Science.gov

Sample records for ning rootsi abi

  1. Chemical constituents of Abies delavayi.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xian-Wen; Li, Su-Mei; Li, Yong-Li; Feng, Lin; Shen, Yun-Heng; Lin, Shen; Tian, Jun-Mian; Zeng, Hua-Wu; Wang, Ning; Steinmetz, Andre; Liu, Yonghong; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2014-09-01

    Systematic phytochemical investigations on Abies delavayi afforded 110 compounds, including 49 terpenoids, 13 lignans, 20 flavonoids, three coumarins, and 25 other chemical constituents. By detailed analysis of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic and high-resolution mass spectrometric data, 10 previously unreported compounds were identified: they comprised three sesquiterpenoids, two diterpenoids, one triterpenoid, one monoterpenoid, one flavonoid, and two phenols. These 10 compounds and some previously known ones were subjected to two cytotoxic bioassays against three human tumor cell lines and NO production inhibition on RAW264.7 macrophages, respectively. (25R)-24,25-Dihydroabieslactone had the strongest cytotoxic activity against Colo-205 cells with an IC50 value of 19.0±3.7μg/mL. (+)-T-cadinol, 8,11,13-abietatrien-15-ol-18-yl acetate, 18-acetoxy-13-epi-manool, imperatorin, bergapten, and 5,7-O-dimethyl poriol exhibited weak inhibitory activity against LPS-induced NO production in RAW264.7 macrophages with IC50 values of approximately 50μg/mL.

  2. Educators Eye Ning Transition to a Pay Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michelle R.

    2010-01-01

    The author reports on a move by the online social-networking site Ning to start charging for its services which has raised worries that new fees could stifle educators' technological collaboration and creativity and touch off similar moves by other companies that provide comparable services heavily used by educators. Ning, which provides a…

  3. Interviewing Children with Acquired Brain Injury (ABI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boylan, Anne-Marie; Linden, Mark; Alderdice, Fiona

    2009-01-01

    Research into the lives of children with acquired brain injury (ABI) often neglects to incorporate children as participants, preferring to obtain the opinions of the adult carer (e.g. McKinlay et al., 2002). There has been a concerted attempt to move away from this position by those working in children's research with current etiquette…

  4. ABA is required for Leptosphaeria maculans resistance via ABI1- and ABI4-dependent signaling.

    PubMed

    Kaliff, Maria; Staal, Jens; Myrenås, Mattias; Dixelius, Christina

    2007-04-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a defense hormone with influence on callose-dependent and -independent resistance against Leptosphaeria maculans acting in the RLMcol pathway. ABA-deficient and -insensitive mutants in Ler-0 background (abal-3 and abil-1) displayed susceptibility to L. maculans, along with a significantly decreased level of callose depositions, whereas abi2-1 and abi3-1 remained resistant, together with the abi5-1 mutant of Ws-0 background. Suppressor mutants of abil-1 confirmed that the L. maculans-susceptible response was due to the dominant negative nature of the abil-1 mutant. Highly induced camalexin levels made ABA mutants in Col-0 background (aba2-1, aba3-1, and abi4-1) appear resistant, but displayed enhanced susceptibility as double mutants with pad3-1, impaired in camalexin biosynthesis. beta-Aminobutyric acid (BABA) pretreatment of Ler-0 contributed to an elevated level of endogenous ABA after L. maculans inoculation. Comparisons between (RLM1co1)pad3 and rlmlLerpad3 showed that ABA and BABA enhancement of callose deposition requires induction from RLM1col. ABII, but not ABI2, was found to be involved in a feedback mechanism that modulates RLM1co, expression. Genetic analysis showed further that this feedback occurs upstream of ABI4 and that components downstream of ABI4 modulate ABIJ activity. ABA and BABA treatments of the L. maculans-susceptible callose synthase mutant pmr4 showed that ABA also induces a callose-independent resistance. Similar treatments enhanced callose depositions and induced resistance to L. maculans in oilseed rape, and BABA-induced resistance was found to be independent of salicylic acid.

  5. Beauty and physics: 13 important contributions of Chen Ning Yang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yu

    2014-06-01

    In 2012, Chen Ning Yang received a 90th birthday gift in the form of a black cube inscribed with his 13 most important contributions, which cover four major areas of physics: statistical mechanics, condensed matter physics, particle physics and field theory. We briefly describe these 13 contributions and make general comments about Yang's distinctive style as a trailblazing leader in research.

  6. Social Networking in Physical Education: Undergraduate Students' Views on Ning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sezen Balcikanli, Gulfem

    2012-01-01

    It was the aim of this study to investigate physical education undergraduate students' views on the use of social networking, one of the most typical representations of Web 2.0 technologies. In order to do so, the researcher, who was the instructor of the class, entitled "Fair Play Education in Sport", introduced Ning and its educational aspects…

  7. Somatic Embryogenesis of Abies cephalonica Loud.

    PubMed

    Krajňáková, Jana; Häggman, Hely

    2016-01-01

    Greek fir (Abies cephalonica Loudon) belongs to the Mediterranean fir species and is widely distributed in the mountains of Central and Southern Greece. Considering a climatic scenario, infestation by pathogens or insects and fire episodes, it has been proposed that Mediterranean firs could be in danger in some parts of their present range but, on the other hand, could also replace other species in more northern zones with temperate humid climates (e.g., silver fir, Abies alba Mill.). As fir species are generally highly productive and therefore important for commercial forestry, they have traditionally been involved in conventional tree improvement programs. A lot of effort has been put into the development of vegetative propagation methods for firs, in order to rapidly gain the benefits of traditional breeding to be utilized in reforestation. The present paper provides up to date information on protocols for somatic embryogenesis (i.e., the most promising in vitro method for vegetative propagation) of Greek fir. Moreover, the protocols for cryopreservation and long-term storage of embryogenic material are described as well. PMID:26619877

  8. A Guide to Searching ONTAP ABI/INFORM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Courier, Inc., Louisville, KY.

    This manual is designed to assist searchers in developing cost-effective techniques for searching ABI/INFORM, a database which provides worldwide coverage of management trends, tactics, and techniques, citing articles from more than 550 business and management journals in English and other languages. ONTAP ABI/INFORM, a subset of the database, is…

  9. Abi activates WASP to promote sensory organ development.

    PubMed

    Bogdan, Sven; Stephan, Raiko; Löbke, Christian; Mertens, Alexandra; Klämbt, Christian

    2005-10-01

    Actin polymerization is a key process for many cellular events during development. To a large extent, the formation of filamentous actin is controlled by the WASP and WAVE proteins that activate the Arp2/3 complex in different developmental processes. WAVE function is regulated through a protein complex containing Sra1, Kette and Abi. Using biochemical, cell biological and genetic tools, we show here that the Abi protein also has a central role in activating WASP-mediated processes. Abi binds WASP through its carboxy-terminal domain and acts as a potent stimulator of WASP-dependent F-actin formation. To elucidate the biological function of abi in Drosophila melanogaster, we studied bristle development, a process known to require wasp function. Reduction of abi function leads to a loss of bristles similar to that observed in wasp mutants. Activation of Abi results in the formation of ectopic bristles, a phenotype that is suppressed by a reduction of wasp activity but is not affected by the reduction of wave function. Thus, in vivo Abi may set the balance between WASP and WAVE in different actin-based developmental processes.

  10. Arabidopsis RAV1 transcription factor, phosphorylated by SnRK2 kinases, regulates the expression of ABI3, ABI4, and ABI5 during seed germination and early seedling development.

    PubMed

    Feng, Cui-Zhu; Chen, Yun; Wang, Cun; Kong, You-Han; Wu, Wei-Hua; Chen, Yi-Fang

    2014-11-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) modulates a number of processes during plant growth and development. In this study, the molecular mechanism of Arabidopsis RAV (Related to ABI3/VP1) transcription factor RAV1 involving ABA signaling was investigated. RAV1-underexpressing lines were more sensitive to ABA than wild-type plants during seed germination and early seedling development, whereas RAV1-overexpressing lines showed strong ABA-insensitive phenotypes. Overexpression of RAV1 repressed ABI3, ABI4, and ABI5 expression, and RAV1 bound to the ABI3, ABI4, and ABI5 promoters in vitro and in vivo, indicating that RAV1 directly down-regulates the expression of ABI3, ABI4, and ABI5. The interruption of ABI5 function in RAV1-U abi5 plants abolished the ABA-hypersensitive phenotype of RAV1-U plants, demonstrating that ABI5 is epistatic to RAV1. RAV1 interacted with SNF1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE SnRK2.2, SnRK2.3 and SnRK2.6 in the nucleus. In vitro kinase assays showed that SnRK2.2, SnRK2.3 and SnRK2.6 phosphorylated RAV1. Transient expression assays revealed that SnRK2.2, SnRK2.3 and SnRK2.6 reduced the RAV1-dependent repression of ABI5, and the ABA-insensitive phenotype of the RAV1-overexpressing line was impaired by overexpression of SnRK2.3 in the RAV1 OE3 plants. Together, these results demonstrated that the Arabidopsis RAV1 transcription factor plays an important role in ABA signaling by modulating the expression of ABI3, ABI4, and ABI5, and that its activity is negatively affected by SnRK2s.

  11. 19 CFR 143.7 - Revocation of ABI participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Automated Broker Interface § 143.7 Revocation of ABI... risk of significant harm to the integrity and functioning of the system, the Director, User...

  12. 19 CFR 143.7 - Revocation of ABI participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Automated Broker Interface § 143.7 Revocation of ABI... risk of significant harm to the integrity and functioning of the system, the Director, User...

  13. 19 CFR 143.7 - Revocation of ABI participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Automated Broker Interface § 143.7 Revocation of ABI... risk of significant harm to the integrity and functioning of the system, the Director, User...

  14. 19 CFR 143.7 - Revocation of ABI participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Automated Broker Interface § 143.7 Revocation of ABI... risk of significant harm to the integrity and functioning of the system, the Director, User...

  15. 19 CFR 143.7 - Revocation of ABI participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Automated Broker Interface § 143.7 Revocation of ABI... risk of significant harm to the integrity and functioning of the system, the Director, User...

  16. ABI4 and its role in chloroplast retrograde communication

    PubMed Central

    León, Patricia; Gregorio, Josefat; Cordoba, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The acquisition of plastids is a landmark event in plant evolution. The proper functionality of these organelles depends on strict and continuous communication between the plastids and the nucleus to precisely adjust gene expression in response to the organelle’s requirements. Signals originating from the plastids impact the expression of a variety of nuclear genes, and this retrograde communication is essential to couple the nuclear expression of plastid-localized products with organelle gene expression and, ultimately, functionality. Major advances have been made in this field over the past few years with the characterization of independent retrograde signaling pathways and the identification of some of their components. One such factor is the nuclear transcriptional factor ABI4 (ABA-INSENTIVE 4). ABI4, together with the plastid PPR GUN1 protein, has been proposed to function as a node of convergence for multiple plastid retrograde signaling pathways. ABI4 is conserved among plants and also plays important roles in various critical developmental and metabolic processes. ABI4 is a versatile regulator that positively and negatively modulates the expression of many genes, including other transcriptional factors. However, its mode of action during plastid retrograde signaling is not fully understood. In this review, we describe the current evidence that supports the participation of ABI4 in different retrograde communication pathways. ABI4 is regulated at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. A known regulator of ABI4 includes the PTM transcription factor, which moves from the chloroplast to the nucleus. This transcription factor is a candidate for the transmission of retrograde signals between the plastid and ABI4. PMID:23335930

  17. Negative regulation of abscisic acid signaling by the Brassica oleracea ABI1 ortholog.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Feifei; Wang, Mengyao; Hao, Hongmei; Zhang, Yanfeng; Zhao, Huixian; Guo, Aiguang; Xu, Hong; Zhou, Xiaona; Xie, Chang Gen

    2013-12-13

    ABI1 (ABA Insensitive 1) is an important component of the core regulatory network in early ABA (Abscisic acid) signaling. Here, we investigated the functions of an ABI1 ortholog in Brassica oleracea (BolABI1). The expression of BolABI1 was dramatically induced by drought, and constitutive expression of BolABI1 confers ABA insensitivity upon the wild-type. Subcellular localization and phosphatase assays reveal that BolABI1 is predominantly localized in the nucleus and harbors phosphatase activity. Furthermore, BolABI1 interacts with a homolog of OST1 (OPEN STOMATA 1) in B. oleracea (BolOST1) and can dephosphorylate ABI5 (ABA Insensitive 5) in vitro. Overall, these results suggest that BolABI1 is a functional PP2C-type protein phosphatase that is involved in the negative modulation of the ABA signaling pathway. PMID:24269821

  18. A new alkaloid isolated from Abies webbiana leaf

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Ashoke K.; Sen, Debanjan; Bhattacharya, Sanjib

    2010-01-01

    A new alkaloid namely 1-(4’-methoxyphenyl)-aziridine was isolated from the leaf of Abies webbiana Lindl. (Pinaceae), grown in Sikkim Himalayan region of India. Its chemical structure was elucidated on the basis of elemental and spectral analyses. This is the first experimental report of the isolation of any alkaloid from A. webbiana. PMID:21808564

  19. The Conserved Splicing Factor SUA Controls Alternative Splicing of the Developmental Regulator ABI3 in Arabidopsis[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Sugliani, Matteo; Brambilla, Vittoria; Clerkx, Emile J.M.; Koornneef, Maarten; Soppe, Wim J.J.

    2010-01-01

    ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3) is a major regulator of seed maturation in Arabidopsis thaliana. We detected two ABI3 transcripts, ABI3-α and ABI3-β, which encode full-length and truncated proteins, respectively. Alternative splicing of ABI3 is developmentally regulated, and the ABI3-β transcript accumulates at the end of seed maturation. The two ABI3 transcripts differ by the presence of a cryptic intron in ABI3-α, which is spliced out in ABI3-β. The suppressor of abi3-5 (sua) mutant consistently restores wild-type seed features in the frameshift mutant abi3-5 but does not suppress other abi3 mutant alleles. SUA is a conserved splicing factor, homologous to the human protein RBM5, and reduces splicing of the cryptic ABI3 intron, leading to a decrease in ABI3-β transcript. In the abi3-5 mutant, ABI3-β codes for a functional ABI3 protein due to frameshift restoration. PMID:20525852

  20. The Arabidopsis CROWDED NUCLEI genes regulate seed germination by modulating degradation of ABI5 protein.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenming; Guan, Chunmei; Feng, Jian; Liang, Yan; Zhan, Ni; Zuo, Jianru; Ren, Bo

    2016-07-01

    In Arabidopsis, the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a vital role in inhibiting seed germination and in post-germination seedling establishment. In the ABA signaling pathway, ABI5, a basic Leu zipper transcription factor, has important functions in the regulation of seed germination. ABI5 protein localizes in nuclear bodies, along with AFP, COP1, and SIZ1, and was degraded through the 26S proteasome pathway. However, the mechanisms of ABI5 nuclear body formation and ABI5 protein degradation remain obscure. In this study, we found that the Arabidopsis CROWDED NUCLEI (CRWN) proteins, predicted nuclear matrix proteins essential for maintenance of nuclear morphology, also participate in ABA-controlled seed germination by regulating the degradation of ABI5 protein. During seed germination, the crwn mutants are hypersensitive to ABA and have higher levels of ABI5 protein compared to wild type. Genetic analysis suggested that CRWNs act upstream of ABI5. The observation that CRWN3 colocalizes with ABI5 in nuclear bodies indicates that CRWNs might participate in ABI5 protein degradation in nuclear bodies. Moreover, we revealed that the extreme C-terminal of CRWN3 protein is necessary for its function in the response to ABA in germination. Our results suggested important roles of CRWNs in ABI5 nuclear body organization and ABI5 protein degradation during seed germination.

  1. Validations of GOES-R ABI Aerosol Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciren, P.; Laszlo, I.; Kondragunta, S.; Liu, H.; Zhou, M.

    2009-12-01

    High temporal resolution observations from geostationary platform provide unique benefits for monitoring the development of air pollution event. Especially, observations of multi-visible channels in the future GOES-R ABI provide more capability for characterizing air quality. GOES-R ABI Air Quality products include Aerosol detection product and suspended matter/AOD product. The first one is to detect the presence of smoke/dust; the second one is to quantify the amount of particles in the air in terms of light attenuation, and consequently inferred concentration of particles. In this presentation, we focus on the demonstration of the performance of the developed products through a comprehensive validation process. In the current pre-launch stage, MODIS radiances at bands similar to those of ABI are used as proxy. As for the suspended matter/AOD product, truth data include observations from ground-based instruments at the AERONET stations, MODIS collection 5 aerosol products, and aerosol product from CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation). For aerosol detection product, truth data include MODIS RGB images and CALIPO Vertical Feature Mask Products. Through comparisons with global observations from MODIS, point observations from AERONET, and narrow-track observations from CALIPSO, accuracy and precision (for AOD only) are evaluated for both products. In addition, a validation system which includes not only the evaluation with historical data, but also monitoring the products qualities with near-real time observations, is presented.

  2. ABI3 mediates dehydration stress recovery response in Arabidopsis thaliana by regulating expression of downstream genes.

    PubMed

    Bedi, Sonia; Sengupta, Sourabh; Ray, Anagh; Nag Chaudhuri, Ronita

    2016-09-01

    ABI3, originally discovered as a seed-specific transcription factor is now implicated to act beyond seed physiology, especially during abiotic stress. In non-seed plants, ABI3 is known to act in desiccation stress signaling. Here we show that ABI3 plays a role in dehydration stress response in Arabidopsis. ABI3 gene was upregulated during dehydration stress and its expression was maintained during subsequent stress recovery phases. Comparative gene expression studies in response to dehydration stress and stress recovery were done with genes which had potential ABI3 binding sites in their upstream regulatory regions. Such studies showed that several genes including known seed-specific factors like CRUCIFERIN1, CRUCIFERIN3 and LEA-group of genes like LEA76, LEA6, DEHYDRIN LEA and LEA-LIKE got upregulated in an ABI3-dependent manner, especially during the stress recovery phase. ABI3 got recruited to regions upstream to the transcription start site of these genes during dehydration stress response through direct or indirect DNA binding. Interestingly, ABI3 also binds to its own promoter region during such stress signaling. Nucleosomes covering potential ABI3 binding sites in the upstream sequences of the above-mentioned genes alter positions, and show increased H3 K9 acetylation during stress-induced transcription. ABI3 thus mediates dehydration stress signaling in Arabidopsis through regulation of a group of genes that play a role primarily during stress recovery phase. PMID:27457990

  3. ABI4 mediates antagonistic effects of abscisic acid and gibberellins at transcript and protein levels.

    PubMed

    Shu, Kai; Chen, Qian; Wu, Yaorong; Liu, Ruijun; Zhang, Huawei; Wang, Pengfei; Li, Yanli; Wang, Shengfu; Tang, Sanyuan; Liu, Chunyan; Yang, Wenyu; Cao, Xiaofeng; Serino, Giovanna; Xie, Qi

    2016-02-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins (GAs) are plant hormones which antagonistically mediate numerous physiological processes, and their optimal balance is essential for normal plant development. However, the molecular mechanism underlying ABA and GA antagonism still needs to be determined. Here, we report that ABA-INSENSITIVE 4 (ABI4) is a central factor in GA/ABA homeostasis and antagonism in post-germination stages. ABI4 overexpression in Arabidopsis (OE-ABI4) leads to developmental defects including a decrease in plant height and poor seed production. The transcription of a key ABA biosynthetic gene, NCED6, and of a key GA catabolic gene, GA2ox7, is significantly enhanced by ABI4 overexpression. ABI4 activates NCED6 and GA2ox7 transcription by directly binding to the promoters, and genetic analysis revealed that mutation in these two genes partially rescues the dwarf phenotype of ABI4 overexpressing plants. Consistently, ABI4 overexpressing seedlings have a lower GA/ABA ratio than the wild type. We further show that ABA induces GA2ox7 transcription while GA represses NCED6 expression in an ABI4-dependent manner; and that ABA stabilizes the ABI4 protein whereas GA promotes its degradation. Taken together, these results suggest that ABA and GA antagonize each other by oppositely acting on ABI4 transcript and protein levels.

  4. Combination of pulse volume recording (PVR) parameters and ankle-brachial index (ABI) improves diagnostic accuracy for peripheral arterial disease compared with ABI alone.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Tomoko; Ichihashi, Shigeo; Iwakoshi, Shinichi; Kichikawa, Kimihiko

    2016-06-01

    The ankle-brachial index (ABI) measurement is widely used as a screening tool to detect peripheral arterial disease (PAD). With the advent of the oscillometric ABI device incorporating a system for the measurement of pulse volume recording (PVR), not only ABI but also other parameters, such as the percentage of mean arterial pressure (%MAP) and the upstroke time (UT), can be obtained automatically. The purpose of the present study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy for PAD with ABI alone with that of a combination of ABI, %MAP and UT. This study included 108 consecutive patients on whom 216 limb measurements were performed. The sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values of ABI, %MAP, UT and their combination were evaluated and compared with CT angiography that was used as a gold standard for the detection of PAD. The diagnostic accuracy as well as the optimal cutoff values of %MAP and UT were evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The combination of ABI, %MAP and UT achieved higher sensitivity, negative predictive value and accuracy than ABI alone, particularly for mild stenosis. The areas under the ROC curve for the detection of 50% stenosis with UT and %MAP were 0.798 and 0.916, respectively. The optimal UT and %MAP values to detect ≧50% stenosis artery were 183 ms and 45%, respectively. The combination of ABI, %MAP and UT contributed to the improvement of the diagnostic accuracy for PAD. Consideration of the values of %MAP and UT in addition to ABI may have a significant impact on the detection of early PAD lesions.

  5. Arabidopsis SAG protein containing the MDN1 domain participates in seed germination and seedling development by negatively regulating ABI3 and ABI5.

    PubMed

    Chen, Changtian; Wu, Changai; Miao, Jiaming; Lei, Yunxue; Zhao, Dongxiao; Sun, Dan; Yang, Guodong; Huang, Jinguang; Zheng, Chengchao

    2014-01-01

    Three proteins containing a midasin homologue 1 (MDN1) domain from the yeast Solanum chacoense and Arabidopsis thaliana have important functions in yeast survival, seed development, and female gametogenesis. In this study, a novel protein containing the MDN1 domain from Arabidopsis negatively regulated abscisic acid (ABA) signalling during seed germination. Seeds of a T-DNA insertion line of this gene exhibited increased sensitivity to ABA during seed germination and seedling development (named sag). By contrast, seeds with overexpressed AtSAG (OX2) were less sensitive to ABA. The seeds of the sag mutant showed similar sensitivity to high concentrations of mannitol and NaCl during these stages. AtSAG was also highly expressed in germinating seeds. However, ABA-induced AtSAG expression remained almost unchanged. ABA-responsive marker genes, including ABI3, ABI5, Em1, Em6, RD29A, and RAB18, were upregulated in sag mutants but were downregulated in OX2. Genetic analyses indicated that the function of AtSAG in ABA signalling depended on ABI3 and ABI5. The expression of some target genes of ABI3 and ABI5, such as seed storage protein and oleosin genes, was induced higher by ABA in sag mutants than in wild-type germinated seeds, even higher than in abi5 mutants. This finding indicated that other regulators similar to ABI3 or ABI5 played a role during these stages. Taken together, these results indicate that AtSAG is an important negative regulator of ABA signalling during seed germination and seedling development.

  6. ABI3 controls embryo degreening through Mendel's I locus

    PubMed Central

    Delmas, Frédéric; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian; Deb, Srijani; Widdup, Ellen; Bournonville, Céline; Bollier, Norbert; Northey, Julian G. B.; McCourt, Peter; Samuel, Marcus A.

    2013-01-01

    Chlorophyll (chl) is essential for light capture and is the starting point that provides the energy for photosynthesis and thus plant growth. Obviously, for this reason, retention of the green chlorophyll pigment is considered a desirable crop trait. However, the presence of chlorophyll in mature seeds can be an undesirable trait that can affect seed maturation, seed oil quality, and meal quality. Occurrence of mature green seeds in oil crops such as canola and soybean due to unfavorable weather conditions during seed maturity is known to cause severe losses in revenue. One recently identified candidate that controls the chlorophyll degradation machinery is the stay-green gene, SGR1 that was mapped to Mendel’s I locus responsible for cotyledon color (yellow versus green) in peas. A defect in SGR1 leads to leaf stay-green phenotypes in Arabidopsis and rice, but the role of SGR1 in seed degreening and the signaling machinery that converges on SGR1 have remained elusive. To decipher the gene regulatory network that controls degreening in Arabidopsis, we have used an embryo stay-green mutant to demonstrate that embryo degreening is achieved by the SGR family and that this whole process is regulated by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) through ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3); a B3 domain transcription factor that has a highly conserved and essential role in seed maturation, conferring desiccation tolerance. Misexpression of ABI3 was sufficient to rescue cold-induced green seed phenotype in Arabidopsis. This finding reveals a mechanistic role for ABI3 during seed degreening and thus targeting of this pathway could provide a solution to the green seed problem in various oil-seed crops. PMID:24043799

  7. Thinking Allowed: Use of Egocentric Speech after Acquired Brain Injury (ABI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Sian A.; Skidmore, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the use of thinking aloud made by young people who have sustained a severe acquired brain injury (ABI). The phenomenon is compared with the concepts of egocentric speech and inner speech before the form of thinking aloud by pupils with ABI is examined. It is suggested that by using thinking aloud, this group of pupils is able…

  8. Type 2C protein phosphatase ABI1 is a negative regulator of strawberry fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Jia, Hai-Feng; Lu, Dong; Sun, Jing-Hua; Li, Chun-Li; Xing, Yu; Qin, Ling; Shen, Yuan-Yue

    2013-04-01

    Although a great deal of progress has been made toward understanding the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in fruit ripening, many components in the ABA signalling pathway remain to be elucidated. Here, a strawberry gene homologous to the Arabidopsis gene ABI1, named FaABI1, was isolated and characterized. The 1641bp cDNA includes an intact open reading frame that encodes a deduced protein of 546 amino acids, in which putative conserved domains were determined by homology analysis. Transcriptional analysis showed that the levels of FaABI1 mRNA expression declined rapidly during strawberry fruit development as evidenced by real-time PCR, semi-quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, and northern blotting analyses, suggesting that the Ser/Thr protein phosphatase PP2C1 encoded by FaABI1 may be involved in fruit ripening as a negative regulator. The results of Tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing and PBI121 vector-mediated overexpression suggested that the down- and up-regulation of FaABI1 mRNA expression levels in degreening strawberry fruit could promote and inhibit ripening, respectively. Furthermore, alteration of FaABI1 expression could differentially regulate the transcripts of a set of both ABA-responsive and ripening-related genes, including ABI3, ABI4, ABI5, SnRK2, ABRE1, CHS, PG1, PL, CHI, F3H, DFR, ANS, and UFGT. Taken together, the data provide new evidence for an important role for ABA in regulating strawberry fruit ripening in the processes of which the type 2C protein phosphatase ABI1 serves as a negative regulator. Finally, a possible core mechanism underlying ABA perception and signalling transduction in strawberry fruit ripening is discussed.

  9. Abscisic Acid Antagonizes Ethylene Production through the ABI4-Mediated Transcriptional Repression of ACS4 and ACS8 in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhijun; Yu, Yanwen; Li, Shenghui; Wang, Juan; Tang, Saijun; Huang, Rongfeng

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence has revealed that abscisic acid (ABA) negatively modulates ethylene biosynthesis, although the underlying mechanism remains unclear. To identify the factors involved, we conducted a screen for ABA-insensitive mutants with altered ethylene production in Arabidopsis. A dominant allele of ABI4, abi4-152, which produces a putative protein with a 16-amino-acid truncation at the C-terminus of ABI4, reduces ethylene production. By contrast, two recessive knockout alleles of ABI4, abi4-102 and abi4-103, result in increased ethylene evolution, indicating that ABI4 negatively regulates ethylene production. Further analyses showed that expression of the ethylene biosynthesis genes ACS4, ACS8, and ACO2 was significantly decreased in abi4-152 but increased in the knockout mutants, with partial dependence on ABA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR assays showed that ABI4 directly binds the promoters of these ethylene biosynthesis genes and that ABA enhances this interaction. A fusion protein containing the truncated ABI4-152 peptide accumulated to higher levels than its full-length counterpart in transgenic plants, suggesting that ABI4 is destabilized by its C terminus. Therefore, our results demonstrate that ABA negatively regulates ethylene production through ABI4-mediated transcriptional repression of the ethylene biosynthesis genes ACS4 and ACS8 in Arabidopsis.

  10. Epimeric spirolactone-type triterpenoids from Abies faxoniana Rehd.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Wei; Lv, Chao; Jin, Hui-Zi; Shen, Yun-Heng; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2016-09-01

    Phytochemical investigation of Abies faxoniana Rehd. led to the isolation of two pairs of new epimeric spirolactone-type triterpenoids (1/1' and 2/2') and 11 known terpenoids (3-13). Compounds 1/1' and 2/2' were isolated as epimeric mixtures due to the C-23 ketal tautomerism in their spirolactone structures. The dynamic HPLC manifested that the C-23 epimeric mixtures interconverted into each other in solution. Structure determinations were based on extensive NMR and HRESIMS spectroscopic analysis. Meanwhile, their cytotoxic activities were tested by MTT method. Compound 5 showed cytotoxicities against MCF-7 and A549 cells with IC50 values of 6.5 and 5.7μM, respectively. Compounds 1/1' had IC50 values of 10.0 and 12.3μM for Huh7 and SMMC7721 cells, respectively. PMID:27431772

  11. Composition of essential oils from seeds of Abies koreana.

    PubMed

    Wajs-Bonikowska, Anna; Olejnik, Karol; Bonikowski, Radosław; Banaszczak, Piotr

    2013-02-01

    The essential oils from seeds of nine Abies koreana specimens have been studied using GC-MS-FID and NMR methods, leading to the determination of 96 volatiles, which constituted over 99% of the oils. The hydrodistilled oils of fresh, resinous scent were isolated with yields in the range of 3.8-8.5%. The results showed that the essential oil of Korean fir seeds contained 70-95% monoterpenes and 1-20% oxygenated monoterpenes as the dominant groups. The numerous sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and their oxygenated derivatives constituted only 2-8% of the oil. The major component of the seed essential oil was limonene (41-72 g/100g); the laevorotary form of this terpene predominated. A. koreana seeds seem to be a rich source of both essential oil and (-)-limonene, whose average enantiomeric excess was above 95%. PMID:23513736

  12. Diterpenoids from the branch and leaf of Abies fargesii.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Ming; Liu, Ye; Chen, Xu; Jin, An; Zhou, Ming; Tian, Tian; Ruan, Han-Li

    2016-04-01

    Five new abietane diterpenoids, named abifadines A-E (1-5), and nine known ones (6-14), together with two known podocarpenes (15 and 16), were isolated from the branch and leaf of Abies fargesii. Their structures including the relative configurations were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined through single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis with Cu Kα irradiation. All the isolates were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicities. Only compounds 5 and 12 exhibited weak anti-proliferative effects against three cancer cell lines (B16, MCF7, and HepG2) with IC50 values range from 14.8 to 42.8 μM. The antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Monilia albicans of all compounds were also tested, but none of them showed significant activities. PMID:26969787

  13. Life testing of the ABI cryocooler: Two years complete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, Perry G.; Swanson, Kirsten S.

    2012-04-01

    The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) is a prime payload for the GOES-R (Geostationary Operational Environmental Spacecraft) series of meteorological satellites. Focal plane temperature control is provided by a two-stage cryocooler based on the NGAS HEC (Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems High Efficiency Cryocooler) design. To demonstrate the long-term operation of this cooler, a dedicated life test is being performed. The life test cooler is close to the flight design, differing only in minor details of the cold head structure. The test concept simulates continuous operation the cooler at flight like conditions. Long term testing started on 12 June 2009, and has continued to this date. Test performance and anomalies are discussed.

  14. The lactococcal abortive infection protein AbiP is membrane-anchored and binds nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Susana; McGovern, Stephen; Plochocka, Danuta; Santos, Mário A; Ehrlich, S Dusko; Polard, Patrice; Chopin, Marie-Christine

    2008-03-30

    AbiP, a lactococcal abortive phage infection system, has previously been shown to arrest phage bIL66M1 DNA replication around 10 min after infection and to inhibit the switch off of phage early transcripts. We report here the functional characterization and implication in the abortive infection phenotype of two domains identified in the AbiP sequence. We show that AbiP is a protein anchored to the membrane by an N-terminal membrane-spanning domain. Our results further suggest that membrane localization may be required for the anti-phage activity of AbiP. The remainder of the protein, which contains a putative nucleic acid binding domain, is shown to be located on the cytosolic side. Purified AbiP is shown to bind nucleic acids with an approximately 10-fold preference for RNA relative to ssDNA. AbiP interaction with both ssDNA and RNA molecules occurs in a sequence-independent manner. We have analyzed the effect of substitutions of aromatic and basic residues on the surface of the putative binding fold. In vitro and in vivo studies of these AbiP derivatives indicate that the previously reported effects on phage development might be dependent on the nucleic acid binding activity displayed by the membrane-bound protein.

  15. [Structural characteristics of Abies fabri forests at the upper reach of Yangtze River].

    PubMed

    Gao, Jiarong; Zhang, Dongsheng; Niu, Jianzhi; Yu, Xinxiao; Zhang, Wenjing

    2003-01-01

    The structural characteristics of Abies fabri forest under different succession stages in Gongga Mountains at the upper reach of Yangtze River were studied. The results showed that in the mature Abies fabri forest, there existed abundant seeds and a few saplings of Abies fabri younger than 20 years, but only Abies fabri was the dominant regeneration species. In the poplar-fir mixed forest, the height growth of poplar and birch was very fast during first 30 years, and poplar and birch dominated rapidly over the canopy. Abies fabri had a lower growth rate and a strong shade-tolerance in its first growth stage, and could replace other tree species gradually. The cycle of mud-rock flow occurrence was above 100 years in the Gongga montane areas from elevation of 2800 to 3200 m. After mud-rock flow, poplar and birch often occurred and dominated, and there were only a small number of Abies fabri saplings in slash. Under natural condition, to recover Abies fabri forest would demand a long time, but this process could be controlled and improved by human activities.

  16. Genome-Wide Analysis of the bZIP Gene Family Identifies Two ABI5-Like bZIP Transcription Factors, BrABI5a and BrABI5b, as Positive Modulators of ABA Signalling in Chinese Cabbage.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yili; Zhu, Wenbo; Hu, Xiaochen; Sun, Congcong; Li, Yanlin; Wang, Dandan; Wang, Qinhu; Pei, Guoliang; Zhang, Yanfeng; Guo, Aiguang; Zhao, Huixian; Lu, Haibin; Mu, Xiaoqian; Hu, Jingjiang; Zhou, Xiaona; Xie, Chang Gen

    2016-01-01

    bZIP (basic leucine zipper) transcription factors coordinate plant growth and development and control responses to environmental stimuli. The genome of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) encodes 136 putative bZIP transcription factors. The bZIP transcription factors in Brassica rapa (BrbZIP) are classified into 10 subfamilies. Phylogenetic relationship analysis reveals that subfamily A consists of 23 BrbZIPs. Two BrbZIPs within subfamily A, Bra005287 and Bra017251, display high similarity to ABI5 (ABA Insensitive 5). Expression of subfamily A BrbZIPs, like BrABI5a (Bra005287/BrbZIP14) and BrABI5b (Bra017251/BrbZIP13), are significantly induced by the plant hormone ABA. Subcellular localization assay reveal that both BrABI5a and BrABI5b have a nuclear localization. BrABI5a and BrABI5b could directly stimulate ABA Responsive Element-driven HIS (a HIS3 reporter gene, which confers His prototrophy) or LUC (LUCIFERASE) expression in yeast and Arabidopsis protoplast. Deletion of the bZIP motif abolished BrABI5a and BrABI5b transcriptional activity. The ABA insensitive phenotype of Arabidopsis abi5-1 is completely suppressed in transgenic lines expressing BrABI5a or BrABI5b. Overall, these results suggest that ABI5 orthologs, BrABI5a and BrABI5b, have key roles in ABA signalling in Chinese cabbage.

  17. Genome-Wide Analysis of the bZIP Gene Family Identifies Two ABI5-Like bZIP Transcription Factors, BrABI5a and BrABI5b, as Positive Modulators of ABA Signalling in Chinese Cabbage

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaochen; Sun, Congcong; Li, Yanlin; Wang, Dandan; Wang, Qinhu; Pei, Guoliang; Zhang, Yanfeng; Guo, Aiguang; Zhao, Huixian; Lu, Haibin; Mu, Xiaoqian; Hu, Jingjiang; Zhou, Xiaona; Xie, Chang Gen

    2016-01-01

    bZIP (basic leucine zipper) transcription factors coordinate plant growth and development and control responses to environmental stimuli. The genome of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) encodes 136 putative bZIP transcription factors. The bZIP transcription factors in Brassica rapa (BrbZIP) are classified into 10 subfamilies. Phylogenetic relationship analysis reveals that subfamily A consists of 23 BrbZIPs. Two BrbZIPs within subfamily A, Bra005287 and Bra017251, display high similarity to ABI5 (ABA Insensitive 5). Expression of subfamily A BrbZIPs, like BrABI5a (Bra005287/BrbZIP14) and BrABI5b (Bra017251/BrbZIP13), are significantly induced by the plant hormone ABA. Subcellular localization assay reveal that both BrABI5a and BrABI5b have a nuclear localization. BrABI5a and BrABI5b could directly stimulate ABA Responsive Element-driven HIS (a HIS3 reporter gene, which confers His prototrophy) or LUC (LUCIFERASE) expression in yeast and Arabidopsis protoplast. Deletion of the bZIP motif abolished BrABI5a and BrABI5b transcriptional activity. The ABA insensitive phenotype of Arabidopsis abi5-1 is completely suppressed in transgenic lines expressing BrABI5a or BrABI5b. Overall, these results suggest that ABI5 orthologs, BrABI5a and BrABI5b, have key roles in ABA signalling in Chinese cabbage. PMID:27414644

  18. Genome-Wide Analysis of the bZIP Gene Family Identifies Two ABI5-Like bZIP Transcription Factors, BrABI5a and BrABI5b, as Positive Modulators of ABA Signalling in Chinese Cabbage.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yili; Zhu, Wenbo; Hu, Xiaochen; Sun, Congcong; Li, Yanlin; Wang, Dandan; Wang, Qinhu; Pei, Guoliang; Zhang, Yanfeng; Guo, Aiguang; Zhao, Huixian; Lu, Haibin; Mu, Xiaoqian; Hu, Jingjiang; Zhou, Xiaona; Xie, Chang Gen

    2016-01-01

    bZIP (basic leucine zipper) transcription factors coordinate plant growth and development and control responses to environmental stimuli. The genome of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) encodes 136 putative bZIP transcription factors. The bZIP transcription factors in Brassica rapa (BrbZIP) are classified into 10 subfamilies. Phylogenetic relationship analysis reveals that subfamily A consists of 23 BrbZIPs. Two BrbZIPs within subfamily A, Bra005287 and Bra017251, display high similarity to ABI5 (ABA Insensitive 5). Expression of subfamily A BrbZIPs, like BrABI5a (Bra005287/BrbZIP14) and BrABI5b (Bra017251/BrbZIP13), are significantly induced by the plant hormone ABA. Subcellular localization assay reveal that both BrABI5a and BrABI5b have a nuclear localization. BrABI5a and BrABI5b could directly stimulate ABA Responsive Element-driven HIS (a HIS3 reporter gene, which confers His prototrophy) or LUC (LUCIFERASE) expression in yeast and Arabidopsis protoplast. Deletion of the bZIP motif abolished BrABI5a and BrABI5b transcriptional activity. The ABA insensitive phenotype of Arabidopsis abi5-1 is completely suppressed in transgenic lines expressing BrABI5a or BrABI5b. Overall, these results suggest that ABI5 orthologs, BrABI5a and BrABI5b, have key roles in ABA signalling in Chinese cabbage. PMID:27414644

  19. Landsat-ABI (L-ABI) Enables 8-day Revisits and Increased Science Content with a Single Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woody, L. M.; Griffith, P. C.; Wirth, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    In addition to the on-going uses of Landsat data for land use and land cover change assessment, crop monitoring, ecosystem evaluation, and water use mapping, the increasing number of severe environmental events (storms, droughts, floods, and fires) has intensified the demand for land imaging data. Users desire more data and, more importantly, more frequent data to better understand the trends and impacts of these extreme events. Additionally, the Sustainable Land Imaging (SLI) thrust faces the difficult task of providing continuity of measurements in a strict budget-constrained environment. To that end, the desire is to reduce the size, mass, and - most importantly - cost of future US land imaging capability, without impacting the continuity of the SLI data with past Landsat archives. During our exploration of possible alternatives for future Landsat missions, we re-opened the trade space to include scanned options. The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) has been delivered to NASA/NOAA for flight on GOES-R, and additional models are in fabrication for various customers. Adapting this in-production instrument to flight at low-Earth orbit is relatively straightforward, and leads to a simple, high-heritage (low-risk) concept for a full-spectrum Landsat instrument that would meet virtually all of the Landsat 8 Reference Performance Parameters at significantly lower cost than the Landsat-8 (LDCM) payload. It would also be smaller than the L-8 payload, about half the mass, and require lower power. In addition, it could offer the option for spectral enhancement of Landsat through additional LWIR and/or MWIR bands. Finally, the L-ABI can offer larger swath coverage, driving the SLI system towards the desired 8-day repeat coverage.

  20. The Relation Between Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI) and Coronary Artery Disease Severity and Risk Factors: An Angiographic Study

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Heidari, Ramin; Mostanfar, Baharak; Tavassoli, Aliakbar; Roghani, Farshad

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND The current study aims to determine the relation between ankle–brachial index (ABI) and angiographic findings and major cardiovascular risk factors in patients with suspected coronary artery diseases (CAD) in Isfahan. METHODS In this cross-sectional descriptive-analytic research, patients with suspected CAD were studied. Characteristics of studied subjects including demographics, familial history, past medical history and atherosclerotic risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and smoking were obtained using a standard questionnaire. ABI was measured in all studied patients. ABI≤0.9 (ABI+) was considered as peripheral vessel disease and ABI>0.9 (ABI-) was considered as normal. Then, all studied patients underwent coronary artery angiography. The results of the questionnaire and angiographic findings were compared in ABI+ and ABI- groups. Data were analyzed by SPSS 15 using ANOVA, t-test, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, and discriminant analysis. RESULTS In this study, 125 patients were investigated. ABI≤0.9 was seen in 25 patients (20%). The prevalence of ABI+ among men and women was 25.9% and 7.5%, respectively (P=0.01). The prevalence of atherosclerotic risk factors was significantly higher in ABI+ patients than in ABI- ones (P<0.05). ABI+ patients had more significant stenosis than ABI- ones. The mean of occlusion was significantly higher in ABI+ patients with left main artery (LMA), right coronary artery (RCA), left anterior descending artery (LAD), diagonal artery 1 (D1) and left circumflex artery (LCX) involvements (P<0.05). CONCLUSION The findings of this research indicated that ABI could be a useful method in assessing both the atherosclerotic risk factors and the degree of coronary involvements in suspected patients. However, in order to make more accurate decisions for using this method in diagnosing and preventing CAD, we should plan further studies in large sample sizes of general population. PMID

  1. The Arabidopsis abscisic acid response locus ABI4 encodes an APETALA 2 domain protein.

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, R R; Wang, M L; Lynch, T J; Rao, S; Goodman, H M

    1998-01-01

    Arabidopsis abscisic acid (ABA)-insensitive abi4 mutants have pleiotropic defects in seed development, including decreased sensitivity to ABA inhibition of germination and altered seed-specific gene expression. This phenotype is consistent with a role for ABI4 in regulating seed responses to ABA and/or seed-specific signals. We isolated the ABI4 gene by positional cloning and confirmed its identity by complementation analysis. The predicted protein product shows homology to a plant-specific family of transcriptional regulators characterized by a conserved DNA binding domain, the APETALA 2 domain. The single mutant allele identified has a single base pair deletion, resulting in a frameshift that should disrupt the C-terminal half of the protein but leave the presumed DNA binding domain intact. Expression analyses showed that despite the seed-specific nature of the mutant phenotype, ABI4 expression is not seed specific. PMID:9634591

  2. Supernumerary (B) chromosomes in populations of Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. from Western Rhodopes (Bulgaria).

    PubMed

    Tashev, A N; Sedel'nikova, T S; Pimenov, A V

    2014-01-01

    Investigations on B chromosomes found for the first time for Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. have been conducted. Seeds of Picea abies from two populations of Western Rhodopes (Bulgaria) located at the southern border of species range, and protected according to Bern Convention and EC Habitat Directive were collected for this study. Mixoploidy was detected in some germinating seeds of Picea abies. It was found that metaphase cells of germinating seeds contain 0-4 B chromosomes of both metacentric and submetacentric types. The variability of B chromosomes number and their occurrence was observed. Along with B chromosomes, some chromosome aberrations such as fragments and ring chromosomes were revealed in metaphase cells of Picea abies from studied populations. The possible adaptive role of B chromosomes presence for Picea spp. is discussed.

  3. New evidence for the symbiosis between Tuber aestivum and Picea abies.

    PubMed

    Stobbe, Ulrich; Stobbe, Annika; Sproll, Ludger; Tegel, Willy; Peter, Martina; Büntgen, Ulf; Egli, Simon

    2013-11-01

    The Burgundy truffle (Tuber aestivum Vittad.), an ectomycorrhizal fungus living in association with host plants, is one of the most exclusive delicacies. The symbiosis with deciduous oak, beech, and hazel dominates our concept of truffle ecophysiology, whereas potential conifer hosts have rarely been reported. Here, we present morphological and molecular evidence of a wildlife T. aestivum symbiosis with Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) and an independent greenhouse inoculation experiment, to confirm our field observation in southwest Germany. A total of 27 out of 50 P. abies seedlings developed T. aestivum ectomycorrhizae with a mean mycorrhization rate of 19.6 %. These findings not only suggest P. abies to be a productive host species under suitable biogeographic conditions but also emphasize the broad ecological amplitude and great symbiotic range of T. aestivum. While challenging common knowledge, this study demonstrates a significant expansion of the species' cultivation potential to the central European regions, where P. abies forests occur on calcareous soils.

  4. “Related to ABA-Insensitive3(ABI3)/Viviparous1 and AtABI5 transcription factor co-expression in cotton enhances drought stress adaptation”

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Amandeep; Gampala, Srinivas S. L.; Ritchie, Glen L.; Payton, Paxton; Burke, John J.; Rock, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    Drought tolerance is an important trait being pursued by the agbiotech industry. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a stress hormone that mediates a multitude of processes in growth and development, water use efficiency (WUE), and gene expression during seed development and in response to environmental stresses. Arabidopsis B3-domain transcription factor Related to ABA-Insensitive3 (ABI3)/Viviparous1 (namely, AtRAV2) and basic leucine zipper (bZIPs) AtABI5 or AtABF3 transactivated ABA- inducible promoter: GUS reporter expression in a maize mesophyll protoplast transient assay and showed synergies in reporter transactivation when co-expressed. Transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) expressing AtRAV1/2 and/or AtABI5 showed resistance to imposed drought stress under field and greenhouse conditions and exhibited improved photosynthetic and WUEs associated with absorption through larger root system and greater leaf area. We observed synergy for root biomass accumulation in the greenhouse, intrinsic WUE in the field, and drought tolerance in stacked AtRAV and AtABI5 double-transgenic cotton. We assessed AtABI5 and AtRAV1/2 involvement in drought stress adaptations though reactive oxygen species scavenging and osmotic adjustment by marker gene expression in cotton. Deficit irrigation-grown AtRAV1/2 and AtABI5 transgenics had “less stressed” molecular and physiological phenotypes under drought, likely due to improved photoassimilation and root and shoot sink strengths and enhanced expression of endogenous GhRAV and genes for antioxidant and osmolyte biosynthesis. Over-expression of bZIP and RAV TFs could impact sustainable cotton agriculture and potentially other crops under limited irrigation conditions. PMID:24483851

  5. Related to ABA-Insensitive3(ABI3)/Viviparous1 and AtABI5 transcription factor coexpression in cotton enhances drought stress adaptation.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Amandeep; Gampala, Srinivas S L; Ritchie, Glen L; Payton, Paxton; Burke, John J; Rock, Christopher D

    2014-06-01

    Drought tolerance is an important trait being pursued by the agbiotech industry. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a stress hormone that mediates a multitude of processes in growth and development, water use efficiency (WUE) and gene expression during seed development and in response to environmental stresses. Arabidopsis B3-domain transcription factor Related to ABA-Insensitive3 (ABI3)/Viviparous1 (namely AtRAV2) and basic leucine zipper (bZIPs) AtABI5 or AtABF3 transactivated ABA-inducible promoter:GUS reporter expression in a maize mesophyll protoplast transient assay and showed synergies in reporter transactivation when coexpressed. Transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) expressing AtRAV1/2 and/or AtABI5 showed resistance to imposed drought stress under field and greenhouse conditions and exhibited improved photosynthesis and WUEs associated with absorption through larger root system and greater leaf area. We observed synergy for root biomass accumulation in the greenhouse, intrinsic WUE in the field and drought tolerance in stacked AtRAV and AtABI5 double-transgenic cotton. We assessed AtABI5 and AtRAV1/2 involvement in drought stress adaptations through reactive oxygen species scavenging and osmotic adjustment by marker gene expression in cotton. Deficit irrigation-grown AtRAV1/2 and AtABI5 transgenics had 'less-stressed' molecular and physiological phenotypes under drought, likely due to improved photoassimilation and root and shoot sink strengths and enhanced expression of endogenous GhRAV and genes for antioxidant and osmolyte biosynthesis. Overexpression of bZIP and RAV TFs could impact sustainable cotton agriculture and potentially other crops under limited irrigation conditions.

  6. The Arabidopsis DELAY OF GERMINATION 1 gene affects ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 5 (ABI5) expression and genetically interacts with ABI3 during Arabidopsis seed development.

    PubMed

    Dekkers, Bas J W; He, Hanzi; Hanson, Johannes; Willems, Leo A J; Jamar, Diaan C L; Cueff, Gwendal; Rajjou, Loïc; Hilhorst, Henk W M; Bentsink, Leónie

    2016-02-01

    The seed expressed gene DELAY OF GERMINATION (DOG) 1 is absolutely required for the induction of dormancy. Next to a non-dormant phenotype, the dog1-1 mutant is also characterized by a reduced seed longevity suggesting that DOG1 may affect additional seed processes as well. This aspect however, has been hardly studied and is poorly understood. To uncover additional roles of DOG1 in seeds we performed a detailed analysis of the dog1 mutant using both transcriptomics and metabolomics to investigate the molecular consequences of a dysfunctional DOG1 gene. Further, we used a genetic approach taking advantage of the weak aba insensitive (abi) 3-1 allele as a sensitized genetic background in a cross with dog1-1. DOG1 affects the expression of hundreds of genes including LATE EMBRYOGENESIS ABUNDANT and HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN genes which are affected by DOG1 partly via control of ABI5 expression. Furthermore, the content of a subset of primary metabolites, which normally accumulate during seed maturation, was found to be affected in the dog1-1 mutant. Surprisingly, the abi3-1 dog1-1 double mutant produced green seeds which are highly ABA insensitive, phenocopying severe abi3 mutants, indicating that dog1-1 acts as an enhancer of the weak abi3-1 allele and thus revealing a genetic interaction between both genes. Analysis of the dog1 and dog1 abi3 mutants revealed additional seed phenotypes and therefore we hypothesize that DOG1 function is not limited to dormancy but that it is required for multiple aspects of seed maturation, in part by interfering with ABA signalling components. PMID:26729600

  7. The Arabidopsis DELAY OF GERMINATION 1 gene affects ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 5 (ABI5) expression and genetically interacts with ABI3 during Arabidopsis seed development.

    PubMed

    Dekkers, Bas J W; He, Hanzi; Hanson, Johannes; Willems, Leo A J; Jamar, Diaan C L; Cueff, Gwendal; Rajjou, Loïc; Hilhorst, Henk W M; Bentsink, Leónie

    2016-02-01

    The seed expressed gene DELAY OF GERMINATION (DOG) 1 is absolutely required for the induction of dormancy. Next to a non-dormant phenotype, the dog1-1 mutant is also characterized by a reduced seed longevity suggesting that DOG1 may affect additional seed processes as well. This aspect however, has been hardly studied and is poorly understood. To uncover additional roles of DOG1 in seeds we performed a detailed analysis of the dog1 mutant using both transcriptomics and metabolomics to investigate the molecular consequences of a dysfunctional DOG1 gene. Further, we used a genetic approach taking advantage of the weak aba insensitive (abi) 3-1 allele as a sensitized genetic background in a cross with dog1-1. DOG1 affects the expression of hundreds of genes including LATE EMBRYOGENESIS ABUNDANT and HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN genes which are affected by DOG1 partly via control of ABI5 expression. Furthermore, the content of a subset of primary metabolites, which normally accumulate during seed maturation, was found to be affected in the dog1-1 mutant. Surprisingly, the abi3-1 dog1-1 double mutant produced green seeds which are highly ABA insensitive, phenocopying severe abi3 mutants, indicating that dog1-1 acts as an enhancer of the weak abi3-1 allele and thus revealing a genetic interaction between both genes. Analysis of the dog1 and dog1 abi3 mutants revealed additional seed phenotypes and therefore we hypothesize that DOG1 function is not limited to dormancy but that it is required for multiple aspects of seed maturation, in part by interfering with ABA signalling components.

  8. [Analysis of algal blooms in Da-Ning River of Three Gorges Reservoir].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bing-Hui; Cao, Cheng-Jin; Zhang, Jia-Lei; Huang, Min-Sheng; Chen, Zhen-Lou

    2009-11-01

    According to the survey conducted from Apr. to Jun. 2007 and from Apr. to May. 2008, the changes of water quality, forms and distributions of nutrient salts and characters of algal blooms in Da-ning River of Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) were studied. The results indicated that the concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient were abundant during sensitive period of algal blooms in Da-ning River. Total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) values are 0.84-3.21 mg/L and 0.011-0.531 mg/L respectively, and the nutrients concentrations become high gradually from upstream to downstream. Total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) is the major form of TN accounting for 84%, and total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) is dominant (TDP/TP = 60%). Algal blooms bring phosphorus nutrient bio-concentration. The rates of TN and TP are all in excess of 16, which show eutrophication is limited by phosphorus. Potassium permanganate index and dissolved oxygen (DO) are at low levels and change stably. But chlorophyll a (Chl-a) becomes frequently, the value is 1.41-219.04 mg x m(-3). Significant positive correlations are all observed by correlation analysis between Chl-a and the main parameters (r(Chla-TP) = 0.453, r(Chla-potassium permanganate index) = 0.641, r(Chla-DO) = 0.584, r(Chla-pH) = 0.409, p < 0.01), but significant negative correlations are observed between Chl-a and Secchi depth (SD) (r(Chla-SD) = - 0.392, p < 0.01). The pH is fluctuated by multiparameter esp. in algal blooms. Widespread algae are observed by microscope during sensitive period of algal blooms in Da-ning River accounting for 8 phylum 82 genus 124 species, which Bacillariophyta and Chlorophyta are dominant, and then Cyanophyta and Pyrrophyta. Three whole watershed algal blooms break out in Da-ning River during the period, and the highest values of algal density are 14-1 427 times as many as the normal values. The dominant species of algal blooms are mostly involved with O. borgei, C. microporum, Chlorococcum humicola, P

  9. S-nitrosylation triggers ABI5 degradation to promote seed germination and seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Albertos, Pablo; Romero-Puertas, María C; Tatematsu, Kiyoshi; Mateos, Isabel; Sánchez-Vicente, Inmaculada; Nambara, Eiji; Lorenzo, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Plant survival depends on seed germination and progression through post-germinative developmental checkpoints. These processes are controlled by the stress phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). ABA regulates the basic leucine zipper transcriptional factor ABI5, a central hub of growth repression, while the reactive nitrogen molecule nitric oxide (NO) counteracts ABA during seed germination. However, the molecular mechanisms by which seeds sense more favourable conditions and start germinating have remained elusive. Here we show that ABI5 promotes growth via NO, and that ABI5 accumulation is altered in genetic backgrounds with impaired NO homeostasis. S-nitrosylation of ABI5 at cysteine-153 facilitates its degradation through CULLIN4-based and KEEP ON GOING E3 ligases, and promotes seed germination. Conversely, mutation of ABI5 at cysteine-153 deregulates protein stability and inhibition of seed germination by NO depletion. These findings suggest an inverse molecular link between NO and ABA hormone signalling through distinct posttranslational modifications of ABI5 during early seedling development.

  10. S-nitrosylation triggers ABI5 degradation to promote seed germination and seedling growth

    PubMed Central

    Albertos, Pablo; Romero-Puertas, María C.; Tatematsu, Kiyoshi; Mateos, Isabel; Sánchez-Vicente, Inmaculada; Nambara, Eiji; Lorenzo, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Plant survival depends on seed germination and progression through post-germinative developmental checkpoints. These processes are controlled by the stress phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). ABA regulates the basic leucine zipper transcriptional factor ABI5, a central hub of growth repression, while the reactive nitrogen molecule nitric oxide (NO) counteracts ABA during seed germination. However, the molecular mechanisms by which seeds sense more favourable conditions and start germinating have remained elusive. Here we show that ABI5 promotes growth via NO, and that ABI5 accumulation is altered in genetic backgrounds with impaired NO homeostasis. S-nitrosylation of ABI5 at cysteine-153 facilitates its degradation through CULLIN4-based and KEEP ON GOING E3 ligases, and promotes seed germination. Conversely, mutation of ABI5 at cysteine-153 deregulates protein stability and inhibition of seed germination by NO depletion. These findings suggest an inverse molecular link between NO and ABA hormone signalling through distinct posttranslational modifications of ABI5 during early seedling development. PMID:26493030

  11. Springtime resumption of photosynthesis in balsam fir (Abies balsamea).

    PubMed

    Goodine, G K; Lavigne, M B; Krasowski, M J

    2008-07-01

    Photosynthesis in balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) was measured in the field at two locations in New Brunswick, Canada from late winter to late spring in 2004 and 2005. No photosynthesis was detectable while the soil remained below 0 degrees C throughout the rooting zone. In both years, photosynthesis began once soil temperature rose to 0 degrees C. In potted seedlings in growth chambers, there was no photosynthesis at an air temperature of 10 degrees C if the pots were frozen. These findings suggest that, once air temperatures permit photosynthesis, it is the availability of unfrozen soil water that triggers the onset of photosynthesis. In the field, full recovery of photosynthetic capacity following the onset of soil thaw was dependent on air temperature and took 5 weeks in 2005, but 10 weeks in 2004. There were two substantial frost events during the recovery period in 2004 that may explain the extended recovery period. In 2005, recovery was complete after the accumulation of 200 growing degree days above 0 degrees C after the start of soil thaw. PMID:18450571

  12. Composition and antibacterial activity of Abies balsamea essential oil.

    PubMed

    Pichette, André; Larouche, Pierre-Luc; Lebrun, Maxime; Legault, Jean

    2006-05-01

    The antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Abies balsamea (balsam fir) was evaluated against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The essential oil of A. balsamea was found to be inactive against E. coli (>100 microg/mL) and active against S. aureus, with an MIC of 56 microg/mL. The oil composition was analysed by GC-MS and the antibacterial activity of each oil constituent was determined. The essential oil of A. balsamea is essentially constituted of monoterpenes (>96%) and some sesquiterpenes. beta-pinene (29.9%), delta-3-carene (19.6%) and alpha-pinene (14.6%) were the major components. beta-pinene and delta-3-carene were found inactive against both bacteria strains. However, three constituents of the essential oil were active against S. aureus: alpha-pinene, beta-caryophyllene (0.4%) and alpha-humulene (0.2%) with MIC values of 13.6 microg/mL, 5.1 microg/mL and 2.6 microg/mL, respectively. PMID:16619365

  13. Plastic responses of Abies pinsapo xylogenesis to drought and competition.

    PubMed

    Linares, Juan Carlos; Camarero, J Julio; Carreira, José Antonio

    2009-12-01

    Radial growth and xylogenesis were studied to investigate the influence of climate variability and intraspecific competition on secondary growth in Abies pinsapo Boiss., a relic Mediterranean fir. We monitored the responses to three thinning treatments (unthinned control -C-, 30% -T30- and 60% -T60- of basal area removed) to test the hypothesis that they may improve the adaptation capacity of tree growth to climatic stress. We also assessed whether xylogenesis was differentially affected by tree-to-tree competition. Secondary growth was assessed using manual band dendrometers from 2005 to 2007. In 2006, xylogenesis (phases of tracheid formation) was also investigated by taking microcores and performing histological analyses. Seasonal dynamics of radial increment were modeled using Gompertz functions and correlations with microclimate and radiation were performed. Histological analyses revealed it as fundamental to calibrate the dendrometer estimates of radial increment and to establish the actual onset and end dates of tracheid production. The lower radial-increment rates and number of produced tracheids were observed in the trees subjected to high competition in the unthinned plots. The growing season differed among the plots, and its duration ranged from an average of 78 days in unthinned plots to 115 days in thinned ones (T60). Variations in the beginning of the growing season (13 April to 22 May) and earlywood-latewood transition (early August) were mainly determined by the temperature pattern, while the onset and the end of the growing season were related to both annual precipitation and tree-to-tree competition. The tracheid-formation phases of radial enlargement and cell-wall thickening showed similar patterns in the trees from thinned and unthinned plots subjected to low and high competition, respectively, but the mean number of tracheids in each phase was always higher in the trees from the thinned plots. The reduction of competition through thinning

  14. Embolism formation during freezing in the wood of Picea abies.

    PubMed

    Mayr, Stefan; Cochard, Hervé; Améglio, Thierry; Kikuta, Silvia B

    2007-01-01

    Freeze-thaw events can cause embolism in plant xylem. According to classical theory, gas bubbles are formed during freezing and expand during thawing. Conifers have proved to be very resistant to freeze-thaw induced embolism, because bubbles in tracheids are small and redissolve during thawing. In contrast, increasing embolism rates upon consecutive freeze-thaw events were observed that cannot be explained by the classical mechanism. In this study, embolism formation during freeze-thaw events was analyzed via ultrasonic and Cryo-scanning electron microscope techniques. Twigs of Picea abies L. Karst. were subjected to up to 120 freeze-thaw cycles during which ultrasonic acoustic emissions, xylem temperature, and diameter variations were registered. In addition, the extent and cross-sectional pattern of embolism were analyzed with staining experiments and Cryo-scanning electron microscope observations. Embolism increased with the number of freeze-thaw events in twigs previously dehydrated to a water potential of -2.8 MPa. In these twigs, acoustic emissions were registered, while saturated twigs showed low, and totally dehydrated twigs showed no, acoustic activity. Acoustic emissions were detected only during the freezing process. This means that embolism was formed during freezing, which is in contradiction to the classical theory of freeze-thaw induced embolism. The clustered pattern of embolized tracheids in cross sections indicates that air spread from a dysfunctional tracheid to adjacent functional ones. We hypothesize that the low water potential of the growing ice front led to a decrease of the potential in nearby tracheids. This may result in freezing-induced air seeding.

  15. Abl Interactor 1 (Abi-1) Wave-Binding and SNARE Domains Regulate Its Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling, Lamellipodium Localization, and Wave-1 Levels

    PubMed Central

    Echarri, Asier; Lai, Margaret J.; Robinson, Matthew R.; Pendergast, Ann Marie

    2004-01-01

    The Abl interactor 1 (Abi-1) protein has been implicated in the regulation of actin dynamics and localizes to the tips of lamellipodia and filopodia. Here, we show that Abi-1 binds the actin nucleator protein Wave-1 through an amino-terminal Wave-binding (WAB) domain and that disruption of the Abi-1-Wave-1 interaction prevents Abi-1 from reaching the tip of the lamellipodium. Abi-1 binds to the Wave homology domain of Wave-1, a region that is required for translocation of Wave-1 to the lamellipodium. Mouse embryo fibroblasts that lack one allele of Abi-1 and are homozygous null for the related Abi-2 protein exhibit decreased Wave-1 protein levels. This phenotype is rescued by Abi-1 proteins that retain Wave-1 binding but not by Abi-1 mutants that cannot bind to Wave-1. Moreover, we uncovered an overlapping SNARE domain in the amino terminus of Abi-1 that interacts with Syntaxin-1, a SNARE family member. Further, we demonstrated that Abi-1 shuttles in and out of the nucleus in a leptomycin B (LMB)-dependent manner and that complete nuclear translocation of Abi-1 in the absence of LMB requires the combined inactivation of the SNARE, WAB, and SH3 domains of Abi-1. Thus, Abi-1 undergoes nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and functions at the leading edge to regulate Wave-1 localization and protein levels. PMID:15143189

  16. An Abbreviated Impulsiveness Scale (ABIS) Constructed through Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the BIS-11

    PubMed Central

    Coutlee, Christopher G.; Politzer, Cary S.; Hoyle, Rick H.; Huettel, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Impulsiveness is a personality trait that reflects an urge to act spontaneously, without thinking or planning ahead for the consequences of your actions. High impulsiveness is characteristic of a variety of problematic behaviors including attention deficit disorder, hyperactivity, excessive gambling, risk-taking, drug use, and alcoholism. Researchers studying attention and self-control often assess impulsiveness using personality questionnaires, notably the common Barratt Impulsiveness Scale version 11 (BIS-11; last revised in 1995). Advances in techniques for producing personality questionnaires over the last 20 years prompted us to revise and improve the BIS-11. We sought to make the revised scale shorter – so that it would be quicker to administer – and better matched to current behaviors. We analyzed responses from 1549 adults who took the BIS-11 questionnaire. Using a statistical technique called factor analysis, we eliminated 17 questions that did a poor job of measuring the three major types of impulsiveness identified by the scale: inattention, spontaneous action, and lack of planning. We constructed our ABbreviated Impulsiveness Scale (ABIS) using the remaining 13 questions. We showed that the ABIS performed well when administered to additional groups of 657 and 285 adults. Finally, we showed expected relationships between the ABIS and other personality measurements related to impulsiveness, and showed that the ABIS can help predict alcohol consumption. We present the ABIS as a useful and efficient tool for researchers interested in measuring impulsive personality. PMID:26258000

  17. Exploiting Measurement Uncertainty Estimation in Evaluation of GOES-R ABI Image Navigation Accuracy Using Image Registration Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, Evan; DeLuccia, Frank

    2016-01-01

    In evaluating GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) image navigation quality, upsampled sub-images of ABI images are translated against downsampled Landsat 8 images of localized, high contrast earth scenes to determine the translations in the East-West and North-South directions that provide maximum correlation. The native Landsat resolution is much finer than that of ABI, and Landsat navigation accuracy is much better than ABI required navigation accuracy and expected performance. Therefore, Landsat images are considered to provide ground truth for comparison with ABI images, and the translations of ABI sub-images that produce maximum correlation with Landsat localized images are interpreted as ABI navigation errors. The measured local navigation errors from registration of numerous sub-images with the Landsat images are averaged to provide a statistically reliable measurement of the overall navigation error of the ABI image. The dispersion of the local navigation errors is also of great interest, since ABI navigation requirements are specified as bounds on the 99.73rd percentile of the magnitudes of per pixel navigation errors. However, the measurement uncertainty inherent in the use of image registration techniques tends to broaden the dispersion in measured local navigation errors, masking the true navigation performance of the ABI system. We have devised a novel and simple method for estimating the magnitude of the measurement uncertainty in registration error for any pair of images of the same earth scene. We use these measurement uncertainty estimates to filter out the higher quality measurements of local navigation error for inclusion in statistics. In so doing, we substantially reduce the dispersion in measured local navigation errors, thereby better approximating the true navigation performance of the ABI system.

  18. The GOES-R ABI Wild Fire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, J.; Schmidt, C. C.; Prins, E. M.; Brunner, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    The global Wild Fire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA) at the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) provides fire detection and characterization using data from a global constellation of geostationary satellites, currently including GOES, MTSAT, and Meteosat. CIMSS continues to enhance the legacy of the WF_ABBA by adapting the algorithm to utilize the advanced spatial, spectral, and temporal capabilities of GOES-R ABI. A wide range of simulated ABI data cases have been generated and processed with the GOES-R fire detection and characterization algorithm. Simulated cases included MODIS derived projections as well as model derived simulations that span a variety of satellite zenith angles and ecosystems. The GOES-R ABI fire product development focuses on active fire detection and sub-pixel characterization, including fire radiative power (FRP) and instantaneous fire size and temperature. With the algorithm delivered to the system contractor, the focus has moved to developing innovative new validation techniques.

  19. No time for spruce: rapid dampening of circadian rhythms in Picea abies (L. Karst).

    PubMed

    Gyllenstrand, Niclas; Karlgren, Anna; Clapham, David; Holm, Karl; Hall, Anthony; Gould, Peter D; Källman, Thomas; Lagercrantz, Ulf

    2014-03-01

    The identification and cloning of full-length homologs of circadian clock genes from Picea abies represent a first step to study the function and evolution of the circadian clock in gymnosperms. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the sequences of key circadian clock genes are conserved between angiosperms and gymnosperms. though fewer homologous copies were found for most gene families in P. abies. We detected diurnal cycling of circadian clock genes in P. abies using quantitative real-time PCR; however, cycling appeared to be rapidly dampened under free-running conditions. Given the unexpected absence of transcriptional cycling during constant conditions, we employed a complementary method to assay circadian rhythmic outputs and measured delayed fluorescence in seedlings of Norway spruce. Neither of the two approaches to study circadian rhythms in Norway spruce could detect robust ∼24 h cycling behavior under constant conditions. These data suggest gene conservation but fundamental differences in clock function between gymnosperms and other plant taxa.

  20. Seed Source Significantly Influences Growth Rates and Disease Resistance of Abies Lasiocarpa Grown for Ornamental Nursery Stock and Christmas Trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trees from six corkbark fir (Abies lasiocarpa var. arizonica) and 10 subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa var. lasiocarpa) seed sources were grown at the University of Idaho (SREC) and three commercial nurseries in northern Idaho and northeastern Oregon. Post transplant mortality was highest during the f...

  1. Involvement of genes encoding ABI1 protein phosphatases in the response of Brassica napus L. to drought stress.

    PubMed

    Babula-Skowrońska, Danuta; Ludwików, Agnieszka; Cieśla, Agata; Olejnik, Anna; Cegielska-Taras, Teresa; Bartkowiak-Broda, Iwona; Sadowski, Jan

    2015-07-01

    In this report we characterized the Arabidopsis ABI1 gene orthologue and Brassica napus gene paralogues encoding protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C, group A), which is known to be a negative regulator of the ABA signaling pathway. Six homologous B. napus sequences were identified and characterized as putative PP2C group A members. To gain insight into the conservation of ABI1 function in Brassicaceae, and understand better its regulatory effects in the drought stress response, we generated transgenic B. napus plants overexpressing A. thaliana ABI1. Transgenic plants subjected to drought showed a decrease in relative water content, photosynthetic pigments content and expression level of RAB18- and RD19A-drought-responsive marker genes relative to WT plants. We present the characterization of the drought response of B. napus with the participation of ABI1-like paralogues. The expression pattern of two evolutionarily distant paralogues, BnaA01.ABI1.a and BnaC07.ABI1.b in B. napus and their promoter activity in A. thaliana showed differences in the induction of the paralogues under dehydration stress. Comparative sequence analysis of both BnaABI1 promoters showed variation in positions of cis-acting elements that are especially important for ABA- and stress-inducible expression. Together, these data reveal that subfunctionalization following gene duplication may be important in the maintenance and functional divergence of the BnaABI1 paralogues. Our results provide a framework for a better understanding of (1) the role of ABI1 as a hub protein regulator of the drought response, and (2) the differential involvement of the duplicated BnaABI1 genes in the response of B. napus to dehydration-related stresses.

  2. Involvement of genes encoding ABI1 protein phosphatases in the response of Brassica napus L. to drought stress.

    PubMed

    Babula-Skowrońska, Danuta; Ludwików, Agnieszka; Cieśla, Agata; Olejnik, Anna; Cegielska-Taras, Teresa; Bartkowiak-Broda, Iwona; Sadowski, Jan

    2015-07-01

    In this report we characterized the Arabidopsis ABI1 gene orthologue and Brassica napus gene paralogues encoding protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C, group A), which is known to be a negative regulator of the ABA signaling pathway. Six homologous B. napus sequences were identified and characterized as putative PP2C group A members. To gain insight into the conservation of ABI1 function in Brassicaceae, and understand better its regulatory effects in the drought stress response, we generated transgenic B. napus plants overexpressing A. thaliana ABI1. Transgenic plants subjected to drought showed a decrease in relative water content, photosynthetic pigments content and expression level of RAB18- and RD19A-drought-responsive marker genes relative to WT plants. We present the characterization of the drought response of B. napus with the participation of ABI1-like paralogues. The expression pattern of two evolutionarily distant paralogues, BnaA01.ABI1.a and BnaC07.ABI1.b in B. napus and their promoter activity in A. thaliana showed differences in the induction of the paralogues under dehydration stress. Comparative sequence analysis of both BnaABI1 promoters showed variation in positions of cis-acting elements that are especially important for ABA- and stress-inducible expression. Together, these data reveal that subfunctionalization following gene duplication may be important in the maintenance and functional divergence of the BnaABI1 paralogues. Our results provide a framework for a better understanding of (1) the role of ABI1 as a hub protein regulator of the drought response, and (2) the differential involvement of the duplicated BnaABI1 genes in the response of B. napus to dehydration-related stresses. PMID:26059040

  3. [Healing current through a goiter. The life, work and after effects of the magic healer Bruno Gröning].

    PubMed

    Mildenberger, Florian

    2008-01-01

    During the years between 1949 and 1959 the wonder healer Bruno Gröning (1906-1959) gripped the public and medical interest in Germany. He explained to be a descent of Jesus Christ, sending "healing waves" to end diseases and made a lot of money. Finally he was found guilty in letting a persuaded fan dying and was convicted. But before the end of the process he died of carcinoma, which had been operated in a regular clinic. Despite this obvious problem that Gröning demanded from his admirers refusing medical help but preferred it for his own health today his successors are still promoting his legacy.

  4. Tree mortality patterns following prescribed fire for Pinus and Abies across the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, Philip J.; Nesmith, Jonathan C. B.; Keifer, MaryBeth; Brooks, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The reintroduction of fire to historically fire-prone forests has been repeatedly shown to reduce understory fuels and promote resistance to high severity fire. However, there is concern that prescribed fire may also have unintended consequences, such as high rates of mortality for large trees and fire-tolerant Pinus species. To test this possibility we evaluated mortality patterns for two common genera in the western US, Pinus and Abies, using observations from a national-scale prescribed fire effects monitoring program. Our results show that mortality rates of trees >50 DBH were similar for Pinus (4.6% yr-1) and Abies (4.0% yr-1) 5 years following prescribed fires across seven sites in the southwestern US. In contrast, mortality rates of trees >50 cm DBH differed between Pinus (5.7% yr-1) and Abies (9.0% yr-1). Models of post-fire mortality probabilities suggested statistically significant differences between the genera (after including differences in bark thickness), but accounting for these differences resulted in only small improvements in model classification. Our results do not suggest unusually high post-fire mortality for large trees or for Pinus relative to the other common co-occurring genus, Abies, following prescribed fire in the southwestern US.

  5. Development and Implementation of a Hierarchical Classification System for the ABI/INFORM Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, David K.

    A new search feature has been developed and implemented to enhance online information retrieval from the ABI/INFORM database, which includes abstracts from more than 500 journals covering all aspects of business and management. Published by Data Courier Inc., it includes material dating back to 1971. Because of the diverse nature of the database…

  6. The Classical Classroom: Enhancing Learning for Pupils with Acquired Brain Injury (ABI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Sian A.; Skidmore, David

    2008-01-01

    This paper seeks to draw parallels between different approaches to classroom instruction and two contrasting musical styles and to examine how pupils with Acquired Brain Injuries (ABI) might fare in each. A polyphonic classroom is defined as one where an awareness of multiple layers of meaning are encouraged to enhance the learning opportunities,…

  7. Degradation of Abies veitchii wave-regeneration on Mt. Misen in Ohmine Mountains: effects of sika deer population.

    PubMed

    Tsujino, Riyou; Matsui, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Kohdai; Koda, Ryosuke; Yumoto, Takakazu; Takada, Ken-Ichi

    2013-09-01

    How has the degradation of Abies veitchii wave-regeneration occurred under the sika deer (Cervus nippon) pressure? We conducted tree census and ground vegetation survey in a 1 ha plot in Mt. Misen (Nara prefecture, Japan). We found 15 tree species (over 50 cm in height). Abies accounted for 60.0 % of all living trees, and 46.9 % of Abies were damaged (herbivory, bark stripping and/or fraying) by deer. Spatial distribution of Abies trees showed Abies-wave, although there were few saplings in the dieback zone. Estimated deer population density in 2009 was 57.3 head/km(2). Number of living Abies and standing dead conifer trees, and ground vegetation cover for each quadrat (5 × 5 m) were used to assign the quadrats into 6 clusters. The hierarchical clustering-approach revealed that living Abies distributed mainly on the moss and/or Carex fernaldiana dominated quadrats, but did not on the Dennstaedtia scabra, or Brachypodium sylvaticum dominated quadrats. While standing dead conifer trees distributed mainly on the Carex dominated quadrats, they hardly occur on the moss, the Dennstaedtia or the Brachypodium dominated quadrats. Regeneration of Abies tree and thus the wave-regeneration is hindered for now owing to deer herbivory and bark-stripping. The ground vegetation under the dieback zone has changed from the moss and/or the Carex dominated one to the Carex, the Dennstaedtia or the Brachypodium covered vegetation with the canopy remained open and without Abies regeneration. PMID:23504513

  8. Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin decoction suppresses osteoclastogenesis via increasing dehydroepiandrosterone to prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Gui, Yuyan; Qiu, Xuemin; Xu, Yingping; Li, Dajin; Wang, Ling

    2015-06-01

    Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin decoction (BSNXD), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been used to prevent and treat age-related diseases such as postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) for decades. This study sought to investigate the underlying mechanisms of BSNXD in terms of receptor activation of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro because of the critical roles of bone resorption in the development and progression of osteoporosis. In mice, serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and 17-β-estradiol (E2) were evaluated with an enzyme immunoassay kit after ovariectomy. Levels of DHEA and DHEAS increased significantly following administration of BSNXD while the level of E2 did not. In addition, tartrate-resistance acid phosphatase staining showed that DHEA profoundly inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro in a dose-dependent manner via estrogen receptor α (ERα) but not via estrogen receptor β or androgen receptors. Cytotoxicity was not detected in the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. These data suggest that BSNXD prevents PMO by increasing DHEA via the ERαpathway to suppress osteoclastogenesis.

  9. Metabolite changes in conifer buds and needles during forced bud break in Norway spruce (Picea abies) and European silver fir (Abies alba)

    PubMed Central

    Dhuli, Priyanka; Rohloff, Jens; Strimbeck, G. Richard

    2014-01-01

    Environmental changes such as early spring and warm spells induce bud burst and photosynthetic processes in cold-acclimated coniferous trees and consequently, cellular metabolism in overwintering needles and buds. The purpose of the study was to examine metabolism in conifers under forced deacclimation (artificially induced spring) by exposing shoots of Picea abies (boreal species) and Abies alba (temperate species) to a greenhouse environment (22°C, 16/8 h D/N cycle) over a 9 weeks period. Each week, we scored bud opening and collected samples for GC/MS–based metabolite profiling. We detected a total of 169 assigned metabolites and 80 identified metabolites, comprising compounds such as mono- and disaccharides, Krebs cycle acids, amino acids, polyols, phenolics, and phosphorylated structures. Untargeted multivariate statistical analysis based on PCA and cluster analysis segregated samples by species, tissue type, and stage of tissue deacclimations. Similar patterns of metabolic regulation in both species were observed in buds (amino acids, Krebs cycle acids) and needles (hexoses, pentoses, and Krebs cycle acids). Based on correlation of bud opening score with compound levels, distinct metabolites could be associated with bud and shoot development, including amino acids, sugars, and acids with known osmolyte function, and secondary metabolites. This study has shed light on how elevated temperature affects metabolism in buds and needles of conifer species during the deacclimation phase, and contributes to the discussion about how phenological characters in conifers may respond to future global warming. PMID:25566281

  10. Light acclimation of photosynthesis in two closely related firs (Abies pinsapo Boiss. and Abies alba Mill.): the role of leaf anatomy and mesophyll conductance to CO2.

    PubMed

    Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Flexas, Jaume; Galmés, Jeroni; Niinemets, Ülo; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2016-03-01

    Leaves growing in the forest understory usually present a decreased mesophyll conductance (gm) and photosynthetic capacity. The role of leaf anatomy in determining the variability in gm among species is known, but there is a lack of information on how the acclimation of gm to shade conditions is driven by changes in leaf anatomy. Within this context, we demonstrated that Abies pinsapo Boiss. experienced profound modifications in needle anatomy to drastic changes in light availability that ultimately led to differential photosynthetic performance between trees grown in the open field and in the forest understory. In contrast to A. pinsapo, its congeneric Abies alba Mill. did not show differences either in needle anatomy or in photosynthetic parameters between trees grown in the open field and in the forest understory. The increased gm values found in trees of A. pinsapo grown in the open field can be explained by occurrence of stomata at both needle sides (amphistomatous needles), increased chloroplast surface area exposed to intercellular airspace, decreased cell wall thickness and, especially, decreased chloroplast thickness. To the best of our knowledge, the role of such drastic changes in ultrastructural needle anatomy in explaining the response of gm to the light environment has not been demonstrated in field conditions. PMID:26543153

  11. Quantitative trait loci for yield and related traits in the wheat population Ning7840 x Clark.

    PubMed

    Marza, F; Bai, G-H; Carver, B F; Zhou, W-C

    2006-02-01

    Grain yield and associated agronomic traits are important factors in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) improvement. Knowledge regarding the number, genomic location, and effect of quantitative trait loci (QTL) would facilitate marker-assisted selection and the development of cultivars with desirable characteristics. Our objectives were to identify QTLs directly and indirectly affecting grain yield expression. A population of 132 F12 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was derived by single-seed descent from a cross between the Chinese facultative wheat Ning7840 and the US soft red winter wheat Clark. Phenotypic data were collected for 15 yield and other agronomic traits in the RILs and parental lines from three locations in Oklahoma from 2001 to 2003. Twenty-nine linkage groups, consisting of 363 AFLP and 47 SSR markers, were identified. Using composite interval mapping (CIM) analysis, 10, 16, 30, and 14 QTLs were detected for yield, yield components, plant adaptation (shattering and lodging resistance, heading date, and plant height), and spike morphology traits, respectively. The QTL effects ranged from 7 to 23%. Marker alleles from Clark were associated with a positive effect for the majority of QTLs for yield and yield components, but gene dispersion was the rule rather than the exception for this RIL population. Often, QTLs were detected in proximal positions for different traits. Consistent, co-localized QTLs were identified in linkage groups 1AL, 1B, 4B, 5A, 6A, and 7A, and less consistent but unique QTLs were identified on 2BL, 2BS, 2DL, and 6B. Results of this study provide a benchmark for future efforts on QTL identification for yield traits. PMID:16369760

  12. Analysis of the Phialocephala subalpina Transcriptome during Colonization of Its Host Plant Picea abies

    PubMed Central

    Reininger, Vanessa; Schlegel, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Background Phialocephala subalpina belongs to the Phialocephala fortinii s.l.–Acepphala applanata species complex (PAC) forming one of the major groups belonging to the dark septate endophytes (DSE). Depending on the strain, PAC was shown to form neutral to pathogenic associations with its host plant Picea abies. To understand PACs lifestyle we investigated the effect of presence/absence of Picea abies on the transcriptome of strain 6_70_1. Materials and Methods PAC strain 6_70_1 was grown in liquid Pachlewski media either induced by its host plant Picea abies or without host plant as a control. Mycelia were harvested in a time course (1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 11, 18 days) with and without induction by the host plant and the fungal transcriptome revealed by Illumina sequencing. Differential gene expression analysis over the time course comparing control and treatment at each time point using the ‘edgeR glm approach’ and a gene enrichment analysis using GO categories were performed. Results The three main functional groups within differentially expressed genes were ‘metabolism’, ‘transport’ and ‘cell rescue, defense and virulence’. Additionally, genes especially involved in iron metabolism could be detected by gene set enrichment analysis. Conclusion In conclusion, we found PAC strain 6_70_1 to be metabolically very active during colonization of its host plant Picea abies. A major shift in functional groups over the time course of this experiment could not be observed but GO categories which were found to be enriched showed different emphasis depending in the day post induction. PMID:26954682

  13. Final Scientific/Technical report for "ABI8: Prototype of a novel signaling factor"

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelstein, Ruth R.

    2013-02-21

    The Arabidopsis thaliana ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE8 locus encodes a highly conserved plant-specific protein that mediates abscisic acid (ABA) and sugar responses essential for growth. Although initial database comparisons revealed no domains of predictable function, it has recently been re-annotated as a member of the Glycosyltransferase family A. However, this function has not been demonstrated experimentally and no specific substrates have been identified. Mutations affecting ABI8 are near-lethal due to pleiotropic yet specific effects including altered ABA signaling, sugar transport, cell wall synthesis, root meristem maintenance, vascular patterning, and male sterility. Because the predicted sequence initially provided no clues, we used a guilt by association strategy to address function of this protein by determining its subcellular localization and identifying interacting proteins. Our studies showed that ABI8 is localized to the endomembrane system and may interact with proteins implicated in Golgi trafficking, lignification, and stress signaling. We found that the root meristem arrest reflects decreased auxin accumulation and resulting decreases in regulators required for meristem identity, all of which can be rescued by added glucose. Further studies showed that this glucose-dependence reflects reduced glucose uptake as well as the decreased expression of sugar-mobilizing enzymes. This work suggests that ABI8 may regulate trafficking of membrane proteins such as auxin transporters and cellulose synthase, but this hypothesis has not yet been tested. The altered gene expression is likely to be a secondary or later effect of this pleiotropic mutation.

  14. OsTCP19 influences developmental and abiotic stress signaling by modulating ABI4-mediated pathways

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Pradipto; Tyagi, Akhilesh Kumar; Tyagi, Akhilesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Class-I TCP transcription factors are plant-specific developmental regulators. In this study, the role of one such rice gene, OsTCP19, in water-deficit and salt stress response was explored. Besides a general upregulation by abiotic stresses, this transcript was more abundant in tolerant than sensitive rice genotypes during early hours of stress. Stress, tissue and genotype-dependent retention of a small in-frame intron in this transcript was also observed. Overexpression of OsTCP19 in Arabidopsis caused upregulation of IAA3, ABI3 and ABI4 and downregulation of LOX2, and led to developmental abnormalities like fewer lateral root formation. Moreover, decrease in water loss and reactive oxygen species, and hyperaccumulation of lipid droplets in the transgenics contributed to better stress tolerance both during seedling establishment and in mature plants. OsTCP19 was also shown to directly regulate a rice triacylglycerol biosynthesis gene in transient assays. Genes similar to those up- or downregulated in the transgenics were accordingly found to coexpress positively and negatively with OsTCP19 in Rice Oligonucleotide Array Database. Interactions of OsTCP19 with OsABI4 and OsULT1 further suggest its function in modulation of abscisic acid pathways and chromatin structure. Thus, OsTCP19 appears to be an important node in cell signaling which crosslinks stress and developmental pathways. PMID:25925167

  15. Arabidopsis YL1/BPG2 Is Involved in Seedling Shoot Response to Salt Stress through ABI4

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng-Cheng; Huang, Jin-Guang; Yu, Shao-Wei; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Sun, Peng; Wu, Chang-Ai; Zheng, Cheng-Chao

    2016-01-01

    The chloroplast-localized proteins play roles in plant salt stress response, but their mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we screened a yellow leaf mutant, yl1-1, whose shoots exhibited hypersensitivity to salt stress. We mapped YL1 to AT3G57180, which encodes a YqeH-type GTPase. YL1, as a chloroplast stroma-localized protein, could be markedly reduced by high salinity. Upon exposure to high salinity, seedling shoots of yl1-1 and yl1-2 accumulated significantly higher levels of Na+ than wild type. Expression analysis of factors involved in plant salt stress response showed that the expression of ABI4 was increased and HKT1 was evidently suppressed in mutant shoots compared with the wild type under normal growth conditions. Moreover, salinity effects on ABI4 and HKT1 were clearly weakened in the mutant shoots, suggesting that the loss of YL1 function impairs ABI4 and HKT1 expression. Notably, the shoots of yl1-2 abi4 double mutant exhibited stronger resistance to salt stress and accumulated less Na+ levels after salt treatment compared with the yl1-2 single mutant, suggesting the salt-sensitive phenotype of yl1-2 seedlings could be rescued via loss of ABI4 function. These results reveal that YL1 is involved in the salt stress response of seedling shoots through ABI4. PMID:27444988

  16. Arabidopsis YL1/BPG2 Is Involved in Seedling Shoot Response to Salt Stress through ABI4.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng-Cheng; Huang, Jin-Guang; Yu, Shao-Wei; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Sun, Peng; Wu, Chang-Ai; Zheng, Cheng-Chao

    2016-01-01

    The chloroplast-localized proteins play roles in plant salt stress response, but their mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we screened a yellow leaf mutant, yl1-1, whose shoots exhibited hypersensitivity to salt stress. We mapped YL1 to AT3G57180, which encodes a YqeH-type GTPase. YL1, as a chloroplast stroma-localized protein, could be markedly reduced by high salinity. Upon exposure to high salinity, seedling shoots of yl1-1 and yl1-2 accumulated significantly higher levels of Na(+) than wild type. Expression analysis of factors involved in plant salt stress response showed that the expression of ABI4 was increased and HKT1 was evidently suppressed in mutant shoots compared with the wild type under normal growth conditions. Moreover, salinity effects on ABI4 and HKT1 were clearly weakened in the mutant shoots, suggesting that the loss of YL1 function impairs ABI4 and HKT1 expression. Notably, the shoots of yl1-2 abi4 double mutant exhibited stronger resistance to salt stress and accumulated less Na(+) levels after salt treatment compared with the yl1-2 single mutant, suggesting the salt-sensitive phenotype of yl1-2 seedlings could be rescued via loss of ABI4 function. These results reveal that YL1 is involved in the salt stress response of seedling shoots through ABI4. PMID:27444988

  17. Transcriptional regulation of the potential tumor suppressor ABI3 gene in thyroid carcinomas: interplay between methylation and NKX2-1 availability

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Lais; Galrão, Ana Luiza R.; Rubió, Ileana; Cerutti, Janete M.

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that ABI3 expression was decreased in thyroid cancer tissues and that ectopic expression of ABI3 in a follicular thyroid carcinoma cell line delayed cell cycle progression and inhibited cell proliferation, invasion, migration and tumor formation in athymic mice. These data indicated that ABI3 is a tumor suppressor gene; however the mechanism through which ABI3 is silenced in thyroid carcinomas is unknown. We here show that treatment of four follicular thyroid carcinoma cell lines with 5-aza-dC induced demethylation of a specific region of the ABI3 promoter and restored ABI3 expression. In contrast, 5-aza-dC treatment did not restore ABI3 expression in a non-thyroid cell line, suggesting a tissue-specific regulation. We additionally show that 8 CpG sites located within the ABI3 promoter are hypermethylated in most thyroid carcinoma samples and the degree of methylation correlated with ABI3 expression. Narrowing the region to specific CpG sites, the CpG4-6 sites showed the largest difference between benign and malignant lesions. In silico analysis revealed that these CpG sites flank a canonical binding site for NKX2-1, a thyroid specific transcriptional factor. Analysis of thyroid samples shows a correlation between NKX2-1 and ABI3 expression. In vitro assays demonstrate that NKX2-1 was required for ABI3 expression. Luciferase assay further confirmed the promoter activity of this region, which was increased when the cells were co-transfected with NKX2-1. Our study shows that the transcriptional silencing of ABI3 in cancer cells occurs via methylation and uncovered a previously unrecognized role for NKX2-1 in the regulation of ABI3. PMID:27036019

  18. Comparing Hyperion Lunar Observation with model calculations in support of GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Xi; Cao, Changyong; Uprety, Sirish; Padula, Frank; Choi, Taeyoung

    2014-09-01

    Radiometric stability of the lunar surface and its smooth reflectance spectrum makes the moon an attractive candidate for calibrating satellite-based hyper/multi-band visible and infrared imagers. Long-term performance monitoring of satellite instrument using Moon can reveal the degradation of instruments. In this paper, analysis of Hyperion lunar observations and comparison with lunar model are performed in support of Cal/Val activities for satellite photometric imager such as GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) instrument. Hyperion makes hyper-spectral observations of the moon regularly with moon phase mostly at 7 degree and it covers visible and shirt-wavelength infrared (SWIR) channels with 10 nm spectral resolution. Five Hyperion lunar observations are analyzed. Lunar reflectance is derived from Hyperion observation and the mean absolute lunar spectral reflectance difference between Hyperion derivation and lunar model is 4.0 ± 2.62%. Through reflectance comparison, over-compensation of two strong atmospheric water absorption bands in Hyperion calibration is identified. The radiometric variance and degradation of Hyperion are assessed. To support the calibration of GOES-R ABI, hyper-spectral data of Hyperion lunar observation is convoluted with ABI spectral response functions for reflective solar bands to synthesize predicted lunar images to be observed by ABI. Lunar irradiances are derived from these synthesized lunar images for ABI and compared with lunar model predictions to quantify spectral biases. Long-term lunar imaging window of opportunities for GOES-R ABI are also assessed. The ability of using lunar model and Hyperion observation to calibrate satellite VNIR/SWIR sensors and reduce the measurement uncertainties is essential to support post-launch Cal/Val activities of GOES-R ABI.

  19. Identification of Salt Stress Biomarkers in Romanian Carpathian Populations of Picea abies (L.) Karst.

    PubMed Central

    Schiop, Sorin T.; Al Hassan, Mohamad; Sestras, Adriana F.; Boscaiu, Monica; Sestras, Radu E.; Vicente, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    The Norway spruce (Picea abies), the most important tree species in European forests, is relatively sensitive to salt and does not grow in natural saline environments. Yet many trees are actually exposed to salt stress due to the common practice of de-icing of mountain roads in winter, using large amounts of NaCl. To help develop strategies for an appropriate use of reproductive seed material on reforestation sites, ensuring better chances of seedling survival in salt-affected areas, we have studied the responses of young spruce seedlings to salt treatments. The specific aim of the work was to identify the optimal salt stress biomarkers in Picea abies, using as experimental material seedlings obtained by germination of seeds with origin in seven populations from the Romanian Carpathian Mountains. These responses included general, conserved reactions such as the accumulation of ions and different osmolytes in the seedlings needles, reduction in photosynthetic pigments levels, or activation of antioxidant systems. Although changes in the contents of different compounds involved in these reactions can be associated to the degree of stress affecting the plants, we propose that the (decreasing) levels of total phenolics or total carotenoids and the (increasing) levels of Na+ or K+ ions in Picea abies needles, should be considered as the most reliable and useful biomarkers for salt stress in this species. They all show very high correlation with the intensity of salt stress, independently of the genetic background of the seeds parental population, and relatively easy, quantitative assays are available to determine their concentrations, requiring simple equipment and little amount of plant material. PMID:26287687

  20. Identification of Salt Stress Biomarkers in Romanian Carpathian Populations of Picea abies (L.) Karst.

    PubMed

    Schiop, Sorin T; Al Hassan, Mohamad; Sestras, Adriana F; Boscaiu, Monica; Sestras, Radu E; Vicente, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    The Norway spruce (Picea abies), the most important tree species in European forests, is relatively sensitive to salt and does not grow in natural saline environments. Yet many trees are actually exposed to salt stress due to the common practice of de-icing of mountain roads in winter, using large amounts of NaCl. To help develop strategies for an appropriate use of reproductive seed material on reforestation sites, ensuring better chances of seedling survival in salt-affected areas, we have studied the responses of young spruce seedlings to salt treatments. The specific aim of the work was to identify the optimal salt stress biomarkers in Picea abies, using as experimental material seedlings obtained by germination of seeds with origin in seven populations from the Romanian Carpathian Mountains. These responses included general, conserved reactions such as the accumulation of ions and different osmolytes in the seedlings needles, reduction in photosynthetic pigments levels, or activation of antioxidant systems. Although changes in the contents of different compounds involved in these reactions can be associated to the degree of stress affecting the plants, we propose that the (decreasing) levels of total phenolics or total carotenoids and the (increasing) levels of Na+ or K+ ions in Picea abies needles, should be considered as the most reliable and useful biomarkers for salt stress in this species. They all show very high correlation with the intensity of salt stress, independently of the genetic background of the seeds parental population, and relatively easy, quantitative assays are available to determine their concentrations, requiring simple equipment and little amount of plant material.

  1. Critically reduced frost resistance of Picea abies during sprouting could be linked to cytological changes.

    PubMed

    Neuner, G; Beikircher, B

    2010-07-01

    Frost resistance of sprouting Picea abies shoots is insufficient for survival of naturally occurring late frosts. The cellular changes during sprouting appeared to be responsible for frost damage as frost events that damaged sprouting shoots did not damage older needles and stems. Whilst resting buds showed initial frost damage at -15.0 degrees C, 20 days later, current year's growth was damaged at -5.6 degrees C. The decrease in frost resistance in sprouting shoots of P. abies was accompanied by a significant reduction of the cellular solute concentration, indicated by much less negative Psi(oSAT) values (increase from -2.8 to -1.2 MPa). psi(oSAT) decreased again after the final cell volume was reached and cell wall thickening began. After bud break, ice nucleation temperature increased from -4.7 degrees C to -1.5 degrees C. This increase was probably caused by the loss of bud scales, the onset of expansion growth of the central cylinder and the development of vascular tissue permitting the spread of ice from the stem into the growing needles. The onset of mesophyll cell wall thickening coincided with the lowest frost resistances. Cell wall thickening caused an increase in the modulus of elasticity, epsilon, indicating a decrease in tissue elasticity and after that frost resistance increased again. Metabolic and cytological changes that evidently leave little leeway for frost hardening are responsible for the low frost resistance in current year's growth of P. abies. This low frost resistance will be significant in the future as the risk of frost damage due to earlier bud break is anticipated to even further increase.

  2. Degradation of the ABA co-receptor ABI1 by PUB12/13 U-box E3 ligases

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Lingyao; Cheng, Jinkui; Zhu, Yujuan; Ding, Yanglin; Meng, Jingjing; Chen, Zhizhong; Xie, Qi; Guo, Yan; Li, Jigang; Yang, Shuhua; Gong, Zhizhong

    2015-01-01

    Clade A protein phosphatase 2Cs (PP2Cs) are abscisic acid (ABA) co-receptors that block ABA signalling by inhibiting the downstream protein kinases. ABA signalling is activated after PP2Cs are inhibited by ABA-bound PYR/PYL/RCAR ABA receptors (PYLs) in Arabidopsis. However, whether these PP2Cs are regulated by other factors remains unknown. Here, we report that ABI1 (ABA-INSENSITIVE 1) can interact with the U-box E3 ligases PUB12 and PUB13, but is ubiquitinated only when it interacts with ABA receptors in an in vitro assay. A mutant form of ABI1-1 that is unable to interact with PYLs is more stable than the wild-type protein. Both ABI1 degradation and all tested ABA responses are reduced in pub12 pub13 mutants compared with the wild type. Introducing the abi1-3 loss-of-function mutation into pub12 pub13 mutant recovers the ABA-insensitive phenotypes of the pub12 pub13 mutant. We thus uncover an important regulatory mechanism for regulating ABI1 levels by PUB12 and PUB13. PMID:26482222

  3. [Prophylactic efficacy of aerosol preparations based on Abies siberica polyprenols in experimental influenza infection].

    PubMed

    Sergeev, A N; Safatov, A S; P'iankov, O V; Bulychev, L E; Zhukov, V A; Alekseeva, A G; Petrishchenko, V A; Shishkina, L N; Poryvaev, V D; Glotov, A G

    2001-01-01

    Preliminary investigations showed high preventive activity of two of three aerosol preparations of Abies sibirica polyprenols with nonionic surface active substances towards influenza infection. At least 2 aerosol administrations are needed to attain a high protective effect, the second dose depending on the first. Relationship between animal reaction to influenza virus infection changed in a nonmonotonous mode, depending on the drug dose injected during the first treatment: as the dose increased, the death rate first decreased and reached the minimum and then increased again. Such a reaction to aerosol treatment can be explained by the hypothesis of hyperstimulation followed by exhaustion of the host defense systems after high doses of the preparation.

  4. In vitro binding of Sorghum bicolor transcription factors ABI4 and ABI5 to a conserved region of a GA 2-OXIDASE promoter: possible role of this interaction in the expression of seed dormancy.

    PubMed

    Cantoro, Renata; Crocco, Carlos Daniel; Benech-Arnold, Roberto Luis; Rodríguez, María Verónica

    2013-12-01

    The precise adjustment of the timing of dormancy release according to final grain usage is still a challenge for many cereal crops. Grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] shows wide intraspecific variability in dormancy level and susceptibility to pre-harvest sprouting (PHS). Both embryo sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) metabolism play an important role in the expression of dormancy of the developing sorghum grain. In previous works, it was shown that, simultaneously with a greater embryo sensitivity to ABA and higher expression of SbABA-INSENSITIVE 4 (SbABI4) and SbABA-INSENSITIVE 5 (SbABI5), dormant grains accumulate less active GA4 due to a more active GA catabolism. In this work, it is demonstrated that the ABA signalling components SbABI4 and SbABI5 interact in vitro with a fragment of the SbGA 2-OXIDASE 3 (SbGA2ox3) promoter containing an ABA-responsive complex (ABRC). Both transcription factors were able to bind the promoter, although not simultaneously, suggesting that they might compete for the same cis-acting regulatory sequences. A biological role for these interactions in the expression of dormancy of sorghum grains is proposed: either SbABI4 and/or SbABI5 activate transcription of the SbGA2ox3 gene in vivo and promote SbGA2ox3 protein accumulation; this would result in active degradation of GA4, thus preventing germination of dormant grains. A comparative analysis of the 5'-regulatory region of GA2oxs from both monocots and dicots is also presented; conservation of the ABRC in closely related GA2oxs from Brachypodium distachyon and rice suggest that these species might share the same regulatory mechanism as proposed for grain sorghum.

  5. Cryptococcose neuroméningée et tuberculose osseuse chez un immunocompétent: un cas

    PubMed Central

    Gbané-Koné, Mariam; Ouali, Boubacar; Mègne, Estelle; Diomandé, Mohamed; Coulibaly, Abidou Kawalé; Eti, Edmond; Kouakou, N'zué Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Les auteurs rapportent un cas de cryptococcose neuroméningée (CNM) chez un patient de 39 ans, non infecté par le VIH suivi pour une tuberculose de hanche. Le tableau clinique était celui d'une méningite subaiguë. Le diagnostic a été possible grâce à la mise en évidence de cryptocoques dans le LCR. L’évolution a été satisfaisante sous fluconazole. PMID:26090057

  6. The Andean Biotic Index (ABI): revised tolerance to pollution values for macroinvertebrate families and index performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Touma, Blanca; Acosta, Raúl; Prat, Narcís

    2014-04-01

    Score-based biotic indices are widely used to evaluate the water quality of streams and rivers. Few adaptations of these indices have been done for South America because there is a lack of knowledge on macroinvertebrate taxonomy, distribution and tolerance to pollution in the region. Several areas in the Andes are densely populated and there is need for methods to assess the impact of increasing human pressures on aquatic ecosystems. Considering the unique ecological and geographical features of the Andes, macroinvertebrate indices used in other regions must be adapted with caution. Here we present a review of the literature on macroinvertebrate distribution and tolerance to pollution in Andean areas above 2,000 masl. Using these data, we propose an Andean Biotic Index (ABI), which is based on the BMWP index. In general, ABI includes fewer macroinvertebrate families than in other regions of the world where the BMWP index has been applied because altitude restricts the distribution of several families. Our review shows that in the high Andes, the tolerance of several macroinvertebrate families to pollution differs from those reported in other areas. We tested the ABI index in two basins in Ecuador and Peru, and compared it to other BMWP adaptations using the reference condition approach. The ABI index is extremely useful for detecting the general impairment of rivers but class quality boundaries should be defined independently for each basin because reference conditions may be different. The ABI is widely used in Ecuador and Peru, with high correlations with land-use pressures in several studies. The ABI index is an integral part of the new multimetric index designed for high Andean streams (IMEERA).

  7. Development of LiDAR aware allometrics for Abies grandis: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, G. A.; Tinkham, W. T.; Smith, A. M.; Hudak, A. T.; Falkowski, M. J.; Keefe, R.

    2012-12-01

    Forest managers rely increasingly on accurate allometric relationships to inform decisions regarding stand rotations, silvilcultural treatments, timber harvesting, and biometric modeling. At the same time, advances in remote sensing techniques like LiDAR (light detection and ranging) have brought about opportunities to advance how we assess forest growth, and thus are contributing to the need for more accurate allometries. Past studies have attempted to relate LiDAR data to both plot and individual tree measures of forest biomass. However, many of these studies have been limited by the accuracy of their coincident observations. In this study, 24 Abies grandis were measured, felled, and dissected for the explicit objective of developing LiDAR aware allometrics. The analysis predicts spatial variables of competition, growth potential (e.g, trees per acre, aspect, elevation, etc.) and common statistical distributional metrics (e.g., mean, mode, percentiles, variance, skewness, kurtosis, etc.) derived from LiDAR point cloud returns to coincident in situ measures of Abies grandis stem biomass. The resulting allometries exemplify a new approach for predicting structural attributes of interest (biomass, basal area, volume, etc.) directly from LiDAR point cloud data, precluding the measurement errors that are propogated by indirectly predicting these structure attributes of interest from LiDAR data using traditional plot-based measurements.

  8. The dependence of water potential in shoots of Picea abies on air and soil water status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellin, A.

    1998-04-01

    Where there is sufficient water storage in the soil the water potential (x) in shoots of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] is strongly governed by the vapour pressure deficit of the atmosphere, while the mean minimum values of x usually do not drop below -1.5 MPa under meteorological conditions in Estonia. If the base water potential (b) is above -0.62 MPa, the principal factor causing water deficiency in shoots of P. abies may be either limited soil water reserves or atmospheric evaporative demand depending on the current level of the vapour pressure deficit. As the soil dries the stomatal control becomes more efficient in preventing water losses from the foliage, and the leaf water status, in turn, less sensitive to atmospheric demand. Under drought conditions, if b falls below -0.62 MPa, the trees' water stress is mainly caused by low soil water availability. Further declines in the shoot water potential (below -1.5 MPa) can be attributed primarily to further decreases in the soil water, i.e. to the static water stress.

  9. Ectomycorrhizal fungal assemblages of Abies alba Mill. outside its native range in Poland.

    PubMed

    Rudawska, Maria; Pietras, Marcin; Smutek, Iwona; Strzeliński, Paweł; Leski, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Abies alba (Mill.) is an important forest tree species, native to the mountainous regions of Europe but has been also widely introduced in the lowlands outside its native range. Like most forest tree species, A. alba forms obligate mutualisms with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. This investigation sought to examine ECM fungal communities of A. alba when the species grows 400 km north of its native range in the region of Pomerania in Poland. We surveyed for ECM fungi by sampling live roots from four mature forest stands where the A. alba component ranged from 20 to 100%. Ectomycorrhizal fungal symbionts were identified based on morphotyping and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Thirty-five ECM fungal taxa were distinguished on root tips of A. alba from all tested stands with 22 to 27 ECM fungal taxa in the individual stand. The diversity and similarity metrics revealed a lack of statistical differences in the structure of the ECM fungal community between stands varying in overstory tree composition. Cenococcum geophilum was the most common fungal species at all investigated A. alba stands, with an abundance of 50 to 70%. The ECM community was characterized by the lack of Abies-specific fungal symbionts and a rich and diverse suite of host-generalist mycobionts that seem to be sufficient for successful growth and development of A. alba outside of its native range.

  10. Arabidopsis protein phosphatase 2C ABI1 interacts with type I ACC synthases and is involved in the regulation of ozone-induced ethylene biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ludwików, Agnieszka; Cieśla, Agata; Kasprowicz-Maluśki, Anna; Mituła, Filip; Tajdel, Małgorzata; Gałgański, Łukasz; Ziółkowski, Piotr A; Kubiak, Piotr; Małecka, Arleta; Piechalak, Aneta; Szabat, Marta; Górska, Alicja; Dąbrowski, Maciej; Ibragimow, Izabela; Sadowski, Jan

    2014-06-01

    Ethylene plays a crucial role in various biological processes and therefore its biosynthesis is strictly regulated by multiple mechanisms. Posttranslational regulation, which is pivotal in controlling ethylene biosynthesis, impacts 1-aminocyclopropane 1-carboxylate synthase (ACS) protein stability via the complex interplay of specific factors. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis thaliana protein phosphatase type 2C, ABI1, a negative regulator of abscisic acid signaling, is involved in the regulation of ethylene biosynthesis under oxidative stress conditions. We found that ABI1 interacts with ACS6 and dephosphorylates its C-terminal fragment, a target of the stress-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinase, MPK6. In addition, ABI1 controls MPK6 activity directly and by this means also affects the ACS6 phosphorylation level. Consistently with this, ozone-induced ethylene production was significantly higher in an ABI1 knockout strain (abi1td) than in wild-type plants. Importantly, an increase in stress-induced ethylene production in the abi1td mutant was compensated by a higher ascorbate redox state and elevated antioxidant activities. Overall, the results of this study provide evidence that ABI1 restricts ethylene synthesis by affecting the activity of ACS6. The ABI1 contribution to stress phenotype underpins its role in the interplay between the abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene signaling pathways. PMID:24637173

  11. A possibility as a new type of thermoelectric application on organic-inorganic hybrid perovsike ABI3 system: A density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Changhoon; Hong, Jisook; Shim, Ji Hoon; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan; Postech Team

    2015-03-01

    The electronic structures of organic-inorganic hybrid systems ABI3 (A = CH3NH3, NH2CHNH2; B = Sn, Pb; X = I) in the distorted phase from their patent cubic phase are systematically studied using the first-principles calculations. Here, we examine thermoelectric properties for ABI3 compounds based on the DFT electronic structures of their optimized crystal structures. The ABI3 compounds should be considered for good thermoelectric application. We reveal that good thermoelectric performance of ABI3 systems originate from large seebeck coefficients and low thermal conductivities. As a consequence, we predict that ABI3 system is a promising material for new thermoelectric application compared to thermoelectric properties of well-known thermoelectric material Bi2Te3. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (2013R1A1A2060341).

  12. Convergence of light and chloroplast signals for de-etiolation through ABI4-HY5 and COP1.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiumei; Chi, Wei; Sun, Xuwu; Feng, Peiqiang; Guo, Hailong; Li, Jing; Lin, Rongcheng; Lu, Congming; Wang, Haiyang; Leister, Dario; Zhang, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    Seedling de-etiolation prepares plants to switch from heterotrophic to photoautotrophic growth, a transition essential for plant survival. This delicate de-etiolation process is precisely controlled by environmental and endogenous signals. Although intracellular plastid-derived retrograde signalling is essential for the de-etiolation process, the molecular nature of these retrograde signals remains elusive(1-3). Here we show that chloroplast and light signals antagonistically fine-tune a suite of developmental and physiological responses associated with de-etiolation through a transcriptional module of ABA INSENSITIVE 4 (ABI4) and ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5). Moreover, ABI4 and HY5 antagonistically regulate the expression of CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1) and the subsequent greening process. In turn, ABI4 and HY5 are targeted for degradation by COP1 in the light and dark, respectively, to ensure a proper interplay of ABI4 and HY5 actions during seedling de-etiolation. Our study provides a new molecular mechanism for understanding how chloroplast signals converge with light signals to optimize early plant development. PMID:27255835

  13. Measuring HER2-Receptor Expression In Metastatic Breast Cancer Using [68Ga]ABY-025 Affibody PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Sörensen, Jens; Velikyan, Irina; Sandberg, Dan; Wennborg, Anders; Feldwisch, Joachim; Tolmachev, Vladimir; Orlova, Anna; Sandström, Mattias; Lubberink, Mark; Olofsson, Helena; Carlsson, Jörgen; Lindman, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging of HER2 expression could potentially be used to select patients for HER2-targed therapy, predict response based on uptake and be used for monitoring. In this phase I/II study the HER2-binding Affibody molecule ABY-025 was labeled with 68Ga-gallium ([68Ga]ABY-025) for PET to study effect of peptide mass, test-retest variability and correlation of quantified uptake in tumors to histopathology. Experimental design: Sixteen women with known metastatic breast cancer and on-going treatment were included and underwent FDG PET/CT to identify viable metastases. After iv injection of 212±46 MBq [68Ga]ABY-025 whole-body PET was performed at 1, 2 and 4 h. In the first 10 patients (6 with HER2-positive and 4 with HER2-negative primary tumors), [68Ga]ABY-025 PET/CT with two different doses of injected peptide was performed one week apart. In the last six patients (5 HER2-positive and 1 HER2-negative primary tumors), repeated [68Ga]ABY-025 PET were performed one week apart as a test-retest of uptake in individual lesions. Biopsies from 16 metastases in 12 patients were collected for verification of HER2 expression by immunohistochemistry and in-situ hybridization. Results: Imaging 4h after injection with high peptide content discriminated HER2-positive metastases best (p<0.01). PET SUV correlated with biopsy HER2-scores (r=0.91, p<0.001). Uptake was five times higher in HER2-positive than in HER2-negative lesions with no overlap (p=0.005). The test-retest intra-class correlation was r=0.996. [68Ga]ABY-025 PET correctly identified conversion and mixed expression of HER2 and targeted treatment was changed in 3 of the 16 patients. Conclusion: [68Ga]ABY-025 PET accurately quantifies whole-body HER2-receptor status in metastatic breast cancer. PMID:26877784

  14. Exploratory assessment of groundwater vulnerability to pollution in Abi, southeastern Nigeria, using geophysical and geological techniques.

    PubMed

    Akpan, Anthony E; Ebong, Ebong D; Emeka, Chimezie N

    2015-04-01

    The geophysical-based integrated electrical conductivity (IEC) and the groundwater hydraulic confinement-overlying strata-depth to water table (GOD) techniques were used to assess vulnerability levels of aquifers and the extent of aquifer protection in Abi, Nigeria. The IEC indices was generated from constrained one dimensional (1D) inversion of vertical electrical sounding (VES) and two dimensional (2D) electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data, acquired randomly in the area. The GOD indices were sourced from existing geologic data within the area. Results showed that IEC values vary from <0.1 S in the weakly protected areas to >2.0 S in the strongly protected areas. The GOD indices vary from <0.3 in the lowly vulnerable areas to 0.6 in the highly vulnerable areas. Thus, the groundwater resources in the area need to be properly managed for sustainability and such management practices have been suggested.

  15. Serendipitous Meta-Transcriptomics: The Fungal Community of Norway Spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Delhomme, Nicolas; Sundström, Görel; Zamani, Neda; Lantz, Henrik; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Hvidsten, Torgeir R; Höppner, Marc P; Jern, Patric; Van de Peer, Yves; Lundeberg, Joakim; Grabherr, Manfred G; Street, Nathaniel R

    2015-01-01

    After performing de novo transcript assembly of >1 billion RNA-Sequencing reads obtained from 22 samples of different Norway spruce (Picea abies) tissues that were not surface sterilized, we found that assembled sequences captured a mix of plant, lichen, and fungal transcripts. The latter were likely expressed by endophytic and epiphytic symbionts, indicating that these organisms were present, alive, and metabolically active. Here, we show that these serendipitously sequenced transcripts need not be considered merely as contamination, as is common, but that they provide insight into the plant's phyllosphere. Notably, we could classify these transcripts as originating predominantly from Dothideomycetes and Leotiomycetes species, with functional annotation of gene families indicating active growth and metabolism, with particular regards to glucose intake and processing, as well as gene regulation. PMID:26413905

  16. Exploratory assessment of groundwater vulnerability to pollution in Abi, southeastern Nigeria, using geophysical and geological techniques.

    PubMed

    Akpan, Anthony E; Ebong, Ebong D; Emeka, Chimezie N

    2015-04-01

    The geophysical-based integrated electrical conductivity (IEC) and the groundwater hydraulic confinement-overlying strata-depth to water table (GOD) techniques were used to assess vulnerability levels of aquifers and the extent of aquifer protection in Abi, Nigeria. The IEC indices was generated from constrained one dimensional (1D) inversion of vertical electrical sounding (VES) and two dimensional (2D) electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data, acquired randomly in the area. The GOD indices were sourced from existing geologic data within the area. Results showed that IEC values vary from <0.1 S in the weakly protected areas to >2.0 S in the strongly protected areas. The GOD indices vary from <0.3 in the lowly vulnerable areas to 0.6 in the highly vulnerable areas. Thus, the groundwater resources in the area need to be properly managed for sustainability and such management practices have been suggested. PMID:25736831

  17. Serendipitous Meta-Transcriptomics: The Fungal Community of Norway Spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Delhomme, Nicolas; Sundström, Görel; Zamani, Neda; Lantz, Henrik; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Hvidsten, Torgeir R; Höppner, Marc P; Jern, Patric; Van de Peer, Yves; Lundeberg, Joakim; Grabherr, Manfred G; Street, Nathaniel R

    2015-01-01

    After performing de novo transcript assembly of >1 billion RNA-Sequencing reads obtained from 22 samples of different Norway spruce (Picea abies) tissues that were not surface sterilized, we found that assembled sequences captured a mix of plant, lichen, and fungal transcripts. The latter were likely expressed by endophytic and epiphytic symbionts, indicating that these organisms were present, alive, and metabolically active. Here, we show that these serendipitously sequenced transcripts need not be considered merely as contamination, as is common, but that they provide insight into the plant's phyllosphere. Notably, we could classify these transcripts as originating predominantly from Dothideomycetes and Leotiomycetes species, with functional annotation of gene families indicating active growth and metabolism, with particular regards to glucose intake and processing, as well as gene regulation.

  18. Lipase inhibitory and LDL anti-oxidative triterpenes from Abies sibirica.

    PubMed

    Handa, Mizuho; Murata, Toshihiro; Kobayashi, Kyoko; Selenge, Erdenechimeg; Miyase, Toshio; Batkhuu, Javzan; Yoshizaki, Fumihiko

    2013-02-01

    A methanol extract of Abies sibirica Ladeb, a Mongolian medicinal plant, had an inhibitory effect on both lipase activity in mouse plasma and LDL anti-oxidative activity, which are preventative factors for arteriosclerosis. The extract was fractionated by silica gel column chromatography and its active constituents were sought. From lipid soluble fractions, 20 terpenoids including seven hitherto unknown triterpenes were isolated. The latter triterpenes had either a γ-lactone ring with a lactol or a derivative thereof. Their chemical structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. The lipase inhibitory activity and LDL anti-oxidative activity of these compounds were evaluated. Some constituents (either lipase inhibitory or LDL anti-oxidative activities) had moderate inhibitory activities. PMID:23261031

  19. In vitro fungistatic effects of natural coniferous resin from Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Rautio, M; Sipponen, A; Lohi, J; Lounatmaa, K; Koukila-Kähkölä, P; Laitinen, K

    2012-08-01

    Resins (rosin, pitch) are natural products of the coniferous trees and are antimicrobial against a wide range of microbes. The antifungal effectiveness of resin, purified from Norway spruce (Picea abies), was studied against human pathogenic fungi and yeasts with the agar plate diffusion tests and electron microscopy (EM). The fungistatic effect of these resin mixtures (resin salves) was tested against a set of Candida yeasts, dermatophytes, and opportunistic fungi. Transmission and scanning EM was done from samples of fungi (Trichophyton mentagrophytes). In agar diffusion tests, the resin was strongly antifungal against all dermatophytes tested, e.g., against all fungi of the genus Trichophyton, but it was not antifungal against the Candida yeasts or against the opportunistic fungi tested. According to EM, resin caused damages in the cell hyphae and cell wall structures. We conclude that, in the agar plate diffusion test, coniferous resins are strongly fungistatic against the dermatophytic fungi only.

  20. [Mechanisms of action of aerosol preparations based on Abies siberica polyprenols in experimental influenza infection].

    PubMed

    Shishkina, L N; Safatov, A S; Sergeev, A N; Zhukov, V A; Bulychev, L E; P'iankov, O V; Poryvaev, V D; P'iankova, O G; Buriak, G A; Goncharova, E P

    2001-01-01

    Humoral and cellular mechanisms of Abies sibirica polyprenol effects on nonspecific resistance of mice to influenza A/Aichi/2/68 virus were investigated. Two aerosol doses of polyprenols had a high protective effect in mice challenged with influenza virus. Aerosol polyprenol preparations in the studied doses induced no interferon or tumor necrosis factor production in the lungs. Lung macrophage counts and capacity to produce superoxide anion radicals increased in survivors after influenza in comparison with intact animals. Double aerosol administration of polyprenols prior to influenza infection promoted an increase in the thymus weight, bronchoalveolar tract cell counts (predominantly at the expense of lymphocytes), and of superoxide-producing potential of macrophages, which, in turn, can contribute to improvement of the defense potential of the organism towards influenza virus.

  1. Growing trees on completed sanitary landfills. [Nyssa sylvatica, Picea abies, Ginkgo biloba

    SciTech Connect

    Leone, I.A.; Gilman, E.F.; Flower, F.B.

    1983-01-01

    A 10-year old completed landfill in New Jersey consisting of 9 m (depth) of refuse covered with 15-25 cm of soil was cleared of debris and vegetation and covered with 30 cm of subsoil and 15-25 cm of topsoil. Nineteen coniferous and broadleaved species were planted on the landfill and on a control site in 1975, and trees were maintained and growth and condition monitored over 4 years. On the basis of shoot length and stem area increase, the most successful of the surviving trees were Nyssa sylvatica, Picea abies and Ginkgo biloba, in decreasing order of tolerance. Tolerance of landfill conditions appeared to be greatest in those species with low water requirements, a slow growth rate, high acid tolerance and a shallow root system. (Refs. 11).

  2. Cytokinin induced somatic embryogenesis from immature embryos of Abies nordmanniana Lk.

    PubMed

    Viktor Nørgaard, J; Krogstrup, P

    1991-01-01

    Abies nordmanniana Lk. is used in short intensive rotations for Christmas tree production. Thus there is a high demand for development of advanced propagation and breeding methods. Somatic embryogenesis was easily induced from immature (precotyledonary) embryos collected in July 1989 with cytokinin as the sole plant growth regulator. The proliferating embryogenic cell masses were characteristic of conifer somatic embryogenesis and could be maintained on a simple basal medium containing 5 μM benzylaminopurine. Auxin inhibited induction as well as proliferation. Proliferation was improved by up to 30 % by addition of L-glutamine and/or casein hydrolysate. Neither cytokinin concentration nor culture on 3 different basal media, differing markedly in their nitrogen composition, affected the proliferation rate. Embryos matured using a 4 week subculture on medium containing 10 μM abscisic acid and subsequent transfer to medium devoid of plant growth regulators.

  3. Positive role of a wheat HvABI5 ortholog in abiotic stress response of seedlings.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Fuminori; Maeta, Eri; Terashima, Akihiro; Takumi, Shigeo

    2008-09-01

    ABA-responsive element binding protein (AREB) and ABA-responsive element binding factor (ABF), members of the basic region/leucine zipper (bZIP)-type protein family, act as major transcription factors in ABA-responsive gene expression under abiotic stress conditions in Arabidopsis. Barley HvABI5 and rice transcription factor responsible for ABA regulation 1 (TRAB1) are homologues of AREB/ABF and are expressed in drought- and ABA-treated seedlings. However, no direct evidence has shown an association of an AREB/ABF-type transcription factor with stress tolerance in cereals. To understand the molecular basis of abiotic stress tolerance through a cereal AREB/ABF-type transcription factor, a wheat HvABI5 ortholog, Wabi5, was isolated and characterized. Wabi5 expression was activated by low temperature, drought and exogenous ABA treatment, and its expression pattern differed between two wheat accessions with distinct levels of stress tolerance and ABA sensitivity. Wabi5-expressing transgenic tobacco plants showed a significant increase in tolerance to abiotic stresses such as freezing, osmotic and salt stresses and a hypersensitivity to exogenous ABA in the seedling stage compared with wild-type plants. Expression of a GUS reporter gene under the control of promoters of three wheat cold-responsive/late embryogenesis abundant (Cor/Lea) genes, Wdhn13, Wrab18 and Wrab19, was enhanced by ectopic Wabi5 expression in wheat callus and tobacco plants. These results clearly indicated that WABI5 functions as a transcriptional regulator of the Cor/Lea genes in multiple abiotic stress responses in common wheat.

  4. Radical Scavenging Activity of the Essential Oil of Silver Fir (Abies alba).

    PubMed

    Yang, Seun-Ah; Jeon, Sang-Kyung; Lee, Eun-Jung; Im, Nam-Kyung; Jhee, Kwang-Hwan; Lee, Sam-Pin; Lee, In-Seon

    2009-05-01

    The essential oil of silver fir (Abies alba) is known to help respiratory system and have easing and soothing effect for muscle. In the present study, we investigated the chemical composition, cytotoxicity and its biological activities of silver fir (Abies alba) essential oil. The composition of the oil was analyzed by GC-MS and bornyl acetate (30.31%), camphene (19.81%), 3-carene (13.85%), tricyclene (12.90%), dl-limonene (7.50%), alpha-pinene (2.87%), caryophyllene (2.18%), beta-phellandrene (2.13%), borneol (1.74%), bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene,2,3-dimethyl (1.64%) and alpha-terpinene (1.24%) were the major components in the oil. The results tested by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay indicated that the oil showed no cytotoxic effect, at concentrations of 1 and 5%, for as long as 24 and 3 h, respectively. The antiradical capacity was evaluated by measuring the scavenging activity of the essential oil on the 2,20-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis 3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radicals. The oil was able to reduce the both radicals dose-dependently, and the concentration required for 50% reduction (RC(50)) against DPPH radicals (2.7 +/- 0.63%) was lower than ABTS radicals (8.5 +/- 0.27%). The antibacterial activity of the oil was also evaluated using disc diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Listeria monocytogenes, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, and Vibrio parahaemolyticcus. The oil exhibited no antibacterial activity against all the bacterial strains tested except S. aureus of mild activity. PMID:19430614

  5. Radical Scavenging Activity of the Essential Oil of Silver Fir (Abies alba)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Seun-Ah; Jeon, Sang-Kyung; Lee, Eun-Jung; Im, Nam-Kyung; Jhee, Kwang-Hwan; Lee, Sam-Pin; Lee, In-Seon

    2009-01-01

    The essential oil of silver fir (Abies alba) is known to help respiratory system and have easing and soothing effect for muscle. In the present study, we investigated the chemical composition, cytotoxicity and its biological activities of silver fir (Abies alba) essential oil. The composition of the oil was analyzed by GC-MS and bornyl acetate (30.31%), camphene (19.81%), 3-carene (13.85%), tricyclene (12.90%), dl-limonene (7.50%), α-pinene (2.87%), caryophyllene (2.18%), β-phellandrene (2.13%), borneol (1.74%), bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene,2,3-dimethyl (1.64%) and α-terpinene (1.24%) were the major components in the oil. The results tested by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay indicated that the oil showed no cytotoxic effect, at concentrations of 1 and 5%, for as long as 24 and 3 h, respectively. The antiradical capacity was evaluated by measuring the scavenging activity of the essential oil on the 2,20-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis 3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radicals. The oil was able to reduce the both radicals dose-dependently, and the concentration required for 50% reduction (RC50) against DPPH radicals (2.7 ± 0.63%) was lower than ABTS radicals (8.5 ± 0.27%). The antibacterial activity of the oil was also evaluated using disc diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Listeria monocytogenes, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, and Vibrio parahaemolyticcus. The oil exhibited no antibacterial activity against all the bacterial strains tested except S. aureus of mild activity. PMID:19430614

  6. Gladiolus hybridus ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 5 (GhABI5) is an important transcription factor in ABA signaling that can enhance Gladiolus corm dormancy and Arabidopsis seed dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jian; Seng, Shanshan; Sui, Juanjuan; Vonapartis, Eliana; Luo, Xian; Gong, Benhe; Liu, Chen; Wu, Chenyu; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Fengqin; He, Junna; Yi, Mingfang

    2015-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant development and is crucial for abiotic stress response. In this study, cold storage contributes to reducing endogenous ABA content, resulting in dormancy breaking of Gladiolus. The ABA inhibitor fluridone also promotes germination, suggesting that ABA is an important hormone that regulates corm dormancy. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of the Gladiolus ABI5 homolog (GhABI5), which is a basic leucine zipper motif transcriptional factor (TF). GhABI5 is expressed in dormant vegetative organs (corm, cormel, and stolon) as well as in reproductive organs (stamen), and it is up-regulated by ABA or drought. Complementation analysis reveals that GhABI5 rescues the ABA insensitivity of abi5-3 during seed germination and induces the expression of downstream ABA response genes in Arabidopsis thaliana (EM1, EM6, and RD29B). Down-regulation of GhABI5 in dormant cormels via virus induced gene silence promotes sprouting and reduces the expression of downstream genes (GhLEA and GhRD29B). The results of this study reveal that GhABI5 regulates bud dormancy (vegetative organ) in Gladiolus in addition to its well-studied function in Arabidopsis seeds (reproductive organ). PMID:26579187

  7. Research on the change of chemical composition in productive process of Re Du Ning injection by HPLC/Q-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shan; Li, Yan-Jing; Zhang, Chun-Xiao; Huang, Wen-Zhe; Ding, Gang; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Bi, Yu-An; Xiao, Wei

    2016-02-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/Q-TOF MS) was developed for the analysis of chemical composition change in the production process of Re Du Ning injection, a Chinese medicine preparation with a combination of Lonicera japonica Thunb., Gardenia jasminoides Ellis and Artemisia annua L. A total of 90 compounds from raw materials-intermediates-Re Du Ning injection were detected; among them, 55 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized, and the characteristic ions of different types of compounds were described. Based on these studies, the different types of compounds in the various process routes were analyzed. A total of 28 compounds, including seven iridoid glycosides and six monoterpenes from G. jasminoides Ellis, five iridoid glycosides, nine phenolic acids and one unknown compound from L. japonica Thunb., were transferred to Re Du Ning injection, and two unknown compounds were generated in the production process of Re Du Ning injection. The results indicated that the Chinese Medicine Pharmaceutical process control is very important. This method could provide some reference for other Chinese medicine preparations.

  8. Research on the change of chemical composition in productive process of Re Du Ning injection by HPLC/Q-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shan; Li, Yan-Jing; Zhang, Chun-Xiao; Huang, Wen-Zhe; Ding, Gang; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Bi, Yu-An; Xiao, Wei

    2016-02-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/Q-TOF MS) was developed for the analysis of chemical composition change in the production process of Re Du Ning injection, a Chinese medicine preparation with a combination of Lonicera japonica Thunb., Gardenia jasminoides Ellis and Artemisia annua L. A total of 90 compounds from raw materials-intermediates-Re Du Ning injection were detected; among them, 55 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized, and the characteristic ions of different types of compounds were described. Based on these studies, the different types of compounds in the various process routes were analyzed. A total of 28 compounds, including seven iridoid glycosides and six monoterpenes from G. jasminoides Ellis, five iridoid glycosides, nine phenolic acids and one unknown compound from L. japonica Thunb., were transferred to Re Du Ning injection, and two unknown compounds were generated in the production process of Re Du Ning injection. The results indicated that the Chinese Medicine Pharmaceutical process control is very important. This method could provide some reference for other Chinese medicine preparations. PMID:26058547

  9. Phylogenetic relationships, possible ancient hybridization, and biogeographic history of Abies (Pinaceae) based on data from nuclear, plastid, and mitochondrial genomes.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Qiao-Ping; Wei, Ran; Shao, Yi-Zhen; Yang, Zu-Yu; Wang, Xiao-Quan; Zhang, Xian-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Abies, the second largest genus of Pinaceae, consists of approximately 48 species occurring in the north temperate region. Previous molecular phylogenetic studies improved our understanding of relationships within the genus, but were limited by relying on only DNA sequence data from single genome and low taxonomic sampling. Here we use DNA data from three genomes (sequences of internal transcribed spacer of nrITS, three chloroplast DNA intergenic spacers, and two mitochondrial intergenic spacers) from 42 species to elucidate species relationships and construct the biogeographic history of Abies. We further estimated the divergence times of intercontinental disjunction using a relaxed molecular clock calibrated with three macro-fossils. Our phylogenetic analyses recovered six robust clades largely consistent with previous classifications of sections. A sister relationship between the eastern Asian and Europe-Mediterranean clades was highly supported. The monophyly of section Balsamea, disjunct in Far East and western North America, is supported by the nrITS data but not by the cpDNA data. Discordance on placement of section Balsamea between the paternally inherited cpDNA and maternally inherited mtDNA trees was also observed. The data suggested that ancient hybridization was likely involved in the origin of sect. Balsamea. Results from biogeographic analyses and divergence time estimation suggested an origin and early diversification of Abies in an area of high latitude around the Pacific during the Eocene. The present disjunction in eastern Asia and Europe-Mediterranean area of Abies was likely the result of southward migration and isolation by the Turgai Strait in the Late Eocene. An 'out-of-America' migration, for the origin of an eastern Asian and western North American disjunct species pairs in section Amabilis was supported. The results suggested a western North American origin of the section with subsequent dispersal across the Bering Land Bridge (BLB) to

  10. An Arabidopsis mitochondria-localized RRL protein mediates abscisic acid signal transduction through mitochondrial retrograde regulation involving ABI4.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xuan; Li, Juanjuan; Liu, Jianping; Liu, Kede

    2015-10-01

    The molecular mechanisms of abscisic acid (ABA) signalling have been studied for many years; however, how mitochondria-localized proteins play roles in ABA signalling remains unclear. Here an Arabidopsis mitochondria-localized protein RRL (RETARDED ROOT GROWTH-LIKE) was shown to function in ABA signalling. A previous study had revealed that the Arabidopsis mitochondria-localized protein RRG (RETARDED ROOT GROWTH) is required for cell division in the root meristem. RRL shares 54% and 57% identity at the nucleotide and amino acid sequences, respectively, with RRG; nevertheless, RRL shows a different function in Arabidopsis. In this study, disruption of RRL decreased ABA sensitivity whereas overexpression of RRL increased ABA sensitivity during seed germination and seedling growth. High expression levels of RRL were found in germinating seeds and developing seedlings, as revealed by β-glucuronidase (GUS) staining of ProRRL-GUS transgenic lines. The analyses of the structure and function of mitochondria in the knockout rrl mutant showed that the disruption of RRL causes extensively internally vacuolated mitochondria and reduced ABA-stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Previous studies have revealed that the expression of alternative oxidase (AOX) in the alternative respiratory pathway is increased by mitochondrial retrograde regulation to regain ROS levels when the mitochondrial electron transport chain is impaired. The APETALA2 (AP2)-type transcription factor ABI4 is a regulator of ALTERNATIVE OXIDASE1a (AOX1a) in mitochondrial retrograde signalling. This study showed that ABA-induced AOX1a and ABI4 expression was inhibited in the rrl mutant, suggesting that RRL is probably involved in ABI4-mediated mitochondrial retrograde signalling. Furthermore, the results revealed that ABI4 is a downstream regulatory factor in RRL-mediated ABA signalling in seed germination and seedling growth.

  11. Phylogenetic relationships, possible ancient hybridization, and biogeographic history of Abies (Pinaceae) based on data from nuclear, plastid, and mitochondrial genomes.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Qiao-Ping; Wei, Ran; Shao, Yi-Zhen; Yang, Zu-Yu; Wang, Xiao-Quan; Zhang, Xian-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Abies, the second largest genus of Pinaceae, consists of approximately 48 species occurring in the north temperate region. Previous molecular phylogenetic studies improved our understanding of relationships within the genus, but were limited by relying on only DNA sequence data from single genome and low taxonomic sampling. Here we use DNA data from three genomes (sequences of internal transcribed spacer of nrITS, three chloroplast DNA intergenic spacers, and two mitochondrial intergenic spacers) from 42 species to elucidate species relationships and construct the biogeographic history of Abies. We further estimated the divergence times of intercontinental disjunction using a relaxed molecular clock calibrated with three macro-fossils. Our phylogenetic analyses recovered six robust clades largely consistent with previous classifications of sections. A sister relationship between the eastern Asian and Europe-Mediterranean clades was highly supported. The monophyly of section Balsamea, disjunct in Far East and western North America, is supported by the nrITS data but not by the cpDNA data. Discordance on placement of section Balsamea between the paternally inherited cpDNA and maternally inherited mtDNA trees was also observed. The data suggested that ancient hybridization was likely involved in the origin of sect. Balsamea. Results from biogeographic analyses and divergence time estimation suggested an origin and early diversification of Abies in an area of high latitude around the Pacific during the Eocene. The present disjunction in eastern Asia and Europe-Mediterranean area of Abies was likely the result of southward migration and isolation by the Turgai Strait in the Late Eocene. An 'out-of-America' migration, for the origin of an eastern Asian and western North American disjunct species pairs in section Amabilis was supported. The results suggested a western North American origin of the section with subsequent dispersal across the Bering Land Bridge (BLB) to

  12. One-pot β-cyclodextrin-assisted extraction of active ingredients from Xue-Zhi-Ning basing its encapsulated ability.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui-Jie; Liu, Ya-Nan; Wang, Meng; Wang, Yue-Fei; Deng, Yan-Ru; Cui, Ming-Lei; Ren, Xiao-Liang; Qi, Ai-Di

    2015-11-01

    Xue-Zhi-Ning (XZN) is a traditional Chinese medicine formula, containing active ingredients with poor solubility in water, which has been demonstrated to be helpful for patients with hyperlipidemia. One-pot β-cyclodextrin (β-CD)-assisted extraction of active ingredients from XZN has been carried out to develop an efficient and eco-friendly extraction process. Five active compounds--rubrofusarin gentiobioside, 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxy-stilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside, emodin, nuciferine and quercetin--were identified by UPLC/DAD/MS and used as indexes to evaluate the process optimized by an orthogonal test. The results showed that addition of β-CD significantly enhanced the extraction ratios of all five components. The enhancement of extraction ratios was positively correlated with the apparent formation constants between β-CD and the compounds. The study also showed that the stabilities and dissolution rates of the active ingredients were improved in the presence of β-CD. This one-pot β-cyclodextrin-assisted extraction has the potential to be applied in pharmaceutical preparations directly. PMID:26256368

  13. Mycorrhiza of the host-specific Lactarius deterrimus on the roots of Picea abies and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi.

    PubMed

    Mühlmann, O; Göbl, F

    2006-06-01

    The ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete species Lactarius deterrimus Gröger is considered to be a strictly host-specific mycobiont of Picea abies (L.) Karst. However, we identified arbutoid mycorrhiza formed by this fungus on the roots of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. in a mixed stand at the alpine timberline; typical ectomycorrhiza of P. abies were found in close relation. A. uva-ursi is known as an extremely unspecific phytobiont. The mycorrhizae of both associations are described and compared morphologically. The mycorrhiza formed by L. deterrimus on both A. uva-ursi and P. abies show typical ectomycorrhizal features such as a hyphal mantle and a Hartig net. The main difference between the mycorrhizal symbioses with the different phytobionts is the occurrence of intracellular hyphae in the epidermal cells of A. uva-ursi. This emphasizes the importance of the plant partner for mycorrhizal anatomy. This is the first report of a previously considered host-specific ectomycorrhizal fungus in association with A. uva-ursi under natural conditions. The advantages of this loose specificity between the fungus and plant species is discussed.

  14. Static and dynamic bending has minor effects on xylem hydraulics of conifer branches (Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris).

    PubMed

    Mayr, Stefan; Bertel, Clara; Dämon, Birgit; Beikircher, Barbara

    2014-09-01

    The xylem hydraulic efficiency and safety is usually measured on mechanically unstressed samples, although trees may be exposed to combined hydraulic and mechanical stress in the field. We analysed changes in hydraulic conductivity and vulnerability to drought-induced embolism during static bending of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris branches as well as the effect of dynamic bending on the vulnerability. We hypothesized this mechanical stress to substantially impair xylem hydraulics. Intense static bending caused an only small decrease in hydraulic conductance (-19.5 ± 2.4% in P. abies) but no shift in vulnerability thresholds. Dynamic bending caused a 0.4 and 0.8 MPa decrease of the water potential at 50 and 88% loss of conductivity in P. sylvestris, but did not affect vulnerability thresholds in P. abies. With respect to applied extreme bending radii, effects on plant hydraulics were surprisingly small and are thus probably of minor eco-physiological importance. More importantly, results indicate that available xylem hydraulic analyses (of conifers) sufficiently reflect plant hydraulics under field conditions. PMID:24697679

  15. Isolation of the GA-response mutant sly1 as a suppressor of ABI1-1 in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Steber, C M; Cooney, S E; McCourt, P

    1998-01-01

    Seed dormancy and germination in higher plants are partially controlled by the plant hormones abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA). ABA establishes dormancy during embryo maturation, whereas GA breaks dormancy and induces germination. Previous attempts to identify GA response genes were confounded because GA mutants are not expected to germinate and, unlike GA auxotrophs, should fail to be rescued by exogenous GA. Here, we describe a screen for suppressors of the ABA-insensitive mutant ABI1-1 that enriches for GA auxotrophs and GA-insensitive mutants. The vast majority (76%) of the suppressors of ABI1-1 strongly resemble GA auxotrophs in that they are severely dwarfed and have dark green foliage and flowers with underdeveloped petals and stamen. Three isolates were alleles of the GA auxotroph ga1. The remaining severe dwarves were not rescued by GA and belong to a single complementation group that we designate sly1 (Sleepy 1). The alleles of sly1 identified are the first recessive GA-insensitive mutations to reflect the full spectrum of GA-associated phenotypes, including the failure to germinate in the absence of the ABI1-1 lesion. Thus, we postulate that SLY1 is a key factor in GA reception. PMID:9611170

  16. Static and dynamic bending has minor effects on xylem hydraulics of conifer branches (Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris)

    PubMed Central

    Mayr, Stefan; Bertel, Clara; Dämon, Birgit; Beikircher, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The xylem hydraulic efficiency and safety is usually measured on mechanically unstressed samples, although trees may be exposed to combined hydraulic and mechanical stress in the field. We analysed changes in hydraulic conductivity and vulnerability to drought-induced embolism during static bending of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris branches as well as the effect of dynamic bending on the vulnerability. We hypothesized this mechanical stress to substantially impair xylem hydraulics. Intense static bending caused an only small decrease in hydraulic conductance (−19.5 ± 2.4% in P. abies) but no shift in vulnerability thresholds. Dynamic bending caused a 0.4 and 0.8 MPa decrease of the water potential at 50 and 88% loss of conductivity in P. sylvestris, but did not affect vulnerability thresholds in P. abies. With respect to applied extreme bending radii, effects on plant hydraulics were surprisingly small and are thus probably of minor eco-physiological importance. More importantly, results indicate that available xylem hydraulic analyses (of conifers) sufficiently reflect plant hydraulics under field conditions. PMID:24697679

  17. Developmental and stress regulation on expression of a novel miRNA, Fan-miR73, and its target ABI5 in strawberry

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dongdong; Mou, Wangshu; Luo, Zisheng; Li, Li; Limwachiranon, Jarukitt; Mao, Linchun; Ying, Tiejin

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a critical plant hormone for fruit ripening and adaptive stress responses in strawberry. Previous high-throughput sequencing results indicated that ABA-insensitive (ABI)5, an important transcription factor in the ABA signaling pathway, was a target for a novel microRNA (miRNA), Fan-miR73. In the present study, exogenous ABA treatment was found to accelerate fruit ripening through differentially regulating the transcripts of ABA metabolism and signal transduction related genes, including NCED1, PYR1, ABI1, and SnRK2.2. Expression of Fan-miR73 was down-regulated in response to exogenous ABA treatment in a dosage-dependent manner, which resulted in an accumulation of ABI5 transcripts in the ripening-accelerated fruits. In addition, both UV-B radiation and salinity stress reduced the transcript levels of Fan-miR73, whereas promoted ABI5 expression. Furthermore, high negative correlations between the transcriptional abundance of Fan-miR73 and ABI5 were observed during ripening and in response to stress stimuli. These results enriched the possible regulatory role of miRNA involved in the post-transcriptional modification of ABI5 during strawberry ripening, as well as responses to environmental stresses. PMID:27325048

  18. Resonance wood [Picea abies (L.) Karst.]--evaluation and prediction of violin makers' quality-grading.

    PubMed

    Buksnowitz, Christoph; Teischinger, Alfred; Müller, Ulrich; Pahler, Andreas; Evans, Robert

    2007-04-01

    The definition of quality in the field of resonance wood for musical instrument making has attracted considerable interest over decades but has remained incomplete. The current work compares the traditional knowledge and practical experience of violin makers with a material-science approach to objectively characterize the properties of resonance wood. Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] has earned a very high reputation for the construction of resonance tops of stringed instruments and resonance boards of keyboard instruments, and was therefore chosen as the focus of the investigation. The samples were obtained from numerous renowned resonance wood regions in the European Alps and cover the whole range of available qualities. A set of acoustical, anatomical, mechanical and optical material properties was measured on each sample. These measurements were compared with subjective quality grading by violin makers, who estimated the acoustical, optical and overall suitability for violin making. Multiple linear regression models were applied to evaluate the predictability of the subjective grading using the measured material characteristics as predictors. The results show that luthiers are able to estimate wood quality related to visible features, but predictions of mechanical and acoustical properties proved to be very poor. PMID:17471750

  19. Comparison of phloem and xylem hydraulic architecture in Picea abies stems.

    PubMed

    Jyske, Tuula; Hölttä, Teemu

    2015-01-01

    The hydraulic properties of xylem and phloem differ but the magnitude and functional consequences of the differences are not well understood. Phloem and xylem functional areas, hydraulic conduit diameters and conduit frequency along the stems of Picea abies trees were measured and expressed as allometric functions of stem diameter and distance from stem apex. Conductivities of phloem and xylem were estimated from these scaling relations. Compared with xylem, phloem conduits were smaller and occupied a slightly larger fraction of conducting tissue area. Ten times more xylem than phloem was annually produced along the stem. Scaling of the conduit diameters and cross-sectional areas with stem diameter were very similar in phloem and xylem. Phloem and xylem conduits scaled also similarly with distance from stem apex; widening downwards from the tree top, and reaching a plateau near the base of the living crown. Phloem conductivity was estimated to scale similarly to the conductivity of the outermost xylem ring, with the ratio of phloem to xylem conductivity being c. 2%. However, xylem conductivity was estimated to increase more than phloem conductivity with increasing tree dimensions as a result of accumulation of xylem sapwood. Phloem partly compensated for its smaller conducting area and narrower conduits by having a slightly higher conduit frequency.

  20. Physiology and growth of advance Picea rubens and Abies balsamea regeneration following different canopy openings.

    PubMed

    Dumais, Daniel; Prévost, Marcel

    2014-02-01

    We examined the ecophysiology and growth of 0.3-1.3 m tall advance red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill.) regeneration during a 5-year period following the application of different harvest types producing three sizes of canopy openings: (i) small gaps (<100 m(2) in area; SMA) created by partial uniform single-tree harvest; (ii) irregular gaps of intermediate size (100-300 m(2); INT) created by group-selection harvest (removal of groups of trees, mainly balsam fir, with uniform partial removal between groups); and (iii) large circular gaps (700 m(2); LAR) created by patch-selection harvest (removal of trees in 30-m diameter circular areas with uniform partial removal between gaps). An unharvested control (CON) was monitored for comparison. At the ecophysiological level, we mainly found differences in light-saturated photosynthesis of red spruce and specific leaf area of balsam fir among treatments. Consequently, we observed good height growth of both species in CON and INT, but fir surpassed spruce in SMA and LAR. Results suggest that intermediate 100-300 m(2) irregular openings create microenvironmental conditions that may promote short-term ecophysiology and growth of red spruce, allowing the species to compete with balsam fir advance regeneration. Finally, results observed for spruce in large 700-m(2) openings confirm its inability to grow as rapidly as fir in comparable open conditions.

  1. Diverse ecological roles within fungal communities in decomposing logs of Picea abies.

    PubMed

    Ottosson, Elisabet; Kubartová, Ariana; Edman, Mattias; Jönsson, Mari; Lindhe, Anders; Stenlid, Jan; Dahlberg, Anders

    2015-03-01

    Fungal communities in Norway spruce (Picea abies) logs in two forests in Sweden were investigated by 454-sequence analyses and by examining the ecological roles of the detected taxa. We also investigated the relationship between fruit bodies and mycelia in wood and whether community assembly was affected by how the dead wood was formed. Fungal communities were highly variable in terms of phylogenetic composition and ecological roles: 1910 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected; 21% were identified to species level. In total, 58% of the OTUs were ascomycetes and 31% basidiomycetes. Of the 231 337 reads, 38% were ascomycetes and 60% basidiomycetes. Ecological roles were assigned to 35% of the OTUs, accounting for 62% of the reads. Wood-decaying fungi were the most common group; however, other saprotrophic, mycorrhizal, lichenized, parasitic and endophytic fungi were also common. Fungal communities in logs formed by stem breakage were different to those in logs originating from butt breakage or uprooting. DNA of specific species was detected in logs many years after the last recorded fungal fruiting. Combining taxonomic identification with knowledge of ecological roles may provide valuable insights into properties of fungal communities; however, precise ecological information about many fungal species is still lacking. PMID:25764460

  2. Experimental vs. modeled water use in mature Norway spruce (Picea abies) exposed to elevated CO2

    PubMed Central

    Leuzinger, Sebastian; Bader, Martin K.-F.

    2012-01-01

    Rising levels of atmospheric CO2 have often been reported to reduce plant water use. Such behavior is also predicted by standard equations relating photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and atmospheric CO2 concentration, which form the core of dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs). Here, we provide first results from a free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment with naturally growing, mature (35 m) Picea abies (L.) (Norway spruce) and compare them to simulations by the DGVM LPJ-GUESS. We monitored sap flow, stem water deficit, stomatal conductance, leaf water potential, and soil moisture in five 35–40 m tall CO2-treated (550 ppm) trees over two seasons. Using LPJ-GUESS, we simulated this experiment using climate data from a nearby weather station. While the model predicted a stable reduction of transpiration of between 9% and 18% (at concentrations of 550–700 ppm atmospheric CO2), the combined evidence from various methods characterizing water use in our experimental trees suggest no changes in response to future CO2 concentrations. The discrepancy between the modeled and the experimental results may be a scaling issue: while dynamic vegetation models correctly predict leaf-level responses, they may not sufficiently account for the processes involved at the canopy and ecosystem scale, which could offset the first-order stomatal response. PMID:23087696

  3. Thigmomorphogenesis: field and laboratory studies of Abies fraseri in response to wind or mechanical perturbation.

    PubMed

    Telewski, F W; Jaffe, M J

    1986-01-01

    Field- and greenhouse-grown Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir. (Fraser fir) were analyzed for wind- or mechanically-induced flexure changes. These changes included inhibition of stem and needle elongation, reinforcement of branch bases around the stem, and increased radial growth in the direction of the mechanical perturbation (MP). Mature trees exposed to high wind conditions were severely flag-formed. These modified tree crowns had a lower drag than crowns of non-flag formed trees in wind-tunnel tests. In both field-grown and greenhouse-grown A. fraseri, MP induced a decrease in flexibility and increased elasticity of the stems. The increased radial growth of the stems overrode the increase in elasticity, resulting in the overall decrease in flexibility. The increase in radial growth caused by wind or mechanical flexure was due to greater cell divisions of the vascular cambium, resulting in increased numbers of tracheids. The decrease in stem elongation in these trees was due, at least in part, to a decrease in tracheid length. The potential biological and mechanical significance of these induced growth changes in trees are addressed. The data support the thigmomorphogenetic theory, which states that plants respond to wind and other mechanical perturbations in a way that is favorable to the plant for continued survival in windy environments.

  4. Growth rate predicts mortality of Abies concolor in both burned and unburned stands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, Phillip J.; Stephenson, Nathan L.; Mutch, Linda S.; Johnson, Veronica G.; Esperanza, Annie M.; Parsons, David J.

    2003-01-01

    Tree mortality is often the result of both long-term and short-term stress. Growth rate, an indicator of long-term stress, is often used to estimate probability of death in unburned stands. In contrast, probability of death in burned stands is modeled as a function of short-term disturbance severity. We sought to narrow this conceptual gap by determining (i) whether growth rate, in addition to crown scorch, is a predictor of mortality in burned stands and (ii) whether a single, simple model could predict tree death in both burned and unburned stands. Observations of 2622 unburned and 688 burned Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl. (white fir) in the Sierra Nevada of California, U.S.A., indicated that growth rate was a significant predictor of mortality in the unburned stands, while both crown scorch and radial growth were significant predictors of mortality in the burned stands. Applying the burned stand model to unburned stands resulted in an overestimation of the unburned stand mortality rate. While failing to create a general model of tree death for A. concolor, our findings underscore the idea that similar processes may affect mortality in disturbed and undisturbed stands.

  5. Norway spruce (Picea abies) laccases: characterization of a laccase in a lignin-forming tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Koutaniemi, Sanna; Malmberg, Heli A; Simola, Liisa K; Teeri, Teemu H; Kärkönen, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Secondarily thickened cell walls of water-conducting vessels and tracheids and support-giving sclerenchyma cells contain lignin that makes the cell walls water impermeable and strong. To what extent laccases and peroxidases contribute to lignin biosynthesis in muro is under active evaluation. We performed an in silico study of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) laccases utilizing available genomic data. As many as 292 laccase encoding sequences (genes, gene fragments, and pseudogenes) were detected in the spruce genome. Out of the 112 genes annotated as laccases, 79 are expressed at some level. We isolated five full-length laccase cDNAs from developing xylem and an extracellular lignin-forming cell culture of spruce. In addition, we purified and biochemically characterized one culture medium laccase from the lignin-forming cell culture. This laccase has an acidic pH optimum (pH 3.8-4.2) for coniferyl alcohol oxidation. It has a high affinity to coniferyl alcohol with an apparent Km value of 3.5 μM; however, the laccase has a lower catalytic efficiency (V(max)/K(m)) for coniferyl alcohol oxidation compared with some purified culture medium peroxidases. The properties are discussed in the context of the information already known about laccases/coniferyl alcohol oxidases of coniferous plants.

  6. Localization of phenolics in phloem parenchyma cells of Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng-Hong; Nagy, Nina Elisabeth; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Krokene, Paal; Niu, Xue-Mei; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Schneider, Bernd

    2012-12-21

    Norway spruce (Picea abies) bark contains specialized phloem parenchyma cells that swell and change their contents upon attack by the bark beetle Ips typographus and its microbial associate, the blue stain fungus Ceratocystis polonica. These cells exhibit bright autofluorescence after treatment with standard aldehyde fixatives, and so have been postulated to contain phenolic compounds. Laser microdissection of spruce bark sections combined with cryogenic NMR spectroscopy demonstrated significantly higher concentrations of the stilbene glucoside astringin in phloem parenchyma cells than in adjacent sieve cells. After infection by C. polonica, the flavonoid (+)-catechin also appeared in phloem parenchyma cells and there was a decrease in astringin content compared to cells from uninfected trees. Analysis of whole-bark extracts confirmed the results obtained from the cell extracts and revealed a significant increase in dimeric stilbene glucosides, both astringin and isorhapontin derivatives (piceasides A to H), in fungus-infected versus uninfected bark that might explain the reduction in stilbene monomers. Phloem parenchyma cells thus appear to be a principal site of phenolic accumulation in spruce bark.

  7. Transcriptional responses of Norway spruce (Picea abies) inner sapwood against Heterobasidion parviporum.

    PubMed

    Oliva, J; Rommel, S; Fossdal, C G; Hietala, A M; Nemesio-Gorriz, M; Solheim, H; Elfstrand, M

    2015-09-01

    The white-rot fungus Heterobasidion parviporum Niemelä & Korhonen establishes a necrotrophic interaction with Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H.Karst.) causing root and butt rot and growth losses in living trees. The interaction occurs first with the bark and the outer sapwood, as the pathogen enters the tree via wounds or root-to-root contacts. Later, when the fungus reaches the heartwood, it spreads therein creating a decay column, and the interaction mainly occurs in the inner sapwood where the tree creates a reaction zone. While bark and outer sapwood interactions are well studied, little is known about the nature of the transcriptional responses leading to the creation of a reaction zone. In this study, we sampled bark and sapwood both proximal and distal to the reaction zone in artificially inoculated and naturally infected trees. We quantified gene expression levels of candidate genes in secondary metabolite, hormone biosynthesis and signalling pathways using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. An up-regulation of mainly the phenylpropanoid pathway and jasmonic acid biosynthesis was found at the inoculation site, when inoculations were compared with wounding. We found that transcriptional responses in inner sapwood were similar to those reported upon infection through the bark. Our data suggest that the defence mechanism is induced due to direct fungal contact irrespective of the tissue type. Understanding the nature of these interactions is important when considering tree breeding-based resistance strategies to reduce the spread of the pathogen between and within trees.

  8. Conserved function of core clock proteins in the gymnosperm Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst).

    PubMed

    Karlgren, Anna; Gyllenstrand, Niclas; Källman, Thomas; Lagercrantz, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    From studies of the circadian clock in the plant model species Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), a number of important properties and components have emerged. These include the genes CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1), GIGANTEA (GI), ZEITLUPE (ZTL) and TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1 also known as PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR 1 (PRR1)) that via gene expression feedback loops participate in the circadian clock. Here, we present results from ectopic expression of four Norway spruce (Picea abies) putative homologs (PaCCA1, PaGI, PaZTL and PaPRR1) in Arabidopsis, their flowering time, circadian period length, red light response phenotypes and their effect on endogenous clock genes were assessed. For PaCCA1-ox and PaZTL-ox the results were consistent with Arabidopsis lines overexpressing the corresponding Arabidopsis genes. For PaGI consistent results were obtained when expressed in the gi2 mutant, while PaGI and PaPRR1 expressed in wild type did not display the expected phenotypes. These results suggest that protein function of PaCCA1, PaGI and PaZTL are at least partly conserved compared to Arabidopsis homologs, however further studies are needed to reveal the protein function of PaPRR1. Our data suggest that components of the three-loop network typical of the circadian clock in angiosperms were present before the split of gymnosperms and angiosperms.

  9. Patterns of nucleotide diversity at photoperiod related genes in Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst].

    PubMed

    Källman, Thomas; De Mita, Stéphane; Larsson, Hanna; Gyllenstrand, Niclas; Heuertz, Myriam; Parducci, Laura; Suyama, Yoshihisa; Lagercrantz, Ulf; Lascoux, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The ability of plants to track seasonal changes is largely dependent on genes assigned to the photoperiod pathway, and variation in those genes is thereby important for adaptation to local day length conditions. Extensive physiological data in several temperate conifer species suggest that populations are adapted to local light conditions, but data on the genes underlying this adaptation are more limited. Here we present nucleotide diversity data from 19 genes putatively involved in photoperiodic response in Norway spruce (Picea abies). Based on similarity to model plants the genes were grouped into three categories according to their presumed position in the photoperiod pathway: photoreceptors, circadian clock genes, and downstream targets. An HKA (Hudson, Kreitman and Aquade) test showed a significant excess of diversity at photoreceptor genes, but no departure from neutrality at circadian genes and downstream targets. Departures from neutrality were also tested with Tajima's D and Fay and Wu's H statistics under three demographic scenarios: the standard neutral model, a population expansion model, and a more complex population split model. Only one gene, the circadian clock gene PaPRR3 with a highly positive Tajima's D value, deviates significantly from all tested demographic scenarios. As the PaPRR3 gene harbours multiple non-synonymous variants it appears as an excellent candidate gene for control of photoperiod response in Norway spruce.

  10. Warming delays autumn declines in photosynthetic capacity in a boreal conifer, Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Stinziano, Joseph R; Hüner, Norman P A; Way, Danielle A

    2015-12-01

    Climate change, via warmer springs and autumns, may lengthen the carbon uptake period of boreal tree species, increasing the potential for carbon sequestration in boreal forests, which could help slow climate change. However, if other seasonal cues such as photoperiod dictate when photosynthetic capacity declines, warmer autumn temperatures may have little effect on when carbon uptake capacity decreases in these species. We investigated whether autumn warming would delay photosynthetic decline in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) by growing seedlings under declining weekly photoperiods and weekly temperatures either at ambient temperature or a warming treatment 4 °C above ambient. Photosynthetic capacity was relatively constant in both treatments when weekly temperatures were >8 °C, but declined rapidly at lower temperatures, leading to a delay in the autumn decline in photosynthetic capacity in the warming treatment. The decline in photosynthetic capacity was not related to changes in leaf nitrogen or chlorophyll concentrations, but was correlated with a decrease in the apparent fraction of leaf nitrogen invested in Rubisco, implicating a shift in nitrogen allocation away from the Calvin cycle at low autumn growing temperatures. Our data suggest that as the climate warms, the period of net carbon uptake will be extended in the autumn for boreal forests dominated by Norway spruce, which could increase total carbon uptake in these forests.

  11. Metabolite profiling reveals clear metabolic changes during somatic embryo development of Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Businge, Edward; Brackmann, Klaus; Moritz, Thomas; Egertsdotter, Ulrika

    2012-02-01

    Progress on industrial-scale propagation of conifers by somatic embryogenesis has been hampered by the differences in developmental capabilities between cell lines, which are limiting the capture of genetic gains from breeding programs. In this study, we investigated the metabolic events occurring during somatic embryo development in Norway spruce to establish a better understanding of the fundamental metabolic events required for somatic embryo development. Three embryogenic cell lines of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) with different developmental capabilities were studied during somatic embryo development from proliferation of proembryogenic masses to mature somatic embryos. The three different cell lines displayed normal, aberrant and blocked somatic embryo development. Metabolite profiles from four development stages in each of the cell lines were obtained using combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Multivariate discriminant analyses of the metabolic data revealed significant metabolites (P  ≤  0.05) for each development stage and transition. The results suggest that endogenous auxin and sugar signaling affects initial stages of somatic embryo development. Furthermore, the results highlight the importance of a timed stress response and the presence of stimulatory metabolites during late stages of embryo development.

  12. Thigmomorphogenesis: field and laboratory studies of Abies fraseri in response to wind or mechanical perturbation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telewski, F. W.; Jaffe, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Field- and greenhouse-grown Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir. (Fraser fir) were analyzed for wind- or mechanically-induced flexure changes. These changes included inhibition of stem and needle elongation, reinforcement of branch bases around the stem, and increased radial growth in the direction of the mechanical perturbation (MP). Mature trees exposed to high wind conditions were severely flag-formed. These modified tree crowns had a lower drag than crowns of non-flag formed trees in wind-tunnel tests. In both field-grown and greenhouse-grown A. fraseri, MP induced a decrease in flexibility and increased elasticity of the stems. The increased radial growth of the stems overrode the increase in elasticity, resulting in the overall decrease in flexibility. The increase in radial growth caused by wind or mechanical flexure was due to greater cell divisions of the vascular cambium, resulting in increased numbers of tracheids. The decrease in stem elongation in these trees was due, at least in part, to a decrease in tracheid length. The potential biological and mechanical significance of these induced growth changes in trees are addressed. The data support the thigmomorphogenetic theory, which states that plants respond to wind and other mechanical perturbations in a way that is favorable to the plant for continued survival in windy environments.

  13. Resonance wood [Picea abies (L.) Karst.]--evaluation and prediction of violin makers' quality-grading.

    PubMed

    Buksnowitz, Christoph; Teischinger, Alfred; Müller, Ulrich; Pahler, Andreas; Evans, Robert

    2007-04-01

    The definition of quality in the field of resonance wood for musical instrument making has attracted considerable interest over decades but has remained incomplete. The current work compares the traditional knowledge and practical experience of violin makers with a material-science approach to objectively characterize the properties of resonance wood. Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] has earned a very high reputation for the construction of resonance tops of stringed instruments and resonance boards of keyboard instruments, and was therefore chosen as the focus of the investigation. The samples were obtained from numerous renowned resonance wood regions in the European Alps and cover the whole range of available qualities. A set of acoustical, anatomical, mechanical and optical material properties was measured on each sample. These measurements were compared with subjective quality grading by violin makers, who estimated the acoustical, optical and overall suitability for violin making. Multiple linear regression models were applied to evaluate the predictability of the subjective grading using the measured material characteristics as predictors. The results show that luthiers are able to estimate wood quality related to visible features, but predictions of mechanical and acoustical properties proved to be very poor.

  14. Experimental vs. modeled water use in mature Norway spruce (Picea abies) exposed to elevated CO(2).

    PubMed

    Leuzinger, Sebastian; Bader, Martin K-F

    2012-01-01

    Rising levels of atmospheric CO(2) have often been reported to reduce plant water use. Such behavior is also predicted by standard equations relating photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and atmospheric CO(2) concentration, which form the core of dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs). Here, we provide first results from a free air CO(2) enrichment (FACE) experiment with naturally growing, mature (35 m) Picea abies (L.) (Norway spruce) and compare them to simulations by the DGVM LPJ-GUESS. We monitored sap flow, stem water deficit, stomatal conductance, leaf water potential, and soil moisture in five 35-40 m tall CO(2)-treated (550 ppm) trees over two seasons. Using LPJ-GUESS, we simulated this experiment using climate data from a nearby weather station. While the model predicted a stable reduction of transpiration of between 9% and 18% (at concentrations of 550-700 ppm atmospheric CO(2)), the combined evidence from various methods characterizing water use in our experimental trees suggest no changes in response to future CO(2) concentrations. The discrepancy between the modeled and the experimental results may be a scaling issue: while dynamic vegetation models correctly predict leaf-level responses, they may not sufficiently account for the processes involved at the canopy and ecosystem scale, which could offset the first-order stomatal response. PMID:23087696

  15. Vertical foliage distribution determines the radial pattern of sap flux density in Picea abies.

    PubMed

    Fiora, Alessandro; Cescatti, Alessandro

    2008-09-01

    Understanding the causes determining the radial pattern of sap flux density is important both for improving knowledge of sapwood functioning and for up-scaling sap flow measurements to canopy transpiration and ecosystem water use. To investigate the anatomical connection between whorls and annual sapwood rings, pruning-induced variation in the radial pattern of sap flux density was monitored with Granier probes in a 35-year-old Picea abies (L.) Karst tree that was pruned from the crown bottom up. Modifications in the radial pattern of sap flux density were quantified by a shape index (SI), which varies with the relative contribution of the outer and inner sapwood to tree transpiration. The SI progressively diminished during bottom up pruning, indicating a significant reduction in sap flow contribution of the inner sapwood. Results suggest that the radial pattern of sap flux density depends mainly on the vertical distribution of foliage in the crown, with lower shaded branches hydraulically connected with inner sapwood and upper branches connected with the outer rings.

  16. Fine roots in stands of Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies along a gradient of soil acidification.

    PubMed

    Braun, Sabine; Cantaluppi, Leonardo; Flückiger, Walter

    2005-10-01

    Root length of naturally grown young beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) was investigated in 26 forest plots of differing base saturation and nitrogen deposition. The relative length of finest roots (<0.25 mm) was found to decrease in soils with low base saturation. A similar reduction of finest roots in plots with high nitrogen deposition was masked by the effect of base saturation. The formation of adventitious roots was enhanced in acidic soils. The analysis of 128 soil profiles for fine roots of all species present in stands of either Fagus sylvatica L., Picea abies [Karst.] L. or both showed a decreased rooting depth in soils with < or =20% base saturation and in hydromorphic soils. For base rich, well drained soils an average rooting depth of 108 cm was found. This decreased by 28 cm on acidic, well drained soils. The results suggest an effect of the current soil acidification in Switzerland and possibly also of nitrogen deposition on the fine root systems of forest trees.

  17. Vertical and horizontal water redistribution in Norway spruce (Picea abies) roots in the Moravian Upland.

    PubMed

    Nadezhdina, Nadezhda; Cermák, Jan; Gaspárek, Jan; Nadezhdin, Valeriy; Prax, Alois

    2006-10-01

    Hydraulic redistribution (HR) by roots of large Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) trees was investigated by means of sap flow measurements made with the heat field deformation method. Irrigation was applied to a limited portion of the root system to steepen gradients of water potential in the soil and thus enhance rates of HR. On completion of the sap flow measurements, and to aid in their interpretation, the structure of the root system of seven of the investigated trees was exposed to a depth of 30 cm with a supersonic air-stream (air-spade). Before irrigation, vertical redistribution of water was observed in large coarse roots and some adjacent small lateral roots. Immediately after localized irrigation, horizontal redistribution of water from watered roots to dry roots via the stem base was demonstrated. The amount of horizontal distribution depended on the position of the receiving roots relative to the watered roots and the absorbing area of the watered root. No redistribution from watered roots via dry soil to roots of neighboring trees was detected. Responses of sap flow to localized irrigation were more pronounced in small lateral roots than in large branching roots where release and uptake of water are integrated. Sap flow measurements with multi-point sensors along radii in large lateral roots demonstrated water extraction from different soil horizons. We conclude that synchronous measurements of sap flow in both small and large lateral roots are needed to study water absorption and transport in tree root systems.

  18. Analysis of volatile components, fatty acids, and phytosterols of Abies koreana growing in Poland.

    PubMed

    Wajs-Bonikowska, Anna; Olejnika, Karol; Bonikowski, Radosław; Banaszczakb, Piotr

    2013-09-01

    Extracts and essential oils from seeds as well as essential oils from cone scales and needles with twigs of the Abies koreana population were studied. An analysis of Korean fir essential oils allowed us to determine 147 volatile compounds. The identified compounds constituted 97-99% of the seed, cone and needle oils. The main volatile in the seed and needle oils was limonene (56.6% and 23.4%, respectively), while the predominant volatile in cone oils was alpha-pinene (51.2%). Korean fir seeds provided a rich source of both essential oil (3.8-8.5%) and extract, which was isolated with a 24.5% yield and contained numerous groups of fatty acids and phytosterols (414 microg/100g extract). The most prominent fatty acids were unsaturated, among which linoleic (41.2%) and oleic (31.2%) fatty acid were the main ones while the dominant sterols were isomers of ergostadienol and beta-sitosterol. A. koreana seeds, cones and needles are a source of many volatile bioactive compounds while the seed extract, with a pleasant scent, contained not only volatiles, but also fractions rich in fatty acids and phytosterols. These facts make A. koreana essential oils and especially the seed extract potential components of cosmetics.

  19. Pre-growth mortality of Abies cilicica trees and mortality models performance.

    PubMed

    Carus, Serdar

    2010-05-01

    In this study, we compared tree-growth rates (basal area increment) from recently dead and living Taurus fir (Abies cilicica Carr.) trees in the Kovada lake Forest of Isparta, Turkey. For each dead tree, tree-growth rates were analyzed for the presence of pre-death growth depressions in the study area (number of sample plots = 11) in 2006. However, we compared both the magnitude and rate of growth prior to death to a control (living) group of trees. Basal area increment (BAI) averaged substantially less during the last 10 years before death than for control trees. Trees that died started diverging in growth, on average, 50-60 years before death. About 18% of trees that died had chronically slow growth, 46% had pronounced declines in growth, whereas 36% had good growth up to death. However, tree-ring-based growth patterns of dead and living Taurus fir trees were compared and used 12 mortality models that were derived using logistic regression from growth patterns of tree-ring series as predictor variables. The four models with the highest overall performance correctly classified 43.8-56.3% of all dead trees and 75.0-87.5% of all living trees, and they predicted 25.0-43.8% of all dead trees to die within 0-15 years prior to the actual year of death.

  20. Assessing the dendrochronological and dendroclimatic potential of Shasta red fir (Abies magnifica var. shastensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torbenson, M. C. A.; St George, S.

    2014-12-01

    Here we present five new ring-width records from Shasta red fir (Abies magnifica var. shastensis) stands in northern California and southwestern Oregon to evaluate growth trends and their relation to climate across the species' latitudinal range. The chronologies are made up of 173 living trees in total, and earliest adequate replication ranges from AD 1624 to AD 1812. The oldest tree sampled has an inner-ring date of AD 1340. Chronologies display shared variability in ring-width at inter-annual timescales; however, reliable cross-dating across the full study region is not possible. The five chronologies, together with one publicly available record, were compared to local and regional climate data. Significant correlations between red fir tree growth and local climate were found at all six sites but no relationship was consistent throughout the latitudinal gradient. Prior analysis has suggested that the growth of the species is primarily limited by summer minimum temperature, but this relationship was not apparent at most sites within our network. Instead, the associations observed between red fir growth and climate are multivariate, dependent on the temporal resolution of climate data used, and may also be influenced by both latitude and elevation.

  1. Conserved Function of Core Clock Proteins in the Gymnosperm Norway Spruce (Picea abies L. Karst)

    PubMed Central

    Karlgren, Anna; Gyllenstrand, Niclas; Källman, Thomas; Lagercrantz, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    From studies of the circadian clock in the plant model species Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), a number of important properties and components have emerged. These include the genes CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1), GIGANTEA (GI), ZEITLUPE (ZTL) and TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1 also known as PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR 1 (PRR1)) that via gene expression feedback loops participate in the circadian clock. Here, we present results from ectopic expression of four Norway spruce (Picea abies) putative homologs (PaCCA1, PaGI, PaZTL and PaPRR1) in Arabidopsis, their flowering time, circadian period length, red light response phenotypes and their effect on endogenous clock genes were assessed. For PaCCA1-ox and PaZTL-ox the results were consistent with Arabidopsis lines overexpressing the corresponding Arabidopsis genes. For PaGI consistent results were obtained when expressed in the gi2 mutant, while PaGI and PaPRR1 expressed in wild type did not display the expected phenotypes. These results suggest that protein function of PaCCA1, PaGI and PaZTL are at least partly conserved compared to Arabidopsis homologs, however further studies are needed to reveal the protein function of PaPRR1. Our data suggest that components of the three-loop network typical of the circadian clock in angiosperms were present before the split of gymnosperms and angiosperms. PMID:23555899

  2. Chemical analysis of volatile oils from West Himalayan Pindrow Fir Abies pindrow.

    PubMed

    Padalia, Rajendra C; Verma, Ram S; Chauhan, Amit; Goswami, Prakash; Chanotiya, Chandan S

    2014-08-01

    The essential oil composition of needle and stem oils of Abies pindrow (Royle ex D.Don) Royle, commonly known as Pindrow or West Himalayan Fir, were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fifty-six constituents, accounting for 96.0% of needle and 83.5% of stem oil composition, were identified. The oils were characterized by a high content of monoterpenoids (68.9%-79.9%), mainly comprised by limonene (21.0%-34.4%), camphene (0.5%-19.9%), alpha-pinene (13.8%-16.8%), myrcene (6.7%-8.3%) and beta-pinene (6.5%-8.6%). Monoterpene hydrocarbons were predominant in both oils, but the quantitative and qualitative composition of the volatile constituents was specific for each part of the tree; and considerable variations in their terpenoid production pattern were also noticed. Results were compared with earlier reported fir species from different geographic regions. PMID:25233604

  3. Analysis of volatile components, fatty acids, and phytosterols of Abies koreana growing in Poland.

    PubMed

    Wajs-Bonikowska, Anna; Olejnika, Karol; Bonikowski, Radosław; Banaszczakb, Piotr

    2013-09-01

    Extracts and essential oils from seeds as well as essential oils from cone scales and needles with twigs of the Abies koreana population were studied. An analysis of Korean fir essential oils allowed us to determine 147 volatile compounds. The identified compounds constituted 97-99% of the seed, cone and needle oils. The main volatile in the seed and needle oils was limonene (56.6% and 23.4%, respectively), while the predominant volatile in cone oils was alpha-pinene (51.2%). Korean fir seeds provided a rich source of both essential oil (3.8-8.5%) and extract, which was isolated with a 24.5% yield and contained numerous groups of fatty acids and phytosterols (414 microg/100g extract). The most prominent fatty acids were unsaturated, among which linoleic (41.2%) and oleic (31.2%) fatty acid were the main ones while the dominant sterols were isomers of ergostadienol and beta-sitosterol. A. koreana seeds, cones and needles are a source of many volatile bioactive compounds while the seed extract, with a pleasant scent, contained not only volatiles, but also fractions rich in fatty acids and phytosterols. These facts make A. koreana essential oils and especially the seed extract potential components of cosmetics. PMID:24273870

  4. Groundwater quality assessment using geoelectrical and geochemical approaches: case study of Abi area, southeastern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebong, Ebong D.; Akpan, Anthony E.; Emeka, Chimezie N.; Urang, Job G.

    2016-06-01

    The electrical resistivity technique which involved the Schlumberger depth sounding method and geochemical analyses of water samples collected from boreholes was used to investigate the suitability of groundwater aquifers in Abi for drinking and irrigation purposes. Fifty randomly located electrical resistivity data were collected, modeled, and interpreted after calibration with lithologic logs. Ten borehole water samples were collected and analysed to determine anion, cation concentrations and some physical and chemical parameters, such as water colour, temperature, total dissolved solids, and electrical conductivity. The results show that the lithostratigraphy of the study area is composed of sands, sandstones (fractured, consolidated and loosed), siltstones, shales (compacted and fractured) of the Asu River Group, Eze-Aku Formation which comprises the aquifer units, and the Nkporo Shale Formation. The aquifer conduits are known to be rich in silicate minerals, and the groundwater samples in some locations show a significant amount of Ca2+, Mg2+, and Na+. These cations balanced the consumption of H+ during the hydrolytic alteration of silicate minerals. The geochemical analysis of groundwater samples revealed dominant calcium-magnesium-carbonate-bicarbonate water facies. Irrigation water quality parameters, such as sodium absorption ratio, percentage of sodium, and permeability index, were calculated based on the physico-chemical analyses. The groundwater quality was observed to be influenced by the interaction of some geologic processes but was classified to be good to excellent, indicating its suitability for domestic and irrigation purposes.

  5. Extraction and structural characteristics of pectic polysaccharides from Abies sibirica L.

    PubMed

    Shakhmatov, Evgeny G; Udoratina, Elena V; Atukmaev, Konstantin V; Makarova, Elena N

    2015-06-01

    Structurally different pectins were isolated from the wood greenery of Abies sibirica L. by the sequential extraction with water (ASW), HCl solution (pH∼4) (ASA), and NH3 solution (pH∼8.5) (ASN). The GalA/Rha molar ratios for the ASW (15), ASA (8.9), and ASN (3.9) polysaccharides diminish in the order ASW>ASA>ASN, indicating a decrease in homogalacturonans and increase in rhamnogalacturonan I in this series. The ASWH, ASAH, and ASNH homogalacturonans derived by acid hydrolysis of ASW, ASA, and ASN have similar Mw 23.8, 21.1, and 18.9kDa, respectively, corresponding to a mean polymerization degree of 97-122 for the GalA residue. The macromolecule backbone of ASN was represented mainly by moieties of partially methylesterified homogalacturonan and partially 2-O- and/or 3-O-acetylated rhamnogalacturonan I. The carbohydrate side chains of the branched region are primarily made up of terminal, 1,5-O-, 1,3,5-di-O- and 1,2,3,5-tri-O-substituted α-L-Araf residues and terminal, 1,3-O- and 1,3,6-di-O-substituted β-D-Galp residues. The currently known pectin models were refined. PMID:25843854

  6. Transcriptional responses of Norway spruce (Picea abies) inner sapwood against Heterobasidion parviporum.

    PubMed

    Oliva, J; Rommel, S; Fossdal, C G; Hietala, A M; Nemesio-Gorriz, M; Solheim, H; Elfstrand, M

    2015-09-01

    The white-rot fungus Heterobasidion parviporum Niemelä & Korhonen establishes a necrotrophic interaction with Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H.Karst.) causing root and butt rot and growth losses in living trees. The interaction occurs first with the bark and the outer sapwood, as the pathogen enters the tree via wounds or root-to-root contacts. Later, when the fungus reaches the heartwood, it spreads therein creating a decay column, and the interaction mainly occurs in the inner sapwood where the tree creates a reaction zone. While bark and outer sapwood interactions are well studied, little is known about the nature of the transcriptional responses leading to the creation of a reaction zone. In this study, we sampled bark and sapwood both proximal and distal to the reaction zone in artificially inoculated and naturally infected trees. We quantified gene expression levels of candidate genes in secondary metabolite, hormone biosynthesis and signalling pathways using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. An up-regulation of mainly the phenylpropanoid pathway and jasmonic acid biosynthesis was found at the inoculation site, when inoculations were compared with wounding. We found that transcriptional responses in inner sapwood were similar to those reported upon infection through the bark. Our data suggest that the defence mechanism is induced due to direct fungal contact irrespective of the tissue type. Understanding the nature of these interactions is important when considering tree breeding-based resistance strategies to reduce the spread of the pathogen between and within trees. PMID:26209615

  7. Taxonomic diversity and structure of benthic macroinvertebrates in Aby Lagoon (Ivory Coast, West Africa).

    PubMed

    Kouadio, K N; Diomandé, D; Ouattara, A; Koné, Y J M; Gourène, G

    2008-09-15

    The benthic macroinvertebrates of Aby lagoon (West Africa: Ivory coast) was studied during four seasons (high dry season, high rainy season, low dry season and low rainy season, respectively) from June 2006 to March 2007. The distribution of the benthic macroinvertebrates species was recorded at 13 stations on the whole of the lagoon. A total of 62 taxa of benthic macroinvertebrates belonging to 28 families and 10 orders were listed. The molluscs and crustaceans dominate qualitatively by adding up 51 and 24%, respectively of the total number of organisms. Five taxa (Corbula trigona (20%), Pachymelania aurita (12%), Clibernhardius cooki (7%), Oligochaeta (7%) and Crassostrea gasar (6%) accounted for 52% of total abundance. Classification analysis used to perform the characterisation of the lagoon on the basis of benthic macroinvertebrates showed the existence of four main clusters in which the seasonal pattern in benthic macroinvertebrates were very similar in the four seasons. In contrast the species richness and diversity indices were significantly different. Furthermore these indices where higher in the stations closer to the sea and surrounded by mangrove trees (southern area) compared to the inland ones.

  8. Isolation, structure, and bioactivities of abiesadines A-Y, 25 new diterpenes from Abies georgei Orr.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xian-Wen; Feng, Lin; Li, Su-Mei; Liu, Xiao-Hua; Li, Yong-Li; Wu, Liang; Shen, Yun-Heng; Tian, Jun-Mian; Zhang, Xi; Liu, Xin-Ru; Wang, Ning; Liu, Yonghong; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2010-01-15

    Twenty-five new (abiesadines A-Y, 1-25) and 29 known (26-54) diterpenes were isolated from the aerial parts of Abies georgei. Abiesadine A (1) is a novel 8,14-seco-abietane, while abiesadine B (2) is a novel 9,10-seco-abietane. The structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis. Manool (52) showed the strongest effect against LPS-induced NO production in RAW264.7 macrophages with the IC(50) value of 11.0microg/mL. In another anti-inflammatory assay against TNFalpha-triggered NF-kappaB activity, (12R,13R)-8,12-epoxy-14-labden-13-ol (54) exhibited the strongest effect (IC(50)=8.7microg/mL). For antitumor assays, pomiferin A (26) and 8,11,13-abietatriene-7alpha,18-diol (29) both showed the most significant activity against LOVO cells (IC(50)=9.2microg/mL). While 7-oxocallitrisic acid (46) exhibited significant cytotoxicity against QGY-7703 tumor cells (IC(50)=10.2microg/mL).

  9. Sydowia polyspora associated with current season needle necrosis (CSNN) on true fir (Abies spp.).

    PubMed

    Talgø, Venche; Chastagner, Gary; Thomsen, Iben Margrete; Cech, Thomas; Riley, Kathy; Lange, Kurt; Klemsdal, Sonja Sletner; Stensvand, Arne

    2010-07-01

    Current season needle necrosis (CSNN) has been a serious foliage disorder on true fir Christmas trees and bough material in Europe and North America for more than 25y. Approximately 2-4 weeks after bud break, needles develop chlorotic spots or bands that later turn necrotic. The symptoms have been observed on noble fir (Abies procera), Nordmann fir (A. nordmanniana) and grand fir (A. grandis) on both continents. CSNN was reported as a physiological disorder with unknown aetiology from USA, Denmark, and Ireland, but was associated with the fungus Kabatina abietis in Germany, Austria and Norway. In 2007, a fungus that morphologically resembled K. abietis was isolated from symptomatic needle samples from Nordmann fir from Austria, Denmark, Germany, Norway, and USA. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA of these cultures, plus a K. abietis reference culture from Germany (CBS 248.93), resulted in Hormonema dematioides, the imperfect stage of Sydowia polyspora, and thus the taxonomy is further discussed. Inoculation tests on Nordmann fir seedlings and transplants with isolates of S. polyspora from all five countries resulted in the development of CSNN symptoms. In 2009, S. polyspora was also isolated from symptomatic needles from Nordmann fir collected in Slovakia.

  10. Effects of tree architecture on pollen dispersal and mating patterns in Abies pinsapo Boiss. (Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Robles, Jose M; García-Castaño, Juan L; Balao, Francisco; Terrab, Anass; Navarro-Sampedro, Laura; Tremetsberger, Karin; Talavera, Salvador

    2014-12-01

    Plant architecture is crucial to pollination and mating in wind-pollinated species. We investigated the effect of crown architecture on pollen dispersal, mating system and offspring quality, combining phenotypic and genotypic analyses in a low-density population of the endangered species Abies pinsapo. A total of 598 embryos from three relative crown height levels (bottom, middle and top) in five mother plants were genotyped using eleven nuclear microsatellite markers (nSSRs). Paternity analysis and mating system models were used to infer mating and pollen dispersal parameters. In addition, seeds were weighed (N = 16 110) and germinated (N = 736), and seedling vigour was measured to assess inbreeding depression. Overall, A. pinsapo shows a fat-tailed dispersal kernel, with an average pollen dispersal distance of 113-227 m, an immigration rate of 0.84-26.92%, and a number of effective pollen donors (Nep ) ranging between 3.5 and 11.9. We found an effect of tree height and relative crown height levels on mating parameters. A higher proportion of seeds with embryo (about 50%) and a higher rate of self-fertilization (about 60%) were found at the bottom level in comparison with the top level. Seed weight and seedling vigour are positively related. Nevertheless, no differences were found in seed weight or in seedling-related variables such as weight and length of aerial and subterranean parts among the different relative crown height levels, suggesting that seeds from the more strongly inbred bottom level are not affected by inbreeding depression. Our results point to vertical isotropy for outcross-pollen and they suggest that self-pollen may ensure fertilization when outcross-pollen is not available in low-density population.

  11. Apoplastic Peroxidases and Lignification in Needles of Norway Spruce (Picea abies L.).

    PubMed Central

    Polle, A.; Otter, T.; Seifert, F.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the correlation of soluble apoplastic peroxidase activity with lignification in needles of field-grown Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) trees. Apoplastic peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.7) were obtained by vacuum infiltration of needles. The lignin content of isolated cell walls was determined by the acetyl bromide method. Accumulation of lignin and seasonal variations of apoplastic peroxidase activities were studied in the first year of needle development. The major phase of lignification started after bud break and was terminated about 4 weeks later. This phase correlated with a transient increase in apoplastic guaiacol and coniferyl alcohol peroxidase activity. NADH oxidase activity, which is thought to sustain peroxidase activity by production of H2O2, peaked sharply after bud break and decreased during the lignification period. Histochemical localization of peroxidase with guaiacol indicated that high activities were present in lignifying cell walls. In mature needles, lignin was localized in walls of most needle tissues including mesophyll cells, and corresponded to 80 to 130 [mu]mol lignin monomers/g needle dry weight. Isoelectric focusing of apoplastic washing fluids and activity staining with guaiacol showed the presence of strongly alkaline peroxidases (isoelectric point [greater than or equal to] 9) in all developmental stages investigated. New isozymes with isoelectric points of 7.1 and 8.1 appeared during the major phase of lignification. These isozymes disappeared after lignification was terminated. A strong increase in peroxidase activity in autumn was associated with the appearance of acidic peroxidases (isoelectric point [less than or equal to] 3). These results suggest that soluble alkaline apoplastic peroxidases participate in lignin formation. Soluble acidic apoplastic peroxidases were apparently unrelated to developmentally regulated lignification in spruce needles. PMID:12232302

  12. Embolism Formation during Freezing in the Wood of Picea abies1

    PubMed Central

    Mayr, Stefan; Cochard, Hervé; Améglio, Thierry; Kikuta, Silvia B.

    2007-01-01

    Freeze-thaw events can cause embolism in plant xylem. According to classical theory, gas bubbles are formed during freezing and expand during thawing. Conifers have proved to be very resistant to freeze-thaw induced embolism, because bubbles in tracheids are small and redissolve during thawing. In contrast, increasing embolism rates upon consecutive freeze-thaw events were observed that cannot be explained by the classical mechanism. In this study, embolism formation during freeze-thaw events was analyzed via ultrasonic and Cryo-scanning electron microscope techniques. Twigs of Picea abies L. Karst. were subjected to up to 120 freeze-thaw cycles during which ultrasonic acoustic emissions, xylem temperature, and diameter variations were registered. In addition, the extent and cross-sectional pattern of embolism were analyzed with staining experiments and Cryo-scanning electron microscope observations. Embolism increased with the number of freeze-thaw events in twigs previously dehydrated to a water potential of −2.8 MPa. In these twigs, acoustic emissions were registered, while saturated twigs showed low, and totally dehydrated twigs showed no, acoustic activity. Acoustic emissions were detected only during the freezing process. This means that embolism was formed during freezing, which is in contradiction to the classical theory of freeze-thaw induced embolism. The clustered pattern of embolized tracheids in cross sections indicates that air spread from a dysfunctional tracheid to adjacent functional ones. We hypothesize that the low water potential of the growing ice front led to a decrease of the potential in nearby tracheids. This may result in freezing-induced air seeding. PMID:17041033

  13. Does carbon availability control temporal dynamics of radial growth in Norway spruce (Picea abies)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas; Swidrak, Irene

    2015-04-01

    Intra-annual dynamics of cambial activity and wood formation of coniferous species exposed to soil dryness revealed early culmination of maximum growth in late spring prior to occurrence of more favourable environmental conditions, i.e., repeated high rainfall events during summer (Oberhuber et al. 2014). Because it is well known that plants can adjust carbon allocation patterns to optimize resource uptake under prevailing environmental constraints, we hypothesize that early decrease in radial stem growth is an adaptation to cope with drought stress, which might require an early switch of carbon allocation to belowground organs. Physical blockage of carbon transport in the phloem through girdling causes accumulation and depletion of carbohydrates above and below the girdle, respectively, making this method quite appropriate to investigate carbon relationships in trees. Hence, in a common garden experiment we will manipulate the carbon status of Norway spruce (Picea abies) saplings by phloem blockage at different phenological stages during the growing season. We will present the methodological approach and first results of the study aiming to test the hypothesis that carbon status of the tree affects temporal dynamics of cambial activity and wood formation in conifers under drought. Acknowledgment The research is funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF): P25643-B16 "Carbon allocation and growth of Scots pine". Reference Oberhuber W, A Gruber, W Kofler, I Swidrak (2014) Radial stem growth in response to microclimate and soil moisture in a drought-prone mixed coniferous forest at an inner Alpine site. Eur J For Res 133:467-479.

  14. Stand-structural effects on Heterobasidion abietinum-related mortality following drought events in Abies pinsapo.

    PubMed

    Linares, Juan Carlos; Camarero, Jesús Julio; Bowker, Matthew A; Ochoa, Victoria; Carreira, José Antonio

    2010-12-01

    Climate change may affect tree-pathogen interactions. This possibility has important implications for drought-prone forests, where stand dynamics and disease pathogenicity are especially sensitive to climatic stress. In addition, stand structural attributes including density-dependent tree-to-tree competition may modulate the stands' resistance to drought events and pathogen outbreaks. To assess the effects of stand structure on root-rot-related mortality after severe droughts, we focused on Heterobasidion abietinum mortality in relict Spanish stands of Abies pinsapo, a drought-sensitive fir. We compared stand attributes and tree spatial patterns in three plots with H. abietinum root-rot disease and three plots without root-rot. Point-pattern analyses were used to investigate the scale and extent of mortality patterns and to test hypotheses related to the spread of the disease. Dendrochronology was used to date the year of death and to assess the association between droughts and growth decline. We applied a structural equation modelling approach to test if tree mortality occurs more rapidly than predicted by a simple distance model when trees are subjected to high tree-to-tree competition and following drought events. Contrary to expectations of drought mortality, the effect of precipitation on the year of death was strong and negative, indicating that a period of high precipitation induced an earlier tree death. Competition intensity, related to the size and density of neighbour trees, also induced an earlier tree death. The effect of distance to the disease focus was negligible except in combination with intensive competition. Our results indicate that infected trees have decreased ability to withstand drought stress, and demonstrate that tree-to-tree competition and fungal infection act as predisposing factors of forest decline and mortality.

  15. Isoprene and terpenoid emissions from Abies alba: Identification and emission rates under ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorska, Olga; Dewulf, Jo; Amelynck, Crist; Schoon, Niels; Šimpraga, Maja; Steppe, Kathy; Van Langenhove, Herman

    2012-11-01

    In this study, biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from Abies alba were studied under ambient conditions in Flanders (Belgium). Emission patterns and rates were investigated from April till November 2010 by using the dynamic branch enclosure technique. The present work revealed that A. alba is an isoprene emitter, with isoprene accounting for 86-93% of total BVOC emissions, except during budburst (67%) in May. The emission spectrum of A. alba consisted of 27 compounds. Next to isoprene, the main emitted compounds were α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene and limonene. BVOC emissions showed a peak in June after development of the young needles, followed by a constant emission during summer months and September and a decrease in October. In all the samples isoprene was the most abundant compound with standardized emission rates between 27 μg g(dw)-1 h-1 in June and 4.6 μg g(dw)-1 h-1 in October, while the total standardized terpenoid emission rates ranged from 2.85 μg g(dw)-1 h-1 in June to 0.26 μg g(dw)-1 h-1 in October. The obtained average β coefficients according to the temperature dependent algorithm of Guenther et al. (1993) during April-June, July, August and September-October were as follows: for terpenoids 0.12 ± 0.03, 0.11 ± 0.05, 0.12 ± 0.04, 0.24 ± 0.01 K-1 and sesquiterpenes (SQTs) 0.09 ± 0.02, 0.11 ± 0.01, 0.10 ± 0.05, 0 K-1, respectively. Overall, isoprene detected in this study was never quantified in previous studies on A. alba and this finding could have a significant impact on the regional BVOCs budget. Therefore, the result of this study is very important for modeling and local air quality.

  16. Insights into Diterpene Cyclization from Structure of Bifunctional Abietadiene Synthase from Abies grandis*

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ke; Gao, Yang; Hoy, Julie A.; Mann, Francis M.; Honzatko, Richard B.; Peters, Reuben J.

    2012-01-01

    Abietadiene synthase from Abies grandis (AgAS) is a model system for diterpene synthase activity, catalyzing class I (ionization-initiated) and class II (protonation-initiated) cyclization reactions. Reported here is the crystal structure of AgAS at 2.3 Å resolution and molecular dynamics simulations of that structure with and without active site ligands. AgAS has three domains (α, β, and γ). The class I active site is within the C-terminal α domain, and the class II active site is between the N-terminal γ and β domains. The domain organization resembles that of monofunctional diterpene synthases and is consistent with proposed evolutionary origins of terpene synthases. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to determine the effect of substrate binding on enzymatic structure. Although such studies of the class I active site do lead to an enclosed substrate-Mg2+ complex similar to that observed in crystal structures of related plant enzymes, it does not enforce a single substrate conformation consistent with the known product stereochemistry. Simulations of the class II active site were more informative, with observation of a well ordered external loop migration. This “loop-in” conformation not only limits solvent access but also greatly increases the number of conformational states accessible to the substrate while destabilizing the nonproductive substrate conformation present in the “loop-out” conformation. Moreover, these conformational changes at the class II active site drive the substrate toward the proposed transition state. Docked substrate complexes were further assessed with regard to the effects of site-directed mutations on class I and II activities. PMID:22219188

  17. Stand-structural effects on Heterobasidion abietinum-related mortality following drought events in Abies pinsapo.

    PubMed

    Linares, Juan Carlos; Camarero, Jesús Julio; Bowker, Matthew A; Ochoa, Victoria; Carreira, José Antonio

    2010-12-01

    Climate change may affect tree-pathogen interactions. This possibility has important implications for drought-prone forests, where stand dynamics and disease pathogenicity are especially sensitive to climatic stress. In addition, stand structural attributes including density-dependent tree-to-tree competition may modulate the stands' resistance to drought events and pathogen outbreaks. To assess the effects of stand structure on root-rot-related mortality after severe droughts, we focused on Heterobasidion abietinum mortality in relict Spanish stands of Abies pinsapo, a drought-sensitive fir. We compared stand attributes and tree spatial patterns in three plots with H. abietinum root-rot disease and three plots without root-rot. Point-pattern analyses were used to investigate the scale and extent of mortality patterns and to test hypotheses related to the spread of the disease. Dendrochronology was used to date the year of death and to assess the association between droughts and growth decline. We applied a structural equation modelling approach to test if tree mortality occurs more rapidly than predicted by a simple distance model when trees are subjected to high tree-to-tree competition and following drought events. Contrary to expectations of drought mortality, the effect of precipitation on the year of death was strong and negative, indicating that a period of high precipitation induced an earlier tree death. Competition intensity, related to the size and density of neighbour trees, also induced an earlier tree death. The effect of distance to the disease focus was negligible except in combination with intensive competition. Our results indicate that infected trees have decreased ability to withstand drought stress, and demonstrate that tree-to-tree competition and fungal infection act as predisposing factors of forest decline and mortality. PMID:20838816

  18. In Planta Localization of Stilbenes within Picea abies Phloem1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Katsushi; Pranovich, Andrey; Roig-Juan, Sílvia; Aoki, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic stilbene glucosides (astringin, isorhapontin, and piceid) and their aglycons commonly accumulate in the phloem of Norway spruce (Picea abies). However, current knowledge about the localization and accumulation of stilbenes within plant tissues and cells remains limited. Here, we used an innovative combination of novel microanalytical techniques to evaluate stilbenes in a frozen-hydrated condition (i.e. in planta) and a freeze-dried condition across phloem tissues. Semiquantitative time-of-flight secondary ion-mass spectrometry imaging in planta revealed that stilbenes were localized in axial parenchyma cells. Quantitative gas chromatography analysis showed the highest stilbene content in the middle of collapsed phloem with decreases toward the outer phloem. The same trend was detected for soluble sugar and water contents. The specimen water content may affect stilbene composition; the glucoside-to-aglycon ratio decreased slightly with decreases in water content. Phloem chemistry was correlated with three-dimensional structures of phloem as analyzed by microtomography. The outer phloem was characterized by a high volume of empty parenchyma, reduced ray volume, and a large number of axial parenchyma with porous vacuolar contents. Increasing porosity from the inner to the outer phloem was related to decreasing compactness of stilbenes and possible secondary oxidation or polymerization. Our results indicate that aging-dependent changes in phloem may reduce cell functioning, which affects the capacity of the phloem to store water and sugar, and may reduce the defense potential of stilbenes in the axial parenchyma. Our results highlight the power of using a combination of techniques to evaluate tissue- and cell-level mechanisms involved in plant secondary metabolite formation and metabolism. PMID:27531441

  19. Insights into Diterpene Cyclization from Structure of Bifunctional Abietadiene Synthase from Abies grandis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ke; Gao, Yang; Hoy, Julie A.; Mann, Francis M.; Honzatko, Richard B.; Peters, Reuben J.

    2013-09-24

    Abietadiene synthase from Abies grandis (AgAS) is a model system for diterpene synthase activity, catalyzing class I (ionization-initiated) and class II (protonation-initiated) cyclization reactions. Reported here is the crystal structure of AgAS at 2.3 {angstrom} resolution and molecular dynamics simulations of that structure with and without active site ligands. AgAS has three domains ({alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma}). The class I active site is within the C-terminal {alpha} domain, and the class II active site is between the N-terminal {gamma} and {beta} domains. The domain organization resembles that of monofunctional diterpene synthases and is consistent with proposed evolutionary origins of terpene synthases. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to determine the effect of substrate binding on enzymatic structure. Although such studies of the class I active site do lead to an enclosed substrate-Mg{sup 2+} complex similar to that observed in crystal structures of related plant enzymes, it does not enforce a single substrate conformation consistent with the known product stereochemistry. Simulations of the class II active site were more informative, with observation of a well ordered external loop migration. This 'loop-in' conformation not only limits solvent access but also greatly increases the number of conformational states accessible to the substrate while destabilizing the nonproductive substrate conformation present in the 'loop-out' conformation. Moreover, these conformational changes at the class II active site drive the substrate toward the proposed transition state. Docked substrate complexes were further assessed with regard to the effects of site-directed mutations on class I and II activities.

  20. Impact of Heterobasidion root-rot on fine root morphology and associated fungi in Picea abies stands on peat soils.

    PubMed

    Gaitnieks, Talis; Klavina, Darta; Muiznieks, Indrikis; Pennanen, Taina; Velmala, Sannakajsa; Vasaitis, Rimvydas; Menkis, Audrius

    2016-07-01

    We examined differences in fine root morphology, mycorrhizal colonisation and root-inhabiting fungal communities between Picea abies individuals infected by Heterobasidion root-rot compared with healthy individuals in four stands on peat soils in Latvia. We hypothesised that decreased tree vitality and alteration in supply of photosynthates belowground due to root-rot infection might lead to changes in fungal communities of tree roots. Plots were established in places where trees were infected and in places where they were healthy. Within each stand, five replicate soil cores with roots were taken to 20 cm depth in each root-rot infected and uninfected plot. Root morphological parameters, mycorrhizal colonisation and associated fungal communities, and soil chemical properties were analysed. In three stands root morphological parameters and in all stands root mycorrhizal colonisation were similar between root-rot infected and uninfected plots. In one stand, there were significant differences in root morphological parameters between root-rot infected versus uninfected plots, but these were likely due to significant differences in soil chemical properties between the plots. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer of fungal nuclear rDNA from ectomycorrhizal (ECM) root morphotypes of P. abies revealed the presence of 42 fungal species, among which ECM basidiomycetes Tylospora asterophora (24.6 % of fine roots examined), Amphinema byssoides (14.5 %) and Russula sapinea (9.7 %) were most common. Within each stand, the richness of fungal species and the composition of fungal communities in root-rot infected versus uninfected plots were similar. In conclusion, Heterobasidion root-rot had little or no effect on fine root morphology, mycorrhizal colonisation and composition of fungal communities in fine roots of P. abies growing on peat soils.

  1. Impact of Heterobasidion root-rot on fine root morphology and associated fungi in Picea abies stands on peat soils.

    PubMed

    Gaitnieks, Talis; Klavina, Darta; Muiznieks, Indrikis; Pennanen, Taina; Velmala, Sannakajsa; Vasaitis, Rimvydas; Menkis, Audrius

    2016-07-01

    We examined differences in fine root morphology, mycorrhizal colonisation and root-inhabiting fungal communities between Picea abies individuals infected by Heterobasidion root-rot compared with healthy individuals in four stands on peat soils in Latvia. We hypothesised that decreased tree vitality and alteration in supply of photosynthates belowground due to root-rot infection might lead to changes in fungal communities of tree roots. Plots were established in places where trees were infected and in places where they were healthy. Within each stand, five replicate soil cores with roots were taken to 20 cm depth in each root-rot infected and uninfected plot. Root morphological parameters, mycorrhizal colonisation and associated fungal communities, and soil chemical properties were analysed. In three stands root morphological parameters and in all stands root mycorrhizal colonisation were similar between root-rot infected and uninfected plots. In one stand, there were significant differences in root morphological parameters between root-rot infected versus uninfected plots, but these were likely due to significant differences in soil chemical properties between the plots. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer of fungal nuclear rDNA from ectomycorrhizal (ECM) root morphotypes of P. abies revealed the presence of 42 fungal species, among which ECM basidiomycetes Tylospora asterophora (24.6 % of fine roots examined), Amphinema byssoides (14.5 %) and Russula sapinea (9.7 %) were most common. Within each stand, the richness of fungal species and the composition of fungal communities in root-rot infected versus uninfected plots were similar. In conclusion, Heterobasidion root-rot had little or no effect on fine root morphology, mycorrhizal colonisation and composition of fungal communities in fine roots of P. abies growing on peat soils. PMID:26861482

  2. Microdose fluorescence imaging of ABY-029 on an operating microscope adapted by custom illumination and imaging modules

    PubMed Central

    Dsouza, Alisha V.; Marra, Kayla; Pogue, Brian W.; Roberts, David W.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence guided surgery has the potential to positively impact surgical oncology; current operating microscopes and stand-alone imaging systems are too insensitive or too cumbersome to maximally take advantage of new tumor-specific agents developed through the microdose pathway. To this end, a custom-built illumination and imaging module enabling picomolar-sensitive near-infrared fluorescence imaging on a commercial operating microscope is described. The limits of detection and system specifications are characterized, and in vivo efficacy of the system in detecting ABY-029 is evaluated in a rat orthotopic glioma model following microdose injections, showing the suitability of the device for microdose phase 0 clinical trials. PMID:27699098

  3. Microdose fluorescence imaging of ABY-029 on an operating microscope adapted by custom illumination and imaging modules

    PubMed Central

    Dsouza, Alisha V.; Marra, Kayla; Pogue, Brian W.; Roberts, David W.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence guided surgery has the potential to positively impact surgical oncology; current operating microscopes and stand-alone imaging systems are too insensitive or too cumbersome to maximally take advantage of new tumor-specific agents developed through the microdose pathway. To this end, a custom-built illumination and imaging module enabling picomolar-sensitive near-infrared fluorescence imaging on a commercial operating microscope is described. The limits of detection and system specifications are characterized, and in vivo efficacy of the system in detecting ABY-029 is evaluated in a rat orthotopic glioma model following microdose injections, showing the suitability of the device for microdose phase 0 clinical trials.

  4. Two Novel Techniques to Screen Abies Seedlings for Resistance to the Balsam Woolly Adelgid, Adelges piceae

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Leslie; Frampton, John; Monahan, John; Goldfarb, Barry; Hain, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Since its introduction into the Southern Appalachians in the 1950s, the balsam woolly adelgid, Adelges piceae Ratzeburg (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), has devastated native populations of Fraser fir, Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir. (Pinales: Pinaceae), and has become a major pest in Christmas tree plantations requiring expensive chemical treatments. Adelges piceae—resistant Fraser fir trees would lessen costs for the Christmas tree industry and assist in the restoration of native stands. Resistance screening is an important step in this process. Here, four studies directed toward the development of time— and cost—efficient techniques for screening are reported. In the first study, three methods to artificially infest seedlings of different ages were evaluated in a shade—covered greenhouse. Two—year—old seedlings had much lower infestation levels than 7 year—old seedlings. Placing infested bark at the base of the seedling was less effective than tying infested bark to the seedling or suspending infested bolts above the seedling. Although the two latter techniques resulted in similar densities on the seedlings, they each have positive and negative considerations. Attaching bark to uninfested trees is effective, but very time consuming. The suspended bolt method mimics natural infestation and is more economical than attaching bark, but care must be taken to ensure an even distribution of crawlers falling onto the seedlings. The second study focused on the density and distribution of crawlers falling from suspended bolts onto paper gridded into 7.6 × 7.6 cm cells. Crawler density in a 30 cm band under and to each side of the suspended bolt ranged from 400 to over 3000 crawlers per cell (1 to 55 crawlers per cm2). In the third study, excised branches from 4 year—old A. fraseri and A. vetchii seedlings were artificially infested with A. piceae to determine whether this technique may be useful for early resistance screening. The excised A. fraseri branches supported

  5. Are Early Somatic Embryos of the Norway Spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) Organised?

    PubMed Central

    Petrek, Jiri; Zitka, Ondrej; Adam, Vojtech; Bartusek, Karel; Anjum, Naser A.; Pereira, Eduarda; Havel, Ladislav; Kizek, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Background Somatic embryogenesis in conifer species has great potential for the forestry industry. Hence, a number of methods have been developed for their efficient and rapid propagation through somatic embryogenesis. Although information is available regarding the previous process-mediated generation of embryogenic cells to form somatic embryos, there is a dearth of information in the literature on the detailed structure of these clusters. Methodology/Principal Findings The main aim of this study was to provide a more detailed structure of the embryogenic tissue clusters obtained through the in vitro propagation of the Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). We primarily focused on the growth of early somatic embryos (ESEs). The data on ESE growth suggested that there may be clear distinctions between their inner and outer regions. Therefore, we selected ESEs collected on the 56th day after sub-cultivation to dissect the homogeneity of the ESE clusters. Two colourimetric assays (acetocarmine and fluorescein diacetate/propidium iodide staining) and one metabolic assay based on the use of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride uncovered large differences in the metabolic activity inside the cluster. Next, we performed nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. The ESE cluster seemed to be compactly aggregated during the first four weeks of cultivation; thereafter, the difference between the 1H nuclei concentration in the inner and outer clusters was more evident. There were clear differences in the visual appearance of embryos from the outer and inner regions. Finally, a cluster was divided into six parts (three each from the inner and the outer regions of the embryo) to determine their growth and viability. The innermost embryos (centripetally towards the cluster centre) could grow after sub-cultivation but exhibited the slowest rate and required the longest time to reach the common growth rate. To confirm our hypothesis on the organisation of the ESE cluster, we

  6. Two novel techniques to screen Abies seedlings for resistance to the balsam woolly adelgid, Adelges piceae.

    PubMed

    Newton, Leslie; Frampton, John; Monahan, John; Goldfarb, Barry; Hain, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Since its introduction into the Southern Appalachians in the 1950s, the balsam woolly adelgid, Adelges piceae Ratzeburg (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), has devastated native populations of Fraser fir, Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir. (Pinales: Pinaceae), and has become a major pest in Christmas tree plantations requiring expensive chemical treatments. Adelges piceae-resistant Fraser fir trees would lessen costs for the Christmas tree industry and assist in the restoration of native stands. Resistance screening is an important step in this process. Here, four studies directed toward the development of time- and cost-efficient techniques for screening are reported. In the first study, three methods to artificially infest seedlings of different ages were evaluated in a shade-covered greenhouse. Two-year-old seedlings had much lower infestation levels than 7 year-old seedlings. Placing infested bark at the base of the seedling was less effective than tying infested bark to the seedling or suspending infested bolts above the seedling. Although the two latter techniques resulted in similar densities on the seedlings, they each have positive and negative considerations. Attaching bark to uninfested trees is effective, but very time consuming. The suspended bolt method mimics natural infestation and is more economical than attaching bark, but care must be taken to ensure an even distribution of crawlers falling onto the seedlings. The second study focused on the density and distribution of crawlers falling from suspended bolts onto paper gridded into 7.6 × 7.6 cm cells. Crawler density in a 30 cm band under and to each side of the suspended bolt ranged from 400 to over 3000 crawlers per cell (1 to 55 crawlers per cm²). In the third study, excised branches from 4 year-old A. fraseri and A. vetchii seedlings were artificially infested with A. piceae to determine whether this technique may be useful for early resistance screening. The excised A. fraseri branches supported complete

  7. Is t(10;11)(p11.2;q23) involving MLL and ABI-1 genes associated with congenital acute monocytic leukemia?

    PubMed

    Morerio, Cristina; Rosanda, Cristina; Rapella, Annamaria; Micalizzi, Concetta; Panarello, Claudio

    2002-11-01

    Congenital, or perinatal, leukemias are rarely observed, but retrospective molecular studies seem to suggest a more frequent onset in prenatal life. Myelocytic types are common, and chromosome band 11q23 rearrangements at the MLL locus are characteristic genetic markers. The fusion of the MLL gene with one of its partners, ABI-1, has recently been described in two infant leukemia patients with monocytic involvement and good clinical outcome. We report a case of congenital monocytic leukemia with the same gene involvement and good response to chemotherapy. The blast metaphases were probed by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and t(10;11)(p11.2;q23) involving MLL and ABI-1 genes was demonstrated with the same breakpoint in ABI-1. The congenital presentation of this case suggests a possible relationship of this genetic event with in utero leukemogenesis.

  8. Inter- and intra-specific variation in drought sensitivity in Abies spec. and its relation to wood density and growth traits

    PubMed Central

    George, Jan-Peter; Schueler, Silvio; Karanitsch-Ackerl, Sandra; Mayer, Konrad; Klumpp, Raphael T.; Grabner, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Understanding drought sensitivity of tree species and its intra-specific variation is required to estimate the effects of climate change on forest productivity, carbon sequestration and tree mortality as well as to develop adaptive forest management measures. Here, we studied the variation of drought reaction of six European Abies species and ten provenances of Abies alba planted in the drought prone eastern Austria. Tree-ring and X-ray densitometry data were used to generate early- and latewood measures for ring width and wood density. Moreover, the drought reaction of species and provenances within six distinct drought events between 1970 and 2011, as identified by the standardized precipitation index, was determined by four drought response measures. The mean reaction of species and provenances to drought events was strongly affected by the seasonal occurrence of the drought: a short, strong drought at the beginning of the growing season resulted in growth reductions up to 50%, while droughts at the end of the growing season did not affect annual increment. Wood properties and drought response measures showed significant variation among Abies species as well as among A. alba provenances. Whereas A. alba provenances explained significant parts in the variation of ring width measures, the Abies species explained significant parts in the variation of wood density parameters. A consistent pattern in drought response across the six drought events was observed only at the inter-specific level, where A. nordmanniana showed the highest resistance and A. cephalonica showed the best recovery after drought. In contrast, differences in drought reaction among provenances were only found for the milder drought events in 1986, 1990, 1993 and 2000 and the ranking of provenances varied at each drought event. This indicates that genetic variation in drought response within A. alba is more limited than among Abies species. Low correlations between wood density parameters and

  9. [Spatial patterns of dominant tree species in sub-alpine Betula-Abies forest in West Sichuan of China].

    PubMed

    Miao, Ning; Liu, Shi-Rong; Shi, Zuo-Min; Yu, Hong; Liu, Xing-Liang

    2009-06-01

    Based on the investigation in a 4 hm2 Betula-Abies forest plot in sub-alpine area in West Sichuan of China, and by using point pattern analysis method in terms of O-ring statistics, the spatial patterns of dominant species Betula albo-sinensis and Abies faxoniana in different age classes in study area were analyzed, and the intra- and inter-species associations between these age classes were studied. B. albo-sinensis had a unimodal distribution of its DBH frequency, indicating a declining population, while A. faxoniana had a reverse J-shaped pattern, showing an increasing population. All the big trees of B. albo-sinensis and A. faxoniana were spatially in random at all scales, while the medium age and small trees were spatially clumped at small scales and tended to be randomly or evenly distributed with increasing spatial scale. The maximum aggregation degree decreased with increasing age class. Spatial association mainly occurred at small scales. A. faxoniana generally showed positive intra-specific association, while B. albo-sinensis generally showed negative intra-specific association. For the two populations, big and small trees had no significant spatial association, but middle age trees had negative spatial association. Negative inter-specific associations of the two populations were commonly found in different age classes. The larger the difference of age class, the stronger the negative inter-specific association. PMID:19795631

  10. Genetic structure and diversity of the endangered fir tree of Lebanon (Abies cilicica Carr.): implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Awad, Lara; Fady, Bruno; Khater, Carla; Roig, Anne; Cheddadi, Rachid

    2014-01-01

    The threatened conifer Abies cilicica currently persists in Lebanon in geographically isolated forest patches. The impact of demographic and evolutionary processes on population genetic diversity and structure were assessed using 10 nuclear microsatellite loci. All remnant 15 local populations revealed a low genetic variation but a high recent effective population size. FST -based measures of population genetic differentiation revealed a low spatial genetic structure, but Bayesian analysis of population structure identified a significant Northeast-Southwest population structure. Populations showed significant but weak isolation-by-distance, indicating non-equilibrium conditions between dispersal and genetic drift. Bayesian assignment tests detected an asymmetric Northeast-Southwest migration involving some long-distance dispersal events. We suggest that the persistence and Northeast-Southwest geographic structure of Abies cilicica in Lebanon is the result of at least two demographic processes during its recent evolutionary history: (1) recent migration to currently marginal populations and (2) local persistence through altitudinal shifts along a mountainous topography. These results might help us better understand the mechanisms involved in the species response to expected climate change. PMID:24587219

  11. Studies on Structural and Dielectric Properties of ABi4Ti4O15 (A = Ba, Sr & Pb) Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, T. Gopal; Kumar, B. Rajesh; Rao, T. Subba

    2010-12-01

    Bismuth Titanate based electroceramics of layered perovskite structures are technologically important materials for high temperature piezoelectric and ferroelectric applications, due to their high Curie temperature (675° C), Stable piezoelectric response and excellent dielectric properties. The compounds ABi4Ti4O15 (A = Ba, Sr & Pb) belongs to Aurivillius family (n = 4) in which BaBi4Ti4O15 crystallizes in tetragonal I4/mmm space group, Sr Bi4Ti4O15 and PbBi4Ti4O15 crystallizes in orthorhombic space group A21am. In the present work ABi4Ti4O15 (A = Ba, Sr & Pb) ceramic samples are prepared through the solid state reaction by conventional mixed oxides by calcination at high temperature. Dielectric constant (ɛ'r) and Dielectric Loss (D) for all the compositions as a function of temperature measured from frequencies 100 Hz to 100 KHz using a HIOKI 3532-50 LCR meter. The dielectric constant increases gradually with an increase in temperature up to transition temperature (Tc, K) and then decreases.

  12. A pyrosequencing insight into sprawling bacterial diversity and community dynamics in decaying deadwood logs of Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies

    PubMed Central

    Hoppe, Björn; Krger, Krüger; Kahl, Tiemo; Arnstadt, Tobias; Buscot, François; Bauhus, Jürgen; Wubet, Tesfaye

    2015-01-01

    Deadwood is an important biodiversity hotspot in forest ecosystems. While saproxylic insects and wood-inhabiting fungi have been studied extensively, little is known about deadwood-inhabiting bacteria. The study we present is among the first to compare bacterial diversity and community structure of deadwood under field conditions. We therefore compared deadwood logs of two temperate forest tree species Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies using 16S rDNA pyrosequencing to identify changes in bacterial diversity and community structure at different stages of decay in forest plots under different management regimes. Alphaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria were the dominant taxonomic groups in both tree species. There were no differences in bacterial OTU richness between deadwood of Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies. Bacteria from the order Rhizobiales became more abundant during the intermediate and advanced stages of decay, accounting for up to 25% of the entire bacterial community in such logs. The most dominant OTU was taxonomically assigned to the genus Methylovirgula, which was recently described in a woodblock experiment of Fagus sylvatica. Besides tree species we were able to demonstrate that deadwood physico-chemical properties, in particular remaining mass, relative wood moisture, pH, and C/N ratio serve as drivers of community composition of deadwood-inhabiting bacteria. PMID:25851097

  13. ABI-like transcription factor gene TaABL1 from wheat improves multiple abiotic stress tolerances in transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dong-Bei; Gao, Shi-Qing; Ma, You-Zhi; Xu, Zhao-Shi; Zhao, Chang-Ping; Tang, Yi-Miao; Li, Xue-Yin; Li, Lian-Cheng; Chen, Yao-Feng; Chen, Ming

    2014-12-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays crucial roles in adaptive responses of plants to abiotic stresses. ABA-responsive element binding proteins (AREBs) are basic leucine zipper transcription factors that regulate the expression of downstream genes containing ABA-responsive elements (ABREs) in promoter regions. A novel ABI-like (ABA-insensitive) transcription factor gene, named TaABL1, containing a conserved basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain was cloned from wheat. Southern blotting showed that three copies were present in the wheat genome. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that TaABL1 belonged to the AREB subfamily of the bZIP transcription factor family and was most closely related to ZmABI5 in maize and OsAREB2 in rice. Expression of TaABL1 was highly induced in wheat roots, stems, and leaves by ABA, drought, high salt, and low temperature stresses. TaABL1 was localized inside the nuclei of transformed wheat mesophyll protoplast. Overexpression of TaABL1 enhanced responses of transgenic plants to ABA and hastened stomatal closure under stress, thereby improving tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses. Furthermore, overexpression of TaABL1 upregulated or downregulated the expression of some stress-related genes controlling stomatal closure in transgenic plants under ABA and drought stress conditions, suggesting that TaABL1 might be a valuable genetic resource for transgenic molecular breeding.

  14. Genetic Structure and Diversity of the Endangered Fir Tree of Lebanon (Abies cilicica Carr.): Implications for Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Lara; Fady, Bruno; Khater, Carla; Roig, Anne; Cheddadi, Rachid

    2014-01-01

    The threatened conifer Abies cilicica currently persists in Lebanon in geographically isolated forest patches. The impact of demographic and evolutionary processes on population genetic diversity and structure were assessed using 10 nuclear microsatellite loci. All remnant 15 local populations revealed a low genetic variation but a high recent effective population size. FST-based measures of population genetic differentiation revealed a low spatial genetic structure, but Bayesian analysis of population structure identified a significant Northeast-Southwest population structure. Populations showed significant but weak isolation-by-distance, indicating non-equilibrium conditions between dispersal and genetic drift. Bayesian assignment tests detected an asymmetric Northeast-Southwest migration involving some long-distance dispersal events. We suggest that the persistence and Northeast-Southwest geographic structure of Abies cilicica in Lebanon is the result of at least two demographic processes during its recent evolutionary history: (1) recent migration to currently marginal populations and (2) local persistence through altitudinal shifts along a mountainous topography. These results might help us better understand the mechanisms involved in the species response to expected climate change. PMID:24587219

  15. cGMP-dependent ABA-induced stomatal closure in the ABA-insensitive Arabidopsis mutant abi1-1.

    PubMed

    Dubovskaya, Lyudmila V; Bakakina, Yulia S; Kolesneva, Ekaterina V; Sodel, Dmitry L; McAinsh, Martin R; Hetherington, Alistair M; Volotovski, Igor D

    2011-07-01

    • The drought hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is widely known to produce reductions in stomatal aperture in guard cells. The second messenger cyclic guanosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cGMP) is thought to form part of the signalling pathway by which ABA induces stomatal closure. • We have examined the signalling events during cGMP-dependent ABA-induced stomatal closure in wild-type Arabidopsis plants and plants of the ABA-insensitive Arabidopsis mutant abi1-1. • We show that cGMP acts downstream of hydrogen peroxide (H(2) O(2) ) and nitric oxide (NO) in the signalling pathway by which ABA induces stomatal closure. H(2) O(2) - and NO-induced increases in the cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+) ](cyt) ) were cGMP-dependent, positioning cGMP upstream of [Ca(2+) ](cyt) , and involved the action of the type 2C protein phosphatase ABI1. Increases in cGMP were mediated through the stimulation of guanylyl cyclase by H(2) O(2) and NO. We identify nucleoside diphosphate kinase as a new cGMP target protein in Arabidopsis. • This study positions cGMP downstream of ABA-induced changes in H(2) O(2) and NO, and upstream of increases in [Ca(2+) ](cyt) in the signalling pathway leading to stomatal closure.

  16. Ozone fumigation under dark/light conditions of Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) and Scots Pine (Pinus Sylvestris)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canaval, Eva; Jud, Werner; Hansel, Armin

    2015-04-01

    Norway Spruce (Picea abies) and Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) represent dominating tree species in the northern hemisphere. Thus, the understanding of their ozone sensitivity in the light of the expected increasing ozone levels in the future is of great importance. In our experiments we investigated the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of 3-4 year old Norway Spruce and Scots Pine seedlings under ozone fumigation (50-150 ppbv) and dark/light conditions. For the experiments the plants were placed in a setup with inert materials including a glass cuvette equipped with a turbulent air inlet and sensors for monitoring a large range of meteorological parameters. Typical conditions were 20-25°C and a relative humidity of 70-90 % for both plant species. A fast gas exchange rate was used to minimize reactions of ozone in the gas phase. A Switchable-Reagent-Ion-Time-of-Flight-MS (SRI-ToF-MS) was used to analyze the VOCs at the cuvette outlet in real-time during changing ozone and light levels. The use of H3O+ and NO+ as reagent ions allows the separation of certain isomers (e.g. aldehydes and ketones) due to different reaction pathways depending on the functional groups of the molecules. Within the Picea abies experiments the ozone loss, defined as the difference of the ozone concentration between cuvette inlet and outlet, remained nearly constant at the transition from dark to light. This indicates that a major part of the supplied ozone is depleted non-stomatally. In contrast the ozone loss increased by 50 % at the transition from dark to light conditions within Pinus sylvestris experiments. In this case the stomata represent the dominant loss channel. Since maximally 0.1% of the ozone loss could be explained by gas phase reactions with monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, we suggest that ozone reactions on the surface of Picea abies represent the major sink in this case and lead to an light-independent ozone loss. This is supported by the fact that we detected

  17. Comparative study on the effect of some chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides on the formation of ectotrophic mycorrhizae in seedlings of Picea abies (L.) Karst.

    PubMed

    Iloba, C

    1978-01-01

    Pot experiments were conducted to determine the effect of lindane and toxaphene on the ectotrophic mycorrhizae in Picea abies (L.) Karst. seedlings. The concentrations investigated gave variable results. Quantitative reductions were found in mycorrhizal short roots and intensity. In general the initiated lateral roots were mainly infected by mycorrhizae, even in the presence of insecticidal injuries in the root system.

  18. Age-dependent climate-growth relationships and regeneration of Picea abies in a drought-prone mixed coniferous forest in the Alps

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Roman; Oberhuber, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Within dry inner Alpine environments climate warming is expected to affect the development of forest ecosystems by changing species composition and inducing shifts in forest distribution. By applying dendroecological techniques we evaluated climate sensitivity of radial growth and establishment of Picea abies in a drought-prone mixed-coniferous forest in the Austrian Alps. Time series of annual increments were developed from > 220 trees and assigned to four age classes. While radial growth of old P. abies trees (mean age 121 and 174 yr) responded highly significant to May-June precipitation, young trees (mean age 28 and 53 yr) were insensitive to precipitation in the current year. Because tree age was closely correlated to height and diameter (r2 = 0.709 and 0.784, respectively), we relate our findings to the increase in tree size rather than age per se. Synchronicity found among trend in basal area increment and tree establishment suggests that canopy openings increased light and water availability, which favoured growth and establishment of moderately shade-tolerant P. abies. We conclude that although P. abies is able to regenerate at this drought prone site, increasing inter-tree competition for water in dense stands gradually lowers competitive strength and restricts scattered occurrence to dry-mesic sites. PMID:24027351

  19. Age and dark rearing bidirectionally regulate the level and laminar pattern of expression of Abelson interacting protein 2 (Abi-2): a novel candidate visual cortical plasticity gene.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cui Bo; Kiser, Paul J; Zheng, Yu Ting; Mower, George D

    2013-11-01

    Electrophysiological studies indicate that cat visual cortical critical period neuronal plasticity peaks around 5 weeks and largely disappears by 20 weeks. Dark rearing slows this time course. Normal cats are more plastic than dark-reared cats at 5 weeks, but the opposite is true at 20 weeks. Thus, a stringent criterion for identifying genes controlling neuronal plasticity is that normal and dark rearing produce opposite direction differences in expression between young and older animals. Differential display polymerase chain reaction identified Abelson interacting protein 2 (Abi-2) as a candidate plasticity gene regulated according to this criterion. Western blotting showed bidirectional regulation of Abi-2 protein levels in cats and mice that was specific to visual cortex and did not occur in frontal cortex. Immunohistochemistry indicated developmental changes in Abi-2 laminar expression in cat visual cortex. Dark rearing altered laminar expression such that at 5 weeks, dark-reared cats were similar to 1-week normally reared cats, and at 20 weeks, dark-reared cats were similar to 5-10-week normally reared animals. The effect of dark rearing on both Abi-2 expression levels and laminar expression patterns was to slow the normal developmental process, the same effect seen on physiologically assessed plasticity in visual cortex.

  20. Field testing of transgenic cotton expressing Arabidopsis ABA INSENSITIVE5 and B3- domain related to ABI3/VIVIPAROUS1 (RAV) transcription factors.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We conducted field trials for ABI5 and RAV transgenics under the most extreme heat and drought conditions on record. The data validate greenhouse experiments that show AtRAV1 and AtRAV2 overexpression results in an average of 9% increases in fiber length without yield penalty and with greater gin t...

  1. Age and Dark Rearing Bidirectionally Regulate the Level and Laminar Pattern of Expression of Abelson Interacting Protein 2 (Abi-2), a Novel Candidate Visual Cortical Plasticity Gene

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Cui Bo; Kiser, Paul J.; Zheng, Yu Ting; Mower, George D.

    2013-01-01

    Electrophysiological studies indicate that cat visual cortical critical period neuronal plasticity peaks around 5 weeks and largely disappears by 20 weeks. Dark rearing slows this time course. Normal cats are more plastic than dark reared cats at 5 weeks but the opposite is true at 20 weeks. Thus, a stringent criterion for identifying genes controlling neuronal plasticity is that normal and dark rearing produce opposite direction differences in expression between young and older animals. Differential display PCR identified Abelson interacting protein 2 (Abi-2) as a candidate plasticity gene regulated according to this criterion. Western blotting showed bidirectional regulation of Abi-2 protein levels in cats and mice that was specific to visual cortex and did not occur in frontal cortex. Immunohistochemistry indicated developmental changes in Abi-2 laminar expression in cat visual cortex. Dark rearing altered laminar expression such that at 5 weeks dark reared cats were similar to 1 week normally reared cats and at 20 weeks, dark reared cats were similar to 5–10 week normally reared animals. The effect of dark rearing on both Abi-2 expression levels and laminar expression patterns was to slow the normal developmental process, the same effect seen on physiologically assessed plasticity in visual cortex. PMID:23828391

  2. Examination of the "Theory of Guidance" in the View of 'Ali Ibn Abi Talib (A): An Exploration into the Nahj Al-Balaghah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostami-Nasab, Abas Ali; Tajedini, Oranus; Sadatmoosavi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the "Theory of Guidance" according to 'Ali ibn Abi Talib (a). This theory is based on three divine covenants or fundamentals in guidance including the divine Prophet, the divine Book, and the divine human nature ("fitrat"). Research in this regard seems essential because this theory has not been previously…

  3. Abies concolor growth responses to vegatation changes following shrub removal, northern Sierra Nevada, California. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Conard, S.G.; Sparks, S.R.

    1993-08-01

    Conifer productivity in western North America is often severely inhibited by competing vegetation. Abies concolor (Gord, and Glendl.) Lindl. (white fir) is an important species over much of this area, yet little information is available on response of A. concolor to vegetation management treatments. We revisited two sites in the northern Sierra Nevada to assess the responses of naturally regenerated A. concolor saplings to vegetation recovery 8-9 years after release treatments. Treatments caused major and persistent shifts in vegetation structure and composition on both sites. Differences in individual tree growth within treatments were strongly correlated with structure and composition of neighboring vegetation, even where no treatment effects were observed. Great variability in response between sites illustrates the strong effect of site characteristics on response to release treatments and the importance to managers of anticipating such differences before making treatment decisions.

  4. [Cytogenetic abnormalities in seedlings of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) from the natural populations and introduction plantation].

    PubMed

    Korshikov, I I; Tkacheva, Iu A; Privalikhin, S N

    2012-01-01

    Comparative studies of the frequency and spectrum of pathological mitosis (PM), as well as of nucleoli number in the interphase cells of seedling roots have been performed in two natural populations of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) of Ukrainian Polesie and introduction plantation in the Donbass. Low levels of PM in the seed progeny populations (0.32-0.38%) and slightly higher in the progeny plantation (0.40%) have been installed. Number of nucleoli was slightly higher in the plants of natural populations (5.35-5.85) than that of the plantation (4.95). The frequency of PM in the offspring of low-heterozygous plants was higher (0.43%) than in highly heterozygous individuals (0.28%).

  5. DFT Calculations and ROESY NMR Data for the Diastereochemical Characterization of Cytotoxic Tetraterpenoids from the Oleoresin of Abies balsamea.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Serge; Gauthier, Charles; Mshvildadze, Vakhtang; Legault, Jean; Roger, Benoit; Pichette, André

    2015-12-24

    Eight non-carotenoid tetraterpenoids, abibalsamins C-J (3-10), were isolated from the oleoresin of Abies balsamea. Their chemical structures were determined based on analysis of 1D/2D NMR and MS data. The assignment of their relative configurations was accomplished using homonuclear coupling constants in tandem with ROESY data. However, the presence of two stereogenic centers on a flexible side chain complicated the characterization. In silico models and ROESY data were analyzed in order to assign relative configurations of the isolated tetraterpenoids. Abibalsamins B and H-J showed moderate cytotoxicity against human A549 lung carcinoma cells, with IC50 values ranging between 6.7 and 10 μM.

  6. [Preparation and evaluation of the oral gel containing the essential oil from Siberian fir (Abies sibirica Ledeb.)].

    PubMed

    Ajupova, Rizvangul; Masteiková, Ruta; Nejezchlebová, Marcela; Zemlička, Milan; Bernatoniene, Jurga; Vetchý, David

    2014-06-01

    Essential oil of the Siberian fir (Abies sibirica Ledeb.) ranks among the substances with potential use in prevention and treatment of oral candidiasis. Therefore, the aim of the study was the formulation, preparation and evaluation of an oral gel containing 0.3% of this essential oil. Carbopol 974P NF in 1% concentration was used as the gelling agent, some samples were additionally stabilized by an addition of polysorbate 80 (0.1-0.5%). Xylitol in concentrations of 10% or 20% was added with the aim to modify the taste properties of the gel. Following microscopic evaluation (mean oil droplet size, degree of dispersity) immediately after preparation and after 6-month storage, it has been found that the optimal concentration of polysorbate 80 is 0.3%. The results of the experiment also demonstrated that xylitol was not only an excipient adjusting the organoleptic properties of the preparation - its use enabled significant improvement of the quality parameters and stability. PMID:25115663

  7. The influence of climate and soil properties on calcium nutrition and vitality of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.).

    PubMed

    Potocić, Nenad; Cosić, Tomislav; Pilas, Ivan

    2005-10-01

    As a part of a broader research into the nutrition of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.), the variation of calcium concentrations was investigated in needles and soil in two subsequent, climatologically diverse years. Statistically significant differences between plots were determined in Ca concentrations in soils. Concentrations of Ca in needles were statistically different regarding plot, defoliation class, sampling date within the same year and also between years. Fir trees on acid-rock based soils had lower, often inadequate concentrations of Ca in needles; the opposite was true for trees growing on Ca-rich soils. Trees of lower vitality generally exhibited poor Ca nutrition. Drought in the second year of research caused poor absorption of Ca on all plots and in all defoliation classes, but the combined influence of climate and soil properties affected especially trees of low vitality on acid-rock based soils. PMID:16005770

  8. LEA polypeptide profiling of recalcitrant and orthodox legume seeds reveals ABI3-regulated LEA protein abundance linked to desiccation tolerance.

    PubMed

    Delahaie, Julien; Hundertmark, Michaela; Bove, Jérôme; Leprince, Olivier; Rogniaux, Hélène; Buitink, Julia

    2013-11-01

    In contrast to orthodox seeds that acquire desiccation tolerance during maturation, recalcitrant seeds are unable to survive drying. These desiccation-sensitive seeds constitute an interesting model for comparative analysis with phylogenetically close species that are desiccation tolerant. Considering the importance of LEA (late embryogenesis abundant) proteins as protective molecules both in drought and in desiccation tolerance, the heat-stable proteome was characterized in cotyledons of the legume Castanospermum australe and it was compared with that of the orthodox model legume Medicago truncatula. RNA sequencing identified transcripts of 16 homologues out of 17 LEA genes for which polypeptides are detected in M. truncatula seeds. It is shown that for 12 LEA genes, polypeptides were either absent or strongly reduced in C. australe cotyledons compared with M. truncatula seeds. Instead, osmotically responsive, non-seed-specific dehydrins accumulated to high levels in the recalcitrant cotyledons compared with orthodox seeds. Next, M. truncatula mutants of the abscisic acid insensitive3 (ABI3) gene were characterized. Mature Mtabi3 seeds were found to be desiccation sensitive when dried below a critical water content of 0.4 g H2O g DW(-1). Characterization of the LEA proteome of the Mtabi3 seeds revealed a subset of LEA proteins with severely reduced abundance that were also found to be reduced or absent in C. australe cotyledons. Transcripts of these genes were indeed shown to be ABI3 responsive. The results highlight those LEA proteins that are critical to desiccation tolerance and suggest that comparable regulatory pathways responsible for their accumulation are missing in both desiccation-sensitive genotypes, revealing new insights into the mechanistic basis of the recalcitrant trait in seeds.

  9. L'hémangiopéricytome méningé: une tumeur intracrânienne rare - à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Errachdi, Amal; Asabbane, Amal; Epala, Brice Nkoua; Hemmich, Mariem; Kabbali, Naoual; Diakité, Adama; Kebdani, Tayeb; Benjaafar, Noureddine

    2014-01-01

    L'hémangiopéricytomeméningé intracrânien est une tumeur rare qui représente moins de 1% des tumeurs cérébrales. Son aspect radiologique peut être trompeur et faire porter à tort le diagnostic de méningiome. Le diagnostic de confirmation est histologique. Le traitement repose sur la chirurgie et la radiothérapie. L’évolution après traitement est caractérisée par la fréquence des récidives et des métastases à distance, imposant un suivi prolongé. Nous rapportons l'observation d'un patient présentant un hémangiopéricytome intracrânien dont l’évolution était marquée par l'absence de récidive à 4 ans de suivi. PMID:25170367

  10. Screening and identification of multi-components in Re Du Ning injections using LC/TOF-MS coupled with UV-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Lingzhi; Wang, Zhenzhong; Peng, Ying; Fu, Xiaohuan; Wang, Yongxiang; Xiao, Wei; Song, Shaojiang

    2015-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry-UV-irradiation (HPLC-QTOF-MS-UV) method was established for rapid separation and structural identification of the constituents in Re Du Ning Injections (RDNI). A total of 20 potentially bioactive compounds including 10 caffeoylquinic acids and 10 iridoid glycosides were identified or tentatively characterized in RDNI by comparing their retention times and MS spectra with those of authentic standards or literature data. In particular, UV-irradiation was employed in the identification of the cis/trans isomers of caffeoylquinic acids. Furthermore, each compound was assigned to the individual raw materials (Artemisia annua L., Lonicera japonica Thunb. or Gardenia jasminoides Ellis) present in RDNI. This is the first time that an HPLC-QTOF-MS-UV analytical method has been used for the identification of caffeoylquinic acids in RDNI. PMID:25265866

  11. Monitoring intra-annual dynamics of wood formation with microcores and dendrometers in Picea abies at two different altitudes.

    PubMed

    Cocozza, Claudia; Palombo, Caterina; Tognetti, Roberto; La Porta, Nicola; Anichini, Monica; Giovannelli, Alessio; Emiliani, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    Seasonal analyses of cambial cell production and day-by-day stem radial increment can help to elucidate how climate modulates wood formation in conifers. Intra-annual dynamics of wood formation were determined with microcores and dendrometers and related to climatic signals in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). The seasonal dynamics of these processes were observed at two sites of different altitude, Savignano (650 m a.s.l.) and Lavazè (1800 m a.s.l.) in the Italian Alps. Seasonal dynamics of cambial activity were found to be site specific, indicating that the phenology of cambial cell production is highly variable and plastic with altitude. There was a site-specific trend in the number of cells in the wall thickening phase, with the maximum cell production in early July (DOY 186) at Savignano and in mid-July (DOY 200) at Lavazè. The formation of mature cells showed similar trends at the two sites, although different numbers of cells and timing of cell differentiation were visible in the model shapes; at the end of ring formation in 2010, the number of cells was four times higher at Savignano (106.5 cells) than at Lavazè (26.5 cells). At low altitudes, microcores and dendrometers described the radial growth patterns comparably, though the dendrometer function underlined the higher upper asymptote of maximum growth in comparison with the cell production function. In contrast, at high altitude, these functions exhibited different trends. The best model was obtained by fitting functions of the Gompertz model to the experimental data. By combining radial growth and cambial activity indices we defined a model system able to synchronize these processes. Processes of adaptation of the pattern of xylogenesis occurred, enabling P. abies to occupy sites with contrasting climatic conditions. The use of daily climatic variables in combination with plant functional traits obtained by sensors and/or destructive sampling could provide a suitable tool to better

  12. The Transcription Factor ABI4 Is Required for the Ascorbic Acid–Dependent Regulation of Growth and Regulation of Jasmonate-Dependent Defense Signaling Pathways in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Kerchev, Pavel I.; Pellny, Till K.; Vivancos, Pedro Diaz; Kiddle, Guy; Hedden, Peter; Driscoll, Simon; Vanacker, Hélène; Verrier, Paul; Hancock, Robert D.; Foyer, Christine H.

    2011-01-01

    Cellular redox homeostasis is a hub for signal integration. Interactions between redox metabolism and the ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE-4 (ABI4) transcription factor were characterized in the Arabidopsis thaliana vitamin c defective1 (vtc1) and vtc2 mutants, which are defective in ascorbic acid synthesis and show a slow growth phenotype together with enhanced abscisic acid (ABA) levels relative to the wild type (Columbia-0). The 75% decrease in the leaf ascorbate pool in the vtc2 mutants was not sufficient to adversely affect GA metabolism. The transcriptome signatures of the abi4, vtc1, and vtc2 mutants showed significant overlap, with a large number of transcription factors or signaling components similarly repressed or induced. Moreover, lincomycin-dependent changes in LIGHT HARVESTING CHLOROPHYLL A/B BINDING PROTEIN 1.1 expression were comparable in these mutants, suggesting overlapping participation in chloroplast to nucleus signaling. The slow growth phenotype of vtc2 was absent in the abi4 vtc2 double mutant, as was the sugar-insensitive phenotype of the abi4 mutant. Octadecanoid derivative-responsive AP2/ERF-domain transcription factor 47 (ORA47) and AP3 (an ABI5 binding factor) transcripts were enhanced in vtc2 but repressed in abi4 vtc2, suggesting that ABI4 and ascorbate modulate growth and defense gene expression through jasmonate signaling. We conclude that low ascorbate triggers ABA- and jasmonate-dependent signaling pathways that together regulate growth through ABI4. Moreover, cellular redox homeostasis exerts a strong influence on sugar-dependent growth regulation. PMID:21926335

  13. Interlaboratory Validation for a Real-Time PCR Salmonella Detection Method Using the ABI 7500 FAST Real-Time PCR System.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chorng-Ming; Doran, Tara; Lin, Wen; Chen, Kai-Shun; Williams-Hill, Donna; Pamboukian, Ruiqing

    2015-06-01

    Sixteen FERN (Food Emergency Response Network) member laboratories collaborated in this study to verify extension of the real-time PCR Salmonella detection method originally designed for the single-tube Cepheid SmartCycler II and validated against the Salmonella method of the U. S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual to the Applied Biosystems (ABI) 7500 FAST Real-Time PCR system multiwell plate platform. Four foods were selected for this study: chili powder, soft cheese, fish, and tomatoes; these foods represent products that are commonly analyzed for the presence of Salmonella for regulatory purposes. Each food consisted of six uninoculated control samples, six samples inoculated with low Salmonella levels (target 1 to 5 CFU/25 g), and six samples inoculated with high levels (target 10 to 50 CFU/25 g). All samples were tested for Salmonella using the 24-h quantitative PCR (qPCR) method for detecting Salmonella, which utilizes modified buffered peptone water as the sole enrichment medium and an internal control for the qPCR. Each of these 18 samples was individually analyzed for Salmonella by the collaborating laboratories using both the ABI 7500 FAST system (alternative method) and the SmartCycler II system (reference method). Statistical analysis of the data revealed no significant difference (P ≥ 0.05) between these two qPCR platforms except for the chili powder samples. The differences noted with chili powder (P = 0.0455) were attributed to the enhanced sensitivity of the ABI 7500 FAST system compared with the SmartCycler II system. The detection limit of both qPCR methods was 0.02 to 0.15 CFU/g. These results provide a solid basis for extending the 24-h qPCR Salmonella method to the ABI 7500 FAST system for high-throughput detection of Salmonella in foods. PMID:26038901

  14. Arabidopsis ABA-Activated Kinase MAPKKK18 is Regulated by Protein Phosphatase 2C ABI1 and the Ubiquitin–Proteasome Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mitula, Filip; Tajdel, Malgorzata; Cieśla, Agata; Kasprowicz-Maluśki, Anna; Kulik, Anna; Babula-Skowrońska, Danuta; Michalak, Michal; Dobrowolska, Grazyna; Sadowski, Jan; Ludwików, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events play an important role in the transmission of the ABA signal. Although SnRK2 [sucrose non-fermenting1-related kinase2] protein kinases and group A protein phosphatase type 2C (PP2C)-type phosphatases constitute the core ABA pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are also involved in plant response to ABA. However, little is known about the interplay between MAPKs and PP2Cs or SnRK2 in the regulation of ABA pathways. In this study, an effort was made to elucidate the role of MAP kinase kinase kinase18 (MKKK18) in relation to ABA signaling and response. The MKKK18 knockout lines showed more vigorous root growth, decreased abaxial stomatal index and increased stomatal aperture under normal growth conditions, compared with the control wild-type Columbia line. In addition to transcriptional regulation of the MKKK18 promoter by ABA, we demonstrated using in vitro and in vivo kinase assays that the kinase activity of MKKK18 was regulated by ABA. Analysis of the cellular localization of MKKK18 showed that the active kinase was targeted specifically to the nucleus. Notably, we identified abscisic acid insensitive 1 (ABI1) PP2C as a MKKK18-interacting protein, and demonstrated that ABI1 inhibited its activity. Using a cell-free degradation assay, we also established that MKKK18 was unstable and was degraded by the proteasome pathway. The rate of MKKK18 degradation was delayed in the ABI1 knockout line. Overall, we provide evidence that ABI1 regulates the activity and promotes proteasomal degradation of MKKK18. PMID:26443375

  15. ABA Regulates Subcellular Redistribution of OsABI-LIKE2, a Negative Regulator in ABA Signaling, to Control Root Architecture and Drought Resistance in Oryza sativa.

    PubMed

    Li, Chengxiang; Shen, Hongyun; Wang, Tao; Wang, Xuelu

    2015-12-01

    The phytohormone ABA is a key stress signal in plants. Although the identification of ABA receptors led to significant progress in understanding the Arabidopsis ABA signaling pathway, there are still many unsolved mysteries regarding ABA signaling in monocots, such as rice. Here, we report that a rice ortholog of AtABI1 and AtABI2, named OsABI-LIKE2 (OsABIL2), plays a negative role in rice ABA signaling. Overexpression of OsABIL2 not only led to ABA insensitivity, but also significantly altered plant developmental phenotypes, including stomatal density and root architecture, which probably caused the hypersensitivity to drought stress. OsABIL2 interacts with OsPYL1, SAPK8 and SAPK10 both in vitro and in vivo, and the phosphatase activity of OsABIL2 was repressed by ABA-bound OsPYL1. However, unlike many other solely nuclear-localized clade A type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), OsABIL2 is localized in both the nucleus and cytosol. Furthermore, OsABIL2 interacts with and co-localized with OsPYL1 mainly in the cytosol, and ABA treatment regulates the nucleus-cytosol distribution of OsABIL2, suggesting a different mechanism for the activation of ABA signaling. Taken together, this study provides significant insights into rice ABA signaling and indicates the important role of OsABIL2 in regulating root development. PMID:26491145

  16. Arabidopsis HOOKLESS1 Regulates Responses to Pathogens and Abscisic Acid through Interaction with MED18 and Acetylation of WRKY33 and ABI5 Chromatin.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chao-Jan; Lai, Zhibing; Lee, Sanghun; Yun, Dae-Jin; Mengiste, Tesfaye

    2016-07-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana HOOKLESS1 (HLS1) encodes a putative histone acetyltransferase with known functions in seedling growth. Here, we show that HLS1 regulates plant responses to pathogens and abscisic acid (ABA) through histone acetylation at chromatin of target loci. The hls1 mutants show impaired responses to bacterial and fungal infection, accelerated senescence, and impaired responses to ABA. HLS1 modulates the expression of WRKY33 and ABA INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5), known regulators of pathogen and ABA responses, respectively, through direct association with these loci. Histone 3 acetylation (H3Ac), a positive mark of transcription, at WRKY33 and ABI5 requires HLS1 function. ABA treatment and pathogen infection enhance HLS1 recruitment and H3Ac at WRKY33. HLS1 associates with Mediator, a eukaryotic transcription coregulatory complex, through direct interaction with mediator subunit 18 (MED18), with which it shares multiple functions. HLS1 recruits MED18 to the WRKY33 promoter, boosting WKRY33 expression, suggesting the synergetic action of HLS1 and MED18. By contrast, MED18 recruitment to ABI5 and transcriptional activation are independent of HLS1. ABA-mediated priming of resistance to fungal infection was abrogated in hls1 and wrky33 mutants but correlated with ABA-induced HLS1 accumulation. In sum, HLS1 provides a regulatory node in pathogen and hormone response pathways through interaction with the Mediator complex and important transcription factors.

  17. Affiliative and "self-as-doer" identities: Relationships between social identity, social support, and emotional status amongst survivors of acquired brain injury (ABI).

    PubMed

    Walsh, R Stephen; Muldoon, Orla T; Gallagher, Stephen; Fortune, Donal G

    2015-01-01

    Social support is an important factor in rehabilitation following acquired brain injury (ABI). Research indicates that social identity makes social support possible and that social identity is made possible by social support. In order to further investigate the reciprocity between social identity and social support, the present research applied the concepts of affiliative and "self-as-doer" identities to an analysis of relationships between social identity, social support, and emotional status amongst a cohort of 53 adult survivors of ABI engaged in post-acute community neurorehabilitation. Path analysis was used to test a hypothesised mediated model whereby affiliative identities have a significant indirect relationship with emotional status via social support and self-as-doer identification. Results support the hypothesised model. Evidence supports an "upward spiral" between social identity and social support such that affiliative identity makes social support possible and social support drives self-as-doer identity. Our discussion emphasises the importance of identity characteristics to social support, and to emotional status, for those living with ABI.

  18. Evaluating the usability of a single UK community acquired brain injury (ABI) rehabilitation service website: implications for research methodology and website design.

    PubMed

    Newby, Gavin; Groom, Christina

    2010-04-01

    Information provision is an important resource for those living with acquired brain injury (ABI) and their families. Web-based health information services are now common additions to health service provision. Ideally, they should be easy to use and provide useful, relevant and accurate information. ABI injuries do not affect individuals in the same way, and survivors can have a wide range of abilities and impairments. Therefore, any informational resource intended for this group should take account of their needs and help to compensate for their limitations. This pilot study recruited a group of individuals with ABI (of a median Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale rating of "lower moderate disability") who were clients of a UK National Health Service rehabilitation service and asked them to assess a specialised website provided by that service and hosted by their employing Primary Care Trust organisation. Participants completed a practical task and then gave their opinions on various aspects of website design, and content. They were also asked to suggest improvements and recommend additions. Overall the results were favourable. However, improvements in the legibility, layout and writing style were identified. There were also requests to add more information on the existing topics and add additional topics. The discussion also evaluates the utility of the methodology and the implications of the results for others considering constructing their own website.

  19. Acquisition of Desiccation Tolerance and Longevity in Seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana (A Comparative Study Using Abscisic Acid-Insensitive abi3 Mutants).

    PubMed

    Ooms, JJJ.; Leon-Kloosterziel, K. M.; Bartels, D.; Koornneef, M.; Karssen, C. M.

    1993-08-01

    Two new abscisic acid (ABA)-insensitive mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana affected in the abi3 locus are described. These new mutants are severely ABA insensitive. Like the earlier described abi3-1 and the ABA-deficient and -insensitive double mutant aba,abi3, these new mutants vary in the extent of ABA-correlated physiological responses. Mutant seeds fail to degrade chlorophyll during maturation and show no dormancy, and desiccation tolerance and longevity are poorly developed. Carbohydrate accumulation as well as synthesis of LEA or RAB proteins are often suggested to be essential for acquisition of desiccation tolerance. In this work two points are demonstrated. (a) Accumulation of carbohydrates as such does not correlate with acquisition of desiccation tolerance or longevity. It is suggested that a low ratio of mono- to oligosac-charides rather than the absolute amount of carbohydrates controls seed longevity or stability to desiccation tolerance. (b) Synthesis of a few assorted proteins, which is responsive to ABA in the later part of seed maturation, is not correlated with desiccation tolerance or longevity.

  20. Seasonal and spatial variation of carbohydrates in mistletoes (Viscum album) and the xylem sap of its hosts (Populus x euamericana and Abies alba).

    PubMed

    Escher, Peter; Eiblmeier, Monika; Hetzger, Ilka; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2004-02-01

    In the present field study we analysed the seasonal pattern of carbohydrate composition and contents in the xylem sap of Viscum album and the xylem sap of a deciduous (Populusxeuramericana) and a coniferous (Abies alba) host tree species. The results were compared with the soluble carbohydrate composition and contents of mistletoe tissues. On both hosts significant amounts of glucose, fructose, and sucrose were found in the xylem sap of Viscum throughout the seasons. The general seasonal pattern of sugar contents, i.e. high concentrations in spring and lower concentrations in other seasons on Populus, and intermediate concentrations throughout the year on Abies, largely reflected the xylem sap carbohydrate composition and contents of the respective host. These observations provide indirect evidence for carbohydrate flux from the xylem sap of the host into the mistletoe. However, in both hosts xylem sap seems to be deviated into the mistletoe without specific control of carbohydrate flux. Differences observed between the seasonal pattern of xylem sap carbohydrate concentrations in Viscum on Populus and Abies may originate from the different time of leaf development of these species. A clear-cut seasonal pattern of soluble carbohydrates was not observed in the leaves of Viscum on both hosts. Still soluble carbohydrates seem to be reallocated from the senescing to the newly developed leaves of Viscum indicating that the seasonal requirement of carbohydrate for growth and development can only completely be met by carbohydrate acquisition from the host and their own photosynthesis.

  1. Divergent climate response on hydraulic-related xylem anatomical traits of Picea abies along a 900-m altitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Castagneri, Daniele; Petit, Giai; Carrer, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Climate change can induce substantial modifications in xylem structure and water transport capacity of trees exposed to environmental constraints. To elucidate mechanisms of xylem plasticity in response to climate, we retrospectively analysed different cell anatomical parameters over tree-ring series in Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.). We sampled 24 trees along an altitudinal gradient (1200, 1600 and 2100 m above sea level, a.s.l.) and processed 2335 ± 1809 cells per ring. Time series for median cell lumen area (MCA), cell number (CN), tree-ring width (RW) and tree-ring-specific hydraulic conductivity (Kr) were crossed with daily temperature and precipitation records (1926-2011) to identify climate influence on xylem anatomical traits. Higher Kr at the low elevation site was due to higher MCA and CN. These variables were related to different aspects of intra-seasonal climatic variability under different environmental conditions, with MCA being more sensitive to summer precipitation. Winter precipitation (snow) benefited most parameters in all the sites. Descending the gradient, sensitivity of xylem features to summer climate shifted mostly from temperature to precipitation. In the context of climate change, our results indicate that higher summer temperatures at high elevations will benefit cell production and xylem hydraulic efficiency, whereas reduced water availability at lower elevations could negatively affect tracheids enlargement and thus stem capacity to transport water.

  2. ,* Copper transport and accumulation in spruce stems (picea abies(L.) Karsten) revelaed by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Krajcarova, Dr. Lucie; Novotny, Dr. Karel; Babula, Dr. Petr; Pravaznik, Dr Ivo; Kucerova, Dr. Petra; Vojtech, Dr. Adam; Martin, Madhavi Z; Kizek, Dr. Rene; Kaiser, Jozef

    2013-01-01

    Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) in double pulse configuration (DP LIBS) was used for scanning elemental spatial distribution in annual terminal stems of spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karsten). Cross sections of stems cultivated in Cu2+ solution of different concentrations were prepared and analyzed by DP LIBS. Raster scanning with 150 m spatial resolution was set and 2D (2-dimentional) maps of Cu and Ca distribution were created on the basis of the data obtained. Stem parts originating in the vicinity of the implementation of the cross sections were mineralized and subsequently Cu and Ca contents were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results provide quantitative information about overall concentration of the elements in places, where LIBS measurements were performed. The fluorescence pictures were created to compare LIBS distribution maps and the fluorescence intensity (or the increase in autofluorescence) was used for the comparison of ICP-MS quantitative results. Results from these three methods can be utilized for quantitative measurements of copper ions transport in different plant compartments in dependence on the concentration of cultivation medium and/or the time of cultivation.

  3. Effect of bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) attack on bark VOC emissions of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghimire, Rajendra P.; Kivimäenpää, Minna; Blomqvist, Minna; Holopainen, Toini; Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, Päivi; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2016-02-01

    Climate warming driven storms are evident causes for an outbreak of the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) resulting in the serious destruction of mature Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) forests in northern Europe. Conifer species are major sources of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in the boreal zone. Climate relevant BVOC emissions are expected to increase when conifer trees defend against bark beetle attack by monoterpene (MT)-rich resin flow. In this study, BVOC emission rates from the bark surface of beetle-attacked and non-attacked spruce trees were measured from two outbreak areas, Iitti and Lahti in southern Finland, and from one control site at Kuopio in central Finland. Beetle attack increased emissions of total MTs 20-fold at Iitti compared to Kuopio, but decreased the emissions of several sesquiterpenes (SQTs) at Iitti. At the Lahti site, the emission rate of α-pinene was positively correlated with mean trap catch of bark beetles. The responsive individual MTs were tricyclene, α-pinene, camphene, myrcene, limonene, 1,8-cineole and bornyl acetate in both of the outbreak areas. Our results suggest that bark beetle outbreaks affect local BVOC emissions from conifer forests dominated by Norway spruce. Therefore, the impacts of insect outbreaks are worth of consideration to global BVOC emission models.

  4. Development of growth media for solid substrate propagation of ectomycorrhizal fungi for inoculation of Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Vuorinen, Irmeli; Hamberg, Leena; Müller, Michael; Seiskari, Pekka; Pennanen, Taina

    2015-05-01

    A silica-based propagation medium was developed for large-scale production of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal inoculum by solid state fermentation. Development of the medium was started by screening for an optimal growth medium among six different semisynthetic agar media traditionally used in cultivation of ECM fungi. The majority (65 %) of the twenty tested ECM fungal strains that typically colonize Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings grew best on modified Melin-Norkrans (MMN) medium with reduced sugar content (½MMN). In order to develop a nutritionally similar medium for large-scale cultivation of the ECM fungi, we chose silica to form a solid matrix and light brewery malt extract to provide nutrients. The medium was supplemented with a commercial humic acid product that was shown to boost fungal growth. The optimal concentration of the constituents was screened for in two assays by determining the growth rates of seven potential inoculant ECM fungal strains (Amphinema sp., Cenococcum geophilum, Hebeloma sp., Meliniomyces bicolor, Paxillus involutus, Piloderma byssinum, and Tylospora asterophora). As a result, we composed a silica-based mass propagation medium (pH 5.8) containing 2.5 % brewery malt extract and 0.5 g/l humic acid product Lignohumate AM. This medium is easily produced and supported good growth of even the slowly growing and rarely studied Athelioid ECM strains. Furthermore, root systems of Norway spruce nursery seedlings were colonized by the tested ECM fungi by using solid inoculum formulated from the silica medium. PMID:25348909

  5. Growth, allocation and tissue chemistry of Picea abies seedlings affected by nutrient supply during the second growing season.

    PubMed

    Kaakinen, Seija; Jolkkonen, Annika; Iivonen, Sari; Vapaavuori, Elina

    2004-06-01

    One-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings were grown hydroponically in a growth chamber to investigate the effects of low and high nutrient availability (LN; 0.25 mM N and HN; 2.50 mM N) on growth, biomass allocation and chemical composition of needles, stem and roots during the second growing season. Climatic conditions in the growth chamber simulated the mean growing season from May to early October in Flakaliden, northern Sweden. In the latter half of the growing season, biomass allocation changed in response to nutrient availability: increased root growth and decreased shoot growth led to higher root/shoot ratios in LN seedlings than in HN seedlings. At high nutrient availability, total biomass, especially stem biomass, increased, as did total nonstructural carbohydrate and nitrogen contents per seedling. Responses of stem chemistry to nutrient addition differed from those of adult trees of the same provenance. In HN seedlings, concentrations of alpha-cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin decreased in the secondary xylem. Our results illustrate the significance of retranslocation of stored nutrients to support new growth early in the season when root growth and nutrient uptake are still low. We conclude that nutrient availability alters allocation patterns, thereby influencing the success of 2-year-old Norway spruce seedlings at forest planting sites. PMID:15059771

  6. Bifunctional cis-abienol synthase from Abies balsamea discovered by transcriptome sequencing and its implications for diterpenoid fragrance production.

    PubMed

    Zerbe, Philipp; Chiang, Angela; Yuen, Macaire; Hamberger, Björn; Hamberger, Britta; Draper, Jason A; Britton, Robert; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2012-04-01

    The labdanoid diterpene alcohol cis-abienol is a major component of the aromatic oleoresin of balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and serves as a valuable bioproduct material for the fragrance industry. Using high-throughput 454 transcriptome sequencing and metabolite profiling of balsam fir bark tissue, we identified candidate diterpene synthase sequences for full-length cDNA cloning and functional characterization. We discovered a bifunctional class I/II cis-abienol synthase (AbCAS), along with the paralogous levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase and isopimaradiene synthase, all of which are members of the gymnosperm-specific TPS-d subfamily. The AbCAS-catalyzed formation of cis-abienol proceeds via cyclization and hydroxylation at carbon C-8 of a postulated carbocation intermediate in the class II active site, followed by cleavage of the diphosphate group and termination of the reaction sequence without further cyclization in the class I active site. This reaction mechanism is distinct from that of synthases of the isopimaradiene- or levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase type, which employ deprotonation reactions in the class II active site and secondary cyclizations in the class I active site, leading to tricyclic diterpenes. Comparative homology modeling suggested the active site residues Asp-348, Leu-617, Phe-696, and Gly-723 as potentially important for the specificity of AbCAS. As a class I/II bifunctional enzyme, AbCAS is a promising target for metabolic engineering of cis-abienol production.

  7. Good manufacturing practice production of [(68)Ga]Ga-ABY-025 for HER2 specific breast cancer imaging.

    PubMed

    Velikyan, Irina; Wennborg, Anders; Feldwisch, Joachim; Lindman, Henrik; Carlsson, Jörgen; Sörensen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Therapies targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) have revolutionized breast cancer treatment, but require invasive biopsies and rigorous histopathology for optimal patient stratification. A non-invasive and quantitative diagnostic method such as positron emission tomography (PET) for the pre-therapeutic determination of the presence and density of the HER2 would significantly improve patient management efficacy and treatment cost. The essential part of the PET methodology is the production of the radiopharmaceutical in compliance with good manufacturing practice (GMP). The use of generator produced positron emitting (68)Ga radionuclide would provide worldwide accessibility of the agent. GMP compliant, reliable and highly reproducible production of [(68)Ga]Ga-ABY-025 with control over the product peptide concentration and amount of radioactivity was accomplished within one hour. Two radiopharmaceuticals were developed differing in the total peptide content and were validated independently. The specific radioactivity could be kept similar throughout the study, and it was 6-fold higher for the low peptide content radiopharmaceutical. Intrapatient comparison of the two peptide doses allowed imaging optimization. The high peptide content decreased the uptake in healthy tissue, in particular liver, improving image contrast. The later imaging time points enhanced the contrast. The combination of high peptide content radiopharmaceutical and whole-body imaging at 2 hours post injection appeared to be optimal for routine clinical use. PMID:27186441

  8. Effect of debarking water from Norway spruce (Picea abies) on the growth of five species of wood-decaying fungi.

    PubMed

    Edfeldt, Amelie Fagerlund; Hedenström, Erik; Edman, Mattias; Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies) debarking water is an aqueous extract obtained as waste from the debarking of logs at paper mills. The debarking water contains a mixture of natural compounds that can exhibit diverse biological activities, potentially including fungicidal activity on some species of wood-decaying fungi. Thus, we investigated the growth rates of such fungi on agar plates to which debarking water extracts had been added. The experiment included five wood-decaying fungi, viz. Gloeophyllum sepiarium, Oligoporus lateritius, Ischnoderma benzoinum, Junghuhnia luteoalba, and Phlebia sp. Growth reduction was observed for all species at the highest tested concentrations of freeze-dried and ethanol-extracted debarking water, the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction and the diethyl ether-soluble fraction. However, the magnitude of the effect varied between different species and strains of individual species. The brown-rot fungi G. sepiarium and O. lateritius were generally the most sensitive species, with the growth of all tested strains being completely inhibited by the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction. These results indicate that development of antifungal wood-protecting agents from debarking water could potentially be a way to make use of a low-value industrial waste.

  9. Differential regulation of Knotted1-like genes during establishment of the shoot apical meristem in Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Larsson, Emma; Sitbon, Folke; von Arnold, Sara

    2012-06-01

    Establishment of the shoot apical meristem (SAM) in Arabidopsis embryos requires the KNOXI transcription factor SHOOT MERISTEMLESS. In Norway spruce (Picea abies), four KNOXI family members (HBK1, HBK2, HBK3 and HBK4) have been identified, but a corresponding role in SAM development has not been demonstrated. As a first step to differentiate between the functions of the four Norway spruce HBK genes, we have here analyzed their expression profiles during the process of somatic embryo development. This was made both under normal embryo development and under conditions of reduced SAM formation by treatment with the polar auxin transport inhibitor NPA. Concomitantly with the formation of an embryonic SAM, the HBK2 and HBK4 genes displayed a significant up-regulation that was delayed by NPA treatment. In contrast, HBK1 and HBK3 were up-regulated prior to SAM formation, and their temporal expression was not affected by NPA. Ectopic expression of the four HBK genes in transgenic Arabidopsis plants further supported similar functions of HBK2 and HBK4, distinct from those of HBK1 and HBK3. Together, the results suggest that HBK2 and HBK4 exert similar functions related to the SAM differentiation and somatic embryo development in Norway spruce, while HBK1 and HBK3 have more general functions during embryo development.

  10. Development of growth media for solid substrate propagation of ectomycorrhizal fungi for inoculation of Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Vuorinen, Irmeli; Hamberg, Leena; Müller, Michael; Seiskari, Pekka; Pennanen, Taina

    2015-05-01

    A silica-based propagation medium was developed for large-scale production of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal inoculum by solid state fermentation. Development of the medium was started by screening for an optimal growth medium among six different semisynthetic agar media traditionally used in cultivation of ECM fungi. The majority (65 %) of the twenty tested ECM fungal strains that typically colonize Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings grew best on modified Melin-Norkrans (MMN) medium with reduced sugar content (½MMN). In order to develop a nutritionally similar medium for large-scale cultivation of the ECM fungi, we chose silica to form a solid matrix and light brewery malt extract to provide nutrients. The medium was supplemented with a commercial humic acid product that was shown to boost fungal growth. The optimal concentration of the constituents was screened for in two assays by determining the growth rates of seven potential inoculant ECM fungal strains (Amphinema sp., Cenococcum geophilum, Hebeloma sp., Meliniomyces bicolor, Paxillus involutus, Piloderma byssinum, and Tylospora asterophora). As a result, we composed a silica-based mass propagation medium (pH 5.8) containing 2.5 % brewery malt extract and 0.5 g/l humic acid product Lignohumate AM. This medium is easily produced and supported good growth of even the slowly growing and rarely studied Athelioid ECM strains. Furthermore, root systems of Norway spruce nursery seedlings were colonized by the tested ECM fungi by using solid inoculum formulated from the silica medium.

  11. Structural studies of arabinan-rich pectic polysaccharides from Abies sibirica L. Biological activity of pectins of A. sibirica.

    PubMed

    Shakhmatov, Evgeny G; Toukach, Philip V; Michailowa, Capital Ie Cyrilliclena А; Makarova, Elena N

    2014-11-26

    Highly branched arabinan-rich pectic polysaccharides, containing 84% of arabinose, was extracted from wood greenery of Abies sibirica L. The structure of arabinan was studied by the 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The macromolecule backbone was represented mainly by RG-I (molar ratio GalA:Rha ∼ 1.3:1) patterns with high degree of rhamnose branching. Side chains were comprised of 1,5-linked α-L-Araf residues (the major part of polymer mass), 1,3,5-di-O- and 1,2,3,5-tri-O-linked α-L-Araf residues, confirming the presence of highly branched 1,5-α-L-arabinan. Although most L-Araf were in α-anomeric form, minor terminal β-L-Araf-(1 →... was detected. 1,4-β-D-linked Galp residues found in the side chains account for minor AG-I or 1,4-galactan, as compared to arabinan. A tentative structure was proposed. Polysaccharides obtained from Siberian fir greenery were screened for biological activity. Galacturonan had a strongest stimulating effect on germination and growth rate of seeds, germs and roots of Triticum aestivum, Avena sativa, and Secale cereale. PMID:25256514

  12. Antimicrobial activities of several parts of Pinus brutia, Juniperus oxycedrus, Abies cilicia, Cedrus libani and Pinus nigra.

    PubMed

    Diğrak, M; Ilçim, A; Hakki Alma, M

    1999-11-01

    In this study, the antimicrobial activities of several parts of various trees grown in the Kahramanmaraş region of Turkey were investigated by the disc diffusion method. Chloroform, acetone and methanol extracts of leaves, resins, barks, cones and fruits of Pinus brutia Ten., Juniperus oxycedrus L., Abies cilicia Ant. & Kotschy Carr., Cedrus libani A. Rich. and Pinus nigra Arn. were prepared and tested against Bacillus megaterium DSM 32, Bacillus subtilis IMG 22, Bacillus cereus FMC 19, Escherichia coli DM, Klebsiella pneumoniae FMC 3, Enterobacter aerogenes CCM 2531, Staphylococcus aureus Cowan 1, Mycobacterium smegmatis RUT, Proteus vulgaris FMC 1, Listeria monocytogenes Scoot A, Pseudomonas aeruginosa DSM 5007, Candida albicans CCM 314, Candida tropicalis MDC 86 and Penicillium italicum K. The results showed that antifungal effects were not observed for the whole extracts, E. coli was not inhibited by any of the plant extracts except by the chloroform and acetone extracts of the leaves of A. cilicia, which showed inhibition zones of 16-18 mm, respectively. All the plant extracts used in this study inhibited the development of the other bacteria studied. When the results of this study were compared with an ampicillin standard, it was found that the microorganisms studied were generally susceptible, intermediate or resistant to the extracts of species when compared with the ampicillin standard. On the other hand, the acetone and methanol extracts of Juniperus fruits were found to be quite resistant.

  13. Bisphenol A disrupts microtubules and induces multipolar spindles in dividing root tip cells of the gymnosperm Abies cephalonica.

    PubMed

    Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S; Panteris, Emmanuel; Eleftheriou, Eleftherios P

    2016-04-01

    The effects of bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine chemical disruptor extensively used in the plastic and epoxy resin industry, on dividing root tip cells of the gymnosperm Abies cephalonica Loudon were investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy after tubulin and endoplasmic reticulum immunolocalization and DNA staining. Microtubule arrays of all mitotic stages were disrupted within a few hours of treatment: preprophase bands exhibited asymmetric width; prometaphase, metaphase and anaphase spindles appeared sharply pointed, sigmoid or multipolar; phragmoplast microtubules were elongated and occasionally bended toward the daughter nuclei. Depending on the mitotic stage, the chromosomes appeared condensed at prophase, as a compact mass at metaphase and anaphase, unsegregated or bridged at telophase. Endoplasmic reticulum patterns were also affected, reflecting those of the respective microtubule arrays. Recovery of the microtubules after oryzalin treatment was more effective in a BPA solution than in water. It is concluded that the plant mitotic apparatus microtubules are very sensitive to BPA, the effect of which depends on the specific cell cycle stage. The formation of multipolar spindles is reminiscent of animal cells and is ascribed to the induction of multiple microtubule nucleation sites, deriving from the centrosomal properties of gymnosperms. PMID:26855225

  14. Winter at the alpine timberline causes complex within-tree patterns of water potential and embolism in Picea abies.

    PubMed

    Mayr, Stefan; Charra-Vaskou, Katline

    2007-09-01

    Winter temperatures at the alpine timberline cause ice formation in the xylem of conifers blocking water uptake as well as water shifts within the axes system. This amplifies drought stress that, in combination with freeze-thaw events, causes embolism. This study focussed on within-tree patterns of water potential (psi) and embolism in Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.]. At five sampling dates in midwinter, psi was determined at numerous positions in the crown of three trees, and at the end of March, the extent of embolism in representative sections of the axes system was analysed. Until 14 March, mean psi decreased to -3.77 +/- 0.11 MPa with less negative psi in exposed crown parts. On 30 March, psi was -1.60 +/- 0.06 MPa, while loss of conductivity reached up to 100%. Conductivity losses increased with exposition and were highest in the smallest tree. The observed complex within-tree patterns of psi and embolism were caused by ice blockages and differences in stress intensities within the xylem. High conductivity losses despite moderate psi in exposed crown parts indicated freeze-thaw events to be a major inducer of winter embolism. Tree size may play a critical role for winter water relations as trees profit from water stored in the stem and in crown parts below the snow cover.

  15. Effects of soil moisture manipulations on fine root dynamics in a mature balsam fir (Abies balsamea L. Mill.) forest.

    PubMed

    Olesinski, Jakub; Lavigne, Michael B; Krasowski, Marek J

    2011-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that moisture stress affects fine root dynamics during and after the stress. To this end, we investigated the effects of soil moisture on annual and seasonal fine root production and mortality over 4 years in a mature balsam fir (Abies balsamea L. Mill.) stand using a minirhizotron and soil coring. Droughting and irrigating treatments were imposed for 17 weeks during the third year of the study, and post-treatment recovery was measured during the fourth year. Monthly fine root production was often reduced by low soil water content (SWC) during July-September in the pre-treatment years and by imposed drought. Irrigation resulted in higher summer fine root production than in pre-treatment years. In the recovery year, increased fine root production was observed in the previously droughted plots despite low SWC in August and September. Droughting decreased year-end fine root biomass in the treatment year, but biomass returned to pre-treatment levels during the recovery year. Droughting and irrigating did not affect foliage production during the treatment and recovery years. Our results suggest that for balsam fir, establishment and maintenance of a functional balance between foliage and fine root biomass, with respect to moisture supply and demand, can depend on fine root dynamics occurring over more than one growing season. In addition, our findings provided insights into tree growth responses to interannual variation in moisture supply.

  16. VOC emissions from Norway spruce ( Picea abies L. [Karst]) twigs in the field—Results of a dynamic enclosure study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabmer, W.; Kreuzwieser, J.; Wisthaler, A.; Cojocariu, C.; Graus, M.; Rennenberg, H.; Steigner, D.; Steinbrecher, R.; Hansel, A.

    During the 2002 summer intensive field campaign of BEWA2000 a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) was used for online determination of volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted by Norway spruce ( Picea abies L. [Karst]) twigs in a dynamic sampling enclosure. Emissions of isoprenoids (isoprene and monoterpenes) and oxygenated VOC (OVOC; acetaldehyde, acetone, methanol, and ethanol) were investigated. Emissions showed clear diurnal patterns with high daytime emission rates amounting to 1.8 μg C g -1 dwt h -1 for the sum of monoterpenes and in the range of 0.1 to 0.6 μg C g -1 dwt h -1 for isoprene>acetone>ethanol>methanol. Data were used to validate existing models on isoprene and monoterpene emissions and to discuss environmental and physiological factors affecting VOC emissions. Isoprene and acetaldehyde emission rates were best modelled applying the Guenther 1993 temperature and solar radiation algorithm. Emissions of monoterpenes, acetone and ethanol were best described by a temperature-only exponential algorithm. Using these model approaches a maximum emission variability of 66% was covered (isoprene). Poor r2 values ranging from 0.15 to 0.42 were typical for oxygenated VOC emission modelling indicating the need for model improvement e.g. development of process-based models describing the emission as a result of biochemical de novo synthesis as well as physico-chemical transport properties inside the leaves.

  17. Mutational analysis of a monoterpene synthase reaction: altered catalysis through directed mutagenesis of (-)-pinene synthase from Abies grandis.

    PubMed

    Hyatt, David C; Croteau, Rodney

    2005-07-15

    Two monoterpene synthases, (-)-pinene synthase and (-)-camphene synthase, from grand fir (Abies grandis) produce different product mixtures despite having highly homologous amino acid sequences and, presumably, very similar three-dimensional structures. The major product of (-)-camphene synthase, (-)-camphene, and the major products of (-)-pinene synthase, (-)-alpha-pinene, and (-)-beta-pinene, arise through distinct mechanistic variations of the electrophilic reaction cascade that is common to terpenoid synthases. Structural modeling followed by directed mutagenesis in (-)-pinene synthase was used to replace selected amino acid residues with the corresponding residues from (-)-camphene synthase in an effort to identify the amino acids responsible for the catalytic differences. This approach produced an enzyme in which more than half of the product was channeled through an alternative pathway. It was also shown that several (-)-pinene synthase to (-)-camphene synthase amino acid substitutions were necessary before catalysis was significantly altered. The data support a model in which the collective action of many key amino acids, located both in and distant from the active site pocket, regulate the course of the electrophilic reaction cascade.

  18. Forest microsite effects on community composition of ectomycorrhizal fungi on seedlings of Picea abies and Betula pendula.

    PubMed

    Tedersoo, Leho; Suvi, Triin; Jairus, Teele; Kõljalg, Urmas

    2008-05-01

    Niche differentiation in soil horizons, host species and natural nutrient gradients contribute to the high diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi in boreal forests. This study aims at documenting the diversity and community composition of ectomycorrhizal fungi of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and silver birch (Betula pendula) seedlings in five most abundant microsites in three Estonian old-growth forests. Undisturbed forest floor, windthrow mounds and pits harboured more species than brown- and white-rotted wood. Several species of ectomycorrhizal fungi were differentially represented on either hosts, microsites and sites. Generally, the most frequent species in dead wood were also common in forest floor soil. Ordination analyses suggested that decay type determined the composition of EcM fungal community in dead wood. Root connections with in-growing mature tree roots from below affected the occurrence of certain fungal species on seedling roots systems in dead wood. This study demonstrates that ectomycorrhizal fungi differentially establish in certain forest microsites that is attributable to their dispersal and competitive abilities. Elevated microsites, especially decayed wood, act as seed beds for both ectomycorrhizal forest trees and fungi, thus affecting the succession of boreal forest ecosystems. PMID:18266759

  19. Bifunctional cis-Abienol Synthase from Abies balsamea Discovered by Transcriptome Sequencing and Its Implications for Diterpenoid Fragrance Production*

    PubMed Central

    Zerbe, Philipp; Chiang, Angela; Yuen, Macaire; Hamberger, Björn; Hamberger, Britta; Draper, Jason A.; Britton, Robert; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The labdanoid diterpene alcohol cis-abienol is a major component of the aromatic oleoresin of balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and serves as a valuable bioproduct material for the fragrance industry. Using high-throughput 454 transcriptome sequencing and metabolite profiling of balsam fir bark tissue, we identified candidate diterpene synthase sequences for full-length cDNA cloning and functional characterization. We discovered a bifunctional class I/II cis-abienol synthase (AbCAS), along with the paralogous levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase and isopimaradiene synthase, all of which are members of the gymnosperm-specific TPS-d subfamily. The AbCAS-catalyzed formation of cis-abienol proceeds via cyclization and hydroxylation at carbon C-8 of a postulated carbocation intermediate in the class II active site, followed by cleavage of the diphosphate group and termination of the reaction sequence without further cyclization in the class I active site. This reaction mechanism is distinct from that of synthases of the isopimaradiene- or levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase type, which employ deprotonation reactions in the class II active site and secondary cyclizations in the class I active site, leading to tricyclic diterpenes. Comparative homology modeling suggested the active site residues Asp-348, Leu-617, Phe-696, and Gly-723 as potentially important for the specificity of AbCAS. As a class I/II bifunctional enzyme, AbCAS is a promising target for metabolic engineering of cis-abienol production. PMID:22337889

  20. Good manufacturing practice production of [68Ga]Ga-ABY-025 for HER2 specific breast cancer imaging

    PubMed Central

    Velikyan, Irina; Wennborg, Anders; Feldwisch, Joachim; Lindman, Henrik; Carlsson, Jörgen; Sörensen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Therapies targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) have revolutionized breast cancer treatment, but require invasive biopsies and rigorous histopathology for optimal patient stratification. A non-invasive and quantitative diagnostic method such as positron emission tomography (PET) for the pre-therapeutic determination of the presence and density of the HER2 would significantly improve patient management efficacy and treatment cost. The essential part of the PET methodology is the production of the radiopharmaceutical in compliance with good manufacturing practice (GMP). The use of generator produced positron emitting 68Ga radionuclide would provide worldwide accessibility of the agent. GMP compliant, reliable and highly reproducible production of [68Ga]Ga-ABY-025 with control over the product peptide concentration and amount of radioactivity was accomplished within one hour. Two radiopharmaceuticals were developed differing in the total peptide content and were validated independently. The specific radioactivity could be kept similar throughout the study, and it was 6-fold higher for the low peptide content radiopharmaceutical. Intrapatient comparison of the two peptide doses allowed imaging optimization. The high peptide content decreased the uptake in healthy tissue, in particular liver, improving image contrast. The later imaging time points enhanced the contrast. The combination of high peptide content radiopharmaceutical and whole-body imaging at 2 hours post injection appeared to be optimal for routine clinical use. PMID:27186441

  1. Good manufacturing practice production of [(68)Ga]Ga-ABY-025 for HER2 specific breast cancer imaging.

    PubMed

    Velikyan, Irina; Wennborg, Anders; Feldwisch, Joachim; Lindman, Henrik; Carlsson, Jörgen; Sörensen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Therapies targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) have revolutionized breast cancer treatment, but require invasive biopsies and rigorous histopathology for optimal patient stratification. A non-invasive and quantitative diagnostic method such as positron emission tomography (PET) for the pre-therapeutic determination of the presence and density of the HER2 would significantly improve patient management efficacy and treatment cost. The essential part of the PET methodology is the production of the radiopharmaceutical in compliance with good manufacturing practice (GMP). The use of generator produced positron emitting (68)Ga radionuclide would provide worldwide accessibility of the agent. GMP compliant, reliable and highly reproducible production of [(68)Ga]Ga-ABY-025 with control over the product peptide concentration and amount of radioactivity was accomplished within one hour. Two radiopharmaceuticals were developed differing in the total peptide content and were validated independently. The specific radioactivity could be kept similar throughout the study, and it was 6-fold higher for the low peptide content radiopharmaceutical. Intrapatient comparison of the two peptide doses allowed imaging optimization. The high peptide content decreased the uptake in healthy tissue, in particular liver, improving image contrast. The later imaging time points enhanced the contrast. The combination of high peptide content radiopharmaceutical and whole-body imaging at 2 hours post injection appeared to be optimal for routine clinical use.

  2. [Characteristics of soil nematode community in Abies georgei var. smithii forest gaps in south-east Tibet, China].

    PubMed

    Xue, Hui-Ying; Luo, Da-Qing

    2013-09-01

    In order to understand the characteristics of soil nematode community in the Abies georgei var. smithii forest gaps in southeast Tibet, an investigation was conducted to study the variations of soil nematode community at different depths of 0-30 cm soil layer in the gaps and non-gaps. The nematode individual density, diversity index, and trophic group index were taken to analyze the composition and structural characteristics of the soil nematode community. A total of 26801 soil nematodes belonging to 2 classes, 5 orders, and 64 genera were collected by shallow dish method. The nematode individual density was averagely 3552 ind x 100 g(-1) dry soil, and the individuals had a highly surface-gathering characteristics. In the gap soils, the dominant genera were Tylencholaimus and Filenchus, while the dominant trophic group was bacterivores. The soil organic matter was decomposed by both bacteria and fungi. The ecological index results showed that the nematodes diversity and richness were related to gap size. The characteristics of soil nematode community in the gaps were different from those in closed stand and forest open land, and this difference indicated the potential for using nematodes as the environmental indicator species. PMID:24417106

  3. Multiscale Modeling of Drug-induced Effects of ReDuNing Injection on Human Disease: From Drug Molecules to Clinical Symptoms of Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Fang; Gu, Jiangyong; Zhang, Xinzhuang; Chen, Lirong; Cao, Liang; Li, Na; Wang, Zhenzhong; Xiao, Wei; Xu, Xiaojie

    2015-05-01

    ReDuNing injection (RDN) is a patented traditional Chinese medicine, and the components of it were proven to have antiviral and important anti-inflammatory activities. Several reports showed that RDN had potential effects in the treatment of influenza and pneumonia. Though there were several experimental reports about RDN, the experimental results were not enough and complete due to that it was difficult to predict and verify the effect of RDN for a large number of human diseases. Here we employed multiscale model by integrating molecular docking, network pharmacology and the clinical symptoms information of diseases and explored the interaction mechanism of RDN on human diseases. Meanwhile, we analyzed the relation among the drug molecules, target proteins, biological pathways, human diseases and the clinical symptoms about it. Then we predicted potential active ingredients of RDN, the potential target proteins, the key pathways and related diseases. These attempts may offer several new insights to understand the pharmacological properties of RDN and provide benefit for its new clinical applications and research.

  4. Impact of parameter fluctuations on the performance of ethanol precipitation in production of Re Du Ning Injections, based on HPLC fingerprints and principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Qiong; Wang, Shu-Yao; Li, Yan-Jing; Wang, Yong-Xiang; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Huang, Wen-Zhe; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Bi, Yu-An; Ding, Gang; Xiao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine the relationships between the performance of ethanol precipitation and seven process parameters in the ethanol precipitation process of Re Du Ning Injections, including concentrate density, concentrate temperature, ethanol content, flow rate and stir rate in the addition of ethanol, precipitation time, and precipitation temperature. Under the experimental and simulated production conditions, a series of precipitated resultants were prepared by changing these variables one by one, and then examined by HPLC fingerprint analyses. Different from the traditional evaluation model based on single or a few constituents, the fingerprint data of every parameter fluctuation test was processed with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to comprehensively assess the performance of ethanol precipitation. Our results showed that concentrate density, ethanol content, and precipitation time were the most important parameters that influence the recovery of active compounds in precipitation resultants. The present study would provide some reference for pharmaceutical scientists engaged in research on pharmaceutical process optimization and help pharmaceutical enterprises adapt a scientific and reasonable cost-effective approach to ensure the batch-to-batch quality consistency of the final products.

  5. Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin Decoction ameliorated the osteoporotic phenotype of ovariectomized mice without affecting the serum estrogen concentration or uterus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ling; Qiu, Xue-Min; Gui, Yu-Yan; Xu, Ying-Ping; Gober, Hans-Jürgen; Li, Da-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin Decoction (BSNXD), a traditional Chinese medicinal composition, has been used as a remedy for postmenopausal osteoporosis, but its effects on bone metabolism and the uterus have not been reported. Purpose We aimed to determine the respective effects of BSNXD on the bones and the uterus of ovariectomized (OVX) mice to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this herbal formula. Materials and methods Postmenopausal osteoporosis animal models that were generated by ovariectomy were treated with BSNXD. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed to analyze the bone mineral density, and histomorphometric analysis was performed to measure the parameters related to bone metabolism. Calcein labeling was performed to detect bone formation. The uteruses from the mice were weighed, and the histomorphometry was analyzed. Drug-derived serum was prepared to assess the 17-β-estradiol concentration via enzyme immunoassay. Results BSNXD administration ameliorated the osteoporotic phenotype of OVX mice, as evidenced by an increase in the bone mineral density and bone volume; these effects could not be abolished by the administration of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole. Moreover, BSNXD had no effect on the serum estrogen concentration or uterus. Conclusion These results suggest that BSNXD has ameliorating effects on bone loss due to estrogen deprivation without affecting the peripheral blood estrogen concentration or the uterus in OVX mice. PMID:26357466

  6. Influence of low- and high-elevation plant genomes on the regulation of autumn cold acclimation in Abies sachalinensis

    PubMed Central

    Ishizuka, Wataru; Ono, Kiyomi; Hara, Toshihiko; Goto, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Boreal coniferous species with wide geographic distributions show substantial variation in autumn cold acclimation among populations. To determine how this variation is inherited across generations, we conducted a progeny test and examined the development of cold hardening in open-pollinated second-generation (F2) progeny of Abies sachalinensis. The F1 parents had different genetic backgrounds resulting from reciprocal interpopulational crosses between low-elevation (L) and high-elevation (H) populations: L × L, L × H, H × L, and H × H. Paternity analysis of the F2 progeny using molecular genetic markers showed that 91.3% of the fathers were located in surrounding stands of the F1 planting site (i.e., not in the F1 test population). The remaining fathers were assigned to F1 parents of the L × L cross-type. This indicates that the high-elevation genome in the F1 parents was not inherited by the F2 population via pollen flow. The timing of autumn cold acclimation in the F2 progeny depended on the cross-type of the F1 mother. The progeny of H × H mothers showed less damage in freezing tests than the progeny of other cross-types. Statistical modeling supported a linear effect of genome origin. In the best model, variation in freezing damage was explained by the proportion of maternally inherited high-elevation genome. These results suggest that autumn cold acclimation was partly explained by the additive effect of the responsible maternal genome. Thus, the offspring that inherited a greater proportion of the high-elevation genome developed cold hardiness earlier. Genome-based variation in the regulation of autumn cold acclimation matched the local climatic conditions, which may be a key factor in elevation-dependent adaptation. PMID:26557131

  7. Tree water status and growth of saplings and mature Norway spruce (Picea abies) at a dry distribution limit.

    PubMed

    Oberhuber, Walter; Hammerle, Albin; Kofler, Werner

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the size effect on stem water status and growth in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) occurring at the edge of its natural range in a dry inner Alpine environment (750 m asl, Tyrol, Austria). Intra-annual dynamics of stem water deficit (ΔW), maximum daily shrinkage (MDS), and radial growth (RG) were compared among saplings (stem diameter/height: 2.2 cm/93 cm; n = 7) and mature adult trees (25 cm/12.7 m; n = 6) during 2014. ΔW, MDS, and RG were extracted from stem diameter variations, which were continuously recorded by automatic dendrometers and the influence of environmental drivers was evaluated by applying moving correlation analysis (MCA). Additionally, we used Morlet wavelet analysis to assess the differences in cyclic radial stem variations between saplings and mature trees. Results indicate that saplings and mature trees were experiencing water limitation throughout the growing season. However, saplings exhibited a more strained stem water status and higher sensitivity to environmental conditions than mature trees. Hence, the significantly lower radial increments in saplings (0.16 ± 0.03 mm) compared to mature trees (0.54 ± 0.14 mm) is related to more constrained water status in the former, affecting the rate and duration of RG. The wavelet analysis consistently revealed more distinct diurnal stem variations in saplings compared to mature trees. Intra-annual RG was most closely related to climate variables that influence transpiration, i.e., vapor pressure deficit, relative air humidity, and air temperature. MCA, however, showed pronounced instability of climate-growth relationships, which masked missing temporal or significant correlations when the entire study period (April-October) was considered. We conclude that an increase in evaporative demand will impair regeneration and long-term stability of drought-prone inner Alpine Norway spruce forests. PMID:26442019

  8. Bacterial diversity associated with subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) ectomycorrhizae following wildfire and salvage-logging in central British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Khetmalas, Madhukar B; Egger, Keith N; Massicotte, Hugues B; Tackaberry, Linda E; Clapperton, M Jill

    2002-07-01

    To assess the effect of fire and salvage logging on the diversity of mycorrhizal-bacterial communities, bacteria associated with Cenococcum, Thelephora, Tomentella, Russulaceae, and E-strain ectomycorrhizae (ECM) of Abies lasiocarpa seedlings were characterized using two approaches. First, bacteria were isolated and characterized by Biolog, gas chromatography fatty acid methyl ester (GC-FAME), and amplified 16S rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). The bacterial communities retrieved from ECM from both sites were dominated by Proteobacteria (groups gamma and beta). Pseudomonas was the most common genus isolated, followed by Variovorax, Burkholderia, and Xanthomonas. Gram-positive isolates (mostly high-G+C Gram-positive bacteria) were more frequently retrieved on the burned-salvaged site, many commonly associated with the two ascomycete ECM, Cenococcum and E-strain. Pseudomonas species were retrieved more frequently from Thelephora. Although actinomycetes were isolated from all sites, almost no actinomycetes or other Gram-positive bacteria were isolated from either Thelephora or Tomentella. Second, amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences were amplified directly from root tips and then cloned into the plasmid vector pAMP1, followed by restriction analysis. This technique distinguished more genotypes than isolates retrieved by culturing methods, but generally, results were similar in that the largest proportion of the bacteria were putatively Gram-negative; putative Gram-positive bacteria were fewer and most were from the burned-salvaged site. Direct cloning resulted in many patterns that did not match any identified isolates, suggesting that a large proportion of clones were unique or not culturable by the methods used. Analysis for both protocols showed no significant difference in bacterial diversity between the burned-salvaged and unburned sites.

  9. Estimation of geohydraulic parameters from fractured shales and sandstone aquifers of Abi (Nigeria) using electrical resistivity and hydrogeologic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebong, Ebong D.; Akpan, Anthony E.; Onwuegbuche, Anthony A.

    2014-08-01

    Geohydraulic parameters are essential elements in groundwater resource management and conservation. Most of these parameters especially the hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity are usually estimated from pumping test carried out on drilled boreholes. This paper presents a study conducted in Abi area of the Ikom-Mamfe Embayment with the objective of estimating aquifer parameters from 30 evenly distributed vertical electrical soundings using the Schlumberger configuration and hydrogeologic measurements from 28 boreholes within the area as an alternative way of generating an initial data for groundwater characterisation and quality assessment in the area. The results showed low resistivity ⩽45 Ωm, hydraulic conductivity ⩽2.0 × 10-5 m/s (⩽1.7 m/day) and transmissivity ⩽5.2 × 10-4 m2/s (⩽45 m2/day) for the water-bearing aquifer horizons in the northeastern and northwestern parts of the study area due to the nature of the aquifer system that were predominantly fractured shale. The sand based aquifers had higher values in the neighbourhood of ∼100-800 Ωm, ∼4.0 × 10-5-1.0 × 10-4 m/s (∼3.46-9.04 m/day) and ∼6.94 × 10-4-3.81 × 10-3 m2/s (∼60-330 m2/day) for the respective parameters mentioned above. The potability of the groundwater system as observed from hydrogeologic measurements of water samples from most boreholes were relatively poor, having electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids values of ∼250-931.0 μS/cm and ∼500-623.77 mg/l respectively due to the influence of clay minerals within the aquifer horizon. Some of the vertical electrical sounding points were taken in the vicinity were pumping tests and lithologic data were available for adequate comparison of the results.

  10. The influence of Ceratocystis polonica inoculation and methyl jasmonate application on terpene chemistry of Norway spruce, Picea abies.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tao; Krokene, Paal; Björklund, Niklas; Långström, Bo; Solheim, Halvor; Christiansen, Erik; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2010-08-01

    Constitutive and inducible terpene production is involved in conifer resistance against bark beetles and their associated fungi. In this study 72 Norway spruce (Picea abies) were randomly assigned to methyl jasmonate (MJ) application, inoculation with the bluestain fungus Ceratocystis polonica, or no-treatment control. We investigated terpene levels in the stem bark of the trees before treatment, 30 days and one year after treatment using GC-MS and two-dimensional GC (2D-GC) with a chiral column, and monitored landing and attack rates of the spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus, on the trees by sticky traps and visual inspection. Thirty days after fungal inoculation the absolute amount and relative proportion of (+)-3-carene, sabinene, and terpinolene increased and (+)-alpha-pinene decreased. Spraying the stems with MJ tended to generally increase the concentration of most major terpenes with minor alteration to their relative proportions, but significant increases were only observed for (-)-beta-pinene and (-)-limonene. Fungal inoculation significantly increased the enantiomeric ratio of (-)-alpha-pinene and (-)-limonene 1 month after treatment, whereas MJ only increased that of (-)-limonene. One year after treatment, both MJ and fungal inoculation increased the concentration of most terpenes relative to undisturbed control trees, with significant changes in (-)-beta-pinene, (-)-beta-phellandrene and some other compounds. Terpene levels did not change in untreated stem sections after treatment, and chemical induction by MJ and C. polonica thus seemed to be restricted to the treated stem section. The enantiomeric ratio of (-)-alpha-pinene was significantly higher and the relative proportions of (-)-limonene were significantly lower in trees that were attractive to bark beetles compared to unattractive trees. One month after fungal inoculation, the total amount of diterpenes was significantly higher in putative resistant trees with shorter lesion lengths than in

  11. A possible biochemical basis for fructose-induced inhibition of embryo development in Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Businge, Edward; Egertsdotter, Ulrika

    2014-06-01

    Sugars play an important role in various physiological processes during plant growth and development; however, the developmental roles and regulatory functions of hexoses other than glucose are still largely unclear. Recent studies suggest that blocked embryo development in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) is associated with accumulation of fructose. In the present study, the potential biochemical regulatory mechanism of glucose and fructose was studied during development of somatic embryos of Norway spruce from pro-embryogenic masses to mature embryos. The changes in protein fluorescence, a marker of the Maillard reaction, were monitored in two cell lines of Norway spruce that were grown on media containing sucrose (control), glucose or fructose. Manual time-lapse photography showed that growth of embryogenic cultures on medium containing sucrose was characterized by normal development of mature embryos whereas the embryogenic cultures that were grown on media containing glucose or fructose did not develop mature embryos. The biochemical analyses of embryogenic samples collected during embryo development showed that: (i) the content of glucose and fructose in the embryogenic cultures increased significantly during growth on each medium, respectively; (ii) the accumulation of Maillard products in the embryogenic cultures was highly correlated with the endogenous content of fructose but not glucose; and (iii) the embryogenic cultures grown on fructose displayed the highest protein carbonyl content and DNA damage whereas the highest content of glutathione was recorded in the embryogenic cultures that had grown on sucrose. Our data suggest that blocked development of embryos in the presence of fructose may be associated with the Maillard reaction.

  12. Secondary metabolites of the lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. and their presence in spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) bark.

    PubMed

    Latkowska, Ewa; Bober, Beata; Chrapusta, Ewelina; Adamski, Michal; Kaminski, Ariel; Bialczyk, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Lichen species typically have a characteristic profile of secondary metabolites. Dense populations of Hypogymnia physodes growing frequently as epiphytes on tree branches have harmful effects on the host, likely due to their secondary compounds, which were undetected in tree tissues until now. The aim of the present study was to re-characterise the suite of secondary metabolites of H. physodes thalli and to estimate their translocation into spruce (Picea abies) bark. Thallus and bark extracts were compared using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The compounds were identified based on their UV, MS and MS/MS spectra as well as retention factors of their TLC analysis. In addition to the previously described secondary metabolites (protocetraric, physodalic, 3-hydroxyphysodic, physodic, and 2'-O-methylphysodic acids, atranorin and chloroatranorin) of H. physodes, further three were identified in its thalli: conphysodalic, 4-O-methylphysodic and α-alectoronic acids. Fragmentation patterns from the negative ionisation of each compound were proposed, some of which were described for the first time. Among all of the detected lichen substances, a few, e.g., physodalic, 3-hydroxyphysodic, physodic acids and atranorin, were present in the bark of spruce branches that were abundantly colonised by lichen. The newly identified compounds of H. physodes thalli may belong to its constant or accessory secondary metabolites. These compounds may be useful in the chemotaxonomic classification of this species. The presence of some lichen substances in spruce bark confirmed their ability to penetrate host tissues. These data suggest that H. physodes compounds may cause long-term effects on spruces in nature.

  13. Effect of Local Heating and Cooling on Cambial Activity and Cell Differentiation in the Stem of Norway Spruce (Picea abies)

    PubMed Central

    GRIČAR, JOŽICA; ZUPANČIČ, MARTIN; ČUFAR, KATARINA; KOCH, GERALD; SCHMITT, UWE; OVEN, PRIMOŽ

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims The effect of heating and cooling on cambial activity and cell differentiation in part of the stem of Norway spruce (Picea abies) was investigated. • Methods A heating experiment (23–25 °C) was carried out in spring, before normal reactivation of the cambium, and cooling (9–11 °C) at the height of cambial activity in summer. The cambium, xylem and phloem were investigated by means of light- and transmission electron microscopy and UV-microspectrophotometry in tissues sampled from living trees. • Key Results Localized heating for 10 d initiated cambial divisions on the phloem side and after 20 d also on the xylem side. In a control tree, regular cambial activity started after 30 d. In the heat-treated sample, up to 15 earlywood cells undergoing differentiation were found to be present. The response of the cambium to stem cooling was less pronounced, and no anatomical differences were detected between the control and cool-treated samples after 10 or 20 d. After 30 d, latewood started to form in the sample exposed to cooling. In addition, almost no radially expanding tracheids were observed and the cambium consisted of only five layers of cells. Low temperatures reduced cambial activity, as indicated by the decreased proportion of latewood. On the phloem side, no alterations were observed among cool-treated and non-treated samples. • Conclusions Heating and cooling can influence cambial activity and cell differentiation in Norway spruce. However, at the ultrastructural and topochemical levels, no changes were observed in the pattern of secondary cell-wall formation and lignification or in lignin structure, respectively. PMID:16613904

  14. Tree water status and growth of saplings and mature Norway spruce (Picea abies) at a dry distribution limit.

    PubMed

    Oberhuber, Walter; Hammerle, Albin; Kofler, Werner

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the size effect on stem water status and growth in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) occurring at the edge of its natural range in a dry inner Alpine environment (750 m asl, Tyrol, Austria). Intra-annual dynamics of stem water deficit (ΔW), maximum daily shrinkage (MDS), and radial growth (RG) were compared among saplings (stem diameter/height: 2.2 cm/93 cm; n = 7) and mature adult trees (25 cm/12.7 m; n = 6) during 2014. ΔW, MDS, and RG were extracted from stem diameter variations, which were continuously recorded by automatic dendrometers and the influence of environmental drivers was evaluated by applying moving correlation analysis (MCA). Additionally, we used Morlet wavelet analysis to assess the differences in cyclic radial stem variations between saplings and mature trees. Results indicate that saplings and mature trees were experiencing water limitation throughout the growing season. However, saplings exhibited a more strained stem water status and higher sensitivity to environmental conditions than mature trees. Hence, the significantly lower radial increments in saplings (0.16 ± 0.03 mm) compared to mature trees (0.54 ± 0.14 mm) is related to more constrained water status in the former, affecting the rate and duration of RG. The wavelet analysis consistently revealed more distinct diurnal stem variations in saplings compared to mature trees. Intra-annual RG was most closely related to climate variables that influence transpiration, i.e., vapor pressure deficit, relative air humidity, and air temperature. MCA, however, showed pronounced instability of climate-growth relationships, which masked missing temporal or significant correlations when the entire study period (April-October) was considered. We conclude that an increase in evaporative demand will impair regeneration and long-term stability of drought-prone inner Alpine Norway spruce forests.

  15. Tree water status and growth of saplings and mature Norway spruce (Picea abies) at a dry distribution limit

    PubMed Central

    Oberhuber, Walter; Hammerle, Albin; Kofler, Werner

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the size effect on stem water status and growth in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) occurring at the edge of its natural range in a dry inner Alpine environment (750 m asl, Tyrol, Austria). Intra-annual dynamics of stem water deficit (ΔW), maximum daily shrinkage (MDS), and radial growth (RG) were compared among saplings (stem diameter/height: 2.2 cm/93 cm; n = 7) and mature adult trees (25 cm/12.7 m; n = 6) during 2014. ΔW, MDS, and RG were extracted from stem diameter variations, which were continuously recorded by automatic dendrometers and the influence of environmental drivers was evaluated by applying moving correlation analysis (MCA). Additionally, we used Morlet wavelet analysis to assess the differences in cyclic radial stem variations between saplings and mature trees. Results indicate that saplings and mature trees were experiencing water limitation throughout the growing season. However, saplings exhibited a more strained stem water status and higher sensitivity to environmental conditions than mature trees. Hence, the significantly lower radial increments in saplings (0.16 ± 0.03 mm) compared to mature trees (0.54 ± 0.14 mm) is related to more constrained water status in the former, affecting the rate and duration of RG. The wavelet analysis consistently revealed more distinct diurnal stem variations in saplings compared to mature trees. Intra-annual RG was most closely related to climate variables that influence transpiration, i.e., vapor pressure deficit, relative air humidity, and air temperature. MCA, however, showed pronounced instability of climate–growth relationships, which masked missing temporal or significant correlations when the entire study period (April–October) was considered. We conclude that an increase in evaporative demand will impair regeneration and long-term stability of drought-prone inner Alpine Norway spruce forests. PMID:26442019

  16. [Spatial point pattern analysis of Abies georgei var. smithii in forest of Sygera Mountains in southeast Tibet, China].

    PubMed

    Xie, Chuan-qi; Tian, Min-xia; Zhao, Zhong-rui; Zheng, Wei-lie; Wang, Guo-yan

    2015-06-01

    In this study, based on a 4 hm2 stem-mapping plot, we analyzed spatial distributions of Abies georgei var. smithii, the dominant species in forest of Sygera Mountains in southeast Tibet, China. Pair-correlation function was used to characterize univariate spatial point patterns of three size classes of the population and bivariate spatial patterns between those and different sizes of dead wood. A. georgei var. smithii population was characterized by reverse J-shaped DBH distribution, indicating an increasing population. Saplings of the population were spatially obviously aggregated at the small scales (0-7 m), and mid-sized trees and large-sized trees of the population were randomly or uniformly distributed. The aggregation intensities of A. georgei var. smithii decreased with the increasing diameter classes and spatial scales. Saplings and mid-sized trees were significantly and negatively associated with large-sized trees at the small scales (0-35 and 0-30 m), but the associations reversed at the large scales (45-100 and 80-100 m). In addition, with the increasing age difference between diameter classes of the population, the intensities of positive or negative correlations increased. Spatial associations between saplings and dead large-sized trees, and between mid-sized trees and dead large-sized trees were negative at the small scales (0-34 and 5-27 m), but positive at the large scales (49-100 and 73-100 m). This suggested that released niche space due to dead large-sized trees is not enough to weaken their negative impacts on saplings. We concluded that self-thinning effect and Janzen-Connell hypothesis may be the main mechanisms for the spatial pattern formation of A. georgei var. smithii population. PMID:26572011

  17. Freezing tolerance in two Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) progenies is physiologically correlated with drought tolerance.

    PubMed

    Blödner, Constanze; Skroppa, Torre; Johnsen, Oystein; Polle, Andrea

    2005-05-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate whether seedlings of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) from a frost tolerant progeny (P2), were more drought tolerant than seedlings from a less frost tolerant progeny (P1). Progenies differing in freezing tolerance were identified by exposing seedlings in autumn in a large-scale trial to temperatures from -11 to -15 degrees C and scoring the degree of needle injury. Seedlings from P1 and P2 were grown from seeds for about 1 year under controlled conditions in a climatized growth room and were exposed to drought stress by withholding water for about 3 weeks. Drought caused reductions in biomass in both progenies but to a stronger extent in P1 than in P2. Seedlings of P2 were able to fully maintain root biomass. They also showed less water loss in different tissues. Decreases in quantum yield efficiency of photosystem II of dark-adapted plants occurred several days later in P2 than in P1. New proteins of molecular masses of 24.3 and 25.5 kDa appeared during drought stress. Since they occurred in both progenies a role of these proteins in progeny-related differences in drought performance is unlikely. Progeny 2 contained inherently higher superoxide dismutase and lower peroxidase activities than progeny 1. In conclusion, freezing and drought-tolerance respective -sensitivity were co-occurring traits in the spruce progenies studied here. Pre-existing high activities of enzymes protecting against oxidative stress in seedlings may have contributed to increase stress tolerance in P2 compared with P1. PMID:15940872

  18. Carbon dioxide concentration and nitrogen input affect the C and N storage pools in Amanita muscaria-Picea abies mycorrhizae.

    PubMed

    Turnau, K; Berger, A; Loewe, A; Einig, W; Hampp, R; Chalot, M; Dizengremel, P; Kottke, I

    2001-02-01

    We studied the influence of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) on the vacuolar storage pool of nitrogen-containing compounds and on the glycogen pool in the hyphal sheath of Amanita muscaria (L. ex Fr.) Hooker-Picea abies L. Karst. mycorrhizae grown with two concentrations of ammonium in the substrate. Mycorrhizal seedlings were grown in petri dishes on agar containing 5.3 or 53 mg N l(-1) and exposed to 350 or 700 microl CO2 l(-1) for 5 or 7 weeks, respectively. Numbers and area of nitrogen-containing bodies in the vacuoles of the mycorrhizal fungus were determined by light microscopy linked to an image analysis system. The relative concentration of nitrogen in the vacuolar bodies was measured by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Glycogen stored in the cytosol was determined at the ultrastructural level by image analysis after staining the sections (PATAg test). Shoot dry weight, net photosynthesis and relative amounts of N in vacuolar bodies were greater at the higher N and CO2 concentrations. The numbers and areas of vacuolar N-containing bodies were significantly greater at the higher N concentration only at ambient [CO2]. In the same treatment the percentage of hyphae containing glycogen declined to nearly zero. We conclude that, in the high N/low [CO2] treatment, the mycorrhizal fungus had an insufficient carbohydrate supply, partly because of increased amino acid synthesis by the non-mycorrhizal rootlets. When [CO2] was increased, the equilibrium between storage of glycogen and N-containing compounds was reestablished.

  19. Secondary metabolites of the lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. and their presence in spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) bark.

    PubMed

    Latkowska, Ewa; Bober, Beata; Chrapusta, Ewelina; Adamski, Michal; Kaminski, Ariel; Bialczyk, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Lichen species typically have a characteristic profile of secondary metabolites. Dense populations of Hypogymnia physodes growing frequently as epiphytes on tree branches have harmful effects on the host, likely due to their secondary compounds, which were undetected in tree tissues until now. The aim of the present study was to re-characterise the suite of secondary metabolites of H. physodes thalli and to estimate their translocation into spruce (Picea abies) bark. Thallus and bark extracts were compared using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The compounds were identified based on their UV, MS and MS/MS spectra as well as retention factors of their TLC analysis. In addition to the previously described secondary metabolites (protocetraric, physodalic, 3-hydroxyphysodic, physodic, and 2'-O-methylphysodic acids, atranorin and chloroatranorin) of H. physodes, further three were identified in its thalli: conphysodalic, 4-O-methylphysodic and α-alectoronic acids. Fragmentation patterns from the negative ionisation of each compound were proposed, some of which were described for the first time. Among all of the detected lichen substances, a few, e.g., physodalic, 3-hydroxyphysodic, physodic acids and atranorin, were present in the bark of spruce branches that were abundantly colonised by lichen. The newly identified compounds of H. physodes thalli may belong to its constant or accessory secondary metabolites. These compounds may be useful in the chemotaxonomic classification of this species. The presence of some lichen substances in spruce bark confirmed their ability to penetrate host tissues. These data suggest that H. physodes compounds may cause long-term effects on spruces in nature. PMID:26342621

  20. [Effects of snow pack on soil nitrogen transformation enzyme activities in a subalpine Abies faxioniana forest of western Sichuan, China].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Li; Xu, Zhen-Feng; Wu, Fu-Zhong; Yang, Wan-Qin; Yin, Rui; Li, Zhi-Ping; Gou, Xiao-Lin; Tang, Shi-Shan

    2014-05-01

    This study characterized the dynamics of the activities of urease, nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase in both soil organic layer and mineral soil layer under three depths of snow pack (deep snowpack, moderate snowpack and shallow snowpack) over the three critical periods (snow formed period, snow stable period, and snow melt period) in the subalpine Abies faxoniana forest of western Sichuan in the winter of 2012 and 2013. Throughout the winter, soil temperature under deep snowpack increased by 46.2% and 26.2%, respectively in comparison with moderate snowpack and shallow snowpack. In general, the three nitrogen-related soil enzyme activities under shallow snowpack were 0.8 to 3.9 times of those under deep snowpack during the winter. In the beginning and thawing periods of seasonal snow pack, shallow snowpack significantly increased the activities of urease, nitrate and nitrite reductase enzyme in both soil organic layer and mineral soil layer. Although the activities of the studied enzymes in soil organic layer and mineral soil layer were observed to be higher than those under deep- and moderate snowpacks in deep winter, no significant difference was found under the three snow packs. Meanwhile, the effects of snowpack on the activities of the measured enzymes were related with season, soil layer and enzyme type. Significant variations of the activities of nitrogen-related enzymes were found in three critical periods over the winter, and the three measured soil enzymes were significantly higher in organic layer than in mineral layer. In addition, the activities of the three measured soil enzymes were closely related with temperature and moisture in soils. In conclusion, the decrease of snow pack induced by winter warming might increase the activities of soil enzymes related with nitrogen transformation and further stimulate the process of wintertime nitrogen transformation in soils of the subalpine forest.

  1. [Community characteristics of soil nematode in Abies georgei var. smithii forest in Sejila Mountain of Tibet, Southwest China].

    PubMed

    Xue, Hui-Ying; Luo, Da-Qing; Yu, Bao-Zheng

    2012-12-01

    In order to understand the present status of nematode diversity in soil ecosystem of Abies georgei var. smithii forest, the typical forest type in subalpine zone of southeastern Tibet, an investigation was made on the nematode community in different soil layers of 0-30 cm depth from the summer, 2010 to the spring, 2011. The nematode individual density, diversity index, and trophic group index were taken to analyze the composition and structural characteristics of the soil nematode community. A total of 7915 soil nematodes belonging to 2 classes, 6 orders, 38 families, and 67 genera were collected by shallow dish method. The nematode individual density was averagely 620 nematodes x 100 g(-1) dry soil, and the nematode individuals in surface soil layer (0-5 cm) accounted for 56.9% of the total, indicating the obvious surface gathering characteristics of the nematode community. Tylencholaimus, Helicotylenchus, and Plectus were the dominant genus. Plant-parasite nematode was the dominant trophic group, while fungi-feeding nematode had the largest proportion among the non plant-parasite nematodes. Soil organic matter was mainly decomposed by fungi. The ANOVA analysis indicated that there were no significant differences in the Shannon, Pielou, Margalef, and Simpson indices of soil nematode community among different seasons. The Pielou index had no significant difference among different soil layers, while the differences of Shannon, Margalef, and Simpson indices tended to be increased with increasing soil depth. It was concluded that the A. georgei var. smithii forest ecosystem in Sejila Mountain had a high maturity, with strong resistance to environment disturbances. PMID:23479883

  2. Synthesis, crystal structure, and photocatalytic activity of the new three-layer aurivillius phases, Bi{sub 2}ASrTi{sub 2}TaO{sub 12} (A=Bi, La)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Dong; Tang Kaibin; Liang Zhenhua; Zheng Huagui

    2010-02-15

    Two new three-layer Aurivillius phases Bi{sub 2}ASrTi{sub 2}TaO{sub 12} (A=Bi, La) have been synthesized. The detailed structure determination of Bi{sub 2}ASrTi{sub 2}TaO{sub 12} (A=Bi, La) performed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selected area electron microscopy (SAED) shows that they all crystallize in the space group I/4mmm. UV-visible diffuse reflection spectrum of the prepared Bi{sub 2}ASrTi{sub 2}TaO{sub 12} (A=Bi, La) indicates that it had absorption in the ultraviolet (UV) region. The photocatalytic activity of the Bi{sub 2}ASrTi{sub 2}TaO{sub 12} (A=Bi, La) powders was evaluated by degradation of rhodamine B (RB) molecules in water under UV light irradiation. The results showed that Bi{sub 2}ASrTi{sub 2}TaO{sub 12} (A=Bi, La) has high photocatalytic activity at room temperature. Therefore, the preparation and properties studies of Bi{sub 2}ASrTi{sub 2}TaO{sub 12} (A=Bi, La) with a three-layer Aurivillius structure suggest potential future applications in photocatalysis. - Graphical abstract: Two new three-layer Aurivillius phases Bi{sub 2}ASrTi{sub 2}TaO{sub 12} (A=Bi, La) have been synthesized by a conventional solid state reaction method. And this is the crystal structure of the three-layer Aurivillius phases, Bi{sub 2}ASrTi{sub 2}TaO{sub 12}.

  3. Synthesis, structures and photocatalytic activities of microcrystalline ABi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} (A=Sr, Ba) powders

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Weiming; Liang, Shijing; Wang, Xiaowei; Bi, Jinhong; Liu, Ping; Wu, Ling

    2011-01-15

    Microcrystalline ABi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} (A=Sr, Ba) photocatalysts were successfully synthesized by a citrate complex method. The as-prepared samples were characterized by the X-ray diffraction technique, BET surface area analysis, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrum, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. The results indicated that single-phase orthorhombic SrBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} could be obtained after being calcined above 650 {sup o}C, while BaBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} was tetragonal. Based on the diffuse reflectance spectra, the band gaps of the obtained samples were calculated to be around 3.34-3.54 eV. For the photocatalytic redox reaction of methyl orange under UV-light irradiation, SrBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than that of BaBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9}. The effects of the crystallinities, BET surface areas and crystal structures of the samples on the photocatalytic activities were discussed in detail. -- Graphical abstract: Aurivillius-type ABi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} (A=Sr, Ba) photocatalysts were successfully synthesized by a citrate complex method. SrBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} and BaBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} showed different photocatalytic performances in the redox reaction of methyl orange (MO) under UV-light ({lambda}=254 nm), due to the different crystal structures of ABi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} (A=Sr, Ba). Display Omitted

  4. High-Throughput Sequencing Reveals Drastic Changes in Fungal Communities in the Phyllosphere of Norway Spruce (Picea abies) Following Invasion of the Spruce Bud Scale (Physokermes piceae).

    PubMed

    Menkis, Audrius; Marčiulynas, Adas; Gedminas, Artūras; Lynikienė, Jūratė; Povilaitienė, Aistė

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diversity and composition of fungal communities in damaged and undamaged shoots of Norway spruce (Picea abies) following recent invasion of the spruce bud scale (Physokermes piceae) in Lithuania. Sampling was done in July 2013 and included 50 random lateral shoots from ten random trees in each of five visually undamaged and five damaged 40-50-year-old pure stands of P. abies. DNA was isolated from 500 individual shoots, subjected to amplification of the internal transcribed spacer of fungal ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA), barcoded and sequenced. Clustering of 149,426 high-quality sequences resulted in 1193 non-singleton contigs of which 1039 (87.1 %) were fungal. In total, there were 893 fungal taxa in damaged shoots and 608 taxa in undamaged shoots (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, 431 (41.5 %) fungal taxa were exclusively in damaged shoots, 146 (14.0 %) were exclusively in undamaged shoots, and 462 (44.5 %) were common to both types of samples. Correspondence analysis showed that study sites representing damaged and undamaged shoots were separated from each other, indicating that in these fungal communities, these were largely different and, therefore, heavily affected by P. piceae. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that invasive alien tree pests may have a profound effect on fungal mycobiota associated with the phyllosphere of P. abies, and therefore, in addition to their direct negative effect owing physical damage of the tissue, they may also indirectly determine health, sustainability and, ultimately, distribution of the forest tree species.

  5. FERONIA interacts with ABI2-type phosphatases to facilitate signaling cross-talk between abscisic acid and RALF peptide in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia; Yu, Feng; Liu, Ying; Du, Changqing; Li, Xiushan; Zhu, Sirui; Wang, Xianchun; Lan, Wenzhi; Rodriguez, Pedro L; Liu, Xuanming; Li, Dongping; Chen, Liangbi; Luan, Sheng

    2016-09-13

    Receptor-like kinase FERONIA (FER) plays a crucial role in plant response to small molecule hormones [e.g., auxin and abscisic acid (ABA)] and peptide signals [e.g., rapid alkalinization factor (RALF)]. It remains unknown how FER integrates these different signaling events in the control of cell growth and stress responses. Under stress conditions, increased levels of ABA will inhibit cell elongation in the roots. In our previous work, we have shown that FER, through activation of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 (GEF1)/4/10-Rho of Plant 11 (ROP11) pathway, enhances the activity of the phosphatase ABA Insensitive 2 (ABI2), a negative regulator of ABA signaling, thereby inhibiting ABA response. In this study, we found that both RALF and ABA activated FER by increasing the phosphorylation level of FER. The FER loss-of-function mutant displayed strong hypersensitivity to both ABA and abiotic stresses such as salt and cold conditions, indicating that FER plays a key role in ABA and stress responses. We further showed that ABI2 directly interacted with and dephosphorylated FER, leading to inhibition of FER activity. Several other ABI2-like phosphatases also function in this pathway, and ABA-dependent FER activation required PYRABACTIN RESISTANCE (PYR)/PYR1-LIKE (PYL)/REGULATORY COMPONENTS OF ABA RECEPTORS (RCAR)-A-type protein phosphatase type 2C (PP2CA) modules. Furthermore, suppression of RALF1 gene expression, similar to disruption of the FER gene, rendered plants hypersensitive to ABA. These results formulated a mechanism for ABA activation of FER and for cross-talk between ABA and peptide hormone RALF in the control of plant growth and responses to stress signals. PMID:27566404

  6. Patterns of HIV prevalence among injecting drug users in the cross-border area of Lang Son Province, Vietnam, and Ning Ming County, Guangxi Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Des Jarlais, Don C; Johnston, Patrick; Friedmann, Patricia; Kling, Ryan; Liu, Wei; Ngu, Doan; Chen, Yi; Hoang, Tran V; Donghua, Meng; Van, Ly K; Tung, Nguyen D; Binh, Kieu T; Hammett, Theodore M

    2005-01-01

    Background To assess patterns of injecting drug use and HIV prevalence among injecting drug users (IDUs) in an international border area along a major heroin trans-shipment route. Methods Cross-sectional surveys of IDUs in 5 sites in Lang Son Province, Vietnam (n = 348) and 3 sites in Ning Ming County, Guangxi Province, China (n = 308). Respondents were recruited through peer referral ("snowball") methods in both countries, and also from officially recorded lists of IDUs in Vietnam. A risk behavior questionnaire was administered and HIV counseling and testing conducted. Results Participants in both countries were largely male, in their 20s, and unmarried. A majority of subjects in both countries were members of ethnic minority groups. There were strong geographic gradients for length of drug injecting and for HIV seroprevalence. Both mean years injecting and HIV seroprevalence declined from the Vietnamese site farthest from the border to the Chinese site farthest from the border. 10.6% of participants in China and 24.5% of participants in Vietnam reported crossing the international border in the 6 months prior to interview. Crossing the border by IDUs was associated with (1) distance from the border, (2) being a member of an ethnic minority group, and (3) being HIV seropositive among Chinese participants. Conclusion Reducing the international spread of HIV among IDUs will require programs at the global, regional, national, and "local cross border" levels. At the local cross border level, the programs should be coordinated on both sides of the border and on a sufficient scale that IDUs will be able to readily obtain clean injection equipment on the other side of the border as well as in their country of residence. PMID:16120225

  7. [Response of Picea purpurea and Abies faxoniana tree rings at different slope aspects to rapid warming in western Sichuan, China].

    PubMed

    Guo, Bin-de; Zhang, Yuan-dong; Wang, Xiao-chun

    2016-02-01

    By using an empirical 'signal-free' standardization approach, we constructed four Picea purpurea and Abies faxoniana tree-ring chronologies at southeast and northwest slope aspects of Erdaohai and east slope aspect of Zharisi, Songpan, west Sichuan, China. The response analysis and multivariate analysis of variance between tree rings and climatic variables were conducted to explore the divergent responses of tree growth at different slope aspects to the recent warming climate. Results showed that tree growth of P. purpurea at east slope aspect was obviously accelerated (0.011 a-1) since rapid warming in 1980, whereas those at northwest slope aspect was significantly reduced (-0.006 a-1). Tree growth of P. purpurea at southeast slope aspect and A. faxoniana at northwest slope aspect decreased in significantly. With the rapid warming, growth-climate relationships of P. purpurea and A. faxoniana at different slope aspects changed significantly. After rapid warming in 1980, the promoting effects of growing season temperature (GST) on P. purpurea growth at east slope increased significantly, while the inhibitory effects of GST on its growth at southeast and northwest slopes also increased significantly. However, the effects of GST on A. faxoniana growth at northwest slope did not change significantly before and after rapid warming. The effects of precipitation in May (PM) on P. purpurea growth at east slope was changed from inhibition before rapid warming to significant promotion after rapid warming, while the inhibitory effects of PM on P. purpurea growth at southeast and northwest slopes increased significantly. For A. faioniana at northwest slope, however, it did not change obviously before and after rapid warming. The response analysis between tree growth and the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) showed that soil moisture variations at different slope aspects were an important reason of tree-ring growth response difference since rapid warming. In addition, the

  8. The use of root growth and modelling data to investigate amelioration of aluminium toxicity by silicon in Picea abies seedlings.

    PubMed

    Ryder, Michelle; Gérard, Frédéric; Evans, David E; Hodson, Martin J

    2003-09-15

    Three-week-old Picea abies seedlings were grown for 7 days in 100 microM aluminium (Al), combined with 1000 or 2000 microM silicon (Si). Solution pH was adjusted to 4.00, 4.25, 4.50, 4.75, or 5.00. In the absence of Si, solution pH had no effect on the decrease in root growth caused by 100 microM Al. Silicon did not ameliorate toxic effects of Al on root growth at pH 4.00, 4.25 and 4.50, whereas significant, and apparently complete, amelioration was found at pH 4.75 and 5.00. An equilibrium speciation model (EQ3NR), with a current thermodynamic database, was used to predict the behaviour of Al and Si in growth solutions. When Si was not present in the 100 microM Al solutions, Al(3+) declined from 92.4% of total Al at pH 4.00 to 54.6% at pH 5.00, and there was a concomitant increase in hydroxyaluminium species as pH increased. The addition of 1000 microM Si to the 100 microM Al solutions caused a reduction in Al(3+) content over the whole pH range: at pH 4.00 Al(3+) fell from 92.4 to 83.3% in the presence of Si; and at pH 5.00 the fall was from 54.6 to 17.7%. These falls were attributed to the formation of hydroxyaluminosilicate (HAS) species. Similar, but somewhat greater, changes were observed in solutions containing 2000 microM Si. The match between root growth observations and the modelling data was not very good. Modelling predicted that change in Al(3+) content with pH in the presence of Si was gradual, but root growth was markedly increased between pH 4.50 and 4.75. Differences between root growth and modelling data may be due to the model not correctly predicting solution chemistry or to in planta effects which override the influence of solution chemistry.

  9. Mistletoe lectin is not the only cytotoxic component in fermented preparations of Viscum album from white fir (Abies pectinata)

    PubMed Central

    Eggenschwiler, Jenny; von Balthazar, Leopold; Stritt, Bianca; Pruntsch, Doreen; Ramos, Mac; Urech, Konrad; Rist, Lukas; Simões-Wüst, A Paula; Viviani, Angelika

    2007-01-01

    Background Preparations of mistletoe (Viscum album) are the form of cancer treatment that is most frequently used in the complementary medicine. Previous work has shown that these preparations are able to exert cytotoxic effects on carcinoma cells, the extent of which might be influenced by the host tree species and by the content of mistletoe lectin. Methods Using colorimetric assays, we have now compared the cytotoxic effects of Viscum album preparations (VAPs) obtained from mistletoe growing on oak (Quercus robur and Q. petraea, VAP-Qu), apple tree (Malus domestica,, VAP-M), pine (Pinus sylvestris, VAP-P) or white fir (Abies pectinata, VAP-A), on the in vitro growth of breast and bladder carcinoma cell lines. While MFM-223, KPL-1, MCF-7 and HCC-1937 were the breast carcinoma cell lines chosen, the panel of tested bladder carcinoma cells comprised the T-24, TCC-SUP, UM-UC-3 and J-82 cell lines. Results Each of the VAPs inhibited cell growth, but the extent of this inhibition differed with the preparation and with the cell line. The concentrations of VAP-Qu, VAP-M and VAP-A which led to a 50 % reduction of cell growth (IC50) varied between 0.6 and 0.03 mg/ml. Higher concentrations of VAP-P were required to obtain a comparable effect. Purified mistletoe lectin I (MLI) led to an inhibition of breast carcinoma cell growth at concentrations lower than those of VAPs, but the sensitivity towards purified MLI did not parallel that towards VAPs. Bladder carcinoma cells were in most cases more sensitive to VAPs treatment than breast carcinoma cells. The total mistletoe lectin content was very high in VAP-Qu (54 ng/mg extract), intermediate in VAP-M (25 ng/mg extract), and very low in VAP-P (1.3 ng/mg extract) and in VAP-A (1 ng/mg extract). As to be expected from the low content of mistletoe lectin, VAP-P led to relatively weak cytotoxic effects. Most remarkably, however, the lectin-poor VAP-A revealed a cytotoxic effect comparable to, or even stronger than, that of the

  10. Tree growth and competition in an old-growth Picea abies forest of boreal Sweden: influence of tree spatial patterning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fraver, Shawn; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Bradford, John B.; Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar; Jönsson, Mari; Esseen, Per-Anders

    2013-01-01

    Question: What factors best characterize tree competitive environments in this structurally diverse old-growth forest, and do these factors vary spatially within and among stands? Location: Old-growth Picea abies forest of boreal Sweden. Methods: Using long-term, mapped permanent plot data augmented with dendrochronological analyses, we evaluated the effect of neighbourhood competition on focal tree growth by means of standard competition indices, each modified to include various metrics of trees size, neighbour mortality weighting (for neighbours that died during the inventory period), and within-neighbourhood tree clustering. Candidate models were evaluated using mixed-model linear regression analyses, with mean basal area increment as the response variable. We then analysed stand-level spatial patterns of competition indices and growth rates (via kriging) to determine if the relationship between these patterns could further elucidate factors influencing tree growth. Results: Inter-tree competition clearly affected growth rates, with crown volume being the size metric most strongly influencing the neighbourhood competitive environment. Including neighbour tree mortality weightings in models only slightly improved descriptions of competitive interactions. Although the within-neighbourhood clustering index did not improve model predictions, competition intensity was influenced by the underlying stand-level tree spatial arrangement: stand-level clustering locally intensified competition and reduced tree growth, whereas in the absence of such clustering, inter-tree competition played a lesser role in constraining tree growth. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that competition continues to influence forest processes and structures in an old-growth system that has not experienced major disturbances for at least two centuries. The finding that the underlying tree spatial pattern influenced the competitive environment suggests caution in interpreting traditional tree

  11. Water content and bark thickness of Norway spruce (Picea abies) stems: phloem water capacitance and xylem sap flow.

    PubMed

    Gall, Rolf; Landolt, W; Schleppi, P; Michellod, V; Bucher, J B

    2002-06-01

    To determine the relationship between phloem transport and changes in phloem water content, we measured temporal and spatial variations in water content and sucrose, glucose and fructose concentrations in phloem samples and phloem exudates of 70- and 30-year-old Norway spruce trees (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). Large temporal and spatial variations in phloem water content (1.4-2.6 mg mg(dw)(-1)) and phloem total sugar concentration (31-70 mg g(dw)(-1)) paralleled each other (r(2) = 0.83, P < 0.0001 for the temporal profile and r(2) = 0.96, P < 0.008 for the spatial profile), indicating that phloem water content depends on the total amount of sugar to be transferred. Changes in phloem water content were unrelated to changes in bark thickness. Maximum changes in phloem water content calculated from dendrometer readings were only 8-11% of the maximum measured changes in phloem water content, indicating that reversible changes in bark thickness did not reflect changes in internal water relations. We also studied the relationship between xylem sap velocity and changes in bark thickness in 70-year-old trees during summer 1999 and winter 1999-2000. Sap flow occurred sporadically throughout the winter, but there was no relationship between bark shrinkage or swelling and sap velocity. In winter, mean daily xylem sap velocity was significantly correlated with mean daily vapor pressure deficit and air temperature (P < 0.0001, in both cases). Changes in bark thickness corresponded with both short- and long-term changes in relative humidity, in both winter and summer. Under controlled conditions at > 0 degrees C, changes in relative humidity alone caused changes in thickness of boiled bark samples. Because living bark of Norway spruce trees contains large areas with crushed and dead sieve cell zones-up to 24% of the bark is air-filled space-we suggest that this space can compensate for volume changes in living phloem cells independently of total tissue water content. We conclude

  12. Water content and bark thickness of Norway spruce (Picea abies) stems: phloem water capacitance and xylem sap flow.

    PubMed

    Gall, Rolf; Landolt, W; Schleppi, P; Michellod, V; Bucher, J B

    2002-06-01

    To determine the relationship between phloem transport and changes in phloem water content, we measured temporal and spatial variations in water content and sucrose, glucose and fructose concentrations in phloem samples and phloem exudates of 70- and 30-year-old Norway spruce trees (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). Large temporal and spatial variations in phloem water content (1.4-2.6 mg mg(dw)(-1)) and phloem total sugar concentration (31-70 mg g(dw)(-1)) paralleled each other (r(2) = 0.83, P < 0.0001 for the temporal profile and r(2) = 0.96, P < 0.008 for the spatial profile), indicating that phloem water content depends on the total amount of sugar to be transferred. Changes in phloem water content were unrelated to changes in bark thickness. Maximum changes in phloem water content calculated from dendrometer readings were only 8-11% of the maximum measured changes in phloem water content, indicating that reversible changes in bark thickness did not reflect changes in internal water relations. We also studied the relationship between xylem sap velocity and changes in bark thickness in 70-year-old trees during summer 1999 and winter 1999-2000. Sap flow occurred sporadically throughout the winter, but there was no relationship between bark shrinkage or swelling and sap velocity. In winter, mean daily xylem sap velocity was significantly correlated with mean daily vapor pressure deficit and air temperature (P < 0.0001, in both cases). Changes in bark thickness corresponded with both short- and long-term changes in relative humidity, in both winter and summer. Under controlled conditions at > 0 degrees C, changes in relative humidity alone caused changes in thickness of boiled bark samples. Because living bark of Norway spruce trees contains large areas with crushed and dead sieve cell zones-up to 24% of the bark is air-filled space-we suggest that this space can compensate for volume changes in living phloem cells independently of total tissue water content. We conclude

  13. Raman Spectroscopic Online Investigation of Respiratory Quotients in Pinus Sylvestris and Picea Abies during Drought and Shading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanf, S.; Fischer, S.; Hartmann, H.; Trumbore, S.; Popp, J.; Frosch, T.

    2014-12-01

    Drought and heat waves have been linked to forest mortality event across the globe. The underlying physiological processes are still not elucidated but both tree carbon and water relations have been identified as the driving forces. While studies on tree hydraulics are straightforward, studies on the tree carbon balance are not. For example, the use of different carbon compounds for maintenance respiration during drought cannot be assessed with measurements of carbon pools but requires real-time analyses of respiration stoichiometry. However, so far there were no technical solutions for such applications. Here we introduce cavity-enhanced Raman spectrometry (CERS) for simultaneous real-time monitoring of O2 and CO2 and rapid and continuous quantification of dark respiration rates and the respiratory quotient (RQ), i.e. the ratio of CO2 produced over O2 consumed during respiration. This ratio indicates the proportions of different substrates (carbohydrates [COH], lipids, proteins) used during respiration and allows fundamental insights into tree physiology. CERS combines high temporal resolution with a high dynamic concentration range for all important gases, ranging from few ppm to 100 vol. % with a single measurement every few seconds. The respiration analysis of tree branches was performed in a closed chamber for two species of different drought tolerance, Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies. We applied not only drought but also a shading treatment because both cause reductions in carbon assimilation rates but have different effects on tree hydraulics. Declines in RQ during shading in both species indicate a switch from pure COH metabolism to a mixture of COH, lipids and proteins. During drought such declines occurred only in the drought-tolerant pine but not in spruce and the underlying more dynamic carbon use strategy in pine may provide a physiological basis for its drought tolerance, more detailed investigation still pending. Our study highlights the suitability

  14. Ibn Abi Ussaibea "Oyoun aI-Anbaa Fi Tabaqat al-Attiba" a selected review of this Index of Physicians and their Works; (from early Greeks to his time in Egypt).

    PubMed

    Kotby, M Nasser; Wahba, Hassan; Mabrouk, Amr

    2010-12-01

    Muwaffaq-al-Deen abu-al-Abbas Ahmad ibn Abi Ussaibea (1203-1270) was born in Damascus. He started his brilliant career in his birth place then moved to Cairo where he worked and excelled for the rest of his life. His learning was intensified by the scholarly contacts of the intellectual leaders of the day. In this study we review The Index of Physicians-Oyoun al-Anbaa Fi Tabaqat al-Attiba--(Sources of Information in the Classes of Physicians) of ibn Abi Ussaibea.The biographies in this book do not just cover physicians only but also the learned people of his day whose knowledge and expertise covered medicine, astronomy, mathematics, philosophy, and botany. For this reason the book of ibn Abi Ussaibea represents an indispensable source of the scientific and philosophical achievements of the Arabic/Islamic civilization.

  15. Hémorragie méningée et hématome parenchymateux révélant une thrombose veineuse cérébrale

    PubMed Central

    Joulali, Toufik; Derkaoui, Ali; Besri, Sophia; Malki, Mohammed; Shimi, Abdelkarim; Khatouf, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    La thrombophlébite cérébrale (TVC) est une cause non négligeable des accidents vasculaires cérébraux avec une grande diversité de leur présentation Clinique source d'errance et de retard thérapeutique. Nous rapportons l'observation d'une patiente présentant une TVC révélée par une hémorragie méningée. Le diagnostic a été suspecté à l'artériographie réalisée dans le cadre du bilan étiologique et thérapeutique de l'hémorragie méningée et confirmé par la suite sur l'angio-scanner. La particularité de cette observation est la difficulté aussi bien diagnostique de la TVC et sa révélation par une hémorragie méningée, que thérapeutique concernant l'utilisation des anticoagulants. PMID:26161216

  16. Cloud immersion alters microclimate, photosynthesis and water relations in Rhododendron catawbiense and Abies fraseri seedlings in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Daniel M; Smith, William K

    2008-03-01

    The high altitude spruce-fir (Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poiret.-Picea rubens Sarg.) forests of the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA, experience frequent cloud immersion. Recent studies indicate that cloud bases may have risen over the past 30 years, resulting in less frequent forest cloud immersion, and that further increases in cloud base height are likely in the event of continued climate warming. To assess the impact of this trend on the regeneration of high altitude spruce-fir forests and the migration of plant communities, in particular the encroachment of spruce-fir forests and Rhododendron catawbiense Michx. islands into adjacent grass bald communities, we investigated effects of cloud immersion on photosynthetic parameters of seedlings of Abies fraseri and R. catawbiense in a grass bald site and A. fraseri in a forest understory. Although photosynthetic photon flux was 4.2 to 19.4-fold greater during clear conditions, cloud immersion had no effect on photosynthesis in A. fraseri at either site, whereas it reduced photosynthesis of R. catawbiense by about 40%. However, cloud immersion increased mean leaf fluorescence by 7.1 to 12.8% in both species at both sites. Cloud immersion increased mean relative humidity from 65 to 96%, reduced transpiration by 95% and reduced mean leaf-to-air temperature difference from 6.6 to 0.5 degrees C. PMID:18171662

  17. The N-Terminus of Dictyostelium Scar Interacts with Abi and HSPC300 and Is Essential for Proper Regulation and Function

    PubMed Central

    Caracino, Diana; Jones, Cheryl; Compton, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Scar/WAVE proteins, members of the conserved Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) family, promote actin polymerization by activating the Arp2/3 complex. A number of proteins, including a complex containing Nap1, PIR121, Abi1/2, and HSPC300, interact with Scar/WAVE, though the role of this complex in regulating Scar function remains unclear. Here we identify a short N-terminal region of Dictyostelium Scar that is necessary and sufficient for interaction with HSPC300 and Abi in vitro. Cells expressing Scar lacking this N-terminal region show abnormalities in F-actin distribution, cell morphology, movement, and cytokinesis. This is true even in the presence of wild-type Scar. The data suggest that the first 96 amino acids of Scar are necessary for participation in a large-molecular-weight protein complex, and that this Scar-containing complex is responsible for the proper localization and regulation of Scar. The presence of mis-regulated or unregulated Scar has significant deleterious effects on cells and may explain the need to keep Scar activity tightly controlled in vivo either by assembly in a complex or by rapid degradation. PMID:17314411

  18. EXTRA SPINDLE POLES (Separase) controls anisotropic cell expansion in Norway spruce (Picea abies) embryos independently of its role in anaphase progression.

    PubMed

    Moschou, Panagiotis N; Savenkov, Eugene I; Minina, Elena A; Fukada, Kazutake; Reza, Salim Hossain; Gutierrez-Beltran, Emilio; Sanchez-Vera, Victoria; Suarez, Maria F; Hussey, Patrick J; Smertenko, Andrei P; Bozhkov, Peter V

    2016-10-01

    The caspase-related protease separase (EXTRA SPINDLE POLES, ESP) plays a major role in chromatid disjunction and cell expansion in Arabidopsis thaliana. Whether the expansion phenotypes are linked to defects in cell division in Arabidopsis ESP mutants remains elusive. Here we present the identification, cloning and characterization of the gymnosperm Norway spruce (Picea abies, Pa) ESP. We used the P. abies somatic embryo system and a combination of reverse genetics and microscopy to explore the roles of Pa ESP during embryogenesis. Pa ESP was expressed in the proliferating embryonal mass, while it was absent in the suspensor cells. Pa ESP associated with kinetochore microtubules in metaphase and then with anaphase spindle midzone. During cytokinesis, it localized on the phragmoplast microtubules and on the cell plate. Pa ESP deficiency perturbed anisotropic expansion and reduced mitotic divisions in cotyledonary embryos. Furthermore, whilst Pa ESP can rescue the chromatid nondisjunction phenotype of Arabidopsis ESP mutants, it cannot rescue anisotropic cell expansion. Our data demonstrate that the roles of ESP in daughter chromatid separation and cell expansion are conserved between gymnosperms and angiosperms. However, the mechanisms of ESP-mediated regulation of cell expansion seem to be lineage-specific.

  19. Constitutive Equations and ANN Approach to Predict the Flow Stress of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Based on ABI Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fuzeng; Zhao, Jun; Zhu, Ningbo

    2016-09-01

    The flow behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy was studied by automated ball indentation (ABI) tests in a wide range of temperatures (293, 493, 693, and 873 K) and strain rates (10-6, 10-5, and 10-4 s-1). Based on the experimental true stress-plastic strain data derived from the ABI tests, the Johnson-Cook (JC), Khan-Huang-Liang (KHL) and modified Zerilli-Armstrong (ZA) constitutive models, as well as artificial neural network (ANN) methods, were employed to predict the flow behavior of Ti-6Al-4V. A comparative study was made on the reliability of the four models, and their predictability was evaluated in terms of correlation coefficient (R) and mean absolute percentage error. It is found that the flow stresses of Ti-6Al-4V alloy are more sensitive to temperature than strain rate under current experimental conditions. The predicted flow stresses obtained from JC model and KHL model show much better agreement with the experimental results than modified ZA model. Moreover, the ANN model is much more efficient and shows a higher accuracy in predicting the flow behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy than the constitutive equations.

  20. Needle life span, photosynthetic rate and nutrient concentration of Picea glehnii, P. jezoensis and P. abies planted on serpentine soil in northern Japan.

    PubMed

    Kayama, Masazumi; Sasa, Kaichiro; Koike, Takayoshi

    2002-07-01

    We investigated the adaptation of three spruce species (Picea glehnii Masters, P. jezoensis Carr. and P. abies Karst.) to growth in northern Japan on serpentine soils (characterized by high concentrations of heavy metals and Mg, a low Ca/Mg ratio and low fertility) and fertile brown forest soils. Among species, seedling survival on serpentine soil was highest in P. glehnii. Shoot growth of P. glehnii was similar whether grown on serpentine or brown forest soil, whereas shoot growth of the other species was significantly less on serpentine soil than on brown forest soil. On serpentine soil, needle life span of P. glehnii was at least 3 years longer than that of the other two species. Needle area per shoot of P. glehnii was significantly higher on serpentine soil than on brown forest soil up to a shoot age of 8 years. In all three species, light-saturated photosynthetic rate (Pmax) decreased with needle age independently of soil type. However, on serpentine soil, Pmax in P. glehnii was higher, particularly in older needles, than in the other species. Furthermore, on serpentine soil, needle concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus were higher in P. glehnii than in the other species. We conclude that P. glehnii is better adapted to serpentine soil than P. jezoensis and P. abies at least in part because of its greater needle life span and higher needle nutrient concentrations.

  1. EXTRA SPINDLE POLES (Separase) controls anisotropic cell expansion in Norway spruce (Picea abies) embryos independently of its role in anaphase progression.

    PubMed

    Moschou, Panagiotis N; Savenkov, Eugene I; Minina, Elena A; Fukada, Kazutake; Reza, Salim Hossain; Gutierrez-Beltran, Emilio; Sanchez-Vera, Victoria; Suarez, Maria F; Hussey, Patrick J; Smertenko, Andrei P; Bozhkov, Peter V

    2016-10-01

    The caspase-related protease separase (EXTRA SPINDLE POLES, ESP) plays a major role in chromatid disjunction and cell expansion in Arabidopsis thaliana. Whether the expansion phenotypes are linked to defects in cell division in Arabidopsis ESP mutants remains elusive. Here we present the identification, cloning and characterization of the gymnosperm Norway spruce (Picea abies, Pa) ESP. We used the P. abies somatic embryo system and a combination of reverse genetics and microscopy to explore the roles of Pa ESP during embryogenesis. Pa ESP was expressed in the proliferating embryonal mass, while it was absent in the suspensor cells. Pa ESP associated with kinetochore microtubules in metaphase and then with anaphase spindle midzone. During cytokinesis, it localized on the phragmoplast microtubules and on the cell plate. Pa ESP deficiency perturbed anisotropic expansion and reduced mitotic divisions in cotyledonary embryos. Furthermore, whilst Pa ESP can rescue the chromatid nondisjunction phenotype of Arabidopsis ESP mutants, it cannot rescue anisotropic cell expansion. Our data demonstrate that the roles of ESP in daughter chromatid separation and cell expansion are conserved between gymnosperms and angiosperms. However, the mechanisms of ESP-mediated regulation of cell expansion seem to be lineage-specific. PMID:27229374

  2. Evaluating the species- and site-specific differences in the physiological response of Picea abies, Fagus sylvatica and Larix decidua to drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartl-Meier, Claudia; Rothe, Andreas; Treydte, Kerstin

    2013-04-01

    Sensitive regions like the Alps are very vulnerable to climate change. Especially warmer temperatures and a higher frequency of drought periods may imply strong effects on mountain ecosystems. In the Northern Limestone Alps, temperatures were already 1 °C higher (compared to the reference period 1941-1970) in the last two decades. Within a Bavarian-Austrian EU-project (INTERREG program) we investigated long-term growth patterns of mountain tree species and a possible growth effect caused by climate change using a dendroecological approach. In total we measured the ring widths of ~1300 living, on average 180 year old trees. The samples were taken along altitudinal gradients, ranging from 500 up to 1700 m a.s.l., in five different regions in the Northern Austrian and Bavarian Limestone Alps, covering the most prevalent coniferous (Picea abies, Abies alba, Larix decidua, Pinus sylvestris) and broad-leafed (Fagus sylvatica, Acer pseudoplatanus) mountain forest species. To get more detailed information about the physiological response to climate and especially drought events of different tree species, an additional study was conducted in the Kalkalpen Nationalpark, Austria. Stable isotopes (δ13C and δ18O) of Picea abies, Fagus sylvatica and Larix decidua tree-rings (8 trees per species and site) were analysed at three different sites. The sites are located at the montane elevation level (900 m a.s.l.) on a south-facing and a north-facing slope as well on a plateau situation with deeper soils. Our main focus deals with the following questions: i) Is it possible to identify "drought events" in a region like the Alps with generally humid precipitation conditions (1400 mm/a), by analysing stable isotopes in tree rings? ii) Are there species- and/or site-specific differences in the isotopic signatures - also with respect to the trees' climate response? We will present (i) the isotopic signatures for the common period 1970-2010, (ii) their response to climate conditions

  3. Age-related effects on leaf area/sapwood area relationships, canopy transpiration and carbon gain of Norway spruce stands (Picea abies) in the Fichtelgebirge, Germany.

    PubMed

    Köstner, B; Falge, E; Tenhunen, J D

    2002-06-01

    Stand age is an important structural determinant of canopy transpiration (E(c)) and carbon gain. Another more functional parameter of forest structure is the leaf area/sapwood area relationship, A(L)/A(S), which changes with site conditions and has been used to estimate leaf area index of forest canopies. The interpretation of age-related changes in A(L)/A(S) and the question of how A(L)/A(S) is related to forest functions are of current interest because they may help to explain forest canopy fluxes and growth. We conducted studies in mature stands of Picea abies (L.) Karst. varying in age from 40 to 140 years, in tree density from 1680 to 320 trees ha(-1), and in tree height from 15 to 30 m. Structural parameters were measured by biomass harvests of individual trees and stand biometry. We estimated E(c) from scaled-up xylem sap flux of trees, and canopy-level fluxes were predicted by a three-dimensional microclimate and gas exchange model (STANDFLUX). In contrast to pine species, A(L)/A(S) of P. abies increased with stand age from 0.26 to 0.48 m(2) cm(-2). Agreement between E(c) derived from scaled-up sap flux and modeled canopy transpiration was obtained with the same parameterization of needle physiology independent of stand age. Reduced light interception per leaf area and, as a consequence, reductions in net canopy photosynthesis (A(c)), canopy conductance (g(c)) and E(c) were predicted by the model in the older stands. Seasonal water-use efficiency (WUE = A(c)/E(c)), derived from scaled-up sap flux and stem growth as well as from model simulation, declined with increasing A(L)/A(S) and stand age. Based on the different behavior of age-related A(L)/A(S) in Norway spruce stands compared with other tree species, we conclude that WUE rather than A(L)/A(S) could represent a common age-related property of all species. We also conclude that, in addition to hydraulic limitations reducing carbon gain in old stands, a functional change in A(L)/A(S) that is related to

  4. The Primary Diterpene Synthase Products of Picea abies Levopimaradiene/Abietadiene Synthase (PaLAS) Are Epimers of a Thermally Unstable Diterpenol*

    PubMed Central

    Keeling, Christopher I.; Madilao, Lina L.; Zerbe, Philipp; Dullat, Harpreet K.; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    The levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase from Norway spruce (Picea abies; PaLAS) has previously been reported to produce a mixture of four diterpene hydrocarbons when incubated with geranylgeranyl diphosphate as the substrate: levopimaradiene, abietadiene, neoabietadiene, and palustradiene. However, variability in the assay products observed by GC-MS of this and orthologous conifer diterpene synthases over the past 15 years suggested that these diterpenes may not be the initial enzyme assay products but are rather the products of dehydration of an unstable alcohol. We have identified epimers of the thermally unstable allylic tertiary alcohol 13-hydroxy-8(14)-abietene as the products of PaLAS. The identification of these compounds, not previously described in conifers, as the initial products of PaLAS has considerable implications for our understanding of the complexity of the biosynthetic pathway of the structurally diverse diterpene resin acids of conifer defense. PMID:21518766

  5. Cadmium Accumulation in Tissues of Sarotherodon melanotheron (Rüppel, 1852) from the Aby Lagoon System in Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Cyrille, Yapi Dope Armel; Victor, Kouame; Sanogo, Tidou Abiba; Boukary, Sawadogo; Joseph, Wethe

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the concentrations of cadmium in the gills, livers and muscles of a commercially important tilapia fish (Sarotherodon melanotheron) from Aby Lagoon in Adiaké, Côte d’Ivoire, between January and December, 2010. The organisms were grouped into two composite samples (juvenile and adult) of five individuals. Levels of cadmium were determined in tissues using Perkin-Elmer (AAnalyst 200) Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) after a digestion method. Fish muscle appeared to have a significantly higher tendency to accumulate cadmium (1.19–5.18 µg/g dw) while gills and livers had minimum concentrations (0.07–1.32 and 0.12–1.25 µg/g dw). This study has revealed that the concentrations of Cd in Sarotherodon melanotheron muscle tissue were above the maximum acceptable concentrations for human consumption, thus precautions need to be taken in order to prevent future contamination. PMID:22690166

  6. PSII photochemistry in vegetative buds and needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) probed by OJIP chlorophyll a fluorescence measurement.

    PubMed

    Katanić, Zorana; Atić, Lejla; Ferhatović, Dž; Cesar, Vera; Lepeduš, H

    2012-06-01

    Vegetative buds represent developmental stage of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) needles where chloroplast biogenesis and photosynthetic activity begin. We used the analyses of polyphasic chlorophyll a fluorescence rise (OJIP) to compare photosystem II (PSII) functioning in vegetative buds and fully photosynthetically active mature current-year needles. Considerably decreased performance index (PIABS) in vegetative buds compared to needles pointed to their low photosynthetic efficiency. Maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) in buds was slightly decreased but above limited value for functionality indicating that primary photochemistry of PSII is not holdback of vegetative buds photosynthetic activity. The most significant difference observed between investigated developmental stages was accumulation of reduced primary quinine acceptor of PSII (QA-) in vegetative buds, as a result of its limited re-oxidation by passing electrons to secondary quinone acceptor, QB. We suggest that reduced electron transfer from QA- to QB could be the major limiting factor of photosynthesis in vegetative buds.

  7. Combined analysis by GC (RI), GC-MS and 13C NMR of the supercritical fluid extract of Abies alba twigs.

    PubMed

    Duquesnoy, Emilie; Marongiu, Bruno; Castola, Vincent; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Casanova, Joseph

    2010-12-01

    Two samples (leaves and twigs) of Abies alba Miller from Corsica were extracted using supercritical CO2 and their chemical compositions were compared with those of the essential oils obtained from the same batch of plant material. In total 45 components were identified using combined analysis by GC (RI), GC-MS and 13C NMR. It was observed that the contents of monoterpenes (mainly represented by limonene, alpha-pinene and camphene) were significantly lower in the supercritical fluid extract (SFE) than in the essential oil (EO). Conversely, the proportions of sesquiterpenes were much higher in CO2 extracts than in essential oils (around 30% vs 4%). Cis-abienol, a diterpene alcohol, was identified only in SFE, and the proportions of this constituent (7.5% and 17.3%) were determined using quantitative 13C NMR since it was under estimated using the standard conditions of GC. PMID:21299139

  8. Soil acidity reconstruction based on tree ring information of a dominant species Abies fabri in the subalpine forest ecosystems in southwest China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Wu, Fei-Hua; Liu, Ting-Wu; Chen, Juan; Li, Zhen-Ji; Pei, Zhen-Ming; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2010-10-01

    To assess the suitability of dendrochemistry as an indicator of soil acidification, soil chemistry and tree ring information of Abies fabri were measured at two distinct sites (severe acid deposition site-Emei Mountain and clean site-Gongga Mountain) of the subalpine forest ecosystems of western Sichuan, southwest China. The actual soil acidity (pH) was significantly correlated with some of the recent xylem cation (Ca, Mg, Mn, Al, Sr and Ba) concentrations and their molar ratios. Xylem Ca/Mg and Ca/Mn of A. fabri were ultimately selected to reconstruct the historical changes of soil pH in Emei Mountain and Gongga Mountain, respectively. The validity of those rebuild was also verified to a certain extent. We conclude that xylem cation molar ratios of A. fabri were superior to the single cation concentrations in soil acidity rebuild at the study sites due to normalizing for concentration fluctuations.

  9. Comparison of the Diversity of Basidiomycetes from Dead Wood of the Manchurian fir (Abies holophylla) as Evaluated by Fruiting Body Collection, Mycelial Isolation, and 454 Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yeongseon; Jang, Seokyoon; Min, Mihee; Hong, Joo-Hyun; Lee, Hanbyul; Lee, Hwanhwi; Lim, Young Woon; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2015-10-01

    In this study, three different methods (fruiting body collection, mycelial isolation, and 454 sequencing) were implemented to determine the diversity of wood-inhabiting basidiomycetes from dead Manchurian fir (Abies holophylla). The three methods recovered similar species richness (26 species from fruiting bodies, 32 species from mycelia, and 32 species from 454 sequencing), but Fisher's alpha, Shannon-Wiener, Simpson's diversity indices of fungal communities indicated fruiting body collection and mycelial isolation displayed higher diversity compared with 454 sequencing. In total, 75 wood-inhabiting basidiomycetes were detected. The most frequently observed species were Heterobasidion orientale (fruiting body collection), Bjerkandera adusta (mycelial isolation), and Trichaptum fusco-violaceum (454 sequencing). Only two species, Hymenochaete yasudae and Hypochnicium karstenii, were detected by all three methods. This result indicated that Manchurian fir harbors a diverse basidiomycetous fungal community and for complete estimation of fungal diversity, multiple methods should be used. Further studies are required to understand their ecology in the context of forest ecosystems.

  10. Partial purification and characterization of the short-chain prenyltransferases, gernayl diphospate synthase and farnesyl diphosphate synthase, from Abies grandis (grand fir).

    PubMed

    Tholl, D; Croteau, R; Gershenzon, J

    2001-02-15

    In the conifer Abies grandis (grand fir), a secreted oleoresin rich in mono-, sesqui-, and diterpenes serves as a constitutive and induced defense against insects and pathogenic fungi. Geranyl diphosphate (GPP) and farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) synthase, two enzymes which form the principal precursors of the oleoresin mono- and sesquiterpenes, were isolated from the stems of 2-year-old grand fir saplings. These enzymes were partially purified by sequential chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose, Mono-Q, and phenyl-Sepharose to remove competing phosphohydrolase and isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) isomerase activities. GPP and FPP synthase formed GPP and E,E-FPP, respectively, as the sole products of the enzymatic condensation of IPP and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). The properties of both enzymes are broadly similar to those of other prenyltransferases. The apparent native molecular masses are 54 +/- 3 kDa for GPP synthase and 110 +/- 6 kDa fo

  11. Combined analysis by GC (RI), GC-MS and 13C NMR of the supercritical fluid extract of Abies alba twigs.

    PubMed

    Duquesnoy, Emilie; Marongiu, Bruno; Castola, Vincent; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Casanova, Joseph

    2010-12-01

    Two samples (leaves and twigs) of Abies alba Miller from Corsica were extracted using supercritical CO2 and their chemical compositions were compared with those of the essential oils obtained from the same batch of plant material. In total 45 components were identified using combined analysis by GC (RI), GC-MS and 13C NMR. It was observed that the contents of monoterpenes (mainly represented by limonene, alpha-pinene and camphene) were significantly lower in the supercritical fluid extract (SFE) than in the essential oil (EO). Conversely, the proportions of sesquiterpenes were much higher in CO2 extracts than in essential oils (around 30% vs 4%). Cis-abienol, a diterpene alcohol, was identified only in SFE, and the proportions of this constituent (7.5% and 17.3%) were determined using quantitative 13C NMR since it was under estimated using the standard conditions of GC.

  12. Growth losses in Swiss forests caused by ozone: epidemiological data analysis of stem increment of Fagus sylvatica L. and Picea abies Karst.

    PubMed

    Braun, Sabine; Schindler, Christian; Rihm, Beat

    2014-09-01

    The estimate of growth losses by ozone exposure of forest trees is a significant part in current C sequestration calculations and will also be important in future modeling. It is therefore important to know if the relationship between ozone flux and growth reduction of young trees, used to derive a Critical Level for ozone, is also valid for mature trees. Epidemiological analysis of stem increment data from Fagus sylvatica L. and Picea abies Karst. observed in Swiss forest plots was used to test this hypothesis. The results confirm the validity of the flux-response relationship at least for beech and therefore enable estimating forest growth losses by ozone on a country-wide scale. For Switzerland, these estimates amount to 19.5% growth reduction for deciduous forests, 6.6% for coniferous forests and 11.0% for all forested areas based on annual ozone stomatal uptake during the time period 1991-2011.

  13. Population differentiation in tree-ring growth response of white fir (Abies concolor) to climate: Implications for predicting forest responses to climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, D.B.

    1993-10-01

    Forest succession models and correlative models have predicted 200--650 kilometer shifts in the geographic range of temperate forests and forest species as one response to global climate change. Few studies have investigated whether population differences may effect the response of forest species to climate change. This study examines differences in tree-ring growth, and in the phenotypic plasticity of tree-ring growth in 16-year old white fir, Abies concolor, from ten populations grown in four common gardens in the Sierra Nevada of California. For each population, tree-ring growth was modelled as a function of precipitation and degree-day sums. Tree-ring growth under three scenarios of doubled C0{sub 2} climates was estimated.

  14. The ABI4-induced Arabidopsis ANAC060 transcription factor attenuates ABA signaling and renders seedlings sugar insensitive when present in the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Zhou, Hua; Shi, Xiaoliang; Yu, Bo; Zhou, Yan; Chen, Suli; Wang, Yufeng; Peng, Yu; Meyer, Rhonda C; Smeekens, Sjef C; Teng, Sheng

    2014-03-01

    Seedling establishment is inhibited on media containing high levels (∼ 6%) of glucose or fructose. Genetic loci that overcome the inhibition of seedling growth on high sugar have been identified using natural variation analysis and mutant selection, providing insight into sugar signaling pathways. In this study, a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was performed for seedling sensitivity to high sugar in a Col/C24 F2 population of Arabidopsis thaliana. A glucose and fructose-sensing QTL, GSQ11, was mapped through selective genotyping and confirmed in near-isogenic lines in both Col and C24 backgrounds. Allelism tests and transgenic complementation showed that GSQ11 lies within the ANAC060 gene. The Col ANAC060 allele confers sugar insensitivity and was dominant over the sugar-sensitive C24 allele. Genomic and mRNA analyses showed that a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in Col ANAC060 affects the splicing patterns of ANAC060 such that 20 additional nucleotides are present in the mRNA. The insertion created a stop codon, resulting in a truncated ANAC60 protein lacking the transmembrane domain (TMD) that is present in the C24 ANAC060 protein. The absence of the TMD results in the nuclear localization of ANAC060. The short version of the ANAC060 protein is found in ∼ 12% of natural Arabidopsis accessions. Glucose induces GSQ11/ANAC060 expression in a process that requires abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-qPCR and transient expression analysis showed that ABI4 directly binds to the GSQ11/ANAC060 promoter to activate transcription. Interestingly, Col ANAC060 reduced ABA sensitivity and Glc-induced ABA accumulation, and ABI4 expression was also reduced in Col ANAC060 lines. Thus, the sugar-ABA signaling cascade induces ANAC060 expression, but the truncated Col ANAC060 protein attenuates ABA induction and ABA signaling. This negative feedback from nuclear ANAC060 on ABA signaling results in sugar insensitivity.

  15. Fine root biomass, necromass and chemistry during seven years of elevated aluminium concentrations in the soil solution of a middle-aged Picea abies stand.

    PubMed

    Eldhuset, Toril D; Lange, Holger; de Wit, Helene A

    2006-10-01

    Toxic effects of aluminium (Al) on Picea abies (L.) Karst. (Norway spruce) trees are well documented in laboratory-scale experiments, but field-based evidence is scarce. This paper presents results on fine root growth and chemistry from a field manipulation experiment in a P. abies stand that was 45 years old when the experiment started in 1996. Different amounts of dissolved aluminium were added as AlCl3 by means of periodic irrigation during the growing season in the period 1997-2002. Potentially toxic concentrations of Al in the soil solution were obtained. Fine roots were studied from direct cores (1996) and sequential root ingrowth cores (1999, 2001, 2002) in the mineral soil (0-40 cm). We tested two hypotheses: (1) elevated concentration of Al in the root zone leads to significant changes in root biomass, partitioning into fine, coarse, living or dead fractions, and distribution with depth; (2) elevated Al concentration leads to a noticeable uptake of Al and reduced uptake of Ca and Mg; this results in Ca and Mg depletion in roots. Hypothesis 1 was only marginally supported, as just a few significant treatment effects on biomass were found. Hypothesis 2 was supported in part; Al addition led to increased root concentrations of Al in 1999 and 2002 and reduced Mg/Al in 1999. Comparison of roots from subsequent root samplings showed a decrease in Al and S over time. The results illustrated that 7 years of elevated Al(tot) concentrations in the soil solution up to 200 microM are not likely to affect root growth. We also discuss possible improvements of the experimental approach.

  16. Spatial and seasonal variation in amino compounds in the xylem sap of a mistletoe (Viscum album) and its hosts (Populus spp. and Abies alba).

    PubMed

    Escher, Peter; Eiblmeier, Monika; Hetzger, Ilka; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2004-06-01

    In a field study, the composition and concentrations of amino compounds in the xylem sap of the mistletoe, Viscum album L., and in the xylem sap of two host species, an evergreen conifer (Abies alba Mill.) and a deciduous broad-leaved tree (Populus x euramericana), were analyzed. The xylem sap of both hosts and mistletoe contained large, but similar amounts of total organic nitrogen in low molecular weight amino compounds (TONLW). Nevertheless, individual amino compounds accumulated in the xylem sap of mistletoe relative to the host xylem sap, indicating selective uptake. In the xylem sap of Populus, major amino compounds (asparagine (Asn) and glutamine (Gln)) and the bulk parameters, TONLW and proteinogenic amino acids, showed significant seasonal variation. In Abies and in mistletoe on either host, variation of amino compounds in xylem sap was largely explained by inter-annual differences, not by seasonal variation. In both hosts, TONLW in the xylem sap was dominated by Gln. There was a steady decrease in relative abundance of Gln from the host xylem sap to the mistletoe xylem sap and to the stems and leaves of mistletoe. Simultaneously, the abundance of arginine (Arg) increased. Arginine was the predominant amino compound in the stems and leaves of mistletoe, occurring at concentrations previously observed only in leaves of trees exposed to excess nitrogen. We conclude that Gln (2 mol N mol(-1)) delivered by the host xylem sap is converted, in mistletoe, to Arg (4 mol N mol(-1)) and that the organic carbon liberated from Gln contributes significantly to the parasite's heterotrophic carbon gain. Statistical analyses of the data support this conclusion. Accumulation of Arg in mistletoe is an indication of excess N supply as a result of the uptake of amino compounds from the host xylem sap and a lack of phloem uploading.

  17. Carbon Allocation into Different Fine-Root Classes of Young Abies alba Trees Is Affected More by Phenology than by Simulated Browsing

    PubMed Central

    Endrulat, Tina; Buchmann, Nina; Brunner, Ivano

    2016-01-01

    Abies alba (European silver fir) was used to investigate possible effects of simulated browsing on C allocation belowground by 13CO2 pulse-labelling at spring, summer or autumn, and by harvesting the trees at the same time point of the labelling or at a later season for biomass and for 13C-allocation into the fine-root system. Before budburst in spring, the leader shoots and 50% of all lateral shoots of half of the investigated 5-year old Abies alba saplings were clipped to simulate browsing. At harvest, different fine-root classes were separated, and starch as an important storage compartment was analysed for concentrations. The phenology had a strong effect on the allocation of the 13C-label from shoots to roots. In spring, shoots did not supply the fine-roots with high amounts of the 13C-label, because the fine-roots contained less than 1% of the applied 13C. In summer and autumn, however, shoots allocated relatively high amounts of the 13C-label to the fine roots. The incorporation of the 13C-label as structural C or as starch into the roots is strongly dependent on the root type and the root diameter. In newly formed fine roots, 3–5% of the applied 13C was incorporated, whereas 1–3% in the ≤0.5 mm root class and 1–1.5% in the >0.5–1.0 mm root class were recorded. Highest 13C-enrichment in the starch was recorded in the newly formed fine roots in autumn. The clipping treatment had a significant positive effect on the amount of allocated 13C-label to the fine roots after the spring labelling, with high relative 13C-contents observed in the ≤0.5 mm and the >0.5–1.0 mm fine-root classes of clipped trees. No effects of the clipping were observed after summer and autumn labelling in the 13C-allocation patterns. Overall, our data imply that the season of C assimilation and, thus, the phenology of trees is the main determinant of the C allocation from shoots to roots and is clearly more important than browsing. PMID:27123860

  18. Carbon Allocation into Different Fine-Root Classes of Young Abies alba Trees Is Affected More by Phenology than by Simulated Browsing.

    PubMed

    Endrulat, Tina; Buchmann, Nina; Brunner, Ivano

    2016-01-01

    Abies alba (European silver fir) was used to investigate possible effects of simulated browsing on C allocation belowground by 13CO2 pulse-labelling at spring, summer or autumn, and by harvesting the trees at the same time point of the labelling or at a later season for biomass and for 13C-allocation into the fine-root system. Before budburst in spring, the leader shoots and 50% of all lateral shoots of half of the investigated 5-year old Abies alba saplings were clipped to simulate browsing. At harvest, different fine-root classes were separated, and starch as an important storage compartment was analysed for concentrations. The phenology had a strong effect on the allocation of the 13C-label from shoots to roots. In spring, shoots did not supply the fine-roots with high amounts of the 13C-label, because the fine-roots contained less than 1% of the applied 13C. In summer and autumn, however, shoots allocated relatively high amounts of the 13C-label to the fine roots. The incorporation of the 13C-label as structural C or as starch into the roots is strongly dependent on the root type and the root diameter. In newly formed fine roots, 3-5% of the applied 13C was incorporated, whereas 1-3% in the ≤0.5 mm root class and 1-1.5% in the >0.5-1.0 mm root class were recorded. Highest 13C-enrichment in the starch was recorded in the newly formed fine roots in autumn. The clipping treatment had a significant positive effect on the amount of allocated 13C-label to the fine roots after the spring labelling, with high relative 13C-contents observed in the ≤0.5 mm and the >0.5-1.0 mm fine-root classes of clipped trees. No effects of the clipping were observed after summer and autumn labelling in the 13C-allocation patterns. Overall, our data imply that the season of C assimilation and, thus, the phenology of trees is the main determinant of the C allocation from shoots to roots and is clearly more important than browsing. PMID:27123860

  19. The ABI4-Induced Arabidopsis ANAC060 Transcription Factor Attenuates ABA Signaling and Renders Seedlings Sugar Insensitive when Present in the Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiaoliang; Yu, Bo; Zhou, Yan; Chen, Suli; Wang, Yufeng; Peng, Yu; Meyer, Rhonda C.; Smeekens, Sjef C.; Teng, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Seedling establishment is inhibited on media containing high levels (∼6%) of glucose or fructose. Genetic loci that overcome the inhibition of seedling growth on high sugar have been identified using natural variation analysis and mutant selection, providing insight into sugar signaling pathways. In this study, a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was performed for seedling sensitivity to high sugar in a Col/C24 F2 population of Arabidopsis thaliana. A glucose and fructose-sensing QTL, GSQ11, was mapped through selective genotyping and confirmed in near-isogenic lines in both Col and C24 backgrounds. Allelism tests and transgenic complementation showed that GSQ11 lies within the ANAC060 gene. The Col ANAC060 allele confers sugar insensitivity and was dominant over the sugar-sensitive C24 allele. Genomic and mRNA analyses showed that a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in Col ANAC060 affects the splicing patterns of ANAC060 such that 20 additional nucleotides are present in the mRNA. The insertion created a stop codon, resulting in a truncated ANAC60 protein lacking the transmembrane domain (TMD) that is present in the C24 ANAC060 protein. The absence of the TMD results in the nuclear localization of ANAC060. The short version of the ANAC060 protein is found in ∼12% of natural Arabidopsis accessions. Glucose induces GSQ11/ANAC060 expression in a process that requires abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-qPCR and transient expression analysis showed that ABI4 directly binds to the GSQ11/ANAC060 promoter to activate transcription. Interestingly, Col ANAC060 reduced ABA sensitivity and Glc-induced ABA accumulation, and ABI4 expression was also reduced in Col ANAC060 lines. Thus, the sugar-ABA signaling cascade induces ANAC060 expression, but the truncated Col ANAC060 protein attenuates ABA induction and ABA signaling. This negative feedback from nuclear ANAC060 on ABA signaling results in sugar insensitivity. PMID:24625790

  20. Composition and structure of varves in Lake Żabińskie, northeastern Poland: a potential for high-resolution reconstruction of meteorological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tylmann, Wojciech; Bonk, Alicja; Amann, Benjamin; Butz, Christoph; Enters, Dirk; Kinder, Małgorzata; Grosjean, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Reconstructions of paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental data from sediment records require a detailed knowledge of the physical, chemical and biological factors which influence sediment-formation processes and signal preservation in lake sediments. This can be achieved by process studies and high-resolution analysis of sediments that provide an opportunity to calibrate varves and paleolimnological proxies against instrumental hydrological and meteorological data. Here we present results from Lake Żabińskie located in northeastern Poland with the aim to understand the relationship between meteorological conditions, sedimentation processes and climate signal preservation in varve structure and chemical composition. This eutrophic and hardwater lake exhibits well preserved biogenic varves with high sedimentation rates (5-8 mm/yr). We conducted a three-year long observation of limnological conditions within the water column and recent sediment fluxes as well as analyzed a 70-cm long sediment core from the deepest part of the lake basin covering the last 125 years. Thin sections were prepared and analyzed microscopically for individual laminae composition. We also measured chemical variability within varves using high-resolution XRF scanning of impregnated sediment slabs. We demonstrate that different mixing patterns may occur in Lake Żabińskie, from dimictic to meromictic depending on the meteorological conditions. Sediment fluxes varied substantially during the observation period with characteristic spring maxima and, optionally, a second late fall maxima. Considerable variability was also observed for the fluxes of total organic carbon, biogenic silica and calcite. Microscopic investigation of the topmost sediments revealed a complex varve structure showing a distinct spring calcite lamina followed by one or more fine calcite laminae interbedded with diatom-rich laminae and, finally, by an organic-rich lamina with minerogenic admixtures deposited during winter

  1. Chemical composition and biological activity of Abies alba and A. koreana seed and cone essential oils and characterization of their seed hydrolates.

    PubMed

    Wajs-Bonikowska, Anna; Sienkiewicz, Monika; Stobiecka, Agnieszka; Maciąg, Agnieszka; Szoka, Łukasz; Karna, Ewa

    2015-03-01

    The chemical composition, including the enantiomeric excess of the main terpenes, the antimicrobial and antiradical activities, as well as the cytotoxicity of Abies alba and A. koreana seed and cone essential oils were investigated. Additionally, their seed hydrolates were characterized. In the examined oils and hydrolates, a total of 174 compounds were identified, which comprised 95.6-99.9% of the volatiles. The essential oils were mainly composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons, whereas the composition of the hydrolates, differing from the seed oils of the corresponding fir species, consisted mainly of oxygenated derivatives of sesquiterpenes. The seed and cone essential oils of both firs exhibited DPPH-radical-scavenging properties and low antibacterial activity against the bacterial strains tested. Moreover, they evoked only low cytotoxicity towards normal fibroblasts and the two cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MBA-231. At concentrations up to 50 μg/ml, all essential oils were safe in relation to normal fibroblasts. Although they induced cytotoxicity towards the cancer cells at concentrations slightly lower than those required for the inhibition of fibroblast proliferation, their influence on cancer cells was weak, with IC50 values similar to those observed towards normal fibroblasts.

  2. WAVE2-Abi2 complex controls growth cone activity and regulates the multipolar-bipolar transition as well as the initiation of glia-guided migration.

    PubMed

    Xie, Min-Jue; Yagi, Hideshi; Kuroda, Kazuki; Wang, Chen-Chi; Komada, Munekazu; Zhao, Hong; Sakakibara, Akira; Miyata, Takaki; Nagata, Koh-Ichi; Oka, Yuichiro; Iguchi, Tokuichi; Sato, Makoto

    2013-06-01

    Glia-guided migration (glia-guided locomotion) during radial migration is a characteristic yet unique mode of migration. In this process, the directionality of migration is predetermined by glial processes and not by growth cones. Prior to the initiation of glia-guided migration, migrating neurons transform from multipolar to bipolar, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this multipolar-bipolar transition and the commencement of glia-guided migration are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that the multipolar-bipolar transition is not solely a cell autonomous event; instead, the interaction of growth cones with glial processes plays an essential role. Time-lapse imaging with lattice assays reveals the importance of vigorously active growth cones in searching for appropriate glial scaffolds, completing the transition, and initiating glia-guided migration. These growth cone activities are regulated by Abl kinase and Cdk5 via WAVE2-Abi2 through the phosphorylation of tyrosine 150 and serine 137 of WAVE2. Neurons that do not display such growth cone activities are mispositioned in a more superficial location in the neocortex, suggesting the significance of growth cones for the final location of the neurons. This process occurs in spite of the "inside-out" principle in which later-born neurons are situated more superficially. PMID:22617848

  3. Seasonal dynamics of δ(13) C of C-rich fractions from Picea abies (Norway spruce) and Fagus sylvatica (European beech) fine roots.

    PubMed

    Paya, Alex M; Grams, Thorsten E E; Bauerle, Taryn L

    2016-09-01

    The (13/12) C ratio in plant roots is likely dynamic depending on root function (storage versus uptake), but to date, little is known about the effect of season and root order (an indicator of root function) on the isotopic composition of C-rich fractions in roots. To address this, we monitored the stable isotopic composition of one evergreen (Picea abies) and one deciduous (Fagus sylvatica), tree species' roots by measuring δ(13) C of bulk, respired and labile C, and starch from first/second and third/fourth order roots during spring and fall root production periods. In both species, root order differences in δ(13) C were observed in bulk organic matter, labile, and respired C fractions. Beech exhibited distinct seasonal trends in δ(13) C of respired C, while spruce did not. In fall, first/second order beech roots were significantly depleted in (13) C, whereas spruce roots were enriched compared to higher order roots. Species variation in δ (13) C of respired C may be partially explained by seasonal shifts from enriched to depleted C substrates in deciduous beech roots. Regardless of species identity, differences in stable C isotopic composition of at least two root order groupings (first/second, third/fourth) were apparent, and should hereafter be separated in belowground C-supply-chain inquiry. PMID:27155532

  4. Distribution of lignin and its coniferyl alcohol and coniferyl aldehyde groups in Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris as observed by Raman imaging.

    PubMed

    Hänninen, Tuomas; Kontturi, Eero; Vuorinen, Tapani

    2011-10-01

    Wood cell wall consists of several structural components, such as cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin, whose concentrations vary throughout the cell wall. It is a composite where semicrystalline cellulose fibrils, acting as reinforcement, are bound together by amorphous hemicelluloses and lignin matrix. Understanding the distribution of these components and their functions within the cell wall can provide useful information on the biosynthesis of trees. Raman imaging enables us to study chemistry of cell wall without altering the structure by staining the sample or fractionating it. Raman imaging has been used to analyze distributions of lignin and cellulose, as well as the functional groups of lignin in wood. In our study, we observed the distribution of cellulose and lignin, as well as the amount of coniferyl alcohol and aldehyde groups compared to the total amount of lignin in pine (Pinus sylvestris) and spruce (Picea abies) wood samples. No significant differences could be seen in lignin and cellulose distribution between these samples, while clear distinction was observed in the distribution of coniferyl alcohols and coniferyl aldehyde in them. These results could provide valuable insight on how two similar wood species control biosynthesis of lignin differently during the differentiation of cell wall.

  5. Targeted proteomics using selected reaction monitoring reveals the induction of specific terpene synthases in a multi-level study of methyl jasmonate-treated Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Zulak, Katherine G; Lippert, Dustin N; Kuzyk, Michael A; Domanski, Dominik; Chou, Tina; Borchers, Christoph H; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2009-12-01

    Induction of terpene synthase (TPS) gene expression and enzyme activity is known to occur in response to various chemical and biological stimuli in several species of spruce (genus Picea). However, high sequence identity between TPS family members has made it difficult to determine the induction patterns of individual TPS at the protein and transcript levels and whether specific TPS enzymes respond differentially to treatment. In the present study we used a multi-level approach to measure the induction and activity of TPS enzymes in protein extracts of Norway spruce (Picea abies) bark tissue following treatment with methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Measurements were made on the transcript, protein, enzyme activity and metabolite levels. Using a relatively new proteomics application, selective reaction monitoring (SRM), it was possible to differentiate and quantitatively measure the abundance of several known TPS proteins and three 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS) isoforms in Norway spruce. Protein levels of individual TPS and DXS enzymes were differentially induced upon MeJA treatment and good correlation was generally observed between induction of transcripts, proteins, and enzyme activities. Most of the mono- and diterpenoid metabolites accumulated with similar temporal patterns of induction as part of the coordinated multi-compound chemical defense response. Protein and enzyme activity levels of the monoTPS (+)-3-carene synthase and the corresponding accumulation of (+)-3-carene was induced to a higher fold change than any other TPS or metabolite measured, indicating an important role in the induced terpenoid defense response in Norway spruce.

  6. The impact of long-term CO2 enrichment on sun and shade needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies): photosynthetic performance, needle anatomy and phenolics accumulation.

    PubMed

    Lhotáková, Zuzana; Urban, Otmar; Dubánková, Marianna; Cvikrová, Milena; Tomášková, Ivana; Kubínová, Lucie; Zvára, Karel; Marek, Michal V; Albrechtová, Jana

    2012-06-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) grown under ambient (365-377 μmol(CO(2)) mol(-1); AC) and elevated (700 μmol(CO(2)) mol(-1); EC) CO(2) concentrations within glass domes with automatically adjustable windows and on an open-air control site were studied after 8 years of treatment. The effect of EC on photosynthesis, mesophyll structure and phenolics accumulation in sun and shade needles was examined. Photosynthetic assimilation and dark respiration rates were measured gasometrically; the structural parameters of mesophyll were determined using confocal microscopy and stereological methods. The contents of total soluble phenolics and lignin were assessed spectrophotometrically, and localizations of different phenolic groups were detected histochemically on needle cross-sections. EC enhanced the light-saturated CO(2) assimilation rate and reduced dark respiration in the current-year needles. No effects of CO(2) enrichment on mesophyll structural parameters were observed. Similarly, the accumulation and localization of phenolics and lignin remained unaffected by EC treatment. Needles differentiated into sun and shade ecotypes in the same manner and to the same extent irrespective of CO(2) treatment. Based on these results, it is apparent that the EC-induced enhancement of photosynthesis is not related to changes in the examined structural parameters of mesophyll and accumulation of phenolic compounds.

  7. Molecular control of normal and acrocona mutant seed cone development in Norway spruce (Picea abies) and the evolution of conifer ovule-bearing organs.

    PubMed

    Carlsbecker, Annelie; Sundström, Jens F; Englund, Marie; Uddenberg, Daniel; Izquierdo, Liz; Kvarnheden, Anders; Vergara-Silva, Francisco; Engström, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Reproductive organs in seed plants are morphologically divergent and their evolutionary history is often unclear. The mechanisms controlling their development have been extensively studied in angiosperms but are poorly understood in conifers and other gymnosperms. Here, we address the molecular control of seed cone development in Norway spruce, Picea abies. We present expression analyses of five novel MADS-box genes in comparison with previously identified MADS and LEAFY genes at distinct developmental stages. In addition, we have characterized the homeotic transformation from vegetative shoot to female cone and associated changes in regulatory gene expression patterns occurring in the acrocona mutant. The analyses identified genes active at the onset of ovuliferous and ovule development and identified expression patterns marking distinct domains of the ovuliferous scale. The reproductive transformation in acrocona involves the activation of all tested genes normally active in early cone development, except for an AGAMOUS-LIKE6/SEPALLATA (AGL6/SEP) homologue. This absence may be functionally associated with the nondeterminate development of the acrocona ovule-bearing scales. Our morphological and gene expression analyses give support to the hypothesis that the modern cone is a complex structure, and the ovuliferous scale the result of reductions and compactions of an ovule-bearing axillary short shoot in cones of Paleozoic conifers.

  8. Induction of isoprenyl diphosphate synthases, plant hormones and defense signalling genes correlates with traumatic resin duct formation in Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Axel; Nagel, Raimund; Krekling, Trygve; Christiansen, Erik; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Krokene, Paal

    2011-12-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies) defends itself against herbivores and pathogens by formation of traumatic resin ducts filled with terpenoid-based oleoresin. An important group of enzymes in terpenoid biosynthesis are the short-chain isoprenyl diphosphate synthases which produce geranyl diphosphate (C(10)), farnesyl diphosphate (C(15)), and geranylgeranyl diphosphate (C(20)) as precursors of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and diterpene resin acids, respectively. After treatment with methyl jasmonate (MJ) we investigated the expression of all isoprenyl diphosphate synthase genes characterized to date from Norway spruce and correlated this with formation of traumatic resin ducts and terpene accumulation. Formation of traumatic resin ducts correlated with higher amounts of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and diterpene resin acids and an upregulation of isoprenyl diphosphate synthase genes producing geranyl diphosphate or geranylgeranyl diphosphate. Among defense hormones, jasmonate and jasmonate-isoleucine conjugate accumulated to higher levels in trees with extensive traumatic resin duct formation, whereas salicylate did not. Jasmonate and ethylene are likely to both be involved in formation of traumatic resin ducts based on elevated transcripts of genes encoding lipoxygenase and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase associated with resin duct formation. Other genes involved in defense signalling in other systems, mitogen-activated protein kinase3 and nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related gene1, were also associated with traumatic resin duct formation. These responses were detected not only at the site of MJ treatment, but also systemically up to 60 cm above the site of treatment on the trunk.

  9. Profiling functions of ectomycorrhizal diversity and root structuring in seedlings of Norway spruce (Picea abies) with fast- and slow-growing phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Velmala, Sannakajsa M; Rajala, Tiina; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Taylor, Andy F S; Pennanen, Taina

    2014-01-01

    We studied the role of taxonomical and functional ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal diversity in root formation and nutrient uptake by Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings with fast- and slow-growing phenotypes. Seedlings were grown with an increasing ECM fungal diversity gradient from one to four species and sampled before aboveground growth differences between the two phenotypes were apparent. ECM fungal colonization patterns were determined and functional diversity was assayed via measurements of potential enzyme activities of eight exoenzymes probably involved in nutrient mobilization. Phenotypes did not vary in their receptiveness to different ECM fungal species. However, seedlings of slow-growing phenotypes had higher fine-root density and thus more condensed root systems than fast-growing seedlings, but the potential enzyme activities of ectomycorrhizas did not differ qualitatively or quantitatively. ECM species richness increased host nutrient acquisition potential by diversifying the exoenzyme palette. Needle nitrogen content correlated positively with high chitinase activity of ectomycorrhizas. Rather than fast- and slow-growing phenotypes exhibiting differing receptiveness to ECM fungi, our results suggest that distinctions in fine-root structuring and in the belowground growth strategy already apparent at early stages of seedling development may explain later growth differences between fast- and slow-growing families.

  10. [Spatial Distribution of Intron 2 of nad1 Gene Haplotypes in Populations of Norway and Siberian Spruce (Picea abies-P. obovata) Species Complex].

    PubMed

    Mudrik, E A; Polyakova, T A; Shatokhina, A V; Bondarenko, G N; Politov, D V

    2015-10-01

    The length and sequence variations among intron 2 haplotypes of the mitochondrial DNA nad1 gene have been studied in the Norway and Siberian spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.-P. obovata Ledeb.) species complex. Twenty-two native populations and 15 provenances were analyzed. The distribution of the northern European haplogroup (haplotypes 721, 755, 789, 823, 857, 891, and 925) is delimited in the west by the Ural region inclusively. Haplotype 712 is widespread in populations of Siberia, in the Far East and in northeastern Russia. A novel variant of the Siberian haplogroup (780) containing three copies of the first minisatellite motif (34 bp) was found for the first time. The absence of an admixture of the northern European and Siberian haplotypes in the zone of spruce species introgression previously marked by morphological traits and nuclear allozyme loci was demonstrated. This may be evidence of the existence of a sharper geographic boundary between the two haplogroups, as compared to a boundary based on phenotypic and allozyme data. A high proportion of the interpopulation component of variation (65%) estimated by AMOVA indicates a substantial genetic subdivision of European and Siberian populations of the Palearctic spruce complex by mtDNA, which can be putatively explained by natural barriers to gene flow with seeds related, for instance, to the woodless regions of the western Siberian Plain in the Pleistocene and the probable floodplains of large rivers.

  11. Effects of light availability and tree size on the architecture of assimilative surface in the canopy of Picea abies: variation in needle morphology.

    PubMed

    Niinemets, U; Kull, O

    1995-05-01

    Needle dimensions, needle surface area, needle dry weight per area (LWA) and needle density (ND, needle weight per volume) were measured in terminal current-year shoots in a natural canopy of variably sized Picea abies (L.) Karst. trees growing along a light gradient. Needle shape was described as a rhomboid. Needle width (D(2)) increased with increasing diffuse site factor, a(d) (relative amount of penetrating diffuse solar radiation), whereas needle thickness (D(1)) remained nearly constant, resulting in an inverse relationship between D(1)/D(2) and a(d) and an increase in the ratio of total (TLA) to projected needle surface area (PLA) with increasing a(d). Because of the variations in needle morphology with respect to light availability, the shoot parameters used in present canopy models are also expected to be light-sensitive, and studies involving shoot morphology should also consider the variability in needle geometry. Needle dimensions and total tree height were not correlated. However, LWA increase with both increasing a(d) and total tree height. When LWA was expressed as the product of ND and needle height (NH, height of the rhomboidal transverse section of a needle), LWA appeared to increase with irradiance, because of changing NH, and with total tree height, because of changing needle density. PMID:14965954

  12. Modeling intraspecific adaptation of Abies sachalinensis to local altitude and responses to global warming, based on a 36-year reciprocal transplant experiment.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Wataru; Goto, Susumu

    2012-04-01

    Intraspecific adaptation in Abies sachalinensis was examined using models based on long-term monitoring data gathered during a reciprocal transplant experiment with eight seed source populations and six transplantation sites along an altitudinal gradient. The consequence of local adaptation was evaluated by testing the home-site advantage for upslope and downslope transplants at five ages. The populations' fitness-linked trait was set as their productivity (tree height × survival rate) at each age. The effects of global warming were evaluated on the basis of the 36-year performance of downslope transplants. Evidence was found for adaptive genetic variation affecting both height and survival from an early age. Increasing the distance between seed source and planting site significantly reduced productivity for both upslope and downslope transplantation, demonstrating the existence of a significant home-site advantage. The decrease in productivity was most distinct for upslope transplantations, indicating strong local adaptation to high altitudes. Global warming is predicted to increase the productivity of high-altitude populations. However, owing to their existing local adaptation, all tested populations exhibited lower productivity under warming than demes that were optimal for the new climate. These negative predictions should be considered when planning the management of locally adapted plant species such as A. sachalinensis.

  13. Updating beliefs and combining evidence in adaptive forest management under climate change: a case study of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) in the Black Forest, Germany.

    PubMed

    Yousefpour, Rasoul; Temperli, Christian; Bugmann, Harald; Elkin, Che; Hanewinkel, Marc; Meilby, Henrik; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2013-06-15

    We study climate uncertainty and how managers' beliefs about climate change develop and influence their decisions. We develop an approach for updating knowledge and beliefs based on the observation of forest and climate variables and illustrate its application for the adaptive management of an even-aged Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) forest in the Black Forest, Germany. We simulated forest development under a range of climate change scenarios and forest management alternatives. Our analysis used Bayesian updating and Dempster's rule of combination to simulate how observations of climate and forest variables may influence a decision maker's beliefs about climate development and thereby management decisions. While forest managers may be inclined to rely on observed forest variables to infer climate change and impacts, we found that observation of climate state, e.g. temperature or precipitation is superior for updating beliefs and supporting decision-making. However, with little conflict among information sources, the strongest evidence would be offered by a combination of at least two informative variables, e.g., temperature and precipitation. The success of adaptive forest management depends on when managers switch to forward-looking management schemes. Thus, robust climate adaptation policies may depend crucially on a better understanding of what factors influence managers' belief in climate change.

  14. Seasonal dynamics of δ(13) C of C-rich fractions from Picea abies (Norway spruce) and Fagus sylvatica (European beech) fine roots.

    PubMed

    Paya, Alex M; Grams, Thorsten E E; Bauerle, Taryn L

    2016-09-01

    The (13/12) C ratio in plant roots is likely dynamic depending on root function (storage versus uptake), but to date, little is known about the effect of season and root order (an indicator of root function) on the isotopic composition of C-rich fractions in roots. To address this, we monitored the stable isotopic composition of one evergreen (Picea abies) and one deciduous (Fagus sylvatica), tree species' roots by measuring δ(13) C of bulk, respired and labile C, and starch from first/second and third/fourth order roots during spring and fall root production periods. In both species, root order differences in δ(13) C were observed in bulk organic matter, labile, and respired C fractions. Beech exhibited distinct seasonal trends in δ(13) C of respired C, while spruce did not. In fall, first/second order beech roots were significantly depleted in (13) C, whereas spruce roots were enriched compared to higher order roots. Species variation in δ (13) C of respired C may be partially explained by seasonal shifts from enriched to depleted C substrates in deciduous beech roots. Regardless of species identity, differences in stable C isotopic composition of at least two root order groupings (first/second, third/fourth) were apparent, and should hereafter be separated in belowground C-supply-chain inquiry.

  15. Merging GOES-R ABI and TRMM/GPM Observations with MRMS Ground-Based Radar for Real-Time QPE in Complex Terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grams, H.; Gourley, J. J.; Rabin, R.; Kirstetter, P.

    2014-12-01

    Real-time detection and estimation of rainfall at the flash flood scale remains a significant challenge in the Western United States where complex terrain limits NEXRAD coverage and rain gauge networks are sparse. Quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE) from geostationary satellites offer the advantage of full coverage and spatiotemporal resolution comparable to ground-based radars, particularly with the upcoming launch of GOES-R. A multisensor (NEXRAD+GPM+GOES-R) QPE product is under development that will capitalize on the complementary scales of NEXRAD and GOES-R measurements to provide high-resolution rainfall estimates in areas within and just outside the United States where ground radar coverage is not sufficient for flash flood detection and monitoring. As a first step, a multi-year database was developed over the continental United States of Multi-Radar/Multi-Sensor (MRMS) NEXRAD mosaics of surface precipitation types, rainfall rates, vertical profiles of reflectivity (VPRs), and the radar quality index (RQI), TRMM PR VPRs from 2A25 Version 7, and derived cloud properties from the GOES-R ABI proxy dataset. A Bayesian approach was then employed to match the cloud top observations to probability distributions of MRMS Q3 surface rain rates, using VPRs and precipitation types derived from MRMS as constraints. A description of the prototype QPE product and initial results will be presented.

  16. Photosynthetic performance of the Atlantic brown macroalgae, Cystoseira abies-marina, Dictyota dichotoma and Sargassum vulgare, measured in Gran Canaria on site.

    PubMed

    Häder, D -P.; Porst, M; Lebert, M

    2001-02-01

    Photosynthetic performance was determined in three common Atlantic brown macroalgae, Cystoseira abies-marina, Dictyota dichotoma and Sargassum vulgare, in Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, on site. The photosynthetic quantum yield was measured with both a portable PAM instrument on site and a diving PAM under water in the habitat. In parallel, solar radiation was measured continuously above and under water by means of two three-channel dosimeters, ELDONET (Real Time Computer, Möhrendorf, Germany), in three wavelength ranges, UV-A, UV-B and PAR. The effective photosynthetic quantum yield decreased in all species in response to exposure to 15 min of solar radiation but recovered in the subsequent shade conditions within several hours. A 30-min exposure caused an even more profound photoinhibition from which the algae recovered only partially. Most of the effect was due to visible radiation, however, the UV wavelength range, and especially UV-B, considerably enhanced the decrease in photosynthetic quantum yield. In all species except Sargassum a significant photoinhibition was detected at their growth sites at high solar angles in the water column, measured with the diving PAM. PMID:11165628

  17. Vertical distribution of an ectomycorrhizal community in upper soil horizons of a young Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) stand of the Bavarian Limestone Alps.

    PubMed

    Baier, Roland; Ingenhaag, Jan; Blaschke, Helmut; Göttlein, Axel; Agerer, Reinhard

    2006-05-01

    The vertical niche differentiation of genera of ectomycorrhiza (ECM) was assessed in a 17-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) plantation on a mountainous dolomitic site (1,050 m above sea level) of the Bavarian Limestone Alps. We determined ECM anatomotypes, recorded the abundance of corresponding ECM root tips and classified them into groups of ECM exploration types, which refer to the organisation and the extent of their extramatrical mycelia. The abundance of ECM was highest in the organic soil layers, compared to the mineral soil horizon. The ordination of the ECM communities and of the exploration types revealed segregation related to soil horizon properties. While Cenococcum geophilum preferred the organic soil layers, Lactarius spp., Tomentella spp. and Craterellus tubaeformis were generally most abundant in the mineral soil horizons. Cenococcum geophilum was the predominant species, possibly based on enhanced competitiveness under the prevailing site conditions. The short-distance exploration types (e.g. C. geophilum) preferentially colonised the organic soil layer, whereas the contact types (e.g. most of the Tomentella spp., C. tubaeformis) together with medium-distance types (e.g. Amphinema byssoides) were primarily associated with the underlying A-horizons. Therefore, the soil horizons had an important effect on the distribution of ECM and on their community structure. The spatial niche differentiation of ECM genera and exploration types is discussed in regard to specific physico-chemical properties of soil horizon and the assumed ecophysiological strategies of ECM.

  18. Composition and Properties of Hydrogen Peroxide Decomposing Systems in Extracellular and Total Extracts from Needles of Norway Spruce (Picea abies L., Karst.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Polle, Andrea; Chakrabarti, Krisanu; Schürmann, Wolfgang; Renneberg, Heinz

    1990-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging systems of spruce (Picea abies) needles were investigated in both extracts obtained from the extracellular space and extracts of total needles. As assessed by the lack of activity of symplastic marker enzymes, the extracellular washing fluid was free from intracellular contaminations. In the extracellular washing fluid ascorbate, glutathione, cysteine, and high specific activities of guaiacol peroxidases were observed. Guaiacol peroxidases in the extracellular washing fluid and needle homogenates had the same catalytic properties, i.e. temperature optimum at 50°C, pH optimum in the range of pH 5 to 6 and low affinity for guaiacol (apparent Km = 40 millimolar) and H2O2 (apparent Km = 1-3 millimolar). Needle homogenates contained ascorbate peroxidase, dehydroascorbate reductase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione reductase, and catalase, but not glutathione peroxidase activity. None of these activities was detected in the extracellular washing fluid. Ascorbate and glutathione related enzymes were freeze sensitive; ascorbate peroxidase was labile in the absence of ascorbate. The significance of extracellular antioxidants for the detoxification of injurious oxygen species is discussed. PMID:16667703

  19. [Spatial Distribution of Intron 2 of nad1 Gene Haplotypes in Populations of Norway and Siberian Spruce (Picea abies-P. obovata) Species Complex].

    PubMed

    Mudrik, E A; Polyakova, T A; Shatokhina, A V; Bondarenko, G N; Politov, D V

    2015-10-01

    The length and sequence variations among intron 2 haplotypes of the mitochondrial DNA nad1 gene have been studied in the Norway and Siberian spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.-P. obovata Ledeb.) species complex. Twenty-two native populations and 15 provenances were analyzed. The distribution of the northern European haplogroup (haplotypes 721, 755, 789, 823, 857, 891, and 925) is delimited in the west by the Ural region inclusively. Haplotype 712 is widespread in populations of Siberia, in the Far East and in northeastern Russia. A novel variant of the Siberian haplogroup (780) containing three copies of the first minisatellite motif (34 bp) was found for the first time. The absence of an admixture of the northern European and Siberian haplotypes in the zone of spruce species introgression previously marked by morphological traits and nuclear allozyme loci was demonstrated. This may be evidence of the existence of a sharper geographic boundary between the two haplogroups, as compared to a boundary based on phenotypic and allozyme data. A high proportion of the interpopulation component of variation (65%) estimated by AMOVA indicates a substantial genetic subdivision of European and Siberian populations of the Palearctic spruce complex by mtDNA, which can be putatively explained by natural barriers to gene flow with seeds related, for instance, to the woodless regions of the western Siberian Plain in the Pleistocene and the probable floodplains of large rivers. PMID:27169226

  20. Mesure des stades de developpement du sapin baumier (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill.) par teledetection des maxima locaux sur images a tres haute resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demers, Alain

    L'objectif principal de cette these est d'identifier les parametres cles pour lier le developpement morphologique de la cime du sapin baumier (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill.) aux patrons de reflectance qu'elle genere sur une image aerienne a haute resolution. La quantite et la distribution spatiale des aiguilles dans le sapin dependent de la structure des branches. Un mecanisme de ramification particulier (la reiteration) ressort comme le parametre cle pour lier l'augmentation de la biomasse foliaire et la forme de la branche. Les reiterats forment des agglomerats de feuillage qui engendrent des inegalites dans les patrons de reflectance de la cime. La reflectance est plus elevee ou il y a une forte concentration de reiterats (maximum local). On demontre que le developpement du sapin baumier se mesure au moyen de l'analyse des maxima locaux de la cime sur une image. La biomasse de l'arbre se mesure par la teledetection et l'analyse des patrons de reflectance de la cime, c'est-a-dire la mesure du niveau de reiteration par le decompte des maxima locaux de la cime. Cette etude demontre qu'il est possible de proceder a l'inventaire du volume de bois d'un peuplement par la teledetection de l'architecture des arbres.

  1. WAVE2-Abi2 complex controls growth cone activity and regulates the multipolar-bipolar transition as well as the initiation of glia-guided migration.

    PubMed

    Xie, Min-Jue; Yagi, Hideshi; Kuroda, Kazuki; Wang, Chen-Chi; Komada, Munekazu; Zhao, Hong; Sakakibara, Akira; Miyata, Takaki; Nagata, Koh-Ichi; Oka, Yuichiro; Iguchi, Tokuichi; Sato, Makoto

    2013-06-01

    Glia-guided migration (glia-guided locomotion) during radial migration is a characteristic yet unique mode of migration. In this process, the directionality of migration is predetermined by glial processes and not by growth cones. Prior to the initiation of glia-guided migration, migrating neurons transform from multipolar to bipolar, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this multipolar-bipolar transition and the commencement of glia-guided migration are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that the multipolar-bipolar transition is not solely a cell autonomous event; instead, the interaction of growth cones with glial processes plays an essential role. Time-lapse imaging with lattice assays reveals the importance of vigorously active growth cones in searching for appropriate glial scaffolds, completing the transition, and initiating glia-guided migration. These growth cone activities are regulated by Abl kinase and Cdk5 via WAVE2-Abi2 through the phosphorylation of tyrosine 150 and serine 137 of WAVE2. Neurons that do not display such growth cone activities are mispositioned in a more superficial location in the neocortex, suggesting the significance of growth cones for the final location of the neurons. This process occurs in spite of the "inside-out" principle in which later-born neurons are situated more superficially.

  2. Spring-temperature variability and eutrophication history inferred from sedimentary pigments in the varved sediments of Lake Żabińskie, NE Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amann, Benjamin; Lobsiger, Simon; Tylmann, Wojciech; Filipiak, Janusz; Grosjean, Martin

    2014-05-01

    High-resolution, well-calibrated records of lake sediments are fundamental for assessments of climatic and environmental changes. Varved lake sediments are particularly robust archives in this context, providing quantitative insights into climate-state variables at annual resolution. However, due to the multitude of responses within lake ecosystems, the key issue is to understand how climate variability interacts with other environmental pressures such as eutrophication, particularly during the 20th century. Here we present a multi-proxy record of sedimentary pigments and geochemical data from Lake Żabińskie (Masurian Lake District, North-East Poland) with the aim to detect and differentiate climate-driven changes from other environmental controls. The lake is dimictic, 44-meter deep and ice-covered from January to early March. It exhibits biogeochemical varves with a high content of organic matter (terrestrial and aquatic, macrophytes, algae and bacteria), a simple inorganic composition (predominantly summer-precipitated endogenous calcite) and high sedimentation rates (5 - 8 mm/yr). We analyzed a 51-cm long sediment core from the deepest part of the lake basin covering the last 100 years. Pigments were extracted at 1-cm resolution using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). We also measured pigments with Visible Reflectance Spectroscopy (VIS-RS; 380 - 730 nm) to assess whether the down-core resolution could be increased with this rapid non-destructive technique. We show that the recent eutrophication of Lake Żabińskie can be discriminated from climate-driven change for the period 1907-2008 AD. The eutrophication signal is evidenced by a recent change in the algal community from green algae (rich in chlorophyll a) to more competitive blue-green algae (rich in ß-carotene), which leads to an environment with light-limiting conditions for chlorophyte growth. This provides a basis for the preservation of the climate signal in the sediments. Using

  3. The extent and meaning of hybridization and introgression between Siberian spruce (Picea obovata) and Norway spruce (Picea abies): cryptic refugia as stepping stones to the west?

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Yoshiaki; Chen, Jun; Stocks, Michael; Källman, Thomas; Sønstebø, Jørn Henrik; Parducci, Laura; Semerikov, Vladimir; Sperisen, Christoph; Politov, Dmitry; Ronkainen, Tiina; Väliranta, Minna; Vendramin, Giovanni Giuseppe; Tollefsrud, Mari Mette; Lascoux, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Boreal species were repeatedly exposed to ice ages and went through cycles of contraction and expansion while sister species alternated periods of contact and isolation. The resulting genetic structure is consequently complex, and demographic inferences are intrinsically challenging. The range of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Siberian spruce (Picea obovata) covers most of northern Eurasia; yet their geographical limits and histories remain poorly understood. To delineate the hybrid zone between the two species and reconstruct their joint demographic history, we analysed variation at nuclear SSR and mitochondrial DNA in 102 and 88 populations, respectively. The dynamics of the hybrid zone was analysed with approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) followed by posterior predictive structure plot reconstruction and the presence of barriers across the range tested with estimated effective migration surfaces. To estimate the divergence time between the two species, nuclear sequences from two well-separated populations of each species were analysed with ABC. Two main barriers divide the range of the two species: one corresponds to the hybrid zone between them, and the other separates the southern and northern domains of Norway spruce. The hybrid zone is centred on the Urals, but the genetic impact of Siberian spruce extends further west. The joint distribution of mitochondrial and nuclear variation indicates an introgression of mitochondrial DNA from Norway spruce into Siberian spruce. Overall, our data reveal a demographic history where the two species interacted frequently and where migrants originating from the Urals and the West Siberian Plain recolonized northern Russia and Scandinavia using scattered refugial populations of Norway spruce as stepping stones towards the west. PMID:27087633

  4. Evidence of divergent selection for drought and cold tolerance at landscape and local scales in Abies alba Mill. in the French Mediterranean Alps.

    PubMed

    Roschanski, Anna M; Csilléry, Katalin; Liepelt, Sascha; Oddou-Muratorio, Sylvie; Ziegenhagen, Birgit; Huard, Frédéric; Ullrich, Kristian K; Postolache, Dragos; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Fady, Bruno

    2016-02-01

    Understanding local adaptation in forest trees is currently a key research and societal priority. Geographically and ecologically marginal populations provide ideal case studies, because environmental stress along with reduced gene flow can facilitate the establishment of locally adapted populations. We sampled European silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) trees in the French Mediterranean Alps, along the margin of its distribution range, from pairs of high- and low-elevation plots on four different mountains situated along a 170-km east-west transect. The analysis of 267 SNP loci from 175 candidate genes suggested a neutral pattern of east-west isolation by distance among mountain sites. F(ST) outlier tests revealed 16 SNPs that showed patterns of divergent selection. Plot climate was characterized using both in situ measurements and gridded data that revealed marked differences between and within mountains with different trends depending on the season. Association between allelic frequencies and bioclimatic variables revealed eight genes that contained candidate SNPs, of which two were also detected using F(ST) outlier methods. All SNPs were associated with winter drought, and one of them showed strong evidence of selection with respect to elevation. Q(ST)-F(ST) tests for fitness-related traits measured in a common garden suggested adaptive divergence for the date of bud flush and for growth rate. Overall, our results suggest a complex adaptive picture for A. alba in the southern French Alps where, during the east-to-west Holocene recolonization, locally advantageous genetic variants established at both the landscape and local scales. PMID:26676992

  5. Development of a Local Size Hierarchy Causes Regular Spacing of Trees in an Even-aged Abies Forest: Analyses Using Spatial Autocorrelation and the Mark Correlation Function

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Satoshi N.; Kachi, Naoki; Suzuki, Jun-Ichirou

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims During the development of an even-aged plant population, the spatial distribution of individuals often changes from a clumped pattern to a random or regular one. The development of local size hierarchies in an Abies forest was analysed for a period of 47 years following a large disturbance in 1959. Methods In 1980 all trees in an 8 × 8 m plot were mapped and their height growth after the disturbance was estimated. Their mortality and growth were then recorded at 1- to 4-year intervals between 1980 and 2006. Spatial distribution patterns of trees were analysed by the pair correlation function. Spatial correlations between tree heights were analysed with a spatial autocorrelation function and the mark correlation function. The mark correlation function was able to detect a local size hierarchy that could not be detected by the spatial autocorrelation function alone. Key Results The small-scale spatial distribution pattern of trees changed from clumped to slightly regular during the 47 years. Mortality occurred in a density-dependent manner, which resulted in regular spacing between trees after 1980. The spatial autocorrelation and mark correlation functions revealed the existence of tree patches consisting of large trees at the initial stage. Development of a local size hierarchy was detected within the first decade after the disturbance, although the spatial autocorrelation was not negative. Local size hierarchies that developed persisted until 2006, and the spatial autocorrelation became negative at later stages (after about 40 years). Conclusions This is the first study to detect local size hierarchies as a prelude to regular spacing using the mark correlation function. The results confirm that use of the mark correlation function together with the spatial autocorrelation function is an effective tool to analyse the development of a local size hierarchy of trees in a forest. PMID:18599560

  6. Morphological acclimation to understory environments in Abies amabilis, a shade- and snow-tolerant conifer species of the Cascade Mountains, Washington, USA.

    PubMed

    Mori, Akira S; Mizumachi, Eri; Sprugel, Douglas G

    2008-05-01

    Light-related plasticity in a variety of crown morphology and within-tree characteristics was examined in sun and shade saplings of Abies amabilis Dougl. ex J. Forbes growing in two late-successional forests with different snow regimes in the Cascade Mountains of Washington, USA. Compared with sun saplings, shade saplings typically had broad flat crowns as a result of acclimation at several scales (needle, shoot, branch, crown and whole sapling). Shoots of shade saplings had a smaller needle mass per unit of stem length than shoots of sun saplings, a feature that enhances light-interception efficiency by reducing among-needle shading. The low annual rate of needle production by shade saplings was associated with a longer needle lifespan and slower needle turnover. Reduced needle production within a shoot was reflected at the branch level, with lateral branches of shade saplings having a smaller needle mass than branches of the same length of sun saplings. Reduced allocation to needles permits greater investment in branches and stems, which is necessary to support the horizontally expanding branch system characteristic of shade saplings. Mean branch age of shade saplings was significantly higher than that of sun saplings. Shade saplings had lower needle mass per unit of trunk biomass or total biomass, reflecting greater investment in the trunk as a support organ. Increased investment in support organs in shade was more evident in the snowier habitat. The observed morphological acclimation makes A. amabilis highly shade and snow-tolerant and thus able to dominate in many late-successional forests in snowy coastal mountain regions.

  7. The extent and meaning of hybridization and introgression between Siberian spruce (Picea obovata) and Norway spruce (Picea abies): cryptic refugia as stepping stones to the west?

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Yoshiaki; Chen, Jun; Stocks, Michael; Källman, Thomas; Sønstebø, Jørn Henrik; Parducci, Laura; Semerikov, Vladimir; Sperisen, Christoph; Politov, Dmitry; Ronkainen, Tiina; Väliranta, Minna; Vendramin, Giovanni Giuseppe; Tollefsrud, Mari Mette; Lascoux, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Boreal species were repeatedly exposed to ice ages and went through cycles of contraction and expansion while sister species alternated periods of contact and isolation. The resulting genetic structure is consequently complex, and demographic inferences are intrinsically challenging. The range of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Siberian spruce (Picea obovata) covers most of northern Eurasia; yet their geographical limits and histories remain poorly understood. To delineate the hybrid zone between the two species and reconstruct their joint demographic history, we analysed variation at nuclear SSR and mitochondrial DNA in 102 and 88 populations, respectively. The dynamics of the hybrid zone was analysed with approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) followed by posterior predictive structure plot reconstruction and the presence of barriers across the range tested with estimated effective migration surfaces. To estimate the divergence time between the two species, nuclear sequences from two well-separated populations of each species were analysed with ABC. Two main barriers divide the range of the two species: one corresponds to the hybrid zone between them, and the other separates the southern and northern domains of Norway spruce. The hybrid zone is centred on the Urals, but the genetic impact of Siberian spruce extends further west. The joint distribution of mitochondrial and nuclear variation indicates an introgression of mitochondrial DNA from Norway spruce into Siberian spruce. Overall, our data reveal a demographic history where the two species interacted frequently and where migrants originating from the Urals and the West Siberian Plain recolonized northern Russia and Scandinavia using scattered refugial populations of Norway spruce as stepping stones towards the west.

  8. Disentangling the roles of history and local selection in shaping clinal variation of allele frequencies and gene expression in Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Källman, Thomas; Ma, Xiaofei; Gyllenstrand, Niclas; Zaina, Giusi; Morgante, Michele; Bousquet, Jean; Eckert, Andrew; Wegrzyn, Jill; Neale, David; Lagercrantz, Ulf; Lascoux, Martin

    2012-07-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of local adaptation is challenging due to the subtle balance among conflicting evolutionary forces that are involved in its establishment and maintenance. One system with which to tease apart these difficulties is clines in adaptive characters. Here we analyzed genetic and phenotypic variation in bud set, a highly heritable and adaptive trait, among 18 populations of Norway spruce (Picea abies), arrayed along a latitudinal gradient ranging from 47°N to 68°N. We confirmed that variation in bud set is strongly clinal, using a subset of five populations. Genotypes for 137 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) chosen from 18 candidate genes putatively affecting bud set and 308 control SNPs chosen from 264 random genes were analyzed for patterns of genetic structure and correlation to environment. Population genetic structure was low (F(ST) = 0.05), but latitudinal patterns were apparent among Scandinavian populations. Hence, part of the observed clinal variation should be attributable to population demography. Conditional on patterns of genetic structure, there was enrichment of SNPs within candidate genes for correlations with latitude. Twenty-nine SNPs were also outliers with respect to F(ST). The enrichment for clinal variation at SNPs within candidate genes (i.e., SNPs in PaGI, PaPhyP, PaPhyN, PaPRR7, and PaFTL2) indicated that local selection in the 18 populations, and/or selection in the ancestral populations from which they were recently derived, shaped the observed cline. Validation of these genes using expression studies also revealed that PaFTL2 expression is significantly associated with latitude, thereby confirming the central role played by this gene in the control of phenology in plants.

  9. Assessing the impacts of climate change and nitrogen deposition on Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) growth in Austria with BIOME-BGC.

    PubMed

    Eastaugh, Chris S; Pötzelsberger, Elisabeth; Hasenauer, Hubert

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine whether a detectable impact of climate change is apparent in Austrian forests. In regions of complex terrain such as most of Austria, climatic trends over the past 50 years show marked geographic variability. As climate is one of the key drivers of forest growth, a comparison of growth characteristics between regions with different trends in temperature and precipitation can give insights into the impact of climatic change on forests. This study uses data from several hundred climate recording stations, interpolated to measurement sites of the Austrian National Forest Inventory (NFI). Austria as a whole shows a warming trend over the past 50 years and little overall change in precipitation. The warming trends, however, vary considerably across certain regions and regional precipitation trends vary widely in both directions, which cancel out on the national scale These differences allow the delineation of 'climatic change zones' with internally consistent climatic trends that differ from other zones. This study applies the species-specific adaptation of the biogeochemical model BIOME-BGC to Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) across a range of Austrian climatic change zones, using input data from a number of national databases. The relative influence of extant climate change on forest growth is quantified, and compared with the far greater impact of non-climatic factors. At the national scale, climate change is found to have negligible effect on Norway spruce productivity, due in part to opposing effects at the regional level. The magnitudes of the modeled non-climatic influences on aboveground woody biomass increment increases are consistent with previously reported values of 20-40 kg of added stem carbon sequestration per kilogram of additional nitrogen deposition, while climate responses are of a magnitude difficult to detect in NFI data.

  10. Throughfall deposition and canopy exchange processes along a vertical gradient within the canopy of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst).

    PubMed

    Adriaenssens, Sandy; Hansen, Karin; Staelens, Jeroen; Wuyts, Karen; De Schrijver, An; Baeten, Lander; Boeckx, Pascal; Samson, Roeland; Verheyen, Kris

    2012-03-15

    To assess the impact of air pollution on forest ecosystems, the canopy is usually considered as a constant single layer in interaction with the atmosphere and incident rain, which could influence the measurement accuracy. In this study the variation of througfall deposition and derived dry deposition and canopy exchange were studied along a vertical gradient in the canopy of one European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) tree and two Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) trees. Throughfall and net throughfall deposition of all ions other than H(+) increased significantly with canopy depth in the middle and lower canopy of the beech tree and in the whole canopy of the spruce trees. Moreover, throughfall and net throughfall of all ions in the spruce canopy decreased with increasing distance to the trunk. Dry deposition occurred mainly in the upper canopy and was highest during the growing season for H(+), NH(4)(+), NO(3)(-) and highest during the dormant season for Na(+), Cl(-), SO(4)(2-) (beech and spruce) and K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) (spruce only). Canopy leaching of K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) was observed at all canopy levels and was higher for the beech tree compared to the spruce trees. Canopy uptake of inorganic nitrogen and H(+) occurred mainly in the upper canopy, although significant canopy uptake was found in the middle canopy as well. Canopy exchange was always higher during the growing season compared to the dormant season. This spatial and temporal variation indicates that biogeochemical deposition models would benefit from a multilayer approach for shade-tolerant tree species such as beech and spruce.

  11. Impacts of cloud immersion on microclimate, photosynthesis and water relations of Abies fraseri (Pursh.) Poiret in a temperate mountain cloud forest.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Keith; Smith, William K

    2008-11-01

    The red spruce-Fraser fir ecosystem [Picea rubens Sarg.-Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.] of the southern Appalachian mountains, USA, is a temperate zone cloud forest immersed in clouds for 30-40% of a typical summer day, and experiencing immersion on about 65% of all days annually. We compared the microclimate, photosynthetic gas exchange, and water relations of Fraser fir trees in open areas during cloud-immersed, low-cloud, or sunny periods. In contrast to sunny periods, cloud immersion reduced instantaneous sunlight irradiance by 10-50%, and midday atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (VPD) was 85% lower. Needle surfaces were wet for up to 16 h per day during cloud-immersed days compared to <1 h for clear days. Shoot-level light-saturated photosynthesis (A (sat)) on both cloud-immersed (16.0 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) and low-cloud (17.9 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) days was greater than A (sat) on sunny days (14.4 micromol m(-2) s(-1)). Daily mean A was lowest on cloud-immersed days due to reduced sunlight levels, while leaf conductance (g) was significantly higher, with a mean value of 0.30 mol m(-2) s(-1). These g values were greater than commonly reported for conifer tree species with needle-like leaves, and declined exponentially with increasing leaf-to-air VPD. Daily mean transpiration (E) on immersed days was 43 and 20% lower compared to sunny and low-cloud days, respectively. As a result, daily mean water use efficiency (A/E) was lowest on cloud-immersed days due to light limitation of A, and high humidity resulted in greater uncoupling of A from g. Thus, substantial differences in photosynthetic CO2 uptake, and corresponding water relations, were strongly associated with cloud conditions that occur over substantial periods of the summer growth season. PMID:18825418

  12. Impacts of cloud immersion on microclimate, photosynthesis and water relations of Abies fraseri (Pursh.) Poiret in a temperate mountain cloud forest.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Keith; Smith, William K

    2008-11-01

    The red spruce-Fraser fir ecosystem [Picea rubens Sarg.-Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.] of the southern Appalachian mountains, USA, is a temperate zone cloud forest immersed in clouds for 30-40% of a typical summer day, and experiencing immersion on about 65% of all days annually. We compared the microclimate, photosynthetic gas exchange, and water relations of Fraser fir trees in open areas during cloud-immersed, low-cloud, or sunny periods. In contrast to sunny periods, cloud immersion reduced instantaneous sunlight irradiance by 10-50%, and midday atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (VPD) was 85% lower. Needle surfaces were wet for up to 16 h per day during cloud-immersed days compared to <1 h for clear days. Shoot-level light-saturated photosynthesis (A (sat)) on both cloud-immersed (16.0 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) and low-cloud (17.9 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) days was greater than A (sat) on sunny days (14.4 micromol m(-2) s(-1)). Daily mean A was lowest on cloud-immersed days due to reduced sunlight levels, while leaf conductance (g) was significantly higher, with a mean value of 0.30 mol m(-2) s(-1). These g values were greater than commonly reported for conifer tree species with needle-like leaves, and declined exponentially with increasing leaf-to-air VPD. Daily mean transpiration (E) on immersed days was 43 and 20% lower compared to sunny and low-cloud days, respectively. As a result, daily mean water use efficiency (A/E) was lowest on cloud-immersed days due to light limitation of A, and high humidity resulted in greater uncoupling of A from g. Thus, substantial differences in photosynthetic CO2 uptake, and corresponding water relations, were strongly associated with cloud conditions that occur over substantial periods of the summer growth season.

  13. Drought tolerance established by enhanced expression of the CC-NBS-LRR gene, ADR1, requires salicylic acid, EDS1 and ABI1.

    PubMed

    Chini, Andrea; Grant, John J; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Loake, Gary J

    2004-06-01

    An activation-tagged allele of activated disease resistance 1 (ADR1) has previously been shown to convey broad spectrum disease resistance. ADR1 was found to encode a coiled-coil (CC)-nucleotide-binding site (NBS)-leucine-rich repeat (LRR) protein, which possessed domains of homology with serine/threonine protein kinases. Here, we show that either constitutive or conditional enhanced expression of ADR1 conferred significant drought tolerance. This was not a general feature of defence-related mutants because cir (constitutive induced resistance)1, cir2 and cpr (constitutive expressor of PR genes)1, which constitutively express systemic acquired resistance (SAR), failed to exhibit this phenotype. Cross-tolerance was not a characteristic of adr1 plants, rather they showed increased sensitivity to thermal and salinity stress. Hence, adr1-activated signalling may antagonise some stress responses. Northern analysis of abiotic marker genes revealed that dehydration-responsive element (DRE)B2A but not DREB1A, RD (response to dehydration)29A or RD22 was expressed in adr1 plant lines. Furthermore, DREB2A expression was salicylic acid (SA) dependent but NPR (non-expressor of PR genes)1 independent. In adr1/ADR1 nahG (naphthalene hydroxylase G), adr1/ADR1 eds (enhanced disease susceptibility)1 and adr1/ADR1 abi1 double mutants, drought tolerance was significantly reduced. Microarray analyses of plants containing a conditional adr1 allele demonstrated that a significant number of the upregulated genes had been previously implicated in responses to dehydration. Therefore, biotic and abiotic signalling pathways may share multiple nodes and their outputs may have significant functional overlap.

  14. Online investigation of respiratory quotients in Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies during drought and shading by means of cavity-enhanced Raman multi-gas spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hanf, Stefan; Fischer, Sarah; Hartmann, Henrik; Keiner, Robert; Trumbore, Susan; Popp, Jürgen; Frosch, Torsten

    2015-07-01

    Photosynthesis and respiration are major components of the plant carbon balance. During stress, like drought, carbohydrate supply from photosynthesis is reduced and the Krebs cycle respiration must be fueled with other stored carbon compounds. However, the dynamics of storage use are still unknown. The respiratory quotient (RQ, CO2 released per O2 consumed during respiration) is an excellent indicator of the nature of the respiration substrate. In plant science, however, online RQ measurements have been challenging or even impossible so far due to very small gas exchange fluxes during respiration. Here we apply cavity-enhanced multi-gas Raman spectrometry (CERS) for online in situ RQ measurements in drought-tolerant pine (Pinus sylvestris [L.]) and drought-intolerant spruce (Picea abies [L. H. Karst]). Two different treatments, drought and shading, were applied to reduce photosynthesis and force dependency on stored substrates. Changes in respiration rates and RQ values were continuously monitored over periods of several days with low levels of variance. The results show that both species switched from COH-dominated respiration (RQ = 1.0) to a mixture of substrates during shading (RQ = 0.77-0.81), while during drought only pine did so (RQ = 0.75). The gas phase measurements were complemented by concentration measurements of non-structural carbohydrates and lipids. These first results suggest a physiological explanation for greater drought tolerance in pine. CERS was proven as powerful technique for non-consumptive and precise real-time monitoring of respiration rates and respirational quotients for the investigation of plant metabolism under drought stress conditions that are predicted to increase with future climate change.

  15. Structural studies of TiO2/wood coatings prepared by hydrothermal deposition of rutile particles from TiCl4 aqueous solutions on spruce (Picea Abies) wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pori, Pavel; Vilčnik, Aljaž; Petrič, Marko; Sever Škapin, Andrijana; Mihelčič, Mohor; Šurca Vuk, Angela; Novak, Urban; Orel, Boris

    2016-05-01

    A low temperature approach was developed for the deposition of rutile TiO2 particles on a wood surface by hydrolysis of TiCl4 in aqueous solutions acidified with HCl, and crystallization at 75 and 90 °C (1 h). Prior to hydrothermal treatment, Picea Abies wood was first soaked in a 0.5 mmol/l aqueous solution containing anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, Sigma Aldrich) for 2 h at 80 °C. The crystal structure of the hydrothermally made rutile particles was determined with XRD, while the morphology of the deposited TiO2 particles and their distribution in the wood were examined with SEM and EDX measurements. The penetration and amount of deposited rutile particles could be modified by changing the deposition conditions. Thicker layers were obtained from more concentrated aqueous TiCl4 solutions with and without added HCl, and with longer deposition times and higher temperatures of the hydrothermal treatment. The interaction of TiO2 particles with hemicellulose and lignin in wood was established from infrared attenuated total reflection (FT-IR ATR) and Raman spectra measurements, from which the spectra of wood were subtracted. Analysis of the subtraction spectra showed the presence of titania particles on the wood surface, revealing also the establishment of TiO2-wood coordinative bonds of titanium ions with hemicellulose and lignin. The red frequency shift of the OH stretching modes suggested interaction of the TiO2 particles with water molecules of wood. TiO2 deposited on wood treated with SDS became hydrophobic (water contact angles (WCA) of 150°), contrasting the properties of untreated wood with a deposited TiO2 particle coating, which remained hydrophilic.

  16. Disentangling the Roles of History and Local Selection in Shaping Clinal Variation of Allele Frequencies and Gene Expression in Norway Spruce (Picea abies)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun; Källman, Thomas; Ma, Xiaofei; Gyllenstrand, Niclas; Zaina, Giusi; Morgante, Michele; Bousquet, Jean; Eckert, Andrew; Wegrzyn, Jill; Neale, David; Lagercrantz, Ulf; Lascoux, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of local adaptation is challenging due to the subtle balance among conflicting evolutionary forces that are involved in its establishment and maintenance. One system with which to tease apart these difficulties is clines in adaptive characters. Here we analyzed genetic and phenotypic variation in bud set, a highly heritable and adaptive trait, among 18 populations of Norway spruce (Picea abies), arrayed along a latitudinal gradient ranging from 47°N to 68°N. We confirmed that variation in bud set is strongly clinal, using a subset of five populations. Genotypes for 137 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) chosen from 18 candidate genes putatively affecting bud set and 308 control SNPs chosen from 264 random genes were analyzed for patterns of genetic structure and correlation to environment. Population genetic structure was low (FST = 0.05), but latitudinal patterns were apparent among Scandinavian populations. Hence, part of the observed clinal variation should be attributable to population demography. Conditional on patterns of genetic structure, there was enrichment of SNPs within candidate genes for correlations with latitude. Twenty-nine SNPs were also outliers with respect to FST. The enrichment for clinal variation at SNPs within candidate genes (i.e., SNPs in PaGI, PaPhyP, PaPhyN, PaPRR7, and PaFTL2) indicated that local selection in the 18 populations, and/or selection in the ancestral populations from which they were recently derived, shaped the observed cline. Validation of these genes using expression studies also revealed that PaFTL2 expression is significantly associated with latitude, thereby confirming the central role played by this gene in the control of phenology in plants. PMID:22542968

  17. Nutritional status of Abies pinsapo forests along a nitrogen deposition gradient: do C/N/P stoichiometric shifts modify photosynthetic nutrient use efficiency?

    PubMed

    Blanes, Ma Carmen; Viñegla, Benjamín; Merino, José; Carreira, José A

    2013-04-01

    Chronic atmospheric N deposition has modified relative N availability, altering the biogeochemical cycles of forests and the stoichiometry of nutrients in trees, inducing P limitation, and modifying the N:P ratios of plant biomass. This study examines how the variation in the foliar stoichiometry of Abies pinsapo across an N deposition gradient affects foliar traits and photosynthetic rate. We measured the maximum net assimilation rates (Amax) and the foliar nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations in A. pinsapo needles of five age classes. The leaf mass per area and photosynthetic N and P use efficiencies (PNUE and PPUE, respectively) were also estimated. The results from the N-saturated stand (Sierra Bermeja, B) differed from the comparable N-limited stands under investigation (Yunquera, Y, and Sierra Real, SR). The trees from Y and SR exhibited a reduction in the N content in older needles, whereas the foliar N concentration at the B site increased with needle age. N and P were positively correlated at Y and SR, but not at B, suggesting that the overload of N in the trees at site B has exceeded the homeostatic regulation capacity of the N-saturated stand in terms of foliar stoichiometry. A max and PNUE were correlated positively with P and negatively with the N/P ratio at the three study sites. The foliar N concentration was positively correlated with A max at Y and SR. However, this relationship was negative for the B site. These findings suggest that the nutritional imbalance caused by increased chronic deposition of N and an insufficient supply of P counteracts the potential increase in net photosynthesis induced by the accumulation of foliar N.

  18. The Abi-domain Protein Abx1 Interacts with the CovS Histidine Kinase to Control Virulence Gene Expression in Group B Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Firon, Arnaud; Tazi, Asmaa; Da Cunha, Violette; Brinster, Sophie; Sauvage, Elisabeth; Dramsi, Shaynoor; Golenbock, Douglas T.; Glaser, Philippe; Poyart, Claire; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS), a common commensal of the female genital tract, is the leading cause of invasive infections in neonates. Expression of major GBS virulence factors, such as the hemolysin operon cyl, is regulated directly at the transcriptional level by the CovSR two-component system. Using a random genetic approach, we identified a multi-spanning transmembrane protein, Abx1, essential for the production of the GBS hemolysin. Despite its similarity to eukaryotic CaaX proteases, the Abx1 function is not involved in a post-translational modification of the GBS hemolysin. Instead, we demonstrate that Abx1 regulates transcription of several virulence genes, including those comprising the hemolysin operon, by a CovSR-dependent mechanism. By combining genetic analyses, transcriptome profiling, and site-directed mutagenesis, we showed that Abx1 is a regulator of the histidine kinase CovS. Overexpression of Abx1 is sufficient to activate virulence gene expression through CovS, overcoming the need for an additional signal. Conversely, the absence of Abx1 has the opposite effect on virulence gene expression consistent with CovS locked in a kinase-competent state. Using a bacterial two-hybrid system, direct interaction between Abx1 and CovS was mapped specifically to CovS domains involved in signal processing. We demonstrate that the CovSR two-component system is the core of a signaling pathway integrating the regulation of CovS by Abx1 in addition to the regulation of CovR by the serine/threonine kinase Stk1. In conclusion, our study reports a regulatory function for Abx1, a member of a large protein family with a characteristic Abi-domain, which forms a signaling complex with the histidine kinase CovS in GBS. PMID:23436996

  19. E3B1, a human homologue of the mouse gene product Abi-1, sensitizes activation of Rap1 in response to epidermal growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Jenei, Veronika; Andersson, Tommy; Jakus, Judit; Dib, Karim . E-mail: k.dib@qub.ac.uk

    2005-11-01

    E3B1, a human homologue of the mouse gene product Abi-1, has been implicated in growth-factor-mediated regulation of the small GTPases p21{sup Ras} and Rac. E3b1 is a regulator of Rac because it can form a complex with Sos-1 and eps8, and such a Sos-1-e3B1-eps8 complex serves as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rac. In the present study, we found that overexpression of e3B1 in NIH3T3/EGFR cells sensitized EGF-induced activation of Rac1, whereas it had no impact on EGF-induced activation of p21{sup Ras}. Remarkably, we found that EGF-induced activation of the p21{sup Ras}-related GTPase Rap1 was also sensitized in NIH3T3/EGFR-e3B1 cells. Thus, in NIH3T3/EGFR-e3B1 cells, maximal EGF-induced activation of Rap1 occurs with a dose of EGF much lower than in NIH3T3/EGFR cells. We also report that overexpression of e3B1 in NIH3T3/EGFR cells renders EGF-induced activation of Rap1 completely dependent on Src tyrosine kinases but not on c-Abl. However, EGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the Rap GEF C3G occurred regardless of whether e3B1 was overexpressed or not, and this did not involve Src tyrosine kinases. Accordingly, we propose that overexpression of e3B1 in NIH3T3/EGFR cells leads to mobilization of Src tyrosine kinases that participate in EGF-induced activation of Rap1 and inhibition of cell proliferation.

  20. [Spatial distribution pattern of main populations and gap makers in Picea koraiensis and Abies nephrolepis forest of Xiaoxing' an Mountains, Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Jing, Xin; Duan, Wen-biao; Chen, Li-xin; Wang, Ting; Du, Shan; Zhang, Yu-shuan; Chen, Qi-min

    2015-10-01

    Species composition and diameter class structure were investigated in 1.5 hm2 (100 m x 150 n) permanent plot in Picea koraiensis and Abies nephrolepis forest of Xiaoxing' an Mountains. The spatial distribution pattern and spatial association of main populations and gap makers were analyzed by using point pattern analysis. The results showed that there were a total of 13 species with diameters at breast height greater than 2 cm in tree layer, and great differences were observed in the densities of main populations. The importance values of A. nephrolepis, P. koraiensis, Betula platyphylla and Acer ukurunduense were ranked in the first 4 in the plot. The diameter class structure of their populations presented an inverse 'J' curve. The spatial distribution patterns for A. nephrolepis and P. koraiensis were similar, which changed from aggregated, random to uniform distribution with the spatial scale. For B. platyphylla, the distribution was aggregated at ≤40 m scale, and random at >40 m scale, whereas A. ukurunduense presented an aggregated distribution pattern at the whole research scale. Except that the negative correlation between B. platyphylla and A. ukurunduense existed at the whole research scale, positive correlation between the other populations at small scale and negative correlation at large scale were observed. Only A. nephrolepis and B. platyphylla had significant positive correlation, and generally no significant correlation existed between other populations. Spatial distribution pattern of gap makers was characterized as aggregated distribution at small and middle scales, and random distribution with increasing scale. Spatial point pattern of gap makers formed by uprooting exhibited unimodal type distribution, and random, aggregated, and uniform distribution also occurred. Spatial point pattern of gap makers formed by breaking overall presented a little fluctuation, random and aggregated distributions alternatively appeared at small scale, and random

  1. Altitudinal vs Latitudinal Climactic Drivers: A Comparison of a Relict Picea and Abies Forest in the Southern Appalachians versus the Hemi-Boreal Transition Zone off Southern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, A.; Lafon, C. W.

    2015-12-01

    Identification of biotic and abiotic determinants of tree species range limits is critical for understanding the effects of climate change on species distributions. Upward shifts of species distributions in montane areas have been widely reported but there have been few reports of latitudinal range retractions. Previous studies have indicated that southern latitudinal limits of a species range are dictated by biotic factors such as competition while others have suggested that abiotic factors, such as temperature, dictate these limits. We investigated the potential climatic gradients at the southern latitudinal limit of the Spruce (Picea) and Fir (Abies) species that dominate the Canadian boreal forest community as well as relict boreal forests containing similar species found in the high elevation areas of the Southern Appalachians. Existing research has suggested that relict ecosystems are more sensitive to climate change and can be indicative of future changes at latitudinal range limits. Expanding on this literature, we hypothesized that we would see similar gradients in climatic variables at the southern latitudinal limit of the Canadian boreal forest and those in the relict boreal forests southern Appalachians acting as controlling factors of these species distributions. We used forty years of climate data from weather stations along the southern edge of the boreal forest in the Canadian Shield provinces, species distribution data from the Canadian National Forest Inventory, (CNFI) geospatial data from the National Park Service (NPS), and historical weather data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to perform our analysis. Our results indicate different climate variables act as controls of warm edge range limits of the Canadian boreal forest than those of the relict boreal forest of the southern Appalachians. However, we believe range retractions of the relict forest may be indicative of a more gradual response of similar species

  2. The effect of tree architecture on conduit diameter and frequency from small distal roots to branch tips in Betula pendula, Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris.

    PubMed

    Lintunen, Anna; Kalliokoski, Tuomo

    2010-11-01

    We studied the effect of tree architecture on xylem anatomy in three Betula pendula Roth., three Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. and three Pinus sylvestris (L.) trees (mean age 35 years). First, the analysis of conduit anatomy in different tree parts showed that conduits tapered and their frequency increased from roots (≥ 2 mm) to stem, from stem to branches and further to leaf petioles in B. pendula. Conduit anatomy in lateral and main roots, as well as lateral and main branches, significantly differed from each other in all the studied species. The increase in conduit diameter and decrease in frequency from the pith to the bark were clear aboveground, but variable patterns were observed belowground. In the leaf petioles of B. pendula, conduit diameter increased and conduit frequency decreased with increasing individual leaf area. Second, the results concerning the scaling of conduit diameter were compared with the predictions of the general vascular scaling model (WBE model) and Murray's law. The scaling parameter values at the tree level corresponded with the predictions of the WBE model in all the studied trees except for one tree of both conifer species. However, the scaling parameter values changed from one tree compartment to another rather than remaining uniform inside a tree, as assumed by the WBE model. The assumptions of the WBE model of a constant conductivity ratio, constant tapering and an unchanged total number of conduits were not fulfilled. When the conductivity ratio and relative tapering were plotted together, the results aboveground corresponded quite well with Murray's law: the conductivity ratio increased when relative tapering decreased. Our results support the theory that trees adjust both their macro- and microstructure to maximize their water transport efficiency, but also to prevent embolism and ensure mechanical safety.

  3. Influence of nutrient supply on shade-sun acclimation of Picea abies seedlings: effects on foliar morphology, photosynthetic performance and growth.

    PubMed

    Grassi, G.; Minotta, G.

    2000-05-01

    Norway spruce seedlings (Picea abies Karst.) were grown in low light for one year, under conditions of adequate and limiting nutrition, then transferred to high light. Three months after transfer we measured photosynthesis, leaf nitrogen concentration, leaf chlorophyll concentration and leaf mass per area (LMA) of current-year and 1-year-old shoots; silhouette area ratio (SAR, the ratio of shoot silhouette area to projected needle area) was also measured in current-year shoots. At the foliage level, the effects of light and nutrient treatments differed markedly. Light availability during foliage expansion primarily affected LMA and SAR (morphological acclimation at the needle and shoot level, respectively). By contrast, nutrient supply in high light affected photosynthetic capacity per unit of leaf tissue (physiological acclimation at the cellular level) but did not affect LMA and SAR. The capacity for shade-sun acclimation in foliage formed before transfer to high light differed greatly from that of foliage formed following the transfer. The morphological inflexibility of mature needles (measured by LMA) limited their shade-sun acclimation potential. In contrast, at high nutrient supply, shoots that developed just after the change in photosynthetic photon flux density largely acclimated, both morphologically and physiologically, to the new light environment. The acclimation response of both current- and 1-year-old shoots was prevented by nutrient limitation. Analysis of growth at the whole-plant level largely confirmed the conclusions drawn at the shoot level. We conclude that nutrient shortage subsequent to the opening of a canopy gap may strongly limit the acclimation response of Norway spruce seedlings. Successful acclimation was largely related to the plant's ability to produce sun foliage and adjust whole-plant biomass allocation rapidly. PMID:12651514

  4. Gravimorphism in current-year shoots of Abies balsamea: involvement of compensatory growth, indole-3-acetic acid transport and compression wood formation.

    PubMed

    Little, C H A; Lavigne, M B

    2002-04-01

    We investigated the cause of gravimorphic growth inhibition in current-year shoots of balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) seedlings displaced from their normal orientation in the gravitational field. Tilting the main stem of seedlings decreased shoot elongation, cambial growth as measured by tracheid production, and leaf dry weight of the terminal shoot and the lateral shoots on the lower side of the tilted stem. Removing either the terminal shoot or all lateral shoots induced compensatory growth in the remaining shoots, but did not reduce the inhibitory effect of tilting on shoot growth. Bending the apical part of a tilted main stem to restore it to the vertical did not fully reverse the inhibition of terminal shoot growth caused by stem tilting. Stem tilting inhibited cambial activity at the base of decapitated terminal shoots treated apically with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and decreased the basipetal transport of a [1-(14)C]-IAA pulse. Stem tilting also induced compression wood formation on the lower side of the tilted stem. Compression wood formation was associated with increases in cambial activity and stem respiration. Stem tilting did not affect either the net photosynthetic rate in 1-year-old leaves or the xylem water potential in current-year lateral shoots. These results support the hypothesis that gravimorphic growth inhibition in a current-year shoot on a tilted stem involves reductions in (1) the shoot's capacity to export IAA, and hence to mobilize photoassimilates, and (2) the supply of photoassimilates available for import by the shoot, as a result of increased cambial sink activity associated with compression wood formation outside that shoot. PMID:11960755

  5. Resilience, rapid transitions and regime shifts: fingerprinting the responses of Lake Żabińskie (NE Poland) to climate variability and human disturbance since 1000 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tylmann, Wojciech; Hernández-Almeida, Iván; Grosjean, Martin; José Gómez Navarro, Juan; Larocque-Tobler, Isabelle; Bonk, Alicja; Enters, Dirk; Ustrzycka, Alicja; Piotrowska, Natalia; Przybylak, Rajmund; Wacnik, Agnieszka; Witak, Małgorzata

    2016-04-01

    Rapid ecosystem transitions and adverse effects on ecosystem services as responses to combined climate and human impacts are of major concern. Yet few quantitative observational data exist, particularly for ecosystems that have a long history of human intervention. Here, we combine quantitative summer and winter climate reconstructions, climate model simulations and proxies for three major environmental pressures (land use, nutrients and erosion) to explore the system dynamics, resilience, and the role of disturbance regimes in varved eutrophic Lake Żabińskie since AD 1000. Comparison between regional and global climate simulations and quantitative climate reconstructions indicate that proxy data capture noticeably natural forced climate variability, while internal variability appears as the dominant source of climate variability in the climate model simulations during most parts of the last millennium. Using different multivariate analyses and change point detection techniques, we identify ecosystem changes through time and shifts between rather stable states and highly variable ones, as expressed by the proxies for land-use, erosion and productivity in the lake. Prior to AD 1600, the lake ecosystem was characterized by a high stability and resilience against considerable observed natural climate variability. In contrast, lake-ecosystem conditions started to fluctuate at high frequency across a broad range of states after AD 1600. The period AD 1748-1868 represents the phase with the strongest human disturbance of the ecosystem. Analyses of the frequency of change points in the multi-proxy dataset suggests that the last 400 years were highly variable and flickering with increasing vulnerability of the ecosystem to the combined effects of climate variability and anthropogenic disturbances. This led to significant rapid ecosystem transformations.

  6. Nutritional status of Abies pinsapo forests along a nitrogen deposition gradient: do C/N/P stoichiometric shifts modify photosynthetic nutrient use efficiency?

    PubMed

    Blanes, Ma Carmen; Viñegla, Benjamín; Merino, José; Carreira, José A

    2013-04-01

    Chronic atmospheric N deposition has modified relative N availability, altering the biogeochemical cycles of forests and the stoichiometry of nutrients in trees, inducing P limitation, and modifying the N:P ratios of plant biomass. This study examines how the variation in the foliar stoichiometry of Abies pinsapo across an N deposition gradient affects foliar traits and photosynthetic rate. We measured the maximum net assimilation rates (Amax) and the foliar nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations in A. pinsapo needles of five age classes. The leaf mass per area and photosynthetic N and P use efficiencies (PNUE and PPUE, respectively) were also estimated. The results from the N-saturated stand (Sierra Bermeja, B) differed from the comparable N-limited stands under investigation (Yunquera, Y, and Sierra Real, SR). The trees from Y and SR exhibited a reduction in the N content in older needles, whereas the foliar N concentration at the B site increased with needle age. N and P were positively correlated at Y and SR, but not at B, suggesting that the overload of N in the trees at site B has exceeded the homeostatic regulation capacity of the N-saturated stand in terms of foliar stoichiometry. A max and PNUE were correlated positively with P and negatively with the N/P ratio at the three study sites. The foliar N concentration was positively correlated with A max at Y and SR. However, this relationship was negative for the B site. These findings suggest that the nutritional imbalance caused by increased chronic deposition of N and an insufficient supply of P counteracts the potential increase in net photosynthesis induced by the accumulation of foliar N. PMID:23011850

  7. Indicators of climate change effects: Relationships between crown transparency and butt rot in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in Middle Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Aprile, Fabrizio; Tapper, Nigel

    2014-05-01

    Climatic analysis conducted on the trends and changes in temperature and rainfall during the 20th century in the Tuscan Apennine Alps (Middle Italy) have highlighted the possibility that these changes have a significant impact on the growth and/or health conditions or stress in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). In this framework, identification of appropriate indicators to verify relationships between stress symptoms, which are frequently caused by climate adverse conditions, and pathological phenomena is a necessary step functional to the identification of climatic-environmental impacts on forests. The presence of butt rot pathology - a complex disease that causes rotting of the trunk internally - in silver fir is known the time as well as its severity. Nonetheless, very little research on the potential effects of changing climate conditions on the diffusion and intensity of butt rot seems available; thus, effects of climate change seem to be not excluded nor verified. No research or studies that quantify distribution and incidence or, especially, relationships of butt rot with adverse climatic and/or environmental factors were found. However, climatic alterations can have an impact on the intensity and spread of serious disease complexes and therefore it is of great importance to investigate the relationships between climate changing conditions, diffusion and incidence of butt rot in silver fir forests for their conservation and the management of species and biodiversity associated. As butt rot unlikely could be directly related to climate variables, crown transparency has been used as a proxy for tree growth, where climate variability is assumed to be the main driver of silver fir growth and stress. Actually, crown transparency is considered to be a main factor associated to tree growth, and healthier trees are assumed to grow faster than less-healthy trees. Thus, theoretically denser crowns would correspond to faster growing and healthier trees and indicate better

  8. Ground-level ozone differentially affects nitrogen acquisition and allocation in mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) trees.

    PubMed

    Weigt, R B; Häberle, K H; Millard, P; Metzger, U; Ritter, W; Blaschke, H; Göttlein, A; Matyssek, R

    2012-10-01

    Impacts of elevated ground-level ozone (O(3)) on nitrogen (N) uptake and allocation were studied on mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) in a forest stand, hypothesizing that: (i) chronically elevated O(3) limits nutrient uptake, and (ii) beech responds more sensitively to elevated O(3) than spruce, as previously found for juvenile trees. Tree canopies were exposed to twice-ambient O(3) concentrations (2 × O(3)) by a free-air fumigation system, with trees under ambient O(3) serving as control. After 5 years of O(3) fumigation, (15)NH(4)(15)NO(3) was applied to soil, and concentrations of newly acquired N (N(labelled)) and total N (N(total)) in plant compartments and soil measured. Under 2 × O(3), N(labelled) and N(total) were increased in the bulk soil and tended to be lower in fine and coarse roots of both species across the soil horizons, supporting hypothesis (i). N(labelled) was reduced in beech foliage by up to 60%, and by up to 50% in buds under 2 × O(3). Similarly, N(labelled) in stem bark and phloem was reduced. No such reduction was observed in spruce, reflecting a stronger effect on N acquisition in beech in accordance with hypothesis (ii). In spruce, 2 × O(3) tended to favour allocation of new N to foliage. N(labelled) in beech foliage correlated with cumulative seasonal transpiration, indicating impaired N acquisition was probably caused by reduced stomatal conductance and, hence, water transport under elevated O(3). Stimulated fine root growth under 2 × O(3) with a possible increase of below-ground N sink strength may also have accounted for lowered N allocation to above-ground organs. Reduced N uptake and altered allocation may enhance the use of stored N for growth, possibly affecting long-term stand nutrition.

  9. Allocation of freshly assimilated carbon into primary and secondary metabolites after in situ ¹³C pulse labelling of Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Steffen; Dippold, Michaela A; Werner, Christiane; Wiesenberg, Guido L B; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Glaser, Bruno

    2015-11-01

    Plants allocate carbon (C) to sink tissues depending on phenological, physiological or environmental factors. We still have little knowledge on C partitioning into various cellular compounds and metabolic pathways at various ecophysiological stages. We used compound-specific stable isotope analysis to investigate C partitioning of freshly assimilated C into tree compartments (needles, branches and stem) as well as into needle water-soluble organic C (WSOC), non-hydrolysable structural organic C (stOC) and individual chemical compound classes (amino acids, hemicellulose sugars, fatty acids and alkanes) of Norway spruce (Picea abies) following in situ (13)C pulse labelling 15 days after bud break. The (13)C allocation within the above-ground tree biomass demonstrated needles as a major C sink, accounting for 86% of the freshly assimilated C 6 h after labelling. In needles, the highest allocation occurred not only into the WSOC pool (44.1% of recovered needle (13)C) but also into stOC (33.9%). Needle growth, however, also caused high (13)C allocation into pathways not involved in the formation of structural compounds: (i) pathways in secondary metabolism, (ii) C-1 metabolism and (iii) amino acid synthesis from photorespiration. These pathways could be identified by a high (13)C enrichment of their key amino acids. In addition, (13)C was strongly allocated into the n-alkyl lipid fraction (0.3% of recovered (13)C), whereby (13)C allocation into cellular and cuticular exceeded that of epicuticular fatty acids. (13)C allocation decreased along the lipid transformation and translocation pathways: the allocation was highest for precursor fatty acids, lower for elongated fatty acids and lowest for the decarbonylated n-alkanes. The combination of (13)C pulse labelling with compound-specific (13)C analysis of key metabolites enabled tracing relevant C allocation pathways under field conditions. Besides the primary metabolism synthesizing structural cell compounds, a complex

  10. Growth enhancement of Picea abies trees under long-term, low-dose N addition is due to morphological more than to physiological changes.

    PubMed

    Krause, Kim; Cherubini, Paolo; Bugmann, Harald; Schleppi, Patrick

    2012-12-01

    Human activities have drastically increased nitrogen (N) inputs into natural and near-natural terrestrial ecosystems such that critical loads are now being exceeded in many regions of the world. This implies that these ecosystems are shifting from natural N limitation to eutrophication or even N saturation. This process is expected to modify the growth of forests and thus, along with management, to affect their carbon (C) sequestration. However, knowledge of the physiological mechanisms underlying tree response to N inputs, especially in the long term, is still lacking. In this study, we used tree-ring patterns and a dual stable isotope approach (δ(13)C and δ(18)O) to investigate tree growth responses and the underlying physiological reactions in a long-term, low-dose N addition experiment (+23 kg N ha(-1) a(-1)). This experiment has been conducted for 14 years in a mountain Picea abies (L.) Karst. forest in Alptal, Switzerland, using a paired-catchment design. Tree stem C sequestration increased by ∼22%, with an N use efficiency (NUE) of ca. 8 kg additional C in tree stems per kg of N added. Neither earlywood nor latewood δ(13)C values changed significantly compared with the control, indicating that the intrinsic water use efficiency (WUE(i)) (A/g(s)) did not change due to N addition. Further, the isotopic signal of δ(18)O in early- and latewood showed no significant response to the treatment, indicating that neither stomatal conductance nor leaf-level photosynthesis changed significantly. Foliar analyses showed that needle N concentration significantly increased in the fourth to seventh treatment year, accompanied by increased dry mass and area per needle, and by increased tree height growth. Later, N concentration and height growth returned to nearly background values, while dry mass and area per needle remained high. Our results support the hypothesis that enhanced stem growth caused by N addition is mainly due to an increased leaf area index (LAI

  11. Monsoon Season Moisture Deficit Limits Growth in Co-Occurring Alpine Shrub (Cassiope fastigata) and Tree (Abies spectabilis) Species in the Central Himalayas, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayback, S. A.; Shrestha, K. B.; Hofgaard, A.

    2015-12-01

    Recent evidence indicates changing climatological conditions in the Nepalese Himalayas including decreasing precipitation, a weakening Indian monsoon and rising temperatures. Trees and shrubs found at treeline are considered to be highly sensitive to climate, but the climatic effects on these ecotone species in the Himalayas are not well understood. Dendrochronological techniques applied to co-occurring shrubs and trees up-and down-slope of treeline extend our understanding of vegetation response at range margins and into tree-less environments. We developed tree-ring width and annual height increment chronologies for Abies spectabilis (Himalayan fir) and the first annual growth increment and annual production of leaves chronologies for Cassiope fastigata (Himalayan heather) at a high elevation site in central Nepal. C. fastigata chronologies showed moisture availability in late pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons of the previous year are critical to stem elongation and leaf production (AGI and previous May-August SPEI-12, r = 0.790; LEAF and previous June-September SPEI-12, r = 0.708) A. spectabilis chronologies were significantly and negatively correlated with monsoon season temperature during the current year (tree-ring width and June mean temperature, r = -0.677; height-increment and Sept maximum temperature, r = -0.605). In addition to both long-term and recent declines in moisture in the Himalayas, moisture deficit may be further exacerbated at high elevation sites via run-off and higher levels of evapotranspiration resulting in growth reductions, dieback and even death of these species. These results highlight that not all mid-latitude, high elevation treelines are limited by temperature as previously thought and that severe drought stress may initiate downslope treeline retraction. Understanding the response of co-occurring tree and shrub species to climate, now and in the future, may help to elucidate the physiological mechanisms controlling local and

  12. Effects of open-field experimental warming on the growth of two-year-old Pinus densiflora and Abies holophylla seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, S.; Son, Y.; Lee, S.; Jo, W.; Yoon, T.; Park, C.; Ko, S.; Kim, J.; Han, S.; Jung, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Temperature increase due to climate change is expected to affect tree growth and distribution [Way and Oren, 2010]. The responses of trees to warming vary with tree species, ontogenic stages, tree life forms, and biomes. Especially, seedling stage is a vulnerable period for tree survival and competition [Saxe et al., 2007] and thus research on effects of temperature increase on seedling stage is needed. We aimed to examine the responses of coniferous seedlings to future temperature increase by conducting an open-field warming experiment. An experimental warming set-up using infra-red heater was built in 2011 and the temperature in warming plots has been regulated to 3°C higher than that of control plots constantly. The seeds of Pinus densiflora and Abies holophylla were planted in each 1 m × 1 m plot (n=3) in April, 2012. Seedling growth, root collar diameter (RCD) and height of 45 individuals of each plot were measured in June and July, 2012. The survival rate of seedlings was also measured. Survival rate of P. densiflora was lower in warming plots (93.3%) than in control plots (100.0%, p<0.05) and that of A. holophylla was also decreased in warming plots (79.3%) than in control plots (97.0%, p<0.01). RCD and height of P. densiflora seedlings were not significantly different between control and warming plots, however, height of A. holophylla was significantly higher in warming plots in June and July (p<0.01). Comparatively, RCD of A. holophylla was only higher in control plots in June. While there is still a lack of case studies on the growth of seedlings under experimental warming, a few studies reported increased seedling growth [Yin et al., 2008] or and no difference [Han et al., 2009] in warming plots. Different responses of seedling growth between two species of the current study might be derived from species-specific acclimation to temperature increase and/or other limiting factors [Way and Oren, 2010]. This result is, to our knowledge, unprecedented and

  13. Sequencing of the needle transcriptome from Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst L.) reveals lower substitution rates, but similar selective constraints in gymnosperms and angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A detailed knowledge about spatial and temporal gene expression is important for understanding both the function of genes and their evolution. For the vast majority of species, transcriptomes are still largely uncharacterized and even in those where substantial information is available it is often in the form of partially sequenced transcriptomes. With the development of next generation sequencing, a single experiment can now simultaneously identify the transcribed part of a species genome and estimate levels of gene expression. Results mRNA from actively growing needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies) was sequenced using next generation sequencing technology. In total, close to 70 million fragments with a length of 76 bp were sequenced resulting in 5 Gbp of raw data. A de novo assembly of these reads, together with publicly available expressed sequence tag (EST) data from Norway spruce, was used to create a reference transcriptome. Of the 38,419 PUTs (putative unique transcripts) longer than 150 bp in this reference assembly, 83.5% show similarity to ESTs from other spruce species and of the remaining PUTs, 3,704 show similarity to protein sequences from other plant species, leaving 4,167 PUTs with limited similarity to currently available plant proteins. By predicting coding frames and comparing not only the Norway spruce PUTs, but also PUTs from the close relatives Picea glauca and Picea sitchensis to both Pinus taeda and Taxus mairei, we obtained estimates of synonymous and non-synonymous divergence among conifer species. In addition, we detected close to 15,000 SNPs of high quality and estimated gene expression differences between samples collected under dark and light conditions. Conclusions Our study yielded a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms as well as estimates of gene expression on transcriptome scale. In agreement with a recent study we find that the synonymous substitution rate per year (0.6 × 10−09 and 1.1 × 10−09

  14. Cation disorder and phase transitions in the four-layer ferroelectric Aurivillius phases ABi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} (A=Ca, Sr, Ba, Pb)

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, Brendan J. Zhou Qingdi; Ismunandar; Kubota, Yoshika; Kato, Kenichi

    2008-06-15

    Crystal structures of a series of bi-layered compounds ABi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} (A=Ca, Sr, Ba, Pb) have been investigated using a combination of synchrotron X-ray and neutron powder diffraction data. All four oxides adopt an orthorhombic structure at room temperature and the structures have been refined in space group A2{sub 1}am. This orthorhombic structure is a consequence of a combination of rotation of the TiO{sub 6}, resulting from the less than optimal size of the A-type cation, and displacement of the Ti atoms towards the Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2} layers. There is partial disorder of the Bi and A-type cations over two of the three available sites, which increases in the order CaABi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15}.

  15. Combination of counterpropagation artificial neural networks and antioxidant activities for comprehensive evaluation of associated-extraction efficiency of various cyclodextrins in the traditional Chinese formula Xue-Zhi-Ning.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lili; Yang, Jianwen; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Huijie; Liu, Yanan; Ren, Xiaoliang; Qi, Aidi

    2015-11-10

    Xue-Zhi-Ning (XZN) is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine formula to treat hyperlipidemia. Recently, cyclodextrins (CDs) have been extensively used to minimize problems relative to medicine bioavailability, such as low solubility and poor stability. The objective of this study was to determine the associated-extraction efficiency of various CDs in XZN. Three various type CDs were evaluated, including native CDs (α-CD, β-CD), hydrophilic CD derivatives (HP-β-CD and Me-β-CD), and ionic CD derivatives (SBE-β-CD and CM-β-CD). An ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) fingerprint was applied to determine the components in CD extracts and original aqueous extract (OAE). A counterpropagation artificial neural network (CP-ANN) was used to analyze the components in different extracts and compare the selective extraction of various CDs. Extraction efficiencies of the various CDs in terms of extracted components follow the ranking, ionic CD derivatives>hydrophilic CD derivatives>native CDs>OAE. Besides, different types of CDs have their own selective extraction and ionic CD derivatives present the strongest associated-extraction efficiency. Antioxidant potentials of various extracts were evaluated by determining the inhibition of spontaneous, H2O2-induced, CCl4-induced and Fe(2+)/ascorbic acid-induced lipid peroxidation (LPO) and analyzing the scavenging capacity for DPPH and hydroxyl radicals. The order of extraction efficiencies of the various CDs relative to antioxidant activities is as follows: SBE-β-CD>CM-β-CD>HP-β-CD>Me-β-CD>β-CD>α-CD. It can be demonstrated that all of the CDs studied increase the extraction efficiency and that ionic CD derivatives (SBE-β-CD and CM-β-CD) present the highest extraction capability in terms of amount extracted and antioxidant activities of extracts. PMID:26322951

  16. Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin decoction: inhibition of osteoclastogenesis by abrogation of the RANKL-induced NFATc1 and NF-κB signaling pathways via selective estrogen receptor α

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ling; Qiu, Xue-Min; Gui, Yu-Yan; Xu, Ying-Ping; Gober, Hans-Jürgen; Li, Da-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin decoction (BSNXD) is a traditional Chinese medicinal composition that has been used as a remedy for postmenopausal osteoporosis, but the mechanisms affecting bone metabolism are not fully understood. Purpose We investigated the molecular mechanism and signaling pathway underlying the effect of BSNXD on osteoclastogenesis. Materials and methods A postmenopausal osteoporosis animal model generated by ovariectomy was administered BSNXD and drug-derived serum was prepared. An enzyme immunoassay was conducted to measure the 17-β-estradiol (E2) concentration in the drug-derived serum. Bone marrow-derived monocyte/macrophage precursor cells were treated with drug-derived serum, and tartrate-resistance acid phosphatase staining was conducted to observe osteoclastogenesis. A bone resorption assay was performed to analyze the effect on osteoclastic resorptive function. Real-time PCR, flow cytometry, Western blotting, transfection, and luciferase assays were conducted to explore the related mechanism. Results E2 was not elevated in BSNXD-derived serum. BSNXD-derived serum suppressed receptor activation of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-activated osteoclastogenesis in a dose-dependent manner; this effect could be reversed by estrogen receptor α antagonist methyl-piperidino-pyrazole. The serum suppressed RANKL-induced NF-κB transcription and inhibited the accumulation of nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 in osteoclast precursor cells; the inhibitory effect was abolished by methyl-piperidino-pyrazole but not the estrogen receptor β antagonist or androgen receptor antagonist. Conclusion These results collectively suggest that administration of BSNXD presents inhibitory effects on osteoclast differentiation by abrogating the RANKL-induced nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 and NF-κB signaling pathways downstream of estrogen receptor α, thereby contributing to the inhibitory effect on bone resorption. PMID

  17. Combination of counterpropagation artificial neural networks and antioxidant activities for comprehensive evaluation of associated-extraction efficiency of various cyclodextrins in the traditional Chinese formula Xue-Zhi-Ning.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lili; Yang, Jianwen; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Huijie; Liu, Yanan; Ren, Xiaoliang; Qi, Aidi

    2015-11-10

    Xue-Zhi-Ning (XZN) is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine formula to treat hyperlipidemia. Recently, cyclodextrins (CDs) have been extensively used to minimize problems relative to medicine bioavailability, such as low solubility and poor stability. The objective of this study was to determine the associated-extraction efficiency of various CDs in XZN. Three various type CDs were evaluated, including native CDs (α-CD, β-CD), hydrophilic CD derivatives (HP-β-CD and Me-β-CD), and ionic CD derivatives (SBE-β-CD and CM-β-CD). An ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) fingerprint was applied to determine the components in CD extracts and original aqueous extract (OAE). A counterpropagation artificial neural network (CP-ANN) was used to analyze the components in different extracts and compare the selective extraction of various CDs. Extraction efficiencies of the various CDs in terms of extracted components follow the ranking, ionic CD derivatives>hydrophilic CD derivatives>native CDs>OAE. Besides, different types of CDs have their own selective extraction and ionic CD derivatives present the strongest associated-extraction efficiency. Antioxidant potentials of various extracts were evaluated by determining the inhibition of spontaneous, H2O2-induced, CCl4-induced and Fe(2+)/ascorbic acid-induced lipid peroxidation (LPO) and analyzing the scavenging capacity for DPPH and hydroxyl radicals. The order of extraction efficiencies of the various CDs relative to antioxidant activities is as follows: SBE-β-CD>CM-β-CD>HP-β-CD>Me-β-CD>β-CD>α-CD. It can be demonstrated that all of the CDs studied increase the extraction efficiency and that ionic CD derivatives (SBE-β-CD and CM-β-CD) present the highest extraction capability in terms of amount extracted and antioxidant activities of extracts.

  18. Carbon assimilation, translocation and respiration in Fagus sylvatica and Abies alba stands measured by gas exchange and isotopic techniques during two contrasting climatic years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrichkova, Olga; Scartazza, Andrea; Zampedri, Roberto; Cavagna, Mauro; Sottocornola, Matteo; Matteucci, Giorgio; Brugnoli, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    Global warming is tremendously influencing the climate of mountain areas through constantly rising temperatures and changes in local hydrological cycle. Increase of precipitation extremes, seasonal shifts of rainfall regime, heat waves are becoming more and more frequent events here. Vulnerability and plasticity of the local individual tree species under changing climate has still to be evaluated under field conditions. Two consecutive years, 2012 and 2013 were quite distinct in the climatic conditions during the plant growing season. Summer 2012 was characterized by a prolonged summer drought with almost no precipitation in central Italy from the end of May up to the end of August. The situation was aggravated by a very dry winter during this year. Mean annual temperatures in 2012 were 2oC higher in respect to the temperatures measured in the last 10 years. Conversely, year 2013 was milder with occasional rain events also during the summer months and temperatures close to the average values. In the Alpine zone the difference between two years were less pronounced with 2012 being slightly warmer than average and 2013 was characterized by unusually abundant spring precipitations. Taking advantage of these two contrasting years, we have monitored a functional response of one deciduous and one coniferous mountain forest stands growing in different mountain climate zones to variations in the local climate. The first, a deciduous European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest, is located in the Appennine region of Italy at 1700 m height (Collelongo site, AQ) and characterized by a Mountain-Mediterranean climate. The second is a mixed forest dominated by Silver fir (Abies alba) which was chosen as a target species for our study. The site is located at 1350m height in the south-eastern Alps (Lavarone, TN) and is characterized by a mountain temperate climate. Sampling of plant material and point flux measurements were performed in the beginning, middle and the end of the growing

  19. Spring temperature variability and eutrophication history inferred from sedimentary pigments in the varved sediments of Lake Żabińskie, north-eastern Poland, AD 1907-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amann, Benjamin; Lobsiger, Simon; Fischer, Daniela; Tylmann, Wojciech; Bonk, Alicja; Filipiak, Janusz; Grosjean, Martin

    2014-12-01

    Varved lake sediments are excellent natural archives providing quantitative insights into climatic and environmental changes at very high resolution and chronological accuracy. However, due to the multitude of responses within lake ecosystems it is often difficult to understand how climate variability interacts with other environmental pressures such as eutrophication, and to attribute observed changes to specific causes. This is particularly challenging during the past 100 years when multiple strong trends are superposed. Here we present a high-resolution multi-proxy record of sedimentary pigments and other biogeochemical data from the varved sediments of Lake Żabińskie (Masurian Lake District, north-eastern Poland, 54°N-22°E, 120 m a.s.l.) spanning AD 1907 to 2008. Lake Żabińskie exhibits biogeochemical varves with highly organic late summer and winter layers separated by white layers of endogenous calcite precipitated in early summer. The aim of our study is to investigate whether climate-driven changes and anthropogenic changes can be separated in a multi-proxy sediment data set, and to explore which sediment proxies are potentially suitable for long quantitative climate reconstructions. We also test if convoluted analytical techniques (e.g. HPLC) can be substituted by rapid scanning techniques (visible reflectance spectroscopy VIS-RS; 380-730 nm). We used principal component analysis and cluster analysis to show that the recent eutrophication of Lake Żabińskie can be discriminated from climate-driven changes for the period AD 1907-2008. The eutrophication signal (PC1 = 46.4%; TOC, TN, TS, Phe-b, high TC/CD ratios total carotenoids/chlorophyll-a derivatives) is mainly expressed as increasing aquatic primary production, increasing hypolimnetic anoxia and a change in the algal community from green algae to blue-green algae. The proxies diagnostic for eutrophication show a smooth positive trend between 1907 and ca 1980 followed by a very rapid increase

  20. Arabidopsis suppressor mutant of abh1 shows a new face of the already known players: ABH1 (CBP80) and ABI4-in response to ABA and abiotic stresses during seed germination.

    PubMed

    Daszkowska-Golec, Agata; Wojnar, Weronika; Rosikiewicz, Marta; Szarejko, Iwona; Maluszynski, Miroslaw; Szweykowska-Kulinska, Zofia; Jarmolowski, Artur

    2013-01-01

    Although the importance of abscisic acid (ABA) in plant development and response to abiotic and biotic stresses is well recognized, the molecular basis of the signaling pathway has not been fully elucidated. Mutants in genes related to ABA are widely used as a tool for gaining insight into the mechanisms of ABA signal transduction and ABA-dependent stress response. We used a genetic approach of a suppressor screening in order to decipher the interaction between ABH1 (CBP80) and other components of ABA signaling. ABH1 (CBP80) encodes a large subunit of CBC (CAP BINDING COMPLEX) and the abh1 mutant is drought-tolerant and hypersensitive to ABA during seed germination. The suppressor mutants of abh1 were generated after chemical mutagenesis. The mutant named soa1 (suppressor of abh1 hypersensitivity to ABA 1) displayed an ABA-insensitive phenotype during seed germination. The genetic analysis showed that the soa1 phenotype is dominant in relation to abh1 and segregates as a single locus. Based on soa1's response to a wide spectrum of physiological assays during different stages of development, we used the candidate-genes approach in order to identify a suppressor gene. The molecular analysis revealed that mutation causing the phenotype of soa1 occurred in the ABI4 (ABA insensitive 4) gene. Analysis of pre-miR159 expression, whose processing depends on CBC, as well as targets of miR159: MYB33 and MYB101, which are positive regulators of ABA signaling, revealed a possible link between CBP80 (ABH1) and ABI4 presented here.

  1. [Effects of snow pack removal on soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen and the number of soil culturable microorganisms during wintertime in alpine Abies faxoniana forest of western Sichuan, Southwest China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-Lian; Wu, Fu-Zhong; He, Zhen-Hua; Xu, Zhen-Feng; Liu, Yang; Yang, Wan-Qin; Tan, Bo

    2012-07-01

    To understand the effects of the lack of snow pack under global warming on the characteristics of soil microorganisms during wintertime, a snow-shading experiment was conducted in a primary fir (Abies faxoniana) forest after snow pack removal, with the soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN) and soil culturable microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) at the stages of snow forming, snow covering, and snow melting investigated. Snow pack removal had significant effects on the soil MBC and MBN and the number of soil culturable bacteria and fungi, but the responses of the culturable microorganisms differed with the stages of snow-shading. Under the condition of snow pack removal, the MBC and MBN in soil organic layer decreased significantly at the early stages of snow forming and snow melting but increased significantly at snow covering stage and at the later stage of snow melting, and the number of culturable bacteria decreased significantly from the early stage of snow forming to the stage of snow covering while that of culturable fungi had a significant increase from the early stage of snow forming to the stage of snow melting. After snow melting, the MBC and the number of culturable fungi in soil organic layer had a significant decrease, the number of cultural bacteria was in adverse, but the MBN had less change. The MBC and MBN and the number of culturable microorganisms in soil mineral layer had the similar variation trends as those in soil organic layer, but the fluctuations were smaller. It was suggested that snow pack removal changed the ratio of culturable bacteria to culturable fungi, showing positive effects on the number of soil culturable fungi during wintertime in alpine Abies faxoniana forest of western Sichuan.

  2. Quantitative iTRAQ proteome and comparative transcriptome analysis of elicitor-induced Norway spruce (Picea abies) cells reveals elements of calcium signaling in the early conifer defense response.

    PubMed

    Lippert, Dustin N; Ralph, Steven G; Phillips, Michael; White, Rick; Smith, Derek; Hardie, Darryl; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Ritland, Kermit; Borchers, Christoph H; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    Long-lived conifer trees depend on both constitutive and induced defenses for resistance against a myriad of potential pathogens and herbivores. In species of spruce (Picea spp.), several of the late events of pathogen-, insect-, or elicitor-induced defense responses have previously been characterized at the anatomical, biochemical, transcriptome, and proteome levels in stems and needles. However, accurately measuring the early events of induced cellular responses in a conifer is technically challenging due to limitations in the precise timing of induction and tissue sampling from intact trees following insect or fungal treatment. In the present study, we used the advantages of Norway spruce (Picea abies) cell suspensions combined with chitosan elicitation to investigate the early proteome response in a conifer. A combination of iTRAQ labeling and a new design of iterative sample analysis employing data-dependent exclusion lists were used for proteome analysis. This approach improved the coverage of the spruce proteome beyond that achieved in any prior study in a conifer system. Comparison of elicitor-induced proteome and transcriptome responses in Norway spruce cells consistently identified features associated with calcium-mediated signaling and response to oxidative stress that have not previously been observed in the response of intact trees to fungal attack.

  3. Seasonal dynamics in the stable carbon isotope composition δ¹³C from non-leafy branch, trunk and coarse root CO₂ efflux of adult deciduous (Fagus sylvatica) and evergreen (Picea abies) trees.

    PubMed

    Kuptz, Daniel; Matyssek, Rainer; Grams, Thorsten E E

    2011-03-01

    Respiration is a substantial driver of carbon (C) flux in forest ecosystems and stable C isotopes provide an excellent tool for its investigation. We studied seasonal dynamics in δ¹³C of CO₂ efflux (δ¹³C(E)) from non-leafy branches, upper and lower trunks and coarse roots of adult trees, comparing deciduous Fagus sylvatica (European beech) with evergreen Picea abies (Norway spruce). In both species, we observed strong and similar seasonal dynamics in the δ¹³C(E) of above-ground plant components, whereas δ¹³C(E) of coarse roots was rather stable. During summer, δ¹³C(E) of trunks was about -28.2‰ (Beech) and -26.8‰ (Spruce). During winter dormancy, δ¹³C(E) increased by 5.6-9.1‰. The observed dynamics are likely related to a switch from growth to starch accumulation during fall and remobilization of starch, low TCA cycle activity and accumulation of malate by PEPc during winter. The seasonal δ¹³C(E) pattern of branches of Beech and upper trunks of Spruce was less variable, probably because these organs were additionally supplied by winter photosynthesis. In view of our results and pervious studies, we conclude that the pronounced increases in δ¹³C(E) of trunks during the winter results from interrupted access to recent photosynthates.

  4. Reduced climate sensitivity of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope ratios in tree-ring cellulose of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) influenced by background SO2 in Franconia (Germany, Central Europe).

    PubMed

    Boettger, Tatjana; Haupt, Marika; Friedrich, Michael; Waterhouse, John S

    2014-02-01

    The climate sensitivity of carbon (δ(13)C), oxygen (δ(18)O) and hydrogen (δ(2)H) isotope signatures in tree-ring cellulose of Abies alba Mill. from a marginally industrialized area of Franconia (Germany) was analysed for the last 130 years. All isotopes preserve climatic signals up to c. 1950 AD. After 1950 we observe a clear reduction in climate sensitivity of δ(13)C and δ(2)H while δ(18)O - climate relations remain well pronounced. Nevertheless statistical tests implied that SO2 background emissions of West Germany had influenced isotope signatures long before 1950. The relationships between isotope values and concentrations of SO2, dust, O3 and NO2 at the regional level during the period 1979-2006 indicate that δ(13)C and δ(18)O were influenced primarily by SO2. The impact of SO2 on δ(2)H was negligible, but the observed reduction of climate sensitivity may be caused by synergic influences. The results have significant implications if isotope signatures from tree-rings from anthropogenic influenced regions are used to reconstruct past climate.

  5. Evaluation of the RapidHIT™ 200 System: A comparative study of its performance with Maxwell(®) DNA IQ™/Identifiler(®) Plus/ABI 3500xL workflow.

    PubMed

    Thong, Zhonghui; Phua, Yong Han; Loo, Eileen Shuzhen; Goh, Sze Kae; Ang, Jiatian; Looi, Woan Foon; Syn, Christopher Kiu Choong

    2015-11-01

    RapidHIT(™) System is a rapid DNA instrument that is capable of processing forensic samples from extraction through to capillary electrophoresis and profile generation within two hours. Evaluation of the RapidHIT(™) 200 System was conducted to examine several key performance indicators of the instrument, including reproducibility, contamination, sensitivity, versatility and the possibility of sample re-extraction. Results indicated that the RapidHIT(™) 200 System was capable of generating high quality DNA profiles which were comparable to those from the standard protocol comprising of Maxwell(®) 16 DNA IQ(™) System, Identifiler(®) Plus and ABI 3500xL. No contamination was detected during the studies. Results also showed that the instrument was able to generate DNA profiles from samples containing lower amounts of DNA (0.5 μl of blood) albeit with more allele and locus dropouts when compared to the standard protocol. The ability to process blood swabs, blood-stained FTA punches, semen swabs, buccal swabs, product of conception (POC), bone marrow, fingernail clippings and cigarette butts at a good success rate indicated the robustness and versatility of the RapidHIT(™) 200 System. Furthermore, additional alleles could be recovered via re-analysis of the failed samples using the standard protocol. In summary, our results showed that the RapidHIT(™) 200 System was able to process casework samples for the purpose of providing rapid intelligence through DNA database searches and reference matching. Confirmative DNA results can be obtained through either concurrent processing of duplicate samples via standard protocol or re-extraction of samples retrieved from the RapidHIT(™) sample cartridge.

  6. Evaluation of the RapidHIT™ 200 System: A comparative study of its performance with Maxwell(®) DNA IQ™/Identifiler(®) Plus/ABI 3500xL workflow.

    PubMed

    Thong, Zhonghui; Phua, Yong Han; Loo, Eileen Shuzhen; Goh, Sze Kae; Ang, Jiatian; Looi, Woan Foon; Syn, Christopher Kiu Choong

    2015-11-01

    RapidHIT(™) System is a rapid DNA instrument that is capable of processing forensic samples from extraction through to capillary electrophoresis and profile generation within two hours. Evaluation of the RapidHIT(™) 200 System was conducted to examine several key performance indicators of the instrument, including reproducibility, contamination, sensitivity, versatility and the possibility of sample re-extraction. Results indicated that the RapidHIT(™) 200 System was capable of generating high quality DNA profiles which were comparable to those from the standard protocol comprising of Maxwell(®) 16 DNA IQ(™) System, Identifiler(®) Plus and ABI 3500xL. No contamination was detected during the studies. Results also showed that the instrument was able to generate DNA profiles from samples containing lower amounts of DNA (0.5 μl of blood) albeit with more allele and locus dropouts when compared to the standard protocol. The ability to process blood swabs, blood-stained FTA punches, semen swabs, buccal swabs, product of conception (POC), bone marrow, fingernail clippings and cigarette butts at a good success rate indicated the robustness and versatility of the RapidHIT(™) 200 System. Furthermore, additional alleles could be recovered via re-analysis of the failed samples using the standard protocol. In summary, our results showed that the RapidHIT(™) 200 System was able to process casework samples for the purpose of providing rapid intelligence through DNA database searches and reference matching. Confirmative DNA results can be obtained through either concurrent processing of duplicate samples via standard protocol or re-extraction of samples retrieved from the RapidHIT(™) sample cartridge. PMID:26051364

  7. Non-functional plastid ndh gene fragments are present in the nuclear genome of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karsch): insights from in silico analysis of nuclear and organellar genomes.

    PubMed

    Ranade, Sonali Sachin; García-Gil, María Rosario; Rosselló, Josep A

    2016-04-01

    Many genes have been lost from the prokaryote plastidial genome during the early events of endosymbiosis in eukaryotes. Some of them were definitively lost, but others were relocated and functionally integrated to the host nuclear genomes through serial events of gene transfer during plant evolution. In gymnosperms, plastid genome sequencing has revealed the loss of ndh genes from several species of Gnetales and Pinaceae, including Norway spruce (Picea abies). This study aims to trace the ndh genes in the nuclear and organellar Norway spruce genomes. The plastid genomes of higher plants contain 11 ndh genes which are homologues of mitochondrial genes encoding subunits of the proton-pumping NADH-dehydrogenase (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase) or complex I (electron transport chain). Ndh genes encode 11 NDH polypeptides forming the Ndh complex (analogous to complex I) which seems to be primarily involved in chloro-respiration processes. We considered ndh genes from the plastidial genome of four gymnosperms (Cryptomeria japonica, Cycas revoluta, Ginkgo biloba, Podocarpus totara) and a single angiosperm species (Arabidopsis thaliana) to trace putative homologs in the nuclear and organellar Norway spruce genomes using tBLASTn to assess the evolutionary fate of ndh genes in Norway spruce and to address their genomic location(s), structure, integrity and functionality. The results obtained from tBLASTn were subsequently analyzed by performing homology search for finding ndh specific conserved domains using conserved domain search. We report the presence of non-functional plastid ndh gene fragments, excepting ndhE and ndhG genes, in the nuclear genome of Norway spruce. Regulatory transcriptional elements like promoters, TATA boxes and enhancers were detected in the upstream regions of some ndh fragments. We also found transposable elements in the flanking regions of few ndh fragments suggesting nuclear rearrangements in those regions. These evidences

  8. Monoterpene synthases from grand fir (Abies grandis). cDNA isolation, characterization, and functional expression of myrcene synthase, (-)-(4S)-limonene synthase, and (-)-(1S,5S)-pinene synthase.

    PubMed

    Bohlmann, J; Steele, C L; Croteau, R

    1997-08-29

    Grand fir (Abies grandis) has been developed as a model system for studying defensive oleoresin formation in conifers in response to insect attack or other injury. The turpentine fraction of the oleoresin is a complex mixture of monoterpene (C10) olefins in which (-)-limonene and (-)-alpha- and (-)-beta-pinene are prominent components; (-)-limonene and (-)-pinene synthase activities are also induced upon stem wounding. A similarity based cloning strategy yielded three new cDNA species from a wounded stem cDNA library that appeared to encode three distinct monoterpene synthases. After expression in Escherichia coli and enzyme assay with geranyl diphosphate as substrate, subsequent analysis of the terpene products by chiral phase gas chromatography and mass spectrometry showed that these sequences encoded a (-)-limonene synthase, a myrcene synthase, and a (-)-pinene synthase that produces both alpha-pinene and beta-pinene. In properties and reaction stereochemistry, the recombinant enzymes resemble the corresponding native monoterpene synthases of wound-induced grand fir stem. The deduced amino acid sequences indicated the limonene synthase to be 637 residues in length (73.5 kDa), the myrcene synthase to be 627 residues in length (72.5 kDa), and the pinene synthase to be 628 residues in length (71.5 kDa); all of these monoterpene synthases appear to be translated as preproteins bearing an amino-terminal plastid targeting sequence. Sequence comparison revealed that these monoterpene synthases from grand fir resemble sesquiterpene (C15) synthases and diterpene (C20) synthases from conifers more closely than other monoterpene synthases from angiosperm species. This similarity between extant monoterpene, sesquiterpene, and diterpene synthases of gymnosperms is surprising since functional diversification of this enzyme class is assumed to have occurred over 300 million years ago. Wound-induced accumulation of transcripts for monoterpene synthases was demonstrated by RNA

  9. Defining Moments \\ di-'fi-ning 'mo-mnts \\

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilman, Carrie

    2012-01-01

    Children encounter new words every day. Although dictionaries designed for young readers can help students explore and experiment with language, it turns out many mainstream children's dictionaries fail to accurately describe the world in which many students live. The challenges to children's dictionary publishers can be steep. First, there is the…

  10. 75 FR 337 - Action Affecting Export Privileges: Ning Wen

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ..., 2001 (3 CFR, 2001 Comp. 783 (2002)), as extended most recently by the Notice of August 13, 2009 (74 FR...)--Acting With Knowledge of a Violation In connection with each of the transactions described in Charges 2... exported from the United States with knowledge that a violation of the Regulations was about to occur...

  11. Development and Evaluation of Ning Social Network for Teaching Training Online Surveillance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohd Nawi, Mohd Aliff; Jamsari, Ezad Azraai; Sulaiman, Adibah; Hamzah, Mohd Isa

    2013-01-01

    Supervision of teaching practice is an important aspect of training teachers in improving their teaching skills. Barriers such as distance and time factor are the constraints faced by the lecturers at the National University of Malaysia to communicate with the teacher trainees under their supervision. Therefore, this study aims to develop and…

  12. Process Writing and the Internet: Blogs and Ning Networks in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boas, Isabela Villas

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to the product approach to writing, which is based on studying and replicating textual models, the process approach involves multiple and repeated steps that compel the writer to closely consider the topic, language, purpose for writing, and social reality of an audience. In addition to discussing the benefits of the process approach…

  13. Tailoring Pore Size of Nitrogen-Doped Hollow Carbon Nanospheres for Confi ning Sulfur in Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Weidong; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Quiglin; Abruna, Hector D.; He, Yang; Wang, Jiangwei; Mao, Scott X.; Xiao, Xingcheng

    2015-08-19

    Three types of nitrogen-doped hollow carbon spheres with different pore sized porous shells are prepared to investigate the performance of sulfur confinement. The reason that why no sulfur is observed in previous research is determined and it is successfully demonstrated that the sulfur/polysulfide will overflow the porous carbon during the lithiation process.

  14. Test research of Surface Electromagnetic Prospecting (SEP) System in Yang-jia-zhang-zi of Liao Ning province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, Q.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, deep prospecting method such as magnetotelluric and controlled source audio-frequency magnetotelluric develop rapidly, but the instruments almost monopolized by several big geophysical companies from the United States, Canada and Germany. From prospecting practice, foreign equipment adaptation on complicated geological conditions in China is unsatisfactory. As increasing of national strength, electromagnetic exploration system development independently is on the agenda. In the year of 2010, the institute of geology and geophysics, Chinese academy of sciences, took on one subject of the SinoProbe project, the research of surface Electromagnetic Prospecting (SEP) System, and has achieved some achievements. SEP is an independent research instrumentation system, which is available for MT, AMT and CSAMT soundings. After laboratory testing, in order to test SEP's performance in field, the yang-jia-zhang-zi molybdenum deposit area is selected for SEP experiment. All modules and components of SEP system have been tested, and the field ability of the whole system also has been tested. The experimental results show that SEP performance has reached the level of commercial instruments.

  15. Superoxide dismutase activity in needles of Norwegian spruce trees (Picea abies L. )

    SciTech Connect

    Polle, A.; Krings, B.; Rennenberg, H. Universitaet zu Koeln )

    1989-08-01

    The activity of superoxide dismutase was investigated in needles of spruce trees. To obtain maximum activity, needles were homogenized in the presence of Triton X-100 and polyvinylpyrrolidone. Superoxide dismutase activity was measured in dialyzed extracts with a modified epinephrine assay at pH 10.2. The extracts contained 70 to 120 units of superoxide dismutase per milligram protein. One unit of superoxide dismutase was completely inhibited in the presence of 20 micromolar NaCN. On native polyacrylamide gels three electromorphs were visualized after staining for activity. All three species were sensitive to CN{sup {minus}} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and were therefore assumed to be Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutases. Superoxide dismutase activity was dependent on the age of the needles and declined by approximately 25% within 3 to 4 years.

  16. Air pollution and forest decline in a spruce (Picea abies) forest

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, E.D. )

    1989-05-19

    Symptoms of forest decline of spruce in Europe range from needle yellowing and loss to tree and stand mortality. In a study area in northeast Bavaria, West Germany, where forest decline was initially detected, exposure to high concentrations of gaseous pollutants, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and ozone has had no long-lasting direct effect on needles, and pathogens have only been secondary agents. Deposition of sulfur, nitrate, and ammonium, however, have significantly modified plant nutrition and soil chemistry. Spruce roots apparently take up ammonium rather than nitrate with an antagonistic effect on uptake of Mg. Nitrate left in the soil solution is leached together with sulfate to ground water, accelerating soil acidification and decreasing Ca/Al and Mg/Al ratios in the soil solution. Soil solution chemistry affects root development, and water and nutrient uptake. Had all nutrients become equally deficient, spruce trees probably could have adjusted by retarding their growth. However, canopy uptake of atmospheric nitrogen in addition to root uptake stimulated growth and caused a nitrogen to cation imbalance to develop; this imbalance resulted in the decline symptoms. 35 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Ecosystems: Issues and problems. (Latest citations from the ABI/Inform database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning issues and problems relating to ecosystems in different parts of the world. Preservation of resources, environmental protection, industrial impacts on ecosystems, ecological economics, biodiversity of specific ecosystems, and effects of deforestation and erosion are examined. Citations review impacts of human inhabitants, eco-tourism, and alien species on an ecosystem. The relationship to an ecosystem of pests and microbial infections is covered, and long-range planning for ecosystems is cited. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  18. Morphological, anatomical, and chemical characteristics of needle and branch samples of Siberian fir (Abies Siberica)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, B. N.; Williams, D. L.; Kharuk, V. I.; Wessman, C. A.; Moss, D. M.

    1992-01-01

    In August, 1991, needle and branch samples of Siberian fir were collected from undisturbed forest stands along an elevation gradient ranging from 2300 ft to 4450 ft. Four study sites were selected on west-facing slopes, and a standard set of measurements and collections was made. First-, second-, and third-year needles were collected for anatomical assessment. A visual assessment of the forest stand conditions at each site included an evaluation of canopy morphology needle, coloration, increment growth, and the state of health of a specific type of lichen. The heaviest damage to forest stands (extensive foliar loss, needle discoloration, dieback of terminal growth) occurs at an intermediate elevation site (3400 ft/1037 m). The least amount of damage was recorded at the lowest elevation site (2300 ft/701 m). Only slight damage occurs at the highest elevation site (4450 ft/1357 m). Some degree of flagging occurs at all sites. Several lines of evidence suggest that the damage occurring in this area is recent in origin (incipient).

  19. Identifying Genetic Signatures of Natural Selection Using Pooled Population Sequencing in Picea abies

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun; Källman, Thomas; Ma, Xiao-Fei; Zaina, Giusi; Morgante, Michele; Lascoux, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The joint inference of selection and past demography remain a costly and demanding task. We used next generation sequencing of two pools of 48 Norway spruce mother trees, one corresponding to the Fennoscandian domain, and the other to the Alpine domain, to assess nucleotide polymorphism at 88 nuclear genes. These genes are candidate genes for phenological traits, and most belong to the photoperiod pathway. Estimates of population genetic summary statistics from the pooled data are similar to previous estimates, suggesting that pooled sequencing is reliable. The nonsynonymous SNPs tended to have both lower frequency differences and lower FST values between the two domains than silent ones. These results suggest the presence of purifying selection. The divergence between the two domains based on synonymous changes was around 5 million yr, a time similar to a recent phylogenetic estimate of 6 million yr, but much larger than earlier estimates based on isozymes. Two approaches, one of them novel and that considers both FST and difference in allele frequencies between the two domains, were used to identify SNPs potentially under diversifying selection. SNPs from around 20 genes were detected, including genes previously identified as main target for selection, such as PaPRR3 and PaGI. PMID:27172202

  20. Galactoglucomannan extracted from spruce (Picea abies) as a carbohydrate source for probiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Polari, Lauri; Ojansivu, Pauliina; Mäkelä, Sari; Eckerman, Christer; Holmbom, Bjarne; Salminen, Seppo

    2012-11-01

    A prebiotic is a nonviable food component that confers a health benefit on the host associated with modulation of the microbiota. Hemicelluloses are the second most common group of polysaccharides in nature and they occur in plant cell walls. The predominant hemicellulose in softwood species is galactoglucomannan, and based on its chemical structure and information available about similar saccharides, galactoglucomannan may be postulated to have prebiotic properties. In this study we demonstrated that Bifidobacterium species are able to ferment hemicellulose-derived saccharides. Significant stimulatory effects on the growth rates of bifidobacteria were found when galactoglucomannan or its hydrolysis products were present. Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis strain Bb12, a commonly used probiotic, was able to adapt to the galactoglucomannan leading to more efficient utilization of hemicellulose-derived saccharides. Our study demonstrates prebiotic properties for galactoglucomannan and warrants the next step, that is, characterization of the effects of galactoglucomannan in food. PMID:23067113

  1. Development and Validation of an Analytical Method for the Determination of Flavonol Glycosides in Ginkgo Leaves and ShuXueNing Injections by a Single Marker.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shan; Ye, Ji; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Cao, Bang-Jing; Xu, Xi-Ke; Shan, Lei; Su, Juan

    2016-07-01

    The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major bioactive components in traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) and their preparations is essential to evaluate their quality. However, the scarcity and high cost of chemical reference standards are common obstacles for quantitative analysis, especially for determining multicomponents. In this study, an effective and sensitive qualitative method to identify flavonol glycosides in Ginkgo leaves (Ginkgo Folium), and their preparations have been developed. Meanwhile, a simple, convenient and reproducible method for the quantitative analysis of multicomponents by a single marker (QAMS) has been established to simultaneously determine the major flavonol glycosides in Ginkgo leaves and their preparations. Among the 15 favonol glycosides that were found, 7 major flavonol glycosides with high contents were simultaneously determined by the QAMS and traditional external standard method (TES). Rutin was selected as the single marker, and the quantitative analysis was performed on a TSK gel ODS-100V C18 column using a gradient system of acetonitrile and water, with a variable wavelength detector (265 nm) within 50 min. The method validation was conducted, and the linearity was excellent (r(2) > 0.9993) with accuracy and precision within the required limits. The F-test (P> 0.05) indicated that the QAMS and TES method have no statistically significant difference. PMID:27068933

  2. The Use of Alternative Social Networking Sites in Higher Educational Settings: A Case Study of the E-Learning Benefits of Ning in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Kevin P.; Holcomb, Lori B.; Smith, Bethany V.

    2010-01-01

    Distance education as a primary means of instruction is expanding significantly at the college and university level. Simultaneously, the growth of social networking sites (SNS) including Facebook, LinkedIn, and MySpace is also rising among today's college students. An increasing number of higher education instructors are beginning to combine…

  3. Tracing the allocation of recently assimilated C into key metabolites in Norway spruce (Picea abies) shortly after bud break

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Steffen; Dippold, Michaela; Werner, Christiane; Wiesenberg, Guido; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Glaser, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Plants allocate carbon (C) to sink tissues depending on phenological, physiological or environmental factors. We still have little knowledge on C partitioning into various cellular compounds and metabolic pathways, especially during tree growth after bud break. Here we investigated C partitioning of freshly assimilated C in Norway spruce by in-situ 13C short-term pulse labeling 15 days after bud break. We quantified 13C incorporation into tree compartments (needles, branches, stem) and into water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) by elemental analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS). In addition, we determined 13C allocation into key metabolites of amino acids, hemicellulose sugars, fatty acids and alkanes by compound-specific 13C analysis via gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). The 13C allocation within the trees reflected the needles as major C sink accounting for 86% of the freshly assimilated C. After 6 h 13C was distributed over a broad spectrum of plant metabolites but not homogenously. Highest allocation was observed into structurally relevant compound classes of hemicellulose-derived sugars and proteinogenic amino acids (0.6% and 10% of needle 13C, respectively). However, needle growth also caused high C allocation into pathways not involved in formation of structural compounds like pathways in secondary metabolism, C-1 metabolism or amino acid synthesis from photorespiratory acitivity. C allocation into such pathways could be identified due to the high enrichment of key metabolites within the amino acids. In addition, high 13C allocation was found into the n-alkyl lipid biosynthesis (0.2 % of needle 13C) with 1) higher allocation into intracellular than cuticular fatty acids, presumably for thylakoide membrane formation and 2) decreasing 13C allocation along the lipid transformation and translocation pathways (precursor fatty acids (C16 & C18) > elongated long chain fatty acids > decarbonylated n-alkanes). Consequently, the combination of 13C pulse labeling with compound-specific 13C analysis of key metabolites enabled identification of relevant C allocation pathways during needle growth after bud break. Besides primary metabolism, synthesizing structural cell compounds, a complex network of various pathways consumed the freshly assimilated 13C and kept the majority of the assimilated C in the growing needles.

  4. A randomised controlled trial evaluating a brief intervention for deficits in recognising emotional prosody following severe ABI.

    PubMed

    McDonald, S; Togher, L; Tate, R; Randall, R; English, T; Gowland, A

    2013-01-01

    Many adults with acquired brain injuries, including traumatic brain injuries (TBI) have impaired emotion perception. Impaired perception of emotion in voice can occur independently to facial expression and represents a specific target for remediation. No research to date has addressed this. The current study used a randomised controlled trial to examine the efficacy of a short treatment (three x two-hour sessions) for improving the ability to recognise emotional prosody for people with acquired brain injury, mostly TBI. Ten participants were allocated to treatment and 10 to waitlist. All participants remained involved for the duration of the study in the groups to which they were allocated. There were no significant treatment effects for group, but analyses of individual performances indicated that six of the treated participants made demonstrable improvements on objective measures of prosody recognition. The reasons why some participants showed improvements while others did not, was not obvious. Improvements on objective lab-based measures did not generalise to relative reports of improvements in everyday communicative ability. Nor was there clear evidence of long-term effects. In conclusion, treatment of emotional prosody was effective in the short-term for half of the participants. Further research is required to determine what conditions are required to optimise generalisability and longer-term gains.

  5. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals that Red and Blue Light Regulate Growth and Phytohormone Metabolism in Norway Spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst].

    PubMed

    OuYang, Fangqun; Mao, Jian-Feng; Wang, Junhui; Zhang, Shougong; Li, Yue

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms by which different light spectra regulate plant shoot elongation vary, and phytohormones respond differently to such spectrum-associated regulatory effects. Light supplementation can effectively control seedling growth in Norway spruce. However, knowledge of the effective spectrum for promoting growth and phytohormone metabolism in this species is lacking. In this study, 3-year-old Norway spruce clones were illuminated for 12 h after sunset under blue or red light-emitting diode (LED) light for 90 d, and stem increments and other growth traits were determined. Endogenous hormone levels and transcriptome differences in the current needles were assessed to identify genes related to the red and blue light regulatory responses. The results showed that the stem increment and gibberellin (GA) levels of the seedlings illuminated by red light were 8.6% and 29.0% higher, respectively, than those of the seedlings illuminated by blue light. The indoleacetic acid (IAA) level of the seedlings illuminated by red light was 54.6% lower than that of the seedlings illuminated by blue light, and there were no significant differences in abscisic acid (ABA) or zeatin riboside [ZR] between the two groups of seedlings. The transcriptome results revealed 58,736,166 and 60,555,192 clean reads for the blue-light- and red-light-illuminated samples, respectively. Illumina sequencing revealed 21,923 unigenes, and 2744 (approximately 93.8%) out of 2926 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found to be upregulated under blue light. The main KEGG classifications of the DEGs were metabolic pathway (29%), biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (20.49%) and hormone signal transduction (8.39%). With regard to hormone signal transduction, AUXIN-RESISTANT1 (AUX1), AUX/IAA genes, auxin-inducible genes, and early auxin-responsive genes [(auxin response factor (ARF) and small auxin-up RNA (SAUR)] were all upregulated under blue light compared with red light, which might have yielded the higher IAA level. DELLA and phytochrome-interacting factor 3 (PIF3), involved in negative GA signaling, were also upregulated under blue light, which may be related to the lower GA level. Light quality also affects endogenous hormones by influencing secondary metabolism. Blue light promoted phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, phenylalanine metabolism, flavonoid biosynthesis and flavone and flavonol biosynthesis, accompanied by upregulation of most of the genes in their pathways. In conclusion, red light may promote stem growth by regulating biosynthesis of GAs, and blue light may promote flavonoid, lignin, phenylpropanoid and some hormones (such as jasmonic acid) which were related to plant defense in Norway spruce, which might reduce the primary metabolites available for plant growth.

  6. Development and use of bounding functions in a forest growth model. [Pinus lambertiana; Calocedrus decurrens; Pseudotsuga menziesii; Abies concolor

    SciTech Connect

    Dolph, K.L. ); Dixon, G.E. )

    1993-01-01

    Erroneous predictions of forest growth and yield may result when computer simulation models use extrapolated data in repeated or long-term projections or if the models are used outside the range of data on which they were built. Bounding functions that limit the predicted diameter and height growth of individual trees to maximum observed values were developed to constrain these erroneous predictions in a forest growth and yield simulator. Species studied included sugar pine, incense-cedar, Douglas-fir, and California white fir.

  7. UV-B exposure of indoor-grown Picea abies seedlings causes an epigenetic effect and selective emission of terpenes.

    PubMed

    Ohlsson, Anna B; Segerfeldt, Patrik; Lindström, Anders; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Berglund, Torkel

    2013-01-01

    Terpenoids are involved in various defensive functions in plants, especially conifers. Epigenetic mechanisms, for example DNA methylation, can influence plant defence systems. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of UV-B exposure on the release of terpenoids from spruce seedlings and on needle DNA methylation. Ten-week-old seedlings grown indoors were exposed to UV-B radiation during 4 h, and the volatile compounds emitted from the seedlings were analysed. Analysis of the volatiles 1, 3, and 22 d after this UV-B exposure showed that bornyl acetate, borneol, myrcene, and limonene contents increased during the first 3 days, while at day 22 the level of emission had returned to the control level. UV-B exposure decreased the level of DNA methylation in needles of young seedlings, reflected in methylation changes in CCGG sequences. Exposure of young seedlings to UV-B radiation might be a way to potentiate the general defensive capacity, improving their ability to survive in outdoor conditions. UV-B-induced defence is discussed in the light of epigenetic mechanisms.

  8. Bi3+ Luminescence in ABiO2Cl (A = Sr, Ba) and BaBiO2Br

    SciTech Connect

    Porter-Chapman, Yetta D.; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith E.; Derenzo,Stephen E.

    2007-01-18

    Trivalent bismuth luminescence is reported in three Sillenbismuth oxyhalide phases, SrBiO2Cl, BaBiO2Cl, and BaBiO2Br. Thesecompounds exhibit Bi 6s6->6 s2 emission under UV and X-ray radiation.At room temperature, BaBiO2Cl shows the most intense light emission, withspectral and decay properties similar to those found in Bi4Ge3O12 (BGO).At low temperatures, each phase show an increase in the photoluminescenceintensities and a narrowing of the emission peaks. In contrast to thetemperature dependence of BGO, X-ray excited luminescence intensities ofall three phases remain relatively constant throughout the temperaturerange 10 - 295 K. This result indicates that the Sillen phases undergoless thermal quenching than BGO. The low temperature and room temperatureradio-luminescence decay times were determined from pulsed x-raymeasurements. At room temperature, SrBiO2Cl exhibits faster decays thanBGO, while, BaBiO2Cl and BaBiO2Br have decay times similar toBGO.

  9. Antitussive activity of Abies webbiana Lindl. leaf extract against sulphur dioxide-induced cough reflex in mice.

    PubMed

    Nayak, S S; Ghosh, A K; Srikanth, K; Debnath, B; Jha, T

    2003-09-01

    The methanol extract of A. webbiana Lindl was evaluated for its effect on a cough model induced by sulphur dioxide gas in mice. When administered orally it exhibited significant antitussive activity compared with the control in a dose dependent manner. The antitussive activity of the extract was compared with that of codeine phosphate, a prototype antitussive agent. The A. webbiana leaf extract (400 and 600 mg/kg) showed maximum inhibition of cough frequency by 71.69% and 78.67%, respectively, when compared with the control group and was comparable in effect to codeine phosphate.

  10. Fungal community dynamics in relation to substrate quality of decaying Norway spruce ( Picea abies [L.] Karst.) logs in boreal forests.

    PubMed

    Rajala, Tiina; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Pennanen, Taina; Mäkipää, Raisa

    2012-08-01

    Decaying wood plays an important role in forest biodiversity, nutrient cycling and carbon balance. Community structure of wood-inhabiting fungi changes with mass loss of wood, but the relationship between substrate quality and decomposers is poorly understood. This limits the extent to which these ecosystem services can be effectively managed. We studied the fungal community and physico-chemical quality (stage of decay, dimensions, density, moisture, C : N ratio, lignin and water or ethanol extractives) of 543 Norway spruce logs in five unmanaged boreal forest sites of southern Finland. Fungi were identified using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing of DNA extracted directly from wood samples. Macroscopic fruiting bodies were also recorded. Results showed a fungal community succession with decreasing wood density and C : N ratio, and increasing moisture and lignin content. Fungal diversity peaked in the most decayed substrates. Ascomycetes typically colonized recently fallen wood. Brown-rot fungi preferred the intermediate decay stages. White-rot fungi represented approximately one-fifth of sequenced species in all decay phases excluding the final phase, where ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi became dominant. Lignin content of logs with white-rot fungi was low, and ECM fungi were associated with substrates containing abundant nitrogen. Macroscopic fruiting bodies were observed for only a small number of species detected with molecular techniques.

  11. Contrasting carbon allocation responses of juvenile European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) to competition and ozone.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Wilma; Lehmeier, Christoph Andreas; Winkler, Jana Barbro; Matyssek, Rainer; Edgar Grams, Thorsten Erhard

    2015-01-01

    Allocation of recent photoassimilates of juvenile beech and spruce in response to twice-ambient ozone (2 × O(3)) and plant competition (i.e. intra vs. inter-specific) was examined in a phytotron study. To this end, we employed continuous (13)CO(2)/(12)CO(2) labeling during late summer and pursued tracer kinetics in CO(2) released from stems. In beech, allocation of recent photoassimilates to stems was significantly lowered under 2 × O(3) and increased in spruce when grown in mixed culture. As total tree biomass was not yet affected by the treatments, C allocation reflected incipient tree responses providing the mechanistic basis for biomass partitioning as observed in longer experiments. Compartmental modeling characterized functional properties of substrate pools supplying respiratory C demand. Respiration of spruce appeared to be exclusively supplied by recent photoassimilates. In beech, older C, putatively located in stem parenchyma cells, was a major source of respiratory substrate, reflecting the fundamental anatomical disparity between angiosperm beech and gymnosperm spruce.

  12. Distribution of long-range linkage disequilibrium and Tajima's D values in Scandinavian populations of Norway Spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Larsson, Hanna; Källman, Thomas; Gyllenstrand, Niclas; Lascoux, Martin

    2013-05-20

    The site frequency spectrum of mutations (SFS) and linkage disequilibrium (LD) are the two major sources of information in population genetics studies. In this study we focus on the levels of LD and the SFS and on the effect of sample size on summary statistics in 10 Scandinavian populations of Norway spruce. We found that previous estimates of a low level of LD were highly influenced by both sampling strategy and the fact that data from multiple loci were analyzed jointly. Estimates of LD were in fact heterogeneous across loci and increased within individual populations compared with the estimate from the total data. The variation in levels of LD among populations most likely reflects different demographic histories, although we were unable to detect population structure by using standard approaches. As in previous studies, we also found that the SFS-based test Tajima's D was highly sensitive to sample size, revealing that care should be taken to draw strong conclusions from this test when sample size is small. In conclusion, the results from this study are in line with recent studies in other conifers that have revealed a more complex and variable pattern of LD than earlier studies suggested and with studies in trees and humans that suggest that Tajima's D is sensitive to sample size. This has large consequences for the design of future association and population genetic studies in Norway spruce.

  13. TEMPERATURE-RESPIRATION RELATIONSHIPS DIFFER IN MYCORRHIZAL AND NON-MYCORRHIZAL ROOT SYSTEMS OF PICEA ABIES (L.) KARST.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Root respiration has been shown to increase with temperature, but less is known about how this relation ship is affected by the fungal partner in mycorrhizal root systems. In order to test respiratory temperature dependence, in particular Q10 of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal r...

  14. [Spatial Distribution Features of the Root Biomass of Some Tree Species (Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris, Betula sp.)].

    PubMed

    Shanin, V N; Rocheva, L K; Shashkov, M P; Ivanova, N V; Moskalenko, S V; Burnasheva, E R

    2015-01-01

    The effect of intra- and interspecific competition on the spatial distribution of the biomass and mortmass of woody plant roots in mixed tree stands has been studied. It has been found that the mass of roots in the samples from tree pairs of different species is higher than in the samples from monospecific pairs. Species-specific differences in the vertical distribution of roots and the effect of intra- and interspecific competition on the spatial structure of biomass have been shown. It has been noted that the proportion of dead roots increases almost linearly with depth.

  15. Evolution of the Cooper Pair Insulator Phase in a-Bi Films Grown on Nanohoneycomb Substrates with Varying Surface Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joy, J. C.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, C.; Hollen, S. M.; Valles, J. M., Jr.; Fernandes, G.; Xu, J. M.

    2014-03-01

    The Cooper Pair Insulator (CPI) phase has been observed in a variety of systems close to both the disorder and field tuned Superconductor to Insulator Transition (SIT) in two dimensions. A number of recent experimental and theoretical studies suggest that the CPI phase arises due to inhomogeneities in the superconducting coupling constant on the nanoscale. Anodized Aluminum Oxide (AAO) substrates provide a convenient experimental platform for studying the influence of inhomogeneity on the CPI state, as the substrates exhibit both a nanohoneycomb structure which allows flux periodic behavior to be measured, as well as a controllable morphology which permits control of the level of inhomogeneity present. We will discuss recent experiments and analyses which examine the behavior of the CPI phase as the level of inhomogeneity in the films is reduced. We will also examine the potential implications of this work in understanding the extent of the CPI phase in two-dimensional systems. This work was supported by the NSF through grants No. DMR-1307290 and DMR-0907357 and by the AFRL, the ONR, and the AFOSR. Currently at Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xian, China.

  16. Fungal community dynamics in relation to substrate quality of decaying Norway spruce ( Picea abies [L.] Karst.) logs in boreal forests.

    PubMed

    Rajala, Tiina; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Pennanen, Taina; Mäkipää, Raisa

    2012-08-01

    Decaying wood plays an important role in forest biodiversity, nutrient cycling and carbon balance. Community structure of wood-inhabiting fungi changes with mass loss of wood, but the relationship between substrate quality and decomposers is poorly understood. This limits the extent to which these ecosystem services can be effectively managed. We studied the fungal community and physico-chemical quality (stage of decay, dimensions, density, moisture, C : N ratio, lignin and water or ethanol extractives) of 543 Norway spruce logs in five unmanaged boreal forest sites of southern Finland. Fungi were identified using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing of DNA extracted directly from wood samples. Macroscopic fruiting bodies were also recorded. Results showed a fungal community succession with decreasing wood density and C : N ratio, and increasing moisture and lignin content. Fungal diversity peaked in the most decayed substrates. Ascomycetes typically colonized recently fallen wood. Brown-rot fungi preferred the intermediate decay stages. White-rot fungi represented approximately one-fifth of sequenced species in all decay phases excluding the final phase, where ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi became dominant. Lignin content of logs with white-rot fungi was low, and ECM fungi were associated with substrates containing abundant nitrogen. Macroscopic fruiting bodies were observed for only a small number of species detected with molecular techniques. PMID:22458543

  17. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals that Red and Blue Light Regulate Growth and Phytohormone Metabolism in Norway Spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.

    PubMed Central

    OuYang, Fangqun; Mao, Jian-Feng; Wang, Junhui; Zhang, Shougong; Li, Yue

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms by which different light spectra regulate plant shoot elongation vary, and phytohormones respond differently to such spectrum-associated regulatory effects. Light supplementation can effectively control seedling growth in Norway spruce. However, knowledge of the effective spectrum for promoting growth and phytohormone metabolism in this species is lacking. In this study, 3-year-old Norway spruce clones were illuminated for 12 h after sunset under blue or red light-emitting diode (LED) light for 90 d, and stem increments and other growth traits were determined. Endogenous hormone levels and transcriptome differences in the current needles were assessed to identify genes related to the red and blue light regulatory responses. The results showed that the stem increment and gibberellin (GA) levels of the seedlings illuminated by red light were 8.6% and 29.0% higher, respectively, than those of the seedlings illuminated by blue light. The indoleacetic acid (IAA) level of the seedlings illuminated by red light was 54.6% lower than that of the seedlings illuminated by blue light, and there were no significant differences in abscisic acid (ABA) or zeatin riboside [ZR] between the two groups of seedlings. The transcriptome results revealed 58,736,166 and 60,555,192 clean reads for the blue-light- and red-light-illuminated samples, respectively. Illumina sequencing revealed 21,923 unigenes, and 2744 (approximately 93.8%) out of 2926 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found to be upregulated under blue light. The main KEGG classifications of the DEGs were metabolic pathway (29%), biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (20.49%) and hormone signal transduction (8.39%). With regard to hormone signal transduction, AUXIN-RESISTANT1 (AUX1), AUX/IAA genes, auxin-inducible genes, and early auxin-responsive genes [(auxin response factor (ARF) and small auxin-up RNA (SAUR)] were all upregulated under blue light compared with red light, which might have yielded the higher IAA level. DELLA and phytochrome-interacting factor 3 (PIF3), involved in negative GA signaling, were also upregulated under blue light, which may be related to the lower GA level. Light quality also affects endogenous hormones by influencing secondary metabolism. Blue light promoted phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, phenylalanine metabolism, flavonoid biosynthesis and flavone and flavonol biosynthesis, accompanied by upregulation of most of the genes in their pathways. In conclusion, red light may promote stem growth by regulating biosynthesis of GAs, and blue light may promote flavonoid, lignin, phenylpropanoid and some hormones (such as jasmonic acid) which were related to plant defense in Norway spruce, which might reduce the primary metabolites available for plant growth. PMID:26237749

  18. High-efficiency Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenck, A. R.; Quinn, M.; Whetten, R. W.; Pullman, G.; Sederoff, R.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer is the method of choice for many plant biotechnology laboratories; however, large-scale use of this organism in conifer transformation has been limited by difficult propagation of explant material, selection efficiencies and low transformation frequency. We have analyzed co-cultivation conditions and different disarmed strains of Agrobacterium to improve transformation. Additional copies of virulence genes were added to three common disarmed strains. These extra virulence genes included either a constitutively active virG or extra copies of virG and virB, both from pTiBo542. In experiments with Norway spruce, we increased transformation efficiencies 1000-fold from initial experiments where little or no transient expression was detected. Over 100 transformed lines expressing the marker gene beta-glucuronidase (GUS) were generated from rapidly dividing embryogenic suspension-cultured cells co-cultivated with Agrobacterium. GUS activity was used to monitor transient expression and to further test lines selected on kanamycin-containing medium. In loblolly pine, transient expression increased 10-fold utilizing modified Agrobacterium strains. Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer is a useful technique for large-scale generation of transgenic Norway spruce and may prove useful for other conifer species.

  19. Effects of physical blockage of axial phloem transport on growth of Norway spruce (Picea abies) saplings under drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas; Winkler, Andrea; Lethaus, Gina; Wieser, Gerhard

    2016-04-01

    Early culmination of maximum radial growth in late spring was found in several coniferous species in a dry inner Alpine environment (Oberhuber et al. 2014). We hypothesized that early decrease in radial stem growth is an adaptation to cope with drought stress, which might require an early switch of carbon allocation to belowground organs. To test this hypothesis we manipulated tree carbon status by physical blockage of phloem transport and soil water availability of Norway spruce saplings (tree height c. 1.5 m) in a common garden experiment to investigate influence of carbon availability and drought on above- and belowground growth. Girdling occurred at different phenological stages during the growing season, i.e., before growth onset, and during earlywood and latewood formation. Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC, soluble sugars and starch) were determined before and after the growing season to evaluate change in tree carbon status. Tree ring analysis revealed that compared to non-girdled controls earlywood width above girdling strikingly increased by c. 170 and 440 %, while latewood width decreased by c. 85 and 55 % in watered and drought stressed trees, respectively. Below girdling no xylem formation was detected. Unexpectedly, preliminary analyses of carbon status revealed striking reduction (c. -80 %) of NSC above and below girdling. Most likely due to reductions in xylem hydraulic conductance, girdling before growth onset reduced leader shoot growth compared to non-girdled controls by c. 45 %, irrespective of water availability. Root dry mass of girdled trees was significantly reduced compared to non-girdled controls (c. 30 % in drought stressed and 45 % in watered trees; p < 0.001). Results suggest that in Norway spruce saplings (1) carbon availability affects radial stem growth, (2) higher basipetal carbon transport occurs under drought supporting our hypothesis of early switch of carbon allocation to belowground when drought stress prevails and (3) minor acropetal transport of carbon from carbon stores in the root system to the stem. We conclude that physical manipulation of carbon availability by disruption of phloem transport is a valuable tool to study relevance of carbon status for tree growth exposed to environmental stress. This study was funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF): P25643-B16 "Carbon allocation and growth of Scots pine". Reference Oberhuber W, A Gruber, W Kofler, I Swidrak (2014) Radial stem growth in response to microclimate and soil moisture in a drought-prone mixed coniferous forest at an inner Alpine site. Eur J For Res 133:467-479.

  20. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals that Red and Blue Light Regulate Growth and Phytohormone Metabolism in Norway Spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst].

    PubMed

    OuYang, Fangqun; Mao, Jian-Feng; Wang, Junhui; Zhang, Shougong; Li, Yue

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms by which different light spectra regulate plant shoot elongation vary, and phytohormones respond differently to such spectrum-associated regulatory effects. Light supplementation can effectively control seedling growth in Norway spruce. However, knowledge of the effective spectrum for promoting growth and phytohormone metabolism in this species is lacking. In this study, 3-year-old Norway spruce clones were illuminated for 12 h after sunset under blue or red light-emitting diode (LED) light for 90 d, and stem increments and other growth traits were determined. Endogenous hormone levels and transcriptome differences in the current needles were assessed to identify genes related to the red and blue light regulatory responses. The results showed that the stem increment and gibberellin (GA) levels of the seedlings illuminated by red light were 8.6% and 29.0% higher, respectively, than those of the seedlings illuminated by blue light. The indoleacetic acid (IAA) level of the seedlings illuminated by red light was 54.6% lower than that of the seedlings illuminated by blue light, and there were no significant differences in abscisic acid (ABA) or zeatin riboside [ZR] between the two groups of seedlings. The transcriptome results revealed 58,736,166 and 60,555,192 clean reads for the blue-light- and red-light-illuminated samples, respectively. Illumina sequencing revealed 21,923 unigenes, and 2744 (approximately 93.8%) out of 2926 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found to be upregulated under blue light. The main KEGG classifications of the DEGs were metabolic pathway (29%), biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (20.49%) and hormone signal transduction (8.39%). With regard to hormone signal transduction, AUXIN-RESISTANT1 (AUX1), AUX/IAA genes, auxin-inducible genes, and early auxin-responsive genes [(auxin response factor (ARF) and small auxin-up RNA (SAUR)] were all upregulated under blue light compared with red light, which might have yielded the higher IAA level. DELLA and phytochrome-interacting factor 3 (PIF3), involved in negative GA signaling, were also upregulated under blue light, which may be related to the lower GA level. Light quality also affects endogenous hormones by influencing secondary metabolism. Blue light promoted phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, phenylalanine metabolism, flavonoid biosynthesis and flavone and flavonol biosynthesis, accompanied by upregulation of most of the genes in their pathways. In conclusion, red light may promote stem growth by regulating biosynthesis of GAs, and blue light may promote flavonoid, lignin, phenylpropanoid and some hormones (such as jasmonic acid) which were related to plant defense in Norway spruce, which might reduce the primary metabolites available for plant growth. PMID:26237749

  1. Attributional Bias Instrument (ABI): Validation of a Measure to Assess Ability and Effort Explanations for Math Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Penelope P.; Quezada, Stephanie A.; Rincones, Rodolfo; Strobach, E. Natalia; Gutierrez, Maria Armida Estrada

    2012-01-01

    The present work investigates the validation of a newly developed instrument, the attributional bias instrument, based on achievement attribution theories that distinguish between effort and ability explanations of behavior. The instrument further incorporates the distinction between explanations for success versus failure in academic performance.…

  2. A Phase 1 Study of CC-486 as a Single Agent and in Combination With Carboplatin or ABI-007 in Subjects With Relapsed or Refractory Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-23

    Urinary Bladder Neoplasms; Carcinoma, Transitional Cell; Ovarian Neoplasms; Fallopian Tube Neoplasms; Peritoneal Neoplasms; Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung; Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal; Tumor Virus Infections

  3. Development and application of quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay based on the ABI 7700 system (TaqMan) for detection and quantification of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung G; Shin, Sang J; Jacobson, Richard H; Miller, Loretta J; Harpending, Peter R; Stehman, Susan M; Rossiter, Christine A; Lein, Donald A

    2002-03-01

    Numerous reports have described diagnostic methods based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) used to detect Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, the causative agent of Johne's disease. The result of conventional PCR tests has been only qualitative, either positive or negative; it does not present any quantitative information about the number of the agents in the specimen. A quantitative PCR method (IS900 TaqMan) was developed to measure the number of M. a. paratuberculosis organisms present in field and clinical samples. The sensitivity of IS900 TaqMan was 1 colony-forming unit (CFU) for M. a. paratuberculosis ATCC 19698. The specificity of the method was determined by testing 14 mycobacterial species (M. abscessus, M. asiaticum, M. avium subsp. avium, M. bovis, M. fortuitum subsp. fortuitum, M. intracellulare, M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. phlei, M. scrofulaceum, M. simiae, M. smegmatis, M. terrae, and M. ulcerans) and 9 nonmycobacterial species (Borrelia burgdorferi, Chlamydia psittaci, Ehrlichia canis, E. equi, E. risticii, Escherichia coli, E. coli O157:H7, Streptococcus equi, and S. zooepidemicus). Even at high cell numbers (10(5) CFU/reaction), most of the organisms tested negative for the IS900 insertion element except M. marinum and M. scrofulaceum. This finding for M. scrofulaceum was consistent with previous reports that several M. scrofulaceum-like isolates were positive for IS900. Those isolates had 71-79% homology with M. a. paratuberculosis in the region of IS900. When used in conjunction with the new liquid medium-based ESP culture system II for bovine clinical fecal samples, IS900 TaqMan confirmed that the ESP II-positive samples contained 10(5)-10(6) CFU/ml of M. a. paratuberculosis. All of the 222 ESP II-positive and acid-fast bacilli-positive samples tested in this study were positive by IS900 TaqMan. IS900 TaqMan was also useful in the study of growth characteristics of 3 groups of M. a. paratuberculosis strains in bovine fecal samples from 3 shedding levels (heavy, medium, and low) based on cell numbers measured by Herrold egg yolk (HEY) agar culture. When cultured in ESP medium, M. a. paratuberculosis reached 10(5)-10(6) CFU/ml within 2 weeks for heavy shedders, 3-4 weeks for medium, and 6-8 weeks for low shedders. No significant growth was observed after up to 5 weeks of incubation for some of low shedders. No or extremely slow growth characteristic of low shedders might be a possible explanation for frequent false-negative results by HEY. The detection time was dependent on the inoculum size and the growth rate of M. a. paratuberculosis. Generation times were inversely proportional to the shedding level: 1-2 days for medium and heavy shedders and >4 days for low shedders. IS900 TaqMan could be a useful tool for determining viable cell counts by measuring changes in cell numbers over the incubation period. PMID:11939333

  4. ABiO2X (A = Cd, Ca, Sr, Ba, Pb; X = halogen) Sillen X1 Series: Polymorphism Versus Optical Properties.

    PubMed

    Olchowka, Jacob; Kabbour, Houria; Colmont, Marie; Adlung, Matthias; Wickleder, Claudia; Mentré, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    The Sillen X1 series of Bi(3+)A(2+)O2X (A = Cd, Ca, Sr, Ba, Pb; X = Cl, Br, I) compounds is composed of three main crystallographic types, namely, the tetragonal form (space group (S.G.) I4/mmm), the orthorhombic form (S.G. Cmcm), and the monoclinic form (S.G. P21/m). Because of Bi(3+)/A(2+) disorder the Bi(3+) based photoluminescence (PL) of the tetragonal polytypes is quenched at room temperature (RT). In the two other ordered forms, the Bi-O-Bi connectivity is different but limited, such that bluish/greenish emission occurs at RT in the monoclinic CdBiO2Cl and CaBiO2Cl and orthorhombic SrBiO2Cl and BaBiO2Cl phases. The crystal structure of BaBiO2Br was refined in the orthorhombic Cmcm space group and also shows RT emission. Focusing on the RT luminescent activity as a key parameter, the PL active compounds were investigated by means of density functional theory calculations and UV-visible reflectance spectroscopy. The influence of A and X ions on the excitation energy is discussed by analyzing the A-O-Bi and Bi-X bonding schemes and gives some insights for rational tuning of both the excitation and emission energies. PMID:27414069

  5. Short-term effects of whole-tree and stem-only harvesting on C and N fluxes in two Picea abies stands, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janne Kjønaas, O.; Clarke, Nicholas; Eldhuset, Toril; Hietala, Ari; Cross, Hugh; Holt Hanssen, Kjersti; Økland, Tonje; Lange, Holger; Frode Nordbakken, Jørn; Røsberg, Ingvald

    2015-04-01

    Tree harvest and different harvesting methods may affect the soil carbon (C) pool in forest ecosystems. In conventional stem-only timber harvesting (SOH), branches and tops that are left in the forests may contribute to the build-up of the soil carbon pool. In whole-tree harvesting (WTH), inputs of organic matter from branches and tops are strongly reduced. We established field experiments at Gaupen, SE and Vindberg, SW Norway, to study the short-term effects of SOH and WTH on processes affecting the accumulation and loss of soil C. Logging residues on the WTH plots were collected in piles that were removed after 6 months, rendering two sub treatments (WTH-pile and WTH-removal areas). We weighed selected trees and logging residues, surveyed understorey biomass production, quantified pre-harvest soil C and nutrient pools down to 30 cm. Soil respiration was measured and soil water sampled monthly during the growing season, while temperature and moisture were measured continuously. Organic and mineral horizons were incubated at different temperatures to estimate potential C and N mineralization, and deep sequencing of the ITS2 barcode region of fungal DNA was performed on the samples. Litterbags were deployed in the SOH plots. The logging residues amounted to 2.2-2.4 kg C m-2. At Gaupen, the mean in situ soil respiration rates increased following harvest with all treatments, but were significantly higher in WTH-pile and SOH relative to the WTH-removal areas in the first year as well as the fourth year of treatment. The former rates included aboveground decomposing needles and twigs but excluded coarser branches. The observed increase in the WTH-removal areas may be related to decomposing roots, as well as to increased C mineralization partly due to the higher soil temperatures following harvest. Soil temperature was the single most important factor explaining the variability in soil respiration rates over all treatments. At Vindberg, a decrease in soil respiration was observed with all treatments in the second and third years following harvest. At both sites, decomposition of logging residues from needles was more rapid relative to twigs and fine roots. The decomposing residues released a substantial amount of nitrogen which was gradually reflected in the soil water at 30 cm soil depth. A considerable increase in the NO3-N concentration also in the WTH-removal areas in the second year following harvest suggests an increase in N availability from decomposing fine roots and/or soil organic matter. The increased N availability in the WTH-removal areas was supported by results from short term lab incubations of undisturbed soil from the forest floor. The changes in the WTH-removal areas were also reflected in the soil fungal diversity: saprophytic ascomycetes on decaying plant material showed a striking increase in all treatments. For the WTH-removal areas, this may, again, be related to the increased input of root litter; however, the decrease in mycorrhizal basidiomycete species and the vigorous increase of ascomycetes following harvest may also affect the C mineralization of soil organic matter.

  6. February-May temperature reconstruction based on tree-ring widths of Abies fargesii from the Shennongjia area in central China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yonghong; Shao, Xuemei; Lu, Fei; Li, Yan

    2016-08-01

    February-May temperature strongly affects ecological processes and socio-economics in central China, yet its long-term variability has not been thoroughly assessed due to the shortness of instrumental records. In order to improve the understanding of the regularities of temperature variability in central China, in this study, we present a new tree-ring chronology from the Shengnongjia Mountains in central China which provides a valuable 245-year record of temperature variability. The reconstructed temperature correlated strongly with February-May mean temperature records of the Fangxian meteorological station from AD 1958 to AD 2011, and the derived reconstruction explained 44.5 % of the instrumental temperature variation during this period. The study shows that this region experienced three warm periods and two cool periods, i.e., the major warm periods occurred in AD 1783-1806, AD 1879-1909, and AD 1975 to the present, whereas the cool intervals occurred in AD 1807-1878 and AD 1910-1974. This reconstruction could aid in the evaluation of regional climate variability in subtropical China.

  7. Comparison of VOC emissions between air-dried and heat-treated Norway spruce ( Picea abies), Scots pine ( Pinus sylvesteris) and European aspen ( Populus tremula) wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyttinen, Marko; Masalin-Weijo, Marika; Kalliokoski, Pentti; Pasanen, Pertti

    2010-12-01

    Heat-treated wood is an increasingly popular decoration material. Heat-treatment improves dimensional stability of the wood and also prevents rot fungus growth. Although production of heat-treated wood has been rapidly increasing, there is only little information about the VOC emissions of heat-treated wood and its possible influences on indoor air quality. In the present study, VOC emissions from three untreated (air-dried) and heat-treated wood species were compared during a four weeks test period. It appeared that different wood species had clearly different VOC emission profiles. Heat-treatment was found to decrease VOC emissions significantly and change their composition. Especially, emissions of terpenes decreased from softwood samples and aldehydes from European aspen samples. Emissions of total aldehydes and organic acids were at the same level or slightly higher from heat treated than air-dried softwood samples. In agreement with another recent study, the emissions of furfural were found to increase and those of hexanal to decrease from all the wood species investigated. In contrast to air-dried wood samples, emissions of VOCs were almost in steady state from heat treated wood samples even in the beginning of the test.

  8. Screening of abscisic acid insensative (ABI) and low phosphorous efficiency (LPE) mutants from some sequenced lines in the sorghum TILLING population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum population for Targeting Induced Local Lesion IN Genome (TILLING) was generated from BTx623 in 2005 and publicly available in 2009. After releasing to the public, this population was intensively screened by morphological observation in the field and a number of mutants with useful traits wer...

  9. Belowground effects of enhanced tropospheric ozone and drought in a beech/spruce forest (Fagus sylvatica L./Picea abies [L.] Karst).

    PubMed

    Nikolova, Petia S; Andersen, Christian P; Blaschke, Helmut; Matyssek, Rainer; Häberle, Karl-Heinz

    2010-04-01

    The effects of experimentally elevated O(3) on soil respiration rates, standing fine-root biomass, fine-root production and delta(13)C signature of newly produced fine roots were investigated in an adult European beech/Norway spruce forest in Germany during two subsequent years with contrasting rainfall patterns. During humid 2002, soil respiration rate was enhanced under elevated O(3) under beech and spruce, and was related to O(3)-stimulated fine-root production only in beech. During dry 2003, the stimulating effect of O(3) on soil respiration rate vanished under spruce, which was correlated with decreased fine-root production in spruce under drought, irrespective of the O(3) regime. delta(13)C signature of newly formed fine-roots was consistent with the differing g(s) of beech and spruce, and indicated stomatal limitation by O(3) in beech and by drought in spruce. Our study showed that drought can override the stimulating O(3) effects on fine-root dynamics and soil respiration in mature beech and spruce forests.

  10. Interactions of thinning and stem height on the drought response of radial stem growth and isotopic composition of Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Sohn, Julia A; Kohler, Martin; Gessler, Arthur; Bauhus, Jürgen

    2012-10-01

    Radial stem growth and the isotopic composition of growth rings are commonly used to quantify the effects of droughts on trees. However, often these parameters are quantified only at one stem height, e.g., 1.3 m, and it is not known how representative this is for the whole stem. This study investigated radial growth at four stem heights (1.3, 5.5, 9.8 and 14 m) of 21, and wood Δ(13)C and δ(18)O at two heights (1.3 and 14 m) of 10 (co-)dominant Norway spruce trees from heavily (HT) and moderately thinned (MT) stands to assess whether different thinning intensities influenced the drought response of stems at different tree heights. Annual basal area increments (BAIs) and stable isotopes in earlywood and latewood were compared between thinning treatments and among the different stem heights. For BAIs, linear correlations with climate were analysed as well. The response of radial growth and isotopic composition to drought was similar at different stem heights in HT trees, but varied with height in MT trees, which were also more sensitive to climatic variations. Recovery of radial growth after drought was more rapid in trees from HT compared with MT stands, except for the topmost height. Basal area increments at breast height (1.3 m) provided good estimates of the volume growth response to drought for the whole stem, but not for its recovery. The faster recovery of radial growth at 1.3 m height of HT compared with MT trees after the 2003 drought was not accompanied by differences in recovery of isotopic composition. However, this is likely to be related to differences between treatments in remobilization of stored C and in tree structure (leaf area, root systems).

  11. Whole-tree seasonal nitrogen uptake and partitioning in adult Fagus sylvatica L. and Picea abies L. [Karst.] trees exposed to elevated ground-level ozone.

    PubMed

    Weigt, R B; Häberle, K H; Rötzer, T; Matyssek, R

    2015-01-01

    The effect of long-term exposure of twice-ambient O(3) (2 × O(3)) on whole-tree nitrogen (N) uptake and partitioning of adult beech and spruce was studied in a mixed forest stand, SE-Germany. N uptake as (15)N tracer and N pools were calculated using N concentrations and biomass of tree compartments. Whole-tree N uptake tended to be lower under 2 × O(3) in both species compared to trees under ambient O(3) (1 × O(3)). Internal partitioning in beech showed significantly higher allocation of new N to roots, with mycorrhizal root tips and fine roots together receiving about 17% of new N (2 × O(3)) versus 7% (1 × O(3)). Conversely, in spruce, N allocation to roots was decreased under 2 × O(3). These contrasting effects on belowground N partitioning and pool sizes, being largely consistent with the pattern of N concentrations, suggest enhanced N demand and consumption of stored N with higher relevance for tree-internal N cycling in beech than in spruce.

  12. February-May temperature reconstruction based on tree-ring widths of Abies fargesii from the Shennongjia area in central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yonghong; Shao, Xuemei; Lu, Fei; Li, Yan

    2016-08-01

    February-May temperature strongly affects ecological processes and socio-economics in central China, yet its long-term variability has not been thoroughly assessed due to the shortness of instrumental records. In order to improve the understanding of the regularities of temperature variability in central China, in this study, we present a new tree-ring chronology from the Shengnongjia Mountains in central China which provides a valuable 245-year record of temperature variability. The reconstructed temperature correlated strongly with February-May mean temperature records of the Fangxian meteorological station from AD 1958 to AD 2011, and the derived reconstruction explained 44.5 % of the instrumental temperature variation during this period. The study shows that this region experienced three warm periods and two cool periods, i.e., the major warm periods occurred in AD 1783-1806, AD 1879-1909, and AD 1975 to the present, whereas the cool intervals occurred in AD 1807-1878 and AD 1910-1974. This reconstruction could aid in the evaluation of regional climate variability in subtropical China.

  13. ABI1 and PP2CA Phosphatases Are Negative Regulators of Snf1-Related Protein Kinase1 Signaling in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Américo; Adamo, Mattia; Crozet, Pierre; Margalha, Leonor; Confraria, Ana; Martinho, Cláudia; Elias, Alexandre; Rabissi, Agnese; Lumbreras, Victoria; González-Guzmán, Miguel; Antoni, Regina; Rodriguez, Pedro L.; Baena-González, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Plant survival under environmental stress requires the integration of multiple signaling pathways into a coordinated response, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this integration are poorly understood. Stress-derived energy deprivation activates the Snf1-related protein kinases1 (SnRK1s), triggering a vast transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming that restores homeostasis and promotes tolerance to adverse conditions. Here, we show that two clade A type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), established repressors of the abscisic acid (ABA) hormonal pathway, interact with the SnRK1 catalytic subunit causing its dephosphorylation and inactivation. Accordingly, SnRK1 repression is abrogated in double and quadruple pp2c knockout mutants, provoking, similarly to SnRK1 overexpression, sugar hypersensitivity during early seedling development. Reporter gene assays and SnRK1 target gene expression analyses further demonstrate that PP2C inhibition by ABA results in SnRK1 activation, promoting SnRK1 signaling during stress and once the energy deficit subsides. Consistent with this, SnRK1 and ABA induce largely overlapping transcriptional responses. Hence, the PP2C hub allows the coordinated activation of ABA and energy signaling, strengthening the stress response through the cooperation of two key and complementary pathways. PMID:24179127

  14. Below-ground effects of enhanced tropospheric ozone and drought in a beech/spruce forest (Fagus sylvatica L. / Picea abies [L.] Karst)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of experimentally elevated O3 on soil respiration rates, standing fine-root biomass, fine-root production and δ13C signature of newly produced fine roots were investigated in an adult European beech/Norway spruce forest in Germany during two subsequent years with cont...

  15. Moderate effects of reforestation with Norway spruce (Picea abies) on carbon storage and turnover in a Swiss sub-alpine pasture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiltbrunner, D.; Hagedorn, F.; Niklaus, P. A.; Zimmermann, S.; Schmidt, M. W. I.

    2012-04-01

    In alpine regions the forested area is strongly increasing through woody plant encroachment on abandoned pastures or by man-made afforestations. These natural or artificial reforestations, in fact, have several implications on the nutrient cycling between plants and soils and thus, are likely to affect carbon turnover. Although afforestations are to be accounted as a sink according to the Kyoto protocol, there are still uncertainties about their effects on the soil carbon storage. In the present study, we assessed soils under pasture, an adjacent chronosequence of spruce afforestations (25-45 years) and a mature spruce forest (older than 120 years) on a homogenous slope in a Swiss sub-alpine ecosystem. While the soil bulk densities were not affected by the land use change, carbon concentrations in the mineral soil decreased 25-45 years after tree establishment. However, no differences between pasture and the mature forest were apparent, indicating that the C-loss after land use conversion was only transient. Up to 2.5kg m-2 C was additionally stored in the organic layer of the oldest stands, resulting in a net C gain in the old forest soils. C:N-ratios of the soil organic matter (SOM) considerably increased with stand age in the uppermost soil layer, displaying the distinct chemical composition of the plant input. In accordance, a shift of the δ13C natural abundance of the SOM in the uppermost mineral layer towards a less negative signal was observed with tree development. The abundance of soil microorganisms, as identified by their phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), was only moderately affected by vegetation type in the mineral soils. In contrast, a strong alteration of the microbial community composition with a decreasing proportion of fungi from the organic layers to the uppermost mineral layer was observable. Our results show that afforestation with spruce trees on an extensively used sub-alpine pasture only led to a transient loss of C in the mineral soils. In contrast, the accumulation of additional C in the organic layer resulted in higher C-stocks in the old forest as compared to the pasture. Therefore, afforestation with coniferous trees is likely to increase the total amount of C stored, particularly if also the plant biomass is taken into account.

  16. Changes in the relationships between climate and silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) growth during the 20th century in the Tuscan Apennine Alps (Middle Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Aprile, F.; Tapper, N.; Baker, P.; Bartolozzi, L.; Bottacci, A.

    2012-04-01

    In the Tuscan Apennine Alps, recent research has shown that similarity in trends of monthly climate variables (i.e., temperature and rainfall) is non-stationary amongst sites during the 20th century even between sites that differ little in elevation and at a relatively short distance from each other (D'Aprile et al., 2010; D'Aprile et al., 2011). Moreover, the level of correlation between series of monthly climate variables varies irregularly from highly positive to negative over time. We hypothesised that those changing climate conditions, even at the local level, could cause different tree-ring growth responses in silver fir amongst sites. The hypothesis was tested by dendroclimatological analysis, which was applied to study stands in silver fir forests close to the meteorological stations where climate analysis has been made. Results show that the influences of both monthly mean temperature and monthly rainfall on silver fir growth vary greatly during the 20th century in the Tuscan Apennine Alps, and the ways that they change differ with month and amongst sites. Within sites, differences in the relationships between climate variables and silver fir tree-ring growth appear small in spite of different elevation of the study stands. These results contribute a changing point in forest planning and management especially in consideration of the need to adapt forest management and interventions to changing climate conditions and mitigate the impacts on silver fir forests. Moreover, they introduce climate variability as a key parameter in sustainable forest management for biodiversity conservation, socially responsible uses, nature conservation, and survival of the only conifer tree species typical of mountain mixed forest ecosystems in the Apennine Alps.

  17. Stable isotope record in annually laminated lake sediments from Lake Żabińskie (NE Poland) for the last millennium.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabryś, Alicja; Piotrowska, Natalia; Tylmann, Wojciech; Bonk, Alicja; Filipiak, Janusz; Wacnik, Agnieszka; Hernandez-Almeida, Ivan; Grosjean, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Stable isotope record of carbon (13C) and oxygen (18O) has been analysed from an annually laminated sediment from Lake Zabinskie (Mazurian Lakeland, NE Poland) with high resolution (1-3 yrs). The sediment layers which were formed in each year during the last millennium contain information about environmental changes in the past. The calcite layers are formed in lake sediment in warm months of the year, therefore the reconstruction of summer climate variables in the past is potentially possible. The investigation of correlation between isotope dataset and instrumental climate data for years 1897-2008 AD confirmed that theory. The record of temperature, precipitation and SPEI (Standardised Precipitation Evaporation Index) coefficient, which is a combination of both temperature and precipitation, was tested. The strongest linear correlations were found for most samples for June, July, August (JJA) months but in some cases the correlation coefficient was stronger when also May was taken into account. For the whole 120-yrs series the correlation between δ18O and average JJA temperature is 0.007, average JJA precipitation is 0.16 and average JJA SPEI is 0.20. Analyzing the results for 1897-2008 we can distinguish period 1960-2008 with relevantly stronger correlations: R(temperature) = 0.19, R(precipitation) = 0.20 and R(SPEI) = 0.45. This period is connected with cessation of human activity close to Lake Zabinskie. Reconstruction of climate variables for the last millennium was made using transfer function obtained for calibration period (1897-2008). Reconstructions showed that known climate extremes like Medieval Warm Period, Little Ice Age with Sporer (1420-1570), Maunder (1645-1715) and Dalton (1790-1820) Minimum was recorded in sediment from Lake Zabinskie. The presented study is a part of the project "Climate of northern Poland during the last 1000 years: Constraining the future with the past (CLIMPOL)", funded within Polish-Swiss Research Programme. http://www.climpol.ug.edu.pl

  18. Ozone exposure-response relationships for biomass and root/shoot ratio of beech (Fagus sylvatica), ash (Fraxinus excelsior), Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris).

    PubMed

    Landolt, W; Bühlmann, U; Bleuler, P; Bucher, J B

    2000-09-01

    Current-year seedlings of beech, ash, Norway spruce and Scots pine were exposed during one growing season to different, but moderate, ozone (O(3)) scenarios representative for Switzerland (50, 85, 100% ambient, 50% ambient+30 nl l(-1)) in open-top chambers (OTCs) and to ambient O(3) concentrations in the field. Biomass significantly decreased with increasing O(3) dose in all species except for spruce. Losses of 25.5% (ash), 17.4% (beech), 9.9% (Scots pine) were found per 10 microl l(-1) h accumulated O(3) exposure over a threshold concentration of 40 nl l(-1) during daylight hours (AOT40). Ratios of root/shoot biomass (RSR) also significantly decreased with increasing AOT40 levels in beech and ash, but not in Norway spruce and Scots pine. The data show that the deciduous species beech and ash were more susceptible to O(3) with respect to RSR and biomass than the coniferous species Norway spruce and Scots pine.

  19. Chemical Profiling of Re-Du-Ning Injection by Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Electrospray Ionization Tandem Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry through the Screening of Diagnostic Ions in MSE Mode

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenzhong; Geng, Jianliang; Dai, Yi; Xiao, Wei; Yao, Xinsheng

    2015-01-01

    The broad applications and mechanism explorations of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions (TCMPs) require a clear understanding of TCMP chemical constituents. In the present study, we describe an efficient and universally applicable analytical approach based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q/TOF-MS) with the MSE (E denotes collision energy) data acquisition mode, which allowed the rapid separation and reliable determination of TCMP chemical constituents. By monitoring diagnostic ions in the high energy function of MSE, target peaks of analogous compounds in TCMPs could be rapidly screened and identified. “Re-Du-Ning” injection (RDN), a eutherapeutic traditional Chinese medicine injection (TCMI) that has been widely used to reduce fever caused by viral infections in clinical practice, was studied as an example. In total, 90 compounds, including five new iridoids and one new sesquiterpene, were identified or tentatively characterized by accurate mass measurements within 5 ppm error. This analysis was accompanied by MS fragmentation and reference standard comparison analyses. Furthermore, the herbal sources of these compounds were unambiguously confirmed by comparing the extracted ion chromatograms (EICs) of RDN and ingredient herbal extracts. Our work provides a certain foundation for further studies of RDN. Moreover, the analytical approach developed herein has proven to be generally applicable for profiling the chemical constituents in TCMPs and other complicated mixtures. PMID:25875968

  20. Reproductive potential of balsam fir (Abies balsamea), white spruce (Picea glauca), and black spruce (P. mariana) at the ecotone between mixedwood and coniferous forests in the boreal zone of western Quebec.

    PubMed

    Messaoud, Yassine; Bergeron, Yves; Asselin, Hugo

    2007-05-01

    The reproductive potentials of balsam fir and white spruce (co-dominants in mixedwood forests) and black spruce (dominant in coniferous forests) were studied to explain the location of the ecotone between the two forest types in the boreal zone of Quebec. Four sites were selected along a latitudinal gradient crossing the ecotone. Cone crop, number of seeds per cone, percentage filled seeds, and percentage germination were measured for each species. Balsam fir and white spruce cone crops were significantly lower in the coniferous than in the mixedwood forest, while black spruce had greater crop constancy and regularity between both forest types. Mast years were more frequent for black spruce than for balsam fir in both forest types (mast year data not available for white spruce). The number of seeds per cone was more related to cone size than to forest type for all species. Black spruce produced more filled seeds in the coniferous forest than balsam fir or white spruce. The sum of growing degree-days and the maximum temperature of the warmest month (both for the year prior to cone production) significantly affected balsam fir cone production. The climate-related northward decrease in reproductive potential of balsam fir and white spruce could partly explain the position of the northern limit of the mixedwood forest. This could change drastically, however, as the ongoing climate warming might cancel this competitive advantage of black spruce.

  1. FGA Variants

    Science.gov Websites

    ... Smirnova 124 Armed Forces Central Forensic ... ABI 310 PS Michael Mathews, Illinois State Police Observed in five forensic samples and in each ... M U F S C 46.1 329.37 ABI 310 PS Ryan Porter, ...

  2. 19 CFR 143.1 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Interface (ABI) is a module of the Customs Automated Commercial System (ACS) which allows participants to transmit data electronically to CBP through ABI and to receive transmissions through ACS. Its purposes...

  3. Acquired Brain Injury Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Stacey Hunter

    This paper reviews the Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) Program at Coastline Community College (California). The ABI Program is a two-year, for-credit educational curriculum designed to provide structured cognitive retraining for adults who have sustained an ABI due to traumatic (such as motor vehicle accident or fall) or non-traumatic(such as…

  4. Ankle brachial index values, leg symptoms, and functional performance among community-dwelling older men and women in the lifestyle interventions and independence for elders study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence and significance of low normal and abnormal ankle brachial index (ABI) values in a community dwelling population of sedentary, older individuals is unknown. We describe the prevalence of categories of definite peripheral artery disease (PAD), borderline ABI, low-normal ABI and no PAD...

  5. Meeting the Needs of Persons with Acquired Brain Injury in the Republic of Ireland: A Contextual Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degeneffe, Charles Edmund; Fullerton, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This article examines how the Republic of Ireland conceptualizes disability, specifically acquired brain injury (ABI); how it meets the needs of people with ABI; and its similarities and difference with the U.S. system of ABI professional care, policy, and services. The article provides ideas for improvements and innovations toward ABI…

  6. Molecular characterization of an ABA insensitive 5 orthologue in Brassica oleracea.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaona; Yuan, Feifei; Wang, Mengyao; Guo, Aiguang; Zhang, Yanfeng; Xie, Chang Gen

    2013-01-18

    ABI5 (ABA insensitive 5), a bZIP (Basic leucine zipper) transcription factor, has been shown to be a major mediator of plant ABA responses during seed germination. Although the molecular basis of ABI5-modulated processes has been well demonstrated in Arabidopsis thaliana, its identity and function in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) remain elusive. Here, we describe our identification of BolABI5 (an ABI5 orthologue in B.oleracea) as a functional bZIP transcription factor in the modulation of plant ABA responses. Expression of BolABI5 was dramatically induced by drought stress and exogenous ABA. Heterogeneous expression of BolABI5 rescued the insensitive phenotype of Arabidopsis abi5-1 to ABA during seed germination. Subcellular localization and trans-activation assays revealed that BolABI5 was localized in the nucleus and possessed DNA binding and trans-activation activities. Deletion of the bZIP domain generated BolABI5ΔbZIP, which no longer localized exclusively in the nucleus and had almost no detectable DNA-binding or trans-activation activities. Overall, these results suggest that BolABI5 may function as ABI5 in the positive regulation of plant ABA responses. PMID:23246838

  7. Surrogates of Large Artery versus Small Artery Stiffness and Ankle-Brachial Index

    PubMed Central

    Korhonen, Päivi; Syvänen, Kari; Aarnio, Pertti

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral artery tonometry (PAT) is a novel method for assessing arterial stiffness of small digital arteries. Pulse pressure can be regarded as a surrogate of large artery stiffness. When ankle-brachial index (ABI) is calculated using the higher of the two ankle systolic pressures as denominator (ABI-higher), leg perfusion can be reliably estimated. However, using the lower of the ankle pressures to calculate ABI (ABI-lower) identifies more patients with isolated peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in ankle arteries. We aimed to compare the ability of PAT, pulse pressure, and different calculations of ABI to detect atherosclerotic disease in lower extremities. We examined PAT, pulse pressure, and ABI in 66 cardiovascular risk subjects in whom borderline PAD (ABI 0.91 to 1.00) was diagnosed 4 years earlier. Using ABI-lower to diagnose PAD yielded 2-fold higher prevalence of PAD than using ABI-higher. Endothelial dysfunction was diagnosed in 15/66 subjects (23%). In a bivariate correlation analysis, pulse pressure was negatively correlated with ABI-higher (r = −0.347, p = 0.004) and with ABI-lower (r = −0.424, p < 0.001). PAT hyperemic response was not significantly correlated with either ABI-higher (r = −0.148, p = 0.24) or with ABI-lower (r = −0.208, p = 0.095). Measurement of ABI using the lower of the two ankle pressures is an efficient method to identify patients with clinical or subclinical atherosclerosis and worth performing on subjects with pulse pressure above 65 mm Hg. The usefulness of PAT measurement in detecting PAD is vague. PMID:22942632

  8. Evaluation of a multicapillary electrophoresis instrument for mitochondrial DNA typing.

    PubMed

    Stewart, John E B; Aagaard, Patricia J; Pokorak, Eric G; Polanskey, Deborah; Budowle, Bruce

    2003-05-01

    Laser-induced detection of fluorescent labeled PCR products and multi-wavelength detection (i.e., multicolor analysis) enables rapid generation of mtDNA sequencing profiles. Traditionally, polyacrylamide slab gels have been used as the electrophoretic medium for mtDNA sequencing in forensic analyses. Replacement of slab gel electrophoresis with capillary electrophoresis (CE) can facilitate automation of the analytical process. Automation and high throughput can be further enhanced by using multicapillary electrophoretic systems. The use of the ABI Prism 3100 Genetic Analyzer (ABI 3100, Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) as well as the ABI Prism 310 Genetic Analyzer (ABI 310, Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) were evaluated for mtDNA sequencing capabilities and compared with sequencing results obtained on the platform currently in use in the FBI Laboratory (the ABI Prism 377 DNA Sequencer, ABI 377, Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). Various studies were performed to assess the utility of the ABI 3100, as well as the ABI 310 for mtDNA sequencing. The tests included: comparisons of results obtained among the ABI 3100, the ABI 310 and the ABI 377 instruments; comparisons of results obtained within and between capillary arrays; evaluation of capillary length; evaluation of sample injection time; evaluation of the resolution of mixtures/heteroplasmic samples; and evaluation of the sensitivity of detection of a minor component with reduced template on the ABI 3100. In addition, other studies were performed to improve sample preparation; these included: comparison of template suppression reagent (TSR, Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) versus formamide; the use of Performa DTR Gel Filtration Cartridges (Edge BioSystems Inc., Gaithersburg, MD) versus Centri-Sep Spin Columns (Princeton Separations, Adelphia, NJ) for product purification after cycle sequencing; and sample stability after denaturation. The data support that valid and reliable results can be obtained

  9. Detection of peripheral arterial disease with an improved automated device: comparison of a new oscillometric device and the standard Doppler method.

    PubMed

    Špan, Matjaž; Geršak, Gregor; Millasseau, Sandrine C; Meža, Marko; Košir, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    In occidental countries, peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is an important health issue; however, most subjects are asymptomatic (~50%) and therefore undiagnosed and untreated. Current guidelines recommend screening for PAD in primary care setting using ankle brachial index (ABI) in all patients with cardiovascular risks. This is, however, not performed strictly because the standard Doppler method is cumbersome and time-consuming. Here, we evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of ABI measurements obtained by an improved automated oscillometric device, the MESI ABPI MD(®) device, and the standard Doppler method. ABI was measured in random order in a general practice with Doppler probes by two operators separately (ABI_dop) and twice with the MESI ABPI MD device (ABI_mesi). ABI_dop was calculated dividing the highest systolic blood pressure from both tibial and dorsalis pedis arteries by the highest systolic blood pressure of both brachial arteries. ABI_mesi was obtained automatically with simultaneous measurements on three extremities. According to ABI_dop, PAD was present in 10% of the 136 screened subjects (68.2±7.4 years). Interoperator coefficient of variation was 5.5% for ABI_dop, while the intrasubject coefficient of variation for ABI_mesi was 3.0%. ABI_mesi was correlated with ABI_dop (R=0.61, P<0.0001). The difference between the two techniques was 0.06±0.14 with ABI_mesi providing slightly higher values (P<0.0001) and negligible bias across the range (R=0.19, P<0.0001). Therefore, ABI_mesi ≤1 had a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 96% to detect ABI_dop ≤0.9 and hence PAD. Doppler measurements took seven times longer than MESI ABPI MD measurements to be performed. In conclusion, MESI improved automated oscillometric method and offered a faster and repeatable measurement of ABI with only a small, clinically irrelevant overestimation of ABI value. The tested MESI ABPI MD-improved oscillometric system can be used as a screening tool for patients

  10. Detection of peripheral arterial disease with an improved automated device: comparison of a new oscillometric device and the standard Doppler method

    PubMed Central

    Špan, Matjaž; Geršak, Gregor; Millasseau, Sandrine C; Meža, Marko; Košir, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    In occidental countries, peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is an important health issue; however, most subjects are asymptomatic (~50%) and therefore undiagnosed and untreated. Current guidelines recommend screening for PAD in primary care setting using ankle brachial index (ABI) in all patients with cardiovascular risks. This is, however, not performed strictly because the standard Doppler method is cumbersome and time-consuming. Here, we evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of ABI measurements obtained by an improved automated oscillometric device, the MESI ABPI MD® device, and the standard Doppler method. ABI was measured in random order in a general practice with Doppler probes by two operators separately (ABI_dop) and twice with the MESI ABPI MD device (ABI_mesi). ABI_dop was calculated dividing the highest systolic blood pressure from both tibial and dorsalis pedis arteries by the highest systolic blood pressure of both brachial arteries. ABI_mesi was obtained automatically with simultaneous measurements on three extremities. According to ABI_dop, PAD was present in 10% of the 136 screened subjects (68.2±7.4 years). Interoperator coefficient of variation was 5.5% for ABI_dop, while the intrasubject coefficient of variation for ABI_mesi was 3.0%. ABI_mesi was correlated with ABI_dop (R=0.61, P<0.0001). The difference between the two techniques was 0.06±0.14 with ABI_mesi providing slightly higher values (P<0.0001) and negligible bias across the range (R=0.19, P<0.0001). Therefore, ABI_mesi ≤1 had a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 96% to detect ABI_dop ≤0.9 and hence PAD. Doppler measurements took seven times longer than MESI ABPI MD measurements to be performed. In conclusion, MESI improved automated oscillometric method and offered a faster and repeatable measurement of ABI with only a small, clinically irrelevant overestimation of ABI value. The tested MESI ABPI MD-improved oscillometric system can be used as a screening tool for patients

  11. Hearing Restoration with Auditory Brainstem Implant

    PubMed Central

    NAKATOMI, Hirofumi; MIYAWAKI, Satoru; KIN, Taichi; SAITO, Nobuhito

    2016-01-01

    Auditory brainstem implant (ABI) technology attempts to restore hearing in deaf patients caused by bilateral cochlear nerve injury through the direct stimulation of the brainstem, but many aspects of the related mechanisms remain unknown. The unresolved issues can be grouped into three topics: which patients are the best candidates; which type of electrode should be used; and how to improve restored hearing. We evaluated our experience with 11 cases of ABI placement. We found that if at least seven of eleven electrodes of the MED-EL ABI are effectively placed in a patient with no deformation of the fourth ventricle, open set sentence recognition of approximately 20% and closed set word recognition of approximately 65% can be achieved only with the ABI. Appropriate selection of patients for ABI placement can lead to good outcomes. Further investigation is required regarding patient selection criteria and methods of surgery for effective ABI placement. PMID:27464470

  12. Low expression of Abelson interactor-1 is linked to acquired drug resistance in Bcr-Abl-induced leukemia.

    PubMed

    Chorzalska, A; Salloum, I; Shafqat, H; Khan, S; Marjon, P; Treaba, D; Schorl, C; Morgan, J; Bryke, C R; Falanga, V; Zhao, T C; Reagan, J; Winer, E; Olszewski, A J; Al-Homsi, A S; Kouttab, N; Dubielecka, P M

    2014-11-01

    The basis for persistence of leukemic stem cells in the bone marrow microenvironment remains poorly understood. We present evidence that signaling cross-talk between α4 integrin and Abelson interactor-1 (Abi-1) is involved in the acquisition of an anchorage-dependent phenotype and drug resistance in Bcr-Abl-positive leukemia cells. Comparison of Abi-1 (ABI-1) and α4 integrin (ITGA4) gene expression in relapsing Bcr-Abl-positive CD34+progenitor cells demonstrated a reduction in Abi-1 and an increase in α4 integrin mRNA in the absence of Bcr-Abl mutations. This inverse correlation between Abi-1 and α4 integrin expression, as well as linkage to elevated phospho-Akt and phospho-Erk signaling, was confirmed in imatinib mesylate -resistant leukemic cells. These results indicate that the α4-Abi-1 signaling pathway may mediate acquisition of the drug-resistant phenotype of leukemic cells.

  13. Generating code adapted for interlinking legacy scalar code and extended vector code

    DOEpatents

    Gschwind, Michael K

    2013-06-04

    Mechanisms for intermixing code are provided. Source code is received for compilation using an extended Application Binary Interface (ABI) that extends a legacy ABI and uses a different register configuration than the legacy ABI. First compiled code is generated based on the source code, the first compiled code comprising code for accommodating the difference in register configurations used by the extended ABI and the legacy ABI. The first compiled code and second compiled code are intermixed to generate intermixed code, the second compiled code being compiled code that uses the legacy ABI. The intermixed code comprises at least one call instruction that is one of a call from the first compiled code to the second compiled code or a call from the second compiled code to the first compiled code. The code for accommodating the difference in register configurations is associated with the at least one call instruction.

  14. Comparative thermoresistance of two biological indicators for monitoring steam autoclaves. 2. Comparison performed at 134 degrees C in a hospital prevacuum steam sterilizer.

    PubMed

    Skaug, N; Kalager, T

    1985-04-01

    The thermoresistance of various lots of two biological indicators (BIs) for steam sterilization control, a Scandinavian BI (SBI) and the Attest BI (ABI), were compared during sterilization cycles in a hospital prevacuum (pressure-pulsing) steam autoclave at 134 degrees C, saturated steam. ABI No. 1242, ABI No. 1262 (its replacement) and incremental heat exposure times between 0 s and 180 s were used. The intrachamber temperature and pressure were continuously measured and monitored throughout the sterilization cycles. The results showed that both of the ABIs were more thermoresistant than the SBI, giving 33.1% (ABI No. 1242), 18.9% (ABI No. 1262), and 0% (SBI) autoclave survivors. Because the time needed to reach 134 degrees C (preconditioning time) increased as the day progressed, and varied from day to day, correlation between individual incremental heat exposure times and the number of surviving BI units was not possible. Standardized test conditions are necessary for a true comparison of BIs. PMID:4013742

  15. Peripheral Arterial Disease and Ankle-Brachial Index Abnormalites in Young and Middle-Aged HIV-Positive Patients in Lower Silesia, Poland

    PubMed Central

    Kwiatkowska, Wiesława; Knysz, Brygida; Arczyńska, Katarzyna; Drelichowska, Justyna; Czarnecki, Marcin; Gąsiorowski, Jacek; Karczewski, Maciej; Witkiewicz, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Background Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a clinical manifestation of atherosclerosis and mainly refers to elderly patients, having a negative impact on their functionality and quality of life. The findings of previous studies in HIV-infected patients have shown that cardiovascular risk is higher and PAD occurs more frequently than in the general population. There are also contradictory observations. Much less is known about the ankle-brachial index (ABI) value in asymptomatic HIV-infected patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of PAD and ankle-brachial index abnormalities as well as to determine risk factors related to the disease in a group of Polish HIV–positive patients. Methods and Findings One hundred and eleven young to middle aged HIV–positive subjects and 40 noninfected subjects were enrolled into the study. Resting ABI measurements were performed and cardiovascular risk was analysed as well. Subgroups were created according to the ABI values: low (PAD), borderline, normal, high and altered ABI. Symptomatic PAD was observed in 2 HIV–positive patients, asymptomatic PAD was not diagnosed. The ABI value is lower and more varied, in 22.5% of the study group altered ABI values were found. Six subjects demonstrated borderline ABI, and 15 high ABI, including >1.4. In the control group no low or very high values were reported. A relation between low ABI and cardiovascular family history and between altered ABI and high–density–lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL–C) level was demonstrated. Conclusions In young and middle–aged HIV–positive patients, symptomatic PAD prevalence is comparable to that observed in the overall population. Among asymptomatic patients PAD is not reported. The ABI value in HIV–positive patients is more varied compared to the HIV–negative subjects; the altered ABI shows a strong relation with low HDL–C levels and metabolic syndrome. PMID:25503743

  16. Role of abscisic acid (ABA) and Arabidopsis thaliana ABA-insensitive loci in low water potential-induced ABA and proline accumulation.

    PubMed

    Verslues, Paul E; Bray, Elizabeth A

    2006-01-01

    The mechanisms by which plants respond to reduced water availability (low water potential) include both ABA-dependent and ABA-independent processes. Pro accumulation and osmotic adjustment are two important traits for which the mechanisms of regulation by low water potential, and the involvement of ABA, is not well understood. The ABA-deficient mutant, aba2-1, was used to investigate the regulatory role of ABA in low water potential-induced Pro accumulation and osmotic adjustment in seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana. Low water potential-induced Pro accumulation required wild-type levels of ABA, as well as a change in ABA sensitivity or ABA-independent events. Osmotic adjustment, in contrast, occurred independently of ABA accumulation in aba2-1. Quantification of low water potential-induced ABA and Pro accumulation in five ABA-insensitive mutants, abi1-1, abi2-1, abi3, abi4, and abi5, revealed that abi4 had increased Pro accumulation at low water potential, but a reduced response to exogenous ABA. Both of these responses were modified by sucrose treatment, indicating that ABI4 has a role in connecting ABA and sugar in regulating Pro accumulation. Of the other abi mutants, only abi1 had reduced Pro accumulation in response to low water potential and ABA application. It was also observed that abi1-1 and abi2-1 had increased ABA accumulation. The involvement of these loci in feedback regulation of ABA accumulation may occur through an effect on ABA catabolism or conjugation. These data provide new information on the function of ABA in seedlings exposed to low water potential and define new roles for three of the well-studied abi loci.

  17. BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE2 interacts with ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE5 to mediate the antagonism of brassinosteroids to abscisic acid during seed germination in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanru; Yu, Diqiu

    2014-11-01

    Seed germination and postgerminative growth are regulated by a delicate hormonal balance. Abscisic acid (ABA) represses Arabidopsis thaliana seed germination and postgerminative growth, while brassinosteroids (BRs) antagonize ABA-mediated inhibition and promote these processes. However, the molecular mechanism underlying BR-repressed ABA signaling remains largely unknown. Here, we show that the Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3-like kinase BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE2 (BIN2), a critical repressor of BR signaling, positively regulates ABA responses during seed germination and postgerminative growth. Mechanistic investigation revealed that BIN2 physically interacts with ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5), a bZIP transcription factor. Further genetic analysis demonstrated that the ABA-hypersensitive phenotype of BIN2-overexpressing plants requires ABI5. BIN2 was found to phosphorylate and stabilize ABI5 in the presence of ABA, while application of epibrassinolide (the active form of BRs) inhibited the regulation of ABI5 by BIN2. Consistently, the ABA-induced accumulation of ABI5 was affected in BIN2-related mutants. Moreover, mutations of the BIN2 phosphorylation sites on ABI5 made the mutant protein respond to ABA improperly. Additionally, the expression of several ABI5 regulons was positively modulated by BIN2. These results provide evidence that BIN2 phosphorylates and stabilizes ABI5 to mediate ABA response during seed germination, while BRs repress the BIN2-ABI5 cascade to antagonize ABA-mediated inhibition.

  18. Synthesis and Luminescent Chemosensory Behavior of N,N'-bis(p-aminophenyl)-1,5-bis(p-(tetraethyleneglycoloxy)phenyl)anthracene-2,3,6,7-tetracarboxyl bisimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilhan, Faysal; Tyson, Daniel S.; Meador, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    We have utilized the photoenolization reaction of a dibenzoyl-p-xylene derivative to synthesize two new, highly substituted anthracene-based molecules. ABI-NO2 and ABI-NH2 maintained photostability with longer wavelength absorption and emission spectra as compared to unsubstituted anthracene. Conversion of the periphery nitro groups to amines created an internal photoinduced electron transfer scenario that quenched the luminescence of ABI-NH2. Reversible or irreversible reaction of the attached amines resulted in fluorescence recovery. Sensitivity, of ABI-NH2 and other potential derivatives, to toxic chemicals may prove useful for early detection systems.

  19. BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE2 Interacts with ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE5 to Mediate the Antagonism of Brassinosteroids to Abscisic Acid during Seed Germination in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yanru; Yu, Diqiu

    2014-01-01

    Seed germination and postgerminative growth are regulated by a delicate hormonal balance. Abscisic acid (ABA) represses Arabidopsis thaliana seed germination and postgerminative growth, while brassinosteroids (BRs) antagonize ABA-mediated inhibition and promote these processes. However, the molecular mechanism underlying BR-repressed ABA signaling remains largely unknown. Here, we show that the Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3-like kinase BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE2 (BIN2), a critical repressor of BR signaling, positively regulates ABA responses during seed germination and postgerminative growth. Mechanistic investigation revealed that BIN2 physically interacts with ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5), a bZIP transcription factor. Further genetic analysis demonstrated that the ABA-hypersensitive phenotype of BIN2-overexpressing plants requires ABI5. BIN2 was found to phosphorylate and stabilize ABI5 in the presence of ABA, while application of epibrassinolide (the active form of BRs) inhibited the regulation of ABI5 by BIN2. Consistently, the ABA-induced accumulation of ABI5 was affected in BIN2-related mutants. Moreover, mutations of the BIN2 phosphorylation sites on ABI5 made the mutant protein respond to ABA improperly. Additionally, the expression of several ABI5 regulons was positively modulated by BIN2. These results provide evidence that BIN2 phosphorylates and stabilizes ABI5 to mediate ABA response during seed germination, while BRs repress the BIN2-ABI5 cascade to antagonize ABA-mediated inhibition. PMID:25415975

  20. Association between functional performance and executive cognitive functions in an elderly population including patients with low ankle–brachial index

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Naomi Vidal; Cunha, Paulo Jannuzzi; da Costa, Danielle Irigoyen; dos Santos, Fernando; Costa, Fernando Oliveira; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Peripheral arterial disease, as measured by the ankle–brachial index (ABI), is prevalent among the elderly, and is associated with functional performance, assessed by the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). Executive cognitive function (ECF) impairments are also prevalent in this population, but no existing study has investigated the association between ECF and functional performance in an elderly population including individuals with low ABI. Aim To investigate the association between functional performance, as measured by the 6MWT, and loss in ECF, in an elderly sample including individuals with low ABI. Method The ABI group was formed by 26 elderly individuals with low ABI (mean ABI: 0.63±0.19), and the control group was formed by 40 elderly individuals with normal ABI (mean ABI: 1.08±0.07). We analyzed functional performance using the 6MWT, global cognition using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and ECF using the Digit Span for assessing attention span and working memory, the Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT) for assessing information processing speed and inhibitory control/impulsivity, and the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT) for assessing semantic verbal fluency and phonemic verbal fluency. We also used a factor analysis on all of the ECF tests (global ECF). Results Before adjustment, the ABI group performed worse on global cognition, attention span, working memory, inhibitory control/impulsivity, semantic verbal fluency, and phonemic verbal fluency. After adjustment, the ABI group performance remained worse for working memory and semantic verbal fluency. In a simple correlation analysis including all of the subjects, the 6MWT was associated with global cognition, attention span, working memory, information processing speed, inhibitory control/impulsivity, semantic verbal fluency, and global ECF. After adjustment, all the associations remained statistically significant. Conclusion This study found an independent association between

  1. ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE 4 negatively regulates flowering through directly promoting Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS C transcription

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Kai; Chen, Qian; Wu, Yaorong; Liu, Ruijun; Zhang, Huawei; Wang, Shengfu; Tang, Sanyuan; Yang, Wenyu; Xie, Qi

    2016-01-01

    During the life cycle of a plant, one of the major biological processes is the transition from the vegetative to the reproductive stage. In Arabidopsis, flowering time is precisely controlled by extensive environmental and internal cues. Gibberellins (GAs) promote flowering, while abscisic acid (ABA) is considered as a flowering suppressor. However, the detailed mechanism through which ABA inhibits the floral transition is poorly understood. Here, we report that ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE 4 (ABI4), a key component in the ABA signalling pathway, negatively regulates floral transition by directly promoting FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) transcription. The abi4 mutant showed the early flowering phenotype whereas ABI4-overexpressing (OE-ABI4) plants had delayed floral transition. Consistently, quantitative reverse transcription–PCR (qRT–PCR) assay revealed that the FLC transcription level was down-regulated in abi4, but up-regulated in OE-ABI4. The change in FT level was consistent with the pattern of FLC expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-qPCR (ChIP-qPCR), electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), and tobacco transient expression analysis showed that ABI4 promotes FLC expression by directly binding to its promoter. Genetic analysis demonstrated that OE-ABI4::flc-3 could not alter the flc-3 phenotype. OE-FLC::abi4 showed a markedly delayed flowering phenotype, which mimicked OE-FLC::WT, and suggested that ABI4 acts upstream of FLC in the same genetic pathway. Taken together, these findings suggest that ABA inhibits the floral transition by activating FLC transcription through ABI4. PMID:26507894

  2. Interaction between sugar and abscisic acid signalling during early seedling development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Dekkers, Bas J W; Schuurmans, Jolanda A M J; Smeekens, Sjef C M

    2008-05-01

    Sugars regulate important processes and affect the expression of many genes in plants. Characterization of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants with altered sugar sensitivity revealed the function of abscisic acid (ABA) signalling in sugar responses. However, the exact interaction between sugar signalling and ABA is obscure. Therefore ABA deficient plants with constitutive ABI4 expression (aba2-1/35S::ABI4) were generated. Enhanced ABI4 expression did not rescue the glucose insensitive (gin) phenotype of aba2 seedlings indicating that other ABA regulated factors are essential as well. Interestingly, both glucose and ABA treatment of Arabidopsis seeds trigger a post-germination seedling developmental arrest. The glucose-arrested seedlings had a drought tolerant phenotype and showed glucose-induced expression of ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3), ABI5 and LATE EMBRYOGENESIS ABUNDANT (LEA) genes reminiscent of ABA signalling during early seedling development. ABI3 is a key regulator of the ABA-induced arrest and it is shown here that ABI3 functions in glucose signalling as well. Multiple abi3 alleles have a glucose insensitive (gin) phenotype comparable to that of other known gin mutants. Importantly, glucose-regulated gene expression is disturbed in the abi3 background. Moreover, abi3 was insensitive to sugars during germination and showed sugar insensitive (sis) and sucrose uncoupled (sun) phenotypes. Mutant analysis further identified the ABA response pathway genes ENHANCED RESPONSE TO ABA1 (ERA1) and ABI2 as intermediates in glucose signalling. Hence, three previously unidentified sugar signalling genes have been identified, showing that ABA and glucose signalling overlap to a larger extend than originally thought.

  3. Post-Exercise Ankle-Brachial Pressure Index Demonstrates Altered Endothelial Function in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Shinji; Masami, Kozue; Otsuki, Shingo; Tanaka, Shiro; Nakayama, Noriko; Makita, Shigeru; Koshiyama, Hiroyuki; Nohara, Ryuji

    2011-01-01

    Background: The ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI), the ratio of the systolic blood pressure of the ankle to the systolic brachial pressure, is commonly measured at rest, but ABI values post-exercise enhance the sensitivity of the test and can be used to identify atherosclerotic vascular damage. However, it has not been established whether or not enhanced post-exercise ABI is also associated with endothelial dysfunction. We hypothesized that a decrease in post-exercise ABI is related to impaired endothelial function. Purpose: To investigate alterations in post-exercise ABI values and endothelial dysfunction in the elderly. Methods: The study population comprised 35 men and women aged 51–77 years (mean age: 66 years). Patients with peripheral arterial disease or a history of heart failure were excluded. The ABI was estimated at rest and immediately after exercise. The exercise protocol comprised 2.5 min of active pedal flexion exercises at a speed of 60 times/min. Endothelial function was assessed by measuring flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) in the brachial artery using ultrasound imaging. Results: No correlation was found between FMD and the ABI at rest. However, a weak correlation was found between FMD and post-exercise ABI (r = 0.46, P = 0.06). A strong correlation was observed between FMD and a decrease in post-exercise ABI compared to baseline readings (r = −0.52, P = 0.01). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to generate a prediction equation for FMD using the percentage decrease in post-exercise ABI. Significant correlations were observed between the ultrasound imaging-measured FMD and the predicted FMD (R2 = 0.27, P = 0.001). Conclusions: Post-exercise ABI appears to be a simple surrogate marker for endothelial function in the elderly, although larger studies are required for validation. PMID:23885186

  4. Activity-Based Intervention Practices in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozen, Arzu; Ergenekon, Yasemin

    2011-01-01

    Teaching practices in natural settings such as activity-based intervention (ABI) are suggested as alternatives to be used in effective early childhood education. As a multidisciplinary model, ABI consists of four components, which are choosing activities according to the child's interests; teaching generalizable goals embedded in routines and…

  5. Reliability of the Motor Learning Strategy Rating Instrument for Children and Youth with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamath, Trishna; Pfeifer, Megan; Banerjee-Guenette, Priyanka; Hunter, Theresa; Ito, Julia; Salbach, Nancy M.; Wright, Virginia; Levac, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate reliability and feasibility of the Motor Learning Strategy Rating Instrument (MLSRI) in children with acquired brain injury (ABI). The MLSRI quantifies the extent to which motor learning strategies (MLS) are used within physiotherapy (PT) interventions. Methods: PT sessions conducted by ABI team physiotherapists with a…

  6. What Is the Clinical Utility of the Ankle-Brachial Index in Patients With Diabetic Foot Ulcers and Radiographic Arterial Calcification?

    PubMed

    Álvaro-Afonso, Francisco Javier; Lázaro-Martínez, José Luis; Aragón-Sánchez, Javier; García-Morales, Esther; García-Álvarez, Yolanda; Molines-Barroso, Raúl Juan

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of radiographic arterial calcification (RAC) on the clinical interpretation of ankle-brachial index (ABI) values in patients with diabetic foot ulcers. We analyzed a retrospective clinical database of 60 patients with diabetic foot ulcers from the Diabetic Foot Unit (Complutense University, Madrid, Spain) between January 2012 and March 2014. For each patient, anteroposterior XR-plains were evaluated, and the ABI and toe-brachial index (TBI) were assessed by an experienced clinician. To analyze the correlation among quantitative variables, we applied the Pearson correlation coefficient. Fifty percent (n = 9/18) of our patients with a normal ABI and RAC had a TBI < 0.7 associated with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). In patients with RAC, the prevalence of a normal ABI (72%, 18/25) was higher than in patients without RAC (52%, 11/21). The Pearson correlation coefficient among the ABI and TBI in patients with an ABI < 1.4 (n = 46) was lesser (r = .484, P = .001) than in patients with an ABI < 1.4 but without RAC (n = 21; r = .686, P = .001). ABI values between 0.9 and 1.4 would be falsely considered as normal and could underestimate the prevalence of PAD, especially in patients with neuropathy, diabetic foot ulcers, or RAC.

  7. The Use of Narratives to Identify Characteristics Leading to a Productive Life following Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraas, Michael R.; Calvert, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the factors leading to successful recovery and productive lifestyles after acquired brain injury (ABI). Method: Qualitative investigation examined semistructured interviews of 31 survivors of ABI. Thematic analysis followed a phenomenological approach and revealed 4 major themes and 28 subthemes in the interviews. Four…

  8. Evaluation of a Reading Comprehension Strategy Package to Improve Reading Comprehension of Adult College Students with Acquired Brain Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Gina G.

    2013-01-01

    Adults with mild to moderate acquired brain injury (ABI) often pursue post-secondary or professional education after their injuries in order to enter or re-enter the job market. An increasing number of these adults report problems with reading-to-learn. The problem is particularly concerning given the growing population of adult survivors of ABI.…

  9. Arabidopsis seed-specific vacuolar aquaporins are involved in maintaining seed longevity under the control of ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Zhilei; Sun, Weining

    2015-01-01

    The tonoplast intrinsic proteins TIP3;1 and TIP3;2 are specifically expressed during seed maturation and localized to the seed protein storage vacuole membrane. However, the function and physiological roles of TIP3s are still largely unknown. The seed performance of TIP3 knockdown mutants was analysed using the controlled deterioration test. The tip3;1/tip3;2 double mutant was affected in seed longevity and accumulated high levels of hydrogen peroxide compared with the wild type, suggesting that TIP3s function in seed longevity. The transcription factor ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3) is known to be involved in seed desiccation tolerance and seed longevity. TIP3 transcript and protein levels were significantly reduced in abi3-6 mutant seeds. TIP3;1 and TIP3;2 promoters could be activated by ABI3 in the presence of abscisic acid (ABA) in Arabidopsis protoplasts. TIP3 proteins were detected in the protoplasts transiently expressing ABI3 and in ABI3-overexpressing seedlings when treated with ABA. Furthermore, ABI3 directly binds to the RY motif of the TIP3 promoters. Therefore, seed-specific TIP3s may help maintain seed longevity under the expressional control of ABI3 during seed maturation and are members of the ABI3-mediated seed longevity pathway together with small heat shock proteins and late embryo abundant proteins. PMID:26019256

  10. Support Network Responses to Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chleboun, Steffany; Hux, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) affects social relationships; however, the ways social and support networks change and evolve as a result of brain injury is not well understood. This study explored ways in which survivors of ABI and members of their support networks perceive relationship changes as recovery extends into the long-term stage. Two…

  11. On-board calibration of the spectral response functions of the Advanced Baseline Imager's thermal IR channels by observation of the planet Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bremer, James C.

    2010-09-01

    The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) will image Earth in 16 spectral channels, including 10 thermal IR (TIR) channels. The instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of each TIR detector element is (56 μrad)2. The ABI has an onboard fullaperture blackbody, the Internal Calibration Target (ICT), used in conjunction with deep space looks to calibrate the ABI's TIR channels. The ICT is only observed over a small range of temperatures and at one specific pair of reflection angles from the ABI's two scan mirrors. The sunlit area on Mercury's surface underfills the IFOV's of the ABI's TIR channels, but has a much higher range of characteristic temperatures than the ICT, so its radiation is weighted more strongly toward shorter wavelengths. Comparison of a TIR channel's responses to the ICT and to Mercury provides a sensitive means to evaluate variations in spectral response functions among detector elements, across the ABI's field of regard, and among instruments on different satellites. Observations of Mercury can also verify co-registration among the ABI's atmospheric absorption channels that do not observe features on Earth's surface. The optimal conditions for viewing Mercury typically occur during one or two intervals of a few weeks each year when it traverses the ABI's FOR (-10.5o < declination < +10.5o) with an elongation angle from the Sun of at least 20.5o.

  12. Arabidopsis seed-specific vacuolar aquaporins are involved in maintaining seed longevity under the control of ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zhilei; Sun, Weining

    2015-08-01

    The tonoplast intrinsic proteins TIP3;1 and TIP3;2 are specifically expressed during seed maturation and localized to the seed protein storage vacuole membrane. However, the function and physiological roles of TIP3s are still largely unknown. The seed performance of TIP3 knockdown mutants was analysed using the controlled deterioration test. The tip3;1/tip3;2 double mutant was affected in seed longevity and accumulated high levels of hydrogen peroxide compared with the wild type, suggesting that TIP3s function in seed longevity. The transcription factor ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3) is known to be involved in seed desiccation tolerance and seed longevity. TIP3 transcript and protein levels were significantly reduced in abi3-6 mutant seeds. TIP3;1 and TIP3;2 promoters could be activated by ABI3 in the presence of abscisic acid (ABA) in Arabidopsis protoplasts. TIP3 proteins were detected in the protoplasts transiently expressing ABI3 and in ABI3-overexpressing seedlings when treated with ABA. Furthermore, ABI3 directly binds to the RY motif of the TIP3 promoters. Therefore, seed-specific TIP3s may help maintain seed longevity under the expressional control of ABI3 during seed maturation and are members of the ABI3-mediated seed longevity pathway together with small heat shock proteins and late embryo abundant proteins. PMID:26019256

  13. 21 CFR 1.280 - How must you submit prior notice?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Commercial System (ABI/ACS); or (2) The FDA PNSI at http://www.access.fda.gov. You must submit prior notice... import by international mail, and other transaction types that cannot be made through ABI/ACS. Prior... be submitted through the FDA PNSI until such time as FDA and CBP issue a determination that ACS...

  14. 19 CFR 143.6 - Failure to maintain performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... operational standards of the ABI system and maintain a high level of quality in the transmission of data, as... standards of the ABI system or maintain a high level of quality as described above may be placed on... the participant fails to respond within the allotted time, or fails to show to the satisfaction of...

  15. Measurement characteristics of the ankle–brachial index: results from the Action for Health in Diabetes study

    PubMed Central

    Espeland, Mark A; Regensteiner, Judith G; Jaramillo, Sarah A; Gregg, Edward; Knowler, William C; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Bahnson, Judy; Haffner, Steven; Hill, James; Hiatt, William R

    2009-01-01

    Many protocols have been used in clinical and research settings for collecting systolic blood pressure (SBP) measurements to calculate the ankle–brachial index (ABI); however, it is not known how useful it is to replicate measurements and which measures best reflect cardiovascular risk. Standardized measurements of ankle and arm SBP from 5140 overweight or obese individuals with type 2 diabetes were used to estimate sources of variation. Measurement characteristics of leg-specific ABI, as calculated using a standard algorithm based on the highest SBP of the dorsalis pedis or posterior tibial arteries, were projected using simulations. Coefficients of variability ranged from 2% to 3% when single SBP measurements were used and ABI was overestimated by 2–3%. Taking two SBP measurements at each site reduced standard errors and bias each by 30–40%. The sensitivity of detecting low ABI ranges exceeded 90% for ABI within 0.05 of the 0.90 clinical cut-point. The average and the minimum of the two (i.e. right and left) leg-specific ABI values had similar U-shaped relationships with Framingham risk scores; however, the average leg ABI had slightly greater precision. Replicating SBP measurements reduces the error and bias of ABI. Averaging leg-specific values may increase power for characterizing cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:18687759

  16. Ankle-brachial pressure index estimated by laser Doppler in patients suffering from peripheral arterial obstructive disease.

    PubMed

    Ludyga, Tomasz; Kuczmik, Waclaw B; Kazibudzki, Marek; Nowakowski, Przemyslaw; Orawczyk, Tomasz; Glanowski, Michal; Kucharzewski, Marcin; Ziaja, Damion; Szaniewski, Krzysztof; Ziaja, Krzysztof

    2007-07-01

    Ankle-brachial index (ABI) measurements are widely used for evaluating the functional state of circulation in the lower limbs. However, there is some evidence that the value of ABI does not accurately reflect the degree of walking impairment in symptomatic patients with peripheral arterial obstructive disease (PAOD). We investigated the diagnostic value of ABI estimated by means of laser Doppler flowmetry (IT) for evaluating limb ischemia. We wanted to know whether laser Doppler could be more sensitive than the Doppler method in predicting walking capacity in patients with stable intermittent claudication. We analyzed a group of 30 patients with intermittent claudication (Fontain II, II/III) who were admitted for reconstructive treatment. There were 21 men and 9 women, aged 46-74 (mean 61) years. All patients underwent the treadmill test, and pain-free walking distances were measured. In each patient, we measured ABI using the two different methods: Doppler ultrasound device (ABI-Doppler) and laser Doppler (ABI-laser Doppler). The claudication distances were 25-200 m (mean 73 +/- 50.2 m). ABI-Doppler was 0.2-0.7 (0.582 +/- 0.195). ABI-laser Doppler measurements were 0.581 (+/-0.218). A correlation was found between ABI-Doppler and claudication distance (r = 0.46, P = 0.009). Also, ABI-laser Doppler values significantly correlated with claudication distances (r = 0.536, P = 0.002). The ABI evaluated by laser Doppler correlated well with claudication distances in patients with PAOD. Comparison of Doppler and laser Doppler measurements used for determining ABI showed that both methods have similar predictive power for walking capacity; however, higher correlation was observed between claudication distances and ABI measured by laser Doppler flowmetry. ABI-laser Doppler measurements are easier, are quicker, and seem to be better suited for noncompliant patients. Further investigation should be undertaken to determine whether laser Doppler is superior to the Doppler

  17. Phage abortive infection in lactococci: variations on a theme.

    PubMed

    Chopin, Marie-Christine; Chopin, Alain; Bidnenko, Elena

    2005-08-01

    Abortive infection (Abi) systems, also called phage exclusion, block phage multiplication and cause premature bacterial cell death upon phage infection. This decreases the number of progeny particles and limits their spread to other cells allowing the bacterial population to survive. Twenty Abi systems have been isolated in Lactococcus lactis, a bacterium used in cheese-making fermentation processes, where phage attacks are of economical importance. Recent insights in their expression and mode of action indicate that, behind diverse phenotypic and molecular effects, lactococcal Abis share common traits with the well-studied Escherichia coli systems Lit and Prr. Abis are widespread in bacteria, and recent analysis indicates that Abis might have additional roles other than conferring phage resistance.

  18. Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour and ankle brachial index: Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations in older men

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Tessa J.; Sartini, Claudio; Ellins, Elizabeth A.; Halcox, Julian P.J.; Smith, Kirsten E.; Ash, Sarah; Lennon, Lucy T.; Wannamethee, S. Goya; Lee, I-Min; Whincup, Peter H.; Jefferis, Barbara J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Associations between bouts of physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour (SB) and cardiovascular disease, and their mutual independence are not well defined. A low ankle brachial index (ABI ≤0.9) indicates peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and is predictive of cardiovascular events and functional impairment. We investigated the independence of PA and SB and the importance of bout duration in relation to ABI using objective measures. Methods 945 men from the British Regional Heart Study, mean age 78.4 y, had concurrent measurements of ABI (Vicorder) and physical activity (Actigraph GT3X accelerometer); 427 men also had accelerometer measurements one year previously and contributed data to longitudinal analyses. Results and conclusion In cross-sectional analyses, after adjusting for covariates each extra 10 min of moderate and vigorous PA per day was associated with an OR of 0.81 (95% CI 0.72, 0.91) for a low ABI, a stronger association than for light PA (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.75, 0.98). Each extra 30 min of SB was associated with an OR of 1.19 (95% CI 1.07, 1.33) for a low ABI. Associations between moderate and vigorous PA and ABI persisted after adjustment for light PA or SB. Bout lengths for PA and SB were not associated with a low ABI. One year changes in PA or SB were not associated with low ABI. All physical activity and lower levels of SB, regardless of bout duration were inversely associated with ABI; more intense PA showed a stronger association. No associations between changes in PA and ABI were observed, but power may have been limited. PMID:26854973

  19. Lower Extremity Ischemia, Calf Skeletal Muscle Characteristics, and Functional Impairment in Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Mary M.; Hoff, Frederick; Ferrucci, Luigi; Pearce, William H.; Guralnik, Jack M.; Tian, Lu; Liu, Kiang; Schneider, Joseph R.; Sharma, Leena; Tan, Jin; Criqui, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine whether lower ankle brachial index (ABI) levels are associated with lower calf skeletal muscle area and higher calf muscle percentage fat in persons with and without lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD). DESIGN Cross-sectional. SETTING Three Chicago-area medical centers. PARTICIPANTS Four hundred thirty-nine persons with PAD (ABI<0.90) and 265 without PAD (ABI 0.90–1.30). MEASUREMENTS Calf muscle cross-sectional area and the percentage of fat in calf muscle were measured using computed tomography at 66.7% of the distance between the distal and proximal tibia. Physical activity was measured using an accelerometer. Functional measures included the 6-minute walk, 4-meter walking speed, and the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). RESULTS Adjusting for age, sex, race, comorbidities, and other potential confounders, lower ABI values were associated with lower calf muscle area (ABI<0.50, 5,193 mm2; ABI 0.50–0.90, 5,536 mm2; ABI 0.91–1.30, 5,941 mm2; P for trend <.001). These significant associations remained after additional adjustment for physical activity. In participants with PAD, lower calf muscle area in the leg with higher ABI was associated with significantly poorer performance in usual- and fast-paced 4-meter walking speed and on the SPPB, adjusting for ABI, physical activity, percentage fat in calf muscle, muscle area in the leg with lower ABI, and other confounders (P<.05 for all comparisons). CONCLUSION These data support the hypothesis that lower extremity ischemia has a direct adverse effect on calf skeletal muscle area. This association may mediate previously established relationships between PAD and functional impairment. PMID:17341243

  20. Acquired Brain Injury, Social Work and the Challenges of Personalisation

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, Mark; Fyson, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Increasing numbers of adults in the UK are living with acquired brain injury (ABI), with those affected requiring immediate medical care and longer-term rehabilitative and social care. Despite their social needs, limited attention has been paid to people with ABI within the social work literature and their needs are also often overlooked in policy and guidance. As a means of highlighting the challenge that ABI presents to statutory social work, this paper will start by outlining the common characteristics of ABI and consider the (limited) relevant policy guidance. The particular difficulties of reconciling the needs of people with ABI with the prevailing orthodoxies of personalisation will then be explored, with a particular focus on the mismatch between systems which rest on presumptions autonomy and the circumstances of individuals with ABI—typified by executive dysfunction and lack of insight into their own condition. Composite case studies, drawn from the first author's experiences as a case manager for individuals with ABI, will be used to illustrate the arguments being made. The paper will conclude by considering the knowledge and skills which social workers need in order to better support people with ABI. PMID:27559229

  1. Training to measure ankle-brachial index at the undergraduate level: can it be successful?

    PubMed

    Georgakarakos, Efstratios; Papadaki, Evaggelia; Vamvakerou, Vasileia; Lytras, Dimitrios; Tsiokani, Afroditi; Tsolakaki, Olympia; Chlimpou, Dimitra; Papanas, Nikolaos

    2013-06-01

    We examined the effectiveness of teaching ankle-brachial index (ABI) measurement to medical students. ABI was estimated in 28 lower limbs by an experienced vascular surgeon. After a 2-week training course, 5 fourth-year students repeated the estimations and their results were compared with that of the trainer's. There was no difference in ABI values between trainees and trainer for subjects with mild-to-moderate peripheral arterial disease (PAD; 0.77 ± 0.22 vs 0.77 ± 0.19, respectively, P = .95). In the 4 normal limbs, ABI was 1.37 ± 0.12 and 1.16 ± 0.11, as measured by the trainer and the trainees, respectively (P < .00001). In subjects with severe PAD, trainees tended to overestimate ABI (P = .0002) in the beginning of the educational process, but this was no longer the case at a later stage of the training with no difference in ABI values between the 2 examiner groups (P = .09). In conclusion, training of medical students in ABI measurement can be helpful toward accurate estimation of PAD and merits further practice. PMID:23667100

  2. Associations Between Ankle-Brachial Index and Cognitive Function: Results from the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Trial

    PubMed Central

    Espeland, Mark A.; Newman, Anne B.; Sink, Kaycee; Gill, Thomas M.; King, Abby C.; Miller, Michael E.; Guralnik, Jack; Katula, Jeff; Church, Timothy; Manini, Todd; Reid, Kieran F.; McDermott, Mary M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between ankle-brachial index (ABI) and indicators of cognitive function DESIGN Randomized clinical trial (Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Trial) SETTING Eight US academic centers PARTICIPANTS 1,601 adults (ages 70–89 years, sedentary, non-demented, and with functional limitations MEASUREMENTS Baseline ABI and interviewer- and computer-administered cognitive function assessments were obtained from which compared a physical activity intervention with a health education control. Cognitive function was re-assessed 24 months later (interviewer-administered) and 18 or 30 months later (computer-administered) and central adjudication was used to classify individuals as having mild cognitive impairment, probable dementia, or neither. RESULTS Lower ABI had a modest independent association poorer cognitive functioning at baseline (partial r=0.09; p<0.001). While, lower baseline ABI was not associated with overall changes in cognitive function test scores, it was associated with higher odds for two-year progression to a composite of either mild cognitive impairment or probable dementia (OR=2.60 per unit lower ABI; 95% confidence interval [1.06,6.37]). Across two years, changes in ABI were not associated with changes in cognitive function. CONCLUSION In an older cohort of non-demented sedentary individuals with functional limitations, lower baseline ABI was independently correlated with cognitive function and associated with greater 2-year risk for progression to mild cognitive impairment or probable dementia. PMID:25869993

  3. Correlation between Patient-Reported Symptoms and Ankle-Brachial Index after Revascularization for Peripheral Arterial Disease.

    PubMed

    Je, Hyung Gon; Kim, Bo Hyun; Cho, Kyoung Im; Jang, Jae Sik; Park, Yong Hyun; Spertus, John

    2015-05-18

    Improvement in quality of life (QoL) is a primary treatment goal for patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The current study aimed to quantify improvement in the health status of PAD patients following peripheral revascularization using the peripheral artery questionnaire (PAQ) and ankle-brachial index (ABI), and to evaluate possible correlation between the two methods. The PAQ and ABI were assessed in 149 symptomatic PAD patients before, and three months after peripheral revascularization. Mean PAQ summary scores improved significantly three months after revascularization (+49.3 ± 15 points, p < 0.001). PAQ scores relating to patient symptoms showed the largest improvement following revascularization. The smallest increases were seen in reported treatment satisfaction (all p's < 0.001). As expected the ABI of treated limbs showed significant improvement post-revascularization (p < 0.001). ABI after revascularization correlated with patient-reported changes in the physical function and QoL domains of the PAQ. Twenty-two percent of PAD patients were identified as having a poor response to revascularization (increase in ABI < 0.15). Interestingly, poor responders reported improvement in symptoms on the PAQ, although this was less marked than in patients with an increase in ABI > 0.15 following revascularization. In conclusion, data from the current study suggest a significant correlation between improvement in patient-reported outcomes assessed by PAQ and ABI in symptomatic PAD patients undergoing peripheral revascularization.

  4. Analyzer-based imaging of spinal fusion in an animal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, M. E.; Beavis, R. C.; Fiorella, David; Schültke, E.; Allen, L. A.; Juurlink, B. H.; Zhong, Z.; Chapman, L. D.

    2008-05-01

    Analyzer-based imaging (ABI) utilizes synchrotron radiation sources to create collimated monochromatic x-rays. In addition to x-ray absorption, this technique uses refraction and scatter rejection to create images. ABI provides dramatically improved contrast over standard imaging techniques. Twenty-one adult male Wistar rats were divided into four experimental groups to undergo the following interventions: (1) non-injured control, (2) decortication alone, (3) decortication with iliac crest bone grafting and (4) decortication with iliac crest bone grafting and interspinous wiring. Surgical procedures were performed at the L5-6 level. Animals were killed at 2, 4 and 6 weeks after the intervention and the spine muscle blocks were excised. Specimens were assessed for the presence of fusion by (1) manual testing, (2) conventional absorption radiography and (3) ABI. ABI showed no evidence of bone fusion in groups 1 and 2 and showed solid or possibly solid fusion in subjects from groups 3 and 4 at 6 weeks. Metal artifacts were not present in any of the ABI images. Conventional absorption radiographs did not provide diagnostic quality imaging of either the graft material or fusion masses in any of the specimens in any of the groups. Synchrotron-based ABI represents a novel imaging technique which can be used to assess spinal fusion in a small animal model. ABI produces superior image quality when compared to conventional radiographs.

  5. Ankle-brachial index and inter-artery blood pressure differences as predictors of cognitive function in overweight and obese older adults with diabetes: Results from the Action for Health in Diabetes Movement and Memory Study

    PubMed Central

    Espeland, Mark A; Beavers, Kristen M; Gibbs, Bethany Barone; Johnson, Karen C; Hughes, Timothy M; Baker, Laura D; Jakicic, John; Korytkowski, Mary; Miller, Marsha; Bray, George A

    2016-01-01

    Objective Ankle-brachial index (ABI) and inter-artery systolic blood pressure differences, as markers of vascular disease, are plausible risk factors for deficits in cognitive function among overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes. Methods ABI and maximum inter-artery differences (MIAD) in systolic blood pressures were assessed annually for five years among 479 participants assigned to the control condition in a randomized clinical trial of a behavioral weight loss intervention. A battery of standardized cognitive function tests was administered four to five years later. Analyses of covariance were used to assess relationships that ABI, MIAD, and progression of ABI and MIAD had with cognitive function. Results There was a curvilinear relationship between ABI and a composite index of cognitive function (p=0.03), with lower ABI being associated with poorer function. In graded fashions, both greater MIAD and increases in MIAD over time also had modest relationships with poorer verbal memory (both p≤0.05), processing speed (both p≤0.05), and composite cognitive function (both p≤0.04). These relationships were independent of each other and remained evident after extensive covariate adjustment. Conclusions In overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes, lower ABI and larger inter-artery systolic blood pressure differences have modest, independent, graded relationships with poorer cognitive function 4–5 year later. PMID:25546032

  6. Estimating true color imagery for GOES-R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossberg, Michael D.; Shahriar, Fazlul; Gladkova, Irina; Alabi, Paul K.; Hillger, Donald W.; Miller, Steven D.

    2011-06-01

    The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) on GOES-R will help NOAA's objective of engaging and educating the public on environmental issues by providing near real-time imagery of the earth-atmosphere system. True color satellite images are beneficial to the public, as well as to scientists, who use these images as an important "decision aid" and visualization tool. Unfortunately, ABI only has two visible bands (cyan and red) and does not directly produce the three bands (blue, green, and red) used to create true color imagery. We have developed an algorithm that will produce quantitative true color imagery from ABI. Our algorithm estimates the three tristimulus values of the international standard CIE 1931 XYZ colorspace for each pixel of the ABI image, and thus is compatible with a wide range of software packages and hardware devices. Our algorithm is based on a non-linear statistical regression framework that incorporate both classification and local multispectral regression using training data. We have used training data from the hyper-spectral imager Hyperion. Our algorithm to produce true color images from the ABI is not specific to ABI and may be applicable to other satellites which, like the ABI, do not have the ability to directly produce RGB imagery.

  7. Biological and clinical effects of abiraterone on anti-resorptive and anabolic activity in bone microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Buttigliero, Consuelo; Fioramonti, Marco; Bertaglia, Valentina; Vincenzi, Bruno; Zoccoli, Alice; Ribelli, Giulia; Tucci, Marcello; Vignani, Francesca; Berruti, Alfredo; Scagliotti, Giorgio Vittorio; Tonini, Giuseppe; Santini, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Abiraterone acetate (ABI) is associated not only with a significant survival advantage in both chemotherapy-naive and -treated patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), but also with a delay in time to development of Skeletal Related Events and in radiological skeletal progression. These bone benefits may be related to a direct effect on prostate cancer cells in bone or to a specific mechanism directed to bone microenvironment. To test this hypothesis we designed an in vitro study aimed to evaluate a potential direct effect of ABI on human primary osteoclasts/osteoblasts (OCLs/OBLs). We also assessed changes in bone turnover markers, serum carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks (CTX) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), in 49 mCRPC patients treated with ABI. Our results showed that non-cytotoxic doses of ABI have a statistically significant inhibitory effect on OCL differentiation and activity inducing a down-modulation of OCL marker genes TRAP, cathepsin K and metalloproteinase-9. Furthermore ABI promoted OBL differentiation and bone matrix deposition up-regulating OBL specific genes, ALP and osteocalcin. Finally, we observed a significant decrease of serum CTX values and an increase of ALP in ABI-treated patients. These findings suggest a novel biological mechanism of action of ABI consisting in a direct bone anabolic and anti-resorptive activity. PMID:25904051

  8. Cancer mutation screening: Comparison of high-resolution melt analysis between two platforms.

    PubMed

    Ebili, Henry O; Ilyas, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution melt analysis (HRMA) is a cheap and reliable post-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) cancer mutation screening technique, which is fast gaining clinical relevance. The HRMA capabilities of the LightScanner (Idaho Technology) have been severally studied. However, the ABI 7500 HRM has not been tested against the purpose-built HRM instrument such as the LightScanner. DNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, and normal tissue as well as from colorectal cancer cell lines were amplified at exons 2, 3, and 4 of KRAS, and at exons 11 and 15 of BRAF in the ABI 7500 fast real-time PCR machine and subjected to melting both on the ABI and on the LightScanner. HRMA data were analysed with the ABI HRM software v2.0.1 and the LightScanner Call-IT 2.5. We tested the ABI 7500 HRM for internal precision, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity at mutation screening relative to the LightScanner, using crude percentage concordance, kappa statistics, and the area under the receiver operator characteristics (AUROC) curve on SPSS version 19. The results show that the ABI 7500 HRMA has a high internal precision, and excellent concordance, sensitivity, and specificity at mutation screening compared with the LightScanner. However, in contrast to the LightScanner HRM software analysis, the ABI HRM software v.2.0.1, cannot distinguish real from certain pseudovariations in PCR amplicons that are sometimes brought about by the artefacts of the melting process. In conclusion, the ABI HRM has a comparable performance level with the LightScanner, although in certain respects mentioned previously, the LightScanner has an edge over the ABI. PMID:25932046

  9. SOS2-LIKE PROTEIN KINASE5, an SNF1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE3-Type Protein Kinase, Is Important for Abscisic Acid Responses in Arabidopsis through Phosphorylation of ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE51[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaona; Hao, Hongmei; Zhang, Yuguo; Bai, Yili; Zhu, Wenbo; Qin, Yunxia; Yuan, Feifei; Zhao, Feiyi; Wang, Mengyao; Hu, Jingjiang; Xu, Hong; Guo, Aiguang; Zhao, Huixian; Zhao, Yang; Cao, Cuiling; Yang, Yongqing; Schumaker, Karen S.; Guo, Yan; Xie, Chang Gen

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) plays an essential role in seed germination. In this study, we demonstrate that one SNF1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE3-type protein kinase, SOS2-LIKE PROTEIN KINASE5 (PKS5), is involved in ABA signal transduction via the phosphorylation of an interacting protein, ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5). We found that pks5-3 and pks5-4, two previously identified PKS5 superactive kinase mutants with point mutations in the PKS5 FISL/NAF (a conserved peptide that is necessary for interaction with SOS3 or SOS3-LIKE CALCIUM BINDING PROTEINs) motif and the kinase domain, respectively, are hypersensitive to ABA during seed germination. PKS5 was found to interact with ABI5 in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and this interaction was further confirmed in planta using bimolecular fluorescence complementation. Genetic studies revealed that ABI5 is epistatic to PKS5. PKS5 phosphorylates a serine (Ser) residue at position 42 in ABI5 and regulates ABA-responsive gene expression. This phosphorylation was induced by ABA in vivo and transactivated ABI5. Expression of ABI5, in which Ser-42 was mutated to alanine, could not fully rescue the ABA-insensitive phenotypes of the abi5-8 and pks5-4abi5-8 mutants. In contrast, mutating Ser-42 to aspartate rescued the ABA insensitivity of these mutants. These data demonstrate that PKS5-mediated phosphorylation of ABI5 at Ser-42 is critical for the ABA regulation of seed germination and gene expression in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). PMID:25858916

  10. Cancer mutation screening: Comparison of high-resolution melt analysis between two platforms.

    PubMed

    Ebili, Henry O; Ilyas, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution melt analysis (HRMA) is a cheap and reliable post-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) cancer mutation screening technique, which is fast gaining clinical relevance. The HRMA capabilities of the LightScanner (Idaho Technology) have been severally studied. However, the ABI 7500 HRM has not been tested against the purpose-built HRM instrument such as the LightScanner. DNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, and normal tissue as well as from colorectal cancer cell lines were amplified at exons 2, 3, and 4 of KRAS, and at exons 11 and 15 of BRAF in the ABI 7500 fast real-time PCR machine and subjected to melting both on the ABI and on the LightScanner. HRMA data were analysed with the ABI HRM software v2.0.1 and the LightScanner Call-IT 2.5. We tested the ABI 7500 HRM for internal precision, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity at mutation screening relative to the LightScanner, using crude percentage concordance, kappa statistics, and the area under the receiver operator characteristics (AUROC) curve on SPSS version 19. The results show that the ABI 7500 HRMA has a high internal precision, and excellent concordance, sensitivity, and specificity at mutation screening compared with the LightScanner. However, in contrast to the LightScanner HRM software analysis, the ABI HRM software v.2.0.1, cannot distinguish real from certain pseudovariations in PCR amplicons that are sometimes brought about by the artefacts of the melting process. In conclusion, the ABI HRM has a comparable performance level with the LightScanner, although in certain respects mentioned previously, the LightScanner has an edge over the ABI.

  11. Abnormally Low or High Ankle-Brachial Index Is Associated with Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetic Mellitus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Szu-Chia; Hsiao, Pi-Jung; Huang, Jiun-Chi; Lin, Kun-Der; Hsu, Wei-Hao; Lee, Yu-Li; Lee, Mei-Yueh; Chang, Jer-Ming; Shin, Shyi–Jang

    2015-01-01

    Although some studies have reported that low ankle-brachial index (ABI) is associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR) in diabetic patients, it remains controversial as to which stage of DR. The aim of this study is to assess whether peripheral artery disease (PAD), indicated by abnormally low or high ABI, is associated with different stages of DR in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), and further evaluate the risk factors. A total of 2001 (858 men and 1143 women) patients with type 2 DM who underwent ABI measurement in an outpatient clinic were enrolled. PAD was defined as ABI < 0.9 or ≧ 1.3 in either leg. DR was classified as non-DR, nonproliferative DR and proliferative DR stages. The clinical data were analyzed and the risk factors for abnormal ABI were determined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of ABI < 0.9 or ≧ 1.3 was 3.0%. Multivariate forward logistic regression analysis identified proliferative DR (vs. non-DR) was associated with abnormal ABI (odds ratio, 1.718; 95% confidence interval, 1.152 to 2.562; p = 0.008), but nonproliferative DR was not. Furthermore, the presence of coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, declining renal function and patients without diuretics use were associated with abnormal ABI in patients with proliferative DR. Our study in patients of type 2 DM demonstrated that PAD was associated with proliferative DR. We emphasize the recommendation of performing the ABI test in this population at risk. PMID:26230390

  12. Effects of age, sex and smoking on ankle-brachial index in a Finnish population at risk for cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Syvänen, Kari; Aarnio, Pertti; Jaatinen, Pekka; Korhonen, Päivi

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND Smoking is a well-known risk factor for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Data regarding differences in the prevalence of PAD between sexes are somewhat controversial. In addition, most studies indicate that the prevalence of PAD increases with age in both sexes. In the present study, the effects of sex, age and smoking on the ankle-brachial index (ABI) in a Finnish cardiovascular risk population were investigated. OBJECTIVES To investigate the relationship between the ankle-brachial index, and age, sex and smoking in a Finnish population at risk for cardiovascular disease. METHODS All men and women between 45 and 70 years of age living in a rural town (Harjavalta, Finland; total population 7700) were invited to participate in a population survey (Harmonica study). Patients with previously diagnosed diabetes or vascular disease were excluded. In total, 2856 patients were invited to participate in the study. From these subjects, a cardiovascular risk population was screened. Complete data were available from 1028 persons. ABI (the ratio between the posterior tibial or dorsalis pedis artery and brachial artery pressures) was measured, and questionnaires were used to detect smoking status and relevant medical history. Only current smoking status was taken into account. RESULTS The mean ABI for the entire study population was 1.10 (range 0.56 to 1.64). Current smokers had a lower mean ABI (1.06; P<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in ABI values among age groups, although the majority of patients with ABI values below 0.9 were older than 60 years of age. There was no statistically significant difference in ABI between sexes. CONCLUSION As previously reported, the present study shows the significant effect of smoking in the development of PAD. No statistically significant difference was found among age groups, but the tendency was toward lower ABIs in the oldest age groups. Sex had a minimal effect on the ABI. PMID:22477327

  13. ABA-HYPERSENSITIVE BTB/POZ PROTEIN 1 functions as a negative regulator in ABA-mediated inhibition of germination in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hani; Kim, Soon-Hee; Seo, Dong Hye; Chung, Sunglan; Kim, Sang-Woo; Lee, Jeong-Soo; Kim, Woo Taek; Lee, Jae-Hoon

    2016-02-01

    To elucidate the contribution of CRL3-ABA-mediated responses, we attempted to find CRL3 substrate receptors involved in ABA signaling. One gene named ABA-HYPERSENSITIVE BTB/POZ PROTEIN 1 (AHT1) was upregulated more than 2.5 times by ABA, and its coding region possessed a BTB/POZ domain, which is the common feature of CRL3 substrate receptors. Loss of AHT1 led to retardation of the germination process, not inhibition of root growth. AHT1 transcripts also increased in response to mannitol, NaCl and drought treatments at the seedling stage and in dry seeds. High expression of AHT1 in dry seeds was inhibited by the defect of ABA signaling components such as ABI1, ABI3 and SRKs indicating that the expression of AHT1 is dependent on ABA signaling. Among bZIP transcription factors participating in ABA signaling, the losses of ABI5/DPBF1, AREB1/ABF2, EEL/DPBF4 and DPBF2/bZIP67 resulted in reduced AHT1 expression, showing that these transcription factors play a positive role in ABA-induced AHT1 expression. While loss of AHT1 did not affect the expression pattern of NCED3, ABI2, SRKs and AREB/ABF genes, it led to hyperinduction of ABI5/DPBF genes such as ABI5/DPBF1, EEL/DPBF4 and AREB3/DPBF3, which are mainly involved in seed development and germination, as well as ABA-inducible genes transactivated by ABI5. Overall, these findings indicate that AHT1 negatively regulates ABA-mediated inhibition of germination, possibly by repressing the expression of a subset of ABI5/DPBF subfamily genes, and that AHT1 may be regulated by a negative feedback process through its linkage with a part of ABI5/DPBF proteins. PMID:26667153

  14. The Arabidopsis thaliana ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE8 encodes a novel protein mediating abscisic acid and sugar responses essential for growth.

    PubMed

    Brocard-Gifford, Inès; Lynch, Tim J; Garcia, M Emily; Malhotra, Bhupinder; Finkelstein, Ruth R

    2004-02-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates many aspects of plant growth and development, yet many ABA response mutants present only subtle phenotypic defects, especially in the absence of stress. By contrast, the ABA-insensitive8 (abi8) mutant, isolated on the basis of ABA-resistant germination, also displays severely stunted growth, defective stomatal regulation, altered ABA-responsive gene expression, delayed flowering, and male sterility. The stunted growth of the mutant is not rescued by gibberellin, brassinosteroid, or indoleacetic acid application and is not attributable to excessive ethylene response, but supplementing the medium with Glc improves viability and root growth. In addition to exhibiting Glc-dependent growth, reflecting decreased expression of sugar-mobilizing enzymes, abi8 mutants are resistant to Glc levels that induce developmental arrest of wild-type seedlings. Studies of genetic interactions demonstrate that ABA hypersensitivity conferred by the ABA-hypersensitive1 mutation or overexpression of ABI3 or ABI5 does not suppress the dwarfing and Glc dependence caused by abi8 but partially suppresses ABA-resistant germination. By contrast, the ABA-resistant germination of abi8 is epistatic to the hypersensitivity caused by ethylene-insensitive2 (ein2) and ein3 mutations, yet ABI8 appears to act in a distinct Glc response pathway from these EIN loci. ABI8 encodes a protein with no domains of known function but belongs to a small plant-specific protein family. Database searches indicate that it is allelic to two dwarf mutants, elongation defective1 and kobito1, previously shown to disrupt cell elongation, cellulose synthesis, vascular differentiation, and root meristem maintenance. The cell wall defects appear to be a secondary effect of the mutations because Glc treatment restores root growth and vascular differentiation but not cell elongation. Although the ABI8 transcript accumulates in all tested plant organs in both wild-type and ABA response mutants, an

  15. Uses of motion imagery in activity-based intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lash, Thomas D.

    2013-05-01

    Activity-Based Intelligence (ABI) was defined by the Office of the Undersecretary of Defense for Intelligence as "a discipline of intelligence where the analysis and subsequent collection is focused on activity and transactions associated with an entity, population, or area of interest." ABI is inherently multi-INT, and motion imagery is a rich data source for ABI analysis. Motion imagery provides a unique temporal aspect which is critical for activity detection and classification. Additionally, motion imagery tends to have high spatial oversampling useful for determining activities and patterns above the noise threshold.

  16. 19 CFR 142.48 - Release procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... documentation is presented, may be printed on that documentation. The invoice shall be returned to the entry.... (c) Notification to ABI participants. If the Line Release entry filer is an operational...

  17. Spin-orbit coupling enhanced superconductivity in Bi-rich compounds ABi₃ (A = Sr and Ba).

    PubMed

    Shao, D F; Luo, X; Lu, W J; Hu, L; Zhu, X D; Song, W H; Zhu, X B; Sun, Y P

    2016-02-19

    Recently, Bi-based compounds have attracted attentions because of the strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC). In this work, we figured out the role of SOC in ABi3 (A = Sr and Ba) by theoretical investigation of the band structures, phonon properties, and electron-phonon coupling. Without SOC, strong Fermi surface nesting leads to phonon instabilities in ABi3. SOC suppresses the nesting and stabilizes the structure. Moreover, without SOC the calculation largely underestimates the superconducting transition temperatures (Tc), while with SOC the calculated Tc are very close to those determined by measurements on single crystal samples. The SOC enhanced superconductivity in ABi3 is due to not only the SOC induced phonon softening, but also the SOC related increase of electron-phonon coupling matrix elements. ABi3 can be potential platforms to construct heterostructure of superconductor/topological insulator to realize topological superconductivity.

  18. Role of Metals and Aspects of Socioeconomic Status (SES) in Peripheral Arterial Disease in the US Population

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis are serious pathological changes and are responsible for various disease conditions such as peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The prevalence of PAD, commonly assessed by Ankle–Brachial Index (ABI), is over 10% in the US population over...

  19. EUV scanner printability evaluation of natural blank defects detected by actinic blank inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Noriaki; Watanabe, Hidehiro; Van den Heuvel, Dieter; Jonckheere, Rik; Gallagher, Emily

    2015-07-01

    In this study, on-wafer printability test results of native blank defects on an EUV reticle, previously detected on the ABI (Actinic blank inspection) tool, were interpreted with on-mask analysis. One of the main factors that affects printability is the relative defect position to the absorber pattern. The ABI tool has been used for this purpose, by means of on-mask review. Subsequently, by removing covered defects (blank defects which are covered with absorber pattern), a clear relationship between DSI (ABI defect signal intensity) and printability was confirmed. By considering a relationship between relative defect position and printability precisely, a tentative printability threshold was defined with DSI. This result suggests that DSI has valuable information to define printability threshold, and shows significance of ABI inspection.

  20. Yield of four Agaricus bisporus strains in three compost formulations and chemical composition analyses of the mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    de Andrade, Meire Cristina Nogueira; Zied, Diego Cunha; de Almeida Minhoni, Marli Teixeira; Kopytowski Filho, João

    2008-01-01

    Three compost formulations, consisting of two varieties of Cynodom dactylon (L.) Pers. (Coast-cross and Tyfton) and oat (Avena sativa) straw were tested for the cultivation of A. bisporus strains ABI-01/01, ABI-04/02, ABI-05/03, and ABI-06/04. A completely randomized experimental design in a factorial scheme was adopted, with 12 treatments (4 A. bisporus strains × 3 types of compost) and 8 replicates. Each experimental unit corresponded to one box containing 12 – 12.5 kg fresh wet compost. The data were submitted to analysis of variance and the means were compared by Tukey test. According to the results, productivity of mushrooms was influenced by strain and/or compost type. It was also verified that crude protein, ash, and crude fiber contents in the mushroom varied with A. bisporus strain and straw used in the formulation of the compost. PMID:24031271

  1. Comparative thermoresistance of two biological indicators for monitoring steam autoclaves. I. Comparison performed in a gravity BIER/Steam Vessel.

    PubMed

    Skaug, N; Berube, R

    1983-12-01

    The thermoresistance of two biological indicators (BIs) for steam sterilization control (Swedish spore tablets and Attest No. 1242 BI) was compared at 121 degrees C and at 134 degrees C, saturated steam, in a special test autoclave (a gravity BIER/Steam Vessel). In this autoclave, three lots of Attest No. 1242 BI (ABI) demonstrated longer survival exposure times than did the three lots of the Scandinavian BI (SBI) tested while the survival-kill range was approx. the same. Also, the ABI had higher D121 degrees C- and D134 degrees C- values based on fraction-negative tests. The D121 degrees C-value of approx, 1.5 min as suggested by the European Pharmacopoeia, was met by both BIs. The larger spore population and the package configuration of the ABI units contribute to the higher thermoresistance of the ABI in the gravity BIER/Steam Vessel. PMID:6673502

  2. Treating P.A.D. | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Peripheral Artery Disease Treating P.A.D. Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of ... provider to develop a supervised weight loss plan. P.A.D. Glossary Ankle-brachial index (ABI) A ...

  3. Social Networking Services in E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Peter; Rothe, Hannes

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a report on the findings of a study conducted on the use of the social networking service NING in a cross-location e-learning setting named "Net Economy." We describe how we implemented NING as a fundamental part of the setting through a special phase concept and team building approach. With the help of user statistics, we examine…

  4. Enhancing Classroom Effectiveness through Social Networking Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurthakoti, Raghu; Boostrom, Robert E., Jr.; Summey, John H.; Campbell, David A.

    2013-01-01

    To determine the usefulness of social networking Web sites such as Ning.com as a communication tool in marketing courses, a study was designed with special concern for social network use in comparison to Blackboard. Students from multiple marketing courses were surveyed. Assessments of Ning.com and Blackboard were performed both to understand how…

  5. Social Networking Services in E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Peter; Rothe, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a report on the findings of a study conducted on the use of the social networking service NING in a cross-location e-learning setting named "Net Economy." We describe how we implemented NING as a fundamental part of the setting through a special phase concept and team building approach. With the help of user statistics, we…

  6. Soluble P-selectin Predicts Lower Extremity Peripheral Artery Disease Incidence and Change in the Ankle Brachial Index: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    PubMed Central

    Wassel, Christina L.; Berardi, Cecilia; Pankow, James S.; Larson, Nicholas B.; Decker, Paul A.; Hanson, Naomi Q.; Tsai, Michael Y.; Criqui, Michael H.; Allison, Matthew A.; Bielinski, Suzette J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the association of circulating P-selectin with prevalent and incident peripheral artery disease (PAD), the ankle brachial index (ABI), and change in the ABI. Methods The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) is a prospective population-based cohort study including 6814 European descent, African American, Hispanic and Chinese men and women aged 45–84 at baseline. Four clinical exams took place after the baseline exam. After excluding those with ABI>1.4, prevalent and incident PAD were defined as an ABI≤0.90. ABI progression was defined as progression from a normal ABI (0.91–1.4) to abnormal (≤0.90 or >1.4) at a later exam. Results In adjusted models, each SD (13 ng/mL) higher P-selectin was significantly associated with 0.007 lower ABI (95% CI ((−0.011, −0.004)), p<0.001), and an average change in the ABI of − 0.006 ((−0.010, −0.003, p<0.001). P-selectin was significantly associated with a 1.17-fold greater odds of prevalent PAD ((1.02, 1.33), p=0.03), and a 30% greater risk of incident PAD ((1.11, 1.53), p=0.001), as well as progression from a normal ABI to an ABI≤ 0.90 (p=0.003), but not to an ABI>1.4 (p=0.96). Addition of P-selectin to models containing traditional PAD risk factors and markers of inflammation/coagulation significantly improved the net reclassification for ABI progression (p=0.03), but was only marginally significant for incident PAD (p=0.06). Conclusions P-selectin is significantly associated with the development of PAD. However, further research is needed in population-based studies to confirm prospective associations of P-selectin with incident PAD and change in the ABI, as well as its potential predictive ability. PMID:25682040

  7. Retrosigmoid Craniotomy for Auditory Brainstem Implantation in Adult Patients with Neurofibromatosis Type 2.

    PubMed

    Puram, Sidharth V; Herrmann, Barbara; Barker, Fred G; Lee, Daniel J

    2015-12-01

    Objective To report our technique and experience using a retrosigmoid craniotomy approach for auditory brainstem implantation (ABI) placement in adult neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients. Design Retrospective case series. Setting Single-center study, Boston, Massachusetts, United States. Participants All NF2 patients who underwent evaluation at Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and surgery at Massachusetts General Hospital from 2009 to 2013 were reviewed. Six cases of retrosigmoid craniotomy for ABI surgery in five adult NF2 patients were identified. The clinical history, operative course, and outcomes in these patients were reviewed. Main Outcome Measures Postoperative complications and audiological outcomes. Results Indications for ABI surgery were profound hearing loss associated with growth or treatment of bilateral vestibular schwannomas. In all cases, a retrosigmoid craniotomy was performed for tumor resection and ABI placement without complication. Electrode placement was confirmed intraoperatively using electrical-evoked auditory brainstem responses. The ABI was activated in the awake patient 4 to 6 weeks postoperatively. Audiological testing was used to evaluate sound detection and speech perception with the ABI. There were no cases of cerebrospinal fluid leak. Conclusion Retrosigmoid craniotomy is a safe and effective means to provide access to the cochlear nucleus for ABI placement following tumor resection in the adult NF2 patient. Preliminary data indicate that this approach has few complications while offering benefits for hearing. The retrosigmoid craniotomy should be considered a reasonable alternative to the traditional translabyrinthine approach for placement of the ABI in deaf patients who are not candidates for the cochlear implant. PMID:27054058

  8. 17AAG-induced internalisation of HER2-specific Affibody molecules

    PubMed Central

    Göstring, Lovisa; Lindegren, Sture; Gedda, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The geldanamycin derivative 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) is known to induce internalisation and degradation of the otherwise internalisation-resistant human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) receptor. In the present study, 17-AAG was used to increase internalisation of the HER2-specific Affibody molecule ABY-025. The cellular redistribution of halogen-labelled 211At-ABY-025 and radiometal-labelled 111In-ABY-025 following treatment with 17-AAG was studied. 17-AAG treatment of SKOV-3 human ovarian carcinoma and SKBR-3 human breast carcinoma cells to some extent shifted the localisation of 111In-ABY-025 from the cell surface to intracellular compartments in the two cell lines. ABY-025 labelled with the high-linear energy transfer α emitter 211At was also internalised to a higher degree; however, due to its physiological properties, this nuclide was excreted faster. The results indicate that 17-AAG may be used to facilitate cell-specific intracellular localisation of a suitable cytotoxic or radioactive agent coupled to ABY-025 in HER2-overexpressing cells.

  9. 17AAG-induced internalisation of HER2-specific Affibody molecules

    PubMed Central

    Göstring, Lovisa; Lindegren, Sture; Gedda, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The geldanamycin derivative 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) is known to induce internalisation and degradation of the otherwise internalisation-resistant human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) receptor. In the present study, 17-AAG was used to increase internalisation of the HER2-specific Affibody molecule ABY-025. The cellular redistribution of halogen-labelled 211At-ABY-025 and radiometal-labelled 111In-ABY-025 following treatment with 17-AAG was studied. 17-AAG treatment of SKOV-3 human ovarian carcinoma and SKBR-3 human breast carcinoma cells to some extent shifted the localisation of 111In-ABY-025 from the cell surface to intracellular compartments in the two cell lines. ABY-025 labelled with the high-linear energy transfer α emitter 211At was also internalised to a higher degree; however, due to its physiological properties, this nuclide was excreted faster. The results indicate that 17-AAG may be used to facilitate cell-specific intracellular localisation of a suitable cytotoxic or radioactive agent coupled to ABY-025 in HER2-overexpressing cells. PMID:27698830

  10. Synthesis and antiproliferative activity of novel 2-aryl-4-benzoyl-imidazole derivatives targeting tubulin polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jianjun; Li, Chien-Ming; Wang, Jin; Ahn, Sunjoo; Wang, Zhao; Lu, Yan; Dalton, James T.; Miller, Duane D.; Li, Wei

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported the discovery of 2-aryl-4-benzoyl-imidazoles (ABI-I) as potent antiproliferative agents for melanoma. To further understand the structural requirements for the potency of ABI analogs, gain insight in the structure-activity relationships (SAR), and investigate metabolic stability for these compounds, we report extensive SAR studies on the ABI-I scaffold. Compared with the previous set of ABI-I analogs, the newly synthesized ABI-II analogs have lower potency in general, but some of the new analogs have comparable potency to the most active compounds in the previous set when tested in two melanoma and four prostate cancer cell lines. These SAR studies indicated that the antiproliferative activity was very sensitive to subtle changes in the ligand. Tested compounds 3ab and 8a are equally active against highly paclitaxel resistant cancer cell lines and their parental cell lines, indicating that drugs developed based on ABI-I analogs may have therapeutic advantages over paclitaxel in treating resistant tumors. Metabolic stability studies of compound 3ab revealed that N-methyl imidazole failed to extend stability as literature reported because de-methylation was found as the major metabolic pathway in rat and mouse liver microsomes. However, this sheds light on the possibility for many modifications on imidazole ring for further lead optimization since the modification on imidazole, such as compound 3ab, did not impact the potency. PMID:21775150

  11. Can, Want and Try: Parents’ Viewpoints Regarding the Participation of Their Child with an Acquired Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Melanie; Elliott, Catherine; Willis, Claire; Ward, Roslyn; Falkmer, Marita; Falkmer, Torbjӧrn; Gubbay, Anna; Girdler, Sonya

    2016-01-01

    Background Acquired brain injury (ABI) is a leading cause of permanent disability, currently affecting 20,000 Australian children. Community participation is essential for childhood development and enjoyment, yet children with ABI can often experience barriers to participation. The factors which act as barriers and facilitators to community participation for children with an ABI are not well understood. Aim To identify the viewpoints of parents of children with an ABI, regarding the barriers and facilitators most pertinent to community participation for their child. Methods Using Q-method, 41 parents of children with moderate/severe ABI sorted 37 statements regarding barriers and facilitators to community participation. Factor analysis identified three viewpoints. Results This study identified three distinct viewpoints, with the perceived ability to participate decreasing with a stepwise trend from parents who felt their child and family “can” participate in viewpoint one, to “want” in viewpoint two and “try” in viewpoint three. Conclusions Findings indicated good participation outcomes for most children and families, however some families who were motivated to participate experienced significant barriers. The most significant facilitators included child motivation, supportive relationships from immediate family and friends, and supportive community attitudes. The lack of supportive relationships and attitudes was perceived as a fundamental barrier to community participation. Significance This research begins to address the paucity of information regarding those factors that impact upon the participation of children with an ABI in Australia. Findings have implications for therapists, service providers and community organisations. PMID:27367231

  12. Identification of an endogenous alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonist: studies on its possible role in endocrine and cardiovascular function

    SciTech Connect

    Dunbar, J.C.; Wider, M.; House, F.; Campbell, R.

    1986-03-01

    The concept of ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. adrenergic receptors that are regulated by epinephrine or norepinephrine (NE) is well established. The reported receptor antagonists have been synthetic. A peptide extracted from the duodenal mucosa with ..cap alpha..-2 antagonist properties has been identified. It specifically inhibits /sup 3/H-yohimbine binding (..cap alpha..-2) but not /sup 3/H dihydroalprenolol (..beta..) binding in whole brain membranes. Partially purified preparations of the alpha receptor binding inhibitor (ABI) were tested for endocrine pancreatic and cardiovascular effects. When isolated islets were incubated in the presence of ABI with and without NE, ABI along did not alter insulin secretion but completely reversed the NE suppression of glucose stimulated insulin release. Glucagon secretion by these same islets was enhanced by ABI and augmented the stimulatory effect of NE. Intravenous (I.V.) infusion of ABI increased serum insulin in the presence of NE and decreased the serum glucose response to a glucose load. Infusion of ABI into the 4th ventricle, or I.V. resulted in a decrease (50-60%) in systolic and diastolic blood pressure as well as a decrease (10-20%) in heart rate. From these studies the authors conclude that a duodenal peptide with the capacity to inhibit ..cap alpha..-2 agonist binding may play a role in endocrine and cardiovascular functions.

  13. Ankle-Brachial Index, Toe-Brachial Index, and Pulse Volume Recording in Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Masaki, Hisao; Yunoki, Yasuhiro; Tabuchi, Atushi; Morita, Ichiro; Mohri, Satoshi; Tanemoto, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To clarify the characteristics of ankle-brachial index (ABI), toe-brachial index (TBI), and pulse volume recording (PVR) of the ankle with brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in healthy young adults. Material and Methods: We analyzed ABI, TBI, baPWV, and PVR in the ankle of healthy adults aged 20 to 25 years (median, 20 years) using an automatic oscillometric device between 2002 and 2013. The ABI, baPWV, and PVR in 1282 legs of 641 subjects (301 men and 340 women) and the TBI in 474 toes of 237 subjects (117 men and 120 women) were evaluated. Results: The measured values showed no bilateral differences. ABI and baPWV were higher in men than in women, but TBI was similar in both sexes. ABI <1.0 was observed in 18.1% of the legs in men and in 25.6% in women. TBI <0.7 was observed in 16.2% of the toes in men and 19.1% in women. For ankle PVR, the % mean arterial pressure was higher in women than in men. The upstroke time was <180 ms in most subjects. Conclusions: For young people, ABI <1.0 or TBI <0.7 may not always indicate vascular abnormalities. When evaluating circulatory indexes, age and sex should be considered. PMID:26421072

  14. GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager: spectral response functions and radiometric biases with the NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite evaluated for desert calibration sites.

    PubMed

    Pearlman, Aaron; Pogorzala, David; Cao, Changyong

    2013-11-01

    The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), which will be launched in late 2015 on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R-series satellite, will be evaluated in terms of its data quality postlaunch through comparisons with other satellite sensors such as the recently launched Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite. The ABI has completed much of its prelaunch characterization and its developers have generated and released its channel spectral response functions (response versus wavelength). Using these responses and constraining a radiative transfer model with ground reflectance, aerosol, and water vapor measurements, we simulate observed top of atmosphere (TOA) reflectances for analogous visible and near infrared channels of the VIIRS and ABI sensors at the Sonoran Desert and White Sands National Monument sites and calculate the radiometric biases and their uncertainties. We also calculate sensor TOA reflectances using aircraft hyperspectral data from the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer to validate the uncertainties in several of the ABI and VIIRS channels and discuss the potential for validating the others. Once on-orbit, calibration scientists can use these biases to ensure ABI data quality and consistency to support the numerical weather prediction community and other data users. They can also use the results for ABI or VIIRS anomaly detection and resolution.

  15. A screen for genes that function in abscisic acid signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Nambara, Eiji; Suzuki, Masaharu; Abrams, Suzanne; McCarty, Donald R; Kamiya, Yuji; McCourt, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) controls many aspects of plant growth and development under a diverse range of environmental conditions. To identify genes functioning in ABA signaling, we have carried out a screen for mutants that takes advantage of the ability of wild-type Arabidopsis seeds to respond to (-)-(R)-ABA, an enantiomer of the natural (+)-(S)-ABA. The premise of the screen was to identify mutations that preferentially alter their germination response in the presence of one stereoisomer vs. the other. Twenty-six mutants were identified and genetic analysis on 23 lines defines two new loci, designated CHOTTO1 and CHOTTO2, and a collection of new mutant alleles of the ABA-insensitive genes, ABI3, ABI4, and ABI5. The abi5 alleles are less sensitive to (+)-ABA than to (-)-ABA. In contrast, the abi3 alleles exhibit a variety of differences in response to the ABA isomers. Genetic and molecular analysis of these alleles suggests that the ABI3 transcription factor may perceive multiple ABA signals. PMID:12136027

  16. Ankle Brachial Index: simple non-invasive estimation of peripheral artery disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieniak, Marcin; Cieślicki, Krzysztof; Żyliński, Marek; Górski, Piotr; Murgrabia, Agnieszka; Cybulski, Gerard

    2014-11-01

    According to international guidelines, patients with Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) are burdened with high cardiovascular risk. One of the simplest, non-invasive methods for PAD detection is the ankle-brachial index (ABI) measurement. The ABI is calculated as the ratio of systolic blood pressure at the ankle (pressure in the posterior tibial artery or the dorsal artery) to the systolic pressure in the arm (in the brachial artery) when the body is in a horizontal position. The physiological value of the ABI is assumed to be between 1 and 1.3; however, these limits vary from study to study. A value less than 0.9 indicates PAD. Some authors propose also measuring the ABI on both sides of the body to highlight possible differences in blood pressure between the opposite arterial segments. The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of the ABI diagnostic criteria used in different publications. Additionally, ABI measurements were performed on 19 healthy patients in age ranged from 20 to 63 years. The results showed a slight dependence between age and the differences between the values obtained from left and right sides of the body.

  17. Application of ozonated dry ice (ALIGAL™ Blue Ice) for packaging and transport in the food industry.

    PubMed

    Fratamico, Pina M; Juneja, Vijay; Annous, Bassam A; Rasanayagam, Vasuhi; Sundar, M; Braithwaite, David; Fisher, Steven

    2012-05-01

    Dry ice is used by meat and poultry processors for temperature reduction during processing and for temperature maintenance during transportation. ALIGAL™ Blue Ice (ABI), which combines the antimicrobial effect of ozone (O(3)) along with the high cooling capacity of dry ice, was investigated for its effect on bacterial reduction in air, in liquid, and on food and glass surfaces. Through proprietary means, O(3) was introduced to produce dry ice pellets to a concentration of 20 parts per million (ppm) by total weight. The ABI sublimation rate was similar to that of dry ice pellets under identical conditions, and ABI was able to hold the O(3) concentration throughout the normal shelf life of the product. Challenge studies were performed using different microorganisms, including E. coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella, and Listeria, that are critical to food safety. ABI showed significant (P < 0.05) microbial reduction during bioaerosol contamination (up to 5-log reduction of E. coli and Listeria), on chicken breast (approximately 1.3-log reduction of C. jejuni), on contact surfaces (approximately 3.9 log reduction of C. jejuni), and in liquid (2-log reduction of C. jejuni). Considering the stability of O(3), ease of use, and antimicrobial efficacy against foodborne pathogens, our results suggest that ABI is a better alternative, especially for meat and poultry processors, as compared to dry ice. Further, ABI can potentially serve as an additional processing hurdle to guard against pathogens during processing, transportation, distribution, and/or storage.

  18. Temporal and spatial variability of ADCP backscatter on a continental slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindlinger, Laurie R.; Biggs, Douglas C.; DiMarco, Steven F.

    2005-01-01

    Previous research has shown that acoustic volume backscatter intensity (ABI) from an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) can be a proxy for zooplankton and micronekton biomass over time or space. As part of NOAA's Sperm Whale and Acoustic Monitoring Program (SWAMP) and a follow-on ichthyoplankton survey (SEAMAP), a ship-mounted 300-kHz broadband ADCP collected current velocity and ABI data from July to September 2001 in the northeast Gulf of Mexico. The present study sought to compare/contrast the variability in ABI both spatially and temporally using the data obtained from the SWAMP and SEAMAP cruises. The ADCP data were averaged over 2 min and 4 m vertical bins from 16 to 56 m below sea surface. Usually, ABI in this epipelagic realm averaged 3 dB higher at night than during the day because of diel vertical migration of zooplankton and micronekton into these near surface waters, while in a region having cyclonic circulation along the continental margin of the northeast Gulf, ABI averaged 6 dB higher than in an anticyclonic warm filament there. Wet displacement volumes (WDV) were measured using Bongo net tows to estimate that a 6 dB increase in ABI was equivalent to an increase from 9 to 10.5 ml WDV of plankton+micronekton per 100 m 3. Sperm whale abundance has been shown to be positively correlated with regions of locally high ABI, and sperm whale sightings during SWAMP were also compared to our ABI measurements. Spectral and Empirical Orthogonal Function analyses were performed on subsets of the ABI data for which 10-14 day time series were available and showed 2-3 day periodicity near-surface, corresponding to spatial scales of 10 1-10 2 km. During summer 2001, the mesoscale circulation along the subtropical continental margin in the northeastern Gulf was found to be the principal forcing factor for low frequency ABI variation. Increased backscatter observations are also correlated with offshore flow from the continental margin to the deep ocean

  19. Association of Polymorphisms in NOS3 with the Ankle-Brachial Index in Hypertensive Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kullo, Iftikhar J.; Greene, M. Todd; Boerwinkle, Eric; Chu, Jian; Turner, Stephen T.; Kardia, Sharon L. R.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the association of 14 polymorphisms in the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (NOS3) with ankle brachial index (ABI) in non-Hispanic white hypertensives belonging to hypertensive sibships. Subjects (n = 659, mean age 61±9 y, 54% women) underwent measurement of ABI using a standard protocol, and the lowest of 4 ABI values was used in the analyses. Non-synonymous SNPs with a minor allele frequency > 0.02 and tag SNPs selected based on a measure of linkage disequilibrium (r2) were genotyped. We reduced the chance of false positives by testing for replication, randomly selecting 1 hypertensive sib from each sibship to create Subset 1 (n = 330) and Subset 2 (n = 329). Multivariable linear regression models were used to assess the associations of single NOS3 polymorphisms and haplotypes with ABI after adjustment for covariates (age, sex, body mass index, smoking, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and diabetes). Two specific SNPs in significant LD with each other (rs891512 and rs1808593) were significantly associated with ABI in both subsets. Based on a sliding window approach with a window size of 2, estimated haplotypes from 2 SNP pairs (rs2070744–rs3918226 & rs1808593–rs7830) were also significantly associated with ABI in both subsets. In conclusion, specific NOS3 SNPs and haplotypes were associated with inter-individual variation in ABI, a non-invasive marker of peripheral arterial disease, in replicate subsets of hypertensive subjects. These findings motivate further investigation of the role of NOS3 variants in determining susceptibility to peripheral arterial disease. PMID:17367796

  20. Association of polymorphisms in NOS3 with the ankle-brachial index in hypertensive adults.

    PubMed

    Kullo, Iftikhar J; Greene, M Todd; Boerwinkle, Eric; Chu, Jian; Turner, Stephen T; Kardia, Sharon L R

    2008-02-01

    We investigated the association of 14 polymorphisms in the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (NOS3) with ankle brachial index (ABI) in non-Hispanic white hypertensives belonging to hypertensive sibships. Subjects (n=659, mean age 61+/-9 years, 54% women) underwent measurement of ABI using a standard protocol, and the lowest of 4 ABI values was used in the analyses. Non-synonymous SNPs with a minor allele frequency >0.02 and tag SNPs selected based on a measure of linkage disequilibrium (r(2)) were genotyped. We reduced the chance of false positives by testing for replication, randomly selecting 1 hypertensive sib from each sibship to create Subset 1 (n=330) and Subset 2 (n=329). Multivariable linear regression models were used to assess the associations of single NOS3 polymorphisms and haplotypes with ABI after adjustment for covariates (age, sex, body mass index, smoking, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and diabetes). Two specific SNPs in significant LD with each other (rs891512 and rs1808593) were significantly associated with