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Sample records for nile virus predictive

  1. Economic Conditions Predict Prevalence of West Nile Virus

    PubMed Central

    Buermann, Wolfgang; Cummings, Robert F.; Kahn, Matthew E.; Smith, Thomas B.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the conditions underlying the proliferation of infectious diseases is crucial for mitigating future outbreaks. Since its arrival in North America in 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) has led to population-wide declines of bird species, morbidity and mortality of humans, and expenditures of millions of dollars on treatment and control. To understand the environmental conditions that best explain and predict WNV prevalence, we employed recently developed spatial modeling techniques in a recognized WNV hotspot, Orange County, California. Our models explained 85–95% of the variation of WNV prevalence in mosquito vectors, and WNV presence in secondary human hosts. Prevalence in both vectors and humans was best explained by economic variables, specifically per capita income, and by anthropogenic characteristics of the environment, particularly human population and neglected swimming pool density. While previous studies have shown associations between anthropogenic change and pathogen presence, results show that poorer economic conditions may act as a direct surrogate for environmental characteristics related to WNV prevalence. Low-income areas may be associated with higher prevalence for a number of reasons, including variations in property upkeep, microhabitat conditions conducive to viral amplification in both vectors and hosts, host community composition, and human behavioral responses related to differences in education or political participation. Results emphasize the importance and utility of including economic variables in mapping spatial risk assessments of disease. PMID:21103053

  2. Economic conditions predict prevalence of West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Harrigan, Ryan J; Thomassen, Henri A; Buermann, Wolfgang; Cummings, Robert F; Kahn, Matthew E; Smith, Thomas B

    2010-11-12

    Understanding the conditions underlying the proliferation of infectious diseases is crucial for mitigating future outbreaks. Since its arrival in North America in 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) has led to population-wide declines of bird species, morbidity and mortality of humans, and expenditures of millions of dollars on treatment and control. To understand the environmental conditions that best explain and predict WNV prevalence, we employed recently developed spatial modeling techniques in a recognized WNV hotspot, Orange County, California. Our models explained 85-95% of the variation of WNV prevalence in mosquito vectors, and WNV presence in secondary human hosts. Prevalence in both vectors and humans was best explained by economic variables, specifically per capita income, and by anthropogenic characteristics of the environment, particularly human population and neglected swimming pool density. While previous studies have shown associations between anthropogenic change and pathogen presence, results show that poorer economic conditions may act as a direct surrogate for environmental characteristics related to WNV prevalence. Low-income areas may be associated with higher prevalence for a number of reasons, including variations in property upkeep, microhabitat conditions conducive to viral amplification in both vectors and hosts, host community composition, and human behavioral responses related to differences in education or political participation. Results emphasize the importance and utility of including economic variables in mapping spatial risk assessments of disease.

  3. West Nile virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... believe West Nile virus is spread when a mosquito bites an infected bird and then bites a ... avoid getting West Nile virus infection after a mosquito bite. People in good health generally do not ...

  4. FAQ: General Questions about West Nile Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Related Links Mosquito Surveillance Software General Questions About West Nile Virus Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... numbers of West Nile virus cases? What is West Nile virus? West Nile virus is an arthropod- ...

  5. West Nile Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... strategies visit the MedlinePlus West Nile virus site . Credit: Credit: CDC This is an enlarged view of a ... The End of an Era Acknowledgments References Photo Credits Dr. Joseph Kinyoun: Selected Bibliography NIAID 60th Anniversary ...

  6. West Nile Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... you'll be infected with West Nile virus, mosquito bites can still be an itchy nuisance. The CDC advises people to protect themselves from mosquito bites by using mosquito repellent, especially at times ...

  7. Predictive Modeling of West Nile Virus Transmission Risk in the Mediterranean Basin: How Far from Landing?

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Véronique; Tran, Annelise; Durand, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    The impact on human and horse health of West Nile fever (WNF) recently and dramatically increased in Europe and neighboring countries. Involving several mosquito and wild bird species, WNF epidemiology is complex. Despite the implementation of surveillance systems in several countries of concern, and due to a lack of knowledge, outbreak occurrence remains unpredictable. Statistical models may help identifying transmission risk factors. When spatialized, they provide tools to identify areas that are suitable for West Nile virus transmission. Mathematical models may be used to improve our understanding of epidemiological process involved, to evaluate the impact of environmental changes or test the efficiency of control measures. We propose a systematic literature review of publications aiming at modeling the processes involved in WNF transmission in the Mediterranean Basin. The relevance of the corresponding models as predictive tools for risk mapping, early warning and for the design of surveillance systems in a changing environment is analyzed. PMID:24362544

  8. West Nile Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... spread by mosquitoes. Mosquitoes become infected by biting birds that carry the virus. People can get West Nile virus when an infected mosquito bites them. This happens most often in the warm-weather months of spring, summer and early fall. You ...

  9. Predicting West Nile Virus Infection Risk From the Synergistic Effects of Rainfall and Temperature.

    PubMed

    Shand, L; Brown, W M; Chaves, L F; Goldberg, T L; Hamer, G L; Haramis, L; Kitron, U; Walker, E D; Ruiz, M O

    2016-07-01

    Mosquito-based surveillance is a practical way to estimate the risk of transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) to people. Variations in temperature and precipitation play a role in driving mosquito infection rates and transmission of WNV, motivating efforts to predict infection rates based on prior weather conditions. Weather conditions and sequential patterns of meteorological events can have particularly important, but regionally distinctive, consequences for WNV transmission, with high temperatures and low precipitation often increasing WNV mosquito infection. Predictive models that incorporate weather can thus be used to provide early indications of the risk of WNV infection. The purpose of this study was first, to assess the ability of a previously published model of WNV mosquito infection to predict infection for an area within the region for which it was developed, and second, to improve the predictive ability of this model by incorporating new weather factors that may affect mosquito development. The legacy model captured the primary trends in mosquito infection, but it was improved considerably when calibrated with local mosquito infection rates. The use of interaction terms between precipitation and temperature improved model performance. Specifically, temperature had a stronger influence than rainfall, so that lower than average temperature greatly reduced the effect of low rainfall on increased infection rates. When rainfall was lower, high temperature had an even stronger positive impact on infection rates. The final model is practical, stable, and operationally valid for predicting West Nile virus infection rates in future weeks when calibrated with local data.

  10. The use of early summer mosquito surveillance to predict late summer West Nile virus activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, Howard S.; Rochlin, Ilia; Campbell, Scott R.

    2010-01-01

    Utility of early-season mosquito surveillance to predict West Nile virus activity in late summer was assessed in Suffolk County, NY. Dry ice-baited CDC miniature light traps paired with gravid traps were set weekly. Maximum-likelihood estimates of WNV positivity, minimum infection rates, and % positive pools were generally well correlated. However, positivity in gravid traps was not correlated with positivity in CDC light traps. The best early-season predictors of WNV activity in late summer (estimated using maximum-likelihood estimates of Culex positivity in August and September) were early date of first positive pool, low numbers of mosquitoes in July, and low numbers of mosquito species in July. These results suggest that early-season entomological samples can be used to predict WNV activity later in the summer, when most human cases are acquired. Additional research is needed to establish which surveillance variables are most predictive and to characterize the reliability of the predictions.

  11. Predictive Spatial Models for Risk of West Nile Virus Exposure in Eastern and Western Colorado

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Anna M.; Eisen, Rebecca J.; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Moore, Chester G.; Pape, W. John; Eisen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    In the absence of a vaccine for use in humans against West Nile virus (WNV), mosquito control and personal protection against mosquito bites are the only measures available to prevent disease. Improved spatial targeting is desirable for costly mosquito and WNV surveillance and control schemes. We used a multivariate regression modeling approach to develop spatial models predicting high risk of exposure to WNV in western and eastern Colorado based on associations between Geographic Information System–derived environmental data and zip code of residence for 3,659 human WNV disease cases from 2002 to 2006. Models were robust, with user accuracies for correct classification of high risk areas of 67–80%. The importance of selecting a suitable model development area in an ecologically and climatically diverse environment was shown by models based on data from the eastern plains landscape performing poorly in the mountainous western part of Colorado and vice versa. PMID:18840749

  12. FAQ: West Nile Virus and Dead Birds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education Public Service Videos West Nile Virus & Dead Birds Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... dead bird sightings to local authorities. How do birds get infected with West Nile virus? West Nile ...

  13. Impacts of West Nile Virus on wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saito, E.K.; Wild, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The recent epidemic of West Nile virus in the United States proved to be unexpectedly active and was the largest epidemic of the virus ever recorded. Much remains to be discovered about the ecology and epidemiology of West Nile virus in the United States, including which species are important in maintaining the virus in nature, why some species are more susceptible to lethal infection, and what environmental factors are important in predicting future epidemics. These factors will likely vary regionally, depending on local ecological characteristics. Until scientists better understand the virus and factors influencing its activity, predicting its effects for future seasons is impossible. However, experts are certain about one thing: West Nile virus is here to stay.

  14. Stress hormones predict a host superspreader phenotype in the West Nile virus system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gervasi, Stephanie; Burgan, Sarah; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Martin, Lynn B.

    2017-01-01

    Glucocorticoid stress hormones, such as corticosterone (CORT), have profound effects on the behaviour and physiology of organisms, and thus have the potential to alter host competence and the contributions of individuals to population- and community-level pathogen dynamics. For example, CORT could alter the rate of contacts among hosts, pathogens and vectors through its widespread effects on host metabolism and activity levels. CORT could also affect the intensity and duration of pathogen shedding and risk of host mortality during infection. We experimentally manipulated songbird CORT, asking how CORT affected behavioural and physiological responses to a standardized West Nile virus (WNV) challenge. Although all birds became infected after exposure to the virus, only birds with elevated CORT had viral loads at or above the infectious threshold. Moreover, though the rate of mortality was faster in birds with elevated CORT compared with controls, most hosts with elevated CORT survived past the day of peak infectiousness. CORT concentrations just prior to inoculation with WNV and anti-inflammatory cytokine concentrations following viral exposure were predictive of individual duration of infectiousness and the ability to maintain physical performance during infection (i.e. tolerance), revealing putative biomarkers of competence. Collectively, our results suggest that glucocorticoid stress hormones could directly and indirectly mediate the spread of pathogens.

  15. Predictive Mapping of Human Risk for West Nile Virus (WNV) Based on Environmental and Socioeconomic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Rochlin, Ilia; Turbow, David; Gomez, Frank; Ninivaggi, Dominick V.; Campbell, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    A West Nile virus (WNV) human risk map was developed for Suffolk County, New York utilizing a case-control approach to explore the association between the risk of vector-borne WNV and habitat, landscape, virus activity, and socioeconomic variables derived from publically available datasets. Results of logistic regression modeling for the time period between 2000 and 2004 revealed that higher proportion of population with college education, increased habitat fragmentation, and proximity to WNV positive mosquito pools were strongly associated with WNV human risk. Similar to previous investigations from north-central US, this study identified middle class suburban neighborhoods as the areas with the highest WNV human risk. These results contrast with similar studies from the southern and western US, where the highest WNV risk was associated with low income areas. This discrepancy may be due to regional differences in vector ecology, urban environment, or human behavior. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analytical tools were used to integrate the risk factors in the 2000–2004 logistic regression model generating WNV human risk map. In 2005–2010, 41 out of 46 (89%) of WNV human cases occurred either inside of (30 cases) or in close proximity (11 cases) to the WNV high risk areas predicted by the 2000–2004 model. The novel approach employed by this study may be implemented by other municipal, local, or state public health agencies to improve geographic risk estimates for vector-borne diseases based on a small number of acute human cases. PMID:21853103

  16. Predictive mapping of human risk for West Nile virus (WNV) based on environmental and socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed

    Rochlin, Ilia; Turbow, David; Gomez, Frank; Ninivaggi, Dominick V; Campbell, Scott R

    2011-01-01

    A West Nile virus (WNV) human risk map was developed for Suffolk County, New York utilizing a case-control approach to explore the association between the risk of vector-borne WNV and habitat, landscape, virus activity, and socioeconomic variables derived from publically available datasets. Results of logistic regression modeling for the time period between 2000 and 2004 revealed that higher proportion of population with college education, increased habitat fragmentation, and proximity to WNV positive mosquito pools were strongly associated with WNV human risk. Similar to previous investigations from north-central US, this study identified middle class suburban neighborhoods as the areas with the highest WNV human risk. These results contrast with similar studies from the southern and western US, where the highest WNV risk was associated with low income areas. This discrepancy may be due to regional differences in vector ecology, urban environment, or human behavior. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analytical tools were used to integrate the risk factors in the 2000-2004 logistic regression model generating WNV human risk map. In 2005-2010, 41 out of 46 (89%) of WNV human cases occurred either inside of (30 cases) or in close proximity (11 cases) to the WNV high risk areas predicted by the 2000-2004 model. The novel approach employed by this study may be implemented by other municipal, local, or state public health agencies to improve geographic risk estimates for vector-borne diseases based on a small number of acute human cases.

  17. Predictive risk mapping of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in Saskatchewan horses.

    PubMed

    Epp, Tasha Y; Waldner, Cheryl; Berke, Olaf

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a model using equine data from geographically limited surveillance locations to predict risk categories for West Nile virus (WNV) infection in horses in all geographic locations across the province of Saskatchewan. The province was divided geographically into low-, medium-, or high-risk categories for WNV, based on available serology information from 923 horses obtained through 4 studies of WNV infection in horse populations in Saskatchewan. Discriminant analysis was used to build models using the observed risk of WNV in horses and geographic division-specific environmental data as well as to predict the risk category for all areas, including those beyond the surveillance zones. High-risk areas were indicated by relatively lower rainfall, higher temperatures, and a lower percentage of area covered in trees, water, and wetland. These conditions were most often identified in the southwest corner of the province. Environmental conditions can be used to identify those areas that are at highest risk for WNV. Public health managers could use prediction maps, which are based on animal or human information and developed from annual early season meteorological information, to guide ongoing decisions about when and where to focus intervention strategies for WNV.

  18. [West Nile virus infection].

    PubMed

    Pérez Ruiz, Mercedes; Gámez, Sara Sanbonmatsu; Clavero, Miguel Angel Jiménez

    2011-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an arbovirus usually transmitted by mosquitoes. The main reservoirs are birds, although the virus may infect several vertebrate species, such as horses and humans. Up to 80% of human infections are asymptomatic. The most frequent clinical presentation is febrile illness, and neuroinvasive disease can occur in less than 1% of cases. Spain is considered a high-risk area for the emergence of WNV due to its climate and the passage of migratory birds from Africa (where the virus is endemic). These birds nest surrounding wetlands where populations of possible vectors for the virus are abundant. Diagnosis of human neurological infections can be made by detection of IgM in serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid samples, demonstration of a four-fold increase in IgG antibodies between acute-phase and convalescent-phase serum samples, or by detection of viral genome by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (especially useful in transplant recipients). Since WNV is a biosafety level 3 agent, techniques that involve cell culture are restricted to laboratories with this level of biosafety, such as reference laboratories. The National Program for the Surveillance of WNV Encephalitis allows the detection of virus circulation among birds and vectors in areas especially favorable for the virus, such as wetlands, and provides information for evaluation of the risk of disease in horses and humans.

  19. Prediction of equine risk of West Nile virus infection based on dead bird surveillance.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Rhonda Sue; Foppa, Ivo M

    2006-01-01

    Since the introduction of West Nile Virus (WNV) to the United States in 1999, the efficacy of dead bird surveillance for the prediction of human and veterinary WNV infection has been an issue of debate. We utilized South Carolina's Department of Health and Environmental Control surveillance data from 2003 to determine whether dead bird surveillance accurately predicts equine WNV infection on a county level. We adjusted for human population density as a potential confounder of an association between WNV-positive dead bird counts and mammalian WNV risk. We found a strong positive association between avian risk of WNV death and subsequent equine mortality due to WNV in South Carolina even after adjusting for human population density. Sensitivity of dead bird surveillance as a predictor of future equine WNV risk was far superior to mosquito surveillance (95% vs. 9.5%, respectively). A Poisson regression model of the equine WNV rate as a function of WNV-positive dead bird rate, adjusting for population density and taking into account effect modification by population density shows a good fit with the data. Unlike most previous studies, we control for potential confounding of the dead, WNVpositive bird-equine WNV infection association by human population density. Yet, the positive association between dead bird surveillance and equine WNV risk remains strong and statistically significant, indicating that dead bird surveillance remains a valuable tool of WNV surveillance.

  20. West Nile Virus

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Shannan L.; Ross, Ted M.; Evans, Jared D.

    2010-01-01

    Overview Since its isolation in Uganda in 1937, West Nile virus (WNV) has been responsible for thousands of cases of morbidity and mortality in birds, horses, and humans. Historically, epidemics were localized to Europe, Africa, the Middle East, and parts of Asia, and primarily caused a mild febrile illness in humans. However, in the late 1990’s, the virus became more virulent and expanded its geographical range to North America. In humans, the clinical presentation ranges from asymptomatic (approximately 80% of infections) to encephalitis/paralysis and death (less than 1% of infections). There is no FDA-licensed vaccine for human use, and the only recommended treatment is supportive care. Individuals that survive infection often have a long recovery period. This article will review the current literature summarizing the molecular virology, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, immunology, and protective measures against WNV and WNV infections in humans. PMID:20513541

  1. West Nile Virus and wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marra, P.P.; Griffing, S.; Caffrey, C.; Kilpatrick, A.M.; McLean, R.; Brand, C.; Saito, E.; Dupuis, A.P.; Kramer, Laura; Novak, R.

    2004-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has spread rapidly across North America, resulting in human deaths and in the deaths of untold numbers of birds, mammals, and reptiles. The virus has reached Central America and the Caribbean and may spread to Hawaii and South America. Although tens of thousands of birds have died, and studies of some bird species show local declines, few regionwide declines can be attributed to WNV. Predicting future impacts of WNV on wildlife, and pinpointing what drives epidemics, will require substantial additional research into host susceptibility, reservoir competency, and linkages between climate, mosquitoes, and disease. Such work will entail a collaborative effort between scientists in governmental research groups, in surveillance and control programs, and in nongovernmental organizations. West Nile virus was not the first, and it will not be the last, exotic disease to be introduced to the New World. Its spread in North America highlights the need to strengthen animal monitoring programs and to integrate them with research on disease ecology.

  2. A Hierarchical Approach Embedding Hydrologic and Population Modeling for a West Nile Virus Vector Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Y.; Silvestri, S.; Marani, M.; Saltarin, A.; Chillemi, G.

    2012-12-01

    We applied a hierarchical state space model to predict the abundance of Cx.pipiens (a West Nile Virus vector) in the Po River Delta Region, Northeastern Italy. The study area has large mosquito abundance, due to a favorable environment and climate as well as dense human population. Mosquito data were collected on a weekly basis at more than 20 sites from May to September in 2010 and 2011. Cx.pipiens was the dominant species in our samples, accounting for about 90% of the more than 300,000 total captures. The hydrological component of the model accounted for evapotranspiration, infiltration and deep percolation to infer, in a 0D context, the local dynamics of soil moisture as a direct exogenous forcing of mosquito dynamics. The population model had a Gompertz structure, which included exogenous meteorological forcings and delayed internal dynamics. The models were coupled within a hierarchical statistical structure to overcome the relatively short length of the samples by exploiting the large number of concurrent observations available. The results indicated that Cx.pipiens abundance had significant density dependence at 1 week lag, which approximately matched its development time from larvae to adult. Among the exogenous controls, temperature, daylight hours, and soil moisture explained most of the dynamics. Longer daylight hours and lower soil moisture values resulted in higher abundance. The negative correlation of soil moisture and mosquito population can be explained with the abundance of water in the region (e.g. due to irrigation) and the preference for eutrophic habitats by Cx.pipien. Variations among sites were explained by land use factors as represented by distance to the nearest rice field and NDVI values: the carrying capacity decreased with increased distance to the nearest rice filed, while the maximum growth rate was positively related with NDVI. The model shows a satisfactory performance in predicting (potentially one week in advance) mosquito

  3. Mental Status after West Nile Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sadek, Joseph; Pergam, Steven; Echevarria, Leonor A.; Davis, Larry E.; Goade, Diane; Harnar, Joanne; Nofchissey, Robert A.; Sewel, C. Mack; Ettestad, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Mental status after acute West Nile virus infection has not been examined objectively. We compared Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status scores of 116 patients with West Nile fever or West Nile neuroinvasive disease. Mental status was poorer and cognitive complaints more frequent with West Nile neuroinvasive disease (p = 0.005). PMID:16965710

  4. Meteorologically conditioned time-series predictions of West Nile virus vector mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Trawinski, P R; Mackay, D S

    2008-08-01

    An empirical model to forecast West Nile virus mosquito vector populations is developed using time series analysis techniques. Specifically, multivariate seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) models were developed for Aedes vexans and the combined group of Culex pipiens and Culex restuans in Erie County, New York. Weekly mosquito collections data were obtained for the four mosquito seasons from 2002 to 2005 from the Erie County Department of Health, Vector and Pest Control Program. Climate variables were tested for significance with cross-correlation analysis. Minimum temperature (T(min)), maximum temperature (T(max)), average temperature (T(ave)), precipitation (P), relative humidity (R(H)), and evapotranspiration (E(T)) were acquired from the Northeast Regional Climate Center (NRCC) at Cornell University. Weekly averages or sums of climate variables were calculated from the daily data. Other climate indexes were calculated and were tested for significance with the mosquito population data, including cooling degree days base 60 degrees (C(DD_60)), cooling degree days base 63 (C(DD_63)), cooling degree days base 65 (C(DD_65)), a ponding index (I(P)), and an interactive C(DD_65)-precipitation variable (C(DD_65) x P(week_4)). Ae. vexans were adequately modeled with a (2,1,1)(1,1,0)(52) SARIMA model. The combined group of Culex pipiens-restuans were modeled with a (0,1,1)(1,1,0)(52) SARIMA model. The most significant meteorological variables for forecasting Aedes vexans abundance was the interactive C(DD_65) x P(week_4) variable at a lag of two weeks, E(T) x E(T) at a lag of five weeks, and C(DD_65) x C(DD_65) at a lag of seven weeks. The most significant predictive variables for the grouped Culex pipiens-restuans were C(DD_63) x C(DD_63) at a lag of zero weeks, C(DD_63) at a lag of eight weeks, and the cumulative maximum ponding index (I(Pcum)) at a lag of zero weeks.

  5. Can Reconstructed Land Surface Temperature Data from Space Predict a West Nile Virus Outbreak?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreo, V.; Metz, M.; Neteler, M.; Rosà, R.; Marcantonio, M.; Billinis, C.; Rizzoli, A.; Papa, A.

    2017-07-01

    Temperature is one of the main drivers of ecological processes. The availability of temporally and spatially continuous temperature time series is crucial in different research and application fields, such as epidemiology and control of zoonotic diseases. In 2010, several West Nile virus (WNV) outbreaks in humans were observed in Europe, with the largest number of cases recorded in Greece. Human cases continued to occur for four more years. The occurrence of the 2010's outbreak in Greece has been related to positive anomalies in temperature. Currently available remote sensing time series might provide the temporal and spatial coverage needed to assess this kind of hypothesis. However, the main problem with remotely sensed temperature are the gaps caused by cloud cover. With the objective of testing the former hypothesis, we reconstructed daily MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) data and derived several indices that are known or hypothesized to be related to mosquito populations, WNV transmission or risk of disease since they might constitute proxies for favoring or limiting conditions. We present the first results of the comparisons of time series of LST-derived indices among locations with WNV human cases and municipalities with and without reported WNV infection in Greece between 2010 and 2014.

  6. What's West Nile Virus?

    MedlinePlus

    ... is caused by a bite from an infected mosquito that's already carrying the virus, but it's important ... the risk of being bitten by an infected mosquito is greatest from July to early September. But ...

  7. Predicting outbreaks: a spatial risk assessment of West Nile virus in British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Tachiiri, Kaoru; Klinkenberg, Brian; Mak, Sunny; Kazmi, Jamil

    2006-01-01

    Background West Nile virus (WNv) has recently emerged as a health threat to the North American population. After the initial disease outbreak in New York City in 1999, WNv has spread widely and quickly across North America to every contiguous American state and Canadian province, with the exceptions of British Columbia (BC), Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland. In this study we develop models of mosquito population dynamics for Culex tarsalis and C. pipiens, and create a spatial risk assessment of WNv prior to its arrival in BC by creating a raster-based mosquito abundance model using basic geographic and temperature data. Among the parameters included in the model are spatial factors determined from the locations of BC Centre for Disease Control mosquito traps (e.g., distance of the trap from the closest wetland or lake), while other parameters were obtained from the literature. Factors not considered in the current assessment but which could influence the results are also discussed. Results Since the model performs much better for C. tarsalis than for C. pipiens, the risk assessment is carried out using the output of C. tarsalis model. The result of the spatially-explicit mosquito abundance model indicates that the Okanagan Valley, the Thompson Region, Greater Vancouver, the Fraser Valley and southeastern Vancouver Island have the highest potential abundance of the mosquitoes. After including human population data, Greater Vancouver, due to its high population density, increases in significance relative to the other areas. Conclusion Creating a raster-based mosquito abundance map enabled us to quantitatively evaluate WNv risk throughout BC and to identify the areas of greatest potential risk, prior to WNv introduction. In producing the map important gaps in our knowledge related to mosquito ecology in BC were identified, as well, it became evident that increased efforts in bird and mosquito surveillance are required if more accurate models and maps are to be

  8. Predicting weekly variation of Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae) West Nile virus infection in a newly endemic region, the Canadian prairies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen-Chih; Epp, Tasha; Jenkins, Emily; Waldner, Cheryl; Curry, Philip S; Soos, Catherine

    2012-09-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) spread across most of North America within a short time period after its incursion into the Western Hemisphere. The Canadian prairies had the highest human incidence of WNV disease in Canada, particularly in 2007. Statistical modeling and geographic information systems can be used to develop a predictive model and facilitate the mobilization of targeted disease management strategies. Using data collected between 2005 and 2008, we constructed models integrating abiotic and biotic factors to predict the WNV infection rate in female Culex tarsalis Coquillett, the primary vector of WNV in the Canadian prairies. During the study period, the highest mean Cx. tarsalis infection rate was during week 34 (late August). The Cx. tarsalis infection rate increased with increasing Cx. tarsalis abundance and mean temperature lagged from 1 to 8 wk, but decreased with increasing mean precipitation lagged from 2 to 6 wk. Furthermore, precipitation was a 'distorter variable' that altered the association between Cx. tarsalis abundance and the WNV infection rate. Our model clarified how weather influenced the Cx. tarsalis infection rate in the Canadian prairies, a newly and highly WNV endemic region of North America. An understanding of the role of lagged weather variables was essential for providing sufficient lead time to predict WNV occurrence, and for implementing disease control and prevention strategies. Furthermore, it is a useful tool for assessing the potential effects of future climate change on WNV in areas near its northern distributional limit.

  9. West Nile Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... mosquitoes that probably picked up the virus after feeding on infected birds. Pets and other animals can also become infected ... after it has been washed a couple of times. Don't hang out near puddles or ... etc. If you find a dead bird, don't touch it with your bare hands ...

  10. West Nile virus and "poliomyelitis".

    PubMed

    Sejvar, James J

    2004-07-27

    West Nile virus (WNV) has recently been associated with a syndrome of acute flaccid paralysis. Most cases of WNV-associated weakness have clinical, histopathologic, and electrophysiologic characteristics indistinguishable from those of poliomyelitis caused by infection with poliovirus. There is debate about the nomenclature of this manifestation of WNV infection. An historical perspective of the term "poliomyelitis" suggests that the term "WNV poliomyelitis" seems appropriate, but members of the neurologic and infectious disease communities should engage in discussion regarding the terminology of this syndrome.

  11. West Nile Virus: an overview.

    PubMed

    Hale, Deborah

    2015-05-01

    West Nile Virus is the most frequent cause of arboviral disease in the United States. It was first identified in the United States in 1999. Since that time, each of the 48 contiguous states in the United States has seen the disease, and it has been found in 96% of the U.S. counties in infected humans, mosquitoes, birds, horses, or other mammals. Although most often the disease resolves on its own, patients can develop serious and life-threatening complications, and may need further monitoring and treatment. This article reviews the prevalence, transmission, signs and symptoms, complications, treatment, surveillance, and prevention of the disease.

  12. West Nile virus: North American experience

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hofmeister, Erik K.

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus, a mosquito-vectored flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis serogroup, was first detected in North America following an epizootic in the New York City area in 1999. In the intervening 11 years since the arrival of the virus in North America, it has crossed the contiguous USA, entered the Canadian provinces bordering the USA, and has been reported in the Caribbean islands, Mexico, Central America and, more recently, South America. West Nile virus has been reported in over 300 species of birds in the USA and has caused the deaths of thousands of birds, local population declines of some avian species, the clinical illness and deaths of thousands of domestic horses, and the clinical disease in over 30 000 Americans and the deaths of over 1000. Prior to the emergence of West Nile virus in North America, St. Louis encephalitis virus and Dengue virus were the only other known mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses in North America capable of causing human disease. This review will discuss the North American experience with mosquito-borne flavivirus prior to the arrival of West Nile virus, the entry and spread of West Nile virus in North America, effects on wild bird populations, genetic changes in the virus, and the current state of West Nile virus transmission.

  13. West Nile Virus in California

    PubMed Central

    Lothrop, Hugh; Chiles, Robert; Madon, Minoo; Cossen, Cynthia; Woods, Leslie; Husted, Stan; Kramer, Vicki; Edman, John

    2004-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was first isolated in California during July 2003 from a pool of Culex tarsalis collected near El Centro, Imperial County. WNV transmission then increased and spread in Imperial and Coachella Valleys, where it was tracked by isolation from pools of Cx. tarsalis, seroconversions in sentinel chickens, and seroprevalence in free-ranging birds. WNV then dispersed to the city of Riverside, Riverside County, and to the Whittier Dam area of Los Angeles County, where it was detected in dead birds and pools of Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus. By October, WNV was detected in dead birds collected from riparian corridors in Los Angeles, west to Long Beach, and through inland valleys south from Riverside to San Diego County. WNV was reported concurrently from Arizona in mid-August and from Baja, Mexico, in mid-November. Possible mechanisms for virus introduction, amplification, and dispersal are discussed. PMID:15496236

  14. West Nile virus and the climate.

    PubMed

    Epstein, P R

    2001-06-01

    West Nile virus is transmitted by urban-dwelling mosquitoes to birds and other animals, with occasional "spillover" to humans. While the means by which West Nile virus was introduced into the Americas in 1999 remain unknown, the climatic conditions that amplify diseases that cycle among urban mosquitoes, birds, and humans are warm winters and spring droughts. This information can be useful in generating early warning systems and mobilizing timely and the most environmentally friendly public health interventions. The extreme weather conditions accompanying long-term climate change may also be contributing to the spread of West Nile virus in the United States and Europe.

  15. 21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false West Nile virus serological reagents. 866.3940... virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. West Nile virus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera for the detection of anti-West Nile virus IgM antibodies, in human serum...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false West Nile virus serological reagents. 866.3940... virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. West Nile virus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera for the detection of anti-West Nile virus IgM antibodies, in human serum...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false West Nile virus serological reagents. 866.3940... virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. West Nile virus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera for the detection of anti-West Nile virus IgM antibodies, in human serum...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false West Nile virus serological reagents. 866.3940... virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. West Nile virus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera for the detection of anti-West Nile virus IgM antibodies, in human serum...

  19. A GIS tool to estimate West Nile virus risk based on a degree-day model.

    PubMed

    Zou, Li; Miller, Scott N; Schmidtmann, Edward T

    2007-06-01

    West Nile virus (Flaviviridae: Flavivirus) is a serious infectious disease that recently spread across the North America continent. A spatial analysis tool was developed on the ArcMap 9.x platform to estimate potential West Nile virus activity using a spatially explicit degree-day model. The model identifies when the virus Extrinsic Incubation Period (EIP) is completed within the vector longevity during mid-summer months. The EIP is treated as a threshold indicator of the potential for virus emergence and activity. Comparing the number of West Nile virus cases in Wyoming reported from 2003 to 2005 with model results, actual cases and predicted events of West Nile virus activity match relatively well. The model represents a useful method for estimating potential West Nile virus activity in a large spatial scale.

  20. 21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false West Nile virus serological reagents. 866.3940... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3940 West Nile virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. West Nile virus serological reagents are devices that...

  1. West Nile Virus: Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Lyle R.; Brault, Aaron C.; Nasci, Roger S.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Since its introduction in North America in 1999,West Nile virus has produced the 3 largest arboviral neuroinvasive disease outbreaks ever recorded in the United States. OBJECTIVE To review the ecology, virology, epidemiology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, prevention, and control of West Nile virus, with an emphasis on North America. EVIDENCE REVIEW PubMed electronic database was searched through February 5, 2013. United States national surveillance data were gathered from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. FINDINGS West Nile virus is now endemic throughout the contiguous United States, with 16 196 human neuroinvasive disease cases and 1549 deaths reported since 1999. More than 780 000 illnesses have likely occurred. To date, incidence is highest in the Midwest from mid-July to early September. West Nile fever develops in approximately 25% of those infected, varies greatly in clinical severity, and symptoms may be prolonged. Neuroinvasive disease (meningitis, encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis) develops in less than 1% but carries a fatality rate of approximately 10%. Encephalitis has a highly variable clinical course but often is associated with considerable long-term morbidity. Approximately two-thirds of those with paralysis remain with significant weakness in affected limbs. Diagnosis usually rests on detection of IgM antibody in serum or cerebrospinal fluid. Treatment is supportive; no licensed human vaccine exists. Prevention uses an integrated pest management approach, which focuses on surveillance, elimination of mosquito breeding sites, and larval and adult mosquito management using pesticides to keep mosquito populations low. During outbreaks or impending outbreaks, emphasis shifts to aggressive adult mosquito control to reduce the abundance of infected, biting mosquitoes. Pesticide exposure and adverse human health events following adult mosquito control operations for West Nile virus appear negligible. CONCLUSIONS AND

  2. Geographic prediction of human onset of West Nile virus using dead crow clusters: an evaluation of year 2002 data in New York State.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Glen D; Eidson, Millicent; Schmit, Kathryn; Ellis, April; Kulldorff, Martin

    2006-01-15

    The risk of becoming a West Nile virus case in New York State, excluding New York City, was evaluated for persons whose town of residence was proximal to spatial clusters of dead American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos). Weekly clusters were delineated for June-October 2002 by using both the binomial spatial scan statistic and kernel density smoothing. The relative risk of a human case was estimated for different spatial-temporal exposure definitions after adjusting for population density and age distribution using Poisson regression, adjusting for week and geographic region, and conducting Cox proportional hazards modeling, where the week that a human case was identified was treated as the failure time and baseline hazard was stratified by region. The risk of becoming a West Nile virus case was positively associated with living in towns proximal to dead crow clusters. The highest risk was consistently for towns associated with a cluster in the current or prior 1-2 weeks. Weaker, but positive associations were found for towns associated with a cluster in just the 1-2 prior weeks, indicating an ability to predict onset in a timely fashion.

  3. Evaluation of West Nile Virus Education Campaign

    PubMed Central

    Neuberger, John S.; Hansen, Gail; Fox, Michael H.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the 2003 Kansas West Nile virus public education campaign. Awareness was widespread but compliance was low. Spanish-speaking persons were poorly informed. Relevant factors included population segment variability, campaign content, media choice, and materials delivery methods. PMID:16318730

  4. Monitoring the Spread of West Nile Virus with Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A NASA-funded study uses temperature and vegetation data from satellites to help track and predict where West Nile virus is spreading in North America. Scientists and public health officials hope one day to use near real-time maps to focus resources and stave off the disease more efficiently. This image is a composite of land surface temperatures (LST) recorded between 1997 and 2000 and was used to help monitor and predict the spread of West Nile virus in the United States. In the color figure above, the mean land surface temperatures are in red; annual amplitude-or the difference between low and high annual temperatures-is in blue; and annual phase-or the timing of annual temperature peaks-appears in green. Brighter colors mean higher values. The major north-south temperature difference (dull red in the upper part of the image to bright red in the lower part) is considerably affected by the Rockies in the west and to a much lesser extent by the Appalachians in the east. The brighter blue in the upper part of the image indicates the big difference between highest and lowest temperatures during the course of a year at higher latitudes. There is less variation in the timing of the annual peak of land surface temperatures, which occurs earlier in the south than in the north. Black dots superimposed on this image are the locations (county geo-centers) where birds infected with West Nile virus were reported between January and October 2001. Scientists working with the International Research Partnership for Infectious Diseases (INTREPID) program based at NASA are using such imagery to define and predict the conditions where mosquitoes transmit West Nile virus in the U.S. The conclusion reached about the importance of any single variable depends both upon its value and context. A temperature of 30o Celsius (86o Fahrenheit) might be fatal for a mosquito at low humidity but survivable at higher humidities. The work done here on West Nile virus and other diseases shows very

  5. Monitoring the Spread of West Nile Virus with Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A NASA-funded study uses temperature and vegetation data from satellites to help track and predict where West Nile virus is spreading in North America. Scientists and public health officials hope one day to use near real-time maps to focus resources and stave off the disease more efficiently. This image is a composite of land surface temperatures (LST) recorded between 1997 and 2000 and was used to help monitor and predict the spread of West Nile virus in the United States. In the color figure above, the mean land surface temperatures are in red; annual amplitude-or the difference between low and high annual temperatures-is in blue; and annual phase-or the timing of annual temperature peaks-appears in green. Brighter colors mean higher values. The major north-south temperature difference (dull red in the upper part of the image to bright red in the lower part) is considerably affected by the Rockies in the west and to a much lesser extent by the Appalachians in the east. The brighter blue in the upper part of the image indicates the big difference between highest and lowest temperatures during the course of a year at higher latitudes. There is less variation in the timing of the annual peak of land surface temperatures, which occurs earlier in the south than in the north. Black dots superimposed on this image are the locations (county geo-centers) where birds infected with West Nile virus were reported between January and October 2001. Scientists working with the International Research Partnership for Infectious Diseases (INTREPID) program based at NASA are using such imagery to define and predict the conditions where mosquitoes transmit West Nile virus in the U.S. The conclusion reached about the importance of any single variable depends both upon its value and context. A temperature of 30o Celsius (86o Fahrenheit) might be fatal for a mosquito at low humidity but survivable at higher humidities. The work done here on West Nile virus and other diseases shows very

  6. West Nile Virus in Farmed Alligators

    PubMed Central

    Mauel, Michael J.; Baldwin, Charles; Burtle, Gary; Ingram, Dallas; Hines, Murray E.; Frazier, Kendal S.

    2003-01-01

    Seven alligators were submitted to the Tifton Veterinary Diagnostic and Investigational Laboratory for necropsy during two epizootics in the fall of 2001 and 2002. The alligators were raised in temperature-controlled buildings and fed a diet of horsemeat supplemented with vitamins and minerals. Histologic findings in the juvenile alligators were multiorgan necrosis, heterophilic granulomas, and heterophilic perivasculitis and were most indicative of septicemia or bacteremia. Histologic findings in a hatchling alligator were random foci of necrosis in multiple organs and mononuclear perivascular encephalitis, indicative of a viral cause. West Nile virus was isolated from submissions in 2002. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results on all submitted case samples were positive for West Nile virus for one of four cases associated with the 2001 epizootic and three of three cases associated with the 2002 epizootic. RT-PCR analysis was positive for West Nile virus in the horsemeat collected during the 2002 outbreak but negative in the horsemeat collected after the outbreak. PMID:12890319

  7. A novel computer algorithm improves antibody epitope prediction using affinity-selected mimotopes: a case study using monoclonal antibodies against the West Nile virus E protein.

    PubMed

    Denisova, Galina F; Denisov, Dimitri A; Yeung, Jeffrey; Loeb, Mark B; Diamond, Michael S; Bramson, Jonathan L

    2008-11-01

    Understanding antibody function is often enhanced by knowledge of the specific binding epitope. Here, we describe a computer algorithm that permits epitope prediction based on a collection of random peptide epitopes (mimotopes) isolated by antibody affinity purification. We applied this methodology to the prediction of epitopes for five monoclonal antibodies against the West Nile virus (WNV) E protein, two of which exhibit therapeutic activity in vivo. This strategy was validated by comparison of our results with existing F(ab)-E protein crystal structures and mutational analysis by yeast surface display. We demonstrate that by combining the results of the mimotope method with our data from mutational analysis, epitopes could be predicted with greater certainty. The two methods displayed great complementarity as the mutational analysis facilitated epitope prediction when the results with the mimotope method were equivocal and the mimotope method revealed a broader number of residues within the epitope than the mutational analysis. Our results demonstrate that the combination of these two prediction strategies provides a robust platform for epitope characterization.

  8. Wild snakes harbor West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Dahlin, C R; Hughes, D F; Meshaka, W E; Coleman, C; Henning, J D

    2016-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has a complex eco-epidemiology with birds acting as reservoirs and hosts for the virus. Less well understood is the role of reptiles, especially in wild populations. The goal of our study was to determine whether a wild population of snakes in Pennsylvania harbored WNV. Six species of snakes were orally sampled in the summer of 2013 and were tested for the presence of WNV viral RNA using RT-PCR. Two Eastern Garter Snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis sirtalis tested positive for viral RNA (2/123, 1.62%). These results indicate a possible role for snakes in the complex transmission cycle of WNV.

  9. West Nile virus infection in children.

    PubMed

    Barzon, Luisa; Pacenti, Monia; Sinigaglia, Alessandro; Berto, Alessandro; Trevisan, Marta; Palù, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging flavivirus responsible for an increasing number of outbreaks of neuroinvasive disease in North America, Europe, and neighboring countries. Almost all WNV infections in humans are transmitted through the bite of infected mosquitoes. Transmission during pregnancy and through breastfeeding has been reported, but the risk seems to be very low. West Nile disease in children is less common (1-5% of all WNV cases) and associated with milder symptoms and better outcome than in elderly individuals, even though severe neuroinvasive disease and death have been reported also among children. However, the incidence of WNV infection and disease in children is probably underestimated and the disease spectrum is not fully understood because of lack of reporting and underdiagnosis in children. Infection is diagnosed by detection of WNV-specific antibodies in serum and WNV RNA in plasma and urine. Since no effective WNV-specific drugs are available, therapy is mainly supportive.

  10. West Nile virus ecology in a tropical ecosystem in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Morales-Betoulle, Maria E; Komar, Nicholas; Panella, Nicholas A; Alvarez, Danilo; López, María R; Betoulle, Jean-Luc; Sosa, Silvia M; Müller, María L; Kilpatrick, A Marm; Lanciotti, Robert S; Johnson, Barbara W; Powers, Ann M; Cordón-Rosales, Celia

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus ecology has yet to be rigorously investigated in the Caribbean Basin. We identified a transmission focus in Puerto Barrios, Guatemala, and established systematic monitoring of avian abundance and infection, seroconversions in domestic poultry, and viral infections in mosquitoes. West Nile virus transmission was detected annually between May and October from 2005 to 2008. High temperature and low rainfall enhanced the probability of chicken seroconversions, which occurred in both urban and rural sites. West Nile virus was isolated from Culex quinquefasciatus and to a lesser extent, from Culex mollis/Culex inflictus, but not from the most abundant Culex mosquito, Culex nigripalpus. A calculation that combined avian abundance, seroprevalence, and vertebrate reservoir competence suggested that great-tailed grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus) is the major amplifying host in this ecosystem. West Nile virus transmission reached moderate levels in sentinel chickens during 2007, but less than that observed during outbreaks of human disease attributed to West Nile virus in the United States.

  11. Alligators as West Nile Virus Amplifiers

    PubMed Central

    Klenk, Kaci; Snow, Jamie; Morgan, Katrina; Bowen, Richard; Stephens, Michael; Foster, Falicia; Gordy, Paul; Beckett, Susan; Komar, Nicholas; Gubler, Duane; Bunning, Michel

    2004-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) may be capable of transmitting West Nile virus (WNV) to other alligators. We experimentally exposed 24 juvenile alligators to WNV parenterally or orally. All became infected, and all but three sustained viremia titers >5.0 log10 PFU/mL (a threshold considered infectious for Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes) for 1 to 8 days. Noninoculated tankmates also became infected. The viremia profiles and multiple routes of infection suggest alligators may play an important role in WNV transmission in areas with high population densities of juvenile alligators. PMID:15663852

  12. Alligators as West Nile virus amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Klenk, Kaci; Snow, Jamie; Morgan, Katrina; Bowen, Richard; Stephens, Michael; Foster, Falicia; Gordy, Paul; Beckett, Susan; Komar, Nicholas; Gubler, Duane; Bunning, Michel

    2004-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) may be capable of transmitting West Nile virus (WNV) to other alligators. We experimentally exposed 24 juvenile alligators to WNV parenterally or orally. All became infected, and all but three sustained viremia titers >5.0 log10 PFU/mL (a threshold considered infectious for Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes) for 1 to 8 days. Noninoculated tankmates also became infected. The viremia profiles and multiple routes of infection suggest alligators may play an important role in WNV transmission in areas with high population densities of juvenile alligators.

  13. West Nile virus in Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Jones, Timothy F; Gottfried, Kristy L; McCauley, Tracy A; Swinger, Gary L

    2003-01-01

    WNV is a mosquito-borne virus that generally causes asymptomatic or mild illness in humans. Less than 1% of infected persons will develop severe disease. Because there is no specific treatment for the disease, mildly ill persons seldom require testing for WNV. Widespread media coverage may contribute to misperceptions about the incidence and severity of the disease, and many patients may benefit from reassurance and information which helps them understand the true risk of WNV compared with many more common but less sensational public health threats. For example, approximately 34,000 Americans die each year from firearms, and 20,000 die from influenza (a vaccine-preventable disease). Common-sense personal protective measures to avoid mosquito bites can substantially reduce an individuals' risk of acquiring WNV.

  14. West Nile Virus: Biology, Transmission, and Human Infection

    PubMed Central

    Colpitts, Tonya M.; Conway, Michael J.; Montgomery, Ruth R.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: West Nile Virus was introduced into the Western Hemisphere during the late summer of 1999 and has been causing significant and sometimes severe human diseases since that time. This article briefly touches upon the biology of the virus and provides a comprehensive review regarding recent discoveries about virus transmission, virus acquisition, and human infection and disease. PMID:23034323

  15. [West Nile virus: a reality in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Téllez, Ildefonso; Calderón, Oscar; Franco-Paredes, Carlos; del Río, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a RNA virus of the Flaviridae, genus flavivirus family. It is a neuropathogenic virus causing disease in birds, horses and humans. WNVis transmitted by the vector mosquito Culex sp. The virus life 's cycle includes mosquitoes as vectors and birds as natural hosts. Humans are accidental hosts. Since the introduction of the Epidemiological Surveillance Program at the Ministry ofHealth. we have documented 90 positive test results among birds out of 1,223 cases studied in Mexico as of September IS. 2005. The incubation period in humans after a mosquito bite ranges from 3 to 14 days. Disease is characterized by early onset fever, general malaise, decreased appetite, nausea, vomiting, headaches, myalgias, enlarged lymph nodes andrash. Neurological manifestations include encephalitis andflaccid paralysis, which are present in less than 1% of subjects infected with WNV. Older patients display more adverse outcomes including death. The diagnosis is made by the determination of specific IgM and JgG antibodies in serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid. There is no antiviral treatment to date against WNV but interferon ?2b, and WNVspec4ic-immunoglobulin have been used Prevention is therefore the key to control the infection.

  16. Nonviremic transmission of West Nile virus

    PubMed Central

    Higgs, Stephen; Schneider, Bradley S.; Vanlandingham, Dana L.; Klingler, Kimberly A.; Gould, Ernest A.

    2005-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is now the predominant circulating arthropod-borne virus in the United States with >15,000 human cases and >600 fatalities since 1999. Conventionally, mosquitoes become infected when feeding on viremic birds and subsequently transmit the virus to susceptible hosts. Here, we demonstrate nonviremic transmission of WNV between cofeeding mosquitoes. Donor, Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus mosquitoes infected with WNV were fed simultaneously with uninfected “recipient” mosquitoes on naïve mice. At all times, donor and recipient mosquitoes were housed in separate sealed containers, precluding the possibility of mixing. Recipients became infected in all five trials, with infection rates as high as 5.8% and no detectable viremia in the hosts. Remarkably, a 2.3% infection rate was observed when 87 uninfected mosquitoes fed adjacent to a single infected mosquito. This phenomenon could potentially enhance virus survival, transmission, and dispersion and obviate the requirement for viremia. All vertebrates, including immune and insusceptible animals, might therefore facilitate mosquito infection. Our findings question the status of dead-end hosts in the WNV transmission cycle and may partly explain the success with which WNV established and rapidly dispersed throughout North America. PMID:15951417

  17. West Nile Virus Economic Impact, Louisiana, 2002

    PubMed Central

    Meltzer, Martin I.; Ratard, Raoult; Billah, Kaafee; Molinari, Noelle A.; Roy, Kakoli; Scott, R. Douglas; Petersen, Lyle R.

    2004-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is transmitted by mosquitoes and can cause illness in humans ranging from mild fever to encephalitis. In 2002, a total of 4,156 WNV cases were reported in the United States; 329 were in Louisiana. To estimate the economic impact of the 2002 WNV epidemic in Louisiana, we collected data from hospitals, a patient questionnaire, and public offices. Hospital charges were converted to economic costs by using Medicare cost-to-charge ratios. The estimated cost of the Louisiana epidemic was $20.1 million from June 2002 to February 2003, including a $10.9 million cost of illness ($4.4 million medical and $6.5 million nonmedical costs) and a $9.2 million cost of public health response. These data indicate a substantial short-term cost of the WNV disease epidemic in Louisiana. PMID:15504258

  18. West Nile virus infection of birds, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Sánchez, Sergio; Cuevas-Romero, Sandra; Nemeth, Nicole M; Trujillo-Olivera, María Teresa Jesús; Worwa, Gabriella; Dupuis, Alan; Brault, Aaron C; Kramer, Laura D; Komar, Nicholas; Estrada-Franco, José Guillermo

    2011-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has caused disease in humans, equids, and birds at lower frequency in Mexico than in the United States. We hypothesized that the seemingly reduced virulence in Mexico was caused by attenuation of the Tabasco strain from southeastern Mexico, resulting in lower viremia than that caused by the Tecate strain from the more northern location of Baja California. During 2006-2008, we tested this hypothesis in candidate avian amplifying hosts: domestic chickens, rock pigeons, house sparrows, great-tailed grackles, and clay-colored thrushes. Only great-tailed grackles and house sparrows were competent amplifying hosts for both strains, and deaths occurred in each species. Tecate strain viremia levels were higher for thrushes. Both strains produced low-level viremia in pigeons and chickens. Our results suggest that certain avian hosts within Mexico are competent for efficient amplification of both northern and southern WNV strains and that both strains likely contribute to bird deaths.

  19. West Nile Virus Antibodies in Wild Birds, Morocco, 2008

    PubMed Central

    Baouab, Riad E.; Soriguer, Ramon; Fassi-Fihri, Ouafaa; Llorente, Francisco; Jímenez-Clavero, Miguel Angel

    2009-01-01

    To determine circulation of West Nile virus (WNV) during nonepidemic times, we serosurveyed wild birds of Morocco in 2008. We found antibodies against WNV in 12 (3.5%) birds, against Usutu virus in 1 (0.3%), and against both in 2 (0.6%). High WNV prevalence among juvenile birds suggests local virus circulation among resident birds. PMID:19861065

  20. Use of Wild Bird Surveillance, Human Case Data and GIS Spatial Analysis for Predicting Spatial Distributions of West Nile Virus in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Valiakos, George; Papaspyropoulos, Konstantinos; Giannakopoulos, Alexios; Birtsas, Periklis; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Hutchings, Michael R.; Spyrou, Vassiliki; Pervanidou, Danai; Athanasiou, Labrini V.; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos; Tsokana, Constantina; Baka, Agoritsa; Manolakou, Katerina; Chatzopoulos, Dimitrios; Artois, Marc; Yon, Lisa; Hannant, Duncan; Petrovska, Liljana; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Billinis, Charalambos

    2014-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is the causative agent of a vector-borne, zoonotic disease with a worldwide distribution. Recent expansion and introduction of WNV into new areas, including southern Europe, has been associated with severe disease in humans and equids, and has increased concerns regarding the need to prevent and control future WNV outbreaks. Since 2010, 524 confirmed human cases of the disease have been reported in Greece with greater than 10% mortality. Infected mosquitoes, wild birds, equids, and chickens have been detected and associated with human disease. The aim of our study was to establish a monitoring system with wild birds and reported human cases data using Geographical Information System (GIS). Potential distribution of WNV was modelled by combining wild bird serological surveillance data with environmental factors (e.g. elevation, slope, land use, vegetation density, temperature, precipitation indices, and population density). Local factors including areas of low altitude and proximity to water were important predictors of appearance of both human and wild bird cases (Odds Ratio = 1,001 95%CI = 0,723–1,386). Using GIS analysis, the identified risk factors were applied across Greece identifying the northern part of Greece (Macedonia, Thrace) western Greece and a number of Greek islands as being at highest risk of future outbreaks. The results of the analysis were evaluated and confirmed using the 161 reported human cases of the 2012 outbreak predicting correctly (Odds = 130/31 = 4,194 95%CI = 2,841–6,189) and more areas were identified for potential dispersion in the following years. Our approach verified that WNV risk can be modelled in a fast cost-effective way indicating high risk areas where prevention measures should be implemented in order to reduce the disease incidence. PMID:24806216

  1. Use of wild bird surveillance, human case data and GIS spatial analysis for predicting spatial distributions of West Nile virus in Greece.

    PubMed

    Valiakos, George; Papaspyropoulos, Konstantinos; Giannakopoulos, Alexios; Birtsas, Periklis; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Hutchings, Michael R; Spyrou, Vassiliki; Pervanidou, Danai; Athanasiou, Labrini V; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos; Tsokana, Constantina; Baka, Agoritsa; Manolakou, Katerina; Chatzopoulos, Dimitrios; Artois, Marc; Yon, Lisa; Hannant, Duncan; Petrovska, Liljana; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Billinis, Charalambos

    2014-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is the causative agent of a vector-borne, zoonotic disease with a worldwide distribution. Recent expansion and introduction of WNV into new areas, including southern Europe, has been associated with severe disease in humans and equids, and has increased concerns regarding the need to prevent and control future WNV outbreaks. Since 2010, 524 confirmed human cases of the disease have been reported in Greece with greater than 10% mortality. Infected mosquitoes, wild birds, equids, and chickens have been detected and associated with human disease. The aim of our study was to establish a monitoring system with wild birds and reported human cases data using Geographical Information System (GIS). Potential distribution of WNV was modelled by combining wild bird serological surveillance data with environmental factors (e.g. elevation, slope, land use, vegetation density, temperature, precipitation indices, and population density). Local factors including areas of low altitude and proximity to water were important predictors of appearance of both human and wild bird cases (Odds Ratio = 1,001 95%CI = 0,723-1,386). Using GIS analysis, the identified risk factors were applied across Greece identifying the northern part of Greece (Macedonia, Thrace) western Greece and a number of Greek islands as being at highest risk of future outbreaks. The results of the analysis were evaluated and confirmed using the 161 reported human cases of the 2012 outbreak predicting correctly (Odds = 130/31 = 4,194 95%CI = 2,841-6,189) and more areas were identified for potential dispersion in the following years. Our approach verified that WNV risk can be modelled in a fast cost-effective way indicating high risk areas where prevention measures should be implemented in order to reduce the disease incidence.

  2. Globalization, land use and the invasion of West Nile virus

    PubMed Central

    Kilpatrick, A. Marm

    2012-01-01

    Many invasive species that have been spread through the globalization of trade and travel are infectious pathogens. A paradigmatic case is the introduction of West Nile virus (WNV) into North America in 1999. A decade of research on the ecology and evolution of WNV includes three findings that provide insight into the outcome of future viral introductions. First, WNV transmission in North America is highest in urbanized and agricultural habitats, in part because the hosts and vectors of WNV are abundant in human-modified areas. Second, after its introduction, the virus quickly adapted to infect local mosquito vectors more efficiently than the originally introduced strain. Third, highly focused feeding patterns of the mosquito vectors of WNV result in unexpected host species being important for transmission. These findings provide a framework for predicting and preventing the emergence of foreign vector-borne pathogens. PMID:22021850

  3. Recent progress in West Nile virus diagnosis and vaccination

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a positive-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family, a large family with 3 main genera (flavivirus, hepacivirus and pestivirus). Among these viruses, there are several globally relevant human pathogens including the mosquito-borne dengue virus (DENV), yellow fever virus (YFV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and West Nile virus (WNV), as well as tick-borne viruses such as tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). Since the mid-1990s, outbreaks of WN fever and encephalitis have occurred throughout the world and WNV is now endemic in Africa, Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Europe and the Unites States. This review describes the molecular virology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and highlights recent progress regarding diagnosis and vaccination against WNV infections. PMID:22380523

  4. European Surveillance for West Nile Virus in Mosquito Populations

    PubMed Central

    Engler, Olivier; Savini, Giovanni; Papa, Anna; Figuerola, Jordi; Groschup, Martin H.; Kampen, Helge; Medlock, Jolyon; Vaux, Alexander; Wilson, Anthony J.; Werner, Doreen; Jöst, Hanna; Goffredo, Maria; Capelli, Gioia; Federici, Valentina; Tonolla, Mauro; Patocchi, Nicola; Flacio, Eleonora; Portmann, Jasmine; Rossi-Pedruzzi, Anya; Mourelatos, Spiros; Ruiz, Santiago; Vázquez, Ana; Calzolari, Mattia; Bonilauri, Paolo; Dottori, Michele; Schaffner, Francis; Mathis, Alexander; Johnson, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    A wide range of arthropod-borne viruses threaten both human and animal health either through their presence in Europe or through risk of introduction. Prominent among these is West Nile virus (WNV), primarily an avian virus, which has caused multiple outbreaks associated with human and equine mortality. Endemic outbreaks of West Nile fever have been reported in Italy, Greece, France, Romania, Hungary, Russia and Spain, with further spread expected. Most outbreaks in Western Europe have been due to infection with WNV Lineage 1. In Eastern Europe WNV Lineage 2 has been responsible for human and bird mortality, particularly in Greece, which has experienced extensive outbreaks over three consecutive years. Italy has experienced co-circulation with both virus lineages. The ability to manage this threat in a cost-effective way is dependent on early detection. Targeted surveillance for pathogens within mosquito populations offers the ability to detect viruses prior to their emergence in livestock, equine species or human populations. In addition, it can establish a baseline of mosquito-borne virus activity and allow monitoring of change to this over time. Early detection offers the opportunity to raise disease awareness, initiate vector control and preventative vaccination, now available for horses, and encourage personal protection against mosquito bites. This would have major benefits through financial savings and reduction in equid morbidity/mortality. However, effective surveillance that predicts virus outbreaks is challenged by a range of factors including limited resources, variation in mosquito capture rates (too few or too many), difficulties in mosquito identification, often reliant on specialist entomologists, and the sensitive, rapid detection of viruses in mosquito pools. Surveillance for WNV and other arboviruses within mosquito populations varies between European countries in the extent and focus of the surveillance. This study reviews the current status of

  5. Spatial Analysis of West Nile Virus: Predictive Risk Modeling of a Vector-borne Infectious Disease in Illinois by Means of NASA Earth Observation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renneboog, Nathan; Gathings, David; Hemmings, Sarah; Makasa, Emmanuel; Omer, Wigdan; Tipre, Meghan; Wright, Catherine; McAllister, Marilyn; Luvall, Jeffrey C.

    2009-01-01

    West Nile Virus is a mosquito-borne virus of the family Flaviviridae. It infects birds and various mammals, including humans, and can cause encephalitis that may prove fatal, notably among vulnerable populations. Since its identification in New York City in 1999, WNV has become established in a broad range of ecological settings throughout North America, infecting more than 25,300 people and killing 1133 as of 2008 (CDC,2009). WNV is transmitted by mosquitoes that feed on infected birds. As a result, the degree of human infection depends on local ecology and human exposure. This study hypothesizes that remote sensing and GIS can be used to analyze environmental determinants of WNV transmission, such as climate, elevation, land cover, and vegetation densities, to map areas of WNV risk for surveillance and intervention.

  6. Safety of West Nile Virus vaccines in sandhill crane chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.; Miller, K.J.; Docherty, D.E.; Bochsler, V.S.; Folk, Martin J.; Nesbitt, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    West Nile virus arrived in North America in 1999 and has spread across the continent in the ensuing years. The virus has proven deadly to a variety of native avian species including sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis). In order to provide safe and efficacious protection for captive and released populations of whooping cranes (G. americana), we have conducted a series of four research projects. The last of these was a study of the effects of two different West Nile virus vaccines on young Florida sandhill crane (G. c. pratensis) chicks and subsequent challenge with the virus. We found that vaccinating crane chicks as early as day 7 post-hatch caused no adverse reactions or noticeable morbidity. We tested both a commercial equine vaccine West Nile - Innovator (Fort Dodge Laboratories, Fort Dodge, Iowa) and a new recombinant DNA vaccine (Centers for Disease Control). We had a 33% mortality in control chicks (n =6) from West Nile virus infection, versus 0% mortality in two groups of vaccinated chicks (n = 12), indicating the two vaccines tested were not only safe but effective in preventing West Nile virus.

  7. Risk mapping of West Nile virus circulation in Spain, 2015.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Gómez, Amaya; Amela, Carmen; Fernández-Carrión, Eduardo; Martínez-Avilés, Marta; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel; Sierra-Moros, María José

    2017-05-01

    West Nile fever is an emergent disease in Europe. The objective of this study was to conduct a predictive risk mapping of West Nile Virus (WNV) circulation in Spain based on historical data of WNV circulation. Areas of Spain with evidence of WNV circulation were mapped based on data from notifications to the surveillance systems and a literature review. A logistic regression-based spatial model was used to assess the probability of WNV circulation. Data were analyzed at municipality level. Mean temperatures of the period from June to October, presence of wetlands and presence of Special Protection Areas for birds were considered as potential predictors. Two predictors of WNV circulation were identified: higher temperature [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.07, 95% CI 1.82-2.35, p<0.01] and presence of wetlands (3.37, 95% CI 1.89-5.99, p<0.01). Model validations indicated good predictions: area under the ROC curve was 0.895 (95% CI 0.870-0.919) for internal validation and 0.895 (95% CI 0.840-0.951) for external validation. This model could support improvements of WNV risk- based surveillance in Spain. The importance of a comprehensive surveillance for WNF, including human, animal and potential vectors is highlighted, which could additionally result in model refinements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Widespread West Nile virus activity, eastern United States, 2000.

    PubMed

    Marfin, A A; Petersen, L R; Eidson, M; Miller, J; Hadler, J; Farello, C; Werner, B; Campbell, G L; Layton, M; Smith, P; Bresnitz, E; Cartter, M; Scaletta, J; Obiri, G; Bunning, M; Craven, R C; Roehrig, J T; Julian, K G; Hinten, S R; Gubler, D J

    2001-01-01

    In 1999, the U.S. West Nile (WN) virus epidemic was preceded by widespread reports of avian deaths. In 2000, ArboNET, a cooperative WN virus surveillance system, was implemented to monitor the sentinel epizootic that precedes human infection. This report summarizes 2000 surveillance data, documents widespread virus activity in 2000, and demonstrates the utility of monitoring virus activity in animals to identify human risk for infection.

  9. 78 FR 16505 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Chimeric West Nile/Dengue Viruses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ...: Chimeric West Nile/Dengue Viruses AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of... Application 61/049,342, filed 4/30/2008, entitled ``Engineered, Chimeric West Nile/Dengue Viruses;'' PCT..., filed 10/29/2010, entitled ``Chimeric West Nile/Dengue Viruses;'' and all related continuing and foreign...

  10. West Nile Virus Surveillance, Guadeloupe, 2003–2004

    PubMed Central

    Blitvich, Bradley J.; Pradel, Jennifer; Molia, Sophie; Vachiéry, Nathalie; Pallavicini, Guillaume; Marlenee, Nicole L.; Zientara, Stéphan; Petitclerc, Martial; Martinez, Dominique

    2005-01-01

    We conducted extensive surveillance for West Nile virus infection in equines and chickens in Guadeloupe in 2003–2004. We showed a high seroprevalence in equines in 2003 related to biome, followed by a major decrease in virus circulation in 2004. No human or equine cases were reported during the study. PMID:16022789

  11. West Nile Virus Ecology in a Tropical Ecosystem in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Betoulle, Maria E.; Komar, Nicholas; Panella, Nicholas A.; Alvarez, Danilo; López, María R.; Betoulle, Jean-Luc; Sosa, Silvia M.; Müller, María L.; Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Lanciotti, Robert S.; Johnson, Barbara W.; Powers, Ann M.; Cordón-Rosales, Celia

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus ecology has yet to be rigorously investigated in the Caribbean Basin. We identified a transmission focus in Puerto Barrios, Guatemala, and established systematic monitoring of avian abundance and infection, seroconversions in domestic poultry, and viral infections in mosquitoes. West Nile virus transmission was detected annually between May and October from 2005 to 2008. High temperature and low rainfall enhanced the probability of chicken seroconversions, which occurred in both urban and rural sites. West Nile virus was isolated from Culex quinquefasciatus and to a lesser extent, from Culex mollis/Culex inflictus, but not from the most abundant Culex mosquito, Culex nigripalpus. A calculation that combined avian abundance, seroprevalence, and vertebrate reservoir competence suggested that great-tailed grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus) is the major amplifying host in this ecosystem. West Nile virus transmission reached moderate levels in sentinel chickens during 2007, but less than that observed during outbreaks of human disease attributed to West Nile virus in the United States. PMID:23149586

  12. [West Nile virus transmission risk in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Vlčková, J; Rupeš, V; Horáková, D; Kollárová, H; Holý, O

    2015-06-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) belongs to the family Flaviviridae. It is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes, capable of sucking blood on birds and mammals, most often by mosquitoes of the genus Culex. In humans, the virus was first identified in 1937 in the West Nile region, Uganda, Africa. Later, the virus spread and caused more or less severe epidemics of West Nile fever in North Africa, Europe, Asia, and North and South America. During the last two decades, WNV has been on the rise and is currently ranked as one of the most prevalent arboviruses in the world. In humans, WNV infection mostly occurs as asymptomatic, but may have a more severe or even fatal course in older and weakened patients. Humans may become infected not only by mosquitoes that acquire the virus from infected birds, but also through a blood transfusion, organ transplant, breast milk and transplacental transmission, or contact with infected animals, their blood, and tissues. The first autochthonous human case of West Nile fever in the Czech Republic was reported from South Moravia in 1997. In 2013, another case of West Nile fever emerged in this country, in the Ostrava area. The issue of WNV has recently been studied from many different perspectives, as evidenced by many original and review papers. This article briefly reviews the essential knowledge about this virus and its spread.

  13. Host heterogeneity dominates West Nile virus transmission

    PubMed Central

    Marm Kilpatrick, A; Daszak, Peter; Jones, Matthew J; Marra, Peter P; Kramer, Laura D

    2006-01-01

    Heterogeneity in host populations and communities can have large effects on the transmission and control of a pathogen. In extreme cases, a few individuals give rise to the majority of secondary infections, which have been termed super spreading events. Here, we show that transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) is dominated by extreme heterogeneity in the host community, resulting in highly inflated reproductive ratios. A single relatively uncommon avian species, American robin (Turdus migratorius), appeared to be responsible for the majority of WNV-infectious mosquitoes and acted as the species equivalent of a super spreader for this multi-host pathogen. Crows were also highly preferred by mosquitoes at some sites, while house sparrows were significantly avoided. Nonetheless, due to their relative rarity, corvids (crows and jays) were relatively unimportant in WNV amplification. These results challenge current beliefs about the role of certain avian species in WNV amplification and demonstrate the importance of determining contact rates between vectors and host species to understand pathogen transmission dynamics. PMID:16928635

  14. Neuromuscular Manifestations of West Nile Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Leis, A. Arturo; Stokic, Dobrivoje S.

    2012-01-01

    The most common neuromuscular manifestation of West Nile virus (WNV) infection is a poliomyelitis syndrome with asymmetric paralysis variably involving one (monoparesis) to four limbs (quadriparesis), with or without brainstem involvement and respiratory failure. This syndrome of acute flaccid paralysis may occur without overt fever or meningoencephalitis. Although involvement of anterior horn cells in the spinal cord and motor neurons in the brainstem are the major sites of pathology responsible for neuromuscular signs, inflammation also may involve skeletal or cardiac muscle (myositis, myocarditis), motor axons (polyradiculitis), and peripheral nerves [Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS), brachial plexopathy]. In addition, involvement of spinal sympathetic neurons and ganglia provides an explanation for autonomic instability seen in some patients. Many patients also experience prolonged subjective generalized weakness and disabling fatigue. Despite recent evidence that WNV may persist long-term in the central nervous system or periphery in animals, the evidence in humans is controversial. WNV persistence would be of great concern in immunosuppressed patients or in those with prolonged or recurrent symptoms. Support for the contention that WNV can lead to autoimmune disease arises from reports of patients presenting with various neuromuscular diseases that presumably involve autoimmune mechanisms (GBS, other demyelinating neuropathies, myasthenia gravis, brachial plexopathies, stiff-person syndrome, and delayed or recurrent symptoms). Although there is no specific treatment or vaccine currently approved in humans, and the standard remains supportive care, drugs that can alter the cascade of immunobiochemical events leading to neuronal death may be potentially useful (high-dose corticosteroids, interferon preparations, and intravenous immune globulin containing WNV-specific antibodies). Human experience with these agents seems promising based on anecdotal reports

  15. Diversification of West Nile virus in a subtropical region.

    PubMed

    Chisenhall, Daniel M; Mores, Christopher N

    2009-07-16

    West Nile virus (WNV) has spread across North, Central, and South America since its introduction in 1999. At the start of this spread, Florida was considered a potentially important area with regards to transmission due to its geographic, climatological, and demographic conditions. Curiously, the anticipated high levels of transmission or disease outbreaks have not been observed. As other studies have predicted that the lack of intense WNV transmission is not due to vector incompetence, we sought to evaluate the role of viral strain diversity in WNV transmission in Florida. Therefore, a phylogentic analysis was carried out on several isolates collected from three distinct locations in Florida. Contrasting with a positive control collected in Indian River County, Florida during 2003 that contains the original NY99 genotype with valanine at amino acid 159 of the envelope region, all of the isolates collected in 2005 contain the WN02 genotype composed of a substation with alanine at that position indicating the window of introduction of the WN02 genotype occurred between 2003 and 2005. From the eight isolates collected in Duval, Indian River, and Manatee Counties; there is also a silent nucleotide substitution that differentiates the isolates collected on the Atlantic side of the state compared to the isolate collected on the Gulf side, which groups closer to isolates from other locations near the Gulf. As a whole, the Florida isolates contained numerous variable nucleotide and amino acid sites from the reference sequences, as well as each other; indicating greater nucleotide diversity within the Florida 2005 isolates than within other regions. Finally, a series of three amino acid substitutions surrounding a set of histidines located in the envelope coding region that hypothesized to play a role in conformational changes was found in the isolate collected in Indian River County, perhaps changing the antigenicity of the homodimer. Taken together, these findings expand

  16. Diversification of West Nile virus in a subtropical region

    PubMed Central

    Chisenhall, Daniel M; Mores, Christopher N

    2009-01-01

    Background West Nile virus (WNV) has spread across North, Central, and South America since its introduction in 1999. At the start of this spread, Florida was considered a potentially important area with regards to transmission due to its geographic, climatological, and demographic conditions. Curiously, the anticipated high levels of transmission or disease outbreaks have not been observed. As other studies have predicted that the lack of intense WNV transmission is not due to vector incompetence, we sought to evaluate the role of viral strain diversity in WNV transmission in Florida. Therefore, a phylogentic analysis was carried out on several isolates collected from three distinct locations in Florida. Results Contrasting with a positive control collected in Indian River County, Florida during 2003 that contains the original NY99 genotype with valanine at amino acid 159 of the envelope region, all of the isolates collected in 2005 contain the WN02 genotype composed of a substation with alanine at that position indicating the window of introduction of the WN02 genotype occurred between 2003 and 2005. From the eight isolates collected in Duval, Indian River, and Manatee Counties; there is also a silent nucleotide substitution that differentiates the isolates collected on the Atlantic side of the state compared to the isolate collected on the Gulf side, which groups closer to isolates from other locations near the Gulf. Conclusion As a whole, the Florida isolates contained numerous variable nucleotide and amino acid sites from the reference sequences, as well as each other; indicating greater nucleotide diversity within the Florida 2005 isolates than within other regions. Finally, a series of three amino acid substitutions surrounding a set of histidines located in the envelope coding region that hypothesized to play a role in conformational changes was found in the isolate collected in Indian River County, perhaps changing the antigenicity of the homodimer. Taken

  17. The relationships between West Nile and Kunjin viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Scherret, J. H.; Poidinger, M.; Mackenzie, J. S.; Broom, A. K.; Deubel, V.; Lipkin, W. I.; Briese, T.; Gould, E. A.; Hall, R. A.

    2001-01-01

    Until recently, West Nile (WN) and Kunjin (KUN) viruses were classified as distinct types in the Flavivirus genus. However, genetic and antigenic studies on isolates of these two viruses indicate that the relationship between them is more complex. To better define this relationship, we performed sequence analyses on 32 isolates of KUN virus and 28 isolates of WN virus from different geographic areas, including a WN isolate from the recent outbreak in New York. Sequence comparisons showed that the KUN virus isolates from Australia were tightly grouped but that the WN virus isolates exhibited substantial divergence and could be differentiated into four distinct groups. KUN virus isolates from Australia were antigenically homologous and distinct from the WN isolates and a Malaysian KUN virus. Our results suggest that KUN and WN viruses comprise a group of closely related viruses that can be differentiated into subgroups on the basis of genetic and antigenic analyses. PMID:11585535

  18. West Nile virus antibody prevalence in wild mammals, southern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Docherty, D.E.; Samuel, M.D.; Nolden, C.A.; Egstad, Kristina F.; Griffin, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    Twenty percent prevalence of West Nile virus antibody was found in free-ranging medium-sized Wisconsin mammals. No significant differences were noted in antibody prevalence with regard to sex, age, month of collection, or species. Our results suggest a similar route of infection in these mammals.

  19. Magpies as Hosts for West Nile Virus, Southern France

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Sabatier, Philippe; Grège, Océane; Greenland, Timothy; Leblond, Agnès; Lafaye, Murielle; Zeller, Hervé G.

    2008-01-01

    European magpies (Pica pica) from southern France were tested for antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV) and viral shedding in feces during spring–autumn 2005. Results suggest that this peridomestic species may be a suitable sentinel species and a relevant target for additional investigations on WNV ecology in Europe. PMID:18258098

  20. Magpies as hosts for West Nile virus, southern France.

    PubMed

    Jourdain, Elsa; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Sabatier, Philippe; Grège, Océane; Greenland, Timothy; Leblond, Agnès; Lafaye, Murielle; Zeller, Hervé G

    2008-01-01

    European magpies (Pica pica) from southern France were tested for antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV) and viral shedding in feces during spring-autumn 2005. Results suggest that this peridomestic species may be a suitable sentinel species and a relevant target for additional investigations on WNV ecology in Europe.

  1. Domestic goose model for West Nile virus vaccine efficiency testing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an emergent pathogen in the Americas, first reported in New York during 1999, and has since spread across the United States (USA), Central and South America causing neurological disease in humans, horses and some bird species, including domestic geese. No WNV vaccines are li...

  2. Corvidae feather pulp and West Nile virus detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Docherty, D.E.; Romaine Long, R.; Griffin, Katie M.; Saito, E.K.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated cloacal swab, vascular pulp of flight feather, and kidney and spleen pool samples from carcasses of members of the family Corvidae as sources of West Nile virus (WNV). The cloacal swab, kidney and spleen pool, and feather pulp were the source of WNV in 38%, 43%, and 77%, respectively, of the carcasses.

  3. Outbreak of West Nile Virus Infection in Greece, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Papa, Anna; Theocharopoulos, George; Dougas, Georgios; Athanasiou, Maria; Detsis, Marios; Baka, Agoritsa; Lytras, Theodoros; Mellou, Kassiani; Bonovas, Stefanos; Panagiotopoulos, Takis

    2011-01-01

    During 2010, an outbreak of West Nile virus infection occurred in Greece. A total of 197 patients with neuroinvasive disease were reported, of whom 33 (17%) died. Advanced age and a history of heart disease were independently associated with death, emphasizing the need for prevention of this infection in persons with these risk factors. PMID:22000357

  4. West Nile Virus Isolation from Equines in Argentina, 2006

    PubMed Central

    Barrandeguy, María; Fabbri, Cintia; Garcia, Jorge B.; Vissani, Aldana; Trono, Karina; Gutierrez, Gerónimo; Pigretti, Santiago; Menchaca, Hernán; Garrido, Nelson; Taylor, Nora; Fernandez, Fernando; Levis, Silvana; Enría, Delia

    2006-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was isolated from the brains of 3 horses that died from encephalitis in February 2006. The horses were from different farms in central Argentina and had not traveled outside the country. This is the first isolation of WNV in South America. PMID:17176571

  5. West Nile virus infection in killer whale, Texas, USA, 2007.

    PubMed

    St Leger, Judy; Wu, Guang; Anderson, Mark; Dalton, Les; Nilson, Erika; Wang, David

    2011-08-01

    In 2007, nonsuppurative encephalitis was identified in a killer whale at a Texas, USA, marine park. Panviral DNA microarray of brain tissue suggested West Nile virus (WNV); WNV was confirmed by reverse transcription PCR and sequencing. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated WNV antigen within neurons. WNV should be considered in cases of encephalitis in cetaceans.

  6. West Nile Virus Infection in Killer Whale, Texas, USA, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guang; Anderson, Mark; Dalton, Les; Nilson, Erika; Wang, David

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, nonsuppurative encephalitis was identified in a killer whale at a Texas, USA, marine park. Panviral DNA microarray of brain tissue suggested West Nile virus (WNV); WNV was confirmed by reverse transcription PCR and sequencing. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated WNV antigen within neurons. WNV should be considered in cases of encephalitis in cetaceans. PMID:21801643

  7. West Nile Virus Seroprevalence, Connecticut, USA, 2000-2014.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Megan E; Yao, Yi; Nock, David; Armstrong, Philip M; Andreadis, Theodore G; Diuk-Wasser, Maria A; Montgomery, Ruth R

    2017-04-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) infection is mainly asymptomatic but can be severe in elderly persons. As part of studies on immunity and aging in Connecticut, USA, we detected WNV seroconversion in 8.5% of nonimmunosuppressed and 16.8% of immunosuppressed persons. Age was not a significant seroconversion factor. Our findings suggest that immune factors affect seroconversion.

  8. West Nile Virus Transmission in Resident Birds, Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Mark B.; Klenk, Kaci; Blitvich, Bradley J.; Marlenee, Nicole L.; Burkhalter, Kristen L.; Gubler, Duane J.; Gonzálvez, Guillermo; Peña, Carlos J.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Komar, Nicholas

    2003-01-01

    We report West Nile virus (WNV) activity in the Dominican Republic for the first time. Specific anti-WNV antibodies were detected in 5 (15%) of 33 resident birds sampled at one location in November 2002. One seropositive bird was <4 months old, indicating a recent infection. PMID:14609467

  9. West Nile Virus Seroprevalence, Connecticut, USA, 2000–2014

    PubMed Central

    Cahill, Megan E.; Yao, Yi; Nock, David; Armstrong, Philip M.; Andreadis, Theodore G.; Diuk-Wasser, Maria A.

    2017-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) infection is mainly asymptomatic but can be severe in elderly persons. As part of studies on immunity and aging in Connecticut, USA, we detected WNV seroconversion in 8.5% of nonimmunosuppressed and 16.8% of immunosuppressed persons. Age was not a significant seroconversion factor. Our findings suggest that immune factors affect seroconversion. PMID:28322715

  10. Peptide inhibitors of dengue virus and West Nile virus infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Hrobowski, Yancey M; Garry, Robert F; Michael, Scott F

    2005-01-01

    Viral fusion proteins mediate cell entry by undergoing a series of conformational changes that result in virion-target cell membrane fusion. Class I viral fusion proteins, such as those encoded by influenza virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), contain two prominent alpha helices. Peptides that mimic portions of these alpha helices inhibit structural rearrangements of the fusion proteins and prevent viral infection. The envelope glycoprotein (E) of flaviviruses, such as West Nile virus (WNV) and dengue virus (DENV), are class II viral fusion proteins comprised predominantly of beta sheets. We used a physio-chemical algorithm, the Wimley-White interfacial hydrophobicity scale (WWIHS) [1] in combination with known structural data to identify potential peptide inhibitors of WNV and DENV infectivity that target the viral E protein. Viral inhibition assays confirm that several of these peptides specifically interfere with target virus entry with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) in the 10 μM range. Inhibitory peptides similar in sequence to domains with a significant WWIHS scores, including domain II (IIb), and the stem domain, were detected. DN59, a peptide corresponding to the stem domain of DENV, inhibited infection by DENV (>99% inhibition of plaque formation at a concentrations of <25 μM) and cross-inhibition of WNV fusion/infectivity (>99% inhibition at <25 μM) was also demonstrated with DN59. However, a potent WNV inhibitory peptide, WN83, which corresponds to WNV E domain IIb, did not inhibit infectivity by DENV. Additional results suggest that these inhibitory peptides are noncytotoxic and act in a sequence specific manner. The inhibitory peptides identified here can serve as lead compounds for the development of peptide drugs for flavivirus infection. PMID:15927084

  11. West Nile virus infections in humans--focus on Greece.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna

    2013-10-01

    West Nile virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus causing to humans a variety of symptoms, from asymptomatic or mild infection, to severe, and often fatal, infection of the central nervous system. The present review aims to describe the main clinical characteristics of the disease, to provide the recent epidemiological data, including those from the recent outbreaks in Greece, and to discuss the environmental factors which might play a role in the virus emergence and its wider dispersal.

  12. Ecology of West Nile Virus in North America

    PubMed Central

    Reisen, William K.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction, dispersal and establishment of West Nile virus in North America were reviewed, focusing on factors that may have enhanced receptivity and enabled the invasion process. The overwintering persistence of this tropical virus within temperate latitudes was unexpected, but was key in the transition from invasion to endemic establishment. The cascade of temporal events allowing sporadic amplification to outbreak levels was discussed within a future perspective. PMID:24008376

  13. Purpura fulminans associated with acute West Nile virus encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sheevam; Fite, Laura Paul; Lane, Natalie; Parekh, Palak

    2016-02-01

    Purpura fulminans is a progressive thrombotic disorder that presents with widespread purpura due to deficiency or dysfunction of protein C or protein S. Lesions present as well-demarcated erythematous macules that progress to irregular areas of hemorrhagic necrosis.West Nile virus is a member of the Flaviviridae family transmitted to humans through the bite of various mosquito species. It manifests as West Nile fever in 25% of those infected and less commonly as neuroinvasive disease. An African American man in his fortiespresented with altered mental status and was noted to have evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation according to his lab data. He then developed dusky skin discoloration and systemic flaccid bullae with desquamation. Biopsy was consistent with purpura fulminans and the patient eventually developed symmetric peripheral gangrene, requiring amputations of all four extremities. Infectious work up revealed positive testing for IgM and IgG antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid leading to the diagnosis of acute West Nile Virus encephalitis. We present this case to describe the rarely reported association of purpura fulminans with West Nile Virus infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Environmental Predictors of Human West Nile Virus Infections, Colorado

    PubMed Central

    Juliusson, Lara; Vogt, Richard L.

    2007-01-01

    To determine whether environmental surveillance of West Nile virus–positive dead birds, mosquito pools, equines, and sentinel chickens helped predict human cases in metropolitan Denver, Colorado, during 2003, we analyzed human surveillance data and environmental data. Birds successfully predicted the highest proportion of human cases, followed by mosquito pools, and equines. PMID:18217573

  15. Isolation of two strains of West Nile virus during an outbreak in southern Russia, 1999.

    PubMed Central

    Lvov, D. K.; Butenko, A. M.; Gromashevsky, V. L.; Larichev, V. P.; Gaidamovich, S. Y.; Vyshemirsky, O. I.; Zhukov, A. N.; Lazorenko, V. V.; Salko, V. N.; Kovtunov, A. I.; Galimzyanov, K. M.; Platonov, A. E.; Morozova, T. N.; Khutoretskaya, N. V.; Shishkina, E. O.; Skvortsova, T. M.

    2000-01-01

    From July to September 1999, a widespread outbreak of meningoencephalitis associated with West Nile virus (Flavivirus, Flaviviridae) occurred in southern Russia, with hundreds of cases and dozens of deaths. Two strains of West Nile virus isolated from patient serum and brain-tissue samples reacted in hemagglutination-inhibition and neutralization tests with patients' convalescent-phase sera and immune ascites fluid from other strains of West Nile virus. PMID:10905970

  16. Chronic West Nile virus infection in kea (Nestor notabilis).

    PubMed

    Bakonyi, Tamás; Gajdon, Gyula K; Schwing, Raoul; Vogl, Wolfgang; Häbich, Annett-Carolin; Thaller, Denise; Weissenböck, Herbert; Rudolf, Ivo; Hubálek, Zdenek; Nowotny, Norbert

    2016-02-01

    Six kea (Nestor notabilis) in human care, naturally infected with West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2 in Vienna, Austria, in 2008, developed mild to fatal neurological signs. WNV RNA persisted and the virus evolved in the birds' brains, as demonstrated by (phylo)genetic analyses of the complete viral genomes detected in kea euthanized between 2009 and 2014. WNV antibodies persisted in the birds, too. Chronic WNV infection in the brain might contribute to the circulation of the virus through oral transmission to predatory birds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Ixodid and Argasid Tick Species and West Nile Virus

    PubMed Central

    Uzcátegui, Nathalie Yumari; Gould, Ernest Andrew; Nuttall, Patricia Anne

    2004-01-01

    Control of West Nile virus (WNV) can only be effective if the vectors and reservoirs of the virus are identified and controlled. Although mosquitoes are the primary vectors, WNV has repeatedly been isolated from ticks. Therefore tick-borne transmission studies were performed with an ixodid (Ixodes ricinus) and an argasid tick species (Ornithodoros moubata). Both species became infected after feeding upon viremic hosts, but I. ricinus ticks were unable to maintain the virus. In contrast, O. moubata ticks were infected for at least 132 days, and the infection was maintained through molting and a second bloodmeal. Infected O. moubata ticks transmitted the virus to rodent hosts, albeit at a low level. Moreover, the virus was nonsystemically transmitted between infected and uninfected O. moubata ticks co-fed upon uninfected hosts. Although ticks are unlikely to play a major role in WNV transmission, our findings suggest that some species have the potential to act as reservoirs for the virus. PMID:15200855

  18. West Nile virus Epidemic in Horses, Tuscany Region, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Autorino, Gian Luca; Battisti, Antonio; Deubel, Vincent; Ferrari, Giancarlo; Forletta, Riccardo; Giovannini, Armando; Lelli, Rossella; Murri, Severine; Scicluna, Maria Teresa

    2002-01-01

    During the late summer of 1998, veterinary authorities in Tuscany, Italy, received reports of cases of neurologic disease among horses residing in a large wetland area located in the provinces of Florence and Pistoia. West Nile virus was isolated from two of the six horses that died or were euthanized. A retrospective epidemiologic study identified 14 clinical neurologic cases that occurred from August 20 to October 6 (attack rate of 2.8%). A serologic survey conducted over a 700-km2 area in stables with and without apparent clinical cases confirmed a wider spread of the infection, with an overall seroprevalence rate of 38% in the affected area. No significant differences in age-specific prevalence were observed, suggesting that the horses residing in the area had not been exposed previously to West Nile virus and supporting the hypothesis of its introduction in the wetland area during the first half of 1998. PMID:12498650

  19. Alexander the Great and West Nile virus encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Marr, John S; Calisher, Charles H

    2003-12-01

    Alexander the Great died in Babylon in 323 BC. His death at age 32 followed a 2-week febrile illness. Speculated causes of death have included poisoning; assassination, and a number of infectious diseases. One incident, mentioned by Plutarch but not considered by previous investigators, may shed light on the cause of Alexander's death. The incident, which occurred as he entered Babylon, involved a flock of ravens exhibiting unusual behavior and subsequently dying at his feet. The inexplicable behavior of ravens is reminiscent of avian illness and death weeks before the first human cases of West Nile virus infection were identified in the United States. We posit that Alexander may have died of West Nile virus encephalitis.

  20. Hydroclimatic Assessment of West Nile Virus Occurrence Across Continental US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billian, H. E.; Jutla, A.; Colwell, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is the most widely infections from arbovirus in mid-latitudes, having reached the Western Hemisphere in 1999. As a vector-borne disease, WNV is primarily spread by mosquitoes; the disease is predominantly found in tropical and temperate regions of the world, and is now considered an endemic pathogen in the United States, Africa, Asia, Australia, the Middle East, and Europe. Environmental processes play a vital role in the trigger of WNV. Here, using logistical regression models, we quantified relationships between hydroclimatic processes and mosquito abundance for WNV across the continental USA using precipitation and temperature at different spatial and temporal scales. It will be shown that reported cases of this disease are more prevalent during spring and summer months in the entire country, when there is more precipitation and higher surface air temperatures for 2003 to 2013. The key impacts of this research are those related to the improvement of human health, and a means to predict mosquito breeding patterns long term as they relate to the prevalence of vector-borne illnesses.

  1. Dry weather induces outbreaks of human West Nile virus infections.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guiming; Minnis, Richard B; Belant, Jerrold L; Wax, Charles L

    2010-02-24

    Since its first occurrence in the New York City area during 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) has spread rapidly across North America and has become a major public health concern in North America. By 2002, WNV was reported in 40 states and the District of Columbia with 4,156 human and 14,539 equine cases of infection. Mississippi had the highest human incidence rate of WNV during the 2002 epidemic in the United States. Epidemics of WNV can impose enormous impacts on local economies. Therefore, it is advantageous to predict human WNV risks for cost-effective controls of the disease and optimal allocations of limited resources. Understanding relationships between precipitation and WNV transmission is crucial for predicting the risk of the human WNV disease outbreaks under predicted global climate change scenarios. We analyzed data on the human WNV incidences in the 82 counties of Mississippi in 2002, using standard morbidity ratio (SMR) and Bayesian hierarchical models, to determine relationships between precipitation and human WNV risks. We also entertained spatial autocorrelations of human WNV risks with conditional autocorrelative (CAR) models, implemented in WinBUGS 1.4.3. We observed an inverse relationship between county-level human WNV incidence risk and total annual rainfall during the previous year. Parameters representing spatial heterogeneity in the risk of human exposure to WNV improved model fit. Annual precipitation of the previous year was a predictor of spatial variation of WNV risk. Our results have broad implications for risk assessment of WNV and forecasting WNV outbreaks. Assessing risk of vector-born infectious diseases will require understanding of complex ecological relationships. Based on the climatologically characteristic drought occurrence in the past and on climate model predictions for climate change and potentially greater drought occurrence in the future, we suggest that the frequency and relative risk of WNV outbreaks could increase.

  2. West Nile virus in wild resident birds, Southern France, 2004.

    PubMed

    Jourdain, E; Schuffenecker, I; Korimbocus, J; Reynard, S; Murri, S; Kayser, Y; Gauthier-Clerc, M; Sabatier, P; Zeller, H G

    2007-01-01

    An equine West Nile virus (WNV) outbreak occurred in 2004 in the Camargue, a wetland area in the south of France where the virus was first reported in 1962 and re-emerged in 2000. WNV neutralizing antibodies were detected in resident birds and two isolates from a House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) and a Common Magpie (Pica pica) were completely sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that these isolates are closely related to strains previously found in horses in southern Europe and North Africa. More extensive investigation is required to determine whether WNV has been re-introduced or has become endemic in the Camargue.

  3. Hydrologic variability and the dynamics of West Nile virus transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaman, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) first emerged in North America in New York City during 1999 and since that time has spread throughout the continent and settled into a pattern of local endemicity in which outbreaks of variable size develop in some years but not others. Predicting where and when these outbreaks will develop is an issue of considerable public health importance. Spillover transmission of WNV to humans typically occurs when infection rates among vector mosquitoes are elevated. Mosquito infection rates are not constant through time but instead increase when newly emergent mosquitoes can more readily acquire WNV by blood-meal feeding on available, infected animal hosts. Such an increase of vector mosquito infection rates is termed amplification and is facilitated for WNV by intense zoonotic transmission of the virus among vector mosquitoes and avian hosts. Theory, observation and model simulations indicate that amplification is favored when mosquito breeding habitats and bird nesting and roosting habitats overlap. Both vector mosquitoes and vertebrate hosts depend on water resources; mosquitoes are critically dependent on the availability of standing water, as the first 3 stages of the mosquito life cycle, egg, larvae, pupae, are aquatic. Here it is shown that hydrologic variability often determines where and when vector mosquitoes and avian hosts congregate together, and when the amplification of WNV is more likely. Measures of land surface wetness and pooling, from ground observation, satellite observation, or numerical modeling, can provide reliable estimates of where and when WNV transmission hotspots will arise. Examples of this linkage between hydrology and WNV activity are given for Florida, Colorado and New York, and an operational system for monitoring and forecasting WNV risk in space and time is presented for Florida.

  4. First molecular analysis of West Nile virus during the 2013 outbreak in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Kurolt, Ivan C; Krajinović, Vladimir; Topić, Antea; Kuzman, Ilija; Baršić, Bruno; Markotić, Alemka

    2014-08-30

    This is the second subsequent year of West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND) outbreak in Croatia. Between July and October 2013, 22 patients presented with symptoms of WNND: all with meningitis and 18 additionally with encephalitis. In contrast to 2012, where six autochthonous infections were confirmed in eastern Croatia, the majority of this year's cases occurred in and around the city of Zagreb, where no West Nile virus infections have been observed before. Viral RNA was recovered from two patients and phylogenetic analyses revealed West Nile virus lineage 2. This represents the first molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of the circulating West Nile virus strain in Croatia.

  5. West Nile Virus Surveillance in the Lombardy Region, Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Chiari, M; Prosperi, A; Faccin, F; Avisani, D; Cerioli, M; Zanoni, M; Bertoletti, M; Moreno, A M; Bruno, R; Monaco, F; Farioli, M; Lelli, D; Lavazza, A

    2015-08-01

    In 2013, the circulation of West Nile virus (WNV) was detected in the Lombardy region and the following year a surveillance programme was activated with the aim of early identification of the viral distribution in mosquitoes and wild birds. A total of 50 959 Culex spp. mosquitoes grouped in six hundred and forty-seven pools as well as 1400 birds were screened by RT-PCR for the presence of West Nile virus leading to the identification of the viral genome in 32 mosquito pools and 13 wild birds. The surveillance was able to detect the WNV circulation on an average of 42 days (CI 95% 29.98-53.86; Student's t-distribution) before the occurrence of human West Nile disease (WND) cases in the same area. These results demonstrate the presence of WNV in the Lombardy region and confirm entomological and wild birds surveillance as an effective measure for the early identification of WNV circulation in infected areas, thus providing a useful and cost-effective tool for the public health authorities in the application of measures to prevent human infection. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Alexander the Great and West Nile Virus Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Marr, John S.

    2003-01-01

    Alexander the Great died in Babylon in 323 BC. His death at age 32 followed a 2-week febrile illness. Speculated causes of death have included poisoning, assassination, and a number of infectious diseases. One incident, mentioned by Plutarch but not considered by previous investigators, may shed light on the cause of Alexander’s death. The incident, which occurred as he entered Babylon, involved a flock of ravens exhibiting unusual behavior and subsequently dying at his feet. The inexplicable behavior of ravens is reminiscent of avian illness and death weeks before the first human cases of West Nile virus infection were identified in the United States. We posit that Alexander may have died of West Nile encephalitis. PMID:14725285

  7. West Nile virus in livestock and wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLean, R.G.; Ubico, S.R.; Bourne, D.; Komar, N.

    2002-01-01

    WN virus is one of the most ubiquitous arboviruses occurring over a broad geographical range and in a wide diversity of vertebrate host and vector species. The virus appears to be maintained in endemic foci on the African continent and is transported annually to temperate climates to the north in Europe and to the south in South Africa. Reports of clinical disease due to natural WN virus infection in wild or domestic animals were much less common than reports of infection (virus isolation or antibody detection). Until recently, records of morbidity and mortality in wild birds were confined to a small number of cases and infections causing encephalitis, sometimes fatal, in horses were reported infrequently. In the period 1996-2001, there was an increase in outbreaks of illness due to WN virus in animals as well as humans. Within the traditional range of WN virus, encephalitis was reported in horses in Italy in 1998 and in France in 2000. The first report of disease and deaths caused by WN virus infection in domestic birds was reported in Israel in 1997-1999, involving hundreds of young geese. In 1999 WN virus reached North America and caused an outbreak of encephalitis in humans in the New York area at the same time as a number of cases of equine encephalitis and deaths in American crows and a variety of other bird species, both North American natives and exotics. Multi-state surveillance for WN virus has been in place since April 2000 and has resulted in the detection of WN virus in thousands of dead birds from an increasing number of species in North America, and also in several species of mammals. The surveillance system that has developed in North America because of the utility of testing dead birds for the rapid detection of WN virus presence has been a unique integration of public health and wildlife health agencies. It has been suggested that the recent upsurge in clinical WN virus infection in wild and domestic animals as well as in humans may be related to

  8. Identifying the Environmental Conditions Favouring West Nile Virus Outbreaks in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Metz, Markus; Rosà, Roberto; Marini, Giovanni; Chadwick, Elizabeth; Neteler, Markus

    2015-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is a globally important mosquito borne virus, with significant implications for human and animal health. The emergence and spread of new lineages, and increased pathogenicity, is the cause of escalating public health concern. Pinpointing the environmental conditions that favour WNV circulation and transmission to humans is challenging, due both to the complexity of its biological cycle, and the under-diagnosis and reporting of epidemiological data. Here, we used remote sensing and GIS to enable collation of multiple types of environmental data over a continental spatial scale, in order to model annual West Nile Fever (WNF) incidence across Europe and neighbouring countries. Multi-model selection and inference were used to gain a consensus from multiple linear mixed models. Climate and landscape were key predictors of WNF outbreaks (specifically, high precipitation in late winter/early spring, high summer temperatures, summer drought, occurrence of irrigated croplands and highly fragmented forests). Identification of the environmental conditions associated with WNF outbreaks is key to enabling public health bodies to properly focus surveillance and mitigation of West Nile virus impact, but more work needs to be done to enable accurate predictions of WNF risk. PMID:25803814

  9. Identifying the environmental conditions favouring West Nile Virus outbreaks in Europe.

    PubMed

    Marcantonio, Matteo; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Metz, Markus; Rosà, Roberto; Marini, Giovanni; Chadwick, Elizabeth; Neteler, Markus

    2015-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is a globally important mosquito borne virus, with significant implications for human and animal health. The emergence and spread of new lineages, and increased pathogenicity, is the cause of escalating public health concern. Pinpointing the environmental conditions that favour WNV circulation and transmission to humans is challenging, due both to the complexity of its biological cycle, and the under-diagnosis and reporting of epidemiological data. Here, we used remote sensing and GIS to enable collation of multiple types of environmental data over a continental spatial scale, in order to model annual West Nile Fever (WNF) incidence across Europe and neighbouring countries. Multi-model selection and inference were used to gain a consensus from multiple linear mixed models. Climate and landscape were key predictors of WNF outbreaks (specifically, high precipitation in late winter/early spring, high summer temperatures, summer drought, occurrence of irrigated croplands and highly fragmented forests). Identification of the environmental conditions associated with WNF outbreaks is key to enabling public health bodies to properly focus surveillance and mitigation of West Nile virus impact, but more work needs to be done to enable accurate predictions of WNF risk.

  10. Clinical West Nile virus infection in 2 horses in western Canada.

    PubMed

    Abutarbush, Sameeh M; O'Connor, Brendan P; Clark, Chris; Sampieri, Francesca; Naylor, Jonathan M

    2004-04-01

    Two horses had a history of ataxia and weakness or recumbency. One recovered and was diagnosed with West Nile virus (WNV) infection by serologic testing. The other was euthanized; it had meningoencephalomyelitis, WNV was detected by polymerase chain reaction. West Nile virus infection is an emerging disease. Year 2002 is the first year in which cases have been seen in Saskatchewan.

  11. Clinical West Nile virus infection in 2 horses in western Canada

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Two horses had a history of ataxia and weakness or recumbency. One recovered and was diagnosed with West Nile virus (WNV) infection by serologic testing. The other was euthanized; it had meningoencephalomyelitis, WNV was detected by polymerase chain reaction. West Nile virus infection is an emerging disease. Year 2002 is the first year in which cases have been seen in Saskatchewan. PMID:15144104

  12. West Nile virus infection among humans, Texas, USA, 2002-2011.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Melissa S; Schuermann, Jim; Murray, Kristy O

    2013-01-01

    We conducted an epidemiologic analysis to document West Nile virus infections among humans in Texas, USA, during 2002-2011. West Nile virus has become endemic to Texas; the number of reported cases increased every 3 years. Risk for infection was greatest in rural northwestern Texas, where Culex tarsalis mosquitoes are the predominant mosquito species.

  13. Overview of West Nile Virus Transmission and Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Troupin, Andrea; Colpitts, Tonya M

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that can cause mild-to-severe disease in humans and horses. WNV was first documented in Uganda in 1937 and passed through the majority of Africa, West Asia, and Europe before arriving in the USA (with infections in New York City in 1999). After the spread of the virus on the US east coast, it traveled westward, northward, and southward through the USA and into Central and South America. WNV can cause fever, rashes, nausea, vomiting, and potentially neuroinvasive disease or death. The virus is sustained through a mosquito-bird-mosquito cycle and there are many species that are competent vectors. Unfortunately, there are no vaccines and the only treatment is supportive care. This chapter highlights the epidemiology and transmission of WNV and provides insight into some of the challenges of controlling WNV disease.

  14. Experimental infection of raccoons (Procyon lotor) with West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Root, J Jeffrey; Bentler, Kevin T; Nemeth, Nicole M; Gidlewski, Thomas; Spraker, Terry R; Franklin, Alan B

    2010-10-01

    To characterize the responses of raccoons to West Nile virus (WNV) infection, we subcutaneously exposed them to WNV. Moderately high viremia titers (≤ 10(4.6) plaque forming units [PFU]/mL of serum) were noted in select individuals; however, peak viremia titers were variable and viremia was detectable in some individuals as late as 10 days post-inoculation (DPI). In addition, fecal shedding was prolonged in some animals (e.g., between 6 and 13 DPI in one individual), with up to 10(5.0) PFU/fecal swab detected. West Nile virus was not detected in tissues collected on 10 or 16 DPI, and no histologic lesions attributable to WNV infection were observed. Overall, viremia profiles suggest that raccoons are unlikely to be important WNV amplifying hosts. However, this species may occasionally shed significant quantities of virus in feces. Considering their behavioral ecology, including repeated use of same-site latrines, high levels of fecal shedding could potentially lead to interspecies fecal-oral WNV transmission.

  15. Experimental Infection of Raccoons (Procyon lotor) with West Nile Virus

    PubMed Central

    Root, J. Jeffrey; Bentler, Kevin T.; Nemeth, Nicole M.; Gidlewski, Thomas; Spraker, Terry R.; Franklin, Alan B.

    2010-01-01

    To characterize the responses of raccoons to West Nile virus (WNV) infection, we subcutaneously exposed them to WNV. Moderately high viremia titers (≤ 104.6 plaque forming units [PFU]/mL of serum) were noted in select individuals; however, peak viremia titers were variable and viremia was detectable in some individuals as late as 10 days post-inoculation (DPI). In addition, fecal shedding was prolonged in some animals (e.g., between 6 and 13 DPI in one individual), with up to105.0 PFU/fecal swab detected. West Nile virus was not detected in tissues collected on 10 or 16 DPI, and no histologic lesions attributable to WNV infection were observed. Overall, viremia profiles suggest that raccoons are unlikely to be important WNV amplifying hosts. However, this species may occasionally shed significant quantities of virus in feces. Considering their behavioral ecology, including repeated use of same-site latrines, high levels of fecal shedding could potentially lead to interspecies fecal-oral WNV transmission. PMID:20889868

  16. A continental risk assessment of West Nile virus under climate change.

    PubMed

    Harrigan, Ryan J; Thomassen, Henri A; Buermann, Wolfgang; Smith, Thomas B

    2014-08-01

    Since first introduced to North America in 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) has spread rapidly across the continent, threatening wildlife populations and posing serious health risks to humans. While WNV incidence has been linked to environmental factors, particularly temperature and rainfall, little is known about how future climate change may affect the spread of the disease. Using available data on WNV infections in vectors and hosts collected from 2003-2011 and using a suite of 10 species distribution models, weighted according to their predictive performance, we modeled the incidence of WNV under current climate conditions at a continental scale. Models were found to accurately predict spatial patterns of WNV that were then used to examine how future climate may affect the spread of the disease. Predictions were accurate for cases of human WNV infection in the following year (2012), with areas reporting infections having significantly higher probability of presence as predicted by our models. Projected geographic distributions of WNV in North America under future climate for 2050 and 2080 show an expansion of suitable climate for the disease, driven by warmer temperatures and lower annual precipitation that will result in the exposure of new and naïve host populations to the virus with potentially serious consequences. Our risk assessment identifies current and future hotspots of West Nile virus where mitigation efforts should be focused and presents an important new approach for monitoring vector-borne disease under climate change. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. West Nile Virus in Europe and Safety of Blood Transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Pisani, Giulio; Cristiano, Karen; Pupella, Simonetta; Liumbruno, Giancarlo Maria

    2016-01-01

    Summary West Nile virus (WNV) has become an increasing issue in the transfusion setting since 2002, when it was firstly shown in the USA that it can be transmitted through blood transfusion. Since then, several precautionary measures have been introduced in Europe in order to reduce the possible risk of transmission via transfusion/solid organ transplantation. In addition, the epidemiological surveillance has been tightened and the network for communication of human WNV cases strengthened. This review will focus on WNV circulation and the safety of blood in Europe. PMID:27403087

  18. West Nile virus in the British Virgin Islands.

    PubMed

    Anthony, S J; Garner, M M; Palminteri, L; Navarrete-Macias, I; Sanchez-Leon, M D; Briese, T; Daszak, P; Lipkin, W I

    2014-06-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) first emerged in the US in 1999 and has since spread across the Americas. Here, we report the continued expansion of WNV to the British Virgin Islands following its emergence in a flock of free-roaming flamingos. Histologic review of a single chick revealed lesions consistent with WNV infection, subsequently confirmed with PCR, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Full genome analysis revealed 99% sequence homology to strains circulating in the US over the past decade. This study highlights the need for rapid necropsy of wild bird carcasses to fully understand the impact of WNV on wild populations.

  19. Usutu Virus Persistence and West Nile Virus Inactivity in the Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy) in 2011

    PubMed Central

    Calzolari, Mattia; Bonilauri, Paolo; Bellini, Romeo; Albieri, Alessandro; Defilippo, Francesco; Tamba, Marco; Tassinari, Massimo; Gelati, Antonio; Cordioli, Paolo; Angelini, Paola; Dottori, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Background The circulation of West Nile virus and Usutu virus was detected in the Emilia-Romagna region in 2008 and 2009. To evaluate the extent of circulation of both viruses, environmental surveillance, based on bird and mosquito testing, was conducted in 2008 and gradually improved over the years. Methods In February–March 2009–2011, 5,993 hibernating mosquitoes were manually sampled, out of which 80.1% were Culex pipiens; none tested positive for the viruses. From 2008 to 2011, 946,213 mosquitoes, sampled between May and October, were tested; 86.5% were Cx. pipiens. West Nile virus was detected in 32 Cx. pipiens pools, and Usutu virus was detected in 229 mosquito pools (217 Cx. pipiens, 10 Aedes albopictus, one Anopheles maculipennis s.l., and one Aedes caspius). From 2009 to 2011, of 4,546 birds collected, 42 tested positive for West Nile virus and 48 for Usutu virus. West Nile virus and Usutu virus showed different patterns of activity during the 2008–2011 surveillance period. West Nile virus was detected in 2008, 2009, and 2010, but not in 2011. Usutu virus, however, was continuously active throughout 2009, 2010, and 2011. Conclusions The data strongly suggest that both viruses overwinter in the surveyed area rather than being continually reintroduced every season. The lack of hibernating mosquitoes testing positive for the viruses and the presence of positive birds sampled early in the season support the hypothesis that the viruses overwinter in birds rather than in mosquitoes. Herd immunity in key bird species could explain the decline of West Nile virus observed in 2011, while the persistence of Usutu virus may be explained by not yet identified reservoirs. Reported results are comparable with a peri-Mediterranean circulation of the West Nile virus lineage 1 related strain, which became undetectable in the environment after two to three years of obvious circulation. PMID:23667694

  20. West Nile virus and USUTU--a threat to Poland.

    PubMed

    Moniuszko-Malinowska, Anna; Czupryna, Piotr; Dunaj, Justyna; Zajkowska, Joanna; Siemieniako, Agnieszka; Pancewicz, Sławomir

    2016-01-01

    In recent years emergence of new infectious diseases and the growing spread of pathogens to new areas is observed. Most of these pathogens are zoonotic viruses and their transmission route is from animals to humans and vice versa. These so called emerging and re-emerging pathogens that were present previously only in Africa and Asia are becoming a threat to European countries. These include, e.g. West Nile virus and USUTU virus. The aim of the study is to present the clinical course of infections caused by WVN and USUTU, diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities and, above all, the current epidemiological situation of these infections in the world. We also tried to answer the question whether, there is a risk of infection with these viruses in Poland. After analyzing the available literature we venture a conclusion that in Poland there is a risk of WNV and USUTU infection. Global warming, change of socio-economic conditions, travelling greatly affect the spread of these viruses. In addition there are confirmed human cases of these diseases in countries neighboring Poland, as well as presence of both viruses and the presence of vectors (Culex pipiens sl and Culex torrentium (Diptera: Culicidae)) in our country. All these facts indicate that there is a necessity of epidemiological studies and consideration of these pathogens in the differential diagnosis of febrile illness and neuroinfection.

  1. West nile virus and other arboviral diseases - United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Nicole P; Lehman, Jennifer A; Staples, J Erin; Fischer, Marc

    2014-06-20

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes and ticks. West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the United States. However, several other arboviruses also cause sporadic cases and seasonal outbreaks of neuroinvasive disease (i.e., meningitis, encephalitis, and acute flaccid paralysis). This report summarizes surveillance data reported to CDC in 2013 for WNV and other nationally notifiable arboviruses, excluding dengue. Forty-seven states and the District of Columbia reported 2,469 cases of WNV disease. Of these, 1,267 (51%) were classified as WNV neuroinvasive disease, for a national incidence of 0.40 per 100,000 population. After WNV, the next most commonly reported cause of arboviral disease was La Crosse virus (LACV) (85 cases), followed by Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV), Powassan virus (POWV), and eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) (eight). WNV and other arboviruses continue to cause serious illness in substantial numbers of persons annually. Maintaining surveillance remains important to help direct and promote prevention activities.

  2. Extinction of West Nile virus by Favipiravir through lethal mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Escribano-Romero, Estela; Jiménez de Oya, Nereida; Domingo, Esteban; Saiz, Juan Carlos

    2017-08-28

    Favipiravir is an antiviral agent effective against several RNA viruses. The drug has been shown to protect mice against experimental infection with a lethal dose of West Nile virus (WNV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus responsible for outbreaks of meningitis and encephalitis for which no antiviral therapy has been licensed; however, the mechanism of action of the drug is still not well understood. Here, we describe the potent in vitro antiviral activity of favipiravir against WNV, showing that it decreases the virus-specific infectivity and drives the virus to extinction. Two passages of WNV in the presence of 1mM favipiravir -a concentration which is more than 10-fold lower than its cytotoxic concentration 50 (CC50)- resulted in a significant increase of mutation frequency in the mutant spectrum, and in a bias towards A-to-G and G-to-A transitions relative to the population passaged in absence of the drug. These data, together with the fact that the drug is already licensed in Japan against influenza virus and in clinical trial against Ebola virus, point to favipiravir as a promising antiviral agent to fight medically relevant flaviviral infections, such as that caused by WNV. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. West Nile Virus workshop: scientific considerations for tissue donors.

    PubMed

    Brubaker, Scott A; Robert Rigney, P

    2012-08-01

    This report contains selected excerpts, presented as a summary, from a public workshop sponsored by the American Association of Tissue Banks (AATB) held to discuss West Nile Virus (WNV) and scientific considerations for tissue donors. The daylong workshop was held 9 July 2010 at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel at Tyson's Corner in McLean, Virginia, United States (U.S.). The workshop was designed to determine and discuss scientific information that is known, and what is not known, regarding WNV infection and transmission. The goal is to determine how to fill gaps in knowledge of WNV and tissue donation and transplantation by pursuing relevant scientific studies. This information should ultimately support decisions leading to appropriate tissue donor screening and testing considerations. Discussion topics were related to identifying these gaps and determining possible solutions. Workshop participants included subject-matter experts from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Canada, the Public Health Agency of Canada, AATB-accredited tissue banks including reproductive tissue banks, accredited eye banks of the Eye Bank Association of America, testing laboratories, and infectious disease and organ transplantation professionals. After all presentations concluded, a panel addressed this question: "What are the scientific considerations for tissue donors and what research could be performed to address those considerations?" The slide presentations from the workshop are available at: http://www.aatb.org/2010-West-Nile-Virus-Workshop-Presentations.

  4. West Nile virus activity in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Komar, Nicholas; Clark, Gary G

    2006-02-01

    West Nile virus (Flavivirus: Flaviviridae; WNV) has spread rapidly throughout the Caribbean Basin since its initial detection there in 2001. This report summarizes our current knowledge of WNV transmission in tropical America. We reviewed the published literature and consulted with key public health officials to obtain unpublished data. West Nile virus infections first appeared in human residents of the Cayman Islands and the Florida Keys in 2001, and in apparently healthy Jamaican birds sampled early in 2002. Serologic evidence of WNV infection in 2002 was detected in horses, chickens and resident free-ranging birds in Guadeloupe, the Dominican Republic, and eastern Mexico. In 2003, WNV spread in Mexico and northern Central America, and serologic evidence was detected in the Bahamas, Puerto Rico and Cuba. In 2004, the first serologic evidence of WNV activity in South American ecosystems surfaced in September-October in Colombia and Trinidad, where domestic animals circulated WNV-neutralizing antibodies. The sparse reports of equine, human and avian disease in Latin America and the Caribbean is puzzling. Isolates are needed to evaluate viral attenuation or other possible explanations for reduced disease burden in tropical ecosystems.

  5. Characterization of Virulent West Nile Virus Kunjin Strain, Australia, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Melinda J.; Zhang, Jing; Edmonds, Judith H.; Prow, Natalie A.; Gu, Xingnian; Davis, Rodney; Hornitzky, Christine; Arzey, Kathleen E.; Finlaison, Deborah; Hick, Paul; Read, Andrew; Hobson-Peters, Jody; May, Fiona J.; Doggett, Stephen L.; Haniotis, John; Russell, Richard C.; Hall, Roy A.; Khromykh, Alexander A.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the cause of an unprecedented outbreak of encephalitis among horses in New South Wales, Australia, in 2011, we performed genomic sequencing of viruses isolated from affected horses and mosquitoes. Results showed that most of the cases were caused by a variant West Nile virus (WNV) strain, WNVNSW2011, that is most closely related to WNV Kunjin (WNVKUN), the indigenous WNV strain in Australia. Studies in mouse models for WNV pathogenesis showed that WNVNSW2011 is substantially more neuroinvasive than the prototype WNVKUN strain. In WNVNSW2011, this apparent increase in virulence over that of the prototype strain correlated with at least 2 known markers of WNV virulence that are not found in WNVKUN. Additional studies are needed to determine the relationship of the WNVNSW2011 strain to currently and previously circulating WNVKUN strains and to confirm the cause of the increased virulence of this emerging WNV strain. PMID:22516173

  6. West Nile virus infections in Greece: an update.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna

    2012-07-01

    Approximately 2 years have passed since the detection of the first human case of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in Greece, which was the starting signal of a large outbreak in 2010, followed by a second one in 2011. More than 250 neuroinvasive disease cases with 15% fatality were observed during the two WNV seasons. WNV lineage 2 sequences were obtained from blood donors, Culex mosquitoes, wild birds and sentinel chickens. The Greek WNV strain shows high genetic relatedness to the goshawk-Hungary/04 WNV strain; an amino acid substitution in nonstructural protein 3 (H249P) is observed, which has been previously associated with increased virus transmission. This article provides an overview of the WNV outbreaks in Greece and discusses the knowledge gained from these events.

  7. West Nile virus range expansion into British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Roth, David; Henry, Bonnie; Mak, Sunny; Fraser, Mieke; Taylor, Marsha; Li, Min; Cooper, Ken; Furnell, Allen; Wong, Quantine; Morshed, Muhammad

    2010-08-01

    In 2009, an expansion of West Nile virus (WNV) into the Canadian province of British Columbia was detected. Two locally acquired cases of infection in humans and 3 cases of infection in horses were detected by ELISA and plaque-reduction neutralization tests. Ten positive mosquito pools were detected by reverse transcription PCR. Most WNV activity in British Columbia in 2009 occurred in the hot and dry southern Okanagan Valley. Virus establishment and amplification in this region was likely facilitated by above average nightly temperatures and a rapid accumulation of degree-days in late summer. Estimated exposure dates for humans and initial detection of WNV-positive mosquitoes occurred concurrently with a late summer increase in Culex tarsalis mosquitoes (which spread western equine encephalitis) in the southern Okanagan Valley. The conditions present during this range expansion suggest that temperature and Cx. tarsalis mosquito abundance may be limiting factors for WNV transmission in this portion of the Pacific Northwest.

  8. The Global Ecology and Epidemiology of West Nile Virus

    PubMed Central

    Rios, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Since its initial isolation in Uganda in 1937 through the present, West Nile virus (WNV) has become an important cause of human and animal disease worldwide. WNV, an enveloped virus of the genus Flavivirus, is naturally maintained in an enzootic cycle between birds and mosquitoes, with occasional epizootic spillover causing disease in humans and horses. The mosquito vectors for WNV are widely distributed worldwide, and the known geographic range of WNV transmission and disease has continued to increase over the past 77 years. While most human infections with WNV are asymptomatic, severe neurological disease may develop resulting in long-term sequelae or death. Surveillance and preventive measures are an ongoing need to reduce the public health impact of WNV in areas with the potential for transmission. PMID:25866777

  9. A Mouse Model of Chronic West Nile Virus Disease

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Jessica B.; Swarts, Jessica L.; Wilkins, Courtney; Thomas, Sunil; Green, Richard; Sekine, Aimee; Voss, Kathleen M.; Mooney, Michael; Choonoo, Gabrielle; Miller, Darla R.; Pardo Manuel de Villena, Fernando; Gale, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Infection with West Nile virus (WNV) leads to a range of disease outcomes, including chronic infection, though lack of a robust mouse model of chronic WNV infection has precluded identification of the immune events contributing to persistent infection. Using the Collaborative Cross, a population of recombinant inbred mouse strains with high levels of standing genetic variation, we have identified a mouse model of persistent WNV disease, with persistence of viral loads within the brain. Compared to lines exhibiting no disease or marked disease, the F1 cross CC(032x013)F1 displays a strong immunoregulatory signature upon infection that correlates with restraint of the WNV-directed cytolytic response. We hypothesize that this regulatory T cell response sufficiently restrains the immune response such that a chronic infection can be maintained in the CNS. Use of this new mouse model of chronic neuroinvasive virus will be critical in developing improved strategies to prevent prolonged disease in humans. PMID:27806117

  10. West Nile virus encephalitis with myositis and orchitis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Roger D; Konoplev, Sergiej; DeCourten-Myers, Gabrielle; Brown, Thomas

    2004-02-01

    This report documents the hospital course and autopsy findings of a 43-year-old man with a renal allograft who died of West Nile virus (WNV) encephalitis. Central nervous system (CNS) findings were those of severe necrotizing and hemorrhagic encephalitis affecting gray matter regions limited to the diencepahlon, rhombencephalon, spinal cord, and limbic system. The bilateral process exhibited preferential involvement of motor neurons. Brain imaging obtained 6 days before death demonstrated an unusual pattern of involvement corresponding with the autopsy findings, confirming that imaging may be a specific diagnostic guide in WNV encephalitis. Extra-CNS findings include myositis with T-lymphocyte infiltration of nerve fibers, suggesting that the virus may reach the CNS via peripheral nerves. Orchitis with dense T-lymphocyte infiltration and syncytial cell formation thought to be due to WNV were also noted.

  11. Bird community composition linked to human West Nile virus cases along the Colorado front range.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Valerie J; Goulet, Nicolas E

    2010-12-01

    In the present study, we examined whether bird community composition can predict the annual number of human West Nile virus (WNV) cases on a per county basis in the Colorado Front Range, a region that experienced high numbers of human cases during the early part of the North American epidemic. We analyzed data sets pertaining to birds and human WNV cases from multiple existing databases between the years 2002 and 2008. Based on previous studies that used amplification fractions to compare the relative competence of different bird species, ten bird species that are common in Colorado were selected and categorized as high amplification birds, such as the American Robin (Turdus migratorius), or low amplification birds, such as the American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos). A general linear modeling analysis was used with an information theoretic (AIC) model sorting approach to examine which of the models best predicted the number of human WNV cases per county. Candidate models included year as a covariate and one of several bird community descriptors (e.g., richness, diversity, total bird abundance, high amplification abundance, or low amplification abundance). Results demonstrated that high amplification birds were a significant predictor of human WNV cases between 2002 and 2008. Our results suggest that a small subset of the bird community with high amplification fractions may drive the dynamics of human disease risk for West Nile. This study has implications for surveillance of West Nile and may offer insight into disease risk associated with other vector-borne zoonotic diseases.

  12. Neuropsychological Impact of West Nile Virus Infection: An Extensive Neuropsychiatric Assessment of 49 Cases in Canada.

    PubMed

    Samaan, Zainab; McDermid Vaz, Stephanie; Bawor, Monica; Potter, Tammy Hlywka; Eskandarian, Sasha; Loeb, Mark

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus emerged as an important human pathogen in North America and continues to pose a risk to public health. It can cause a highly variable range of clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to severe illness. Neuroinvasive disease due to West Nile virus can lead to long-term neurological deficits and psychological impairment. However, these deficits have not been well described. The objective of this study was to characterize the neuropsychological manifestations of West Nile virus infection with a focus on neuroinvasive status and time since infection. Patients from Ontario Canada with a diagnosis of neuroinvasive disease (meningitis, encephalitis, or acute flaccid paralysis) and non-neuroinvasive disease who had participated in a cohort study were enrolled. Clinical and laboratory were collected, as well as demographics and medical history. Cognitive functioning was assessed using a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests. Data from 49 individuals (32 with West Nile fever and 17 with West Nile neuroinvasive disease) were included in the present cross-sectional analysis. Patterns of neuropsychological impairment were comparable across participants with both neuroinvasive and non-neuroinvasive West Nile virus infection on all cognitive measures. Neuropsychiatric impairment was also observed more frequently at two to four years post-infection compared to earlier stages of illness. Our data provide objective evidence for cognitive difficulties among patients who were infected with West Nile virus; these deficits appear to manifest regardless of severity of West Nile virus infection (West Nile fever vs. West Nile neuroinvasive disease), and are more prevalent with increasing illness duration (2-4 years vs. 1 month). Data from this study will help inform patients and healthcare providers about the expected course of recovery, as well as the need to implement effective treatment strategies that include neuropsychological interventions.

  13. West Nile virus transmission and ecology in birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLean, R.G.; Ubico, S.R.; Docherty, D.E.; Hansen, W.R.; Sileo, L.; Mcnamara, T.S.

    2001-01-01

    The ecology of the strain of West Nile virus (WNV) introduced into the United States in 1999 has similarities to the native flavivirus, St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus, but has unique features not observed with SLE virus or with WNV in the old world. The primary route of transmission for most of the arboviruses in North America is by mosquito, and infected native birds usually do not suffer morbidity or mortality. An exception to this pattern is eastern equine encephalitis virus, which has an alternate direct route of transmission among nonnative birds, and some mortality of native bird species occurs. The strain of WNV circulating in the northeastern United States is unique in that it causes significant mortality in exotic and native bird species, especially in the American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos). Because of the lack of information on the susceptibility and pathogenesis of WNV for this species, experimental studies were conducted at the USGS National Wildlife Health Center. In two separate studies, crows were inoculated with a 1999 New York strain of WNV, and all experimentally infected crows died. In one of the studies, control crows in regular contact with experimentally inoculated crows in the same room but not inoculated with WNV succumbed to infection. The direct transmission between crows was most likely by the oral route. Inoculated crows were viremic before death, and high titers of virus were isolated from a variety of tissues. The significance of the experimental direct transmission among captive crows is unknown.

  14. Characterization of virus-specific vesicles assembled by West Nile virus non-structural proteins.

    PubMed

    Yu, Li; Takeda, Kazuyo; Gao, Yamei

    2017-06-01

    Flavivirus genome encodes seven non-structural proteins (NSPs) and these NSPs are believed to be involved in their genomic RNA replication, of which the mechanism is unclear. We find that West Nile virus (WNV) NSPs were capable of self-assembling membranous vesicles in cells, which are composed of the host endoplasmic reticulum membrane integrated with viral NS1 and NS4A, and possibly NS2A. The vesicles can further organize into replication complex (RC)-associated vesicles which combine both the vesicle and predicted RC components. The authentic RC-associated vesicles were observed in cells transfected with infectious WNV cDNA as well as WNV replicon. Further mutational analysis showed that WNV/DENV heterologous NS polyproteins derived from lethal chimeric recombinants produced abnormal vesicles. Site-directed mutation of either NS2A or NS4A, which resulted in failure of viral RNA replication, caused immature vesicles too. These findings reveal molecular composition and assembly of the virus-specific nanomachine and confirm that these structures are used for the viral RNA replication. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Risk factors for human infection with West Nile Virus in Connecticut: a multi-year analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ann; Lee, Vivian; Galusha, Deron; Slade, Martin D; Diuk-Wasser, Maria; Andreadis, Theodore; Scotch, Matthew; Rabinowitz, Peter M

    2009-11-27

    The optimal method for early prediction of human West Nile virus (WNV) infection risk remains controversial. We analyzed the predictive utility of risk factor data for human WNV over a six-year period in Connecticut. Using only environmental variables or animal sentinel data was less predictive than a model that considered all variables. In the final parsimonious model, population density, growing degree-days, temperature, WNV positive mosquitoes, dead birds and WNV positive birds were significant predictors of human infection risk, with an ROC value of 0.75. A real-time model using climate, land use, and animal surveillance data to predict WNV risk appears feasible. The dynamic patterns of WNV infection suggest a need to periodically refine such prediction systems. Using multiple logistic regression, the 30-day risk of human WNV infection by town was modeled using environmental variables as well as mosquito and wild bird surveillance.

  16. Risk factors for human infection with West Nile Virus in Connecticut: a multi-year analysis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The optimal method for early prediction of human West Nile virus (WNV) infection risk remains controversial. We analyzed the predictive utility of risk factor data for human WNV over a six-year period in Connecticut. Results and Discussion Using only environmental variables or animal sentinel data was less predictive than a model that considered all variables. In the final parsimonious model, population density, growing degree-days, temperature, WNV positive mosquitoes, dead birds and WNV positive birds were significant predictors of human infection risk, with an ROC value of 0.75. Conclusion A real-time model using climate, land use, and animal surveillance data to predict WNV risk appears feasible. The dynamic patterns of WNV infection suggest a need to periodically refine such prediction systems. Methods Using multiple logistic regression, the 30-day risk of human WNV infection by town was modeled using environmental variables as well as mosquito and wild bird surveillance. PMID:19943935

  17. Hyperimmune gammaglobulin for the treatment of West Nile virus encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Makhoul, Badira; Braun, Eyal; Herskovitz, Moshe; Ramadan, Rawi; Hadad, Salim; Norberto, Krivoy

    2009-03-01

    West Nile virus, the etiologic agent of West Nile fever, is an emerging mosquito-borne disease. WNV was recognized as a cause of severe human meningoencephalitis in elderly patients during outbreaks in various parts of the world. To analyze WNV encephalitis therapy and its outcome after prescribing hyperimmune gammaglobulin therapy. Eight subjects with WNV encephalitis were treated with supportive therapy and 5 days of IVIG 0.4 g/kg/day containing high WNV antibodies obtained from healthy blood donors. Patients who were treated with IVIG as soon as possible exhibited an improvement in their symptoms. All subjects presented with high fever, progressive confusion and headaches, nausea and vomiting. The Glasgow Coma Screen for six patients ranged between 8 and 13 and all were discharged with a score of 15. The remaining two subjects died during their hospitalization. In severe WNV infection, where the disease affects the central and/or peripheral nervous system, early intervention with IVIG together with supportive treatment is recommended.

  18. Clinical and pathologic features of West Nile virus infection in native North American owls (Family strigidae).

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, S D; Patterson, J S; Kiupel, M; Simmons, H A; Grimes, S D; Sarver, C F; Fulton, R M; Steficek, B A; Cooley, T M; Massey, J P; Sikarskie, J G

    2003-01-01

    Since the initial report of West Nile virus in the northeastern United States in 1999, the virus has spread rapidly westward and southward across the country. In the summer of 2002, several midwestern states reported increased cases of neurologic disease and mortality associated with West Nile virus infection in various native North American owl species. This report summarizes the clinical and pathologic findings for 13 captive and free-ranging owls. Affected species were all in the family Strigidae and included seven snowy owls (Nyctea scandiaca), four great-horned owls (Bubo virginianus), a barred owl (Strix varia), and a short-eared owl (Asio flammeus). Neurologic signs identified included head tilt, uncoordinated flight, paralysis, tremors, and seizures. Owls that died were screened for flaviviral proteins by immunohistochemical staining of formalin-fixed tissues, followed by specific polymerase chain reaction assay to confirm West Nile virus with fresh tissues when available. Microscopic lesions were widespread, involving brain, heart, liver, kidney, and spleen, and were typically nonsuppurative with infiltration by predominantly lymphocytes and plasma cells. Lesions in owls were much more severe than those previously reported in corvids such as crows, which are considered highly susceptible to infection and are routinely used as sentinel species for monitoring for the presence and spread of West Nile virus. This report is the first detailed description of the pathology of West Nile virus infection in Strigiformes and indicates that this bird family is susceptible to natural infection with West Nile virus.

  19. DNA Vaccine for West Nile Virus Infection in Fish Crows (Corvus ossifragus)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    SUBJECT TERMS west Nile virus, vaccine, efficacy , crows 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 5 19a...crows, Emerging Infectious Diseases • Vol. 9, No. 9, September 2003 1079 RESEARCH Table 1. Effect of route of administration of a DNA West Nile virus...zoologic parks indicate the need to develop an effective avian vaccine for WNV. To break the transmis- sion cycle, the vaccine must be able to

  20. Use of Testing for West Nile Virus and Other Arboviruses

    PubMed Central

    Vanichanan, Jakapat; Salazar, Lucrecia; Wootton, Susan H.; Aguilera, Elizabeth; Garcia, Melissa N.; Murray, Kristy O.

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, the most commonly diagnosed arboviral disease is West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Diagnosis is made by detecting WNV IgG or viral genomic sequences in serum or cerebrospinal fluid. To determine frequency of this testing in WNV-endemic areas, we examined the proportion of tests ordered for patients with meningitis and encephalitis at 9 hospitals in Houston, Texas, USA. We identified 751 patients (567 adults, 184 children), among whom 390 (52%) experienced illness onset during WNV season (June–October). WNV testing was ordered for 281 (37%) of the 751; results indicated acute infection for 32 (11%). Characteristics associated with WNV testing were acute focal neurologic deficits; older age; magnetic resonance imaging; empirically prescribed antiviral therapy; worse clinical outcomes: and concomitant testing for mycobacterial, fungal, or other viral infections. Testing for WNV is underutilized, and testing of patients with more severe disease raises the possibility of diagnostic bias in epidemiologic studies. PMID:27537988

  1. Experimental infections of wild birds with West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ramírez, Elisa; Llorente, Francisco; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Ángel

    2014-02-13

    Avian models of West Nile virus (WNV) disease have become pivotal in the study of infection pathogenesis and transmission, despite the intrinsic constraints that represents this type of experimental research that needs to be conducted in biosecurity level 3 (BSL3) facilities. This review summarizes the main achievements of WNV experimental research carried out in wild birds, highlighting advantages and limitations of this model. Viral and host factors that determine the infection outcome are analyzed in detail, as well as recent discoveries about avian immunity, viral transmission, and persistence achieved through experimental research. Studies of laboratory infections in the natural host will help to understand variations in susceptibility and reservoir competence among bird species, as well as in the epidemiological patterns found in different affected areas.

  2. Avian hosts of West Nile virus in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Komar, Nicholas; Bessoff, Kovi; Diaz, Annette; Amador, Manuel; Young, Ginger; Seda, Rafael; Perez, Taonex; Hunsperger, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) ecology in neotropical ecosystems is poorly understood, and vertebrate hosts responsible for infecting mosquitoes remain unidentified throughout the Caribbean Basin. After a period of intense WNV transmission among sentinel chickens near Ceiba, Puerto Rico, we measured abundance of resident birds and species-specific prevalence of WNV infection. Taking the product of these measures indicates the relative number of WNV infections by species. Greater Antillean grackle (Quiscalus niger) accounted for the most WNV infections among birds in our 100-km(2) study site. In urban habitats, the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) was frequently infected. Immature birds less than one year of age were more likely to have detectable WNV-reactive antibodies than older birds of the same species.

  3. West Nile virus infection in horses, Indian ocean.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, E; Bernard, C; Lecollinet, S; Rakotoharinome, V M; Ravaomanana, J; Roger, M; Olive, M M; Meenowa, D; Jaumally, M R; Melanie, J; Héraud, J M; Zientara, S; Cêtre-Sossah, C

    2017-08-01

    The circulation of West Nile virus (WNV) in horses was investigated in the Southwest Indian ocean. In 2010, blood samples were collected from a total of 303 horses originating from Madagascar, Mauritius, Reunion and the Seychelles and tested for WNV-specific antibodies. An overall seroprevalence of 27.39% was detected in the Indian Ocean with the highest WNV antibody prevalence of 46.22% (95% CI: [37.4-55.2%]) in Madagascar. The age and origin of the horses were found to be associated with the WNV infection risk. This paper presents the first seroprevalence study investigating WN fever in horses in the Southwest Indian Ocean area and indicates a potential risk of infection for humans and animals. In order to gain a better understanding of WN transmission cycles, WNV surveillance needs to be implemented in each of the countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Experimental Infections of Wild Birds with West Nile Virus

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Ramírez, Elisa; Llorente, Francisco; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Avian models of West Nile virus (WNV) disease have become pivotal in the study of infection pathogenesis and transmission, despite the intrinsic constraints that represents this type of experimental research that needs to be conducted in biosecurity level 3 (BSL3) facilities. This review summarizes the main achievements of WNV experimental research carried out in wild birds, highlighting advantages and limitations of this model. Viral and host factors that determine the infection outcome are analyzed in detail, as well as recent discoveries about avian immunity, viral transmission, and persistence achieved through experimental research. Studies of laboratory infections in the natural host will help to understand variations in susceptibility and reservoir competence among bird species, as well as in the epidemiological patterns found in different affected areas. PMID:24531334

  5. Dead Crow Density and West Nile Virus Monitoring, New York

    PubMed Central

    Schmit, Kate; Hagiwara, Yoichiro; Anand, Madhu; Backenson, P. Bryon; Gotham, Ivan; Kramer, Laura

    2005-01-01

    New York State used the health commerce system to monitor the number of West Nile virus (WNV) human disease cases and the density of dead crows. In each year from 2001 to 2003 and for the 3 years combined, persons living in New York counties (excluding New York City) with elevated weekly dead crow densities (above a threshold value of 0.1 dead crows per square mile) had higher risk (2.0–8.6 times) for disease caused by WNV within the next 2 weeks than residents of counties reporting fewer dead crows per square mile. This type of index can offer a real-time, relatively inexpensive window into viral activity in time for prevention and control. Changes in reporting, bird populations, and immunity may require that thresholds other than 0.1 be used in later years or in other areas. PMID:16229764

  6. Vector Competence of California Mosquitoes for West Nile virus

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Amy E.; Reisen, William K.; Scott, Thomas W.

    2002-01-01

    To identify the mosquito species competent for West Nile virus (WNV) transmission, we evaluated 10 California species that are known vectors of other arboviruses or major pests: Culex tarsalis, Cx. pipiens pipiens, Cx. p. quinquefasciatus, Cx. stigmatosoma, Cx. erythrothorax, Ochlerotatus dorsalis, Oc. melanimon, Oc. sierrensis, Aedes vexans, and Culiseta inornata. All 10 became infected and were able to transmit WNV at some level. Ochlerotatus, Culiseta, and Aedes were low to moderately efficient vectors. They feed primarily on mammals and could play a secondary role in transmission. Oc. sierrensis, a major pest species, and Cx. p. quinquefasciatus from southern California were the least efficient laboratory vectors. Cx. tarsalis, Cx. stigmatosoma, Cx. erythrothorax, and other populations of Cx. pipiens complex were the most efficient laboratory vectors. Culex species are likely to play the primary role in the enzootic maintenance and transmission of WNV in California. PMID:12498652

  7. West Nile virus epizootiology in the southeastern United States, 2001.

    PubMed

    Godsey, Marvin S; Blackmore, Mark S; Panella, Nicholas A; Burkhalter, Kristen; Gottfried, Kristy; Halsey, Lawrence A; Rutledge, Roxanne; Langevin, Stanley A; Gates, Robert; Lamonte, Karen M; Lambert, Amy; Lanciotti, Robert S; Blackmore, Carina G M; Loyless, Tom; Stark, Lillian; Oliveri, Robin; Conti, Lisa; Komar, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    We investigated mosquito and bird involvement in West Nile virus (WNV) transmission in July 2001 in Jefferson County, FL, and Lowndes County, GA. We detected 16 WNV-infected pools from Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. salinarius, Cx. nigripalpus, and Culiseta melanura. In Florida, 11% of 353 bird sera neutralized WNV. Antibody prevalence was greatest in northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis, 75%), northern mockingbird (Mimus polyglottus, 50%), common ground-dove (Columbina passerina, 25%), common grackle (Quiscalus quiscula, 15%), domestic chicken (Gallus gallus, 16%), and house sparrow (Passer domesticus, 11%). Antibody-positive birds were detected in nine of 11 locations, among which prevalence in chickens ranged from 0% to 100%. Seropositive chickens were detected in Georgia as well. The primary transmission cycle of WNV in the southeastern United States apparently involves Culex mosquitoes and passerine birds. Chickens are frequently infected and may serve as effective sentinels in this region.

  8. Fatal West Nile virus encephalitis in a renal transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Cushing, Melissa M; Brat, Daniel J; Mosunjac, Mario I; Hennigar, Randolph A; Jernigan, Daniel B; Lanciotti, Robert; Petersen, Lyle R; Goldsmith, Cynthia; Rollin, Pierre E; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Guarner, Jeannette; Zaki, Sherif R

    2004-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), a mosquito-transmitted single-stranded RNA flavivirus, causes human disease of variable severity. We report clinical and pathologic findings of fatal encephalitis from the transmission of WNV from an organ donor to a kidney transplant recipient. The patient developed a febrile illness 18 days after transplantation, which progressed to encephalitis. Postmortem examination demonstrated extensive viral encephalopathic changes. Immunohistochemical studies highlighted WNV antigens within neurons, especially in the cerebellum and brainstem. Flavivirus virions were detected ultrastructurally within the cerebellum, and WNV was isolated from the brain and the brainstem. Thus, this case demonstrates the first death in the first solid organ transplant-associated transmission of WNV. Immunosuppression of the transplant recipient might have been responsible for the fulminant viral effects. The pathologic diagnosis helped guide subsequent epidemiologic and laboratory studies.

  9. Frequency of West Nile Virus Infection in Iranian Blood Donors.

    PubMed

    Aghaie, Afsaneh; Aaskov, John; Chinikar, Sadegh; Niedrig, Matthias; Banazadeh, Soudabeh; Mohammadpour, Hashem Khorsand

    2016-09-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) can be transmitted by blood transfusions and organ transplants. This study was a retrospective study which was performed in Blood Transfusion Center to evaluate the WNV infection in blood donors in Iran. A total of 540 blood samples were taken from volunteer healthy donors who referred for blood donation to Chabahar Blood Center. The presence of WNV was studied by detecting immunoglobulin G (IgG) WNV by enzyme linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA). Demonstration of elevated WNV IgG confirmed by immunoflouorescence assay (IFA) Euroimmun kit. Out of the 540 samples 17.96 % (97 cases) were seropositive by ELISA and 1.48 % (8 cases) was seropositive by IFA. This means that 8.24 % of ELISA seropositive samples were confirmed by IFA. Special attention should be paid to criteria of donor selection, albeit positive results may be due to a previous infection in these donors.

  10. Host sphingomyelin increases West Nile virus infection in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Acebes, Miguel A.; Gabandé-Rodríguez, Enrique; García-Cabrero, Ana M.; Sánchez, Marina P.; Ledesma, María Dolores; Sobrino, Francisco; Saiz, Juan-Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Flaviviruses, such as the dengue virus and the West Nile virus (WNV), are arthropod-borne viruses that represent a global health problem. The flavivirus lifecycle is intimately connected to cellular lipids. Among the lipids co-opted by flaviviruses, we have focused on SM, an important component of cellular membranes particularly enriched in the nervous system. After infection with the neurotropic WNV, mice deficient in acid sphingomyelinase (ASM), which accumulate high levels of SM in their tissues, displayed exacerbated infection. In addition, WNV multiplication was enhanced in cells from human patients with Niemann-Pick type A, a disease caused by a deficiency of ASM activity resulting in SM accumulation. Furthermore, the addition of SM to cultured cells also increased WNV infection, whereas treatment with pharmacological inhibitors of SM synthesis reduced WNV infection. Confocal microscopy analyses confirmed the association of SM with viral replication sites within infected cells. Our results unveil that SM metabolism regulates flavivirus infection in vivo and propose SM as a suitable target for antiviral design against WNV. PMID:26764042

  11. West Nile Virus in Resident Birds from Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Andrea; Sotomayor-Bonilla, Jesus; Monge, Otto; Ramírez, Abigaíl; Galindo, Francisco; Sarmiento-Silva, Rosa Elena; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo A; Suzán, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) in the Americas is thought to be transported at large spatial scales by migratory birds and locally spread and amplified by resident birds. Local processes, including interspecific interactions and dominance of passerine species recognized as competent reservoirs, may boost infection and maintain endemic cycles. Change in species composition has been recognized as an important driver for infection dynamics. Due to migration and changes in species diversity and composition in wintering grounds, changes in infection prevalence are expected. To these changes, we used PCR to estimate the prevalence of WNV in wild resident birds during the dry and rainy seasons of 2012 in Yucatan, Mexico. Serum samples were obtained from 104 wild birds, belonging to six orders and 35 species. We detected WNV in 14 resident birds, representing 11 species and three orders. Prevalences by order was Passeriformes (27%), Columbiformes (6%), and Piciformes (33%). Resident birds positive to WNV from Yucatan may be indicative of local virus circulation and evidence of past virus transmission activity.

  12. West Nile Virus Antibody Prevalence in Horses in Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Ute; Skrypnyk, Artem; Keller, Markus; Staubach, Christoph; Bezymennyi, Maksym; Damiani, Armando M.; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Groschup, Martin H.

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne virus of global importance. Over the last two decades, it has been responsible for significant numbers of cases of illness in humans and animals in many parts of the world. In Ukraine, WNV infections in humans and birds were first reported more than 25 years ago, yet the current epidemiological status is quite unclear. In this study, serum samples from over 300 equines were collected and screened in order to detect current WNV activity in Ukraine with the goal to estimate the risk of infection for humans and horses. Sera were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and virus neutralization assay (NT) to detect WNV-specific antibodies. The results clearly revealed that WNV circulates in most of the regions from which samples were obtained, shown by a WNV seroprevalence rate of 13.5% of examined horses. This is the first topical report indicating the presence of WNV infections in horses in Ukraine, and the results of this study provide evidence of a widespread WNV circulation in this country. PMID:24100889

  13. Spreading of West Nile virus infection in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Barbić, Ljubo; Listeš, Eddy; Katić, Sanda; Stevanović, Vladimir; Madić, Josip; Starešina, Vilim; Labrović, Ankica; Di Gennaro, Annapia; Savini, Giovanni

    2012-10-12

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging zoonotic pathogen with rapid global expansion. The virus circulation is confirmed in many countries of Mediterranean Basin and Southern and Central Europe. In our study detection of specific WNV antibodies was performed in horses and cattle sera samples collected from October 2010 to April 2011. Serum samples were randomly taken from different parts of Croatia and tested by IgG and IgM ELISA. Positive serological results were confirmed by virus neutralization assay (VN-assay) and plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Results showed that WNV antibodies were present in 72 out of 2098 horse sera (3.43%) and 3 of 2695 cattle sera (0.11%). The highest seroprevalence was found in Eastern Croatia in counties next to Hungarian, Serbian and Bosnia and Herzegovinian state borders. In Adriatic part of Croatia positive animals were found only in the westernmost county, near Slovenian and Italian borders. Geographic distribution and number of positive horses indicated that WNV is highly present in Croatia and spreading from East to West. However, positive horses in westernmost part of country indicate possible second origin of spreading. Location of serological positive cattle supports the hypothesis that seropositive cattle could be indicators of high WNV activity in the respective geographic regions.

  14. West Nile virus: A re-emerging pathogen revisited

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Acebes, Miguel A; Saiz, Juan-Carlos

    2012-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), a flavivirus of the Flaviviridae family, is maintained in nature in an enzootic transmission cycle between avian hosts and ornithophilic mosquito vectors, although the virus occasionally infects other vertebrates. WNV causes sporadic disease outbreaks in horses and humans, which may result in febrile illness, meningitis, encephalitis and flaccid paralysis. Until recently, its medical and veterinary health concern was relatively low; however, the number, frequency and severity of outbreaks with neurological consequences in humans and horses have lately increased in Europe and the Mediterranean basin. Since its introduction in the Americas, the virus spread across the continent with worrisome consequences in bird mortality and a considerable number of outbreaks among humans and horses, which have resulted in the largest epidemics of neuroinvasive WNV disease ever documented. Surprisingly, its incidence in human and animal health is very different in Central and South America, and the reasons for it are not yet understood. Even though great advances have been obtained lately regarding WNV infection, and although efficient equine vaccines are available, no specific treatments or vaccines for human use are on the market. This review updates the most recent investigations in different aspects of WNV life cycle: molecular virology, transmission dynamics, host range, clinical presentations, epidemiology, ecology, diagnosis, control, and prevention, and highlights some aspects that certainly require further research. PMID:24175211

  15. A Brief Review of West Nile Virus Biology.

    PubMed

    Londono-Renteria, Berlin; Colpitts, Tonya M

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an arbovirus with increased global incidence in the last decade. It is also a major cause of human encephalitis in the USA. WNV is an arthropod-transmitted virus that mainly affects birds but humans become infected as incidental dead-end hosts which can cause outbreaks in naïve populations. The main vectors of WNV are mosquitoes of the genus Culex, which preferentially feed on birds. As in many other arboviruses, the characteristics that allow Flaviviruses like WNV to replicate and transmit to different hosts are encrypted in their genome, which also contains information for the production of structural and nonstructural proteins needed for host cell infection. WNV and other Flaviviruses have developed different strategies to establish infection, replication, and successful transmission. Most of these strategies include the diversion of the host's immune responses away from the virus. In this review, we describe the molecular structure and protein function of WNV with emphasis on protein involvement in the modulation of antiviral immune responses.

  16. Host sphingomyelin increases West Nile virus infection in vivo.

    PubMed

    Martín-Acebes, Miguel A; Gabandé-Rodríguez, Enrique; García-Cabrero, Ana M; Sánchez, Marina P; Ledesma, María Dolores; Sobrino, Francisco; Saiz, Juan-Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Flaviviruses, such as the dengue virus and the West Nile virus (WNV), are arthropod-borne viruses that represent a global health problem. The flavivirus lifecycle is intimately connected to cellular lipids. Among the lipids co-opted by flaviviruses, we have focused on SM, an important component of cellular membranes particularly enriched in the nervous system. After infection with the neurotropic WNV, mice deficient in acid sphingomyelinase (ASM), which accumulate high levels of SM in their tissues, displayed exacerbated infection. In addition, WNV multiplication was enhanced in cells from human patients with Niemann-Pick type A, a disease caused by a deficiency of ASM activity resulting in SM accumulation. Furthermore, the addition of SM to cultured cells also increased WNV infection, whereas treatment with pharmacological inhibitors of SM synthesis reduced WNV infection. Confocal microscopy analyses confirmed the association of SM with viral replication sites within infected cells. Our results unveil that SM metabolism regulates flavivirus infection in vivo and propose SM as a suitable target for antiviral design against WNV. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Avian mortality surveillance for West Nile virus in Colorado.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Nicole M; Beckett, Susan; Edwards, Eric; Klenk, Kaci; Komar, Nicholas

    2007-03-01

    We tested 1,549 avian carcasses of 104 species to identify targets for West Nile virus (WNV) surveillance in Colorado, determine species affected by WNV, compare virus isolation versus RNA detection applied to hearts and oral swabs from carcasses, and compare the VecTest WNV Antigen Assay (VecTest) to standard assays. Forty-two species tested positive. From June to September 2003, 86% of corvids, 34% of non-corvid passerines, and 37% of raptors tested positive. We developed the Target Species Index, which identified American crows as the most important avian indicator species. However, testing multiple species maximizes detection, which may be important early and late in the transmission season. This index may benefit surveillance for other zoonotic pathogens, such as highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus. VecTest using oral swabs was most sensitive for American crow, black-billed magpie, house finch, house sparrow, and American kestrel. Wildlife rehabilitation centers should be recruited to enhance WNV surveillance.

  18. West Nile Virus lineage-2 in Culex specimens from Iran.

    PubMed

    Shahhosseini, Nariman; Chinikar, Sadegh; Moosa-Kazemi, Seyed Hassan; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Kayedi, Mohammad Hassan; Lühken, Renke; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas

    2017-10-01

    Screening of mosquitoes for viruses is an important forecasting tool for emerging and re-emerging arboviruses. Iran has been known to harbour medically important arboviruses such as West Nile virus (WNV) and dengue virus (DENV) based on seroepidemiological data. However, there are no data about the potential mosquito vectors for arboviruses in Iran. This study was performed to provide mosquito and arbovirus data from Iran. A total of 32 317 mosquitos were collected at 16 sites in five provinces of Iran in 2015 and 2016. RT-PCR for detection of flaviviruses was performed. The PCR amplicons were sequenced, and 109 WNV sequences, including one obtained in this study, were used for phylogenetic analyses. The 32 317 mosquito specimens belonging to 25 species were morphologically distinguished and distributed into 1222 pools. Culex pipiens s.l. comprised 56.429%. One mosquito pool (0.08%), containing 46 unfed Cx. pipiens pipiens form pipiens (Cpp) captured in August 2015, was positive for flavivirus RNA. Subsequent sequencing and phylogenetic analyses revealed that the detected Iranian WNV strain belongs to lineage 2 and clusters with a strain recently detected in humans. No flaviviruses other than WNV were detected in the mosquito pools. Cpp could be a vector for WNV in Iran. Our findings indicate recent circulation of WNV lineage-2 strain in Iran and provide a solid base for more targeted arbovirus surveillance programs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Parameters of Mosquito-Enhanced West Nile Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Lindsey A.; Lim, Pei-Yin; Styer, Linda M.; Kramer, Laura D.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The arthropod-borne West Nile virus (WNV) emerged in New York State in 1999 and quickly spread throughout the United States. Transmission is maintained in an enzootic cycle in which infected mosquitoes transmit the virus to susceptible hosts during probing and feeding. Arthropod-derived components within the viral inoculum are increasingly acknowledged to play a role in infection of vertebrate hosts. We previously showed that Culex tarsalis mosquito saliva and salivary gland extract (SGE) enhance the in vivo replication of WNV. Here, we characterized the effective dose, timing, and proximity of saliva and SGE administration necessary for enhancement of WNV viremia using a mouse model. Mosquito saliva and SGE enhanced viremia in a dose-dependent manner, and a single mosquito bite or as little as 0.01 μg of SGE was effective at enhancing viremia, suggesting a potent active salivary factor. Viremia was enhanced when SGE was injected in the same location as virus inoculation from 24 h before virus inoculation through 12 h after virus inoculation. These results were confirmed with mosquito saliva deposited by uninfected mosquitoes. When salivary treatment and virus inoculation were spatially separated, viremia was not enhanced. In summary, the effects of mosquito saliva and SGE were potent, long lasting, and localized, and these studies have implications for virus transmission in nature, where vertebrate hosts are fed upon by both infected and uninfected mosquitoes over time. Furthermore, our model provides a robust system to identify the salivary factor(s) responsible for enhancement of WNV replication. IMPORTANCE Mosquito-borne viruses are a significant class of agents causing emerging infectious diseases. WNV has caused over 18,000 cases of neuroinvasive disease in the United States since its emergence. We have shown that Culex tarsalis mosquito saliva and SGE enhance the replication of WNV. We now demonstrate that saliva and SGE have potent, long

  20. Previous infection with West Nile or St. Louis encephalitis viruses provides cross protection during reinfection in house finches.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ying; Reisen, William K

    2006-09-01

    House finches are competent hosts for both West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis viruses and frequently become infected during outbreaks. In the current study, House finches were infected initially with either West Nile or St. Louis encephalitis viruses and then challenged 6 weeks post infection with either homologous or heterologous viruses. Although mortality rates were high during initial infection with West Nile virus, prior infection with either virus prevented mortality upon challenge with West Nile virus. Prior infection with West Nile virus provided sterilizing immunity against both viruses, whereas prior infection with St. Louis encephalitis virus prevented viremia from St. Louis encephalitis virus, but only reduced West Nile virus viremia titers. Immunologic responses were measured by enzyme immunoassay and plaque reduction neutralization tests. Heterologous challenge with West Nile virus in birds previously infected with St. Louis encephalitis virus produced the greatest immunologic response, markedly boosting antibody levels against St. Louis encephalitis virus. Our data have broad implications for free-ranging avian serological diagnostics and possibly for the recent disappearance of St. Louis encephalitis virus from California.

  1. West Nile virus epidemiology and factors triggering change in its distribution in Europe.

    PubMed

    Pradier, S; Lecollinet, S; Leblond, A

    2012-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has historically been considered among the least virulent members of the Japanese serogroup complex (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus). The WNV natural cycle involves birds as the main amplifying hosts and several species of mosquito as vectors. Many outbreaks occurred during the past decade, causing severe human encephalitis in the Old World, and the virus has become established in many European countries. Emergence of WNV is difficult to predict and even more difficult to prevent. In this review, the latest information on the epidemiology, transmission dynamics and clinical aspects of WNV is presented, with particular focus on specific factors likely to trigger changes in the distribution of the disease in Europe, such as climate changes and their consequences on the potential vectors of WNV or bird migration routes. The control of some anthropogenic and environmental factors could help prevent extension and re-emergence of WNV epidemics.

  2. Crystal Structure of West Nile Virus Envelope Glycoprotein Reveals Viral Surface Epitopes

    SciTech Connect

    Kanai,R.; Kar, K.; Anthony, K.; Gould, L.; Ledizet, M.; Fikrig, E.; Marasco, W.; Koski, R.; Modis, Y.

    2006-01-01

    West Nile virus, a member of the Flavivirus genus, causes fever that can progress to life-threatening encephalitis. The major envelope glycoprotein, E, of these viruses mediates viral attachment and entry by membrane fusion. We have determined the crystal structure of a soluble fragment of West Nile virus E. The structure adopts the same overall fold as that of the E proteins from dengue and tick-borne encephalitis viruses. The conformation of domain II is different from that in other prefusion E structures, however, and resembles the conformation of domain II in postfusion E structures. The epitopes of neutralizing West Nile virus-specific antibodies map to a region of domain III that is exposed on the viral surface and has been implicated in receptor binding. In contrast, we show that certain recombinant therapeutic antibodies, which cross-neutralize West Nile and dengue viruses, bind a peptide from domain I that is exposed only during the membrane fusion transition. By revealing the details of the molecular landscape of the West Nile virus surface, our structure will assist the design of antiviral vaccines and therapeutics.

  3. Crystal Structure of West Nile Virus Envelope Glycoprotein Reveals Viral Surface Epitopes▿

    PubMed Central

    Kanai, Ryuta; Kar, Kalipada; Anthony, Karen; Gould, L. Hannah; Ledizet, Michel; Fikrig, Erol; Marasco, Wayne A.; Koski, Raymond A.; Modis, Yorgo

    2006-01-01

    West Nile virus, a member of the Flavivirus genus, causes fever that can progress to life-threatening encephalitis. The major envelope glycoprotein, E, of these viruses mediates viral attachment and entry by membrane fusion. We have determined the crystal structure of a soluble fragment of West Nile virus E. The structure adopts the same overall fold as that of the E proteins from dengue and tick-borne encephalitis viruses. The conformation of domain II is different from that in other prefusion E structures, however, and resembles the conformation of domain II in postfusion E structures. The epitopes of neutralizing West Nile virus-specific antibodies map to a region of domain III that is exposed on the viral surface and has been implicated in receptor binding. In contrast, we show that certain recombinant therapeutic antibodies, which cross-neutralize West Nile and dengue viruses, bind a peptide from domain I that is exposed only during the membrane fusion transition. By revealing the details of the molecular landscape of the West Nile virus surface, our structure will assist the design of antiviral vaccines and therapeutics. PMID:16943291

  4. West Nile Virus in the United States — A Historical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Roehrig, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Prior to 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) was a bit player in the screenplay of global vector-borne viral diseases. First discovered in the West Nile District of Uganda in 1937, this Culex sp.-transmitted virus was known for causing small human febrile outbreaks in Africa and the Middle East. Prior to 1995, the last major human WNV outbreak was in the 1950s in Israel. The epidemiology and ecology of WNV began to change in the mid-1990s when an epidemic of human encephalitis occurred in Romania. The introduction of WNV into Eastern Europe was readily explained by bird migration between Africa and Europe. The movement of WNV from Africa to Europe could not, however, predict its surprising jump across the Atlantic Ocean to New York City and the surrounding areas of the United States (U.S.). This movement of WNV from the Eastern to Western Hemisphere in 1999, and its subsequent dissemination throughout two continents in less than ten years is widely recognized as one of the most significant events in arbovirology during the last two centuries. This paper documents the early events of the introduction into and the spread of WNV in the Western Hemisphere. PMID:24335779

  5. Abundance of West Nile virus mosquito vectors in relation to climate and landscape variables.

    PubMed

    Deichmeister, Jayne M; Telang, Aparna

    2011-06-01

    It is currently unclear if the potential for West Nile virus transmission by mosquito vectors in the eastern United States is related to landscape or climate factors or both. We compared abundance of vector species between urban and suburban neighborhoods of Henrico County, VA, in relation to the following factors: temperature, precipitation, canopy cover, building footprint, and proximity to drainage infrastructure. Mosquitoes were collected throughout the 2005, 2006, and 2007 seasons and tested for West Nile virus (WNV) in pools of 10-50. Test results of mosquito pools were compared to average site abundance from 37 sites in Henrico County, VA; abundance was then examined in relation to ecological variables. Urban infrastructure was positively correlated with the abundance of Culex pipiens L./Cx. restuans, and our findings implicate combined sewer overflow systems as large contributors to Culex vector populations. No measure of urbanization examined in our study was correlated with Aedes albopictus abundance. Our study showed that certain landscape variables identified using Geographic Information Systems are valuable for predicting primary WNV vector abundance in Virginia, and that temperature along with low precipitation are strong predictors of population growth. Our results support other regional studies that found WNV proliferates under drought conditions.

  6. West Nile Virus: Seroprevalence in Animals in Palestine and Israel.

    PubMed

    Azmi, Kifaya; Tirosh-Levy, Sharon; Manasrah, Mu'taz; Mizrahi, Rotem; Nasereddin, Abed; Al-Jawabreh, Amer; Ereqat, Suheir; Abdeen, Ziad; Lustig, Yaniv; Gelman, Boris; Schvartz, Gili; Steinman, Amir

    2017-08-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) epidemiological situation in Israel and Palestine, due to their unique location, draws attention following to the global spread of West Nile fever (WNF). Although much information is available from Israel on clinical cases and prevalence of WNV, clinical cases are rarely reported in Palestine, and prevalence is not known. The objectives of this study were to determine WNV seroprevalence in various domestic animals in Palestine and to reevaluate current seroprevalence, force of infection, and risk factors for WNV exposure in horses in Israel. Sera samples were collected from 717 animals from Palestine and Israel (460 horses, 124 donkeys, 3 mules, 50 goats, 45 sheep, and 35 camels). Two hundred and ten horses were sampled twice. The level of WNV antibodies was determined using commercial Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Kit. Seroprevalence in equids was 73%. Seroprevalence in Israel (84.6%) was significantly higher than in Palestine (48.6%). Seroprevalence in horses (82.6%) was significantly higher than in donkeys and mules (39.3%). Multivariable statistical analysis showed that geographical area, landscape features (altitude), environmental factors (land surface temperature during the day [LSTD]), species, and age significantly influenced WNV seroprevalence. Fourteen of 95 (14.7%) sheep and goats and 14/35 camels (40%) sampled in Palestine were seropositive for WNV. Of the horses that were sampled twice, 82.8% were seropositive for WNV at the first sampling, and all remained seropositive. Three of the seronegative horses, all from Palestine, converted to positive when resampled (8.5%). The results indicate that domestic animals in Palestine were infected with WNV in the past, and the seroconversion indicates that WNV was circulating in Palestine in the summer of 2014. Control measures to prevent human infection should be implemented in Palestine. Anti WNV antibodies in domestic animals suggest that those species can be used as

  7. West Nile Virus Infection in Human and Mouse Cornea Tissue.

    PubMed

    Blitvich, Bradley J; Wang, Tian; Saxena, Vandana; Zeng, Shemin; Harmon, Karen M; Raymond, Matthew D; Goins, Kenneth M; Reed, Cynthia R; Mullins, Robert F; Greiner, Mark A

    2016-11-02

    The purpose of this study was to determine the in vitro and ex vivo susceptibility of human corneal cells to West Nile virus (WNV) infection and evaluate the ability of the virus to disseminate to the corneas of infected mice. Human corneal epithelial cells were challenged with WNV, incubated for 1-6 days, and tested for evidence of WNV infection. Viral RNA and antigen were detected at every time point, and the virus reached a peak titer of 2.5 × 10(7) plaque-forming units (pfu)/mL at 3 days postinoculation (PI). Corneas procured from donors were incubated in culture dishes containing WNV for 1-5 days and tested for evidence of WNV. Viral RNA and antigen were detected, and the virus reached a mean peak titer of 4.9 × 10(4) pfu/mL at 5 days PI. Mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with WNV, and their eyes were harvested at 2, 5, and 8 days PI and tested for evidence of WNV. Viral RNA was detected in corneas of four of nine systemically infected mice as early as 2 days PI. We conclude that human corneal cells support WNV replication in vitro and ex vivo, and WNV may disseminate into the corneas of experimentally infected mice. These findings indicate that corneal transmission cannot be ruled out as a novel mode of human-to-human WNV transmission and additional experiments should be conducted to assess this risk further. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  8. West Nile virus infection decreases fecundity of Culex tarsalis females.

    PubMed

    Styer, Linda M; Meola, Mark A; Kramer, Laura D

    2007-11-01

    West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) persistently infects many mosquito tissues, and it has been associated with cytopathological changes in midgut muscles and salivary glands. However, the effects of WNV infection on mosquito fitness (survival and reproduction) are not known. We conducted a life table study of individually housed female Culex tarsalis Coquillett. After an initial bloodmeal from a WNV-infected or uninfected chicken, mosquitoes were provided sucrose and offered weekly opportunities to feed on a hanging blood drop. WNV transmission status was determined by testing the remaining blood drop for virus after mosquito feeding. Dead mosquitoes and eggs were collected daily. Mosquito legs and bodies were tested for WNV, and eggs were counted and allowed to hatch. Two replicates of this experiment were performed, with a total of 62 mosquitoes that fed on a WNV-infected chicken (of which 21 became infected) and 43 mosquitoes that fed on an uninfected chicken. Fecundity of WNV-infected mosquitoes was significantly lower than that of uninfected mosquitoes, especially during the first oviposition. WNV infection was associated with smaller egg rafts, whereas increasing wing length and WNV titer in the legs had a positive effect on egg raft size. Additionally, infected mosquitoes had lower egg hatch rates than did uninfected mosquitoes. There were no significant differences in survival between infected and uninfected mosquitoes. Blood feeding rates were higher in infected mosquitoes than in uninfected mosquitoes. A small amount of virus (average, 378; range, 5-5000 plaque-forming units) was transmitted to the blood drops fed upon by infected mosquitoes. Although WNV infection negatively impacts mosquito reproduction, facets of mosquito biology that are critical to virus transmission success were either not affected (survival) or changed in such a way as to result in enhanced vectorial capacity (blood feeding).

  9. Differential virulence and pathogenesis of West Nile viruses.

    PubMed

    Donadieu, Emilie; Bahuon, Céline; Lowenski, Steeve; Zientara, Stéphan; Coulpier, Muriel; Lecollinet, Sylvie

    2013-11-22

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic flavivirus that cycles between mosquitoes and birds but that can also infect humans, horses, and other vertebrate animals. In most humans, WNV infection remains subclinical. However, 20%-40% of those infected may develop WNV disease, with symptoms ranging from fever to meningoencephalitis. A large variety of WNV strains have been described worldwide. Based on their genetic differences, they have been classified into eight lineages; the pathogenic strains belong to lineages 1 and 2. Ten years ago, Beasley et al. (2002) found that dramatic differences exist in the virulence and neuroinvasion properties of lineage 1 and lineage 2 WNV strains. Further insights on how WNV interacts with its hosts have recently been gained; the virus acts either at the periphery or on the central nervous system (CNS), and these observed differences could help explain the differential virulence and neurovirulence of WNV strains. This review aims to summarize the current state of knowledge on factors that trigger WNV dissemination and CNS invasion as well as on the inflammatory response and CNS damage induced by WNV. Moreover, we will discuss how WNV strains differentially interact with the innate immune system and CNS cells, thus influencing WNV pathogenesis.

  10. Ensemble forecast of human West Nile virus cases and mosquito infection rates

    PubMed Central

    DeFelice, Nicholas B.; Little, Eliza; Campbell, Scott R.; Shaman, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is now endemic in the continental United States; however, our ability to predict spillover transmission risk and human WNV cases remains limited. Here we develop a model depicting WNV transmission dynamics, which we optimize using a data assimilation method and two observed data streams, mosquito infection rates and reported human WNV cases. The coupled model-inference framework is then used to generate retrospective ensemble forecasts of historical WNV outbreaks in Long Island, New York for 2001–2014. Accurate forecasts of mosquito infection rates are generated before peak infection, and >65% of forecasts accurately predict seasonal total human WNV cases up to 9 weeks before the past reported case. This work provides the foundation for implementation of a statistically rigorous system for real-time forecast of seasonal outbreaks of WNV. PMID:28233783

  11. Ensemble forecast of human West Nile virus cases and mosquito infection rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defelice, Nicholas B.; Little, Eliza; Campbell, Scott R.; Shaman, Jeffrey

    2017-02-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is now endemic in the continental United States; however, our ability to predict spillover transmission risk and human WNV cases remains limited. Here we develop a model depicting WNV transmission dynamics, which we optimize using a data assimilation method and two observed data streams, mosquito infection rates and reported human WNV cases. The coupled model-inference framework is then used to generate retrospective ensemble forecasts of historical WNV outbreaks in Long Island, New York for 2001-2014. Accurate forecasts of mosquito infection rates are generated before peak infection, and >65% of forecasts accurately predict seasonal total human WNV cases up to 9 weeks before the past reported case. This work provides the foundation for implementation of a statistically rigorous system for real-time forecast of seasonal outbreaks of WNV.

  12. Purification and crystallization of dengue and West Nile virus NS2B–NS3 complexes

    SciTech Connect

    D’Arcy, Allan Chaillet, Maxime; Schiering, Nikolaus; Villard, Frederic; Lim, Siew Pheng; Lefeuvre, Peggy; Erbel, Paul

    2006-02-01

    Crystals of dengue serotype 2 and West Nile virus NS2B–NS3 protease complexes have been obtained and the crystals of both diffract to useful resolution. Sample homogeneity was essential for obtaining X-ray-quality crystals of the dengue protease. Controlled proteolysis produced a crystallizable fragment of the apo West Nile virus NS2B–NS3 and crystals were also obtained in the presence of a peptidic inhibitor. Both dengue and West Nile virus infections are an increasing risk to humans, not only in tropical and subtropical areas, but also in North America and parts of Europe. These viral infections are generally transmitted by mosquitoes, but may also be tick-borne. Infection usually results in mild flu-like symptoms, but can also cause encephalitis and fatalities. Approximately 2799 severe West Nile virus cases were reported this year in the United States, resulting in 102 fatalities. With this alarming increase in the number of West Nile virus infections in western countries and the fact that dengue virus already affects millions of people per year in tropical and subtropical climates, there is a real need for effective medicines. A possible therapeutic target to combat these viruses is the protease, which is essential for virus replication. In order to provide structural information to help to guide a lead identification and optimization program, crystallizations of the NS2B–NS3 protease complexes from both dengue and West Nile viruses have been initiated. Crystals that diffract to high resolution, suitable for three-dimensional structure determinations, have been obtained.

  13. Review of West Nile virus epidemiology in Italy and report of a case of West Nile virus encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Delbue, Serena; Ferrante, Pasquale; Mariotto, Sara; Zanusso, Gianluigi; Pavone, Antonino; Chinaglia, Mauro; L'Erario, Roberto; Monaco, Salvatore; Ferrari, Sergio

    2014-10-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a flavivirus that causes neurological disorders in less than 1 % of infected subjects. Human cases of WNV-associated fever and/or neurological disorders have been reported in Italy since 2008. The first outbreak occurred in the northeastern region of Italy surrounding the Po River and was caused by the Po River lineage 1 strain, and since then, WNV infections have been reported in several regions of central Italy. Although the virus is highly genetically conserved, stochastic mutations in its genome may lead to the emergence of new strains, as was observed in Italy in 2011 with the identification of two new lineage 1 strains, the WNV Piave and WNV Livenza strains. To help further define WNV epidemiology in Italy, we describe a case of an Italian man living in the Po River area who developed fatal encephalitis in 2009 due to infection with the WNV Piave strain. This finding supports the notion that the Piave strain has been circulating in this area of Italy for 2 years longer than was previously believed.

  14. Climate change impacts on West Nile virus transmission in a global context.

    PubMed

    Paz, Shlomit

    2015-04-05

    West Nile virus (WNV), the most widely distributed virus of the encephalitic flaviviruses, is a vector-borne pathogen of global importance. The transmission cycle exists in rural and urban areas where the virus infects birds, humans, horses and other mammals. Multiple factors impact the transmission and distribution of WNV, related to the dynamics and interactions between pathogen, vector, vertebrate hosts and environment. Hence, among other drivers, weather conditions have direct and indirect influences on vector competence (the ability to acquire, maintain and transmit the virus), on the vector population dynamic and on the virus replication rate within the mosquito, which are mostly weather dependent. The importance of climatic factors (temperature, precipitation, relative humidity and winds) as drivers in WNV epidemiology is increasing under conditions of climate change. Indeed, recent changes in climatic conditions, particularly increased ambient temperature and fluctuations in rainfall amounts, contributed to the maintenance (endemization process) of WNV in various locations in southern Europe, western Asia, the eastern Mediterranean, the Canadian Prairies, parts of the USA and Australia. As predictions show that the current trends are expected to continue, for better preparedness, any assessment of future transmission of WNV should take into consideration the impacts of climate change.

  15. Climate change impacts on West Nile virus transmission in a global context

    PubMed Central

    Paz, Shlomit

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), the most widely distributed virus of the encephalitic flaviviruses, is a vector-borne pathogen of global importance. The transmission cycle exists in rural and urban areas where the virus infects birds, humans, horses and other mammals. Multiple factors impact the transmission and distribution of WNV, related to the dynamics and interactions between pathogen, vector, vertebrate hosts and environment. Hence, among other drivers, weather conditions have direct and indirect influences on vector competence (the ability to acquire, maintain and transmit the virus), on the vector population dynamic and on the virus replication rate within the mosquito, which are mostly weather dependent. The importance of climatic factors (temperature, precipitation, relative humidity and winds) as drivers in WNV epidemiology is increasing under conditions of climate change. Indeed, recent changes in climatic conditions, particularly increased ambient temperature and fluctuations in rainfall amounts, contributed to the maintenance (endemization process) of WNV in various locations in southern Europe, western Asia, the eastern Mediterranean, the Canadian Prairies, parts of the USA and Australia. As predictions show that the current trends are expected to continue, for better preparedness, any assessment of future transmission of WNV should take into consideration the impacts of climate change. PMID:25688020

  16. Antibody response of five bird species after vaccination with a killed West Nile virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Okeson, Danelle M; Llizo, Shirley Yeo; Miller, Christine L; Glaser, Amy L

    2007-06-01

    West Nile virus has been associated with numerous bird mortalities in the United States since 1999. Five avian species at three zoological parks were selected to assess the antibody response to vaccination for West Nile virus: black-footed penguins (Spheniscus demersus), little blue penguins (Eudyptula minor), American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber), Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis), and Attwater's prairie chickens (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri). All birds were vaccinated intramuscularly at least twice with a commercially available inactivated whole virus vaccine (Innovator). Significant differences in antibody titer over time were detected for black-footed penguins and both flamingo species.

  17. Vector competence of the stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae)for West Nile virus.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Stable flies, which are notorious pests of cattle and other livestock, were suspected of transmitting West Nile virus (WNV) among American white pelicans at the Medicine Lake Wildlife Refuge in northeastern Montana in 2006-2007. However the ability of stable flies to transmit the virus was unknown. ...

  18. Seroconversion in Wild Birds and Local Circulation of West Nile Virus, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Soriguer, Ramon; Rojo, Gema; Tejedor, Concepción Gómez; Jimenez-Clavero, Miguel Angel

    2007-01-01

    A serosurvey for neutralizing antibodies against West Nile virus (WNV) in common coots (Fulica atra) was conducted in Doñana, Spain. Antibody prevalence was highest in 2003, intermediate in 2004, and lowest in 2005. Some birds seroreverted <1 year after first capture. Seroconversion of birds suggests local circulation of the virus. PMID:18258046

  19. West Nile Virus Isolated from a Virginia Opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in Northwestern Missouri, USA, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Bosco-Lauth, Angela; Harmon, Jessica R.; Lash, R. Ryan; Weiss, Sonja; Langevin, Stanley; Savage, Harry M.; Godsey, Marvin S.; Burkhalter, Kristen; Root, J. Jeffrey; Gidlewski, Thomas; Nicholson, William L.; Brault, Aaron C.; Komar, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    We describe the isolation of West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) from blood of a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) collected in northwestern Missouri, USA in August 2012. Sequencing determined that the virus was related to lineage 1a WNV02 strains. We discuss the role of wildlife in WNV disease epidemiology. PMID:25098303

  20. West Nile virus isolated from Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in Northwest Missouri 2012

    DOE PAGES

    Bosco-Lauth, Angela; Harmon, Jessica; Lash, R. Ryan; ...

    2014-12-01

    We describe the isolation of West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, flavivirus) from blood of a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) collected in northwestern Missouri, USA in August 2012. Furthermore, sequencing determined that the virus was related to lineage 1a WNV02 strains. We discuss the role of wildlife in WNV disease epidemiology.

  1. Thermal preference predicts animal personality in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, Marco; Rey, Sonia; Silva, Tome; Featherstone, Zoe; Crumlish, Margaret; MacKenzie, Simon

    2016-09-01

    Environmental temperature gradients provide habitat structure in which fish orientate and individual thermal choice may reflect an essential integrated response to the environment. The use of subtle thermal gradients likely impacts upon specific physiological and behavioural processes reflected as a suite of traits described by animal personality. In this study, we examine the relationship between thermal choice, animal personality and the impact of infection upon this interaction. We predicted that thermal choice in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus reflects distinct personality traits and that under a challenge individuals exhibit differential thermal distribution. Nile tilapia were screened following two different protocols: 1) a suite of individual behavioural tests to screen for personality and 2) thermal choice in a custom-built tank with a thermal gradient (TCH tank) ranging from 21 to 33 °C. A first set of fish were screened for behaviour and then thermal preference, and a second set were tested in the opposite fashion: thermal then behaviour. The final thermal distribution of the fish after 48 h was assessed reflecting final thermal preferendum. Additionally, fish were then challenged using a bacterial Streptococcus iniae model infection to assess the behavioural fever response of proactive and reactive fish. Results showed that individuals with preference for higher temperatures were also classified as proactive with behavioural tests and reactive contemporaries chose significantly lower water temperatures. All groups exhibited behavioural fever recovering personality-specific thermal preferences after 5 days. Our results show that thermal preference can be used as a proxy to assess personality traits in Nile tilapia and it is a central factor to understand the adaptive meaning of animal personality within a population. Importantly, response to infection by expressing behavioural fever overrides personality-related thermal choice.

  2. Does reservoir host mortality enhance transmission of West Nile virus?

    PubMed Central

    Foppa, Ivo M; Spielman, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Background Since its 1999 emergence in New York City, West Nile virus (WNV) has become the most important and widespread cause of mosquito-transmitted disease in North America. Its sweeping spread from the Atlantic to the Pacific coast was accompanied by widespread mortality among wild birds, especially corvids. Only sporadic avian mortality had previously been associated with this infection in the Old World. Here, we examine the possibility that reservoir host mortality may intensify transmission, both by concentrating vector mosquitoes on remaining hosts and by preventing the accumulation of "herd immunity". Results Inspection of the Ross-Macdonald expression of the basic reproductive number (R0) suggests that this quantity may increase with reservoir host mortality. Computer simulation confirms this finding and indicates that the level of virulence is positively associated with the numbers of infectious mosquitoes by the end of the epizootic. The presence of reservoir incompetent hosts in even moderate numbers largely eliminated the transmission-enhancing effect of host mortality. Local host die-off may prevent mosquitoes to "waste" infectious blood meals on immune host and may thus facilitate perpetuation and spread of transmission. Conclusion Under certain conditions, host mortality may enhance transmission of WNV and similarly maintained arboviruses and thus facilitate their emergence and spread. The validity of the assumptions upon which this argument is built need to be empirically examined. PMID:17498307

  3. Department of Defense West Nile virus surveillance in 2002.

    PubMed

    Witt, Clara Josting; Brundage, Mary; Cannon, Charles; Cox, Kenneth; Clements, Tamara E; Cooper, Edwin D; Elbert, Yevgeniy; Ludwig, George V; Mangiafico, Joseph A; Malakooti, Mark; Miller, Mellissa K; Osborn, Steve D; Pagac, Ben; Ross, Lenoir P; Shelton, Larry J; Spring, Alexandra; Kelley, Patrick

    2004-06-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) has engaged in West Nile virus (WNV) surveillance and response since 1999. In 2002, the three Services continued their cooperative, multidisciplinary approach to the WNV outbreak. Activities included a doubling of mosquito surveillance and vector control responses, extension of and doubling of bird and nonhuman mammal surveillance to all four continental United States regions, expanded diagnostic testing by DoD laboratories, and installation environmental clean up and personnel protection campaigns. Medical treatment facilities conducted passive surveillance and reported possible cases in DoD health care beneficiaries. Efforts were coordinated through active communication within installations, with commands, and with surrounding communities. Undertaken activities complemented each other to maximize surveillance coverage. The surveillance detected WNV on 44 DoD installations. It led directly to vector control and prevention activities, and there were no confirmed cases of WNV reported in the DoD force. This multi-Service effort is a surveillance template for future outbreaks that threaten DoD force health.

  4. West Nile Virus Outbreak in North American Owls, Ontario, 2002

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Ian K.; Lindsay, Robbin; Dibernardo, Antonia; McKeever, Katherine; Hunter, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    From July to September 2002, an outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) caused a high number of deaths in captive owls at the Owl Foundation, Vineland, Ontario, Canada. Peak death rates occurred in mid-August, and the epidemiologic curve resembled that of corvids in the surrounding Niagara region. The outbreak occurred in the midst of a louse fly (Icosta americana, family Hippoboscidae) infestation. Of the flies tested, 16 (88.9 %) of 18 contained WNV RNA. Species with northern native breeding range and birds >1 year of age were at significantly higher risk for WNV-related deaths. Species with northern native breeding range and of medium-to-large body size were at significantly higher risk for exposure to WNV. Taxonomic relations (at the subfamily level) did not significantly affect exposure to WNV or WNV-related deaths. Northern native breeding range and medium-to-large body size were associated with earlier death within the outbreak period. Of the survivors, 69 (75.8 %) of 91 were seropositive for WNV. PMID:15663850

  5. Factors associated with West Nile virus disease fatalities in horses.

    PubMed

    Epp, Tasha; Waldner, Cheryl; West, Keith; Townsend, Hugh

    2007-11-01

    In 2003, the occurrence and location of horses with clinical signs of West Nile virus infection were identified in the southern portion of Saskatchewan with the help of veterinarians, owners, and the regional laboratory. A total of 133 clinical cases were reported between July 30 and September 19, 2003; however, postseason surveillance suggests that the number of cases was underestimated. The case fatality rate was 43.8% (95% CI 35.2, 52.4). Factors associated with fatality in clinical cases included sex, week of onset of clinical signs, and coat color. Reported clinical cases clustered within regional health authority districts, suggesting regional differences in geographic factors, potentially including climate and mosquito control, that could contribute to the risk of disease. However, most of the variation in the risk of fatality in clinical cases is explained at the individual level rather than the Regional Health Authority level, which suggests the outcome of clinical disease is primarily determined by characteristics of, or management factors affecting, the individual horse.

  6. West Nile virus surveillance in East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Gleiser, Raquel M; Mackay, Andrew J; Roy, Alma; Yates, Mathew M; Vaeth, Randy H; Faget, Guy M; Folsom, Alex E; Augustine, William F; Wells, Roderick A; Perich, Michael J

    2007-03-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was detected for the first time in Louisiana in the fall of 2001. Surveillance data collected from East Baton Rouge Parish in 2002 were examined to establish baseline data on WNV activity, to support the current design of disease surveillance programs, and to target vector control efforts in the parish. The first indications of WNV activity were from a dead Northern Cardinal collected in February and from a live male cardinal sampled on 14 March. In mosquito pools, WNV was first detected on June 11. The onset of the first human case and the first detection of WNV in sentinel chickens occurred concurrently on June 24. The number of reported human cases and minimum infection rates in mosquitoes peaked in July. WNV prevalence in wild birds increased in late August and was highest in December. WNV-positive wild birds and mosquito pools were detected an average of 31 and 59 days in advance of the onset date of reported human cases, respectively, within 5 km of the residence of a human case. Antibodies to WNV were detected in sera from 7 (Northern Cardinal, House Sparrow, Northern Mockingbird, Blue Jay, Hermit Thrush, Yellow-rumped Warbler, and White-throated Sparrow) of the 42 wild bird species tested. Wild bird serology indicated WNV activity during the winter. Out of 18 mosquito species tested, the only species found positive for WNV was Culex quinquefasciatus, a result suggesting that this species was the primary epizootic/epidemic vector.

  7. Effects of detergents on the West Nile virus protease activity.

    PubMed

    Ezgimen, Manolya D; Mueller, Niklaus H; Teramoto, Tadahisa; Padmanabhan, R

    2009-05-01

    Detergents such as Triton X-100 are often used in drug discovery research to weed out small molecule promiscuous and non-specific inhibitors which act by aggregation in solution and undesirable precipitation in aqueous assay buffers. We evaluated the effects of commonly used detergents, Triton X-100, Tween-20, Nonidet-40 (NP-40), Brij-35, and CHAPS, on the enzymatic activity of West Nile virus (WNV) protease. Unexpectedly, Triton X-100, Tween-20, and NP-40 showed an enhancement of in vitro WNV protease activity from 2 to 2.5-fold depending on the detergent and its concentration. On the other hand, Brij-35, at 0.001% enhanced the protease activity by 1.5-fold and CHAPS had the least enhancing effect. The kinetic analysis showed that the increase in protease activity by Triton X-100 was dose-dependent. Furthermore, at Triton X-100 and Tween-20 concentrations higher than 0.001%, the inhibition of compound B, one of the lead compounds against WNV protease identified in a high throughput screen (IC(50) value of 5.7+/-2.5 microM), was reversed. However, in the presence of CHAPS, compound B still showed good inhibition of WNV protease. Our results, taken together, indicate that nonionic detergents, Triton X-100, Tween, and NP-40 are unsuitable for the purpose of discrimination of true versus promiscuous inhibitors of WNV protease in high throughput assays.

  8. West Nile Virus in Mosquitoes of Iranian Wetlands.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Masoomeh; Terenius, Olle; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Motazakker, Morteza; Asgari, Sassan; Dabiri, Farrokh; Vatandoost, Hassan; Mohammadi Bavani, Mulood; Chavshin, Ali Reza

    2015-12-01

    The West Nile virus (WNV) transmission cycle includes a wide range of migratory wetland birds as reservoirs, mosquitoes as biological vectors, and equines and humans as dead-end hosts. Despite the presence of potential vector species, there is no information about the existence of WNV in mosquito vectors in Iran. The Iranian West Azerbaijan Province is located in the northwestern part of Iran and has borders with Turkey, Iraq, Armenia, and the Republic of Azerbaijan. The current study was conducted to identify the wetland mosquitoes of the West Azerbaijan Province and their infection with WNV. In this study, 2143 specimens were collected, comprising 1541 adults and 602 larvae. Six species belonging to four genera were collected and identified: Anopheles maculipennis sensu lato (s.l.), Culex (Cx.) hortensis, Cx. pipiens s.l., Cx. theileri, Culiseta longiareolata, and Aedes (Ae.) (Ochlerotatus) caspius. In total, 45 pools of mosquitoes were examined. Two of the adult pools collected from the same location showed the presence of WNV in Ae. (Och.) caspius, from Sangar, Makoo County, as confirmed by PCR and sequencing. Due to the discovery of WNV in the mosquito population of the region, and the presence of wetlands and significant populations of migratory birds, the health sector should carefully monitor the factors involved in the cycle of this disease.

  9. Experimental infection of cats and dogs with West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Austgen, Laura E; Bowen, Richard A; Bunning, Michel L; Davis, Brent S; Mitchell, Carl J; Chang, Gwong-Jen J

    2004-01-01

    Domestic dogs and cats were infected by mosquito bite and evaluated as hosts for West Nile virus (WNV). Viremia of low magnitude and short duration developed in four dogs but they did not display signs of disease. Four cats became viremic, with peak titers ranging from 10(3.0) to 10(4.0) PFU/mL. Three of the cats showed mild, non-neurologic signs of disease. WNV was not isolated from saliva of either dogs or cats during the period of viremia. An additional group of four cats were exposed to WNV orally, through ingestion of infected mice. Two cats consumed an infected mouse on three consecutive days, and two cats ate a single infected mouse. Viremia developed in all of these cats with a magnitude and duration similar to that seen in cats infected by mosquito bite, but none of the four showed clinical signs. These results suggest that dogs and cats are readily infected by WNV. The high efficiency of oral transmission observed with cats suggests that infected prey animals may serve as an important source of infection to carnivores. Neither species is likely to function as an epidemiologically important amplifying host, although the peak viremia observed in cats may be high enough to infect mosquitoes at low efficiency.

  10. Factors associated with West Nile virus disease fatalities in horses

    PubMed Central

    Epp, Tasha; Waldner, Cheryl; West, Keith; Townsend, Hugh

    2007-01-01

    In 2003, the occurrence and location of horses with clinical signs of West Nile virus infection were identified in the southern portion of Saskatchewan with the help of veterinarians, owners, and the regional laboratory. A total of 133 clinical cases were reported between July 30 and September 19, 2003; however, postseason surveillance suggests that the number of cases was underestimated. The case fatality rate was 43.8% (95% CI 35.2, 52.4). Factors associated with fatality in clinical cases included sex, week of onset of clinical signs, and coat color. Reported clinical cases clustered within regional health authority districts, suggesting regional differences in geographic factors, potentially including climate and mosquito control, that could contribute to the risk of disease. However, most of the variation in the risk of fatality in clinical cases is explained at the individual level rather than the Regional Health Authority level, which suggests the outcome of clinical disease is primarily determined by characteristics of, or management factors affecting, the individual horse. PMID:18050794

  11. West Nile virus outbreak in North American owls, Ontario, 2002.

    PubMed

    Gancz, Ady Y; Barker, Ian K; Lindsay, Robbin; Dibernardo, Antonia; McKeever, Katherine; Hunter, Bruce

    2004-12-01

    From July to September 2002, an outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) caused a high number of deaths in captive owls at the Owl Foundation, Vineland, Ontario, Canada. Peak death rates occurred in mid-August, and the epidemiologic curve resembled that of corvids in the surrounding Niagara region. The outbreak occurred in the midst of a louse fly (Icosta americana, family Hippoboscidae) infestation. Of the flies tested, 16 (88.9 %) of 18 contained WNV RNA. Species with northern native breeding range and birds >1 year of age were at significantly higher risk for WNV-related deaths. Species with northern native breeding range and of medium-to-large body size were at significantly higher risk for exposure to WNV. Taxonomic relations (at the subfamily level) did not significantly affect exposure to WNV or WNV-related deaths. Northern native breeding range and medium-to-large body size were associated with earlier death within the outbreak period. Of the survivors, 69 (75.8 %) of 91 were seropositive for WNV.

  12. IL-10 Signaling Blockade Controls Murine West Nile Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Fengwei; Wang, Penghua; Kamanaka, Masahito; Connolly, Tarah M.; Gate, David; Montgomery, Ruth R.; Flavell, Richard A.; Fikrig, Erol

    2009-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), a mosquito-borne single-stranded RNA flavivirus, can cause significant human morbidity and mortality. Our data show that interleukin-10 (IL-10) is dramatically elevated both in vitro and in vivo following WNV infection. Consistent with an etiologic role of IL-10 in WNV pathogenesis, we find that WNV infection is markedly diminished in IL-10 deficient (IL-10−/−) mice, and pharmacologic blockade of IL-10 signaling by IL-10 neutralizing antibody increases survival of WNV-infected mice. Increased production of antiviral cytokines in IL-10−/− mice is associated with more efficient control of WNV infection. Moreover, CD4+ T cells produce copious amounts of IL-10, and may be an important cellular source of IL-10 during WNV infection in vivo. In conclusion, IL-10 signaling plays a negative role in immunity against WNV infection, and blockade of IL-10 signaling by genetic or pharmacologic means helps to control viral infection, suggesting a novel anti-WNV therapeutic strategy. PMID:19816558

  13. West Nile virus associations in wild mammals: a synthesis.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey Root, J

    2013-04-01

    Exposures to West Nile virus (WNV) have been documented in a variety of wild mammals in both the New and Old Worlds. This review tabulates at least 100 mammal species with evidence of WNV exposure. Many of these exposures were detected in free-ranging mammals, while several were noted in captive individuals. In addition to exposures, this review discusses experimental infections in terms of the potential for reservoir competence of select wild mammal species. Overall, few experimental infections have been conducted on wild mammals. As such, the role of most wild mammals as potential amplifying hosts for WNV is, to date, uncertain. In most instances, experimental infections of wild mammals with WNV have resulted in no or low-level viremia. Some recent studies have indicated that certain species of tree squirrels (Sciurus spp.), eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus), and eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) develop viremia sufficient for infecting some mosquito species. Certain mammalian species, such as tree squirrels, mesopredators, and deer have been suggested as useful species for WNV surveillance. In this review article, the information pertaining to wild mammal associations with WNV is synthesized.

  14. Estimating West Nile virus transmission period in Pennsylvania using an optimized degree-day model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shi; Blanford, Justine I; Fleischer, Shelby J; Hutchinson, Michael; Saunders, Michael C; Thomas, Matthew B

    2013-07-01

    Abstract We provide calibrated degree-day models to predict potential West Nile virus (WNV) transmission periods in Pennsylvania. We begin by following the standard approach of treating the degree-days necessary for the virus to complete the extrinsic incubation period (EIP), and mosquito longevity as constants. This approach failed to adequately explain virus transmission periods based on mosquito surveillance data from 4 locations (Harrisburg, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and Williamsport) in Pennsylvania from 2002 to 2008. Allowing the EIP and adult longevity to vary across time and space improved model fit substantially. The calibrated models increase the ability to successfully predict the WNV transmission period in Pennsylvania to 70-80% compared to less than 30% in the uncalibrated model. Model validation showed the optimized models to be robust in 3 of the locations, although still showing errors for Philadelphia. These models and methods could provide useful tools to predict WNV transmission period from surveillance datasets, assess potential WNV risk, and make informed mosquito surveillance strategies.

  15. Estimating West Nile Virus Transmission Period in Pennsylvania Using an Optimized Degree-Day Model

    PubMed Central

    Blanford, Justine I.; Fleischer, Shelby J.; Hutchinson, Michael; Saunders, Michael C.; Thomas, Matthew B.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We provide calibrated degree-day models to predict potential West Nile virus (WNV) transmission periods in Pennsylvania. We begin by following the standard approach of treating the degree-days necessary for the virus to complete the extrinsic incubation period (EIP), and mosquito longevity as constants. This approach failed to adequately explain virus transmission periods based on mosquito surveillance data from 4 locations (Harrisburg, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and Williamsport) in Pennsylvania from 2002 to 2008. Allowing the EIP and adult longevity to vary across time and space improved model fit substantially. The calibrated models increase the ability to successfully predict the WNV transmission period in Pennsylvania to 70–80% compared to less than 30% in the uncalibrated model. Model validation showed the optimized models to be robust in 3 of the locations, although still showing errors for Philadelphia. These models and methods could provide useful tools to predict WNV transmission period from surveillance datasets, assess potential WNV risk, and make informed mosquito surveillance strategies. PMID:23590317

  16. Towards an Early Warning System for Forecasting Human West Nile Virus Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Manore, Carrie A.; Davis, Justin; Christofferson, Rebecca C.; Wesson, Dawn; Hyman, James M.; Mores, Christopher N.

    2014-01-01

    We have identified environmental and demographic variables, available in January, that predict the relative magnitude and spatial distribution of West Nile virus (WNV) for the following summer. The yearly magnitude and spatial distribution for WNV incidence in humans in the United States (US) have varied wildly in the past decade. Mosquito control measures are expensive and having better estimates of the expected relative size of a future WNV outbreak can help in planning for the mitigation efforts and costs. West Nile virus is spread primarily between mosquitoes and birds; humans are an incidental host. Previous efforts have demonstrated a strong correlation between environmental factors and the incidence of WNV. A predictive model for human cases must include both the environmental factors for the mosquito-bird epidemic and an anthropological model for the risk of humans being bitten by a mosquito. Using weather data and demographic data available in January for every county in the US, we use logistic regression analysis to predict the probability that the county will have at least one WNV case the following summer. We validate our approach and the spatial and temporal WNV incidence in the US from 2005 to 2013. The methodology was applied to forecast the 2014 WNV incidence in late January 2014. We find the most significant predictors for a county to have a case of WNV to be the mean minimum temperature in January, the deviation of this minimum temperature from the expected minimum temperature, the total population of the county, publicly available samples of local bird populations, and if the county had a case of WNV the previous year. PMID:24611126

  17. Towards an Early Warning System for Forecasting Human West Nile Virus Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Manore, Carrie A.; Davis, Justin K.; Christofferson, Rebecca C.; Wesson, Dawn M.; Hyman, James M.; Mores, Christopher N.

    2014-01-01

    We have identified environmental and demographic variables, available in January, that predict the relative magnitude and spatial distribution of West Nile virus (WNV) for the following summer. The yearly magnitude and spatial distribution for WNV incidence in humans in the United States (US) have varied wildly in the past decade. Mosquito control measures are expensive and having better estimates of the expected relative size of a future WNV outbreak can help in planning for the mitigation efforts and costs. West Nile virus is spread primarily between mosquitoes and birds; humans are an incidental host. Previous efforts have demonstrated a strong correlation between environmental factors and the incidence of WNV. A predictive model for human cases must include both the environmental factors for the mosquito-bird epidemic and an anthropological model for the risk of humans being bitten by a mosquito. Using weather data and demographic data available in January for every county in the US, we use logistic regression analysis to predict the probability that the county will have at least one WNV case the following summer. We validate our approach and the spatial and temporal WNV incidence in the US from 2005 to 2013. The methodology was applied to forecast the 2014 WNV incidence in late January 2014. We find the most significant predictors for a county to have a case of WNV to be the mean minimum temperature in January, the deviation of this minimum temperature from the expected minimum temperature, the total population of the county, publicly available samples of local bird populations, and if the county had a case of WNV the previous year. PMID:25914857

  18. The Importance of Haematological and Biochemical Findings in Patients with West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease

    PubMed Central

    Urošević, Aleksandar; Dulović, Olga; Milošević, Branko; Maksić, Nebojša; Popović, Nataša; Milošević, Ivana; Delić, Dragan; Jevtović, Djordje; Poluga, Jasmina; Jordović, Jelena; Peruničić, Sanja

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease (WNND) occurs in less than 1% of infected people. Leukocytosis with lymphocytopenia, mild anaemia, thrombocytopenia, elevated liver and muscle enzymes and hyponatremia are occasionally present in patients with WNND. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings resemble other viral neuroinfections. The purpose of this study is to pre sent some of the most important laboratory findings of our patients with WNND and to evaluate their correlation with fatal outcome. Methods The study included 161 patients with WNND. Their blood and CSF samples were cytobiochemically analysed and the obtained variables were then tested for predictive significance of the disease outcome, or used for differentiation between two clinical syndromes (encephalitis vs meningitis). Results West Nile encephalitis was present in 127 (78.9%) patients and West Nile meningitis was diagnosed in 34 (21.1%) cases. Leukocytosis was found in 45.9% patients. CRP level higher than 100 mg/L was registered only in those with encephalitis (p=0.020). CSF leukocyte count was 146±171 per microlitre, with slight lymphocytic predominance (mean 52%). Hypoglycorrhachia was registered in 9.3% of our patients with WNND. Twenty-eight (17.4%) patients died and all of them had encephalitis. Independent predictors of fatal outcome in WNND were serum CRP > 100 mg/L (p=0.011) and CSF proteins > 1 g/L (p=0.002). Conclusions WNND usually affects older males. Prolonged neutrophilic predominance in CSF can occasionally be present, as well as hypoglycorrhachia. Patients with encephalitis, high serum CRP and high CSF protein level have a higher risk of fatal outcome. PMID:28670198

  19. First isolation of West Nile virus from a dromedary camel

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Sunitha; Wernery, Ulrich; Teng, Jade LL; Wernery, Renate; Huang, Yi; Patteril, Nissy AG; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Elizabeth, Shyna K; Fan, Rachel YY; Lau, Susanna KP; Kinne, Jörg; Woo, Patrick CY

    2016-01-01

    Although antibodies against West Nile virus (WNV) have been detected in the sera of dromedaries in the Middle East, North Africa and Spain, no WNV has been isolated or amplified from dromedary or Bactrian camels. In this study, WNV was isolated from Vero cells inoculated with both nasal swab and pooled trachea/lung samples from a dromedary calf in Dubai. Complete-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis using the near-whole-genome polyprotein revealed that the virus belonged to lineage 1a. There was no clustering of the present WNV with other WNVs isolated in other parts of the Middle East. Within lineage 1a, the dromedary WNV occupied a unique position, although it was most closely related to other WNVs of cluster 2. Comparative analysis revealed that the putative E protein encoded by the genome possessed the original WNV E protein glycosylation motif NYS at E154–156, which contained the N-linked glycosylation site at N-154 associated with increased WNV pathogenicity and neuroinvasiveness. In the putative NS1 protein, the A70S substitution observed in other cluster 2 WNVs and P250, which has been implicated in neuroinvasiveness, were present. In addition, the foo motif in the putative NS2A protein, which has been implicated in neuroinvasiveness, was detected. Notably, the amino-acid residues at 14 positions in the present dromedary WNV genome differed from those in most of the closely related WNV strains in cluster 2 of lineage 1a, with the majority of these differences observed in the putative E and NS5 proteins. The present study is the first to demonstrate the isolation of WNV from dromedaries. This finding expands the possible reservoirs of WNV and sources of WNV infection. PMID:27273223

  20. West Nile virus infection in a renal transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Weiskittel, Patricia D

    2004-01-01

    This case represents the need for total teamwork in the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of an immunosuppressed patient with a viral syndrome. One of the most striking features of this case study is the importance of a thorough history of current events and exposures in determining the list of potential diagnoses. The systematic process of laboratory evaluations to determine viral activity in an immunosuppressed patient is paramount in identifying the actual culprit responsible for the myriad of clinical symptoms at presentation. The symptomatology would guide one to the common viruses, but the travel history was the clue to testing for an uncommon etiology. The input from family members relating to the progression of mental status changes was also an important part of the current medical history. Along with supportive treatment, the patient was also given a course of interferon alpha as part of an experimental protocol. The support of the family during this decision-making process was an important function of the entire team. The patient was unable to participate in this decision and the family required a great deal of discussion regarding the pros and cons of their decision. For this patient, the outcomes were excellent. He has stable renal function, has no neurologic residual, and is back to his baseline physically and psychologically. An important recommendation based on this case is to provide educational materials to all transplant patients on viral illnesses. Topics covered should include modes of transmission, symptomatology, and the consequences of the illness. The CDC has excellent materials on West Nile Virus that can be downloaded and provided to all patients. In addition, a thorough medical history should always be obtained including possible exposures and recent travel.

  1. First isolation of West Nile virus from a dromedary camel.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Sunitha; Wernery, Ulrich; Teng, Jade Ll; Wernery, Renate; Huang, Yi; Patteril, Nissy Ag; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Elizabeth, Shyna K; Fan, Rachel Yy; Lau, Susanna Kp; Kinne, Jörg; Woo, Patrick Cy

    2016-06-08

    Although antibodies against West Nile virus (WNV) have been detected in the sera of dromedaries in the Middle East, North Africa and Spain, no WNV has been isolated or amplified from dromedary or Bactrian camels. In this study, WNV was isolated from Vero cells inoculated with both nasal swab and pooled trachea/lung samples from a dromedary calf in Dubai. Complete-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis using the near-whole-genome polyprotein revealed that the virus belonged to lineage 1a. There was no clustering of the present WNV with other WNVs isolated in other parts of the Middle East. Within lineage 1a, the dromedary WNV occupied a unique position, although it was most closely related to other WNVs of cluster 2. Comparative analysis revealed that the putative E protein encoded by the genome possessed the original WNV E protein glycosylation motif NYS at E154-156, which contained the N-linked glycosylation site at N-154 associated with increased WNV pathogenicity and neuroinvasiveness. In the putative NS1 protein, the A70S substitution observed in other cluster 2 WNVs and P250, which has been implicated in neuroinvasiveness, were present. In addition, the foo motif in the putative NS2A protein, which has been implicated in neuroinvasiveness, was detected. Notably, the amino-acid residues at 14 positions in the present dromedary WNV genome differed from those in most of the closely related WNV strains in cluster 2 of lineage 1a, with the majority of these differences observed in the putative E and NS5 proteins. The present study is the first to demonstrate the isolation of WNV from dromedaries. This finding expands the possible reservoirs of WNV and sources of WNV infection.

  2. An epidemiological model for West Nile virus: invasion analysis and control applications.

    PubMed Central

    Wonham, Marjorie J.; de-Camino-Beck, Tomás; Lewis, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    Infectious diseases present ecological and public health challenges that can be addressed with mathematical models. Certain pathogens, however, including the emerging West Nile virus (WN) in North America, exhibit a complex seasonal ecology that is not readily analysed with standard epidemiological methods. We develop a single-season susceptible-infectious-removed (SIR) model of WN cross-infection between birds and mosquitoes, incorporating specific features unique to WN ecology. We obtain the disease reproduction number, R0, and show that mosquito control decreases, but bird control increases, the chance of an outbreak. We provide a simple new analytical and graphical method for determining, from standard public health indicators, necessary mosquito control levels. We extend this method to a seasonally variable mosquito population and outline a multi-year model framework. The model's numerical simulations predict disease levels that are consistent with independent data. PMID:15129960

  3. West Nile virus circulation in Veneto region in 2008-2009.

    PubMed

    Busani, L; Capelli, G; Cecchinato, M; Lorenzetto, M; Savini, G; Terregino, C; Vio, P; Bonfanti, L; Pozza, M Dalla; Marangon, S

    2011-06-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was detected in Italy, in late summer 2008 in horses and birds in the Po valley. As a consequence, an intense WNV surveillance was implemented in that area involving Emilia-Romagna, Veneto and Lombardy. This paper presents the results of the September 2008-November 2009 surveillance on equines, mosquitoes, wild birds, dogs and cattle in Veneto. WNV was detected in equines and dogs, and, to a lesser extent in cattle and wild birds. Simultaneous circulation of Usutu virus was detected by testing wild birds found dead. Usutu virus but not WNV was also found in mosquitoes monitored during 2009. Equine practices monitoring allowed the definition of an area of WNV circulation and the 2008-2009 westward and northward spread of the infection. Although a relatively low number of human cases and a low virus circulation in vectors and birds detected in Veneto region could be considered favourable conditions for a limited risk of human exposure, it remains difficult to predict the possible evolution of the epidemiological situation.

  4. Localization of West Nile Virus in monkey brain: double staining antigens immunohistochemically of neurons, neuroglia cells and West Nile Virus.

    PubMed

    He, Xianli; Ren, Junping; Xu, Fangling; Ferguson, Monique R; Li, Guangyu

    2009-11-15

    West Nile virus (WNV) can cause encephalitis or meningitis that affects brain tissue, which can also lead to permanent neurological damage that can be fatal. To our knowledge, no consistent double immunohistochemical staining of neurons, neuroglia cells, and WNV has yet been reported. To establish a method for performing double-label immunohistochemical detection of neurons, neuroglia cells and WNV, examining the pathological characteristics of WNV-infected neurons, neuroglia cells, and investigating distribution of WNV in monkey brain, paraffin-embedded monkey brain tissue were retrospectively studied by immunohistochemical staining of neurons, neuroglia cells and WNV. Antibodies against neuron-specific enolase (NSE), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and WNV were used to develop the method of double-label immunohistochemical staining, which allowed independent assessment of neuron status and WNV distribution. A range of immunohistochemical WNV infection in monkey brain was observed in both neurons and neuroglia cells in terms of the thickness of lesion staining, and the WNV staining was slightly higher in neuroglia cells than in neurons. All these findings suggest that WNV invasion in the brain plays a crucial role in neurological damage by inducing central nervous system (CNS) cell dysfunction or cell death directly.

  5. West Nile virus and non-West Nile virus mortality and coinfection of American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) in California.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Sarah S; Woods, Leslie W; Boyce, Walter M; Eckstrand, Christina D; Langevin, Stanley A; Reisen, William K; Townsend, Andrea K

    2014-06-01

    American crows are acutely sensitive to West Nile virus (WNV) infection, and crow mortality has been used in WNV surveillance to monitor enzootic transmission. However, non-WNV sources of mortality could reduce the reliability of crow death as a surveillance tool. Here, using a combination of histopathologic, toxicologic, virologic, and molecular techniques we describe causes of mortality in 67 American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) that were collected from a population in the Sacramento Valley of California in 2012 and 2013. Evidence of infectious disease was detected in 70% (47/67) of carcasses. The majority of deaths were linked to a suite of non-WNV viral, bacterial, and fungal infections (39%; 23/59 cases), WNV (36%; 24/67 cases), and an acute toxic event (25%; 15/59 cases). Coinfections were detected in 20% (12/59) of birds and frequently were associated with WNV and poxviral dermatitis. Inferences about WNV activity based on crow mortality should be supported by laboratory confirmation because crow mortality frequently can be caused by other infectious diseases or toxic events.

  6. Seroprevalence of St. Louis Encephalitis Virus and West Nile Virus (Flavivirus, Flaviviridae) in Horses, Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Burgueño, Analía; Spinsanti, Lorena; Díaz, Luis Adrián; Rivarola, María Elisa; Arbiza, Juan; Contigiani, Marta

    2013-01-01

    St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) belong to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex (Flavivirus genus, Flaviviridae family). They show antigenic close relationships and share many similarities in their ecology. Both are responsible for serious human diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of neutralizing antibodies to these viruses in horses from Uruguay. To do this, 425 horse sera were collected in 2007 and analyzed by plaque reduction neutralization tests. As a result, 205 sera (48.2%) were found positive for SLEV, with titers ranging between 10 and 80. Two sera remained inconclusive, since they showed low titers to WNV and SLEV (10 and 20), not allowing us to demonstrate activity of WNV in our territory. This is the first report of circulation of SLEV in horses in Uruguay. PMID:24490165

  7. Chikungunya virus and West Nile virus infections imported into Belgium, 2007-2012.

    PubMed

    VAN DEN Bossche, D; Cnops, L; Meersman, K; Domingo, C; VAN Gompel, A; VAN Esbroeck, M

    2015-07-01

    Arboviral infections are emerging among tourists travelling to (sub)tropical regions. This study aims to describe the importation of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and West Nile virus (WNV) into Belgium over a 6-year period from 2007 to 2012. Clinical samples were obtained from travellers presenting at the outpatient clinic of the Institute of Tropical Medicine (ITM), Antwerp, Belgium or submitted to the Central Laboratory for Clinical Biology of the ITM. Testing was performed by serology and/or by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. A total of 1288 returning travellers were investigated for CHIKV infection resulting in 34 confirmed and two probable diagnoses (2·80%). Out of 899 patients, four confirmed and one probable imported WNV infections were diagnosed (0·55%). No locally acquired cases have been registered in Belgium until now and the geographical origin of the imported infections reflects the global locations where the viruses are circulating.

  8. Wild Birds in Romania Are More Exposed to West Nile Virus Than to Newcastle Disease Virus.

    PubMed

    Paştiu, Anamaria Ioana; Pap, Péter László; Vágási, Csongor István; Niculae, Mihaela; Páll, Emőke; Domşa, Cristian; Brudaşcă, Florinel Ghe; Spînu, Marina

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of West Nile virus (WNV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in wild and domestic birds from Romania. During 2011-2014, 159 plasma samples from wild birds assigned to 11 orders, 27 families, and 61 species and from 21 domestic birds (Gallus gallus domesticus, Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) were collected. The sera were assayed by two commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) kits for antibodies against WNV and NDV. We found a high prevalence of WNV antibodies in both domestic (19.1%) and wild (32.1%) birds captured after the human epidemic in 2010. Moreover, the presence of anti-NDV antibodies among wild birds from Romania (5.4%) was confirmed serologically for the first time, as far as we are aware. Our findings provide evidence that wild birds, especially resident ones are involved in local West Nile and Newcastle disease enzootic and epizootic cycles. These may allow virus maintenance and spread and also enhance the chance of new outbreaks.

  9. Adult-onset opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome due to West Nile Virus treated with intravenous immunoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Hébert, Julien; Armstrong, David; Daneman, Nick; Jain, Jennifer Deborah; Perry, James

    2017-02-01

    A 63-year-old female with no significant past medical history was presented with a 5-day history of progressive opsoclonus-myoclonus, headaches, and fevers. Her workup was significant only for positive West-Nile Virus serum serologies. She received a 2-day course of intravenous immunoglobulin (IvIG). At an 8-week follow up, she had a complete neurological remission. Adult-onset opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome is a rare condition for which paraneoplastic and infectious causes have been attributed. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported of opsoclonus-myoclonus secondary to West-Nile Virus treated with intravenous immunoglobulin monotherapy.

  10. Analysis of YouTube as a Source of Information for West Nile Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Divyanshu; Amritphale, Amod; Sawhney, Anshudha; Dubey, Devashish; Srivastav, Nupur

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A major outbreak of West Nile Virus was seen last year in different parts of the United States. Adequate dissemination of correct information about the disease would have helped decrease its spread and the associated panic in the general population. In this study, we looked into the use of YouTube as a resource for providing information about West Nile Virus infection. Objective This study aims to identify and evaluate YouTube as resource for providing information on West Nile Virus infection to the general public. Methods YouTube was searched on November 25, 2012, using the keywords West Nile Virus epidemic, West Nile Virus infection, and West Nile Virus prevention for videos uploaded in the past 6 months containing relevant information about the disease. The videos were classified as useful, misleading, or as news updates based on the type of information contained. Total viewership, number of days since upload, total duration of videos, and source of upload were noted. Results A total of 106 videos with information on West Nile Virus infection were included in the study, with 79.24% having useful information about the disease. Among the useful videos, 51/84 (60.71%) had information on disease prevention, and 29/84 (34.52%) contained information on news and research updates. The majority of these videos were uploaded by individuals (54.6%) or news agencies (41.8 %). Healthcare agencies contributed only 3.4 % of the total videos. Even though the useful videos represented 72% of all videos, there was significantly higher total viewership and viewership per day for the non-useful videos (P<0.05). Conclusions YouTube may be a significant resource for dissemination of information on public health issues like West Nile virus infection and should be targeted by healthcare agencies for this use. The major drawback of this medium is lack of verification by authorized healthcare professionals before these videos are made available for viewing by the community

  11. Analysis of YouTube as a source of information for West Nile Virus infection.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Divyanshu; Amritphale, Amod; Sawhney, Anshudha; Dubey, Devashish; Srivastav, Nupur

    2014-12-01

    A major outbreak of West Nile Virus was seen last year in different parts of the United States. Adequate dissemination of correct information about the disease would have helped decrease its spread and the associated panic in the general population. In this study, we looked into the use of YouTube as a resource for providing information about West Nile Virus infection. This study aims to identify and evaluate YouTube as resource for providing information on West Nile Virus infection to the general public. YouTube was searched on November 25, 2012, using the keywords West Nile Virus epidemic, West Nile Virus infection, and West Nile Virus prevention for videos uploaded in the past 6 months containing relevant information about the disease. The videos were classified as useful, misleading, or as news updates based on the type of information contained. Total viewership, number of days since upload, total duration of videos, and source of upload were noted. A total of 106 videos with information on West Nile Virus infection were included in the study, with 79.24% having useful information about the disease. Among the useful videos, 51/84 (60.71%) had information on disease prevention, and 29/84 (34.52%) contained information on news and research updates. The majority of these videos were uploaded by individuals (54.6%) or news agencies (41.8 %). Healthcare agencies contributed only 3.4 % of the total videos. Even though the useful videos represented 72% of all videos, there was significantly higher total viewership and viewership per day for the non-useful videos (P<0.05). YouTube may be a significant resource for dissemination of information on public health issues like West Nile virus infection and should be targeted by healthcare agencies for this use. The major drawback of this medium is lack of verification by authorized healthcare professionals before these videos are made available for viewing by the community. Hence, a strict caution should be exercised in

  12. Vertical Transmission of West Nile Virus by culex and aedes Species Mosquitoes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    strains of Aedes albopictus. Ae. aegypti, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Female mosquitoes were infected by intrathoracic inoculation with WN virus , and the...of Cx. tritae- periment. West Nile virus infection of the pa- niorhYnchus.Ae. albopcwtus, and Ae. aeg’ypi was rental female mosquitoes in all... females in experiment no. i we e infected with stock virus that had received 16 intracerebral passailes in mice and four intsthoeiaeie pauffiie in Cx

  13. West nile virus encephalitis induced opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Chad J; Said, Sarmad

    2014-04-22

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an arthropod borne neurotropic single stranded RNA flavivirus with <1% developing presenting with neurological disease. Immunocompromised and elderly patients are more prone to developing WNV meningitis or encephalitis. Definitive diagnosis of WNV meningoencephalitis is a combination of clinical suspicion and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) serology. Forty-eight year old Caucasian female presented with a sudden onset of altered mental status after being found unresponsive. She was confused with intermittent bouts of alertness/lethargy and unintelligible responses to questioning. Her medical problems included endometrial cancer that was in remission after undergoing a total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingectomy and postoperative chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin. Pertinent physical examination revealed muscle strength that was significantly decreased, nuchal rigidity and +2 pitting edema of both lower extremities. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain were negative for any intracranial pathology. CSF analysis was consistent with aseptic meningitis with all CSF serology being negative except for positive WNV antibody. A few days after being admitted she developed involuntary random movements of her eyes and generalized jerking movements (myoclonus). This was determined to be opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome (OMS) induced by the WNV meningoencephalitis. She then received five consecutive days of plasmapheresis with a significant improvement in her neurological status. Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is a rare neurological disorder associated with chaotic multidirectional eye movements, myoclonus and less frequently cerebellar ataxia. OMS affects as few as 1 in 10,000,000 people per year. The pathogenesis is not fully understood with the majority of cases of opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome being idiopathic. According to current medical literature there have only been two previous case reports of

  14. DIFFERENTIAL IMPACT OF WEST NILE VIRUS ON CALIFORNIA BIRDS.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Sarah S; Barker, Christopher M; Fang, Ying; Armijos, M Veronica; Carroll, Brian D; Husted, Stan; Johnson, Wesley O; Reisen, William K

    2009-01-01

    The strain of West Nile virus (WNV) currently epidemic in North America contains a genetic mutation elevating its virulence in birds, especially species in the family Corvidae. Although dead American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) have been the hallmark of the epidemic, the overall impact of WNV on North America's avifauna remains poorly understood and has not been addressed thoroughly in California. Here, we evaluate variation by species in the effect of WNV on California birds from 2004 to 2007 by using (1) seroprevalence in free-ranging birds, (2) percentage of carcasses of each species reported by the public that tested positive for WNV, (3) mortality determined from experimental infections, and (4) population declines detected by trend analysis of Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data. Using Bayesian linear models, we extrapolate trends in BBS data from 1980-2003 (pre-WNV) to 2004-2007 (post-WNV). We attribute significant declines from expected abundance trends in areas supporting epiornitics to WNV transmission. We combine risk assessed from each of the four data sets to generate an overall score describing WNV risk by species. The susceptibility of California avifauna to WNV varies widely, with overall risk scores ranging from low for the refractory Rock Pigeon (Columba livia) through high for the susceptible American Crow. Other species at high risk include, in descending order, the House Finch (Carpodacus mexicanus), Black-crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), Western Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma californica), and Yellow-billed Magpie (Pica nuttalli). Our analyses emphasize the importance of multiple data sources in assessing the effect of an invading pathogen.

  15. DIFFERENTIAL IMPACT OF WEST NILE VIRUS ON CALIFORNIA BIRDS

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Sarah S.; Barker, Christopher M.; Fang, Ying; Armijos, M. Veronica; Carroll, Brian D.; Husted, Stan; Johnson, Wesley O.; Reisen, William K.

    2010-01-01

    The strain of West Nile virus (WNV) currently epidemic in North America contains a genetic mutation elevating its virulence in birds, especially species in the family Corvidae. Although dead American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) have been the hallmark of the epidemic, the overall impact of WNV on North America’s avifauna remains poorly understood and has not been addressed thoroughly in California. Here, we evaluate variation by species in the effect of WNV on California birds from 2004 to 2007 by using (1) seroprevalence in free-ranging birds, (2) percentage of carcasses of each species reported by the public that tested positive for WNV, (3) mortality determined from experimental infections, and (4) population declines detected by trend analysis of Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data. Using Bayesian linear models, we extrapolate trends in BBS data from 1980–2003 (pre-WNV) to 2004–2007 (post-WNV). We attribute significant declines from expected abundance trends in areas supporting epiornitics to WNV transmission. We combine risk assessed from each of the four data sets to generate an overall score describing WNV risk by species. The susceptibility of California avifauna to WNV varies widely, with overall risk scores ranging from low for the refractory Rock Pigeon (Columba livia) through high for the susceptible American Crow. Other species at high risk include, in descending order, the House Finch (Carpodacus mexicanus), Black-crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), Western Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma californica), and Yellow-billed Magpie (Pica nuttalli). Our analyses emphasize the importance of multiple data sources in assessing the effect of an invading pathogen. PMID:20589226

  16. Recovery and identification of West Nile virus from a hawk in winter.

    PubMed

    Garmendia, A E; Van Kruiningen, H J; French, R A; Anderson, J F; Andreadis, T G; Kumar, A; West, A B

    2000-08-01

    West Nile virus was recovered from the brain of a red-tailed hawk that died in Westchester County, N.Y., in February 2000. Multiple foci of glial cells, lymphocytes, and a few pyknotic nuclei were observed in the brain. Three to 4 days after inoculation of Vero cells with brain homogenates, cytopathic changes were detected. The presence of West Nile virus antigen in fixed cells or cell lysates was revealed by fluorescent antibody testing or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Furthermore, Reverse transcriptase-PCR with primers specific for the NS3 gene of West Nile virus resulted in an amplicon of the expected size (470 bp). Electron microscopy of thin sections of infected Vero cells revealed the presence of viral particles approximately 40 nm in diameter, within cytoplasmic vesicles. The demonstration of infection with the West Nile virus in the dead of the winter, long after mosquitoes ceased to be active, is significant in that it testifies to the survival of the virus in the region beyond mosquito season and suggests another route of transmission: in this case, prey to predator.

  17. Detection of West Nile and Usutu Viruses in Italian Free Areas: Entomological Surveillance in Piemonte and Liguria Regions, 2014.

    PubMed

    Pautasso, Alessandra; Radaelli, Maria Cristina; Ballardini, Marco; Francese, Danila Raffaella; Verna, Federica; Modesto, Paola; Grattarola, Carla; Desiato, Rosanna; Bertolini, Silvia; Vitale, Nicoletta; Ferrari, Angelo; Rossini, Irene; Accorsi, Annalisa; Mosca, Andrea; Monaco, Federica; Savini, Giovanni; Prearo, Marino; Mignone, Walter; Chiavacci, Laura; Casalone, Cristina

    2016-04-01

    West Nile virus and Usutu virus have established in different parts of Italy over the past 10 years. Piemonte and Liguria Regions (Northwestern Italy) are known to be nonendemic areas, despite the presence of competent vectors and environmental conditions conducive to maintaining infection. This work evidences for the first time, through an entomological surveillance implemented on the basis of risk factor approach, the presence of West Nile and Usutu viruses in Piemonte and Liguria Regions (Northwestern Italy).

  18. Superiority of West Nile Virus RNA Detection in Whole Blood for Diagnosis of Acute Infection.

    PubMed

    Lustig, Yaniv; Mannasse, Batya; Koren, Ravit; Katz-Likvornik, Shiri; Hindiyeh, Musa; Mandelboim, Michal; Dovrat, Sara; Sofer, Danit; Mendelson, Ella

    2016-09-01

    The current diagnosis of West Nile virus (WNV) infection is primarily based on serology, since molecular identification of WNV RNA is unreliable due to the short viremia and absence of detectable virus in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Recent studies have shown that WNV RNA can be detected in urine for a longer period and at higher concentrations than in plasma. In this study, we examined the presence of WNV RNA in serum, plasma, whole-blood, CSF, and urine samples obtained from patients diagnosed with acute WNV infection during an outbreak which occurred in Israel in 2015. Our results demonstrate that 33 of 38 WNV patients had detectable WNV RNA in whole blood at the time of diagnosis, a higher rate than in any of the other sample types tested. Overall, whole blood was superior to all other samples, with 86.8% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value, and 83.9% negative predictive value. Interestingly, WNV viral load in urine was higher than in whole blood, CSF, serum, and plasma despite the lower sensitivity than that of whole blood. This study establishes the utility of whole blood in the routine diagnosis of acute WNV infection and suggests that it may provide the highest sensitivity for WNV RNA detection in suspected cases.

  19. Superiority of West Nile Virus RNA Detection in Whole Blood for Diagnosis of Acute Infection

    PubMed Central

    Mannasse, Batya; Koren, Ravit; Katz-Likvornik, Shiri; Hindiyeh, Musa; Mandelboim, Michal; Dovrat, Sara; Sofer, Danit; Mendelson, Ella

    2016-01-01

    The current diagnosis of West Nile virus (WNV) infection is primarily based on serology, since molecular identification of WNV RNA is unreliable due to the short viremia and absence of detectable virus in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Recent studies have shown that WNV RNA can be detected in urine for a longer period and at higher concentrations than in plasma. In this study, we examined the presence of WNV RNA in serum, plasma, whole-blood, CSF, and urine samples obtained from patients diagnosed with acute WNV infection during an outbreak which occurred in Israel in 2015. Our results demonstrate that 33 of 38 WNV patients had detectable WNV RNA in whole blood at the time of diagnosis, a higher rate than in any of the other sample types tested. Overall, whole blood was superior to all other samples, with 86.8% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value, and 83.9% negative predictive value. Interestingly, WNV viral load in urine was higher than in whole blood, CSF, serum, and plasma despite the lower sensitivity than that of whole blood. This study establishes the utility of whole blood in the routine diagnosis of acute WNV infection and suggests that it may provide the highest sensitivity for WNV RNA detection in suspected cases. PMID:27335150

  20. Surveillance for West Nile virus in clinic-admitted raptors, Colorado.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Nicole; Kratz, Gail; Edwards, Eric; Scherpelz, Judy; Bowen, Richard; Komar, Nicholas

    2007-02-01

    In 2005, 13.5% of clinic-admitted raptors in northern Colorado tested positive for West Nile virus (WNV). Clinic-admitted-raptor surveillance detected WNV activity nearly 14 weeks earlier than other surveillance systems. WNV surveillance using live raptor admissions to rehabilitation clinics may offer a novel surveillance method and should be considered along with other techniques already in use.

  1. Spatially explicit West Nile virus risk modeling in Santa Clara County, California

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A previously created Geographic Information Systems model designed to identify regions of West Nile virus (WNV) transmission risk is tested and calibrated in Santa Clara County, California. American Crows that died from WNV infection in 2005 provide the spatial and temporal ground truth. Model param...

  2. Spatially Explicit West Nile Virus Risk Modeling in Santa Clara County, CA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A geographic information systems model designed to identify regions of West Nile virus (WNV) transmission risk was tested and calibrated with data collected in Santa Clara County, California. American Crows that died from WNV infection in 2005, provided spatial and temporal ground truth. When the mo...

  3. Domestic goose as a model for West Nile virus vaccine efficacy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an emergent pathogen in the Americas, first reported in New York during 1999, and has since spread across the United States (USA), Central and South America causing neurological disease in humans, horses and some bird species, including domestic geese. No WNV vaccines are li...

  4. Neuroinvasive Disease and West Nile Virus Infection, North Dakota, USA, 1999–2008

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Paul J.; Borchardt, Stephanie M.; Custer, Brian; Prince, Harry E.; Dunn-Williams, Joan; Winkelman, Valerie; Tobler, Leslie; Biggerstaff, Brad J.; Lanciotti, Robert; Petersen, Lyle R.

    2012-01-01

    To determine risk for West Nile virus (WNV) neuroinvasive disease in North Dakota, we tested plasma samples from blood donors for WNV IgG and compared infection rates with reported WNV neuroinvasive disease incidence. We estimate that 1 in 244 WNV infections leads to neuroinvasive disease; risk is substantially increased among men and older persons. PMID:22469465

  5. Mosquito and West Nile virus surveillance in northeast Montana, U.S.A., 2005-2006

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mosquito and West Nile virus surveillance was conducted on a National Wildlife Refuge in northeast Montana, 2005-2006, during which outbreaks of WNV in a colony of American white pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin) resulted in juvenile mortality rates of 30 and 31%. During both years, flood...

  6. Follow-up of 2003 human West Nile virus infections, Denver, Colorado.

    PubMed

    Patnaik, Jennifer L; Harmon, Heath; Vogt, Richard L

    2006-07-01

    Tri-County Health Department and Boulder County Public Health conducted a follow-up study of all nonfatal West Nile virus (WNV) cases reported during 2003 in 4 metropolitan Denver, Colorado, counties. Self-reported patient information was obtained approximately 6 months after onset. A total of 656 (81.2%) eligible WNV patients are included in this study.

  7. West Nile Virus Outbreak in Houston and Harris County, Texas, USA, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Diana; Reyna, Martin; Arafat, Raouf R.; Gorena, Roberto; Shah, Umair A.; Debboun, Mustapha

    2017-01-01

    Since 2002, West Nile virus (WNV) has been detected every year in Houston and the surrounding Harris County, Texas. In 2014, the largest WNV outbreak to date occurred, comprising 139 cases and causing 2 deaths. Additionally, 1,286 WNV-positive mosquito pools were confirmed, the most reported in a single mosquito season. PMID:28726615

  8. West nile virus anti-body surveillance in three Sierra Nevada raptors of conservation concern

    Treesearch

    J.M. Hull; J.J. Keane; L.A. Tell; H.B. Ernest

    2010-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) infection has caused high levels of mortality in North American hawks and owls. To investigate the extent of infection among raptors of conservation concern in the Sierra Nevada, we tested 62 Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis), 209 Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis), and 22 Great Gray Owls (...

  9. Spatiotemporal modeling of ecological and sociological predictors of West Nile virus in Suffolk County, NY, mosquitoes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Suffolk County, New York, is a locus for West Nile virus (WNV) infection in the American northeast that includes the majority of Long Island to the east of New York City. The county has a system of light and gravid traps used for mosquito collection and disease monitoring. In ord...

  10. Drought and immunity determine the intensity of West Nile virus epidemics and climate change impacts.

    PubMed

    Paull, Sara H; Horton, Daniel E; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Rastogi, Deeksha; Kramer, Laura D; Diffenbaugh, Noah S; Kilpatrick, A Marm

    2017-02-08

    The effect of global climate change on infectious disease remains hotly debated because multiple extrinsic and intrinsic drivers interact to influence transmission dynamics in nonlinear ways. The dominant drivers of widespread pathogens, like West Nile virus, can be challenging to identify due to regional variability in vector and host ecology, with past studies producing disparate findings. Here, we used analyses at national and state scales to examine a suite of climatic and intrinsic drivers of continental-scale West Nile virus epidemics, including an empirically derived mechanistic relationship between temperature and transmission potential that accounts for spatial variability in vectors. We found that drought was the primary climatic driver of increased West Nile virus epidemics, rather than within-season or winter temperatures, or precipitation independently. Local-scale data from one region suggested drought increased epidemics via changes in mosquito infection prevalence rather than mosquito abundance. In addition, human acquired immunity following regional epidemics limited subsequent transmission in many states. We show that over the next 30 years, increased drought severity from climate change could triple West Nile virus cases, but only in regions with low human immunity. These results illustrate how changes in drought severity can alter the transmission dynamics of vector-borne diseases.

  11. Mutation in West Nile Virus Structural Protein prM during Human Infection.

    PubMed

    Lustig, Yaniv; Lanciotti, Robert S; Hindiyeh, Musa; Keller, Nathan; Milo, Ron; Mayan, Shlomo; Mendelson, Ella

    2016-09-01

    A mutation leading to substitution of a key amino acid in the prM protein of West Nile virus (WNV) occurred during persistent infection of an immunocompetent patient. WNV RNA persisted in the patient's urine and serum in the presence of low-level neutralizing antibodies. This case demonstrates active replication of WNV during persistent infection.

  12. Mutation in West Nile Virus Structural Protein prM during Human Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lanciotti, Robert S.; Hindiyeh, Musa; Keller, Nathan; Milo, Ron; Mayan, Shlomo; Mendelson, Ella

    2016-01-01

    A mutation leading to substitution of a key amino acid in the prM protein of West Nile virus (WNV) occurred during persistent infection of an immunocompetent patient. WNV RNA persisted in the patient’s urine and serum in the presence of low-level neutralizing antibodies. This case demonstrates active replication of WNV during persistent infection. PMID:27322782

  13. West Nile Virus Outbreak in Houston and Harris County, Texas, USA, 2014.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Diana; Murray, Kristy O; Reyna, Martin; Arafat, Raouf R; Gorena, Roberto; Shah, Umair A; Debboun, Mustapha

    2017-08-01

    Since 2002, West Nile virus (WNV) has been detected every year in Houston and the surrounding Harris County, Texas. In 2014, the largest WNV outbreak to date occurred, comprising 139 cases and causing 2 deaths. Additionally, 1,286 WNV-positive mosquito pools were confirmed, the most reported in a single mosquito season.

  14. Surveillance for West Nile Virus in Clinic-admitted Raptors, Colorado

    PubMed Central

    Kratz, Gail; Edwards, Eric; Scherpelz, Judy; Bowen, Richard; Komar, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, 13.5% of clinic-admitted raptors in northern Colorado tested positive for West Nile virus (WNV). Clinic-admitted–raptor surveillance detected WNV activity nearly 14 weeks earlier than other surveillance systems. WNV surveillance using live raptor admissions to rehabilitation clinics may offer a novel surveillance method and should be considered along with other techniques already in use. PMID:17479898

  15. Drought and immunity determine the intensity of West Nile virus epidemics and climate change impacts

    DOE PAGES

    Paull, Sara H.; Horton, Daniel E.; Ashfaq, Moetasim; ...

    2017-02-08

    The effect of global climate change on infectious disease remains hotly debated because multiple extrinsic and intrinsic drivers interact to influence transmission dynamics in nonlinear ways. The dominant drivers of widespread pathogens, like West Nile virus, can be challenging to identify due to regional variability in vector and host ecology, with past studies producing disparate findings. Here, we used analyses at national and state scales to examine a suite of climatic and intrinsic drivers of continental-scale West Nile virus epidemics, including an empirically derived mechanistic relationship between temperature and transmission potential that accounts for spatial variability in vectors. We foundmore » that drought was the primary climatic driver of increased West Nile virus epidemics, rather than within-season or winter temperatures, or precipitation independently. Local-scale data from one region suggested drought increased epidemics via changes in mosquito infection prevalence rather than mosquito abundance. In addition, human acquired immunity following regional epidemics limited subsequent transmission in many states. We show that over the next 30 years, increased drought severity from climate change could triple West Nile virus cases, but only in regions with low human immunity. Lastly, these results illustrate how changes in drought severity can alter the transmission dynamics of vector-borne diseases.« less

  16. Characterization of a West Nile Virus Isolate from a Human on the Gulf Coast of Texas

    PubMed Central

    Granwehr, Bruno P.; Li, Li; Davis, Charles T.; Beasley, David W. C.; Barrett, Alan D. T.

    2004-01-01

    Genetic characterization of a human cerebrospinal fluid West Nile virus isolate from Beaumont, Texas, revealed several nucleotide changes and amino acid substitutions that differentiated it from all other North American strains isolated to date, suggesting that isolates from the Texas Gulf Coast may form a unique genetic group among North American strains. PMID:15528747

  17. The impact of West Nile virus on birds in California’s hardwood rangelands

    Treesearch

    Thomas Scott; Pey-Yi Lee; Kerry Paggett; Ryan Carney; Stan Husted; Walter Koenig

    2008-01-01

    West Nile virus has undergone an unprecedented rate of infection in North America, sweeping from New York to California in four years. It attacked an exceptionally broad range of hosts/vectors over a broad geographic area. In 2004, the California Department of Health Services received approximately 98,000 reports of dead birds, representing tens of millions of birds...

  18. West Nile virus activity--United States, August 11-17, 2004.

    PubMed

    2004-08-20

    During August 11-17, a total of 194 cases of human West Nile virus (WNV) illness were reported from 17 states (Alabama, Arizona, California, Colorado, Florida, Illinois, Louisiana, Maryland, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, New Mexico, Ohio, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, and Virginia).

  19. West Nile virus activity--United States, October 6-12, 2004.

    PubMed

    2004-10-15

    During October 6-12, a total of 86 cases of human West Nile virus (WNV) illness were reported from 18 states (Arizona, Florida, Illinois, Kansas, Louisiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, and Utah).

  20. West Nile virus activity--United States, September 22-28, 2004.

    PubMed

    2004-10-01

    During September 22-28, a total of 180 cases of human West Nile virus (WNV) illness were reported in the District of Columbia (DC) and 24 states (Alabama, Arizona, California, Georgia, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Texas, Utah, Wisconsin, and Wyoming).

  1. West Nile virus activity--United States, September 15-21, 2004.

    PubMed

    2004-09-24

    During September 15-21, a total of 218 cases of human West Nile virus (WNV) illness were reported from 21 states (Arizona, California, Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Wisconsin, and Wyoming).

  2. West Nile virus activity--United States, October 20-26, 2004.

    PubMed

    2004-10-29

    During October 20-26, a total of 80 cases of human West Nile virus (WNV) illness were reported from 16 states (Arizona, California, Florida, Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New York, Ohio, South Dakota, Texas, and Utah).

  3. West Nile Virus Documented in Indonesia from Acute Febrile Illness Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Myint, Khin Saw Aye; Kosasih, Herman; Artika, I. Made; Perkasa, Aditya; Puspita, Mita; Ma'roef, Chairin Nisa; Antonjaya, Ungke; Ledermann, Jeremy P.; Powers, Ann M.; Alisjahbana, Bachti

    2014-01-01

    We report the presence of West Nile virus in a cryopreserved, dengue-negative serum specimen collected from an acute fever case on Java in 2004–2005. The strain belongs to genotype lineage 2, which has recently been implicated in human outbreaks in Europe. PMID:24420775

  4. Rapid bilateral intraocular cocktail sampling method for West Nile virus detection in dead corvids.

    PubMed

    Lim, Arleen K; Dunne, Gundula; Gurfield, Nikos

    2009-07-01

    Corvids can be a sensitive indicator for West Nile virus (WNV) prevalence and are a component of many WNV surveillance programs. An improved sampling procedure using a bilateral intraocular cocktail (BIC) was developed for testing corvid carcasses for WNV. This new procedure was substantially faster than harvesting internal organs, required less specialized equipment and training, and yielded excellent diagnostic sensitivity.

  5. Close Relationship between West Nile Virus from Turkey and Lineage 1 Strain from Central African Republic

    PubMed Central

    Ergunay, Koray; Bakonyi, Tamas; Nowotny, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    We sequenced West Nile viruses (WNVs) from Turkey and found close relationships to WNV lineage 1 strain ArB310/67 from the Central African Republic, distinct from other WNVs circulating in the Mediterranean Basin, eastern Europe, and the Middle East. These findings suggest independent introductions of WNV strains from Africa to the Middle East. PMID:25625703

  6. Surveillance for West Nile Virus in Dead Wild Birds, South Korea, 2005–2008

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Ju; Nah, Jin-Ju; Lee, Hang; Kim, Young-Jun; Moon, Jin-San; Cho, In-Soo; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Joong-Bok

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the possibility of West Nile virus (WNV) introduction into South Korea, the National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service has conducted nationwide surveillance of WNV activity in dead wild birds since 2005. Surveillance conducted during 2005–2008 found no evidence of WNV activity. PMID:21291611

  7. West Nile virus epizootiology, central Red River Valley, North Dakota and Minnesota, 2002-2005.

    PubMed

    Bell, Jeffrey A; Brewer, Christina M; Mickelson, Nathan J; Garman, Gabriel W; Vaughan, Jefferson A

    2006-08-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) epizootiology was monitored from 2002 through 2005 in the area surrounding Grand Forks, North Dakota. Mosquitoes were tested for infection, and birds were surveyed for antibodies. In 2003, WNV was epidemic; in 2004, cool temperatures precluded WNV amplification; and in 2005, immunity in passerines decreased, but did not preclude, WNV amplification.

  8. West Nile Virus Epizootiology, Central Red River Valley, North Dakota and Minnesota, 2002–2005

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Jeffrey A.; Brewer, Christina M.; Mickelson, Nathan J.; Garman, Gabriel W.

    2006-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) epizootiology was monitored from 2002 through 2005 in the area surrounding Grand Forks, North Dakota. Mosquitoes were tested for infection, and birds were surveyed for antibodies. In 2003, WNV was epidemic; in 2004, cool temperatures precluded WNV amplification; and in 2005, immunity in passerines decreased, but did not preclude, WNV amplification. PMID:16965705

  9. Dead Crow Reports and Location of Human West Nile Virus Cases, Chicago, 2002

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Roderick C.; Gibbs, Kevin; Paul, William

    2004-01-01

    During the summer and fall of 2002, an epidemic (223 cases) and epizootic of West Nile virus infections occurred in Chicago. Retrospective spatial analysis demonstrated that age-adjusted human case rates were three times higher inside geographic areas with high early-season crow deaths than outside these areas. PMID:15200837

  10. Detecting West Nile virus in owls and raptors by an antigen-capture assay.

    PubMed

    Gancz, Ady Y; Campbell, Douglas G; Barker, Ian K; Lindsay, Robbin; Hunter, Bruce

    2004-12-01

    We evaluated a rapid antigen-capture assay (VecTest) for detection of West Nile virus in oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs, collected at necropsy from owls (N = 93) and raptors (N = 27). Sensitivity was 93.5%-95.2% for northern owl species but <42.9% for all other species. Specificity was 100% for owls and 85.7% for raptors.

  11. Overwintering of West Nile virus in Southern California.

    PubMed

    Reisen, William K; Fang, Ying; Lothrop, Hugh D; Martinez, Vincent M; Wilson, Jennifer; Oconnor, Paul; Carney, Ryan; Cahoon-Young, Barbara; Shafii, Marzieh; Brault, Aaron C

    2006-03-01

    West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) invaded southern California during 2003, successfully overwintered, amplified to epidemic levels, and then dispersed to every county in the state. Although surveillance programs successfully tracked and measured these events, mechanisms that allowed the efficient overwintering and subsequent amplification of WNV have not been elucidated. Our current research provided evidence for three mechanisms whereby WNV may have persisted in southern California during the winters of 2003-2004 and 2004-2005: 1) continued enzootic transmission, 2) vertical transmission by Culex mosquitoes, and 3) chronic infection in birds. WNV was detected in 140 dead birds comprising 32 species, including 60 dead American crows, thereby verifying transmission during the November-March winter period. Dead American crows provide evidence of recent transmission because this species always succumbs rapidly after infection. However, WNV RNA was not detected concurrently in 43,043 reproductively active female mosquitoes comprising 11 species and tested in 1,258 pools or antibody in sera from 190 sentinel chickens maintained in 19 flocks. Although efficient vertical transmission by WNV was demonstrated experimentally for Culex tarsalis Coquillett infected per os, 369 females collected diapausing in Kern County and tested in 32 pools were negative for WNV. Vertical transmission was detected in Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say adults reared from field-collected immatures collected from Kern County and Los Angeles during the summer transmission period. Chronic infection was detected by finding WNV RNA in 34 of 82 birds that were inoculated with WNV experimentally, held for >6 wk after infection, and then necropsied. Frequent detection of WNV RNA in kidney tissue in experimentally infected birds >6 wk postinfection may explain, in part, the repeated detection of WNV RNA in dead birds recovered during winter, especially in species such as

  12. Context-Dependent Cleavage of the Capsid Protein by the West Nile Virus Protease Modulates the Efficiency of Virus Assembly

    PubMed Central

    VanBlargan, Laura A.; Davis, Kaitlin A.; Dowd, Kimberly A.; Akey, David L.; Smith, Janet L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The molecular mechanisms that define the specificity of flavivirus RNA encapsulation are poorly understood. Virions composed of the structural proteins of one flavivirus and the genomic RNA of a heterologous strain can be assembled and have been developed as live attenuated vaccine candidates for several flaviviruses. In this study, we discovered that not all combinations of flavivirus components are possible. While a West Nile virus (WNV) subgenomic RNA could readily be packaged by structural proteins of the DENV2 strain 16681, production of infectious virions with DENV2 strain New Guinea C (NGC) structural proteins was not possible, despite the very high amino acid identity between these viruses. Mutagenesis studies identified a single residue (position 101) of the DENV capsid (C) protein as the determinant for heterologous virus production. C101 is located at the P1′ position of the NS2B/3 protease cleavage site at the carboxy terminus of the C protein. WNV NS2B/3 cleavage of the DENV structural polyprotein was possible when a threonine (Thr101 in strain 16681) but not a serine (Ser101 in strain NGC) occupied the P1′ position, a finding not predicted by in vitro protease specificity studies. Critically, both serine and threonine were tolerated at the P1′ position of WNV capsid. More extensive mutagenesis revealed the importance of flanking residues within the polyprotein in defining the cleavage specificity of the WNV protease. A more detailed understanding of the context dependence of viral protease specificity may aid the development of new protease inhibitors and provide insight into associated patterns of drug resistance. IMPORTANCE West Nile virus (WNV) and dengue virus (DENV) are mosquito-borne flaviviruses that cause considerable morbidity and mortality in humans. No specific antiflavivirus therapeutics are available for treatment of infection. Proteolytic processing of the flavivirus polyprotein is an essential step in the replication

  13. Interventions against West Nile virus, Rift Valley fever virus, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus: where are we?

    PubMed

    Kortekaas, Jeroen; Ergönül, Onder; Moormann, Rob J M

    2010-10-01

    ARBO-ZOONET is an international network financed by the European Commission's seventh framework program. The major goal of this initiative is capacity building for the control of emerging viral vector-borne zoonotic diseases, with a clear focus on West Nile virus, Rift Valley fever virus, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. To evaluate the status quo of control measures against these viruses, an ARBO-ZOONET meeting was held in Istanbul, Turkey, from 19 to 20 November 2009. The symposium consisted of three themes: (1) vaccines: new and existing ones; (2) antivirals: existing and new developments; and (3) antivector vaccines. In addition, a satellite workshop was held on epidemiology and diagnosis. The meeting brought together foremost international experts on the subjects from both within and without the ARBO-ZOONET consortium. This report highlights selected results from these presentations and major conclusions that emanated from the discussions held.

  14. The capsid-coding region hairpin element (cHP) is a critical determinant of dengue virus and West Nile virus RNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Clyde, Karen; Barrera, Julio; Harris, Eva

    2008-09-30

    Dengue virus (DENV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are members of the Flavivirus genus of positive-strand RNA viruses. RNA sequences and structures, primarily in the untranslated regions, have been shown to modulate flaviviral gene expression and genome replication. Previously, we demonstrated that a structure in the DENV coding region (cHP) enhances translation start codon selection and is required for viral replication. Here we further characterize the role of the cHP in the DENV life cycle. We demonstrate that the cHP is required for efficient viral RNA synthesis in a sequence-independent manner. Viruses with a disrupted cHP are rescued by a spontaneous compensatory mutation that restabilizes the structure. Furthermore, the cHP, which is predicted to be conserved among arthropod-borne flaviviruses, is required for WNV replication. We propose that the cHP is a multifunctional determinant of flavivirus replication, functioning in both translation and RNA synthesis.

  15. Detection and sequencing of West Nile virus RNA from human urine and serum samples during the 2014 seasonal period.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Anna; Bán, Enikő; Nagy, Orsolya; Ferenczi, Emőke; Farkas, Ágnes; Bányai, Krisztián; Farkas, Szilvia; Takács, Mária

    2016-07-01

    West Nile virus, a widely distributed mosquito-borne flavivirus, is responsible for numerous animal and human infections in Europe, Africa and the Americas. In Hungary, the average number of human infections falls between 10 and 20 cases each year. The severity of clinically manifesting infections varies widely from the milder form of West Nile fever to West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND). In routine laboratory diagnosis of human West Nile virus infections, serological methods are mainly applied due to the limited duration of viremia. However, recent studies suggest that detection of West Nile virus RNA in urine samples may be useful as a molecular diagnostic test for these infections. The Hungarian National Reference Laboratory for Viral Zoonoses serologically confirmed eleven acute human infections during the 2014 seasonal period. In three patients with neurological symptoms, viral RNA was detected from both urine and serum specimens, albeit for a longer period and in higher copy numbers with urine. Phylogenetic analysis of the NS3 genomic region of three strains and the complete genome of one selected strain demonstrated that all three patients had lineage-2 West Nile virus infections. Our findings reaffirm the utility of viral RNA detection in urine as a molecular diagnostic procedure for diagnosis of West Nile virus infections.

  16. Interferon-λ restricts West Nile virus neuroinvasion by tightening the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Lazear, Helen M; Daniels, Brian P; Pinto, Amelia K; Huang, Albert C; Vick, Sarah C; Doyle, Sean E; Gale, Michael; Klein, Robyn S; Diamond, Michael S

    2015-04-22

    Although interferon-λ [also known as type III interferon or interleukin-28 (IL-28)/IL-29] restricts infection by several viruses, its inhibitory mechanism has remained uncertain. We used recombinant interferon-λ and mice lacking the interferon-λ receptor (IFNLR1) to evaluate the effect of interferon-λ on infection with West Nile virus, an encephalitic flavivirus. Cell culture studies in mouse keratinocytes and dendritic cells showed no direct antiviral effect of exogenous interferon-λ, even though expression of interferon-stimulated genes was induced. We observed no differences in West Nile virus burden between wild-type and Ifnlr1(-/-) mice in the draining lymph nodes, spleen, or blood. We detected increased West Nile virus infection in the brain and spinal cord of Ifnlr1(-/-) mice, yet this was not associated with a direct antiviral effect in mouse neurons. Instead, we observed an increase in blood-brain barrier permeability in Ifnlr1(-/-) mice. Treatment of mice with pegylated interferon-λ2 resulted in decreased blood-brain barrier permeability, reduced West Nile virus infection in the brain without affecting viremia, and improved survival against lethal virus challenge. An in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier showed that interferon-λ signaling in mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells increased transendothelial electrical resistance, decreased virus movement across the barrier, and modulated tight junction protein localization in a protein synthesis- and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1)-independent manner. Our data establish an indirect antiviral function of interferon-λ in which noncanonical signaling through IFNLR1 tightens the blood-brain barrier and restricts viral neuroinvasion and pathogenesis. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. Bagaza virus inhibits Japanese encephalitis & West Nile virus replication in Culex tritaeniorhynchus & Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Sudeep, A B; Bondre, V P; George, R; Ghodke, Y S; Aher, R V; Gokhale, M D

    2015-12-01

    Studies have shown that certain flaviviruses influence susceptibility of mosquitoes by inhibiting/enhancing replication of important flaviviruses. Hence, a study was designed to determine whether Bagaza virus (BAGV), a flavivirus isolated from Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes in India, alters susceptibility of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes to Japanese encephalitis (JEV) and West Nile viruses (WNV). JEV and WNV infection in Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in the presence of BAGV was carried out by intrathoracic (IT) inoculation and oral feeding methods. Mosquitoes were infected with BAGV and WNV/JEV either simultaneously or in a phased manner, in which mosquitoes were infected with BAGV by IT inoculation followed by super-infection with JEV/WNV after eight days post-infection (PI). JEV and WNV yield on 7 [th] and 14 [th] day PI after super-infection was determined by 50 per cent tissue culture infective dose (TCID 50 ) method. In Cx. tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes, prior infection with BAGV significantly reduced JEV and WNV replication while in Cx. quinquefasciatus, BAGV influence was only seen with WNV. Reduction in virus titre was observed in IT inoculated and oral fed mosquitoes irrespective of the infection mode. JEV replication was also found reduced in Cx. tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes persistently infected with BAGV at passage four. BAGV infection in Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes altered their susceptibility to JEV and WNV producing low virus yield. However, the role of BAGV in inhibiting JEV/WNV replication in field mosquitoes needs further investigations.

  18. West Nile virus and other arboviral diseases--United States, 2012.

    PubMed

    2013-06-28

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes and ticks. West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the United States. However, several other arboviruses also cause sporadic cases and seasonal outbreaks of neuroinvasive disease (e.g., meningitis, encephalitis, and acute flaccid paralysis). In 2012, CDC received reports of 5,780 nationally notifiable arboviral disease cases (excluding dengue). A large multistate outbreak of WNV disease accounted for 5,674 (98%) of reported cases, the highest number reported since 2003. Other reported etiologies included Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), Powassan virus (POWV), St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), and California serogroup viruses such as La Crosse virus (LACV) and Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV). Arboviruses continue to cause serious illness in substantial numbers of persons in the United States. Maintaining surveillance remains important to identify outbreaks and guide prevention efforts.

  19. Epidemiological and clinical aspects on West Nile virus, a globally emerging pathogen.

    PubMed

    David, Shoba; Abraham, Asha Mary

    2016-08-01

    Since the isolation of West Nile virus (WNV) in 1937, in Uganda, it has spread globally, causing significant morbidity and mortality. While birds serve as amplifier hosts, mosquitoes of the Culex genus function as vectors. Humans and horses are dead end hosts. The clinical manifestations of West Nile infection in humans range from asymptomatic illness to West Nile encephalitis. The laboratory offers an array of tests, the preferred method being detection of RNA and serum IgM for WNV, which, if detected, confirms the clinical diagnosis. Although no definitive antiviral therapy and vaccine are available for humans, many approaches are being studied. This article will review the current literature of the natural cycle, geographical distribution, virology, replication cycle, molecular epidemiology, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, clinical manifestations, blood donor screening for WNV, treatment, prevention and vaccines.

  20. Clinical features of West Nile virus epidemic in Dallas, Texas, 2012.

    PubMed

    Racsa, Lori; Gander, Rita; Chung, Wendy; Southern, Paul; Le, Jade; Beal, Stacy; Lee, Francesca; Cavuoti, Dominick; Reisch, Joan; Alatoom, Adnan

    2014-02-01

    In 2012, Texas has reported the highest number of West Nile virus (WNV) cases in the United States to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In this report, we conducted a retrospective chart review of 57 patients with WNV disease and analyzed the clinical features of these patients. Our results revealed that 25 (44%) patients were diagnosed with West Nile fever and 32 (56%) with West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND). The median age for patients with WNND was 54.5 years, and those with encephalitis were more likely to be >60 years old. Pre-existing conditions such as hypertension and diabetes were more frequent in patients with WNND. Testing both serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for antibodies diagnosed more cases of WNND than just testing serum or CSF alone. The increasing number of WNV cases during this epidemic highlights the need to increase efforts to control mosquito populations and educate the general public. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Climate change and West Nile virus in a highly endemic region of North America.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen C; Jenkins, Emily; Epp, Tasha; Waldner, Cheryl; Curry, Philip S; Soos, Catherine

    2013-07-22

    The Canadian prairie provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta have reported the highest human incidence of clinical cases of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in Canada. The primary vector for WVN in this region is the mosquito Culex tarsalis. This study used constructed models and biological thresholds to predict the spatial and temporal distribution of Cx. tarsalis and WNV infection rate in the prairie provinces under a range of potential future climate and habitat conditions. We selected one median and two extreme outcome scenarios to represent future climate conditions in the 2020 (2010-2039), 2050 (2040-2069) and 2080 (2070-2099) time slices. In currently endemic regions, the projected WNV infection rate under the median outcome scenario in 2050 raised 17.91 times (ranged from 1.29-27.45 times for all scenarios and time slices) comparing to current climate conditions. Seasonal availability of Cx. tarsalis infected with WNV extended from June to August to include May and September. Moreover, our models predicted northward range expansion for Cx. tarsalis (1.06-2.56 times the current geographic area) and WNV (1.08-2.34 times the current geographic area). These findings predict future public and animal health risk of WNV in the Canadian prairie provinces.

  2. Climate Change and West Nile Virus in a Highly Endemic Region of North America

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen C.; Jenkins, Emily; Epp, Tasha; Waldner, Cheryl; Curry, Philip S.; Soos, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The Canadian prairie provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta have reported the highest human incidence of clinical cases of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in Canada. The primary vector for WVN in this region is the mosquito Culex tarsalis. This study used constructed models and biological thresholds to predict the spatial and temporal distribution of Cx. tarsalis and WNV infection rate in the prairie provinces under a range of potential future climate and habitat conditions. We selected one median and two extreme outcome scenarios to represent future climate conditions in the 2020 (2010–2039), 2050 (2040–2069) and 2080 (2070–2099) time slices. In currently endemic regions, the projected WNV infection rate under the median outcome scenario in 2050 raised 17.91 times (ranged from 1.29-27.45 times for all scenarios and time slices) comparing to current climate conditions. Seasonal availability of Cx. tarsalis infected with WNV extended from June to August to include May and September. Moreover, our models predicted northward range expansion for Cx. tarsalis (1.06–2.56 times the current geographic area) and WNV (1.08–2.34 times the current geographic area). These findings predict future public and animal health risk of WNV in the Canadian prairie provinces. PMID:23880729

  3. Blood donor screening for West Nile virus (WNV) revealed acute Usutu virus (USUV) infection, Germany, September 2016

    PubMed Central

    Cadar, Daniel; Maier, Philipp; Müller, Susanne; Kress, Julia; Chudy, Michael; Bialonski, Alexandra; Schlaphof, Alexander; Jansen, Stephanie; Jöst, Hanna; Tannich, Egbert; Runkel, Stefan; Hitzler, Walter E; Hutschenreuter, Gabriele; Wessiepe, Martina; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    Between 1 June and 31 December 2016, 13,023 blood donations from the University Hospital Aachen in Germany were routinely screened for West Nile virus (WNV) RNA using the cobas TaqScreen WNV Test. On 28 September 2016, one blood donor was tested positive. Subsequent analysis revealed an acute Usutu virus (USUV) infection. During the ongoing USUV epizootics in Germany, blood transfusion services, public health authorities and clinicians should be aware of increased human USUV infections. PMID:28422005

  4. Predicting Zika virus structural biology: Challenges and opportunities for intervention.

    PubMed

    Cox, Bryan D; Stanton, Richard A; Schinazi, Raymond F

    2015-08-01

    Zika virus is an emerging crisis as infection is implicated in severe neurological disorders-Guillain-Barré syndrome and fetal microcephaly. There are currently no treatment options available for Zika virus infection. This virus is part of the flavivirus genus and closely related to Dengue Fever Virus, West Nile Virus, and Japanese Encephalitis Virus. Like other flaviviruses, the Zika virus genome encodes three structural proteins (capsid, precursor membrane, and envelope) and seven nonstructural proteins (NS1, NS2A, NS2B, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, and NS5). Currently, no structural information exists on these viral proteins to facilitate vaccine design and rational drug discovery. Structures for all Zika virus viral proteins were predicted using experimental templates available from closely related viruses using the online SwissModel server. These homology models were compared to drug targets from other viruses using Visual Molecular Dynamics Multiseq software. Sequential alignment of all Zika virus polyproteins was performed using Clustal Omega to identify mutations in specific viral proteins implicated in pathogenesis. The precursor membrane, envelope, and NS1 proteins are unique to Zika virus highlighting possible challenges in vaccine design. Sequential differences between Zika virus strains occur at critical positions on precursor membrane, envelope, NS2A, NS3, NS4B, and NS5 as potential loci for differential pathogenesis. Druggable pockets in Dengue Fever Virus and West Nile Virus NS3 and NS5 are retained in predicted Zika virus structures. Lead candidates for Zika virus can likely be established using NS3 and NS5 inhibitors from other flaviviruses, and the structures presented can provide opportunities for Zika virus intervention strategies. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. American Society for Reproductive Medicine/Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology position statement on West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    2006-11-01

    Although there is currently no definitive evidence linking West Nile virus (WNV) transmission with reproductive cells, it is recommended that practitioners defer gamete donors who have confirmed or suspected WNV infections.

  6. West Nile virus infection in free-ranging squirrels in Illinois.

    PubMed

    Heinz-Taheny, Kathleen M; Andrews, John J; Kinsel, Michael J; Pessier, Allan P; Pinkerton, Marie E; Lemberger, Karin Y; Novak, Robert J; Dizikes, George J; Edwards, Eric; Komar, Nicholas

    2004-05-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) infection was diagnosed in 13 gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) and 3 fox squirrels (Sciurus niger) that were observed with neurologic signs before death or found dead. All 16 had gliosis throughout all sections of the brain. Most had lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis or meningoencephalitis, many with admixed neutrophils. Neuronal necrosis and neuronophagia were also prominent features. West Nile virus antigen was demonstrated in the brain, spleen, heart or kidney in 10 of 13 gray squirrels and 3 of 3 fox squirrels by immunohistochemistry. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) confirmed the presence of WNV in the brain or spinal cord of 10/10 gray squirrels and 1/3 fox squirrels tested. Viral levels were quantified in various tissues of selected gray squirrels, and titers were highest in spleen and brain, with no virus detected in serum. This is the first description of lesions associated with WNV infection in gray and fox squirrels.

  7. Effects of temperature on emergence and seasonality of West Nile virus in California.

    PubMed

    Hartley, David M; Barker, Christopher M; Le Menach, Arnaud; Niu, Tianchan; Gaff, Holly D; Reisen, William K

    2012-05-01

    Temperature has played a critical role in the spatiotemporal dynamics of West Nile virus transmission throughout California from its introduction in 2003 through establishment by 2009. We compared two novel mechanistic measures of transmission risk, the temperature-dependent ratio of virus extrinsic incubation period to the mosquito gonotrophic period (BT), and the fundamental reproductive ratio (R(0)) based on a mathematical model, to analyze spatiotemporal patterns of receptivity to viral amplification. Maps of BT and R(0) were created at 20-km scale and compared throughout California to seroconversions in sentinel chicken flocks at half-month intervals. Overall, estimates of BT and R(0) agreed with intensity of transmission measured by the frequency of sentinel chicken seroconversions. Mechanistic measures such as these are important for understanding how temperature affects the spatiotemporal dynamics of West Nile virus transmission and for delineating risk estimates useful to inform vector control agency intervention decisions and communicate outbreak potential.

  8. Effects of Temperature on Emergence and Seasonality of West Nile Virus in California

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, David M.; Barker, Christopher M.; Le Menach, Arnaud; Niu, Tianchan; Gaff, Holly D.; Reisen, William K.

    2012-01-01

    Temperature has played a critical role in the spatiotemporal dynamics of West Nile virus transmission throughout California from its introduction in 2003 through establishment by 2009. We compared two novel mechanistic measures of transmission risk, the temperature-dependent ratio of virus extrinsic incubation period to the mosquito gonotrophic period (BT), and the fundamental reproductive ratio (R0) based on a mathematical model, to analyze spatiotemporal patterns of receptivity to viral amplification. Maps of BT and R0 were created at 20-km scale and compared throughout California to seroconversions in sentinel chicken flocks at half-month intervals. Overall, estimates of BT and R0 agreed with intensity of transmission measured by the frequency of sentinel chicken seroconversions. Mechanistic measures such as these are important for understanding how temperature affects the spatiotemporal dynamics of West Nile virus transmission and for delineating risk estimates useful to inform vector control agency intervention decisions and communicate outbreak potential. PMID:22556092

  9. West nile virus disease and other arboviral diseases - United States, 2011.

    PubMed

    2012-07-13

    Arthropodborne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes and ticks. Symptomatic infections most often manifest as a systemic febrile illness and, less commonly, as neuroinvasive disease (e.g., meningitis, encephalitis, or acute flaccid paralysis). West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the United States. However, several other arboviruses also cause seasonal outbreaks and sporadic cases. In 2011, CDC received reports of 871 cases of nationally notifiable arboviral diseases (excluding dengue); etiological agents included WNV (712 cases), La Crosse virus (LACV) (130), Powassan virus (POWV) (16), St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) (six), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) (four), and Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV) (three). Of these, 624 (72%) were classified as neuroinvasive disease, for a national incidence of 0.20 per 100,000 population. WNV and other arboviruses continue to cause focal outbreaks and severe illness in substantial numbers of persons in the United States.

  10. Occurrence of West Nile Virus Antibodies in Wild Birds, Horses, and Humans in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Niczyporuk, Jowita Samanta; Samorek-Salamonowicz, Elżbieta; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Pancewicz, Sławomir Andrzej; Kozdruń, Wojciech; Czekaj, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Serum samples of 474 wild birds, 378 horses, and 42 humans with meningitis and lymphocytic meningitis were collected between 2010 and 2014 from different areas of Poland. West Nile virus (WNV) antibodies were detected using competition enzyme linked immunosorbent assays: ELISA-1 ID Screen West Nile Competition, IDvet, ELISA-2 ID Screen West Nile IgM Capture, and ELISA-3 Ingezim West Nile Compac. The antibodies were found in 63 (13.29%) out of 474 wild bird serum samples and in one (0.26%) out of 378 horse serum samples. Fourteen (33.33%) out of 42 sera from patients were positive against WNV antigen and one serum was doubtful. Positive samples obtained in birds were next retested with virus microneutralisation test to confirm positive results and cross-reactions with other antigens of the Japanese encephalitis complex. We suspect that positive serological results in humans, birds, and horses indicate that WNV can be somehow closely related with the ecosystem in Poland. PMID:25866767

  11. Occurrence of West Nile virus antibodies in wild birds, horses, and humans in Poland.

    PubMed

    Niczyporuk, Jowita Samanta; Samorek-Salamonowicz, Elżbieta; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Pancewicz, Sławomir Andrzej; Kozdruń, Wojciech; Czekaj, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Serum samples of 474 wild birds, 378 horses, and 42 humans with meningitis and lymphocytic meningitis were collected between 2010 and 2014 from different areas of Poland. West Nile virus (WNV) antibodies were detected using competition enzyme linked immunosorbent assays: ELISA-1 ID Screen West Nile Competition, IDvet, ELISA-2 ID Screen West Nile IgM Capture, and ELISA-3 Ingezim West Nile Compac. The antibodies were found in 63 (13.29%) out of 474 wild bird serum samples and in one (0.26%) out of 378 horse serum samples. Fourteen (33.33%) out of 42 sera from patients were positive against WNV antigen and one serum was doubtful. Positive samples obtained in birds were next retested with virus microneutralisation test to confirm positive results and cross-reactions with other antigens of the Japanese encephalitis complex. We suspect that positive serological results in humans, birds, and horses indicate that WNV can be somehow closely related with the ecosystem in Poland.

  12. Zika virus infection confers protection against West Nile virus challenge in mice.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Calvo, Ángela; Blázquez, Ana-Belén; Escribano-Romero, Estela; Merino-Ramos, Teresa; Saiz, Juan-Carlos; Martín-Acebes, Miguel A; Jiménez de Oya, Nereida

    2017-09-20

    Flaviviruses are RNA viruses that constitute a worrisome threat to global human and animal health. Zika virus (ZIKV), which was initially reported to cause a mild disease, recently spread in the Americas, infecting millions of people. During this recent epidemic, ZIKV infection has been linked to serious neurological diseases and birth defects, specifically Guillain-Barrè syndrome (GBS) and microcephaly. Because information about ZIKV immunity remains scarce, we assessed the humoral response of immunocompetent mice to infection with three viral strains of diverse geographical origin (Africa, Asia and America). No infected animals showed any sign of disease or died after infection. However, specific neutralizing antibodies were elicited in all infected mice. Considering the rapid expansion of ZIKV throughout the American continent and its co-circulation with other medically relevant flaviviruses, such as West Nile virus (WNV), the induction of protective immunity between ZIKV and WNV was analyzed. Remarkably, protection after challenge with WNV was observed in mice previously infected with ZIKV, as survival rates were significantly higher than in control mice. Moreover, previous ZIKV infection enhanced the humoral immune response against WNV. These findings may be relevant in geographical areas where both ZIKV and WNV co-circulate, as well as for the future development of broad-spectrum flavivirus vaccines.

  13. Modeling dynamics of culex pipiens complex populations and assessing abatement strategies for West Nile Virus.

    PubMed

    Pawelek, Kasia A; Niehaus, Patrick; Salmeron, Cristian; Hager, Elizabeth J; Hunt, Gregg J

    2014-01-01

    The primary mosquito species associated with underground stormwater systems in the United States are the Culex pipiens complex species. This group represents important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV) throughout regions of the continental U.S. In this study, we designed a mathematical model and compared it with surveillance data for the Cx. pipiens complex collected in Beaufort County, South Carolina. Based on the best fit of the model to the data, we estimated parameters associated with the effectiveness of public health insecticide (adulticide) treatments (primarily pyrethrin products) as well as the birth, maturation, and death rates of immature and adult Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes. We used these estimates for modeling the spread of WNV to obtain more reliable disease outbreak predictions and performed numerical simulations to test various mosquito abatement strategies. We demonstrated that insecticide treatments produced significant reductions in the Cx. pipiens complex populations. However, abatement efforts were effective for approximately one day and the vector mosquitoes rebounded until the next treatment. These results suggest that frequent insecticide applications are necessary to control these mosquitoes. We derived the basic reproductive number (ℜ0) to predict the conditions under which disease outbreaks are likely to occur and to evaluate mosquito abatement strategies. We concluded that enhancing the mosquito death rate results in lower values of ℜ0, and if ℜ0<1, then an epidemic will not occur. Our modeling results provide insights about control strategies of the vector populations and, consequently, a potential decrease in the risk of a WNV outbreak.

  14. Serosurvey for West Nile Virus Antibodies in Steller's Jays ( Cyanocitta stelleri ) Captured in Coastal California, USA.

    PubMed

    West, Elena; Hofmeister, Erik; Peery, M Zach

    2017-07-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was first detected in New York in 1999 and, during its expansion across the continental US, southern Canada, and Mexico, members of the Corvidae (ravens, crows, magpies, and jays) were frequently infected and highly susceptible to the virus. As part of a behavioral study of Steller's Jays ( Cyanocitta stelleri ) conducted from 2011-14 in the coastal California counties of San Mateo and Santa Cruz, 380 Steller's Jays were captured and tested for antibodies to WNV. Using the wild bird immunoglobulin G enzyme linked immunoassay, we failed to detect antibodies to WNV, indicating either that there was no previous exposure to the virus or that exposed birds had died.

  15. Comparisons by peptide mapping of proteins specified by Kunjin, West Nile and Murray Valley encephalitis viruses.

    PubMed

    Wright, P J; Warr, H M; Westaway, E G

    1983-12-01

    The relationships among virus-specified proteins of Murray Valley encephalitis (MVE), Kunjin (KUN) and West Nile (WN) viruses were investigated by peptide mapping of exhaustive proteolytic digests of radioactively labelled polypeptides. Maps of the three structural proteins (E, C and M) derived from purified virions and of two non-structural proteins (NV5 and NV4) obtained from infected cells were compared. For each polypeptide considered, the peptide maps of the KUN and WN virus-specified proteins were more similar to each other than either was to the map of the corresponding MVE virus-specified protein. Since the polypeptides considered together account for approximately 60% of the coding capacity of the flavivirus genome, our results suggested that, for the three viruses examined, the genomes of KUN and WN viruses are the most closely related.

  16. Evaluating red-cockaded woodpeckers for exposure to West Nile Virus and blood parasites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusek, R.J.; Richardson, D.; Egstad, K.F.; Heisey, Dennis M.

    2006-01-01

    A marked decline in the Picoides borealis (Red-cockaded Woodpecker [RCW]) population at Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge, MS, was observed in 2002. Demographic changes - including absence of hatch-year birds, decreases in size of known groups, and loss of known groups-were identified during annual fall surveys and are uncharacteristic of RCW populations. In 2003, a serosurvey of 28 adult RCWs was conducted to investigate the presence of West Nile virus (WNV) exposure in the population, possibly providing insight into whether WNV may have been responsible for this decline. Blood smears were also examined from these birds for blood parasites. We found no evidence of West Nile virus exposure or blood parasites in any of the RCWs sampled. Further monitoring of the RCW population and WNV activity in other species at Noxubee NWR is recommended to further evaluate the potential role of WNV and blood parasites in their decline.

  17. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Bloodmeal Sources During a Period of West Nile Virus Transmission in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    BARRERA, ROBERTO; AMADOR, MANUEL; YOUNG, GINGER; KOMAR, NICHOLAS

    2015-01-01

    Host bloodmeals of indigenous Caribbean mosquitoes have not been studied previously. We identified vertebrate DNA in 90 blood-engorged mosquitoes belonging to four genera (Aedes, Culex, Deinocerites, and Uranotaenia) and 12 species that were collected in Puerto Rico within a geographic and temporal focus of West Nile virus transmission in 2007. It was found that 62 (68.8%) bloodmeals were from reptiles, 18 (20.0%) from birds, and 10 (11.1%) from mammals. Only one bloodmeal of 18 derived from Culex (Culex) species was passerine, suggesting a preference for nonpasserine birds and other vertebrates (i.e., reptiles) among the candidate WNV vectors. We interpret the results with respect to vectorial capacity for West Nile virus, an emerging arbovirus throughout the Caribbean Basin. PMID:21661334

  18. Prevalence of West Nile virus in migratory birds during spring and fall migration.

    PubMed

    Dusek, Robert J; McLean, Robert G; Kramer, Laura D; Ubico, Sonya R; Dupuis, Alan P; Ebel, Gregory D; Guptill, Stephen C

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the role of migratory birds in the dissemination of West Nile virus (WNV), we measured the prevalence of infectious WNV and specific WNV neutralizing antibodies in birds, principally Passeriformes, during spring and fall migrations in the Atlantic and Mississippi flyways from 2001-2003. Blood samples were obtained from 13,403 birds, representing 133 species. Specific WNV neutralizing antibody was detected in 254 resident and migratory birds, representing 39 species, and was most commonly detected in northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) (9.8%, N = 762) and gray catbirds (Dumetella carolinensis) (3.2%, N = 3188). West Nile virus viremias were detected in 19 birds, including 8 gray catbirds, and only during the fall migratory period. These results provide additional evidence that migratory birds may have been a principal agent for the spread of WNV in North America and provide data on the occurrence of WNV in a variety of bird species.

  19. Serological detection of St. Louis encephalitis virus and West Nile virus in equines from Santa Fe, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Tauro, Laura; Marino, Betina; Diaz, Luis Adrian; Lucca, Eduardo; Gallozo, Debora; Spinsanti, Lorena; Contigiani, Marta

    2012-06-01

    St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) present ecological and antigenic similarities and are responsible for serious human diseases. In addition, WNV is a significant pathogen in terms of equine health. The purpose of our study was to analyse the seroprevalence of SLEV and WNV in equine sera collected in Santa Fe Province, Argentina. The seroprevalence determined using the plaque reduction neutralisation test was 12.2% for SLEV, 16.2% for WNV and 48.6% for a combination of both viruses. These results provide evidence of the co-circulation of SLEV and WNV in equines in Santa Fe.

  20. Serologic evidence of west nile virus infection in free-ranging mammals, Slidell, Louisiana, 2002.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Gabrielle; Montenieri, John A; Panella, Nicholas A; Langevin, Stan; Lasater, Sarah E; Klenk, Kaci; Kile, James C; Komar, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    After an outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) infections in Slidell, Louisiana, in 2002, we detected neutralizing antibodies to WNV in 13 of 120 mammals, representing five of six species sampled. Seroprevalence was measured in opossum, Didelphis virginiana (75%, n = 8), raccoons, Procyon lotor (60%, n = 5), black rats, Rattus rattus (6%, n = 36), hispid cotton rats, Sigmodon hispidus (4%, n = 24), and eastern gray squirrels, Sciurus carolinensis (2%, n = 43).

  1. Clinical pathology results from cranes with experimental West Nile Virus infection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, Glenn H.

    2011-01-01

    Sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) were vaccinated for and then challenged with West Nile virus. Resulting titers demonstrated protection in the vaccinated-challenged cranes as compared to the unvaccinated-challenged cranes. Clinical pathology results showed challenged cranes, whether vaccinated or not, had a decrease in their hematocrits and an elevation of 2.5-fold in their white blood cell counts as compared to unchallenged control sandhill cranes. No differences were apparent in the differential counts of heterophils and lymphocytes.

  2. Reported Neuroinvasive Cases of West Nile Virus by State, 2002-2014

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This map shows the average annual incidence of neuroinvasive West Nile virus disease in each state, which is calculated as the average number of new cases per 100,000 people per year from 2002 to 2014. The map is based on cases that local and state health departments report to CDC??s national disease tracking system. Neuroinvasive cases are those that affect the brain or cause neurologic dysfunction. For more information: www.epa.gov/climatechange/science/indicators

  3. Statistical Tools for the Interpretation of Enzootic West Nile virus Transmission Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Caillouët, Kevin A; Robertson, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation of enzootic West Nile virus (WNV) surveillance indicators requires little advanced mathematical skill, but greatly enhances the ability of public health officials to prescribe effective WNV management tactics. Stepwise procedures for the calculation of mosquito infection rates (IR) and vector index (VI) are presented alongside statistical tools that require additional computation. A brief review of advantages and important considerations for each statistic's use is provided.

  4. Detecting West Nile Virus in Owls and Raptors by an Antigen-capture Assay

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Douglas G.; Barker, Ian K.; Lindsay, Robbin; Hunter, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated a rapid antigen-capture assay (VecTest) for detection of West Nile virus in oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs, collected at necropsy from owls (N = 93) and raptors (N = 27). Sensitivity was 93.5%–95.2% for northern owl species but <42.9% for all other species. Specificity was 100% for owls and 85.7% for raptors. PMID:15663862

  5. West Nile virus outbreak in the Lombardy region, northern Italy, summer 2013.

    PubMed

    Rovida, Francesca; Sarasini, Antonella; Campanini, Giulia; Percivalle, Elena; Gorini, Giovanna; Mariani, Bianca; Pan, Angelo; Cuzzoli, Antonio; Possenti, Stefano; Manzini, Lisa; Castelli, Francesco; Bossini, Nicola; Grossi, Paolo Antonio; Castilletti, Concetta; Calzolari, Mattia; Lelli, Davide; Piatti, Alessandra; Baldanti, Fausto

    2015-04-01

    In the summer of 2013, an outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) infection occurred in the Lombardy, a region of northern Italy to the west of districts affected by WNV in previous years. Eighteen cases of human WNV infection were diagnosed--10 cases of acute WNV neuroinvasive disease and eight of WNV fever. In the same period, WNV was detected in birds (one crow) in horses (11 cases) and from mosquitoes (six pools).

  6. Host feeding patterns of established and potential mosquito vectors of West Nile virus in the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Apperson, Charles S; Hassan, Hassan K; Harrison, Bruce A; Savage, Harry M; Aspen, Stephen E; Farajollahi, Ary; Crans, Wayne; Daniels, Thomas J; Falco, Richard C; Benedict, Mark; Anderson, Michael; McMillen, Larry; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2004-01-01

    An important variable in determining the vectorial capacity of mosquito species for arthropod-borne infections is the degree of contact of the vector and the vertebrate reservoir. This parameter can be estimated by examining the host-feeding habits of vectors. Serological and polymerase chain reaction based methods have been used to study the host-feedings patterns of 21 mosquito species from New York, New Jersey, and Tennessee, 19 of which previously have been found infected with West Nile virus. Mammalophilic mosquito species in New Jersey and New York fed primarily upon white-tailed deer, while those from Memphis, Tennessee, fed mainly upon domestic dogs. A total of 24 different avian host species were detected among the avian-derived blood meals. American Robin, Northern Cardinal, Northern Mockingbird, Tufted Titmouse, and Brown-headed Cowbird were common avian hosts, while blood meals derived from the American Crow were relatively rare. Although the majority of common host species were potentially among the most abundant birds at each location, the proportion of blood meals from the most commonly fed upon avian species was greater than was predicted based upon the likely abundance of these species alone. These findings suggest that vector species for West Nile virus may preferentially feed upon certain avian hosts.

  7. Host Feeding Patterns of Established and Potential Mosquito Vectors of West Nile Virus in the Eastern United States

    PubMed Central

    APPERSON, CHARLES S.; HASSAN, HASSAN K.; HARRISON, BRUCE A.; SAVAGE, HARRY M.; ASPEN, STEPHEN E.; FARAJOLLAHI, ARY; CRANS, WAYNE; DANIELS, THOMAS J.; FALCO, RICHARD C.; BENEDICT, MARK; ANDERSON, MICHAEL; McMILLEN, LARRY; UNNASCH, THOMAS R.

    2008-01-01

    An important variable in determining the vectorial capacity of mosquito species for arthropod-borne infections is the degree of contact of the vector and the vertebrate reservoir. This parameter can be estimated by examining the host-feeding habits of vectors. Serological and polymerase chain reaction based methods have been used to study the host-feedings patterns of 21 mosquito species from New York, New Jersey, and Tennessee, 19 of which previously have been found infected with West Nile virus. Mammalophilic mosquito species in New Jersey and New York fed primarily upon white-tailed deer, while those from Memphis, Tennessee, fed mainly upon domestic dogs. A total of 24 different avian host species were detected among the avian-derived blood meals. American Robin, Northern Cardinal, Northern Mockingbird, Tufted Titmouse, and Brown-headed Cowbird were common avian hosts, while blood meals derived from the American Crow were relatively rare. Although the majority of common host species were potentially among the most abundant birds at each location, the proportion of blood meals from the most commonly fed upon avian species was greater than was predicted based upon the likely abundance of these species alone. These findings suggest that vector species for West Nile virus may preferentially feed upon certain avian hosts. PMID:15018775

  8. Nanopatch-targeted skin vaccination against West Nile Virus and Chikungunya virus in mice.

    PubMed

    Prow, Tarl W; Chen, Xianfeng; Prow, Natalie A; Fernando, Germain J P; Tan, Cindy S E; Raphael, Anthony P; Chang, David; Ruutu, Merja P; Jenkins, Derek W K; Pyke, Alyssa; Crichton, Michael L; Raphaelli, Kristin; Goh, Lucas Y H; Frazer, Ian H; Roberts, Michael S; Gardner, Joy; Khromykh, Alexander A; Suhrbier, Andreas; Hall, Roy A; Kendall, Mark A F

    2010-08-16

    The 'Nanopatch' (NP) comprises arrays of densely packed projections with a defined geometry and distribution designed to physically target vaccines directly to thousands of epidermal and dermal antigen presenting cells (APCs). These miniaturized arrays are two orders of magnitude smaller than standard needles-which deliver most vaccines-and are also much smaller than current microneedle arrays. The NP is dry-coated with antigen, adjuvant, and/or DNA payloads. After the NP was pressed onto mouse skin, a protein payload co-localized with 91.4 + or - 4.1 APC mm(-2) (or 2925 in total) representing 52% of the delivery sites within the NP contact area, agreeing well with a probability-based model used to guide the device design; it then substantially increases as the antigen diffuses in the skin to many more cells. APC co-localizing with protein payloads rapidly disappears from the application area, suggesting APC migration. The NP also delivers DNA payloads leading to cutaneous expression of encoded proteins within 24 h. The efficiency of NP immunization is demonstrated using an inactivated whole chikungunya virus vaccine and a DNA-delivered attenuated West Nile virus vaccine. The NP thus offers a needle-free, versatile, highly effective vaccine delivery system that is potentially inexpensive and simple to use.

  9. Climatic controls on West Nile virus and Sindbis virus transmission and outbreaks in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Uejio, Christopher K; Kemp, Alan; Comrie, Andrew C

    2012-02-01

    The processes influencing the magnitude of West Nile virus (WNV) transmission from 1 year to the next require thorough investigation. The intensity of WNV transmission is related to the dynamics and interactions between the pathogen, vector, vertebrate hosts, and environment. Climatic variability is one process that can influence interannual disease transmission. South Africa has a long WNV and Sindbis virus (SINV) record where consistent climate and disease relationships can be identified. We relate climate conditions to historic mosquito infection rates. Next, we detect similar associations with reported human outbreaks dating back to 1941. Both concurrent summer precipitation and the change in summer precipitation from the previous to the current summer were strongly associated with WNV and SINV transmission and recorded human outbreaks. Each 100 mm interannual summer precipitation change increased WNV infection rates by 0.39 WNV-positive Culex univittatus/1000 tested Cx. univittatus. An improved understanding of biotic and abiotic disease transmission dynamics may help anticipate and mitigate future outbreaks.

  10. Reduced West Nile Virus Transmission Around Communal Roosts of Great-Tailed Grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus)

    PubMed Central

    Komar, Nicholas; Colborn, James M.; Horiuchi, Kalanthe; Delorey, Mark; Biggerstaff, Brad; Damian, Dan; Smith, Kirk; Townsend, John

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus has caused several outbreaks among humans in the Phoenix metropolitan area (Arizona, southwest USA) within the last decade. Recent ecologic studies have implicated Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex tarsalis as the mosquito vectors and identified three abundant passerine birds—great-tailed grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus), house sparrow (Passer domesticus), and house finch (Haemorhous mexicanus)—as key amplifiers among vertebrates. Nocturnal congregations of certain species have been suggested as critical for late summer West Nile virus amplification. We evaluated the hypothesis that house sparrow (P. domesticus) and/or great-tailed grackle (Q. mexicanus) communal roost sites (n = 22 and n = 5, respectively) in a primarily suburban environment were spatially associated with West Nile virus transmission indices during the 2010 outbreak of human neurological disease in metropolitan Phoenix. Spatial associations between human case residences and communal roosts were non-significant for house sparrows, and were negative for great-tailed grackle. Several theories that explain these observations are discussed, including the possibility that grackle communal roosts are protective. PMID:25480320

  11. Ecological Niche Modeling of Potential West Nile Virus Vector Mosquito Species in Iowa

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Scott R.; DeGroote, John P.; Bartholomay, Lyric C.; Sugumaran, Ramanathan

    2010-01-01

    Ecological niche modeling (ENM) algorithms, Maximum Entropy Species Distribution Modeling (Maxent) and Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Prediction (GARP), were used to develop models in Iowa for three species of mosquito — two significant, extant West Nile virus (WNV) vectors (Culex pipiens L and Culex tarsalis Coquillett (Diptera: Culicidae)), and the nuisance mosquito, Aedes vexans Meigen (Diptera: Culicidae), a potential WNV bridge vector. Occurrence data for the three mosquito species from a state-wide arbovirus surveillance program were used in combination with climatic and landscape layers. Maxent successfully created more appropriate niche models with greater accuracy than GARP. The three Maxent species' models were combined and the average values were statistically compared to human WNV incidence at the census block group level. The results showed that the Maxent-modeled species' niches averaged together were a useful indicator of WNV human incidence in the state of Iowa. This simple method for creating probability distribution maps proved useful for understanding WNV dynamics and could be applied to the study of other vector-borne diseases. PMID:20874412

  12. West Nile Virus Epidemics in North America Are Driven by Shifts in Mosquito Feeding Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Laura D; Jones, Matthew J; Marra, Peter P; Daszak, Peter

    2006-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has caused repeated large-scale human epidemics in North America since it was first detected in 1999 and is now the dominant vector-borne disease in this continent. Understanding the factors that determine the intensity of the spillover of this zoonotic pathogen from birds to humans (via mosquitoes) is a prerequisite for predicting and preventing human epidemics. We integrated mosquito feeding behavior with data on the population dynamics and WNV epidemiology of mosquitoes, birds, and humans. We show that Culex pipiens, the dominant enzootic (bird-to-bird) and bridge (bird-to-human) vector of WNV in urbanized areas in the northeast and north-central United States, shifted its feeding preferences from birds to humans by 7-fold during late summer and early fall, coinciding with the dispersal of its preferred host (American robins, Turdus migratorius) and the rise in human WNV infections. We also show that feeding shifts in Cx. tarsalis amplify human WNV epidemics in Colorado and California and occur during periods of robin dispersal and migration. Our results provide a direct explanation for the timing and intensity of human WNV epidemics. Shifts in feeding from competent avian hosts early in an epidemic to incompetent humans after mosquito infection prevalences are high result in synergistic effects that greatly amplify the number of human infections of this and other pathogens. Our results underscore the dramatic effects of vector behavior in driving the transmission of zoonotic pathogens to humans. PMID:16494532

  13. Analysis of Culex and Aedes mosquitoes in southwestern Nigeria revealed no West Nile virus activity

    PubMed Central

    Sule, Waidi Folorunso; Oluwayelu, Daniel Oladimeji

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Amplification and transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) by mosquitoes are driven by presence and number of viraemic/susceptible avian hosts. Methods In order to predict risk of WNV infection to humans, we collected mosquitoes from horse stables in Lagos and Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria. The mosquitoes were sorted and tested in pools with real-time RT-PCR to detect WNV (or flavivirus) RNA using WNV-specific primers and probes, as well as, pan-flavivirus-specific primers in two-step real-time RT-PCR. Minimum infection rate (MIR) was used to estimate mosquito infection rate. Results Only two genera of mosquitoes were caught (Culex, 98.9% and Aedes, 1.0%) totalling 4,112 females. None of the 424 mosquito pools tested was positive for WNV RNA; consequently the MIR was zero. Sequencing and BLAST analysis of amplicons detected in pan-flavivirus primer-mediated RT-PCR gave a consensus sequence of 28S rRNA of Culex quinquefasciatus suggesting integration of flaviviral RNA into mosquito genome. Conclusion While the latter finding requires further investigation, we conclude there was little or no risk of human infection with WNV in the study areas during sampling. There was predominance of Culex mosquito, a competent WNV vector, around horse stables in the study areas. However, mosquito surveillance needs to continue for prompt detection of WNV activity in mosquitoes. PMID:27279943

  14. Analysis of Culex and Aedes mosquitoes in southwestern Nigeria revealed no West Nile virus activity.

    PubMed

    Sule, Waidi Folorunso; Oluwayelu, Daniel Oladimeji

    2016-01-01

    Amplification and transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) by mosquitoes are driven by presence and number of viraemic/susceptible avian hosts. In order to predict risk of WNV infection to humans, we collected mosquitoes from horse stables in Lagos and Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria. The mosquitoes were sorted and tested in pools with real-time RT-PCR to detect WNV (or flavivirus) RNA using WNV-specific primers and probes, as well as, pan-flavivirus-specific primers in two-step real-time RT-PCR. Minimum infection rate (MIR) was used to estimate mosquito infection rate. Only two genera of mosquitoes were caught (Culex, 98.9% and Aedes, 1.0%) totalling 4,112 females. None of the 424 mosquito pools tested was positive for WNV RNA; consequently the MIR was zero. Sequencing and BLAST analysis of amplicons detected in pan-flavivirus primer-mediated RT-PCR gave a consensus sequence of 28S rRNA of Culex quinquefasciatus suggesting integration of flaviviral RNA into mosquito genome. While the latter finding requires further investigation, we conclude there was little or no risk of human infection with WNV in the study areas during sampling. There was predominance of Culex mosquito, a competent WNV vector, around horse stables in the study areas. However, mosquito surveillance needs to continue for prompt detection of WNV activity in mosquitoes.

  15. Ecological niche modeling of potential West Nile virus vector mosquito species in Iowa.

    PubMed

    Larson, Scott R; DeGroote, John P; Bartholomay, Lyric C; Sugumaran, Ramanathan

    2010-01-01

    Ecological niche modeling (ENM) algorithms, Maximum Entropy Species Distribution Modeling (Maxent) and Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Prediction (GARP), were used to develop models in Iowa for three species of mosquito - two significant, extant West Nile virus (WNV) vectors (Culex pipiens L and Culex tarsalis Coquillett (Diptera: Culicidae)), and the nuisance mosquito, Aedes vexans Meigen (Diptera: Culicidae), a potential WNV bridge vector. Occurrence data for the three mosquito species from a state-wide arbovirus surveillance program were used in combination with climatic and landscape layers. Maxent successfully created more appropriate niche models with greater accuracy than GARP. The three Maxent species' models were combined and the average values were statistically compared to human WNV incidence at the census block group level. The results showed that the Maxent-modeled species' niches averaged together were a useful indicator of WNV human incidence in the state of Iowa. This simple method for creating probability distribution maps proved useful for understanding WNV dynamics and could be applied to the study of other vector-borne diseases.

  16. West Nile virus epidemics in North America are driven by shifts in mosquito feeding behavior.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, A Marm; Kramer, Laura D; Jones, Matthew J; Marra, Peter P; Daszak, Peter

    2006-04-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has caused repeated large-scale human epidemics in North America since it was first detected in 1999 and is now the dominant vector-borne disease in this continent. Understanding the factors that determine the intensity of the spillover of this zoonotic pathogen from birds to humans (via mosquitoes) is a prerequisite for predicting and preventing human epidemics. We integrated mosquito feeding behavior with data on the population dynamics and WNV epidemiology of mosquitoes, birds, and humans. We show that Culex pipiens, the dominant enzootic (bird-to-bird) and bridge (bird-to-human) vector of WNV in urbanized areas in the northeast and north-central United States, shifted its feeding preferences from birds to humans by 7-fold during late summer and early fall, coinciding with the dispersal of its preferred host (American robins, Turdus migratorius) and the rise in human WNV infections. We also show that feeding shifts in Cx. tarsalis amplify human WNV epidemics in Colorado and California and occur during periods of robin dispersal and migration. Our results provide a direct explanation for the timing and intensity of human WNV epidemics. Shifts in feeding from competent avian hosts early in an epidemic to incompetent humans after mosquito infection prevalences are high result in synergistic effects that greatly amplify the number of human infections of this and other pathogens. Our results underscore the dramatic effects of vector behavior in driving the transmission of zoonotic pathogens to humans.

  17. Test of recrudescence hypothesis for overwintering of West Nile virus in gray catbirds.

    PubMed

    Owen, J C; Moore, F R; Williams, A J; Ward, M P; Beveroth, T A; Miller, E A; Wilson, L C; Morley, V J; Abbey-Lee, R N; Veeneman, B A; DeRussy, B M; McWhorter, M S; Garvin, M C

    2010-05-01

    West Nile virus is a pathogen of concern for both human and wildlife health. Although many aspects of the ecology of West Nile virus are well understood, the mechanisms by which this and similar mosquito-borne viruses overwinter and become reinitiated each spring in temperate regions is not known. A thorough understanding of this mechanism is crucial to risk assessment and development of control strategies. One of the hypotheses to explain the mechanism by which this virus persists from year to year is the spring recrudescence of latent virus in avian reservoir hosts. Stress-related immunosuppression is implicated in the recrudescence of latent viruses in birds. We tested the spring recrudescence hypothesis in a controlled laboratory experiment using hatching-year gray catbirds (Dumatella carolinensis) captured in northern Ohio (July-August 2006). Catbirds (n = 60) were experimentally infected (September 2006) and later examined for the effects of immunosuppression through exogenous hormones and artificially induced migratory disposition. We found no effect of either testosterone or migratory behavior on infection status in any of the treatment birds. Moreover, we detected no viral RNA in the kidney, spleen, brain, or liver upon necropsy at 24 wk postinfection.

  18. Isolation of west nile and sindbis viruses from mosquitoes collected in the Nile Valley of Egypt during an outbreak of Rift Valley fever.

    PubMed

    Turell, Michael J; Morrill, John C; Rossi, Cynthia A; Gad, Adel M; Cope, Stanton E; Clements, Tamara L; Arthur, Ray R; Wasieloski, Leonard P; Dohm, David J; Nash, Denise; Hassan, Mosaad M; Hassan, Ali N; Morsy, Zakaria S; Presley, Steven M

    2002-01-01

    As part of an evaluation of potential vectors of arboviruses during a Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreak in the Nile Valley of Egypt in August 1993, we collected mosquitoes in villages with known RVF viral activity. Mosquitoes were sorted to species, pooled, and processed for virus isolation both by intracerebral inoculation into suckling mice and by inoculation into cell culture. A total of 33 virus isolates was made from 36,024 mosquitoes. Viruses were initially identified by indirect fluorescent antibody testing and consisted of 30 flaviviruses (all members of the Japanese encephalitis complex, most probably West Nile [WN] virus) and three alphaviruses (all members of western equine encephalitis complex, most probably Sindbis). The identity of selected viruses was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. Culex antennatus (Becker) and Culex perexiguus Theobald accounted for five (17%) and 23 (77%) of the WN virus isolations, respectively. Despite isolation of viruses from 32 pools of mosquitoes (both WN and Sindbis viruses were isolated from a single pool), RVF virus was not isolated from these mosquitoes, even though most of them are known competent vectors collected during an ongoing RVF outbreak. Thus, it should be remembered, that even during a known arbovirus outbreak, other arboviruses may still be circulating and causing disease.

  19. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of West Nile virus

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufmann, Barbel; Plevka, Pavel; Kuhn, Richard J.; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2010-05-25

    West Nile virus, a human pathogen, is closely related to other medically important flaviviruses of global impact such as dengue virus. The infectious virus was purified from cell culture using polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation and density-gradient centrifugation. Thin amorphously shaped crystals of the lipid-enveloped virus were grown in quartz capillaries equilibrated by vapor diffusion. Crystal diffraction extended at best to a resolution of about 25 {angstrom} using synchrotron radiation. A preliminary analysis of the diffraction images indicated that the crystals had unit-cell parameters a {approx_equal} b {approx_equal} 480 {angstrom}, {gamma} = 120{sup o}, suggesting a tight hexagonal packing of one virus particle per unit cell.

  20. Vector competence of selected North American Culex and Coquillettidia mosquitoes for West Nile virus.

    PubMed Central

    Sardelis, M. R.; Turell, M. J.; Dohm, D. J.; O'Guinn, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    To control West Nile virus (WNV), it is necessary to know which mosquitoes are able to transmit this virus. Therefore, we evaluated the WNV vector potential of several North American mosquito species. Culex restuans and Cx. salinarius, two species from which WNV was isolated in New York in 2000, were efficient laboratory vectors. Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. nigripalpus from Florida were competent but only moderately efficient vectors. Coquillettidia perturbans was an inefficient laboratory vector. As WNV extends its range, exposure of additional mosquito species may alter its epidemiology. PMID:11747732

  1. prM-antibody renders immature West Nile virus infectious in vivo.

    PubMed

    Colpitts, Tonya M; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela; Moesker, Bastiaan; Wang, Penghua; Fikrig, Erol; Smit, Jolanda M

    2011-10-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a member of the family Flaviviridae and is a neurotropic pathogen responsible for severe human disease. Flavivirus-infected cells release virus particles that contain variable numbers of precursor membrane (prM) protein molecules at the viral surface. Consequently, antibodies are produced against the prM protein. These antibodies have been shown to activate the infectious potential of fully immature flavivirus particles in vitro. Here, we provide in vivo proof that prM antibodies render immature WNV infectious. Infection with antibody-opsonized immature WNV particles caused disease and death of mice, and infectious WNV was found in the brains and sera.

  2. Detection of West Nile virus RNA from the louse fly Icosta americana (Diptera: Hippoboscidae).

    PubMed

    Farajollahi, Ary; Crans, Wayne J; Nickerson, Diane; Bryant, Patricia; Wolf, Bruce; Glaser, Amy; Andreadis, Theodore G

    2005-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was detected by Taqman reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in 4 of 85 (4.7%) blood-engorged (n = 2) and unengorged (n = 2) Icosta americana (Leach) hippoboscid flies that were collected from wild raptors submitted to a wildlife rehabilitation center in Mercer County, NJ, in 2003. This report represents an additional detection of WNV in a nonculicine arthropod in North America and the first documented detection of the virus in unengorged hippoboscid flies, further suggesting a possible role that this species may play in the transmission of WNV in North America.

  3. West Nile Virus Encephalitis: The First Human Case Recorded in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Marcelo A. C. S.; Romano, Alessandro P. M.; Borba, Amaríles S.; Silva, Eliana V. P.; Chiang, Jannifer O.; Eulálio, Kelsen D.; Azevedo, Raimunda S. S.; Rodrigues, Sueli G.; Almeida-Neto, Walfrido S.; Vasconcelos, Pedro F. C.

    2015-01-01

    A Brazilian ranch worker with encephalitis and flaccid paralysis was evaluated in the regional Acute Encephalitis Syndromic Surveillance Program. This was the first Brazilian patient who met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) confirmation criteria for West Nile virus disease. Owing to the overlapping of neurological manifestations attributable to several viral infections of the central nervous system, this report exemplifies the importance of human acute encephalitis surveillance. The syndromic approach to human encephalitis cases may enable early detection of the introduction of unusual virus or endemic occurrence of potentially alarming diseases within a region. PMID:26055749

  4. Occurrence of west nile virus infection in raptors at the Salton Sea, California.

    PubMed

    Dusek, Robert J; Iko, William M; Hofmeister, Erik K

    2010-07-01

    We investigated the prevalence of West Nile virus (WNV)-neutralizing antibodies and infectious virus, and the occurrence of overwinter transmission in two raptor species during January and March 2006 at the Salton Sea, Imperial County, California. We captured 208 American Kestrels (Falco sparverius) (January, n=100; March, n=108) and 116 Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia) (January, n=52; March, n=64). Laboratory analysis revealed that 83% of American Kestrels and 31% of Burrowing Owls were positive for WNV-neutralizing antibodies. Additionally, two seroconversions were detected in Burrowing Owls between January and March. Infectious WNV, consistent with acute infection, was not detected in any bird.

  5. Spatio-temporal patterns of distribution of West Nile virus vectors in eastern Piedmont Region, Italy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background West Nile Virus (WNV) transmission in Italy was first reported in 1998 as an equine outbreak near the swamps of Padule di Fucecchio, Tuscany. No other cases were identified during the following decade until 2008, when horse and human outbreaks were reported in Emilia Romagna, North Italy. Since then, WNV outbreaks have occurred annually, spreading from their initial northern foci throughout the country. Following the outbreak in 1998 the Italian public health authority defined a surveillance plan to detect WNV circulation in birds, horses and mosquitoes. By applying spatial statistical analysis (spatial point pattern analysis) and models (Bayesian GLMM models) to a longitudinal dataset on the abundance of the three putative WNV vectors [Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas 1771), Culex pipiens (Linnaeus 1758) and Culex modestus (Ficalbi 1890)] in eastern Piedmont, we quantified their abundance and distribution in space and time and generated prediction maps outlining the areas with the highest vector productivity and potential for WNV introduction and amplification. Results The highest abundance and significant spatial clusters of Oc. caspius and Cx. modestus were in proximity to rice fields, and for Cx. pipiens, in proximity to highly populated urban areas. The GLMM model showed the importance of weather conditions and environmental factors in predicting mosquito abundance. Distance from the preferential breeding sites and elevation were negatively associated with the number of collected mosquitoes. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was positively correlated with mosquito abundance in rice fields (Oc. caspius and Cx. modestus). Based on the best models, we developed prediction maps for the year 2010 outlining the areas where high abundance of vectors could favour the introduction and amplification of WNV. Conclusions Our findings provide useful information for surveillance activities aiming to identify locations where the potential for WNV

  6. A rapid and quantitative assay for measuring antibody-mediated neutralization of West Nile virus infection

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, Theodore C. . E-mail: piersontc@mail.nih.gov; Sanchez, Melissa D.; Puffer, Bridget A.; Ahmed, Asim A.; Geiss, Brian J.; Valentine, Laura E.; Altamura, Louis A.; Diamond, Michael S.; Doms, Robert W. . E-mail: doms@mail.med.upenn.edu

    2006-03-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic flavivirus within the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex that is responsible for causing West Nile encephalitis in humans. The surface of WNV virions is covered by a highly ordered icosahedral array of envelope proteins that is responsible for mediating attachment and fusion with target cells. These envelope proteins are also primary targets for the generation of neutralizing antibodies in vivo. In this study, we describe a novel approach for measuring antibody-mediated neutralization of WNV infection using virus-like particles that measure infection as a function of reporter gene expression. These reporter virus particles (RVPs) are produced by complementation of a sub-genomic replicon with WNV structural proteins provided in trans using conventional DNA expression vectors. The precision and accuracy of this approach stem from an ability to measure the outcome of the interaction between antibody and viral antigens under conditions that satisfy the assumptions of the law of mass action as applied to virus neutralization. In addition to its quantitative strengths, this approach allows the production of WNV RVPs bearing the prM-E proteins of different WNV strains and mutants, offering considerable flexibility for the study of the humoral immune response to WNV in vitro. WNV RVPs are capable of only a single round of infection, can be used under BSL-2 conditions, and offer a rapid and quantitative approach for detecting virus entry and its inhibition by neutralizing antibody.

  7. Comparison of enzootic risk measures for predicting West Nile disease, Los Angeles, California, USA, 2004-2010.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Jennifer L; Park, Bborie K; Carpenter, Tim E; Ngo, Van; Civen, Rachel; Reisen, William K

    2012-08-01

    In Los Angeles, California, USA, 2 epidemics of West Nile virus (WNV) disease have occurred since WNV was recognized in 2003. To assess which measure of risk was most predictive of human cases, we compared 3 measures: the California Mosquito-Borne Virus Surveillance and Response Plan Assessment, the vector index, and the Dynamic Continuous-Area Space-Time system. A case-crossover study was performed by using symptom onset dates from 384 persons with WNV infection to determine their relative environmental exposure to high-risk conditions as measured by each method. Receiver-operating characteristic plots determined thresholds for each model, and the area under the curve was used to compare methods. We found that the best risk assessment model for human WNV cases included surveillance data from avian, mosquito, and climate sources.

  8. West Nile virus isolated from Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in Northwest Missouri 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Bosco-Lauth, Angela; Harmon, Jessica; Lash, R. Ryan; Weiss, Sonja; Langevin, Stanley; Savage, Harry; Marvin S. Godsey, Jr.; Burkhalter, Kristen; Root, J. Jeffrey; Gidlewski, Thomas; Nicholson, William; Brault, Aaron C.; Komar, Nicholas

    2014-12-01

    We describe the isolation of West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, flavivirus) from blood of a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) collected in northwestern Missouri, USA in August 2012. Furthermore, sequencing determined that the virus was related to lineage 1a WNV02 strains. We discuss the role of wildlife in WNV disease epidemiology.

  9. Surveillance for West Nile virus in American white pelicans, Montana, USA, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Gregory; Nemeth, Nicole; Hale, Kristina; Lindsey, Nicole; Panella, Nicholas; Komar, Nicholas

    2010-03-01

    West Nile virus (WNV)-associated deaths of American white pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) chicks have been recognized at various nesting colonies in the United States since 2002. We evaluated American white pelican nesting colonies in Sheridan County, Montana, USA, for an association between WNV-positive pelican carcasses and human West Nile neuroinvasive disease. Persons in counties hosting affected colonies had a 5x higher risk for disease than those in counties with unaffected colonies. We also investigated WNV infection and blood meal source among mosquitoes and pelican tissue type for greatest WNV detection efficacy in carcasses. WNV-infected Culex tarsalis mosquitoes were detected and blood-engorged Cx. tarsalis contained pelican DNA. Viral loads and detection consistency among pelican tissues were greatest in feather pulp, brain, heart, and skin. Given the risks posed to wildlife and human health, coordinated efforts among wildlife and public health authorities to monitor these pelican colonies for WNV activity are potentially useful.

  10. Surveillance for West Nile Virus in American White Pelicans, Montana, USA, 2006–2007

    PubMed Central

    Nemeth, Nicole; Hale, Kristina; Lindsey, Nicole; Panella, Nicholas; Komar, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV)–associated deaths of American white pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) chicks have been recognized at various nesting colonies in the United States since 2002. We evaluated American white pelican nesting colonies in Sheridan County, Montana, USA, for an association between WNV-positive pelican carcasses and human West Nile neuroinvasive disease. Persons in counties hosting affected colonies had a 5× higher risk for disease than those in counties with unaffected colonies. We also investigated WNV infection and blood meal source among mosquitoes and pelican tissue type for greatest WNV detection efficacy in carcasses. WNV-infected Culex tarsalis mosquitoes were detected and blood-engorged Cx. tarsalis contained pelican DNA. Viral loads and detection consistency among pelican tissues were greatest in feather pulp, brain, heart, and skin. Given the risks posed to wildlife and human health, coordinated efforts among wildlife and public health authorities to monitor these pelican colonies for WNV activity are potentially useful. PMID:20202414

  11. Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution of West Nile Virus in North America

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Brian R.; McMullen, Allison R.; Swetnam, Daniele M.; Barrett, Alan D. T.

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was introduced to New York in 1999 and rapidly spread throughout North America and into parts of Central and South America. Displacement of the original New York (NY99) genotype by the North America/West Nile 2002 (NA/WN02) genotype occurred in 2002 with subsequent identification of a novel genotype in 2003 in isolates collected from the southwestern Unites States region (SW/WN03 genotype). Both genotypes co-circulate to date. Subsequent WNV surveillance studies have confirmed additional genotypes in the United States that have become extinct due to lack of a selective advantage or stochastic effect; however, the dynamic emergence, displacement, and extinction of multiple WNV genotypes in the US from 1999–2012 indicates the continued evolution of WNV in North America. PMID:24135819

  12. Molecular detection of avian influenza virus but not West Nile virus in wild birds in northern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Albayrak, H; Ozan, E

    2010-12-01

    In this study, a total of 402 samples (173 cloacal swab samples, 169 tracheal swab samples and 60 organ pools including the lung, spleen, liver, trachea and brain) obtained from 27 different wild avian species from Kizilirmak delta and the adjacent wetlands in northern Turkey were surveyed for the presence of RNA from Avian influenza virus (AIV) and West Nile virus (WNV) by Taqman-based real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay. No WNV genomic RNA was detected in any sample. In contrast, AIV RNA was found in two of 402 samples (0.49%).

  13. Detection of West Nile virus and tick-borne encephalitis virus in birds in Slovakia, using a universal primer set.

    PubMed

    Csank, Tomáš; Bhide, Katarína; Bencúrová, Elena; Dolinská, Saskia; Drzewnioková, Petra; Major, Peter; Korytár, Ľuboš; Bocková, Eva; Bhide, Mangesh; Pistl, Juraj

    2016-06-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne neurotropic pathogen that presents a major public health concern. Information on WNV prevalence and circulation in Slovakia is insufficient. Oral and cloacal swabs and bird brain samples were tested for flavivirus RNA by RT-PCR using newly designed generic primers. The species designation was confirmed by sequencing. WNV was detected in swab and brain samples, whereas one brain sample was positive for tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). The WNV sequences clustered with lineages 1 and 2. These results confirm the circulation of WNV in birds in Slovakia and emphasize the risk of infection of humans and horses.

  14. Correlation of West Nile Virus Incidence in Donated Blood with West Nile Neuroinvasive Disease Rates, United States, 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Betsem, Edouard; Kaidarova, Zhanna; Stramer, Susan L.; Shaz, Beth; Sayers, Merlyn; LeParc, German; Custer, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, West Nile virus (WNV) has spread across the United States. We aggregated blood donor data from 2010–2012 and then calculated the incidence of WNV RNA–positive donations and compared the incidence with neuroinvasive disease (NID) case data from the ArboNET surveillance system. Of 10,107,853 donations, 640 were confirmed positive. The seasonal WNV incidence rate per 100,000 persons was 33.4 (95% CI 22–45) in 2010, 25.7 (95% CI 15–34) in 2011, and 119.9 (95% CI 98–141) in 2012. NID to blood donor ratios were 1 in 164 (95% CI 152–178) in 2010, 1 in 158 (95% CI 145–174) in 2011, and 1 in 131 (95% CI 127–136) in 2012. We updated estimates of the ratio of NID to WNV infection rates, demonstrating stable disease penetrance over the study period. Blood donor WNV RNA screening is a valuable public health tool for WNV surveillance. PMID:27935796

  15. High prevalence of West Nile virus in equines from the two provinces of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Zohaib, A; Saqib, M; Beck, C; Hussain, M H; Lowenski, S; Lecollinet, S; Sial, A; Asi, M N; Mansoor, M K; Saqalein, M; Sajid, M S; Ashfaq, K; Muhammad, G; Cao, S

    2015-07-01

    This study describes the first large-scale serosurvey on West Nile virus (WNV) conducted in the equine population in Pakistan. Sera were collected from 449 equids from two provinces of Pakistan during 2012-2013. Equine serum samples were screened using a commercial ELISA kit detecting antibodies against WNV and related flaviviruses. ELISA-positive samples were further investigated using virus-specific microneutralization tests (MNTs) to identify infections with Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), WNV and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). Anti-WNV antibodies were detected in 292 samples by ELISA (seroprevalence 65.0%) and WNV infections were confirmed in 249 animals by MNT. However, there was no animal found infected by JEV or TBEV. The detection of WNV-seropositive equines in Pakistan strongly suggests a widespread circulation of WNV in Pakistan.

  16. Modeling Dynamics of Culex pipiens Complex Populations and Assessing Abatement Strategies for West Nile Virus

    PubMed Central

    Pawelek, Kasia A.; Hager, Elizabeth J.; Hunt, Gregg J.

    2014-01-01

    The primary mosquito species associated with underground stormwater systems in the United States are the Culex pipiens complex species. This group represents important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV) throughout regions of the continental U.S. In this study, we designed a mathematical model and compared it with surveillance data for the Cx. pipiens complex collected in Beaufort County, South Carolina. Based on the best fit of the model to the data, we estimated parameters associated with the effectiveness of public health insecticide (adulticide) treatments (primarily pyrethrin products) as well as the birth, maturation, and death rates of immature and adult Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes. We used these estimates for modeling the spread of WNV to obtain more reliable disease outbreak predictions and performed numerical simulations to test various mosquito abatement strategies. We demonstrated that insecticide treatments produced significant reductions in the Cx. pipiens complex populations. However, abatement efforts were effective for approximately one day and the vector mosquitoes rebounded until the next treatment. These results suggest that frequent insecticide applications are necessary to control these mosquitoes. We derived the basic reproductive number (ℜ0) to predict the conditions under which disease outbreaks are likely to occur and to evaluate mosquito abatement strategies. We concluded that enhancing the mosquito death rate results in lower values of ℜ0, and if ℜ0<1, then an epidemic will not occur. Our modeling results provide insights about control strategies of the vector populations and, consequently, a potential decrease in the risk of a WNV outbreak. PMID:25268229

  17. Modeling the spatial distribution of mosquito vectors for West Nile virus in Connecticut, USA.

    PubMed

    Diuk-Wasser, Maria A; Brown, Heidi E; Andreadis, Theodore G; Fish, Durland

    2006-01-01

    The risk of transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) to humans is associated with the density of infected vector mosquitoes in a given area. Current technology for estimating vector distribution and abundance is primarily based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light trap collections, which provide only point data. In order to estimate mosquito abundance in areas not sampled by traps, we developed logistic regression models for five mosquito species implicated as the most likely vectors of WNV in Connecticut. Using data from 32 traps in Fairfield County from 2001 to 2003, the models were developed to predict high and low abundance for every 30 x 30 m pixel in the County. They were then tested with an independent dataset from 16 traps in adjacent New Haven County. Environmental predictors of abundance were extracted from remotely sensed data. The best predictive models included non-forested areas for Culex pipiens, surface water and distance to estuaries for Cx. salinarius, surface water and grasslands/agriculture for Aedes vexans and seasonal difference in the normalized difference vegetation index and distance to palustrine habitats for Culiseta melanura. No significant predictors were found for Cx. restuans. The sensitivity of the models ranged from 75% to 87.5% and the specificity from 75% to 93.8%. In New Haven County, the models correctly classified 81.3% of the traps for Cx. pipiens, 75.0% for Cx. salinarius, 62.5% for Ae. vexans, and 75.0% for Cs. melanura. Continuous surface maps of habitat suitability were generated for each species for both counties, which could contribute to future surveillance and intervention activities.

  18. Using high titer West Nile intravenous immunoglobulin from selected Israeli donors for treatment of West Nile virus infection.

    PubMed

    Ben-Nathan, David; Gershoni-Yahalom, Orly; Samina, Itzchak; Khinich, Yevgeny; Nur, Israel; Laub, Orgad; Gottreich, Ahuva; Simanov, Michael; Porgador, Angel; Rager-Zisman, Bracha; Orr, Nadav

    2009-02-17

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is endemic in Israel and a significant level of antibodies is present in the population due to natural exposure. Anecdotal cases suggested that the presence of anti-WNV antibodies in intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) from Israeli donors (IVIG-IL) assisted the recovery of patients with severe WNV infection. To enhance the therapeutic efficacy of IVIG-IL against WNV infection, OMRIX Biopharmaceuticals, Israel, have developed a strategy for selection of plasma units from a 10% fraction of Israeli blood donors with anti-WNV antibodies. Positive units were processed into pharmaceutical grade WNV IVIG (WNIG). Following inoculation with WNV, mice received i.p. injections of different doses (0.01-8 mg/mouse) of IVIG-IL or WNIG, according to the specific experimental protocol. WNIG was about 10 times more potent (per gr of IgG) than was regular IVIG-IL when tested by ELISA and neutralization assays. In a mouse lethal WNV infection model, prophylactic treatment with WNIG was at least 5-10-fold more potent as compared to treatment with IVIG-IL. Treatment with WNIG during active encephalitis, three or four days following WNV infection, had a significant protective effect. WNIG was also very effective in protecting immunosuppressed mice. Indeed, treatment of dexamethasone-immunosuppressed mice with 0.2 or 1.0 mg WNIG 4 h after virus infection, led to 100% survival. IVIG produced from selected plasma donated in WNV endemic regions can be used to produce WNV IVIG with superior activity for therapeutic and prophylactic measures.

  19. Recovery of West Nile Virus Envelope Protein Domain III Chimeras with Altered Antigenicity and Mouse Virulence

    PubMed Central

    McAuley, Alexander J.; Torres, Maricela; Plante, Jessica A.; Huang, Claire Y.-H.; Bente, Dennis A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Flaviviruses are positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses responsible for millions of human infections annually. The envelope (E) protein of flaviviruses comprises three structural domains, of which domain III (EIII) represents a discrete subunit. The EIII gene sequence typically encodes epitopes recognized by virus-specific, potently neutralizing antibodies, and EIII is believed to play a major role in receptor binding. In order to assess potential interactions between EIII and the remainder of the E protein and to assess the effects of EIII sequence substitutions on the antigenicity, growth, and virulence of a representative flavivirus, chimeric viruses were generated using the West Nile virus (WNV) infectious clone, into which EIIIs from nine flaviviruses with various levels of genetic diversity from WNV were substituted. Of the constructs tested, chimeras containing EIIIs from Koutango virus (KOUV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), and Bagaza virus (BAGV) were successfully recovered. Characterization of the chimeras in vitro and in vivo revealed differences in growth and virulence between the viruses, with in vivo pathogenesis often not being correlated with in vitro growth. Taken together, the data demonstrate that substitutions of EIII can allow the generation of viable chimeric viruses with significantly altered antigenicity and virulence. IMPORTANCE The envelope (E) glycoprotein is the major protein present on the surface of flavivirus virions and is responsible for mediating virus binding and entry into target cells. Several viable West Nile virus (WNV) variants with chimeric E proteins in which the putative receptor-binding domain (EIII) sequences of other mosquito-borne flaviviruses were substituted in place of the WNV EIII were recovered, although the substitution of several more divergent EIII sequences was not tolerated. The differences in virulence and tissue tropism observed with the chimeric

  20. Local impact of temperature and precipitation on West Nile virus infection in Culex species mosquitoes in northeast Illinois, USA

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Models of the effects of environmental factors on West Nile virus disease risk have yielded conflicting outcomes. The role of precipitation has been especially difficult to discern from existing studies, due in part to habitat and behavior characteristics of specific vector species and because of differences in the temporal and spatial scales of the published studies. We used spatial and statistical modeling techniques to analyze and forecast fine scale spatial (2000 m grid) and temporal (weekly) patterns of West Nile virus mosquito infection relative to changing weather conditions in the urban landscape of the greater Chicago, Illinois, region for the years from 2004 to 2008. Results Increased air temperature was the strongest temporal predictor of increased infection in Culex pipiens and Culex restuans mosquitoes, with cumulative high temperature differences being a key factor distinguishing years with higher mosquito infection and higher human illness rates from those with lower rates. Drier conditions in the spring followed by wetter conditions just prior to an increase in infection were factors in some but not all years. Overall, 80% of the weekly variation in mosquito infection was explained by prior weather conditions. Spatially, lower precipitation was the most important variable predicting stronger mosquito infection; precipitation and temperature alone could explain the pattern of spatial variability better than could other environmental variables (79% explained in the best model). Variables related to impervious surfaces and elevation differences were of modest importance in the spatial model. Conclusion Finely grained temporal and spatial patterns of precipitation and air temperature have a consistent and significant impact on the timing and location of increased mosquito infection in the northeastern Illinois study area. The use of local weather data at multiple monitoring locations and the integration of mosquito infection data from

  1. Local impact of temperature and precipitation on West Nile virus infection in Culex species mosquitoes in northeast Illinois, USA.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Marilyn O; Chaves, Luis F; Hamer, Gabriel L; Sun, Ting; Brown, William M; Walker, Edward D; Haramis, Linn; Goldberg, Tony L; Kitron, Uriel D

    2010-03-19

    Models of the effects of environmental factors on West Nile virus disease risk have yielded conflicting outcomes. The role of precipitation has been especially difficult to discern from existing studies, due in part to habitat and behavior characteristics of specific vector species and because of differences in the temporal and spatial scales of the published studies. We used spatial and statistical modeling techniques to analyze and forecast fine scale spatial (2000 m grid) and temporal (weekly) patterns of West Nile virus mosquito infection relative to changing weather conditions in the urban landscape of the greater Chicago, Illinois, region for the years from 2004 to 2008. Increased air temperature was the strongest temporal predictor of increased infection in Culex pipiens and Culex restuans mosquitoes, with cumulative high temperature differences being a key factor distinguishing years with higher mosquito infection and higher human illness rates from those with lower rates. Drier conditions in the spring followed by wetter conditions just prior to an increase in infection were factors in some but not all years. Overall, 80% of the weekly variation in mosquito infection was explained by prior weather conditions. Spatially, lower precipitation was the most important variable predicting stronger mosquito infection; precipitation and temperature alone could explain the pattern of spatial variability better than could other environmental variables (79% explained in the best model). Variables related to impervious surfaces and elevation differences were of modest importance in the spatial model. Finely grained temporal and spatial patterns of precipitation and air temperature have a consistent and significant impact on the timing and location of increased mosquito infection in the northeastern Illinois study area. The use of local weather data at multiple monitoring locations and the integration of mosquito infection data from numerous sources across several years

  2. Mosquito-borne West Nile virus (WNV) surveillance in the Upper Rhine Valley, Germany.

    PubMed

    Timmermann, Ute; Becker, Norbert

    2010-06-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) could be introduced into Germany via migratory birds originating from Africa or southern Europe and subsequently transmitted to indigenous birds, humans, or horses by mosquitoes. Neither the virus itself nor antibodies against WNV have yet to be found in mosquitoes and horses, whereas antibodies have been detected in migrating birds and in humans that were in close contact with birds. At present, the West Nile virus itself has yet to be detected in Germany. This investigation was conducted primarily in major bird breeding, resting, and roosting habitats (hotspots) in the Upper Rhine Valley. Adult mosquitoes were trapped using CO2-baited Encephalitis Vector Surveillance (EVS)-traps and were tested for WNV by the VecTest WNV Antigen Assay. In 2007 and 2008, a total of 11,073 host-seeking adult female mosquitoes (13 species) were tested, and all tests were negative for WNV. Statistical calculations could be performed only where sufficient numbers of mosquitoes were trapped. For these sites, WNV infection among mosquitoes could be ruled out with 80% certainty. For the evaluation of the WNV situation in Germany, the results of this investigation are a further indication that the virus has not yet arrived.

  3. Effect of Sequential Exposure on Infection and Dissemination Rates for West Nile and St. Louis Encephalitis Viruses in Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Pesko, Kendra

    2009-01-01

    Abstract West Nile virus has spread rapidly throughout the United States since its introduction in 1999, into some areas that are also endemic for St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV). These viruses are in the same antigenic complex within the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae. Further, both viruses are transmitted primarily by Culex spp. mosquitoes and use birds as amplifying hosts. These viruses could contemporaneously coinfect individual vectors wherein changes in mosquito immune responses might occur. To explore this possibility, we evaluated the effect of sequential infection with both West Nile virus and SLEV on the infection and dissemination rates of these viruses in the vector mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus. Prior exposure to either virus lowered susceptibility to infection with the second virus, and lower dissemination rates of the second virus, compared to controls. Exposure to one virus followed by a second virus resulted in similar infection rates for the first virus to those of controls, but higher SLEV dissemination rates when exposed first to SLEV than in singly SLEV infected controls. While some mosquitoes became infected with both viruses, only one of those viruses disseminated from the midgut into the legs, indicating a midgut infection barrier to secondary infection. Lower infection rates in mosquitoes exposed to both viruses could change transmission patterns when these viruses are present at epizootic levels. PMID:19492941

  4. Pathogenicity of West Nile virus and response to vaccination in sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) using a killed vaccine.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Glenn H; Miller, Kimberli J; Docherty, Douglas E; Bochsler, Valerie S; Sileo, Louis

    2009-06-01

    West Nile virus was introduced into the United States in the vicinity of New York, New York, USA in 1999. The virus has since killed large numbers of birds nationwide, especially, but not limited to, crows (Corvus brachyrhinchos). One sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) at the Bridgeport Zoo (Bridgeport, Connecticut, USA) reportedly died from West Nile virus, so sandhill cranes and endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana), both in the wild and in captive breeding colonies at United States Geological Service (USGS) Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (Laurel, Maryland, USA) were considered at risk. A killed vaccine in sandhill cranes was evaluated by vaccinating and then challenging these cranes with live West Nile virus. No sandhill cranes inoculated with the killed vaccine developed significant titers when compared with unvaccinated controls. No sandhill cranes inoculated with the vaccine and challenged with the virus died from West Nile virus infection. In addition, no unvaccinated challenged sandhill cranes died. However, 2 days postchallenge, vaccinated cranes had significantly less viremia (P < 0.05) than unvaccinated cranes. Seven days postchallenge vaccinated cranes had significantly less cloacal shedding of the virus (P < 0.05) than unvaccinated cranes and significantly less weight loss (P < 0.05) as compared with unvaccinated cranes. Vaccinated sandhill cranes developed significantly higher titers 14 days postchallenge and were viremic for shorter periods of time after challenge than unvaccinated individuals. Unvaccinated challenged cranes had glial cell aggregates in both the brain and brain stem areas, and this was not observed in vaccinated challenged cranes or in vaccinated unchallenged cranes.

  5. Pathogenicity of West Nile virus and response to vaccination in sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) using a killed vaccine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, Glenn H.; Miller, Kimberli J.; Docherty, Douglas E.; Bochsler, V.S.; Sileo, Louis

    2009-01-01

    West Nile virus was introduced into the United States in the vicinity of New York, New York, USA in 1999. The virus has since killed large numbers of birds nationwide, especially, but not limited to, crows (Corvus brachyrhinchos). One sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) at the Bridgeport Zoo (Bridgeport, Connecticut, USA) reportedly died from West Nile virus, so sandhill cranes and endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana), both in the wild and in captive breeding colonies at United States Geological Service (USGS) Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (Laurel, Maryland, USA) were considered at risk. A killed vaccine in sandhill cranes was evaluated by vaccinating and then challenging these cranes with live West Nile virus. No sandhill cranes inoculated with the killed vaccine developed significant titers when compared with unvaccinated controls. No sandhill cranes inoculated with the vaccine and challenged with the virus died from West Nile virus infection. In addition, no unvaccinated challenged sandhill cranes died. However, 2 days postchallenge, vaccinated cranes had significantly less viremia (P < 0.05) than unvaccinated cranes. Seven days postchallenge vaccinated cranes had significantly less cloacal shedding of the virus (P < 0.05) than unvaccinated cranes and significantly less weight loss (P < 0.05) as compared with unvaccinated cranes. Vaccinated sandhill cranes developed significantly higher titers 14 days postchallenge and were viremic for shorter periods of time after challenge than unvaccinated individuals. Unvaccinated challenged cranes had glial cell aggregates in both the brain and brain stem areas, and this was not observed in vaccinated challenged cranes or in vaccinated unchallenged cranes.

  6. Sindbis and West Nile virus infections in the Witwatersrand-Pretoria region.

    PubMed

    Jupp, P G; Blackburn, N K; Thompson, D L; Meenehan, G M

    1986-08-16

    From mid-December 1983 until mid-April 1984, there was an epidemic of Sindbis (SIN) virus infection in the Witwatersrand-Pretoria region in which hundreds of human cases were diagnosed clinically. Twenty-eight of these diagnoses were confirmed in the laboratory by seroconversion as being infections with SIN virus, and 5 cases of infection with West Nile (WN) virus were also found. Attempts to isolate virus from 66 patients, mainly from serum specimens, were unsuccessful. Infection rates for the mosquito vector Culex univittatus, collected at localities on the Witwatersrand in February and March, were mostly higher for both SIN and WN viruses than in previous years. The highest rates determined were 5.4 (SIN) and 9.6 (WN) per 1 000 mosquitoes. It is concluded that an epizootic of both viruses occurred which was manifested by a high level of viral activity in the feral Cx. univittatus-bird transmission cycle. Cx. univittatus efficiently transferred infection of SIN virus from this cycle to man to cause the epidemic of infection with that virus but it is unclear why there were apparently only a few cases of WN virus infection.

  7. Delayed IFN response differentiates replication of West Nile virus and Japanese encephalitis virus in human neuroblastoma and glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Takamatsu, Yuki; Uchida, Leo; Morita, Kouichi

    2015-08-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) are important causes of human encephalitis cases, which result in a high mortality ratio and neurological sequelae after recovery. Understanding the mechanism of neuropathogenicity in these viral infections is important for the development of specific antiviral therapy. Here, we focused on human-derived neuronal and glial cells to understand the cellular responses against WNV and JEV infection. It was demonstrated that early IFN-β induction regulated virus replication in glioblastoma tbl98G cells, whereas delayed IFN-β induction resulted in efficient virus replication in neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells. Moreover, the concealing of viral dsRNA in the intracellular membrane resulted in the delayed IFN response in SK-N-SH cells. These results, which showed different IFN responses between human neuronal and glial cells after WNV or JEV infection, are expected to contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms for neuropathology in these viral infections.

  8. Neutralising antibodies for West Nile virus in horses from Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Morales, Maria Alejandra; Levis, Silvana; Figueiredo, Luis Tadeu Moraes; Couto-Lima, Dinair; Campos, Zilca; Nogueira, Marcia Furlan; da Silva, Edson Elias; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Schatzmayr, Hermann Gonçalves

    2011-06-01

    Despite evidence of West Nile virus (WNV) activity in Colombia, Venezuela and Argentina, this virus has not been reported in most South American countries. In February 2009, we commenced an investigation for WNV in mosquitoes, horses and caimans from the Pantanal, Central-West Brazil. The sera of 168 horses and 30 caimans were initially tested using a flaviviruses-specific epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (blocking ELISA) for the detection of flavivirus-reactive antibodies. The seropositive samples were further tested using a plaque-reduction neutralisation test (PRNT90) for WNV and its most closely-related flaviviruses that circulate in Brazil to confirm the detection of specific virus-neutralising antibodies. Of the 93 (55.4%) blocking ELISA-seropositive horse serum samples, five (3%) were seropositive for WNV, nine (5.4%) were seropositive for St. Louis encephalitis virus, 18 (10.7%) were seropositive for Ilheus virus, three (1.8%) were seropositive for Cacipacore virus and none were seropositive for Rocio virus using PRNT90, with a criteria of ≥ four-fold antibody titre difference. All caimans were negative for flaviviruses-specific antibodies using the blocking ELISA. No virus genome was detected from caiman blood or mosquito samples. The present study is the first report of confirmed serological evidence of WNV activity in Brazil.

  9. Large human outbreak of West Nile virus infection in north-eastern Italy in 2012.

    PubMed

    Barzon, Luisa; Pacenti, Monia; Franchin, Elisa; Pagni, Silvana; Lavezzo, Enrico; Squarzon, Laura; Martello, Thomas; Russo, Francesca; Nicoletti, Loredana; Rezza, Giovanni; Castilletti, Concetta; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria; Salcuni, Pasquale; Cattai, Margherita; Cusinato, Riccardo; Palù, Giorgio

    2013-11-22

    Human cases of West Nile virus (WNV) disease have been reported in Italy since 2008. So far, most cases have been identified in north-eastern Italy, where, in 2012, the largest outbreak of WNV infection ever recorded in Italy occurred. Most cases of the 2012 outbreak were identified in the Veneto region, where a special surveillance plan for West Nile fever was in place. In this outbreak, 25 cases of West Nile neuroinvasive disease and 17 cases of fever were confirmed. In addition, 14 WNV RNA-positive blood donors were identified by screening of blood and organ donations and two cases of asymptomatic infection were diagnosed by active surveillance of subjects at risk of WNV exposure. Two cases of death due to WNND were reported. Molecular testing demonstrated the presence of WNV lineage 1 in all WNV RNA-positive patients and, in 15 cases, infection by the novel Livenza strain was ascertained. Surveillance in other Italian regions notified one case of neuroinvasive disease in the south of Italy and two cases in Sardinia. Integrated surveillance for WNV infection remains a public health priority in Italy and vector control activities have been strengthened in areas of WNV circulation.

  10. Large Human Outbreak of West Nile Virus Infection in North-Eastern Italy in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Barzon, Luisa; Pacenti, Monia; Franchin, Elisa; Pagni, Silvana; Lavezzo, Enrico; Squarzon, Laura; Martello, Thomas; Russo, Francesca; Nicoletti, Loredana; Rezza, Giovanni; Castilletti, Concetta; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria; Salcuni, Pasquale; Cattai, Margherita; Cusinato, Riccardo; Palù, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Human cases of West Nile virus (WNV) disease have been reported in Italy since 2008. So far, most cases have been identified in north-eastern Italy, where, in 2012, the largest outbreak of WNV infection ever recorded in Italy occurred. Most cases of the 2012 outbreak were identified in the Veneto region, where a special surveillance plan for West Nile fever was in place. In this outbreak, 25 cases of West Nile neuroinvasive disease and 17 cases of fever were confirmed. In addition, 14 WNV RNA-positive blood donors were identified by screening of blood and organ donations and two cases of asymptomatic infection were diagnosed by active surveillance of subjects at risk of WNV exposure. Two cases of death due to WNND were reported. Molecular testing demonstrated the presence of WNV lineage 1 in all WNV RNA-positive patients and, in 15 cases, infection by the novel Livenza strain was ascertained. Surveillance in other Italian regions notified one case of neuroinvasive disease in the south of Italy and two cases in Sardinia. Integrated surveillance for WNV infection remains a public health priority in Italy and vector control activities have been strengthened in areas of WNV circulation. PMID:24284876

  11. West Nile virus circulation in South-Eastern Romania, 2011 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Dinu, S; Cotar, A I; Pănculescu-Gătej, I R; Fălcuţă, E; Prioteasa, F L; Sîrbu, A; Oprişan, G; Bădescu, D; Reiter, P; Ceianu, C S

    2015-05-21

    Lineage 2 West Nile virus (WNV), previously found only in sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar, was identified in Hungary in 2004 and has rapidly expanded in Europe in the past decade. Following a significant outbreak of West Nile fever with neurological cases caused by lineage 1 WNV in Romania in 1996, scattered cases have been recorded in the south-east of the country in each transmission season. Another outbreak, affecting a larger area and caused by lineage 2 WNV, was recorded in 2010. We analysed human sera from neuroinvasive West Nile fever cases and mosquitoes, sampled in south-eastern Romania between 2011 and 2013, for the presence of WNV genome, and obtained partial NS5 and envelope glycoprotein sequences. Human- and mosquito-derived WNV sequences were highly similar (99%) to Volgograd 2007 lineage 2 WNV and differed from isolates previously detected in central and southern Europe. WNV was detected in one pool of Culex pipiens s.l. males, documenting vertical transmission. Lineage 4 WNV, of unknown pathogenicity to mammals, was found in the amphibian-feeding mosquito Uranotaenia unguiculata from the Danube Delta. Our results present molecular evidence for the maintenance of the same isolates of Volgograd 2007-like lineage 2 WNV in south-eastern Romania between 2011 and 2013.

  12. West Nile virus activity--United States, January 1-August 15, 2006.

    PubMed

    2006-08-18

    This report summarizes West Nile virus (WNV) surveillance data reported to CDC through ArboNET as of 3 a.m. Mountain Daylight Time, August 15, 2006. A total of 26 states had reported 388 cases of human WNV illness to CDC. A total of 214 (56%) cases for which such data were available occurred in males; median age of patients was 49 years (range: 2-91 years). Dates of illness onset ranged from January 6 to August 10; a total of 13 cases were fatal. A total of 68 presumptive West Nile viremic blood donors (PVDs) have been reported to ArboNET during 2006. Of these, 20 were reported from Nebraska; 18 were reported from Texas; five were reported from California; four were reported from Utah; three each were reported from Oklahoma and South Dakota; two each were reported from Idaho, Iowa, Kentucky, and Mississippi; and one each was reported from Arizona, Colorado, Minnesota, Nevada, North Dakota, Wisconsin, and Wyoming. Of the 68 PVDs, 10 persons (median age: 43 years [range: 18-59 years]) subsequently had West Nile fever.

  13. West Nile Virus Retinopathy and Associations with Long Term Neurological and Neurocognitive Sequelae

    PubMed Central

    Hasbun, Rodrigo; Garcia, Melissa N.; Kellaway, Judianne; Baker, Laura; Salazar, Lucrecia; Woods, Steven Paul

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has emerged as an important vector-borne pathogen in North America, with more than 3 million estimated to have been infected. Retinopathy from WNV infection has been previously reported in acute cases, though those prior reports did not evaluate the risk of retinopathy based on clinical severity of neurologic disease. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to perform comprehensive ophthalmological and neurological examinations on 111 patients with a history of West Nile virus infection and describe the ocular manifestations. Out of 111 patients, 27 (24%) had evidence for West Nile virus associated retinopathy (WNVR); this observation was higher (49%) in those patients who initially presented with encephalitis. Individuals with WNVR had more frequent involvement of the macula and peripheral involvement compared to those patients without WNVR (p<0.05). WNVR was also associated with a greater likelihood of abnormal reflexes on neurological exam, poorer learning, greater dependence in activities of daily living, and lower quality of life (p<0.05). WNVR was seen more frequently in elderly patients (age > 60 years), and was associated with higher rates of diabetes mellitus and a history of encephalitis (p<0.05). A multivariable logistic regression revealed that only a history of encephalitis was independently associated with WNVR [Adjusted Odds Ratio = 4.9 (1.8–13.2); p = 0.001]. Our study found that WNVR occurs in one fourth of patients with a history of WNV infection and is more frequently observed in those with apparent severe neurological sequelae (e.g., encephalitis). The clinical relevance of WNVR was supported by its associations with dependence in activities of daily living and lower quality of life. This unique evaluation of WNV patients included fundoscopic examinations and their associations with neurologic impairment. Our findings can be used during ophthalmological consultation for the evaluation, treatment and rehabilitation

  14. A review of the epidemiological and clinical aspects of West Nile virus

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Timothy J; Webb, Cameron E

    2014-01-01

    The resurgence of West Nile virus (WNV) in North America and Europe in recent years has raised the concerns of local authorities and highlighted that mosquito-borne disease is not restricted to tropical regions of the world. WNV is maintained in enzootic cycles involving, primarily, Culex spp. mosquitoes and avian hosts, with epizootic spread to mammals, including horses and humans. Human infection results in symptomatic illness in approximately one-fifth of cases and neuroinvasive disease in less than 1% of infected persons. The most consistently recognized risk factor for neuroinvasive disease is older age, although diabetes mellitus, alcohol excess, and a history of cancer may also increase risk. Despite the increasing public health concern, the current WNV treatments are inadequate. Current evidence supporting the use of ribavirin, interferon α, and WNV-specific immunoglobulin are reviewed. Nucleic acid detection has been an important diagnostic development, which is particularly important for the protection of the donated blood supply. While effective WNV vaccines are widely available for horses, no human vaccine has been registered. Uncertainty surrounds the magnitude of future risk posed by WNV, and predictive models are limited by the heterogeneity of environmental, vector, and host factors, even in neighboring regions. However, recent history has demonstrated that for regions where suitable mosquito vectors and reservoir hosts are present, there will be a risk of major epidemics. Given the potential for these outbreaks to include severe neuroinvasive disease, strategies should be implemented to monitor for, and respond to, outbreak risk. While broadscale mosquito control programs will assist in reducing the abundance of mosquito populations and subsequently reduce the risks of disease, for many individuals, the use of topical insect repellents and other personal protective strategies will remain the first line of defense against infection. PMID:24748813

  15. Current developments in understanding of West Nile virus central nervous system disease

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Kenneth L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review West Nile virus (WNV) is the most important cause of epidemic encephalitis in the United States. We review articles published in the last 18 months related to the epidemiology, immunology, clinical features, and treatment of this disease. Recent findings There was a resurgence in WNV disease in the United States in 2012. The WNV strain now predominant in the United States (NA/WN02) differs from the initial emergent isolate in 1999 (NY99). However, differences in the genetics of currently circulating United States WNV strains do not explain variations in epidemic magnitude or disease severity. Innate and acquired immunity are critical in control of WNV, and in some cases pathways are central nervous system specific. The clinical features of infection are now well understood, although nonconfirmed observations of chronic viral excretion in urine remain controversial. There is no specific antiviral therapy for WNV, but studies of antivirals specific for other flaviviruses may identify agents with promise against WNV. Phase I and II human WNV vaccine clinical trials have established that well tolerated and immunogenic WNV vaccines can be developed. Summary WNV remains an important public health problem. Although recent studies have significantly increased our understanding of host immune and genetic factors involved in control of WNV infection, no specific therapy is yet available. Development of a well tolerated, immunogenic, and effective vaccine against WNV is almost certainly feasible, but economic factors and the lack of predictability of the magnitude and location of outbreaks are problematic for designing phase III trials and ultimate licensure. PMID:24722324

  16. Quantifying the Risk of Introduction of West Nile Virus into Great Britain by Migrating Passerine Birds.

    PubMed

    Bessell, P R; Robinson, R A; Golding, N; Searle, K R; Handel, I G; Boden, L A; Purse, B V; Bronsvoort, B M de C

    2016-10-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito borne arbovirus that circulates within avian reservoirs. WNV can spill over into humans and Equidae that are dead-end hosts for WNV but suffer fever, acute morbidity and sometimes death. Outbreaks of WNV are common across Africa and Eastern Europe, and there have also been sporadic outbreaks in Spain and the Camargue Regional Park in France, but never in Great Britain (GB). These areas all fall along a major bird migration route. In this study, we analyse a scenario in which WNV is circulating in the Camargue or in other wetland areas in France and we estimate the risk of northward migrating passerine birds stopping in a WNV hotspot, becoming infected and carrying active infection to GB. If the disease were circulating in the Camargue during a single migratory season, the probability that one or more migrating birds becomes infected and lands in GB whilst still infected is 0.881 with 0.384 birds arriving in areas of suitable vector habitat. However, if WNV became established in the Grand Brière National Park or La Brenne Regional Park wetland areas further to the north, the model predicts that at least one infected bird will continue to GB. Thus, GB is at risk of WNV introduction from the Camargue, but the risk is considerably greater if WNV were to circulate further north than its previous focus in France, but this is highly sensitive to the force of infection in the infected area. However, the risk of establishment and infection of humans in GB is dependent upon a number of additional factors, in particular the vector and epidemiological situation in GB.

  17. Environmental and Biological Factors Influencing Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) Vector Competence for West Nile Virus

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Stephanie L.; Lord, Cynthia C.; Pesko, Kendra N.; Tabachnick, Walter J.

    2010-01-01

    Interactions between environmental and biological factors affect the vector competence of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus for West Nile virus. Three age cohorts from two Cx. p. quinquefasciatus colonies were fed blood containing a low- or high-virus dose, and each group was held at two different extrinsic incubation temperatures (EIT) for 13 days. The colonies differed in the way that they responded to the effects of the environment on vector competence. The effects of mosquito age on aspects of vector competence were dependent on the EIT and dose, and they changed depending on the colony. Complex interactions must be considered in laboratory studies of vector competence, because the extent of the genetic and environmental variation controlling vector competence in nature is largely unknown. Differences in the environmental (EIT and dose) and biological (mosquito age and colony) effects from previous studies of Cx. p. quinquefasciatus vector competence for St. Louis encephalitis virus are discussed. PMID:20595491

  18. West Nile Virus Positive Blood Donation and Subsequent Entomological Investigation, Austria, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Seidel, Bernhard; Jungbauer, Christof; Dimmel, Katharina; Kolodziejek, Michael; Rudolf, Ivo; Hubálek, Zdenek; Allerberger, Franz; Nowotny, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    The detection of West Nile virus (WNV) nucleic acid in a blood donation from Vienna, Austria, as well as in Culex pipiens pupae and egg rafts, sampled close to the donor’s residence, is reported. Complete genomic sequences of the human- and mosquito-derived viruses were established, genetically compared and phylogenetically analyzed. The viruses were not identical, but closely related to each other and to recent Czech and Italian isolates, indicating co-circulation of related WNV strains within a confined geographic area. The detection of WNV in a blood donation originating from an area with low WNV prevalence in humans (only three serologically diagnosed cases between 2008 and 2014) is surprising and emphasizes the importance of WNV nucleic acid testing of blood donations even in such areas, along with active mosquito surveillance programs. PMID:25961567

  19. Equine Immunoglobulin and Equine Neutralizing F(ab′)2 Protect Mice from West Nile Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jiannan; Zhao, Yongkun; Wang, Hualei; Qiu, Boning; Cao, Zengguo; Li, Qian; Zhang, Yanbo; Yan, Feihu; Jin, Hongli; Wang, Tiecheng; Sun, Weiyang; Feng, Na; Gao, Yuwei; Sun, Jing; Wang, Yanqun; Perlman, Stanley; Zhao, Jincun; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is prevalent in Africa, Europe, the Middle East, West Asia, and North America, and causes epidemic encephalitis. To date, no effective therapy for WNV infection has been developed; therefore, there is urgent need to find an efficient method to prevent WNV disease. In this study, we prepared and evaluated the protective efficacy of immune serum IgG and pepsin-digested F(ab′)2 fragments from horses immunized with the WNV virus-like particles (VLP) expressing the WNV M and E proteins. Immune equine F(ab′)2 fragments and immune horse sera efficiently neutralized WNV infection in tissue culture. The passive transfer of equine immune antibodies significantly accelerated the virus clearance in the spleens and brains of WNV infected mice, and reduced mortality. Thus, equine immunoglobulin or equine neutralizing F(ab′)2 passive immunotherapy is a potential strategy for the prophylactic or therapeutic treatment of patients infected with WNV. PMID:27999340

  20. Equine Immunoglobulin and Equine Neutralizing F(ab')₂ Protect Mice from West Nile Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jiannan; Zhao, Yongkun; Wang, Hualei; Qiu, Boning; Cao, Zengguo; Li, Qian; Zhang, Yanbo; Yan, Feihu; Jin, Hongli; Wang, Tiecheng; Sun, Weiyang; Feng, Na; Gao, Yuwei; Sun, Jing; Wang, Yanqun; Perlman, Stanley; Zhao, Jincun; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-12-18

    West Nile virus (WNV) is prevalent in Africa, Europe, the Middle East, West Asia, and North America, and causes epidemic encephalitis. To date, no effective therapy for WNV infection has been developed; therefore, there is urgent need to find an efficient method to prevent WNV disease. In this study, we prepared and evaluated the protective efficacy of immune serum IgG and pepsin-digested F(ab')₂ fragments from horses immunized with the WNV virus-like particles (VLP) expressing the WNV M and E proteins. Immune equine F(ab')₂ fragments and immune horse sera efficiently neutralized WNV infection in tissue culture. The passive transfer of equine immune antibodies significantly accelerated the virus clearance in the spleens and brains of WNV infected mice, and reduced mortality. Thus, equine immunoglobulin or equine neutralizing F(ab')₂ passive immunotherapy is a potential strategy for the prophylactic or therapeutic treatment of patients infected with WNV.

  1. Role of communally nesting ardeid birds in the epidemiology of West Nile virus revisited.

    PubMed

    Reisen, William K; Wheeler, Sarah; Armijos, M Veronica; Fang, Ying; Garcia, Sandra; Kelley, Kara; Wright, Stan

    2009-06-01

    Although herons and egrets in the family Ardeidae frequently have been associated with viruses in the Japanese encephalitis virus serocomplex, communal nesting colonies do not appear to be a focus of early season and rapid amplification of West Nile virus (WNV) in California. Evidence for repeated WNV infection was found by testing living and dead nestlings collected under trees with mixed species ardeid colonies nesting above in an oak grove near the University of California arboretum in Davis and in a Eucalyptus grove at a rural farmstead. However, mosquito infection rates at both nesting sites were low and positive pools did not occur earlier than at comparison sites within the City of Davis or at the Yolo Bypass wetlands managed for rice production and waterfowl habitat. Black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) were the most abundant and frequently infected ardeid species, indicating that WNV may be an important cause of mortality among nestlings of this species.

  2. Culex Flavivirus During West Nile Virus Epidemic and Interepidemic Years in Chicago, United States.

    PubMed

    Newman, Christina M; Krebs, Bethany L; Anderson, Tavis K; Hamer, Gabriel L; Ruiz, Marilyn O; Brawn, Jeffrey D; Brown, William M; Kitron, Uriel D; Goldberg, Tony L

    2017-08-01

    Culex flavivirus (CxFV) is an insect-specific flavivirus infecting Culex mosquitoes, which are important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV). CxFV and WNV cocirculate in nature and coinfect Culex mosquitoes, including in a WNV "hotspot" in suburban Chicago. We previously identified a positive association between CxFV and WNV in mosquito pools collected from suburban Chicago in 2006. To further investigate this phenomenon, we compared the spatial and temporal distribution of CxFV during an interepidemic year (2011) and an epidemic year (2012) for WNV. Both viruses were more prevalent in mosquito pools in 2012 compared to 2011. During both years, the CxFV infection status of mosquito pools was associated with environmental factors such as habitat type and precipitation frequency rather than coinfection with WNV. These results support the idea that WNV and CxFV are ecologically associated, perhaps because both viruses respond to similar environmental drivers of mosquito populations.

  3. Serosurvey for West Nile virus antibodies in Steller's Jays (Cyanocitta stelleri) captured in coastal California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    West, Elena; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Peery, M. Zach

    2017-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was first detected in New York in 1999 and, during its expansion across the continental US, southern Canada, and Mexico, members of the Corvidae (ravens, crows, magpies, and jays) were frequently infected and highly susceptible to the virus. As part of a behavioral study of Steller's Jays (Cyanocitta stelleri) conducted from 2011–2014 in the coastal California counties of San Mateo and Santa Cruz, 380 Steller's Jays were captured and tested for antibodies to WNV. Using the wild bird IgG enzyme linked immunoassay, we failed to detect antibodies to WNV, indicating either that there was no previous exposure to the virus or that exposed birds had died.

  4. The nucleolar helicase DDX56 redistributes to West Nile virus assembly sites.

    PubMed

    Reid, Colleen R; Hobman, Tom C

    2017-01-01

    Flaviviruses, including the human pathogen, West Nile virus (WNV), are known to co-opt many host factors for their replication and propagation. To this end, we previously reported that the nucleolar DEAD-box RNA helicase, DDX56, is important for production of infectious WNV virions. In this study, we show that WNV infection results in relocalization of DDX56 from nucleoli to virus assembly sites on the endoplasmic reticululm (ER), an observation that is consistent with a role for DDX56 in WNV virion assembly. Super-resolution microscopy revealed that capsid and DDX56 localized to the same subcompartment of the ER, however, unexpectedly, stable interaction between these two proteins was only detected in the nucleus. Together, these data suggest that DDX56 relocalizes to the site of virus assembly during WNV infection and that its interaction with WNV capsid in the cytoplasm may occur transiently during virion morphogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Specific interaction of capsid protein and importin-{alpha}/{beta} influences West Nile virus production

    SciTech Connect

    Bhuvanakantham, Raghavan; Chong, Mun-Keat; Ng, Mah-Lee

    2009-11-06

    West Nile virus (WNV) capsid (C) protein has been shown to enter the nucleus of infected cells. However, the mechanism by which C protein enters the nucleus is unknown. In this study, we have unveiled for the first time that nuclear transport of WNV and Dengue virus C protein is mediated by their direct association with importin-{alpha}. This interplay is mediated by the consensus sequences of bipartite nuclear localization signal located between amino acid residues 85-101 together with amino acid residues 42 and 43 of C protein. Elucidation of biological significance of importin-{alpha}/C protein interaction demonstrated that the binding efficiency of this association influenced the nuclear entry of C protein and virus production. Collectively, this study illustrated the molecular mechanism by which the C protein of arthropod-borne flavivirus enters the nucleus and showed the importance of importin-{alpha}/C protein interaction in the context of flavivirus life-cycle.

  6. Characterization of West Nile Viruses Isolated from Captive American Flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber) in Medellin, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, Jorge E.; Ciuoderis, Karl A.; Lopera, Juan G.; Piedrahita, Leidy D.; Murphy, Darby; LeVasseur, James; Carrillo, Lina; Ocampo, Martha C.; Hofmeister, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Serum samples from a total of 71 healthy captive birds belonging to 18 species were collected in July of 2008 in Medellin (Colombia) and tested for flaviviruses. Eighteen of 29 samples from American Flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber) were positive for West Nile virus (WNV) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Selected positive samples were serially passaged and WNV was confirmed by immunofluorescence. Two isolates (524/08, 9835/08) were characterized in vitro and in vivo. Sequence analysis revealed WNV with 16 nucleotide substitutions resulting in six amino acid changes when compared with the NY99 strain. Colombian (COL) viruses were more closely related to Louisiana isolates from 2001. When compared with attenuated strains isolated from Texas, COL isolates differed in their plaque size and temperature sensitivity phenotype. The COL viruses were pathogenic in embryonated chicken eggs and Balb/c mice. PMID:22802436

  7. Role of Communally Nesting Ardeid Birds in the Epidemiology of West Nile Virus Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Sarah; Armijos, M. Veronica; Fang, Ying; Garcia, Sandra; Kelley, Kara; Wright, Stan

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Although herons and egrets in the family Ardeidae frequently have been associated with viruses in the Japanese encephalitis virus serocomplex, communal nesting colonies do not appear to be a focus of early season and rapid amplification of West Nile virus (WNV) in California. Evidence for repeated WNV infection was found by testing living and dead nestlings collected under trees with mixed species ardeid colonies nesting above in an oak grove near the University of California arboretum in Davis and in a Eucalyptus grove at a rural farmstead. However, mosquito infection rates at both nesting sites were low and positive pools did not occur earlier than at comparison sites within the City of Davis or at the Yolo Bypass wetlands managed for rice production and waterfowl habitat. Black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) were the most abundant and frequently infected ardeid species, indicating that WNV may be an important cause of mortality among nestlings of this species. PMID:19125659

  8. Characterization of West Nile viruses isolated form captive American flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber) in Medellin, Colombia.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osorio, Jorge E.; Ciuoderis, Karl A.; Lopera, Juan G.; Piedrahita, Leidy D.; Murphy, Darby; LeVasseur, James; Carrillo, Lina; Ocampo, Martha C.; Hofmeister, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Serum samples from a total of 71 healthy captive birds belonging to 18 species were collected in July of 2008 in Medellin (Colombia) and tested for flaviviruses. Eighteen of 29 samples from American Flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber) were positive for West Nile virus (WNV) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Selected positive samples were serially passaged and WNV was confirmed by immunofluorescence. Two isolates (524/08, 9835/08) were characterized in vitro and in vivo. Sequence analysis revealed WNV with 16 nucleotide substitutions resulting in six amino acid changes when compared with the NY99 strain. Colombian (COL) viruses were more closely related to Louisiana isolates from 2001. When compared with attenuated strains isolated from Texas, COL isolates differed in their plaque size and temperature sensitivity phenotype. The COL viruses were pathogenic in embryonated chicken eggs and Balb/c mice.

  9. Characterization of West Nile viruses isolated from captive American Flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber) in Medellin, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Jorge E; Ciuoderis, Karl A; Lopera, Juan G; Piedrahita, Leidy D; Murphy, Darby; Levasseur, James; Carrillo, Lina; Ocampo, Martha C; Hofmeister, Erik

    2012-09-01

    Serum samples from a total of 71 healthy captive birds belonging to 18 species were collected in July of 2008 in Medellin (Colombia) and tested for flaviviruses. Eighteen of 29 samples from American Flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber) were positive for West Nile virus (WNV) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Selected positive samples were serially passaged and WNV was confirmed by immunofluorescence. Two isolates (524/08, 9835/08) were characterized in vitro and in vivo. Sequence analysis revealed WNV with 16 nucleotide substitutions resulting in six amino acid changes when compared with the NY99 strain. Colombian (COL) viruses were more closely related to Louisiana isolates from 2001. When compared with attenuated strains isolated from Texas, COL isolates differed in their plaque size and temperature sensitivity phenotype. The COL viruses were pathogenic in embryonated chicken eggs and Balb/c mice.

  10. Review of West Nile virus circulation and outbreak risk in Madagascar: Entomological and ornithological perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Tantely, Michaël Luciano; Goodman, Steven M.; Rakotondranaivo, Tsirinaina; Boyer, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    West Nile fever (WNF) is a zoonotic disease, occurring nearly globally. In Madagascar, West Nile virus (WNV) was first detected in 1978 from wild birds and the virus is currently distributed across the island, but no epidemic or epizootic period has been recorded. One fatal human case of WNV infection was reported in 2011, suggesting a “tip of the iceberg” phenomenon of a possible WNF epidemic/epizootic on the island. The main objective of this literature-based survey is to review patterns of WNV circulation in Madagascar from the entomological and ornithological points of view. Among the 235 mosquito species described from Madagascar, 29 species are widely associated with WNV infection; 16 of them are found naturally infected with WNV on the island and categorized into major, candidate, and potential vectors of WNV according to their vector capacity. This study upholds the hypothesis that WNV enzooticity is independent of annual movements of migratory birds passing through Madagascar. Moreover, the lack of regular migratory bird flux between Africa and Madagascar would reduce the probability of transmission and the subsequent reintroduction of the virus into locally occurring mosquito species. Given that Palearctic migratory birds are strongly implicated in the transmission of WNV, we highlight notable differences in the movements and species diversity of these birds in Madagascar as compared to eastern and northern Africa. Risk factors from this two-pronged approach are presented for the emergence of WNF outbreak. PMID:27849515

  11. Archival Isolates Confirm a Single Topotype of West Nile Virus in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bixing; Prow, Natalie A; van den Hurk, Andrew F.; Allcock, Richard J. N.; Moore, Peter R.; Doggett, Stephen L.; Warrilow, David

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus is globally wide-spread and causes significant disease in humans and animals. The evolution of West Nile virus Kunjin subtype in Australia (WNVKUN) was investigated using archival samples collected over a period of 50 years. Based on the pattern of fixed amino acid substitutions and time-stamped molecular clock analyses, a single long-term lineage (or topotype) was inferred. This implies that a bottleneck exists such that regional strains eventually die out and are replaced with strains from a single source. This was consistent with current hypotheses regarding the distribution of WNVKUN, whereby the virus is enzootic in northern Australia and is disseminated to southern states by water-birds or mosquitoes after flooding associated with above average rainfall. In addition, two previous amino acid changes associated with pathogenicity, an N-Y-S glycosylation motif in the envelope protein and a phenylalanine at amino acid 653 in the RNA polymerase, were both detected in all isolates collected since the 1980s. Changes primarily occurred due to stochastic drift. One fixed substitution each in NS3 and NS5, subtly changed the chemical environment of important functional groups, and may be involved in fine-tuning RNA synthesis. Understanding these evolutionary changes will help us to better understand events such as the emergence of the virulent strain in 2011. PMID:27906966

  12. Prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to West Nile virus in Eleonora's Falcons in the Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    Gangoso, Laura; Grande, Juan Manuel; Llorente, Francisco; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Ángel; Pérez, Jesús M; Figuerola, Jordi

    2010-10-01

    Birds are the major amplifying host for West Nile virus (WNV), a flavivirus that may affect humans and transmitted by bloodsucking vectors. Eleonora's Falcons (Falco eleonorae) migrate to the Canary Islands annually from WNV-endemic regions. To investigate the possible role of Eleonora's Falcons in the circulation of WNV, we measured WNV-specific antibodies in 81 falcons captured in 2006. None of the nestlings but 14.8% of the adults had WNV-neutralizing antibodies. RT-PCR did not detect flaviviruses in nonculicine ectoparasites (n=231) of the falcons. These findings suggest that WNV infection did not occur locally, but rather on the wintering grounds or during migration.

  13. Passive West Nile virus antibody transfer from maternal Eastern screech-owls (Megascops asio) to progeny.

    PubMed

    Hahn, D C; Nemeth, Nicole M; Edwards, Eric; Bright, Patricia R; Komar, Nicholas

    2006-09-01

    Transovarial antibody transfer in owls has not been demonstrated for West Nile virus (WNV). We sampled chicks from captive adult WNV-antibody-positive Eastern Screech-Owls (Megascops asio) to evaluate the prevalence of transovarial maternal antibody transfer, as well as titers and duration of maternal antibodies. Twenty-four owlets aged 1 to 27 days old circulated detectable antibodies with neutralizing antibody titers ranging from 20 to 1600 (median 1:40). Demonstrating that WNV antibodies are passively transferred transovarially is important for accurate interpretation of serologic data from young birds.

  14. Passive West Nile virus antibody transfer from maternal Eastern Screech-Owls (Megascops asio) to progeny

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hahn, D.C.; Nemeth, N.M.; Edwards, E.; Bright, P.R.; Komar, N.

    2006-01-01

    Transovarial antibody transfer in owls has not been demonstrated for West Nile virus (WNV). We sampled chicks from captive adult WNV-antibody-positive Eastern Screech-Owls (Megascops asio) to evaluate the prevalence of transovarial maternal antibody transfer, as well as titers and duration of maternal antibodies. Twenty-four owlets aged 1 to 27 days old circulated detectable antibodies with neutralizing antibody titers ranging from 20 to 1600 (median 1:40). Demonstrating that WNV antibodies are passively transferred transovarially is important for accurate interpretation of serologic data from young birds.

  15. West Nile virus: an infectious viral agent to the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Farrar, Francisca

    2013-06-01

    This article reviews the growing epidemic of West Nile virus (WNV), clinical manifestations of the 2 primary groups of WNV, diagnostic tests, critical nursing management, risk factors, and prevention of WNV. Critical care nursing management is based on symptom management and supportive therapy for neuroinvasive disease complications. Nursing management for complications such as altered level of consciousness, mechanical ventilator respiratory support, high fever, cerebral edema, increased intracranial pressure, seizures, and neuropsychiatric issues is outlined. Preventive measures for WNV, such as surveillance programs, personal protective measures, source reduction, mosquito programs, and vaccine development, are discussed.

  16. Serological detection of West Nile virus in horses and chicken from Pantanal, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Melandri, Vanessa; Guimarães, Anthony Érico; Komar, Nicholas; Nogueira, Maurício L; Mondini, Adriano; Fernandez-Sesma, Ana; Alencar, Jeronimo; Bosch, Irene

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to detect West Nile virus (WNV) in Brazil, we sampled serum from horses and chickens from the Pantanal region of the state of Mato Grosso and tested for flavivirus-reactive antibodies by blocking ELISA. The positive samples were further confirmed for serological evidence of WNV infection in three (8%) of the 38 horses and one (3.2%) of the 31 chickens using an 80% plaque-reduction neutralisation test (PRNT80). These results provide evidence of the circulation of WNV in chickens and horses in Pantanal. PMID:23295763

  17. Antibodies to West Nile virus in wild and farmed crocodiles in southeastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Machain-Williams, Carlos; Padilla-Paz, Sergio E; Weber, Manuel; Cetina-Trejo, Rosa; Juarez-Ordaz, José Alfredo; Loroño-Pino, María Alba; Ulloa, Armando; Wang, Chong; Garcia-Rejon, Julián; Blitvich, Bradley J

    2013-07-01

    Surveillance for evidence of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) was conducted in Campeche State, Mexico, in 2007. Sera from 62 crocodiles (32 free-ranging and 30 captive) were assayed for antibodies to WNV by epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibodies to WNV were detected in 13 (41%) wild and nine (30%) captive crocodiles, and the overall antibody prevalence was 35%. Although evidence of WNV infection in captive crocodiles has been reported in Mexico, we provide the first evidence of WNV exposure in wild crocodiles in Mexico.

  18. First detection of West Nile virus in domestic pigeon in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, C-Yoon; Oh, Hanseul; Song, Juha; Hur, Moonsuk; Suh, Jae-Hwa; Jheong, Weon-Hwa; Kim, Jong-Taek; Oh, Hong-Shik

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic pathogen that has spread throughout Europe and the United States. Recently, WNV spread to East and Southeast Asia, and great efforts have been made in South Korea to prevent the spread of WNV from neighboring countries. In this study, we diagnosed the first case of WNV in pigeons (Columba livia domestica) residing in cities using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and confirmed it with nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis and sequencing. This is the first report to provide convincing evidence that WNV is present within South Korea. PMID:27030190

  19. West Nile virus reemergence in Romania: a serologic survey in host species.

    PubMed

    Ludu Oslobanu, Elena Luanda; Mihu-Pintilie, Alin; Anită, Dragos; Anita, Adriana; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Savuta, Gheorghe

    2014-05-01

    The presence of West Nile virus (WNV) in humans has been known in Romania since the 1950s; the 1996 epidemics emphasized the reemergence potential of WNV in Romania. Serological surveys made on susceptible species, known as good sentinels or reservoir hosts, e.g., horses, wild and domestic birds were undertaken from 2006-2011. Our results corroborated incidence data in human patients and other recent seroprevalence studies in animals, and should partially clarify the emergence of WNV in the eastern rural territories of Romania. It also highlighted risk zones for endemic WNV infection in Romania.

  20. Dynamic transmission of West Nile virus across the United States-Mexican border.

    PubMed

    Mann, Brian R; McMullen, Allison R; Guzman, Hilda; Tesh, Robert B; Barrett, Alan D T

    2013-02-05

    Confirmed clinical and veterinary cases of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in Mexico remain restricted to northern Mexico, supporting a unidirectional transmission model from the US into Mexico. Full-length genomic sequencing of nine WNV isolates obtained from Culex spp. mosquito pools in El Paso, Texas (n=7) and Cuidad Juarez, Mexico (n=2) from 2005 to 2010 demonstrates the co-circulation of three independent genetic groups, two of which belong to the southwestern (SW/WN03) genotype and the other to the North American (NA/WN02) genotype. These results indicate ongoing dynamic circulation of WNV between the United States and Mexico.

  1. Surveillance of maternal antibodies against West Nile virus in chicken eggs in South-West Germany.

    PubMed

    Börstler, Jessica; Engel, Dimitri; Petersen, Mathis; Poggensee, Claudia; Jansen, Stephanie; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Lühken, Renke

    2016-05-01

    The emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) in several European countries increases the risk of its introduction to Germany. This study evaluated a new method for WNV surveillance by testing for maternal antibodies in chicken eggs. A total of 1,990 eggs were collected in 35 sampling sites in the south-west of Germany and tested for WNV-specific antibodies. The results did not indicate evidence for WNV circulation in the study area. This work serves as a proof-of-concept that such a method is useful and a potential alternative to use of sentinel chicken for regular WNV surveillance. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Lack of Evidence of Increased West Nile Virus Disease Severity in the United States in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Nicole P.; Staples, J. Erin; Delorey, Mark J.; Fischer, Marc

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, West Nile virus (WNV) causes annual seasonal outbreaks that fluctuate in size and scope. There was a large multistate outbreak of WNV in 2012, with more human disease cases reported nationally than any year since 2003. We evaluated national surveillance data to determine if the higher number of WNV cases reported in 2012 was associated with changes in the epidemiology or severity of disease compared with 2004–2011. Despite an increased incidence of neuroinvasive disease in 2012, national surveillance data showed no evidence of changes in epidemiology or increased disease severity compared with the previous 8 years. PMID:24218412

  3. Antibodies to West Nile Virus in Wild and Farmed Crocodiles in Southeastern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Machain-Williams, Carlos; Padilla-Paz, Sergio E.; Weber, Manuel; Cetina-Trejo, Rosa; Juarez-Ordaz, José Alfredo; Loroño-Pino, María Alba; Ulloa, Armando; Wang, Chong; Garcia-Rejon, Julián; Blitvich, Bradley J.

    2013-01-01

    Surveillance for evidence of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in Morelet’s crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) was conducted in Campeche State, Mexico, in 2007. Sera from 62 crocodiles (32 free-ranging and 30 captive) were assayed for antibodies to WNV by epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibodies to WNV were detected in 13 (41%) wild and nine (30%) captive crocodiles, and the overall antibody prevalence was 35%. Although evidence of WNV infection in captive crocodiles has been reported in Mexico, we provide the first evidence of WNV exposure in wild crocodiles in Mexico. PMID:23778623

  4. Development time of IgG antibodies to West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna; Danis, Kostas; Tsergouli, Katerina; Tsioka, Katerina; Gavana, Elpida

    2011-09-01

    Following an outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) infections in Greece during summer/autumn 2010, a study was conducted to investigate the patterns of WNV IgG reactivity in 255 patients with respect to the day of illness and the type of clinical syndrome. IgG antibodies were detectable after a mean of 8.1 ± 4.9 and 12.6 ± 11.3 days after onset of illness in neuroinvasive and non-neuroinvasive cases, respectively (p < 0.001), suggesting that a delay in the development of WNV IgG antibodies is seen in non-neuroinvasive cases.

  5. New Insights into Innate Immune Restriction of West Nile Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lazear, Helen M.; Diamond, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an encephalitic flavivirus that has provided a valuable experimental system for studying viral pathogenesis and immunity. Although in vitro approaches and mouse models of infection have identified pattern recognition receptor and interferon pathways that control WNV infection, our appreciation of specific antiviral effectors has been more limited. In this review, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of the host factors that restrict WNV infection in mammals and insects, especially those resulting from large-scale screening approaches. PMID:25554924

  6. Vector competence of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) for West Nile virus isolates from Florida

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Stephanie L.; Anderson, Sheri L.; Lord, Cynthia C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess vector competence (infection, dissemination and transmission) of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus for Florida (FL) West Nile virus (WNV) isolates. METHODS West Nile virus isolates (WN-FL-03: NY99 genotype; WN-FL-05-558, WN-FL-05-2186, WN-FL-05-510: WN02 genotype) collected from different regions of FL were used for vector competence experiments in Cx. p. quinquefasciatus from Alachua County and Indian River County in FL. Mosquitoes from both colonies were fed blood containing 7.9 ± 0.2 log10 plaque-forming units WNV/ml ± SE and incubated at 28 °C for 14 days. Vector competence, including rates of infection, dissemination, and transmission, was compared between colonies for WN-FL-03 using chi-squared. Virus titres in bodies, legs and saliva were compared using ANOVA. Daily measurements of in vitro replication of WNV isolates were evaluated in Vero cells so that a standardised virus dose for each isolate could be delivered to mosquitoes. RESULTS Infection and dissemination rates were high (≥95%) and not affected by isolate or colony (infection, P = 0.679; dissemination, P = 0.799). Transmission rates were low (≤20%), detected in one colony and affected by isolate (P = 0.008). Body and leg titres differed between isolates (body titre, P = 0.031; leg titre, P = 0.044) and colonies (body titre, P = 0.001; leg titre, P = 0.013) while saliva titre did not differ between isolates (P = 0.462). CONCLUSIONS Variation in vector competence of mosquito populations may be attributed, in part, to exposures to WNV with genetic differences leading to different rates of replication in mosquitoes. Evaluation of vector competence for different WNV isolates may help us understand vector–virus interactions and, hence, the role of vectors in complex virus transmission cycles in nature. PMID:24898274

  7. Pathology of fatal lineage 1 and 2 West Nile virus infections in horses in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Williams, June H; van Niekerk, Stephanie; Human, Stacey; van Wilpe, Erna; Venter, Marietjie

    2014-09-01

    Since 2007, West Nile virus (WNV) has been reported in South African horses, causing severe neurological signs. All cases were of lineage 2, except for one case that clustered with lineage 1 viruses. In the present study, gross and microscopic lesions of six South African lineage 2-infected horses and the one lineage 1 case are described. Diagnoses were confirmed by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of central nervous system (CNS) tissue and one by RT-PCR of a brain virus isolate. The CNS of all cases was negative by RT-PCR or immunohistochemistry (IHC) for African horse sickness (AHS), equine encephalosis virus, equine herpes viruses 1 and 4, other zoonotic flaviviruses, alphaviruses, and shunivirus, and either by immunofluorescence or IHC for rabies. Gross visceral lesions were nonspecific but often mimicked those of AHS. The CNS histopathology of WNV lineage 2 cases resembled the nonsuppurative polioencephalomyelitis reported in the Northern Hemisphere lineage 1 and recent Hungarian lineage 2 cases. Occasional meningitis, focal spinal ventral horn poliomalacia, dorsal and lateral horn poliomyelitis, leucomyelitis, asymmetrical ventral motor spinal neuritis and frequent olfactory region involvement were also seen. Lineage 2 cases displayed marked variations in CNS lesion severity, type and distribution, and suggested various viral entry routes into the CNS, based on findings in experimental mice and hamsters. Lineage 1 lesions were comparable to the milder lineage 2 cases. West Nile virus IHC on CNS sections with marked lesions from all cases elicited only two antigen-positive cells in the olfactory cortex of one case. The presence in the CNS of T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophage-monocytes was confirmed by cluster of differentiation (CD) 3, CD20, multiple myeloma oncogene 1 (MUM1) and macrophage (MAC) 387 IHC.

  8. West Nile virus-specific immunoglobulin isotype responses in vaccinated and infected horses.

    PubMed

    Khatibzadeh, Sarah M; Gold, Carvel B; Keggan, Alison E; Perkins, Gillian A; Glaser, Amy L; Dubovi, Edward J; Wagner, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    To compare antibody responses of horses naturally infected with West Nile virus (WNV) and those vaccinated against WNV, to identify whether vaccination interferes with the ability to diagnose WNV infection, and to determine the duration of antibody responses after vaccination. Sera from horses naturally infected with WNV (n = 10) and adult WNV-naïve horses before and after vaccination with a live canarypox virus-vectored vaccine (7) or a killed virus vaccine (8). An established WNV IgM capture ELISA was used to measure IgM responses. Newly developed capture ELISAs were used to measure responses of 8 other WNV-specific immunoglobulin isotypes. A serum neutralization assay was used to determine anti-WNV antibody titers. WNV-specific IgM responses were typically detected in the sera of WNV-infected horses but not in sera of horses vaccinated against WNV. Natural infection with and vaccination against WNV induced an immunoglobulin response that was primarily composed of IgG1. West Nile virus-specific IgG1 was detected in the sera of most horses 14 days after vaccination. Serum anti-WNV IgG1 and neutralizing antibody responses induced by the killed-virus vaccines were higher and lasted longer than did those induced by the live canarypox virus-vectored vaccine. On the basis of these findings, we recommend that horses be vaccinated against WNV annually near the beginning of mosquito season, that both IgM and IgG1 responses against WNV be measured to distinguish between natural infection and vaccination, and that a WNV IgG1 ELISA be used to monitor anti-WNV antibodies titers in vaccinated horses.

  9. Fluid Spatial Dynamics of West Nile Virus in the United States: Rapid Spread in a Permissive Host Environment

    PubMed Central

    Di Giallonardo, Francesca; Geoghegan, Jemma L.; Docherty, Douglas E.; McLean, Robert G.; Zody, Michael C.; Qu, James; Yang, Xiao; Birren, Bruce W.; Malboeuf, Christine M.; Newman, Ruchi M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The introduction of West Nile virus (WNV) into North America in 1999 is a classic example of viral emergence in a new environment, with its subsequent dispersion across the continent having a major impact on local bird populations. Despite the importance of this epizootic, the pattern, dynamics, and determinants of WNV spread in its natural hosts remain uncertain. In particular, it is unclear whether the virus encountered major barriers to transmission, or spread in an unconstrained manner, and if specific viral lineages were favored over others indicative of intrinsic differences in fitness. To address these key questions in WNV evolution and ecology, we sequenced the complete genomes of approximately 300 avian isolates sampled across the United States between 2001 and 2012. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a relatively star-like tree structure, indicative of explosive viral spread in the United States, although with some replacement of viral genotypes through time. These data are striking in that viral sequences exhibit relatively limited clustering according to geographic region, particularly for those viruses sampled from birds, and no strong phylogenetic association with well-sampled avian species. The genome sequence data analyzed here also contain relatively little evidence for adaptive evolution, particularly of structural proteins, suggesting that most viral lineages are of similar fitness and that WNV is well adapted to the ecology of mosquito vectors and diverse avian hosts in the United States. In sum, the molecular evolution of WNV in North America depicts a largely unfettered expansion within a permissive host and geographic population with little evidence of major adaptive barriers. IMPORTANCE How viruses spread in new host and geographic environments is central to understanding the emergence and evolution of novel infectious diseases and for predicting their likely impact. The emergence of the vector-borne West Nile virus (WNV) in North

  10. West Nile Virus and Other Nationally Notifiable Arboviral Diseases - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Nicole P; Lehman, Jennifer A; Staples, J Erin; Fischer, Marc

    2015-09-04

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes and ticks. West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the United States (1). However, several other arboviruses also cause sporadic cases and seasonal outbreaks. This report summarizes surveillance data reported to CDC in 2014 for WNV and other nationally notifiable arboviruses, excluding dengue. Forty-two states and the District of Columbia (DC) reported 2,205 cases of WNV disease. Of these, 1,347 (61%) were classified as WNV neuroinvasive disease (e.g., meningitis, encephalitis, or acute flaccid paralysis), for a national incidence of 0.42 cases per 100,000 population. After WNV, the next most commonly reported cause of arboviral disease was La Crosse virus (80 cases), followed by Jamestown Canyon virus (11), St. Louis encephalitis virus (10), Powassan virus (8), and Eastern equine encephalitis virus (8). WNV and other arboviruses cause serious illness in substantial numbers of persons each year. Maintaining surveillance programs is important to help direct prevention activities.

  11. [Experimental assessment of the possible significance of argasid ticks in preserving the natural foci of West Nile virus infection].

    PubMed

    Kokonova, M S; Borisevich, S V; Grabarev, P A; Bondarev, V P

    2013-01-01

    Experiments indicated that the argasid ticks Alveonasus lahorensis were highly susceptible to West Nile virus when inoculated in the hemocoel. The virus concentration in the ticks reached high values when very low doses (0.01 PFU) of the pathogen were administered. The ticks kept at 3.0 +/- 1.0 degrees C retained the pathogen up to 116 days (a follow-up period). The infection rate of the ticks depending on the virus dose administered was in the range from 12 to 80%. The contaminated specimens successfully transmitted the virus to rabbits by blood suckling. The findings suggest that the argasid ticks may be involved in the preservation of West Nile virus in the interepidemic period and be responsible for the outbreak of this infection in summer and autumn months.

  12. High Throughput Quantitative Colorimetric Microneutralization Assay for the Confirmation and Differentiation of West Nile Virus and St. Louis Encephalitis Virus

    PubMed Central

    Taketa-Graham, Michael; Powell Pereira, Jaime L.; Baylis, Elizabeth; Cossen, Cynthia; Oceguera, Leopoldo; Patiris, Peter; Chiles, Robert; Hanson, Carl V.; Forghani, BagHer

    2010-01-01

    An automated colorimetric micro-neutralization assay (CmNt) was developed for confirmation and differentiation of West Nile Virus (WNV)-positive human sera as a higher throughput alternative to the standard six-well plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT). CmNt was performed in high-capacity 96-well micro-titer plates and required 4–6 days to complete. Inhibition of infection was determined by reduced neutral red-dye retention and conveniently recorded by a colorimetric plate reader. Human sera previously confirmed by PRNT as either negative (N = 52), WNV positive (N = 81), or St. Louis encephalitis virus positive (N = 12) were tested by CmNt; interpreted results were virtually identical to PRNT with a reduced turnaround time and higher throughput. Additionally, a handful of dengue virus positive and negative specimens (four each) were tested by CmNt; interpreted results were identical to PRNT. PMID:20207881

  13. A West Nile virus CD4 T cell epitope improves the immunogenicity of dengue virus serotype 2 vaccines.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Holly R; Crill, Wayne D; Davis, Brent S; Chang, Gwong-Jen J

    2012-03-15

    Flaviviruses, such as dengue virus (DENV) and West Nile virus (WNV), are among the most prevalent human disease-causing arboviruses world-wide. As they continue to expand their geographic range, multivalent flavivirus vaccines may become an important public health tool. Here we describe the immune kinetics of WNV DNA vaccination and the identification of a CD4 epitope that increases heterologous flavivirus vaccine immunogenicity. Lethal WNV challenge two days post-vaccination resulted in 90% protection with complete protection by four days, and was temporally associated with a rapid influx of activated CD4 T cells. CD4 T cells from WNV vaccinated mice could be stimulated from epitopic regions in the envelope protein transmembrane domain. Incorporation of this WNV epitope into DENV-2 DNA and virus-like particle vaccines significantly increased neutralizing antibody titers. Incorporating such potent epitopes into multivalent flavivirus vaccines could improve their immunogenicity and may help alleviate concerns of imbalanced immunity in multivalent vaccine approaches.

  14. First field evidence for natural vertical transmission of West Nile virus in Culex univittatus complex mosquitoes from Rift Valley province, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Miller, B R; Nasci, R S; Godsey, M S; Savage, H M; Lutwama, J J; Lanciotti, R S; Peters, C J

    2000-02-01

    West Nile virus is a mosquito borne flavivirus endemic over a large geographic area including Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. Although the virus generally causes a mild, self-limiting febrile illness in humans, it has sporadically caused central nervous system infections during epidemics. An isolate of West Nile virus was obtained from a pool of four male Culex univittatus complex mosquitoes while we were conducting an investigation of Rift Valley fever along the Kenya-Uganda border in February-March 1998. This represents the first field isolation of West Nile virus from male mosquitoes and strongly suggests that vertical transmission of the virus occurs in the primary maintenance mosquito vector in Kenya. A phylogenetic analysis of the complete amino acid sequence of the viral envelope glycoprotein demonstrated a sister relationship with a Culex pipiens mosquito isolate from Romania made in 1996. This unexpected finding probably reflects the role of migratory birds in disseminating West Nile virus between Africa and Europe.

  15. Transmission of West Nile Virus by Culex quinquefasciatus Say Infected with Culex Flavivirus Izabal

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Rebekah J.; Crabtree, Mary B.; Miller, Barry R.

    2010-01-01

    Background The natural history and potential impact of mosquito-specific flaviviruses on the transmission efficiency of West Nile virus (WNV) is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not prior infection with Culex flavivirus (CxFV) Izabal altered the vector competence of Cx. quinquefasciatus Say for transmission of a co-circulating strain of West Nile virus (WNV) from Guatemala. Methods and Findings CxFV-negative Culex quinquefasciatus and those infected with CxFV Izabal by intrathoracic inoculation were administered WNV-infectious blood meals. Infection, dissemination, and transmission of WNV were measured by plaque titration on Vero cells of individual mosquito bodies, legs, or saliva, respectively, two weeks following WNV exposure. Additional groups of Cx. quinquefasciatus were intrathoracically inoculated with WNV alone or WNV+CxFV Izabal simultaneously, and saliva collected nine days post inoculation. Growth of WNV in Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells or Cx. quinquefasciatus was not inhibited by prior infection with CxFV Izabal. There was no significant difference in the vector competence of Cx. quinquefasciatus for WNV between mosquitoes uninfected or infected with CxFV Izabal across multiple WNV blood meal titers and two colonies of Cx. quinquefasciatus (p>0.05). However, significantly more Cx. quinquefasciatus from Honduras that were co-inoculated simultaneously with both viruses transmitted WNV than those inoculated with WNV alone (p = 0.0014). Co-inoculated mosquitoes that transmitted WNV also contained CxFV in their saliva, whereas mosquitoes inoculated with CxFV alone did not contain virus in their saliva. Conclusions In the sequential infection experiments, prior infection with CxFV Izabal had no significant impact on WNV replication, infection, dissemination, or transmission by Cx. quinquefasciatus, however WNV transmission was enhanced in the Honduras colony when mosquitoes were inoculated simultaneously with both viruses

  16. Experimental susceptibility of wood ducks (Aix sponsa) for West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Hofmeister, Erik; Porter, Robert E; Franson, J Christian

    2015-04-01

    Detection of West Nile virus (WNV) has been reported in a variety of wild ducks in the US, but little is known about the pathogenesis and outcome of exposure of the disease in these species. Previous experimental studies of WNV in ducks either have challenged a small number of ducks with WNV or have tested domesticated ducks. To determine susceptibility and immune response, we challenged 7-wk-old Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) with a 1999 American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) isolate of WNV. Wood Ducks were susceptible to infection with the virus, and, although clinical signs or mortality were not observed, microscopic lesions were noted, particularly in the heart and brain. West Nile virus viremia peaked on day 2 postinfection (pi) at 10(4.54) plaque-forming units (PFU) of virus/mL serum and WNV was shed orally (between 10(2) and 10(2.9) PFU per swab) and cloacally. Specific anti-WNV antibody response was rapid, with anti-WNV IgM detected on day 3 pi followed on day 5 pi by anti-WNV IgG. Neutralizing antibodies were detected by plaque-reduction neutralization assay in one duck on day 4 pi, and in all sampled ducks on day 5. These results indicate that Wood Ducks are susceptible to WNV, but it is unlikely that significant WNV mortality events occur in Wood Ducks or that they play a significant role in transmission. However, WNV viremia was sufficient, in theory, to infect mosquitoes, and oral and cloacal shedding of the virus may increase the risk of infection to other waterbirds.

  17. Experimental susceptibility of Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) for West Nile virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hofmeister, Erik K.; Porter, Robert E.; Franson, J. Christian

    2015-01-01

    Detection of West Nile virus (WNV) has been reported in a variety of wild ducks in the US, but little is known about the pathogenesis and outcome of exposure of the disease in these species. Previous experimental studies of WNV in ducks either have challenged a small number of ducks with WNV or have tested domesticated ducks. To determine susceptibility and immune response, we challenged 7-wk-old Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) with a 1999 American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) isolate of WNV. Wood Ducks were susceptible to infection with the virus, and, although clinical signs or mortality were not observed, microscopic lesions were noted, particularly in the heart and brain. West Nile virus viremia peaked on day 2 postinfection (pi) at 104.54 plaque-forming units (PFU) of virus/mL serum and WNV was shed orally (between 102and 102.9 PFU per swab) and cloacally. Specific anti-WNV antibody response was rapid, with anti-WNV IgM detected on day 3 pi followed on day 5 pi by anti-WNV IgG. Neutralizing antibodies were detected by plaque-reduction neutralization assay in one duck on day 4 pi, and in all sampled ducks on day 5. These results indicate that Wood Ducks are susceptible to WNV, but it is unlikely that significant WNV mortality events occur in Wood Ducks or that ducks play a significant role in transmission. However, WNV viremia was sufficient, in theory, to infect mosquitoes, and oral and cloacal shedding of the virus may increase the risk of infection to other waterbirds.

  18. Avian GIS models signal human risk for West Nile virus in Mississippi

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, William H; Grala, Katarzyna; Wallis, Robert C

    2006-01-01

    Background West Nile virus (WNV) poses a significant health risk for residents of Mississippi. Physicians and state health officials are interested in new and efficient methods for monitoring disease spread and predicting future outbreaks. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) models have the potential to support these efforts. Environmental conditions favorable for mosquito habitat were modeled using GIS to derive WNV risk maps for Mississippi. Variables important to WNV dissemination were selected and classified as static and dynamic. The static variables included road density, stream density, slope, and vegetation. The dynamic variable represented seasonal water budget and was calculated using precipitation and evaporation estimates. Significance tests provided deterministic evidence of variable importance to the models. Results Several models were developed to estimate WNV risk including a landscape-base model and seasonal climatic sub-models. P-values from t-tests guided variable importance ranking. Variables were ranked and weights assigned as follows: road density (0.4), stream density (0.3), slope (0.2) and vegetation (0.1). This landscape-base model was modified by climatic conditions to assess the importance of climate to WNV risk. Human case data at the zip code level were used to validate modeling results. All models were summarized by zip codes for interpretation and model validation. For all models, estimated risk was higher for zip codes with at least one human case than for zip codes where no human cases were recorded. Overall median measure of risk by zip code indicated that 67% of human cases occurred in the high-risk category. Conclusion Modeling results indicated that dead bird occurrences are correlated with human WNV risk and can facilitate the assessment of environmental variables that contribute to that risk. Each variable's importance in GIS-based risk predictions was assigned deterministically. Our models indicated non-uniform distribution

  19. Avian GIS models signal human risk for West Nile virus in Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Cooke, William H; Grala, Katarzyna; Wallis, Robert C

    2006-08-31

    West Nile virus (WNV) poses a significant health risk for residents of Mississippi. Physicians and state health officials are interested in new and efficient methods for monitoring disease spread and predicting future outbreaks. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) models have the potential to support these efforts. Environmental conditions favorable for mosquito habitat were modeled using GIS to derive WNV risk maps for Mississippi. Variables important to WNV dissemination were selected and classified as static and dynamic. The static variables included road density, stream density, slope, and vegetation. The dynamic variable represented seasonal water budget and was calculated using precipitation and evaporation estimates. Significance tests provided deterministic evidence of variable importance to the models. Several models were developed to estimate WNV risk including a landscape-base model and seasonal climatic sub-models. P-values from t-tests guided variable importance ranking. Variables were ranked and weights assigned as follows: road density (0.4), stream density (0.3), slope (0.2) and vegetation (0.1). This landscape-base model was modified by climatic conditions to assess the importance of climate to WNV risk. Human case data at the zip code level were used to validate modeling results. All models were summarized by zip codes for interpretation and model validation. For all models, estimated risk was higher for zip codes with at least one human case than for zip codes where no human cases were recorded. Overall median measure of risk by zip code indicated that 67% of human cases occurred in the high-risk category. Modeling results indicated that dead bird occurrences are correlated with human WNV risk and can facilitate the assessment of environmental variables that contribute to that risk. Each variable's importance in GIS-based risk predictions was assigned deterministically. Our models indicated non-uniform distribution of risk across the state and

  20. West Nile Virus: A Threat to North American Avian Species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLean, R.G.

    2002-01-01

    The introduction and extensive expansion of WNV in the US in the last three years is having a dramatic impact on native wildlife. The disease continues to cause significant mortality in a variety of bird species throughout the eastern US, particularly in American crow and blue jay populations. As the virus expands to new habitats in the southern, midwestern and western states, new bird species will be at risk and different patterns of transmission will develop. In the western states, many additional species of Corvidae (crows, jays, ravens, magpies and nutcrackers) may be affected. Once it becomes well established in states with warm climates, like Florida where mosquitoes are active year round to sustain almost continuous transmission; these states could serve as annual sources of WNV for migratory birds to re-introduce the virus to northern states in the spring. The rapid increase in geographical distribution of WNV activity that has occurred throughout the eastern US and the rapid increase in the infection and mortality rates in birds during the last three years indicate the emergence of an epizootic disease of major importance to North American birds.

  1. Noncoding subgenomic flavivirus RNA: multiple functions in West Nile virus pathogenesis and modulation of host responses.

    PubMed

    Roby, Justin A; Pijlman, Gorben P; Wilusz, Jeffrey; Khromykh, Alexander A

    2014-01-27

    Flaviviruses are a large group of positive strand RNA viruses transmitted by arthropods that include many human pathogens such as West Nile virus (WNV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), yellow fever virus, dengue virus, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. All members in this genus tested so far are shown to produce a unique subgenomic flavivirus RNA (sfRNA) derived from the 3' untranslated region (UTR). sfRNA is a product of incomplete degradation of genomic RNA by the cell 5'-3' exoribonuclease XRN1 which stalls at highly ordered secondary RNA structures at the beginning of the 3'UTR. Generation of sfRNA results in inhibition of XRN1 activity leading to an increase in stability of many cellular mRNAs. Mutant WNV deficient in sfRNA generation was highly attenuated displaying a marked decrease in cytopathicity in cells and pathogenicity in mice. sfRNA has also been shown to inhibit the antiviral activity of IFN-α/β by yet unknown mechanism and of the RNAi pathway by likely serving as a decoy substrate for Dicer. Thus, sfRNA is involved in modulating multiple cellular pathways to facilitate viral pathogenicity; however the overlying mechanism linking all these multiple functions of sfRNA remains to be elucidated.

  2. West Nile virus infection in birds and mosquitoes, New York State, 2000.

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, K. A.; Maffei, J. G.; Jones, S. A.; Kauffman, E. B.; Ebel, G.; Dupuis, A. P.; Ngo, K. A.; Nicholas, D. C.; Young, D. M.; Shi, P. Y.; Kulasekera, V. L.; Eidson, M.; White, D. J.; Stone, W. B.; Kramer, L. D.

    2001-01-01

    West Nile (WN) virus was found throughout New York State in 2000, with the epicenter in New York City and surrounding counties. We tested 3,403 dead birds and 9,954 mosquito pools for WN virus during the transmission season. Sixty-three avian species, representing 30 families and 14 orders, tested positive for WN virus. The highest proportion of dead birds that tested positive for WN virus was in American Crows in the epicenter (67% positive, n=907). Eight mosquito species, representing four genera, were positive for WN virus. The minimum infection rate per 1,000 mosquitoes (MIR) was highest for Culex pipiens in the epicenter: 3.53 for the entire season and 7.49 for the peak week of August 13. Staten Island had the highest MIR (11.42 for Cx. pipiens), which was associated with the highest proportion of dead American Crows that tested positive for WN virus (92%, n=48) and the highest number of human cases (n=10). PMID:11585532

  3. Avian host community structure and prevalence of West Nile virus in Chicago, Illinois.

    PubMed

    Loss, Scott R; Hamer, Gabriel L; Walker, Edward D; Ruiz, Marilyn O; Goldberg, Tony L; Kitron, Uriel D; Brawn, Jeffrey D

    2009-03-01

    Vertebrate host diversity has been postulated to mediate prevalence of zoonotic, vector-borne diseases, such that as diversity increases, transmission dampens. This "dilution effect" is thought to be caused by distribution of infective bites to incompetent reservoir hosts. We quantified avian species richness, avian seroprevalence for antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV), and infection of WNV in Culex mosquitoes, in the Chicago metropolitan area, Illinois, USA, a region of historically high WNV activity. Results indicated high overall avian seroprevalence and variation in seroprevalence across host species; however, there was no negative correlation between avian richness and Culex infection rate or between richness and infection status in individual birds. Bird species with high seroprevalence, especially northern cardinals and mourning doves, may be important sentinels for WNV in Chicago, since they were common and widespread among all study sites. Overall, our results suggest no net effect of increasing species richness to West Nile virus transmission in Chicago. Other intrinsic and extrinsic factors, such as variation in mosquito host preference, reservoir host competence, temperature, and precipitation, may be more important than host diversity for driving interannual variation in WNV transmission. These results from a fine-scale study call into question the generality of a dilution effect for WNV at coarser spatial scales.

  4. Changes in West Nile virus seroprevalence and antibody titers among Wisconsin mesopredators 2003-2006.

    PubMed

    Docherty, Douglas E; Samuel, Michael D; Egstad, Kristina F; Griffin, Kathryn M; Nolden, Cherrie A; Karwal, Lovkesh; Ip, Hon S

    2009-07-01

    After the 2001 occurrence of West Nile virus (WNV) in Wisconsin (WI), we collected sera, during 2003-2006, from south-central WI mesopredators. We tested these sera to determine WNV antibody prevalence and geometric mean antibody titer (GMAT). Four-fold higher antibody prevalence and 2-fold higher GMAT in 2003-2004 indicated greater exposure of mesopredators to WNV during the apparent epizootic phase. The period 2005-2006 was likely the enzootic phase because WNV antibody prevalence fell to a level similar to other flaviviruses. Our results suggest that, in mesopredators, vector-borne transmission is the primary route of infection and WNV antibodies persist for < 1 year. Mesopredators may be sensitive indicators of West Nile virus spill-over into humans and horses. Mesopredator sero-surveys may complement dead crow surveillance by providing additional data for the timing of public health interventions. Research is needed to clarify the dynamics of WNV infection in these mammals and their role as potential WNV amplifiers.

  5. Experimental West Nile virus infection in Gyr-Saker hybrid falcons.

    PubMed

    Busquets, Núria; Bertran, Kateri; Costa, Taiana P; Rivas, Raquel; de la Fuente, Jorge García; Villalba, Rubén; Solanes, David; Bensaid, Albert; Majó, Natàlia; Pagès, Nonito

    2012-06-01

    West Nile disease (WND) has become a major public and veterinary health concern since the appearance of West Nile virus (WNV) in New York in 1999. The following panzootic spread in the U.S. and the recent WNV outbreaks in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin have increased interest in WND. Despite considerable investigation of WNV infection in birds, the effects of WNV on avian populations are still largely unknown. In Europe, raptors have been found to be particularly susceptible to WNV infection, but studies in birds of prey are lacking. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to report an experimental infection with WNV in Gyr-Saker hybrid falcons. We show that 10-week-old captive-reared Gyr-Saker (Falco rusticolus × Falco cherrug) hybrid falcons are susceptible to WNV infection. Neither morbidity nor mortality was observed after subcutaneous WNV inoculation with mixed extracts of non-infected mosquito salivary glands. Both the macroscopic and microscopic lesions observed were similar to those previously reported in naturally and experimentally infected North American raptors. The results obtained in the present study demonstrate that although Gyr-Saker hybrid falcons do not seem to be a good reservoir for WNV transmission via mosquito, they can become infected with WNV, develop viremia and antibodies, and are able to shed the virus.

  6. West Nile virus in Europe: a comparison of surveillance system designs in a changing epidemiological context.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Veronique; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Durand, Benoit

    2011-08-01

    Current knowledge suggests that there is a low-level and recurrent circulation of West Nile virus (WNV) in Europe, with sporadic human and/or equines cases. However, recent events indicate that this picture is changing, raising the possibility that Europe could experience a modification in the virus' circulation patterns. We used an existing model of WNV circulation between Southern Europe and West Africa to estimate the sample size of equivalent West Nile surveillance systems, either passive (based upon horse populations and sentinel veterinarians) or active (sentinel horses, sentinel chickens, or WNV genome detection in trapped mosquito pools). The costs and calendar day of first detection of these different surveillance systems were compared under three different epidemiological scenarios: very low level circulation, low level recurrent circulation, and epidemic situation. The passive surveillance of 1000 horses by specialized veterinarian clinics appeared to be the most cost-effective system in the current European context, and estimated median dates of first detection appeared consistent with recent field observations. Our results can be used to optimize surveillance designs for different epidemiological requirements.

  7. Impact of Climate and Environmental Factors on West Nile Virus Circulation in Iran.

    PubMed

    Ahmadnejad, Farzaneh; Otarod, Vahid; Fathnia, Amanollah; Ahmadabadi, Ali; Fallah, Mohammad H; Zavareh, Alireza; Miandehi, Nargess; Durand, Benoit; Sabatier, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    Geographic distribution of West Nile virus (WNV) is heterogeneous in Iran by a high circulation in the southern-western areas. The objective of our study was to determine environmental and climatic factors associated with the risk of WNV equine seropositivity in Iran. Serological data were obtained from a serosurvey conducted in equine population in 260 districts in Iran. The climate and environmental parameters included in the models were distance to the nearest wetland area, type of stable, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), annual mean temperature, humidity and precipitation. The important risk factors included annual mean temperature, distance to wetlands, local and seasonal NDVI differences. The effect of local NDVI differences in spring was particularly notable. This was a normalized difference of average NDVI between two areas: a 5 km radius area centered on the stable and the 5-10 km surrounding area. The model indicated that local NDVI's contrast during spring is a major risk factor of the transmission of West-Nile virus in Iran. This so-called oasis effect consistent with the seasonal production of vegetation in spring, and is associated to the attractiveness of the local NDVI environment for WNV vectors and hosts.

  8. Prevalence of West Nile virus in migratory birds during spring and fall migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusek, R.J.; McLean, R.G.; Kramer, L.D.; Ubico, S.R.; Dupuis, A.P.; Ebel, G.D.; Guptill, S.C.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the role of migratory birds in the dissemination of West Nile virus (WNV), we measured the prevalence of infectious WNV and specific WNV neutralizing antibodies in birds, principally Passeriformes, during spring and fall migrations in the Atlantic and Mississippi flyways from 2001-2003. Blood samples were obtained from 13,403 birds, representing 133 species. Specific WNV neutralizing antibody was detected in 254 resident and migratory birds, representing 39 species, and was most commonly detected in northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) (9.8%, N = 762) and gray catbirds (Dumetella carolinensis) (3.2%,N = 3188). West Nile virus viremias were detected in 19 birds, including 8 gray catbirds, and only during the fall migratory period. These results provide additional evidence that migratory birds may have been a principal agent for the spread of WNV in North America and provide data on the occurrence of WNV in a variety of bird species. Copyright ?? 2009 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  9. Impact of Climate and Environmental Factors on West Nile Virus Circulation in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadnejad, Farzaneh; Otarod, Vahid; Fathnia, Amanollah; Ahmadabadi, Ali; Fallah, Mohammad H.; Zavareh, Alireza; Miandehi, Nargess; Durand, Benoit; Sabatier, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Background: Geographic distribution of West Nile virus (WNV) is heterogeneous in Iran by a high circulation in the southern-western areas. The objective of our study was to determine environmental and climatic factors associated with the risk of WNV equine seropositivity in Iran. Methods: Serological data were obtained from a serosurvey conducted in equine population in 260 districts in Iran. The climate and environmental parameters included in the models were distance to the nearest wetland area, type of stable, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), annual mean temperature, humidity and precipitation. Results: The important risk factors included annual mean temperature, distance to wetlands, local and seasonal NDVI differences. The effect of local NDVI differences in spring was particularly notable. This was a normalized difference of average NDVI between two areas: a 5 km radius area centered on the stable and the 5–10 km surrounding area. Conclusion: The model indicated that local NDVI’s contrast during spring is a major risk factor of the transmission of West-Nile virus in Iran. This so-called oasis effect consistent with the seasonal production of vegetation in spring, and is associated to the attractiveness of the local NDVI environment for WNV vectors and hosts. PMID:27308290

  10. Detection of West Nile virus in wild birds in Tana River and Garissa Counties, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Nyamwaya, Doris; Wang'ondu, Virginia; Amimo, Joshua; Michuki, George; Ogugo, Moses; Ontiri, Enoch; Sang, Rosemary; Lindahl, Johanna; Grace, Delia; Bett, Bernard

    2016-11-23

    West Nile fever virus is a zoonotic arboviral infection maintained in a sylvatic cycle involving mosquito vectors and birds. It is one the arboviruses whose geographical range is expanding because of climate and land use changes that enhance the densities of mosquitoes and promote mosquito-bird-human interactions. We carried out a survey to determine the reservoirs of WNV among wild birds in Tana River and Garissa counties, Kenya. Blood samples were obtained from 361 randomly trapped wild birds. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), all samples were screened for WNV using gene specific primer sets amplifying a portion of the E region of the genome encoding the envelope protein. Sixty five (65) out of 361 birds screened tested positive for WNV on real-time PCR assay. Sequencing of the selected positive samples reveals that the isolated WNV were most closely related to strains isolated from China (2011). A regression analysis indicated that sampling location influenced the occurrence of WNV while species, age, weight and sex of the birds did not have any effect. This study provides baseline information on the existing circulation of WNV in this region among wild bird reservoirs that could spill over to the human population and points to the need for implementation of surveillance programs to map the distribution of the virus among reservoirs. Awareness creation about West Nile fever in this region is important to improve its detection and management.

  11. THE PASSAGE AND DURATION OF ANTIBODIES TO WEST NILE VIRUS IN HUMBOLDT PENGUINS (SPHENISCUS HUMBOLDTI).

    PubMed

    Cushing, Andrew C; Dubovi, Edward; Erb, Hollis N; Georoff, Timothy A; Abou-Madi, Noha

    2017-03-01

    West Nile virus (genus Flavivirus) outbreaks and mortality events have been documented in both wild and captive avian species, including penguins. Serologic response to vaccination in avian species has varied and appears to be largely species dependent; however, Humboldt penguins ( Spheniscus humboldti ) previously showed excellent rates of seroconversion. The goal of this study was to determine virus neutralization titers of 17 Humboldt penguin hens and their subsequent eggs, chicks, or both following vaccination with a killed West Nile vaccine. Chicks were also vaccinated at 56, 70, and 84 days old. Titers were measured from 10-346 days prior to lay as well as serially in seven chicks. Data collected showed positive rank correlation between maternal titers and yolk titers (ρ = 0.90, P < 0.0001, n = 14) but no association between booster vaccination and yolk titers. All seven chicks had detectable antibody on days 14 and 28, and antibody levels had increased (relative to day 56) in 3 of 6 chicks (50%; 95% confidence interval 14-86%) by day 112. Further information is provided on a suggested vaccination schedule for Humboldt penguin chicks based on a time-dependent decline in maternal antibody titers. Cell-mediated immunity and experimental challenge following vaccination have not yet been investigated in this species.

  12. On the potential roles of ticks and migrating birds in the ecology of West Nile virus

    PubMed Central

    Hagman, Karl; Barboutis, Christos; Ehrenborg, Christian; Fransson, Thord; Jaenson, Thomas G. T.; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Lundkvist, Åke; Nyström, Fredrik; Waldenström, Jonas; Salaneck, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Background Mosquitoes are the primary vectors of West Nile virus (WNV). Ticks have, however, been suggested to be potential reservoirs of WNV. In order to investigate their role in the spread of the virus, ticks, which had been collected from birds migrating northwards from Africa to Europe, were analyzed for the potential presence of WNV-RNA. Methods On the Mediterranean islands Capri and Antikythira a total of 14,824 birds were captured and investigated from which 747 ticks were collected. Results and conclusion Most of the identified ticks (93%) were nymphs and larvae of Hyalomma marginatum sensu lato, most of which were or appear to be Hyalomma rufipes. Of these ticks 729 were individually screened for WNV-RNA. None of the ticks was found to be WNV positive. Thus, there was no evidence that Hyalomma marginatum s.l. ticks play a role in the spread of WNV from Africa to Europe. PMID:24455105

  13. Risk factors for West Nile virus infection and disease in populations and individuals.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Ruth R; Murray, Kristy O

    2015-03-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne enveloped positive-strand RNA virus that emerged in North America in 1999 in New York City. Over the past 15 years, WNV has become established throughout the USA and has spread into Canada, Mexico and the Caribbean. CDC reports indicate >41,000 clinical cases, including more than 1700 fatalities. An estimated 3 million people in the USA may have been infected to date. Infection with WNV is dependent on many factors including climate, mosquito habitats and immunologically naïve bird populations. In addition, variations within individuals contribute to the risk of severe disease, in particular, advanced age, hypertension, immunosuppression and critical elements of the immune response. Recent advances in technology now allow detailed analysis of complex immune interactions relevant to disease susceptibility.

  14. Partial genetic characterization of West Nile virus strains, New York State, 2000.

    PubMed Central

    Ebel, G. D.; Dupuis, A. P.; Ngo, K.; Nicholas, D.; Kauffman, E.; Jones, S. A.; Young, D.; Maffei, J.; Shi, P. Y.; Bernard, K.; Kramer, L. D.

    2001-01-01

    We analyzed nucleotide sequences from the envelope gene of 11 West Nile (WN) virus strains collected in New York State during the 2000 transmission season to determine whether they differed genetically from each other and from the initial strain isolated in 1999. The complete envelope genes of these strains were amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The resulting sequences were aligned, the genetic distances were computed, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed. Ten (0.7%) of 1,503 positions in the envelope gene were polymorphic in one or more sequences. The genetic distances were 0.003 or less. WN virus strains circulating in 2000 were homogeneous with respect to one another and to a strain isolated in 1999. PMID:11585527

  15. Virulence and Evolution of West Nile Virus, Australia, 1960–2012

    PubMed Central

    Prow, Natalie A.; Edmonds, Judith H.; Williams, David T.; Setoh, Yin X.; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Suen, Willy W.; Hobson-Peters, Jody; van den Hurk, Andrew F.; Pyke, Alyssa T.; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Northill, Judith A.; Johansen, Cheryl A.; Warrilow, David; Wang, Jianning; Kirkland, Peter D.; Doggett, Stephen; Andrade, Christy C.; Brault, Aaron C.

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, West Nile virus (WNV) causes encephalitis in humans, horses, and birds. The Kunjin strain of WNV (WNVKUN) is endemic to northern Australia, but infections are usually asymptomatic. In 2011, an unprecedented outbreak of equine encephalitis occurred in southeastern Australia; most of the ≈900 reported cases were attributed to a newly emerged WNVKUN strain. To investigate the origins of this virus, we performed genetic analysis and in vitro and in vivo studies of 13 WNVKUN isolates collected from different regions of Australia during 1960–2012. Although no disease was recorded for 1984, 2000, or 2012, isolates collected during those years (from Victoria, Queensland, and New South Wales, respectively) exhibited levels of virulence in mice similar to that of the 2011 outbreak strain. Thus, virulent strains of WNVKUN have circulated in Australia for >30 years, and the first extensive outbreak of equine disease in Australia probably resulted from a combination of specific ecologic and epidemiologic conditions. PMID:27433830

  16. Genotype-specific variation in West Nile virus dispersal in California.

    PubMed

    Duggal, Nisha K; Reisen, William K; Fang, Ying; Newman, Ruchi M; Yang, Xiao; Ebel, Gregory D; Brault, Aaron C

    2015-11-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an arbovirus that was first reported in North America in New York in 1999 and, by 2003, had spread more than 4000 km to California. However, variation in viral genetics associated with spread is not well understood. Herein, we report sequences for more than 100 WNV isolates made from mosquito pools that were collected from 2003 to 2011 as part of routine surveillance by the California Mosquito-borne Virus Surveillance System. We performed phylogeographic analyses and demonstrated that 5 independent introductions of WNV (1 WN02 genotype strain and 4 SW03 genotype strains) occurred in California. The SW03 genotype of WNV was constrained to the southwestern U.S. and had a more rapid rate of spread. In addition, geographic constraint of WNV strains within a single region for up to 6 years suggest viral maintenance has been driven by resident, rather than migratory, birds and overwintering in mosquitoes.

  17. Genotype-specific variation in West Nile virus dispersal in California

    PubMed Central

    Duggal, Nisha K.; Reisen, William K.; Fang, Ying; Newman, Ruchi M.; Yang, Xiao; Ebel, Gregory D.; Brault, Aaron C.

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an arbovirus that was first reported in North America in New York in 1999 and, by 2003, had spread more than 4,000 km to California. However, variation in viral genetics associated with spread are not well understood. Herein, we report sequences for more than 100 WNV isolates made from mosquito pools that were collected from 2003 – 2011 as part of routine surveillance by the California Mosquito-borne Virus Surveillance System. We performed phylogeographic analyses and demonstrated that 5 independent introductions of WNV (1 WN02 genotype strain and 4 SW03 genotype strains) occurred in California. The SW03 genotype of WNV was constrained to the southwestern U.S. and had a more rapid rate of spread. In addition, geographic constraint of WNV strains within a single region for up to 6 years suggest viral maintenance has been driven by resident, rather than migratory, birds and overwintering in mosquitoes. PMID:26210076

  18. On the potential roles of ticks and migrating birds in the ecology of West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Hagman, Karl; Barboutis, Christos; Ehrenborg, Christian; Fransson, Thord; Jaenson, Thomas G T; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Lundkvist, Ake; Nyström, Fredrik; Waldenström, Jonas; Salaneck, Erik

    2014-01-15

    Mosquitoes are the primary vectors of West Nile virus (WNV). Ticks have, however, been suggested to be potential reservoirs of WNV. In order to investigate their role in the spread of the virus, ticks, which had been collected from birds migrating northwards from Africa to Europe, were analyzed for the potential presence of WNV-RNA. On the Mediterranean islands Capri and Antikythira a total of 14,824 birds were captured and investigated from which 747 ticks were collected. Most of the identified ticks (93%) were nymphs and larvae of Hyalomma marginatum sensu lato, most of which were or appear to be Hyalomma rufipes. Of these ticks 729 were individually screened for WNV-RNA. None of the ticks was found to be WNV positive. Thus, there was no evidence that Hyalomma marginatum s.l. ticks play a role in the spread of WNV from Africa to Europe.

  19. Seroprevalence of West Nile Virus in Feral Horses on Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada, United States

    PubMed Central

    Franson, J. Christian; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Collins, Gail H.; Dusek, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    We screened 1,397 feral horses (Equus caballus) on Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada, United States, for IgM and IgG against flavivirus during 2004–2006, 2008, and 2009. Positive serum samples were tested for neutralizing antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV) and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV). One animal was positive for antibody against WNV in 2004, but all others tested in 2004–2006 were negative. In 2008 and 2009, we found evidence of increasing seropositive horses with age, whereas seroprevalence of WNV decreased from 19% in 2008 to 7.2% in 2009. No horses were positive for antibody against SLEV. Being unvaccinated, feral horses can be useful for WNV surveillance. PMID:21460023

  20. Seroprevalence of West Nile Virus in feral horses on Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J. Christian; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Collins, Gail H.; Dusek, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    We screened 1,397 feral horses (Equus caballus) on Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada, United States, for IgM and IgG against flavivirus during 2004–2006, 2008, and 2009. Positive serum samples were tested for neutralizing antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV) and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV). One animal was positive for antibody against WNV in 2004, but all others tested in 2004–2006 were negative. In 2008 and 2009, we found evidence of increasing seropositive horses with age, whereas seroprevalence of WNV decreased from 19% in 2008 to 7.2% in 2009. No horses were positive for antibody against SLEV. Being unvaccinated, feral horses can be useful for WNV surveillance.

  1. Experimental infection of common garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) with West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Steinman, Amir; Banet-Noach, Caroline; Simanov, Lubov; Grinfeld, Nurit; Aizenberg, Zachi; Levi, Ohad; Lahav, Dan; Malkinson, Mertyn; Perk, Shimon; Shpigel, Nahum Y

    2006-01-01

    The role of various reptilian species in the infectious cycle of several arboviruses is documented, but their role in that of West Nile virus (WNV) is uncertain. Common garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) were infected subcutaneously with 10(5) plaque forming units (PFU) WNV-Isr 98, five of nine snakes became viremic, and five exhibited persistent low levels of neutralizing antibodies. Four of the parentally infected snakes died and high titers of virus were found in multiple organ samples. In contrast, orally infected garter snakes did not become viremic, but viral RNA was detected in cloacal swabs. Since oral infection of predator birds by WNV is known, their ingestion of infected snakes may also result in their becoming infected.

  2. Flaviviruses, an expanding threat in public health: focus on Dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis virus

    PubMed Central

    Daep, Carlo Amorin; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L.; Eugenin, Eliseo Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The flaviviruses Dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis represent three major mosquito-borne viruses worldwide. These pathogens impact the lives of millions of individuals and potentially could affect non-endemic areas already colonized by mosquito vectors. Unintentional transport of infected vectors (Aedes and Culex sp), traveling within endemic areas, rapid adaptation of the insects into new geographic locations, climate change, and lack of medical surveillance have greatly contributed to the increase in flaviviral infections worldwide. The mechanisms by which flaviviruses alter the immune and the central nervous system have only recently been examined despite the alarming number of infections, related deaths, and increasing global distribution. In this review, we will discuss the expansion of the geographic areas affected by flaviviruses, the potential threats to previously unaffected countries, the mechanisms of pathogenesis, and the potential therapeutic interventions to limit the devastating consequences of these viruses. PMID:25287260

  3. Flaviviruses, an expanding threat in public health: focus on dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    Daep, Carlo Amorin; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L; Eugenin, Eliseo Alberto

    2014-12-01

    The flaviviruses dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis represent three major mosquito-borne viruses worldwide. These pathogens impact the lives of millions of individuals and potentially could affect non-endemic areas already colonized by mosquito vectors. Unintentional transport of infected vectors (Aedes and Culex spp.), traveling within endemic areas, rapid adaptation of the insects into new geographic locations, climate change, and lack of medical surveillance have greatly contributed to the increase in flaviviral infections worldwide. The mechanisms by which flaviviruses alter the immune and the central nervous system have only recently been examined despite the alarming number of infections, related deaths, and increasing global distribution. In this review, we will discuss the expansion of the geographic areas affected by flaviviruses, the potential threats to previously unaffected countries, the mechanisms of pathogenesis, and the potential therapeutic interventions to limit the devastating consequences of these viruses.

  4. Immunogenicity of West Nile virus infectious DNA and its noninfectious derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Seregin, Alexey; Nistler, Ryan; Borisevich, Victoria; Yamshchikov, Galina; Chaporgina, Elena; Kwok, Chun Wai; Yamshchikov, Vladimir . E-mail: yaximik@ku.edu

    2006-12-20

    The exceptionally high virulence of the West Nile NY99 strain makes its suitability in the development of a live WN vaccine uncertain. The aim of this study is to investigate the immunogenicity of noninfectious virus derivatives carrying pseudolethal mutations, which preclude virion formation without affecting preceding steps of the viral infectious cycle. When administered using DNA immunization, such constructs initiate an infectious cycle but cannot lead to a viremia. While the magnitude of the immune response to a noninfectious replication-competent construct was lower than that of virus or infectious DNA, its overall quality and the protective effect were similar. In contrast, a nonreplicating construct of similar length induced only a marginally detectable immune response in the dose range used. Thus, replication-competent noninfectious constructs derived from infectious DNA may offer an advantageous combination of the safety of noninfectious formulations with the quality of the immune response characteristic of infectious vaccines.

  5. Fever of Unknown Origin in a Patient with Confirmed West Nile Virus Meningoencephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Sabre, Alexander; Farricielli, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV), an RNA arbovirus and member of the Japanese encephalitis virus antigenic complex, causes a wide range of clinical symptoms, from asymptomatic to encephalitis and meningitis. Nearly all human infections of WNV are due to mosquito bites with birds being the primary amplifying hosts. Advanced age is the most important risk factor for neurological disease leading most often to poor prognosis in those afflicted. We report a case of WNV meningoencephalitis in a 93-year-old Caucasian male who presented with fever of unknown origin (FUO) and nuchal rigidity that rapidly decompensated within 24 h to a persistent altered mental state during inpatient stay. The patient's ELISA antibody titers confirmed pathogenesis of disease by WNV; he given supportive measures and advanced to an excellent recovery. In regard to the approach of FUO, it is important to remain impartial yet insightful to all elements when determining pathogenesis in atypical presentation. PMID:25580318

  6. Seroprevalence of West Nile virus in feral horses on Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada, United States.

    PubMed

    Franson, J Christian; Hofmeister, Erik K; Collins, Gail H; Dusek, Robert J

    2011-04-01

    We screened 1,397 feral horses (Equus caballus) on Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada, United States, for IgM and IgG against flavivirus during 2004-2006, 2008, and 2009. Positive serum samples were tested for neutralizing antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV) and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV). One animal was positive for antibody against WNV in 2004, but all others tested in 2004-2006 were negative. In 2008 and 2009, we found evidence of increasing seropositive horses with age, whereas seroprevalence of WNV decreased from 19% in 2008 to 7.2% in 2009. No horses were positive for antibody against SLEV. Being unvaccinated, feral horses can be useful for WNV surveillance.

  7. West Nile Virus Infection Incidence Based on Donated Blood Samples and Neuroinvasive Disease Reports, Northern Texas, USA, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shande; Sutor, Laurie J.; Stonecipher, Shelley; Janoski, Nicolette; Wright, David J.; Busch, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    During the 2012 outbreak of West Nile virus in the United States, approximately one third of the cases were in Texas. Of those, about half occurred in northern Texas. Models based on infected blood donors and persons with neuroinvasive disease showed, respectively, that ≈0.72% and 1.98% of persons in northern Texas became infected. PMID:25812045

  8. West Nile virus infection incidence based on donated blood samples and neuroinvasive disease reports, Northern Texas, USA, 2012.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, Diana T; Chen, Shande; Sutor, Laurie J; Stonecipher, Shelley; Janoski, Nicolette; Wright, David J; Busch, Michael P

    2015-04-01

    During the 2012 outbreak of West Nile virus in the United States, approximately one third of the cases were in Texas. Of those, about half occurred in northern Texas. Models based on infected blood donors and persons with neuroinvasive disease showed, respectively, that ≈0.72% and 1.98% of persons in northern Texas became infected.

  9. West Nile virus and hemoparasites in captive snowy owls (Bubo scandiacus) — management strategies to optimize survival

    PubMed Central

    Harasym, Carol A.

    2008-01-01

    In August 2005, 2 members of a group of 6 captive snowy owls (Bubo scandiacus) in central Saskatchewan died of West Nile virus infection. One of these owls and 3 of the remaining owls had significant numbers of circulating hemoparasites. Management strategies are suggested to reduce morbidity and mortality. PMID:19183740

  10. Assessing human risk of illness with West Nile virus mosquito surveillance data to improve public health preparedness

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Surveillance for West Nile virus (WNV) and other mosquito-borne pathogens involves costly and time-consuming collection and testing of mosquito samples. One difficulty faced by public health personnel is how to interpret mosquito data relative to human risk, thus leading to a failure to fully exploi...

  11. Climatic, ecological, and socioeconomic factors associated with West Nile virus incidence in Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A.

    Treesearch

    Graeme Lockaby; Navideh Noori; Wayde Morse; Wayne Zipperer; Latif Kalin; Robin Governo; Rajesh Sawant; Matthew Ricker

    2016-01-01

    The integrated effects of the many risk factors associated with West Nile virus (WNV) incidence are complex and not well understood. We studied an array of risk factors in and around Atlanta, GA, that have been shown to be linked with WNV inother locations. This array was comprehensive and included climate and meteorological metrics, vegetation...

  12. A spatiotemporal model of ecological and sociological predictors of West Nile virus in Suffolk County, NY mosquitoes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/Methods Suffolk County, New York is a locus for West Nile virus (WNV) infection in the American northeast that includes the majority of Long Island to the east of New York City. The county has a robust system of light and gravid traps used for mosquito collect...

  13. A bird's eye view: using geographic analysis to evaluate the representativeness of corvid indicators for West Nile virus surveillance

    PubMed Central

    David, Samara T; Mak, Sunny; MacDougall, Laura; Fyfe, Murray

    2007-01-01

    Background The objective of this evaluation was to determine whether reports of dead corvid sightings and submissions of dead corvids for West Nile virus testing were representative of true corvid mortality in British Columbia in 2004, a year with no West Nile virus activity, in order to ensure the system was accurately describing corvid mortality rather than reflecting regional differences in surveillance methods. Results Local Health Areas reported 0–159 (median = 3) dead corvid sightings and 0–209 (median = 5) submissions for West Nile virus testing. The expected numbers of dead corvid sightings and submissions for testing from each Local Health Area were 0–232 (median = 3) and 0–258 (median = 4), respectively. Twelve Local Health Areas reported significantly fewer sightings than expected; 21 reported significantly more. Eleven Local Health Areas submitted significantly fewer corvids than expected; 26 submitted significantly more. Conclusion Some Local Health Areas were over-represented and others under-represented in terms of corvid West Nile virus surveillance indicators. Recommendations were made to improve the representativeness of corvid surveillance data. Geographic analysis can be used to evaluate the representativeness of surveillance systems and result in improvements to surveillance. PMID:17263891

  14. Isolation and characterization of West Nile virus from the blood of viremic patients during the 2000 outbreak in Israel.

    PubMed Central

    Hindiyeh, M.; Shulman, L. M.; Mendelson, E.; Weiss, L.; Grossman, Z.; Bin, H.

    2001-01-01

    We report the isolation of West Nile (WN) virus from four patient serum samples submitted for diagnosis during an outbreak of WN fever in Israel in 2000. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed two lineages, one closely related to a 1999 New York isolate and the other to a 1999 Russian isolate. PMID:11585544

  15. West Nile Virus Surveillance in 2013 via Mosquito Screening in Northern Italy and the Influence of Weather on Virus Circulation

    PubMed Central

    Calzolari, Mattia; Pautasso, Alessandra; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Albieri, Alessandro; Bellini, Romeo; Bonilauri, Paolo; Defilippo, Francesco; Lelli, Davide; Moreno, Ana; Chiari, Mario; Tamba, Marco; Zanoni, Mariagrazia; Varisco, Giorgio; Bertolini, Silvia; Modesto, Paola; Radaelli, Maria Cristina; Iulini, Barbara; Prearo, Marino; Ravagnan, Silvia; Cazzin, Stefania; Mulatti, Paolo; Monne, Isabella; Bonfanti, Lebana; Marangon, Stefano; Goffredo, Maria; Savini, Giovanni; Martini, Simone; Mosca, Andrea; Farioli, Marco; Gemma Brenzoni, Laura; Palei, Manlio; Russo, Francesca; Natalini, Silvano; Angelini, Paola; Casalone, Cristina; Dottori, Michele; Capelli, Gioia

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a recently re-emerged health problem in Europe. In Italy, an increasing number of outbreaks of West Nile disease, with occurrences of human cases, have been reported since 2008. This is particularly true in northern Italy, where entomological surveillance systems have been implemented at a regional level. The aim of this study was to use, for the first time, all the entomological data collected in the five regions undergoing surveillance for WNV in northern Italy to characterize the viral circulation (at a spatial and temporal scale), identify potential mosquito vectors, and specify relationships between virus circulation and meteorological conditions. In 2013, 286 sites covering the entire Pianura Padana area were monitored. A total of 757,461 mosquitoes were sampled. Of these, 562,079 were tested by real-time PCR in 9,268 pools, of which 180 (1.9%) were positive for WNV. The largest part of the detected WNV sequences belonged to lineage II, demonstrating that, unlike those in the past, the 2013 outbreak was mainly sustained by this WNV lineage. This surveillance also detected the Usutu virus, a WNV-related flavivirus, in 241 (2.6%) pools. The WNV surveillance systems precisely identified the area affected by the virus and detected the viral circulation approximately two weeks before the occurrence of onset of human cases. Ninety percent of the sampled mosquitoes were Culex pipiens, and 178/180 WNV-positive pools were composed of only this species, suggesting this mosquito is the main WNV vector in northern Italy. A significantly higher abundance of the vector was recorded in the WNV circulation area, which was characterized by warmer and less rainy conditions and greater evapotranspiration compared to the rest of the Pianura Padana, suggesting that areas exposed to these conditions are more suitable for WNV circulation. This observation highlights warmer and less rainy conditions as factors able to enhance WNV circulation and cause virus

  16. West Nile Virus Surveillance in 2013 via Mosquito Screening in Northern Italy and the Influence of Weather on Virus Circulation.

    PubMed

    Calzolari, Mattia; Pautasso, Alessandra; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Albieri, Alessandro; Bellini, Romeo; Bonilauri, Paolo; Defilippo, Francesco; Lelli, Davide; Moreno, Ana; Chiari, Mario; Tamba, Marco; Zanoni, Mariagrazia; Varisco, Giorgio; Bertolini, Silvia; Modesto, Paola; Radaelli, Maria Cristina; Iulini, Barbara; Prearo, Marino; Ravagnan, Silvia; Cazzin, Stefania; Mulatti, Paolo; Monne, Isabella; Bonfanti, Lebana; Marangon, Stefano; Goffredo, Maria; Savini, Giovanni; Martini, Simone; Mosca, Andrea; Farioli, Marco; Gemma Brenzoni, Laura; Palei, Manlio; Russo, Francesca; Natalini, Silvano; Angelini, Paola; Casalone, Cristina; Dottori, Michele; Capelli, Gioia

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a recently re-emerged health problem in Europe. In Italy, an increasing number of outbreaks of West Nile disease, with occurrences of human cases, have been reported since 2008. This is particularly true in northern Italy, where entomological surveillance systems have been implemented at a regional level. The aim of this study was to use, for the first time, all the entomological data collected in the five regions undergoing surveillance for WNV in northern Italy to characterize the viral circulation (at a spatial and temporal scale), identify potential mosquito vectors, and specify relationships between virus circulation and meteorological conditions. In 2013, 286 sites covering the entire Pianura Padana area were monitored. A total of 757,461 mosquitoes were sampled. Of these, 562,079 were tested by real-time PCR in 9,268 pools, of which 180 (1.9%) were positive for WNV. The largest part of the detected WNV sequences belonged to lineage II, demonstrating that, unlike those in the past, the 2013 outbreak was mainly sustained by this WNV lineage. This surveillance also detected the Usutu virus, a WNV-related flavivirus, in 241 (2.6%) pools. The WNV surveillance systems precisely identified the area affected by the virus and detected the viral circulation approximately two weeks before the occurrence of onset of human cases. Ninety percent of the sampled mosquitoes were Culex pipiens, and 178/180 WNV-positive pools were composed of only this species, suggesting this mosquito is the main WNV vector in northern Italy. A significantly higher abundance of the vector was recorded in the WNV circulation area, which was characterized by warmer and less rainy conditions and greater evapotranspiration compared to the rest of the Pianura Padana, suggesting that areas exposed to these conditions are more suitable for WNV circulation. This observation highlights warmer and less rainy conditions as factors able to enhance WNV circulation and cause virus

  17. Spatiotemporal modeling of ecological and sociological predictors of West Nile virus in Suffolk County, NY, mosquitoes

    DOE PAGES

    Myer, Mark H.; Campbell, Scott R.; Johnston, John M.

    2017-06-15

    Suffolk County, New York, is a locus for West Nile virus (WNV) infection in the American northeast that includes the majority of Long Island to the east of New York City. The county has a system of light and gravid traps used for mosquito collection and disease monitoring. In order to identify predictors of WNV incidence in mosquitoes and predict future occurrence of WNV, we have developed a spatiotemporal Bayesian model, beginning with over 40 ecological, meteorological, and built-environment covariates. A mixed-effects model including spatially and temporally correlated errors was fit to WNV surveillance data from 2008 to 2014 usingmore » the R package “R-INLA,” which allows for Bayesian modeling using the stochastic partial differential equation (SPDE) approach. The integrated nested Laplace approximation (INLA) SPDE allows for simultaneous fitting of a temporal parameter and a spatial covariance, while incorporating a variety of likelihood functions and running in R statistical software on a home computer. We found that land cover classified as open water and woody wetlands had a negative association with WNV incidence in mosquitoes, and the count of septic systems was associated with an increase in WNV. Mean temperature at two-week lag was associated with a strong positive impact, while mean precipitation at no lag and one-week lag was associated with positive and negative impacts on WNV, respectively. Incorporation of spatiotemporal factors resulted in a marked increase in model goodness-of-fit. The predictive power of the model was evaluated on 2015 surveillance results, where the best model achieved a sensitivity of 80.9% and a specificity of 77.0%. The spatial covariate was mapped across the county, identifying a gradient of WNV prevalence increasing from east to west. The Bayesian spatiotemporal model improves upon previous approaches, and we recommend the INLA SPDE methodology as an efficient way to develop robust models from surveillance data to

  18. Seroprevalence of West Nile Virus in Wild Birds in Far Eastern Russia Using a Focus Reduction Neutralization Test

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Ryo; Hashiguchi, Kazuaki; Yoshii, Kentaro; Kariwa, Hiroaki; Nakajima, Kensuke; Ivanov, Leonid I.; Leonova, Galina N.; Takashima, Ikuo

    2011-01-01

    West Nile (WN) virus has been spreading geographically to non-endemic areas in various parts of the world. However, little is known about the extent of WN virus infection in Russia. Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus, which is closely related to WN virus, is prevalent throughout East Asia. We evaluated the effectiveness of a focus reduction neutralization test in young chicks inoculated with JE and WN viruses, and conducted a survey of WN infection among wild birds in Far Eastern Russia. Following single virus infection, only neutralizing antibodies specific to the homologous virus were detected in chicks. The neutralization test was then applied to serum samples from 145 wild birds for WN and JE virus. Twenty-one samples were positive for neutralizing antibodies to WN. These results suggest that WN virus is prevalent among wild birds in the Far Eastern region of Russia. PMID:21363987

  19. Laboratory Transmission of Japanese Encephalitis, West Nile Viruses and Getah by Mosquitoes (Diptera:Culicidae) Collected Near Camp Greaves, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2003

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-28

    WNV)arebothmembers of the JEV serogroup (fam- ily Flaviviridae , genus Flavivirus). Although most in- fections in humans with either of these viruses...ability to transmitWestNile virus (familyFlaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV), Japanese encephalitis virus (family Flaviviridae , genus Flavivirus, JEV...and Getah virus (family Togaviridae , genus Alphavirus, GETV) under laboratory conditions. Both Culex pipiens pallens Coquillett and Culex

  20. West Nile Virus and Other Nationally Notifiable Arboviral Diseases - United States, 2015.

    PubMed

    Krow-Lucal, Elisabeth; Lindsey, Nicole P; Lehman, Jennifer; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J Erin

    2017-01-20

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes and ticks. The leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the United States is West Nile virus (WNV) (1). Other arboviruses, including La Crosse, St. Louis encephalitis, Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, and eastern equine encephalitis viruses, also cause sporadic cases and outbreaks. This report summarizes surveillance data reported to CDC in 2015 for nationally notifiable arboviruses. It excludes dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses, which are primarily nondomestic viruses typically acquired through travel (and are addressed in other CDC reports). In 2015, 45 states and the District of Columbia (DC) reported 2,282 cases of domestic arboviral disease. Among these cases, 2,175 (95%) were WNV disease and 1,455 (67%) of those were classified as neuroinvasive disease (meningitis, encephalitis, or acute flaccid paralysis). The national incidence of WNV neuroinvasive disease was 0.45 cases per 100,000 population. Because arboviral diseases continue to cause serious illness, maintaining surveillance is important to direct prevention activities such as reduction of vector populations and screening of blood donors.

  1. Human Zika and West Nile virus neurological infections: What is the difference?

    PubMed

    Wiley, Clayton A; Chimelli, Leila

    2017-10-01

    The recent epidemic of West Nile Virus (WNV) infection in the United States was associated with severe neurological disease in immunocompromised hosts, while the emergence of Zika virus infection in the Americas has been notable for an association with increased microcephaly in the fetuses of infected mothers. Rare autopsies of WNV infected humans have shown multiple organ involvement with a clear neurotropism. We have recently had the opportunity to examine the distribution of Zika virus in autopsies of newborns from infected pregnancies. While both viruses infect multiple organs, Zika appears to cause neurological disease in the fetus through two different mechanisms. Infection during the first trimester showed the potential to infect neural progenitor cells causing severe developmental abnormalities, while infection later in gestation was associated with meningeal infection and destructive ischemic lesions of the brain. Both viruses infect kidney tubules but Zika shares a prominent hepatotropism characteristic of other flaviviruses (e.g., Dengue). Limited transplacental Zika infection would be consistent with restriction to primary maternal infections with high viremia. In the absence of a vaccine, restriction of travel by immunosuppressed and pregnant non-immune individuals to endemic regions seems prudent. © 2017 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  2. Molecular evolution of West Nile virus in a northern temperate region: Connecticut, USA 1999-2008.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Philip M; Vossbrinck, Charles R; Andreadis, Theodore G; Anderson, John F; Pesko, Kendra N; Newman, Ruchi M; Lennon, Niall J; Birren, Bruce W; Ebel, Gregory D; Henn, Mathew R

    2011-08-15

    West Nile virus (WNV) has become firmly established in northeastern US, reemerging every summer since its introduction into North America in 1999. To determine whether WNV overwinters locally or is reseeded annually, we examined the patterns of viral lineage persistence and replacement in Connecticut over 10 consecutive transmission seasons by phylogenetic analysis. In addition, we compared the full protein coding sequence among WNV isolates to search for evidence of convergent and adaptive evolution. Viruses sampled from Connecticut segregated into a number of well-supported subclades by year of isolation with few clades persisting ≥2 years. Similar viral strains were dispersed in different locations across the state and divergent strains appeared within a single location during a single transmission season, implying widespread movement and rapid colonization of virus. Numerous amino acid substitutions arose in the population but only one change, V→A at position 159 of the envelope protein, became permanently fixed. Several instances of parallel evolution were identified in independent lineages, including one amino acid change in the NS4A protein that appears to be positively selected. Our results suggest that annual reemergence of WNV is driven by both reintroduction and local-overwintering of virus. Despite ongoing evolution of WNV, most amino acid variants occurred at low frequencies and were transient in the virus population.

  3. Virion-associated phosphatidylethanolamine promotes TIM1-mediated infection by Ebola, dengue, and West Nile viruses.

    PubMed

    Richard, Audrey Stéphanie; Zhang, Adam; Park, Sun-Jin; Farzan, Michael; Zong, Min; Choe, Hyeryun

    2015-11-24

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) receptors contribute to two crucial biological processes: apoptotic clearance and entry of many enveloped viruses. In both cases, they recognize PS exposed on the plasma membrane. Here we demonstrate that phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is also a ligand for PS receptors and that this phospholipid mediates phagocytosis and viral entry. We show that a subset of PS receptors, including T-cell immunoglobulin (Ig) mucin domain protein 1 (TIM1), efficiently bind PE. We further show that PE is present in the virions of flaviviruses and filoviruses, and that the PE-specific cyclic peptide lantibiotic agent Duramycin efficiently inhibits the entry of West Nile, dengue, and Ebola viruses. The inhibitory effect of Duramycin is specific: it inhibits TIM1-mediated, but not L-SIGN-mediated, virus infection, and it does so by blocking virus attachment to TIM1. We further demonstrate that PE is exposed on the surface of apoptotic cells, and promotes their phagocytic uptake by TIM1-expressing cells. Together, our data show that PE plays a key role in TIM1-mediated virus entry, suggest that disrupting PE association with PS receptors is a promising broad-spectrum antiviral strategy, and deepen our understanding of the process by which apoptotic cells are cleared.

  4. Virion-associated phosphatidylethanolamine promotes TIM1-mediated infection by Ebola, dengue, and West Nile viruses

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Audrey Stéphanie; Zhang, Adam; Park, Sun-Jin; Farzan, Michael; Zong, Min; Choe, Hyeryun

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) receptors contribute to two crucial biological processes: apoptotic clearance and entry of many enveloped viruses. In both cases, they recognize PS exposed on the plasma membrane. Here we demonstrate that phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is also a ligand for PS receptors and that this phospholipid mediates phagocytosis and viral entry. We show that a subset of PS receptors, including T-cell immunoglobulin (Ig) mucin domain protein 1 (TIM1), efficiently bind PE. We further show that PE is present in the virions of flaviviruses and filoviruses, and that the PE-specific cyclic peptide lantibiotic agent Duramycin efficiently inhibits the entry of West Nile, dengue, and Ebola viruses. The inhibitory effect of Duramycin is specific: it inhibits TIM1-mediated, but not L-SIGN-mediated, virus infection, and it does so by blocking virus attachment to TIM1. We further demonstrate that PE is exposed on the surface of apoptotic cells, and promotes their phagocytic uptake by TIM1-expressing cells. Together, our data show that PE plays a key role in TIM1-mediated virus entry, suggest that disrupting PE association with PS receptors is a promising broad-spectrum antiviral strategy, and deepen our understanding of the process by which apoptotic cells are cleared. PMID:26575624

  5. Programmed Ribosomal Frameshift Alters Expression of West Nile Virus Genes and Facilitates Virus Replication in Birds and Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Du, Fangyao; Owens, Nick; Bosco-Lauth, Angela M.; Nagasaki, Tomoko; Rudd, Stephen; Brault, Aaron C.; Bowen, Richard A.; Hall, Roy A.; van den Hurk, Andrew F.; Khromykh, Alexander A.

    2014-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a human pathogen of significant medical importance with close to 40,000 cases of encephalitis and more than 1,600 deaths reported in the US alone since its first emergence in New York in 1999. Previous studies identified a motif in the beginning of non-structural gene NS2A of encephalitic flaviviruses including WNV which induces programmed −1 ribosomal frameshift (PRF) resulting in production of an additional NS protein NS1′. We have previously demonstrated that mutant WNV with abolished PRF was attenuated in mice. Here we have extended our previous observations by showing that PRF does not appear to have a significant role in virus replication, virion formation, and viral spread in several cell lines in vitro. However, we have also shown that PRF induces an over production of structural proteins over non-structural proteins in virus-infected cells and that mutation abolishing PRF is present in ∼11% of the wild type virus population. In vivo experiments in house sparrows using wild type and PRF mutant of New York 99 strain of WNV viruses showed some attenuation for the PRF mutant virus. Moreover, PRF mutant of Kunjin strain of WNV showed significant decrease compared to wild type virus infection in dissemination of the virus from the midgut through the haemocoel, and ultimately the capacity of infected mosquitoes to transmit virus. Thus our results demonstrate an important role for PRF in regulating expression of viral genes and consequently virus replication in avian and mosquito hosts. PMID:25375107

  6. DNA Vaccination of the American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) Provides Partial Protection Against Lethal Challenge with West Nile Virus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    North America, West Nile virus (WNV; genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) has caused a series of outbreaks since its discovery in 1999, resulting in...encephalitis virus (SLEV). For challenge studies , the crows were moved to an animal biosafety level–3 (ABSL-3) facility, where they were placed in... studies . Birds were provided fresh water and a mixture of dog food, cat food, and cracked corn ad libitum, with supplementation including fresh fruits and

  7. Mosquito cell-derived West Nile virus replicon particles mimic arbovirus inoculum and have reduced spread in mice

    PubMed Central

    Boylan, Brendan T.; Moreira, Fernando R.; Carlson, Tim W.

    2017-01-01

    Half of the human population is at risk of infection by an arthropod-borne virus. Many of these arboviruses, such as West Nile, dengue, and Zika viruses, infect humans by way of a bite from an infected mosquito. This infectious inoculum is insect cell-derived giving the virus particles distinct qualities not present in secondary infectious virus particles produced by infected vertebrate host cells. The insect cell-derived particles differ in the glycosylation of virus structural proteins and the lipid content of the envelope, as well as their induction of cytokines. Thus, in order to accurately mimic the inoculum delivered by arthropods, arboviruses should be derived from arthropod cells. Previous studies have packaged replicon genome in mammalian cells to produce replicon particles, which undergo only one round of infection, but no studies exist packaging replicon particles in mosquito cells. Here we optimized the packaging of West Nile virus replicon genome in mosquito cells and produced replicon particles at high concentration, allowing us to mimic mosquito cell-derived viral inoculum. These particles were mature with similar genome equivalents-to-infectious units as full-length West Nile virus. We then compared the mosquito cell-derived particles to mammalian cell-derived particles in mice. Both replicon particles infected skin at the inoculation site and the draining lymph node by 3 hours post-inoculation. The mammalian cell-derived replicon particles spread from the site of inoculation to the spleen and contralateral lymph nodes significantly more than the particles derived from mosquito cells. This in vivo difference in spread of West Nile replicons in the inoculum demonstrates the importance of using arthropod cell-derived particles to model early events in arboviral infection and highlights the value of these novel arthropod cell-derived replicon particles for studying the earliest virus-host interactions for arboviruses. PMID:28187142

  8. Susceptibility and antibody response of the laboratory model zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) to West Nile Virus: Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hofmeister, Erik K.; Lund, Melissa; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.

    2016-01-01

    The data set contains the results of experimental challenge of captive zebra finches with an American crow isolate of West Nile virus (WNV). Data include infectivity, mortality, viremia, oral shedding of virus, and serology for anti- WNV antibodies. Australian and Timor zebra finches were used in this study and both are useful as a laboratory model of an avian species with moderate susceptibility to WNV.

  9. Mosquito cell-derived West Nile virus replicon particles mimic arbovirus inoculum and have reduced spread in mice.

    PubMed

    Boylan, Brendan T; Moreira, Fernando R; Carlson, Tim W; Bernard, Kristen A

    2017-02-01

    Half of the human population is at risk of infection by an arthropod-borne virus. Many of these arboviruses, such as West Nile, dengue, and Zika viruses, infect humans by way of a bite from an infected mosquito. This infectious inoculum is insect cell-derived giving the virus particles distinct qualities not present in secondary infectious virus particles produced by infected vertebrate host cells. The insect cell-derived particles differ in the glycosylation of virus structural proteins and the lipid content of the envelope, as well as their induction of cytokines. Thus, in order to accurately mimic the inoculum delivered by arthropods, arboviruses should be derived from arthropod cells. Previous studies have packaged replicon genome in mammalian cells to produce replicon particles, which undergo only one round of infection, but no studies exist packaging replicon particles in mosquito cells. Here we optimized the packaging of West Nile virus replicon genome in mosquito cells and produced replicon particles at high concentration, allowing us to mimic mosquito cell-derived viral inoculum. These particles were mature with similar genome equivalents-to-infectious units as full-length West Nile virus. We then compared the mosquito cell-derived particles to mammalian cell-derived particles in mice. Both replicon particles infected skin at the inoculation site and the draining lymph node by 3 hours post-inoculation. The mammalian cell-derived replicon particles spread from the site of inoculation to the spleen and contralateral lymph nodes significantly more than the particles derived from mosquito cells. This in vivo difference in spread of West Nile replicons in the inoculum demonstrates the importance of using arthropod cell-derived particles to model early events in arboviral infection and highlights the value of these novel arthropod cell-derived replicon particles for studying the earliest virus-host interactions for arboviruses.

  10. Seroepidemiological Study of West Nile Virus and Rift Valley Fever Virus in Some of Mammalian Species (Herbivores) in Northern Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Albayrak, Harun; Ozan, Emre

    2013-01-01

    Background West Nile virus (WNV) and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) are mosquito-borne viral diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate the RVFV and WNV infections as serologically in different mammalian species (cattle, horse, goat, sheep and water buffalo) in the northern Turkey. Methods: Blood samples randomly collected from 70 each cattle, horse, sheep, goat and water buffalo were analyzed for the presence of antibodies to RVFV and WNV using an competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (C-ELISA) in northern Turkey. Results: None of the animals were positive for antibodies to RVFV. In contrast, WNV antibodies were found in two of 350 samples (0.57%). Conclusion: This may suggest that the RVFV disease is not present in northern Turkey.This is the first serological study on RVFV in Turkey. PMID:23785699

  11. Studying the effects of emerging infections on the fetus: Experience with West Nile and Zika viruses.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Sonja A; Meaney-Delman, Dana M; Petersen, Lyle R; Jamieson, Denise J

    2017-03-15

    Emerging infections have the potential to produce adverse effects on the pregnant woman or her fetus; however, studying these effects is often challenging. We review our experiences with investigating the prenatal effects of two mosquito-borne infections that emerged in the past 2 decades, West Nile virus (WNV) and Zika virus. Concerns regarding teratogenicity were raised about both viruses; Zika virus has been confirmed to be teratogenic, while WNV appears not to increase the risk for adverse outcomes, although teratogenicity has not been excluded. Study designs used to examine the effects of both viruses include case reports and series, pregnancy registries, and cohort studies. Case-control studies and birth defects surveillance systems are being used to study the effects during pregnancy of Zika virus, but not the effects of WNV, because a specific phenotype was observed among infants with congenital Zika infection, but not among infants with congenital WNV infection. Experimental data that demonstrated that Zika virus was neurotropic have also been useful because they provided biologic plausibility for Zika virus's teratogenic effects: these findings were consistent with observations in congenitally infected infants. Challenges encountered with studies to evaluate the effects of these infections include the broad range of possible adverse outcomes, the inability to include all infected pregnant women in studies because many infections are asymptomatic, and the difficulty with interpretation of diagnostic testing of infants (WNV and Zika) and pregnant women (Zika). This review might be helpful to guide future studies of the effects of emerging infections during pregnancy. Birth Defects Research 109:363-371, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. MAVS Expressed by Hematopoietic Cells Is Critical for Control of West Nile Virus Infection and Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Vijay, Rahul; Zhao, Jingxian; Gale, Michael; Diamond, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT West Nile virus (WNV) is the most important cause of epidemic encephalitis in North America. Innate immune responses, which are critical for control of WNV infection, are initiated by signaling through pathogen recognition receptors, RIG-I and MDA5, and their downstream adaptor molecule, MAVS. Here, we show that a deficiency of MAVS in hematopoietic cells resulted in increased mortality and delayed WNV clearance from the brain. In Mavs−/− mice, a dysregulated immune response was detected, characterized by a massive influx of macrophages and virus-specific T cells into the infected brain. These T cells were polyfunctional and lysed peptide-pulsed target cells in vitro. However, virus-specific T cells in the brains of infected Mavs−/− mice exhibited lower functional avidity than those in wild-type animals, and even virus-specific memory T cells generated by prior immunization could not protect Mavs−/− mice from WNV-induced lethal disease. Concomitant with ineffective virus clearance, macrophage numbers were increased in the Mavs−/− brain, and both macrophages and microglia exhibited an activated phenotype. Microarray analyses of leukocytes in the infected Mavs−/− brain showed a preferential expression of genes associated with activation and inflammation. Together, these results demonstrate a critical role for MAVS in hematopoietic cells in augmenting the kinetics of WNV clearance and thereby preventing a dysregulated and pathogenic immune response. IMPORTANCE West Nile virus (WNV) is the most important cause of mosquito-transmitted encephalitis in the United States. The innate immune response is known to be critical for protection in infected mice. Here, we show that expression of MAVS, a key adaptor molecule in the RIG-I-like receptor RNA-sensing pathway, in hematopoietic cells is critical for protection from lethal WNV infection. In the absence of MAVS, there is a massive infiltration of myeloid cells and virus-specific T cells into the

  13. Control of West Nile virus, Rhode Island, 2003.

    PubMed

    Ayres, Kenneth; Bandy, Utpala; Drew, Helen; Fulton, John P; Hayes, Gregory; Getman, Alan; Gurba, Kristen; Hanofin, Christofer; Lopes-Duguay, Liz; Marshall, Robert J; Mehta, Shashi; Powell, Stephanie

    2004-03-01

    Thanks largely to systematic larviciding by the State's 39 municipalities, and aided by the public's destruction of "backyard" mosquito habitats and adoption of personal protective measures (clothing, repellant), Rhode Island minimized the potential human burden of WNV during the 2003 mosquito season (six serious WNV cases, one death, and no reports of WNV-tainted blood donations). The potential burden of WNV on domestic animals was also reduced through immunization. Nonetheless, the State's first WNV death reminds us of the danger this disease poses for the very young, for elders, and for people of all ages who are immune-compromised. Similarly, the widespread location of birds positive for WNV signifies the ubiquity of risk. All mosquitoes must be avoided. Based on its experience with WNV control over the past few years, the State will continue and enhance its surveillance and control efforts in 2004. Once again, systematic larviciding by municipalities and continuing public education through multiple channels will form the backbone of control, supported by active surveillance for the virus in the wild, in domestic animals, and in humans. For the latter effort, the vigilance of the health care community is of signal importance to the protection of the public. Every human case is investigated thoroughly, to establish as accurately as possible the time and place of exposure. DEM and HEALTH use this information to assess potential weaknesses in WNV control efforts, and to take corrective action, as necessary. Health care providers also play an essential role in public education, reminding patients (all patients, but especially the very young, elders, and the immune-compromised) to avoid mosquito bites. Discussing the avoidance of mosquito bites with patients who engage in regular outdoor activity is especially important. School physicians and the medical directors of nursing homes are well-positioned to keep mosquito control and avoidance on the agenda of their

  14. Predicting Hotspots for Influenza Virus Reassortment

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Marius; Martin, Vincent; Cappelle, Julien; Hosseini, Parviez; Njabo, Kevin Y.; Abdel Aziz, Soad; Xiao, Xiangming; Daszak, Peter; Smith, Thomas B.

    2013-01-01

    The 1957 and 1968 influenza pandemics, each of which killed ≈1 million persons, arose through reassortment events. Influenza virus in humans and domestic animals could reassort and cause another pandemic. To identify geographic areas where agricultural production systems are conducive to reassortment, we fitted multivariate regression models to surveillance data on influenza A virus subtype H5N1 among poultry in China and Egypt and subtype H3N2 among humans. We then applied the models across Asia and Egypt to predict where subtype H3N2 from humans and subtype H5N1 from birds overlap; this overlap serves as a proxy for co-infection and in vivo reassortment. For Asia, we refined the prioritization by identifying areas that also have high swine density. Potential geographic foci of reassortment include the northern plains of India, coastal and central provinces of China, the western Korean Peninsula and southwestern Japan in Asia, and the Nile Delta in Egypt. PMID:23628436

  15. The impact of West Nile virus on the abundance of selected North American birds

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) in North America has been associated with high mortality in the native avifauna and has raised concerns about the long-term impact of WNV on bird populations. Here, we present results from a longitudinal analysis of annual counts of six bird species, using North American Breeding Bird Survey data from ten states (1994 to 2010). We fit overdispersed Poisson models to annual counts. Counts from successive years were linked by an autoregressive process that depended on WNV transmission intensity (annual West Nile neuroinvasive disease reports) and was adjusted by El Niño Southern Oscillation events. These models were fit using a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. Results Model fit was mostly excellent, especially for American Crows, for which our models explained between 26% and 81% of the observed variance. The impact of WNV on bird populations was quantitatively evaluated by contrasting hypothetical count trajectories (omission of WNV) with observed counts. Populations of American crows were most consistently affected with a substantial cumulative impact in six of ten states. The largest negative impact, almost 60%, was found in Illinois. A regionally substantial decline was also seen for American Robins and House Sparrows, while the other species appeared unaffected. Conclusions Our results confirm findings from previous studies that single out American Crows as the species most vulnerable to WNV infection. We discuss strengths and limitations of this and other methods for quantifying the impact of WNV on bird populations. PMID:21831324

  16. Pathology and tissue tropism of natural West Nile virus infection in birds: a review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a globally distributed arthropod-borne flavivirus capable of infecting a wide variety of vertebrates, with birds as its natural reservoir. Although it had been considered a pathogen of little importance for birds, from the 1990’s, and especially after its introduction in the North American continent in 1999, thousands of birds have succumbed to West Nile infection. This review summarizes the pathogenesis and pathology of WNV infection in birds highlighting differences in lesion and antigen distribution and severity among bird orders and families. Despite significant species differences in susceptibility to infection, WNV associated lesions and viral antigen are present in the majority of organs of infected birds. The non-progressive, acute or more prolonged course of the disease accounts for part of the differences in lesion and viral antigen distribution and lesion severity. Most likely a combination of host variables and environmental factors in addition to the intrinsic virulence and pathogenicity of the infecting WNV strain influence the pathogenesis of the infection. PMID:23731695

  17. ANALYSIS OF BIOTIC AND ABIOTIC FACTORS INFLUENCING THE OCCURRENCE OF WEST NILE VIRUS INFECTION IN TUNISIA.

    PubMed

    Ben Hassine, Th; Calistri, P; Ippoliti, C; Conte, A; Danzetta, M L; Bruno, R; Lelli, R; Bejaoui, M; Hammami, S

    2014-01-01

    Eco-climatic conditions are often associated with the occurrence of West Nile Disease (WND) cases. Among the complex set of biotic and abiotic factors influencing the emergence and spread of this vector-borne disease, two main variables have been considered to have a great influence on the probability of West Nile Virus (WNV) introduction and circulation in Tunisia: the presence of susceptible bird populations and the existence of geographical areas where the environmental and climatic conditions are more favourable to mosquito multiplications. The aim of this study was to identify and classify the climatic and environmental variables possibly associated with the occurrence of WNVhuman cases in Tunisia. The following environmental and climatic variables have been considered: wetlands and humid areas, Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), temperatures and elevation. A preliminary analysis for the characterization of main variables associated with areas with a history of WNV human cases in Tunisia between 1997 and 2011 has been made. This preliminary analysis clearly indicates the closeness to marshes ecosystem, where migratory bird populations are located, as an important risk factor for WNV infection. On the contrary the temperature absolute seems to be not a significant factor in Tunisian epidemiological situation. In relation to NDVI values, more complex considerations should be made.

  18. Pathology and tissue tropism of natural West Nile virus infection in birds: a review.

    PubMed

    Gamino, Virginia; Höfle, Ursula

    2013-06-03

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a globally distributed arthropod-borne flavivirus capable of infecting a wide variety of vertebrates, with birds as its natural reservoir. Although it had been considered a pathogen of little importance for birds, from the 1990's, and especially after its introduction in the North American continent in 1999, thousands of birds have succumbed to West Nile infection. This review summarizes the pathogenesis and pathology of WNV infection in birds highlighting differences in lesion and antigen distribution and severity among bird orders and families. Despite significant species differences in susceptibility to infection, WNV associated lesions and viral antigen are present in the majority of organs of infected birds. The non-progressive, acute or more prolonged course of the disease accounts for part of the differences in lesion and viral antigen distribution and lesion severity. Most likely a combination of host variables and environmental factors in addition to the intrinsic virulence and pathogenicity of the infecting WNV strain influence the pathogenesis of the infection.

  19. West Nile virus surveillance in Europe: moving towards an integrated animal-human-vector approach

    PubMed Central

    Gossner, Céline M; Marrama, Laurence; Carson, Marianne; Allerberger, Franz; Calistri, Paolo; Dilaveris, Dimitrios; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Morgan, Dilys; Nowotny, Norbert; Paty, Marie-Claire; Pervanidou, Danai; Rizzo, Caterina; Roberts, Helen; Schmoll, Friedrich; Van Bortel, Wim; Gervelmeyer, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    This article uses the experience of five European countries to review the integrated approaches (human, animal and vector) for surveillance and monitoring of West Nile virus (WNV) at national and European levels. The epidemiological situation of West Nile fever in Europe is heterogeneous. No model of surveillance and monitoring fits all, hence this article merely encourages countries to implement the integrated approach that meets their needs. Integration of surveillance and monitoring activities conducted by the public health authorities, the animal health authorities and the authorities in charge of vector surveillance and control should improve efficiency and save resources by implementing targeted measures. The creation of a formal interagency working group is identified as a crucial step towards integration. Blood safety is a key incentive for public health authorities to allocate sufficient resources for WNV surveillance, while the facts that an effective vaccine is available for horses and that most infected animals remain asymptomatic make the disease a lesser priority for animal health authorities. The examples described here can support other European countries wishing to strengthen their WNV surveillance or preparedness, and also serve as a model for surveillance and monitoring of other (vector-borne) zoonotic infections. PMID:28494844

  20. West Nile Virus Antibodies in Permanent Resident and Overwintering Migrant Birds in South-Central Kansas

    PubMed Central

    Shelite, Thomas R.; Rogers, Christopher M.; Litzner, Brandon R.; Johnson, R. Roy

    2008-01-01

    Abstract We conducted serological studies, using epitope-blocking ELISAs directed at West Nile virus (WNV) and flavivirus antibodies, of wild birds in south-central Kansas, the first for this state, in the winters of 2003–04 through 2005–06. Overwintering migratory species (primarily the American tree sparrow and dark-eyed junco) consistently showed significantly lower seropositivity than permanent residents (primarily the northern cardinal). The cardinal showed annual variation in seropositivity between winters. Of 35 birds that were serial sampled within a single winter, one cardinal may have seroconverted between late December and mid-February, providing a preliminary suggestion of continued enzootic transmission, chronic infection, or bird-bird transfer as overwintering mechanisms. Breeding population size of the cardinal did not change after the introduction of WNV to Kansas. Of eighteen birds that were serial sampled between winters, none seroconverted. Among overwintering migrants, the Harris' Sparrow showed the highest seropositivity, possibly related to its migration route through the central Great Plains, an area of recent high WNV activity. The finding that permanent resident birds exhibit higher seropositivity than migrant birds suggests that resident birds contribute to the initiation of annual infection cycles, although this conclusion is speculative in the absence of data on viral titers and the length of viremia. Key Words: West Nile Virus—flavivirus—birds—epitope-blocking ELISA––winter. PMID:18471059

  1. Declining mortality in American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) following natural West Nile virus infection.

    PubMed

    Reed, Lisa M; Johansson, Michael A; Panella, Nicholas; McLean, Robert; Creekmore, Terry; Puelle, Rose; Komar, Nicholas

    2009-09-01

    The American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) is known to suffer 100% mortality from infection with the New York 1999 strain of West Nile virus (WNV). Following the initial detection of WNV in North America in 1999, we measured prevalence of WNV-reactive antibodies ("seroprevalence") in free-ranging American and fish crows (Corvus ossifragus) of central New Jersey after each transmission season through 2005. In 2002, seroprevalence in American crow juveniles increased to 14% from the 5% of the previous year, potentially indicating increased survival in this species. Using the annual seroprevalence measurements and the number of human West Nile neuroinvasive disease cases as a surrogate for WNV transmission intensity, we developed a model to estimate the annual WNV-associated mortality rates among both of these crow species. Our model supports the hypothesis that mortality is changing over time; the WNV-associated mortality rate declined over time by 1.5% for American crow and by 1.1% for fish crow. The probability that the trend in mortality was negative was 90% for the American crow and 60% for the fish crow.

  2. West Nile virus surveillance in Europe: moving towards an integrated animal-human-vector approach.

    PubMed

    Gossner, Céline M; Marrama, Laurence; Carson, Marianne; Allerberger, Franz; Calistri, Paolo; Dilaveris, Dimitrios; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Morgan, Dilys; Nowotny, Norbert; Paty, Marie-Claire; Pervanidou, Danai; Rizzo, Caterina; Roberts, Helen; Schmoll, Friedrich; Van Bortel, Wim; Gervelmeyer, Andrea

    2017-05-04

    This article uses the experience of five European countries to review the integrated approaches (human, animal and vector) for surveillance and monitoring of West Nile virus (WNV) at national and European levels. The epidemiological situation of West Nile fever in Europe is heterogeneous. No model of surveillance and monitoring fits all, hence this article merely encourages countries to implement the integrated approach that meets their needs. Integration of surveillance and monitoring activities conducted by the public health authorities, the animal health authorities and the authorities in charge of vector surveillance and control should improve efficiency and save resources by implementing targeted measures. The creation of a formal interagency working group is identified as a crucial step towards integration. Blood safety is a key incentive for public health authorities to allocate sufficient resources for WNV surveillance, while the facts that an effective vaccine is available for horses and that most infected animals remain asymptomatic make the disease a lesser priority for animal health authorities. The examples described here can support other European countries wishing to strengthen their WNV surveillance or preparedness, and also serve as a model for surveillance and monitoring of other (vector-borne) zoonotic infections. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  3. Infection with non-lethal West Nile virus Eg101 strain induces immunity that protects mice against the lethal West Nile virus NY99 strain.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mukesh; O'Connell, Maile; Namekar, Madhuri; Nerurkar, Vivek R

    2014-06-06

    Herein we demonstrate that infection of mice with West Nile virus (WNV) Eg101 provides protective immunity against lethal challenge with WNV NY99. Our data demonstrated that WNV Eg101 is largely non-virulent in adult mice when compared to WNV NY99. By day 6 after infection, WNV-specific IgM and IgG antibodies, and neutralizing antibodies were detected in the serum of all WNV Eg101 infected mice. Plaque reduction neutralization test data demonstrated that serum from WNV Eg101 infected mice neutralized WNV Eg101 and WNV NY99 strains with similar efficiency. Three weeks after infection, WNV Eg101 immunized mice were challenged subcutaneously or intracranially with lethal dose of WNV NY99 and observed for additional three weeks. All the challenged mice were protected against disease and no morbidity and mortality was observed in any mice. In conclusion, our data for the first time demonstrate that infection of mice with WNV Eg101 induced high titers of WNV specific IgM and IgG antibodies, and cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies, and the resulting immunity protected all immunized animals from both subcutaneous and intracranial challenge with WNV NY99. These observations suggest that WNV Eg101 may be a suitable strain for the development of a vaccine in humans against virulent strains of WNV.

  4. [West Nile fever].

    PubMed

    Takasaki, Tomohiko

    2005-12-01

    West Nile virus was first detected in North America in 1999 and has spread throughout the United States and Canada and into Mexico and the Caribbean. The cases of encephalitis in New York were diagnosed as Saint Louis encephalitis which was endemic in the North America. However, dead crows and dead flamingo were found around the same time in New York. American birds seldom die by Saint Louis encephalitis virus infection. According to viral isolation and sequencing of the genome, the causative agent of unknown encephalitis was West Nile virus which was a member of Flaviviridae which cause fever, meningitis and encephalitis. West Nile virus is still active in North America in summer season, 1999 -2005. CDC enlightens people how to protect themselves and their community from West Nile virus. There are some reports that West Nile viral infections were occurred by blood transfusion, biologic products from blood and organ transfusion.

  5. Remote Sensing of Climatic Anomalies and West Nile Virus Incidence in the Northern Great Plains of the United States

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Ting-Wu; Wimberly, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    The northern Great Plains (NGP) of the United States has been a hotspot of West Nile virus (WNV) incidence since 2002. Mosquito ecology and the transmission of vector-borne disease are influenced by multiple environmental factors, and climatic variability is an important driver of inter-annual variation in WNV transmission risk. This study applied multiple environmental predictors including land surface temperature (LST), the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and actual evapotranspiration (ETa) derived from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products to establish prediction models for WNV risk in the NGP. These environmental metrics are sensitive to seasonal and inter-annual fluctuations in temperature and precipitation, and are hypothesized to influence mosquito population dynamics and WNV transmission. Non-linear generalized additive models (GAMs) were used to evaluate the influences of deviations of cumulative LST, NDVI, and ETa on inter-annual variations of WNV incidence from 2004–2010. The models were sensitive to the timing of spring green up (measured with NDVI), temperature variability in early spring and summer (measured with LST), and moisture availability from late spring through early summer (measured with ETa), highlighting seasonal changes in the influences of climatic fluctuations on WNV transmission. Predictions based on these variables indicated a low WNV risk across the NGP in 2011, which is concordant with the low case reports in this year. Environmental monitoring using remote-sensed data can contribute to surveillance of WNV risk and prediction of future WNV outbreaks in space and time. PMID:23071656

  6. Remote sensing of climatic anomalies and West Nile virus incidence in the northern Great Plains of the United States.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Ting-Wu; Wimberly, Michael C

    2012-01-01

    The northern Great Plains (NGP) of the United States has been a hotspot of West Nile virus (WNV) incidence since 2002. Mosquito ecology and the transmission of vector-borne disease are influenced by multiple environmental factors, and climatic variability is an important driver of inter-annual variation in WNV transmission risk. This study applied multiple environmental predictors including land surface temperature (LST), the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and actual evapotranspiration (ETa) derived from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products to establish prediction models for WNV risk in the NGP. These environmental metrics are sensitive to seasonal and inter-annual fluctuations in temperature and precipitation, and are hypothesized to influence mosquito population dynamics and WNV transmission. Non-linear generalized additive models (GAMs) were used to evaluate the influences of deviations of cumulative LST, NDVI, and ETa on inter-annual variations of WNV incidence from 2004-2010. The models were sensitive to the timing of spring green up (measured with NDVI), temperature variability in early spring and summer (measured with LST), and moisture availability from late spring through early summer (measured with ETa), highlighting seasonal changes in the influences of climatic fluctuations on WNV transmission. Predictions based on these variables indicated a low WNV risk across the NGP in 2011, which is concordant with the low case reports in this year. Environmental monitoring using remote-sensed data can contribute to surveillance of WNV risk and prediction of future WNV outbreaks in space and time.

  7. Landscape epidemiology and machine learning: A geospatial approach to modeling West Nile virus risk in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Sean Gregory

    The complex interactions between human health and the physical landscape and environment have been recognized, if not fully understood, since the ancient Greeks. Landscape epidemiology, sometimes called spatial epidemiology, is a sub-discipline of medical geography that uses environmental conditions as explanatory variables in the study of disease or other health phenomena. This theory suggests that pathogenic organisms (whether germs or larger vector and host species) are subject to environmental conditions that can be observed on the landscape, and by identifying where such organisms are likely to exist, areas at greatest risk of the disease can be derived. Machine learning is a sub-discipline of artificial intelligence that can be used to create predictive models from large and complex datasets. West Nile virus (WNV) is a relatively new infectious disease in the United States, and has a fairly well-understood transmission cycle that is believed to be highly dependent on environmental conditions. This study takes a geospatial approach to the study of WNV risk, using both landscape epidemiology and machine learning techniques. A combination of remotely sensed and in situ variables are used to predict WNV incidence with a correlation coefficient as high as 0.86. A novel method of mitigating the small numbers problem is also tested and ultimately discarded. Finally a consistent spatial pattern of model errors is identified, indicating the chosen variables are capable of predicting WNV disease risk across most of the United States, but are inadequate in the northern Great Plains region of the US.

  8. Predicting solvatochromic shifts and colours of a solvated organic dye: The example of nile red

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuehlsdorff, T. J.; Haynes, P. D.; Payne, M. C.; Hine, N. D. M.

    2017-03-01

    The solvatochromic shift, as well as the change in colour of the simple organic dye nile red, is studied in two polar and two non-polar solvents in the context of large-scale time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) calculations treating large parts of the solvent environment from first principles. We show that an explicit solvent representation is vital to resolve absorption peak shifts between nile red in n-hexane and toluene, as well as acetone and ethanol. The origin of the failure of implicit solvent models for these solvents is identified as being due to the strong solute-solvent interactions in form of π-stacking and hydrogen bonding in the case of toluene and ethanol. We furthermore demonstrate that the failures of the computationally inexpensive Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) functional in describing some features of the excited state potential energy surface of the S1 state of nile red can be corrected for in a straightforward fashion, relying only on a small number of calculations making use of more sophisticated range-separated hybrid functionals. The resulting solvatochromic shifts and predicted colours are in excellent agreement with experiment, showing the computational approach outlined in this work to yield very robust predictions of optical properties of dyes in solution.

  9. West Nile virus seroconversion in penguins after vaccination with a killed virus vaccine or a DNA vaccine.

    PubMed

    Davis, Michelle R; Langan, Jennifer N; Johnson, Yvette J; Ritchie, Branson W; Van Bonn, William

    2008-12-01

    To investigate the serologic response of penguins to West Nile virus (WNV) vaccines, four species of exclusively indoor-housed penguins, negative for WNV by serology, were evaluated: Humboldt (Spheniscus humboldti), Magellanic (Spheniscus magellanicus), Gentoo (Pygoscelis papua), and Rockhopper (Eudyptes chrysoscome) penguins. Birds were inoculated with either a killed virus vaccine or a plasmid-mediated DNA WNV vaccine, and postinoculation serology was evaluated. Both vaccines induced seroconversion in all four species, and no adverse reactions were noted. Postvaccination serology results varied across species and vaccine types. However, in all four species, the killed virus vaccine resulted in a greater seroconversion rate than the DNA vaccine and in a significantly shorter time period. Additionally, the duration of the seropositive titer was significantly longer in those birds vaccinated with the killed virus vaccine compared with those vaccinated with the DNA vaccine. A subset of unvaccinated penguins serving as negative controls remained negative throughout the duration of the study despite the presence of WNV in the geographic locations of the study, suggesting that indoor housing may minimize exposure to the virus and may be an additional means of preventing WNV infection in penguins.

  10. Evidence for West Nile virus spillover into the squirrel population in Atlanta, Georgia.

    PubMed

    Bisanzio, Donal; McMillan, Joseph R; Barreto, Josafá Gonçalves; Blitvich, Bradley J; Mead, Daniel G; O'Connor, Josh; Kitron, Uriel

    2015-05-01

    In the United States, spillover of West Nile virus (WNV) into wild mammal populations has been reported since the introduction of the virus into the New World in 1999. Eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) exhibit a high seroprevalence for WNV in urban settings where high virus circulation and human spillover have been reported. In Atlanta, Georgia, human cases of WNV are uncommon despite high infection rates in birds and mosquitoes. In this study, we evaluated WNV exposure of eastern gray squirrels in a WNV hot spot in Atlanta. Gray squirrels were live-trapped in Grant Park, Atlanta, during July-October, 2012, and a census was conducted to estimate squirrel density in the study site. Sera from trapped animals were tested for circulating virus-by-virus isolation in cell culture and for WNV-specific antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and plaque reduction neutralization test. Mosquitoes were collected at the same location and tested for virus isolation. Among the 69 collected squirrels, 25 (36.2%) tested positive for WNV antibodies, although none were viremic. Seroprevalence was lower in juveniles (18.8%) than in adults (37.5%), but this difference was not statistically significant. Gender and squirrel density had no effect on seroprevalence. Seasonality of squirrel seroprevalence and of mosquito infection were significantly associated, both peaking in August. No difference in squirrel exposure was detected across the collection sites. We report a high degree of WNV exposure in squirrels in Grant Park that was correlated with seasonality of mosquito infection. The detection of antibodies in juveniles suggests that circulation of WNV in the surveyed population is ongoing. Eastern gray squirrels may be suitable indicators for virus amplification and for risk of human spillover on a local scale in urban settings.

  11. Generation and characterization of West Nile pseudo-infectious reporter virus for antiviral screening.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Lei; Ye, Han-Qing; Deng, Cheng-Lin; Liu, Si-Qing; Shi, Pei-Yong; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Yuan, Zhi-Ming; Zhang, Bo

    2017-05-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, is an important neurotropic human pathogen. As a biosafety level-3 (BSL-3) agent, WNV is strictly to BSL-3 laboratories for experimentations, thus greatly hindering the development of vaccine and antiviral drug. Here, we developed a novel pseudo-infectious WNV reporter virus expressing the Gaussia luciferase (Gluc). A stable 293TNS1 cell line expressing NS1 was selected for trans-supplying NS1 protein to support the replication of WNV-ΔNS1 virus and WNV-ΔNS1-Gluc reporter virus with large-fragment deletion of NS1. WNV-ΔNS1 virus and WNV-Gluc-ΔNS1 reporter virus were confined to complete their replication cycle in this 293TNS1 cell line, displaying nearly identical growth kinetics to WT WNV although the viral titers were lower than those of WT WNV. The reporter gene was stably maintained in virus genome at least within three rounds of passage in 293TNS1 cell line. Using a known flaviviruses inhibitor, NITD008, we demonstrated that the pseudo-infectious WNV-Gluc-ΔNS1 could be used for antiviral screening. Furthermore, a high-throughput screening (HTS) assay in a 96-well format was optimized and validated using several known WNV inhibitors, indicating that the optimized HTS assay was suitable for high-throughput screening WNV inhibitors. Our work provides a stable and safe tool to handle WNV outside of a BSL-3 facility and facilitates high throughput screening for anti-WNV drugs.

  12. Microarray hybridization for assessment of the genetic stability of chimeric West Nile/dengue 4 virus.

    PubMed

    Laassri, Majid; Bidzhieva, Bella; Speicher, James; Pletnev, Alexander G; Chumakov, Konstantin

    2011-05-01

    Genetic stability is an important characteristic of live viral vaccines because an accumulation of mutants can cause reversion to a virulent phenotype as well as a loss of immunogenic properties. This study was aimed at evaluating the genetic stability of a live attenuated West Nile (WN) virus vaccine candidate that was generated by replacing the pre-membrane and envelope protein genes of dengue 4 virus with those from WN. Chimeric virus was serially propagated in Vero, SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma and HeLa cells and screened for point mutations using hybridization with microarrays of overlapping oligonucleotide probes covering the entire genome. The analysis revealed several spontaneous mutations that led to amino acid changes, most of which were located in the envelope (E) and non-structural NS4A, NS4B, and NS5 proteins. Viruses passaged in Vero and SH-SY5Y cells shared two common mutations: G(2337) C (Met(457) Ile) in the E gene and A(6751) G (Lys(125) Arg) in the NS4A gene. Quantitative assessment of the contents of these mutants in viral stocks indicated that they accumulated independently with different kinetics during propagation in cell cultures. Mutant viruses grew better in Vero cells compared to the parental virus, suggesting that they have a higher fitness. When tested in newborn mice, the cell culture-passaged viruses did not exhibit increased neurovirulence. The approach described in this article could be useful for monitoring the molecular consistency and quality control of vaccine strains. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Factors That Influence the Transmission of West Nile Virus in Florida.

    PubMed

    Day, Jonathan F; Tabachnick, Walter J; Smartt, Chelsea T

    2015-09-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was first detected in North America in New York City during the late summer of 1999 and was first detected in Florida in 2001. Although WNV has been responsible for widespread and extensive epidemics in human populations and epizootics in domestic animals and wildlife throughout North America, comparable epidemics have never materialized in Florida. Here, we review some of the reasons why WNV has yet to cause an extensive outbreak in Florida. The primary vector of mosquito-borne encephalitis virus in Florida is Culex nigripalpus Theobald. Rainfall, drought, and temperature are the primary factors that regulate annual populations of this species. Cx. nigripalpus is a competent vector of WNV, St. Louis encephalitis virus, and eastern equine encephalitis virus in Florida, and populations of this species can support focal amplification and transmission of these arboviruses. We propose that a combination of environmental factors influencing Cx. nigripalpus oviposition, blood-feeding behavior, and vector competence have limited WNV transmission in Florida to relatively small focal outbreaks and kept the state free of a major epidemic. Florida must remain vigilant to the danger from WNV, because a change in these environmental factors could easily result in a substantial WNV epidemic rivaling those seen elsewhere in the United States. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Multi-year evolutionary dynamics of West Nile virus in suburban Chicago, USA, 2005–2007

    PubMed Central

    Amore, Giusi; Bertolotti, Luigi; Hamer, Gabriel L.; Kitron, Uriel D.; Walker, Edward D.; Ruiz, Marilyn O.; Brawn, Jeffrey D.; Goldberg, Tony L.

    2010-01-01

    West Nile virus has evolved in concert with its expansion across North America, but little is known about the evolutionary dynamics of the virus on local scales. We analysed viral nucleotide sequences from mosquitoes collected in 2005, 2006, and 2007 from a known transmission ‘hot spot’ in suburban Chicago, USA. Within this approximately 11 × 14 km area, the viral envelope gene has increased approximately 0.1% yr−1 in nucleotide-level genetic diversity. In each year, viral diversity was higher in ‘residential’ sites characterized by dense housing than in more open ‘urban green space’ sites such as cemeteries and parks. Phylodynamic analyses showed an increase in incidence around 2005, consistent with a higher-than-average peak in mosquito and human infection rates that year. Analyses of times to most recent common ancestor suggest that WNV in 2005 and 2006 may have arisen predominantly from viruses present during 2004 and 2005, respectively, but that WNV in 2007 had an older common ancestor, perhaps indicating a predominantly mixed or exogenous origin. These results show that the population of WNV in suburban Chicago is an admixture of viruses that are both locally derived and introduced from elsewhere, containing evolutionary information aggregated across a breadth of spatial and temporal scales. PMID:20478882

  15. Further circulation of West Nile and Usutu viruses in wild birds in Italy.

    PubMed

    Llopis, Isis Victoriano; Rossi, Luca; Di Gennaro, Annapia; Mosca, Andrea; Teodori, Liana; Tomassone, Laura; Grego, Elena; Monaco, Federica; Lorusso, Alessio; Savini, Giovanni

    2015-06-01

    Usutu virus (USUV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are emerging pathogens that can cause neurological disease in humans. From March 2012 to June 2013, a sero-survey on wild birds was carried out to investigate the circulation of both viruses in Northwest (NW) Italy. Samples belonging to 47 different bird species have been collected using a volunteer based network and a wildlife rehabilitation center. Four of 297 serum samples had neutralizing antibodies against USUV (P=1.34%, IC 95% 0.36-3.4), while 10 of 233 samples tested positive for WNV (P=4.29%, IC 95% 2.07-7.75). Neutralizing antibodies for WNV were significantly more prevalent (p<0.001) in trans-Saharan migrants (P=21%, IC 95% 9.55-37.3) than in resident and short-distance birds, but no migratory habit-related differences were found for USUV. Antibodies in resident bird species suggest that both viruses are circulating in NW Italy.

  16. [West Nile virus; ecology and epidemiology of an emerging pathogen in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Berrocal, Luis; Peña, José; González, Marco; Mattar, Salim

    2006-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has an enzootic mosquito-bird-mosquito cycle in nature, Culex sp mosquitoes being the main vectors. Birds are the main amplifying hosts. Humans and horses are incidental dead-end hosts. It produces a flu-like or a self-limited febrile disease in most humans. It can cause encephalitis, meningitis or meningoencephalitis in cases of neurological disease, having greater incidence and mortality from encephalitis in older people and immune-compromised patients. Outbreaks have been reported in Africa, the Middle-east, Europe and Asia. WNV first appeared in North-America in 1999 and its circulation has been documented in Mexico, the Caiman islands, Jamaica, the Dominican Republic, Martinique, Guadalupe, Cuba, Puerto Rico, El Salvador and more recently in Colombia. The public health concern regarding WNV if it becomes introduced into Middle- and South-America will depend upon the interaction of several factors. The prevailing conditions in Colombia are apt for its spread and development. There are two main hypotheses; the virus could become enzootic and endemic and cause limited human disease, or it could become epidemic and cause annual outbreaks affecting large numbers of humans and animals. It will depend upon Colombian birds' susceptibility to the virus because of biological differences and intra-specific geographical variations in mosquitoe species' vector competence and the environmental effects on its ability to transmit the virus; such factors are determinant in the primary amplifying cycle.

  17. Spatial spreading model and dynamics of West Nile virus in birds and mosquitoes with free boundary.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhigui; Zhu, Huaiping

    2017-04-04

    In this paper, a reaction-diffusion system is proposed to model the spatial spreading of West Nile virus in vector mosquitoes and host birds in North America. Transmission dynamics are based on a simplified model involving mosquitoes and birds, and the free boundary is introduced to model and explore the expanding front of the infected region. The spatial-temporal risk index [Formula: see text], which involves regional characteristic and time, is defined for the simplified reaction-diffusion model with the free boundary to compare with other related threshold values, including the usual basic reproduction number [Formula: see text]. Sufficient conditions for the virus to vanish or to spread are given. Our results suggest that the virus will be in a scenario of vanishing if [Formula: see text], and will spread to the whole region if [Formula: see text] for some [Formula: see text], while if [Formula: see text], the spreading or vanishing of the virus depends on the initial number of infected individuals, the area of the infected region, the diffusion rate and other factors. Moreover, some remarks on the basic reproduction numbers and the spreading speeds are presented and compared.

  18. Transmission dynamics of West Nile virus in mosquitoes and corvids and non-corvids.

    PubMed

    Abdelrazec, Ahmed; Lenhart, Suzanne; Zhu, Huaiping

    2014-05-01

    There are more than 300 avian species that can transmit West Nile virus (WNv). In general, the corvid and non-corvid families of birds have different responses to the virus, with corvids suffering a higher disease-induced mortality rate. By taking both corvids and non-corvids as the primary reservoir hosts and mosquitoes as vectors; we formulate and study a system of ordinary differential equations to model a single season of the transmission dynamics of WNv in the mosquito-bird cycle. We calculate the basic reproduction number and analyze the existence and stability of the equilibria. The existence of a backward bifurcation gives a further sub-threshold condition beyond the basic reproduction number for the spread of the virus. We also discuss the role of corvids and non-corvids in spreading the virus. We conclude that knowledge of the relative abundance of corvid bird species and other mammals assist us in accurate estimation of the epidemic of WNv.

  19. Overwintering of Uranotaenia Unguiculata Adult Females in Central Europe: A Possible Way of Persistence of the Putative New Lineage of West Nile Virus?

    PubMed

    Rudolf, Ivo; Šebesta, Oldřich; Straková, Petra; Betášová, Lenka; Blažejová, Hana; VEnclíková, Kristýna; Seidel, Bernhard; Tóth, Sandor; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Schaffner, Francis

    2015-12-01

    We report the overwintering of Uranotaenia unguiculata adult females in Central Europe (Czech Republic, Hungary, Austria). This finding suggests a potential mode of winter persistence of putative novel lineage of West Nile virus in the temperate regions of Europe.

  20. The Interferon-Stimulated Gene Ifitm3 Restricts West Nile Virus Infection and Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gorman, Matthew J.; Poddar, Subhajit; Farzan, Michael

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The interferon-induced transmembrane protein (IFITM) family of proteins inhibit infection of several different enveloped viruses in cell culture by virtue of their ability to restrict entry and fusion from late endosomes. As few studies have evaluated the importance of Ifitm3 in vivo in restricting viral pathogenesis, we investigated its significance as an antiviral gene against West Nile virus (WNV), an encephalitic flavivirus, in cells and mice. Ifitm3−/− mice were more vulnerable to lethal WNV infection, and this was associated with greater virus accumulation in peripheral organs and central nervous system tissues. As no difference in viral burden in the brain or spinal cord was observed after direct intracranial inoculation, Ifitm3 likely functions as an antiviral protein in nonneuronal cells. Consistent with this, Ifitm3−/− fibroblasts but not dendritic cells resulted in higher yields of WNV in multistep growth analyses. Moreover, transcomplementation experiments showed that Ifitm3 inhibited WNV infection independently of Ifitm1, Ifitm2, Ifitm5, and Ifitm6. Beyond a direct effect on viral infection in cells, analysis of the immune response in WNV-infected Ifitm3−/− mice showed decreases in the total number of B cells, CD4+ T cells, and antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. Finally, bone marrow chimera experiments demonstrated that Ifitm3 functioned in both radioresistant and radiosensitive cells, as higher levels of WNV were observed in the brain only when Ifitm3 was absent from both compartments. Our analyses suggest that Ifitm3 restricts WNV pathogenesis likely through multiple mechanisms, including the direct control of infection in subsets of cells. IMPORTANCE As part of the mammalian host response to viral infections, hundreds of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) are induced. The inhibitory activity of individual ISGs varies depending on the specific cell type and viral pathogen. Among ISGs, the genes encoding interferon

  1. The Interferon-Stimulated Gene Ifitm3 Restricts West Nile Virus Infection and Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Matthew J; Poddar, Subhajit; Farzan, Michael; Diamond, Michael S

    2016-09-15

    The interferon-induced transmembrane protein (IFITM) family of proteins inhibit infection of several different enveloped viruses in cell culture by virtue of their ability to restrict entry and fusion from late endosomes. As few studies have evaluated the importance of Ifitm3 in vivo in restricting viral pathogenesis, we investigated its significance as an antiviral gene against West Nile virus (WNV), an encephalitic flavivirus, in cells and mice. Ifitm3(-/-) mice were more vulnerable to lethal WNV infection, and this was associated with greater virus accumulation in peripheral organs and central nervous system tissues. As no difference in viral burden in the brain or spinal cord was observed after direct intracranial inoculation, Ifitm3 likely functions as an antiviral protein in nonneuronal cells. Consistent with this, Ifitm3(-/-) fibroblasts but not dendritic cells resulted in higher yields of WNV in multistep growth analyses. Moreover, transcomplementation experiments showed that Ifitm3 inhibited WNV infection independently of Ifitm1, Ifitm2, Ifitm5, and Ifitm6. Beyond a direct effect on viral infection in cells, analysis of the immune response in WNV-infected Ifitm3(-/-) mice showed decreases in the total number of B cells, CD4(+) T cells, and antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells. Finally, bone marrow chimera experiments demonstrated that Ifitm3 functioned in both radioresistant and radiosensitive cells, as higher levels of WNV were observed in the brain only when Ifitm3 was absent from both compartments. Our analyses suggest that Ifitm3 restricts WNV pathogenesis likely through multiple mechanisms, including the direct control of infection in subsets of cells. As part of the mammalian host response to viral infections, hundreds of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) are induced. The inhibitory activity of individual ISGs varies depending on the specific cell type and viral pathogen. Among ISGs, the genes encoding interferon-induced transmembrane protein (IFITM

  2. The evolution of virulence of West Nile virus in a mosquito vector: implications for arbovirus adaptation and evolution.

    PubMed

    Ciota, Alexander T; Ehrbar, Dylan J; Matacchiero, Amy C; Van Slyke, Greta A; Kramer, Laura D

    2013-03-20

    Virulence is often coupled with replicative fitness of viruses in vertebrate systems, yet the relationship between virulence and fitness of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) in invertebrates has not been evaluated. Although the interactions between vector-borne pathogens and their invertebrate hosts have been characterized as being largely benign, some costs of arbovirus exposure have been identified for mosquitoes. The extent to which these costs may be strain-specific and the subsequent consequences of these interactions on vector and virus evolution has not been adequately explored. Using West Nile virus (WNV) and Culex pipiens mosquitoes, we tested the hypothesis that intrahost fitness is correlated with virulence in mosquitoes by evaluating life history traits following exposure to either non-infectious bloodmeals or bloodmeals containing wildtype (WNV WT) or the high fitness, mosquito-adapted strain, WNV MP20 derived from WNV WT. Our results demonstrate strain-specific effects on mosquito survival, fecundity, and blood feeding behavior. Specifically, both resistance to and infection with WNV MP20, but not WNV WT, decreased survival of Cx. pipiens and altered fecundity and bloodfeeding such that early egg output was enhanced at a later cost. As predicted by the trade-off hypothesis of virulence, costs of infection with WNV MP20 in terms of survival were directly correlated to viral load, yet resistance to infection with this virulent strain was equally costly. Taken together, these results demonstrate that WNV MP20 infection decreases the transmission potential of Cx. pipiens populations despite the increased intrahost fitness of this strain, indicating that a virulence-transmission trade-off in invertebrates could contribute significantly to the adaptive and evolutionary constraint of arboviruses.

  3. Factors associated with mosquito pool positivity and the characterization of the West Nile viruses found within Louisiana during 2007

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background West Nile virus (WNV) is an arbovirus of public health importance in the genus Flavivirus, a group of positive sense RNA viruses. The NS3 gene has a high level of substitutions and is phylogenetically informative. Likewise, substitutions in the envelope region have been postulated to enable viruses to subvert immune responses. Analysis of these genes among isolates from positive mosquitoes collected in Louisiana illustrates the variation present in the regions and provides improved insight to a phylogenetic model. Employing a GIS eco-regionalization method, we hypothesized that WNV pool positivity was correlated with regional environmental characteristics. Further, we postulated that the phylogenetic delineations would be associated with variations in regional environmental conditions. Results Type of regional land cover was a significant effect (p < 0.0001) in the positive pool prediction, indicating that there is an ecological component driving WNV activity. Additionally, month of collection was significant (p < 0.0001); and thus there is a temporal component that contributes to the probability of getting a positive mosquito pool. All virus isolates are of the WNV 2002 lineage. There appears to be some diversity within both forested and wetland areas; and the possibility of a distinct clade in the wetland samples. Conclusions The phylogenetic analysis shows that there has been no reversion in Louisiana from the 2002 lineage which replaced the originally introduced strain. Our pool positivity model serves as a basis for future testing, and could direct mosquito control and surveillance efforts. Understanding how land cover and regional ecology effects mosquito pool positivity will greatly help focus mosquito abatement efforts. This would especially help in areas where abatement programs are limited due to either funding or man power. Moreover, understanding how regional environments drive phylogenetic variation will lead to a greater understanding of

  4. Factors associated with mosquito pool positivity and the characterization of the West Nile viruses found within Louisiana during 2007.

    PubMed

    Christofferson, Rebecca C; Roy, Alma F; Mores, Christopher N

    2010-06-25

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an arbovirus of public health importance in the genus Flavivirus, a group of positive sense RNA viruses. The NS3 gene has a high level of substitutions and is phylogenetically informative. Likewise, substitutions in the envelope region have been postulated to enable viruses to subvert immune responses. Analysis of these genes among isolates from positive mosquitoes collected in Louisiana illustrates the variation present in the regions and provides improved insight to a phylogenetic model. Employing a GIS eco-regionalization method, we hypothesized that WNV pool positivity was correlated with regional environmental characteristics. Further, we postulated that the phylogenetic delineations would be associated with variations in regional environmental conditions. Type of regional land cover was a significant effect (p < 0.0001) in the positive pool prediction, indicating that there is an ecological component driving WNV activity. Additionally, month of collection was significant (p < 0.0001); and thus there is a temporal component that contributes to the probability of getting a positive mosquito pool. All virus isolates are of the WNV 2002 lineage. There appears to be some diversity within both forested and wetland areas; and the possibility of a distinct clade in the wetland samples. The phylogenetic analysis shows that there has been no reversion in Louisiana from the 2002 lineage which replaced the originally introduced strain. Our pool positivity model serves as a basis for future testing, and could direct mosquito control and surveillance efforts. Understanding how land cover and regional ecology effects mosquito pool positivity will greatly help focus mosquito abatement efforts. This would especially help in areas where abatement programs are limited due to either funding or man power. Moreover, understanding how regional environments drive phylogenetic variation will lead to a greater understanding of the interactions between ecology

  5. Detection of West Nile Virus and other common equine viruses in three locations from the Leeward Islands, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Bolfa, Pompei; Jeon, Isaac; Loftis, Amanda; Leslie, Teresa; Marchi, Silvia; Sithole, Fortune; Beck, Cecile; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Zientara, Stephan; Hans, Aymeric; Issel, Charles J

    2017-10-01

    Equines in the West Indies are used for recreational purposes, tourism industry, racing and agriculture or can be found in feral populations. Little is known in the Caribbean basin about the prevalence of some major equine infectious diseases, some with zoonotic potential, listed as reportable by the OIE. Our objective was to study the prevalence of antibodies for West Nile Virus (WNV), Equine Herpes Virus-1 and 4 (EHV-1 and EHV-4), Equine Influenza (EI), Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA) and Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV) using a retrospective serological convenience study. We used 180 equine serum samples, 140 from horses and 40 from donkeys in St. Kitts, Nevis, and Sint Eustatius, collected between 2006 and 2015 that were tested with ELISA kits and virus neutralization (for WNV and EVA). Combining ELISA with virus neutralization testing, 25 (13.8%) equine sera were WNV positive (a mixture of indigenous and imported equines) and 3 sera (1.6%) showed doubtful results. For EHV-1, 41 equines (23.7%), mean age 6.7 years, were seropositive. For EHV-4, 138 equines were found seropositive (82.8%), mean age 6.3 years. For EI, 49 equines (27.2%), mean age 7.5 years, were seropositive on ELISA, some previously vaccinated horses. No antibodies against EAV were found on virus neutralization testing, although one animal (0.6%), was EAV positive on ELISA. All samples were EIAV negative. The seroprevalence for EHV-1 and EHV-4 is similar to other parts of the world. For the first time in the study location serologic evidence of antibodies against WNV and EI is reported. This was found in both indigenous and imported animals, highlighting the need for developing proper surveillance plans based on complementary methods of virus detection. Further studies will be needed to define the prevalence, rates of transmission, characterize local virus strains, and study their impact on these populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Absence of humoral response in flamingos and red-tailed hawks to experimental vaccination with a killed West Nile virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Nusbaum, Kenneth E; Wright, James C; Johnston, William B; Allison, Andrew B; Hilton, Clayton D; Staggs, Lydia A; Stallknecht, David E; Shelnutt, Joseph L

    2003-01-01

    Sixteen Chilean flamingos, Phoenicopterus chiles, and 10 red-tailed hawks, Buteo jamacensis, were vaccinated in the pectoral muscle with 0.2 ml of a commercially produced killed West Nile virus vaccine intended for use in horses. Half the birds of each species received a booster vaccination 3 weeks after the first injection. Three weeks after the booster vaccination, none of 13 birds surveyed had detectable antibody to West Nile virus.

  7. The impact of weather and storm water management ponds on the transmission of West Nile virus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yiyuan; Pons, Wendy; Fang, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is the most widely distributed arbovirus in the world and the spread is influenced by complex factors including weather conditions and urban environmental settings like storm water management ponds (SWMP). The purpose of this work was to develop an ordinary differential equation model to explore the impacts of SWMP, temperature and precipitation on WNV vector abundance and the transmission of WNV between mosquito and bird populations. The model was used to analyse how weather conditions and SWMP can influence the basic reproduction number. The results found that an excess of precipitation and fiercer intraspecific competition will reduce vector population and the peak value of infectious vectors and birds. This information can be used to identify measures that would be useful to control larval abundance in SWMP and the transmission of WNV. PMID:28878963

  8. Continued Evolution of West Nile Virus, Houston, Texas, USA, 2002–2012

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Brian R.; McMullen, Allison R.; Swetnam, Daniele M.; Salvato, Vence; Reyna, Martin; Guzman, Hilda; Bueno, Rudy; Dennett, James A.; Tesh, Robert B.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the genetics and evolution of West Nile virus (WNV) since initial detection in the United States in 1999 on the basis of continual surveillance studies in the Houston, Texas, USA, metropolitan area (Harris County) as a surrogate model for WNV evolution on a national scale. Full-length genomic sequencing of 14 novel 2010–2012 WNV isolates collected from resident birds in Harris County demonstrates emergence of 4 independent genetic groups distinct from historical strains circulating in the greater Houston region since 2002. Phylogenetic and geospatial analyses of the 2012 WNV isolates indicate closer genetic relationship with 2003–2006 Harris County isolates than more recent 2007–2011 isolates. Inferred monophyletic relationships of these groups with several 2006–2009 northeastern US isolates supports potential introduction of a novel WNV strain in Texas since 2010. These results emphasize the need to maintain WNV surveillance activities to better understand WNV transmission dynamics in the United States. PMID:23965756

  9. Low Seroprevalence of West Nile Virus in Blood Donors from Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Piron, Maria; Plasencia, Antoni; Fleta-Soriano, Eric; Martinez, Ana; Martinez, Javier P; Torner, Nuria; Sauleda, Silvia; Meyerhans, Andreas; Escalé, Josefina; Trilla, Antoni; Pumarola, Tomás; Martinez, Miguel Julian

    2015-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging arbovirus first recognized in Europe in the 1950s. Since then, outbreaks have been reported in several European countries. In 2010, the first WNV outbreak was recorded in Spain, affecting the southern part of the country. We conducted a seroprevalence study in the Catalonia region (northeastern Spain), an area considered at high risk of arbovirus transmission. A total of 800 serum samples from blood donors were collected and screened for antibodies against WNV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and confirmed by a microneutralization assay. More than 50 samples tested positive by ELISA, but only one sample contained neutralizing antibodies against WNV and was obtained from a donor native of Pakistan. The low seroprevalence detected may serve as reference baseline data for monitoring WNV activity in our region in future years.

  10. West Nile Virus Emergence and Persistence in Los Angeles, California, 2003–2008

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Jennifer L.; Kluh, Susanne; Madon, Minoo B.; Reisen, William K.

    2010-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) invaded Los Angeles in September 2003, and during the subsequent five-year period followed a pattern of amplification, subsidence, and resurgence. Enzootic transmission was tracked by abundance and infection incidence in Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus and Cx. tarsalis and by seroprevalence in peridomestic passerine birds, infection in dead birds, and seroconversions in sentinel chickens. Culex p. quinquefasciatus served as the primary vector of WNV, with gravid traps serving as the best sampling method and the most consistent indicator of viral activity. Spatial scan statistics applied to mosquito infection and positive dead bird data delimited three major clusters of WNV transmission, with introduction occurring in the Los Angeles Basin, and amplification and dispersal events carrying transmission to the San Fernando and Santa Clarita valleys. Los Angeles experienced major epidemics in 2004 and 2008, providing a unique opportunity to investigate specific patterns of enzootic amplification preceding epidemics. PMID:20682890

  11. Assessment of Arbovirus Surveillance 13 Years after Introduction of West Nile Virus, United States1

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Dhara; Nasci, Roger S.; Petersen, Lyle R.; Hughes, James M.; Bradley, Kristy; Etkind, Paul; Kan, Lilly; Engel, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Before 1999, the United States had no appropriated funding for arboviral surveillance, and many states conducted no such surveillance. After emergence of West Nile virus (WNV), federal funding was distributed to state and selected local health departments to build WNV surveillance systems. The Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists conducted assessments of surveillance capacity of resulting systems in 2004 and in 2012; the assessment in 2012 was conducted after a 61% decrease in federal funding. In 2004, nearly all states and assessed local health departments had well-developed animal, mosquito, and human surveillance systems to monitor WNV activity and anticipate outbreaks. In 2012, many health departments had decreased mosquito surveillance and laboratory testing capacity and had no systematic disease-based surveillance for other arboviruses. Arboviral surveillance in many states might no longer be sufficient to rapidly detect and provide information needed to fully respond to WNV outbreaks and other arboviral threats (e.g., dengue, chikungunya). PMID:26079471

  12. Assessment of Arbovirus Surveillance 13 Years after Introduction of West Nile Virus, United States.

    PubMed

    Hadler, James L; Patel, Dhara; Nasci, Roger S; Petersen, Lyle R; Hughes, James M; Bradley, Kristy; Etkind, Paul; Kan, Lilly; Engel, Jeffrey

    2015-07-01

    Before 1999, the United States had no appropriated funding for arboviral surveillance, and many states conducted no such surveillance. After emergence of West Nile virus (WNV), federal funding was distributed to state and selected local health departments to build WNV surveillance systems. The Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists conducted assessments of surveillance capacity of resulting systems in 2004 and in 2012; the assessment in 2012 was conducted after a 61% decrease in federal funding. In 2004, nearly all states and assessed local health departments had well-developed animal, mosquito, and human surveillance systems to monitor WNV activity and anticipate outbreaks. In 2012, many health departments had decreased mosquito surveillance and laboratory testing capacity and had no systematic disease-based surveillance for other arboviruses. Arboviral surveillance in many states might no longer be sufficient to rapidly detect and provide information needed to fully respond to WNV outbreaks and other arboviral threats (e.g., dengue, chikungunya).

  13. [Prevalence of West Nile Virus infection in animals from two state zoos Tabasco].

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Martínez, M; Puerto, Fernando I; Farfán-Ale, José Arturo; García-Rejón, Julián E; Rosado-Paredes, Elsy Del P; Méndez-Galván, Jorge; Figueroa-Ocampo, Raymunda; Takashima, Ikuo; Ramos, Celso

    2008-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of West Nile Virus (WNV) infection in animals, mosquitoes and employees from two zoos of Tabasco state, Mexico. WNV antibodies were detected by blocking ELISA in serum samples from animals. Viral RNA was detected by RT-PCR from mosquitoes and serum samples from employees at "Yum-Ká" zoo. Seroprevalence in birds was 25.65% (19/74) and 85% (6/7) in reptiles from "La Venta" zoo. Thirty-one percent of birds (50/160) and 34.48% mammals (16/29) at the "Yum-Ká" zoo, were seropositive. All human serum samples from Yum-ká zoo were negative by RT-PCR. A pool of mosquitoes (Culex quinquefasciatus) was positive for WNV. The presence of WNV antibodies in animals from both zoos and the detection of viral genome in mosquitoes demonstrate the presence of WNV in this region and indicates a potential risk of infection in animals and humans.

  14. DNA vaccination of American robins (Turdus migratorius) against West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, A Marm; Dupuis, Alan P; Chang, Gwong-Jen J; Kramer, Laura D

    2010-05-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has caused at least 1150 cases of encephalitis, 100 deaths, and an estimated 30,000-80,000 illnesses in 6 of the last 7 years. Recent evidence from several regions has implicated American robins (Turdus migratorius) as an important host for feeding by Culex mosquitoes, and, when integrated with their host competence for WNV, demonstrates that they are a key WNV amplification host. We evaluated the efficacy of a DNA plasmid vaccine at reducing the viremia and infectiousness of hatch-year American robins. We found that a single dose of vaccine injected intramuscularly resulted in more than a 400-fold (10(2.6)) decrease in average viremia. Although sample sizes were small, these results suggest that vaccinated robins exhibit viremias that are likely to be mostly noninfectious to biting Culex mosquitoes. More broadly, if an orally effective formulation of this vaccine could be developed, new control strategies based on wildlife vaccination may be possible.

  15. Regional variation of climatic influences on West Nile virus outbreaks in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wimberly, Michael C; Lamsal, Aashis; Giacomo, Paolla; Chuang, Ting-Wu

    2014-10-01

    The national resurgence of human West Nile virus (WNV) disease in 2012 raised questions about the factors responsible for WNV outbreaks. Interannual climatic variations may influence WNV amplification and transmission to humans through multiple pathways, including mosquito breeding habitats, gonotrophic cycles, extrinsic incubation, avian communities, and human behavior. We examined the influences of temperature and precipitation anomalies on interannual variation in human WNV cases in three regions of the United States. There were consistent positive influences of winter temperatures, weaker and more variable positive effects of spring and summer temperatures, and highly variable precipitation effects that ranged from positive to negative. The overwintering period may be a particularly important climatic constraint on the dynamics of WNV in cold-temperate regions of North America. Geographic differences in the seasonal timing and relative importance of climatic drivers of WNV risk likely reflect underlying variability in key ecological and social characteristics.

  16. Climatic and landscape correlates for potential West Nile virus mosquito vectors in the Seattle region.

    PubMed

    Pecoraro, Heidi L; Day, Heather L; Reineke, Robert; Stevens, Nathan; Withey, John C; Marzluff, John M; Meschke, J Scott

    2007-06-01

    Climatic and landscape patterns have been associated with both relative mosquito abundance and transmission of mosquito-borne illnesses in many parts of the world, especially warm and tropical climes. To determine if temperature, precipitation, or degree of urbanization were similarly important in the number of potential mosquito vectors for West Nile virus in the moderately temperate climate of western Washington, mosquitoes were collected using CDC carbon-dioxide/light traps set throughout the Seattle region during the summers of 2003 and 2004. The type and abundance of recovered species were compared to ecological correlates. Temperature and mosquito abundance were positively correlated, while precipitation was not strongly correlated with numbers of mosquitoes. Potential WNV mosquito vectors were most abundant in urban and suburban sites, including sites near communal roosts of American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos). Exurban sites had the greatest vector species diversity, and Culex pipiens was the most abundant species throughout the region.

  17. Regional Variation of Climatic Influences on West Nile Virus Outbreaks in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wimberly, Michael C.; Lamsal, Aashis; Giacomo, Paolla; Chuang, Ting-Wu

    2014-01-01

    The national resurgence of human West Nile virus (WNV) disease in 2012 raised questions about the factors responsible for WNV outbreaks. Interannual climatic variations may influence WNV amplification and transmission to humans through multiple pathways, including mosquito breeding habitats, gonotrophic cycles, extrinsic incubation, avian communities, and human behavior. We examined the influences of temperature and precipitation anomalies on interannual variation in human WNV cases in three regions of the United States. There were consistent positive influences of winter temperatures, weaker and more variable positive effects of spring and summer temperatures, and highly variable precipitation effects that ranged from positive to negative. The overwintering period may be a particularly important climatic constraint on the dynamics of WNV in cold-temperate regions of North America. Geographic differences in the seasonal timing and relative importance of climatic drivers of WNV risk likely reflect underlying variability in key ecological and social characteristics. PMID:25092814

  18. Demographic and Clinical Factors Associated with Persistent Symptoms after West Nile Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Robert L.; Xu, Xiaohui; Yablonsky, Eric J.; Sakata, Nikole; Tripp, Jennifer H.; Hess, Rachel; Piazza, Paolo; Rinaldo, Charles R.

    2010-01-01

    Prognosis varies among persons with West Nile virus (WNV) infection, but the most important factors associated with persistent symptoms are not clear. In this cross-sectional study, 265 persons with symptomatic WNV infection during 2006–2008 completed a survey a mean of 7.7 months after diagnosis. We determined the association of demographic and clinical characteristics to the most common symptoms. Of 214 persons infected ≥ 6 months, 53% reported one or more persistent symptoms, including fatigue, muscle aches, decreased activity, difficulty with memory, and difficulty concentrating. Persons with neuroinvasive disease, hypertension, or diabetes were significantly more likely to report persistent symptoms, whereas age, sex, and time since infection were not associated with persistent symptoms. In conclusion, persistent symptoms persisted in most persons for more than six months after symptomatic WNV infection. Improved strategies for prevention and treatment are needed. PMID:21036852

  19. Use of the vector index and geographic information system to prospectively inform West Nile virus interventions.

    PubMed

    Jones, Roderick C; Weaver, Kingsley N; Smith, Shamika; Blanco, Claudia; Flores, Cristina; Gibbs, Kevin; Markowski, Daniel; Mutebi, John-Paul

    2011-09-01

    We sought to estimate West Nile virus (WNV) activity in mosquito populations weekly at the census tract level in Chicago, IL, and to provide this information graphically. Each week we calculated a vector index (VI) for each mosquito trap then generated tract estimates using geographic information systems. During June 29-September 13, 2008, a median of 527 (60%) of 874 possible tracts per week had a VI value. Overall, 94% of the weekly VI tract estimates were 0; among those with a VI estimate greater than 0, the median was 0.33 (range 0.003-3.5). Officials deemed risk levels and weather conditions appropriate for adulticide treatments on 3 occasions, resulting in the treatment of approximately 252 linear kilometers of residential streets and alleys. Our analysis successfully converted complex, raw surveillance data into a format that highlighted areas of elevated WNV activity and facilitated the determination of appropriate response procedures.

  20. Landscape-Level Spatial Patterns of West Nile Virus Risk in the Northern Great Plains

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Ting-Wu; Hockett, Christine W.; Kightlinger, Lon; Wimberly, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the landscape-level determinants of West Nile virus (WNV) can aid in mapping high-risk areas and enhance disease control and prevention efforts. This study analyzed the spatial patterns of human WNV cases in three areas in South Dakota during 2003–2007 and investigated the influences of land cover, hydrology, soils, irrigation, and elevation by using case–control models. Land cover, hydrology, soils, and elevation all influenced WNV risk, although the main drivers were different in each study area. Risk for WNV was generally higher in areas with rural land cover than in developed areas, and higher close to wetlands or soils with a high ponding frequency. In western South Dakota, WNV risk also decreased with increasing elevation and was higher in forested areas. Our results showed that the spatial patterns of human WNV risk were associated with landscape-level features that likely reflect variability in mosquito ecology, avian host communities, and human activity. PMID:22492161

  1. Importance of bird-to-bird transmission for the establishment of West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Hartemink, N A; Davis, S A; Reiter, P; Hubálek, Z; Heesterbeek, J A P

    2007-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is principally considered to be maintained in a mosquito-bird transmission cycle. Under experimental conditions, several other transmission routes have been observed, but the significance of these additional routes in nature is unknown. Here, we derive an expression for the basic reproduction number (R0) for WNV including all putative routes of transmission between birds and mosquitoes to gauge the relative importance of these routes for the establishment of WNV. Parameters were estimated from published experimental results. Sensitivity analysis reveals that R0 is sensitive to transmission between birds via close contact, but not to mosquito-to-mosquito transmission. In seasons or in areas where the mosquito-to-bird ratio is low, bird-to-bird transmission may be crucial in determining whether WNV can establish or not. We explain the use of R0 as a flexible tool to measure the risk of establishment of vector-borne diseases.

  2. West Nile virus infection in Veneto region, Italy, 2008-2009.

    PubMed

    Barzon, L; Squarzon, L; Cattai, M; Franchin, E; Pagni, S; Cusinato, R; Palu, G

    2009-08-06

    We report here an update on human cases of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in Veneto region, northeastern Italy. In addition to two cases of WNV neuroinvasive disease notified through a surveillance programme started in September 2008, further four cases were retrospectively identified (in May 2009) by investigating patients with aseptic meningoencephalitis of unknown aetiology occurring in Veneto region in June-September 2008. All six patients had symptom onset in August-September 2008 and were resident in a wetland area close to the Po river delta in Rovigo province. Further five cases of asymptomatic WNV infection, including four residents of the same area in Rovigo, were identified in a seroprevalence study in farm workers from Veneto region. To date, no human cases have been notified in 2009.

  3. Prevalence of West Nile virus neutralizing antibodies in colonial aquatic birds in southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Figuerola, Jordi; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Angel; Rojo, Gema; Gómez-Tejedor, Concepción; Soriguer, Ramón

    2007-06-01

    The rapid expansion of West Nile virus (WNV) throughout the New World has raised interest in understanding the population dynamics and patterns of dispersal of emerging infectious diseases by wildlife. WNV affects humans, although its main reservoirs are various species of birds. Here we analyse the prevalence of WNV-neutralizing antibodies in nearly full-grown chicks belonging to seven different species of colonial waterbirds at three localities in southern Spain. Chicks with neutralizing antibodies against WNV were detected in three species and at all three localities. However, the low antibody titres suggest the presence of antibodies is probably due to maternal transfer of antibody, presumably from exposure of the adult birds to WNV or a similar flavivirus at some stage of their lives. The analyses of the movements of tagged birds confirmed that all species with antibody visit regions that have had reports of WNV infection over the past decade.

  4. Detection of Persistent West Nile Virus RNA in Experimentally and Naturally Infected Avian Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Sarah S.; Langevin, Stanley A.; Brault, Aaron C.; Woods, Leslie; Carroll, Brian D.; Reisen, William K.

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether West Nile virus (WNV) persistent infection in avian hosts may potentially serve as an overwintering mechanism, House Sparrows and House Finches, experimentally and naturally infected with several strains of WNV, and two naturally infected Western Scrub-Jays were held in mosquito-proof outdoor aviaries from 2007–March 2008. Overall, 94% (n = 36) of House Sparrows, 100% (n = 14) of House Finches and 2 Western Scrub-Jays remained WNV antibody positive. When combined by species, 37% of the House Sparrows, 50% of the House Finches, and 2 Western Scrub-Jays were WNV RNA positive at necropsy, up to 36 weeks post-infection. Infectious WNV was not detected. Our study supports the hypothesis that some avian hosts support the long-term persistence of WNV RNA, but it remains unresolved whether these infections relapse to restart an avian-arthropod transmission cycle and thereby serve as an overwintering mechanism for WNV. PMID:22826479

  5. Genetic variants associated with susceptibility of Ashkenazi Jews to West Nile virus infection.

    PubMed

    Danial-Farran, N; Eghbaria, S; Schwartz, N; Kra-Oz, Z; Bisharat, N

    2015-03-01

    The epidemiology of West Nile virus (WNV) in Israel is different from other neighbouring countries in the Middle East where disease burden has been minimal. We analysed a cohort of Ashkenazi Jewish patients with symptomatic WNV infection (n = 39), and WNV-negative controls (n = 61), for nine genetic variants that has been suggested to be associated with susceptibility to WNV. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms were significantly more frequent in WNV-infected than non-infected individuals, rs7280422 (MX1) [odds ratio (OR) 4·05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2·04-8·03, P < 0·001] and rs3213545 (OASL) (OR 1·85, 95% CI 1·03-3·3, P = 0·03). Genetic polymorphism may play a significant role in susceptibility to WNV infection in Ashkenazi Jews.

  6. Association between high expression macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) alleles and West Nile virus encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Das, Rituparna; Loughran, Kerry; Murchison, Charles; Qian, Feng; Leng, Lin; Song, Yan; Montgomery, Ruth R; Loeb, Mark; Bucala, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Infection with mosquito-borne West Nile virus (WNV) is usually asymptomatic but can lead to severe WNV encephalitis. The innate cytokine, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), is elevated in patients with WNV encephalitis and promotes viral neuroinvasion and mortality in animal models. In a case-control study, we examined functional polymorphisms in the MIF locus in a cohort of 454 North American patients with neuroinvasive WNV disease and found patients homozygous for high-expression MIF alleles to be >20-fold (p=0.008) more likely to have WNV encephalitis. These data indicate that MIF is an important determinant of severity of WNV neuropathogenesis and may be a therapeutic target. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. West Nile Virus Infection in Horses: Detection by Immunohistochemistry, In Situ Hybridization, and ELISA.

    PubMed

    Toplu, N; Oğuzoğlu, T Ç; Ural, K; Albayrak, H; Ozan, E; Ertürk, A; Epikmen, E T

    2015-11-01

    This study describes the clinicopathologic findings in naturally occurring West Nile virus (WNV) infection in horses. WNV was diagnosed in a foal by immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization methods, and the presence of WNV antibodies was detected in 5 other horses with clinical signs suggestive of WNV infection. At necropsy of the foal, lymph nodes were edematous and enlarged, and the intestines showed diffuse congestion and focal hemorrhages. The most significant histologic lesions in this case were nonsuppurative meningoencephalomyelitis, particularly in the brainstem and spinal cord. Identification of viral RNA by in situ hybridization and viral antigen by immunohistochemistry was concentrated primarily in nerve fibers, glial cells, and their processes in brainstem and spinal cord and, to a lesser extent, within the cerebral hemispheres and cerebellum. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. In Vitro and In Vivo Blood-Brain Barrier Models to Study West Nile Virus Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mukesh; Nerurkar, Vivek R

    2016-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB), a specialized interface between the peripheral blood circulation and the central nervous system, specifically regulates molecular and cellular flux between the two. It plays a critical role in the maintenance of brain hemostasis. The BBB restricts the entry of pathogens into the brain, and thus its permeability is a critical factor that determines their central effects. Once the permeability of BBB is compromised, it has serious implications in the etiology of many brain pathologies including West Nile virus (WNV) disease. In this chapter, we describe protocols for preparation, maintenance, infection and permeability measurement of monolayer and bilayer in vitro BBB models to study WNV pathogenesis. We also describe Evans blue dye assay, a well-established method to test vascular permeability in vivo after WNV infection.

  9. Prevalence and effects of West Nile virus on wild American kestrel (Falco sparverius) populations in Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusek, Robert J.; Iko, William M.; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Paul, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    To assess the potential impacts of West Nile virus (WNV) on a wild population of free-ranging raptors, we investigated the prevalence and effects of WNV on American Kestrels (Falco sparverius) breeding along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in northern Colorado. We monitored kestrel nesting activity at 131 nest boxes from March to August 2004. Of 81 nest attempts, we obtained samples from 111 adults and 250 young. We did not detect WNV in sera; however, 97.3% (108/111) of adults tested positive for WNV neutralizing antibodies, which possibly represented passive transfer of maternal antibodies. Clutch size, hatching, and fledging success in our study did not differ from that previously reported for this species, suggesting that previous WNV exposure in kestrels did not have an effect on reproductive parameters measured in the breeding populations we studied in 2004.

  10. Serologic evidence of West Nile Virus infection in birds, Tamaulipas State, México.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso; Contreras-Cordero, Juan F; Blitvich, Bradley J; González-Rojas, José I; Cavazos-Alvarez, Amanda; Marlenee, Nicole L; Elizondo-Quiroga, Armando; Loroño-Pino, María A; Gubler, Duane J; Cropp, Bruce C; Calisher, Charles H; Beaty, Barry J

    2003-01-01

    Following the introduction of West Nile virus (WNV) into North America in 1999, surveillance for WNV in migratory and resident birds was established in Tamaulipas State, northern México in December 2001. Overall, 796 birds representing 70 species and 10 orders were captured and assayed for antibodies to WNV. Nine birds had flavivirus-specific antibodies by epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; four were confirmed to have antibody to WNV by plaque reduction neutralization test. The WNV-infected birds were a house wren, mourning dove, verdin and Bewick's wren. The house wren is a migratory species; the other WNV-infected birds are presumably residents. The WNV-infected birds were all captured in March 2003. These data provide the first indirect evidence of WNV transmission among birds in northern México.

  11. Development and application of West Nile virus subgenomic replicon RNA expressing secreted alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Moritoh, Kanako; Maeda, Akihiko; Nishino, Tomohiro; Sasaki, Nobuya; Agui, Takashi

    2011-05-01

    We have developed a West Nile virus (WNV) subgenomic replicon harboring the secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) reporter gene instead of viral structural genes (designated repWNV/SEAP). The repWNV/SEAP allowed easy evaluation of viral replication efficiency by direct measurement of SEAP secretion in the cell culture medium in physical containment level 2 facilities. Furthermore, we validated the availability of this system using a known anti-flavivirus gene, mouse oligoadenylate synthetase 1b (Oas1b). The Oas1b-transfected cells were more resistant to repWNV/SEAP replication than the original cells. Thus, this system not only affords a useful tool for identification/evaluation of anti-flavivirus genes/drugs in terms of safety, ease of use and reliability, but should be able to reduce or replace the bioassay using laboratory animals.

  12. Severe neuroinvasive West Nile virus infection in a child with undiagnosed Addison's disease

    PubMed Central

    Messacar, Kevin; Cree-Green, Melanie; Lovell, Mark; Anderson, Marsha S.; Dominguez, Samuel R.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a case of West Nile virus (WNV) meningoencephalitis in a child who presented with fever, headache, seizures, and altered mental status, as well as hyponatremia and bronzing of the skin. Findings that led to the diagnosis of WNV included plasma-cell pleocytosis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and linear chorioretinitis on ophthalmologic exam. The diagnosis was confirmed by a positive serum and CSF WNV IgM. The acute WNV infection triggered an adrenal crisis which uncovered a new diagnosis of underlying Addison's disease. This is the first case report of severe neuroinvasive WNV disease in a pediatric patient with primary adrenal insufficiency. Neuroinvasive WNV disease is uncommon in children, but may have a more severe presentation in those with certain underlying medical conditions. PMID:25133095

  13. Mosquito Surveillance for 15 Years Reveals High Genetic Diversity Among West Nile Viruses in Israel.

    PubMed

    Lustig, Yaniv; Hindiyeh, Musa; Orshan, Laor; Weiss, Leah; Koren, Ravit; Katz-Likvornik, Shiri; Zadka, Hila; Glatman-Freedman, Aharona; Mendelson, Ella; Shulman, Lester M

    2016-04-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is endemic in Israel and has been the cause of several outbreaks in recent years. In 2000, a countrywide mosquito survey was established to monitor WNV activity and characterize viral genotypes in Israel. We analyzed data from 7135 pools containing 277 186 mosquitoes collected over the past 15 years and, here, report partial sequences of WNV genomes obtained from 102 of the 336 positive mosquito pools. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that cluster 4 and the Mediterranean and Eastern European subtypes of cluster 2 within WNV lineage 1 circulated in Israel, as did WNV lineage 2, highlighting a high genetic diversity of WNV genotypes in our region. As a major crossroads for bird migration between Africa and Eurasia and with a long history of human infection, Israel serves as a resource hub for WNV in Africa and Eurasia and provides valuable information on WNV circulation in these regions.

  14. Effects of weather and landscape on the equine West Nile virus infection risk in Mississippi, USA.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guiming

    2015-11-04

    The West Nile virus (WNv) continues to be a public health concern in North America. Dry weather appears to increase human WNv infection risks, but it is uncertain whether dry weather conditions exert similar effects on the corresponding equine WNv infection. This study assessed the effects of precipitation of the previous year and land cover diversity on the equine WNv risk of Mississippi, USA, at the county level in the year 2002 using Bayesian hierarchical models. The risk estimated for 2002 was found to be inversely related to annual precipitation of the preceding year. Equine WNv risks were lower with greater land cover diversity probably due to the diluting effects of biodiversity. Correlation between the equine and human WNv risks was positive but relatively low. Dry weather conditions of the previous year might reduce mosquito competitors and predators and subsequently increase mosquito abundances and equine WNv risks in agricultural areas with low biodiversity.

  15. Factors associated with the risk of West Nile Virus among crows in New York State

    PubMed Central

    DeCarlo, C. H.; Clark, A. B.; McGowan, K. J.; Ziegler, P. E.; Glaser, A. L.; Szonyi, B.; Mohammed, H. O.

    2010-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is transmitted between avian hosts in enzootic cycles by a mosquito vector. The virus has significant disease effects on humans and equines when it bridges into an epizootic cycle. Since the initial epidemic of WNV in 1999, perennial outbreaks in New York State suggest the local establishment of natural foci with perpetuation of the virus among susceptible hosts rather than reintroduction of the virus. The factors that play a role in the perpetuation of the virus are not fully understood. American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) are known to be highly susceptible to infection with the virus. We investigate the factors that put crows at risk of infection in Tompkins County, New York during the period of 2000 through 2008 in a case-control study. Cases were crow carcasses that were found dead and tested positive for WNV using real time reverse transcription (RT-PCR) or VecTestR. Data on putative risk factors were collected and assessed for significance of association with the presence of WNV using logistic regression analysis to evaluate the significance of each factor while simultaneously controlling for the effect of others. The risk of a crow carcass testing WNV positive varied with age, season of the year, and ecological area where the carcass was found. Crows that were more than one year old were 4 times more likely to be WNV positive in comparison to birds that were less than one year of age. It was three times more likely to find WNV positive carcasses in residential areas in comparison to rural areas. The risk of testing WNV positive did not vary by sex of the crow carcasses. PMID:20707862

  16. Pathogenesis of West Nile virus lineage 1 and 2 in experimentally infected large falcons.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Ute; Angenvoort, Joke; Fischer, Dominik; Fast, Christine; Eiden, Martin; Rodriguez, Ariel V; Revilla-Fernández, Sandra; Nowotny, Norbert; de la Fuente, Jorge García; Lierz, Michael; Groschup, Martin H

    2013-01-25

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a zoonotic flavivirus that is transmitted by blood-suckling mosquitoes with birds serving as the primary vertebrate reservoir hosts (enzootic cycle). Some bird species like ravens, raptors and jays are highly susceptible and develop deadly encephalitis while others are infected subclinically only. Birds of prey are highly susceptible and show substantial mortality rates following infection. To investigate the WNV pathogenesis in falcons we inoculated twelve large falcons, 6 birds per group, subcutaneously with viruses belonging to two different lineages (lineage 1 strain NY 99 and lineage 2 strain Austria). Three different infection doses were utilized: low (approx. 500 TCID50), intermediate (approx. 4 log10 TCID50) and high (approx. 6 log10 TCID50). Clinical signs were monitored during the course of the experiments lasting 14 and 21 days. All falcons developed viremia for two weeks and shed virus for almost the same period of time. Using quantitative real-time RT-PCR WNV was detected in blood, in cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs and following euthanasia and necropsy of the animals in a variety of neuronal and extraneuronal organs. Antibodies to WNV were first time detected by ELISA and neutralization assay after 6 days post infection (dpi). Pathological findings consistently included splenomegaly, non-suppurative myocarditis, meningoencephalitis and vasculitis. By immunohistochemistry WNV-antigens were demonstrated intralesionally. These results impressively illustrate the devastating and possibly deadly effects of WNV infection in falcons, independent of the genetic lineage and dose of the challenge virus used. Due to the relatively high virus load and long duration of viremia falcons may also be considered competent WNV amplifying hosts, and thus may play a role in the transmission cycle of this zoonotic virus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Theoretical Potential of Passerine Filariasis to Enhance the Enzootic Transmission of West Nile Virus

    PubMed Central

    VAUGHAN, JEFFERSON A.; MEHUS, JOSEPH O.; BREWER, CHRISTINA M.; KVASAGER, DANIELLE K.; BAUER, SARINA; VAUGHAN, JESSICA L.; HASSAN, HASSAN K.; UNNASCH, THOMAS R.; BELL, JEFFREY A.

    2013-01-01

    Vertebrate reservoirs of arboviruses are often infected with microfilariae (MF). Laboratory studies have shown that MF can enhance the infectivity of arboviruses to mosquitoes. Soon after being ingested, MF penetrate the mosquito midgut. If the host blood also contains virus (i.e., vertebrate is dually infected), penetrating MF may introduce virus into the hemocoel. This can transform otherwise virus-incompetent mosquito species into virus-competent species and simultaneously accelerate viral development, allowing mosquitoes to transmit virus sooner than normal. This phenomenon is termed microfilarial enhancement of arboviral transmission. The prevalence of MF is very high in many passerine populations in North America. Therefore, we investigated if microfilarial enhancement could have facilitated the establishment and rapid spread of West Nile virus (WNV) across the mid-western United States. Our investigations revealed that mosquitoes, WNV, and passerine MF do interact in nature because; 1) 17% of 54 common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula L.), 8% of 26 American robins (Turdus migratorius L.), and 33% of three eastern kingbirds (Tyrannus tyrannus L.) were concurrently microfilaremic and seropositive to WNV; 2) feeding activities of mosquitoes overlapped temporally with the appearance of MF in the blood of common grackles; 3) mosquitoes fed on common grackles and American robins in nature; and 4) mosquito ingestion of two taxonomically distant species of passerine MF (i.e., Chandlerella quiscali and Eufilaria spp.) resulted in penetration of mosquito midguts. To estimate the theoretical effect that MF enhancement could have on WNV transmission in areas of high MF prevalence, vectorial capacity values were calculated for Culex mosquitoes feeding on common grackles, whereby MF enhancement was either invoked or ignored. For Cx. pipiens, vectorial capacity increased over three-fold when potential effects of MF were included in the calculations. For Cx. tarsalis, the

  18. Factors associated with the risk of West Nile virus among crows in New York State.

    PubMed

    DeCarlo, C H; Clark, A B; McGowan, K J; Ziegler, P E; Glaser, A L; Szonyi, B; Mohammed, H O

    2011-06-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is transmitted between avian hosts in enzootic cycles by a mosquito vector. The virus has significant disease effects on humans and equines when it bridges into an epizootic cycle. As the initial epidemic of WNV in 1999, perennial outbreaks in New York State suggest the local establishment of natural foci with perpetuation of the virus among susceptible hosts rather than reintroduction of the virus. The factors that play a role in the perpetuation of the virus are not fully understood. American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) are known to be highly susceptible to infection with the virus. We investigate the factors that put crows at risk of infection in Tompkins County, New York during the period of 2000-2008 in a case-control study. Cases were crow carcasses that were found dead and tested positive for WNV using real time reverse transcription or VecTest. Data on putative risk factors were collected and assessed for significance of association with the presence of WNV using logistic regression analysis to evaluate the significance of each factor while simultaneously controlling for the effect of others. The risk of a crow carcass testing WNV positive varied with age, season of the year and ecological area where the carcass was found. Crows that were more than 1-year-old were four times more likely to be WNV positive in comparison to birds that were less than 1 year of age. It was three times more likely to find WNV positive carcasses in residential areas in comparison to rural areas. The risk of testing WNV positive did not vary by sex of the crow carcasses. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Parasitic Cowbirds have increased immunity to West Nile and other mosquitoborne encephalitis viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reisen, W.K.; Hahn, D.C.

    2006-01-01

    The rapid geographic spread of West Nile Virus [WNV, Flaviviridae, Flavivirus] across the United States has stimulated interest in comparative host infection studies of avian species to delineate competent reservoir hosts critical for viral amplification. Striking taxonomic differences in avian susceptibility have been noted, offering the opportunity to strategically select species on the basis of life history traits to examine aspects of pathogen virulence or host immunity. We hypothesized that avian brood parasites would show increased resistance to pathogens compared to related taxa, because they have been exposed in their evolutionary history to a wide array of infectious organisms from their different parenting species. The Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) is a generalist brood parasite that parasitizes 200+ North American species. Elevated exposure to other species? parasites may have created an unusual degree of pathogen resistance. We compared the relative susceptibility of adult cowbirds to three closely-related non-parasitic species, Red-winged blackbirds, Tricolored blackbirds and Brewer?s blackbirds, to invading NY99 strain of WNV that is highly virulent for many passeriform birds. Previously we had experimentally infected these species with two North American mosquitoborne encephalitis viruses, western equine encephalomyelitis virus [WEEV, Togaviridae, Alphavirus] and St. Louis encephalitis virus [SLEV, Flaviviridae, Flavivirus]. Our results showed that cowbirds exhibited significantly lower viremia responses against all three viruses as well as after co-infection with both WEEV and WNV than did the three related, non-parasitic species. These data supported our hypothesis and indicated that cowbirds were more resistant to infection to both native and introduced viruses.

  20. Clinical evaluation and outcomes of naturally acquired West Nile virus infection in raptors.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Nicole M; Kratz, Gail E; Bates, Rebecca; Scherpelz, Judy A; Bowen, Richard A; Komar, Nicholas

    2009-03-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) infection and associated disease and mortality have been documented in numerous North American raptor species. Information regarding clinical presentations and long-term outcomes of WNV-infected raptors is important in the clinic for the diagnosis, treatment, and assessment of prognosis, as well as for understanding potential population level effects on raptor species. Raptors of 22 species admitted to a rehabilitation clinic were tested, from 2002 to 2005, for previous and acute WNV infection, while comparing clinical syndromes, trauma, and rehabilitation outcomes. Forty-two percent of admitted raptors (132/314) had been infected with WNV, and these presented with a WNV-attributed clinical disease rate of 67.4% (89/132). West Nile virus-infected raptors were less likely to be released (79/132 [59.8%]) than negative raptors (138/182 [75.8%]) and more likely to die or be euthanized (47/132 [35.6%] for WNV-infected vs. 32/182 [17.6%] for WNV-negative). However, WNV-infected raptors with neurologic disease were no less likely to be released (29/53 [54.7%]) than those without neurologic disease (50/79 [63.3%]). Clinical WNV-associated syndromes varied among species. Great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) were more likely to have neurologic signs, whereas American kestrels (Falco sparverius) and Swainson's hawks (Buteo swainsonii) were less likely to have neurologic signs. These results suggest that free-ranging raptors are frequently infected with WNV and that clinical syndromes differ among species. WNV has potentially devastating effects on raptors; however, rehabilitation of WNV-infected raptors can lead to positive outcomes, even for those having had severe neurologic disease.