, inverted V deformity and asymmetry of the bony wall resulting from incomplete or green stick fractures. Judicious use of grafts can be very rewarding. By the same token, grafts also carry with them the risk of complications. Allografts can result in recurrent infection, atrophy of the overlying skin and extrusion resulting in crippling deformities. Autografts are recommended by the author. Unfavourable results from autografts include displacement of graft, visibility of the graft edges, asymmetry, warping, and resorption.

  20. Straight line repair of unilateral cleft lip: new operative method based on 25 years experience.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, T; Tamada, I; Miyamoto, J; Nagasao, T; Hikosaka, M

    2008-08-01

    The resultant scar in the primary repair of unilateral cleft lip should ideally be straight and the mirror image of the philtrum on the non-cleft side. In 1993, we reported a new operative technique for unilateral cleft lip, in which we designed a straight line for the incision on the white lip. In order to produce the nostril floor, we used the white lip tissue in the area between the alar base and alveolus at the cleft side as a flap. We also used a small triangular flap above the white skin roll to prevent Cupid's peak from being drawn up. Unlike the rotation-advancement method, our technique does not leave a transverse scar at the alar base. Instead, it leaves a scar only along the line coincident with the natural philtral ridge. However, during observations of our patients, we noticed that the small triangular flap designed to be 1.5mm tended to become a conspicuous angular scar as the patients grew older. In addition, drooping of Cupid's peak on the cleft side was often observed with this small triangular flap. To make it less conspicuous, we made some modifications to the small flap above the white skin roll. With this new technique, we designed a semi-circular flap (1.5 x 3mm) above the white skin roll, instead of the small triangular flap. The suture line of our refined procedure draws a gentle curve, which looks almost straight because of skin elasticity. Moreover, the semi-circular flap causes less drooping of the upper lip than the triangular flap. We believe that revising the shape of the small flap on the white skin roll greatly improves patients' appearance. In this report, we present our refined techniques of primary repair of unilateral cleft lip.

  1. Efficient aminoacylation of the tRNA(Ala) acceptor stem: dependence on the 2:71 base pair.

    PubMed Central

    Beuning, Penny J; Nagan, Maria C; Cramer, Christopher J; Musier-Forsyth, Karin; Gelpí, Josep-Lluis; Bashford, Donald

    2002-01-01

    Specific aminoacylation by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases requires accurate recognition of cognate tRNA substrates. In the case of alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AlaRS), RNA duplexes that mimic the acceptor stem of the tRNA are efficient substrates for aminoacylation in vitro. It was previously shown that recognition by AlaRS is severely affected by a simple base pair transversion of the G2:C71 pair at the second position in the RNA helix. In this study, we determined the aminoacylation efficiencies of 50 variants of the tRNA(Ala) acceptor stem containing substitutions at the 2:71 position. We find that there is not a single functional group of the wild-type G2:C71 base pair that is critical for positive recognition. Rather, we observed that base-pair orientation plays an important role in recognition. In particular, pyrimidine2:purine71 combinations generally resulted in decreased aminoacylation efficiency compared to the corresponding purine:pyrimidine pair. Moreover, the activity of a pyrimidine:purine variant could be partially restored by the presence of a major groove amino group at position 71. In an attempt to understand this result further, dielectric continuum electrostatic calculations were carried out, in some cases with additional inclusion of van der Waals interaction energies, to determine interaction potentials of the wild-type duplexAla and seven 2:71 variants. This analysis revealed a positive correlation between major groove negative electrostatic potential in the vicinity of the 3:70 base pair and measured aminoacylation efficiency. PMID:12022232

  2. Biomechanical characterisation of the human nasal cartilages; implications for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Griffin, M F; Premakumar, Y; Seifalian, A M; Szarko, M; Butler, P E M

    2016-01-01

    Nasal reconstruction is currently performed using autologous grafts provides but is limited by donor site morbidity, tissue availability and potentially graft failure. Additionally, current alternative alloplastic materials are limited by their high extrusion and infection rates. Matching mechanical properties of synthetic materials to the native tissue they are replacing has shown to be important in the biocompatibility of implants. To date the mechanical properties of the human nasal cartilages has not been studied in depth to be able to create tissue-engineered replacements with similar mechanical properties to native tissue. The young's modulus was characterized in compression on fresh-frozen human cadaveric septal, alar, and lateral cartilage. Due to the functional differences experienced by the various aspects of the septal cartilage, 16 regions were evaluated with an average elastic modulus of 2.72 ± 0.63 MPa. Furthermore, the posterior septum was found to be significantly stiffer than the anterior septum (p < 0.01). The medial and lateral alar cartilages were tested at four points with an elastic modulus ranging from 2.09 ± 0.81 MPa, with no significant difference between the cartilages (p < 0.78). The lateral cartilage was tested once in all cadavers with an average elastic modulus of 0.98 ± 0.29 MPa. In conclusion, this study provides new information on the compressive mechanical properties of the human nasal cartilage, allowing surgeons to have a better understanding of the difference between the mechanical properties of the individual nasal cartilages. This study has provided a reference, by which tissue-engineered should be developed for effective cartilage replacements for nasal reconstruction.

  3. Biomechanical characterisation of the human nasal cartilages; implications for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Griffin, M F; Premakumar, Y; Seifalian, A M; Szarko, M; Butler, P E M

    2016-01-01

    Nasal reconstruction is currently performed using autologous grafts provides but is limited by donor site morbidity, tissue availability and potentially graft failure. Additionally, current alternative alloplastic materials are limited by their high extrusion and infection rates. Matching mechanical properties of synthetic materials to the native tissue they are replacing has shown to be important in the biocompatibility of implants. To date the mechanical properties of the human nasal cartilages has not been studied in depth to be able to create tissue-engineered replacements with similar mechanical properties to native tissue. The young's modulus was characterized in compression on fresh-frozen human cadaveric septal, alar, and lateral cartilage. Due to the functional differences experienced by the various aspects of the septal cartilage, 16 regions were evaluated with an average elastic modulus of 2.72 ± 0.63 MPa. Furthermore, the posterior septum was found to be significantly stiffer than the anterior septum (p < 0.01). The medial and lateral alar cartilages were tested at four points with an elastic modulus ranging from 2.09 ± 0.81 MPa, with no significant difference between the cartilages (p < 0.78). The lateral cartilage was tested once in all cadavers with an average elastic modulus of 0.98 ± 0.29 MPa. In conclusion, this study provides new information on the compressive mechanical properties of the human nasal cartilage, allowing surgeons to have a better understanding of the difference between the mechanical properties of the individual nasal cartilages. This study has provided a reference, by which tissue-engineered should be developed for effective cartilage replacements for nasal reconstruction. PMID:26676857

  4. Cognitive deficits and ALA-D-inhibition in children exposed to multiple metals.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Sabrina N; Barth, Anelise; Göethel, Gabriela; Baierle, Marília; Charão, Mariele F; Brucker, Natália; Moro, Angela M; Bubols, Guilherme B; Sobreira, Johanna S; Sauer, Elisa; Rocha, Rafael; Gioda, Adriana; Dias, Ana Cristina; Salles, Jerusa F; Garcia, Solange C

    2015-01-01

    Children are especially vulnerable to adverse effects of multiple metals exposure. The aim of this study was to assess some metals concentrations such as lead (Pb), arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) in whole blood, serum, hair and drinking water samples using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in rural and urban children. In addition, evaluate the adverse effects of multiple metals exposure on cognitive function and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) activity. The cognitive ability assessment was performed by the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM) test. The ALA-D activity and ALA-D reactivation index (ALA-RE) activity with DTT and ZnCl2 also were determined. Forty-six rural children and 23 urban children were enrolled in this study. Rural children showed percentile IQ scores in the RCPM test significantly decreased in relation to urban children. According to multiple linear regression analysis, the Mn and Fe in hair may account for the cognitive deficits of children. Manganese and Fe in hair also were positively correlated with Mn and Fe in drinking water, respectively. These results suggest that drinking water is possibly a source of metals exposure in children. ALA-D activity was decreased and ALA-RE with DTT and ZnCl2 was increased in rural children in comparison to urban children. Moreover, ALA-D inhibition was correlated with Cr blood levels and ALA-RE/DDT and ALA-RE/ZnCl2 were correlated with levels of Cr and Hg in blood. Thus, our results indicated some adverse effects of children's exposure to multiple metals, such as cognitive deficits and ALA-D inhibition, mainly associated to Mn, Fe, Cr and Hg.

  5. Presurgical nasoalveolar moulding in unilateral cleft lip and palate

    PubMed Central

    Zuhaib, Mohammed; Bonanthaya, Krishnamurthy; Parmar, Renu; Shetty, Pritham N.; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Context: Presurgical nasoalveolar moulding (PNAM) is a non-surgical method of reshaping the cleft lip, alveolus, palate and the nose to minimize the severity of the cleft deformity, before primary cheiloplastyand palatoplasty. In this context, PNAM proves to be an invaluable asset in the management of unilateral cleft lip and palate. Aims: The study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of PNAM in the management of unilateral cleft lip and palate with the following objectives: (1) To assess and compare the degree of reduction in the size of cleft palate and alveolus (pre-PNAM and post-PNAM). (2) To evaluate and compare the improvement in columellar length and correction of columellar deviation (pre-PNAM and post-PNAM). (3) To assess the changes in the position of the alar base and the alar cartilages. Settings and Design: Prospective study. Subjects and Methods: A prospective study consisting of, which included 20 patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate was conducted. The age at the start of PNAM treatment of the infants ranged from 2 to 44 days of age reporting to our institute between December 2011 and August 2013. All the patients underwent PNAM therapy before primary cheiloplasty at 6 months of age; clinical parameters were assessed pre- and post-therapy using photographs and dental study models of the maxilla. Statistical Analysis Used: Student's t-test for paired comparisons. Results: Results of the study showed a promising reduction in the cleft size before the surgery, significant improvement in nasal symmetry, including the columellar length on the cleft side. Conclusions: PNAM is a valuable adjunct to our surgical armamentarium in dealing with the challenges of primary closure of unilateral cleft lip and palate thereby enhancing the overall surgical outcome. The advantages of this method include the simplicity of the procedure and improving the quality of surgical repair, particularly in obtaining tension free muscle closure in unilateral

  6. The Structural, Functional, and Molecular Organization of the Brainstem

    PubMed Central

    Nieuwenhuys, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    According to His (1891, 1893) the brainstem consists of two longitudinal zones, the dorsal alar plate (sensory in nature) and the ventral basal plate (motor in nature). Johnston and Herrick indicated that both plates can be subdivided into separate somatic and visceral zones, distinguishing somatosensory and viscerosensory zones within the alar plate, and visceromotor and somatomotor zones within the basal plate. To test the validity of this “four-functional-zones” concept, I developed a topological procedure, surveying the spatial relationships of the various cell masses in the brainstem in a single figure. Brainstems of 16 different anamniote species were analyzed, and revealed that the brainstems are clearly divisible into four morphological zones, which correspond largely with the functional zones of Johnston and Herrick. Exceptions include (1) the magnocellular vestibular nucleus situated in the viscerosensory zone; (2) the basal plate containing a number of evidently non-motor centers (superior and inferior olives). Nevertheless the “functional zonal model” has explanatory value. Thus, it is possible to interpret certain brain specializations related to particular behavioral profiles, as “local hypertrophies” of one or two functional columns. Recent developmental molecular studies on brains of birds and mammals confirmed the presence of longitudinal zones, and also showed molecularly defined transverse bands or neuromeres throughout development. The intersecting boundaries of the longitudinal zones and the transverse bands appeared to delimit radially arranged histogenetic domains. Because neuromeres have been observed in embryonic and larval stages of numerous anamniote species, it may be hypothesized that the brainstems of all vertebrates share a basic organizational plan, in which intersecting longitudinal and transverse zones form fundamental histogenetic and genoarchitectonic units. PMID:21738499

  7. Eppur Si Muove: Evidence for an External Granular Layer and Possibly Transit Amplification in the Teleostean Cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Biechl, Daniela; Dorigo, Alessandro; Köster, Reinhard W; Grothe, Benedikt; Wullimann, Mario F

    2016-01-01

    The secreted signaling factor Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) acts in the floor plate of the developing vertebrate CNS to promote motoneuron development. In addition, shh has dorsal expression domains in the amniote alar plate (i.e., in isocortex, superior colliculus, and cerebellum). For example, shh expressing Purkinje cells act in transit amplification of external granular layer (EGL) cells of the developing cerebellum. Our previous studies had indicated the presence of an EGL in anamniote zebrafish, but a possible role of shh in the zebrafish cerebellar plate remained elusive. Therefore, we used an existing zebrafish transgenic line Tg(2.4shha-ABC-GFP)sb15; Shkumatava et al., 2004) to show this gene activity and its cellular localization in the larval zebrafish brain. Clearly, GFP expressing cells occur in larval alar zebrafish brain domains, i.e., optic tectum and cerebellum. Analysis of critical cerebellar cell markers on this transgenic background and a PH3 assay for mitotic cells reveals that Purkinje cells and eurydendroid cells are completely non-overlapping postmitotic cell populations. Furthermore, shh-GFP cells never express Zebrin II or parvalbumin, nor calretinin. They are thus neither Purkinje cells nor calretinin positive migrating rhombic lip derived cells. The shh-GFP cells also never correspond to PH3 positive cells of the ventral cerebellar proliferative zone or the upper rhombic lip-derived EGL. From this marker analysis and the location of shh-GFP cells sandwiched between calretinin positive rhombic lip derived cells and parvalbumin positive Purkinje cells, we conclude that shh-GFP expressing cells qualify as previously reported olig2 positive eurydendroid cells, which are homologous to the amniote deep cerebellar nuclei. We confirm this using double transgenic progeny of shh-GFP and olig2-dsRed zebrafish. Thus, these zebrafish eurydendroid cells may have the same role in transit amplification as Purkinje cells do in amniotes. PMID:27199681

  8. STS-113 Post Flight Presentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-01-01

    The STS-113 post-flight presentation begins with a view of Mission Specialists Michael E. Lopez-Alegria and John B. Herrington getting suited for the space mission. The STS-113 crew consists of: Commander James D. Wetherbee, Pilot Paul Lockhart, Mission Specialists Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington. Cosmonauts Valery Korzun, and Sergei Treschev, and astronaut Peggy Whitson who are all members of the expedition five crew, and Commander Kenneth Bowersox, Flight Engineers Nikolai Budarin and Donald Pettit, members of Expedition Six. The main goal of this mission is to take Expedition Six up to the International Space Station and Return Expedition Five to the Earth. The second objective is to install the P(1) Truss segment. Three hours prior to launch, the crew of Expedition Six along with James Wetherbee, Paul Lockhart, Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington are shown walking to an astrovan, which takes them to the launch pad. The actual liftoff is presented. Three Extravehicular Activities (EVA)'s are performed on this mission. Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington are shown performing EVA 1 and EVA 2 which include making connections between the P1 and S(0) Truss segments, and installing fluid jumpers. A panoramic view of the ISS with the Earth in the background is shown. The grand ceremony of the crew exchange is presented. The astronauts performing everyday duties such as brushing teeth, washing hair, sleeping, and eating pistachio nuts are shown. The actual landing of the Space Shuttle is presented.

  9. KSC-03PD-1259

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- Building 254, Soyuz Integration Facility. Cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Expedition Seven commander dons his Russian Sokol suit for the leak check and Soyuz inspection, seat liner check. Veteran Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko and veteran NASA astronaut Ed Lu have been named as the primary crew for the planned April 26, 2003, launch of a Russian Soyuz TMA-2 spacecraft to the International Space Station. Malenchenko and Lu will be called the Expedition 7 crew. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  10. KSC-03PD-1255

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- Astronaut Edward T. Lu, NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer for Expedition Seven dons his Russian Sokol suit for the leak check and Soyuz inspection, seat liner check. Veteran Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko and veteran NASA astronaut Ed Lu have been named as the primary crew for the planned April 26, 2003, launch of a Russian Soyuz TMA-2 spacecraft to the International Space Station. Malenchenko and Lu will be called the Expedition 7 crew. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  11. KSC-03PD-1257

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- Cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Expedition Seven commander, dons his Russian Sokol suit for the leak check and Soyuz inspection, seat liner check. Veteran Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko and veteran NASA astronaut Ed Lu have been named as the primary crew for the planned April 26, 2003, launch of a Russian Soyuz TMA-2 spacecraft to the International Space Station. Malenchenko and Lu will be called the Expedition 7 crew. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  12. KSC-03PD-1261

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- Building 254, Soyuz Integration Facility. Astronaut Edward T. Lu, NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer for Expedition Seven, has a leak check performed on the Russian Sokol suit. Veteran Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko and veteran NASA astronaut Ed Lu have been named as the primary crew for the planned April 26, 2003, launch of a Russian Soyuz TMA-2 spacecraft to the International Space Station. Malenchenko and Lu will be called the Expedition 7 crew. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  13. KSC-03PD-1271

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- The Soyuz rocket is rolled out of the assembly building and travels via rail to the launch pad. Expedition Seven is scheduled to launch onboard the Soyuz April 26, 2003. Cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko, commander, and astronaut Ed Lu, NASA science officer and flight engineer, were named as the primary crew, Expedition 7, for the launch to the International Space Station. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  14. KSC-03PD-1272

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- The Soyuz rocket is erected at the launch pad. Expedition Seven is scheduled to launch onboard the Soyuz April 26, 2003. Cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko, commander, and astronaut Ed Lu, NASA science officer and flight engineer, were named as the primary crew, Expedition 7, for the launch to the International Space Station. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  15. KSC-03PD-1260

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- Building 254, Soyuz Integration Facility. Astronaut Edward T. Lu, NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer for Expedition Seven, has a leak check performed on the Russian Sokol suit. Veteran Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko and veteran NASA astronaut Ed Lu have been named as the primary crew for the planned April 26, 2003, launch of a Russian Soyuz TMA-2 spacecraft to the International Space Station. Malenchenko and Lu will be called the Expedition 7 crew. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  16. KSC-03PD-1263

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- Building 254, Soyuz Integration Facility. Cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko (right), Expedition Seven commander, and astronaut Edward T. Lu, NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer for Expedition Seven, pause for a photograph on the Soyuz stand after the Soyuz inspection, seat liner check. Veteran Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko and veteran NASA astronaut Ed Lu were named as the primary crew for the planned April 26, 2003, launch of a Russian Soyuz TMA-2 spacecraft to the International Space Station. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  17. KSC-03PD-1268

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- Astronaut Michael Foale (left standing), backup crew for Expedition Seven, talks with astronaut Edward T. Lu, NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer for Expedition Seven. Seated on the right is Cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Expedition Seven commander. The crew is reviewing documents prior to entering the Soyuz TMA-2 capsule for inspection and seat liner check. Malenchenko and Lu were named as the primary crew, Expedition 7, for the launch to the International Space Station. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  18. KSC-03PD-1253

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan. Building 254, Soyuz Integration Facility. Astronaut Edward T. Lu, NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer for Expedition Seven, dons his Russian Sokol suit for the leak check and Soyuz inspection, seat liner check. Veteran Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko and veteran NASA astronaut Ed Lu have been named as the primary crew for the planned April 26, 2003, launch of a Russian Soyuz TMA-2 spacecraft to the International Space Station. Malenchenko and Lu will be called the Expedition 7 crew. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  19. KSC-03PD-1269

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- Cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko (foreground), Expedition Seven commander, and astronaut Edward T. Lu, NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer for Expedition Seven, walk down the Soyuz stand after the Soyuz inspection, seat liner checkMalenchenko and Lu were named as the primary crew, Expedition 7, for the launch to the International Space Station. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  20. KSC-03PD-1266

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- Building 254, Soyuz Integration Facility. Cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko (right), Expedition Seven commander, and astronaut Edward T. Lu, NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer for Expedition Seven, pause for a photograph after the Soyuz inspection, seat liner check. Malenchenko and Lu were named as the primary crew, Expedition 7, for the launch to the International Space Station. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS- 114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  1. KSC-03PD-1270

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- The Soyuz rocket is rolled out of the assembly building and travels via rail to the launch pad. Expedition Seven is scheduled to launch onboard the Soyuz April 26, 2003. Cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko, commander, and astronaut Ed Lu, NASA science officer and flight engineer, were named as the primary crew, Expedition 7, for the launch to the International Space Station. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  2. KSC-03PD-1256

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- Cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Expedition Seven commander dons his Russian Sokol suit for the leak check and Soyuz inspection, seat liner check. Veteran Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko and veteran NASA astronaut Ed Lu have been named as the primary crew for the planned April 26, 2003, launch of a Russian Soyuz TMA-2 spacecraft to the International Space Station. Malenchenko and Lu will be called the Expedition 7 crew. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  3. KSC-03PD-1267

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- Building 254, Soyuz Integration Facility. Cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko (foreground), Expedition Seven commander, and astronaut Edward T. Lu, NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer, walk out for Soyuz inspection, seat liner check. The Soyuz is in the workstand in the background. Malenchenko and Lu were named as the primary crew, Expedition 7, for the launch to the International Space Station. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  4. KSC-03PD-1262

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- Building 254, Soyuz Integration Facility. Astronaut Edward T. Lu, NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer for Expedition Seven, has a leak check performed on the Russian Sokol suit. Veteran Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko and veteran NASA astronaut Ed Lu have been named as the primary crew for the planned April 26, 2003, launch of a Russian Soyuz TMA-2 spacecraft to the International Space Station. Malenchenko and Lu will be called the Expedition 7 crew. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  5. KSC-03PD-1254

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan. Building 254, Soyuz Integration Facility. Astronaut Edward T. Lu, NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer for Expedition Seven, dons his Russian Sokol suit for the leak check and Soyuz inspection, seat liner check. Veteran Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko and veteran NASA astronaut Ed Lu have been named as the primary crew for the planned April 26, 2003, launch of a Russian Soyuz TMA-2 spacecraft to the International Space Station. Malenchenko and Lu will be called the Expedition 7 crew. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  6. KSC-03PD-1258

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan -- Cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko (left), Expedition Seven commander, and astronaut Ed Lu have their Russian Sokol suits checked for leaks, as well as Soyuz inspection and seat liner check. Veteran Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko and veteran NASA astronaut Ed Lu have been named as the primary crew for the planned April 26, 2003, launch of a Russian Soyuz TMA-2 spacecraft to the International Space Station. Malenchenko and Lu will be called the Expedition 7 crew. Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri and NASA astronaut Michael Foale are the backup crewmembers to Malenchenko and Lu. Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA Space Station Science Officer Don Pettit will return to Earth aboard the Soyuz TMA-1 craft in May 2003. The three Expedition 6 crewmembers were launched on Nov. 23, 2002. They have been aboard the Station since November 25. They were originally scheduled to return in March aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-114 mission. Malenchenko and Lu will continue to operate the science payloads already on board, as well as maintaining the Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  7. Hydrologic and mass-movement hazards near McCarthy Wrangell-St Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, S.H.; Glass, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    At the confluence of McCarthy Creek and the Kennicott River, about 1 mile from the terminus of Kennicott Glacier, Alaska, McCarthy Creek and Kennicott River basins are prone to several natural hazards including floods; formation and failure of natural dams; stream erosion and sediment deposi- tion; snow avalanches; aufeis; and the mass wasting of rock, soil, and debris. Low-lying areas along the Kennicott River flood annually, commonly during late July or early August, as a result of outbursts from glacier-dammed lakes, but these floods can occur during any month of the year. Flood plains along McCarthy Creek and its tributaries are frequently flooded and prone to rapid erosion and deposition during intense rainfall and periods of rapid snow- melt. Sediments from continual mass wasting accumu- late in stream channels and are mobilized during floods. Several lateral erosion, scour, and deposition resulting from floods in September 1980 and August 1985 destroyed bridges and several historic structures at McCarthy were jeopardized by the rapidly eroding northern streambank of McCarthy Creek. Flood discharges were determined indirectly using the slope-area method at two high-gradient reaches on the Kennicott River, four on McCarthy Creek, and one on Nikolai Creek. During the flood of September 13, 1980, peak discharge for McCarthy Creek at McCarthy was 4,500 cubic feet per second.

  8. A topaz international program overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thome, Frank V.; Wyant, Francis J.; Mulder, Daniel; McCarson, T. D.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, Nikolai Nikolaevich

    1995-01-01

    Five years ago, during the 8th Symposium on Space Nuclear Power Systems, in Albuquerque, NM, Academician Nikolai Nikolaevich Ponomarev-Stepnoi, First Deputy Director of the Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute, proposed the sale of the Soviety Union's TOPAZ II technology to the United States. This proposal, made at great personal risk, was initially viewed with much skepticism by most Americans attending that conference since the Cold War was still in full swing. There were, however, a few visionaries, some would say fanatics, that set about to make this sale possible. Even these visionaries did not anticipate the collapse of the Soviet Union or the subsequent efforts by the U.S. and other Western powers to help the Newly Independent States transition to a market economy. Little did these visionaries know that the formation of the ``TOPAZ II Program,'' using former military space power technology of the Soviet Union, would become the preeminent example of technology cooperation between two former adversaries. A unique teaming arrangement formed in New Mexico, called the New Mexico Strategic Alliance and consisting of the Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, the University of New Mexico, and Los Alamos Nationalo Laboratory, was a key ingredient in making this program a success. A brief summary of some of the highlights of this technology partnership is given to explain how international patnerships of this type can enable commercialization and technology transfer.

  9. The Strength of a Loosely Defined Movement: Eugenics and Medicine in Imperial Russia

    PubMed Central

    Krementsov, Nikolai

    2015-01-01

    This essay examines the ‘infiltration’ of eugenics into Russian medical discourse during the formation of the eugenics movement in western Europe and North America in 1900–17. It describes the efforts of two Russian physicians, the bacteriologist and hygienist Nikolai Gamaleia (1859–1949) and the psychiatrist Tikhon Iudin (1879–1949), to introduce eugenics to the Russian medical community, analysing in detail what attracted these representatives of two different medical specialties to eugenic ideas, ideals, and policies advocated by their western colleagues. On the basis of a close examination of the similarities and differences in Gamaleia’s and Iudin’s attitudes to eugenics, the essay argues that lack of cohesiveness gave the early eugenics movement a unique strength. The loose mix of widely varying ideas, ideals, methods, policies, activities and proposals covered by the umbrella of eugenics offered to a variety of educated professionals in Russia and elsewhere the possibility of choosing, adopting and adapting particular elements to their own national, professional, institutional and disciplinary contexts, interests and agendas. PMID:25498435

  10. STS-113 Flight Day 3 Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-11-01

    This video shows the activities of the STS-113 crew (Jim Wetherbee, Commander; Paul Lockhart, Pilot; Michael Lopez-Alegria, John Herrington, Mission Specialists) during flight day 3. The major tasks of flight day 3 were rendezvous and docking with the ISS (International Space Station), the transfer of the Expedition 6 crew (Kenneth Bowersox, Commander; Donald Pettit, Nikolai Budarin, Flight Engineers) to the ISS, and preparations for an EVA (extravehicular activity) scheduled for the following day. The approach of Space Shuttle Endeavour to the ISS is shown in detail, including the firing of the Left Orbital Maneuvering System, and the aiming maneuvers the orbiter makes to dock with the ISS. There are centerline views of the ISS before and during the final docking maneuver. The new ISS crew is received by the Expedition 5 crew (Valeri Korzun, Commander; Peggy Whitsun, Sergei Treschev; Flight Engineers), and the transfer of EVA suits is shown. Earth views include a pan along a reddish Earth limb, and the Pacific Ocean with Endeavour's Canadarm robotic arm in the foreground.

  11. Scipione Riva-Rocci and the men behind the mercury sphygmomanometer.

    PubMed

    Roguin, A

    2006-01-01

    The history of the blood pressure (BP) concept and measurements is described. Many scientists were involved. Among them, major triumphs were achieved by William Harvey during the early 1600s who announced that there is a finite amount of blood that circulated the body in one direction only. In the mid-1700s, Reverend Stephen Hales reported the first invasive measurement in horses and smaller animals. Poiseuille introduced in the early 1800s the mercury hydrodynometer and the mmHg units. Karl von-Vierordt described in 1855 that with enough pressure, the arterial pulse could be obliterated. He also created the sphygmograph, a pulse recorder usable for routine non-invasive monitoring on humans. In 1881, von Basch created the sphygmomanometer and the first non-invasive BP measurements. However, in 1896, Scipione Riva-Rocci developed further the mercury sphygmomanometer, almost as we know it today. The sphygmomanometer could only be used to determine the systolic BP. Observing the pulse disappearance via palpitation would only allow the measuring physician to observe the point when the artery was fully constricted. Nikolai Korotkoff was the first to observe the sounds made by the constriction of the artery in 1905. PMID:16409431

  12. [Neurosciences and the ravings of the Soviet era. Spanish Republican physicians, a set of privileged witnesses].

    PubMed

    Marco-Igual, Miguel

    2011-08-16

    This study analyses the links between the Russian and Soviet neurosciences and their Spanish counterpart, especially with regard to the experiences of the Spanish Republican physicians exiled in the USSR. The Russian neurosciences, which date back to the second half of the 19th century, followed a path that ran parallel to the discipline throughout the rest of Europe and finally displayed signs of being influenced by the German and French schools. Important figures include Alexei Kojevnikov and Vladimir Bekhterev in neurology, Sergei Korsakov in psychiatry, Ivan Pavlov and his disciple Piotr Anojin in neurophysiology, Lev Vygotsky and Alexander Luria in neuropsychology, and Nikolai Burdenko in neurosurgery. When the Bolsheviks came to power, they brought with them a progressive conception of health care, which was modified during the Stalinist era to serve political interests, above all in the case of psychiatry. During the first third of the 20th century, Spanish scientists became interested in Pavlov's reflexology and the Soviets took a similar interest in Spanish histology. Among the 4500 Spanish Republicans who emigrated to the USSR because of the Spanish Civil War, there were several dozen physicians who were privileged witnesses of the madness that shook the science and the health care of that period. Relevant names worth citing here from the field of the neurosciences include Juan Planelles and Ramon Alvarez-Buylla in neurophysiology, Federico Pascual and Florencio Villa Landa in psychiatry, Angel Escobio and Maria Perez in neurology, Julian Fuster in neurosurgery and Manuel Arce in neuroimaging.

  13. STS-113 and Expedition Six crews pose for a group photo at SLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The STS-113 and Expedition Six crews pose for a group photo at Launch Pad 39A with Space Shuttle Endeavour in the background during a tour of Kennedy Space Center prior to their launch. From left are Expedition Six crew members Donald Pettit and Nikolai Budarin of the Russian Space Agency, STS-113 Mission Specialists John Herrington and Michael Lopez-Alegria, Expedition Six Commander Ken Bowersox, STS-113 Pilot Paul Lockhart, and STS-113 Commander James Wetherbee. The primary mission of STS-113 is bringing the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and returning the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. Another major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is scheduled for Nov. 11 between midnight and 4 a.m. EST.

  14. STS-113 and Expedition Six crews pose for a group photo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The STS-113 and Expedition Six crews pose for a group photo at Launch Pad 39A with Space Shuttle Endeavour in the background during a tour of Kennedy Space Center prior to their launch. From left are Expedition Six crew members Donald Pettit and Nikolai Budarin of the Russian Space Agency, STS-113 Mission Specialists John Herrington and Michael Lopez-Alegria, Expedition Six Commander Ken Bowersox, STS-113 Pilot Paul Lockhart, and STS-113 Commander James Wetherbee. The primary mission of STS-113 is bringing the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and returning the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. Another major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is scheduled for Nov. 11 between midnight and 4 a.m. EST.

  15. Spectroscopic study of the microbial community in chemocline zones of relic meromictic lakes separating from the White Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharcheva, Anastasia V.; Krasnova, Elena D.; Voronov, Dmitry A.; Patsaeva, Svetlana V.

    2015-03-01

    As a result of a recent years study on the Karelia shore of the White Sea more than ten relict lakes in different stages of separation from the sea have been discovered. Five of them are located close to the Nikolai Pertsov White Sea Biological Station of Moscow State University. Such separated lakes are interesting to explore for their firm vertical stratification. Water layers differ not only by temperature, salinity and other physic and chemical characteristics and optical properties, but also by ibhabiting microorganisms and by the quality of dissolved organic matter. To study phototropic organisms in water sampled from different depths we used spectroscopic techniques. Identification of the main bands in the absorption and fluorescence spectra showed that there are two main groups of photosynthetic organisms in the redox zone (chemocline): unicellular algae containing chlorophyll a and green sulfur bacteria with bacteriochlorophylls c, d, e. Spectral data were compared with physical and chemical characteristics of the water layer (temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen and sunlight illumination at certain depth). It gave an opportunity to compare vertical profiles of oxygen and hydrogen sulphide concentration with the number and distribution of oxygenic and anoxygenic phototrophic microorganisms. Maximum abundance of both algae and green sulfur bacteria were achieved within the redox zone. Typical thickness of the layer with the highest concentration of microorganisms did not exceed 10-20 cm.

  16. Kardashev's Classification at 50+: A Fine Vehicle With Room for Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćirković, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    We review the history and status of the famous classification of extraterrestrial civilizations given by the great Russian astrophysicist Nikolai Semenovich Kardashev, roughly half a century after it has been proposed. While Kardashev's classification (or Kardashev's scale) has often been seen as oversimplified, and multiple improvements, refinements, and alternatives to it have been suggested, it is still one of the major tools for serious theoretical investigation of SETI issues. During these 50+ years, several attempts at modifying or reforming the classification have been made; we review some of them here, together with presenting some of the scenarios which present difficulties to the standard version. Recent results in both theoretical and observational SETI studies, especially the {Ĝ infrared survey (2014-2015), have persuasively shown that the emphasis on detectability inherent in Kardashev's classification obtains new significance and freshness. Several new movements and conceptual frameworks, such as the Dysonian SETI, tally extremely well with these developments. So, the apparent simplicity of the classification is highly deceptive: Kardashev's work offers a wealth of still insufficiently studied methodological and epistemological ramifications and it remains, in both letter and spirit, perhaps the worthiest legacy of the SETI "founding fathers".

  17. Plaster of Paris: the orthopaedic surgeon heritage.

    PubMed

    Hernigou, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    Plastering is one of the most ancient of the building handicrafts. Plaster is the common name for calcium sulphate hemi hydrate made by heating the mineral gypsum, the common name for sulphate of lime. In the tenth century the Arabs used liquid plaster in orthopaedic treatment. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, patients with fractures of the lower extremities-and often of the upper extremities as well-were treated in bed with restriction of all activity for many weeks until the fractures united. It was the practice of surgeons to dress wounds and fractures at frequent intervals. The bandages, pads, and splints were removed, the fractures manipulated, and the dressings reapplied. The search for simpler, less cumbersome methods of treatment led to the development of occlusive dressings, stiffened at first with starch and later with plaster of Paris. The ambulatory treatment of fractures was the direct result of these innovations. Two military surgeons, Antonius Mathijsen of the Netherlands, and Nikolai Ivanovitch Pirogov of Russia, were responsible for the introduction of the new plaster bandage technique. At the beginning of the twentieth century the technique was improved by Jean-François Calot, a French surgeon, who invented the hand manufacture of plaster bandage as a roll. During the twentieth century, walking cast and ambulation for fresh fractures were developed with plaster and pin incorporated in plaster; the open fracture care concept was introduced with plaster of Paris by Trueta before the external fixation.

  18. STS-71 Crew Lunch and Photo Opportunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Already well into their launch day timeline, the STS-71 flight crew pauses for lunch in the Operations and Checkout Building. From left are Mission Specialists Gregory J. Harbaugh and Bonnie J. Dunbar; Payload Commander Dr. Ellen S. Baker; STS-71 Mission Commander Robert L. 'Hoot' Gibson; Mir 19 Mission Commander Anatoly Y. Solovyev; Mir 19 Flight Engineer Nikolai M. Budarin; and STS-71 Pilot Charles J. Precourt. The crew's wakeup time was 4:43 a.m.EDT, exactly 12 hours before the planned launch time of 4:43:02 p.m. EDT. While this means that today will be a long workday for the crew, their schedule is being driven by the mission timeline to insure that they are well-rested when it comes time to carry out the prime objective of Mission STS-71: the first rendezvous and docking between the U.S. Space Shuttle and the Russian Space Station Mir. The flight crew will receive a weather briefing before donning their launch/entry suits and departing for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Atlantis stands poised for liftoff on the 100th U.S. human space launch.

  19. STS-113/Endeavour/ISS 11A Pre-Launch - Launch On Orbit - Landing - Crew Egress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The crew of STS-113 and the Expedition 6 crew of the International Space Station (ISS) are introduced leaving the suitup room and while being assisted in their seats onboard Space Shuttle Endeavour. The shuttle's crew consisted of Commander Jim Wetherbee, Pilot Paul Lockhart and Mission Specialists Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington. The Expedition 6 crew consisted of Commander Ken Bowersox, Flight Engineer Nikolai Budarin and NASA ISS Science Officer Don Pettit. Clips of the Endeavour's night launch are shown from these cameras: Beach Tracker, VAB, Pad A, OTV-60, OTV-70, Tower 1, UCS-15, Press Site Grandstand, Cocoa Beach DOAMS, Playalinda Beach DOAMS, UCS-23, and the In-Cabin Camera. While on-orbit, highlights include the docking of Endeavour with the ISS, the Change of Command Ceremony by the Expedition 5 and 6 crews of the ISS, the mating of the P1 and S0 Trusses, and three extravehicular activities (EVAs) by astronauts Lopez-Allegria and Herrington. The shuttle crew also repairs a leak in the onboard Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly. Clips of the shuttle's landing are shown from these cameras: VAB, Tower 1, Midfield, Runway South End, Runway North End, Tower 2, Playalinda DOAMS, UCS-3 Infrared, UCS-23, Midfield Infrared, and Pilot Point of View (PPOV).

  20. STS-113 and Expedition 6 crews leave the O&C Building for second launch attempt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The STS-113 and Expedition 6 crews stride down the ramp from the Operations and Checkout Building, eager to head for Launch Pad 39A and Space Shuttle Endeavour for a second launch attempt. The launch on Nov. 22 was scrubbed due to poor weather conditions at the Transoceanic Abort Landing sites. In front, left to right, are Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox and Mission Commander James Wetherbee; next row, Mission Specialist Michael Lopez-Alegria and Pilot Paul Lockhart; third row, Mission Specialist John Herrington and Expedition 6 flight engineer Nikolai Budarin; and finally, Expedition 6 flight engineer Donald Pettit. The launch will carry the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and return the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. The major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is now scheduled for Nov. 23 at 7:50 p.m. EST. [Photo by Scott Andrews

  1. STS-113 and Expedition 6 crews leave the O&C Building for second launch attempt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Waving at spectators, the STS-113 and Expedition 6 crews head for the Astrovan that will transport them to Launch Pad 39A and Space Shuttle Endeavour for a second launch attempt. The launch on Nov. 22 was scrubbed due to poor weather conditions at the Transoceanic Abort Landing sites. In the foreground, from left, are Mission Specialists John Herrington and Michael Lopez-Alegria, and Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox; in the background, from left, are Expedition 6 flight engineers Donald Pettit and Nikolai Budarin, Mission Pilot Paul Lockhart and Commander James Wetherbee. The launch will carry the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and return the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. The major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is now scheduled for Nov. 23 at 7:50 p.m. EST.

  2. STS-113 and Expedition 6 crews leave the O&C Building for second launch attempt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The STS-113 and Expedition 6 crews head for the Astrovan that will transport them to Launch Pad 39A and Space Shuttle Endeavour for a second launch attempt. The launch on Nov. 22 was scrubbed due to poor weather conditions at the Transoceanic Abort Landing sites. From left are Expedition 6 flight engineer Donald Pettit; a security guard; Expedition 6 flight engineer Nikolai Budarin; Mission Specialists John Herrington and Michael Lopez-Alegria, Pilot Paul Lockhart and Commander James Wetherbee (background); and Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox. The launch will carry the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and return the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. The major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is now scheduled for Nov. 23 at 7:50 p.m. EST. [Photo by Scott Andrews

  3. STS-113 crew breakfast before second launch attempt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On the second launch attempt, the STS-113 crew enjoys a snack before suiting up for launch. The launch was scrubbed on Nov. 22 because of poor weather in the Transoceanic Abort Landing sites. Seated left to right are Mission Specialists Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington, Pilot Paul Lockhart and Commander James Wetherbee; Expedition 6 flight engineer Nikolai Budarin, Commander Ken Bowersox and flight engineer Donald Pettit. STS-113 is the 16th American assembly flight to the International Space Station. The launch will carry the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and return the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. The major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is now scheduled for Nov. 23 at 7:50 p.m. EST.

  4. STS-113 Flight Day 3 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This video shows the activities of the STS-113 crew (Jim Wetherbee, Commander; Paul Lockhart, Pilot; Michael Lopez-Alegria, John Herrington, Mission Specialists) during flight day 3. The major tasks of flight day 3 were rendezvous and docking with the ISS (International Space Station), the transfer of the Expedition 6 crew (Kenneth Bowersox, Commander; Donald Pettit, Nikolai Budarin, Flight Engineers) to the ISS, and preparations for an EVA (extravehicular activity) scheduled for the following day. The approach of Space Shuttle Endeavour to the ISS is shown in detail, including the firing of the Left Orbital Maneuvering System, and the aiming maneuvers the orbiter makes to dock with the ISS. There are centerline views of the ISS before and during the final docking maneuver. The new ISS crew is received by the Expedition 5 crew (Valeri Korzun, Commander; Peggy Whitsun, Sergei Treschev; Flight Engineers), and the transfer of EVA suits is shown. Earth views include a pan along a reddish Earth limb, and the Pacific Ocean with Endeavour's Canadarm robotic arm in the foreground.

  5. STS-113 and Expedition 6 crews leave the O&C building for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The STS-113 and Expedition 6 crews leave the Operations and Checkout Building, heading for Launch Pad 39A and Space Shuttle Endeavour. In front, left to right, are Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox and Mission Commander James Wetherbee; next row, Mission Specialist John Herrington and Pilot Paul Lockhart; third row, Mission Specialist Michael Lopez-Alegria and Expedition 6 flight engineer Nikolai Budarin; and finally, Expedition 6 flight engineer Donald Pettit. The primary mission for the crew is bringing the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and returning the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. The major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is scheduled for Nov. 22, 2002, at 8:15 p.m. EST.

  6. STS-113 and Expedition 6 crews leave the O&C Building for second launch attempt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The STS-113 and Expedition 6 crews leave the Operations and Checkout Building, heading for Launch Pad 39A and Space Shuttle Endeavour for a second launch attempt. The launch on Nov. 22 was scrubbed due to poor weather conditions at the Transoceanic Abort Landing sites. In front, left to right, are Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox and Mission Commander James Wetherbee; next row, Mission Specialist Michael Lopez-Alegria and Pilot Paul Lockhart; third row, Mission Specialist John Herrington and Expedition 6 flight engineer Nikolai Budarin; and finally, Expedition 6 flight engineer Donald Pettit. The launch will carry the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and return the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. The major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is now scheduled for Nov. 23 at 7:50 p.m. EST. [Photo by Scott Andrews

  7. STS-113 Flight Day 6 Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-11-01

    This video shows the activities of the STS-113 crew (Jim Wetherbee, Commander; Paul Lockhart, Pilot; Michael Lopez-Alegria, John Herrington, Mission Specialists) during flight day 6. Also shown are the Expedition 5 (Valeri Korzun, Commander; Peggy Whitsun, ISS Science Officer/Flight Engineer; Sergei Treschev, Flight Engineer) and Expedition 6 (Kenneth Bowersox, Commander; Donald Pettit, Nikolai Budarin, Flight Engineers) crews of the ISS (International Space Station). The primary activity of flight day 6 is the outfitting of the P1 (Port 1) Truss Structure. The suiting up and departure of Lopez-Alegria and Herrington through the ISS Quest airlock is shown. The departure is shown through sequential still video. The ISS CETA handrail cart is shown in use, as is a pistol-grip space tool. At the end of the EVA, the astronauts are shown cleaning up outside the ISS. The video also contains a Thanksgiving message about the importance of technological advances in spaceflight, and footage of the Moon disappearing behind the Earth's limb.

  8. STS-113 Flight Day 6 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This video shows the activities of the STS-113 crew (Jim Wetherbee, Commander; Paul Lockhart, Pilot; Michael Lopez-Alegria, John Herrington, Mission Specialists) during flight day 6. Also shown are the Expedition 5 (Valeri Korzun, Commander; Peggy Whitsun, ISS Science Officer/Flight Engineer; Sergei Treschev, Flight Engineer) and Expedition 6 (Kenneth Bowersox, Commander; Donald Pettit, Nikolai Budarin, Flight Engineers) crews of the ISS (International Space Station). The primary activity of flight day 6 is the outfitting of the P1 (Port 1) Truss Structure. The suiting up and departure of Lopez-Alegria and Herrington through the ISS Quest airlock is shown. The departure is shown through sequential still video. The ISS CETA handrail cart is shown in use, as is a pistol-grip space tool. At the end of the EVA, the astronauts are shown cleaning up outside the ISS. The video also contains a Thanksgiving message about the importance of technological advances in spaceflight, and footage of the Moon disappearing behind the Earth's limb.

  9. Fourth Report of the Task Force on the Shuttle-Mir Rendezvous and Docking Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    On December 6, 1994, the NASA Administrator, Mr. Daniel Goldin, requested that Lt. Gen. Thomas P. Stafford, in his role as the Chairman of the NASA Advisory Council Task Force on the Shuttle-Mir Rendezvous and Docking Missions, lead a team composed of several Task Force members and technical advisors' to Russia with the goal of reviewing preparations and readiness for the upcoming international Space Station Phase 1 missions. In his directions to Gen. Stafford, Mr. Goldin requested that the review team focus its initial efforts on safety of flight issues for the following Phase 1A missions: the Soyuz TM-21 mission which will carry U.S. astronaut Dr. Norman Thagard and cosmonauts Lt. Col. Vladimir Dezhurov and Mr. Gennady Strekalov aboard a Soyuz spacecraft to the Mir Station; the Mir 18 Main Expedition during which Thagard and his fellow cosmonauts, Dezhurov and Strokalov, will spend approximately three months aboard the Mir Station; the STS-71 Space Shuttle mission which will perform the first Shuttle-Mir docking, carry cosmonauts Col. Anatoly SoloViev and Mr. Nikolai Budarin to the Mir Station, and return Thagard, Dezhurov, and Strekalov to Earth.

  10. [Riva-Rocci and blood pressure].

    PubMed

    van Gijn, Jan; Gijselhart, Joost P

    2013-01-01

    Scipione Riva-Rocci (1863-1937) was educated in Turin as a physician and later as a doctor of internal medicine. In 1896 and 1897 he published a series of four articles (in Italian) on a new method for measuring blood pressure. Previous non-invasive methods were all based on compression of the radial pulse, in keeping with centuries of medical tradition, but they were cumbersome and unreliable. Riva-Rocci's innovation consisted in compressing the brachial artery instead, at the level of the upper arm. For this purpose he devised an inflatable rubber tube, which was rigid on the outside. Disappearance of the radial pulse on palpation indicated the systolic arterial pressure, as Riva-Rocci confirmed by calibration experiments in animals and with human cadavers. His instrument was introduced world-wide after a chance visit by the American neurosurgeon Harvey Cushing (1869-1939). The Russian surgeon Nikolai Korotkoff (1874-1920) was the first to apply auscultation of the artery below the cuff (in 1905), a method that allowed determination of diastolic arterial pressure. Riva-Rocci was Chief of Medicine at the municipal hospital in Varese from 1900 to 1928, where he developed a special interest in paediatrics. PMID:23328024

  11. Heat flow through the sea bottom around the Yucatan Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Khutorskoy, M.D.; Kononov, V.I.; Polyak, B.G. ); Fernandez, R. ); Matveev, V.G.; Rot, A.A. )

    1990-02-10

    Heat flow studies were conducted in January-February 1987, off the Atlantic Coast of Mexico on board the R/V Akademik Nikolai Strakhov. Two areas were surveyed, one transecting the Salt Dome Province and the Campeche Canyon, in the Gulf of Mexico, and the other, on the eastern flank of the Yucatan Peninsula. Conductive heat flow through the bottom sediments was determined as the product of vertical temperature gradient and in situ thermal conductivity, measured with a thermal probe using a multithermistor array and real-time processing capabilities. Forward two-dimensional modeling allows one to estimate heat flow variations at both sites from local disturbances and to obtain average heat flow values of 51 mW/m{sup 2} for the transect within the Gulf of Mexico and 38 and 69 mW/m{sup 2} for two basins within the Yucatan area. Sea bottom relief has a predominant effect over other environmental factors in the scatter of heat flow determination in the Gulf of Mexico.

  12. [Neurosciences and the ravings of the Soviet era. Spanish Republican physicians, a set of privileged witnesses].

    PubMed

    Marco-Igual, Miguel

    2011-08-16

    This study analyses the links between the Russian and Soviet neurosciences and their Spanish counterpart, especially with regard to the experiences of the Spanish Republican physicians exiled in the USSR. The Russian neurosciences, which date back to the second half of the 19th century, followed a path that ran parallel to the discipline throughout the rest of Europe and finally displayed signs of being influenced by the German and French schools. Important figures include Alexei Kojevnikov and Vladimir Bekhterev in neurology, Sergei Korsakov in psychiatry, Ivan Pavlov and his disciple Piotr Anojin in neurophysiology, Lev Vygotsky and Alexander Luria in neuropsychology, and Nikolai Burdenko in neurosurgery. When the Bolsheviks came to power, they brought with them a progressive conception of health care, which was modified during the Stalinist era to serve political interests, above all in the case of psychiatry. During the first third of the 20th century, Spanish scientists became interested in Pavlov's reflexology and the Soviets took a similar interest in Spanish histology. Among the 4500 Spanish Republicans who emigrated to the USSR because of the Spanish Civil War, there were several dozen physicians who were privileged witnesses of the madness that shook the science and the health care of that period. Relevant names worth citing here from the field of the neurosciences include Juan Planelles and Ramon Alvarez-Buylla in neurophysiology, Federico Pascual and Florencio Villa Landa in psychiatry, Angel Escobio and Maria Perez in neurology, Julian Fuster in neurosurgery and Manuel Arce in neuroimaging. PMID:21780075

  13. The bliss (not the problem) of motor abundance (not redundancy).

    PubMed

    Latash, Mark L

    2012-03-01

    Motor control is an area of natural science exploring how the nervous system interacts with other body parts and the environment to produce purposeful, coordinated actions. A central problem of motor control-the problem of motor redundancy-was formulated by Nikolai Bernstein as the problem of elimination of redundant degrees-of-freedom. Traditionally, this problem has been addressed using optimization methods based on a variety of cost functions. This review draws attention to a body of recent findings suggesting that the problem has been formulated incorrectly. An alternative view has been suggested as the principle of abundance, which considers the apparently redundant degrees-of-freedom as useful and even vital for many aspects of motor behavior. Over the past 10 years, dozens of publications have provided support for this view based on the ideas of synergic control, computational apparatus of the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis, and the equilibrium-point (referent configuration) hypothesis. In particular, large amounts of "good variance"-variance in the space of elements that has no effect on the overall performance-have been documented across a variety of natural actions. "Good variance" helps an abundant system to deal with secondary tasks and unexpected perturbations; its amount shows adaptive modulation across a variety of conditions. These data support the view that there is no problem of motor redundancy; there is bliss of motor abundance. PMID:22246105

  14. The Bliss of Motor Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Latash, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Motor control is an area of natural science exploring how the nervous system interacts with other body parts and the environment to produce purposeful, coordinated actions. A central problem of motor control – the problem of motor redundancy – was formulated by Nikolai Bernstein as the problem of elimination of redundant degrees-of-freedom. Traditionally, this problem has been addressed using optimization methods based on a variety of cost functions. This review draws attention to a body of recent findings suggesting that the problem has been formulated incorrectly. An alternative view has been suggested as the principle of abundance, which considers the apparently redundant degrees-of-freedom as useful and even vital for many aspects of motor behavior. Over the past ten years, dozens of publications have provided support for this view based on the ideas of synergic control, computational apparatus of the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis, and the equilibrium-point (referent configuration) hypothesis. In particular, large amounts of “good variance” – variance in the space of elements that has no effect on the overall performance – have been documented across a variety of natural actions. “Good variance” helps an abundant system to deal with secondary tasks and unexpected perturbations; its amount shows adaptive modulation across a variety of conditions. These data support the view that there is no problem of motor redundancy; there is bliss of motor abundance. PMID:22246105

  15. Maximum Jailbreak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singleton, B.

    First formulated one hundred and fifty years ago by the heretical scholar Nikolai Federov, the doctrine of cosmism begins with an absolute refusal to treat the most basic factors conditioning life on Earth ­ gravity and death ­ as necessary constraints on action. As manifest through the intoxicated cheers of its early advocates that humans should storm the heavens and conquer death, cosmism's foundational gesture was to conceive of the earth as a trap. Its duty was therefore to understand the duty of philosophy, economics and design to be the creation of means to escape it. This could be regarded as a jailbreak at the maximum possible scale, a heist in which the human species could steal itself from the vault of the Earth. After several decades of relative disinterest new space ventures are inspiring scientific, technological and popular imaginations, this essay explores what kind of cosmism might be constructed today. In this paper cosmism's position as a means of escape is both reviewed and evaluated by reflecting on the potential of technology that actually can help us achieve its aims and also through the lens and state-ofthe-art philosophy of accelerationism, which seeks to outrun modern tropes by intensifying them.

  16. The strength of a loosely defined movement: eugenics and medicine in imperial Russia.

    PubMed

    Krementsov, Nikolai

    2015-01-01

    This essay examines the 'infiltration' of eugenics into Russian medical discourse during the formation of the eugenics movement in western Europe and North America in 1900-17. It describes the efforts of two Russian physicians, the bacteriologist and hygienist Nikolai Gamaleia (1859-1949) and the psychiatrist Tikhon Iudin (1879-1949), to introduce eugenics to the Russian medical community, analysing in detail what attracted these representatives of two different medical specialties to eugenic ideas, ideals, and policies advocated by their western colleagues. On the basis of a close examination of the similarities and differences in Gamaleia's and Iudin's attitudes to eugenics, the essay argues that lack of cohesiveness gave the early eugenics movement a unique strength. The loose mix of widely varying ideas, ideals, methods, policies, activities and proposals covered by the umbrella of eugenics offered to a variety of educated professionals in Russia and elsewhere the possibility of choosing, adopting and adapting particular elements to their own national, professional, institutional and disciplinary contexts, interests and agendas.

  17. Palynostratigraphical correlation of the excavated Miocene lignite seams of the Yataǧan basin (Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Grímsson, Friðgeir; Denk, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The excavated main lignite seams and overlying lacustrine sediments of the opencast mines Eskihisar, Salihpaşalar, and Tı naz, Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey were investigated using a high taxonomic resolution palynological approach. The Eskihisar section comprises 47m and 56 samples of which 30 were usable for palynological analysis. The Tı naz section comprises 75 m and 29 samples of which 15 were usable for palynological analysis. Finally, the Salihpaşalar section comprises 25 m and 26 samples of which 16 were usable for palynological analysis. The age of the palynological sections is middle to late Miocene based on radiometric dating and vertebrate fossils. In order to investigate dispersed pollen and spores and their botanical affinities a combined light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy approach was used. The rich palynoflora comprises: seven types of algal cysts (Botryococcus, Zygnemataceae), seventeen spore types belonging to Lycopsida (club mosses), Marsileaceae (water-clover), Osmundaceae, Pteridaceae (brake), and Polypodiaceae; 14 types of gymnosperm pollen belonging to Ephedraceae (Mormon tea), Cupressaceae, Pinaceae (Cathaya, cedar, hemlock, pine, spruce); five types of monocotyledone pollen belonging to Poaceae (grasses, common reed), and Typhaceae (bulrush, bur-reed); ca 90 dicotyledone pollen types belonging to Altingiaceae (sweet gum), Amaranthaceae (goosefoot), Anacardiaceae (sumac family), Apiaceae (parsley family), Aquifoliaceae (holly), Asteraceae (sunflower family), Betulaceae (alder, birch, hazel, hophornbeam, hornbeam), Campanulaceae (bellflower family), Cannabaceae (hackberries), Caprifoliaceae (honeysuckle, teasel family), Caryophyllaceae (pink family), Ericaceae (heather family), Eucommiaceae, Euphorbiaceae (spurge family), Fabaceae (bean family), Fagaceae (beech, oak), Geraniaceae (storkbills), Juglandaceae (hickory, walnut, wingnut), Lamiaceae (bagflower), Linaceae (flax), Lythraceae (waterwillow), Malvaceae

  18. Middle Miocene dispersals of apes.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Peter; Kelley, Jay

    2007-01-01

    The earliest record of fossil apes outside Africa is in the latest early Miocene of Turkey and eastern Europe. There were at least 2, and perhaps 4, species of ape, which were found associated with subtropical mixed environments of forest and more open woodland. Postcranial morphology is similar to that of early Miocene primates and indicates mainly generalized arboreal quadrupedal behaviours similar to those of less specialized New World monkeys such as Cebus. Robust jaws and thick enamelled teeth indicate a hard fruit diet. The 2 best known species of fossil ape are known from the site of Paşalar in Turkey. They have almost identical molar and jaw morphology. Molar morphology is also similar to that of specimens from Germany and Slovakia, but there are significant differences in the anterior teeth of the 2 Paşalar species. The more common species, Griphopithecus alpani, shares mainly primitive characters with early and middle Miocene apes in Africa, and it is most similar phenetically to Equatorius africanus from Maboko Island and Kipsaramon. The second species is assigned to a new species of Kenyapithecus, an African genus from Fort Ternan in Kenya, on the basis of a number of shared derived characters of the anterior dentition, and it is considered likely that there is a phylogenetic link between them. The African sites all date from the middle Miocene, similar in age to the Turkish and European ones, and the earliest emigration of apes from Africa coincides with the closure of the Tethys Sea preceding the Langhian transgression. Environments indicated for the African sites are mixtures of seasonal woodlands with some forest vegetation. The postcrania of both African taxa again indicate generalized arboreal adaptation but lacking specialized arboreal function. This middle Miocene radiation of both African and non-African apes was preceded by a radiation of arboreal catarrhine primates in the early Miocene, among which were the earliest apes. The earliest

  19. Astronomy in the Russian Scientific-Educational Project: "KAZAN-GEONA-2010"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, A.; Kitiashvili, I.

    2006-08-01

    The European Union promotes the Sixth Framework Programme. One of the goals of the EU Programme is opening national research and training programs. A special role in the history of the Kazan University was played by the great mathematician Nikolai Lobachevsky - the founder of non-Euclidean geometry (1826). Historically, the thousand-year old city of Kazan and the two-hundred-year old Kazan University carry out the role of the scientific, organizational, and cultural educational center of the Volga region. For the continued successful development of educational and scientific-educational activity of the Russian Federation, the Republic Tatarstan, Kazan was offered the national project: the International Center of the Sciences and Internet Technologies "GeoNa" (Geometry of Nature - GeoNa - is wisdom, enthusiasm, pride, grandeur). This is a modern complex of conference halls including the Center for Internet Technologies, a 3D Planetarium - development of the Moon, PhysicsLand, an active museum of natural sciences, an oceanarium, and a training complex "Spheres of Knowledge". Center GeoNa promotes the direct and effective channel of cooperation with scientific centers around the world. GeoNa will host conferences, congresses, fundamental scientific research sessions of the Moon and planets, and scientific-educational actions: presentation of the international scientific programs on lunar research and modern lunar databases. A more intense program of exchange between scientific centers and organizations for a better knowledge and planning of their astronomical curricula and the introduction of the teaching of astronomy are proposed. Center GeoNa will enable scientists and teachers of the Russian universities with advanced achievements in science and information technologies to join together to establish scientific communications with foreign colleagues in the sphere of the high technology and educational projects with world scientific centers.

  20. Bortnikovite, Pd4Cu3Zn, a new mineral species from the unique Konder placer deposit, Khabarovsk krai, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochalov, A. G.; Tolkachev, M. D.; Polekhovsky, Yu. S.; Goryacheva, E. M.

    2007-08-01

    Bortnikovite, a new mineral species that is an intermetallic compound of Pd, Cu, and Zn with the simplified formula Pd4Cu3Zn has been detected at the unique Konder placer deposit in the Ayan-Maya district, Khabarovsk krai. The primary source of this placer is a concentrically zoned alkaline ultramafic massif. The X-ray diffraction pattern is indexed on the assumption of a tetragonal unit cell: a = 6.00 ± 0.02 Å and c = 8.50 ± 0.03 Å, V = 306 ± 0.01 Å3, Z = 3, probable space group P4/mmm. The calculated density is 11.16 g/cm3; the mean microhardness VHN is 368 kg/mm2. In reflected light, the new mineral is white with a slight grayish beige tint; bireflectance, anisotropy, and internal reflections are not observed. The reflectance spectrum belongs to the concave group of the anomalous type. The measured values of reflectance are as follows: 56.9 (470 nm), 61.7 (546 nm), 63.4 (589 nm), and 65.4% (650 nm). The new mineral is intergrown with isoferroplatinum, titanite, perovskite, V-bearing magnetite, bornite, and chlorite. The origin of bortnikovite is related to the effect of alkaline fluid on ultramafic rocks. The new mineral is named in honor of Professor Nikolai Stefanovich Bortnikov, a prominent mineralogist and researcher of ore deposits and a corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Bortnikovite is the first platinum group mineral that contains Zn as a major mineralforming element.

  1. Integration of posture and movement: contributions of Sherrington, Hess, and Bernstein.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Douglas G

    2005-01-01

    Neural mechanisms that integrate posture with movement are widespread throughout the central nervous system (CNS), and they are recruited in patterns that are both task- and context-dependent. Scientists from several countries who were born in the 19th century provided essential groundwork for these modern-day concepts. Here, the focus is on three of this group with each selected for a somewhat different reason. Charles Sherrington (1857-1952) had innumerable contributions that were certainly needed in the subsequent study of posture and movement: inhibition as an active coordinative mechanism, the functional anatomy of spinal cord-muscle connectivity, and helping set the stage for modern work on the sensorimotor cortex and the corticospinal tract. Sadly, however, by not championing the work of his trainee and collaborator, Thomas Graham Brown (1882-1965), he delayed progress on two key motor control mechanisms: central programming and pattern generation. Walter Hess (1881-1973), a self-taught experimentalist, is now best known for his work on CNS coordination of autonomic (visceral) and emotional behavior. His contributions to posture and movement, however, were also far-reaching: the coordination of eye movements and integration of goal-directed and "framework" (anticipatory set) motor behavior. Nikolai Bernstein (1896-1966), the quintessence of an interdisciplinary, self-taught movement neuroscientist, made far-reaching contributions that were barely recognized by Western workers prior to the 1960s. Today, he is widely praised for showing that the CNS's hierarchy of control mechanisms for posture and movement is organized hand-in-hand with distributed and parallel processing, with all three subject to evolutionary pressures. He also made important observations, like those of several previous workers, on the goal focus of voluntary movements. The contributions of Sherrington, Hess, and Bernstein are enduring. They prompt thought on the philosophical axioms that

  2. Electrical Transport and Thermal Expansion in van der Waals Materials: Graphene and Topological Insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Lei

    Novel two-dimensional materials with weak interlayer Van der Waals interaction are fantastic platforms to study novel physical phenomena. This thesis describes our investigation on two different Van der Waals materials: graphene and bismuth selenide with calcium doping (CaxBi 2-xSe3, x as the doping level) in the topological insulator family. Firstly, we characterize the electrical transport behaviors of high-quality substrate-supported bilayer graphene devices with suspended metal gates. The device exhibits a transport gap induced by external electric field with an on/off ratio of 20,000, which could be explained by variable range hoping between localized states or disordered charge puddles. At large magnetic field, the device presents quantum Hall plateau at fractional values of conductance quantum, which arises from the equilibration of edge states between differentially doped regions. Secondly, we present our study on the electronic transport of CaxBi 2-xSe3 thin films, which are three-dimensional topological insulators and coupled with superconducting leads. In these novel Josephson transistors, we observe different characteristic features by energy dispersion spectrum (EDS) and Raman spectroscopy, and the weak suppression in the critical current Ic. Thirdly, we explore the thermal expansion of suspended graphene. By in-situ scanning electron microscope (SEM), we measure the thickness-dependence of graphene's negative thermal expansion coefficient (TEC). We propose that there is a competitive relation between the intrinsic TEC and the friction from the substrate and the graphene. Lastly, in collaboration with Dr. Nikolai Kalugin from New Mexico Tech., we explore the graphene's application as a quantum Hall effect infrared photodetector. This graphene-based detector can be operated at higher temperature (liquid nitrogen) and wider frequency than the previous implementations of quantum Hall detector.

  3. Costs and deaths of landslides in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haque, Ubydul; Blum, Philipp

    2016-04-01

    Landslides cause human and large economic losses worldwide and also in Europe. However, the quantification of associated costs and deaths is highly underestimated and still incomplete, thus the estimation of landslide costs and risk is still rather ambitious. Hence, in this study a spatio-temporal analysis of fatal landslides is presented for 27 European countries from 1995-2014. These landslides are mainly concentrated in mountainous areas. A total of 1370 fatalities are reported resulting from 476 landslides. The highest fatalities with 335 are observed in Turkey. In general, an increasing trend of fatal landslides is recognized starting in 2008. The latter is almost certainly triggered by an increase in natural extreme events such as storms (i.e. heavy rainfall) and floods. The highest annual economic loss is observed in Italy with 3.9 billion Euro per year. In contrast, in Germany the annual total loss is only about 0.3 billion Euro. The results of this study serves as an initial baseline information for further risk studies integrating landslide locations, local land use data, cost data, and will therefore certainly support the studied countries to better protect their citizens and assets. Acknowledgements We would like to acknowledge the valuable contributions by Paula F. da Silva, Peter Andersen, Jürgen Pilz, Ali Ardalan, Sergey R. Chalov, Jean-Philippe Malet, Mateja Jemec Auflič, Norina Andres, Eleftheria Poyiadji, Pedro C. Lamas, Wenyi Zhang, Igor Pesevski, Halldór G. Pétursson, Tayfun Kurt, Nikolai Dobrev, Juan Carlos García Davalillo, Matina Halkia, Stefano Ferri, George Gaprindashvili, Johanna Engström and David Keellings.

  4. E906/SeaQuest MARS15 Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, David; Geelhoed, Mike; /Fermilab

    2011-02-01

    The E906/SeaQuest spectrometer is designed to measure high energy muons produced in the forward direction by interactions of the 120 GeV Main Injector proton beam with a variety of targets. The spectrometer consists of two dipole magnets (both of which deflect charged particles in the horizontal plane) and a collection of tracking detectors. The first spectrometer magnet (FMAG) is a solid iron magnet. This magnet serves as a beam dump as well as a muon analysis magnet. A series of MARS15 simulations were done by Nikolai Mokhov to verify and guide the design of concrete shielding around FMAG and the target area immediately upstream of FMAG. The result of the fourth and last round of simulations is summarized here. This was a high statistics simulation that required approximately 48 cpu-weeks of computing time on the APC Energy Deposition Group cluster. The MARS15 simulation used a model of FMAG and its surroundings. The model includes air gaps in the concrete shielding, the largest of which are required because of the geometry of the saddle coils. A small volume surrounding the beam line just upstream of the magnet is filled with borated polyethylene. The borated polyethylene extends into the air gap necessitated by the saddle coils. With the exception of the top layer of six 'H' blocks, the concrete shielding is modeled in detail. The top layer of blocks are intended to shield the roof and downstream end of NM4 in the event of a loss of beam accident well upstream of the target; they provide only a small benefit in the normal running condition simulated by MARS.

  5. Ernst Julius Öpik's (1916) note on the theory of explosion cratering on the Moon's surface—The complex case of a long-overlooked benchmark paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racki, Grzegorz; Koeberl, Christian; Viik, Tõnu; Jagt-Yazykova, Elena A.; Jagt, John W. M.

    2014-10-01

    High-velocity impact as a common phenomenon in planetary evolution was ignored until well into the twentieth century, mostly because of inadequate understanding of cratering processes. An eight-page note, published in Russian by the young Ernst Julius Öpik, a great Estonian astronomer, was among the key selenological papers, but due to the language barrier, it was barely known and mostly incorrectly cited. This particular paper is here intended to serve as an explanatory supplement to an English translation of Öpik's article, but also to document an early stage in our understanding of cratering. First, we outline the historical-biographical background of this benchmark paper, and second, a comprehensive discussion of its merits is presented, from past and present perspectives alike. In his theoretical research, Öpik analyzed the explosive formation of craters numerically, albeit in a very simple way. For the first time, he approximated relationships among minimal meteorite size, impact energy, and crater diameter; this scaling focused solely on the gravitational energy of excavating the crater (a "useful" working approach). This initial physical model, with a rational mechanical basis, was developed in a series of papers up to 1961. Öpik should certainly be viewed as the founder of the numerical simulation approach in planetary sciences. In addition, the present note also briefly describes Nikolai A. Morozov as a remarkable man, a forgotten Russian scientist and, surprisingly, the true initiator of Öpik's explosive impact theory. In fact, already between 1909 and 1911, Morozov probably was the first to consider conclusively that explosion craters would be circular, bowl-shaped depressions even when formed under different impact angles.

  6. Petrology and tectonic significance of gabbros, tonalites, shoshonites, and anorthosites in a late Paleozoic arc-root complex in the Wrangellia Terrane, southern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, J.S. ); Barker, F. )

    1989-11-01

    Plutonic rocks intrusive into the late Paleozoic Tetelna Formation of southern Alaska are the underpinnings of the late Paleozoic Skolai arc of the Wrangellia Terrane. There are four groups of intrusive rocks within the Skolai arc: (1) Gabbro-diorite plutons that contain gabbroic to anorthositic cumulates along with a differentiated series of gabbros and diorites of basaltic to andesitic composition; (2) Silicic intrusions including tonalite, granodiorite, and granite; (3) Monzonitic to syenitic plutonic rocks of the Ahtell complex and related dikes and sills; (4) Fault-bounded bytownite anorthosite of uncertain age and association. These anorthosites may be related to post-Skolai, Nikolai Greenstone magmatism. The silicic rocks yield discordant U-Pb zircon ages of 290-320 Ma (early to late Pennsylvanian). The monzonitic rocks of the Ahtell complex have shoshonitic chemistry. Similar shoshonitic rocks are widespread in both the Wrangellia terrane and the neighboring Alexander terrane and intrude the contact between the two. In modern oceanic arcs, shoshonitic rocks are typically associated with tectonic instability occurring during the initial stages of subduction or just prior to or during termination or flip of an established subduction zone. The nature of any tectonic instability which may have led to the cessation of subduction in the Skolai arc is unclear. Possibilities include collision of the arc with a ridge, an oceanic plateau, another arc, or a continental fragment. One possibility is that the shoshonitic magmatism marks the late Paleozoic amalgamation of Wrangellia and the Alexander terrane. The scarcity of arc rocks predating the shoshonites in the Alexander terrane supports this possibility, but structural corroboration is lacking.

  7. The 100th anniversary of the birth of N E Alekseevskii (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 23 May 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-02-01

    The scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) commemorating the 100th anniversary of the birth of RAS Corresponding Member N E Alekseevskii took place on 23 May 2012 at the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS. The following reports were put on the session agenda as posted on the website http://www.gpad.ac.ru of the RAS Physical Sciences Division: (1) Kopaev Yu V (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "About N E Alekseevskii" (2) Brandt N B (Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow) "My teacher Nikolai Evgen'evich Alekseevskii"; (3) Peschansky V G (B I Verkin Physical-Technical Institute of Low Temperatures of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkov, Ukraine) "Galvanomagnetic effects in layered conductors"; (4) Krasnoperov E P (The National Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute', Moscow) "First steps of technical superconductivity in the USSR"; (5) Nizhankovsky V I (International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures, Wroclaw, Poland), Tsebro V I (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "History of creation and growth of the International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures".Papers written on the basis of oral presentations 2 - 5 are printed below. • The best years of my life, N B Brandt Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 2, Pages 192-198 • Galvanomagnetic phenomena in layered conductors, V G Peschansky Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 2, Pages 198-201 • At the origins of applied superconductivity, E P Krasnoperov Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 2, Pages 202-204 • International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures: how it was set up and how it evolved, V I Nizhankovskii, V I Tsebro Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 2, Pages 204-210

  8. The geophysical character of southern Alaska-Implications for crustal evolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saltus, R.W.; Hudson, T.L.; Wilson, F.H.

    2007-01-01

    The southern Alaska continental margin has undergone a long and complicated history of plate convergence, subduction, accretion, and margin-parallel displacements. The crustal character of this continental margin is discernible through combined analysis of aeromagnetic and gravity data with key constraints from previous seismic interpretation. Regional magnetic data are particularly useful in defining broad geophysical domains. One of these domains, the south Alaska magnetic high, is the focus of this study. It is an intense and continuous magnetic high up to 200 km wide and ∼1500 km long extending from the Canadian border in the Wrangell Mountains west and southwest through Cook Inlet to the Bering Sea shelf. Crustal thickness beneath the south Alaska magnetic high is commonly 40–50 km. Gravity analysis indicates that the south Alaska magnetic high crust is dense. The south Alaska magnetic high spatially coincides with the Peninsular and Wrangellia terranes. The thick, dense, and magnetic character of this domain requires significant amounts of mafic rocks at intermediate to deep crustal levels. In Wrangellia these mafic rocks are likely to have been emplaced during Middle and (or) Late Triassic Nikolai Greenstone volcanism. In the Peninsular terrane, the most extensive period of mafic magmatism now known was associated with the Early Jurassic Talkeetna Formation volcanic arc. Thus the thick, dense, and magnetic character of the south Alaska magnetic high crust apparently developed as the response to mafic magmatism in both extensional (Wrangellia) and subduction-related arc (Peninsular terrane) settings. The south Alaska magnetic high is therefore a composite crustal feature. At least in Wrangellia, the crust was probably of average thickness (30 km) or greater prior to Triassic mafic magmatism. Up to 20 km (40%) of its present thickness may be due to the addition of Triassic mafic magmas. Throughout the south Alaska magnetic high, significant crustal growth

  9. Is alveolar cleft reconstruction still controversial? (Review of literature).

    PubMed

    Seifeldin, Sameh A

    2016-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate (CL/P) is a frequent congenital malformation that manifests in several varieties including unilateral or bilateral and complete or incomplete. Alveolar cleft reconstruction remains controversial with regard to timing, graft materials, surgical techniques, and methods of evaluation. Many studies have been conducted addressing these points to develop an acceptable universal protocol for managing CL/P. The primary goal of alveolar cleft reconstruction in CL/P patients is to provide a bony bridge at the cleft site that allows maxillary arch continuity, oronasal fistula repair, eruption of the permanent dentition into the newly formed bone, enhances nasal symmetry through providing alar base support, orthodontic movement and placement of osseointegrated implants when indicated. Other goals include improving speech, improvement of periodontal conditions, establishing better oral hygiene, and limiting growth disturbances. In order to rehabilitate oral function in CL/P patients alveolar bone grafting is necessary. Secondary bone grafting is the most widely accepted method for treating alveolar clefts. Autogenous bone graft is the primary source for reconstructing alveolar cleft defects and is currently the preferred grafting material. PMID:26792963

  10. Aircraft-based measurements of the carbon footprint of Indianapolis.

    PubMed

    Mays, Kelly L; Shepson, Paul B; Stirm, Brian H; Karion, Anna; Sweeney, Colm; Gurney, Kevin R

    2009-10-15

    The quantification of greenhouse gas emissions requires high precision measurements made with high spatial resolution. Here we describe measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) conducted using Purdue University's Airborne Laboratory for Atmospheric Research (ALAR), aimed at the quantification of the "footprints" for these greenhouse gases for Indianapolis, IN. A cavity ring-down spectrometer measured atmospheric concentrations, and flask samples were obtained at various points for comparison. Coupled with pressure, temperature, and model-derived horizontal winds, these measurements allow for flux estimation. Long horizontal transects were flown perpendicular to the wind downwind of the city. Emissions were calculated using the wind speed and the difference between the concentration in the plume and the background concentration. A kriging method is applied to interpolate the measured values to a vertical plane traced out by the flight pattern within the mixed layer. Results show the urban plume is clearly distinguishable in the downwind concentrations for most flights. Additionally, there is large variability in the measured day-to-day emissions fluxes as well as in the relative CH4 and CO2 fluxes. Uncertainties in the method are discussed, and its potential utilityin determining sector-based emission factors is shown.

  11. Pythiosis in the Nasal Cavity of Horses.

    PubMed

    Souto, E P F; Maia, L A; Olinda, R G; Galiza, G J N; Kommers, G D; Miranda-Neto, E G; Dantas, A F M; Riet-Correa, F

    2016-01-01

    Two cases of nasal pythiosis are reported in horses from the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil. From January 1986 to December 2015, the Laboratory of Animal Pathology, Federal University of Campina Grande received 830 equine samples, 156 (18.79%) of which were diagnosed with pythiosis. Of these, two horses (1.28%), a male and a female adult cross-breed, had lesions in the nasal cavity. Both horses had access to water reservoirs. Clinically, they had swelling in the rhinofacial region and a serosanguineous nasal discharge. Macroscopically, in case 1, the lesion affected the nasal vestibule, extending to the alar cartilage and nasal septum. In case 2, the lesion extended through the turbinates and the meatuses of the nasal cavity, as well as the ethmoid region. In both cases, the lesions were characterized by having a yellow-grey granular surface with cavitations of different sizes containing coral-like masses of necrotic tissue (kunkers). Histologically, multifocal necrotizing eosinophilic rhinitis associated with hyphae (2-8 μm) similar to Pythium insidiosum were observed. In case 2, the lesions extended to the muscle, cartilage and bone adjacent to the nasal cavity and lungs. The diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. It is concluded that nasal pythiosis occurs sporadically in horses in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil where cutaneous pythiosis is prevalent. PMID:27406311

  12. Assessment of the 18-month permanence of onlay tip cartilage grafts following rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Persichetti, Paolo; Simone, Pierfranco; Carusi, Carlo

    2013-09-01

    Augmentation rhinoplasty requires addition of materials of various natures to reshape the nasal pyramid. Onlay tip grafts are single or multilayered grafts placed horizontally over the alar domes. The aim of the present study was to assess the 18-month permanence of onlay septal cartilage grafts. Twenty-eight patients underwent rhinoplasty with onlay tip cartilage graft, between June 2008 and November 2008 at the Campus Bio-Medico University in Rome, Italy. They were reviewed and photographed 6 months and 18 months postoperatively. Comparison of 6-month and 18-month postoperative pictures was performed with Adobe Photoshop CS. Measurements on pictures were taken with AutoCAD. Comparison of photographs showed no visible difference in nasal tip projection. Comparison of the measurements of tip projection showed a mean reduction of 0.06 mm (0.19%). Considerable stability of nasal tip projection after rhinoplasty with onlay tip grafts was observed postoperatively. Comparison of standardised digital photographs is a valid procedure to assess contour alterations of various anatomical structures after plastic surgery. PMID:23547534

  13. Interdomal Suture through a Nondelivery Endonasal Approach: A New Technique

    PubMed Central

    Leibou, Lior

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of interdomal sutures for tip refinement is common in open rhinoplasty and in endonasal rhinoplasty using a delivery technique, but there is paucity of reports in the literature regarding the use of interdomal suturing techniques when the nondelivery endonasal approach is chosen. Objective: The authors describe a technique designed to refine the nasal tip with an interdomal suture placed through a nondelivery endonasal approach. Methods: In this study, the authors retrospectively review the cases of 45 patients who underwent endonasal rhinoplasty with the authors’ interdomal suturing technique between the years 2011 and 2013. The average age of the patients was 25.3 years. Intercrural sutures (PDS 4.0 straight needle, Cincinnati, Ohio) were placed as mattress-like suture in the tip region, with the knot buried between both alar cartilages. The suture is tightened progressively according to the tip definition and narrowing sought. Results: The patients were followed for 12 months. All of the patients demonstrated a significant reduction in lobule and tip widths. This series had only 1 complication of tip asymmetry that was revised 1 year after the initial operation. There were no cases of infection, allergic reaction, or extrusion of the suture. Conclusions: Despite the lack of a large volume of patients, our study confirms that this technique is indeed an attractive and highly predictable option for achieving adequate tip refinement and definition when using a nondelivery endonasal rhinoplasty. PMID:27622086

  14. Mistranslation and its control by tRNA synthetases

    PubMed Central

    Schimmel, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Aminoacyl tRNA synthetases are ancient proteins that interpret the genetic material in all life forms. They are thought to have appeared during the transition from the RNA world to the theatre of proteins. During translation, they establish the rules of the genetic code, whereby each amino acid is attached to a tRNA that is cognate to the amino acid. Mistranslation occurs when an amino acid is attached to the wrong tRNA and subsequently is misplaced in a nascent protein. Mistranslation can be toxic to bacteria and mammalian cells, and can lead to heritable mutations. The great challenge for nature appears to be serine-for-alanine mistranslation, where even small amounts of this mistranslation cause severe neuropathologies in the mouse. To minimize serine-for-alanine mistranslation, powerful selective pressures developed to prevent mistranslation through a special editing activity imbedded within alanyl-tRNA synthetases (AlaRSs). However, serine-for-alanine mistranslation is so challenging that a separate, genome-encoded fragment of the editing domain of AlaRS is distributed throughout the Tree of Life to redundantly prevent serine-to-alanine mistranslation. Detailed X-ray structural and functional analysis shed light on why serine-for-alanine mistranslation is a universal problem, and on the selective pressures that engendered the appearance of AlaXps at the base of the Tree of Life. PMID:21930589

  15. Molecular Marker Differences Relate to Developmental Position and Subsets of Mesodiencephalic Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Smits, Simone M.; von Oerthel, Lars; Hoekstra, Elisa J.; Burbach, J. Peter H; Smidt, Marten P.

    2013-01-01

    The development of mesodiencephalic dopaminergic (mdDA) neurons located in the substantia nigra compacta (SNc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) follow a number of stages marked by distinct events. After preparation of the region by signals that provide induction and patterning, several transcription factors have been identified, which are involved in specifying the neuronal fate of these cells. The specific vulnerability of SNc neurons is thought to root in these specific developmental programs. The present study examines the positions of young postmitotic mdDA neurons to relate developmental position to mdDA subset specific markers. MdDA neurons were mapped relative to the neuromeric domains (prosomeres 1-3 (P1-3), midbrain, and hindbrain) as well as the longitudinal subdivisions (floor plate, basal plate, alar plate), as proposed by the prosomeric model. We found that postmitotic mdDA neurons are located mainly in the floorplate domain and very few in slightly more lateral domains. Moreover, mdDA neurons are present along a large proportion of the anterior/posterior axis extending from the midbrain to P3 in the diencephalon. The specific positions relate to some extent to the presence of specific subset markers as Ahd2. In the adult stage more of such subsets specific expressed genes are present and may represent a molecular map defining molecularly distinct groups of mdDA neurons. PMID:24116087

  16. Three-dimensional facial analysis of Chinese children with repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Othman, Siti Adibah; Aidil Koay, Noor Airin

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the facial features of Chinese children with repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and compared them with a normal control group using a three-dimensional (3D) stereophotogrammetry camera. This cross-sectional study examined 3D measurements of the facial surfaces of 20 Chinese children with repaired UCLP and 40 unaffected Chinese children aged 7 to 12 years old, which were captured using the VECTRA 3D five-pod photosystem and analyzed using Mirror software. Twenty-five variables and two ratios were compared between both groups using independent t-test. Intra- and inter-observer reliability was determined using ten randomly selected images and analyzed using intra-class correlation coefficient test (ICC). The level of significance was set at p < 0.0018. Intra- and inter-observers' reliability was considered fair to excellent with an ICC value ranging from 0.54 to 0.99. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.0018) were found mainly in the nasolabial region. The cleft group exhibited wider alar base root width, flattened nose and broader nostril floor width on the cleft side. They tended to have shorter upper lip length and thinner upper vermillion thickness. Faces of Chinese children with repaired UCLP displayed meaningful differences when compared to the normal group especially in the nasolabial regions. PMID:27507713

  17. Prosomeric organization of the hypothalamus in an elasmobranch, the catshark Scyliorhinus canicula

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Durán, Gabriel N.; Menuet, Arnaud; Lagadec, Ronan; Mayeur, Hélène; Ferreiro-Galve, Susana; Mazan, Sylvie; Rodríguez-Moldes, Isabel; Candal, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The hypothalamus has been a central topic in neuroanatomy because of its important physiological functions, but its mature organization remains elusive. Deciphering its embryonic and adult organization is crucial in an evolutionary approach of the organization of the vertebrate forebrain. Here we studied the molecular organization of the hypothalamus and neighboring telencephalic domains in a cartilaginous fish, the catshark, Scyliorhinus canicula, focusing on ScFoxg1a, ScShh, ScNkx2.1, ScDlx2/5, ScOtp, and ScTbr1 expression profiles and on the identification α-acetylated-tubulin-immunoreactive (ir), TH-ir, 5-HT-ir, and GFAP-ir structures by means of immunohistochemistry. Analysis of the results within the updated prosomeric model framework support the existence of alar and basal histogenetic compartments in the hypothalamus similar to those described in the mouse, suggesting the ancestrality of these subdivisions in jawed vertebrates. These data provide new insights into hypothalamic organization in cartilaginous fishes and highlight the generality of key features of the prosomeric model in jawed vertebrates. PMID:25904850

  18. Introduction to Lumbosacral and Sacropelvic Fixation Strategies.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Patrick C; Mummaneni, Praveen V

    2016-07-01

    We are pleased to present this Neurosurgical Focus video supplement on lumbosacral and sacropelvic fixation strategies. Despite advancement in surgical techniques and technologies in spine, achieving consistent solid fusion across the lumbosacral junction remains a major challenge. The anatomy of the lumbosacral junction allows for a higher range of motion compared to other areas of the thoracolumbar spine. The L5-S1 interspace is exposed to significant shear forces. As a result, complications such as pseudoarthrosis, screw pull-out, implant fracture, or sacral fractures can occur. Complications are particularly seen in long fusion constructs ending across the lumbosacral junction. To reduce these complications, various lumbosacral and sacropelvic fixation techniques have been developed and utilized. The current supplement is intended to provide instructional videos that illustrate several current techniques for lumbosacral and sacropelvic fixation. The collection includes techniques for anterior L5-S1 interbody fusion, minimally invasive L5-S1 interbody fusions, lumbosacral pedicle screw placement, sacroiliac fusion, and sacro-alar-iliac screw placement. The authors of the videos in the supplement have provided detailed narration and video illustration to describe the nuances of the various open and minimally invasive techniques for lumbosacral and sacral-pelvic fixation. We are pleased to have such a collection of quality video illustration from experts in the field. It's been our privilege to serve as guest editors for this supplement and we believe that you will enjoy the contents of this supplement. PMID:27364425

  19. Facial emphysema after sinus lift.

    PubMed

    Sakakibara, Akiko; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Yamashita, Atsuya; Hasegawa, Takumi; Minamikawa, Tsutomu; Furudoi, Shungo; Komori, Takahide

    2015-01-01

    An 80-year-old man with a history of en bloc resection of squamous cell carcinoma of the hard palate (T4aN0M0) was performed a lateral-window sinus lift of the edentulous area of the left maxillary molar region to facilitate future placement of dental implants.Two hours after the surgery, the patient complained of sudden malar swelling. Marked swelling was present from the left infraorbital region to the buccal region. The swelling was associated with air pockets at the alar base and in the angulus oculi medialis region and subcutaneous malar tissue. Emphysema appeared after the patient blew his nose. Therefore, the mucous membrane of the maxillary sinus might have had a small hole, and air might have entered the subcutaneous tissue via the bone window when the air pressure in the maxillary sinus increased with nose blowing. It is important to advise patients to avoid increasing the intraoral pressure after sinus-lift procedure. PMID:26088054

  20. Safer approaches and landings: A multivariate analysis of critical factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Durwood J.

    The approach-and-landing phases of flight represent 27% of mission time while resulting in 61 of the accidents and 39% of the fatalities. The landing phase itself represents only 1% of flight time but claims 45% of the accidents. Inadequate crew situation awareness (SA), crew resource management (CRM), and crew decision-making (DM) have been implicated in 51%, 63%, and 73% respectively of these accidents. The human factors constructs of SA, CRM, and DM were explored; a comprehensive definition of SA was proposed; and a "proactive defense" safety strategy was recommended. Data from a 1997 analysis of worldwide fatal accidents by the Flight Safety Foundation (FSF) Approach-and-Landing Accident Reduction (ALAR) Task Force was used to isolate crew- and weather-related causal factors that lead to approach-and-landing accidents (ALAs). Logistic regression and decision tree analysis were used on samplings of NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) incident records ("near misses") and the National Transportation Safety Board's (NTSB) accident reports to examine hypotheses regarding factors and factor combinations that can dramatically increase the opportunity for accidents. An effective scale of risk factors was introduced for use by crews to proactively counter safety-related error-chain situations.

  1. Infection in the Nasal Tip Caused by Acellular Dermal Matrix.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kun Hee

    2015-12-01

    A 19-year-old female patient visited our clinic for rhinoplasty. She complained about her low take-off point, which was apparent in profile view, and wanted slight tip projection. She refused additional cartilage harvesting from ears or ribs but consented to the use of homologous tissue, including acellular dermal matrix, for her dorsum and tip. Septoturbinoplasty was performed, and only a very small amount of septal cartilage could be harvested. It was used as both the columellar strut and the alar rim graft. Nasal dorsum and tip were augmented with acellular dermal matrix. Three months postoperatively, she experienced a few episodes of edema and redness on her nasal tip, followed by pus exudation from the nasal skin. Six months postoperatively, she underwent revision rhinoplasty for removal of inflamed grafts, and onlay tip graft with homologous rib cartilage was performed. Nasal dorsum or tip grafts are an integral part of Asian rhinoplasty. Autogenous tissue is the gold standard for grafting materials. However, the limited availability of autogenous tissue and the preference of patients and surgeons for artificial surgical implants make Asian rhinoplasty challenging. Unavailability of autogenous cartilage and patient refusal of artificial implants led to the use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) in the nasal dorsum and tip for this case. This is the first report of postoperative complication because of infection rather than absorption after ADM use.

  2. The surgical repair of half-nose.

    PubMed

    da Silva Freitas, Renato; Alonso, Nivaldo; de Freitas Azzolini, Thais; Busato, Luciano; Dall'Oglio Tolazzi, André Ricardo; Azor de Oliveira E Cruz, Gilvani; Goldenberg, Dov

    2010-01-01

    Absence of half-nose is an extremely rare congenital malformation, which has a devastating impact on the patient and the family. A review of indexed English-language literature found 91 cases of half-nose, including 50 patients with proboscis lateralis. Pathogenesis is not clear, and the reported cases have sporadically occurred. Many aspects must be considered when reconstructing a congenital half-nose, such as timing of surgery, type of tissue to be used and the need to reconstruct nasal airway. The aim of this article is to present personal experience in seven cases of half-nose reconstruction, in order to review the literature regarding to this rare entity, highlighting aspects of incidence, pathogenesis and surgical treatment. Nasal reconstruction was performed at ages of 5-7 years to minimise psychological trauma. Forehead skin demonstrated to be an excellent donor site to re-surface the nose. For the inner lining, contralateral cutaneous nasal flap was our preference. Concerning the nasal framework reconstruction, alar contour was restored using a cartilage graft from the lower portion of ear tragus and concha. PMID:19046661

  3. Nasal reconstruction in heminasal deficiency (proboscis lateralis): two case reports, with airway reconstruction in one case.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Helmut; Eppstein, Ron Julius; von Gregory, Henning Freiherr; Gubisch, Wolfgang

    2014-06-01

    Proboscis lateralis is a very rare congenital malformation with heminasal hypoplasia or aplasia. The affected side is represented by a trunk (proboscis) which can be positioned from the upper eyelid down to the alar base. We present two cases of proboscis lateralis, one in which we reconstructed an airway. The first case is a 16-year-old male patient who presented with heminasal aplasia. Immediately after birth, a proboscis lateralis was resected from the right upper eyelid as primary treatment elsewhere. We reconstructed the nose using costal cartilage as framework. A paramedian forehead flap was transposed to give the patient a nose with adult dimensions. We made no attempt to reconstruct an airway in this case as unilateral nasal breathing appeared adequate. The second case is a 14-year-old male patient who presented with heminasal aplasia on his right side, where a nodule-like appendix was existent with a fistula underneath. A computed tomographic scan revealed an existing hypoplastic posterior nasal airway and a complete ventilated sinus system. The fact that there was an existing posterior airway encouraged us to construct an anterior airway to create an airflow passage. Costal cartilage was taken for framework reconstruction and nasal skin was completely replaced by a paramedian forehead flap. The reconstructed airflow passage was stable. PMID:24918715

  4. Interdomal Suture through a Nondelivery Endonasal Approach: A New Technique

    PubMed Central

    Leibou, Lior

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of interdomal sutures for tip refinement is common in open rhinoplasty and in endonasal rhinoplasty using a delivery technique, but there is paucity of reports in the literature regarding the use of interdomal suturing techniques when the nondelivery endonasal approach is chosen. Objective: The authors describe a technique designed to refine the nasal tip with an interdomal suture placed through a nondelivery endonasal approach. Methods: In this study, the authors retrospectively review the cases of 45 patients who underwent endonasal rhinoplasty with the authors’ interdomal suturing technique between the years 2011 and 2013. The average age of the patients was 25.3 years. Intercrural sutures (PDS 4.0 straight needle, Cincinnati, Ohio) were placed as mattress-like suture in the tip region, with the knot buried between both alar cartilages. The suture is tightened progressively according to the tip definition and narrowing sought. Results: The patients were followed for 12 months. All of the patients demonstrated a significant reduction in lobule and tip widths. This series had only 1 complication of tip asymmetry that was revised 1 year after the initial operation. There were no cases of infection, allergic reaction, or extrusion of the suture. Conclusions: Despite the lack of a large volume of patients, our study confirms that this technique is indeed an attractive and highly predictable option for achieving adequate tip refinement and definition when using a nondelivery endonasal rhinoplasty.

  5. Three-dimensional facial analysis of Chinese children with repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate

    PubMed Central

    Othman, Siti Adibah; Aidil Koay, Noor Airin

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the facial features of Chinese children with repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and compared them with a normal control group using a three-dimensional (3D) stereophotogrammetry camera. This cross-sectional study examined 3D measurements of the facial surfaces of 20 Chinese children with repaired UCLP and 40 unaffected Chinese children aged 7 to 12 years old, which were captured using the VECTRA 3D five-pod photosystem and analyzed using Mirror software. Twenty-five variables and two ratios were compared between both groups using independent t-test. Intra- and inter-observer reliability was determined using ten randomly selected images and analyzed using intra-class correlation coefficient test (ICC). The level of significance was set at p < 0.0018. Intra- and inter-observers’ reliability was considered fair to excellent with an ICC value ranging from 0.54 to 0.99. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.0018) were found mainly in the nasolabial region. The cleft group exhibited wider alar base root width, flattened nose and broader nostril floor width on the cleft side. They tended to have shorter upper lip length and thinner upper vermillion thickness. Faces of Chinese children with repaired UCLP displayed meaningful differences when compared to the normal group especially in the nasolabial regions. PMID:27507713

  6. Assessment of the 18-month permanence of onlay tip cartilage grafts following rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Persichetti, Paolo; Simone, Pierfranco; Carusi, Carlo

    2013-09-01

    Augmentation rhinoplasty requires addition of materials of various natures to reshape the nasal pyramid. Onlay tip grafts are single or multilayered grafts placed horizontally over the alar domes. The aim of the present study was to assess the 18-month permanence of onlay septal cartilage grafts. Twenty-eight patients underwent rhinoplasty with onlay tip cartilage graft, between June 2008 and November 2008 at the Campus Bio-Medico University in Rome, Italy. They were reviewed and photographed 6 months and 18 months postoperatively. Comparison of 6-month and 18-month postoperative pictures was performed with Adobe Photoshop CS. Measurements on pictures were taken with AutoCAD. Comparison of photographs showed no visible difference in nasal tip projection. Comparison of the measurements of tip projection showed a mean reduction of 0.06 mm (0.19%). Considerable stability of nasal tip projection after rhinoplasty with onlay tip grafts was observed postoperatively. Comparison of standardised digital photographs is a valid procedure to assess contour alterations of various anatomical structures after plastic surgery.

  7. Molecular characterization of prosomeric and intraprosomeric subdivisions of the embryonic zebrafish diencephalon.

    PubMed

    Lauter, Gilbert; Söll, Iris; Hauptmann, Giselbert

    2013-04-01

    During development of the early neural tube, positional information provided by signaling gradients is translated into a grid of transverse and longitudinal transcription factor expression domains. Transcription factor specification codes defining distinct histogenetic domains within this grid are evolutionarily conserved across vertebrates and may reflect an underlying common vertebrate bauplan. When compared to the rich body of comparative gene expression studies of tetrapods, there is considerably less comparative data available for teleost fish. We used sensitive multicolor fluorescent in situ hybridization to generate a detailed map of regulatory gene expression domains in the embryonic zebrafish diencephalon. The high resolution of this technique allowed us to resolve abutting and overlapping gene expression of different transcripts. We found that the relative topography of gene expression patterns in zebrafish was highly similar to those of orthologous genes in tetrapods and consistent with a three-prosomere organization of the alar and basal diencephalon. Our analysis further demonstrated a conservation of intraprosomeric subdivisions within prosomeres 1, 2, and 3 (p1, p2, and p3). A tripartition of zebrafish p1 was identified reminiscent of precommissural (PcP), juxtacommissural (JcP), and commissural (CoP) pretectal domains of tetrapods. The constructed detailed diencephalic transcription factor gene expression map further identified molecularly distinct thalamic and prethalamic rostral and caudal domains and a prethalamic eminence histogenetic domain in zebrafish. Our comparative gene expression analysis conformed with the idea of a common bauplan for the diencephalon of anamniote and amniote vertebrates from fish to mammals.

  8. Triple Plane Dissection in Open Primary Rhinoplasty in Middle Eastern Noses

    PubMed Central

    Elshahat, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Rhinoplasty started as a closed technique and then the open technique gained popularity. Open technique gave surgeons the opportunity to visualize and manipulate the cartilaginous skeleton at the tip of the nose precisely. The dissection planes in open rhinoplasty technique may be subcutaneous, submuscular (under the superficial musculoaponeurotic system), or subpericondrial subperiosteal. Each plane has advantages and disadvantages. The aim of this study was to combine planes to get the maximal benefit of each plane. Method: The study was performed on 38 Middle Eastern patients, among whom 23 were females and 15 were males. All patients presented for primary rhinoplasty. They were divided into 5 groups on the basis of their skin thickness. Dissection started subcutaneous at the area of the lower lateral cartilages and then shifted subsuperficial musculoaponeurotic system over the upper lateral cartilages and ended subperiosteal over the bony skeleton. Results: This triple plane of dissection gave acceptable results without any complication. Subcutaneous dissection allowed thinning of the thick sebaceous skin at the tip and alar region, subsuperficial musculoaponeurotic system dissection allowed direct exposure of the upper lateral cartilage without thinning skin at an area where it is thin, and subperiosteal dissection helped masking any bony irregularities resulted from osteotomies. Conclusion: The triple plane dissection in open primary rhinoplasty in Middle Eastern patients maximized the advantages of each plane and minimized the disadvantages and resulted in safe cosmetic results. PMID:23967367

  9. Clinical experience with hyaluronic acid-filler complications.

    PubMed

    Park, Tae-Hwan; Seo, Sang-Won; Kim, June-Kyu; Chang, Choong-Hyun

    2011-07-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers have become the material of choice for soft-tissue augmentation. HA fillers are longer lasting, less immunogenic and can be broken down by hyaluronidase. These advantages make HA fillers the most common of the temporary fillers on the market. However, early and delayed complications, ranging from minor to severe, can occur following HA-filler injection. We evaluated and treated 28 cases of HA-filler-related complications that were referred to our hospital over a period of 5 years from July 2004 to October 2009. Twenty-eight patients were included in our study; 82.1% of the patients were female and 17.9% were male. Complications were roughly classified as nodular masses, inflammation, tissue necrosis and dyspigmentation. Affected locations, in descending order of frequency, were the perioral area, forehead, including glabella, nose, nasolabial fold, mentum, including marionette wrinkles, cheek area and periocular wrinkles. The most disastrous complication was alar rim necrosis following injection of the nasolabial fold. We propose two 'danger zones' that are particularly vulnerable to tissue necrosis following filler injection: the glabella and nasal ala. Although there is no definite treatment modality for the correction of HA-filler complications, we have managed them with various available treatment modalities aimed at minimising patient morbidity.

  10. Projection of the retinal ganglion cells to the tectum differentiated from the prosencephalon.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, H; Matsui, K A; Takagi, S; Fujisawa, H

    1991-08-01

    The alar plate of the prosencephalon differentiates into a tectum-like structure when transplanted into the mesencephalon around the 10-somite stage. Here, we report on the projection pattern of the retinal ganglion cells to the transplants. Optic nerve fibers were labeled with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and 3H-proline, and the innervation of the optic nerve fibers to the chimeric tectum was analyzed by HRP histochemistry on whole-mounted specimens, by autoradiography and by electron microscopy on embryonic day 16. In the chimeric tectum, the transplant was distinguished from the host by difference in nuclear structure between the quail and the chick cells. It was shown that the transplant had the laminar pattern of the optic tectum when the transplant was integrated into the host mesencephalon. The whole-mount HRP histochemistry showed that the optic nerve fibers extend to the transplants. Autoradiography showed that the distribution pattern of silver grains was similar in both the host and the transplant. These results may indicate that the optic nerve fibers turn to the transplant and terminate on the transplant. Electron microscopy further confirmed that optic nerve fibers ended by making synaptic contacts with the dendrites in the transplant region of the tectum. These results indicate that the transplant with the laminar pattern of the optic tectum is a true tectum receiving input from the eye. PMID:1661870

  11. Phonetic context effects in adult listeners with cochlear implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravamudhan, Radhika; Lotto, Andrew J.

    2005-09-01

    From previous studies it is known that normal-hearing (NH) listeners have the ability to compensate for the acoustic variability present in speech through context-dependent perception of speech sounds. One question of practical and theoretical interest is whether listeners with cochlear implants (CI) also show context-dependent speech perception. Because of the lack of spectral resolution in the input, the representation of speech for CI listeners may differ from NH listeners, which may interfere with perceptual compensation. In a test of this prediction, adult postlingually deafened CI listeners did not demonstrate the contrastive context effects elicited from NH listeners for either /da/-/ga/ targets and /al/-/ar/ contexts or V targets and /b-b/-/d-d/ contexts. In contrast, as predicted by the good temporal resolution of the CI signal, CI listeners showed normal effects of vowel length on preceding glide-stop categorization. CI simulations with NH listeners were also performed for some of these context effects. The results support the view that spectral content of contexts largely determines their effect on target sounds, and that phonetic content does not play an essential role. In addition, the findings predict that CI listeners will have particular difficulty with heavily coarticulated speech. [Work sponsored by NIH and NSF.

  12. Infection in the Nasal Tip Caused by Acellular Dermal Matrix.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kun Hee

    2015-12-01

    A 19-year-old female patient visited our clinic for rhinoplasty. She complained about her low take-off point, which was apparent in profile view, and wanted slight tip projection. She refused additional cartilage harvesting from ears or ribs but consented to the use of homologous tissue, including acellular dermal matrix, for her dorsum and tip. Septoturbinoplasty was performed, and only a very small amount of septal cartilage could be harvested. It was used as both the columellar strut and the alar rim graft. Nasal dorsum and tip were augmented with acellular dermal matrix. Three months postoperatively, she experienced a few episodes of edema and redness on her nasal tip, followed by pus exudation from the nasal skin. Six months postoperatively, she underwent revision rhinoplasty for removal of inflamed grafts, and onlay tip graft with homologous rib cartilage was performed. Nasal dorsum or tip grafts are an integral part of Asian rhinoplasty. Autogenous tissue is the gold standard for grafting materials. However, the limited availability of autogenous tissue and the preference of patients and surgeons for artificial surgical implants make Asian rhinoplasty challenging. Unavailability of autogenous cartilage and patient refusal of artificial implants led to the use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) in the nasal dorsum and tip for this case. This is the first report of postoperative complication because of infection rather than absorption after ADM use. PMID:26894006

  13. Three-dimensional nasal morphology in cleft lip and palate operated adult patients.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Virgilio F; Sforza, Chiarella; Dellavia, Claudia; Vizzotto, Laura; Carù, Armando

    2003-10-01

    Nasal morphology was assessed three-dimensionally in 18 cleft lip and palate operated patients aged 19 to 27 years, and in 161 sex- and age-matched control subjects. Comparisons were performed by Student t and Watson-Williams' tests. No differences were found in nasal volume or surface. Nasal width, alar base width, and inferior width of the nostrils were significantly larger in male patients than in the reference men. The nasal bridge was shorter. Similar differences were found in the female patients. In addition, the right nostril was larger and the nasal height shorter. In men, the nasolabial and the nasal tip angles were smaller in the patients than in the reference subjects, whereas the facial convexity angle was larger in the patients. In conclusion, the nose of adult operated cleft lip and palate patients differed from that of normal control subjects. Surgical corrections of the cleft lip and palate failed to provide a completely normal appearance. The methods might be used to indicate where additional procedures might be performed to approximate a reference population.

  14. Investigation of DNA synthesis in experimentally induced Long-Evans rat myeloschisis by the BrdU/antiBrdU technique.

    PubMed

    Chono, Y; Abe, H; Iwasaki, Y; Nagashima, K

    1994-04-01

    The volume and DNA synthesis of the neuroepithelium in induced myeloschisis in Long-Evans rats as shown by hematoxylin-eosin and BrdU/antiBrdU immunohistochemical staining patterns were examined at different stages of embryonal development. On day 14 of gestation, control animals contained BrdU-incorporating cells mainly at the alar plate of the closed neural tube. On the same day, the everted neural plate of rats with myeloschisis showed active, diffuse uptake of BrdU in the cells of the matrix layer, although an increase in the volume of the everted neural plate was not yet identifiable. On day 21 of gestation, rats with myeloschisis showed a marked increase in the volume of the neuroepithelium compared with controls. Our investigations suggest that, in myeloschisis, more neuroepithelial cells than normal retain their capability for DNA synthesis on day 14 of gestation, and the overgrowth of the neuroepithelium found on day 21 is possibly a secondary effect of failure of neural tube closure.

  15. Outcomes following V-Y advancement flap reconstruction of large upper lip defects

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Garrett R.; Weber, Stephen; Baker, Shan R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To characterize revision surgery following V-Y subcutaneous tissue pedicle advancement flap repair of large upper lip skin defects. Methods Retrospective review of upper lip skin defects ≥3.0 cm2 that were reconstructed with a V-Y subcutaneous tissue pedicle advancement flap at an academic tertiary care center. Depth and area of the defect, as well as involvement of the vermilion and nasal ala, were recorded as independent variables. Revision techniques were analyzed to identify patterns. Results Thirty patients were identified with upper lip skin defects ranging from 3.0 to 14.0 cm2 (mean 7.0 cm2, median 6.25 cm2). The defect involved the nasal ala in four cases and the vermilion in three cases. At least one revision surgery was performed in 14/30 (47%) patients. Alar or vermilion involvement was a significant factor in revision by chi-square analysis (p=0.026). Larger defect size did not predict a need for revision, even among cases where the defect did not involve the ala or vermilion (p=0.68). Conclusion Reconstruction of large upper lip skin defects with a V-Y subcutaneous tissue pedicle advancement flap is associated with a 47% revision rate, and when the defect involves the ala or vermilion, the revision rate is increased. Defect size alone cannot be used to predict the need for revision surgery. Revision techniques are demonstrated. PMID:22801764

  16. Evaluation of nasal tip surgery.

    PubMed

    Friedman, W H; Biller, H F

    1975-09-01

    Nasal tip surgery has been evaluated with respect to correction of the lower lateral cartilages. Indications, techniques, results, and complications related to three generic approaches to the lower lateral cartilages are described. In 673 consecutive rhinoplasties the commonest type of nasal tip surgery was excisional, utilizing either a marginal or cartilage splitting technique. These techniques were utilized: 1. to accomplish debulking, and 2. to accomplish the installation of facets. The excisional technique found its greatest utility in primary rhinoplasties. The version technique, utilizing a change of direction of the thrust of the lower lateral cartilages was utilized in a variety of situations, particularly for the correction of moderately congenitally hypoplastic tip cartilages. It also found great utility in surgery of the Negro or cleft palate nose, increasing tip projection, correcting unacceptable bifidity, and in revision rhinoplasty. Augmentation rhinoplasty, utilizing conchal cartilage as an elastic strut was particularly useful for severe hypoplastic cartilage deficits, the Negro nose, columellar retraction, and alar rim deficits. The overall complication rate of lower lateral rhinoplasty was 17.4 percent. The rate of unacceptable complications related to lower lateral rhinoplasty was 2.7 percent.

  17. A new genus and species of the subtribe Thyreophorina (Diptera, Piophilidae) from Japan.

    PubMed

    Saigusa, Toyohei

    2015-01-01

    A new genus, Diacanthomyia gen. nov. assigned to the subtribe Thyreophorina of the family Piophilidae is described based on a new species, Diacanthomyia okidoi sp. nov. recently found in Honshu and Kyushu, Japan. The new genus is somewhat similar to the European Centrophlebomyia of the subtribe. However, the new genus is distinguished from the known genera of the subtribe by the following combination of characters: body extensively pollinose or pruinose, 2 pairs of strong reclinate fronto-orbital bristles, 1-2 strong subvibrissal bristles in addition to 2 strong vibrissae, prosternum setose, 1 presutural dorsocentral, 1 strong anterior postsutural intra-alar, scutellum with 2 pairs of scutellar bristles without additional setulae, extensively microtrichose wing membrane, a dark round spot at r-m crossvein and a dark stripe covering m-m crossvein, and vein CuA+CuP abruptly terminated distant from wing margin. The type species inhabits evergreen broadleaved and deciduous broadleaved forests and adults appear during the cold season from December to March. Adults are attracted to decaying carcasses of Japanese deer and wild boar and traps baited with decaying pork spareribs and chicken meat with bones. The larvae of this species feed on decaying meat and marrow of deer, take less than 2 months to grow to mature larvae, and enter into diapause in the soil until autumn.

  18. Secondary rhinoplasty of the Asian nose: correction of the contracted nose.

    PubMed

    Jung, Dong-Hak; Moon, Hyoung-Jin; Choi, Seung-Ho; Lam, Samuel M

    2004-01-01

    The contracted nose is a unique entity that follows primary rhinoplasty in the Asian patient. The proposed reasons for this complication are capsular contraction from a silicone nasal implant, pressure necrosis of the lower lateral cartilage resulting from the nasal implant, and infection after alloplastic implantation. The two principal anatomic constituents that must be addressed at the time of secondary rhinoplasty are the lower lateral cartilages and the skin envelope. The lower lateral cartilages should be derotated, projected, and transfixed with an extended spreader graft. Additional onlay grafting may be required to provide greater nasal tip derotation and projection. A transcolumellar incision situated at the columellar-labial angle permits undermining of the upper lip skin to release tension on the incision. If the nasal tip retraction is severe, then the skin envelope may be insufficient to provide coverage to the new cartilaginous framework. In this case, a paramedian forehead flap is recommended to provide adequate tissue coverage. Correction of alar-columellar disparity should be undertaken with composite grafting only after 6 months have transpired to gauge the ultimate relation between the alae and columella. Infection that arises after correction of the contracted nose can be devastating. It should be treated aggressively, but tailored to the severity of the infection. Wound tension along the columella may predispose to skin necrosis and consequent cartilage exposure, which should be managed in turn with prostaglandin emollients to accelerate wound healing and to prevent infection. PMID:15037957

  19. Differential requirements for Gli2 and Gli3 in the regional specification of the mouse hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Haddad-Tóvolli, Roberta; Paul, Fabian A.; Zhang, Yuanfeng; Zhou, Xunlei; Theil, Thomas; Puelles, Luis; Blaess, Sandra; Alvarez-Bolado, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    Secreted protein Sonic hedgehog (Shh) ventralizes the neural tube by modulating the crucial balance between activating and repressing functions (GliA, GliR) of transcription factors Gli2 and Gli3. This balance—the Shh-Gli code—is species- and context-dependent and has been elucidated for the mouse spinal cord. The hypothalamus, a forebrain region regulating vital functions like homeostasis and hormone secretion, shows dynamic and intricate Shh expression as well as complex regional differentiation. Here we asked if particular combinations of Gli2 and Gli3 and of GliA and GliR functions contribute to the variety of hypothalamic regions, i.e., we wanted to approach the question of a possible hypothalamic version of the Shh-Gli code. Based on mouse mutant analysis, we show that: (1) hypothalamic regional heterogeneity is based in part on differentially stringent requirements for Gli2 or Gli3; (2) another source of diversity are differential requirements for Shh of neural vs. non-neural origin; (3) the medial progenitor domain known to depend on Gli2 for its development generates several essential hypothalamic nuclei plus the pituitary and median eminence; (4) the suppression of Gli3R by neural and non-neural Shh is essential for hypothalamic specification. Finally, we have mapped our results on a recent model which considers the hypothalamus as a transverse region with alar and basal portions. Our data confirm the model and are explained by it. PMID:25859185

  20. La Observación Sistemática de Vecindarios: El caso de Chile y sus perspectivas para Trabajo Social

    PubMed Central

    Sanhueza, Guillermo E.; Delva, Jorge; Andrade, Fernando H.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Bares, Cristina; Castillo, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    El estudio acerca de las características de los vecindarios y sus efectos sobre las personas ha llegado a ser un área de creciente atención por parte de investigadores de diversas disciplinas en países desarrollados. Aunque actualmente existen diversas metodologías para estudiar efectos del vecindario, una de las más utilizadas es la Observación Sistemática de Vecindarios –Systematic Social Observation SSO, en inglés—porque permite recolectar información acerca de diversas características del entorno físico, social, ambiental y económico de los vecindarios donde se aplica. El objetivo de este artículo es (i) dar a conocer sumariamente algunas investigaciones influyentes sobre efectos del vecindario en Estados Unidos, ii) describir cómo se diseñó e implementó la Observación Sistemática de Vecindarios en la ciudad de Santiago de Chile, iii) señalar algunos facilitadores y obstaculizadores de la implementación del proyecto y, finalmente iv) enunciar posibles contribuciones y limitaciones que esta metodología ofrecería al trabajo social en Chile. PMID:24791060

  1. Is alveolar cleft reconstruction still controversial? (Review of literature)

    PubMed Central

    Seifeldin, Sameh A.

    2015-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate (CL/P) is a frequent congenital malformation that manifests in several varieties including unilateral or bilateral and complete or incomplete. Alveolar cleft reconstruction remains controversial with regard to timing, graft materials, surgical techniques, and methods of evaluation. Many studies have been conducted addressing these points to develop an acceptable universal protocol for managing CL/P. The primary goal of alveolar cleft reconstruction in CL/P patients is to provide a bony bridge at the cleft site that allows maxillary arch continuity, oronasal fistula repair, eruption of the permanent dentition into the newly formed bone, enhances nasal symmetry through providing alar base support, orthodontic movement and placement of osseointegrated implants when indicated. Other goals include improving speech, improvement of periodontal conditions, establishing better oral hygiene, and limiting growth disturbances. In order to rehabilitate oral function in CL/P patients alveolar bone grafting is necessary. Secondary bone grafting is the most widely accepted method for treating alveolar clefts. Autogenous bone graft is the primary source for reconstructing alveolar cleft defects and is currently the preferred grafting material. PMID:26792963

  2. Interaction of an aluminum atom with a closed subshell metal atom: Spectroscopic analysis of AlZn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behm, Jane M.; Blume, Thorsten; Morse, Michael D.

    1994-10-01

    Resonant two-photon ionization spectroscopy has been employed to investigate diatomic AlZn produced by laser vaporization of a 1:2 Al:Zn alloy target disk in a supersonic expansion of helium. Several discrete transitions are reported in the energy range from 18 400 to 19 100 cm-1. Most of these are assigned as members of the B 2Π←X 2Π system, although an isolated band has been observed and assigned as the 2-0 band of the A Ω'=0.5←X 2Π1/2 system. A pair of strongly mixed levels are identified as resulting from a homogeneous spin-orbit perturbation between the A Ω=0.5, v'=3 and the B 2Π1/2, v'=1 levels, and the perturbation matrix element has been deduced to be 8.11 cm-1 for 27Al64Zn, 8.23 cm-1 for 27Al66Zn. The ground state has been unambiguously identified as a 2Πr state with a bond length of 2.6957±0.0004 Å. Comparisons to the results of the preceding article on the spectroscopy of AlCa are also provided, along with a discussion of the chemical bonding in AlZn in relation to AlCa, AlAr, and AlKr.

  3. 'Un chant d'appel amoureux': acoustic communication in moths

    PubMed

    Conner

    1999-07-01

    Tympanal sound receptors in moths evolved in response to selective pressures provided by echolocating insectivorous bats. The presence of these ultrasound detectors also set the stage for the later evolution of ultrasonic courtship signals in the tympanate moth families. Male moths have repeatedly exploited the bat-detection mechanisms in females for the purpose of finding, identifying and obtaining mates. Ultrasonic courtship has been described in several members of the moth families Arctiidae, Noctuidae and Pyralidae, and ultrasound is predicted to play a significant role in the courtship of other tympanate moths including the Sphingidae, Lymantriidae, Notodontidae and Geometridae. Ultrasonic signals are involved in species recognition, in male-male competition for mates and in female mate-choice systems. Pre-existing motor systems, including those involved in bat defence, have also been exploited for the purpose of generating high-frequency courtship signals. Sound production mechanisms in moths include thoracic tymbals, tegular tymbals, alar castanets and genital stridulatory organs. Thus, in both their sensory and motor aspects, the weapons of bat/moth warfare have frequently evolved into components of courtship systems. PMID:10359675

  4. Early Pleistocene climate cycles in continental deposits of the Lesser Caucasus of Armenia inferred from palynology, magnetostratigraphy, and 40Ar/39Ar dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joannin, Sebastien; Cornée, Jean-Jacques; Münch, Philippe; Fornari, Michel; Krijgsman, Wout; Nahapetyan, Samuel; Gabrielyan, Ivan; Ollivier, Vincent; Roiron, Paul; Chataignier, Christine

    2010-05-01

    obliquity orbital parameter. The influence of precession could not be established from the Shamb data. Pollen and macroflora both indicate that glacial periods were cold and dry and that interglacials were warm with local humidity. The early Pleistocene climatic model for Western Asia is thus similar to the climatic model for the Mediterranean area. Bruch, A., Gabrielyan, I.G., 2002. Quantitative data of the Neogene climatic development in Armenia and Nakhichevan. Acta Universitatis Carolinae - Geologica 46, 41-48. Joannin, S., Cornée, J.J., Münch, P., Fornari, M., Vasiliev, J., Krijgsman, W., Nahapetyan, S., Gabrielyan, Y., Ollivier, V., Roiron, P., Chataignier, C. In press. Early Pleistocene climatic cycles in continental deposits of the Lesser Caucasus of Armenia inferred from palynology, magnetostratigraphy, and 40Ar/39Ar dating. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. Mitchell, J., Westaway, R., 1999. Chronology of Neogene and Quaternary uplift and magmatism in the Caucasus: constraints from K-Ar dating of volcanism in Armenia. Tectonophysics 304, 157-186.

  5. On the combined use of radar systems for multi-scale imaging of transport infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catapano, I.; Bavusi, M.; Loperte, A.; Crocco, L.; Soldovieri, F.

    2012-04-01

    all, to detect hidden anomalies and then to provide a high resolution image of their geometrical features. Therefore, reliable and efficient diagnostic surveys devoted to state the healthy state of a structure can be scheduled. Numerical examples and on field validations assessing the achievable reconstruction capabilities will be provided at the conference. [1] D. J. Daniels, Ground Penetrating Radar, in IEE Radar, Sonar and Navigation Series 15, London, U.K.: IEE, 2004. [2] M. Proto, M. Bavusi, R. Bernini et al., Transport Infrastructure Surveillance and Monitoring by Electromagnetic Sensing: The ISTIMES Project, Sensors, vol.10, n.12, pp.10620-10639, 2010. [3] S. Ivashov, I. A. Vasiliev, T. D. Bechtel, C. Snapp, Comparison between impulse and holographic subsurface radar for NDT of space vehicle structural materials, Progress In Electromagnetic Research, vol.3, pp.658-661, 2004. [4] I. Catapano. L. Crocco, A. F. Morabito, F. Soldovieri, Tomographic imaging of holographic GPR data for non-invasive structural assessment: the Musmeci Bridge investigation, submitted to Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation Acknowledgement The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under Grant Agreement no 225663.

  6. Minerals and melt inclusions as keys to understanding magma reservoir processes during formation of volcanic and plutonic mafic-ultramafic complexes in the Maimecha Kotui Province (Polar Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonov, Vladimir; Vasiliev, Yurii; Kotlyarov, Alexey; Stupakov, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    Magmatic complexes in the Maimecha Kotui Province (Polar Siberia) attract attention of researchers because they contain ultramafic volcanic rocks - meimechites, being products of crystallization of the ultrabasic deep mantle melts (Sobolev et al., 1991, 2009, 2011; Ryabchikov et al., 2002; Vasiliev, Gora, 2014). Effusive meimechites together with intrusive dunites of the Guli massif form ancient (253-246 Ma) volcanic and plutonic association, in which also pyroxenites and alkaline rocks are situated. Conditions of formation of this association were established with the help of minerals and melt inclusions study. The cumulative structure of the Guli massif dunites consists of rather large (2-4 mm) olivine crystals and dividing them zones (0.5-0.7 mm), filled with fine grains of clinopyroxenes and ore minerals (magnetite, ilmenite and chromite). The extended forms of well faceted pyroxene crystals testify to their fast growth from melt between cumulative olivines. Thus, crystallization of clinopyroxenes and ore minerals leads to formation between olivines ore pyroxenites, which are presented in the Guli massif by independent bodies. Analysis of olivine, Cr-spinel and clinopyroxene compositions testify to similarity of conditions of the Guli massif dunites crystallization on the one hand with formation of platinum-bearing Uralian-Alaskan-type mafic-ultramafic complexes and with another - show participation of meimechite magma. Major element composition of melt inclusions in Cr-spinel has shown that dunites of the Guli massif were crystallized with participation of subalkaline picrite magmatic systems, that are relative to melts, responsible of formation of platinum-bearing mafic-ultramafic complexes and meimechites. Peculiarities of trace and rare-earth elements distribution in melt inclusions in Cr-spinel of dunites are actually similar to inclusions in olivine of meimechites. Overall, data on composition of inclusions directly testify to formation of considered

  7. Extreme weather impacts on European networks of transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leviakangas, P.

    2012-04-01

    : Pekka Leviäkangas, Anu Tuominen, Riitta Molarius, Heta Kojo, Jari Schabel, Sirra Toivonen, Jaana Keränen, Johanna Ludvigsen, Andrea Vajda, Heikki Tuomenvirta, Ilkka Juga, Pertti Nurmi, Jenni Rauhala, Frank Rehm, Thomas Gerz, Thorsten Muehlhausen, Juha Schweighofer, Silas Michaelides, Matheos Papadakis, Nikolai Dotzek (†), Pieter Groenemeijer.

  8. Back-arc with frontal-arc component origin of Triassic Karmutsen basalt, British Columbia, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, F.; Sutherland, Brown A.; Budahn, J.R.; Plafker, G.

    1989-01-01

    The largely basaltic, ???4.5-6.2-km-thick, Middle to Upper Triassic Karmutsen Formation is a prominent part of the Wrangellian sequence. Twelve analyses of major and minor elements of representative samples of pillowed and massive basalt flows and sills from Queen Charlotte and Vancouver Islands are ferrotholeiites that show a range of 10.2-3.8% MgO (as normalized, H2O- and CO2-free) and related increases in TiO2 (1.0-2.5%), Zr (43-147 ppm) and Nb (5-16 ppm). Other elemental abundances are not related simply to MgO: distinct groupings are evident in Al2O3, Na2O and Cr, but considerable scatter is present in FeO* (FeO + 0.9Fe2O3) and CaO. Some of the variation is attributed to alteration during low-rank metamorphism or by seawater - including variation of Ba, Rb, Sr and Cu, but high-field-strength elements (Sc, Ti, Y, Zr and Nb) as well as Cr, Ni, Cu and rare-earth elements (REE's) were relatively immobile. REE's show chondrite-normalized patterns ranging from light-REE depleted to moderately light-REE enriched. On eleven discriminant plots these analyses fall largely into or across fields of within-plate basalt (WIP), normal or enriched mid-ocean-ridge tholeiite (MORB) and island-arc tholeiite (IAT). Karmutsen basalts are chemically identical to the stratigraphically equivalent Nikolai Greenstone of southern Alaska and Yukon Territory. These data and the fact that the Karmutsen rests on Sicker Group island-arc rocks of Paleozoic age suggest to us that: 1. (1) the basal arc, after minor carbonate-shale deposition, underwent near-axial back-arc rifting (as, e.g., the Mariana arc rifted at different times); 2. (2) the Karmutsen basalts were erupted along this rift or basin as "arc-rift" tholeiitite; and 3. (3) after subsequent deposition of carbonates and other rocks, and Jurassic magmatism, a large fragment of this basalt-sediment-covered island arc was accreted to North America as Wrangellia. The major- and minor-elemental abundances of Karmutsen basalt is modeled

  9. [Prevalence of undernutrition in hospital patients with unbalanced heart failure; subjective global assessment like prognosis sign].

    PubMed

    Guerra-Sánchez, Luis; Martinez-Rincón, Carmen; Fresno-Flores, Mar

    2015-04-01

    Introducción: Existe una gran variabilidad en los estudios sobre la prevalencia de malnutrición en pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca crónica. La proporción de pacientes desnutridos depende del método de valoración utilizado y del momento en que se realice. Se ha descrito la relación entre desnutrición y aumento de las complicaciones, de la estancia hospitalaria, de la mortalidad y de reingreso hospitalario. Por lo que merece la pena señalar y tratar a estos pacientes. Objetivos: El objetivo fue aproximarnos a la prevalencia de la desnutrición, en los pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca crónica ingresados por descompensación, en nuestro medio y analizar cuál de los dos métodos de valoración nutricional utilizados, era mejor predictor de mortalidad. Métodos: Estudio observacional, transversal, en el que se evaluaron mediante la Valoración Subjetiva Global y Mini Nutritional Assesment , el estado nutricional de 377 pacientes ingresados en un hospital terciario de alta complejidad con diagnósticos compatibles con descompensación de insuficiencia cardiaca crónica. Resultados: La edad media fue de 75±10. El 51,5%(n=194) fueron hombres. Según la Valoración Subjetiva Global, el 50,7% (45,6%-55,7%) estaban normonutridos, el 41,9% (37,0%-46,9%) presentaban riesgo o sospecha de desnutrición y el 7,4% (5,2%-10,5%) presentaban desnutrición franca. Conclusiones: La prevalencia de desnutrición de los pacientes hospitalizados por descompensación de Insuficiencia Cardiaca crónica en nuestro ámbito es alta. La Valoración Subjetiva Global es un buen predictor de la mortalidad.

  10. Morphogenetic and Histogenetic Roles of the Temporal-Spatial Organization of Cell Proliferation in the Vertebrate Corticogenesis as Revealed by Inter-specific Analyses of the Optic Tectum Cortex Development

    PubMed Central

    Rapacioli, Melina; Palma, Verónica; Flores, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The central nervous system areas displaying the highest structural and functional complexity correspond to the so called cortices, i.e., concentric alternating neuronal and fibrous layers. Corticogenesis, i.e., the development of the cortical organization, depends on the temporal-spatial organization of several developmental events: (a) the duration of the proliferative phase of the neuroepithelium, (b) the relative duration of symmetric (expansive) versus asymmetric (neuronogenic) sub phases, (c) the spatial organization of each kind of cell division, (e) the time of determination and cell cycle exit and (f) the time of onset of the post-mitotic neuronal migration and (g) the time of onset of the neuronal structural and functional differentiation. The first five events depend on molecular mechanisms that perform a fine tuning of the proliferative activity. Changes in any of them significantly influence the cortical size or volume (tangential expansion and radial thickness), morphology, architecture and also impact on neuritogenesis and synaptogenesis affecting the cortical wiring. This paper integrates information, obtained in several species, on the developmental roles of cell proliferation in the development of the optic tectum (OT) cortex, a multilayered associative area of the dorsal (alar) midbrain. The present review (1) compiles relevant information on the temporal and spatial organization of cell proliferation in different species (fish, amphibians, birds, and mammals), (2) revises the main molecular events involved in the isthmic organizer (IsO) determination and localization, (3) describes how the patterning installed by IsO is translated into spatially organized neural stem cell proliferation (i.e., by means of growth factors, receptors, transcription factors, signaling pathways, etc.) and (4) describes the morpho- and histogenetic effect of a spatially organized cell proliferation in the above mentioned species. A brief section on the OT evolution is

  11. Repositioned lateral crural flap technique for cephalic malposition in rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Mohebbi, A; Azizi, A; Tabatabaiee, S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cephalic malposition of the lower lateral cartilage (CMLLC) is a relatively common anatomical variant, particularly in Middle Eastern patients. The characteristics of CMLLC include long alar creases, a boxy and ball-shaped nasal tip, parenthesis tip deformity and external valvular incompetence. The gold standard for correcting CMLLC is the lateral crural strut graft (Gunter graft), but many patients experience problems after this technique. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of the repositioned lateral crural flap (RLCF) technique in correcting CMLLC, and to discuss the cosmetic and functional results. METHODS: In the present study, 123 primary septorhinoplasty operations using the RLCF technique were performed between May 2012 and March 2013. The mean follow-up period was 11.4 months (range nine to 24 months). Four parameters were measured and compared pre- and postoperatively: the angle between the line connecting the maximum convexity of the lower lateral cartilage (LLC) to the tip-defining point and midline on each side (angle of rotation); the total distance between the maximum convexity of LLC right and left to midline (representing the size of the parenthesis deformity); satisfaction scale rating of the patients’ nasal tip appearance; and the satisfaction scale rating of patients’ breathing through their nostrils. RESULTS: The mean angle of the LLC to the midline significantly increased and the mean distance between the maximum convexities was significantly reduced, indicating correction of the malposition and reduction of the parenthesis deformity, respectively. The mean satisfactory scale ratings of nasal tip appearance and breathing quality were also significantly improved. CONCLUSION: CMLLC can be corrected using the RLCF technique, resulting in both aesthetic and functional improvements. PMID:26361626

  12. PMP-22 expression in the central nervous system of the embryonic mouse defines potential transverse segments and longitudinal columns.

    PubMed

    Parmantier, E; Braun, C; Thomas, J L; Peyron, F; Martinez, S; Zalc, B

    1997-02-10

    PMP-22, a major constituent of peripheral nervous system (PNS) myelin, is also present in the central nervous system (CNS), in motoneurons of the cranial nerve motor nuclei and spinal cord (Parmantier et al. [1995] Eur. J. Neurosci. 7:1080-1088). The expression of PMP-22 in the CNS during embryonic and early postnatal development was investigated and showed a biphasic spatio-temporal pattern. The expression of PMP-22 started at embryonic day (E)11.5, in restricted longitudinal and transverse domains, in the ventricular zone of the spinal cord, rhombencephalon, mesencephalon and prosencephalon. In the mid- and forebrain, the PMP-22 signal was detectable in a longitudinal domain that followed ventrally the basal/alar boundary but could no longer be detected dorsally at some distance from the roof plate. Along the caudo-rostral axis, the territory in which PMP-22 was detected spanned the mesencephalon and the prosencephalon, extending caudally from the limit between the isthmus and the mesencephalon, and rostrally to the boundary between prosomeres 4 and 5 (p4/p5). In agreement with the prosomeric model of forebrain organization proposed by Puelles and Rubenstein ([1993] TINS 16:472-479), differences in the level of PMP-22 expression in p2, p3, and p4 clearly defined the p2/p3 and p3/p4 neuromeric boundaries. By E17.5, PMP-22 was no longer detected in the ventricular zone, but at E18.5 it began to be expressed in motoneurons of cranial nerve motor nuclei and, after birth, following a rostro-caudal gradient, in the ventral spinal cord.

  13. Molecular codes defining rostrocaudal domains in the embryonic mouse hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Ferran, José L.; Puelles, Luis; Rubenstein, John L. R.

    2015-01-01

    The prosomeric model proposes that the hypothalamus is a rostral forebrain entity, placed ventral to the telencephalon and rostral to the diencephalon. Gene expression markers differentially label molecularly distinct dorsoventral progenitor domains, which represent continuous longitudinal bands across the hypothalamic alar and basal regions. There is also circumstantial support for a rostrocaudal subdivision of the hypothalamus into transverse peduncular (caudal) and terminal (rostral) territories (PHy, THy). In addition, there is evidence for a specialized acroterminal domain at the rostral midline of the terminal hypothalamus (ATD). The PHy and THy transverse structural units are presently held to form part of two hypothalamo-telencephalic prosomeres (hp1 and hp2, respectively), which end dorsally at the telencephalic septocommissural roof. PHy and THy have distinct adult nuclei, at all dorsoventral levels. Here we report the results of data mining from the Allen Developing Mouse Brain Atlas database, looking for genes expressed differentially in the PHy, Thy, and ATD regions of the hypothalamus at several developmental stages. This search allowed us to identify additional molecular evidence supporting the postulated fundamental rostrocaudal bipartition of the mouse hypothalamus into the PHy and THy, and also corroborated molecularly the singularity of the ATD. A number of markers were expressed in Thy (Fgf15, Gsc, Nkx6.2, Otx1, Zic1/5), but were absent in PHy, while other genes showed the converse pattern (Erbb4, Irx1/3/5, Lmo4, Mfap4, Plagl1, Pmch). We also identified markers that selectively label the ATD (Fgf8/10/18, Otx2, Pomc, Rax, Six6). On the whole, these data help to explain why, irrespective of the observed continuity of all dorsoventral molecular hypothalamic subdivisions across PHy and THy, different nuclear structures originate within each of these two domains, and also why singular structures arise at the ATD, e.g., the suprachiasmatic nuclei, the

  14. Teorii spiral'noj struktury galaktik v 1969-e gody. II %t Theories of spiral structures of galaxies in the 1960s. Paper II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasha, I. I.

    The present paper continues the author's study of the galactic spiral density-wave developments in the 1960s. The first section considers the theory of sheared density waves that was worked out in 1963-1965 by Donald Lynden-Bell, Peter Goldreich, Alar Toomre and William Julian. This theory displayed the fundamental property of differentially rotating gravitating systems to strongly amplify the sheared waves as they pass near-radial orientations swinging from leading to trailing, and it also showed how the localised material condensations induce and fix rather extended spiral-like steady waves with the help of this amplifier. The second section analyses efforts applied in the second half of the 1960s to support the then already wide-spread spiral theory of C. C. Lin and Frank Shu. Reviewed here are Shu's works aimed at improving the theory's analytical principles; William Roberts' elaboration of the concept of galactic shocks triggering the star-formation process in the spiral arms; and the early attempts of Lin and his colleagues to compare their theory with empirical evidence. The third section is devoted to Toomre's work, who was the first to analyse the group properties of the Lin-Shu waves and show that in the course of their natural evolution they do not have enough time to make up any coherent spiral mode since they drift rather rapidly towards the galactic centre and damp there. This result logically debunked the Lin-Shu picture of "self-sustained" spiral waves and stripped the as-yet latent problem of the mechanism for maintaining the spiral structure. The last section exposes several authors' results from the late 1960s - early 1970s.

  15. Structural Insights into the Polyphyletic Origins of Glycyl tRNA Synthetases.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Sánchez, Marco Igor; Rodríguez-Hernández, Annia; Ferreira, Ruben; Santamaría-Suárez, Hugo Aníbal; Arciniega, Marcelino; Dock-Bregeon, Anne-Catherine; Moras, Dino; Beinsteiner, Brice; Mertens, Haydyn; Svergun, Dmitri; Brieba, Luis G; Grøtli, Morten; Torres-Larios, Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    Glycyl tRNA synthetase (GlyRS) provides a unique case among class II aminoacyl tRNA synthetases, with two clearly widespread types of enzymes: a dimeric (α2) species present in some bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes; and a heterotetrameric form (α2β2) present in most bacteria. Although the differences between both types of GlyRS at the anticodon binding domain level are evident, the extent and implications of the variations in the catalytic domain have not been described, and it is unclear whether the mechanism of amino acid recognition is also dissimilar. Here, we show that the α-subunit of the α2β2 GlyRS from the bacterium Aquifex aeolicus is able to perform the first step of the aminoacylation reaction, which involves the activation of the amino acid with ATP. The crystal structure of the α-subunit in the complex with an analog of glycyl adenylate at 2.8 Å resolution presents a conformational arrangement that properly positions the cognate amino acid. This work shows that glycine is recognized by a subset of different residues in the two types of GlyRS. A structural and sequence analysis of class II catalytic domains shows that bacterial GlyRS is closely related to alanyl tRNA synthetase, which led us to define a new subclassification of these ancient enzymes and to propose an evolutionary path of α2β2 GlyRS, convergent with α2 GlyRS and divergent from AlaRS, thus providing a possible explanation for the puzzling existence of two proteins sharing the same fold and function but not a common ancestor.

  16. [Is it enough to recommend to patients take a walk? Importance of the cadence].

    PubMed

    Cristi-Montero, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Existe fuerte evidencia científica sobre los beneficios que conlleva seguir un estilo de vida activo. La actividad física más característica e inherente al ser humano es la marcha, la que hoy en día es promovida por diversos profesionales para mejorar el estado de salud de la población. No obstante, al parecer no solo basta con sugerir “salga a caminar” pues es necesario alcanzar cierta cantidad de pasos y cadencia con la finalidad de inducir en el organismo una serie de efectos beneficiosos. Objetivos: El objetivo del presente trabajo es dar a conocer los últimos avances relacionados con esta materia, con el propósito de poder entregar a la población y pacientes recomendaciones más detalladas a la hora de prescribir y sugerir caminar. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en Pubmed y Scielo, así como una búsqueda manual entre las referencias de los estudios seleccionados. Resultados: Tras analizar la literatura se puede señalar que no solo parece ser importante cumplir cierta cantidad de pasos durante el día con la finalidad de mejorar el estado de salud de las personas, además parece ser indispensable sugerir la cadencia a la que se debiera caminar. Conclusiones: “Salga a caminar” es una efectiva y contrastada recomendación para lograr beneficios en la salud de la población, no obstante lo anterior, los profesionales de la salud podrían además sugerir alcanzar cierta cadencia o intensidad mínima para asegurarse de que sus pacientes logren dichos efectos favorables en el organismo.

  17. Evaluation of Toxic Metals and Essential Elements in Children with Learning Disabilities from a Rural Area of Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    do Nascimento, Sabrina Nunes; Charão, Mariele Feiffer; Moro, Angela Maria; Roehrs, Miguel; Paniz, Clovis; Baierle, Marília; Brucker, Natália; Gioda, Adriana; Barbosa, Fernando; Bohrer, Denise; Ávila, Daiana Silva; Garcia, Solange Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Children’s exposure to metals can result in adverse effects such as cognitive function impairments. This study aimed to evaluate some toxic metals and levels of essential trace elements in blood, hair, and drinking water in children from a rural area of Southern Brazil. Cognitive ability and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) activity were evaluated. Oxidative stress was evaluated as a main mechanism of metal toxicity, through the quantification of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. This study included 20 children from a rural area and 20 children from an urban area. Our findings demonstrated increase in blood lead (Pb) levels (BLLs). Also, increased levels of nickel (Ni) in blood and increase of aluminum (Al) levels in hair and drinking water in rural children were found. Deficiency in selenium (Se) levels was observed in rural children as well. Rural children with visual-motor immaturity presented Pb levels in hair significantly increased in relation to rural children without visual-motor immaturity (p < 0.05). Negative correlations between BLLs and ALA-D activity and positive correlations between BLLs and ALA-RE activity were observed. MDA was significantly higher in rural compared to urban children (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that rural children were co-exposed to toxic metals, especially Al, Pb and Ni. Moreover, a slight deficiency of Se was observed. Low performance on cognitive ability tests and ALA-D inhibition can be related to metal exposure in rural children. Oxidative stress was suggested as a main toxicological mechanism involved in metal exposure. PMID:25329533

  18. Prepatterning and patterning of the thalamus along embryonic development of Xenopus laevis

    PubMed Central

    Bandín, Sandra; Morona, Ruth; González, Agustín

    2015-01-01

    Previous developmental studies of the thalamus (alar part of the diencephalic prosomere p2) have defined the molecular basis for the acquisition of the thalamic competence (preparttening), the subsequent formation of the secondary organizer in the zona limitans intrathalamica, and the early specification of two anteroposterior domains (rostral and caudal progenitor domains) in response to inducing activities and that are shared in birds and mammals. In the present study we have analyzed the embryonic development of the thalamus in the anuran Xenopus laevis to determine conserved or specific features in the amphibian diencephalon. From early embryonic stages to the beginning of the larval period, the expression patterns of 22 markers were analyzed by means of combined In situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemical techniques. The early genoarchitecture observed in the diencephalon allowed us to discern the boundaries of the thalamus with the prethalamus, pretectum, and epithalamus. Common molecular features were observed in the thalamic prepatterning among vertebrates in which Wnt3a, Fez, Pax6 and Xiro1 expression were of particular importance in Xenopus. The formation of the zona limitans intrathalamica was observed, as in other vertebrates, by the progressive expression of Shh. The largely conserved expressions of Nkx2.2 in the rostral thalamic domain vs. Gbx2 and Ngn2 (among others) in the caudal domain strongly suggest the role of Shh as morphogen in the amphibian thalamus. All these data showed that the molecular characteristics observed during preparttening and patterning in the thalamus of the anuran Xenopus (anamniote) share many features with those described during thalamic development in amniotes (common patterns in tetrapods) but also with zebrafish, strengthening the idea of a basic organization of this diencephalic region across vertebrates. PMID:26321920

  19. Characterization of the hypothalamus of Xenopus laevis during development. II. The basal regions.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Laura; González, Agustín; Moreno, Nerea

    2014-04-01

    The expression patterns of conserved developmental regulatory transcription factors and neuronal markers were analyzed in the basal hypothalamus of Xenopus laevis throughout development by means of combined immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization techniques. The connectivity of the main subdivisions was investigated by in vitro tracing techniques with dextran amines. The basal hypothalamic region is topologically rostral to the basal diencephalon and is composed of the tuberal (rostral) and mammillary (caudal) subdivisions, according to the prosomeric model. It is dorsally bounded by the optic chiasm and the alar hypothalamus, and caudally by the diencephalic prosomere p3. The tuberal hypothalamus is defined by the expression of Nkx2.1, xShh, and Isl1, and rostral and caudal portions can be distinguished by the distinct expression of Otp rostrally and Nkx2.2 caudally. In the mammillary region the xShh/Nkx2.1 combination defined the rostral mammillary area, expressing Nkx2.1, and the caudal retromammillary area, expressing xShh. The expression of xLhx1, xDll4, and Otp in the mammillary area and Isl1 in the tuberal region highlights the boundary between the two basal hypothalamic territories. Both regions are strongly connected with subpallial regions, especially those conveying olfactory/vomeronasal information, and also possess abundant intrahypothalamic connections. They show reciprocal connections with the diencephalon (mainly the thalamus), project to the midbrain tectum, and are bidirectionally related to the rhombencephalon. These results illustrate that the basal hypothalamus of anurans shares many features of specification, regionalization, and hodology with amniotes, reinforcing the idea of a basic bauplan in the organization of this prosencephalic region in all tetrapods.

  20. MRI morphometric characterisation of the paediatric cervical spine and spinal cord in children with MPS IVA (Morquio-Brailsford syndrome).

    PubMed

    Solanki, Guirish A; Lo, William B; Hendriksz, Christian J

    2013-03-01

    Nearly all children with MPS IVA develop skeletal deformities affecting the spine. At the atlanto-axial spine, odontoid hypoplasia occurs. GAG deposition around the dens, leads to peri-odontoid infiltration. Transverse/alar ligament incompetence causes instability. Atlanto-axial instability is associated with cord compression and myelopathy, leading to major morbidity and mortality. Intervention is often required. Does the presence of widened bullet shaped vertebra in platyspondily encroach on the spinal canal and cause spinal stenosis in MPS IVA? So far, there have been no standardised morphometric measurements of the paediatric MPS IVA cervical spine to evaluate whether there is pre-existing spinal stenosis predisposing to compressive myelopathy or whether this is purely an acquired process secondary to instability and compression. This study provides the first radiological quantitative analysis of the cervical spine and spinal cord in a series of affected children. MRI morphometry indicates that the MPS IVA spine is narrower at C1-2 level giving an inverted funnel shape. There is no evidence of a reduction in the Torg ratio (canal-body ratio) in the cervical spine. The spinal canal does not exceed 11 mm at any level, significantly smaller than normal historical cohorts (14 mm). The sagittal diameter and axial surface area of both spinal canal and cord are reduced. C1-2 level cord compression was evident in the canal-cord ratio but the Torg ratio was not predictive of cord compression. In MPS IVA the reduction in the space available for the cord (SAC) is multifactorial rather than due to congenital spinal stenosis.

  1. Molecular codes defining rostrocaudal domains in the embryonic mouse hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Ferran, José L; Puelles, Luis; Rubenstein, John L R

    2015-01-01

    The prosomeric model proposes that the hypothalamus is a rostral forebrain entity, placed ventral to the telencephalon and rostral to the diencephalon. Gene expression markers differentially label molecularly distinct dorsoventral progenitor domains, which represent continuous longitudinal bands across the hypothalamic alar and basal regions. There is also circumstantial support for a rostrocaudal subdivision of the hypothalamus into transverse peduncular (caudal) and terminal (rostral) territories (PHy, THy). In addition, there is evidence for a specialized acroterminal domain at the rostral midline of the terminal hypothalamus (ATD). The PHy and THy transverse structural units are presently held to form part of two hypothalamo-telencephalic prosomeres (hp1 and hp2, respectively), which end dorsally at the telencephalic septocommissural roof. PHy and THy have distinct adult nuclei, at all dorsoventral levels. Here we report the results of data mining from the Allen Developing Mouse Brain Atlas database, looking for genes expressed differentially in the PHy, Thy, and ATD regions of the hypothalamus at several developmental stages. This search allowed us to identify additional molecular evidence supporting the postulated fundamental rostrocaudal bipartition of the mouse hypothalamus into the PHy and THy, and also corroborated molecularly the singularity of the ATD. A number of markers were expressed in Thy (Fgf15, Gsc, Nkx6.2, Otx1, Zic1/5), but were absent in PHy, while other genes showed the converse pattern (Erbb4, Irx1/3/5, Lmo4, Mfap4, Plagl1, Pmch). We also identified markers that selectively label the ATD (Fgf8/10/18, Otx2, Pomc, Rax, Six6). On the whole, these data help to explain why, irrespective of the observed continuity of all dorsoventral molecular hypothalamic subdivisions across PHy and THy, different nuclear structures originate within each of these two domains, and also why singular structures arise at the ATD, e.g., the suprachiasmatic nuclei, the

  2. Objective tools to analyze the lower lateral cartilage in unilateral cleft lip nasal deformities.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Mohamed A; Elshahat, Ahmed; Emara, Maher; Hussein, Heba; Gould, Lisa; Smith, David; Awad, Mostafa A

    2011-07-01

    Correction of cleft lip nasal deformity is an elusive goal. A controversy exists regarding the cause of the deformity, and therefore, there is a controversy of how to correct the deformity. Extrinsic theory is based on the presence of deformational forces from outside. The intrinsic theory is associated with deficiency of the lower lateral cartilage. The aim of this study was to use new objective tools to compare morphologically and histologically between the lower lateral cartilages of cleft and noncleft sides in patients with unilateral cleft lip nasal deformity. This study included 16 patients. They were operated on to correct unilateral cleft lip nasal deformity. Length, width, and thickness of lateral crura of the lower lateral cartilages of cleft and noncleft sides were measured. Punch biopsies from the middle part of the caudal ends of lateral crura were taken and sent for histologic and immunohistochemical studies. The lateral crura of the cleft side were significantly wider and shorter and tend to be thinner than those of the noncleft side. There was no significant difference in the chondroblast, chondrocyte, and total cellular number in the lower lateral cartilage of the cleft and noncleft sides. There was significantly less glycosaminoglycan content in the ground matrix of the lower lateral cartilage of cleft side. In conclusion, the use of digital sliding caliber in measuring the diminutions of the lower lateral cartilage and image analyzer to quantify the proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans, fibroblast growth factor 18, and collagen content is very effective objective tools to compare the cleft and noncleft alar cartilage. PMID:21772161

  3. Three-dimensional morphometric analysis of craniofacial shape in the unaffected relatives of individuals with nonsyndromic orofacial clefts: a possible marker for genetic susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Seth M; Neiswanger, Katherine; Richtsmeier, Joan T; Maher, Brion S; Mooney, Mark P; Siegel, Michael I; Marazita, Mary L

    2008-02-15

    Numerous studies have described altered patterns of craniofacial form in the unaffected relatives of individuals with nonsyndromic clefts. Unfortunately, results from such studies have been highly variable and have failed to provide a reliable method for differentiating "at-risk" relatives from controls. In the present study, we compared craniofacial shape between a sample of unaffected relatives (33 females; 14 males) from cleft multiplex families and an equal number of age/sex/ethnicity-matched controls. Sixteen x,y,z facial landmark coordinates derived from 3D photogrammetry were analyzed via Euclidean Distance Matrix Analysis, while 14 additional linear distances were analyzed via t tests. A subset of variables was then entered into a discriminant function analysis (DFA). Compared to controls, female unaffected relatives demonstrated increased upper facial width, midface reduction and lateral displacement of the alar cartilage. DFA correctly classified 70% of female unaffected relatives and 73% of female controls. Male unaffected relatives demonstrated increased upper facial and cranial base width, increased lower facial height and decreased upper facial height compared with controls. DFA correctly classified 86% of male unaffected relatives and 93% of male controls. In both sexes, upper facial width contributed most to group discrimination. Following DFA, unaffected relatives were assigned to risk/liability classes based on the degree of phenotypic divergence from controls. Results indicate that craniofacial shape differences characterizing unaffected relatives are partly sex-specific and are in broad agreement with previous reports. These findings further suggest that a quantitative assessment of the craniofacial phenotype may allow for the identification of susceptible individuals within nonsyndromic cleft families.

  4. Comparative microanatomy of the orbicularis oris muscle between chimpanzees and humans: evolutionary divergence of lip function.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Carolyn R; Mooney, Mark P; Smith, Timothy D; Weinberg, Seth M; Waller, Bridget M; Parr, Lisa A; Docherty, Beth A; Bonar, Christopher J; Reinholt, Lauren E; Deleyiannis, Frederic W-B; Siegel, Michael I; Marazita, Mary L; Burrows, Anne M

    2009-01-01

    The orbicularis oris muscle plays a role in the production of primate facial expressions and vocalizations, nutrient intake, and in some non-human primates it is used as a prehensile, manipulative tool. As the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) is the closest living relative of humans, a comparison of the orbicularis oris muscle between these species may increase our understanding of the morphological specializations related to the differing functional demands of their lips and the factors responsible for their divergent evolution. To this end, this study compares the microanatomy of the mid-line upper fibers of the orbicularis oris muscle between chimpanzees and humans. A mid-line portion of the orbicularis oris muscle was harvested from the upper lips of three chimpanzee and five human cadavers. The sampled blocks included the area between the lateral borders of the nasal alar cartilages in both species. Each sample was processed for paraffin histology, sectioned and stained with a variety of protocols. Sections were examined for fiber direction and relative thickness of muscle layers. Ratios of cross-sectional connective tissue area vs. cross-sectional muscle tissue area, muscle fiber diameter and relative dermal thickness were calculated for each species. In both species, a clear pars marginalis layer was recognized, contrary to previous reports that only humans possess this layer. In chimpanzees, the relative fiber diameter and relative amount of muscle tissue (i.e. based on ratio of connective tissue area : muscle tissue area) were significantly (P < 0.05) greater than in humans. In contrast, measurements of relative dermal thickness showed that humans have a greater average dermal thickness of the upper lip than chimpanzees. Taken together, these results suggest that both human and chimpanzee orbicularis oris muscle upper fibers meet the specific functional demands associated with their divergent vocal and facial display repertoires, the development of human

  5. Site-selective chemical modification of chymotrypsin using peptidyl derivatives bearing optically active diphenyl 1-amino-2-phenylethylphosphonate: Stereochemical effect of the diphenyl phosphonate moiety.

    PubMed

    Ono, Shin; Nakai, Takahiko; Kuroda, Hirofumi; Miyatake, Ryuta; Horino, Yoshikazu; Abe, Hitoshi; Umezaki, Masahito; Oyama, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    Diphenyl (α-aminoalkyl)phosphonates act as mechanism-based inhibitors against serine proteases by forming a covalent bond with the hydroxy group of the active center Ser residue. Because the covalent bond was found to be broken and replaced by 2-pyridinaldoxime methiodide (2PAM), we employed a peptidyl derivative bearing diphenyl 1-amino-2-phenylethylphosphonate moiety (Phe(p) (OPh)2 ) to target the active site of chymotrypsin and to selectively anchor to Lys175 in the vicinity of the active site. Previously, it was reported that the configuration of the α-carbon of phosphorus in diphenyl (α-aminoalkyl)phosphonates affects the inactivation reaction of serine proteases, i.e., the (R)-enantiomeric diphenyl phosphonate is comparable to l-amino acids and it effectively reacts with serine proteases, whereas the (S)-enantiomeric form does not. In this study, we evaluated the stereochemical effect of the phosphonate moiety on the selective chemical modification. Epimeric dipeptidyl derivatives, Ala-(R or S)-Phe(p) (OPh)2 , were prepared by separation with RP-HPLC. A tripeptidyl (R)-epimer (Ala-Ala-(R)-Phe(p) (OPh)2 ) exhibited a more potent inactivation ability against chymotrypsin than the (S)-epimer. The enzyme inactivated by the (R)-epimer was more effectively reactivated with 2PAM than the enzyme inactivated by the (S)-epimer. Finally, N-succinimidyl (NHS) active ester derivatives, NHS-Suc-Ala-Ala- (R or S)-Phe(p) (OPh)2 , were prepared, and we evaluated their action when modifying Lys175 in chymotrypsin. We demonstrated that the epimeric NHS derivative that possessed the diphenyl phosphonate moiety with the (R)-configuration effectively modified Lys175 in chymotrypsin, whereas that with the (S)-configuration did not. These results demonstrate the utility of peptidyl derivatives that bear an optically active diphenyl phosphonate moiety as affinity labeling probes in protein bioconjugation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 521-530, 2016.

  6. Disparidad en Salud: Un Fenómeno Multidimensional

    PubMed Central

    Urrutia, Maria-Teresa; Cianelli, Rosina

    2012-01-01

    La Disparidad en Salud (DS) ha llamado la atención pública desde el siglo pasado, ha sido analizada desde diversas perspectivas y enfoques incluso variados términos han sido utilizados como sinónimos pudiendo llevar a confusión e inequidades al momento de su operacionalización. Sin embargo es importante señalar que las publicaciones coinciden en que la DS es uno de las determinantes esenciales a considerar al momento de definir polĺticas públicas. El propósito de esta publicación es analizar la disparidad en salud incorporando; a) los aspectos claves de su conceptualización, b) la evolución histórica del concepto, c) las estrategias que se han generado para enfrentarla, d) los factores considerados determinantes, y e) los aspectos éticos y la contribución de la investigación en la disminución de la DS. Health Disparities (HD) have been at the center of public attention for the past century. They have been analyzed from diverse perspectives utilizing various terms as synonyms that can lead to confusion and inequality at the moment of operationalization. Despite this, it is important to indicate that publications agree that HD are essential determinants that must be considered in the definition of public policy. The objective of this publication is to analyze health disparities incorporating; (a) key aspects in their conceptualization, (b) the historic evolution of the concept, (c) strategies that have been generated to confront them, (d) determining factors, and (e) ethical aspects and the contribution of research in decreasing HD. PMID:22581053

  7. [Therapeutic possibilities in refractory epilepsy in tuberous sclerosis complex].

    PubMed

    Puertas-Martin, Verónica; Carreras-Saez, Inmaculada; Marana, Ana; Ruiz-Falco Rojas, M Luz; Cantarin-Extremera, Verónica; Calleja-Gero, M Lourdes

    2014-06-16

    Introduccion. El complejo esclerosis tuberosa (CET) cursa frecuentemente con epilepsia de dificil control, lo que condiciona la calidad de vida y el nivel cognitivo de estos pacientes. Objetivo. Describir las caracteristicas epidemiologicas, clinicas y el tratamiento de los pacientes afectos de CET con epilepsia. Pacientes y metodos. Se han revisado retrospectivamente las historias clinicas de 30 pacientes menores de 18 años, diagnosticados de CET y epilepsia registrados en nuestra base de datos. Resultados. La edad de inicio de la epilepsia en los pacientes con CET en nuestra serie esta comprendida entre el primer mes de vida y los 4 años. Todos comenzaron con crisis parciales. Dos presentaron sindrome de West y cuatro, espasmos infantiles sin hipsarritmia. En 19 de los pacientes, la epilepsia se comporto como farmacorresistente. Respecto al tratamiento con farmacos antiepilepticos, 11 estan en monoterapia, 10 en biterapia, siete en triterapia y uno con cuatro farmacos. Dos recibieron ACTH, dos tienen implantado un estimulador del nervio vago, cuatro reciben tratamiento con everolimus y ocho han sido sometidos a cirugia. Conclusiones. La epilepsia es un problema muy frecuente y de inicio en los primeros años de vida en el CET. Las opciones terapeuticas actuales son muchas, sin embargo el 63,3% de los pacientes tiene una epilepsia no controlada y la mayoria de ellos presenta crisis diarias. El mal control de las crisis se correlaciona con retraso mental y trastorno del espectro autista. Señalar la respuesta positiva obtenida con otras posibilidades terapeuticas: inhibidores de la via mTOR, cirugia y el estimulador del nervio vago.

  8. Sedimentology of tufa facies and continental microbialites from the Palaeogene of Mallorca Island (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas, C.; Cabrera, L.; Ramos, E.

    2007-04-01

    The Middle Eocene and Oligocene basins in northwestern half of Mallorca are filled by detrital rocks (conglomerates, calcarenites and lutites) and carbonates deposited in alluvial, fluvial, palustrine and lacustrine settings. The sediment supplied to these continental basins was transported by alkaline, bicarbonate-rich waters. As a consequence, these non-marine carbonate deposits display extensive developments of diverse kinds of organosedimentary facies. The sedimentary record from three localities (Peguera, Alaró and Sineu) enabled one to characterize well-preserved Eocene tufa deposits as well as Eocene and Oligocene stromatolites and oncolites. A total of ten carbonate facies are described and interpreted. The facies related to tufa deposits are diverse types of boundstones, rudstones and packstones of bryophytes, in situ stems s.l., phytoclasts, etc. and associated oncolite rudstones and bioclastic mudstones-to-packstones. These facies deposited in littoral lacustrine and fluvio-lacustrine environments. Oncolites and stromatolites present a great variety of shapes and sizes (oncolites from centimetres to several meters in diameter) that somehow were conditioned by environmental conditions within shallow lacustrine and fluvial settings. Three types of lamination apparently dependent on the type of microorganisms responsible for calcite precipitation are distinguished (fan-shaped and bush-shaped grouped filaments and isolated to loosely grouped filaments). The δ 13C and δ 18O composition of these deposits agrees with carbonate precipitation in freshwater, hydrologically open systems with similar carbon sources throughout the Eocene and Oligocene. However, Eocene and Oligocene samples are set apart by the δ 18O. Oligocene facies present lower δ 18O values, which might indicate deposition from isotopically less evolved waters, perhaps under slightly greater precipitation/evaporation conditions. Tufa facies have the highest δ 13C composition and show some

  9. The human vertebral column at the end of the embryonic period proper. 2. The occipitocervical region.

    PubMed Central

    O'Rahilly, R; Müller, F; Meyer, D B

    1983-01-01

    The present investigation of the cervical region of the vertebral column at eight post-ovulatory weeks is the first such study based on precise reconstructions of staged embryos. At the end of the embryonic period proper, a typical vertebra is a U-shaped piece of cartilage characterized by spina bifida occulta. The notochord ascends through the centra and leaves the dens to enter the basal plate of the skull. The median column of the axis comprises three parts (designated X, Y, Z) which persist well into the fetal period. They are related to the first, second and third cervical nerves, respectively. Part X may project into the foramen magnum and form an occipito-axial joint. Part Z appears to be the centrum of the axis. The articular columns of the cervical vertebrae are twofold, as in the adult: an anterior (atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial) and a posterior (from the lower aspect of the axis downwards). Alar and transverse ligaments are present. Cavitation is not found in the embryonic period in either the atlanto-occipital or zygapophysial joints, and is generally not present in the median atlanto-axial joint either. Most of the transverse processes exhibit anterior and posterior tubercles. An 'intertubercular lamella' may or may not be present, i.e. the foramina transversaria are being formed around the vertebral artery. The spinal ganglia are generally partly in the vertebral canal and partly on the neural arches, medial to the articular processes. During the fetal period, the articular processes shift to a coronal position and this alteration appears to be associated with a corresponding change in the location of the spinal ganglia. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 7 PMID:6833119

  10. Structural Insights into the Polyphyletic Origins of Glycyl tRNA Synthetases*♦

    PubMed Central

    Valencia-Sánchez, Marco Igor; Rodríguez-Hernández, Annia; Ferreira, Ruben; Santamaría-Suárez, Hugo Aníbal; Arciniega, Marcelino; Dock-Bregeon, Anne-Catherine; Moras, Dino; Beinsteiner, Brice; Brieba, Luis G.; Grøtli, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Glycyl tRNA synthetase (GlyRS) provides a unique case among class II aminoacyl tRNA synthetases, with two clearly widespread types of enzymes: a dimeric (α2) species present in some bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes; and a heterotetrameric form (α2β2) present in most bacteria. Although the differences between both types of GlyRS at the anticodon binding domain level are evident, the extent and implications of the variations in the catalytic domain have not been described, and it is unclear whether the mechanism of amino acid recognition is also dissimilar. Here, we show that the α-subunit of the α2β2 GlyRS from the bacterium Aquifex aeolicus is able to perform the first step of the aminoacylation reaction, which involves the activation of the amino acid with ATP. The crystal structure of the α-subunit in the complex with an analog of glycyl adenylate at 2.8 Å resolution presents a conformational arrangement that properly positions the cognate amino acid. This work shows that glycine is recognized by a subset of different residues in the two types of GlyRS. A structural and sequence analysis of class II catalytic domains shows that bacterial GlyRS is closely related to alanyl tRNA synthetase, which led us to define a new subclassification of these ancient enzymes and to propose an evolutionary path of α2β2 GlyRS, convergent with α2 GlyRS and divergent from AlaRS, thus providing a possible explanation for the puzzling existence of two proteins sharing the same fold and function but not a common ancestor. PMID:27226617

  11. [Lacosamide and neuropathic pain, a review].

    PubMed

    Alcántara-Montero, Antonio; Sánchez-Carnerero, Clara I

    2016-03-01

    Introduccion. La mayor parte de las guias de practica clinica consultadas coinciden en señalar que los antidepresivos triciclicos, duales (venlafaxina/duloxetina), antiepilepticos gabapentina/pregabalina, apositos de lidocaina al 5% y parches de capsaicina al 8% constituyen los farmacos de primera linea en el tratamiento del dolor neuropatico periferico, y el tramadol y algunos opioides potentes (morfina, oxicodona y tapentadol) son farmacos de segunda linea. Por otra parte, la prevalencia de dolor neuropatico refractario al tratamiento se acerca al 1,5% de la poblacion, de forma que se calcula que un 50% de los pacientes no responde al tratamiento prescrito. Existen otros antiepilepticos que no tienen indicacion en el dolor neuropatico por las agencias reguladoras, como la lamotrigina, el topiramato o la oxcarbacepina, pero se utilizan en la practica clinica habitual fuera de indicacion. Desarrollo. Tras una busqueda bibliografica, se realizo una revision sobre el empleo de la lacosamida en el dolor neuropatico, tanto en distintos modelos animales como en diferentes estudios en humanos. Conclusiones. El tratamiento con lacosamida en el dolor neuropatico de diferentes etiologias podria considerarse como una alternativa efectiva para los pacientes que no respondan o no toleren los tratamientos estandares. Sin embargo, la mayor parte de la evidencia disponible, a excepcion de los ensayos clinicos en fase II/III realizados en el dolor neuropatico diabetico, corresponde a estudios abiertos y observacionales, sin grupo control y con bajo numero de pacientes, pero los resultados favorables obtenidos invitan a seguir investigando la utilidad de la lacosamida en el dolor neuropatico.

  12. THE SIZE AND EXTENT OF THE INTERSTELLAR GAS CLOUD SURROUNDING THE SUN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Two astronomical observatories in orbit around the Earth, the Hubble Space Telescope and the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer, have been used to investigate the structure of the interstellar gas cloud in which the Sun resides. A compilation and interpretation of the results of these studies is being presented today at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Madison, WI by Drs. Jeffrey L. Linsky, Nikolai Piskunov, and Brian E. Wood of JILA and the University of Colorado. Measuring the properties of the local interstellar medium (LISM) is important for understanding how the LISM interacts with the solar wind and for investigating the possibility that changes in the LISM in the immediate vicinity of the Sun could have an effect on the Earth's atmosphere and climate. When astronomers observe the ultraviolet light emitted by nearby stars, it is always found that some of the light is absorbed by atoms and ions in the LISM. The properties of the LISM can therefore be investigated by measuring the amount of absorption observed. Using ultraviolet spectra taken by the Hubble Space Telescope and the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer, the total amount of local interstellar matter has been measured for many lines of sight through the LISM. These studies suggest that the interstellar gas surrounding the Sun has a temperature of about 7000 K (about 12,000 degrees Fahrenheit) and has a velocity of about 16 miles per second relative to the Sun. Measurements made for very short (less than 10 light years) lines of sight toward very nearby stars suggest an average density of about 0.1 hydrogen atoms per cubic centimeter for the local interstellar gas, hydrogen being by far the most abundant atom in the LISM. Measurements made for lines of sight toward more distant stars suggest lower average densities. This suggests that parts of the lines of sight to these more distant stars are in regions of space with extremely low densities. We believe this means that these stars lie outside the local

  13. Chandra Looks Back At The Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-12-01

    -investigator on this project and worked with Dr. Elsner at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center while this research was conducted. The research team also includes Randy Gladstone (Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas); Nikolai Østgaard (University of Bergen, Norway); Hunter Waite and Tariq Majeed (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor); Thomas Cravens (University of Kansas, Lawrence); Shen-Wu Chang (University of Alabama, Huntsville); and, Albert E. Metzger (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for the agency's Science Mission Directorate. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations from the Chandra X-ray Center in Cambridge, Mass. Additional information and images are available at: http://chandra.harvard.edu and http://chandra.nasa.gov For information about NASA and agency programs on the Web, visit: http://www.nasa.gov

  14. PREFACE: International Conference on Many Particle Spectroscopy of Atoms, Molecules, Clusters and Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowek, Danielle; Bennani, Azzedine; Lablanquie, Pascal; Maquet, Alfred

    2008-12-01

    The 2008 edition of the International Conference on Many Particle Spectroscopy of Atoms, Molecules, Clusters and Surfaces was held in Paris from 30 June to 2 July 2008. This biennial conference alternates with the International Symposium on (e,2e), Double Photoionization and Related Topics which is a satellite of the International Conference on Photonic, Electronic and Atomic Collisions (ICPEAC) conference. Over 110 participants from 20 countries gathered to examine the latest developments in the field of radiation interactions with matter. These include electron-electron correlation effects in excitation and in single and multiple ionization of atoms, molecules, clusters and surfaces with various projectiles: electrons, photons and ions. The present proceedings gathers the contributions of invited speakers and is intended to provide a detailed state-of-the-art account of the various facets of the field. Special thanks are due to Université Paris Sud XI, CNRS, and the laboratories LCAM, LIXAM and LCPMR which provided financial support for the organization of the conference. We are also grateful to the contribution of the companies Varian and RoentDek Handels GmbH. Guest Editors: Danielle Dowek and Azzedine Bennani LCAM, Université Paris Sud XI, France Pascal Lablanquie and Alfred Maquet LCPMR, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE Lorenzo Avaldi, (Italy) Alexei Grum Grzhimailo, (Russia) Klaus Bartschat, (USA) Nikolai Kabachnik, (Russia) Jamal Berakdar, (Germany) Birgit Lohmann, (Australia) Nora Berrah, (USA) Don H Madison, (USA) Michael Brunger, (Australia) Francis Penent, (France) Albert Crowe, (UK) Bernard Piraux, (Belgium) Claude Dal Cappello, (France) Roberto Rivarola, (Argentina) JingKang Deng, (China) Emma Sokkel, (Ireland) Alexander Dorn, (Germany) Giovanni Stefani, (Italy) Reinhardt Dorner, (Germany) Noboru Watanabe, (Japan) François Frémont, (France) LOCAL ORGANIZING COMMITTEE Azzedine BENNANI (Chair

  15. EDITORIAL: Invited review and topical lectures from the 13th International Congress on Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagorodny, A.; Kocherga, O.

    2007-05-01

    The 13th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2006) was organized, on behalf of the International Advisory Committee of the ICPP series, by the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and the Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics (BITP) and held in Kiev, Ukraine, 22 26 May 2006. The Congress Program included the topics: fundamental problems of plasma physics; fusion plasmas; plasmas in astrophysics and space physics; plasmas in applications and technologies; complex plasmas. A total of 305 delegates from 30 countries took part in the Congress. The program included 9 invited review lectures, 32 invited topical and 313 contributed papers (60 of which were selected for oral presentation). The Congress Program was the responsibility of the International Program Committee: Anatoly Zagorodny (Chairman) Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ukraine Olha Kocherga (Scientific Secretary) Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ukraine Boris Breizman The University of Texas at Austin, USA Iver Cairns School of Physics, University of Sydney, Australia Tatiana Davydova Institute for Nuclear Research, Ukraine Tony Donne FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics, Rijnhuizen, The Netherlands Nikolai S Erokhin Space Research Institute of RAS, Russia Xavier Garbet CEA, France Valery Godyak OSRAM SYLVANIA, USA Katsumi Ida National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan Alexander Kingsep Russian Research Centre `Kurchatov Institute', Russia E P Kruglyakov Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Russia Gregor Morfill Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Germany Osamu Motojima National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan Jef Ongena ERM-KMS, Brussels and EFDA-JET, UK Konstantyn Shamrai Institute for Nuclear Research, Ukraine Raghvendra Singh Institute for Plasma Research, India Konstantyn Stepanov Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology, Ukraine Masayoshi Tanaka National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan Nodar Tsintsadze Physics Institute, Georgia The

  16. Study of Impacts of Arctic Sea Ice Reduction on Atmospheric Chemical Processes - The BROMEX 2012 Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nghiem, S. V.

    2012-12-01

    Arctic perennial sea ice has decreased drastically in the last decade and still remained low in spring 2012 as observed from scatterometer datasets acquired by QuikSCAT and Oceansat-2 satellites. In particular, the thinner, weaker, and saltier seasonal sea ice has dominated over the perennial ice in the Chukchi Sea and Beaufort Sea. To investigate impacts of sea ice reduction on atmospheric chemical processes, we conducted the BRomine, Ozone, and Mercury EXperiment in (BROMEX) in March-April 2012 around Barrow, extending out to a large region offshore and inland. Here we present overview results from BROMEX, which was successfully carried out by about 30 scientists, researchers, and field workers from multiple international institutions. For BROMEX, we coordinated and collected satellite data, including a number of near-real-time products, from multiple satellite instruments including MODIS, AMSR-E, GOME-2, SCIAMACHY, OMI, RADARSAT-2, Envisat ASAR, TanDEM-X, SMOS, CryoSat-2, and Oceansat-2. Over the BROMEX field region, we made measurements and collected sea ice, snow, ocean, and air samples for physical, meteorological, chemical, biological, and acoustic studies. A helicopter was used to deploy chemical and meteorological buoys in the Chukchi Sea and the Beaufort Sea. Measurements were also made with airborne sensors across sea ice, leads, lagoon, and tundra along various flight patterns of the ALAR aircraft. Furthermore, we coordinated with the NASA IceBridge P3 aircraft to collect surface temperature, surface height, snow depth, and ice thickness measurements. We set up and maintained field sites on sea ice and in the tundra to measure bromine, ozone, mercury, and other chemical species. Moreover, we obtained temperature data from many different types of temperature sensors for temperature accuracy assessment to identify potential issues that might cause errors or biases in temperature measurements. An enormous amount of in-situ snow and ice data was collected

  17. Crystal structures of three protozoan homologs of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Ethan A; Arakaki, Tracy L; Gillespie, Robert; Napuli, Alberto J; Kim, Jessica E; Buckner, Frederick S; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Verlinde, Christophe L M J; Fan, Erkang; Zucker, Frank; Hol, Wim G J

    2011-05-01

    Tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) is an essential enzyme that is recognizably conserved across all forms of life. It is responsible for activating and attaching tryptophan to a cognate tRNA(Trp) molecule for use in protein synthesis. In some eukaryotes this original core function has been supplemented or modified through the addition of extra domains or the expression of variant TrpRS isoforms. The three TrpRS structures from pathogenic protozoa described here represent three illustrations of this malleability in eukaryotes. The Cryptosporidium parvum genome contains a single TrpRS gene, which codes for an N-terminal domain of uncertain function in addition to the conserved core TrpRS domains. Sequence analysis indicates that this extra domain, conserved among several apicomplexans, is related to the editing domain of some AlaRS and ThrRS. The C. parvum enzyme remains fully active in charging tRNA(Trp) after truncation of this extra domain. The crystal structure of the active, truncated enzyme is presented here at 2.4Å resolution. The Trypanosoma brucei genome contains separate cytosolic and mitochondrial isoforms of TrpRS that have diverged in their respective tRNA recognition domains. The crystal structure of the T. brucei cytosolic isoform is presented here at 2.8Å resolution. The Entamoeba histolytica genome contains three sequences that appear to be TrpRS homologs. However one of these, whose structure is presented here at 3.0Å resolution, has lost the active site motifs characteristic of the Class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase catalytic domain while retaining the conserved features of a fully formed tRNA(Trp) recognition domain. The biological function of this variant E. histolytica TrpRS remains unknown, but, on the basis of a completely conserved tRNA recognition region and evidence for ATP but not tryptophan binding, it is tempting to speculate that it may perform an editing function. Together with a previously reported structure of an unusual Trp

  18. Efficiency of Natural Gas Flares Associated with Shale Formation Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stirm, B.; Caulton, D.; Shepson, P.; Cambaliza, M. L.; Mccabe, D. C.; Baum, E.

    2012-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing has increased access and economic viability of shale oil reserves. Currently the Bakken Oil field in North Dakota is experiencing a rapid increase in the drilling of shale oil wells. However, this process typically results in the simultaneous release of natural gas. Low natural gas prices and the lack of local gas pipeline infrastructure have decreased the incentive for companies to capture this natural gas, with many opting to vent or flare the natural gas instead. The impact of these operations on greenhouse gas emissions has not been well characterized. An undocumented variable of interest is the destruction efficiency of methane in active oil field flares. In situ measurements of flare efficiency are difficult to obtain because of the inaccessibility of the flares. In June of 2012 we conducted flights over shale oil wells and flares in the Bakken Formation near Williston, ND using Purdue University's Airborne Laboratory for Atmospheric Research (ALAR) which is equipped with a 0.5 Hz Picarro CO2/CH4/H2O analyzer and a Best Air Turbulence (BAT) probe that measures the wind vectors. In addition, one flare in the Marcellus Formation near Washington, PA was also sampled. Flare signals were identified based on the enhancements of CO2 above the ambient background signal and the corresponding colocated CH4 concentration. Enhancements were isolated by subtracting the background concentrations of CO2 and CH4 to obtain delta CO2 and delta CH4 values. Emission factors to be reported are obtained as the ratio delta CH4 divided by delta CO2. We will report first in situ measurements of natural gas flare efficiency. We observed a variety of meteorological conditions with winds ranging from 4 to 15 m/s and will report on the relationship between wind speed and flare efficiency. We observed very high flare efficiency even under strong winds (at least 99.8% CO2 for all flares). During flare sampling, we observed a number of CH4 enhancements that were

  19. Photo anthropometric variations in Japanese facial features: Establishment of large-sample standard reference data for personal identification using a three-dimensional capture system.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Y; Wada, B; Taniguchi, K; Miyasaka, S; Imaizumi, K

    2015-12-01

    This study clarifies the anthropometric variations of the Japanese face by presenting large-sample population data of photo anthropometric measurements. The measurements can be used as standard reference data for the personal identification of facial images in forensic practices. To this end, three-dimensional (3D) facial images of 1126 Japanese individuals (865 male and 261 female Japanese individuals, aged 19-60 years) were acquired as samples using an already validated 3D capture system, and normative anthropometric analysis was carried out. In this anthropometric analysis, first, anthropological landmarks (22 items, i.e., entocanthion (en), alare (al), cheilion (ch), zygion (zy), gonion (go), sellion (se), gnathion (gn), labrale superius (ls), stomion (sto), labrale inferius (li)) were positioned on each 3D facial image (the direction of which had been adjusted to the Frankfort horizontal plane as the standard position for appropriate anthropometry), and anthropometric absolute measurements (19 items, i.e., bientocanthion breadth (en-en), nose breadth (al-al), mouth breadth (ch-ch), bizygomatic breadth (zy-zy), bigonial breadth (go-go), morphologic face height (se-gn), upper-lip height (ls-sto), lower-lip height (sto-li)) were exported using computer software for the measurement of a 3D digital object. Second, anthropometric indices (21 items, i.e., (se-gn)/(zy-zy), (en-en)/(al-al), (ls-li)/(ch-ch), (ls-sto)/(sto-li)) were calculated from these exported measurements. As a result, basic statistics, such as the mean values, standard deviations, and quartiles, and details of the distributions of these anthropometric results were shown. All of the results except "upper/lower lip ratio (ls-sto)/(sto-li)" were normally distributed. They were acquired as carefully as possible employing a 3D capture system and 3D digital imaging technologies. The sample of images was much larger than any Japanese sample used before for the purpose of personal identification. The

  20. Disseminated lupus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Garg, Taru; Ramchander; Shrihar, Rashmi; Gupta, Tanvi Pal; Aggarwal, Shilpi

    2011-01-01

    A 28-year-old woman presented with reddish raised, shiny lesions over the face and ears present for the past 3 years. Four years ago, she developed in her left axilla a nodule that became fluctuant and tender, which ruptured to discharge seropurulent material. It subsided after the patient had received antibiotics for 6 months, leaving puckered scarring. There was no history of antituberculous treatment. After 1 year, she developed papulonodular lesions on her face, nose, and ears. There was now a history of malaise, fever, dry cough, and anorexia and weight loss for the past 2 months. The patient was fully vaccinated in childhood, including against varicella infection. The general physical examination revealed lymphadenopathy involving cervical, axillary, and inguinal lymph nodes 0.5 x 0.5 cm to 1 x 1.5 cm, firm in consistency, and nontender. They were discrete except in the left axilla where multiple matted lymph nodes were present with overlying scarring and a papule. Her systemic examination was normal. Cutaneous examination showed a shiny erythematous plaque 3x2 cm with central atrophy and scarring on the face (Figure). It was comprised of multiple shiny nontender soft papules arranged in annular configuration. Similar discrete papules and nodules with adherent fine scaling were seen bilaterally on the alar prominence of the nose, lower lip, and post-auricular area. On diascopy, apple jelly nodules were seen. The hemogram, liver function tests, and renal function tests were normal, except for an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The Mantoux test showed erythema and an induration of 20 x 20 cm. A posteroanterior view on the chest x-ray showed fibrotic changes suggestive of pulmonary tuberculosis. Ultrasonography of the abdomen and pelvis showed no tubercular foci. Human immunodeficiency virus serology by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with 3 different kits was nonreactive. Histopathology from a nodule showed a focally thinned-out epidermis with

  1. Frontal soft tissue analysis using a 3 dimensional camera following two-jaw rotational orthognathic surgery in skeletal class III patients.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jong Woo; Lee, Jang Yeol; Oh, Tae-Suk; Kwon, Soon Man; Yang, Sung Joon; Koh, Kyung Suk

    2014-04-01

    Although two dimensional cephalometry is the standard method for analyzing the results of orthognathic surgery, it has potential limits in frontal soft tissue analysis. We have utilized a 3 dimensional camera to examine changes in soft tissue landmarks in patients with skeletal class III dentofacial deformity who underwent two-jaw rotational setback surgery. We assessed 25 consecutive Asian patients (mean age, 22 years; range, 17-32 years) with skeletal class III dentofacial deformities who underwent two-jaw rotational surgery without maxillary advancement. Using a 3D camera, we analyzed changes in facial proportions, including vertical and horizontal dimensions, facial surface areas, nose profile, lip contour, and soft tissue cheek convexity, as well as landmarks related to facial symmetry. The average mandibular setback was 10.7 mm (range: 5-17 mm). The average SNA changed from 77.4° to 77.8°, the average SNB from 89.2° to 81.1°, and the average occlusal plane from 8.7° to 11.4°. The mid third vertical dimension changed from 58.8 mm to 57.8 mm (p = 0.059), and the lower third vertical dimension changed from 70.4 mm to 68.2 mm (p = 0.0006). The average bigonial width decreased from 113.5 mm to 109.2 mm (p = 0.0028), the alar width increased from 34.7 mm to 36.1 mm (p-value = 0.0002), and lip length was unchanged. Mean mid and lower facial surface areas decreased significantly, from 171.8 cm(2) to 166.2 cm(2) (p = 0.026) and from 71.23 cm(2) to 61.9 cm(2) (p < 0.0001), respectively. Cheek convexity increased significantly, from 171.8° to 155.9° (p = 0.0007). The 3D camera was effective in frontal soft tissue analysis for orthognathic surgery, and enabled quantitative analysis of changes in frontal soft tissue landmarks and facial proportions that were not possible with conventional 2D cephalometric analysis.

  2. Water resource management in river oases along the Tarim River in North-West of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kliucininkaite, Lina; Disse, Markus

    2013-04-01

    Tarim River is one of the longest inland rivers in the world. It flows its water in the northern part of the Taklamakan desert in Xinjiang, North-west of China, which is a very hostile region due its climatic conditions and particularly due to low precipitation and very high evaporation rates. During the past five decades intensive exploitation of water resources, mainly by agricultural activities, has changed the temporal and spatial distribution of them and caused serious environmental problems in the Tarim River Basin. The support measures for oasis management along the Tarim River under climatic and societal changes became the overarching goal of this research. The temperature has risen by nearly 1° C over the past 50 years in the Tarim River Basin so more water was available in the mountainous areas of Xinjiang, leading to an increasing trend of the headstream discharges of the Tarim Basin. Aksu, Hotan and Yarkant Rivers are three tributaries of the Tarim River, as well as its main water suppliers. However, under the condition of water increase with the volume of 25×108 m3 in headstreams in recent 10 years, the water to the mainstream has increased less than 108 m3 (in Alar hydrological station), which is less than 3% of the increased water volume of runoff. Moreover, the region is one of the biggest cotton and other cash crops producers in China. In addition, expansion of urban and, in particular, of irrigation areas have caused higher water consumption at different parts of the river, leading to severe ecological effects on rural areas, especially in the lower reaches. Moreover, it also highly affects groundwater level and quality. The aim of this research is to support decision makers, planners and engineers to find right measures in the area for the further development of the region, as well as adaptation to changing climate. Different scenarios for water resource management, as well as water distribution and allocation in a more efficient and water

  3. Disseminated lupus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Garg, Taru; Ramchander; Shrihar, Rashmi; Gupta, Tanvi Pal; Aggarwal, Shilpi

    2011-01-01

    A 28-year-old woman presented with reddish raised, shiny lesions over the face and ears present for the past 3 years. Four years ago, she developed in her left axilla a nodule that became fluctuant and tender, which ruptured to discharge seropurulent material. It subsided after the patient had received antibiotics for 6 months, leaving puckered scarring. There was no history of antituberculous treatment. After 1 year, she developed papulonodular lesions on her face, nose, and ears. There was now a history of malaise, fever, dry cough, and anorexia and weight loss for the past 2 months. The patient was fully vaccinated in childhood, including against varicella infection. The general physical examination revealed lymphadenopathy involving cervical, axillary, and inguinal lymph nodes 0.5 x 0.5 cm to 1 x 1.5 cm, firm in consistency, and nontender. They were discrete except in the left axilla where multiple matted lymph nodes were present with overlying scarring and a papule. Her systemic examination was normal. Cutaneous examination showed a shiny erythematous plaque 3x2 cm with central atrophy and scarring on the face (Figure). It was comprised of multiple shiny nontender soft papules arranged in annular configuration. Similar discrete papules and nodules with adherent fine scaling were seen bilaterally on the alar prominence of the nose, lower lip, and post-auricular area. On diascopy, apple jelly nodules were seen. The hemogram, liver function tests, and renal function tests were normal, except for an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The Mantoux test showed erythema and an induration of 20 x 20 cm. A posteroanterior view on the chest x-ray showed fibrotic changes suggestive of pulmonary tuberculosis. Ultrasonography of the abdomen and pelvis showed no tubercular foci. Human immunodeficiency virus serology by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with 3 different kits was nonreactive. Histopathology from a nodule showed a focally thinned-out epidermis with

  4. PREFACE: International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littlewood, P. B.; Lonzarich, G. G.; Saxena, S. S.; Sutherland, M. L.; Sebastian, S. E.; Artacho, E.; Grosche, F. M.; Hadzibabic, Z.

    2012-11-01

    , Pittsburgh P. Chandra, PiscatawayN. Mathur, CambridgeJ.C. Gomez-Sal, Santander S-W. Cheong, RutgersK. Miyake, OsakaV. Tripathi, Mumbai P. Coleman, PiscatawayA Navrotsky, DavisA. Vasiliev, Moscow M. Vojta, Cologne Local Committee S. E. Sebastian (chair)R. NeedsJ. Keeling N. MathurE. PughD. Khmelnitskii M. ParishM. CarpenterM. Koehl M. AtatureR. CowburnW. Milne C. BarnesJ. McManus DriscollS. Redfern N. BerloffA. FerrariD. Ritchie M. BlamireC. GreyJ. Robertson J. BaumbergZ. HadzibabicB. Simons A. Cheetham National Advisory Committee G. Aeppli, LondonV. Falko, LancasterM. Pepper, Cambridge A. Ardavan, OxfordR. Friend, CambridgeT. Perring, Didcot P. Attfield, EdinburghC. Frost, RutherfordJ. Saunders, London A. Boothroyd, OxfordG. Gehring, ShefieldA. Schofield, Birmingham A. Coldea, OxfordS. Hayden, BristolN. Shannon, Bristol L. Eaves, NottinghamN. Hussey, BristolM. Skolnick, Sheffield D. Edwards, LondonA. Huxley, EdinburghS. Thompson, York M. Ellerby, LondonH. Wilhelm, Didcot International Advisory Committee E. Abrahams, UCLAG. Kotliar, Piscataway E. V. Sampathkumaran, Mumbai G. Aeppli, LondonD. Khmelnitskii, CambridgeUK J. Sarrao, Los Alamos J. W. Allen, Ann ArborK. Kugel, MoscowJ. Schilling, St. Louise P. W. Anderson, Princeton C. Lacroix, Grenoble A. Schofield, Birmingham M. Aronson, Stony Brook P. A. LeeCambridge, USA V. Sechovsky, Prague Y. K. Bang, Kwangju and Pohang C.T. Liang, Taipei T. Senthil, Cambridge, USA M. Barma, Mumbai P. Majumdar, Allahabad J. G. Sereni, Bariloche G. Baskaran, Chennai Y. Maeno, Kyoto K. Shimizu, Osaka E. Bauer, Vienna J. Mannhart, Augsburg Q. Si, Houston G. Boebinger, Tallahassee M. B. Maple, San Diego M. Sigrist, Zurich R. Budhani, Delhi Y. Matsuda, Kyoto A. Simoni, Trento P. Canfield, Ames R. Moessner, Dresden D. Singh, Oak Ridge M. Continentino, Rio di Janiero A. Millis, New York A. Sood, Bangalore S. Coppersmith, Madison J. Mydosh, Leiden J. Spalek, Krakow B. Coqblin, Paris S. Nakatsuji, Tokyo F. Steglich, Dresden A. Chubukov, Madison G. Oomi

  5. Seasonal changes of whole root system conductance by a drought-tolerant grape root system

    PubMed Central

    Alsina, Maria Mar; Smart, David R.; Bauerle, Taryn; de Herralde, Felicidad; Biel, Carme; Stockert, Christine; Negron, Claudia; Save, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The role of root systems in drought tolerance is a subject of very limited information compared with above-ground responses. Adjustments to the ability of roots to supply water relative to shoot transpiration demand is proposed as a major means for woody perennial plants to tolerate drought, and is often expressed as changes in the ratios of leaf to root area (AL:AR). Seasonal root proliferation in a directed manner could increase the water supply function of roots independent of total root area (AR) and represents a mechanism whereby water supply to demand could be increased. To address this issue, seasonal root proliferation, stomatal conductance (gs) and whole root system hydraulic conductance (kr) were investigated for a drought-tolerant grape root system (Vitis berlandieri×V. rupestris cv. 1103P) and a non-drought-tolerant root system (Vitis riparia×V. rupestris cv. 101-14Mgt), upon which had been grafted the same drought-sensitive clone of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot. Leaf water potentials (ψL) for Merlot grafted onto the 1103P root system (–0.91±0.02 MPa) were +0.15 MPa higher than Merlot on 101-14Mgt (–1.06±0.03 MPa) during spring, but dropped by approximately –0.4 MPa from spring to autumn, and were significantly lower by –0.15 MPa (–1.43±0.02 MPa) than for Merlot on 101-14Mgt (at –1.28±0.02 MPa). Surprisingly, gs of Merlot on the drought-tolerant root system (1103P) was less down-regulated and canopies maintained evaporative fluxes ranging from 35–20 mmol vine−1 s−1 during the diurnal peak from spring to autumn, respectively, three times greater than those measured for Merlot on the drought-sensitive rootstock 101-14Mgt. The drought-tolerant root system grew more roots at depth during the warm summer dry period, and the whole root system conductance (kr) increased from 0.004 to 0.009 kg MPa−1 s−1 during that same time period. The changes in kr could not be explained by xylem anatomy or conductivity changes of individual root

  6. Systematics within Gyps vultures: a clade at risk

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jeff A; Lerner, Heather RL; Rasmussen, Pamela C; Mindell, David P

    2006-01-01

    molecular phylogenies strongly support the treatment of indicus and tenuirostris as separate species, as does morphological data showing that these two taxa of similar overall size differ in proportions, especially in rostral, alar, and pedal characters. In addition, grouping of bengalensis and africanus together in the genus Pseudogyps, as historically proposed, is not upheld based on mitochondrial data. Conclusion Both molecular and morphological data provide strong support for considering the "Long-billed" Vulture to be comprised of two species (G. indicus and G. tenuirostris), and further analysis is warranted to determine the taxonomic distinctiveness of G. f. fulvescens. Our phylogenetic analyses and conservative estimates suggest the diversification of Gyps taxa to be within the past 6 million years. Diclofenac susceptibility has been previously demonstrated for four Gyps species (G. indicus, G. fulvus, G. africanus, G. bengalensis), and the phylogenetic position of these species each forming a sister relationship with at least one of the remaining species, support concern that other Gyps taxa may be susceptible as well. Determining genetic and evolutionary distinctiveness for Gyps lineages is increasingly important as a breeding program is being established to prevent extinction.

  7. The Turkish delight: a pliable graft for rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Erol, O O

    2000-05-01

    In nose surgery, carved or crushed cartilage used as a graft has some disadvantages, chiefly that it may be perceptible through the nasal skin after tissue resolution is complete. To overcome these problems and to obtain a smoother surface, the authors initiated the use of Surgicel-wrapped diced cartilage. This innovative technique has been used by the authors on 2365 patients over the past 10 years: in 165 patients with traumatic nasal deformity, in 350 patients with postrhinoplasty deformity, and in 1850 patients during primary rhinoplasty. The highlights of the surgical procedure include harvested cartilage (septal, alar, conchal, and sometimes costal) cut in pieces of 0.5 to 1 mm using a no. 11 blade. The fine-textured cartilage mass is then wrapped in one layer of Surgicel and moistened with an antibiotic (rifamycin). The graft is then molded into a cylindrical form and inserted under the dorsal nasal skin. In the lateral wall and tip of the nose, some overcorrection is performed depending on the type of deformity. When the mucosal stitching is complete, this graft can be externally molded, like plasticine, under the dorsal skin. In cases of mild-to-moderate nasal depression, septal and conchal cartilages are used in the same manner to augment the nasal dorsum with consistently effective and durable results. In cases with more severe defects of the nose, costal cartilage is necessary to correct both the length of the nose and the projection of the columella. In patients with recurrent deviation of the nasal bridge, this technique provided a simple solution to the problem. After overexcision of the dorsal part of deviated septal cartilage and insertion of Surgicel-wrapped diced cartilage, a straight nose was obtained in all patients with no recurrence (follow-up of 1 to 10 years). The technique also proved to be highly effective in primary rhinoplasties to camouflage bone irregularities after hump removal in patients with thin nasal skin and/or in cases when

  8. Toward a W4-F12 approach: Can explicitly correlated and orbital-based ab initio CCSD(T) limits be reconciled?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvetsky, Nitai; Peterson, Kirk A.; Karton, Amir; Martin, Jan M. L.

    2016-06-01

    In the context of high-accuracy computational thermochemistry, the valence coupled cluster with all singles and doubles (CCSD) correlation component of molecular atomization energies presents the most severe basis set convergence problem, followed by the (T) component. In the present paper, we make a detailed comparison, for an expanded version of the W4-11 thermochemistry benchmark, between, on the one hand, orbital-based CCSD/AV{5,6}Z + d and CCSD/ACV{5,6}Z extrapolation, and on the other hand CCSD-F12b calculations with cc-pVQZ-F12 and cc-pV5Z-F12 basis sets. This latter basis set, now available for H-He, B-Ne, and Al-Ar, is shown to be very close to the basis set limit. Apparent differences (which can reach 0.35 kcal/mol for systems like CCl4) between orbital-based and CCSD-F12b basis set limits disappear if basis sets with additional radial flexibility, such as ACV{5,6}Z, are used for the orbital calculation. Counterpoise calculations reveal that, while total atomization energies with V5Z-F12 basis sets are nearly free of BSSE, orbital calculations have significant BSSE even with AV(6 + d)Z basis sets, leading to non-negligible differences between raw and counterpoise-corrected extrapolated limits. This latter problem is greatly reduced by switching to ACV{5,6}Z core-valence basis sets, or simply adding an additional zeta to just the valence orbitals. Previous reports that all-electron approaches like HEAT (high-accuracy extrapolated ab-initio thermochemistry) lead to different CCSD(T) limits than "valence limit + CV correction" approaches like Feller-Peterson-Dixon and Weizmann-4 (W4) theory can be rationalized in terms of the greater radial flexibility of core-valence basis sets. For (T) corrections, conventional CCSD(T)/AV{Q,5}Z + d calculations are found to be superior to scaled or extrapolated CCSD(T)-F12b calculations of similar cost. For a W4-F12 protocol, we recommend obtaining the Hartree-Fock and valence CCSD components from CCSD-F12b/cc-pV{Q,5}Z-F12

  9. Toward a W4-F12 approach: Can explicitly correlated and orbital-based ab initio CCSD(T) limits be reconciled?

    PubMed

    Sylvetsky, Nitai; Peterson, Kirk A; Karton, Amir; Martin, Jan M L

    2016-06-01

    In the context of high-accuracy computational thermochemistry, the valence coupled cluster with all singles and doubles (CCSD) correlation component of molecular atomization energies presents the most severe basis set convergence problem, followed by the (T) component. In the present paper, we make a detailed comparison, for an expanded version of the W4-11 thermochemistry benchmark, between, on the one hand, orbital-based CCSD/AV{5,6}Z + d and CCSD/ACV{5,6}Z extrapolation, and on the other hand CCSD-F12b calculations with cc-pVQZ-F12 and cc-pV5Z-F12 basis sets. This latter basis set, now available for H-He, B-Ne, and Al-Ar, is shown to be very close to the basis set limit. Apparent differences (which can reach 0.35 kcal/mol for systems like CCl4) between orbital-based and CCSD-F12b basis set limits disappear if basis sets with additional radial flexibility, such as ACV{5,6}Z, are used for the orbital calculation. Counterpoise calculations reveal that, while total atomization energies with V5Z-F12 basis sets are nearly free of BSSE, orbital calculations have significant BSSE even with AV(6 + d)Z basis sets, leading to non-negligible differences between raw and counterpoise-corrected extrapolated limits. This latter problem is greatly reduced by switching to ACV{5,6}Z core-valence basis sets, or simply adding an additional zeta to just the valence orbitals. Previous reports that all-electron approaches like HEAT (high-accuracy extrapolated ab-initio thermochemistry) lead to different CCSD(T) limits than "valence limit + CV correction" approaches like Feller-Peterson-Dixon and Weizmann-4 (W4) theory can be rationalized in terms of the greater radial flexibility of core-valence basis sets. For (T) corrections, conventional CCSD(T)/AV{Q,5}Z + d calculations are found to be superior to scaled or extrapolated CCSD(T)-F12b calculations of similar cost. For a W4-F12 protocol, we recommend obtaining the Hartree-Fock and valence CCSD components from CCSD-F12b/cc-pV{Q,5}Z-F12

  10. PREFACE: Scientific and Technical Challenges in the Well Drilling Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-02-01

    The Conference "Advanced Engineering Problems in Drilling" was devoted to the 60th anniversary of the Drilling Department, Institute of Natural Resources. Today this Department is the "descendant" of two existing departments - Mining Exploration Technology and Oil and Gas Drilling. It should be mentioned that this remarkable date is associated with the first graduation class of mining engineers in "Mining Exploration Technologies", as well as the 30th anniversary of the Oil and Gas Well Drilling Department. Anniversary is an excellent occasion to remember one's historical past. At the beginning of the last century within the Tomsk Technological Institute n.a. Emperor Nikolai II the Mining Department was established which soon embraced the Obruchev-Usov Mining-Geological School. This School became the parent of mining-geological education in the Asian region of Russia, as well as the successor of mining-geological science. It was and is today one of the leading schools in the spheres of mineral resources exploration, surveying and mining. 1927 is the year of the establishment of the Department of Technology in Mineral Exploration. SibGeokom (Western-Siberia branch of the Geological Committee) under the supervision of M.A. Usov obtained the first Krelis rotary boring drill. Prior to that only the Keystone cable drilling rig was used in exploration. It was I.A. Molchanov who was responsible for the development and implementation of new technology in the field of exploration. In the yard of SibGeokom (now it is Building № 6, Usov St.) the first drilling rig was mounted. This was the beginning of the first training courses for Krelis drilling foremen under the supervision of I.A. Molchanov. In 1931 I.A. Molchanov headed the Department of Exploration which was located in Building № 6. In the outside territory of this building a drilling site was launched, including Keystone cable drilling rig, CAM-500 drilling rig and others. In the Building itself, i.e. in one study

  11. Non-thermal processes on ice and liquid micro-jet surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olanrewaju, Babajide O.

    acknowledge that the instrumentation and data acquisition were done in collaboration with Nikolai Petrik and Greg Kimmel.

  12. PREFACE: A Stellar Journey A Stellar Journey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asplund, M.

    2008-10-01

    appreciated non-astronomical session on Tuesday afternoon; Sigbritt Ernald provided a rich source of suggestions for suitable interesting persons to invite for the stimulating and highly enjoyable oral and musical presentations. While the responsibilities of the SOC are quite pleasant and frankly not particularly demanding, the heavy burden with organizing a conference falls squarely with the Local Organizing Committee, which has to deal with a seemingly never-ending stream of practicalities and more mundane chores. The main reason the Stellar Journey conference was such an astounding success and ran so smoothly is the tireless work by the whole LOC. All of us owe a great deal of gratitude to Paul Barklem, Nils Bergvall, Norbert Christlieb, Bengt Edvardsson (Chair), Kjell Eriksson, Ulrike Heiter, Susanne Höfner, Andreas Korn, Nikolai Piskunov, Bertrand Plez and Astrid Wachter for their extensive efforts. I'd like to also extend a special acknowledgement to all of the Uppsala students who helped out during the reception, registration and various sessions. Last but not the least, I'd like to thank all of the conference participants for giving such excellent talks and for providing stimulating discussions throughout the week. It is telling that essentially everyone invited to participate in the conference almost immediately accepted while the very few who declined did so only reluctantly due to other prior commitments. Bengt is a highly regarded colleague and friend, whom we all wished to celebrate this special occasion with. This conference represented merely one brief stop on a marvellous and truly stellar journey. I dare say that without exception we are all deeply thankful for having been able to join Bengt Gustafsson on at least some of his many cosmic adventures during the past decades. We trust that this exciting odyssey will continue for many years.

  13. Obituary: Martha Locke Hazen, 1931-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Thomas R.; Willson, Lee Anne

    2007-12-01

    Digital Access to a Sky Century from Harvard (DASCH) project will owe much to Martha's efforts in this regard. Another important contribution to progress in astronomy from the plate stacks came as Martha engaged in what she called Forensic Astronomy. Over the years, a great many variable stars that had been discovered on the Harvard plates had since been "lost," i. e. could not be found or verified. At the request of Nikolai Samus, General Editor of the General Catalogue of Variable Stars (GCVS), Martha found the original discovery plates on these stars together with sufficient relevant information from other sources, and was successful in re-establishing credible identifications and accurate coordinates for 1,174 of the nearly 1,200 "lost" variable stars on the GCVS list. This required looking at multiple plates of the field involved to sort out whether the problem was an erroneous identification, inappropriate coordinates for the star, or some other problem. Many astronomers, professional and amateur, have relied on Martha to teach them the now arcane skills of photovisual photometry using a time series of plates and a "fly swatter" to discover variable stars, confirm a period or period change, or simply to construct a historical light curve to fit with modern observations. The range of co-authors on Martha's many publications illustrates how useful her chosen specialization was to the field. She served as a portal to otherwise difficult-to-access but very valuable (and irreplaceable) data, particularly the Harvard Plate Collection. In the 1970s, when interest in improving the status of women in astronomy arose, along with the desire to recruit more women into astronomy, Martha was appointed as Harvard College Observatory's representative to a university-wide coordination committee on the status of women in university life generally. Working with Ursula Marvin, who had similar responsibilities for the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Martha played a leadership

  14. Speaking, writing, and memory span in children: output modality affects cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Joachim

    2010-02-01

    franceses quiénes compararon la ejecución en la capacidad de retención en la memoria oral y escrita. Las dificultades observadas en niños, pero no en adultos, en procesos de bajo nivel en la escritura pueden derivarse de la inadecuación grafomotriz u ortográfica. Informamos sobre cinco experimentos diseñados para replicar y ampliar los resultados originales. Primero, los resultados franceses fueron replicados con éxito para alemanes en tercer curso y para estudiantes universitarios. Después, los cambios evolutivos en costes cognitivos en la escritura fueron estudiados durante la educación primaria, comparando la ejecución de los alumnos del segundo y cuarto curso. Posteriormente, demostramos que las formas de escribir no practicadas, que se han inducido experimentalmente, conducen a la disminución de la ejecución en la memoria también en adultos, lo cual apoya la hipótesis de que la falta de la automatización grafomotriz es la responsable de los efectos encontrados en niños. Sin embargo, la escritura a mano muestra resultados más claros que la escritura a máquina. Por último, hemos intentado separar la influencia de la grafomotricidad frente a las dificultades ortográficas componiendo las palabras señalando en una "pizarra de ortografía". Este intento, sin embargo, no ha tenido éxito, probablemente porque señalar letras ha introducido otros costes de bajo nivel. Resumiendo, a lo largo de los cuatro años de la educación primaria, los niños alemanes muestran peor ejecución en retención en memoria en la escritura, en comparación con el recuerdo oral, con un incremento general en ambas modalidades. Por tanto, al final de la educación primaria, la escritura no ha igualado todavía el habla en cuanto a los costes cognitivos. Por consiguiente, las conclusiones están relacionadas con la cuestión de cómo evaluar cualquier tipo de conocimiento o habilidades mediante la producción de lenguaje. Les processus de bas niveau de la production du langage

  15. Speaking, writing, and memory span in children: output modality affects cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Joachim

    2010-02-01

    franceses quiénes compararon la ejecución en la capacidad de retención en la memoria oral y escrita. Las dificultades observadas en niños, pero no en adultos, en procesos de bajo nivel en la escritura pueden derivarse de la inadecuación grafomotriz u ortográfica. Informamos sobre cinco experimentos diseñados para replicar y ampliar los resultados originales. Primero, los resultados franceses fueron replicados con éxito para alemanes en tercer curso y para estudiantes universitarios. Después, los cambios evolutivos en costes cognitivos en la escritura fueron estudiados durante la educación primaria, comparando la ejecución de los alumnos del segundo y cuarto curso. Posteriormente, demostramos que las formas de escribir no practicadas, que se han inducido experimentalmente, conducen a la disminución de la ejecución en la memoria también en adultos, lo cual apoya la hipótesis de que la falta de la automatización grafomotriz es la responsable de los efectos encontrados en niños. Sin embargo, la escritura a mano muestra resultados más claros que la escritura a máquina. Por último, hemos intentado separar la influencia de la grafomotricidad frente a las dificultades ortográficas componiendo las palabras señalando en una "pizarra de ortografía". Este intento, sin embargo, no ha tenido éxito, probablemente porque señalar letras ha introducido otros costes de bajo nivel. Resumiendo, a lo largo de los cuatro años de la educación primaria, los niños alemanes muestran peor ejecución en retención en memoria en la escritura, en comparación con el recuerdo oral, con un incremento general en ambas modalidades. Por tanto, al final de la educación primaria, la escritura no ha igualado todavía el habla en cuanto a los costes cognitivos. Por consiguiente, las conclusiones están relacionadas con la cuestión de cómo evaluar cualquier tipo de conocimiento o habilidades mediante la producción de lenguaje. Les processus de bas niveau de la production du langage