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Sample records for ning rootsi abi

  1. ABI 007.

    PubMed

    2003-01-01

    ABI 007 is an albumin-stabilised nanoparticle formulation of paclitaxel designed to overcome insolubility problems encountered with paclitaxel. This then eliminates the need for toxic solvents like cremophor, which limits the dose of paclitaxel that can be administered and hence effect overall drug efficacy. ABI 007 is being developed for the treatment of a variety of tumour types by American Pharmaceutical Partners. In addition to the standard infusion formulation of ABI 007, oral and pulmonary delivery formulations are also being investigated. American Pharmaceutical Partners, a subsidiary of American BioScience, secured exclusive North American marketing and manufacturing rights to ABI 007 from American BioScience in November 2001. American BioScience completed a phase III study in the US in metastatic breast cancer patients in early 2003. An indication for which ABI 007 was granted fast track status in January 2003. The phase III study directly compared the efficacy of ABI 007 260 mg/m(2) with paclitaxel 175 mg/m(2). Both agents were administered every 3 weeks. ABI 007 was administered as a 30-minute infusion without steroid pretreatment. Paclitaxel-treated patients received steroid pretreatment and the drug was administered over 3 hours. In October 2002, a Data Monitoring Committee concluded that a sample size adjustment of the phase III trial would not be required and that the study can be continued to completion. Enrolment was completed in December 2002 with 460 first- and second-line metastatic breast cancer patients enrolled. The results were expected to be unblinded in mid-2003. A phase II trial of ABI 007 is also underway in metastatic breast cancer patients who have failed taxane therapy. The trial is evaluating a weekly rather than 3-weekly regimen of ABI 007. Earlier, in May 2003, American Pharmaceutical Partners reported that ABI 007 is also being evaluated for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer, ovarian cancer, melanoma and cervical cancers

  2. ABI 007.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    ABI 007 [Abraxane] is an albumin-stabilised nanoparticle formulation of paclitaxel designed to overcome insolubility problems encountered with paclitaxel. This then eliminates the need for toxic solvents like cremophor, which limits the dose of paclitaxel that can be administered and hence affect overall drug efficacy. Studies have shown that the albumin receptor-mediated paclitaxel-transport mechanism is analogous to the opening of a 'trapdoor' on the endothelial cell wall within blood vessels. This facilitates the passage of ABI 007 from the bloodstream via the blood vessels to the underlying tumour tissue. ABI 007 is being developed for the treatment of a variety of tumour types by American Pharmaceutical Partners. In addition to the standard infusion formulation of ABI 007, oral and pulmonary delivery formulations are also being investigated. American Pharmaceutical Partners, a subsidiary of American BioScience, secured exclusive North American marketing and manufacturing rights to ABI 007 from American BioScience in November 2001. In anticipation of product launch within the fourth quarter of 2004, the company formed Abraxis Oncology and recruited an experienced sales and marketing team. The company has also accumulated approximately 28 million US dollars of paclitaxel inventory. As such, American Pharmaceutical Partners anticipates pre-launch expenses to cost approximately 40 million US dollars, incurred over 2004. In addition, the company expects to make two milestone payments worth 10 million US dollars as well as 15 million US dollars, based upon US FDA acceptance of NDA filing in the second quarter of 2004 and subsequent US FDA approval, respectively. The milestone for US FDA approval would be capitalised and amortised over the estimated life of the product.Previously, American Pharmaceutical Partners reported that its rolling NDA submission for ABI 007 commenced in May 2003. In July 2003, the company announced that this was progressing on schedule and

  3. Crossing Cultural Borders through Ning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eamer, Allyson; Hughes, Janette; Morrison, Laura Jane

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this mixed methods research study was to examine the construction of adolescents' bi-cultural identities through an exploration of their social practices on the social networking site, Ning. More specifically, we ask: (1) how are new Canadian and first-generation adolescents' bi-cultural identities shaped and performed as they use…

  4. Ning and Writing to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettzevoglou, Nathalie; McBride, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    Writing effectively is academically and professionally crucial for students, and helping them attain that skill is a major goal for writing instruction. The social networking site Ning offers a variety of Web 2.0 tools that can help students learn to write as well as write to learn. In this article, the authors describe their personal experiment…

  5. Hybridization of a Rocky Mountain fir (Abies concolor) and a Mexican fir (Abies religiosa)

    Treesearch

    J. B. St. Clair; W. B. Critchfield

    1988-01-01

    Interspecific crosses of Abies religiosa (HBK.) Schlecht. & Cham, (oyamel) with Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl. ex Hildebr. var. concolor (white fir) and Abies magnifica A. Murr. (California red fir) were undertaken to explore the relationships between these species. The cross...

  6. Hybridization of a Rocky Mountain fir (Abies concolor) and a Mexican fir (Abies religiosa).

    Treesearch

    J.B. St. Clair; W.B. Critchfield

    1988-01-01

    Interspecific crosses of Abies religiosa (HBK.) Schlecht. & Cham. (oyamel) with Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindle. ex Hildebr. var. concolor (white fir) and Abies magnifica A. Murr. (California red fir) were undertaken to explore the relationships between these species. The...

  7. ABI4: versatile activator and repressor.

    PubMed

    Wind, Julia J; Peviani, Alessia; Snel, Berend; Hanson, Johannes; Smeekens, Sjef C

    2013-03-01

    The ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE4 (ABI4) gene was discovered to be an abscisic acid (ABA) signaling responsive transcription factor active during seed germination. The evolutionary history of the ABI4 gene supports its role as an ABA signaling intermediate in land plants. Investigating the ABI4 protein-cis element interaction supports the proposal that ABI4 binding to its known CE1 cis-element competes with transcription factor binding to the overlapping G-Box element. Recent publications report on ABI4 as a regulatory factor in diverse processes. In developing seedlings, ABI4 mediates sugar signaling, lipid breakdown, and plastid-to-nucleus signaling. Moreover, ABI4 is a regulator of rosette growth, redox signaling, cell wall metabolism and the effect of nitrate on lateral root development.

  8. Direct targets of the transcription factors ABA-Insensitive(ABI)4 and ABI5 reveal synergistic action by ABI4 and several bZIP ABA response factors.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Wendy M; Lynch, Tim J; Mobin, Raisa; Finkelstein, Ruth R

    2011-03-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is a key regulator of seed development. In addition to promoting seed maturation, ABA inhibits seed germination and seedling growth. Many components involved in ABA response have been identified, including the transcription factors ABA insensitive (ABI)4 and ABI5. The genes encoding these factors are expressed predominantly in developing and mature seeds, and are positive regulators of ABA mediated inhibition of seed germination and growth. The direct effects of ABI4 and ABI5 in ABA response remain largely undefined. To address this question, plants over-expressing ABI4 or ABI5 were used to allow identification of direct transcriptional targets. Ectopically expressed ABI4 and ABI5 conferred ABA-dependent induction of slightly over 100 genes in 11 day old plants. In addition to effector genes involved in seed maturation and reserve storage, several signaling proteins and transcription factors were identified as targets of ABI4 and/or ABI5. Although only 12% of the ABA- and ABI-dependent transcriptional targets were induced by both ABI factors in 11 day old plants, 40% of those normally expressed in seeds had reduced transcript levels in both abi4 and abi5 mutants. Surprisingly, many of the ABI4 transcriptional targets do not contain the previously characterized ABI4 binding motifs, the CE1 or S box, in their promoters, but some of these interact with ABI4 in electrophoretic mobility shift assays, suggesting that sequence recognition by ABI4 may be more flexible than known canonical sequences. Yeast one-hybrid assays demonstrated synergistic action of ABI4 with ABI5 or related bZIP factors in regulating these promoters, and mutant analyses showed that ABI4 and these bZIPs share some functions in plants.

  9. NESH (Abi-3) is present in the Abi/WAVE complex but does not promote c-Abl-mediated phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Hirao, Noriko; Sato, Seiichi; Gotoh, Tetsuya; Maruoka, Masahiro; Suzuki, Jun; Matsuda, Satoru; Shishido, Tomoyuki; Tani, Katsuko

    2006-11-27

    Abl interactor (Abi) was identified as an Abl tyrosine kinase-binding protein and subsequently shown to be a component of the macromolecular Abi/WAVE complex, which is a key regulator of Rac-dependent actin polymerization. Previous studies showed that Abi-1 promotes c-Abl-mediated phosphorylation of Mammalian Enabled (Mena) and WAVE2. In addition to Abi-1, mammals possess Abi-2 and NESH (Abi-3). In this study, we compared the three Abi proteins in terms of the promotion of c-Abl-mediated phosphorylation and the formation of Abi/WAVE complex. Although Abi-2, like Abi-1, promoted the c-Abl-mediated phosphorylation of Mena and WAVE2, NESH (Abi-3) had no such effect. This difference was likely due to their binding abilities as to c-Abl. Immunoprecipitation revealed that NESH (Abi-3) is present in the Abi/WAVE complex. Our results suggest that NESH (Abi-3), like Abi-1 and Abi-2, is a component of the Abi/WAVE complex, but likely plays a different role in the regulation of c-Abl.

  10. Got PAD? Hidden dangers revealed with ABI.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Jamey; Hagler, Debra; Clark, Edward

    2011-12-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD), a result of atherosclerotic vascular changes to the endothelial lining of blood vessels, affects 8-12 million Americans and increases the risk of mortality as much as 50% from heart attacks and strokes. Early diagnosis and treatment of PAD along with early risk-reduction strategies have the potential to decrease societal health costs, as well as morbidity and mortality. PAD through screening with ankle brachial index (ABI), versus relying on existing physical exam and screening questionnaires, can increase the number of participants correctly diagnosed with PAD and lead to earlier treatment options. ABI screening was implemented in a primary care practice setting; outcomes were compared with historical rates and outcomes for participants at risk who declined ABI. Authors concluded that the participants who had ABI screenings that included arterial waveform analysis had a 78% rate of PAD diagnosis, whereas only 13% of the participants who did not elect ABI screening were diagnosed with PAD based on their symptoms and physical exam. Use of ABI screening led to increased frequency and awareness of PAD diagnosis and the opportunity for early intervention. Copyright © 2011 Society for Vascular Nursing, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The NESH/Abi-3-based WAVE2 complex is functionally distinct from the Abi-1-based WAVE2 complex.

    PubMed

    Sekino, Saki; Kashiwagi, Yuriko; Kanazawa, Hitoshi; Takada, Kazuki; Baba, Takashi; Sato, Seiichi; Inoue, Hiroki; Kojima, Masaki; Tani, Katsuko

    2015-10-01

    Abl interactor (Abi) family proteins play significant roles in actin cytoskeleton organization through participation in the WAVE complex. Mammals possess three Abi proteins: Abi-1, Abi-2, and NESH/Abi-3. Abi-1 and Abi-2 were originally identified as Abl tyrosine kinase-binding proteins. It has been disclosed that Abi-1 acts as a bridge between c-Abl and WAVE2, and c-Abl-mediated WAVE2 phosphorylation promotes actin remodeling. We showed previously that NESH/Abi-3 is present in the WAVE2 complex, but neither binds to c-Abl nor promotes c-Abl-mediated phosphorylation of WAVE2. In this study, we characterized NESH/Abi-3 in more detail, and compared its properties with those of Abi-1 and Abi-2. NESH/Abi-3 was ectopically expressed in NIH3T3 cells, in which Abi-1, but not NESH/Abi-3, is expressed. The expression of NESH/Abi-3 caused degradation of endogenous Abi-1, which led to the formation of a NESH/Abi-3-based WAVE2 complex. When these cells were plated on fibronectin-coated dishes, the translocation of WAVE2 to the plasma membrane was significantly reduced and the formation of peripheral lamellipodial structures was disturbed, suggesting that the NESH/Abi-3-based WAVE2 complex was unable to help produce lamellipodial protrusions. Next, Abi-1, Abi-2, or NESH/Abi-3 was expressed in v-src-transformed NIH3T3 cells. Only in NESH/Abi-3-expressed cells did treatment with an Abl kinase inhibitor, imatinib mesylate, or siRNA-mediated knockdown of c-Abl promote the formation of invadopodia, which are ventral membrane protrusions with extracellular matrix degradation activity. Structural studies showed that a linker region between the proline-rich regions and the Src homology 3 (SH3) domain of Abi-1 is crucial for its interaction with c-Abl and c-Abl-mediated phosphorylation of WAVE2. The NESH/Abi-3-based WAVE2 complex is functionally distinct from the Abi-1-based one, and NESH/Abi-3 may be involved in the formation of ventral protrusions under certain conditions.

  12. Educators Eye Ning Transition to a Pay Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michelle R.

    2010-01-01

    The author reports on a move by the online social-networking site Ning to start charging for its services which has raised worries that new fees could stifle educators' technological collaboration and creativity and touch off similar moves by other companies that provide comparable services heavily used by educators. Ning, which provides a…

  13. Educators Eye Ning Transition to a Pay Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michelle R.

    2010-01-01

    The author reports on a move by the online social-networking site Ning to start charging for its services which has raised worries that new fees could stifle educators' technological collaboration and creativity and touch off similar moves by other companies that provide comparable services heavily used by educators. Ning, which provides a…

  14. Sargent's fir hybrid: Abies amabilis x lasicarpa

    Treesearch

    William B. Critchfield

    1977-01-01

    On a short trip into the northern Olympic Mountains of Washington in the summer of 1896, Professor Charles Sprague Sargent found a fir tree that he thought might be a natural hybrid between Abies amabilis (Dougl.) Forbes and A. lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt. The founder and Director of the Arnold Arboretum, Sargent was generally...

  15. Interviewing Children with Acquired Brain Injury (ABI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boylan, Anne-Marie; Linden, Mark; Alderdice, Fiona

    2009-01-01

    Research into the lives of children with acquired brain injury (ABI) often neglects to incorporate children as participants, preferring to obtain the opinions of the adult carer (e.g. McKinlay et al., 2002). There has been a concerted attempt to move away from this position by those working in children's research with current etiquette…

  16. Abi induces ectopic sensory organ formation by stimulating EGFR signaling.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Raiko; Grevelhörster, Astrid; Wenderdel, Stefanie; Klämbt, Christian; Bogdan, Sven

    2008-01-01

    One of the central regulators coupling tyrosine phosphorylation with cytoskeletal dynamics is the Abelson interactor (Abi). Its activity regulates WASP-/WAVE mediated F-actin formation and in addition modulates the activity of the Abelson tyrosine kinase (Abl). We have recently shown that the Drosophila Abi is capable of promoting bristle development in a wasp dependent fashion. Here, we report that Drosophila Abi induces sensory organ development by modulating EGFR signaling. Expression of a membrane-tethered activated Abi protein (Abi(Myr)) leads to an increase in MAPK activity. Additionally, suppression of EGFR activity inhibits the induction of extra-sensory organs by Abi(Myr), whereas co-expression of activated Abi(Myr) and EGFR dramatically enhances the neurogenic phenotype. In agreement with this observation Abi is able to associate with the EGFR in a common complex. Furthermore, Abi binds the Abl tyrosine kinase. A block of Abl kinase-activity reduces Abi protein stability and strongly abrogates ectopic sensory organ formation induced by Abi(Myr). Concomitantly, we noted changes in tyrosine phosphorylation supporting previous reports that Abi protein stability is linked to tyrosine phosphorylation mediated by Abl.

  17. Recent Rehabilitation Experience with Pediatric ABI Users.

    PubMed

    Yücel, Esra; Aslan, Filiz; Özkan, Hilal Burcu; Sennaroğlu, Levent

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the rehabilitative outcomes of pediatric auditory brainstem implant (ABI) users in the Department of Otolaryngology in the Hacettepe University. It was a retrospective study, and all patients' files were reviewed. The data was collected from 41 children who were fitted with ABI between 2005 and 2013. Inclusion criteria for children in our study are profound, congenital bilateral sensory-neural hearing loss with anomalies (such as cochlear, labyrinthine, and cochlear nerve aplasia) and more than one year of auditory experience with ABI. Post-meningitis patients and neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients were excluded. Auditory perception was evaluated using the Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (MAIS), Functioning after Pediatric Cochlear Implantation (FAPCI) instrument, Categories of Auditory Performance (CAP), and Children's Auditory Perception Skills Test in Turkish (CIAT). Speech intelligibility was categorized with speech intelligibility rating (SIR), and language development was assessed using the Test of Early Language Development-Third Edition (TELD-3) and Manchester Spoken Language Development Scale (MSLD). All patients gained basic audiological functions and were able to recognize and discriminate sounds by the third month of ABI surgery. According to the duration of ABI use and learning skills, patients revealed development from word identification to sentence recognition level in a wide spectrum. Preliminary results indicate that all children have gained basic auditory perception skills. On the other hand, language and speech development data were varying among children. Additional handicaps seemed to slow down progression. Secondary improvement was seen at psychosocial areas with respect to behavioral and social adjustment as well as eagerness to start communication.

  18. Beauty and physics: 13 important contributions of Chen Ning Yang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yu

    2014-06-01

    In 2012, Chen Ning Yang received a 90th birthday gift in the form of a black cube inscribed with his 13 most important contributions, which cover four major areas of physics: statistical mechanics, condensed matter physics, particle physics and field theory. We briefly describe these 13 contributions and make general comments about Yang's distinctive style as a trailblazing leader in research.

  19. Detector level ABI spectral response function: FM4 analysis and comparison for different ABI modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremova, Boryana; Pearlman, Aaron J.; Padula, Frank; Wu, Xiangqian

    2016-09-01

    A new generation of imaging instruments Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) is to be launched aboard the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites - R Series (GOES-R). Four ABI flight modules (FM) are planned to be launched on GOES-R,S,T,U, the first one in the fall of 2016. Pre-launch testing is on-going for FM3 and FM4. ABI has 16 spectral channels, six in the visible/near infrared (VNIR 0.47 - 2.25 μm), and ten in the thermal infrared (TIR 3.9 - 13.3 μm) spectral regions, to be calibrated on-orbit by observing respectively a solar diffuser and a blackbody. Each channel has hundreds of detectors arranged in columns. Operationally one Analytic Generation of Spectral Response (ANGEN) function will be used to represent the spectral response function (SRF) of all detectors in a band. The Vendor conducted prelaunch end-to-end SRF testing to compare to ANGEN; detector specific SRF data was taken for: i) best detector selected (BDS) mode - for FM 2,3, and 4; and ii) all detectors (column mode) - for four spectral bands in FM3 and FM4. The GOES-R calibration working group (CWG) has independently used the SRF test data for FM2 and FM3 to study the potential impact of detector-to-detector SRF differences on the ABI detected Earth view radiances. In this paper we expand the CWG analysis to include the FM4 SRF test data - the results are in agreement with the Vendor analysis, and show excellent instrument performance and compare the detector-to-detector SRF differences and their potential impact on the detected Earth view radiances for all of the tested ABI modules.

  20. A Guide to Searching ONTAP ABI/INFORM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Courier, Inc., Louisville, KY.

    This manual is designed to assist searchers in developing cost-effective techniques for searching ABI/INFORM, a database which provides worldwide coverage of management trends, tactics, and techniques, citing articles from more than 550 business and management journals in English and other languages. ONTAP ABI/INFORM, a subset of the database, is…

  1. Comparison between oscillometric- and Doppler-ABI in elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Ikuno; Furukawa, Kyoji; Ohishi, Waka; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Matsumoto, Masayasu; Fujiwara, Saeko

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) generally remains under-recognized, mainly due to the specialized technical skills required to detect the low values of the ankle-brachial index (ABI). As a simpler and faster alternative to the standard method using continuous-wave Doppler ultrasound, we evaluated automated oscillometric ABI measurement by VP-2000 with an elderly cohort of 113 subjects (age range, 61 to 88 years). The standard deviation in ABIs measured by the Doppler method was statistically greater than that measured by the oscillometric method for each of the two legs (P < 0.001). Correlations in ABIs between the two methods were 0.46 for the left leg and 0.61 for the right leg; this result appears to have been caused by interobserver variation in the Doppler ABI measurements. While the trend showing greater differences between average oscillometric- and Doppler-ABIs was significant at the lower ABI ranges, there was little indication of differences in measurements having an average ABI > 1.1. The difference between the methods was suggestively larger in subjects who were smokers than in non-smokers (P = 0.09), but the difference was not affected by other potential atherosclerotic risk factors, including age at examination (P > 0.50). A larger difference at lower ABIs led to better PAD detection by the Doppler method compared to the oscillometric method (sensitivity = 50%, specificity = 100%), although the overall agreement was not small (Cohen's Kappa = 0.65). Our findings indicate that oscillometric devices can provide more accurate estimation of the prevalence of PAD in elderly individuals than the conventional Doppler method.

  2. TU(R)NING WEAKNESS TO STRENGTH MECHANOMUTABLE BIOINSPIRED MATERIALS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-04-03

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2017-0067 TU(R)NING WEAKNESS TO STRENGTH - MECHANOMUTABLE BIOINSPIRED MATERIALS Markus Buehler MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF... MATERIALS 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA9550-11-1-0199 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6.  AUTHOR(S) Markus Buehler 5d.  PROJECT NUMBER...proving both the nanoscale mechanisms and mechanical behavior predictions. 15.  SUBJECT TERMS hybrid materials , low density materials 16.  SECURITY

  3. The Ubiquitous ABI/INFORM: DIALOG, NEXIS, DIALCOM et al.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veccia, Susan H.

    1987-01-01

    Compares the performance of ABI/INFORM on the DIALOG, NEXIS and DIALCOM systems in terms of documentation, database and system design, convenience, and cost. Examples of searches on the various systems are given. (CLB)

  4. Species Distribution Modeling between Abies koreana and Abies nephrolepis According to the RCP Scenarios in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. G.; Kim, I. S.; Lee, W. K.; Kwon, H. J.; Byeon, J. G.; Yun, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    Vulnerable plant that includes species in crisis of extinction is shown by environment, competition between various species. The climate is one of the main factor that affect to the plant distribution. The most essential particular to make species distribution model is distribution data, and secondly environmental factors. 179 taxon plant classified according to the distribution, it consist of characteristic and regional distribution criteria. In case of climate data, 1960-1990 period made by World Clim Data is applied which has 0.86㎢ spatial resolution. It separates temperature and precipitation factor. To predict potential distribution, Maxent(Maximum Entropy Model) is applied that is widely known as suitable model in case of presence distributional data only. Among the target species, Abies koreana and Abies nephrolepis have no clearly key to identify, so their differences of distribution and environmental fator information could act useful. In order to know the distinction according to the classifying species, Abies koreana and Abies nephrolepis are typically selected. Abies koreana distributes at high mountain in Southern part of Korean Peninsula, otherwise Abies nephrolepis is at high mountain in from Middle latitude(over the 37°) in South Korea. These species has been the center of controversy recently, because the classification key of these species is not scientifically clear yet. In this perspective these species predicted potential distribution depend on whether these are same species or not. In the result of considering these species are same, entire predicted distribution area is wider, especially Jiri-san mountain(latitude : 35°) which is the highest latitude of the Abies koreana distributed point. On the other side, result of considering different species is shown that Abies koreana could climatically survive near by Soerak-san mountain(latitude : 37°), but Abies nephrolepis could not live in Halla-san mountan(33°) in Jeju-island which is the

  5. Differential abscisic acid regulation of guard cell slow anion channels in Arabidopsis wild-type and abi1 and abi2 mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Z M; Kuchitsu, K; Ward, J M; Schwarz, M; Schroeder, J I

    1997-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates vital physiological responses, and a number of events in the ABA signaling cascade remain to be identified. To allow quantitative analysis of genetic signaling mutants, patch-clamp experiments were developed and performed with the previously inaccessible Arabidopsis guard cells from the wild type and ABA-insensitive (abi) mutants. Slow anion channels have been proposed to play a rate-limiting role in ABA-induced stomatal closing. We now directly demonstrate that ABA strongly activates slow anion channels in wild-type guard cells. Furthermore, ABA-induced anion channel activation and stomatal closing were suppressed by protein phosphatase inhibitors. In abi1-1 and abi2-1 mutant guard cells, ABA activation of slow anion channels and ABA-induced stomatal closing were abolished. These impairments in ABA signaling were partially rescued by kinase inhibitors in abi1 but not in abi2 guard cells. These data provide cell biological evidence that the abi2 locus disrupts early ABA signaling, that abi1 and abi2 affect ABA signaling at different steps in the cascade, and that protein kinases act as negative regulators of ABA signaling in Arabidopsis. New models for ABA signaling pathways and roles for abi1, abi2, and protein kinases and phosphatases are discussed. PMID:9090884

  6. Functional characterization of two alternatively spliced transcripts of tomato ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3) gene.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yongfeng; Liu, Jikai; Zhang, Zhiguo; Sun, Xiaochun; Zhang, Ni; Fan, Jing; Niu, Xiangli; Xiao, Fangming; Liu, Yongsheng

    2013-05-01

    Alternative splicing can produce transcripts that encode proteins with altered functions. The transcripts of the ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3)/VIVIPAROUS1 (VP1) gene, which is an important component in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling, are subjected to alternative splicing in both monocotyledons and dicotyledons. We identified two alternatively spliced tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) SlABI3 transcripts, SlABI3-F and SlABI3-T, which encode the nucleus-localized full-length and truncated proteins, respectively. The tissue-specific accumulation of SlABI3-F and SlABI3-T was determined, particularly in seeds at different developmental stages and in response to phytohormonal and abiotic stress. Ectopic over-expression of SlABI3-F and SlABI3-T resulted in the induction of seed-specific genes SlSOM, SlEM1 and SlEM6 in vegetative tissues. However, over-expression of SlABI3-F, but not SlABI3-T, activated expression of the downstream gene SlABI5 and conferred hypersensitivity to exogenous ABA during seed germination and primary root growth. In addition, the SlABI3-F protein interacted with SlABI5 much stronger than SlABI3-T did in the yeast two-hybrid assay. These results suggest that SlABI3-F and SlABI3-T have similar and distinct functionality in the ABA signaling, dependent on which tissue/organ they accumulate in.

  7. Reliability and validity of the acquired brain injury challenge assessment (ABI-CA) in children.

    PubMed

    Wong, R K Y; McEwan, J; Finlayson, D; Chung, S; Wan, L; Salbach, N M; Kirkwood, G; Meschino, C; Wright, F V

    2014-01-01

    The Acquired Brain Injury Challenge Assessment (ABI-CA) was created to fill a measurement gap and evaluate deficits in advanced motor skills in children with acquired brain injury (ABI). Study objectives were to refine ABI-CA response options and evaluate (i) inter-/intra-rater reliability, (ii) concurrent validity and difficulty level in relation to the Community Balance & Mobility Scale (CB&M) and (iii) administration efficiency of the refined ABI-CA. Measurement study. Phase I involved ABI-CA revisions. Phase 2 consisted of live-/video-scoring of the ABI-CA with 15 typically-developing (TD) children and 15 with ABI (7-17 years) to assess reliability/validity. The revised 20-item ABI-CA displayed excellent reliability for the entire sample (ICCs > 0.90; 95% CI = 0.92-1.00; SEM ≤ 3.60) and within ABI and TD sub-groups. The ABI-CA and CB&M correlated strongly (r = 0.75, p < 0.0001). The ABI-CA mean score (/100) was 11.3 points lower (p < 0.0001) than the CB&M's mean score (/100). The ABI-CA demonstrated excellent reliability and initial evidence of validity. ABI-CA scores were lower overall than the CB&M, indicating the ABI-CA may have greater capacity to evaluate improvements in advanced motor skills in children with ABI. Multi-centre research is needed to confirm the ABI-CA's test-retest reliability and, assuming acceptability, assess responsiveness to change.

  8. An ABI3-interactor of conifers responds to multiple hormones.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ying; Zhao, Tiehan; Kermode, Allison

    2013-11-01

    CnAIP2 (Callitropsis nootkatensis ABI3-Interacting Protein 2) was previously identified as a protein that interacts with the yellow-cedar ABI3 protein. CnAIP2 plays important roles during several key transitions of the plant lifecycle and acts as a global regulator with functions opposite to those of ABI3 proteins. Here we report that the CnAIP2 gene promoter is strongly upregulated by all of the major plant hormones. Young Arabidopsis seedlings expressing a chimeric CnAIP2pro-GUS construct were subjected to exogenously applied hormones; the maximum fold-enhancement of GUS activity was as high as 47-fold, and each hormone showed a distinctive cell/tissue-specific pattern of GUS induction. By far the greatest response was elicited by the synthetic auxin 2,4-D (47-fold induction); the other hormones tested stimulated GUS activities by 8- to 21-fold. The CnAIP2 promoter also responded to glucose and salt (NaCl), albeit to a lesser extent (2- to 3-fold induction). As well as acting in an antagonistic way to the global regulator ABI3, CnAIP2 appears to participate in multiple hormonal crosstalk pathways to carry out its functions.

  9. An ABI3-interactor of conifers responds to multiple hormones

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Ying; Zhao, Tiehan; Kermode, Allison R.

    2013-01-01

    CnAIP2 (Callitropsis nootkatensis ABI3-Interacting Protein 2) was previously identified as a protein that interacts with the yellow-cedar ABI3 protein. CnAIP2 plays important roles during several key transitions of the plant lifecycle and acts as a global regulator with functions opposite to those of ABI3 proteins. Here we report that the CnAIP2 gene promoter is strongly upregulated by all of the major plant hormones. Young Arabidopsis seedlings expressing a chimeric CnAIP2pro-GUS construct were subjected to exogenously applied hormones; the maximum fold-enhancement of GUS activity was as high as 47-fold, and each hormone showed a distinctive cell/tissue-specific pattern of GUS induction. By far the greatest response was elicited by the synthetic auxin 2,4-D (47-fold induction); the other hormones tested stimulated GUS activities by 8- to 21-fold. The CnAIP2 promoter also responded to glucose and salt (NaCl), albeit to a lesser extent (2- to 3-fold induction). As well as acting in an antagonistic way to the global regulator ABI3, CnAIP2 appears to participate in multiple hormonal crosstalk pathways to carry out its functions. PMID:23989243

  10. Resistance to Phytophthora cinnamomi in the Genus Abies

    Treesearch

    John Frampton; Fikret Isik; Mike Benson; Jaroslav Kobliha; Jan Stjskal

    2012-01-01

    A major limiting factor for the culture of true firs as Christmas trees is their susceptibility to Oomycete species belonging to the genus Phytophthora. In North Carolina alone, the Fraser fir (Abies fraseri [Pursh] Poir.) Christmas tree industry loses 6 to 7 million dollars annually to root rot primarily caused by ...

  11. 19 CFR 143.7 - Revocation of ABI participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Revocation of ABI participation. 143.7 Section 143.7 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Automated Broker Interface § 143.7 Revocation of...

  12. ABI/INFORM and Management Contents on DIALOG.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagers, Robert

    1980-01-01

    Provides database descriptions of ABI/INFORM and Management Contents, two of the most heavily used files for current information on management practices and concepts, recent product development, and production and marketing statistics. Topics addressed include coverage of source publications and currency, indexing policies and practices, and…

  13. ABI/Inform and Wilson Business Abstracts: A Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, Sheri A.

    This study compares ABI/INFORM and Wilson Business Abstracts in order to determine user preference. Surveys in the form of questionnaires were used to evaluate users' preference of interface, database response time, search results and ease of use with both business CD-ROM databases. Kent State University students, faculty, and patrons interested…

  14. The NCK and ABI adaptor genes in catfish and their involvement in ESC disease response.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tao; Li, Ning; Liu, Shikai; Jin, Yulin; Fu, Qiang; Gao, Sen; Liu, Yang; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2017-08-01

    Adaptor proteins non-catalytic region of tyrosine kinase (NCK) and Abelson interactor (ABI) are crucial for disease response. NCK1 was identified to be a candidate gene for enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) disease resistance, and was speculated to play similar roles during ESC and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) pathogenicity. ABI1 was reported as a positional candidate gene for bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) resistance in rainbow trout. In this study, three NCK genes and six ABI genes were identified in the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) genome and blue catfish (I. furcatus) transcriptome, and annotated by domain structures, phylogenetic and syntenic analyses. Their expression patterns were examined in the intestine and liver of catfish after challenge with Edwardsiella ictaluri. In the intestine, NCK1, ABI2a, ABI2b, ABI3a were differentially expressed after E. ictaluri infection. In the liver, NCK2a, NCK2b, ABI1b, ABI2a, ABI2b were significantly upregulated in ESC susceptible fish. In general, the NCK and ABI genes, with exception of ABI3a gene and NCK1 gene, were expressed at higher levels in susceptible fish after infection than in control fish, but were expressed at lower levels in resistant fish than in the control fish. Taken together, these results support the notion that NCK and ABI genes are involved in disease processes facilitating pathogenesis of the E. ictaluri bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Conserved Splicing Factor SUA Controls Alternative Splicing of the Developmental Regulator ABI3 in Arabidopsis[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Sugliani, Matteo; Brambilla, Vittoria; Clerkx, Emile J.M.; Koornneef, Maarten; Soppe, Wim J.J.

    2010-01-01

    ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3) is a major regulator of seed maturation in Arabidopsis thaliana. We detected two ABI3 transcripts, ABI3-α and ABI3-β, which encode full-length and truncated proteins, respectively. Alternative splicing of ABI3 is developmentally regulated, and the ABI3-β transcript accumulates at the end of seed maturation. The two ABI3 transcripts differ by the presence of a cryptic intron in ABI3-α, which is spliced out in ABI3-β. The suppressor of abi3-5 (sua) mutant consistently restores wild-type seed features in the frameshift mutant abi3-5 but does not suppress other abi3 mutant alleles. SUA is a conserved splicing factor, homologous to the human protein RBM5, and reduces splicing of the cryptic ABI3 intron, leading to a decrease in ABI3-β transcript. In the abi3-5 mutant, ABI3-β codes for a functional ABI3 protein due to frameshift restoration. PMID:20525852

  16. The Arabidopsis CROWDED NUCLEI genes regulate seed germination by modulating degradation of ABI5 protein.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenming; Guan, Chunmei; Feng, Jian; Liang, Yan; Zhan, Ni; Zuo, Jianru; Ren, Bo

    2016-07-01

    In Arabidopsis, the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a vital role in inhibiting seed germination and in post-germination seedling establishment. In the ABA signaling pathway, ABI5, a basic Leu zipper transcription factor, has important functions in the regulation of seed germination. ABI5 protein localizes in nuclear bodies, along with AFP, COP1, and SIZ1, and was degraded through the 26S proteasome pathway. However, the mechanisms of ABI5 nuclear body formation and ABI5 protein degradation remain obscure. In this study, we found that the Arabidopsis CROWDED NUCLEI (CRWN) proteins, predicted nuclear matrix proteins essential for maintenance of nuclear morphology, also participate in ABA-controlled seed germination by regulating the degradation of ABI5 protein. During seed germination, the crwn mutants are hypersensitive to ABA and have higher levels of ABI5 protein compared to wild type. Genetic analysis suggested that CRWNs act upstream of ABI5. The observation that CRWN3 colocalizes with ABI5 in nuclear bodies indicates that CRWNs might participate in ABI5 protein degradation in nuclear bodies. Moreover, we revealed that the extreme C-terminal of CRWN3 protein is necessary for its function in the response to ABA in germination. Our results suggested important roles of CRWNs in ABI5 nuclear body organization and ABI5 protein degradation during seed germination.

  17. Further development of the response scales of the Acquired Brain Injury Challenge Assessment (ABI-CA).

    PubMed

    McArthur, Caitlin; Venkatesh, Surabhi; Warren, Danielle; Pringle, Daniel; Doerr, Tanya; Salbach, Nancy Margaret; Kirkwood, Gail; Wright, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    To revise the scaling of the response sets of the Acquired Brain Injury Challenge Assessment (ABI-CA) through expert input and determination of empirically based cut-points. A measurement development study with a content validity focus. Response option wording was revised through consultation with six physiotherapists with paediatric ABI expertise. Twenty-nine typically-developing children performed the ABI-CA and empirically-based cut-points for item-specific response options were derived from their time/distance/repetition results (SD values) as benchmark values. Movement quality considerations (compensatory movements) were identified from expert consultation/ABI-CA video observation and built into revised response options. The revised ABI-CA was pilot-tested with four children with ABI, aged 7-15 years, for a feasibility check. Nineteen of the 23 items' response scales were revised based on experts' feedback and empirically-based cut-points replaced the previous arbitrarily-determined cut-points. Compensatory movement considerations were re-defined in nine items. The mean score of the refined ABI-CA was 70.0% (SD = 18.5) with four children with ABI. The new response options in the ABI-CA appeared suitable for testing high-functioning children with ABI and the mid-range mean score in this pilot sample indicates its potential to measure change. Recommendations are outlined for final ABI-CA amendments before large-scale validation.

  18. ABI derived from the highest and lowest ankle pressure. What is the difference?

    PubMed

    Kröger, K; Bock, E; Hohenberger, T; Moysidis, Th; Santosa, F; Pfeifer, M

    2010-12-01

    Different modes of ankle-brachial -index (ABI) calculation lead to different information. We looked for the peripheral arterial disease (PAD) prevalence estimated from ABI-high and ABI-low and analysed the effect of age and classical risk factors. Based on the Arteriomobil Project data, ABI was calculated considering the lowest of the four ankle artery pressures (ABI-low) or the higher ankle artery pressure of each leg (ABI-high), respectively. ABI <0.9 were defined to prove PAD. Prevalence of PAD estimated using ABI-low was much higher than those using ABI- high (15.7% vs. 8.0%). Thus 8% of men and 7.5% of women suspected for PAD were not detected if prevalence rates are based on ABI-high alone. Estimating PAD prevalence only by measuring posterior tibial artery (ATP) pressure, prevalence rates were lowest with 2.4% for the left and 2.7% for the right ATP. Estimating PAD prevalence only by measuring anterior tibial artery pressure, prevalence rates were slightly higher, but still low. ABI-high systematically shows lower prevalence rates compared to ABI-low without divergence of the prevalence rates with increasing age. This parallelism of the curves remained unchanged when prevalence rates were separated for self-reported risk-factors; smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes. The presented analysis of the Arteriomobil Project data support the hypothesis that the differences in prevalence rates estimated from ABI-high and ABI-low are mainly determined by anatomic variations of the plantar arch. Additional angiographic controlled studies are necessary to prove this hypothesis.

  19. The complete plastid genome sequence of Abies koreana (Pinaceae: Abietoideae).

    PubMed

    Yi, Dong-Keun; Yang, Jong Cheol; So, Soonku; Joo, Minjung; Kim, Dong-Kap; Shin, Chang Ho; Lee, You-Mi; Choi, Kyung

    2016-07-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the chloroplast genome from Abies koreana is the first to have complete genome sequence from genus Abies of family Pinaceae. The circular double-stranded DNA, which consists of 121,373 base pairs (bp), contains a pair of very short inverted repeat regions (IRa and IRb) of 264 bp each, which are separated by a small and large single-copy regions (SSC and LSC) of 54,197 and 66,648 bp, respectively. The genome contents of 114 genes (68 peptide-encoding genes, 35 tRNA genes, four rRNA genes, six open reading frames and one pseudogene) are similar to the chloroplast DNA of other species of Abietoideae. Loss of ndh genes was also identified in the genome of A. koreana like other genomes in the family Pinaceae. Thirteen genes contain one (11 genes) or two (rps12 and ycf3 genes) introns. In phylogenetic analysis, the tree confirms that Abies, Keteleeria and Cedrus are strongly supported as monophyletic. Other inverted repeat sequences located in 42-kb inversion points (1186 bp) include trnS-psaM-ycf12- ψtrnG genes.

  20. ABI3 mediates dehydration stress recovery response in Arabidopsis thaliana by regulating expression of downstream genes.

    PubMed

    Bedi, Sonia; Sengupta, Sourabh; Ray, Anagh; Nag Chaudhuri, Ronita

    2016-09-01

    ABI3, originally discovered as a seed-specific transcription factor is now implicated to act beyond seed physiology, especially during abiotic stress. In non-seed plants, ABI3 is known to act in desiccation stress signaling. Here we show that ABI3 plays a role in dehydration stress response in Arabidopsis. ABI3 gene was upregulated during dehydration stress and its expression was maintained during subsequent stress recovery phases. Comparative gene expression studies in response to dehydration stress and stress recovery were done with genes which had potential ABI3 binding sites in their upstream regulatory regions. Such studies showed that several genes including known seed-specific factors like CRUCIFERIN1, CRUCIFERIN3 and LEA-group of genes like LEA76, LEA6, DEHYDRIN LEA and LEA-LIKE got upregulated in an ABI3-dependent manner, especially during the stress recovery phase. ABI3 got recruited to regions upstream to the transcription start site of these genes during dehydration stress response through direct or indirect DNA binding. Interestingly, ABI3 also binds to its own promoter region during such stress signaling. Nucleosomes covering potential ABI3 binding sites in the upstream sequences of the above-mentioned genes alter positions, and show increased H3 K9 acetylation during stress-induced transcription. ABI3 thus mediates dehydration stress signaling in Arabidopsis through regulation of a group of genes that play a role primarily during stress recovery phase.

  1. AFP is a novel negative regulator of ABA signaling that promotes ABI5 protein degradation

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Molina, Luis; Mongrand, Sébastien; Kinoshita, Natsuko; Chua, Nam-Hai

    2003-01-01

    Plants have evolved protective mechanisms to ensure their survival when threatened by adverse environmental conditions during their transition to autotrophic growth. During germination, there is a 2- to 3-d period during which a plant can execute growth arrest when challenged by water deficit. This postgermination developmental checkpoint is signaled by the stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA), which induces the expression of the bZIP transcription activator ABI5. The growth arrest efficiency depends on ABI5 levels, and abi5 mutants are ABA-insensitive and unable to execute the ABA-mediated growth arrest. Here we show that a novel ABI5-interacting protein, designated as AFP, can form high molecular weight (Mr) complexes with ABI5 in embryo-derived extracts. Like ABI5, ABI five binding protein (AFP) mRNA and protein levels are induced by ABA during seed germination. Two different afp mutant alleles (afp-1 and afp-2) are hypersensitive to ABA, whereas transgenic plants overexpressing AFP are resistant; in these plants, AFP and ABI5 protein levels are inversely correlated. Genetic analysis shows that abi5-4 is epistatic to afp-1, indicating the ABA hypersensitivity of afp mutants requires ABI5. Proteasome inhibitor studies show that ABI5 stability is regulated by ABA through ubiquitin-related events. When expressed together, AFP and ABI5 are colocalized in nuclear bodies, which also contain COP1, a RING motif protein. Our results suggest that AFP attenuates ABA signals by targeting ABI5 for ubiquitin-mediated degradation in nuclear bodies. PMID:12569131

  2. Combination of pulse volume recording (PVR) parameters and ankle-brachial index (ABI) improves diagnostic accuracy for peripheral arterial disease compared with ABI alone.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Tomoko; Ichihashi, Shigeo; Iwakoshi, Shinichi; Kichikawa, Kimihiko

    2016-06-01

    The ankle-brachial index (ABI) measurement is widely used as a screening tool to detect peripheral arterial disease (PAD). With the advent of the oscillometric ABI device incorporating a system for the measurement of pulse volume recording (PVR), not only ABI but also other parameters, such as the percentage of mean arterial pressure (%MAP) and the upstroke time (UT), can be obtained automatically. The purpose of the present study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy for PAD with ABI alone with that of a combination of ABI, %MAP and UT. This study included 108 consecutive patients on whom 216 limb measurements were performed. The sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values of ABI, %MAP, UT and their combination were evaluated and compared with CT angiography that was used as a gold standard for the detection of PAD. The diagnostic accuracy as well as the optimal cutoff values of %MAP and UT were evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The combination of ABI, %MAP and UT achieved higher sensitivity, negative predictive value and accuracy than ABI alone, particularly for mild stenosis. The areas under the ROC curve for the detection of 50% stenosis with UT and %MAP were 0.798 and 0.916, respectively. The optimal UT and %MAP values to detect ≧50% stenosis artery were 183 ms and 45%, respectively. The combination of ABI, %MAP and UT contributed to the improvement of the diagnostic accuracy for PAD. Consideration of the values of %MAP and UT in addition to ABI may have a significant impact on the detection of early PAD lesions.

  3. PAD as a risk factor for mortality among patients with elevated ABI--a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Suominen, V; Uurto, I; Saarinen, J; Venermo, M; Salenius, J

    2010-03-01

    This study aims to evaluate mortality across ankle-brachial index (ABI) values and to assess the association between elevated ABI, peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and mortality. This is a retrospective clinical study. A total of 2159 patients referred with a suspicion of PAD had their ABI and toe brachial index (TBI) measured by photoplethysmography. ABI > or =1.3 was considered falsely elevated while TBI <0.60 was the diagnostic criterion for PAD among the subjects. The cohort was followed up for total and cardiovascular mortality until 30 June 2008, by record linkage with the National Causes-of-Death Register. The average follow-up time was 39 months. A total of 576 (26.7%) patients died during the follow-up. Mortality was highest in the elevated ABI group (35.7% for elevated ABI; 30.1% for low ABI and 16.0% for normal ABI, p < 0.001). There was a greater than twofold risk of total, and an increased but statistically non-significant risk of, cardiovascular mortality among patients with elevated ABI. Similar risk ratios were noted for the low ABI (< or =0.9) group. More pronounced associations were observed at both ends of the scale when ABI was divided into sub-categories. The overall survival was significantly worse for the elevated ABI group than for both the normal and the low-ABI group (p < 0.01 and p = 0.013, respectively). PAD was found to be independently associated with both total and cardiovascular mortality among those with elevated ABI (odds ratio (OR): 2.21; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-4.85 and OR: 4.90; 95% CI: 1.50-16.04, respectively). The association between elevated ABI and poor survival is similar to that of low ABI. PAD appears to be an independent risk factor for mortality among patients with elevated ABI. Copyright 2009 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cooperation of three WRKY-domain transcription factors WRKY18, WRKY40, and WRKY60 in repressing two ABA-responsive genes ABI4 and ABI5 in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Yan, Lu; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Da-Peng

    2012-01-01

    Three evolutionarily closely related WRKY-domain transcription factors WRKY18, WRKY40, and WRKY60 in Arabidopsis were previously identified as negative abscisic acid (ABA) signalling regulators, of which WRKY40 regulates ABI4 and ABI5 expression, but it remains unclear whether and how the three transcription factors cooperate to regulate expression of ABI4 and ABI5. In the present experiments, it was shown that WRKY18 and WRKY60, like WRKY40, interact with the W-box in the promoters of ABI4 and ABI5 genes, though the three WRKYs have their own preferential binding domains in the two promoters. WRKY18 and WRKY60, together with WRKY40, inhibit expression of the ABI5 and/or ABI4 genes, which is consistent with their negative roles in ABA signalling. Further, genetic evidence is provided that mutations of ABI4 and ABI5 genes suppress ABA-hypersensitive phenotypes of the null mutant alleles of WRKY18 and WRKY60 genes, demonstrating that ABI4 and ABI5 function downstream of these two WRKY transcription factors in ABA signalling. A working model of cooperation of the three WRKYs in repressing ABI4 and ABI5 expression is proposed, in which the three WRKYs antagonize or aid each other in a highly complex manner. These findings help to understand the complex mechanisms of WRKY-mediated ABA signal transduction. PMID:23095997

  5. Why Is ABI Effective in Detecting Vascular Stenosis? Investigation Based on Multibranch Hemodynamic Model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ling; Zhang, Chi; Li, Shuyu; Pu, Fang; Fan, Yubo; Li, Deyu

    2013-01-01

    The ankle-brachial index (ABI), defined as the ratio of systolic pressure in the ankle arteries and that in the brachial artery, was a useful noninvasive method to detect arterial stenoses. There had been a lot of researches about clinical regularities of ABI; however, mechanism studies were less addressed. For the purpose of a better understanding of the correlation between vascular stenoses and ABI, a computational model for simulating blood pressure and flow propagation in various arterial stenosis circumstances was developed with a detailed compartmental description of the heart and main arteries. Particular attention was paid to the analysis of effects of vascular stenoses in different large-sized arteries on ABI in theory. Moreover, the variation of ABI during the increase of the stenosis severity was also studied. Results showed that stenoses in lower limb arteries, as well as, brachial artery, caused different variations of blood pressure in ankle and brachial arteries, resulting in a significant change of ABI. Furthermore, the variation of ABI became faster when the severity of the stenosis increased, validating that ABI was more sensitive to severe stenoses than to mild/moderate ones. All these in findings revealed the reason why ABI was an effective index for detecting stenoses, especially in lower limb arteries. PMID:24089601

  6. Why is ABI effective in detecting vascular stenosis? Investigation based on multibranch hemodynamic model.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoyun; Wang, Ling; Zhang, Chi; Li, Shuyu; Pu, Fang; Fan, Yubo; Li, Deyu

    2013-01-01

    The ankle-brachial index (ABI), defined as the ratio of systolic pressure in the ankle arteries and that in the brachial artery, was a useful noninvasive method to detect arterial stenoses. There had been a lot of researches about clinical regularities of ABI; however, mechanism studies were less addressed. For the purpose of a better understanding of the correlation between vascular stenoses and ABI, a computational model for simulating blood pressure and flow propagation in various arterial stenosis circumstances was developed with a detailed compartmental description of the heart and main arteries. Particular attention was paid to the analysis of effects of vascular stenoses in different large-sized arteries on ABI in theory. Moreover, the variation of ABI during the increase of the stenosis severity was also studied. Results showed that stenoses in lower limb arteries, as well as, brachial artery, caused different variations of blood pressure in ankle and brachial arteries, resulting in a significant change of ABI. Furthermore, the variation of ABI became faster when the severity of the stenosis increased, validating that ABI was more sensitive to severe stenoses than to mild/moderate ones. All these in findings revealed the reason why ABI was an effective index for detecting stenoses, especially in lower limb arteries.

  7. Abi plays an opposing role to Abl in Drosophila axonogenesis and synaptogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu-Yang; Huang, Chiu-Hui; Kao, Hsiu-Hua; Liou, Gan-Guang; Yeh, Shih-Rung; Cheng, Chih-Ming; Chen, Mei-Hsin; Pan, Rong-Long; Juang, Jyh-Lyh

    2009-09-01

    Abl tyrosine kinase (Abl) regulates axon guidance by modulating actin dynamics. Abelson interacting protein (Abi), originally identified as a kinase substrate of Abl, also plays a key role in actin dynamics, yet its role with respect to Abl in the developing nervous system remains unclear. Here we show that mutations in abi disrupt axonal patterning in the developing Drosophila central nervous system (CNS). However, reducing abi gene dosage by half substantially rescues Abl mutant phenotypes in pupal lethality, axonal guidance defects and locomotion deficits. Moreover, we show that mutations in Abl increase synaptic growth and spontaneous synaptic transmission frequency at the neuromuscular junction. Double heterozygosity for abi and enabled (ena) also suppresses the synaptic overgrowth phenotypes of Abl mutants, suggesting that Abi acts cooperatively with Ena to antagonize Abl function in synaptogenesis. Intriguingly, overexpressing Abi or Ena alone in cultured cells dramatically redistributed peripheral F-actin to the cytoplasm, with aggregates colocalizing with Abi and/or Ena, and resulted in a reduction in neurite extension. However, co-expressing Abl with Abi or Ena redistributed cytoplasmic F-actin back to the cell periphery and restored bipolar cell morphology. These data suggest that abi and Abl have an antagonistic interaction in Drosophila axonogenesis and synaptogenesis, which possibly occurs through the modulation of F-actin reorganization.

  8. Regulation of cell-cell adhesion by Abi/Diaphanous complexes.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jae Ryun; Echarri, Asier; Li, Ran; Pendergast, Ann Marie

    2009-04-01

    Actin polymerization provides the driving force for the formation of cell-cell junctions and is mediated by two types of actin nucleators, Arp2/3 and formins. Proteins required for coordinately linking cadherin-mediated adhesion to Arp2/3-dependent versus formin-dependent nucleation have yet to be defined. Here we show a role for Abi, the Abi-binding partner Nap1, and the Nap1-binding protein Sra1 in the regulation of cadherin-dependent adhesion. We found that Abi, which is known to interact with Wave, leading to activation of the Arp2/3 complex, is also capable of interacting with the Diaphanous (Dia)-related formins in the absence of Wave. Knockdown of Abi, Nap1, Sra1, or Dia markedly inhibited cell-cell junctions, whereas knockdown of Wave or Arp2/3 produced mild and transient phenotypes. Dia and Abi colocalized with beta-catenin at cell-cell junctions. Further, Dia and Wave bound to overlapping sites on Abi1, and Wave competed with Dia for Abi1 binding. Notably, an active Dia1 C-terminal fragment that localizes to cell-cell junctions rescued the abnormal junctions induced by depletion of Abi or Nap1 in epithelial cells. These findings uncover a novel link between cadherin-mediated adhesion and the regulation of actin dynamics through the requirement for an Abi/Dia complex for the formation and stability of cell-cell junctions.

  9. Arabidopsis SAG protein containing the MDN1 domain participates in seed germination and seedling development by negatively regulating ABI3 and ABI5.

    PubMed

    Chen, Changtian; Wu, Changai; Miao, Jiaming; Lei, Yunxue; Zhao, Dongxiao; Sun, Dan; Yang, Guodong; Huang, Jinguang; Zheng, Chengchao

    2014-01-01

    Three proteins containing a midasin homologue 1 (MDN1) domain from the yeast Solanum chacoense and Arabidopsis thaliana have important functions in yeast survival, seed development, and female gametogenesis. In this study, a novel protein containing the MDN1 domain from Arabidopsis negatively regulated abscisic acid (ABA) signalling during seed germination. Seeds of a T-DNA insertion line of this gene exhibited increased sensitivity to ABA during seed germination and seedling development (named sag). By contrast, seeds with overexpressed AtSAG (OX2) were less sensitive to ABA. The seeds of the sag mutant showed similar sensitivity to high concentrations of mannitol and NaCl during these stages. AtSAG was also highly expressed in germinating seeds. However, ABA-induced AtSAG expression remained almost unchanged. ABA-responsive marker genes, including ABI3, ABI5, Em1, Em6, RD29A, and RAB18, were upregulated in sag mutants but were downregulated in OX2. Genetic analyses indicated that the function of AtSAG in ABA signalling depended on ABI3 and ABI5. The expression of some target genes of ABI3 and ABI5, such as seed storage protein and oleosin genes, was induced higher by ABA in sag mutants than in wild-type germinated seeds, even higher than in abi5 mutants. This finding indicated that other regulators similar to ABI3 or ABI5 played a role during these stages. Taken together, these results indicate that AtSAG is an important negative regulator of ABA signalling during seed germination and seedling development.

  10. Terpenoids with anti-inflammatory activity from Abies chensiensis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qian-Qian; Wang, Shu-Fang; Li, Ya; Song, Qiu-Yan; Gao, Kun

    2016-06-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Abies chensiensis led to the isolation and identification of nine new compounds including eight triterpenoids (1-8) and a new abietane-type diterpene (9), along with three known compounds (10-12). The absolute configuration of 9 was assigned by X-ray diffraction analysis. Compounds 1-11 were evaluated for the anti-inflammatory activity. Among the tested compounds, 1, 2, 5 and 6 exhibited potent inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 15.97, 18.73, 20.18 and 10.97μM, respectively.

  11. Pollen competition and seed-siring success in Picea abies.

    PubMed

    Aronen, T.; Nikkanen, T.; Harju, A.; Tiimonen, H.; Häggman, H.

    2002-03-01

    The aim of the present work was to study pollen-tube competition in Picea abies. Controlled crossings were performed with pollen mixtures including pairs of pollen lots with fast and slowly elongating pollen-tubes. Paternity analysis using isozyme markers was performed on the progenies in order to study whether the in vitro pollen-germination vigour corresponds to the proportion of seeds sired by the pollen donor. Paternal success was found to be unequal, 15 out of 23 crossings producing progeny that differed significantly from the hypothetical ratio of 1:1. The paternal contribution in the majority of the crossings was as expected: the pollen parent with more-vigorous in vitro germination sired more seeds than the less-vigorous pollen. In the case of two pollen mixtures, however, the seed-siring success summed over the maternal trees was the opposite to the expected value. Despite these aberrations, the results support the hypothesis that pollen-tube competition is one of the factors contributing to male fitness in P. abies.However, when all the other factors affecting pollination and seed set under natural conditions are taken into account, it is clear that the seed-siring success of a particular paternal genotype cannot be predicted reliably by measuring only the in vitro pollen vigour.

  12. A forest health inventory assessment of red fir (Abies magnifica) in upper montane California

    Treesearch

    Leif Mortenson; Andrew N. Gray; David C. Shaw

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the forest health of red fir (Abies magnifica) and how it compared with commonly-associated species Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi), lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and white fir (Abies concolor) in the upper montane forests of California. We evaluated tree mortality rates...

  13. Students' Attitudes toward ABI/INFORM on CD-ROM: A Factor Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Vicky; Lau, Shuk-fong

    Two years after the introduction of CD-ROM bibliographic database searching in the Memphis State University libraries (Tennessee), a survey was conducted to examine students' attitudes toward the business database, ABI/INFORM. ABI/INFORM contains indexes and abstracts of articles from over 800 journals on management, accounting, banking, human…

  14. Thinking Allowed: Use of Egocentric Speech after Acquired Brain Injury (ABI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Sian A.; Skidmore, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the use of thinking aloud made by young people who have sustained a severe acquired brain injury (ABI). The phenomenon is compared with the concepts of egocentric speech and inner speech before the form of thinking aloud by pupils with ABI is examined. It is suggested that by using thinking aloud, this group of pupils is able…

  15. Abelson interacting protein 1 (Abi-1) is essential for dendrite morphogenesis and synapse formation.

    PubMed

    Proepper, Christian; Johannsen, Svenja; Liebau, Stefan; Dahl, Janine; Vaida, Bianca; Bockmann, Juergen; Kreutz, Michael R; Gundelfinger, Eckart D; Boeckers, Tobias M

    2007-03-07

    Synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity depend crucially on the dynamic and locally specific regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. We identified an important component for controlled actin assembly, abelson interacting protein-1 (Abi-1), as a binding partner for the postsynaptic density (PSD) protein ProSAP2/Shank3. During early neuronal development, Abi-1 is localized in neurites and growth cones; at later stages, the protein is enriched in dendritic spines and PSDs, as are components of a trimeric complex consisting of Abi-1, Eps8 and Sos-1. Abi-1 translocates upon NMDA application from PSDs to nuclei. Nuclear entry depends on abelson kinase activity. Abi-1 co-immunoprecipitates with the transcription factor complex of Myc/Max proteins and enhances E-box-regulated gene transcription. Downregulation of Abi-1 by small interfering RNA results in excessive dendrite branching, immature spine and synapse morphology and a reduction of synapses, whereas overexpression of Abi-1 has the opposite effect. Data show that Abi-1 can act as a specific synapto-nuclear messenger and is essentially involved in dendrite and synapse formation.

  16. Implications of routinely measuring Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI) among patients attending at a Lipid Clinic.

    PubMed

    Sona, Alessandro; Comba, Monica; Brescianini, Alessia; Corsinovi, Laura; Zanocchi, Mauro; Fonte, Gianfranco; Bo, Mario

    2009-05-01

    Low (< or = 90) Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) values identify patients at high risk for cardiovascular (CV) disease and mortality. Implications for CV risk classification from routinely measuring ABI in the context of a Lipid Clinic have not been fully investigated. We aimed to evaluate whether and to what extent routine ABI determination on top of conventional risk prediction models may modify CV risk classification. Consecutive asymptomatic non-diabetic individuals free from previous CV events attending for a first visit at a Lipid Clinic underwent routine ABI determination and conventional CV risk classification according either to national CUORE model (including age, gender, smoking, total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure and current use of blood pressure lowering drugs) and SCORE model for low risk countries. In the overall sample (320 subjects, mean age 64.8 years) 77 subjects (24.1%) were found to have low ABI value. Forty-two of 250 subjects (16.8%) and 47 of 215 individuals (21.3%) at low or moderate risk according to the CUORE and SCORE models, respectively, were found to have low ABI values, and should be reclassified at high risk. In a series of consecutive asymptomatic individuals in a Lipid Clinic, we observed a high prevalence of low ABI values among subjects deemed at low or moderate risk on conventional prediction models, leading to CV high-risk reclassification of roughly one fifth of patients. These findings reinforce recommendations for routine determination of ABI at least within referral primary prevention settings.

  17. Assessing Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI) by using automated oscillometric devices.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Takao

    2008-05-01

    Assessing Ankle-Brachial Index is an essential procedure in clinical settings, but since its measurement by the gold standard Doppler Ultrasonic (DU) technique is impaired by technical difficulties, it is underperformed. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of an automated oscillometric device (AOD) by performing Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI) assessments and to suggest delta brachial-brachial (delta-BB) and delta-ABI as markers of cardiovascular risk. In this observational and descriptive study, 247 patients (56.2% females, mean age 62.0 years) had their arterial blood pressure (ABP) measured for ABI calculation. Two AOD (OMRON-HEM705CP) devices were used for simultaneous measurements of the ABP, first of the two arms and then of the arm with higher systolic ABP and a leg, first the left and then the right one. When leg ABP measurements were not possible, ABI determination was performed by using the standard Doppler Ultrasonic (DU) technique. Patients were designated to Group N (normal ABI: 0.91 to 1.30) or Group A (abnormal ABI: < or =0.90 or >1.30). Other indexes were also calculated: delta-BB (absolute difference in mmHg of systolic ABP between arms) and delta-ABI (absolute difference of ABI between legs) and the results were compared. In most patients (90.7%), it was possible to determine the ABI. Group N data allowed calculation of the 95th percentile reference values (RV) of delta-BB (0 to 8 mmHg) and delta-ABI (0 to 0.13). When compared to Group N, Group A had a significantly higher prevalence of high values greater than the RVs of delta-ABI (30 of 52 and 10 of 195, respectively; Odds Ratio = 25.23; p<0.0001) and delta-BB (13 of 52 and 7 of 195, respectively; Odds Ratio = 8.95; p<0.0001). In most patients, the ABI could be measured by AOD. Both indexes, delta-BB and delta-ABI greater than the RVs, were significantly more prevalent in patients with abnormal ABI values, and their usefulness as new markers of cardiovascular disease should be further

  18. Molecular cloning in Arabidopsis thaliana of a new protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) with homology to ABI1 and ABI2.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, P L; Leube, M P; Grill, E

    1998-11-01

    We report the cloning of both the cDNA and the corresponding genomic sequence of a new PP2C from Arabidopsis thaliana, named AtP2C-HA (for homology to ABI1/ABI2). The AtP2C-HA cDNA contains an open reading frame of 1536 bp and encodes a putative protein of 511 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 55.7 kDa. The AtP2C-HA protein is composed of two domains, a C-terminal PP2C catalytic domain and a N-terminal extension of ca. 180 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence is 55% and 54% identical to ABI1 and ABI2, respectively. Comparison of the genomic structure of the ABI1, ABI2 and AtP2C-HA genes suggests that they belong to a multigene family. The expression of the AtP2C-HA gene is up-regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) treatment.

  19. Chen-Ning Yang and my Student Days at Stony Brook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Alex

    2008-12-01

    The time was 35 years ago. Chen-Ning Yang, my Ph.D. advisor at Stony Brook, thoughtfully led me through a career decision path that I followed, and have enjoyed since then. This is my reminiscence of that time so critical to my career.

  20. Experimental verification of the effect of phase defect shape on ABI signal intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Noriaki; Terasawa, Tsuneo; Arisawa, Yukiyasu

    2014-04-01

    In this study, influence of geometric features of phase defect on EUV optical images, such as dark field images(ABI tool) and bright field images (Exposure tool), was studied with experiment and simulation. It is confirmed that ABI signal intensity has a direct relationship not only with defect volume but also with geometric features of the phase defect. A new method for the making of phase defect models for simulation purpose was attempted. With this new method, the simulated ABI signal intensity exhibited a good proportionality relationship with the experimentally obtained ABI signal intensity. This method is believed to be effective in the estimation of ABI signal intensity with simulation. These results lead to the conclusion that it is important to take into consideration the geometric features of phase defects when a relationship between ABI signal intensity and phase defect feature is to be examined. Also, the relationship between ABI signal intensity and impact of defect on wafer was studied with simulation. In this study, many geometric types of phase defects were used, and relationships between these defects and their impacts on wafers were studied. As a result, it was confirmed that the geometric features did not strongly affect the relationship between the ABI signal intensity and the defects' impacts on wafer however the ABI signal intensity is found to have a close relationship with impact of defect on wafer. These results lead to the conclusion that information about ABI signal intensity is important not only for the detection of phase defect but also for estimating the impact of phase defects on wafers.

  1. Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients with High Ankle-Brachial Index from the IMPACT-ABI Study

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Hitoshi; Miura, Takashi; Minamisawa, Masatoshi; Ueki, Yasushi; Abe, Naoyuki; Hashizume, Naoto; Mochidome, Tomoaki; Harada, Mikiko; Shimizu, Kunihiko; Shoin, Wataru; Yoshie, Koji; Oguchi, Yasutaka; Ebisawa, Soichiro; Motoki, Hirohiko; Izawa, Atsushi; Koyama, Jun; Ikeda, Uichi; Kuwahara, Koichiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Reduced ankle–brachial index (ABI) is a predictor of cardiovascular events. However, the significance of high ABI remains poorly understood. This study aimed to assess the characteristics and outcomes of patients with high ABI. Methods The IMPACT-ABI study was a retrospective cohort study that enrolled and examined ABI in 3,131 patients hospitalized for cardiovascular disease between January 2005 and December 2012. From this cohort, 2,419 patients were identified and stratified into two groups: high ABI (> 1.4; 2.6%) and normal ABI (1.0–1.4; 97.3%). The primary endpoint was the cumulative incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), including cardiovascular-associated death, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Results Compared with the normal ABI group, patients in the high ABI group showed significantly lower body mass index (BMI) and hemoglobin level, but had higher incidence of chronic kidney disease and hemodialysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that hemodialysis was the strongest predictor of high ABI (odds ratio, 6.18; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.05–12.52; P < 0.001). During the follow-up (median, 4.7 years), 172 cases of MACE occurred. Cumulative MACE incidence in patients with high ABI was significantly increased compared to that in those with normal ABI (32.5% vs. 14.5%; P = 0.005). In traditional cardiovascular risk factors-adjusted multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis, high ABI was an independent predictor of MACE (hazard ratio, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.02–4.20; P = 0.044). Conclusion Lower BMI, chronic kidney disease, and hemodialysis are more frequent in patients with high ABI. Hemodialysis is the strongest predictor of high ABI. High ABI is a parameter that independently predicts MACE. PMID:27880852

  2. Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients with High Ankle-Brachial Index from the IMPACT-ABI Study.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Hitoshi; Miura, Takashi; Minamisawa, Masatoshi; Ueki, Yasushi; Abe, Naoyuki; Hashizume, Naoto; Mochidome, Tomoaki; Harada, Mikiko; Shimizu, Kunihiko; Shoin, Wataru; Yoshie, Koji; Oguchi, Yasutaka; Ebisawa, Soichiro; Motoki, Hirohiko; Izawa, Atsushi; Koyama, Jun; Ikeda, Uichi; Kuwahara, Koichiro

    2016-01-01

    Reduced ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a predictor of cardiovascular events. However, the significance of high ABI remains poorly understood. This study aimed to assess the characteristics and outcomes of patients with high ABI. The IMPACT-ABI study was a retrospective cohort study that enrolled and examined ABI in 3,131 patients hospitalized for cardiovascular disease between January 2005 and December 2012. From this cohort, 2,419 patients were identified and stratified into two groups: high ABI (> 1.4; 2.6%) and normal ABI (1.0-1.4; 97.3%). The primary endpoint was the cumulative incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), including cardiovascular-associated death, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Compared with the normal ABI group, patients in the high ABI group showed significantly lower body mass index (BMI) and hemoglobin level, but had higher incidence of chronic kidney disease and hemodialysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that hemodialysis was the strongest predictor of high ABI (odds ratio, 6.18; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.05-12.52; P < 0.001). During the follow-up (median, 4.7 years), 172 cases of MACE occurred. Cumulative MACE incidence in patients with high ABI was significantly increased compared to that in those with normal ABI (32.5% vs. 14.5%; P = 0.005). In traditional cardiovascular risk factors-adjusted multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis, high ABI was an independent predictor of MACE (hazard ratio, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.02-4.20; P = 0.044). Lower BMI, chronic kidney disease, and hemodialysis are more frequent in patients with high ABI. Hemodialysis is the strongest predictor of high ABI. High ABI is a parameter that independently predicts MACE.

  3. Abscisic Acid Antagonizes Ethylene Production through the ABI4-Mediated Transcriptional Repression of ACS4 and ACS8 in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhijun; Yu, Yanwen; Li, Shenghui; Wang, Juan; Tang, Saijun; Huang, Rongfeng

    2016-01-04

    Increasing evidence has revealed that abscisic acid (ABA) negatively modulates ethylene biosynthesis, although the underlying mechanism remains unclear. To identify the factors involved, we conducted a screen for ABA-insensitive mutants with altered ethylene production in Arabidopsis. A dominant allele of ABI4, abi4-152, which produces a putative protein with a 16-amino-acid truncation at the C-terminus of ABI4, reduces ethylene production. By contrast, two recessive knockout alleles of ABI4, abi4-102 and abi4-103, result in increased ethylene evolution, indicating that ABI4 negatively regulates ethylene production. Further analyses showed that expression of the ethylene biosynthesis genes ACS4, ACS8, and ACO2 was significantly decreased in abi4-152 but increased in the knockout mutants, with partial dependence on ABA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR assays showed that ABI4 directly binds the promoters of these ethylene biosynthesis genes and that ABA enhances this interaction. A fusion protein containing the truncated ABI4-152 peptide accumulated to higher levels than its full-length counterpart in transgenic plants, suggesting that ABI4 is destabilized by its C terminus. Therefore, our results demonstrate that ABA negatively regulates ethylene production through ABI4-mediated transcriptional repression of the ethylene biosynthesis genes ACS4 and ACS8 in Arabidopsis.

  4. ABI3 expression ceases following, but not during, germination of tomato and Arabidopsis seeds.

    PubMed

    Bassel, George W; Mullen, Robert T; Bewley, J Derek

    2006-01-01

    In many plant species, including tomato and Arabidopsis, the inception of dormancy during seed development is mediated by abscisic acid (ABA) and the transcription factor ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3/VIVIPAROUS1 (ABI3/VP1). Consequently, seeds carrying mutations in this gene germinate precociously. The ABI3 orthologue isolated from tomato (LeABI3) is a single copy gene expressed only in seeds. ABI3 expression ceases following the completion of germination in both tomato and Arabidopsis seeds, suggesting that expression of this gene does not regulate germination. LeABI3 expression in tomato wild-type embryos, while present in intact seeds, is greater than in their isolated embryo axes. Decreased LeABI3 expression does not occur in isolated axes from the gibberellin (GA)-deficient gib-1 mutant of tomato, in contrast to embryos from the intact seeds. This is indicative of a signal passing from the endosperm to the embryo which acts to promote LeABI3 expression in the latter, and that this signal is GA or GA-derived.

  5. In vitro pharmacodynamics of novel rifamycin ABI-0043 against Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Brian T; Yang, Jenny C; Forrest, Alan; Kelchlin, Pamela A; Smith, Patrick F

    2008-07-01

    ABI-0043 is a novel benzoxazinorifamycin derivative, which derives its potent bactericidal activity by the specific inhibition of bacterial RNA polymerase. We evaluated the in vitro pharmacodynamics and bactericidal activity of ABI-0043 against clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). Using time-kill studies at a wide range of concentrations of ABI-0043, we evaluated the killing activity against four clinical isolates of S. aureus over 24 h. An integrated pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic area measure was applied to all cfu data and was fitted to a Hill-type mathematical model to evaluate pharmacodynamics. Bacterial killing for ABI-0043 occurred rapidly and in a concentration-dependent manner. Bactericidal activity was achieved within 4 h at > or =16 x MIC against all isolates. Bacterial reductions were greatest at > or =64 x MIC against MRSA and MSSA isolates, as a >4 log(10) cfu/mL reduction was observed as early as 2 h, and sustained throughout 24 h. The pharmacodynamics of ABI-0043 was well described by a Hill-type model, with a steep sigmoidicity constant and a low EC(50) against all isolates. ABI-0043 displayed rapid and sustained bactericidal activity against S. aureus clinical isolates. ABI-0043 represents a promising antistaphylococcal agent to combat serious S. aureus infections. Further, pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and in vivo studies are warranted to determine its ultimate place in antibacterial therapy.

  6. Abi-1 forms an epidermal growth factor-inducible complex with Cbl: role in receptor endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Tanos, Barbara E; Pendergast, Ann Marie

    2007-07-01

    The Abl-interactor (Abi) proteins are involved in the regulation of actin polymerization and have recently been shown to modulate epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) endocytosis. Here we describe the identification of a novel complex between Abi-1 and the Cbl ubiquitin ligase that is induced by stimulation with EGF. Notably, an Abi-1 mutant lacking the SH3 domain (DeltaSH3) fails to interact with Cbl and inhibits EGFR internalization. We show that expression of the Abi-1DeltaSH3 mutant inhibits Cbl accumulation at the plasma membrane after EGF treatment. We have previously shown that the oncogenic Abl tyrosine kinase inhibits EGFR internalization. Here we report that the oncogenic Abl kinase disrupts the EGF-inducible Abi-1/Cbl complex, highlighting the importance of Abl kinases and downstream effectors in the regulation of EGFR internalization. Thus, our work reveals a new role for oncogenic Abl tyrosine kinases in the regulation of the Abi-1/Cbl protein complex and uncovers a role for the Abi-1/Cbl complex in the regulation of EGFR endocytosis.

  7. Landsat-ABI (L-ABI) Enables 8-day Revisits and Increased Science Content with a Single Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woody, L. M.; Griffith, P. C.; Wirth, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    In addition to the on-going uses of Landsat data for land use and land cover change assessment, crop monitoring, ecosystem evaluation, and water use mapping, the increasing number of severe environmental events (storms, droughts, floods, and fires) has intensified the demand for land imaging data. Users desire more data and, more importantly, more frequent data to better understand the trends and impacts of these extreme events. Additionally, the Sustainable Land Imaging (SLI) thrust faces the difficult task of providing continuity of measurements in a strict budget-constrained environment. To that end, the desire is to reduce the size, mass, and - most importantly - cost of future US land imaging capability, without impacting the continuity of the SLI data with past Landsat archives. During our exploration of possible alternatives for future Landsat missions, we re-opened the trade space to include scanned options. The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) has been delivered to NASA/NOAA for flight on GOES-R, and additional models are in fabrication for various customers. Adapting this in-production instrument to flight at low-Earth orbit is relatively straightforward, and leads to a simple, high-heritage (low-risk) concept for a full-spectrum Landsat instrument that would meet virtually all of the Landsat 8 Reference Performance Parameters at significantly lower cost than the Landsat-8 (LDCM) payload. It would also be smaller than the L-8 payload, about half the mass, and require lower power. In addition, it could offer the option for spectral enhancement of Landsat through additional LWIR and/or MWIR bands. Finally, the L-ABI can offer larger swath coverage, driving the SLI system towards the desired 8-day repeat coverage.

  8. Discovery of novel 2-aryl-4-benzoyl-imidazole (ABI-III) analogues targeting tubulin polymerization as antiproliferative agents.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianjun; Ahn, Sunjoo; Wang, Jin; Lu, Yan; Dalton, James T; Miller, Duane D; Li, Wei

    2012-08-23

    Novel ABI-III compounds were designed and synthesized based on our previously reported ABI-I and ABI-II analogues. ABI-III compounds are highly potent against a panel of melanoma and prostate cancer cell lines, with the best compound having an average IC(50) value of 3.8 nM. They are not substrate of Pgp and thus may effectively overcome Pgp-mediated multidrug resistance. ABI-III analogues maintain their mechanisms of action by inhibition of tubulin polymerization.

  9. Genome-Wide Analysis of the bZIP Gene Family Identifies Two ABI5-Like bZIP Transcription Factors, BrABI5a and BrABI5b, as Positive Modulators of ABA Signalling in Chinese Cabbage

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaochen; Sun, Congcong; Li, Yanlin; Wang, Dandan; Wang, Qinhu; Pei, Guoliang; Zhang, Yanfeng; Guo, Aiguang; Zhao, Huixian; Lu, Haibin; Mu, Xiaoqian; Hu, Jingjiang; Zhou, Xiaona; Xie, Chang Gen

    2016-01-01

    bZIP (basic leucine zipper) transcription factors coordinate plant growth and development and control responses to environmental stimuli. The genome of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) encodes 136 putative bZIP transcription factors. The bZIP transcription factors in Brassica rapa (BrbZIP) are classified into 10 subfamilies. Phylogenetic relationship analysis reveals that subfamily A consists of 23 BrbZIPs. Two BrbZIPs within subfamily A, Bra005287 and Bra017251, display high similarity to ABI5 (ABA Insensitive 5). Expression of subfamily A BrbZIPs, like BrABI5a (Bra005287/BrbZIP14) and BrABI5b (Bra017251/BrbZIP13), are significantly induced by the plant hormone ABA. Subcellular localization assay reveal that both BrABI5a and BrABI5b have a nuclear localization. BrABI5a and BrABI5b could directly stimulate ABA Responsive Element-driven HIS (a HIS3 reporter gene, which confers His prototrophy) or LUC (LUCIFERASE) expression in yeast and Arabidopsis protoplast. Deletion of the bZIP motif abolished BrABI5a and BrABI5b transcriptional activity. The ABA insensitive phenotype of Arabidopsis abi5-1 is completely suppressed in transgenic lines expressing BrABI5a or BrABI5b. Overall, these results suggest that ABI5 orthologs, BrABI5a and BrABI5b, have key roles in ABA signalling in Chinese cabbage. PMID:27414644

  10. Microsatellite fragment analysis using the ABI PRISM ® 377 DNA sequencer.

    PubMed

    Renshaw, Mark A; Giresi, Melissa; Adams, J Orville

    2013-01-01

    The ABI PRISM (®) 377 DNA Sequencer is used for a variety of microsatellite-based research. The platform provides researchers with a cost-effective means for high-throughput genotyping, which can be further optimized by multiplexing microsatellite loci or by using a tail-labeling approach to screen large sets of markers. The goals of this chapter are to present a protocol for performing microsatellite-based analyses on the ABI 377 and to provide researchers with information on how to troubleshoot common issues associated with running the ABI 377 sequencers.

  11. Identification and functional analysis of a new phosphorylation site (Y398) in the SH3 domain of Abi-1.

    PubMed

    Sato, Mizuho; Maruoka, Masahiro; Yokota, Naohiko; Kuwano, Masayoshi; Matsui, Akira; Inada, Mika; Ogawa, Takuya; Ishida-Kitagawa, Norihiro; Takeya, Tatsuo

    2011-03-23

    Abi-1 is an adaptor protein for Abelson kinase (c-Abl), and Abi-1 promotes the Abl-mediated phosphorylation of Mammalian Enabled (Mena) by binding both c-Abl and Mena. Here, we identified a new phosphorylation site (Y398) in the SH3 domain of Abi-1, and disruption of Y398, combined with the previously identified phosphorylation site Y213, significantly weakens the binding of Abi-1 to c-Abl. The SH3 domain of Abi-1 and the proline-rich domain of c-Abl are involved in this interaction. Abi-1 phosphorylation at both sites stimulates the phosphorylation of Mena through the activation of c-Abl kinase. The phosphorylation of Abi-1 also plays a role in enhancing the adhesion of Bcr-Abl-transformed leukemic cells. Copyright © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Arabidopsis ABI5 plays a role in regulating ROS homeostasis by activating CATALASE 1 transcription in seed germination.

    PubMed

    Bi, Chao; Ma, Yu; Wu, Zhen; Yu, Yong-Tao; Liang, Shan; Lu, Kai; Wang, Xiao-Fang

    2017-05-01

    It has been known that ABA INSENSITIVE 5 (ABI5) plays a vital role in regulating seed germination. In the present study, we showed that inhibition of the catalase activity with 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3-AT) inhibits seed germination of Col-0, abi5 mutants and ABI5-overexpression transgenic lines. Compared with Col-0, the seeds of abi5 mutants showed more sensitive to 3-AT during seed germination, while the seeds of ABI5-overexpression transgenic lines showed more insensitive. H2O2 showed the same effect on seed germination of Col-0, abi5 mutants and ABI5-overexpression transgenic lines as 3-AT. These results suggest that ROS is involved in the seed germination mediated by ABI5. Further, we observed that T-DNA insertion mutants of the three catalase members in Arabidopsis displayed 3-AT-insensitive or -hypersensitive phenotypes during seed germination, suggesting that these catalase members regulate ROS homeostasis in a highly complex way. ABI5 affects reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis by affecting CATALASE expression and catalase activity. Furthermore, we showed that ABI5 directly binds to the CAT1 promoter and activates CAT1 expression. Genetic evidence supports the idea that CAT1 functions downstream of ABI5 in ROS signaling during seed germination. RNA-sequencing analysis indicates that the transcription of the genes involved in ROS metabolic process or genes responsive to ROS stress is impaired in abi5-1 seeds. Additionally, expression changes in some genes correlative to seed germination were showed due to the change in ABI5 expression under 3-AT treatment. Together, all the findings suggest that ABI5 regulates seed germination at least partly by affecting ROS homeostasis.

  13. Associations of ankle-brachial index (ABI) with cerebral arterial disease and vascular events following ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Manzano, Jennifer Justice F; De Silva, Deidre A; Pascual, Jose Leonard R; Chang, Hui-Meng; Wong, Meng-Cheong; Chen, Christopher P L H

    2012-07-01

    Low ankle-brachial index (ABI), indicative of peripheral arterial disease (PAD), is a risk factor for stroke. ABI has been shown to be associated with cerebral arterial disease and prognosis following stroke. We studied the associations of the degree of ABI lowering with extracranial carotid disease (ECD), intracranial large artery disease (ICLAD), and subsequent vascular events in a prospective cohort of acute ischemic stroke patients. ABI, extracranial and intracranial cerebral arteries were assessed in a blinded manner. ABI was categorized into 0.9-1.3 (normal), 0.8-0.89 (mildly lowered) and <0.8 (severely lowered). Follow-up data at 1 year were obtained from standardized telephone interviews and verified with medical records. Among the 1311 patients, 73% had normal ABI, 13% had ABI 0.8-0.89 and 13% had ABI <0.8. Compared to patients with normal ABI, those with ABI<0.8 had higher prevalence of severe ECD (15% vs. 5%, p = 0.006) and ICLAD (72% vs. 48%, p = 0.003), even after adjustment for age, gender, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, smoking, ischemic heart disease and atrial fibrillation (severe ECD p < 0.001, ICLAD p < 0.001). At 1 year, patients with ABI <0.8 had a higher incidence of composite vascular events (19% vs. 11%, p = 0.02), stroke (15% vs. 10%, p = 0.06) and myocardial infarction (4% vs. 2%, p = 0.07) than patients with normal ABI. Among ischemic stroke patients, large cerebral arterial disease and incidence of subsequent vascular events at 1 year were associated with severe ABI lowering <0.8, but not with mild ABI lowering (0.8-0.89). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Relation Between Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI) and Coronary Artery Disease Severity and Risk Factors: An Angiographic Study.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Heidari, Ramin; Mostanfar, Baharak; Tavassoli, Aliakbar; Roghani, Farshad; Yazdekhasti, Safoura

    2011-01-01

    The current study aims to determine the relation between ankle-brachial index (ABI) and angiographic findings and major cardiovascular risk factors in patients with suspected coronary artery diseases (CAD) in Isfahan. In this cross-sectional descriptive-analytic research, patients with suspected CAD were studied. Characteristics of studied subjects including demographics, familial history, past medical history and atherosclerotic risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and smoking were obtained using a standard questionnaire. ABI was measured in all studied patients. ABI≤0.9 (ABI(+)) was considered as peripheral vessel disease and ABI>0.9 (ABI(-)) was considered as normal. Then, all studied patients underwent coronary artery angiography. The results of the questionnaire and angiographic findings were compared in ABI(+) and ABI(-) groups. Data were analyzed by SPSS 15 using ANOVA, t-test, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, and discriminant analysis. In this study, 125 patients were investigated. ABI≤0.9 was seen in 25 patients (20%). The prevalence of ABI(+) among men and women was 25.9% and 7.5%, respectively (P=0.01). The prevalence of atherosclerotic risk factors was significantly higher in ABI(+) patients than in ABI(-) ones (P<0.05). ABI(+) patients had more significant stenosis than ABI(-) ones. The mean of occlusion was significantly higher in ABI(+) patients with left main artery (LMA), right coronary artery (RCA), left anterior descending artery (LAD), diagonal artery 1 (D1) and left circumflex artery (LCX) involvements (P<0.05). The findings of this research indicated that ABI could be a useful method in assessing both the atherosclerotic risk factors and the degree of coronary involvements in suspected patients. However, in order to make more accurate decisions for using this method in diagnosing and preventing CAD, we should plan further studies in large sample sizes of general population.

  15. Hydrogen peroxide is a regulator of ABI1, a protein phosphatase 2C from Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Meinhard, M; Grill, E

    2001-11-23

    Protein phosphatases 2C (PP2Cs) exhibit diverse regulatory functions in signalling pathways of animals, yeast and plants. ABI1 is a PP2C of Arabidopsis that exerts negative control on signalling of the phytohormone abscissic acid (ABA). Characterisation of the redox sensitivity of ABI1 revealed a strong enzymatic inactivation by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) which has recently been implicated as a secondary messenger of ABA signalling. H2O2 reversibly inhibited ABI1 activity in vitro with an IC(50) of approximately 140 microM in the presence of physiological concentrations of glutathione. In addition, ABI1 was highly susceptible to inactivation by phenylarsine oxide (IC(50)=3-4 microM) indicative for the facile oxidation of vicinal cysteine residues. Thus, H2O2 generated during ABA signalling seems to inactivate the negative regulator of the ABA response.

  16. The ABA-INSENSITIVE-4 (ABI4) transcription factor links redox, hormone and sugar signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Foyer, Christine H; Kerchev, Pavel I; Hancock, Robert D

    2012-02-01

    The cellular reduction-oxidation (redox) hub processes information from metabolism and the environment and so regulates plant growth and defense through integration with the hormone signaling network. One key pathway of redox control involves interactions with ABSCISIC ACID (ABA). Accumulating evidence suggests that the ABA-INSENSITIVE-4 (ABI4) transcription factor plays a key role in transmitting information concerning the abundance of ascorbate and hence the ability of cells to buffer oxidative challenges. ABI4 is required for the ascorbate-dependent control of growth, a process that involves enhancement of salicylic acid (SA) signaling and inhibition of jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathways. Low redox buffering capacity reinforces SA- JA- interactions through the mediation of ABA and ABI4 to fine-tune plant growth and defense in relation to metabolic cues and environmental challenges. Moreover, ABI4-mediated pathways of sugar sensitivity are also responsive to the abundance of ascorbate, providing evidence of overlap between redox and sugar signaling pathways.

  17. “Related to ABA-Insensitive3(ABI3)/Viviparous1 and AtABI5 transcription factor co-expression in cotton enhances drought stress adaptation”

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Amandeep; Gampala, Srinivas S. L.; Ritchie, Glen L.; Payton, Paxton; Burke, John J.; Rock, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    Drought tolerance is an important trait being pursued by the agbiotech industry. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a stress hormone that mediates a multitude of processes in growth and development, water use efficiency (WUE), and gene expression during seed development and in response to environmental stresses. Arabidopsis B3-domain transcription factor Related to ABA-Insensitive3 (ABI3)/Viviparous1 (namely, AtRAV2) and basic leucine zipper (bZIPs) AtABI5 or AtABF3 transactivated ABA- inducible promoter: GUS reporter expression in a maize mesophyll protoplast transient assay and showed synergies in reporter transactivation when co-expressed. Transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) expressing AtRAV1/2 and/or AtABI5 showed resistance to imposed drought stress under field and greenhouse conditions and exhibited improved photosynthetic and WUEs associated with absorption through larger root system and greater leaf area. We observed synergy for root biomass accumulation in the greenhouse, intrinsic WUE in the field, and drought tolerance in stacked AtRAV and AtABI5 double-transgenic cotton. We assessed AtABI5 and AtRAV1/2 involvement in drought stress adaptations though reactive oxygen species scavenging and osmotic adjustment by marker gene expression in cotton. Deficit irrigation-grown AtRAV1/2 and AtABI5 transgenics had “less stressed” molecular and physiological phenotypes under drought, likely due to improved photoassimilation and root and shoot sink strengths and enhanced expression of endogenous GhRAV and genes for antioxidant and osmolyte biosynthesis. Over-expression of bZIP and RAV TFs could impact sustainable cotton agriculture and potentially other crops under limited irrigation conditions. PMID:24483851

  18. The Arabidopsis DELAY OF GERMINATION 1 gene affects ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 5 (ABI5) expression and genetically interacts with ABI3 during Arabidopsis seed development.

    PubMed

    Dekkers, Bas J W; He, Hanzi; Hanson, Johannes; Willems, Leo A J; Jamar, Diaan C L; Cueff, Gwendal; Rajjou, Loïc; Hilhorst, Henk W M; Bentsink, Leónie

    2016-02-01

    The seed expressed gene DELAY OF GERMINATION (DOG) 1 is absolutely required for the induction of dormancy. Next to a non-dormant phenotype, the dog1-1 mutant is also characterized by a reduced seed longevity suggesting that DOG1 may affect additional seed processes as well. This aspect however, has been hardly studied and is poorly understood. To uncover additional roles of DOG1 in seeds we performed a detailed analysis of the dog1 mutant using both transcriptomics and metabolomics to investigate the molecular consequences of a dysfunctional DOG1 gene. Further, we used a genetic approach taking advantage of the weak aba insensitive (abi) 3-1 allele as a sensitized genetic background in a cross with dog1-1. DOG1 affects the expression of hundreds of genes including LATE EMBRYOGENESIS ABUNDANT and HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN genes which are affected by DOG1 partly via control of ABI5 expression. Furthermore, the content of a subset of primary metabolites, which normally accumulate during seed maturation, was found to be affected in the dog1-1 mutant. Surprisingly, the abi3-1 dog1-1 double mutant produced green seeds which are highly ABA insensitive, phenocopying severe abi3 mutants, indicating that dog1-1 acts as an enhancer of the weak abi3-1 allele and thus revealing a genetic interaction between both genes. Analysis of the dog1 and dog1 abi3 mutants revealed additional seed phenotypes and therefore we hypothesize that DOG1 function is not limited to dormancy but that it is required for multiple aspects of seed maturation, in part by interfering with ABA signalling components. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. [Analysis of algal blooms in Da-Ning River of Three Gorges Reservoir].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bing-Hui; Cao, Cheng-Jin; Zhang, Jia-Lei; Huang, Min-Sheng; Chen, Zhen-Lou

    2009-11-01

    According to the survey conducted from Apr. to Jun. 2007 and from Apr. to May. 2008, the changes of water quality, forms and distributions of nutrient salts and characters of algal blooms in Da-ning River of Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) were studied. The results indicated that the concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient were abundant during sensitive period of algal blooms in Da-ning River. Total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) values are 0.84-3.21 mg/L and 0.011-0.531 mg/L respectively, and the nutrients concentrations become high gradually from upstream to downstream. Total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) is the major form of TN accounting for 84%, and total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) is dominant (TDP/TP = 60%). Algal blooms bring phosphorus nutrient bio-concentration. The rates of TN and TP are all in excess of 16, which show eutrophication is limited by phosphorus. Potassium permanganate index and dissolved oxygen (DO) are at low levels and change stably. But chlorophyll a (Chl-a) becomes frequently, the value is 1.41-219.04 mg x m(-3). Significant positive correlations are all observed by correlation analysis between Chl-a and the main parameters (r(Chla-TP) = 0.453, r(Chla-potassium permanganate index) = 0.641, r(Chla-DO) = 0.584, r(Chla-pH) = 0.409, p < 0.01), but significant negative correlations are observed between Chl-a and Secchi depth (SD) (r(Chla-SD) = - 0.392, p < 0.01). The pH is fluctuated by multiparameter esp. in algal blooms. Widespread algae are observed by microscope during sensitive period of algal blooms in Da-ning River accounting for 8 phylum 82 genus 124 species, which Bacillariophyta and Chlorophyta are dominant, and then Cyanophyta and Pyrrophyta. Three whole watershed algal blooms break out in Da-ning River during the period, and the highest values of algal density are 14-1 427 times as many as the normal values. The dominant species of algal blooms are mostly involved with O. borgei, C. microporum, Chlorococcum humicola, P

  20. The Abi Proteins and Their Involvement in Bacteriocin Self-Immunity ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Kjos, Morten; Snipen, Lars; Salehian, Zhian; Nes, Ingolf F.; Diep, Dzung B.

    2010-01-01

    The Abi protein family consists of putative membrane-bound metalloproteases. While they are involved in membrane anchoring of proteins in eukaryotes, little is known about their function in prokaryotes. In some known bacteriocin loci, Abi genes have been found downstream of bacteriocin structural genes (e.g., pln locus from Lactobacillus plantarum and sag locus from Streptococcus pyogenes), where they probably are involved in self-immunity. By modifying the profile hidden Markov model used to select Abi proteins in the Pfam protein family database, we show that this family is larger than presently recognized. Using bacteriocin-associated Abi genes as a means to search for novel bacteriocins in sequenced genomes, seven new bacteriocin-like loci were identified in Gram-positive bacteria. One such locus, from Lactobacillus sakei 23K, was selected for further experimental study, and it was confirmed that the bacteriocin-like genes (skkAB) exhibited antimicrobial activity when expressed in a heterologous host and that the associated Abi gene (skkI) conferred immunity against the cognate bacteriocin. Similar investigation of the Abi gene plnI and the Abi-like gene plnL from L. plantarum also confirmed their involvement in immunity to their cognate bacteriocins (PlnEF and PlnJK, respectively). Interestingly, the immunity genes from these three systems conferred a high degree of cross-immunity against each other's bacteriocins, suggesting the recognition of a common receptor. Site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that the conserved motifs constituting the putative proteolytic active site of the Abi proteins are essential for the immunity function of SkkI, and to our knowledge, this represents a new concept in self-immunity. PMID:20154137

  1. The abi proteins and their involvement in bacteriocin self-immunity.

    PubMed

    Kjos, Morten; Snipen, Lars; Salehian, Zhian; Nes, Ingolf F; Diep, Dzung B

    2010-04-01

    The Abi protein family consists of putative membrane-bound metalloproteases. While they are involved in membrane anchoring of proteins in eukaryotes, little is known about their function in prokaryotes. In some known bacteriocin loci, Abi genes have been found downstream of bacteriocin structural genes (e.g., pln locus from Lactobacillus plantarum and sag locus from Streptococcus pyogenes), where they probably are involved in self-immunity. By modifying the profile hidden Markov model used to select Abi proteins in the Pfam protein family database, we show that this family is larger than presently recognized. Using bacteriocin-associated Abi genes as a means to search for novel bacteriocins in sequenced genomes, seven new bacteriocin-like loci were identified in Gram-positive bacteria. One such locus, from Lactobacillus sakei 23K, was selected for further experimental study, and it was confirmed that the bacteriocin-like genes (skkAB) exhibited antimicrobial activity when expressed in a heterologous host and that the associated Abi gene (skkI) conferred immunity against the cognate bacteriocin. Similar investigation of the Abi gene plnI and the Abi-like gene plnL from L. plantarum also confirmed their involvement in immunity to their cognate bacteriocins (PlnEF and PlnJK, respectively). Interestingly, the immunity genes from these three systems conferred a high degree of cross-immunity against each other's bacteriocins, suggesting the recognition of a common receptor. Site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that the conserved motifs constituting the putative proteolytic active site of the Abi proteins are essential for the immunity function of SkkI, and to our knowledge, this represents a new concept in self-immunity.

  2. Aluminum biogeochemistry in a subalpine Abies amabilis ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlgren, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Aluminum biogeochemistry was examined in a naturally acidic subalpine ecosystem in the Washington Cascade Mountains. This ecosystem has a vegetative community consisting of Abies amabilis while the soil-forming processes are dominated by podzolization. Due to the potentially harmful biogeochemical link between Al and toxicity to vegetation, aquatic species and man, the factors regulating Al concentrations and mobility were studied. Toxicity and mobility are both related to the ligand to which Al is complexed. Therefore, Al fractionation was performed on soil solutions to differentiate organically bound and inorganic species. Vegetative and soil pools of Al and aluminum fluxes between pools were determined by simultaneous quantification of ecosystem waterflows, litterfall and vegetative uptake. Based on these results, a conceptual model was developed to integrate the hydrologic cycle, vegetation, and soil-forming processes. This model was employed to elucidate mechanisms involved in the process of podzolization and for predicting the effects of natural and man-induced perturbations. Soluble Al in the rooting zone occurs primarily as organically bound complexes, which are considered nontoxic.

  3. Wood formation in Abies balsamea seedlings subjected to artificial defoliation.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Sergio; Simard, Sonia; Deslauriers, Annie; Morin, Hubert

    2009-04-01

    We determined the cambial sensitivity and quantified the anatomical differences in xylem of Abies balsamea (L.) Mill. seedlings subjected to artificial defoliation to simulate spruce budworm feeding. Defoliation was performed by removing two-thirds of needles of all current-year shoots for up to four consecutive growth cycles to account for inter- and intra-annual xylem formation. In Experiment 1, xylem development was studied from May to October 2005 in seedlings defoliated at the end of June. In Experiment 2, anatomical features of the xylem were measured along the tree rings formed in 2005 and 2006 during the four cycles of growth and defoliation. Control and defoliated seedlings showed similar patterns of cambial activity and timing of xylem differentiation, although fewer enlarging cells were observed in August to September in defoliated seedlings. Tree-ring widths were similar in control and defoliated seedlings, with thinner rings produced in the greenhouse in winter. No effect of defoliation on cell lumen area was observed, and effects on radial cell diameter and wall thickness were found only occasionally. The results indicate that the A. balsamea seedlings produced all the resources required to maintain stem growth during the four cycles of defoliation.

  4. [Plants associated to Abies guatemalensis (Pinaceae) forests in Western Guatemala].

    PubMed

    Arévalo, José Vicente Martínez

    2013-03-01

    The fragments of Abies guatemalensis forests in Western Guatemala are the reservoirs of plant species that have been poorly documented, missing the opportunity to expand the knowledge of the local flora and its use in conservation planning. To assess this, a floristic study was done in areas between 2 950-3 360masl in Western Guatemala between 2010-2011. Ten locations were sampled: in each a 500m2 plot was surveyed, and plants were classified in four strata by plant height (0.05-30m). A total of 119 species, 92 genera and 50 families in four divisions were found. The families with more species were Asteraceae, Poaceae, Rosaceae, Lamiaceae, Apiaceae and Solanaceae, and the most abundant genera were Salvia, Alchemilla and Bidens. The number of species found by strata was: 33 (low herbaceous), 49 (high herbaceous), 30 (shrubs) and seven in the tree strata. Regarding geographical distribution, the biggest species group detected was from central Mexico to Central America with 67%, which compared to the forests of A. guatemalensis in central and Southern Mexico, showed high floristic affinity, especially at the family and genus level. However, even having families and genera in common in the general structure of the fir forests, their floristic particularities should be taken into account when making management and conservation plans, because these are influenced by soil, latitude and microclimate conditions.

  5. S-nitrosylation triggers ABI5 degradation to promote seed germination and seedling growth

    PubMed Central

    Albertos, Pablo; Romero-Puertas, María C.; Tatematsu, Kiyoshi; Mateos, Isabel; Sánchez-Vicente, Inmaculada; Nambara, Eiji; Lorenzo, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Plant survival depends on seed germination and progression through post-germinative developmental checkpoints. These processes are controlled by the stress phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). ABA regulates the basic leucine zipper transcriptional factor ABI5, a central hub of growth repression, while the reactive nitrogen molecule nitric oxide (NO) counteracts ABA during seed germination. However, the molecular mechanisms by which seeds sense more favourable conditions and start germinating have remained elusive. Here we show that ABI5 promotes growth via NO, and that ABI5 accumulation is altered in genetic backgrounds with impaired NO homeostasis. S-nitrosylation of ABI5 at cysteine-153 facilitates its degradation through CULLIN4-based and KEEP ON GOING E3 ligases, and promotes seed germination. Conversely, mutation of ABI5 at cysteine-153 deregulates protein stability and inhibition of seed germination by NO depletion. These findings suggest an inverse molecular link between NO and ABA hormone signalling through distinct posttranslational modifications of ABI5 during early seedling development. PMID:26493030

  6. A Novel RNA-Binding Protein Involves ABA Signaling by Post-transcriptionally Repressing ABI2

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jianwen; Chen, Yihan; Qian, Luofeng; Mu, Rong; Yuan, Xi; Fang, Huimin; Huang, Xi; Xu, Enshun; Zhang, Hongsheng; Huang, Ji

    2017-01-01

    The Stress Associated RNA-binding protein 1 (SRP1) repressed by ABA, salt and cold encodes a C2C2-type zinc finger protein in Arabidopsis. The knock-out mutation in srp1 reduced the sensitivity of seed to ABA and salt stress during germination and post-germinative growth stages. In contrast, SRP1-overexpressing seedlings were more sensitive to ABA and salt compared to wild type plants. In the presence of ABA, the transcript levels of ABA signaling and germination-related genes including ABI3. ABI5. EM1 and EM6 were less induced in srp1 compared to WT. Interestingly, expression of ABI2 encoding a protein phosphatase 2C protein were significantly up-regulated in srp1 mutants. By in vitro analysis, SRP1 was identified as a novel RNA-binding protein directly binding to 3′UTR of ABI2 mRNA. Moreover, transient expression assay proved the function of SRP1 in reducing the activity of luciferase whose coding sequence was fused with the ABI2 3’UTR. Together, it is suggested that SRP1 is involved in the ABA signaling by post-transcriptionally repressing ABI2 expression in Arabidopsis. PMID:28174577

  7. Cucumber CsBPCs Regulate the Expression of CsABI3 during Seed Germination

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Ying; Liu, Yumei; Bai, Longqiang; Li, Shuzhen; He, Chaoxing; Yan, Yan; Yu, Xianchang; Li, Yansu

    2017-01-01

    Cucumber seeds with shallow dormancy start to germinate in fruit that are harvested late. ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3), a transcription factor in the abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway, is one of the most important regulators in the transition from late embryogenesis to germination. Our analysis found a candidate cis-regulatory motif for cucumber BASIC PENTACYSTEINE (CsBPC) in the promoter of CsABI3. Yeast one-hybrid and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays showed that CsBPCs bound to the promoter of CsABI3. Examination of β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity driven by the CsABI3 promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing CsBPCs and a Nicotiana benthamiana (tobacco) luciferase assay indicated that CsBPCs inhibited the expression of CsABI3. Transgenic plants overexpressing CsBPCs were constructed to confirm that CsBPCs participates in the control of seed germination. This study of the cucumber BPC-ABI3 pathway will help to explore and characterize the molecular mechanisms underlying seed germination and will provide necessary information for seed conservation in agriculture and forestry. PMID:28421094

  8. Cucumber CsBPCs Regulate the Expression of CsABI3 during Seed Germination.

    PubMed

    Mu, Ying; Liu, Yumei; Bai, Longqiang; Li, Shuzhen; He, Chaoxing; Yan, Yan; Yu, Xianchang; Li, Yansu

    2017-01-01

    Cucumber seeds with shallow dormancy start to germinate in fruit that are harvested late. ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3), a transcription factor in the abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway, is one of the most important regulators in the transition from late embryogenesis to germination. Our analysis found a candidate cis-regulatory motif for cucumber BASIC PENTACYSTEINE (CsBPC) in the promoter of CsABI3. Yeast one-hybrid and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays showed that CsBPCs bound to the promoter of CsABI3. Examination of β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity driven by the CsABI3 promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing CsBPCs and a Nicotiana benthamiana (tobacco) luciferase assay indicated that CsBPCs inhibited the expression of CsABI3. Transgenic plants overexpressing CsBPCs were constructed to confirm that CsBPCs participates in the control of seed germination. This study of the cucumber BPC-ABI3 pathway will help to explore and characterize the molecular mechanisms underlying seed germination and will provide necessary information for seed conservation in agriculture and forestry.

  9. S-nitrosylation triggers ABI5 degradation to promote seed germination and seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Albertos, Pablo; Romero-Puertas, María C; Tatematsu, Kiyoshi; Mateos, Isabel; Sánchez-Vicente, Inmaculada; Nambara, Eiji; Lorenzo, Oscar

    2015-10-23

    Plant survival depends on seed germination and progression through post-germinative developmental checkpoints. These processes are controlled by the stress phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). ABA regulates the basic leucine zipper transcriptional factor ABI5, a central hub of growth repression, while the reactive nitrogen molecule nitric oxide (NO) counteracts ABA during seed germination. However, the molecular mechanisms by which seeds sense more favourable conditions and start germinating have remained elusive. Here we show that ABI5 promotes growth via NO, and that ABI5 accumulation is altered in genetic backgrounds with impaired NO homeostasis. S-nitrosylation of ABI5 at cysteine-153 facilitates its degradation through CULLIN4-based and KEEP ON GOING E3 ligases, and promotes seed germination. Conversely, mutation of ABI5 at cysteine-153 deregulates protein stability and inhibition of seed germination by NO depletion. These findings suggest an inverse molecular link between NO and ABA hormone signalling through distinct posttranslational modifications of ABI5 during early seedling development.

  10. Optimum interpolation algorithms for ABI multiple channel radiance down-scaling processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Haibing; Wolf, W.; King, T.; Maddy, Eric; Sampson, Shanna

    2013-10-01

    The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) is the primary instrument onboard GOES-R for imaging Earth's weather, climate, and environment and will be used for a wide range of applications related to weather, oceans, land, climate, and hazards (fires, volcanoes, hurricanes, and storms that spawn tornados). It will provide over 65% of all the mission data products currently defined. ABI views the Earth with 16 different spectral bands, including two visible channels, four nearinfrared channels and ten infrared channels at 0.5, 1, and 2 km spatial resolutions respectively. For most of the operational ABI retrieval algorithms, the collocated/co-registered radiance dataset are at 2 km resolution for all of the bands required. This requires down-scaling of the radiance data from 0.5 or 1 km to 2 km for ABI visible and near-IR bands (2 or 1, 3 & 5 respectively), the reference of 2 km is the nominal resolution at the satellite sub-point. In this paper, the spatial resolution characteristic of the ABI fixed grid level1b radiance data is discussed. An optimum interpolation algorithm which has been developed for the ABI multiple channel radiance down-scaling processing is present.

  11. Perspectives on evidence based practice in ABI rehabilitation. "Relevant Research": who decides?

    PubMed

    Wiseman-Hakes, Catherine; MacDonald, Sheila; Keightley, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that acquired brain injury (ABI) rehabilitation and research should be guided by a philosophy that focuses on: restoration, compensation, function and participation in all aspects of daily life. Such a broad, more pluralistic approach influences ABI rehabilitation research at a number of levels, including both the generation of evidence, and in searching for, critiquing and applying the evidence to practice. The objective of evidence based medicine/practice (EBM/EBP) is to apply and integrate clinical expertise with evidence gained through systematic research and scientific inquiry to medical/clinical practice. While there is abundant literature debating the practical and sociological implications of EBP, there has been limited examination of EBP within the inherently complex nature of ABI rehabilitation and rehabilitation research. This paper provides a framework for clinical decision making regarding evidence based practice in the context of ABI rehab including: 1. A discussion of the purpose of evidence based practice, 2. Levels of evidence relevant to ABI rehabilitation research, and 3. A rationale for incorporating a broader, more pluralistic concept of evidence or "person-centred EBP". We conclude with a series of key questions for the evaluation and application of systematic reviews of the evidence in the context of ABI rehabilitation.

  12. Ankle-brachial index (ABI), abdominal aortic calcification (AAC), and coronary artery calcification (CAC): the Jackson heart study.

    PubMed

    Tullos, Bobby W; Sung, Jung Hye; Lee, Jae Eun; Criqui, Michael H; Mitchell, Marc E; Taylor, Herman A

    2013-04-01

    To examine the associations of peripheral atherosclerosis, assessed by the ABI at baseline with the extent of AAC and with CAC measured by MDCT at follow-up examination in the Jackson Heart Study cohort. Four categories of ABI: <0.90, 0.90-0.99, 1.00-1.39; >1.40. Presence of CAC/AAC was defined as scoring above the 75th percentile among participants with non-zero CT calcium scores. We conducted multivariable log-binomial models for this analysis examining the relationship between ABI and the presence of CAC or AAC using normal ABI (1.0 ≤ ABI ≤ 1.39) as the reference group. We estimated prevalence ratios adjusted for age, smoking, HTN, DM, BMI, LDL, HDL, CRP, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and use of lipid-lowering medication. There were 2,398 patients in this analysis (women: 65 %, average age 55 years). AAC scores were not significantly different between sex. CAC scores were significantly higher in males than females regardless of ABI groups. The prevalence of significant AAC was 1.7 times higher for ABI < 0.90 (PR = 1.70; 95 % CI = 1.26-2.28; p = 0.0004) and 1.57 times higher for ABI 0.90-0.99 (PR = 1.57; 95 % CI = 1.20-2.03; p = 0.0008) than the normal ABI; AAC prevalence did not differ between subjects with ABI > 1.40 compared to those with normal ABI. The prevalence of the significant CAC was higher for ABI < 0.90 (PR = 1.55; 95 % CI = 1.12-2.14; p value = 0.0081) and ABI 0.90-0.99 (PR = 1.60; 95 % CI = 1.05-2.46; p = 0.0402) compared to normal ABI; CAC prevalence did not differ between subjects with ABI > 1.40 compared to those with normal ABI. Lower ABI was significantly associated with the extent of AAC and CAC in this cohort. ABI can provide clinicians with an inexpensive additional tool to assess vascular health and cardiovascular risk without exposing the patient to ionizing radiation.

  13. Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI), Abdominal Aortic Calcification (AAC), and Coronary Artery Calcification (CAC): the Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Tullos, Bobby W.; Sung, Jung Hye; Lee, Jae Eun; Criqui, Michael H.; Mitchell, Marc E.; Taylor, Herman A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction To examine the associations of peripheral atherosclerosis, assessed by the ABI at baseline with the extent of AAC and with CAC measured by MDCT at follow-up examination in the Jackson Heart Study cohort. Methods Four categories of ABI: <0.90, 0.90–0.99, 1.00–1.39; >1.40. Presence of CAC/AAC was defined as scoring above the 75th percentile among participants with non-zero CT calcium scores. We conducted multivariable log-binomial models for this analysis examining the relationship between ABI and the presence of CAC or AAC using normal ABI (1.0 ≤ ABI ≤ 1.39) as the reference group. We estimated prevalence ratios adjusted for age, smoking, HTN, DM, BMI, LDL, HDL, CRP, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and use of lipid-lowering medication. Results There were 2,398 patients in this analysis (women: 65%, average age 55 years). AAC scores were not significantly different between sex. CAC scores were significantly higher in males than females regardless of ABI groups. The prevalence of significant AAC was 1.7 times higher for ABI < 0.90 (PR=1.70; 95% CI=1.26–2.28; p=0.0004) and 1.57 times higher for ABI 0.90–0.99 (PR=1.57; 95% CI=1.20–2.03; p=0.0008) than the normal ABI; AAC prevalence did not differ between subjects with ABI > 1.40 compared to those with normal ABI. The prevalence of the significant CAC was higher for ABI <0.90 (PR=1.55; 95% CI=1.12–2.14; p-value=0.0081) and ABI 0.90–0.99 (PR=1.60; 95% CI=1.05–2.46; p=0.0402) compared to normal ABI; CAC prevalence did not differ between subjects with ABI > 1.40 compared to those with normal ABI Conclusion Lower ABI was significantly associated with the extent of AAC and CAC in this cohort. ABI can provide clinicians with an inexpensive additional tool to assess vascular health and cardiovascular risk without exposing the patient to ionizing radiation. PMID:23111408

  14. ABI2-deficient mice exhibit defective cell migration, aberrant dendritic spine morphogenesis, and deficits in learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Grove, Matthew; Demyanenko, Galina; Echarri, Asier; Zipfel, Patricia A; Quiroz, Marisol E; Rodriguiz, Ramona M; Playford, Martin; Martensen, Shelby A; Robinson, Matthew R; Wetsel, William C; Maness, Patricia F; Pendergast, Ann Marie

    2004-12-01

    The Abl-interactor (Abi) family of adaptor proteins has been linked to signaling pathways involving the Abl tyrosine kinases and the Rac GTPase. Abi proteins localize to sites of actin polymerization in protrusive membrane structures and regulate actin dynamics in vitro. Here we demonstrate that Abi2 modulates cell morphogenesis and migration in vivo. Homozygous deletion of murine abi2 produced abnormal phenotypes in the eye and brain, the tissues with the highest Abi2 expression. In the absence of Abi2, secondary lens fiber orientation and migration were defective in the eye, without detectable defects in proliferation, differentiation, or apoptosis. These phenotypes were consistent with the localization of Abi2 at adherens junctions in the developing lens and at nascent epithelial cell adherens junctions in vitro. Downregulation of Abi expression by RNA interference impaired adherens junction formation and correlated with downregulation of the Wave actin-nucleation promoting factor. Loss of Abi2 also resulted in cell migration defects in the neocortex and hippocampus, abnormal dendritic spine morphology and density, and severe deficits in short- and long-term memory. These findings support a role for Abi2 in the regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics at adherens junctions and dendritic spines, which is critical for intercellular connectivity, cell morphogenesis, and cognitive functions.

  15. Abi2-Deficient Mice Exhibit Defective Cell Migration, Aberrant Dendritic Spine Morphogenesis, and Deficits in Learning and Memory

    PubMed Central

    Grove, Matthew; Demyanenko, Galina; Echarri, Asier; Zipfel, Patricia A.; Quiroz, Marisol E.; Rodriguiz, Ramona M.; Playford, Martin; Martensen, Shelby A.; Robinson, Matthew R.; Wetsel, William C.; Maness, Patricia F.; Pendergast, Ann Marie

    2004-01-01

    The Abl-interactor (Abi) family of adaptor proteins has been linked to signaling pathways involving the Abl tyrosine kinases and the Rac GTPase. Abi proteins localize to sites of actin polymerization in protrusive membrane structures and regulate actin dynamics in vitro. Here we demonstrate that Abi2 modulates cell morphogenesis and migration in vivo. Homozygous deletion of murine abi2 produced abnormal phenotypes in the eye and brain, the tissues with the highest Abi2 expression. In the absence of Abi2, secondary lens fiber orientation and migration were defective in the eye, without detectable defects in proliferation, differentiation, or apoptosis. These phenotypes were consistent with the localization of Abi2 at adherens junctions in the developing lens and at nascent epithelial cell adherens junctions in vitro. Downregulation of Abi expression by RNA interference impaired adherens junction formation and correlated with downregulation of the Wave actin-nucleation promoting factor. Loss of Abi2 also resulted in cell migration defects in the neocortex and hippocampus, abnormal dendritic spine morphology and density, and severe deficits in short- and long-term memory. These findings support a role for Abi2 in the regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics at adherens junctions and dendritic spines, which is critical for intercellular connectivity, cell morphogenesis, and cognitive functions. PMID:15572692

  16. The Role and Regulation of ABI5 (ABA-Insensitive 5) in Plant Development, Abiotic Stress Responses and Phytohormone Crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Skubacz, Anna; Daszkowska-Golec, Agata; Szarejko, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    ABA Insensitive 5 (ABI5) is a basic leucine zipper transcription factor that plays a key role in the regulation of seed germination and early seedling growth in the presence of ABA and abiotic stresses. ABI5 functions in the core ABA signaling, which is composed of PYR/PYL/RCAR receptors, PP2C phosphatases and SnRK2 kinases, through the regulation of the expression of genes that contain the ABSCISIC ACID RESPONSE ELEMENT (ABRE) motif within their promoter region. The regulated targets include stress adaptation genes, e.g., LEA proteins. However, the expression and activation of ABI5 is not only dependent on the core ABA signaling. Many transcription factors such as ABI3, ABI4, MYB7 and WRKYs play either a positive or a negative role in the regulation of ABI5 expression. Additionally, the stability and activity of ABI5 are also regulated by other proteins through post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation, ubiquitination, sumoylation and S-nitrosylation. Moreover, ABI5 also acts as an ABA and other phytohormone signaling integrator. Components of auxin, cytokinin, gibberellic acid, jasmonate and brassinosteroid signaling and metabolism pathways were shown to take part in ABI5 regulation and/or to be regulated by ABI5. Monocot orthologs of AtABI5 have been identified. Although their roles in the molecular and physiological adaptations during abiotic stress have been elucidated, knowledge about their detailed action still remains elusive. Here, we describe the recent advances in understanding the action of ABI5 in early developmental processes and the adaptation of plants to unfavorable environmental conditions. We also focus on ABI5 relation to other phytohormones in the abiotic stress response of plants. PMID:28018412

  17. GPR survey for fir (Abies alba) and spruce (Picea abies) root systems in different location in Western Carpathians Mts. (Beskidy Mts., Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szynkiewicz, Adam

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the GPR research was a non-invasive inspection of the root systems arrangement of selected trees (fir Abies alba and spruce Picea abies), in the Beskid Śląski Landscaped Park and Żywiecki Landscaped Park (Carpathian Mountains, Poland). Field research has been done using RAMAC/GPR with 800 MHz shielded antennas. The survey was conducted by linear profiling to a depth of 2 m. The survey was carried out around the designated trees in 6 meters x 6 meters grids. Base points for X (S-N) and Y (W-E) axis were set in corners of each grid. Parallel GPR traverses were conducted within each study area, at intervals of 0.20 m. The maps of research areas show GPR sections, with + 0.1 m error and the other existing trees and stumps. GPR data analysis was carried out in 2D and 3D system. The survey result in the following conclusions: 1) fir (Abies alba), has a "vertical" root system type (withthe roots dominance at depths of 0.2 - 0.8 meter), concentrically away from the tree trunk at a distance of about 1 m to about 2 m. 2) spruce (Picea abies), has a "cloud" root systems type (at a depth of 10 - 100 cm), with a few clear, thicker roots extending from the trunk.

  18. Embolism formation during freezing in the wood of Picea abies.

    PubMed

    Mayr, Stefan; Cochard, Hervé; Améglio, Thierry; Kikuta, Silvia B

    2007-01-01

    Freeze-thaw events can cause embolism in plant xylem. According to classical theory, gas bubbles are formed during freezing and expand during thawing. Conifers have proved to be very resistant to freeze-thaw induced embolism, because bubbles in tracheids are small and redissolve during thawing. In contrast, increasing embolism rates upon consecutive freeze-thaw events were observed that cannot be explained by the classical mechanism. In this study, embolism formation during freeze-thaw events was analyzed via ultrasonic and Cryo-scanning electron microscope techniques. Twigs of Picea abies L. Karst. were subjected to up to 120 freeze-thaw cycles during which ultrasonic acoustic emissions, xylem temperature, and diameter variations were registered. In addition, the extent and cross-sectional pattern of embolism were analyzed with staining experiments and Cryo-scanning electron microscope observations. Embolism increased with the number of freeze-thaw events in twigs previously dehydrated to a water potential of -2.8 MPa. In these twigs, acoustic emissions were registered, while saturated twigs showed low, and totally dehydrated twigs showed no, acoustic activity. Acoustic emissions were detected only during the freezing process. This means that embolism was formed during freezing, which is in contradiction to the classical theory of freeze-thaw induced embolism. The clustered pattern of embolized tracheids in cross sections indicates that air spread from a dysfunctional tracheid to adjacent functional ones. We hypothesize that the low water potential of the growing ice front led to a decrease of the potential in nearby tracheids. This may result in freezing-induced air seeding.

  19. In Planta Localization of Stilbenes within Picea abies Phloem.

    PubMed

    Jyske, Tuula; Kuroda, Katsushi; Suuronen, Jussi-Petteri; Pranovich, Andrey; Roig-Juan, Sílvia; Aoki, Dan; Fukushima, Kazuhiko

    2016-10-01

    Phenolic stilbene glucosides (astringin, isorhapontin, and piceid) and their aglycons commonly accumulate in the phloem of Norway spruce (Picea abies). However, current knowledge about the localization and accumulation of stilbenes within plant tissues and cells remains limited. Here, we used an innovative combination of novel microanalytical techniques to evaluate stilbenes in a frozen-hydrated condition (i.e. in planta) and a freeze-dried condition across phloem tissues. Semiquantitative time-of-flight secondary ion-mass spectrometry imaging in planta revealed that stilbenes were localized in axial parenchyma cells. Quantitative gas chromatography analysis showed the highest stilbene content in the middle of collapsed phloem with decreases toward the outer phloem. The same trend was detected for soluble sugar and water contents. The specimen water content may affect stilbene composition; the glucoside-to-aglycon ratio decreased slightly with decreases in water content. Phloem chemistry was correlated with three-dimensional structures of phloem as analyzed by microtomography. The outer phloem was characterized by a high volume of empty parenchyma, reduced ray volume, and a large number of axial parenchyma with porous vacuolar contents. Increasing porosity from the inner to the outer phloem was related to decreasing compactness of stilbenes and possible secondary oxidation or polymerization. Our results indicate that aging-dependent changes in phloem may reduce cell functioning, which affects the capacity of the phloem to store water and sugar, and may reduce the defense potential of stilbenes in the axial parenchyma. Our results highlight the power of using a combination of techniques to evaluate tissue- and cell-level mechanisms involved in plant secondary metabolite formation and metabolism. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Factors related to fatigue after paediatric acquired brain injury (ABI).

    PubMed

    van Markus-Doornbosch, F; de Kloet, A J; Berger, M A M; Lambregts, S A M; Wolterbeek, R; Vliet Vlieland, T P M

    2016-01-01

    To assess the degree of fatigue in children and youth after traumatic and non-traumatic brain injury (TBI and NTBI) and related factors. Follow-up study including patients with a hospital-based diagnosis of acquired brain injury (ABI), aged 4-20 years at onset and their parents. Parents and children (dependent on age) completed the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ Multidimensional Fatigue Scale (PedsQL™ MFS), which measures general fatigue (GF), sleep/rest fatigue (SRF) and cognitive fatigue (CF). Additional assessments included the Child & Family Follow-up Survey (CFFS) and PedsQL™ 4.0 General Core Scales and sociodemographic and disease characteristics. Eighty-eight parents completed the PedsQL™ MFS 24-30 months after diagnosis, with 49/88 patients (56%) completing the child version. The median age of the patients was 11 years (interquartile range [IQR] = 7). There were 69 patients with TBI (16% moderate/severe TBI) and 19 patients with NTBI (16% moderate/severe NTBI). The median parent-reported and child-reported PedsQL™ MFS Total Scale Scores were 76.5 (SD = 16.4) and 78.5 (12.9), respectively (Spearman r = 0.450, p = 0.001). Apart from NTBI, increasing age and a single-parent household were significantly associated with more fatigue according to the parent-reported PedsQL™ MFS Total Score (and/or one or more sub-scale scores). Two years after onset, in particular, the parent-reported fatigue after NTBI was considerable. Moreover, older children and children from a single-parent household were found to have higher fatigue levels.

  1. Phylogeography of SW Mediterranean firs: different European origins for the North African Abies species.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Robles, Jose M; Balao, Francisco; Terrab, Anass; García-Castaño, Juan L; Ortiz, María A; Vela, Errol; Talavera, Salvador

    2014-10-01

    The current distribution of Western Mediterranean Abies species is a result of complex geodynamic processes and climatic oscillations that occurred in the past. Abies sect. Piceaster offers a good study model to explore how geo-climatic oscillations might have influenced its expansion and diversification on both sides of the W Mediterranean basin. We investigated the genetic variation within and among nine populations from five Abies species by molecular markers with high and low mutation rates and contrasting inheritance (AFLP and cpSSR). Analyses revealed the opening of the Strait of Gibraltar as an effective barrier against gene flow between the Southern Iberian (A. pinsapo) and North African (A. marocana and A. tazaotana) firs. The A. pinsapo populations in Spain and likewise those of the A. marocana - A. tazaotana population complex were not differentiated, and no evidence was found to distinguish A. tazaotana at the species level. Diversification of Abies across North Africa could occur by way of at least two vicariant events from Europe, in the west, giving rise to the A. marocana - A. tazaotana complex, and in the east, giving A. numidica. Secondary contacts among species from Abies sect. Piceaster (A. pinsapo and A. numidica), and with A. alba (Abies sect. Abies) are also indicated. However, there is a closer relationship between the Algerian fir (A. numidica) and the North Mediterranean widespread A. alba, than with the Moroccan firs (A. marocana and A. tazaotana) or the Southern Iberian (A. pinsapo). We also discuss the distribution range of these taxa in its paleogeological and paleoclimatic context, and propose that part of the modern geography of the South-Western Mediterranean firs might be traced back to the Tertiary.

  2. Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein K Interacts with Abi-1 at Postsynaptic Sites and Modulates Dendritic Spine Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Proepper, Christian; Steinestel, Konrad; Schmeisser, Michael J.; Heinrich, Jutta; Steinestel, Julie; Bockmann, Juergen; Liebau, Stefan; Boeckers, Tobias M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Abelson-interacting protein 1 (Abi-1) plays an important role for dendritic branching and synapse formation in the central nervous system. It is localized at the postsynaptic density (PSD) and rapidly translocates to the nucleus upon synaptic stimulation. At PSDs Abi-1 is in a complex with several other proteins including WASP/WAVE or cortactin thereby regulating the actin cytoskeleton via the Arp 2/3 complex. Principal Findings We identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNPK), a 65 kDa ssDNA/RNA-binding-protein that is involved in multiple intracellular signaling cascades, as a binding partner of Abi-1 at postsynaptic sites. The interaction with the Abi-1 SH3 domain is mediated by the hnRNPK-interaction (KI) domain. We further show that during brain development, hnRNPK expression becomes more and more restricted to granule cells of the cerebellum and hippocampal neurons where it localizes in the cell nucleus as well as in the spine/dendritic compartment. The downregulation of hnRNPK in cultured hippocampal neurons by RNAi results in an enlarged dendritic tree and a significant increase in filopodia formation. This is accompanied by a decrease in the number of mature synapses. Both effects therefore mimic the neuronal morphology after downregulation of Abi-1 mRNA in neurons. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate a novel interplay between hnRNPK and Abi-1 in the nucleus and at synaptic sites and show obvious similarities regarding both protein knockdown phenotypes. This indicates that hnRNPK and Abi-1 act synergistic in a multiprotein complex that regulates the crucial balance between filopodia formation and synaptic maturation in neurons. PMID:22102872

  3. Prevalence and risk factors of PAD among patients with elevated ABI.

    PubMed

    Suominen, V; Rantanen, T; Venermo, M; Saarinen, J; Salenius, J

    2008-06-01

    To assess the prevalence and clinical significance of elevated ankle-brachial index (ABI) in patients referred to vascular consultation. Retrospective clinical study. In 1,762 patients referred with a suspicion of peripheral arterial disease (PAD), ABI and toe brachial index (TBI) were measured by photoplethysmography. ABI>/=1.3 was considered falsely elevated and TBI<0.60 was the diagnostic criterion for PAD. The prevalence of elevated ABI was 8.4% and that of PAD among these patients 62.2%. PAD was significantly more prevalent among subjects with severe symptoms (rest pain, ulcers or gangrene) than in those with intermittent claudication (83.8% and 45.3%, respectively, p<0.001). The risk of PAD diagnosis was ten-fold (OR 10.31, 95% CI 2.07-51.30) among those with chronic renal failure, five-fold among patients with a history of smoking (OR 5.63, 95% CI 1.22-26.00) and over three-fold (OR 3.44, 95% CI 1.46-8.12) among those with coronary heart disease. The specificities of elevated ABI threshold levels (1.3, 1.4 and 1.5) in identifying PAD were 86%, 94% and 96%, respectively, the sensitivities being 44%, 38% and 36%, respectively. The prevalence of elevated ABI in patients referred to vascular consultation is 8.4% and that of PAD among these 62.2%. PAD is significantly more probable among those with chronic renal failure, a history of smoking and coronary heart disease. Furthermore, the specificity of elevated ABI (>/=1.3) in recognizing PAD is good, whereas the sensitivity is only satisfactory.

  4. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein k interacts with Abi-1 at postsynaptic sites and modulates dendritic spine morphology.

    PubMed

    Proepper, Christian; Steinestel, Konrad; Schmeisser, Michael J; Heinrich, Jutta; Steinestel, Julie; Bockmann, Juergen; Liebau, Stefan; Boeckers, Tobias M

    2011-01-01

    Abelson-interacting protein 1 (Abi-1) plays an important role for dendritic branching and synapse formation in the central nervous system. It is localized at the postsynaptic density (PSD) and rapidly translocates to the nucleus upon synaptic stimulation. At PSDs Abi-1 is in a complex with several other proteins including WASP/WAVE or cortactin thereby regulating the actin cytoskeleton via the Arp 2/3 complex. We identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNPK), a 65 kDa ssDNA/RNA-binding-protein that is involved in multiple intracellular signaling cascades, as a binding partner of Abi-1 at postsynaptic sites. The interaction with the Abi-1 SH3 domain is mediated by the hnRNPK-interaction (KI) domain. We further show that during brain development, hnRNPK expression becomes more and more restricted to granule cells of the cerebellum and hippocampal neurons where it localizes in the cell nucleus as well as in the spine/dendritic compartment. The downregulation of hnRNPK in cultured hippocampal neurons by RNAi results in an enlarged dendritic tree and a significant increase in filopodia formation. This is accompanied by a decrease in the number of mature synapses. Both effects therefore mimic the neuronal morphology after downregulation of Abi-1 mRNA in neurons. Our findings demonstrate a novel interplay between hnRNPK and Abi-1 in the nucleus and at synaptic sites and show obvious similarities regarding both protein knockdown phenotypes. This indicates that hnRNPK and Abi-1 act synergistic in a multiprotein complex that regulates the crucial balance between filopodia formation and synaptic maturation in neurons.

  5. WRKY41 controls Arabidopsis seed dormancy via direct regulation of ABI3 transcript levels not downstream of ABA.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhong Jie; Yan, Jing Ying; Li, Gui Xin; Wu, Zhong Chang; Zhang, Shu Qun; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2014-09-01

    Although seed dormancy is an important agronomic trait, its molecular basis is poorly understood. ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3) plays an essential role in the establishment of seed dormancy. Here, we show that the lack of a seed-expressed WRKY transcription factor, WRKY41, confers reduced primary seed dormancy and thermoinhibition, phenotypes resembling those for a lack of ABI3. Loss-of-function abi3-17 and wrky41 alleles also both confer reduced sensitivity to ABA during germination and early seedling growth. Absence of WRKY41 decreases ABI3 transcript abundance in maturing and imbibed seeds, whereas transgenically overexpressing WRKY41 increases ABI3 expression. Moreover, transgenic overexpression of ABI3 completely restores seed dormancy phenotypes on wrky41. ChIP-qPCR and EMSA reveal that WRKY41 binds directly to the ABI3 promoter through three adjacent W-boxes, and a transactivation assay indicates that these W-boxes are essential for ABI3 expression. Whilst RT-qPCR analysis shows that the regulation of ABI3 by WRKY41 is not through ABA and other factors known to promote ABI3 transcription during seed maturation and germination, we also show that high concentrations of ABA might promote negative feedback regulation of WRKY41 expression. Finally, analysis of the wrky41 aba2 double mutant confirms that WRKY41 and ABA collaboratively regulate ABI3 expression and seed dormancy. In summary, our results demonstrate that WRKY41 is an important regulator of ABI3 expression, and hence of seed dormancy.

  6. Tidal triggering of earthquakes in the Ning'er area of Yunnan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Chaodi; Lei, Xinglin; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Ma, Qingbo; Yang, Simeng; Wang, Yingnan

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the potential effect of tidal modulation on the seismicity in the Ning'er area, a seismically and geothermally active zone in Yunnan Province, China, we studied the correlation between Earth tides and the occurrence of M ≥ 6.0 earthquakes dating back to 1970, as well as their aftershock sequences, using theoretically calculated tidal stresses and a statistical test. The results show a significant correlation between Earth tides and the occurrence of earthquakes. Six of seven main events occurred when the Earth tide increased the Coulomb failure stress on the source fault. Four main events occurred in a narrow range of phase angle corresponding to the maximum loading rate of tidal stress. Furthermore, the histories of the aftershock sequence as a function of the tidal phases demonstrate clear tidal modulation with a high significance. Thus, we conclude that Earth tides have a clear role in triggering (or modulating) the rupture of the fault systems in the Ning'er area.

  7. Screening of Methanol Extract and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Abies webbiana Lindl. for Neuropharmacological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Parkash, O.; Kumar, D.; Kumar, S.

    2015-01-01

    Despite a long traditional of use of Abies webbiana Lindl. (Talispatra; family-Pinaceae) in the treatment of mental disorders, the plant has not been investigated systematically to validate its traditional claims. Thus, the present investigation was undertaken with an objective to investigate neuropharmacological activities of methanol extract of Abies webbiana aerial parts and its ethyl acetate fraction. Properly identified aerial parts were defatted with petroleum ether and then extracted with methanol in a Soxhlet apparatus. Ethyl acetate fraction was prepared by partitioning methanol extract with ethyl acetate using standard procedure. In acute toxicity study, no mortality was observed in animals after oral administration of 2 g/kg dose of methanol extract. The methanol extract (200 or 400 mg/kg, p.o.) and ethyl acetate fraction (25 or 50 mg/kg, p.o.) were evaluated for antianxiety, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, sedative, antistress and analgesic activities using well established models. The methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction of Abies webbiana aerial parts exhibited significant antianxiety, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, sedative, antistress and analgesic activities with respect to control. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed presence of flavonoids in bioactive ethyl acetate fraction of Abies webbiana aerial parts. It is finally concluded that flavonoids are the bioactive constituents responsible for most of neuropharmacological activities of Abies webbiana. PMID:26798167

  8. Screening of Methanol Extract and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Abies webbiana Lindl. for Neuropharmacological Activities.

    PubMed

    Parkash, O; Kumar, D; Kumar, S

    2015-01-01

    Despite a long traditional of use of Abies webbiana Lindl. (Talispatra; family-Pinaceae) in the treatment of mental disorders, the plant has not been investigated systematically to validate its traditional claims. Thus, the present investigation was undertaken with an objective to investigate neuropharmacological activities of methanol extract of Abies webbiana aerial parts and its ethyl acetate fraction. Properly identified aerial parts were defatted with petroleum ether and then extracted with methanol in a Soxhlet apparatus. Ethyl acetate fraction was prepared by partitioning methanol extract with ethyl acetate using standard procedure. In acute toxicity study, no mortality was observed in animals after oral administration of 2 g/kg dose of methanol extract. The methanol extract (200 or 400 mg/kg, p.o.) and ethyl acetate fraction (25 or 50 mg/kg, p.o.) were evaluated for antianxiety, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, sedative, antistress and analgesic activities using well established models. The methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction of Abies webbiana aerial parts exhibited significant antianxiety, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, sedative, antistress and analgesic activities with respect to control. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed presence of flavonoids in bioactive ethyl acetate fraction of Abies webbiana aerial parts. It is finally concluded that flavonoids are the bioactive constituents responsible for most of neuropharmacological activities of Abies webbiana.

  9. An Abbreviated Impulsiveness Scale (ABIS) Constructed through Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the BIS-11

    PubMed Central

    Coutlee, Christopher G.; Politzer, Cary S.; Hoyle, Rick H.; Huettel, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Impulsiveness is a personality trait that reflects an urge to act spontaneously, without thinking or planning ahead for the consequences of your actions. High impulsiveness is characteristic of a variety of problematic behaviors including attention deficit disorder, hyperactivity, excessive gambling, risk-taking, drug use, and alcoholism. Researchers studying attention and self-control often assess impulsiveness using personality questionnaires, notably the common Barratt Impulsiveness Scale version 11 (BIS-11; last revised in 1995). Advances in techniques for producing personality questionnaires over the last 20 years prompted us to revise and improve the BIS-11. We sought to make the revised scale shorter – so that it would be quicker to administer – and better matched to current behaviors. We analyzed responses from 1549 adults who took the BIS-11 questionnaire. Using a statistical technique called factor analysis, we eliminated 17 questions that did a poor job of measuring the three major types of impulsiveness identified by the scale: inattention, spontaneous action, and lack of planning. We constructed our ABbreviated Impulsiveness Scale (ABIS) using the remaining 13 questions. We showed that the ABIS performed well when administered to additional groups of 657 and 285 adults. Finally, we showed expected relationships between the ABIS and other personality measurements related to impulsiveness, and showed that the ABIS can help predict alcohol consumption. We present the ABIS as a useful and efficient tool for researchers interested in measuring impulsive personality. PMID:26258000

  10. Retrieving clear-sky atmospheric parameters from SEVIRI and ABI infrared radiances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xin; Li, Jun; Schmit, Timothy J.; Li, Jinlong; Goldberg, Mitchell D.; Gurka, James J.

    2008-08-01

    The algorithm for the current Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Sounders is adapted to produce atmospheric temperature and moisture legacy profiles from simulated infrared radiances of the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) on board the next generation GOES-R. Since the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) on board the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) Meteosat-8/9 has many of the same spectral and spatial features as ABI, it is used as proxy to test the algorithm. Because as imagers, SEVIRI and ABI do not have enough CO2 absorption spectral bands relative to the current GOES Sounders, the legacy profile algorithm for the current GOES Sounders needs to be modified. Both simulations and analysis with radiance measurements indicate that the single temperature-sensitive infrared band (13.4 μm) of SEVIRI cannot provide enough temperature profile information. However, SEVIRI's two H2O absorption spectral bands (6.2 and 7.2 μm) are able to provide useful information on water vapor content above 700 hPa. Because of their high spatial (approximately 3 km for SEVIRI and 2 km for ABI IR bands) and high temporal (15 min full disk coverage) resolutions, SEVIRI and ABI will provide useful profile products with a quality similar to that from the current GOES Sounder prior to the availability of a hyperspectral IR sounding system in geostationary orbit.

  11. Exploiting Measurement Uncertainty Estimation in Evaluation of GOES-R ABI Image Navigation Accuracy Using Image Registration Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, Evan; DeLuccia, Frank

    2016-01-01

    In evaluating GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) image navigation quality, upsampled sub-images of ABI images are translated against downsampled Landsat 8 images of localized, high contrast earth scenes to determine the translations in the East-West and North-South directions that provide maximum correlation. The native Landsat resolution is much finer than that of ABI, and Landsat navigation accuracy is much better than ABI required navigation accuracy and expected performance. Therefore, Landsat images are considered to provide ground truth for comparison with ABI images, and the translations of ABI sub-images that produce maximum correlation with Landsat localized images are interpreted as ABI navigation errors. The measured local navigation errors from registration of numerous sub-images with the Landsat images are averaged to provide a statistically reliable measurement of the overall navigation error of the ABI image. The dispersion of the local navigation errors is also of great interest, since ABI navigation requirements are specified as bounds on the 99.73rd percentile of the magnitudes of per pixel navigation errors. However, the measurement uncertainty inherent in the use of image registration techniques tends to broaden the dispersion in measured local navigation errors, masking the true navigation performance of the ABI system. We have devised a novel and simple method for estimating the magnitude of the measurement uncertainty in registration error for any pair of images of the same earth scene. We use these measurement uncertainty estimates to filter out the higher quality measurements of local navigation error for inclusion in statistics. In so doing, we substantially reduce the dispersion in measured local navigation errors, thereby better approximating the true navigation performance of the ABI system.

  12. No time for spruce: rapid dampening of circadian rhythms in Picea abies (L. Karst).

    PubMed

    Gyllenstrand, Niclas; Karlgren, Anna; Clapham, David; Holm, Karl; Hall, Anthony; Gould, Peter D; Källman, Thomas; Lagercrantz, Ulf

    2014-03-01

    The identification and cloning of full-length homologs of circadian clock genes from Picea abies represent a first step to study the function and evolution of the circadian clock in gymnosperms. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the sequences of key circadian clock genes are conserved between angiosperms and gymnosperms. though fewer homologous copies were found for most gene families in P. abies. We detected diurnal cycling of circadian clock genes in P. abies using quantitative real-time PCR; however, cycling appeared to be rapidly dampened under free-running conditions. Given the unexpected absence of transcriptional cycling during constant conditions, we employed a complementary method to assay circadian rhythmic outputs and measured delayed fluorescence in seedlings of Norway spruce. Neither of the two approaches to study circadian rhythms in Norway spruce could detect robust ∼24 h cycling behavior under constant conditions. These data suggest gene conservation but fundamental differences in clock function between gymnosperms and other plant taxa.

  13. The GOES-R ABI Wild Fire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, J.; Schmidt, C. C.; Prins, E. M.; Brunner, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    The global Wild Fire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA) at the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) provides fire detection and characterization using data from a global constellation of geostationary satellites, currently including GOES, MTSAT, and Meteosat. CIMSS continues to enhance the legacy of the WF_ABBA by adapting the algorithm to utilize the advanced spatial, spectral, and temporal capabilities of GOES-R ABI. A wide range of simulated ABI data cases have been generated and processed with the GOES-R fire detection and characterization algorithm. Simulated cases included MODIS derived projections as well as model derived simulations that span a variety of satellite zenith angles and ecosystems. The GOES-R ABI fire product development focuses on active fire detection and sub-pixel characterization, including fire radiative power (FRP) and instantaneous fire size and temperature. With the algorithm delivered to the system contractor, the focus has moved to developing innovative new validation techniques.

  14. Participation of children with ABI and the relationship with discharge functional status.

    PubMed

    Foo, Wendy Shuhua; Galvin, Jane; Olsen, Joy

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between children's functional status at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation and participation in home, school and community life following paediatric acquired brain injury (ABI). The Child and Adolescent Scale of Participation (CASP) was mailed to 60 families of school-aged children who had sustained an ABI. Functional status data was obtained from the hospital database. Twenty-eight families participated in the study. No statistically significant correlations between functional status at discharge and participation levels were found. The lack of correlation raised questions regarding the sensitivity of the PEDI and the CASP. Therapists should consider the implication that children who perform well in functional tasks on the PEDI at discharge may not necessarily participate at age-expected levels upon return home. Environmental and child factors that hinder or support participation, such as physical infrastructure and impairments resulting from paediatric ABI, need to be considered when planning services.

  15. UPSILoN: AUtomated Classification of Periodic Variable Stars using MachIne LearNing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dae-Won; Bailer-Jones, Coryn A. L.

    2015-12-01

    UPSILoN (AUtomated Classification of Periodic Variable Stars using MachIne LearNing) classifies periodic variable stars such as Delta Scuti stars, RR Lyraes, Cepheids, Type II Cepheids, eclipsing binaries, and long-period variables (i.e. superclasses), and their subclasses (e.g. RR Lyrae ab, c, d, and e types) using well-sampled light curves from any astronomical time-series surveys in optical bands regardless of their survey-specific characteristics such as color, magnitude, and sampling rate. UPSILoN consists of two parts, one which extracts variability features from a light curve, and another which classifies a light curve, and returns extracted features, a predicted class, and a class probability. In principle, UPSILoN can classify any light curves having arbitrary number of data points, but using light curves with more than ~80 data points provides the best classification quality.

  16. Seed Source Significantly Influences Growth Rates and Disease Resistance of Abies Lasiocarpa Grown for Ornamental Nursery Stock and Christmas Trees

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Trees from six corkbark fir (Abies lasiocarpa var. arizonica) and 10 subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa var. lasiocarpa) seed sources were grown at the University of Idaho (SREC) and three commercial nurseries in northern Idaho and northeastern Oregon. Post transplant mortality was highest during the f...

  17. Nutrients in foliage and wet deposition of nitrate, ammonium and sulfate in washing tree top in Abies religiosa forests

    Treesearch

    E.R Peña-Mendoza; A. Gómez-Guerrero; Mark Fenn; P. Hernández de la Rosa; D. Alvarado Rosales

    2016-01-01

    The nutritional content and tree top in the forests are evaluated of Abies religiosa, San Miguel Tlaixpan (SMT) and Rio Frio (RF), State of Mexico. The work had two parts. In the first, the nutritional content was evaluated in new foliage (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) in Abies religiosa trees, in periods of spring, summer and winter, in...

  18. Abi is required for modulation and stability but not localization or activation of the SCAR/WAVE complex.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Andrew J; Ura, Seiji; Thomason, Peter A; Kalna, Gabriela; Insall, Robert H

    2013-11-01

    The SCAR/WAVE complex drives actin-based protrusion, cell migration, and cell separation during cytokinesis. However, the contribution of the individual complex members to the activity of the whole remains a mystery. This is primarily because complex members depend on one another for stability, which limits the scope for experimental manipulation. Several studies suggest that Abi, a relatively small complex member, connects signaling to SCAR/WAVE complex localization and activation through its polyproline C-terminal tail. We generated a deletion series of the Dictyostelium discoideum Abi to investigate its exact role in regulation of the SCAR complex and identified a minimal fragment that would stabilize the complex. Surprisingly, loss of either the N terminus of Abi or the C-terminal polyproline tail conferred no detectable defect in complex recruitment to the leading edge or the formation of pseudopods. A fragment containing approximately 20% Abi--and none of the sites that couple to known signaling pathways--allowed the SCAR complex to function with normal localization and kinetics. However, expression of N-terminal Abi deletions exacerbated the cytokinesis defect of the Dictyostelium abi mutant, which was earlier shown to be caused by the inappropriate activation of SCAR. This demonstrates, unexpectedly, that Abi does not mediate the SCAR complex's ability to make pseudopods, beyond its role in complex stability. Instead, we propose that Abi has a modulatory role when the SCAR complex is activated through other mechanisms.

  19. Nuclear Microsatellite Primers for the Endangered Relict Fir, Abies pinsapo (Pinaceae) and Cross-Amplification in Related Mediterranean Species

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Robles, Jose M.; Balao, Francisco; García-Castaño, Juan L.; Terrab, Anass; Navarro-Sampedro, Laura; Talavera, Salvador

    2012-01-01

    Twelve nuclear microsatellite primers (nSSR) were developed for the endangered species Abies pinsapo Boiss. to enable the study of gene flow and genetic structure in the remaining distribution areas. Microsatellite primers were developed using next-generation sequencing (454) data from a single Abies pinsapo individual. Primers were applied to thirty individuals from the three extant localities. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to four. Cross-amplification was tested for other Abies species from the Mediterranean Basin, and most of the loci showed higher polymorphisms in the Mediterranean species than in A. pinsapo. These microsatellite markers provide tools for conservation genetic studies in Abies pinsapo as well other Abies species from the Mediterranean Basin. PMID:23203061

  20. Nuclear microsatellite primers for the endangered relict fir, Abies pinsapo (Pinaceae) and cross-amplification in related Mediterranean Species.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Robles, Jose M; Balao, Francisco; García-Castaño, Juan L; Terrab, Anass; Navarro-Sampedro, Laura; Talavera, Salvador

    2012-11-05

    Twelve nuclear microsatellite primers (nSSR) were developed for the endangered species Abies pinsapo Boiss. to enable the study of gene flow and genetic structure in the remaining distribution areas. Microsatellite primers were developed using next-generation sequencing (454) data from a single Abies pinsapo individual. Primers were applied to thirty individuals from the three extant localities. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to four. Cross-amplification was tested for other Abies species from the Mediterranean Basin, and most of the loci showed higher polymorphisms in the Mediterranean species than in A. pinsapo. These microsatellite markers provide tools for conservation genetic studies in Abies pinsapo as well other Abies species from the Mediterranean Basin.

  1. Involvement of genes encoding ABI1 protein phosphatases in the response of Brassica napus L. to drought stress.

    PubMed

    Babula-Skowrońska, Danuta; Ludwików, Agnieszka; Cieśla, Agata; Olejnik, Anna; Cegielska-Taras, Teresa; Bartkowiak-Broda, Iwona; Sadowski, Jan

    2015-07-01

    In this report we characterized the Arabidopsis ABI1 gene orthologue and Brassica napus gene paralogues encoding protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C, group A), which is known to be a negative regulator of the ABA signaling pathway. Six homologous B. napus sequences were identified and characterized as putative PP2C group A members. To gain insight into the conservation of ABI1 function in Brassicaceae, and understand better its regulatory effects in the drought stress response, we generated transgenic B. napus plants overexpressing A. thaliana ABI1. Transgenic plants subjected to drought showed a decrease in relative water content, photosynthetic pigments content and expression level of RAB18- and RD19A-drought-responsive marker genes relative to WT plants. We present the characterization of the drought response of B. napus with the participation of ABI1-like paralogues. The expression pattern of two evolutionarily distant paralogues, BnaA01.ABI1.a and BnaC07.ABI1.b in B. napus and their promoter activity in A. thaliana showed differences in the induction of the paralogues under dehydration stress. Comparative sequence analysis of both BnaABI1 promoters showed variation in positions of cis-acting elements that are especially important for ABA- and stress-inducible expression. Together, these data reveal that subfunctionalization following gene duplication may be important in the maintenance and functional divergence of the BnaABI1 paralogues. Our results provide a framework for a better understanding of (1) the role of ABI1 as a hub protein regulator of the drought response, and (2) the differential involvement of the duplicated BnaABI1 genes in the response of B. napus to dehydration-related stresses.

  2. Tree mortality patterns following prescribed fire for Pinus and Abies across the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, Philip J.; Nesmith, Jonathan C. B.; Keifer, MaryBeth; Brooks, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The reintroduction of fire to historically fire-prone forests has been repeatedly shown to reduce understory fuels and promote resistance to high severity fire. However, there is concern that prescribed fire may also have unintended consequences, such as high rates of mortality for large trees and fire-tolerant Pinus species. To test this possibility we evaluated mortality patterns for two common genera in the western US, Pinus and Abies, using observations from a national-scale prescribed fire effects monitoring program. Our results show that mortality rates of trees >50 DBH were similar for Pinus (4.6% yr-1) and Abies (4.0% yr-1) 5 years following prescribed fires across seven sites in the southwestern US. In contrast, mortality rates of trees >50 cm DBH differed between Pinus (5.7% yr-1) and Abies (9.0% yr-1). Models of post-fire mortality probabilities suggested statistically significant differences between the genera (after including differences in bark thickness), but accounting for these differences resulted in only small improvements in model classification. Our results do not suggest unusually high post-fire mortality for large trees or for Pinus relative to the other common co-occurring genus, Abies, following prescribed fire in the southwestern US.

  3. Abies religiosa habitat prediction in climatic change scenarios and implications for monarch butterfly conservation in Mexico

    Treesearch

    Cuauhtemoc Saenz-Romero; Gerald E. Rehfeldt; Pierre Duval; Roberto A. Lindig-Cisneros

    2012-01-01

    Abies religiosa (HBK) Schl. & Cham. (oyamel fir) is distributed in conifer-dominated mountain forests at high altitudes along the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. This fir is the preferred host for overwintering monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) migratory populations which habitually congregate within a few stands now located inside a Monarch Butterfly Biosphere...

  4. Structural characteristics of water-soluble polysaccharides from Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Shakhmatov, Evgeny G; Belyy, Vladimir A; Makarova, Elena N

    2017-11-01

    Arabinogalactan proteins and pectic polysaccharides were isolated from greenery of Picea abies by water extraction. Main elements of their structure were determined by ion-exchange chromatography, partial acid and enzymatic hydrolysis, and NMR spectroscopy. It was established that the backbone of pectin macromolecules of greenery of P. abies is represented by segments of partially methyl-esterified and acetylated 1,4-α-d-galactopyranosyluronan, and partially 2-O- and/or 3-O-acetylated RG-I with side chains consisting of highly-branched 1,5-α-l-arabinan segments. The carbohydrate part of AGP of greenery of P. abies consists of AG-II, the main chain of which is represented by 1,3-β-d-Galp and 1,3,6-β-d-Galp residues. The side chains of AG-II are formed of 1,6- and 1,3,6-β-d-Galp, 1,3- and 1,5-α-l-Araf, β-d-GlcpA and 1,4-β-d-GlcpA, T-α-l-Araf, T-α-l-Rhap and T-α-l-Fucp residues. The AGPs of P. abies are also characterized by the presence of an unusual 4-O-Me-α-l-Fucp monosaccharide, which, as far as we know, was not found in pectins or AGP earlier. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Genetic control of Silver fir isozymes (Abies alba Mill.) of the Ukrainian Carpathian Mountains].

    PubMed

    Korshikov, I I; Morozova, N N; Pirko, Ia V

    2003-01-01

    Genetic control of GOT, GDH, DIA, MDH, ME, SOD, FDH, ADH, ACP, LAP enzymes has been studied in the seed megagametophytes of Silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) from four natural populations of the Ukrainian Carpathian mountains. The distinct electrophoretic division has been obtained for the 21 loci products. The analysis of allele segregation in the heterozygous trees confirms monogenic inheritance of the revealed variants.

  6. Allozyme variation and possible phylogenetic implications in Abies cephalonica Loudon and some related eastern Mediterranean firs

    Treesearch

    B. Fady; M. T. Conkle

    1993-01-01

    A total of 22 loci were assayed in several populations of Abies cephalonica, A. borisii regis, A. bornmuelleriana and A. alba using horizontal starch gel electrophoresis. Within and between-population diversity were analyzed as well as between-species diversity. Mean expected heterozygosity was...

  7. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers in Fraser fir (Abies fraseri)

    Treesearch

    S.A. Josserand; K.M. Potter; G. Johnson; J.A. Bowen; J. Frampton; C.D. Nelson

    2006-01-01

    We describe the isolation and characterization of 14 microsatellite loci from Fraser fir (Abies fraseri). These markers originated from cloned inserts enriched for DNA sequences containing tandem di- and tri-nucleotide repeats. In total, 36 clones were selected, sequenced and evaluated. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for 14 of these...

  8. Abies concolor growth responses to vegetation changes following shrub removal, northern Sierra Nevada, California

    Treesearch

    Susan G. Conard; Steven R. Sparks

    1993-01-01

    Conifer productivity in western North America is often severely inhibited by competing vegetation. Abies concolor [Gord. and Glendl.] Lindl. (white fir) is an important species over much of this area, yet little information is available on response of A. concolor to vegetation management treatments. We revisited two sites in the...

  9. Post-fire epicormic branching in Sierra Nevada Abies concolor (white fir)

    Treesearch

    Chad T. Hanson; Malcolm P. North

    2006-01-01

    In California's mixed-conifer forest, which historically had a regime of frequent fires, two conifers, Sequoiadendron giganteum and Pseudotsuga menziesii, were previously known to produce epicormic sprouts from branches. We found epicormic branching in a third mixed-conifer species, Abies concolor, 3 and 4...

  10. Heart-rot hazard is low in Abies amabilis reproduction injured by logging.

    Treesearch

    Paul E. Aho

    1960-01-01

    Clear-cut units in upper-slope forest types in western Washington and Oregon often have an understory of Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis) at time of logging. Foresters sometimes hesitate to preserve this advance regeneration, partly because of the possibility that heart rots infecting through logging wounds might considerably reduce the...

  11. [Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the genus Abies (Pinaceae) based on the nucleotide sequence of chloroplast DNA].

    PubMed

    Semerikova, S A; Semerikov, V L

    2014-01-01

    A phylogenetic study of firs (Abies Mill.) was conducted using nucleotide sequences of several chloroplast DNA regions with a total length of 5580 bp. The analysis included 37 taxa, which represented the main evolutionary lineages of the genus, and Keteleeria daviana. According to phylogenetic reconstruction the Abies species were subdivided into six main groups, generally corresponding to their geographic distribution. The phylogenetic tree had three basal clades. All of these clades contained American species, and only one of them contained Eurasian species. The divergence time calibrations, based on paleobotanical data and the chloroplast DNA mutation rate estimates in Pinaceae, produced similar results..The age of diversification among the clades of the present-day Abies was estimated as the end of the Oligocene-beginning of Miocene. The age of the separation of Mediterranean firs from the Asian-North American branch corresponds to the Miocene. The age of diversification within the young groups of Mediterranean, Asian, and boreal American firs (A. lasiocarpa, A. balsamea, A. fraseri) was estimated as the Pliocene-Pleistocene. Based on the phylogenetic reconstruction obtained, the most plausible biogeographic scenarios were suggested. It is noted that the existing systematic classification of the genus Abies strongly contradicts with phylogenetic reconstruction and requires revision.

  12. Isolation and characterization of novel microsatellites for Abies koreana and A. nephrolepis (Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Hong, J K; Lim, J; Lee, B Y; Kwak, M

    2016-04-28

    Abies koreana is an endemic and rare species from Korea and is classified as endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Although the genetic diversity assessment for current population of A. koreana needs to be performed urgently, no microsatellite markers have been developed for this species. In the present study, we developed 22 novel polymorphic microsatellite loci and the characteristics of these loci were determined in A. koreana as well as in Abies nephrolepis, the most closely related species, and these loci were compared with previously reported microsatellite markers developed for the Abies genus. Genomic sequence (161 Mbp; 325,776 reads) was obtained from one individual of A. koreana using Roche 454 GS-FLX Titanium sequencing and 19,258 repeat motifs were identified from it. A total of 288 primer pairs with high copy numbers of di-repeat motifs were evaluated for amplification in A. koreana and A. nephrolepis. A total of 71 primer pairs successfully amplified fragments, of which 22 showed polymorphisms in A. koreana and A. nephrolepis. The average expected diversity was 0.767 and 0.717 in A. koreana and A. nephrolepis, respectively; these heterozygosity levels were moderate compared to the previously reported microsatellite loci from Abies species. This is the first set of microsatellite markers developed for A. koreana as well as A. nephrolepis and further population genetic studies of both species and genetic delimitation can be carried out for the species conservation and management.

  13. Photosynthetic characteristics of Fagus sylvatica and Quercus robur established for stand conversion from Picea abies

    Treesearch

    E.S. Gardiner; J.J. O’Brien; M. Löf; J.A. Stanturf; P. Madsen

    2009-01-01

    Efforts in Europe to convertNorway spruce (Picea abies) plantations to broadleaf ormixed broadleaf-conifer forests could be bolstered by an increased understanding of how artificial regeneration acclimates and functions under a range of Norway spruce stand conditions. We studied foliage characteristics and leaflevel photosynthesis on 7-year-old European beech (Fagus...

  14. Polyamines in embryogenic cultures of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and red spruce (Picea rubens)

    Treesearch

    Rakesh Minocha; Haarald Kvaalen; Subhash C. Minocha; Stephanie Long

    1993-01-01

    Embryogenic cultures of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) were initiated from dissected mature zygotic embryos. The tissues were grown on either proliferation medium or maturation medium. On proliferation medium, the embryogenic tissue continued to produce early stage somatic embryos (...

  15. Secondary resin production increases with vigor of Abies grandis inoculated with Trichosporium symbioticum in northeastern Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Gregory M. Filip; Erik Christiansen; Catherine A. Parks

    1989-01-01

    Thirty grand fir (Abies grandis (Dougl. ex D. Don) Lindl.) trees were artificially inoculated with the fungal symbiont, Trichosporium symbioticum Wright, to simulate attack by the fir engraver beetle, Scolytus ventralis LeConte. Fifteen months after treatment, secondary resin production, necrotic lesion...

  16. Genetic variation and population structure in fraser fir (Abies fraseri): a microsatellite assessment of young trees

    Treesearch

    Kevin M. Potter; John Framton; Sedley A. Josserand; C. Dana Nelson

    2008-01-01

    The island-like populations of Fraser fir (Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.) have been isolated since the end of the late-Wisconsinian glaciation on the highest peaks of the Southern Appalachian Mountains and therefore offer an opportunity to investigate the genetic dynamics of a long-fragmented forest tree species. An analysis of eight microsatellite...

  17. Genetic variation and population structure in Fraser fir (Abies fraseri): a microsatellite assessment of young trees

    Treesearch

    Kevin M. Potter; John Frampton; Sedley A. Josserand; Dana C. Nelson

    2008-01-01

    The island-like populations of Fraser fir (Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.) have been isolated since the end of the late-Wisconsinian glaciation on the highest peaks of the Southern Appalachian Mountains and therefore offer an opportunity to investigate the genetic dynamics of a long-fragmented forest tree species. An analysis of eight microsatellite...

  18. Development and Implementation of a Hierarchical Classification System for the ABI/INFORM Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, David K.

    A new search feature has been developed and implemented to enhance online information retrieval from the ABI/INFORM database, which includes abstracts from more than 500 journals covering all aspects of business and management. Published by Data Courier Inc., it includes material dating back to 1971. Because of the diverse nature of the database…

  19. Photosynthetic characteristics of fagus sylvatica and quercus robur established for stand conversion from picea abies

    Treesearch

    Emile S. Gardiner; Magnus Lof; Joseph J. O' brien; John A. Stanturf; Palle. Madsen

    2009-01-01

    Efforts inEurope to convertNorway spruce (Picea abies) plantations to broadleaf ormixed broadleaf-conifer forests could be bolstered by an increased understanding of how artificial regeneration acclimates and functions under a range of Norway spruce stand conditions. We studied foliage characteristics and leaflevel photosynthesis on 7-year-old European beech (Fagus...

  20. Development and Implementation of a Hierarchical Classification System for the ABI/INFORM Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, David K.

    A new search feature has been developed and implemented to enhance online information retrieval from the ABI/INFORM database, which includes abstracts from more than 500 journals covering all aspects of business and management. Published by Data Courier Inc., it includes material dating back to 1971. Because of the diverse nature of the database…

  1. Breeding for resistance to adelgids in Abies fraseri, Tsuga canadensis, and T. caroliniana

    Treesearch

    Ben Smith; Fred Hain; John Frampton

    2012-01-01

    The balsam woolly adelgid (BWA; Adelges piceae) and hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA; Adelges tsugae) have had a tremendous impact on native ecosystems with Fraser fir (Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir), eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière), and Carolina hemlock (T....

  2. Auto-Indexing of the 1971-77 ABI/INFORM Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trubkin, Loene

    1979-01-01

    Describes the automatic indexing project undertaken in 1978 to convert by means of a "bridge vocabulary" the terms in the ABI/INFORM database to index terms of a controlled vocabulary. Components of the bridge vocabulary are explained, and examples demonstrating the process of conversion are provided. (JD)

  3. Dysbindin-1, WAVE2 and Abi-1 form a complex that regulates dendritic spine formation.

    PubMed

    Ito, H; Morishita, R; Shinoda, T; Iwamoto, I; Sudo, K; Okamoto, K; Nagata, K

    2010-10-01

    Genetic variations in dysbindin-1 (dystrobrevin-binding protein-1) are one of the most commonly reported variations associated with schizophrenia. As schizophrenia could be regarded as a neurodevelopmental disorder resulting from abnormalities of synaptic connectivity, we attempted to clarify the function of dysbindin-1 in neuronal development. We examined the developmental change of dysbindin-1 in rat brain by western blotting and found that a 50 kDa isoform is highly expressed during the embryonic stage, whereas a 40 kDa one is detected at postnatal day 11 and increased thereafter. Immunofluorescent analyses revealed that dysbindin-1 is enriched at the spine-like structure of primary cultured rat hippocampal neurons. We identified WAVE2, but not N-WASP, as a binding partner for dysbindin-1. We also found that Abi-1, a binding molecule for WAVE2 involved in spine morphogenesis, interacts with dysbindin-1. Although dysbindin-1, WAVE2 and Abi-1 form a ternary complex, dysbindin-1 promoted the binding of WAVE2 to Abi-1. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of dysbindin-1 led to the generation of abnormally elongated immature dendritic protrusions. The present results indicate possible functions of dysbindin-1 at the postsynapse in the regulation of dendritic spine morphogenesis through the interaction with WAVE2 and Abi-1.

  4. The Classical Classroom: Enhancing Learning for Pupils with Acquired Brain Injury (ABI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Sian A.; Skidmore, David

    2008-01-01

    This paper seeks to draw parallels between different approaches to classroom instruction and two contrasting musical styles and to examine how pupils with Acquired Brain Injuries (ABI) might fare in each. A polyphonic classroom is defined as one where an awareness of multiple layers of meaning are encouraged to enhance the learning opportunities,…

  5. Preliminary results on the genetic structure of Heterobasidion annosum white fir (Abies concolor) root decay centers

    Treesearch

    M. Garbelotto; F. Cobb; T. Bruns; W. Otrosina; Garey Slaughter; T. Popenuck

    1994-01-01

    It is known that Heterobasidion annosum is a complex species comprised of at least three biological species, more precisely defined as intersterility groups (ISGs). The S ISG is widely diffused in North America, Europe, and probably Asia. Although with regional variations, S ISG isolates are commonly found associated with Picea spp., Abies spp., Tsuga spp.,...

  6. Long-term Results of ABI in Children With Severe Inner Ear Malformations.

    PubMed

    Sennaroğlu, Levent; Sennaroğlu, Gonca; Yücel, Esra; Bilginer, Burçak; Atay, Gamze; Bajin, M Demir; Mocan, Burçe Özgen; Yaral, Mehmet; Aslan, Filiz; Çnar, Betül Çiçek; Özkan, Burcu; Batuk, Merve Özbal; Kirazl, Çiğdem Ekin; Karakaya, Jale; Ataş, Ahmet; Saraç, Sarp; Ziyal, İbrahim

    2016-08-01

    To report the long-term outcomes of children who received auditory brainstem implant (ABI) because of severe inner ear malformations. Retrospective chart review. Tertiary referral otolaryngology clinic. Between July 2006 and October 2014, 60 children received ABI at Hacettepe University. Preoperative work up included otolaryngologic examination, audiological assessment, radiological evaluation together with assessment of language development and psychological status. The surgeries were performed via retrosigmoid approach with a pediatric neurosurgeon. Intraoperatively, electrical auditory brainstem response was utilized. Initial stimulation was done 4 to 5 weeks postoperatively. Outcomes were evaluated with Categories of Auditory Performance (CAP), speech intelligibility rate (SIR), functional auditory performance of cochlear implant (FAPCI) and Manchester Spoken Language Development Scale scores; receptive and expressive language ages were determined. Sixty children who received ABI were between ages of 12 and 64 months. Thirty-five patients with follow up period of at least 1 year, were reported in means of long-term audiological and language results. The most prevelant inner ear malformation was cochlear hypoplasia (n = 19). No major complication was encountered. Majority of the patients were in CAP 5 category, which implies that they can understand common phrases without lip reading. SIR was found out to be better with improving hearing thresholds. Children with ABI were performing worse than average cochlear implantation (CI) users when FAPCI scores were compared. Patients with the best hearing thresholds have expressive vocabulary of 50 to 200 words when evaluated with Manchester Spoken Language Development Scale. There was no relationship between the number of active electrodes and hearing thresholds. The type of inner ear anomaly with the best and the worst hearing thresholds were common cavity and cochlear aperture aplasia, respectively. Patients with

  7. Clinical comparison of two different types of bifurcated graft for postoperative baPWV and ABI.

    PubMed

    Iwahashi, T; Obitsu, Y; Koizumi, N; Shiraishi, Y; Shigematsu, H

    2009-06-01

    A newly-designed bifurcated graft with the distal end larger than the conventional type has been developed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the early results of graft replacement using this new graft, and to compare whether the new graft is more advantageous than the conventional graft in terms of peripheral blood flow and arterial stiffness. Records of 36 patients who underwent bifurcated graft replacement for infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), from May 2003 to September 2006 were reviewed after excluding peripheral arterial disease (ABI > 0.9). Subjects were divided into two groups: group C (N.=20), with implantation of the conventional type and group N (N.=16), with implantation of the new type. We investigated changes in brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI), measurements being performed preoperatively and postoperatively. baPWV in the postoperative group as a whole was significantly higher than in the preoperative group (P<0.05), while ABI in the postoperative group was lower than in the preoperative group (P<0.05). In group C, baPWV increased (P<0.05) and ABI decreased (P<0.05) after bifurcated graft replacement, whereas in group N, there were no significant differences in changes of baPWV and ABI. This study shows that the new graft reduces the development of arterial stiffness postoperatively compared with the conventional type. These results may predict the new type graft decrease in the risk of morbidity and mortality caused by atherosclerotic disease.

  8. Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin decoction suppresses osteoclastogenesis via increasing dehydroepiandrosterone to prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Gui, Yuyan; Qiu, Xuemin; Xu, Yingping; Li, Dajin; Wang, Ling

    2015-06-01

    Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin decoction (BSNXD), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been used to prevent and treat age-related diseases such as postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) for decades. This study sought to investigate the underlying mechanisms of BSNXD in terms of receptor activation of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro because of the critical roles of bone resorption in the development and progression of osteoporosis. In mice, serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and 17-β-estradiol (E2) were evaluated with an enzyme immunoassay kit after ovariectomy. Levels of DHEA and DHEAS increased significantly following administration of BSNXD while the level of E2 did not. In addition, tartrate-resistance acid phosphatase staining showed that DHEA profoundly inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro in a dose-dependent manner via estrogen receptor α (ERα) but not via estrogen receptor β or androgen receptors. Cytotoxicity was not detected in the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. These data suggest that BSNXD prevents PMO by increasing DHEA via the ERαpathway to suppress osteoclastogenesis.

  9. MIG-10 functions with ABI-1 to mediate the UNC-6 and SLT-1 axon guidance signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Quinn, Christopher C

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular guidance cues steer axons towards their targets by eliciting morphological changes in the growth cone. A key part of this process is the asymmetric recruitment of the cytoplasmic scaffolding protein MIG-10 (lamellipodin). MIG-10 is thought to asymmetrically promote outgrowth by inducing actin polymerization. However, the mechanism that links MIG-10 to actin polymerization is not known. We have identified the actin regulatory protein ABI-1 as a partner for MIG-10 that can mediate its outgrowth-promoting activity. The SH3 domain of ABI-1 binds to MIG-10, and loss of function of either of these proteins causes similar axon guidance defects. Like MIG-10, ABI-1 functions in both the attractive UNC-6 (netrin) pathway and the repulsive SLT-1 (slit) pathway. Dosage sensitive genetic interactions indicate that MIG-10 functions with ABI-1 and WVE-1 to mediate axon guidance. Epistasis analysis reveals that ABI-1 and WVE-1 function downstream of MIG-10 to mediate its outgrowth-promoting activity. Moreover, experiments with cultured mammalian cells suggest that the interaction between MIG-10 and ABI-1 mediates a conserved mechanism that promotes formation of lamellipodia. Together, these observations suggest that MIG-10 interacts with ABI-1 and WVE-1 to mediate the UNC-6 and SLT-1 guidance pathways.

  10. MIG-10 Functions with ABI-1 to Mediate the UNC-6 and SLT-1 Axon Guidance Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan; Quinn, Christopher C.

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular guidance cues steer axons towards their targets by eliciting morphological changes in the growth cone. A key part of this process is the asymmetric recruitment of the cytoplasmic scaffolding protein MIG-10 (lamellipodin). MIG-10 is thought to asymmetrically promote outgrowth by inducing actin polymerization. However, the mechanism that links MIG-10 to actin polymerization is not known. We have identified the actin regulatory protein ABI-1 as a partner for MIG-10 that can mediate its outgrowth-promoting activity. The SH3 domain of ABI-1 binds to MIG-10, and loss of function of either of these proteins causes similar axon guidance defects. Like MIG-10, ABI-1 functions in both the attractive UNC-6 (netrin) pathway and the repulsive SLT-1 (slit) pathway. Dosage sensitive genetic interactions indicate that MIG-10 functions with ABI-1 and WVE-1 to mediate axon guidance. Epistasis analysis reveals that ABI-1 and WVE-1 function downstream of MIG-10 to mediate its outgrowth-promoting activity. Moreover, experiments with cultured mammalian cells suggest that the interaction between MIG-10 and ABI-1 mediates a conserved mechanism that promotes formation of lamellipodia. Together, these observations suggest that MIG-10 interacts with ABI-1 and WVE-1 to mediate the UNC-6 and SLT-1 guidance pathways. PMID:23209429

  11. A new interaction between Abi-1 and betaPIX involved in PDGF-activated actin cytoskeleton reorganisation.

    PubMed

    Campa, Fanny; Machuy, Nikolaus; Klein, Alexander; Rudel, Thomas

    2006-09-01

    Members of the Rho family of GTPases are key regulators of the actin cytoskeleton. In particular, activated Rac1 stimulates membrane dorsal ruffle formation in response to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). Abl-interactor (Abi)-1 and betaPIX, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rac1, localise at these Rac1-induced actin structures and play important roles in the induction of membrane dorsal ruffling in response to PDGF in fibroblasts. Here, we demonstrate a novel interaction between Abi-1 and betaPIX using the yeast two-hybrid system, in vitro pull-down assays, and in vivo co-immunoprecipitation experiments. In vitro, the C-terminal fragment of betaPIX interacted with Abi-1, while in vivo the N-terminal fragment of betaPIX interacted with Abi-1. The biological function of this interaction was investigated in mouse fibroblasts in response to PDGF stimulation. Abi-1 and betaPIX co-localised in the cytoplasm and to membrane dorsal ruffles after PDGF treatment. We show that the co-expression of Abi-1 and truncated forms of betaPIX in mouse fibroblasts blocked PDGF-induced membrane dorsal ruffles. Together, these results show that the interaction between Abi-1 and betaPIX is involved in the formation of growth factor-induced membrane dorsal ruffles.

  12. Degradation of Abies veitchii wave-regeneration on Mt. Misen in Ohmine Mountains: effects of sika deer population.

    PubMed

    Tsujino, Riyou; Matsui, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Kohdai; Koda, Ryosuke; Yumoto, Takakazu; Takada, Ken-Ichi

    2013-09-01

    How has the degradation of Abies veitchii wave-regeneration occurred under the sika deer (Cervus nippon) pressure? We conducted tree census and ground vegetation survey in a 1 ha plot in Mt. Misen (Nara prefecture, Japan). We found 15 tree species (over 50 cm in height). Abies accounted for 60.0 % of all living trees, and 46.9 % of Abies were damaged (herbivory, bark stripping and/or fraying) by deer. Spatial distribution of Abies trees showed Abies-wave, although there were few saplings in the dieback zone. Estimated deer population density in 2009 was 57.3 head/km(2). Number of living Abies and standing dead conifer trees, and ground vegetation cover for each quadrat (5 × 5 m) were used to assign the quadrats into 6 clusters. The hierarchical clustering-approach revealed that living Abies distributed mainly on the moss and/or Carex fernaldiana dominated quadrats, but did not on the Dennstaedtia scabra, or Brachypodium sylvaticum dominated quadrats. While standing dead conifer trees distributed mainly on the Carex dominated quadrats, they hardly occur on the moss, the Dennstaedtia or the Brachypodium dominated quadrats. Regeneration of Abies tree and thus the wave-regeneration is hindered for now owing to deer herbivory and bark-stripping. The ground vegetation under the dieback zone has changed from the moss and/or the Carex dominated one to the Carex, the Dennstaedtia or the Brachypodium covered vegetation with the canopy remained open and without Abies regeneration.

  13. ABI4 Regulates Primary Seed Dormancy by Regulating the Biogenesis of Abscisic Acid and Gibberellins in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Kai; Zhang, Huawei; Wang, Shengfu; Chen, Mingluan; Wu, Yaorong; Tang, Sanyuan; Liu, Chunyan; Feng, Yuqi; Cao, Xiaofeng; Xie, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Seed dormancy is an important economic trait for agricultural production. Abscisic acid (ABA) and Gibberellins (GA) are the primary factors that regulate the transition from dormancy to germination, and they regulate this process antagonistically. The detailed regulatory mechanism involving crosstalk between ABA and GA, which underlies seed dormancy, requires further elucidation. Here, we report that ABI4 positively regulates primary seed dormancy, while negatively regulating cotyledon greening, by mediating the biogenesis of ABA and GA. Seeds of the Arabidopsis abi4 mutant that were subjected to short-term storage (one or two weeks) germinated significantly more quickly than Wild-Type (WT), and abi4 cotyledons greened markedly more quickly than WT, while the rates of germination and greening were comparable when the seeds were subjected to longer-term storage (six months). The ABA content of dry abi4 seeds was remarkably lower than that of WT, but the amounts were comparable after stratification. Consistently, the GA level of abi4 seeds was increased compared to WT. Further analysis showed that abi4 was resistant to treatment with paclobutrazol (PAC), a GA biosynthesis inhibitor, during germination, while OE-ABI4 was sensitive to PAC, and exogenous GA rescued the delayed germination phenotype of OE-ABI4. Analysis by qRT-PCR showed that the expression of genes involved in ABA and GA metabolism in dry and germinating seeds corresponded to hormonal measurements. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation qPCR (ChIP-qPCR) and transient expression analysis showed that ABI4 repressed CYP707A1 and CYP707A2 expression by directly binding to those promoters, and the ABI4 binding elements are essential for this repression. Accordingly, further genetic analysis showed that abi4 recovered the delayed germination phenotype of cyp707a1 and cyp707a2 and further, rescued the non-germinating phenotype of ga1-t. Taken together, this study suggests that ABI4 is a key factor that

  14. The involvement of Abl and PTP61F in the regulation of Abi protein localization and stability and lamella formation in Drosophila S2 cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chiu-Hui; Lin, Tzu-Yang; Pan, Rong-Long; Juang, Jyh-Lyh

    2007-11-02

    Most aspects of cellular events are regulated by a series of protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation processes. Abi (Abl interactor protein) functions as a substrate adaptor protein for Abl and a core member of the WAVE complex, relaying signals from Rac to Arp2/3 complex and regulating actin dynamics. It is known that the recruitment of Abi into the lamella promotes polymerization of actin, although how it does this is unclear. In this study, we found PTP61F, a Drosophila homolog of mammalian PTP1B, can reverse the Abl phosphorylation of Abi and colocalizes with Abi in Drosophila S2 cells. Abi can be translocalized from the cytosol to the cell membrane by either increasing Abl or reducing endogenous PTP61F. This reciprocal regulation of Abi phosphorylation is also involved in modulating Abi protein level, which is thought to affect the stability of the WAVE complex. Using mass spectrometry, we identified several important tyrosine phosphorylation sites in Abi. We compared the translocalization and protein half-life of wild type (wt) and phosphomutant Abi and their abilities to restore the lamellipodia structure of the Abi-reduced cells. We found the phosphomutant to have reduced ability to translocalize and to have a protein half-life shorter than that of wt Abi. We also found that although the wt Abi could fully restore the lamellipodia structure, the phosphomutant could not. Together, these findings suggest that the reciprocal regulation of Abi phosphorylation by Abl and PTP61F may regulate the localization and stability of Abi and may regulate the formation of lamella.

  15. Light acclimation of photosynthesis in two closely related firs (Abies pinsapo Boiss. and Abies alba Mill.): the role of leaf anatomy and mesophyll conductance to CO2

    PubMed Central

    Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Flexas, Jaume; Galmés, Jeroni; Niinemets, Ülo; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2016-01-01

    Leaves growing in the forest understory usually present a decreased mesophyll conductance (gm) and photosynthetic capacity. The role of leaf anatomy in determining the variability in gm among species is known, but there is a lack of information on how the acclimation of gm to shade conditions is driven by changes in leaf anatomy. Within this context, we demonstrated that Abies pinsapo Boiss. experienced profound modifications in needle anatomy to drastic changes in light availability that ultimately led to differential photosynthetic performance between trees grown in the open field and in the forest understory. In contrast to A. pinsapo, its congeneric Abies alba Mill. did not show differences either in needle anatomy or in photosynthetic parameters between trees grown in the open field and in the forest understory. The increased gm values found in trees of A. pinsapo grown in the open field can be explained by occurrence of stomata at both needle sides (amphistomatous needles), increased chloroplast surface area exposed to intercellular airspace, decreased cell wall thickness and, especially, decreased chloroplast thickness. To the best of our knowledge, the role of such drastic changes in ultrastructural needle anatomy in explaining the response of gm to the light environment has not been demonstrated in field conditions. PMID:26543153

  16. Metabolite changes in conifer buds and needles during forced bud break in Norway spruce (Picea abies) and European silver fir (Abies alba)

    PubMed Central

    Dhuli, Priyanka; Rohloff, Jens; Strimbeck, G. Richard

    2014-01-01

    Environmental changes such as early spring and warm spells induce bud burst and photosynthetic processes in cold-acclimated coniferous trees and consequently, cellular metabolism in overwintering needles and buds. The purpose of the study was to examine metabolism in conifers under forced deacclimation (artificially induced spring) by exposing shoots of Picea abies (boreal species) and Abies alba (temperate species) to a greenhouse environment (22°C, 16/8 h D/N cycle) over a 9 weeks period. Each week, we scored bud opening and collected samples for GC/MS–based metabolite profiling. We detected a total of 169 assigned metabolites and 80 identified metabolites, comprising compounds such as mono- and disaccharides, Krebs cycle acids, amino acids, polyols, phenolics, and phosphorylated structures. Untargeted multivariate statistical analysis based on PCA and cluster analysis segregated samples by species, tissue type, and stage of tissue deacclimations. Similar patterns of metabolic regulation in both species were observed in buds (amino acids, Krebs cycle acids) and needles (hexoses, pentoses, and Krebs cycle acids). Based on correlation of bud opening score with compound levels, distinct metabolites could be associated with bud and shoot development, including amino acids, sugars, and acids with known osmolyte function, and secondary metabolites. This study has shed light on how elevated temperature affects metabolism in buds and needles of conifer species during the deacclimation phase, and contributes to the discussion about how phenological characters in conifers may respond to future global warming. PMID:25566281

  17. Spin-orbit coupling enhanced superconductivity in Bi-rich compounds ABi3 (A = Sr and Ba)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, D. F.; Luo, X.; Lu, W. J.; Hu, L.; Zhu, X. D.; Song, W. H.; Zhu, X. B.; Sun, Y. P.

    2016-02-01

    Recently, Bi-based compounds have attracted attentions because of the strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC). In this work, we figured out the role of SOC in ABi3 (A = Sr and Ba) by theoretical investigation of the band structures, phonon properties, and electron-phonon coupling. Without SOC, strong Fermi surface nesting leads to phonon instabilities in ABi3. SOC suppresses the nesting and stabilizes the structure. Moreover, without SOC the calculation largely underestimates the superconducting transition temperatures (Tc), while with SOC the calculated Tc are very close to those determined by measurements on single crystal samples. The SOC enhanced superconductivity in ABi3 is due to not only the SOC induced phonon softening, but also the SOC related increase of electron-phonon coupling matrix elements. ABi3 can be potential platforms to construct heterostructure of superconductor/topological insulator to realize topological superconductivity.

  18. [Genetic control of isozymes in European spruces (Picea abies (L) Karst) of the Ukrainian Carpathian mountains].

    PubMed

    Privalikhin, S N; Korshikov, I I; Pirko, N N; Velikorid'ko, T I; Pirko, Ia V

    2006-01-01

    Genetical control of the enzymes GOT, GDH, DIA, MDH, SOD, FDH, ADH, ACP and LAP has been studied in nine natural Carpathian populations of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) using polyacrylamide gel elecrophoresis and analysis of isozyme variability in 346 trees. Seventy one allel products of 20 gene loci have been clearly established. Segregation analysis of the revealed allele variants confirms their monogenic inheritance.

  19. Analysis of the Phialocephala subalpina Transcriptome during Colonization of Its Host Plant Picea abies

    PubMed Central

    Reininger, Vanessa; Schlegel, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Background Phialocephala subalpina belongs to the Phialocephala fortinii s.l.–Acepphala applanata species complex (PAC) forming one of the major groups belonging to the dark septate endophytes (DSE). Depending on the strain, PAC was shown to form neutral to pathogenic associations with its host plant Picea abies. To understand PACs lifestyle we investigated the effect of presence/absence of Picea abies on the transcriptome of strain 6_70_1. Materials and Methods PAC strain 6_70_1 was grown in liquid Pachlewski media either induced by its host plant Picea abies or without host plant as a control. Mycelia were harvested in a time course (1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 11, 18 days) with and without induction by the host plant and the fungal transcriptome revealed by Illumina sequencing. Differential gene expression analysis over the time course comparing control and treatment at each time point using the ‘edgeR glm approach’ and a gene enrichment analysis using GO categories were performed. Results The three main functional groups within differentially expressed genes were ‘metabolism’, ‘transport’ and ‘cell rescue, defense and virulence’. Additionally, genes especially involved in iron metabolism could be detected by gene set enrichment analysis. Conclusion In conclusion, we found PAC strain 6_70_1 to be metabolically very active during colonization of its host plant Picea abies. A major shift in functional groups over the time course of this experiment could not be observed but GO categories which were found to be enriched showed different emphasis depending in the day post induction. PMID:26954682

  20. Final Scientific/Technical report for "ABI8: Prototype of a novel signaling factor"

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelstein, Ruth R.

    2013-02-21

    The Arabidopsis thaliana ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE8 locus encodes a highly conserved plant-specific protein that mediates abscisic acid (ABA) and sugar responses essential for growth. Although initial database comparisons revealed no domains of predictable function, it has recently been re-annotated as a member of the Glycosyltransferase family A. However, this function has not been demonstrated experimentally and no specific substrates have been identified. Mutations affecting ABI8 are near-lethal due to pleiotropic yet specific effects including altered ABA signaling, sugar transport, cell wall synthesis, root meristem maintenance, vascular patterning, and male sterility. Because the predicted sequence initially provided no clues, we used a guilt by association strategy to address function of this protein by determining its subcellular localization and identifying interacting proteins. Our studies showed that ABI8 is localized to the endomembrane system and may interact with proteins implicated in Golgi trafficking, lignification, and stress signaling. We found that the root meristem arrest reflects decreased auxin accumulation and resulting decreases in regulators required for meristem identity, all of which can be rescued by added glucose. Further studies showed that this glucose-dependence reflects reduced glucose uptake as well as the decreased expression of sugar-mobilizing enzymes. This work suggests that ABI8 may regulate trafficking of membrane proteins such as auxin transporters and cellulose synthase, but this hypothesis has not yet been tested. The altered gene expression is likely to be a secondary or later effect of this pleiotropic mutation.

  1. OsTCP19 influences developmental and abiotic stress signaling by modulating ABI4-mediated pathways

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Pradipto; Tyagi, Akhilesh Kumar; Tyagi, Akhilesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Class-I TCP transcription factors are plant-specific developmental regulators. In this study, the role of one such rice gene, OsTCP19, in water-deficit and salt stress response was explored. Besides a general upregulation by abiotic stresses, this transcript was more abundant in tolerant than sensitive rice genotypes during early hours of stress. Stress, tissue and genotype-dependent retention of a small in-frame intron in this transcript was also observed. Overexpression of OsTCP19 in Arabidopsis caused upregulation of IAA3, ABI3 and ABI4 and downregulation of LOX2, and led to developmental abnormalities like fewer lateral root formation. Moreover, decrease in water loss and reactive oxygen species, and hyperaccumulation of lipid droplets in the transgenics contributed to better stress tolerance both during seedling establishment and in mature plants. OsTCP19 was also shown to directly regulate a rice triacylglycerol biosynthesis gene in transient assays. Genes similar to those up- or downregulated in the transgenics were accordingly found to coexpress positively and negatively with OsTCP19 in Rice Oligonucleotide Array Database. Interactions of OsTCP19 with OsABI4 and OsULT1 further suggest its function in modulation of abscisic acid pathways and chromatin structure. Thus, OsTCP19 appears to be an important node in cell signaling which crosslinks stress and developmental pathways. PMID:25925167

  2. From health care to home community: an Aboriginal community-based ABI transition strategy.

    PubMed

    Keightley, Michelle; Kendall, Victoria; Jang, Shu-Hyun; Parker, Cindy; Agnihotri, Sabrina; Colantonio, Angela; Minore, Bruce; Katt, Mae; Cameron, Anita; White, Randy; Longboat-White, Claudine; Bellavance, Alice

    2011-01-01

    To explore the barriers and enablers surrounding the transition from health care to home community settings for Aboriginal clients recovering from acquired brain injuries (ABI) in northwestern Ontario. Participatory research design using qualitative methods. Focus groups conducted with clients with ABI, their caregivers and hospital and community health-care workers. The Framework Method of analysis was used to uncover emerging themes. Six main categories emerged: ABI diagnosis accuracy, acute service delivery and hospital care, transition from hospital to homecare services, transition from hospital to community services, participant suggestions to improve service delivery and transition, and views on traditional healing methods during recovery. A lack of awareness, education and resources were acknowledged as key challenges to successful transitioning by clients and healthcare providers. Geographical isolation of the communities was highlighted as a barrier to accessibility of services and programmes, but the community was also regarded as an important source of social support. The development of educational and screening tools and needs assessments of remote communities were identified to be strategies that may improve transitions. Findings demonstrate that the structure of rehabilitation and discharge processes for Aboriginal clients living on reserves or in remote communities are of great concern and warrants further research.

  3. Family involvement in behaviour management following acquired brain injury (ABI) in community settings: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Alinka; Lennon, Sheila; Bellon, Michelle; Lawn, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    To examine family involvement in the management of behavioural problems following ABI in the community. Systematic literature review. Six electronic databases relevant to the field of brain injury were searched between 1980-2013. Citation indexes were used and references from articles hand searched for further literature. Studies that met the broad inclusion criteria were screened for relevance and articles selected for full-text review independently considered by two reviewers. Those found to be relevant were analysed using PEDro and McMasters critical appraisal tools. Three hundred and three studies were identified after duplicates were removed and 56 were assessed for relevance, yielding 10 studies for review. Although the majority of studies were weak in design, five revealed significant findings supportive of family involvement in the management of behavioural problems following ABI, especially where interventions consisted of both educational components and individualized behavioural plans. Findings revealed no significant changes in family burden following behavioural interventions. There is limited research and lack of high evidence studies evaluating family involvement in behaviour management following ABI; therefore, no conclusions can be drawn regarding its efficacy. More research is needed, with larger sample sizes and more rigorous design, including proper comparison groups.

  4. An SK3 channel/nWASP/Abi-1 complex is involved in early neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Liebau, Stefan; Steinestel, Julie; Linta, Leonhard; Kleger, Alexander; Storch, Alexander; Schoen, Michael; Steinestel, Konrad; Proepper, Christian; Bockmann, Juergen; Schmeisser, Michael J; Boeckers, Tobias M

    2011-03-25

    The stabilization or regulated reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton is essential for cellular structure and function. Recently, we could show that the activation of the SK3-channel that represents the predominant SK-channel in neural stem cells, leads to a rapid local outgrowth of long filopodial processes. This observation indicates that the rearrangement of the actin based cytoskeleton via membrane bound SK3-channels might selectively be controlled in defined micro compartments of the cell. We found two important proteins for cytoskeletal rearrangement, the Abelson interacting protein 1, Abi-1 and the neural Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome Protein, nWASP, to be in complex with SK3- channels in neural stem cells (NSCs). Moreover, this interaction is also found in spines and postsynaptic compartments of developing primary hippocampal neurons and regulates neurite outgrowth during early phases of differentiation. Overexpression of the proteins or pharmacological activation of SK3 channels induces obvious structural changes in NSCs and hippocampal neurons. In both neuronal cell systems SK3 channels and nWASP act synergistic by strongly inducing filopodial outgrowth while Abi-1 behaves antagonistic to its interaction partners. Our results give good evidence for a functional interplay of a trimeric complex that transforms incoming signals via SK3-channel activation into the local rearrangement of the cytoskeleton in early steps of neuronal differentiation involving nWASP and Abi-1 actin binding proteins.

  5. An SK3 Channel/nWASP/Abi-1 Complex Is Involved in Early Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Liebau, Stefan; Steinestel, Julie; Linta, Leonhard; Kleger, Alexander; Storch, Alexander; Schoen, Michael; Steinestel, Konrad; Proepper, Christian; Bockmann, Juergen; Schmeisser, Michael J.; Boeckers, Tobias M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The stabilization or regulated reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton is essential for cellular structure and function. Recently, we could show that the activation of the SK3-channel that represents the predominant SK-channel in neural stem cells, leads to a rapid local outgrowth of long filopodial processes. This observation indicates that the rearrangement of the actin based cytoskeleton via membrane bound SK3-channels might selectively be controlled in defined micro compartments of the cell. Principal Findings We found two important proteins for cytoskeletal rearrangement, the Abelson interacting protein 1, Abi-1 and the neural Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome Protein, nWASP, to be in complex with SK3- channels in neural stem cells (NSCs). Moreover, this interaction is also found in spines and postsynaptic compartments of developing primary hippocampal neurons and regulates neurite outgrowth during early phases of differentiation. Overexpression of the proteins or pharmacological activation of SK3 channels induces obvious structural changes in NSCs and hippocampal neurons. In both neuronal cell systems SK3 channels and nWASP act synergistic by strongly inducing filopodial outgrowth while Abi-1 behaves antagonistic to its interaction partners. Conclusions Our results give good evidence for a functional interplay of a trimeric complex that transforms incoming signals via SK3-channel activation into the local rearrangement of the cytoskeleton in early steps of neuronal differentiation involving nWASP and Abi-1 actin binding proteins. PMID:21464958

  6. Arabidopsis YL1/BPG2 Is Involved in Seedling Shoot Response to Salt Stress through ABI4

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng-Cheng; Huang, Jin-Guang; Yu, Shao-Wei; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Sun, Peng; Wu, Chang-Ai; Zheng, Cheng-Chao

    2016-01-01

    The chloroplast-localized proteins play roles in plant salt stress response, but their mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we screened a yellow leaf mutant, yl1-1, whose shoots exhibited hypersensitivity to salt stress. We mapped YL1 to AT3G57180, which encodes a YqeH-type GTPase. YL1, as a chloroplast stroma-localized protein, could be markedly reduced by high salinity. Upon exposure to high salinity, seedling shoots of yl1-1 and yl1-2 accumulated significantly higher levels of Na+ than wild type. Expression analysis of factors involved in plant salt stress response showed that the expression of ABI4 was increased and HKT1 was evidently suppressed in mutant shoots compared with the wild type under normal growth conditions. Moreover, salinity effects on ABI4 and HKT1 were clearly weakened in the mutant shoots, suggesting that the loss of YL1 function impairs ABI4 and HKT1 expression. Notably, the shoots of yl1-2 abi4 double mutant exhibited stronger resistance to salt stress and accumulated less Na+ levels after salt treatment compared with the yl1-2 single mutant, suggesting the salt-sensitive phenotype of yl1-2 seedlings could be rescued via loss of ABI4 function. These results reveal that YL1 is involved in the salt stress response of seedling shoots through ABI4. PMID:27444988

  7. Expression of the Arabidopsis mutant ABI1 gene alters abscisic acid sensitivity, stomatal development, and growth morphology in gray poplars.

    PubMed

    Arend, Matthias; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Ehlting, Barbara; Hänsch, Robert; Lange, Theo; Rennenberg, Heinz; Himmelbach, Axel; Grill, Erwin; Fromm, Jörg

    2009-12-01

    The consequences of altered abscisic acid (ABA) sensitivity in gray poplar (Populus x canescens [Ait.] Sm.) development were examined by ectopic expression of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutant abi1 (for abscisic acid insensitive1) gene. The expression resulted in an ABA-insensitive phenotype revealed by a strong tendency of abi1 poplars to wilt, impaired responsiveness of their stomata to ABA, and an ABA-resistant bud outgrowth. These plants therefore required cultivation under very humid conditions to prevent drought stress symptoms. Morphological alterations became evident when comparing abi1 poplars with poplars expressing Arabidopsis nonmutant ABI1 or wild-type plants. abi1 poplars showed increased stomatal size, enhanced shoot growth, and retarded leaf and root development. The increased stomatal size and its reversion to the size of wild-type plants by exogenous ABA indicate a role for ABA in regulating stomatal development. Enhanced shoot growth and retarded leaf and root development support the hypothesis that ABA acts independently from drought stress as a negative regulator of growth in shoots and as a positive regulator of growth in leaves and roots. In shoots, we observed an interaction of ABA with ethylene: abi1 poplars exhibited elevated ethylene production, and the ethylene perception inhibitor Ag(+) antagonized the enhanced shoot growth. Thus, we provide evidence that ABA acts as negative regulator of shoot growth in nonstressed poplars by restricting ethylene production. Furthermore, we show that ABA has a role in regulating shoot branching by inhibiting lateral bud outgrowth.

  8. Impressive predictive value of ankle-brachial index for very long-term outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease: IMPACT-ABI study.

    PubMed

    Miura, Takashi; Minamisawa, Masatoshi; Ueki, Yasushi; Abe, Naoyuki; Nishimura, Hitoshi; Hashizume, Naoto; Mochidome, Tomoaki; Harada, Mikiko; Oguchi, Yasutaka; Yoshie, Koji; Shoin, Wataru; Saigusa, Tatsuya; Ebisawa, Soichiro; Motoki, Hirohiko; Koyama, Jun; Ikeda, Uichi; Kuwahara, Koichiro

    2017-01-01

    The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a marker of generalized atherosclerosis and is predictive of future cardiovascular events. However, few studies have assessed its relation to long-term future cardiovascular events, especially in patients with borderline ABI. We therefore evaluated the relationship between long-term future cardiovascular events and ABI. In the IMPACT-ABI study, a single-center, retrospective cohort study, we enrolled 3131 consecutive patients (67 ± 13 years; 82% male) hospitalized for cardiovascular disease and measured ABI between January 2005 and December 2012. After excluding patients with an ABI > 1.4, the remaining 3056 patients were categorized as having low ABI (≤ 0.9), borderline ABI (0.91-0.99), or normal ABI (1.00-1.40). The primary endpoint was MACE (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction [MI] and stroke). The secondary endpoints were cardiovascular death, MI, stroke, admission due to heart failure, and major bleeding. During a 4.8-year mean follow-up period, the incidences of MACE (low vs. borderline vs. normal: 32.9% vs. 25.0% vs. 14.6%, P<0.0001) and cardiovascular death (26.2% vs. 18.7% vs. 8.9%, P<0.0001) differed significantly across ABIs. The incidences of stroke (9.1% vs. 8.6% vs. 4.8%, P<0.0001) and heart failure (25.7% vs. 20.8% vs. 8.9%, P<0.0001) were significantly higher in the low and borderline ABI groups than in the normal ABI group. But the incidences of MI and major bleeding were similar in the borderline and normal ABI groups. The hazard ratios for MACE adjusted for traditional atherosclerosis risk factors were significantly higher in patients with low and borderline ABI than those with normal ABI (HR, 1.93; 95%CI: 1.44-2.59, P < 0.0001, HR, 1.54; 95% CI: 1.03-2.29, P = 0.035). The incidence of long-term adverse events was markedly higher among patients with low or borderline ABI than among those with normal ABI. This suggests that more attention should be paid to patients with borderline ABIs, especially with

  9. Impressive predictive value of ankle-brachial index for very long-term outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease: IMPACT-ABI study

    PubMed Central

    Minamisawa, Masatoshi; Ueki, Yasushi; Abe, Naoyuki; Nishimura, Hitoshi; Hashizume, Naoto; Mochidome, Tomoaki; Harada, Mikiko; Oguchi, Yasutaka; Yoshie, Koji; Shoin, Wataru; Saigusa, Tatsuya; Ebisawa, Soichiro; Motoki, Hirohiko; Koyama, Jun; Ikeda, Uichi; Kuwahara, Koichiro

    2017-01-01

    Background The ankle—brachial index (ABI) is a marker of generalized atherosclerosis and is predictive of future cardiovascular events. However, few studies have assessed its relation to long-term future cardiovascular events, especially in patients with borderline ABI. We therefore evaluated the relationship between long-term future cardiovascular events and ABI. Methods In the IMPACT-ABI study, a single-center, retrospective cohort study, we enrolled 3131 consecutive patients (67 ± 13 years; 82% male) hospitalized for cardiovascular disease and measured ABI between January 2005 and December 2012. After excluding patients with an ABI > 1.4, the remaining 3056 patients were categorized as having low ABI (≤ 0.9), borderline ABI (0.91–0.99), or normal ABI (1.00–1.40). The primary endpoint was MACE (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction [MI] and stroke). The secondary endpoints were cardiovascular death, MI, stroke, admission due to heart failure, and major bleeding. Results During a 4.8-year mean follow-up period, the incidences of MACE (low vs. borderline vs. normal: 32.9% vs. 25.0% vs. 14.6%, P<0.0001) and cardiovascular death (26.2% vs. 18.7% vs. 8.9%, P<0.0001) differed significantly across ABIs. The incidences of stroke (9.1% vs. 8.6% vs. 4.8%, P<0.0001) and heart failure (25.7% vs. 20.8% vs. 8.9%, P<0.0001) were significantly higher in the low and borderline ABI groups than in the normal ABI group. But the incidences of MI and major bleeding were similar in the borderline and normal ABI groups. The hazard ratios for MACE adjusted for traditional atherosclerosis risk factors were significantly higher in patients with low and borderline ABI than those with normal ABI (HR, 1.93; 95%CI: 1.44–2.59, P < 0.0001, HR, 1.54; 95% CI: 1.03–2.29, P = 0.035). Conclusions The incidence of long-term adverse events was markedly higher among patients with low or borderline ABI than among those with normal ABI. This suggests that more attention should be paid

  10. Towards post-launch validation of GOES-R ABI SI traceability with high-altitude aircraft, small near surface UAS, and satellite reference measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padula, Francis; Pearlman, Aaron J.; Cao, Changyong; Goodman, Steve

    2016-09-01

    The GOES-R field campaign (planned for April - June 2017) is focused to support post-launch validation of the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) and Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM). Great emphasis has been placed in the development of methodologies to achieve the ABI GOES-R field campaign primary objective - validation of ABI L1b spectral radiance observations to ensure the SI traceability established pre-launch. An integrated approach using high altitude aircraft, near surface UAS, and satellite reference measurements was developed to achieve the ABI validation objectives of the GOES-R field campaign. The high-altitude aircraft measurements coupled with special ABI collections are planned to provide the primary pathway (direct comparison) to validate ABI SI traceability of all ABI operational detectors. Near surface Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) are planned to provide a secondary pathway to validate ABI SI traceability through coincident near surface measurements of Earth validation targets using the Earth's surface as a reference (indirect comparison). Satellite reference measurements obtained through special ABI collections and Simultaneous Nadir Overpass (SNO) of reference sensors will also provide a secondary pathway to validate ABI SI traceability. A detailed description of each validation approach, the critical components, and the preliminary expected uncertainties will be presented. The combined collections offer advanced post-launch validation capabilities and foster new perspectives for science teams during the post-launch validation and monitoring of NOAA's next generation of operational environmental satellites.

  11. Increased antitumor activity, intratumor paclitaxel concentrations, and endothelial cell transport of cremophor-free, albumin-bound paclitaxel, ABI-007, compared with cremophor-based paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Desai, Neil; Trieu, Vuong; Yao, Zhiwen; Louie, Leslie; Ci, Sherry; Yang, Andrew; Tao, Chunlin; De, Tapas; Beals, Bridget; Dykes, Donald; Noker, Patricia; Yao, Rosie; Labao, Elizabeth; Hawkins, Michael; Soon-Shiong, Patrick

    2006-02-15

    ABI-007, an albumin-bound, 130-nm particle form of paclitaxel, was developed to avoid Cremophor/ethanol-associated toxicities in Cremophor-based paclitaxel (Taxol) and to exploit albumin receptor-mediated endothelial transport. We studied the antitumor activity, intratumoral paclitaxel accumulation, and endothelial transport for ABI-007 and Cremophor-based paclitaxel. Antitumor activity and mortality were assessed in nude mice bearing human tumor xenografts [lung (H522), breast (MX-1), ovarian (SK-OV-3), prostate (PC-3), and colon (HT29)] treated with ABI-007 or Cremophor-based paclitaxel. Intratumoral paclitaxel concentrations (MX-1-tumored mice) were compared for radiolabeled ABI-007 and Cremophor-based paclitaxel. In vitro endothelial transcytosis and Cremophor inhibition of paclitaxel binding to cells and albumin was compared for ABI-007 and Cremophor-based paclitaxel. Both ABI-007 and Cremophor-based paclitaxel caused tumor regression and prolonged survival; the order of sensitivity was lung > breast congruent with ovary > prostate > colon. The LD(50) and maximum tolerated dose for ABI-007 and Cremophor-based paclitaxel were 47 and 30 mg/kg/d and 30 and 13.4 mg/kg/d, respectively. At equitoxic dose, the ABI-007-treated groups showed more complete regressions, longer time to recurrence, longer doubling time, and prolonged survival. At equal dose, tumor paclitaxel area under the curve was 33% higher for ABI-007 versus Cremophor-based paclitaxel, indicating more effective intratumoral accumulation of ABI-007. Endothelial binding and transcytosis of paclitaxel were markedly higher for ABI-007 versus Cremophor-based paclitaxel, and this difference was abrogated by a known inhibitor of endothelial gp60 receptor/caveolar transport. In addition, Cremophor was found to inhibit binding of paclitaxel to endothelial cells and albumin. Enhanced endothelial cell binding and transcytosis for ABI-007 and inhibition by Cremophor in Cremophor-based paclitaxel may account in

  12. Using ABI to help HES for cloud property and atmospheric sounding retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Liu, Chian-Yi; Schmit, Timothy J.; Gurka, James J.; Menzel, W. P.

    2005-08-01

    The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) and the Hyperspectral Environmental Suite (HES) on GOES-R and beyond will enable improved monitoring of the distribution and evolution of atmospheric thermodynamics and clouds. The HES will be able to provide hourly atmospheric soundings with spatial resolution of 4 ~ 10 km with high accuracy using its high spectral resolution measurements. However, presence of clouds affects the sounding retrieval and needs to be dealt with properly. The ABI is able to provide at high spatial resolution (0.5 ~ 2km) a cloud mask, surface and cloud types, cloud phase mask, cloud top pressure (CTP), cloud particle size (CPS), and cloud optical thickness (COT), etc. The combined ABI/HES system offers the opportunity for atmospheric and cloud products improved over those possible from either system alone. The key step for synergistic use of ABI/HES radiance measurements is the collocation in space and time. Collocated ABI can (1) provide HES sub-pixel cloud characterization (mask, amount, phase, layer information, etc.) within the HES footprint; (2) be used for HES cloudclearing for partly cloudy HES footprints; (3) provide background information in variational retrieval of cloud properties with HES cloudy radiances. The Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) measurements from the Earth Observing System's (EOS) Aqua satellite provide the opportunity to study the synergistic use of advanced imager and sounder measurements. The combined MODIS and AIRS data for various scenes are analyzed to study the utility of synergistic use of ABI products and HES radiances for better retrieving atmospheric soundings and cloud properties. In order to derive sounding from combined ABI and HES radiances under HES partly cloudy footprint where no microwave sounding unit is available, an optimal cloud-removal or cloud-clearing algorithm is developed. MODIS and AIRS are used to verify the algorithm. AIRS clear

  13. Comparing Hyperion Lunar Observation with model calculations in support of GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Xi; Cao, Changyong; Uprety, Sirish; Padula, Frank; Choi, Taeyoung

    2014-09-01

    Radiometric stability of the lunar surface and its smooth reflectance spectrum makes the moon an attractive candidate for calibrating satellite-based hyper/multi-band visible and infrared imagers. Long-term performance monitoring of satellite instrument using Moon can reveal the degradation of instruments. In this paper, analysis of Hyperion lunar observations and comparison with lunar model are performed in support of Cal/Val activities for satellite photometric imager such as GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) instrument. Hyperion makes hyper-spectral observations of the moon regularly with moon phase mostly at 7 degree and it covers visible and shirt-wavelength infrared (SWIR) channels with 10 nm spectral resolution. Five Hyperion lunar observations are analyzed. Lunar reflectance is derived from Hyperion observation and the mean absolute lunar spectral reflectance difference between Hyperion derivation and lunar model is 4.0 ± 2.62%. Through reflectance comparison, over-compensation of two strong atmospheric water absorption bands in Hyperion calibration is identified. The radiometric variance and degradation of Hyperion are assessed. To support the calibration of GOES-R ABI, hyper-spectral data of Hyperion lunar observation is convoluted with ABI spectral response functions for reflective solar bands to synthesize predicted lunar images to be observed by ABI. Lunar irradiances are derived from these synthesized lunar images for ABI and compared with lunar model predictions to quantify spectral biases. Long-term lunar imaging window of opportunities for GOES-R ABI are also assessed. The ability of using lunar model and Hyperion observation to calibrate satellite VNIR/SWIR sensors and reduce the measurement uncertainties is essential to support post-launch Cal/Val activities of GOES-R ABI.

  14. Role for the Abi/wave protein complex in T cell receptor-mediated proliferation and cytoskeletal remodeling.

    PubMed

    Zipfel, Patricia A; Bunnell, Stephen C; Witherow, D Scott; Gu, Jing Jin; Chislock, Elizabeth M; Ring, Colleen; Pendergast, Ann Marie

    2006-01-10

    The molecular reorganization of signaling molecules after T cell receptor (TCR) activation is accompanied by polymerization of actin at the site of contact between a T cell and an antigen-presenting cell (APC), as well as extension of actin-rich lamellipodia around the APC. Actin polymerization is critical for the fidelity and efficiency of the T cell response to antigen. The ability of T cells to polymerize actin is critical for several steps in T cell activation including TCR clustering, mature immunological synapse formation, calcium flux, IL-2 production, and proliferation. Activation of the Rac GTPase has been linked to regulation of actin polymerization after TCR stimulation. However, the molecules required for TCR-mediated actin polymerization downstream of activated Rac have remained elusive. Here we identify a novel role for the Abi/Wave protein complex, which signals downstream of activated Rac, in the regulation of actin polymerization and T cell activation in response to TCR stimulation. Here we show that Abi and Wave rapidly translocate from the T cell cytoplasm to the T cell:B cell contact site in the presence of antigen. Abi and Wave colocalize with actin at the T cell:B cell conjugation site. Moreover, Wave and Abi are necessary for actin polymerization after T cell activation, and loss of Abi proteins in mice impairs TCR-induced cell proliferation and IL-2 production in primary T cells. Significantly, the impairment in actin polymerization in cells lacking Abi proteins is due to the inability of Wave proteins to localize to the T cell:B cell contact site in the presence of antigen, rather than the destabilization of the components of the Wave protein complex. The Abi/Wave complex is a novel regulator of TCR-mediated actin dynamics, IL-2 production, and proliferation.

  15. Tomato ASR1 abrogates the response to abscisic acid and glucose in Arabidopsis by competing with ABI4 for DNA binding.

    PubMed

    Shkolnik, Doron; Bar-Zvi, Dudy

    2008-05-01

    The manipulation of transacting factors is commonly used to achieve a wide change in the expression of a large number of genes in transgenic plants as a result of a change in the expression of a single gene product. This is mostly achieved by the overexpression of transactivator or repressor proteins. In this study, it is demonstrated that the overexpression of an exogenous DNA-binding protein can be used to compete with the expression of an endogenous transcription factor sharing the same DNA-binding sequence. Arabidopsis was transformed with cDNA encoding tomato abscisic acid stress ripening 1 (ASR1), a sequence-specific DNA protein that has no orthologues in the Arabidopsis genome. ASR1-overexpressing (ASR1-OE) plants display an abscisic acid-insensitive 4 (abi4) phenotype: seed germination is not sensitive to inhibition by abscisic acid (ABA), glucose, NaCl and paclobutrazol. ASR1 binds coupling element 1 (CE1), a cis-acting element bound by the ABI4 transcription factor, located in the ABI4-regulated promoters, including that of the ABI4 gene. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrates that ASR1 is bound in vivo to the promoter of the ABI4 gene in ASR1-OE plants, but not to promoters of genes known to be regulated by the transcription factors ABI3 or ABI5. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis confirmed that the expression of ABI4 and ABI4-regulated genes is markedly reduced in ASR1-OE plants. Therefore, it is concluded that the abi4 phenotype of ASR1-OE plants is the result of competition between the foreign ASR1 and the endogenous ABI4 on specific promoter DNA sequences. The biotechnological advantage of using this approach in crop plants from the Brassicaceae family to reduce the transactivation activity of ABI4 is discussed.

  16. A novel abi5 allele reveals the importance of the conserved Ala in the C3 domain for regulation of downstream genes and salt tolerance during germination in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Tezuka, Kenji; Taji, Teruaki; Hayashi, Takahisa; Sakata, Yoichi

    2013-03-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction during Arabidopsis seed development and germination requires a Group A bZIP transcription factor encoded by ABA INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5). In addition to the basic leucine zipper DNA binding domain, Group A bZIPs are characterized by three N-terminal conserved regions (C1, C2 and C3) and one C-terminal conserved region (C4). These conserved regions are considered to play roles in ABI5 functions; however, except for the phosphorylation site, the importance of the highly conserved amino acids is unclear. Here, we report a novel abi5 recessive allele (abi5-9) that encodes an intact ABI5 protein with one amino acid substitution (A214G) in the C3 domain. The abi5-9 plants showed ABA insensitivity during germination and could germinate on medium containing 175 mM NaCl or 500 mM mannitol. Em1 and Em6--both encoding late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins and directly targeted by ABI5 regulation--were expressed at very low levels in abi5-9 plants compared with the wild type. In yeast, the abi5-9 protein exhibited greatly reduced interaction with ABI3 compared with ABI5. These data suggest that Ala214 in ABI5 contributes to the function of ABI5 via its interaction with ABI3.

  17. Identification of Salt Stress Biomarkers in Romanian Carpathian Populations of Picea abies (L.) Karst.

    PubMed

    Schiop, Sorin T; Al Hassan, Mohamad; Sestras, Adriana F; Boscaiu, Monica; Sestras, Radu E; Vicente, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    The Norway spruce (Picea abies), the most important tree species in European forests, is relatively sensitive to salt and does not grow in natural saline environments. Yet many trees are actually exposed to salt stress due to the common practice of de-icing of mountain roads in winter, using large amounts of NaCl. To help develop strategies for an appropriate use of reproductive seed material on reforestation sites, ensuring better chances of seedling survival in salt-affected areas, we have studied the responses of young spruce seedlings to salt treatments. The specific aim of the work was to identify the optimal salt stress biomarkers in Picea abies, using as experimental material seedlings obtained by germination of seeds with origin in seven populations from the Romanian Carpathian Mountains. These responses included general, conserved reactions such as the accumulation of ions and different osmolytes in the seedlings needles, reduction in photosynthetic pigments levels, or activation of antioxidant systems. Although changes in the contents of different compounds involved in these reactions can be associated to the degree of stress affecting the plants, we propose that the (decreasing) levels of total phenolics or total carotenoids and the (increasing) levels of Na+ or K+ ions in Picea abies needles, should be considered as the most reliable and useful biomarkers for salt stress in this species. They all show very high correlation with the intensity of salt stress, independently of the genetic background of the seeds parental population, and relatively easy, quantitative assays are available to determine their concentrations, requiring simple equipment and little amount of plant material.

  18. Identification of Salt Stress Biomarkers in Romanian Carpathian Populations of Picea abies (L.) Karst.

    PubMed Central

    Schiop, Sorin T.; Al Hassan, Mohamad; Sestras, Adriana F.; Boscaiu, Monica; Sestras, Radu E.; Vicente, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    The Norway spruce (Picea abies), the most important tree species in European forests, is relatively sensitive to salt and does not grow in natural saline environments. Yet many trees are actually exposed to salt stress due to the common practice of de-icing of mountain roads in winter, using large amounts of NaCl. To help develop strategies for an appropriate use of reproductive seed material on reforestation sites, ensuring better chances of seedling survival in salt-affected areas, we have studied the responses of young spruce seedlings to salt treatments. The specific aim of the work was to identify the optimal salt stress biomarkers in Picea abies, using as experimental material seedlings obtained by germination of seeds with origin in seven populations from the Romanian Carpathian Mountains. These responses included general, conserved reactions such as the accumulation of ions and different osmolytes in the seedlings needles, reduction in photosynthetic pigments levels, or activation of antioxidant systems. Although changes in the contents of different compounds involved in these reactions can be associated to the degree of stress affecting the plants, we propose that the (decreasing) levels of total phenolics or total carotenoids and the (increasing) levels of Na+ or K+ ions in Picea abies needles, should be considered as the most reliable and useful biomarkers for salt stress in this species. They all show very high correlation with the intensity of salt stress, independently of the genetic background of the seeds parental population, and relatively easy, quantitative assays are available to determine their concentrations, requiring simple equipment and little amount of plant material. PMID:26287687

  19. Critically reduced frost resistance of Picea abies during sprouting could be linked to cytological changes.

    PubMed

    Neuner, G; Beikircher, B

    2010-07-01

    Frost resistance of sprouting Picea abies shoots is insufficient for survival of naturally occurring late frosts. The cellular changes during sprouting appeared to be responsible for frost damage as frost events that damaged sprouting shoots did not damage older needles and stems. Whilst resting buds showed initial frost damage at -15.0 degrees C, 20 days later, current year's growth was damaged at -5.6 degrees C. The decrease in frost resistance in sprouting shoots of P. abies was accompanied by a significant reduction of the cellular solute concentration, indicated by much less negative Psi(oSAT) values (increase from -2.8 to -1.2 MPa). psi(oSAT) decreased again after the final cell volume was reached and cell wall thickening began. After bud break, ice nucleation temperature increased from -4.7 degrees C to -1.5 degrees C. This increase was probably caused by the loss of bud scales, the onset of expansion growth of the central cylinder and the development of vascular tissue permitting the spread of ice from the stem into the growing needles. The onset of mesophyll cell wall thickening coincided with the lowest frost resistances. Cell wall thickening caused an increase in the modulus of elasticity, epsilon, indicating a decrease in tissue elasticity and after that frost resistance increased again. Metabolic and cytological changes that evidently leave little leeway for frost hardening are responsible for the low frost resistance in current year's growth of P. abies. This low frost resistance will be significant in the future as the risk of frost damage due to earlier bud break is anticipated to even further increase.

  20. The Acoustic Breathiness Index (ABI): A Multivariate Acoustic Model for Breathiness.

    PubMed

    Barsties V Latoszek, Ben; Maryn, Youri; Gerrits, Ellen; De Bodt, Marc

    2017-07-01

    The evaluation of voice quality is a major component of voice assessment. The aim of the present study was to develop a new multivariate acoustic model for the evaluation of breathiness. Concatenated voice samples of continuous speech and the sustained vowel [a:] from 970 subjects with dysphonia and 88 vocally healthy subjects were perceptually judged for breathiness severity. Acoustic analyses were conducted on the same concatenated voice samples after removal of the non-voiced segments of the continuous speech sample. The development of an acoustic model for breathiness was based on stepwise multiple linear regression analysis. Concurrent validity, diagnostic accuracy, and cross validation were statistically verified on the basis of the Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient (rs), several estimates of the receiver operating characteristics plus the likelihood ratio, and iterated internal cross correlations. Ratings of breathiness from four experts with moderate reliability were used. Stepwise multiple regression analysis yielded a nine-variable acoustic model for the multiparametric measurement of breathiness (Acoustic Breathiness Index [ABI]). A strong correlation was found between ABI and auditory-perceptual rating (rs = 0.840, P = 0.000). The cross correlations confirmed a comparably high degree of association. Additionally, the receiver operating characteristics and likelihood ratio results showed the best diagnostic outcome at a threshold of ABI = 3.44 with a sensitivity of 82.4% and a specificity of 92.9%. This study developed a new acoustic multivariate correlate for the evaluation of breathiness in voice. The ABI model showed valid and robust results and is therefore proposed as a new acoustic index for the evaluation of breathiness. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. ABI1 regulates carbon/nitrogen-nutrient signal transduction independent of ABA biosynthesis and canonical ABA signalling pathways in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yu; Sasaki, Yuki; Li, Xingwen; Mori, Izumi C; Matsuura, Takakazu; Hirayama, Takashi; Sato, Takeo; Yamaguchi, Junji

    2015-05-01

    Plants are able to sense and mediate the balance between carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) nutrient availability to optimize metabolism and growth, described as the C/N response. To clarify the C/N signalling mechanism, C/N-insensitive plants were obtained from an Arabidopsis FOX hunting population, which over-expresses full-length cDNAs for individuals. The resulting cni2-D (carbon/nitrogen insensitive 2-dominant) plant was found to overcome the post-germination growth checkpoint and to expand green cotyledons in disrupted high C/low N stress conditions. The CNI2 gene encodes ABI1, a phosphatase type 2C protein, which negatively regulates abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction. Over-expressors of ABI1 were found to be insensitive to disrupted C/N stress, whereas the loss-of function mutant abi1-2 was hypersensitive, suggesting that ABI1 plays an essential role in the plant C/N response. By contrast, the C/N-dependent growth phenotype observed in wild-type plants was not associated with endogenous ABA content. Accordingly, the ABA-insensitive mutant abi1-1, which could not bind to the ABA-ABA receptor complex, was not insensitive and restored normal sensitivity to high C/low N stress. The canonical ABA signalling mutants abi4 and abi5 were also sensitive to disrupted C/N stress. Further gene expression analysis demonstrated that several genes in the SnRK2s and SnRK1s pathways are transcriptionally affected by high C/low N stress in wild-type plants regardless of the lack of increased endogenous ABA contents, whereas the expression of these genes were significantly suppressed in ABI1 over-expressors. Taken together, these results suggest direct cross-talk between C/N and non-canonical ABA signalling pathways, regulated by ABI1, in plants. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  2. The cell migration molecule UNC-53/NAV2 is linked to the ARP2/3 complex by ABI-1.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Kristopher L; Marcus-Gueret, Nancy; Adeleye, Adetayo; Webber, Jordan; Baillie, David; Stringham, Eve G

    2009-02-01

    The shape changes that are required to position a cell to migrate or grow out in a particular direction involve a coordinated reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. Although it is known that the ARP2/3 complex nucleates actin filament assembly, exactly how the information from guidance cues is integrated to elicit ARP2/3-mediated remodeling during outgrowth remains vague. Previous studies have shown that C. elegans UNC-53 and its vertebrate homolog NAV (Neuronal Navigators) are required for the migration of cells and neuronal processes. We have identified ABI-1 as a novel molecular partner of UNC-53/NAV2 and have found that a restricted calponin homology (CH) domain of UNC-53 is sufficient to bind ABI-1. ABI-1 and UNC-53 have an overlapping expression pattern, and display similar cell migration phenotypes in the excretory cell, and in mechanosensory and motoneurons. Migration defects were also observed after RNAi of proteins known to function with abi-1 in actin dynamics, including nck-1, wve-1 and arx-2. We propose that UNC-53/NAV2, through its CH domain, acts as a scaffold that links ABI-1 to the ARP2/3 complex to regulate actin cytoskeleton remodeling.

  3. E3B1/ABI-1 isoforms are down-regulated in cancers of human gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Baba, Rafia A; Bhat, Hina F; Wani, Lateef A; Bashir, Muneesa; Wani, Mudasir M; Qadri, Sumyra K; Khanday, Firdous A

    2012-01-01

    The expression of E3B1/ABI-1 protein and its role in cancer progression and prognosis are largely unknown in the majority of solid tumors. In this study, we examined the expression pattern of E3B1/ABI-1 protein in histologically confirmed cases of esophageal (squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma), gastro-esophageal junction, colorectal cancers and corresponding normal tissues freshly resected from a cohort of 135 patients, by Western Blotting and Immunofluorescence Staining. The protein is present in its phosphorylated form in cells and tissues. Depending on the extent of phosphorylation it is either present in hyper-phosphorylated (M. Wt. 72 kDa) form or in hypo-phosphorylated form (M. Wt. 68 kDa and 65 kDa). A thorough analysis revealed that expression of E3B1/ABI-1 protein is significantly decreased in esophageal, gastro-esophageal junction and colorectal carcinomas irrespective of age, gender, dietary and smoking habits of the patients. The decrease in expression of E3B1/ABI-1 was consistently observed for all the three isoforms. However, the decrease in the expression of isoforms varied with different forms of cancers. Down-regulation of E3B1/ABI-1 expression in human carcinomas may play a critical role in tumor progression and in determining disease prognosis.

  4. Decline of sacred fir (Abies religiosa) in a forest park south of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Alvarado R, D; De Bauer, L I; Galindo A, J

    1993-01-01

    Decline of sacred fir (Abies religiosa) trees in the high elevation forest park, Desierto de los Leones, located south of Mexico City, is described. Trees located in the windward zone (exposed to air masses from Mexico City) were the most severely affected, especially trees at the distal ends of ravines. Examination of tree growth rings indicated decreases in ring widths for the past 30 years. Polluted air from Mexico City may be an important causal factor in fir decline. Drought, due to excessive removal of soil water, insects, mites and pathogens, and poor forest management are possible contributing and interactive factors in fir decline.

  5. Cryptococcose neuroméningée et tuberculose osseuse chez un immunocompétent: un cas

    PubMed Central

    Gbané-Koné, Mariam; Ouali, Boubacar; Mègne, Estelle; Diomandé, Mohamed; Coulibaly, Abidou Kawalé; Eti, Edmond; Kouakou, N'zué Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Les auteurs rapportent un cas de cryptococcose neuroméningée (CNM) chez un patient de 39 ans, non infecté par le VIH suivi pour une tuberculose de hanche. Le tableau clinique était celui d'une méningite subaiguë. Le diagnostic a été possible grâce à la mise en évidence de cryptocoques dans le LCR. L’évolution a été satisfaisante sous fluconazole. PMID:26090057

  6. Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) Predicts Change over Time in Functional Status in the San Diego Population Study (SDPS)

    PubMed Central

    Wassel, Christina L.; Allison, Matthew A.; Ix, Joachim H.; Rifkin, Dena E.; Forbang, Nketi I.; Denenberg, Julie O.; Criqui, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Peripheral artery disease (PAD) affects millions of people, both in the US and world-wide. Even when asymptomatic, PAD and the ankle brachial index (ABI), the major clinical diagnostic criterion for PAD, are associated with decreased functional status and quality of life, as well as mobility impairment. Whether the ABI or change in the ABI predicts decline in functional status over time has not been previously assessed in a population-based setting. Methods Participants were 812 non-Hispanic white, African-American, Hispanic and Asian men and women from the San Diego Population Study (SDPS) who attended a baseline exam (1994–98), and follow up clinic exam approximately 11 years later. The Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short form (SF-36) was obtained at both the baseline and follow-up exams, and the summary performance score (SPS) at the follow up exam. Associations of the baseline ABI and clinically relevant change in the ABI (<−0.15 vs ≥−0.15) with change in SF-36 scores over time were assessed using growth curve models, a type of mixed model which accounts for within participant correlation of measurements over time, and using linear regression for SPS. Models were adjusted for baseline age, sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index, ever smoking, physical activity, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Results Mean±SD for the baseline ABI was 1.11±0.10, and 50.8±9.0 for the baseline PCS, 50.1±9.5 for the baseline MCS, and 11.2±1.9 for the SPS at the follow-up exam. In fully adjusted models, each SD lower of the baseline ABI was significantly associated with an average decrease over time of 0.6 (95% CI (−1.1, −0.1), p=0.02) units on SF-36 PCS. Each SD lower of the baseline ABI was also significantly associated with an average decrease over time of 1.2 units ((−2.3, −0.2), p=0.02) on the SF-36 physical functioning subscale, and a decrease of 1.3 units ((−2.3, −0.3), p=0.01) on the SF-36 energy/vitality subscale in fully adjusted

  7. Synaptic vesicle clustering requires a distinct MIG-10/Lamellipodin isoform and ABI-1 downstream from Netrin.

    PubMed

    Stavoe, Andrea K H; Nelson, Jessica C; Martínez-Velázquez, Luis A; Klein, Mason; Samuel, Aravinthan D T; Colón-Ramos, Daniel A

    2012-10-01

    The chemotrophic factor Netrin can simultaneously instruct different neurodevelopmental programs in individual neurons in vivo. How neurons correctly interpret the Netrin signal and undergo the appropriate neurodevelopmental response is not understood. Here we identify MIG-10 isoforms as critical determinants of individual cellular responses to Netrin. We determined that distinct MIG-10 isoforms, varying only in their N-terminal motifs, can localize to specific subcellular domains and are differentially required for discrete neurodevelopmental processes in vivo. We identified MIG-10B as an isoform uniquely capable of localizing to presynaptic regions and instructing synaptic vesicle clustering in response to Netrin. MIG-10B interacts with Abl-interacting protein-1 (ABI-1)/Abi1, a component of the WAVE complex, to organize the actin cytoskeleton at presynaptic sites and instruct vesicle clustering through SNN-1/Synapsin. We identified a motif in the MIG-10B N-terminal domain that is required for its function and localization to presynaptic sites. With this motif, we engineered a dominant-negative MIG-10B construct that disrupts vesicle clustering and animal thermotaxis behavior when expressed in a single neuron in vivo. Our findings indicate that the unique N-terminal domains confer distinct MIG-10 isoforms with unique capabilities to localize to distinct subcellular compartments, organize the actin cytoskeleton at these sites, and instruct distinct Netrin-dependent neurodevelopmental programs.

  8. Synaptic vesicle clustering requires a distinct MIG-10/Lamellipodin isoform and ABI-1 downstream from Netrin

    PubMed Central

    Stavoe, Andrea K.H.; Nelson, Jessica C.; Martínez-Velázquez, Luis A.; Klein, Mason; Samuel, Aravinthan D.T.; Colón-Ramos, Daniel A.

    2012-01-01

    The chemotrophic factor Netrin can simultaneously instruct different neurodevelopmental programs in individual neurons in vivo. How neurons correctly interpret the Netrin signal and undergo the appropriate neurodevelopmental response is not understood. Here we identify MIG-10 isoforms as critical determinants of individual cellular responses to Netrin. We determined that distinct MIG-10 isoforms, varying only in their N-terminal motifs, can localize to specific subcellular domains and are differentially required for discrete neurodevelopmental processes in vivo. We identified MIG-10B as an isoform uniquely capable of localizing to presynaptic regions and instructing synaptic vesicle clustering in response to Netrin. MIG-10B interacts with Abl-interacting protein-1 (ABI-1)/Abi1, a component of the WAVE complex, to organize the actin cytoskeleton at presynaptic sites and instruct vesicle clustering through SNN-1/Synapsin. We identified a motif in the MIG-10B N-terminal domain that is required for its function and localization to presynaptic sites. With this motif, we engineered a dominant-negative MIG-10B construct that disrupts vesicle clustering and animal thermotaxis behavior when expressed in a single neuron in vivo. Our findings indicate that the unique N-terminal domains confer distinct MIG-10 isoforms with unique capabilities to localize to distinct subcellular compartments, organize the actin cytoskeleton at these sites, and instruct distinct Netrin-dependent neurodevelopmental programs. PMID:23028145

  9. The hydraulic conductivity of the xylem in conifer needles (Picea abies and Pinus mugo).

    PubMed

    Charra-Vaskou, Katline; Mayr, Stefan

    2011-08-01

    Main resistances of the plant water transport system are situated in leaves. In contrast to angiosperm leaves, knowledge of conifer needle hydraulics and of the partitioning of resistances within needles is poor. A new technique was developed which enabled flow-meter measurements through needles embedded in paraffin and thus quantification of the specific hydraulic conductivity (K(s)) of the needle xylem. In Picea abies, xylem K(s) of needle and axes as well as in needles of different age were compared. In Pinus mugo, resistance partitioning within needles was estimated by measurements of xylem K(s) and leaf conductance (K(leaf), measured via 'rehydration kinetics'). Mean K(s) in P. abies needles was 3.5×10(-4) m(2) s(-1) MPa(-1) with a decrease in older needles, and over all similar to K(s) of corresponding axes xylem. In needles of P. mugo, K(s) was 0.9×10(-4) m(2) s(-1) MPa(-1), and 24% of total needle resistance was situated in the xylem. The results indicate species-specific differences in the hydraulic efficiency of conifer needle xylem. The vascular section of the water transport system is a minor but relevant resistance in needles.

  10. Worm infestations and development of autoimmunity in children – The ABIS study

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Michael P.; Faresjö, Åshild

    2017-01-01

    Worm infestations influence the immune system and may therefore decrease the risk for autoimmune diseases. The aim of the study was to determine whether children who have developed autoimmune disease were less likely to have had worm infestations in childhood. The ABIS-study is a prospective population-based cohort study of children born in southeast Sweden 1997/99. 17.055 children participated. As of June 2014 116 individuals had developed Type 1 diabetes, 181 celiac disease, and 53 Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis. The parents answered questions on worm infestations when the children were 1, 5 and 8 years of age. The ABIS registry was connected to the National Registry of Drug Prescriptions, and national registries for diagnosis of the studied diseases. We found no differences in incidence of worm infestations at 1, 5 or 8 years of age between children who developed autoimmune disease(s) or healthy controls. At 8 years in total 20.0% of the general child population had experienced a worm infestation; children who developed Type 1 diabetes, 21,3%, celiac disease 19,5% and JRA 18,8%. There was no difference in prescriptions of drugs for treatment of worm infestations between those who had and who had not developed Type 1 diabetes, celiac disease, Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis. We found no associations indicating that worm infestations in childhood does not play a role in the development of autoimmune diseases in Sweden. PMID:28333965

  11. ABI domain-containing proteins contribute to surface protein display and cell division in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Frankel, Matthew B; Wojcik, Brandon M; DeDent, Andrea C; Missiakas, Dominique M; Schneewind, Olaf

    2010-10-01

    The human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus requires cell wall anchored surface proteins to cause disease. During cell division, surface proteins with YSIRK signal peptides are secreted into the cross-wall, a layer of newly synthesized peptidoglycan between separating daughter cells. The molecular determinants for the trafficking of surface proteins are, however, still unknown. We screened mutants with non-redundant transposon insertions by fluorescence-activated cell sorting for reduced deposition of protein A (SpA) into the staphylococcal envelope. Three mutants, each of which harboured transposon insertions in genes for transmembrane proteins, displayed greatly reduced envelope abundance of SpA and surface proteins with YSIRK signal peptides. Characterization of the corresponding mutations identified three transmembrane proteins with abortive infectivity (ABI) domains, elements first described in lactococci for their role in phage exclusion. Mutations in genes for ABI domain proteins, designated spdA, spdB and spdC (surface protein display), diminish the expression of surface proteins with YSIRK signal peptides, but not of precursor proteins with conventional signal peptides. spdA, spdB and spdC mutants display an increase in the thickness of cross-walls and in the relative abundance of staphylococci with cross-walls, suggesting that spd mutations may represent a possible link between staphylococcal cell division and protein secretion.

  12. Pharmacological studies on the antispasmodic, bronchodilator and anti-platelet activities of Abies webbiana.

    PubMed

    Yasin, Mamoona; Hussain Janbaz, Khalid; Imran, Imran; Gilani, Anwar-ul-Hassan; Bashir, Samra

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated the antispasmodic, bronchodilator and anti-platelet activities of Abies webbiana to rationalize some of its folk uses in gut and airways disorders and inflammation. The crude extract of A. webbiana (Aw.Cr) caused a complete relaxation of both spontaneous and K(+) (80 mM)-induced contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum in a concentration-dependent manner. Aw.Cr shifted the Ca(++) concentration-response curves (CRCs) to the right, in a fashion similar to verapamil, confirming its Ca(++) channel blocking (CCB) effect. In isolated rabbit tracheal preparations, it caused relaxation of carbachol (1 μM) and K(+) (80 mM)-induced contractions comparable to verapamil suggesting that the bronchodilatory effect may possibly be mediated through CCB activity. Aw.Cr was found to be the inhibitor of both ADP- and epinephrine-induced aggregation of human platelets thereby suggesting therapeutic potential in this plant against thrombo-embolic conditions. The exhibited anti-platelet effect was observed at low doses against epinephrine as compared to ADP. This study confirmed the presence of spasmolytic activity in Abies webbiana through possible blockade of Ca(++) channels providing evidence for its folkloric use in gut and respiratory disorders in addition to anti-platelet activity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Development of LiDAR aware allometrics for Abies grandis: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, G. A.; Tinkham, W. T.; Smith, A. M.; Hudak, A. T.; Falkowski, M. J.; Keefe, R.

    2012-12-01

    Forest managers rely increasingly on accurate allometric relationships to inform decisions regarding stand rotations, silvilcultural treatments, timber harvesting, and biometric modeling. At the same time, advances in remote sensing techniques like LiDAR (light detection and ranging) have brought about opportunities to advance how we assess forest growth, and thus are contributing to the need for more accurate allometries. Past studies have attempted to relate LiDAR data to both plot and individual tree measures of forest biomass. However, many of these studies have been limited by the accuracy of their coincident observations. In this study, 24 Abies grandis were measured, felled, and dissected for the explicit objective of developing LiDAR aware allometrics. The analysis predicts spatial variables of competition, growth potential (e.g, trees per acre, aspect, elevation, etc.) and common statistical distributional metrics (e.g., mean, mode, percentiles, variance, skewness, kurtosis, etc.) derived from LiDAR point cloud returns to coincident in situ measures of Abies grandis stem biomass. The resulting allometries exemplify a new approach for predicting structural attributes of interest (biomass, basal area, volume, etc.) directly from LiDAR point cloud data, precluding the measurement errors that are propogated by indirectly predicting these structure attributes of interest from LiDAR data using traditional plot-based measurements.

  14. The GOES-R ABI Fixed Grid Format: Overview and Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogorzala, D.; Padula, F.; Cao, C.; Wu, X.

    2014-12-01

    The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) aboard the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R series (GOES-R) will image Earth in 16 spectral channels at channel-specific resolutions of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 km. All Level-1b and Level-2+ products created by ABI will be geometrically interpolated to a Fixed Grid; a set of static pixel locations centered on the sub-satellite point. The Fixed Grid represents a new standard in products created by the GOES series of satellites and will aid users by providing continuity in the locations of geographic features throughout mission life. However, detector-level anomalies will be impacted by the resampling process in a variety of ways. Depending on the nature of the anomaly, the proximity of the detector sample to the pixel centers, and the underlying scene phenomenology, the resampling process has the potential to both amplify and mitigate system anomalies. This work will introduce the resampling process and the Fixed Grid, as well as present a case study characterizing the radiometric impacts of detector anomalies to L1b products.

  15. Simulation of GOES-R ABI aerosol radiances using WRF-CMAQ: a case study approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopher, S. A.

    2014-04-01

    In anticipation of the upcoming GOES-R launch we simulate visible and near-infrared reflectances of the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) for cases of high aerosol loading containing regional haze and smoke over the eastern United States. The simulations are performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF), Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE), and Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) models. Geostationary, satellite-derived, biomass-burning emissions are also included as an input to CMAQ. Using the CMAQ aerosol concentrations and Mie calculations, radiance is computed from the discrete ordinate atmospheric radiative transfer model. We present detailed methods for deriving aerosol extinction from WRF and CMAQ outputs. Our results show that the model simulations create a realistic set of reflectances in various aerosol scenarios. The simulated reflectances provide distinct spectral features of aerosols which are then compared to data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We also present a simple technique to synthesize green band reflectance (which will not be available on the ABI), using the model-simulated blue and red band reflectance. This study is an example of the use of air quality modeling in improving products and techniques for Earth-observing missions.

  16. Simulation of GOES-R ABI aerosol radiances using WRF-CMAQ: a case study approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopher, S. A.

    2013-07-01

    The primary focus of this paper is to simulate visible and near-infrared reflectances of the GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) for cases of high aerosol loading containing regional haze and smoke over the eastern United States. The simulations are performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF), Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE), and Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) models. Geostationary satellite-derived biomass burning emissions are also included as an input to CMAQ. Using the CMAQ aerosol concentrations and Mie calculations, radiance is computed from the discrete ordinate atmospheric radiative transfer model. We present detailed methods for deriving aerosol extinction from WRF and CMAQ outputs. Our results show that the model simulations create a realistic set of reflectance in various aerosol scenarios. The simulated reflectance provides distinct spectral features of aerosols which is then compared to data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We also present a simple technique to synthesize green band reflectance (which will not be available on the ABI), using the model-simulated blue and red band reflectance. This study is an example of the use of air quality modeling in improving products and techniques for Earth observing missions.

  17. After a child's acquired brain injury (ABI): An ethnographic study of being a parent.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Marghalara; Goez, Helly R; Caine, Vera; Yager, Jerome Y; Joyce, Anthony S; Newton, Amanda S

    2016-11-30

    To explore the meanings associated with being a parent of a child with an aquired brain injury (ABI). An ethnographic study was conducted with parents of children aged 3 to 10 years who had acquired a severe brain injury. Purposeful sampling was used to recruit parents from the Glenrose Rehabilitation Hospital in Edmonton, Alberta. Data collection involved participant observation, fieldwork and semi-structured interviews. Field notes and interviews transcriptions were analysed using a thematic analysis framework and informed by symbolic interactionism theory. Six parent dyads (mothers and fathers) and 4 mothers participated in the study.Parents' meanings of `parenting' a child with severe brain injury were shaped by the injury, wide range of familial dynamics, and interactions. Six main themes related to parental meanings emerged from our data: (1) Getting `back to normal'; (2) Relying on a support system; (3) Worrying something bad may happen after the injury; (4) Going through a range of emotions following the injury; (5) Changing family dynamics after the injury; and (6) Ongoing performativity. Parents' meanings of `parenting' a child are extensively impacted by their child's functioning after the ABI. Having a greater appreciation of these experiences may be beneficial for medical professionals.

  18. The Andalusian Bipolar Family (ABiF) Study: Protocol and sample description.

    PubMed

    Guzman-Parra, Jose; Rivas, Fabio; Strohmaier, Jana; Forstner, Andreas; Streit, Fabian; Auburger, Georg; Propping, Peter; Orozco-Diaz, Guillermo; González, Maria José; Gil-Flores, Susana; Cabaleiro-Fabeiro, Francisco Javier; Del Río-Noriega, Francisco; Perez-Perez, Fermin; Haro-González, Jesus; de Diego-Otero, Yolanda; Romero-Sanchiz, Pablo; Moreno-Küstner, Berta; Cichon, Sven; Nöthen, Markus M; Rietschel, Marcella; Mayoral, Fermin

    2017-06-12

    Here, we present the first description of the Andalusian Bipolar Family (ABiF) Study. This longitudinal investigation of families from Andalusia, Spain commenced in 1997 with the aim of elucidating the molecular genetic causes of bipolar affective disorder. The cohort has since contributed to a number of key genetic findings, as reported in international journals. However, insight into the genetic underpinnings of the disorder in these families remains limited. In the initial 1997-2003 study phase, 100 multiplex bipolar disorder and other mood disorder families were recruited. The ongoing second phase of the project commenced in 2013, and involves follow-up of a subgroup of the originally recruited families. The aim of the follow-up investigation is to generate: i) longitudinal clinical data; ii) results from detailed neuropsychological assessments; and iii) a more extensive collection of biomaterials for future molecular biological studies. The ABiF Study will thus generate a valuable resource for future investigations into the aetiology of bipolar affective disorder; in particular the causes of high disease loading within multiply affected families. We discuss the value of this approach in terms of new technologies for the identification of high-penetrance genetic factors. These new technologies include exome and whole genome sequencing, and the use of induced pluripotent stem cells or model organisms to determine functional consequences. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Loader Lite: a new software tool for the ABI PRISM 3700 DNA sequencer.

    PubMed

    Scott, G B I; Steffen, D L; Edgar, D; Warren, J T; Kovár, C L; Scherer, S E; Havlak, P H; Gibbs, R A

    2002-06-01

    Here we describe the development of a novel software tool entitled Loader Lite that generates plate records or sample sheetsfor the ABI PRISMs 3700 DNA sequencer. The major advantage of this program is that it enables the ongoing operation of sequencing instruments without reference to external network(s). The autonomous operation of sequencing instruments is critical if sample throughput is to be maintained during periods of network outage. Loader Lite employs a deliberate strategy of inputting anonymous tray barcodes at run time. After sequencing, the barcodes are reconciled with relevant project details by reference to a database. This software takes advantage of barcode scanning technology by creating plate records directly on the local computer, serving an individual sequencer, immediately before importing and linking. This real-time synthesis of the plate records at the point of loading all but eliminates loading errors. Loader Lite is user-friendly, fully configurable, and permits the running of partial or full 384-well sample trays, using any standard combinations of run modules, dye sets, mobility files, analysis modules, etc. The 96-well format is not supported; however, this capability will appear in subsequent versions that are currently under development. This application is designed as an added value, adjunct program to the regular ABI PRISM 3700 Data Collection software. We have successfully used Loader Lite over the past six months to load approximately 7 million sequencing reactions and believe its utility and functionality will prove to be attractive to the wider sequencing community.

  20. Positive PsychoTherapy in ABI Rehab (PoPsTAR): A pilot randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Breda; Pownall, Jaycee; Cummings, Joanne; Baylan, Satu; Broomfield, Niall; Haig, Caroline; Kersel, Denyse; Murray, Heather; Evans, Jonathan J

    2016-01-04

    Psychological distress is common following acquired brain injury (ABI), but the evidence base for psychotherapeutic interventions is small and equivocal. Positive psychotherapy aims to foster well-being by increasing experiences of pleasure, engagement and meaning. In this pilot trial, we investigated the feasibility and acceptability of brief positive psychotherapy in adults with ABI and emotional distress. Participants were randomised to brief positive psychotherapy plus usual treatment, or usual treatment only. Brief positive psychotherapy was delivered over eight individual out-patient sessions, by one research psychologist. A blinded assessor administered the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21) and the Authentic Happiness Inventory (AHI) at 5, 9 and 20 weeks post-baseline. Of 27 participants randomised (median age 57; 63% male; 82% ischaemic stroke survivors; median 5.7 months post-injury), 14 were assigned to positive psychotherapy, of whom 8 completed treatment. The intervention was feasible to deliver with excellent fidelity, and was acceptable to participants. Retention at 20 weeks was 63% overall. A full-scale trial would need to retain n = 39 per group to end-point, to detect a significant difference in change scores on the DASS-21 Depression scale of 7 points (two-tailed alpha = .05, power = .80). Trials including an active control arm would require larger sample sizes. We conclude that a full-scale trial to investigate efficacy is warranted.

  1. [New World of Vascular-Function Developed with CAVI, PWV and ABI].

    PubMed

    Shirai, Kohji

    2014-09-01

    Arteriosclerotic diseases are becoming a serious problem all over the world. However, the evaluation of arteriosclerosis quantitatively and non-invasively has been very difficult. Pulse-wave velocities have been used globally. Their significance was mostly established, but the problem is that PWV depends on the blood pressure at the time of measurement. The cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) was recently presented and produced from the stiffness parameter beta theory and Bramwell-Hill's equation. CAVI was independent from the blood pressure at the time of measurement. CAVI showed high values in arteriosclerotic diseases, such as coronary stenosis, cervical arteriosclerosis, cerebral infarction, and chronic kidney diseases. Furthermore, CAVI reflected so-called risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and smoking. Also, controlling most of those risk factors improved CAVI. A low ankle-brachial blood pressure index (ABI) (< 0.9) reflected stenosis of the femoral artery. ABI (0.9-0.99) has been reported to be a predictor of coronary artery diseases. A combination of those indices might be useful in practical medicine. Furthermore, it is known that arterial stiffness reflects the Windkessel function. The positive correlation between CAVI and the left ventricular function indicated that the heart-arterial relationship could be evaluated using CAVI. Therefore, a new study field involving a collaborating system between heart muscle and arteries could be developed using CAVI.

  2. When a parent suffers ABI: Investigation of emotional distress in children.

    PubMed

    Redolfi, A; Bartolini, G; Gugliotta, M; Maietti, A; Pietrapiana, P; Sapienza, S; D'Amato, A; Mazzucchi, A

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the type of emotional and behavioural impact that having a parent with a severe acquired brain injury (ABI) has on children during the first period of adjustment. The study involved 25 couples in which one of the spouses was affected by ABI, and their 35 children (3-14 years). The children attended three sessions with a psychologist aimed at identifying their spontaneous playing and relational behaviour by means of a grid created on the basis of ICD-10 criteria. Both members of each parental couple attended a session with the psychologist, and were administered the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, the 36-item Health Survey and the Caregiver Burden Inventory. 63% of the children showed signs of emotional suffering, the presence of which was underestimated by their parents on the basis of the psychologist's assessments. The variables that correlated most closely with the children's psychological condition were related to the quality of their parents' relationship. Our findings confirm the need for early interventions aimed at both parents and their children in order to investigate the children's emotional-affective situation, and favour an understanding of their discomfort by their parents.

  3. The Andean Biotic Index (ABI): revised tolerance to pollution values for macroinvertebrate families and index performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Touma, Blanca; Acosta, Raúl; Prat, Narcís

    2014-04-01

    Score-based biotic indices are widely used to evaluate the water quality of streams and rivers. Few adaptations of these indices have been done for South America because there is a lack of knowledge on macroinvertebrate taxonomy, distribution and tolerance to pollution in the region. Several areas in the Andes are densely populated and there is need for methods to assess the impact of increasing human pressures on aquatic ecosystems. Considering the unique ecological and geographical features of the Andes, macroinvertebrate indices used in other regions must be adapted with caution. Here we present a review of the literature on macroinvertebrate distribution and tolerance to pollution in Andean areas above 2,000 masl. Using these data, we propose an Andean Biotic Index (ABI), which is based on the BMWP index. In general, ABI includes fewer macroinvertebrate families than in other regions of the world where the BMWP index has been applied because altitude restricts the distribution of several families. Our review shows that in the high Andes, the tolerance of several macroinvertebrate families to pollution differs from those reported in other areas. We tested the ABI index in two basins in Ecuador and Peru, and compared it to other BMWP adaptations using the reference condition approach. The ABI index is extremely useful for detecting the general impairment of rivers but class quality boundaries should be defined independently for each basin because reference conditions may be different. The ABI is widely used in Ecuador and Peru, with high correlations with land-use pressures in several studies. The ABI index is an integral part of the new multimetric index designed for high Andean streams (IMEERA).

  4. Current utility of the ankle-brachial index (ABI) in general practice: implications for its use in cardiovascular disease screening.

    PubMed

    Davies, Jane H; Kenkre, Joyce; Williams, E Mark

    2014-04-17

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a marker of systemic atherosclerosis and associated with a three to six fold increased risk of death from cardiovascular causes. Furthermore, it is typically asymptomatic and under-diagnosed; this has resulted in escalating calls for the instigation of Primary Care PAD screening via Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) measurement. However, there is limited evidence regarding the feasibility of this and if the requisite core skills and knowledge for such a task already exist within primary care. This study aimed to determine the current utility of ABI measurement in general practices across Wales, with consideration of the implications for its use as a cardiovascular risk screening tool. A self-reporting questionnaire was distributed to all 478 General Practices within Wales, sent via their responsible Health Boards. The survey response rate was 20%. ABI measurement is primarily performed by nurses (93%) for the purpose of wound management (90%). It is infrequently (73% < 4 times per month) and often incorrectly used (42% out of compliance with current ABI guidance). Only 52% of general practitioners and 16% of nurses reported that patients with an ABI of ≤ 0.9 require aggressive cardiovascular disease risk factor modification (as recommended by current national and international guidelines). ABI measurement is an under-utilised and often incorrectly performed procedure in the surveyed general practices. Prior to its potential adoption as a formalised screening tool for cardiovascular disease, there is a need for a robust training programme with standardised methodology in order to optimise accuracy and consistency of results. The significance of a diagnosis of PAD, in terms of associated increased cardiovascular risk and the necessary risk factor modification, needs to be highlighted.

  5. Tang-Luo-Ning Improves Mitochondrial Antioxidase Activity in Dorsal Root Ganglia of Diabetic Rats: A Proteomics Study

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yanbin; Gong, Yanbin; Zhou, Hui; Xie, Peifeng; Guan, Song; Yi, Wenming

    2017-01-01

    Tang-luo-ning (TLN) is a traditional Chinese herbal recipe for treating diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). In this study, we investigated mitochondrial protein profiles in a diabetic rat model and explored the potential protective effect of TLN. Diabetic rats were established by injection of streptozocin (STZ) and divided into model, alpha lipoic acid (ALA), and TLN groups. Mitochondrial proteins were isolated from dorsal root ganglia and proteomic analysis was used to quantify the differentially expressed proteins. Tang-luo-ning mitigated STZ-induced diabetic symptoms and blood glucose level, including response time to cold or hot stimulation and nerve conductive velocity. As compared to the normal, there were 388 differentially expressed proteins in the TLN group, 445 in ALA group, and 451 in model group. As compared to the model group, there were 275 differential proteins in TLN group and 251 in ALA group. As compared to model group, mitochondrial complex III was significantly decreased, while glutathione peroxidase and peroxidase were increased in TLN group. When compared with ALA group, the mitochondrial complex III was increased, and mitochondrial complex IV was decreased in TLN group. Together, TLN should have a strong antioxidative activity, which appears to be modulated through regulation of respiratory complexes and antioxidases. PMID:28133612

  6. Mechanisms of Abnormal Growth Regulation in Prostatic Adenocarcinoma Using Abi1/Hssh3bp1 Conditional Knockout Mouse Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    This strain does not have a neomycin gene in the recombinant Abi1/Hssh3bp1 gene cassette. The neomycin gene removal was accomplished by breeding of...heterozygous for the recombinant Abi1/Hssh3bp1 allele containing neomycin gene, frt sites and loxP sites were bred with the “frt deletor” strain 129S4...SvJaeSorGt(ROSA)26Sortm1(FLP1)Dym/J (Jackson Laboratories, Inc. stock number 003946). Flipase-mediated deletion of the neomycin gene from the recombinant

  7. Efficacy of a novel rifamycin derivative, ABI-0043, against Staphylococcus aureus in an experimental model of foreign-body infection.

    PubMed

    Trampuz, Andrej; Murphy, Christopher K; Rothstein, David M; Widmer, Andreas F; Landmann, Regine; Zimmerli, Werner

    2007-07-01

    We compared the efficacy of a novel rifamycin derivative, ABI-0043, with that of rifampin, alone and in combination with levofloxacin, against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 in a guinea pig tissue-cage infection model. The MIC, logarithmic-growth-phase minimal bactericidal concentration, and stationary-growth-phase minimal bactericidal concentration of ABI-0043 were 0.001, 0.008, and 0.25 microg/ml, respectively; the corresponding concentrations of rifampin were 0.016, 0.8, and 3.6 microg/ml, respectively. After a single intraperitoneal dose of 12.5 mg/kg of body weight, the peak concentration in cage fluid was 1.13 micarog/ml of ABI-0043 and 0.98 microg/ml of rifampin. Five days after completion of treatment, levofloxacin administered alone (5 mg/kg/12 h) resulted in bacterial counts in cage fluid that were similar to those for untreated controls (>8.0 log(10) CFU/ml), whereas rifampin and ABI-0043 administered alone (12.5 mg/kg/12 h) decreased the mean titers of bacteria +/- standard deviations to 1.43 +/- 0.28 log(10) and 1.57 +/- 0.53 log(10) CFU/ml, respectively, in cage fluid. In combination with levofloxacin, both rifamycins cleared bacteria from the cage fluid. The cure rates of cage-associated infections with rifampin and ABI-0043 administered alone were 46% and 58%, respectively, and increased to 88% and 92% in combination with levofloxacin. Emergence of rifamycin resistance was observed in 42% of cages after ABI-0043 therapy and in 38% of cages after rifampin therapy; no emergence of resistance occurred with combination treatment with levofloxacin. In conclusion, ABI-0043 had cure rates comparable to that of rifampin. ABI-0043 in combination with a quinolone has the potential for treatment of implant-associated infections caused by susceptible strains of S. aureus, potentially without drug-drug interactions.

  8. Comparative preclinical and clinical pharmacokinetics of a cremophor-free, nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (ABI-007) and paclitaxel formulated in Cremophor (Taxol).

    PubMed

    Sparreboom, Alex; Scripture, Charity D; Trieu, Vuong; Williams, Paul J; De, Tapas; Yang, Andrew; Beals, Bridget; Figg, William D; Hawkins, Michael; Desai, Neil

    2005-06-01

    To compare the preclinical and clinical pharmacokinetic properties of paclitaxel formulated as a Cremophor-free, albumin-bound nanoparticle (ABI-007) and formulated in Cremophor-ethanol (Taxol). ABI-007 and Taxol were given i.v. to Harlan Sprague-Dawley male rats to determine pharmacokinetic and drug disposition. Paclitaxel pharmacokinetic properties also were assessed in 27 patients with advanced solid tumors who were randomly assigned to treatment with ABI-007 (260 mg/m(2), 30 minutes; n = 14) or Taxol (175 mg/m(2), 3 hours; n = 13), with cycles repeated every 3 weeks. The volume of distribution at steady state and clearance for paclitaxel formulated as Cremophor-free nanoparticle ABI-007 were significantly greater than those for paclitaxel formulated with Cremophor (Taxol) in rats. Fecal excretion was the main elimination pathway with both formulations. Consistent with the preclinical data, paclitaxel clearance and volume of distribution were significantly higher for ABI-007 than for Taxol in humans [21.13 versus 14.76 L/h/m(2) (P = 0.048) and 663.8 versus 433.4 L/m(2) (P = 0.040), respectively]. Paclitaxel formulated as ABI-007 differs from paclitaxel formulated as Taxol, with a higher plasma clearance and a larger volume of distribution. This finding is consistent with the absence of paclitaxel-sequestering Cremophor micelles after administration of ABI-007. This unique property of ABI-007 could be important for its therapeutic effectiveness.

  9. Prevalence of high ankle-brachial index (ABI) in general population of Southern Italy, risk factor profiles and systemic cardiovascular co-morbidity: an epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Signorelli, Salvatore Santo; Fiore, Valerio; Catanzaro, Stefano; Simili, Massimo; Torrisi, Benedetto; Anzaldi, Massimiliano

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have been carried out to assess the prevalence, risk factors and co-morbidities of peripheral artery disease (PAD). By contrast, to date there is a lack of data on patients with high-ABI. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence of increased ABI (ABI>1.4) and to evaluate the involvement of traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and the atherosclerotic burden (peripheral and carotid arteries) of these patients in a population of Southern Italy. We invited 9647 subjects, age ranging from 30 to 80, by letters to undergo an ABI measurement. Consequently, in patients with ABI>1.4, an ultrasound evaluation of the peripheral and carotid arteries was performed. An ABI>1.4 was found in 260 of 3412 subjects (7.6%). Statistically significant differences were reported in age, diabetes and hypertension, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). No differences in sex distribution, dyslipidemia and smoke prevalence were observed. Moreover, 67.9% of ABI>1.4 patients showed a peripheral intima-media thickness (IMT)>0.9 mm; at linear regression it was correlated with ABI values; 25% of patients showed peripheral plaques. A carotid IMT>0.9 mm was reported in 78.6% of high-ABI patients and 32.1% were affected by atherosclerotic plaques. The observed increased-ABI prevalence of 7.6% was higher than previously reported. This was more prevalent in an older population with diabetes, hypertension and obesity. Moreover, these patients are characterized by an extended atherosclerotic involvement. Further studies are needed to clarify this evidence, a longitudinal observation of this clinical outcome, as we are performing, could provide a number of interesting elements. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Pharmacodynamics and potential synergistic effects of Mai-Luo-Ning injection on cardiovascular protection, based on molecular docking.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liang; Shen, Han-Yuan; Wu, Yu-Zheng; Yu, Xiao-Yi; Wang, Hong; Cheng, Xue-Fang; Wang, Guang-Ji; Hao, Hai-Ping

    2015-11-01

    As a computer-assisted approach, molecular docking has been universally applied in drug research and development and plays an important role in the investigation and evaluation of herbal medicines. Herein, the method was used to estimate the pharmacodynamics of Mai-Luo-Ning injection, a traditional Chinese compound herbal prescription. Through investigating the interactions between several important proteins in cardiovascular system and characteristic components of the formula, its effect on cardiovascular protection was evaluated. Results showed the differences in the interactions between each component and the selected target proteins and revealed the possible mechanisms for synergistic effects of various characteristic components on cardiovascular protection. The study provided scientific evidence supporting the mechanistic study of the interactions among multi-components and targets, offering a general approach to investigating the pharmacodynamics of complicated materials in compound herbal prescriptions.

  11. Genetic diversity and seed production in Santa Lucia fir (Abies bracteata),a relict of the Miocene broadleaved evergreen forest

    Treesearch

    F. Thomas Ledig; Paul D. Hodgskiss; David R. Johnson

    2006-01-01

    Santa Lucia fir (Abies bracteata), is a unique fir, the sole member of the subgenus Pseudotorreya. It is a relict of the Miocene broadleaved evergreen sclerophyll forest, and is now restricted to a highly fragmented range in the Santa Lucia Mountains of central coastal California. Expected heterozygosity for 30 isozyme loci in 18 enzyme systems...

  12. Bark beetle Polygraphus proximus: a new aggressive far eastern invader on Abies species in Siberia and European Russia

    Treesearch

    Yuri Baranchikov; Evgeniy Akulov; Sergey. Astapenko

    2011-01-01

    Polygraphus proximus Brandford (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) is a common feeder on Far Eastern firs: Abies nephrolepis, A. hollophyll, and A. sachalinensis. Its native range occupies northeastern China, Korea, Japan, Kurile and Sakhalin Islands, and the southern part of the Russian Far East (Primorskiy and...

  13. Initial fungal colonizer affects mass loss and fungal community development in Picea abies logs 6 yr after inoculation

    Treesearch

    Daniel L. Lindner; Rimvydas Vasaitis; Ariana Kubartova; Johan Allmer; Hanna Johannesson; Mark T. Banik; Jan. Stenlid

    2011-01-01

    Picea abies logs were inoculated with Resinicium bicolor, Fomitopsis pinicola or left un-inoculated and placed in an old-growth boreal forest. Mass loss and fungal community data were collected after 6 yr to test whether simplification of the fungal community via inoculation affects mass loss and fungal community development. Three...

  14. Pest risk assessment of the importation into the United States of unprocessed Pinus and Abies logs from Mexico

    Treesearch

    B. M. Tkacz; H. H. Burdsall; G. A. DeNitto; A. Eglitis; J. B. Hanson; J. T. Kliejunas; W. E. Wallner; J. G. O`Brien; E. L. Smith

    1998-01-01

    The unmitigated pest risk potential for the importation of Pinus and Abies logs from all states of Mexico into the United States was assessed by estimating the probability and consequences of establishment of representative insects and pathogens of concern. Twenty-two individual pest risk assessments were prepared for Pinus logs, twelve dealing with insects and ten...

  15. Age-class differences in shoot photosynthesis and water relations of Fraser fir (Abies fraseri), southern Appalachian Mountains, USA

    Treesearch

    Keith Reinhardt; Daniel M. Johnson; William K. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Fraser fir (Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.) is an endemic tree species found only in refugial mountain-top forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Very few studies have investigated the ecophysiology of this species in its natural environment. We measured and compared photosynthetic gas exchange and water relations of understory germinant...

  16. The association between perceived and observed ability to use everyday technology in people of working age with ABI.

    PubMed

    Malinowsky, Camilla; Lund, Maria Larsson

    2014-11-01

    Everyday technology (ET), including computers and automated telephone services, is increasingly required for everyday functioning. However, people with acquired brain injury (ABI) may have difficulty with ET use. To design interventions to support ET use, further knowledge of how to assess dimensions of such use is needed. This study investigated the relationship between the perceived difficulty of ET use (self-reported using the short version of the Everyday Technology Use Questionnaire, S-ETUQ) and observed ability to use ET (observed using the Management of Everyday Technology Assessment, META) in a sample of people with ABI (n = 81). Data were analysed using a Rasch measurement model, and person measures of perceived difficulty and observed ability to use ET were identified and correlated. Results and conclusions. The person measures had a correlation of 0.49 (p < 0.001). In groups of different severity levels after ABI, significant associations were found in the moderate (0.36) and severe (0.47) disability groups. In the good recovery group, only a non-significant correlation was found (0.21). This indicates that the S-ETUQ and the META measure different but complementary dimensions of ET use. Hence, the assessments are proposed to be used together in clinical practice to more fully understand the ability of people with ABI to use ET.

  17. Antibacterial effects of home-made resin salve from Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Rautio, M; Sipponen, A; Peltola, R; Lohi, J; Jokinen, J J; Papp, A; Carlson, P; Sipponen, P

    2007-04-01

    Resin salve made from Norway spruce (Picea abies) is traditionally used in folk medicine to heal skin ulcers and infected wounds. Its antimicrobial properties were studied against certain human bacteria important in infected skin wounds. The sensitivity of the resin against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria was studied in vitro by methods that are routinely used in microbiology laboratories. The resin salve exhibited a bacteriostatic effect against all tested Gram-positive bacteria but only against Proteus vulgaris of the Gram-negative bacteria. Interestingly, the resin inhibited the growth of bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE), both on agar plates and in culture media. The study demonstrated antimicrobial activity of the resin salve and provided objective evidence of its antimicrobial properties. It gives some explanations why the traditional use of home-made resin salve from Norway spruce is experienced as being effective in the treatment of infected skin ulcers.

  18. Effects of Abies sibirica terpenes on cancer- and aging-associated pathways in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Lipatova, Anastasiya; Alekseev, Boris; Maganova, Faniya; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail; Fedorova, Maria; Snezhkina, Anastasiya; Moskalev, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    A large number of terpenoids exhibit potential geroprotector and anti-cancer properties. Here, we studied whole transcriptomic effects of Abisil, the extract of fir (Abies sibirica) terpenes, on normal and cancer cell lines. We used early passaged and senescent none-immortalized fibroblasts as cellular aging models. It was revealed that in normal fibroblasts, terpenes induced genes of stress response, apoptosis regulation and tissue regeneration. The restoration of the expression level of some prolongevity genes after fir extract treatment was shown in old cells. In Caco-2 and AsPC-1 cancer cell lines, Abisil induced expression of both onco-suppressors (members of GADD45, DUSP, and DDIT gene families), and proto-oncogenes (c-Myc, c-Jun, EGR and others). Thus, the study demonstrates the potential anti-aging and anti-cancer effects of Abisil on senescent and cancer cell lines. PMID:27888805

  19. Exploratory assessment of groundwater vulnerability to pollution in Abi, southeastern Nigeria, using geophysical and geological techniques.

    PubMed

    Akpan, Anthony E; Ebong, Ebong D; Emeka, Chimezie N

    2015-04-01

    The geophysical-based integrated electrical conductivity (IEC) and the groundwater hydraulic confinement-overlying strata-depth to water table (GOD) techniques were used to assess vulnerability levels of aquifers and the extent of aquifer protection in Abi, Nigeria. The IEC indices was generated from constrained one dimensional (1D) inversion of vertical electrical sounding (VES) and two dimensional (2D) electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data, acquired randomly in the area. The GOD indices were sourced from existing geologic data within the area. Results showed that IEC values vary from <0.1 S in the weakly protected areas to >2.0 S in the strongly protected areas. The GOD indices vary from <0.3 in the lowly vulnerable areas to 0.6 in the highly vulnerable areas. Thus, the groundwater resources in the area need to be properly managed for sustainability and such management practices have been suggested.

  20. In vitro fungistatic effects of natural coniferous resin from Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Rautio, M; Sipponen, A; Lohi, J; Lounatmaa, K; Koukila-Kähkölä, P; Laitinen, K

    2012-08-01

    Resins (rosin, pitch) are natural products of the coniferous trees and are antimicrobial against a wide range of microbes. The antifungal effectiveness of resin, purified from Norway spruce (Picea abies), was studied against human pathogenic fungi and yeasts with the agar plate diffusion tests and electron microscopy (EM). The fungistatic effect of these resin mixtures (resin salves) was tested against a set of Candida yeasts, dermatophytes, and opportunistic fungi. Transmission and scanning EM was done from samples of fungi (Trichophyton mentagrophytes). In agar diffusion tests, the resin was strongly antifungal against all dermatophytes tested, e.g., against all fungi of the genus Trichophyton, but it was not antifungal against the Candida yeasts or against the opportunistic fungi tested. According to EM, resin caused damages in the cell hyphae and cell wall structures. We conclude that, in the agar plate diffusion test, coniferous resins are strongly fungistatic against the dermatophytic fungi only.

  1. Climate-growth relationships of Abies spectabilis in a central Himalayan treeline ecotone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, Niels; Kaczka, Ryszard J.; Schickhoff, Udo

    2017-04-01

    Climate warming is expected to induce treelines to advance to higher elevations. Empirical studies in diverse mountain ranges, however, give evidence of both advancing alpine treelines as well as rather insignificant responses. The large spectrum of responses is not fully understood. In the framework of investigating the sensitivity and response of a near-natural treeline ecotone in Rolwaling Himal, Nepal, to climate warming we present results from dendroclimatological analyses of Abies spectabilis (Himalayan Fir) increment cores. Tree ring width was measured and cross-dated. After standardization, the chronology was correlated with temperature and precipitation variables. Preliminary results point to positive correlations with autumn temperature and precipitation. We will present improved climate-growth relationships. The resulting climate - tree growth relationships may be used as an indication of future growth patterns and treeline dynamics under climate change conditions.

  2. Diterpenes from the Trunk of Abies holophylla and Their Potential Neuroprotective and Anti-inflammatory Activities.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chung Sub; Subedi, Lalita; Kim, Sun Yeou; Choi, Sang Un; Kim, Ki Hyun; Lee, Kang Ro

    2016-02-26

    Eleven new abietane-type diterpenes, holophyllins D-N (1-11), and 17 known analogues (12-28), were isolated from a MeOH extract of the trunk of Abies holophylla. The chemical structures of 1-11 were determined through spectroscopic data analysis, including NMR ((1)H and (13)C NMR, DEPT, (1)H-(1)H COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY) and HRFABMS methods. All isolated compounds (1-28) were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against four human tumor cell lines (A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT-116), for their potential neuroprotective effects through induction of nerve growth factor in C6 glioma cells, and for their effects on nitric oxide levels in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine microglia BV2 cells.

  3. Ophiostoma kryptum sp. nov. from Larix decidua and Picea abies in Europe, similar to O. minus.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Karin; Kirisits, Thomas

    2003-10-01

    An unknown species of Ophiostoma was isolated from European larch (Larix decidua) infested by Tetropium gabrieli (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) infested by Tetropium sp. in Austria. The fungus is similar to O. minus, but distinguished from it by the ecology, colony morphologies on OA and MEA, and phylogenetic analysis of aligned DNA sequences of the ITS region of the rDNA operon and the partial beta-tubulin gene. It is described here as O. kryptum sp. nov. The new species readily produces perithecia with short necks and reniform ascospores, and has Hyalorhinocladiella and Leptographium-like anamorphs. Circumstantial evidence suggests that Tetropium spp. act as vectors of O. kryptum. O. minus and O. kryptum represent additional examples of morphologically similar, yet genetically and ecologically distinct species in the genus Ophiostoma. The new combination, O. crenulatum comb. nov. (syn. CeratocYstiopsis crenulata), is also made.

  4. Serendipitous Meta-Transcriptomics: The Fungal Community of Norway Spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Delhomme, Nicolas; Sundström, Görel; Zamani, Neda; Lantz, Henrik; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Hvidsten, Torgeir R; Höppner, Marc P; Jern, Patric; Van de Peer, Yves; Lundeberg, Joakim; Grabherr, Manfred G; Street, Nathaniel R

    2015-01-01

    After performing de novo transcript assembly of >1 billion RNA-Sequencing reads obtained from 22 samples of different Norway spruce (Picea abies) tissues that were not surface sterilized, we found that assembled sequences captured a mix of plant, lichen, and fungal transcripts. The latter were likely expressed by endophytic and epiphytic symbionts, indicating that these organisms were present, alive, and metabolically active. Here, we show that these serendipitously sequenced transcripts need not be considered merely as contamination, as is common, but that they provide insight into the plant's phyllosphere. Notably, we could classify these transcripts as originating predominantly from Dothideomycetes and Leotiomycetes species, with functional annotation of gene families indicating active growth and metabolism, with particular regards to glucose intake and processing, as well as gene regulation.

  5. Image Navigation and Registration Performance Assessment Evaluation Tools for GOES-R ABI and GLM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houchin, Scott; Porter, Brian; Graybill, Justin; Slingerland, Philip

    2017-01-01

    The GOES-R Flight Project has developed an Image Navigation and Registration (INR) Performance Assessment Tool Set (IPATS) for measuring Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) and Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) INR performance metrics in the post-launch period for performance evaluation and long term monitoring. IPATS utilizes a modular algorithmic design to allow user selection of data processing sequences optimized for generation of each INR metric. This novel modular approach minimizes duplication of common processing elements, thereby maximizing code efficiency and speed. Fast processing is essential given the large number of sub-image registrations required to generate INR metrics for the many images produced over a 24 hour evaluation period. This paper describes the software design and implementation of IPATS and provides preliminary test results.

  6. Structure-Based Drug Design of Novel, Potent, and Selective Azabenzimidazoles (ABI) as ATR Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Compound 13 was discovered through morphing of the ATR biochemical HTS hit 1. The ABI series was potent and selective for ATR. Incorporation of a 6-azaindole afforded a marked increase in cellular potency but was associated with poor PK and hERG ion channel inhibition. DMPK experiments established that CYP P450 and AO metabolism in conjunction with Pgp and BCRP efflux were major causative mechanisms for the observed PK. The series also harbored the CYP3A4 TDI liability driven by the presence of both a morpholine and an indole moiety. Incorporation of an adjacent fluorine or nitrogen into the 6-azaindole addressed many of the various medicinal chemistry issues encountered. PMID:25589928

  7. Growing trees on completed sanitary landfills. [Nyssa sylvatica, Picea abies, Ginkgo biloba

    SciTech Connect

    Leone, I.A.; Gilman, E.F.; Flower, F.B.

    1983-01-01

    A 10-year old completed landfill in New Jersey consisting of 9 m (depth) of refuse covered with 15-25 cm of soil was cleared of debris and vegetation and covered with 30 cm of subsoil and 15-25 cm of topsoil. Nineteen coniferous and broadleaved species were planted on the landfill and on a control site in 1975, and trees were maintained and growth and condition monitored over 4 years. On the basis of shoot length and stem area increase, the most successful of the surviving trees were Nyssa sylvatica, Picea abies and Ginkgo biloba, in decreasing order of tolerance. Tolerance of landfill conditions appeared to be greatest in those species with low water requirements, a slow growth rate, high acid tolerance and a shallow root system. (Refs. 11).

  8. Structure-Based Drug Design of Novel, Potent, and Selective Azabenzimidazoles (ABI) as ATR Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Barsanti, Paul A; Pan, Yue; Lu, Yipin; Jain, Rama; Cox, Matthew; Aversa, Robert J; Dillon, Michael P; Elling, Robert; Hu, Cheng; Jin, Xianming; Knapp, Mark; Lan, Jiong; Ramurthy, Savithri; Rudewicz, Patrick; Setti, Lina; Subramanian, Sharadha; Mathur, Michelle; Taricani, Lorena; Thomas, George; Xiao, Linda; Yue, Qin

    2015-01-08

    Compound 13 was discovered through morphing of the ATR biochemical HTS hit 1. The ABI series was potent and selective for ATR. Incorporation of a 6-azaindole afforded a marked increase in cellular potency but was associated with poor PK and hERG ion channel inhibition. DMPK experiments established that CYP P450 and AO metabolism in conjunction with Pgp and BCRP efflux were major causative mechanisms for the observed PK. The series also harbored the CYP3A4 TDI liability driven by the presence of both a morpholine and an indole moiety. Incorporation of an adjacent fluorine or nitrogen into the 6-azaindole addressed many of the various medicinal chemistry issues encountered.

  9. Measuring HER2-Receptor Expression In Metastatic Breast Cancer Using [68Ga]ABY-025 Affibody PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Sörensen, Jens; Velikyan, Irina; Sandberg, Dan; Wennborg, Anders; Feldwisch, Joachim; Tolmachev, Vladimir; Orlova, Anna; Sandström, Mattias; Lubberink, Mark; Olofsson, Helena; Carlsson, Jörgen; Lindman, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging of HER2 expression could potentially be used to select patients for HER2-targed therapy, predict response based on uptake and be used for monitoring. In this phase I/II study the HER2-binding Affibody molecule ABY-025 was labeled with 68Ga-gallium ([68Ga]ABY-025) for PET to study effect of peptide mass, test-retest variability and correlation of quantified uptake in tumors to histopathology. Experimental design: Sixteen women with known metastatic breast cancer and on-going treatment were included and underwent FDG PET/CT to identify viable metastases. After iv injection of 212±46 MBq [68Ga]ABY-025 whole-body PET was performed at 1, 2 and 4 h. In the first 10 patients (6 with HER2-positive and 4 with HER2-negative primary tumors), [68Ga]ABY-025 PET/CT with two different doses of injected peptide was performed one week apart. In the last six patients (5 HER2-positive and 1 HER2-negative primary tumors), repeated [68Ga]ABY-025 PET were performed one week apart as a test-retest of uptake in individual lesions. Biopsies from 16 metastases in 12 patients were collected for verification of HER2 expression by immunohistochemistry and in-situ hybridization. Results: Imaging 4h after injection with high peptide content discriminated HER2-positive metastases best (p<0.01). PET SUV correlated with biopsy HER2-scores (r=0.91, p<0.001). Uptake was five times higher in HER2-positive than in HER2-negative lesions with no overlap (p=0.005). The test-retest intra-class correlation was r=0.996. [68Ga]ABY-025 PET correctly identified conversion and mixed expression of HER2 and targeted treatment was changed in 3 of the 16 patients. Conclusion: [68Ga]ABY-025 PET accurately quantifies whole-body HER2-receptor status in metastatic breast cancer. PMID:26877784

  10. Radical Scavenging Activity of the Essential Oil of Silver Fir (Abies alba)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Seun-Ah; Jeon, Sang-Kyung; Lee, Eun-Jung; Im, Nam-Kyung; Jhee, Kwang-Hwan; Lee, Sam-Pin; Lee, In-Seon

    2009-01-01

    The essential oil of silver fir (Abies alba) is known to help respiratory system and have easing and soothing effect for muscle. In the present study, we investigated the chemical composition, cytotoxicity and its biological activities of silver fir (Abies alba) essential oil. The composition of the oil was analyzed by GC-MS and bornyl acetate (30.31%), camphene (19.81%), 3-carene (13.85%), tricyclene (12.90%), dl-limonene (7.50%), α-pinene (2.87%), caryophyllene (2.18%), β-phellandrene (2.13%), borneol (1.74%), bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene,2,3-dimethyl (1.64%) and α-terpinene (1.24%) were the major components in the oil. The results tested by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay indicated that the oil showed no cytotoxic effect, at concentrations of 1 and 5%, for as long as 24 and 3 h, respectively. The antiradical capacity was evaluated by measuring the scavenging activity of the essential oil on the 2,20-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis 3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radicals. The oil was able to reduce the both radicals dose-dependently, and the concentration required for 50% reduction (RC50) against DPPH radicals (2.7 ± 0.63%) was lower than ABTS radicals (8.5 ± 0.27%). The antibacterial activity of the oil was also evaluated using disc diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Listeria monocytogenes, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, and Vibrio parahaemolyticcus. The oil exhibited no antibacterial activity against all the bacterial strains tested except S. aureus of mild activity. PMID:19430614

  11. Gladiolus hybridus ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 5 (GhABI5) is an important transcription factor in ABA signaling that can enhance Gladiolus corm dormancy and Arabidopsis seed dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jian; Seng, Shanshan; Sui, Juanjuan; Vonapartis, Eliana; Luo, Xian; Gong, Benhe; Liu, Chen; Wu, Chenyu; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Fengqin; He, Junna; Yi, Mingfang

    2015-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant development and is crucial for abiotic stress response. In this study, cold storage contributes to reducing endogenous ABA content, resulting in dormancy breaking of Gladiolus. The ABA inhibitor fluridone also promotes germination, suggesting that ABA is an important hormone that regulates corm dormancy. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of the Gladiolus ABI5 homolog (GhABI5), which is a basic leucine zipper motif transcriptional factor (TF). GhABI5 is expressed in dormant vegetative organs (corm, cormel, and stolon) as well as in reproductive organs (stamen), and it is up-regulated by ABA or drought. Complementation analysis reveals that GhABI5 rescues the ABA insensitivity of abi5-3 during seed germination and induces the expression of downstream ABA response genes in Arabidopsis thaliana (EM1, EM6, and RD29B). Down-regulation of GhABI5 in dormant cormels via virus induced gene silence promotes sprouting and reduces the expression of downstream genes (GhLEA and GhRD29B). The results of this study reveal that GhABI5 regulates bud dormancy (vegetative organ) in Gladiolus in addition to its well-studied function in Arabidopsis seeds (reproductive organ). PMID:26579187

  12. A Study of Association of Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) and the Highly Sensitive C - Reactive Protein (hsCRP) in Type 2 Diabetic Patients and in Normal Subjects.

    PubMed

    K O, Thejaswini; M S, Roopakala; G, Dayananda; S P, Chandrakala; Kumar K M, Prasanna

    2013-01-01

    The Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI) objectively assesses the lower extremity arterial perfusion. A low ABI suggests atherosclerosis and Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD). PAD is more common in individuals with type2 Diabetes mellitus (Type2 DM). Inflammatory markers are found to be associated with Type2 DM. But the association of the inflammatory markers with the atherosclerotic burden remains poorly defined. To compare the ABI and the hsCRP in the Type 2 DM patients with those in the normal subjects and to study the association of serum hsCRP with ABI in the Type 2 DM patients and in normal subjects. The subjects were 40 Type2 DM and 40 age, sex and BMI matched normal subjects who were aged between 45-60 yrs. The subjects were assigned to two different groups, Group1- the Type2 DM patients and Group2- the healthy controls. The serum hsCRP levels were determined by the turbidimetry method (BIOSYSTEMS) and the ABI values were determined by using the traditional continuous wave (CW) Doppler of NICOLET VERSALAB. The data was analyzed by using the Student's t test (two tailed; independent) to find the significance of the study parameters between the two groups. Pearson's Correlation was used to find the correlation of serum hsCRP with the ABI in the two groups. The ABI showed a significantly low value (P=0.035*) and the serum hsCRP showed a trend towards a significant increase (p = 0.069+) in the type2diabetics as compared to those in the normals. There was a significant negative correlation between ABI and hsCRP in the Type 2 DM patients (r=-0.560, p<0.001**). However, such correlation was not observed in the normal subjects. As serum hsCRP is associated with ABI in the type2 DM patients, inflammation may play a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.

  13. Phase I and pharmacokinetic trial of carboplatin and albumin-bound paclitaxel, ABI-007 (Abraxane) on three treatment schedules in patients with solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Stinchcombe, Thomas E; Socinski, Mark A; Walko, Christine M; O'Neil, Bert H; Collichio, Frances A; Ivanova, Anastasia; Mu, Hua; Hawkins, Michael J; Goldberg, Richard M; Lindley, Celeste; Dees, E Claire

    2007-10-01

    Albumin-bound paclitaxel, ABI-007 (Abraxane((R))), has a different toxicity profile than solvent-based paclitaxel, including a lower rate of severe neutropenia. The combination of ABI-007 and carboplatin may have significant activity in a variety of tumor types including non-small and small cell lung cancer, ovarian cancer, and breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of ABI-007, on three different schedules in combination with carboplatin. Forty-one patients with solid tumors were enrolled, and received ABI-007 in combination with carboplatin AUC of 6 on day 1. Group A received ABI-007 at doses ranging from 220 to 340 mg/m(2) on day 1 every 21 days; group B received ABI-007 at 100 or 125 mg/m(2) on days 1, 8, and 15 every 28 days; and group C received ABI-007 125 or 150 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8 every 21 days. Dose-limiting toxicities were assessed after the first cycle. Doses were escalated in cohorts of three to six patients. Fifteen patients participated in a pharmacokinetic study investigating the effects of the sequence of infusion. ABI-007 was infused first followed by carboplatin in cycle 1, and vice versa in cycle 2. The MTD of ABI-007 in combination with carboplatin was 300, 100, and 125 mg/m(2) in groups A, B, and C, respectively. Myelosuppression was the primary dose limiting toxicity. No unexpected or new toxicities were reported. Sequence of infusion did not affect either the pharmacokinetics of ABI-007 or the degree of neutropenia. Responses were seen in melanoma, lung, bladder, esophageal, pancreatic, breast cancer, and cancer of unknown primary. The recommended dose for phase II studies of ABI-007 in combination with carboplatin (AUC of 6) is 300, 100, 125 mg/m(2) for the schedules A, B, and C, respectively. The combination of ABI-007 and carboplatin is well tolerated and active in this heavily pretreated patient population.

  14. Life and death of Picea abies after bark-beetle outbreak: ecological processes driving seedling recruitment.

    PubMed

    Macek, Martin; Wild, Jan; Kopecký, Martin; Červenka, Jaroslav; Svoboda, Miroslav; Zenáhlíková, Jitka; Brůna, Josef; Mosandl, Reinhard; Fischer, Anton

    2017-01-01

    The severity and spatial extent of bark-beetle outbreaks substantially increased in recent decades worldwide. The ongoing controversy about natural forest recovery after these outbreaks highlights the need for individual-based long-term studies, which disentangle processes driving forest regeneration. However, such studies have been lacking. To fill this gap, we followed the fates of 2,552 individual seedlings for 12 years after a large-scale bark-beetle outbreak that caused complete canopy dieback in mountain Norway spruce (Picea abies) forests in southeast Germany. We explore the contribution of advance, disturbance-related, and post-disturbance regeneration to forest recovery. Most seedlings originated directly within the three-year dieback of canopy trees induced by bark-beetle outbreak. After complete canopy dieback, the establishment of new seedlings was minimal. Surprisingly, advance regeneration formed only a minor part of all regeneration. However, because it had the highest survival rate, its importance increased over time. The most important factor influencing the survival of seedlings after disturbance was their height. Survival was further modified by microsite: seedlings established on dead wood survived best, whereas almost all seedlings surrounded by graminoids died. For 5 cm tall seedlings, annual mortality ranged from 20 to 50% according to the rooting microsite. However, for seedlings taller than 50 cm, annual mortality was below 5% at all microsites. While microsite modified seedling mortality, it did not affect seedling height growth. A model of regeneration dynamics based on short-term observations accurately predicts regeneration height growth, but substantially underestimates mortality rate, thus predicting more surviving seedlings than were observed. We found that P. abies forests were able to regenerate naturally even after severe bark-beetle outbreaks owing to advance and particularly disturbance-related regeneration. This, together

  15. Developmental pathway of somatic embryogenesis in Picea abies as revealed by time-lapse tracking.

    PubMed

    Filonova, L H; Bozhkov, P V; von Arnold, S

    2000-02-01

    Several coniferous species can be propagated via somatic embryogenesis. This is a useful method for clonal propagation, but it can also be used for studying how embryo development is regulated in conifers. However, in conifers it is not known to what extent somatic and zygotic embryos develop similarly, because there has been little research on the origin and development of somatic embryos. A time-lapse tracking technique has been set up, and the development of more than 2000 single cells and few-celled aggregates isolated from embryogenic suspension cultures of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) and embedded in thin layers of agarose has been traced. Experiments have shown that somatic embryos develop from proembryogenic masses which pass through a series of three characteristic stages distinguished by cellular organization and cell number (stages I, II and III) to transdifferentiate to somatic embryos. Microscopic inspection of different types of structures has revealed that proembryogenic masses are characterized by high interclonal variation of shape and cellular constitution. In contrast, somatic embryos are morphologically conservative structures, possessing a distinct protoderm-like cell layer as well as embryonal tube cells and suspensor. The lack of staining of the arabinogalactan protein epitope recognized by the monoclonal antibody JIM13 was shown to be an efficient marker for distinguishing proembryogenic masses from somatic embryos. The vast majority of cells in proembryogenic masses expressed this epitope and none of cells in the early somatic embryos. The conditions that promote cell proliferation (i.e. the presence of exogenous auxin and cytokinin), inhibit somatic embryo formation; instead, continuous multiplication of stage I proembryogenic masses by unequal division of embryogenic cells with dense cytoplasm is the prevailing process. Once somatic embryos have formed, their further development to mature forms requires abscisic acid and shares a

  16. Effects of Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin Decoction on immune cells of the spleen and bone marrow in ovariectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xuemin; Gui, Yuyan; Zhang, Na; Xu, Yingping; Li, Dajin; Wang, Ling

    2016-11-15

    Osteoimmunology is a new discipline that focuses on the interaction between the bones and the immune system. Immune cells play an important role in bone metabolism. The aim of this study was to illustrate the effect of Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin Decoction (BSNXD) on lymphocytes in the spleen and bone marrow to explore the potential role on the bone. C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: sham, ovariectomized (OVX), OVX+BSNXD, and OVX+ estrogen. The sham and OVX groups were treated with saline, the OVX+BSNXD group was treated with BSNXD, and the OVX+ estrogen group was treated with estrogen. After mice were sacrificed, the spleens and bones were collected, and the lymphocytes in the spleen and bone marrow were analyzed. We found that BSNXD lessened the extent of the increase of CD4(+) and bone marrow. In contrast, these numbers were both increased in the OVX group. BSNXD had no influence on the percentage of γδ T cells. However, it increased the proportion of NK cells in the spleen and bone marrow. BSNXD lessened the extent of the increase of monocytes by ovariectomy. In vitro experiment, we found Tregs can decrease osteoclastogenesis when co-cultured with osteoclast precursor cells. This study suggests that BSNXD changes the immune environment and immune cells have a role in bone metabolism in OVX mice.

  17. Effects of ning shen ling granule and dehydroepiandrosterone on cognitive function in mice undergoing chronic mild stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Dong, Yi-long; Yang, Nan; Liu, Yan-yong; Gao, Rui-feng; Zuo, Ping-ping

    2007-03-01

    To investigate the changes of spontaneous and cognitive behavior, and cholinergic M receptors in the brain of mice subjected to chronic mild stress (CMS), and to determine the effect of Ning Shen Ling Granule (NSL) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on them. CMS model mice were established by applying stress every day for 3 consecutive weeks with 7 kinds of unforeseeable stress sources, and they were medicated for 1 week beginning at the 3rd week of modeling. The changes in behavior were determined by Morris Water Maze and spontaneous movement test, and M-receptor binding activity in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus were measured by radioactive ligand assay with 3H-QNB. (1) The spontaneous movement in CMS model mice was significantly reduced, with the latency for searching platform in Morris Water Maze obviously prolonged (P<0.01), and these abnormal changes in behavior were improved in those treated with NSL and DHEA. (2) The binding ability of M-receptor in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of CMS mice was significantly decreased as compared with those in the control group (P<0.05), but could be restored to the normal level after intervention with NSL or DHEA. The decline of spontaneous movement and spatial learning and memory ability could be induced in animals by chronic mild stress, and that may be related to the low activity of central cholinergic M-receptors. Both NSL and DHEA could effectively alleviate the above-mentioned changes.

  18. Research on the change of chemical composition in productive process of Re Du Ning injection by HPLC/Q-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shan; Li, Yan-Jing; Zhang, Chun-Xiao; Huang, Wen-Zhe; Ding, Gang; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Bi, Yu-An; Xiao, Wei

    2016-02-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/Q-TOF MS) was developed for the analysis of chemical composition change in the production process of Re Du Ning injection, a Chinese medicine preparation with a combination of Lonicera japonica Thunb., Gardenia jasminoides Ellis and Artemisia annua L. A total of 90 compounds from raw materials-intermediates-Re Du Ning injection were detected; among them, 55 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized, and the characteristic ions of different types of compounds were described. Based on these studies, the different types of compounds in the various process routes were analyzed. A total of 28 compounds, including seven iridoid glycosides and six monoterpenes from G. jasminoides Ellis, five iridoid glycosides, nine phenolic acids and one unknown compound from L. japonica Thunb., were transferred to Re Du Ning injection, and two unknown compounds were generated in the production process of Re Du Ning injection. The results indicated that the Chinese Medicine Pharmaceutical process control is very important. This method could provide some reference for other Chinese medicine preparations.

  19. Development of 32 EST-SSR markers for Abies firma (Pinaceae) and their transferability to related species1

    PubMed Central

    Uchiyama, Kentaro; Fujii, Sayaka; Ishizuka, Wataru; Goto, Susumu; Tsumura, Yoshihiko

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: We developed simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for Abies firma, a conifer endemic in Japan, to facilitate evaluation of the population genetic structure in this species. • Methods and Results: We designed primers for 153 EST-SSRs identified from 486322 ESTs from A. sachalinensis ESTs, and tested 96 of them for PCR amplification. Thirty-two primers provided clear amplification, and 14 of those 32 displayed clear polymorphic patterns in multiple populations of A. firma and in two closely related species. The number of alleles per locus and mean expected heterozygosity ranged from one to six and 0 to 0.476, respectively. • Conclusions: The EST-SSR markers developed in this study may be useful for phylogeography and population genetic studies of A. firma. Successful amplifications were obtained for two other Abies species, suggesting that these markers may also be useful for similar applications in other fir species. PMID:25202517

  20. Phylogenetic relationships, possible ancient hybridization, and biogeographic history of Abies (Pinaceae) based on data from nuclear, plastid, and mitochondrial genomes.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Qiao-Ping; Wei, Ran; Shao, Yi-Zhen; Yang, Zu-Yu; Wang, Xiao-Quan; Zhang, Xian-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Abies, the second largest genus of Pinaceae, consists of approximately 48 species occurring in the north temperate region. Previous molecular phylogenetic studies improved our understanding of relationships within the genus, but were limited by relying on only DNA sequence data from single genome and low taxonomic sampling. Here we use DNA data from three genomes (sequences of internal transcribed spacer of nrITS, three chloroplast DNA intergenic spacers, and two mitochondrial intergenic spacers) from 42 species to elucidate species relationships and construct the biogeographic history of Abies. We further estimated the divergence times of intercontinental disjunction using a relaxed molecular clock calibrated with three macro-fossils. Our phylogenetic analyses recovered six robust clades largely consistent with previous classifications of sections. A sister relationship between the eastern Asian and Europe-Mediterranean clades was highly supported. The monophyly of section Balsamea, disjunct in Far East and western North America, is supported by the nrITS data but not by the cpDNA data. Discordance on placement of section Balsamea between the paternally inherited cpDNA and maternally inherited mtDNA trees was also observed. The data suggested that ancient hybridization was likely involved in the origin of sect. Balsamea. Results from biogeographic analyses and divergence time estimation suggested an origin and early diversification of Abies in an area of high latitude around the Pacific during the Eocene. The present disjunction in eastern Asia and Europe-Mediterranean area of Abies was likely the result of southward migration and isolation by the Turgai Strait in the Late Eocene. An 'out-of-America' migration, for the origin of an eastern Asian and western North American disjunct species pairs in section Amabilis was supported. The results suggested a western North American origin of the section with subsequent dispersal across the Bering Land Bridge (BLB) to

  1. Phylogeny, diversification rates and species boundaries of Mesoamerican firs (Abies, Pinaceae) in a genus-wide context.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Planter, Erika; Jaramillo-Correa, Juan P; Gómez-Acevedo, Sandra; Khasa, Damase P; Bousquet, Jean; Eguiarte, Luis E

    2012-01-01

    The genus Abies is distributed discontinuously in the temperate and subtropical montane forests of the northern hemisphere. In Mesoamerica (Mexico and northern Central America), modern firs originated from the divergence of isolated mountain populations of migrating North American taxa. However, the number of ancestral species, migratory waves and diversification speed of these taxa is unknown. Here, variation in repetitive (Pt30204, Pt63718, and Pt71936) and non-repetitive (rbcL, rps18-rpl20 and trnL-trnF) regions of the chloroplast genome was used to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of the Mesoamerican Abies in a genus-wide context. These phylogenies and two fossil-calibrated scenarios were further employed to estimate divergence dates and diversification rates within the genus, and to test the hypothesis that, as in many angiosperms, conifers may exhibit accelerated speciation rates in the subtropics. All phylogenies showed five main clusters that mostly agreed with the currently recognized sections of Abies and with the geographic distribution of species. The Mesoamerican taxa formed a single group with species from southwestern North America of sections Oiamel and Grandis. However, populations of the same species were not monophyletic within this group. Divergence of this whole group dated back to the late Paleocene and the early Miocene depending on the calibration used, which translated in very low diversification rates (r(0.0)=0.026-0.054, r(0.9)=0.009-0.019 sp/Ma). Such low rates were a constant along the entire genus, including both the subtropical and temperate taxa. An extended phylogeographic analysis on the Mesoamerican clade indicated that Abies flinckii and A. concolor were the most divergent taxa, while the remaining species (A. durangensis, A. guatemalensis, A. hickelii, A. religiosa and A. vejari) formed a single group. Altogether, these results show that divergence of Mesoamerican firs coincides with a model of environmental stasis and

  2. An Arabidopsis mitochondria-localized RRL protein mediates abscisic acid signal transduction through mitochondrial retrograde regulation involving ABI4.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xuan; Li, Juanjuan; Liu, Jianping; Liu, Kede

    2015-10-01

    The molecular mechanisms of abscisic acid (ABA) signalling have been studied for many years; however, how mitochondria-localized proteins play roles in ABA signalling remains unclear. Here an Arabidopsis mitochondria-localized protein RRL (RETARDED ROOT GROWTH-LIKE) was shown to function in ABA signalling. A previous study had revealed that the Arabidopsis mitochondria-localized protein RRG (RETARDED ROOT GROWTH) is required for cell division in the root meristem. RRL shares 54% and 57% identity at the nucleotide and amino acid sequences, respectively, with RRG; nevertheless, RRL shows a different function in Arabidopsis. In this study, disruption of RRL decreased ABA sensitivity whereas overexpression of RRL increased ABA sensitivity during seed germination and seedling growth. High expression levels of RRL were found in germinating seeds and developing seedlings, as revealed by β-glucuronidase (GUS) staining of ProRRL-GUS transgenic lines. The analyses of the structure and function of mitochondria in the knockout rrl mutant showed that the disruption of RRL causes extensively internally vacuolated mitochondria and reduced ABA-stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Previous studies have revealed that the expression of alternative oxidase (AOX) in the alternative respiratory pathway is increased by mitochondrial retrograde regulation to regain ROS levels when the mitochondrial electron transport chain is impaired. The APETALA2 (AP2)-type transcription factor ABI4 is a regulator of ALTERNATIVE OXIDASE1a (AOX1a) in mitochondrial retrograde signalling. This study showed that ABA-induced AOX1a and ABI4 expression was inhibited in the rrl mutant, suggesting that RRL is probably involved in ABI4-mediated mitochondrial retrograde signalling. Furthermore, the results revealed that ABI4 is a downstream regulatory factor in RRL-mediated ABA signalling in seed germination and seedling growth.

  3. Relationship between ankle brachial index (ABI), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and initial disability level in acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Chotik-anuchit, Songkram; Nilanont, Yongchai; Poungvarin, Niphon

    2011-02-01

    Relationship between high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), Ankle Brachial index (ABI), severity of atherosclerosis and risk of ischemic stroke has been well documented. Studies concerning the association of ABI, hs-CRP and initial disability level in acute ischemic stroke are scarce. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between hs-CRP, ABI and level of initial disability in acute stroke setting. We conducted a prospective observational study in patients with acute ischemic stroke within 48 hours of onset. Initial ABI, hs-CRP were measured. Disability level was assessed at admission and 3 months using the modified Rankin scale (mRS) and the National Institue of Health Stroke scale (NIHSS). Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. This study included 36 patients with a mean +/-SD age of 67.8 +/- 9.3 years. Sixteen (44.4%) were male. Median NIHSS and mRS were 10 and 4 respectively. Correlation between initial ABI and hs-CRP was poor (r(s) = -0.11, p = 0.57). There was a significant negative relationship between ABI and mRS at 0 and 3 months with a correlation coefficient of -0.45 (p = 0.006) and -0.41 (p = 0.02), respectively. There was a significant inverse relationship between ABI and initial stroke disability. However, correlation coefficient indicated only fair agreement beyond chance. This findings suggest that ABI may be used as a clinical predictor of initial disability level in acute stroke.

  4. Diverse ecological roles within fungal communities in decomposing logs of Picea abies.

    PubMed

    Ottosson, Elisabet; Kubartová, Ariana; Edman, Mattias; Jönsson, Mari; Lindhe, Anders; Stenlid, Jan; Dahlberg, Anders

    2015-03-01

    Fungal communities in Norway spruce (Picea abies) logs in two forests in Sweden were investigated by 454-sequence analyses and by examining the ecological roles of the detected taxa. We also investigated the relationship between fruit bodies and mycelia in wood and whether community assembly was affected by how the dead wood was formed. Fungal communities were highly variable in terms of phylogenetic composition and ecological roles: 1910 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected; 21% were identified to species level. In total, 58% of the OTUs were ascomycetes and 31% basidiomycetes. Of the 231 337 reads, 38% were ascomycetes and 60% basidiomycetes. Ecological roles were assigned to 35% of the OTUs, accounting for 62% of the reads. Wood-decaying fungi were the most common group; however, other saprotrophic, mycorrhizal, lichenized, parasitic and endophytic fungi were also common. Fungal communities in logs formed by stem breakage were different to those in logs originating from butt breakage or uprooting. DNA of specific species was detected in logs many years after the last recorded fungal fruiting. Combining taxonomic identification with knowledge of ecological roles may provide valuable insights into properties of fungal communities; however, precise ecological information about many fungal species is still lacking.

  5. Groundwater quality assessment using geoelectrical and geochemical approaches: case study of Abi area, southeastern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebong, Ebong D.; Akpan, Anthony E.; Emeka, Chimezie N.; Urang, Job G.

    2016-06-01

    The electrical resistivity technique which involved the Schlumberger depth sounding method and geochemical analyses of water samples collected from boreholes was used to investigate the suitability of groundwater aquifers in Abi for drinking and irrigation purposes. Fifty randomly located electrical resistivity data were collected, modeled, and interpreted after calibration with lithologic logs. Ten borehole water samples were collected and analysed to determine anion, cation concentrations and some physical and chemical parameters, such as water colour, temperature, total dissolved solids, and electrical conductivity. The results show that the lithostratigraphy of the study area is composed of sands, sandstones (fractured, consolidated and loosed), siltstones, shales (compacted and fractured) of the Asu River Group, Eze-Aku Formation which comprises the aquifer units, and the Nkporo Shale Formation. The aquifer conduits are known to be rich in silicate minerals, and the groundwater samples in some locations show a significant amount of Ca2+, Mg2+, and Na+. These cations balanced the consumption of H+ during the hydrolytic alteration of silicate minerals. The geochemical analysis of groundwater samples revealed dominant calcium-magnesium-carbonate-bicarbonate water facies. Irrigation water quality parameters, such as sodium absorption ratio, percentage of sodium, and permeability index, were calculated based on the physico-chemical analyses. The groundwater quality was observed to be influenced by the interaction of some geologic processes but was classified to be good to excellent, indicating its suitability for domestic and irrigation purposes.

  6. Application of ultrasonic tomography to characterize the mechanical state of standing trees (Picea abies)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brancheriau, L.; Ghodrati, A.; Gallet, P.; Thaunay, P.; Lasaygues, P.

    2012-03-01

    Wood is a biological growth medium. It is orthotropic with longitudinal, radial and tangential axes. Furthermore, standing trees adapt themselves to environmental growth conditions, and their material properties vary with age. These changes result in variations that are much more complex than anisotropy. Studying wood quality and intraspecific variability is useful for clonal selection and for the genetic improvement of plantations. In this study, two logs of Picea abies underwent transmission tomography. The mean diameter was 16 cm (26-year-old tree) and the moisture content was 22%. The effect of the presence of bark and artificial defects was investigated. The tomographic device was specifically built for tree imaging. The imaging process was automatic with 900 ultrasonic acquisitions in 40 minutes (emission at 55 kHz with 5 periods of square wave form). The main conclusions were: speed near the bark is higher than in the centre because of the existence of juvenile wood combined with the moisture content gradient (moisture content lower near the bark). Likewise, damping near the bark is lower than in the centre. A significant relationship was observed between slowness and attenuation (R2 = 0.50); when the speed increased, damping decreased. No clear effect of the presence of bark was shown on the tomographic images. The bark was thin (3 to 5 mm thick) compared to the wavelength (26 mm). The 10, 20 and 50 mm artificial holes were clearly visible on the tomographic images. However, quantitative tomography does not enable the precise location of defects.

  7. Species delimitation and biogeography of two fir species (Abies) in central China: cytoplasmic DNA variation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, J; Abbott, R J; Peng, Y L; Du, F K; Liu, J-Q

    2011-01-01

    It remains unclear how speciation history might contribute to species-specific variation and affect species delimitation. We examined concordance between cytoplasmic genetic variation and morphological taxonomy in two fir species, Abies chensiensis and A. fargesii, with overlapping distributions in central China. Range-wide genetic variation was investigated using mitochondrial (mt) and plastid (pt) DNA sequences, which contrast in their rates of gene flow. Four mtDNA haplotypes were recovered and showed no obvious species' bias in terms of relative frequency. In contrast, a high level of ptDNA variation was recorded in both species with 3 common ptDNA haplotypes shared between them and 21 rare ptDNA haplotypes specific to one or other species. We argue that the lack of concordance between morphological and molecular variation between the two fir species most likely reflects extensive ancestral polymorphism sharing for both forms of cytoplasmic DNA variation. It is feasible that a relatively fast mutation rate for ptDNA contributed to the production of many species-specific ptDNA haplotypes, which remained rare due to insufficient time passing for their spread and fixation in either species, despite high levels of intraspecific ptDNA gene flow. Our phylogeographic analyses further suggest that polymorphisms in both organelle genomes most likely originated during and following glacial intervals preceding the last glacial maximum, when species distributions became fragmented into several refugia and then expanded in range across central China. PMID:21448232

  8. Comparison of phloem and xylem hydraulic architecture in Picea abies stems.

    PubMed

    Jyske, Tuula; Hölttä, Teemu

    2015-01-01

    The hydraulic properties of xylem and phloem differ but the magnitude and functional consequences of the differences are not well understood. Phloem and xylem functional areas, hydraulic conduit diameters and conduit frequency along the stems of Picea abies trees were measured and expressed as allometric functions of stem diameter and distance from stem apex. Conductivities of phloem and xylem were estimated from these scaling relations. Compared with xylem, phloem conduits were smaller and occupied a slightly larger fraction of conducting tissue area. Ten times more xylem than phloem was annually produced along the stem. Scaling of the conduit diameters and cross-sectional areas with stem diameter were very similar in phloem and xylem. Phloem and xylem conduits scaled also similarly with distance from stem apex; widening downwards from the tree top, and reaching a plateau near the base of the living crown. Phloem conductivity was estimated to scale similarly to the conductivity of the outermost xylem ring, with the ratio of phloem to xylem conductivity being c. 2%. However, xylem conductivity was estimated to increase more than phloem conductivity with increasing tree dimensions as a result of accumulation of xylem sapwood. Phloem partly compensated for its smaller conducting area and narrower conduits by having a slightly higher conduit frequency.

  9. Complex bud architecture and cell-specific chemical patterns enable supercooling of Picea abies bud primordia.

    PubMed

    Kuprian, Edith; Munkler, Caspar; Resnyak, Anna; Zimmermann, Sonja; Tuong, Tan D; Gierlinger, Notburga; Müller, Thomas; Livingston, David P; Neuner, Gilbert

    2017-09-29

    Bud primordia of Picea abies, despite a frozen shoot, stay ice free down to -50°C by a mechanism termed supercooling whose biophysical and biochemical requirements are poorly understood. Bud architecture was assessed by 3D-reconstruction, supercooling and freezing patterns by infrared video thermography, freeze dehydration and extra-organ freezing by water potential measurements and cell-specific chemical patterns by RAMAN microscopy and Mass Spectrometry Imaging. A bowl-like ice barrier tissue insulates primordia from entrance by intrinsic ice. Water repellent and densely packed bud scales prevent extrinsic ice penetration. At -18°C break-down of supercooling was triggered by intrinsic ice nucleators while the ice barrier remained active. Temperature-dependent freeze dehydration (-0.1 MPa/K) caused accumulation of extra-organ ice masses that by rupture of the shoot pith tissue are accommodated in large voids. The barrier tissue has exceptionally pectin-rich cell walls and intercellular spaces and the cell lumina were lined or filled with proteins, especially near the primordium. Primordial cells close to the barrier accumulate di-, tri- and tetrasaccharides. Bud architecture efficiently prevents ice penetration but ice nucleators become active inside the primordium below a temperature threshold. Biochemical patterns indicate a complex cellular interplay enabling supercooling and the necessity for cell-specific biochemical analysis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Resonance wood [Picea abies (L.) Karst.]--evaluation and prediction of violin makers' quality-grading.

    PubMed

    Buksnowitz, Christoph; Teischinger, Alfred; Müller, Ulrich; Pahler, Andreas; Evans, Robert

    2007-04-01

    The definition of quality in the field of resonance wood for musical instrument making has attracted considerable interest over decades but has remained incomplete. The current work compares the traditional knowledge and practical experience of violin makers with a material-science approach to objectively characterize the properties of resonance wood. Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] has earned a very high reputation for the construction of resonance tops of stringed instruments and resonance boards of keyboard instruments, and was therefore chosen as the focus of the investigation. The samples were obtained from numerous renowned resonance wood regions in the European Alps and cover the whole range of available qualities. A set of acoustical, anatomical, mechanical and optical material properties was measured on each sample. These measurements were compared with subjective quality grading by violin makers, who estimated the acoustical, optical and overall suitability for violin making. Multiple linear regression models were applied to evaluate the predictability of the subjective grading using the measured material characteristics as predictors. The results show that luthiers are able to estimate wood quality related to visible features, but predictions of mechanical and acoustical properties proved to be very poor.

  11. Eight pairs of epimeric triterpenoids involving a characteristic spiro-E/F ring from Abies faxoniana.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Wei; Lv, Chao; Fang, Xin; Tian, Xin-Hui; Ye, Ji; Li, Hui-Liang; Shan, Lei; Shen, Yun-Heng; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2015-01-23

    Five pairs of new epimeric lanostane-type triterpenoids, abiespirones A-D (1-4) and G (7), two pairs of new epimeric cycloartane-type triterpenoids, abiespirones E and F (5, 6), and a pair of new epimeric 7(8→9)abeo-spirolanostane abiespirones H (8) with spiro-B/C and -E/F ring systems were isolated from Abies faxoniana as inseparable mixtures of C-23 epimers in a specific proportion. The HPLC plots showed that each purified isomer rapidly equilibrated with the C-23 epimer in solution. The structures of compounds 1-8 were elucidated by analysis of the NMR spectra and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 6 showed cytotoxicity against three hepatoma cell lines, namely, HepG2, Huh7, and SMMC7721, with IC50 values of 9.8, 7.5, and 10.7 μM, respectively, but exerted low cytotoxicity on normal QSG7701 hepatic cells, indicating its selective cytotoxicity for hepatoma cells. Compound 6 arrests the cell cycle at G2/M and induces cell apoptosis in Huh7 cells. In addition, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected in Huh7 cells when treated with compound 6, and a ROS scavenger partly blocked the effects of compound 6-induced Huh7 cell death, suggesting that compound 6-induced apoptosis is associated with elevated levels of ROS in Huh7 cells.

  12. Novel lanostane and rearranged lanostane-type triterpenoids from Abies sachalinensis - II -.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hui Yuan; Wu, Li Jun; Nakane, Takahisa; Shirota, Osamu; Kuroyanagi, Masonori

    2008-04-01

    In the previous work we reported five A-seco-rearranged lanostane triterpenoids as antibacterial constituents from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of Abies sachalinensei leaves. In further study on the isolation of constituents from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction, two new rearranged lanostane and lanostane-type triterpenoids (3, 4) and three reported compound (1, 2, 5) were isolated. The structures of new compound 3 and 4 were determined to be 3,4-seco-4(28),6,8(14),24-mariesatetraen-26,23-olide-23-hydroxy-3-oic acid and 3,4-seco-4(28),7,24-lanostatrien-26,23-olide-23-hydroxy-3-oic acid, respectively, by spectral studies on HR-MS, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, and 2D-NMR spectra. Compound 1 was identified with pindrolactone and its structure was revised as 7,14,22Z,24-mariesatetraen-26,23-olide-3alpha-ol. Structures of 2 and 5 were determined as 7,14,24-mariesatrien-26,23-olide-3alpha,23-diol and 3alpha-hydroxy-7,14,24E-mariesatrien-23-oxo-26-oic acid. Of these compounds, 2, 3 and 4 were obtained as lactol tautomer mixtures at gamma-lactone structures of side chains.

  13. Extraction of antioxidants from spruce (Picea abies) bark using eco-friendly solvents.

    PubMed

    Co, Michelle; Fagerlund, Amelie; Engman, Lars; Sunnerheim, Kerstin; Sjöberg, Per J R; Turner, Charlotta

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidants are known to avert oxidation processes and they are found in trees and other plant materials. Tree bark is a major waste product from paper pulp industries; hence it is worthwhile to develop an extraction technique to extract the antioxidants. To develop a fast and environmentally sustainable extraction technique for the extraction of antioxidants from bark of spruce (Picea abies) and also to identify the extracted antioxidants that are abundant in spruce bark. A screening experiment that involved three different techniques was conducted to determine the best technique to extract antioxidants. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was determined with DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay. Pressurised fluid extraction (PFE) turned out to be the best technique and a response surface design was therefore utilised to optimise PFE. Furthermore, NMR and HPLC-DAD-MS/MS were applied to identify the extracted antioxidants. PFE using water and ethanol as solvent at 160 and 180°C, respectively, gave extracts of the highest antioxidant capacity. Stilbene glucosides such as isorhapontin, piceid and astringin were identified in the extracts. The study has shown that PFE is a fast and environmentally sustainable technique, using water and ethanol as solvent for the extraction of antioxidants from spruce bark. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Groundwater quality assessment using geoelectrical and geochemical approaches: case study of Abi area, southeastern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebong, Ebong D.; Akpan, Anthony E.; Emeka, Chimezie N.; Urang, Job G.

    2017-09-01

    The electrical resistivity technique which involved the Schlumberger depth sounding method and geochemical analyses of water samples collected from boreholes was used to investigate the suitability of groundwater aquifers in Abi for drinking and irrigation purposes. Fifty randomly located electrical resistivity data were collected, modeled, and interpreted after calibration with lithologic logs. Ten borehole water samples were collected and analysed to determine anion, cation concentrations and some physical and chemical parameters, such as water colour, temperature, total dissolved solids, and electrical conductivity. The results show that the lithostratigraphy of the study area is composed of sands, sandstones (fractured, consolidated and loosed), siltstones, shales (compacted and fractured) of the Asu River Group, Eze-Aku Formation which comprises the aquifer units, and the Nkporo Shale Formation. The aquifer conduits are known to be rich in silicate minerals, and the groundwater samples in some locations show a significant amount of Ca2+, Mg2+, and Na+. These cations balanced the consumption of H+ during the hydrolytic alteration of silicate minerals. The geochemical analysis of groundwater samples revealed dominant calcium-magnesium-carbonate-bicarbonate water facies. Irrigation water quality parameters, such as sodium absorption ratio, percentage of sodium, and permeability index, were calculated based on the physico-chemical analyses. The groundwater quality was observed to be influenced by the interaction of some geologic processes but was classified to be good to excellent, indicating its suitability for domestic and irrigation purposes.

  15. Monolignol oxidation by xylem peroxidase isoforms of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and silver birch (Betula pendula).

    PubMed

    Marjamaa, Kaisa; Kukkola, Eija; Lundell, Taina; Karhunen, Pirkko; Saranpää, Pekka; Fagerstedt, Kurt V

    2006-05-01

    We partially purified peroxidase isoform fractions from xylem extracts of a gymnosperm, Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), and an angiosperm, silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.), to determine the participation of xylem-localized peroxidases in polymerization of different types of lignin in vivo. Several peroxidase fractions varying in isoelectric point values from acidic to basic were tested for their ability to catalyze the oxidation of the monolignols coniferyl alcohol, sinapyl alcohol and p-coumaryl alcohol in vitro. All of the xylem peroxidases extracted from Norway spruce and most of those from silver birch showed the highest rate of oxidation with coniferyl alcohol in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The exception was an acidic peroxidase fraction (pI 3.60-3.65) from silver birch that exhibited higher oxidation activity for sinapyl alcohol than for coniferyl alcohol. For the xylem enzyme fractions extracted from silver birch, the ability to oxidize the artificial phenolic substrate syringaldazine coincided with high specific activity for sinapyl alcohol. Therefore, we conclude that the acidic, neutral and basic xylem peroxidases of Norway spruce all function in the synthesis of guaiacyl-type lignin, whereas in silver birch the acidic peroxidases preferentially oxidize sinapyl subunits. The latter provides a mechanism for synthesis of guaiacyl-syringyl lignin typical of tracheid cell walls in angiosperm trees.

  16. Thigmomorphogenesis: field and laboratory studies of Abies fraseri in response to wind or mechanical perturbation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telewski, F. W.; Jaffe, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Field- and greenhouse-grown Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir. (Fraser fir) were analyzed for wind- or mechanically-induced flexure changes. These changes included inhibition of stem and needle elongation, reinforcement of branch bases around the stem, and increased radial growth in the direction of the mechanical perturbation (MP). Mature trees exposed to high wind conditions were severely flag-formed. These modified tree crowns had a lower drag than crowns of non-flag formed trees in wind-tunnel tests. In both field-grown and greenhouse-grown A. fraseri, MP induced a decrease in flexibility and increased elasticity of the stems. The increased radial growth of the stems overrode the increase in elasticity, resulting in the overall decrease in flexibility. The increase in radial growth caused by wind or mechanical flexure was due to greater cell divisions of the vascular cambium, resulting in increased numbers of tracheids. The decrease in stem elongation in these trees was due, at least in part, to a decrease in tracheid length. The potential biological and mechanical significance of these induced growth changes in trees are addressed. The data support the thigmomorphogenetic theory, which states that plants respond to wind and other mechanical perturbations in a way that is favorable to the plant for continued survival in windy environments.

  17. Warming delays autumn declines in photosynthetic capacity in a boreal conifer, Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Stinziano, Joseph R; Hüner, Norman P A; Way, Danielle A

    2015-12-01

    Climate change, via warmer springs and autumns, may lengthen the carbon uptake period of boreal tree species, increasing the potential for carbon sequestration in boreal forests, which could help slow climate change. However, if other seasonal cues such as photoperiod dictate when photosynthetic capacity declines, warmer autumn temperatures may have little effect on when carbon uptake capacity decreases in these species. We investigated whether autumn warming would delay photosynthetic decline in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) by growing seedlings under declining weekly photoperiods and weekly temperatures either at ambient temperature or a warming treatment 4 °C above ambient. Photosynthetic capacity was relatively constant in both treatments when weekly temperatures were >8 °C, but declined rapidly at lower temperatures, leading to a delay in the autumn decline in photosynthetic capacity in the warming treatment. The decline in photosynthetic capacity was not related to changes in leaf nitrogen or chlorophyll concentrations, but was correlated with a decrease in the apparent fraction of leaf nitrogen invested in Rubisco, implicating a shift in nitrogen allocation away from the Calvin cycle at low autumn growing temperatures. Our data suggest that as the climate warms, the period of net carbon uptake will be extended in the autumn for boreal forests dominated by Norway spruce, which could increase total carbon uptake in these forests.

  18. Localization of phenolics in phloem parenchyma cells of Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng-Hong; Nagy, Nina Elisabeth; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Krokene, Paal; Niu, Xue-Mei; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Schneider, Bernd

    2012-12-21

    Norway spruce (Picea abies) bark contains specialized phloem parenchyma cells that swell and change their contents upon attack by the bark beetle Ips typographus and its microbial associate, the blue stain fungus Ceratocystis polonica. These cells exhibit bright autofluorescence after treatment with standard aldehyde fixatives, and so have been postulated to contain phenolic compounds. Laser microdissection of spruce bark sections combined with cryogenic NMR spectroscopy demonstrated significantly higher concentrations of the stilbene glucoside astringin in phloem parenchyma cells than in adjacent sieve cells. After infection by C. polonica, the flavonoid (+)-catechin also appeared in phloem parenchyma cells and there was a decrease in astringin content compared to cells from uninfected trees. Analysis of whole-bark extracts confirmed the results obtained from the cell extracts and revealed a significant increase in dimeric stilbene glucosides, both astringin and isorhapontin derivatives (piceasides A to H), in fungus-infected versus uninfected bark that might explain the reduction in stilbene monomers. Phloem parenchyma cells thus appear to be a principal site of phenolic accumulation in spruce bark.

  19. Patterns of nucleotide diversity at photoperiod related genes in Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst].

    PubMed

    Källman, Thomas; De Mita, Stéphane; Larsson, Hanna; Gyllenstrand, Niclas; Heuertz, Myriam; Parducci, Laura; Suyama, Yoshihisa; Lagercrantz, Ulf; Lascoux, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The ability of plants to track seasonal changes is largely dependent on genes assigned to the photoperiod pathway, and variation in those genes is thereby important for adaptation to local day length conditions. Extensive physiological data in several temperate conifer species suggest that populations are adapted to local light conditions, but data on the genes underlying this adaptation are more limited. Here we present nucleotide diversity data from 19 genes putatively involved in photoperiodic response in Norway spruce (Picea abies). Based on similarity to model plants the genes were grouped into three categories according to their presumed position in the photoperiod pathway: photoreceptors, circadian clock genes, and downstream targets. An HKA (Hudson, Kreitman and Aquade) test showed a significant excess of diversity at photoreceptor genes, but no departure from neutrality at circadian genes and downstream targets. Departures from neutrality were also tested with Tajima's D and Fay and Wu's H statistics under three demographic scenarios: the standard neutral model, a population expansion model, and a more complex population split model. Only one gene, the circadian clock gene PaPRR3 with a highly positive Tajima's D value, deviates significantly from all tested demographic scenarios. As the PaPRR3 gene harbours multiple non-synonymous variants it appears as an excellent candidate gene for control of photoperiod response in Norway spruce.

  20. Norway spruce (Picea abies) laccases: characterization of a laccase in a lignin-forming tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Koutaniemi, Sanna; Malmberg, Heli A; Simola, Liisa K; Teeri, Teemu H; Kärkönen, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Secondarily thickened cell walls of water-conducting vessels and tracheids and support-giving sclerenchyma cells contain lignin that makes the cell walls water impermeable and strong. To what extent laccases and peroxidases contribute to lignin biosynthesis in muro is under active evaluation. We performed an in silico study of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) laccases utilizing available genomic data. As many as 292 laccase encoding sequences (genes, gene fragments, and pseudogenes) were detected in the spruce genome. Out of the 112 genes annotated as laccases, 79 are expressed at some level. We isolated five full-length laccase cDNAs from developing xylem and an extracellular lignin-forming cell culture of spruce. In addition, we purified and biochemically characterized one culture medium laccase from the lignin-forming cell culture. This laccase has an acidic pH optimum (pH 3.8-4.2) for coniferyl alcohol oxidation. It has a high affinity to coniferyl alcohol with an apparent Km value of 3.5 μM; however, the laccase has a lower catalytic efficiency (V(max)/K(m)) for coniferyl alcohol oxidation compared with some purified culture medium peroxidases. The properties are discussed in the context of the information already known about laccases/coniferyl alcohol oxidases of coniferous plants.

  1. Metabolite profiling reveals clear metabolic changes during somatic embryo development of Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Businge, Edward; Brackmann, Klaus; Moritz, Thomas; Egertsdotter, Ulrika

    2012-02-01

    Progress on industrial-scale propagation of conifers by somatic embryogenesis has been hampered by the differences in developmental capabilities between cell lines, which are limiting the capture of genetic gains from breeding programs. In this study, we investigated the metabolic events occurring during somatic embryo development in Norway spruce to establish a better understanding of the fundamental metabolic events required for somatic embryo development. Three embryogenic cell lines of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) with different developmental capabilities were studied during somatic embryo development from proliferation of proembryogenic masses to mature somatic embryos. The three different cell lines displayed normal, aberrant and blocked somatic embryo development. Metabolite profiles from four development stages in each of the cell lines were obtained using combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Multivariate discriminant analyses of the metabolic data revealed significant metabolites (P  ≤  0.05) for each development stage and transition. The results suggest that endogenous auxin and sugar signaling affects initial stages of somatic embryo development. Furthermore, the results highlight the importance of a timed stress response and the presence of stimulatory metabolites during late stages of embryo development.

  2. Conserved function of core clock proteins in the gymnosperm Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst).

    PubMed

    Karlgren, Anna; Gyllenstrand, Niclas; Källman, Thomas; Lagercrantz, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    From studies of the circadian clock in the plant model species Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), a number of important properties and components have emerged. These include the genes CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1), GIGANTEA (GI), ZEITLUPE (ZTL) and TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1 also known as PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR 1 (PRR1)) that via gene expression feedback loops participate in the circadian clock. Here, we present results from ectopic expression of four Norway spruce (Picea abies) putative homologs (PaCCA1, PaGI, PaZTL and PaPRR1) in Arabidopsis, their flowering time, circadian period length, red light response phenotypes and their effect on endogenous clock genes were assessed. For PaCCA1-ox and PaZTL-ox the results were consistent with Arabidopsis lines overexpressing the corresponding Arabidopsis genes. For PaGI consistent results were obtained when expressed in the gi2 mutant, while PaGI and PaPRR1 expressed in wild type did not display the expected phenotypes. These results suggest that protein function of PaCCA1, PaGI and PaZTL are at least partly conserved compared to Arabidopsis homologs, however further studies are needed to reveal the protein function of PaPRR1. Our data suggest that components of the three-loop network typical of the circadian clock in angiosperms were present before the split of gymnosperms and angiosperms.

  3. Transcriptional responses of Norway spruce (Picea abies) inner sapwood against Heterobasidion parviporum.

    PubMed

    Oliva, J; Rommel, S; Fossdal, C G; Hietala, A M; Nemesio-Gorriz, M; Solheim, H; Elfstrand, M

    2015-09-01

    The white-rot fungus Heterobasidion parviporum Niemelä & Korhonen establishes a necrotrophic interaction with Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H.Karst.) causing root and butt rot and growth losses in living trees. The interaction occurs first with the bark and the outer sapwood, as the pathogen enters the tree via wounds or root-to-root contacts. Later, when the fungus reaches the heartwood, it spreads therein creating a decay column, and the interaction mainly occurs in the inner sapwood where the tree creates a reaction zone. While bark and outer sapwood interactions are well studied, little is known about the nature of the transcriptional responses leading to the creation of a reaction zone. In this study, we sampled bark and sapwood both proximal and distal to the reaction zone in artificially inoculated and naturally infected trees. We quantified gene expression levels of candidate genes in secondary metabolite, hormone biosynthesis and signalling pathways using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. An up-regulation of mainly the phenylpropanoid pathway and jasmonic acid biosynthesis was found at the inoculation site, when inoculations were compared with wounding. We found that transcriptional responses in inner sapwood were similar to those reported upon infection through the bark. Our data suggest that the defence mechanism is induced due to direct fungal contact irrespective of the tissue type. Understanding the nature of these interactions is important when considering tree breeding-based resistance strategies to reduce the spread of the pathogen between and within trees.

  4. Branch growth and biomass allocation in Abies amabilis saplings in contrasting light environments.

    PubMed

    King, D A

    1997-04-01

    Aboveground biomass allocation, and height and branch growth were studied in saplings of the shade-tolerant conifer, Abies amabilis Dougl. ex Forbes growing in large openings and in the understory of an old-growth forest in western Oregon. The presence of annual overwintering budscale scars was used to infer extension growth histories; annual growth rings in branches and stems were used in combination with extension histories to compute partitioning of new biomass among leaves, branches and stems. Saplings growing in large gaps had conical crowns, whereas understory saplings had umbrella shaped crowns as a result of much greater rates of branch extension than stem extension. Understory saplings grew slowly in height because of low rates of biomass production and low allocation of biomass to stem extension. About 40% of new biomass was allocated to foliage in both groups, but understory saplings allocated more of the remaining growth increment to branches and less to stem than did saplings growing in large gaps. These results differ from the patterns observed in shade-tolerant saplings of tropical forests, where allocation to foliage increases with shading and branch allocation is much lower than observed here. This difference in allocation may reflect mechanical constraints imposed by snow loads on the evergreen A. amabilis crowns, particularly on flat-crowned understory saplings.

  5. Growth and wood/bark properties of Abies faxoniana seedlings as affected by elevated CO2.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yun-Zhou; Zhang, Yuan-Bin; Wang, Kai-Yun; Wang, Qian; Tian, Qi-Zhuo

    2008-03-01

    Growth and wood and bark properties of Abies faxoniana seedlings after one year's exposure to elevated CO2 concentration (ambient + 350 (+/- 25) micromol/mol) under two planting densities (28 or 84 plants/m(2)) were investigated in closed-top chambers. Tree height, stem diameter and cross-sectional area, and total biomass were enhanced under elevated CO2 concentration, and reduced under high planting density. Most traits of stem bark were improved under elevated CO2 concentration and reduced under high planting density. Stem wood production was significantly increased in volume under elevated CO2 concentration under both densities, and the stem wood density decreased under elevated CO2 concentration and increased under high planting density. These results suggest that the response of stem wood and bark to elevated CO2 concentration is density dependent. This may be of great importance in a future CO2 enriched world in natural forests where plant density varies considerably. The results also show that the bark/wood ratio in diameter, stem cross-sectional area and dry weight are not proportionally affected by elevated CO2 concentration under the two contrasting planting densities. This indicates that the response magnitude of stem bark and stem wood to elevated CO2 concentration are different but their response directions are the same.

  6. Identification and characterization of microsatellites in Norway spruce (Picea abies K.).

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, A; Olivieri, A M; Morgante, M

    1997-08-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies) genomic libraries were screened for presence of dinucleotide AC/GT and AG/CT microsatellites (or simple sequence repeats). On average, one (AG)n microsatellite every 194 kb and one (AC)n microsatellite every 406 kb were found. Forty-six positive clones were sequenced and primers flanking 24 AG microsatellites and 12 AC microsatellites diesigned. Only seven (20%) of them produced the expected single-locus polymorphic pattern when used to amplify Norway spruce DNAs. The other primer pairs gave either multiple bands or bad amplification, or a single monomorphic fragment. Such a small proportion of successful primer pairs was attributed to the high level of complexity of the Norway spruce genome. Dot blot analysis of the clones showed that many of them contained repetitive DNA and that those giving the single-locus polymorphic patterns usually corresponded to single-copy sequences. A family of repetitive DNA that contained AG repeats was identified and was present in about 40,000 copies per haploid genome. Simple Mendelian inheritance was observed for all the polymorphisms tested. The average number of alleles was 13, ranging from 6 to 22, and the expected heterozygosity was 0.79 when seven microsatellites were used to genotype a panel of 18 trees representing different populations. Compared with isozymes, microsatellites are about five times more informative and could provide an extremely valuable source of markers for genome mapping and genetic diversity studies.

  7. Experimental vs. modeled water use in mature Norway spruce (Picea abies) exposed to elevated CO(2).

    PubMed

    Leuzinger, Sebastian; Bader, Martin K-F

    2012-01-01

    Rising levels of atmospheric CO(2) have often been reported to reduce plant water use. Such behavior is also predicted by standard equations relating photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and atmospheric CO(2) concentration, which form the core of dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs). Here, we provide first results from a free air CO(2) enrichment (FACE) experiment with naturally growing, mature (35 m) Picea abies (L.) (Norway spruce) and compare them to simulations by the DGVM LPJ-GUESS. We monitored sap flow, stem water deficit, stomatal conductance, leaf water potential, and soil moisture in five 35-40 m tall CO(2)-treated (550 ppm) trees over two seasons. Using LPJ-GUESS, we simulated this experiment using climate data from a nearby weather station. While the model predicted a stable reduction of transpiration of between 9% and 18% (at concentrations of 550-700 ppm atmospheric CO(2)), the combined evidence from various methods characterizing water use in our experimental trees suggest no changes in response to future CO(2) concentrations. The discrepancy between the modeled and the experimental results may be a scaling issue: while dynamic vegetation models correctly predict leaf-level responses, they may not sufficiently account for the processes involved at the canopy and ecosystem scale, which could offset the first-order stomatal response.

  8. Thigmomorphogenesis: field and laboratory studies of Abies fraseri in response to wind or mechanical perturbation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telewski, F. W.; Jaffe, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Field- and greenhouse-grown Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir. (Fraser fir) were analyzed for wind- or mechanically-induced flexure changes. These changes included inhibition of stem and needle elongation, reinforcement of branch bases around the stem, and increased radial growth in the direction of the mechanical perturbation (MP). Mature trees exposed to high wind conditions were severely flag-formed. These modified tree crowns had a lower drag than crowns of non-flag formed trees in wind-tunnel tests. In both field-grown and greenhouse-grown A. fraseri, MP induced a decrease in flexibility and increased elasticity of the stems. The increased radial growth of the stems overrode the increase in elasticity, resulting in the overall decrease in flexibility. The increase in radial growth caused by wind or mechanical flexure was due to greater cell divisions of the vascular cambium, resulting in increased numbers of tracheids. The decrease in stem elongation in these trees was due, at least in part, to a decrease in tracheid length. The potential biological and mechanical significance of these induced growth changes in trees are addressed. The data support the thigmomorphogenetic theory, which states that plants respond to wind and other mechanical perturbations in a way that is favorable to the plant for continued survival in windy environments.

  9. Growth rate predicts mortality of Abies concolor in both burned and unburned stands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, Phillip J.; Stephenson, Nathan L.; Mutch, Linda S.; Johnson, Veronica G.; Esperanza, Annie M.; Parsons, David J.

    2003-01-01

    Tree mortality is often the result of both long-term and short-term stress. Growth rate, an indicator of long-term stress, is often used to estimate probability of death in unburned stands. In contrast, probability of death in burned stands is modeled as a function of short-term disturbance severity. We sought to narrow this conceptual gap by determining (i) whether growth rate, in addition to crown scorch, is a predictor of mortality in burned stands and (ii) whether a single, simple model could predict tree death in both burned and unburned stands. Observations of 2622 unburned and 688 burned Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl. (white fir) in the Sierra Nevada of California, U.S.A., indicated that growth rate was a significant predictor of mortality in the unburned stands, while both crown scorch and radial growth were significant predictors of mortality in the burned stands. Applying the burned stand model to unburned stands resulted in an overestimation of the unburned stand mortality rate. While failing to create a general model of tree death for A. concolor, our findings underscore the idea that similar processes may affect mortality in disturbed and undisturbed stands.

  10. A Molecular Fraction Collecting Tool for the ABI 310 Automated Sequencer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ming-Tseh; Rich, Roy G.; Shipley, Royce F.; Hafez, Michael J.; Tseng, Li-Hui; Murphy, Kathleen M.; Gocke, Christopher D.; Eshleman, James R.

    2007-01-01

    Several methods exist to retrieve and purify DNA fragments after agarose or polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for subsequent analyses. However, molecules present in low concentration and molecules similar in size to their neighbors are difficult to purify. Capillary electrophoresis has become popular in molecular diagnostic laboratories because of its automation, excellent resolution, and high sensitivity. In the current study, the ABI Prism 310 Genetic Analyzer was reconfigured into a fraction collector by adapting the standard gel block to accommodate a collection tube at the distal end of capillary. The time to collect the desired peaks was estimated by extrapolating from standard capillary electrophoresis using the original gel block. Fraction collection from a mixture of DNA fragments amplified from wild type and several internal tandem duplication mutations of the FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (Flt3) gene yielded highly purified DNA fragments containing internal tandem duplication mutations and predictable electrokinetics using the reconstructed gel block. The reconfigured instrument could successfully isolate DNA amplicons from extremely low-amplitude peaks (110 relative fluorescent units), which were undetectable using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In addition, we successfully isolated bands that were only three bases apart that comigrated on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. DNA sequencing was used to confirm that the correct peaks were recovered at sufficient purity. PMID:17916601

  11. Physiology and growth of advance Picea rubens and Abies balsamea regeneration following different canopy openings.

    PubMed

    Dumais, Daniel; Prévost, Marcel

    2014-02-01

    We examined the ecophysiology and growth of 0.3-1.3 m tall advance red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill.) regeneration during a 5-year period following the application of different harvest types producing three sizes of canopy openings: (i) small gaps (<100 m(2) in area; SMA) created by partial uniform single-tree harvest; (ii) irregular gaps of intermediate size (100-300 m(2); INT) created by group-selection harvest (removal of groups of trees, mainly balsam fir, with uniform partial removal between groups); and (iii) large circular gaps (700 m(2); LAR) created by patch-selection harvest (removal of trees in 30-m diameter circular areas with uniform partial removal between gaps). An unharvested control (CON) was monitored for comparison. At the ecophysiological level, we mainly found differences in light-saturated photosynthesis of red spruce and specific leaf area of balsam fir among treatments. Consequently, we observed good height growth of both species in CON and INT, but fir surpassed spruce in SMA and LAR. Results suggest that intermediate 100-300 m(2) irregular openings create microenvironmental conditions that may promote short-term ecophysiology and growth of red spruce, allowing the species to compete with balsam fir advance regeneration. Finally, results observed for spruce in large 700-m(2) openings confirm its inability to grow as rapidly as fir in comparable open conditions.

  12. Sydowia polyspora associated with current season needle necrosis (CSNN) on true fir (Abies spp.).

    PubMed

    Talgø, Venche; Chastagner, Gary; Thomsen, Iben Margrete; Cech, Thomas; Riley, Kathy; Lange, Kurt; Klemsdal, Sonja Sletner; Stensvand, Arne

    2010-07-01

    Current season needle necrosis (CSNN) has been a serious foliage disorder on true fir Christmas trees and bough material in Europe and North America for more than 25y. Approximately 2-4 weeks after bud break, needles develop chlorotic spots or bands that later turn necrotic. The symptoms have been observed on noble fir (Abies procera), Nordmann fir (A. nordmanniana) and grand fir (A. grandis) on both continents. CSNN was reported as a physiological disorder with unknown aetiology from USA, Denmark, and Ireland, but was associated with the fungus Kabatina abietis in Germany, Austria and Norway. In 2007, a fungus that morphologically resembled K. abietis was isolated from symptomatic needle samples from Nordmann fir from Austria, Denmark, Germany, Norway, and USA. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA of these cultures, plus a K. abietis reference culture from Germany (CBS 248.93), resulted in Hormonema dematioides, the imperfect stage of Sydowia polyspora, and thus the taxonomy is further discussed. Inoculation tests on Nordmann fir seedlings and transplants with isolates of S. polyspora from all five countries resulted in the development of CSNN symptoms. In 2009, S. polyspora was also isolated from symptomatic needles from Nordmann fir collected in Slovakia.

  13. Crystal structure of the T315I mutant of AbI kinase.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tianjun; Parillon, Lois; Li, Feng; Wang, Yihan; Keats, Jeff; Lamore, Sarah; Xu, Qihong; Shakespeare, William; Dalgarno, David; Zhu, Xiaotian

    2007-09-01

    Imatinib (Gleevec) is currently the frontline therapy for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), a disease characterized by the presence of a constitutively activated chimeric tyrosine kinase protein Bcr-AbI. However, drug resistance often occurs at later stages of the disease, principally because of the occurrence of mutations in the kinase domain. Second generation Bcr-AbI inhibitors, such as dasatinib and nilotinib are capable of inhibiting many imatinib-resistant forms of the kinase but not the form in which threonine is mutated to isoleucine at the gatekeeper position (T315I). In this study, we present the crystal structure of the kinase domain of the c-AbI T315I mutant, as well as the wild-type form, in complex with a pyrrolopyridine inhibitor, PPY-A. The side chain of Ile315 is accommodated in the AbI T315I mutant structure without large conformational changes proximal to the site of mutation. In contrast to other inhibitors, such as imatinib and dasatinib, PPY-A does not occupy the hydrophobic pocket behind the gatekeeper residue. This binding mode, coupled with augmented contacts with the glycine-rich loop, appears to be critical for its ability to override the T315I mutation. The data presented here may provide structural guidance for the design of clinically useful inhibitors of Bcr-AbI T315I.

  14. Static and dynamic bending has minor effects on xylem hydraulics of conifer branches (Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris)

    PubMed Central

    Mayr, Stefan; Bertel, Clara; Dämon, Birgit; Beikircher, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The xylem hydraulic efficiency and safety is usually measured on mechanically unstressed samples, although trees may be exposed to combined hydraulic and mechanical stress in the field. We analysed changes in hydraulic conductivity and vulnerability to drought-induced embolism during static bending of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris branches as well as the effect of dynamic bending on the vulnerability. We hypothesized this mechanical stress to substantially impair xylem hydraulics. Intense static bending caused an only small decrease in hydraulic conductance (−19.5 ± 2.4% in P. abies) but no shift in vulnerability thresholds. Dynamic bending caused a 0.4 and 0.8 MPa decrease of the water potential at 50 and 88% loss of conductivity in P. sylvestris, but did not affect vulnerability thresholds in P. abies. With respect to applied extreme bending radii, effects on plant hydraulics were surprisingly small and are thus probably of minor eco-physiological importance. More importantly, results indicate that available xylem hydraulic analyses (of conifers) sufficiently reflect plant hydraulics under field conditions. PMID:24697679

  15. General Toxicity and Antifungal Activity of a New Dental Gel with Essential Oil from Abies Sibirica L.

    PubMed

    Noreikaitė, Aurelija; Ayupova, Rizvangul; Satbayeva, Elmira; Seitaliyeva, Aida; Amirkulova, Marzhan; Pichkhadze, Guram; Datkhayev, Ubaidilla; Stankevičius, Edgaras

    2017-01-29

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to analyze the antifungal activity and the general toxicity of a new dental gel containing essential oil from the tree Abies sibirica L., which grows in the Republic of Kazakhstan. MATERIAL AND METHODS The essential oil from Abies sibirica L. was obtained by microwave heating method using the STARTE Microwave Extraction System. Adjutants used to prepare the oil were carbomer 974P, glycerin, polysorbate 80, xylitol, triethanolamine, and purified water, all allowed for medical usage. The antifungal activity of the essential oil was assessed by monitoring the optical density of Candida albicans in a microplate reader. The safety was determined by analyzing the acute and subacute toxicity. RESULTS The essential oil obtained by the microwave heating method revealed a higher antifungal activity in comparison with the essential oil obtained by the steam distillation method. No obvious changes were detected in guinea pigs following cutaneous application of the gel. Enteral administration of the essential oil caused minimal functional and histological changes in mice after 4 weeks. The new harmless dental gel containing pine oil from Abies sibirica L. was provided for the purposes of this particular clinical research. CONCLUSIONS The high antifungal activity of the gel is the basis for more in-depth studies on its safety and pharmacological activity.

  16. Cytogenetic and molecular characterization of the Abies alba genome and its relationship with other members of the Pinaceae.

    PubMed

    Puizina, J; Sviben, T; Krajacić-Sokol, I; Zoldos-Pećnik, V; Siljak-Yakovlev, S; Papes, D; Besendorfer, V

    2008-03-01

    Genome size, karyotype structure, heterochromatin distribution, position and number of ribosomal genes, as well as the ITS2 sequence of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) were analysed in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). The analysis also included characterization of the Arabidopsis-type of telomeric repeats in silver fir and in related species. The results were compared with results from other species of the Pinaceae, to evaluate phylogeny and chromosomal and molecular evolution in the Pinaceae. Integrated chromosomal data provided insights into chromosome and karyotype evolution in the Pinaceae. The evolutionary trend for GC-rich heterochromatic blocks seems to involve loss of blocks that are not associated with rDNA. Similarly, numerous large blocks of interstitial plant telomeric repeats that are typical for all analysed species of the genus Pinus were not observed in the evolutionarily younger genera, such as Abies, Picea and Larix. On the contrary, the majority of telomeric sequences in these three genera appeared confined to the chromosome ends. We confirmed the current position of Abies and Tsuga in subfamily Abietoideae and the position of Pinus in the subfamily Pinoideae based on ITS2 sequences. Pseudotsuga is placed together with Larix into the subfamily Laricoideae. We conclude that the current position of the genus Picea in the subfamily Abietoideae should be reconsidered and, possibly, the genus Picea should be reclassified as a separate subfamily, Piceoideae, as recently proposed.

  17. Mycorrhiza of the host-specific Lactarius deterrimus on the roots of Picea abies and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi.

    PubMed

    Mühlmann, O; Göbl, F

    2006-06-01

    The ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete species Lactarius deterrimus Gröger is considered to be a strictly host-specific mycobiont of Picea abies (L.) Karst. However, we identified arbutoid mycorrhiza formed by this fungus on the roots of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. in a mixed stand at the alpine timberline; typical ectomycorrhiza of P. abies were found in close relation. A. uva-ursi is known as an extremely unspecific phytobiont. The mycorrhizae of both associations are described and compared morphologically. The mycorrhiza formed by L. deterrimus on both A. uva-ursi and P. abies show typical ectomycorrhizal features such as a hyphal mantle and a Hartig net. The main difference between the mycorrhizal symbioses with the different phytobionts is the occurrence of intracellular hyphae in the epidermal cells of A. uva-ursi. This emphasizes the importance of the plant partner for mycorrhizal anatomy. This is the first report of a previously considered host-specific ectomycorrhizal fungus in association with A. uva-ursi under natural conditions. The advantages of this loose specificity between the fungus and plant species is discussed.

  18. General Toxicity and Antifungal Activity of a New Dental Gel with Essential Oil from Abies Sibirica L

    PubMed Central

    Noreikaitė, Aurelija; Ayupova, Rizvangul; Satbayeva, Elmira; Seitaliyeva, Aida; Amirkulova, Marzhan; Pichkhadze, Guram; Datkhayev, Ubaidilla; Stankeviandccaron;ius, Edgaras

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to analyze the antifungal activity and the general toxicity of a new dental gel containing essential oil from the tree Abies sibirica L., which grows in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Material/Methods The essential oil from Abies sibirica L. was obtained by microwave heating method using the STARTE Microwave Extraction System. Adjutants used to prepare the oil were carbomer 974P, glycerin, polysorbate 80, xylitol, triethanolamine, and purified water, all allowed for medical usage. The antifungal activity of the essential oil was assessed by monitoring the optical density of Candida albicans in a microplate reader. The safety was determined by analyzing the acute and subacute toxicity. Results The essential oil obtained by the microwave heating method revealed a higher antifungal activity in comparison with the essential oil obtained by the steam distillation method. No obvious changes were detected in guinea pigs following cutaneous application of the gel. Enteral administration of the essential oil caused minimal functional and histological changes in mice after 4 weeks. The new harmless dental gel containing pine oil from Abies sibirica L. was provided for the purposes of this particular clinical research. Conclusions The high antifungal activity of the gel is the basis for more in-depth studies on its safety and pharmacological activity. PMID:28132065

  19. Effect of seed size on seedling growth response to elevated CO2 in Picea abies and Picea rubens.

    PubMed

    Jones, T A; Reekie, E G

    2007-11-01

    Several previous studies have observed that species and individuals with large seeds respond more positively to elevated CO (2) than those with small seeds. We explored the reasons for this pattern by examining the relationship between seed size and CO (2) response in Picea abies and P. rubens using growth analysis. The large seeded species (P. abies) responded more positively to elevated CO (2) than the small seeded species (P. rubens). At the intraspecific level, P. abies individuals from large seeds responded more positively to elevated CO (2) than individuals from small seeds, however, there was no significant intraspecific variation in CO (2) response in P. rubens. The greater CO (2) response of plants from large seeds was not simply the result of a larger starting capital compounded at the same rate as in plants from small seeds. Elevated CO (2) increased relative growth rate to a greater extent in individuals from large seeds. This effect appears to be related to differences in time of establishment, source to sink ratio and nutrient availability with seed size. These results are significant not only in understanding the potential effect of rising atmospheric CO (2) concentrations on plant populations, but also in understanding the factors affecting plant success at current atmospheric CO (2) levels due to the elevation of CO (2) within the litter layer that occurs at many germination sites.

  20. Preliminary assessment of the GOES-R ABI hourly land surface albedo and reflectance products prototyped with Himawari AHI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, T.; Liang, S.; Zhang, Y.; Yu, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Land surface albedo and reflectance are critical geophysical variables used in climate and environmental applications. The multispectral Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) onboard the next generation geostationary satellites (GOES-R series, set to launch in late 2016) offers high temporal and medium spatial resolution observations, which can be used for monitoring diurnal variation of surface albedo and reflectance. In the GOES-R data processing chain there is no atmospheric correction to generate surface reflectance product, which is usually required for surface albedo estimation. We propose an optimization method to simultaneously retrieve surface bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) parameters and aerosol optical depth with GOES-R ABI data on a daily-basis, which are used for estimating surface albedo and reflectance. Before the launch of the GOES-R satellite, our algorithm was prototyped with data from the Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) onboard the Japanese Himawari-8 satellite, which has spectral bands and spatial resolutions similar to GOES-R ABI. Cal/val activities were carried out against ground measurements at the OzFlux sites in Australia and satellite data including albedo/BRDF products from MODIS and Landsat. The preliminary accuracy assessment showed promising results for both the surface albedo and reflectance estimates. The GOES-R surface albedo and reflectance products will serve as critical inputs for downstream GOES-R satellite products and also help improve climate modeling and weather forecasting with a high temporal resolution.

  1. Quality-of-life for individuals with a vestibular impairment following an acquired brain injury (ABI); the clients' perspective.

    PubMed

    Killington, M J; Speck, K; Kahlbaum, J; Fabian, J; Edwards, D; Stobie, J

    2015-01-01

    To investigate how a vestibular deficit following an acquired brain injury (ABI) affects an individuals' quality-of-life. A qualitative exploratory design. Nine community dwelling individuals who experienced significant symptoms and limitations as a result of their vestibular deficits. The individuals participated in face-to-face interviews with open ended questions. Data was analysed initially using a case study research approach, exploring the experience for each individual and then cross-case analysis to determine common themes for the group with the assistance of nVivo 10 qualitative analysis software. Thematic analysis determined four main themes arising from the interviews; (1) validation, (2) definitive diagnosis is more difficult amongst an array of ABI symptoms, (3) vestibular adaptation is more difficult in the presence of an ABI and (4) emotional and social. Individuals who suffer a brain injury and experience vestibular symptoms as part of their overall presentation are not diagnosed in a timely manner, with individuals, their families, associates and even health professionals feeling uncertain of the legitimacy of their reported symptoms. It is important that all patients who experience an acquired brain injury are screened for vestibular impairment and, if necessary, receive vestibular rehabilitation including explanation and education.

  2. The experience of patients with ABI and their families during the hospital stay: A systematic review of qualitative literature.

    PubMed

    Oyesanya, Tolu

    2017-01-01

    Patients with acquired brain injury (ABI) and their families have unique experiences and needs during the hospital stay; yet, limited literature exists on this topic. The purpose of this systematic review was to compile and synthesize literature on the experience of patients with ABI and their families during the hospital stay. A systematic review of qualitative studies was conducted by searching for studies from seven databases. Content analysis was used to analyse and synthesize studies' findings separately for the patient and family experience. The initial search provided 2871 records. Ultimately, 11 studies relevant to the research question were included in this review. No studies were excluded based on critical quality appraisal. Findings on the patient experience showed patients had negative perceptions of the rehabilitation environment and a perceived need for information. Findings on the family experience included difficulty adjusting after the patient's injury, a desire to be involved in the patient's care, mixed feelings about staff support and a high perceived need for information. Findings provide awareness for healthcare providers on the multifaceted experiences of patients with ABI and their families during the hospital stay, strategies to make care more patient- and family-centred and directions for future research.

  3. ABI5-binding proteins (AFPs) alter transcription of ABA-induced genes via a variety of interactions with chromatin modifiers.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Tim J; Erickson, B Joy; Miller, Dusty R; Finkelstein, Ruth R

    2017-03-01

    Overexpression of ABI5/ABF binding proteins (AFPs) results in extreme ABA resistance of seeds via multiple mechanisms repressing ABA response, including interactions with histone deacetylases and the co-repressor TOPLESS. Several ABI5/ABF binding proteins (AFPs) inhibit ABA response, resulting in extreme ABA resistance in transgenic Arabidopsis overexpression lines, but their mechanism of action has remained obscure. By analogy to the related Novel Interactor of JAZ (NINJA) protein, it was suggested that the AFPs interact with the co-repressor TOPLESS to inhibit ABA-regulated gene expression. This study shows that the AFPs that inhibit ABA response have intrinsic repressor activity in a heterologous system, which does not depend on the domain involved in the interaction with TOPLESS. This domain is also not essential for repressing ABA response in transgenic plants, but does contribute to stronger ABA resistance. Additional interactions between some AFPs and histone deacetylase subunits were observed in yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence assays, consistent with a more direct mechanism of AFP-mediated repression of gene expression. Chemical inhibition of histone deacetylase activity by trichostatin A suppressed AFP effects on a small fraction of the ABI5-regulated genes tested. Collectively, these results suggest that the AFPs participate in multiple mechanisms modulating ABA response, including both TOPLESS-dependent and -independent chromatin modification.

  4. IRon Overload screeNing tool (IRON): development of a tool to guide screening in primary care.

    PubMed

    Mainous, Arch G; Diaz, Vanessa A; Everett, Charles J; Knoll, Michele E; Hulihan, Mary M; Grant, Althea M; McLaren, Christine E; McLaren, Gordon D

    2011-09-01

    Iron overload is associated with significant morbidity and mortality yet is easily treated. The objective of this study was to create a tool that could be easily adapted to clinical practice that indicates the likelihood of a patient having undetected iron overload. We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2002 for US adults aged 20 years and older to build a model (unweighted n=8,779). We chose potential variables for inclusion that could be gathered by self-report or measured without laboratory data and were suggested by past literature on hemochromatosis and iron overload. We computed logistic regressions to create the scores by initially evaluating the variables' relationship with elevated ferritin and elevated transferrin saturation and then using odds ratios to correspond to scores. The resulting score on the IRon Overload ScreeNing Tool (IRON) was then validated with data on 13,844 adults in the NHANES III, 1988-94. Predictors in the final tool were age, gender, previous diagnoses of liver condition, osteoporosis or thyroid disease. The IRON score yielded an area under the curve (AUC) in the NHANES 1999-02 of 0.720 and an AUC of 0.685 in the NHANES III validation sample. The IRON score is a tool to assist in identification of patients with iron overload that has several qualities that make it attractive for use in clinical practice with an undifferentiated patient population including brevity, easily collected information and predictive ability comparable to other tools that help in directing screening. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Abelson interactor-1 (ABI-1) interacts with MRL adaptor protein MIG-10 and is required in guided cell migrations and process outgrowth in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    McShea, Molly A; Schmidt, Kristopher L; Dubuke, Michelle L; Baldiga, Christina E; Sullender, Meagan E; Reis, Andrea L; Zhang, Subaiou; O'Toole, Sean M; Jeffers, Mary C; Warden, Rachel M; Kenney, Allison H; Gosselin, Jennifer; Kuhlwein, Mark; Hashmi, Sana K; Stringham, Eve G; Ryder, Elizabeth F

    2013-01-01

    Directed cell migration and process outgrowth are vital to proper development of many metazoan tissues. These processes are dependent on reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in response to external guidance cues. During development of the nervous system, the MIG-10/RIAM/Lamellipodin (MRL) signaling proteins are thought to transmit positional information from surface guidance cues to the actin polymerization machinery, and thus to promote polarized outgrowth of axons. In C. elegans, mutations in the MRL family member gene mig-10 result in animals that have defects in axon guidance, neuronal migration, and the outgrowth of the processes or 'canals' of the excretory cell, which is required for osmoregulation in the worm. In addition, mig-10 mutant animals have recently been shown to have defects in clustering of vesicles at the synapse. To determine additional molecular partners of MIG-10, we conducted a yeast two-hybrid screen using isoform MIG-10A as bait and isolated Abelson-interactor protein-1 (ABI-1). ABI-1, a downstream target of Abl non-receptor tyrosine kinase, is a member of the WAVE regulatory complex (WRC) involved in the initiation of actin polymerization. Further analysis using a co-immunoprecipitation system confirmed the interaction of MIG-10 and ABI-1 and showed that it requires the SH3 domain of ABI-1. Single mutants for mig-10 and abi-1 displayed similar phenotypes of incomplete migration of the ALM neurons and truncated outgrowth of the excretory cell canals, suggesting that the ABI-1/MIG-10 interaction is relevant in vivo. Cell autonomous expression of MIG-10 isoforms rescued both the neuronal migration and the canal outgrowth defects, showing that MIG-10 functions autonomously in the ALM neurons and the excretory cell. These results suggest that MIG-10 and ABI-1 interact physically to promote cell migration and process outgrowth in vivo. In the excretory canal, ABI-1 is thought to act downstream of UNC-53/NAV2, linking this large scaffolding

  6. Abelson interactor-1 (ABI-1) interacts with MRL adaptor protein MIG-10 and is required in guided cell migrations and process outgrowth in C.elegans

    PubMed Central

    McShea, Molly A.; Schmidt, Kristopher L.; Dubuke, Michelle L.; Baldiga, Christina E.; Sullender, Meagan E.; Reis, Andrea L.; Zhang, Subaiou; O'Toole, Sean M.; Jeffers, Mary C.; Warden, Rachel M.; Kenney, Allison H.; Gosselin, Jennifer; Kuhlwein, Mark; Hashmi, Sana K.; Stringham, Eve G.; Ryder, Elizabeth F.

    2012-01-01

    Directed cell migration and process outgrowth are vital to proper development of many metazoan tissues. These processes are dependent on reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in response to external guidance cues. During development of the nervous system, the MIG-10/RIAM/Lamellipodin (MRL) signaling proteins are thought to transmit positional information from surface guidance cues to the actin polymerization machinery, and thus to promote polarized outgrowth of axons. In C. elegans, mutations in the MRL family member gene mig-10 result in animals that have defects in axon guidance, neuronal migration, and the outgrowth of the processes or ‘canals’ of the excretory cell, which is required for osmoregulation in the worm. In addition, mig-10 mutant animals have recently been shown to have defects in clustering of vesicles at the synapse. To determine additional molecular partners of MIG-10, we conducted a yeast two hybrid screen using isoform MIG-10A as bait and isolated Abelson-interactor protein-1 (ABI-1). ABI-1, a downstream target of Abl non-receptor tyrosine kinase, is a member of the WAVE regulatory complex (WRC) involved in the initiation of actin polymerization. Further analysis using a co-mmunoprecipitation system confirmed the interaction of MIG-10 and ABI-1 and showed that it requires the SH3 domain of ABI-1. Single mutants for mig-10 and abi-1 displayed similar phenotypes of incomplete migration of the ALM neurons and truncated outgrowth of the excretory cell canals, suggesting that the ABI-1/MIG-10 interaction is relevant in vivo. Cell autonomous expression of MIG-10 isoforms rescued both the neuronal migration and the canal outgrowth defects, showing that MIG-10 functions autonomously in the ALM neurons and the excretory cell. These results suggest that MIG-10 and ABI-1 interact physically to promote cell migration and process outgrowth in vivo. In the excretory canal, ABI-1 is thought to act downstream of UNC-53/NAV2, linking this large

  7. Coarse root topology of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and its effects on slope stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lith, Aniek; Schmaltz, Elmar; Bogaard, Thom; Keesstra, Saskia

    2017-04-01

    The structural distribution of coarse roots and its beneficial effects on soil reinforcement has widely been assessed. However, it is still not fully understood how topological features of coarse roots (e.g. branching patterns) are affected by slope inclination and further influence the ability of young trees to reinforce soil. This study aims to analyse empirically the impact of slope gradient on the topological development of coarse roots and thus to assess its effects on soil reinforcement. We performed root system excavations on two young Picea abies: tree A on a gently inclined plane (β ≈ 12°) where slope failures are not expected; tree B on a slope (β ≈ 35°) with failure potential. The diameter (d) of the segments between distinct root nodes (root ends, branching locations, direction changes and attachments to stem) of coarse roots (d > 2mm) were measured in situ. The spatial coordinates (x,y,z) of the nodes and surface were measured on a plane raster grid, from which segment length (ls), direction and inclination towards the surface (βr) were derived. Roots and segments were classified into laterals (βr < 10°), obliques (10° ≤ βr < 70°) and verticals (βr ≥ 70°), with βr,max = 90°. We assigned topological orders to the segments according to developmental (DSC) and functional segment classifications (FSC), to obtain quantitative relations between the topological order and number of segments, total and average ls. The maximal root cohesion (cr) of each segment was assessed using material specific tensile forces (Tr), root area ratio (RAR) and βr, assuming that a potential slip surface would cross the root system parallel to the slope. Laterals depicted the majority of roots (57 %) for tree A orientated rather in upslope direction (76.8 %), whereas tree B showed mostly obliques (54 %) orientated rather in downslope direction (55.4 %). Vertical roots were scarcely observable for both trees. DSC showed a high r2 (> 0.84) for the segments and

  8. In Planta Localization of Stilbenes within Picea abies Phloem1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Katsushi; Pranovich, Andrey; Roig-Juan, Sílvia; Aoki, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic stilbene glucosides (astringin, isorhapontin, and piceid) and their aglycons commonly accumulate in the phloem of Norway spruce (Picea abies). However, current knowledge about the localization and accumulation of stilbenes within plant tissues and cells remains limited. Here, we used an innovative combination of novel microanalytical techniques to evaluate stilbenes in a frozen-hydrated condition (i.e. in planta) and a freeze-dried condition across phloem tissues. Semiquantitative time-of-flight secondary ion-mass spectrometry imaging in planta revealed that stilbenes were localized in axial parenchyma cells. Quantitative gas chromatography analysis showed the highest stilbene content in the middle of collapsed phloem with decreases toward the outer phloem. The same trend was detected for soluble sugar and water contents. The specimen water content may affect stilbene composition; the glucoside-to-aglycon ratio decreased slightly with decreases in water content. Phloem chemistry was correlated with three-dimensional structures of phloem as analyzed by microtomography. The outer phloem was characterized by a high volume of empty parenchyma, reduced ray volume, and a large number of axial parenchyma with porous vacuolar contents. Increasing porosity from the inner to the outer phloem was related to decreasing compactness of stilbenes and possible secondary oxidation or polymerization. Our results indicate that aging-dependent changes in phloem may reduce cell functioning, which affects the capacity of the phloem to store water and sugar, and may reduce the defense potential of stilbenes in the axial parenchyma. Our results highlight the power of using a combination of techniques to evaluate tissue- and cell-level mechanisms involved in plant secondary metabolite formation and metabolism. PMID:27531441

  9. Embolism Formation during Freezing in the Wood of Picea abies1

    PubMed Central

    Mayr, Stefan; Cochard, Hervé; Améglio, Thierry; Kikuta, Silvia B.

    2007-01-01

    Freeze-thaw events can cause embolism in plant xylem. According to classical theory, gas bubbles are formed during freezing and expand during thawing. Conifers have proved to be very resistant to freeze-thaw induced embolism, because bubbles in tracheids are small and redissolve during thawing. In contrast, increasing embolism rates upon consecutive freeze-thaw events were observed that cannot be explained by the classical mechanism. In this study, embolism formation during freeze-thaw events was analyzed via ultrasonic and Cryo-scanning electron microscope techniques. Twigs of Picea abies L. Karst. were subjected to up to 120 freeze-thaw cycles during which ultrasonic acoustic emissions, xylem temperature, and diameter variations were registered. In addition, the extent and cross-sectional pattern of embolism were analyzed with staining experiments and Cryo-scanning electron microscope observations. Embolism increased with the number of freeze-thaw events in twigs previously dehydrated to a water potential of −2.8 MPa. In these twigs, acoustic emissions were registered, while saturated twigs showed low, and totally dehydrated twigs showed no, acoustic activity. Acoustic emissions were detected only during the freezing process. This means that embolism was formed during freezing, which is in contradiction to the classical theory of freeze-thaw induced embolism. The clustered pattern of embolized tracheids in cross sections indicates that air spread from a dysfunctional tracheid to adjacent functional ones. We hypothesize that the low water potential of the growing ice front led to a decrease of the potential in nearby tracheids. This may result in freezing-induced air seeding. PMID:17041033

  10. Differential Gene Expression Reveals Candidate Genes for Drought Stress Response in Abies alba (Pinaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Ziegenhagen, Birgit; Liepelt, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    Increasing drought periods as a result of global climate change pose a threat to many tree species by possibly outpacing their adaptive capabilities. Revealing the genetic basis of drought stress response is therefore implemental for future conservation strategies and risk assessment. Access to informative genomic regions is however challenging, especially for conifers, partially due to their large genomes, which puts constraints on the feasibility of whole genome scans. Candidate genes offer a valuable tool to reduce the complexity of the analysis and the amount of sequencing work and costs. For this study we combined an improved drought stress phenotyping of needles via a novel terahertz water monitoring technique with Massive Analysis of cDNA Ends to identify candidate genes for drought stress response in European silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). A pooled cDNA library was constructed from the cotyledons of six drought stressed and six well-watered silver fir seedlings, respectively. Differential expression analyses of these libraries revealed 296 candidate genes for drought stress response in silver fir (247 up- and 49 down-regulated) of which a subset was validated by RT-qPCR of the twelve individual cotyledons. A majority of these genes code for currently uncharacterized proteins and hint on new genomic resources to be explored in conifers. Furthermore, we could show that some traditional reference genes from model plant species (GAPDH and eIF4A2) are not suitable for differential analysis and we propose a new reference gene, TPC1, for drought stress expression profiling in needles of conifer seedlings. PMID:25924061

  11. Insights into Diterpene Cyclization from Structure of Bifunctional Abietadiene Synthase from Abies grandis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ke; Gao, Yang; Hoy, Julie A.; Mann, Francis M.; Honzatko, Richard B.; Peters, Reuben J.

    2013-09-24

    Abietadiene synthase from Abies grandis (AgAS) is a model system for diterpene synthase activity, catalyzing class I (ionization-initiated) and class II (protonation-initiated) cyclization reactions. Reported here is the crystal structure of AgAS at 2.3 {angstrom} resolution and molecular dynamics simulations of that structure with and without active site ligands. AgAS has three domains ({alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma}). The class I active site is within the C-terminal {alpha} domain, and the class II active site is between the N-terminal {gamma} and {beta} domains. The domain organization resembles that of monofunctional diterpene synthases and is consistent with proposed evolutionary origins of terpene synthases. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to determine the effect of substrate binding on enzymatic structure. Although such studies of the class I active site do lead to an enclosed substrate-Mg{sup 2+} complex similar to that observed in crystal structures of related plant enzymes, it does not enforce a single substrate conformation consistent with the known product stereochemistry. Simulations of the class II active site were more informative, with observation of a well ordered external loop migration. This 'loop-in' conformation not only limits solvent access but also greatly increases the number of conformational states accessible to the substrate while destabilizing the nonproductive substrate conformation present in the 'loop-out' conformation. Moreover, these conformational changes at the class II active site drive the substrate toward the proposed transition state. Docked substrate complexes were further assessed with regard to the effects of site-directed mutations on class I and II activities.

  12. Does carbon availability control temporal dynamics of radial growth in Norway spruce (Picea abies)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas; Swidrak, Irene

    2015-04-01

    Intra-annual dynamics of cambial activity and wood formation of coniferous species exposed to soil dryness revealed early culmination of maximum growth in late spring prior to occurrence of more favourable environmental conditions, i.e., repeated high rainfall events during summer (Oberhuber et al. 2014). Because it is well known that plants can adjust carbon allocation patterns to optimize resource uptake under prevailing environmental constraints, we hypothesize that early decrease in radial stem growth is an adaptation to cope with drought stress, which might require an early switch of carbon allocation to belowground organs. Physical blockage of carbon transport in the phloem through girdling causes accumulation and depletion of carbohydrates above and below the girdle, respectively, making this method quite appropriate to investigate carbon relationships in trees. Hence, in a common garden experiment we will manipulate the carbon status of Norway spruce (Picea abies) saplings by phloem blockage at different phenological stages during the growing season. We will present the methodological approach and first results of the study aiming to test the hypothesis that carbon status of the tree affects temporal dynamics of cambial activity and wood formation in conifers under drought. Acknowledgment The research is funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF): P25643-B16 "Carbon allocation and growth of Scots pine". Reference Oberhuber W, A Gruber, W Kofler, I Swidrak (2014) Radial stem growth in response to microclimate and soil moisture in a drought-prone mixed coniferous forest at an inner Alpine site. Eur J For Res 133:467-479.

  13. Biomass and nutrient concentrations of sporocarps produced by mycorrhizal and decomposer fungi in Abies amabilis stands.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Kristiina A; Edmonds, Robert L; Grier, Charles C

    1981-08-01

    Sporocarps and sclerotia were collected for a one-year period in 23- and 180-year-old Abies amabilis stands in western Washington. All sporocarps were classified and chemically analyzed for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na and Fe. Lactarius sp. and Cortinarius sp. contributed the largest proportion of the total annual epigeous sporocarp production in both stands. Annual epigeous production was 34 kg/ha in the young stand and 27 kg/ha in the mature stand. Hypogeous sporocarp production increased from 1 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) to 380 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) with increasing stand age. High sclerotia biomass occurred in the young (2,300 kg/ha) and mature (3,000 kg/ha) stands. Peak sclerotia and epigeous sporocarp biomass in the young stand and epigeous and hypogeous sporocarp biomass in the mature stand coincided with the fall peak of mycorrhizal root biomass.In the young stand, sporocarps produced by decomposer fungi concentrated higher levels of Ca and Mn than those produced by mycorrhizal fungi. In the mature stand, sporocarps of decomposer fungi concentrated higher levels of N, P, Mn, Ca and Fe than sporocarps of mycorrhizal fungi. Epigeous and hypogeous sporocarps concentrated higher levels of N, P, and K than sclerotia or mycelium. The highest concentration of N (4.36%), P (0.76%), K (3.22%) and Na (1,678 ppm) occurred in epigeous sporocarps. Highest Mn (740 ppm) and Ca (20,600 ppm) concentrations occurred in mycelium, while highest Mg (1,929 ppm) concentrations were in hypogeous sporocarps and highest Fe (4,153 ppm) concentrations were in sclerotia.

  14. Cardioprotective effects of silver fir (Abies alba) extract in ischemic-reperfused isolated rat hearts

    PubMed Central

    Drevenšek, Gorazd; Lunder, Mojca; Benković, Eva Tavčar; Štrukelj, Borut; Kreft, Samo

    2016-01-01

    Background Silver fir trunk extract (SFTE) is a complex mixture of antioxidative polyphenols (lignans and phenolic acids) from the trunks of silver fir trees (Abies alba, lignum). In our previous study, we have shown that SFTE exerts strong antioxidative and protective effects against atherogenic, diet-induced arterial wall damage. Objective The aim of the present study was to test the potential protective effects of SFTE and its compounds, two phenolic acids (p-coumaric and protocatechuic acids) in ischemia–reperfusion injury of isolated rat hearts. Design Isolated hearts of Wistar rats aged 4–8 weeks were exposed to perfusion, ischemia, and reperfusion periods. The experiments were performed using the following five groups: control, SFTE (10 µg/L), SFTE (100 µg/L), protocatechuic acid, and p-coumaric. Aortas were isolated to measure vascular responses in the presence of Nω-Nitro-L-arginine. Results SFTE dose-dependently reduced ischemic-reperfusion heart damage, which was indicated as the decrease in the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release rate and arrhythmias duration by 80% and an increase in coronary flow rate during the reperfusion period. Two tested compounds (p-coumaric and protocatechuic acids) acted less cardioprotective, since they decreased the duration of arrhythmias only by 40 and 45%, respectively, and did not decrease LDH release rates during the reperfusion period. Only p-coumaric acid increased coronary flow rates, whereas protocatechuic acid did not. Conclusions We conclude that the SFTE exerted the strongest cardioprotective effect, whereas its constituents (the p-coumaric and protocatechuic acids) were less effective in inducing cardioprotection. PMID:27756448

  15. Effects of tree architecture on pollen dispersal and mating patterns in Abies pinsapo Boiss. (Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Robles, Jose M; García-Castaño, Juan L; Balao, Francisco; Terrab, Anass; Navarro-Sampedro, Laura; Tremetsberger, Karin; Talavera, Salvador

    2014-12-01

    Plant architecture is crucial to pollination and mating in wind-pollinated species. We investigated the effect of crown architecture on pollen dispersal, mating system and offspring quality, combining phenotypic and genotypic analyses in a low-density population of the endangered species Abies pinsapo. A total of 598 embryos from three relative crown height levels (bottom, middle and top) in five mother plants were genotyped using eleven nuclear microsatellite markers (nSSRs). Paternity analysis and mating system models were used to infer mating and pollen dispersal parameters. In addition, seeds were weighed (N = 16 110) and germinated (N = 736), and seedling vigour was measured to assess inbreeding depression. Overall, A. pinsapo shows a fat-tailed dispersal kernel, with an average pollen dispersal distance of 113-227 m, an immigration rate of 0.84-26.92%, and a number of effective pollen donors (Nep ) ranging between 3.5 and 11.9. We found an effect of tree height and relative crown height levels on mating parameters. A higher proportion of seeds with embryo (about 50%) and a higher rate of self-fertilization (about 60%) were found at the bottom level in comparison with the top level. Seed weight and seedling vigour are positively related. Nevertheless, no differences were found in seed weight or in seedling-related variables such as weight and length of aerial and subterranean parts among the different relative crown height levels, suggesting that seeds from the more strongly inbred bottom level are not affected by inbreeding depression. Our results point to vertical isotropy for outcross-pollen and they suggest that self-pollen may ensure fertilization when outcross-pollen is not available in low-density population.

  16. Differential Gene Expression Reveals Candidate Genes for Drought Stress Response in Abies alba (Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Behringer, David; Zimmermann, Heike; Ziegenhagen, Birgit; Liepelt, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    Increasing drought periods as a result of global climate change pose a threat to many tree species by possibly outpacing their adaptive capabilities. Revealing the genetic basis of drought stress response is therefore implemental for future conservation strategies and risk assessment. Access to informative genomic regions is however challenging, especially for conifers, partially due to their large genomes, which puts constraints on the feasibility of whole genome scans. Candidate genes offer a valuable tool to reduce the complexity of the analysis and the amount of sequencing work and costs. For this study we combined an improved drought stress phenotyping of needles via a novel terahertz water monitoring technique with Massive Analysis of cDNA Ends to identify candidate genes for drought stress response in European silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). A pooled cDNA library was constructed from the cotyledons of six drought stressed and six well-watered silver fir seedlings, respectively. Differential expression analyses of these libraries revealed 296 candidate genes for drought stress response in silver fir (247 up- and 49 down-regulated) of which a subset was validated by RT-qPCR of the twelve individual cotyledons. A majority of these genes code for currently uncharacterized proteins and hint on new genomic resources to be explored in conifers. Furthermore, we could show that some traditional reference genes from model plant species (GAPDH and eIF4A2) are not suitable for differential analysis and we propose a new reference gene, TPC1, for drought stress expression profiling in needles of conifer seedlings.

  17. Clouds homogenize shoot temperatures, transpiration, and photosynthesis within crowns of Abies fraseri (Pursh.) Poiret.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Moreno, J Melissa; Bayeur, Nicole M; Coley, Harold D; Hughes, Nicole M

    2017-03-01

    Multiple studies have examined the effects of clouds on shoot and canopy-level microclimate and physiological processes; none have yet done so on the scale of individual plant crowns. We compared incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), leaf temperatures, chlorophyll fluorescence, and photosynthetic gas exchange of shoots in three different spatial locations of Abies fraseri crowns on sunny (clear to partly cloudy) versus overcast days. The field site was a Fraser fir farm (1038 m elevation) in the Appalachian mountains, USA. Ten saplings of the same age class were marked and revisited for all measurements. Sunny conditions corresponded with 5-10× greater sunlight incidence on south-facing outer shoots compared to south-facing inner and north-facing outer shoots, which were shaded and received only indirect (diffuse) sunlight. Differences in spatial distribution of irradiance were mirrored in differences in shoot temperatures, photosynthesis, and transpiration, which were all greater in south-facing outer shoots compared to more shaded crown locations. In contrast, overcast conditions corresponded with more homogeneous sunlight distribution between north and south-facing outer shoots, and similar shoot temperatures, chlorophyll fluorescence (ΦPSII), photosynthesis, and transpiration; these effects were observed in south-facing inner shoots as well, but to a lesser extent. There was no significant difference in conductance between different crown locations on sunny or overcast days, indicating spatial differences in transpiration under sunny conditions were likely driven by leaf temperature differences. We conclude that clouds can affect spatial distribution of sunlight and associated physiological parameters not only within forest communities, but within individual crowns as well.

  18. A homeobox gene with potential developmental control function in the meristem of the conifer Picea abies

    PubMed Central

    Sundås-Larsson, A.; Svenson, M.; Liao, H.; Engström, P.

    1998-01-01

    Many homeobox genes control essential developmental processes in animals and plants. In this report, we describe the first cDNA corresponding to a homeobox gene isolated from a gymnosperm, the HBK1 gene from the conifer Picea abies (L.) Karst (Norway spruce). The sequence shows distinct similarities specifically to the KNOX (knotted-like homeobox) class of homeobox genes known from different angiosperm plants. The deduced amino acid sequence of HBK1 is strikingly similar within the homeodomain (84% identical) to the maize gene Knotted1 (Kn1), which acts to regulate cell differentiation in the shoot meristem. This similarity suggested that the phylogenetic association of HBK1 with the KNOX genes might be coupled to a conservation of gene function. In support of this suggestion, we have found HBK1 to be expressed in the apical meristem in the central population of nondifferentiated stem cells, but not in organ primordia developing at the flanks of the meristem. This pattern of expression is similar to that of Kn1 in the maize meristem. We show further that HBK1, when expressed ectopically in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, causes aberrations in leaf development that are similar to the effects of ectopic expression of angiosperm KNOX genes on Arabidopsis development. Taken together, these data suggest that HBK1 has a role, similar to the KNOX genes in angiosperms, in the control of cellular differentiation in the apical meristem of spruce. The data also indicate that KNOX-gene regulation of vegetative development is an ancient feature of seed plants that was present in the last common ancestor of conifers and angiosperms. PMID:9844025

  19. Refugial forests of the southern Appalachians: photosynthesis and survival in current-year Abies fraseri seedlings.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Daniel M; Smith, William K

    2005-11-01

    Fraser fir (Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poiret) is an endemic, high-elevation conifer confined to six relict mountaintop communities in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. High adult mortality has occurred over the past 50 years, possibly the result of an introduced insect (Adelges piceae Ratzeburg), air pollution, or both. Knowledge of the mechanisms of and limitations to seedling establishment may allow reestablisment and perpetuation of this unique community type, notwithstanding global climate change. We monitored seedling emergence and mortality in relation to photosynthetic performance and water relations in microsites differing in canopy openness (sunlight exposure) over the summer of 2004. Abundance of cotyledonous seedlings in early summer was 2.3 times greater (849 versus 366 seedlings m(-2)) in microsites with lower sky exposure (greater canopy closure) than in microsites with greater sky exposure (greater canopy openness). In contrast, late-season abundance and survival were greater in areas beneath more open canopies than in areas beneath less open canopies (3.3 times and 11.7 times greater, respectively). However, newly emerged seedling survival in a completely open site (no overhead canopy) was zero, despite an initial density of 124 seedlings m(-2). Seedling water status was similar in open- and closed-canopy sites (-0.52 and -0.74 MPa, respectively). Photosynthetic carbon gain was higher in newly emerged seedlings at open canopy than at closed canopy sites, especially during early morning. Based on photosynthetic light response curves and measured sunlight regimes, seedlings in open canopy sites were estimated to assimilate 3.3-4.5 times more carbon than seedlings at closed sites. Reductions in carbon gain of closed-site seedlings, primarily a result of limited sunlight, corresponded to substantial increases in seedling mortality (98 versus 79% in open canopy sites). Thus, sunlight exposure, which reflects overstory canopy structure, appears to be

  20. Isoprene and terpenoid emissions from Abies alba: Identification and emission rates under ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorska, Olga; Dewulf, Jo; Amelynck, Crist; Schoon, Niels; Šimpraga, Maja; Steppe, Kathy; Van Langenhove, Herman

    2012-11-01

    In this study, biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from Abies alba were studied under ambient conditions in Flanders (Belgium). Emission patterns and rates were investigated from April till November 2010 by using the dynamic branch enclosure technique. The present work revealed that A. alba is an isoprene emitter, with isoprene accounting for 86-93% of total BVOC emissions, except during budburst (67%) in May. The emission spectrum of A. alba consisted of 27 compounds. Next to isoprene, the main emitted compounds were α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene and limonene. BVOC emissions showed a peak in June after development of the young needles, followed by a constant emission during summer months and September and a decrease in October. In all the samples isoprene was the most abundant compound with standardized emission rates between 27 μg g(dw)-1 h-1 in June and 4.6 μg g(dw)-1 h-1 in October, while the total standardized terpenoid emission rates ranged from 2.85 μg g(dw)-1 h-1 in June to 0.26 μg g(dw)-1 h-1 in October. The obtained average β coefficients according to the temperature dependent algorithm of Guenther et al. (1993) during April-June, July, August and September-October were as follows: for terpenoids 0.12 ± 0.03, 0.11 ± 0.05, 0.12 ± 0.04, 0.24 ± 0.01 K-1 and sesquiterpenes (SQTs) 0.09 ± 0.02, 0.11 ± 0.01, 0.10 ± 0.05, 0 K-1, respectively. Overall, isoprene detected in this study was never quantified in previous studies on A. alba and this finding could have a significant impact on the regional BVOCs budget. Therefore, the result of this study is very important for modeling and local air quality.

  1. Apoplastic Peroxidases and Lignification in Needles of Norway Spruce (Picea abies L.).

    PubMed Central

    Polle, A.; Otter, T.; Seifert, F.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the correlation of soluble apoplastic peroxidase activity with lignification in needles of field-grown Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) trees. Apoplastic peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.7) were obtained by vacuum infiltration of needles. The lignin content of isolated cell walls was determined by the acetyl bromide method. Accumulation of lignin and seasonal variations of apoplastic peroxidase activities were studied in the first year of needle development. The major phase of lignification started after bud break and was terminated about 4 weeks later. This phase correlated with a transient increase in apoplastic guaiacol and coniferyl alcohol peroxidase activity. NADH oxidase activity, which is thought to sustain peroxidase activity by production of H2O2, peaked sharply after bud break and decreased during the lignification period. Histochemical localization of peroxidase with guaiacol indicated that high activities were present in lignifying cell walls. In mature needles, lignin was localized in walls of most needle tissues including mesophyll cells, and corresponded to 80 to 130 [mu]mol lignin monomers/g needle dry weight. Isoelectric focusing of apoplastic washing fluids and activity staining with guaiacol showed the presence of strongly alkaline peroxidases (isoelectric point [greater than or equal to] 9) in all developmental stages investigated. New isozymes with isoelectric points of 7.1 and 8.1 appeared during the major phase of lignification. These isozymes disappeared after lignification was terminated. A strong increase in peroxidase activity in autumn was associated with the appearance of acidic peroxidases (isoelectric point [less than or equal to] 3). These results suggest that soluble alkaline apoplastic peroxidases participate in lignin formation. Soluble acidic apoplastic peroxidases were apparently unrelated to developmentally regulated lignification in spruce needles. PMID:12232302

  2. Evaluation of growth disturbances of Picea abies (L.) Karst. to disturbances caused by landslide movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šilhán, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Dendrogeomorphic methods are frequently used in landslide analyses. Although methods of landslide dating based on tree rings are well developed, they still indicated many questions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequently used theoretical scheme based on the event-response relationship. Seventy-four individuals of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) exhibiting visible external disturbance, were sampled on the Girová landslide (the largest historical flow-like landslide in the Czech Republic). This landslide reactivated in May 2010, and post-landslide tree growth responses were studied in detail. These growth responses were compared with the intensity and occurrence of visible external tree disturbance: tilted stems, damaged root systems, and decapitation. Twenty-nine trees (39.2%) died within one to four years following the 2010 landslide movement. The trees that died following the landslide movement were significantly younger and displayed significantly greater stem tilting than the live trees. Abrupt growth suppression was a more-frequent response among the dead trees, whereas growth release dominated among the live trees. Only two trees (2.7%) created no reaction wood in response to the landslide movement. Forty-four percent of the trees started to produce reaction wood structure after a delay, which generally spanned one year. Some eccentric growth was evident in the tree rings of the landslide year and was significant in the first years following the landslide movement. Missing rings were observed only on the upper sides of the stems, and no false tree rings were observed. The results confirm the general validity of event-response relationship, nevertheless this study points out the limitations and uncertainties of this generally accepted working scheme.

  3. Temporal variations of mobile carbohydrates in Abies fargesii at the upper tree limits.

    PubMed

    Dang, H S; Zhang, K R; Zhang, Q F; Xu, Y M

    2015-01-01

    Low temperatures are associated high-altitude treelines, but the functional mechanism of treeline formation remains controversial. The relative contributions of carbon limitation (source activity) and growth limitation (sink activity) require more tests across taxa and regions. We examined temporal variations of mobile carbon supply in different tissues of Abies fargesii across treeline ecotones on north- and south-facing slopes of the Qinling Mountains, China. Non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations in tissues along the altitudinal gradient on both slopes changed significantly in the early and late growing season, but not in the mid-growing season, indicating the season-dependent carbon supply status. Late in the growing season on both slopes, trees at the upper limits had the highest NSC concentrations and total soluble sugars and lowest starch concentrations compared to trees at the lower elevations. NSC concentrations tended to increase in needles and branches throughout the growing season with increasing elevation on both slopes, but declined in roots and stems. NSC concentrations across sampling dates also indicated increases in needles and branches, and decreases in roots and stem with increasing elevation. Overall altitudinal trends of NSC in A. fargesii revealed no depletion of mobile carbon reserves at upper elevation limits, suggesting limitation of sink activity dominates tree life across treeline ecotones in both north- and south-facing slopes. Carbon reserves in storage tissues (especially roots) in the late growing season might also play an important role in winter survival and early growth in spring at upper elevations on both slopes, which define the uppermost limit of A. fargesii.

  4. Stand-structural effects on Heterobasidion abietinum-related mortality following drought events in Abies pinsapo.

    PubMed

    Linares, Juan Carlos; Camarero, Jesús Julio; Bowker, Matthew A; Ochoa, Victoria; Carreira, José Antonio

    2010-12-01

    Climate change may affect tree-pathogen interactions. This possibility has important implications for drought-prone forests, where stand dynamics and disease pathogenicity are especially sensitive to climatic stress. In addition, stand structural attributes including density-dependent tree-to-tree competition may modulate the stands' resistance to drought events and pathogen outbreaks. To assess the effects of stand structure on root-rot-related mortality after severe droughts, we focused on Heterobasidion abietinum mortality in relict Spanish stands of Abies pinsapo, a drought-sensitive fir. We compared stand attributes and tree spatial patterns in three plots with H. abietinum root-rot disease and three plots without root-rot. Point-pattern analyses were used to investigate the scale and extent of mortality patterns and to test hypotheses related to the spread of the disease. Dendrochronology was used to date the year of death and to assess the association between droughts and growth decline. We applied a structural equation modelling approach to test if tree mortality occurs more rapidly than predicted by a simple distance model when trees are subjected to high tree-to-tree competition and following drought events. Contrary to expectations of drought mortality, the effect of precipitation on the year of death was strong and negative, indicating that a period of high precipitation induced an earlier tree death. Competition intensity, related to the size and density of neighbour trees, also induced an earlier tree death. The effect of distance to the disease focus was negligible except in combination with intensive competition. Our results indicate that infected trees have decreased ability to withstand drought stress, and demonstrate that tree-to-tree competition and fungal infection act as predisposing factors of forest decline and mortality.

  5. [Evaluation of the agreement of results obtained from ABI Prism 7000 and 7700 sequencers in the quantification of hepatitis B virus DNA].

    PubMed

    Sertöz, R Yazan; Erensoy, S; Pas, S; Niesters, H G M

    2005-04-01

    There are different methods and systems for quantification of HBV-DNA in clinical virology laboratories. The aim of this study was to evaluate the agreement of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol with ABI Prism 7000 instrument (PE Biosystems) which was designed and optimised for ABI Prism 7700 (PE Biosystems). Serum samples obtained from 168 chronic hepatitis B patients were treated with "High Pure Viral Nucleic Acid Kit" (Roche Applied Science, USA), and MagnaPure LC isolation station (Roche Applied Science, Germany) was used for HBV-DNA isolation. Real time PCR procedure which amplifies pre-S gene of HBV genome was performed. Amplification and detection steps of all samples were performed with ABI Prism 7700 and 7000 Sequence Detection Systems. Among 168 samples, results of 124 serum samples were found to be in dynamic ranges of the tests. The results of these 124 samples obtained from ABI 7000 and ABI 7700 were concordant. Among the rest of 44 samples; one yielded higher than 10(10) copies/mL with two of the systems; six samples gave results higher than 10(10) copies/mL only with 7700; thirty samples were found negative with both of the systems; seven samples were positive (320-1220 copies/mL) with 7000 but negative with 7700. As a result this PCR protocol can be used in ABI 7000 system according to viral quality control (VQC) results. However, since the results of samples with HBV-DNA less than 1 x 10(6) copy/ml were discordant with the results obtained by ABI 7700 system, it can be concluded that different systems must not be used for the management and monitoring of the same patient.

  6. Mitii™ ABI: study protocol of a randomised controlled trial of a web-based multi-modal training program for children and adolescents with an Acquired Brain Injury (ABI).

    PubMed

    Boyd, Roslyn N; Baque, Emmah; Piovesana, Adina; Ross, Stephanie; Ziviani, Jenny; Sakzewski, Leanne; Barber, Lee; Lloyd, Owen; McKinlay, Lynne; Whittingham, Koa; Smith, Anthony C; Rose, Stephen; Fiori, Simona; Cunnington, Ross; Ware, Robert; Lewis, Melinda; Comans, Tracy A; Scuffham, Paul A

    2015-08-19

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) refers to multiple disabilities arising from damage to the brain acquired after birth. Children with an ABI may experience physical, cognitive, social and emotional-behavioural impairments which can impact their ability to participate in activities of daily living (ADL). Recent developments in technology have led to the emergence of internet-delivered therapy programs. "Move it to improve it" (Mitii™) is a web-based multi-modal therapy that comprises upper limb (UL) and cognitive training within the context of meaningful physical activity. The proposed study aims to compare the efficacy of Mitii™ to usual care to improve ADL motor and processing skills, gross motor capacity, UL and executive functioning in a randomised waitlist controlled trial. Sixty independently ambulant children (30 in each group) at least 12 months post ABI will be recruited to participate in this trial. Children will be matched in pairs at baseline and randomly allocated to receive either 20 weeks of Mitii™ training (30 min per day, six days a week, with a potential total dose of 60 h) immediately, or be waitlisted for 20 weeks. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline, immediately post-intervention and at 20 weeks post-intervention. The primary outcomes will be the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills and 30 s repetition maximum of functional strength exercises (sit-to-stand, step-ups and half kneel to stand). Measures of body structure and functions, activity, participation and quality of life will assess the efficacy of Mitii™ across all domains of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health framework. A subset of children will undertake three tesla (3T) magnetic resonance imaging scans to evaluate functional neurovascular changes, structural imaging, diffusion imaging and resting state functional connectivity before and after intervention. Mitii™ provides an alternative approach to deliver intensive therapy for children with

  7. Screening anaphylactic components of MaiLuoNing injection by using rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 cell membrane chromatography coupled with HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Han, Shengli; Lv, Yanni; Xue, Wenjing; Cao, Jiao; Cui, Ronghua; Zhang, Tao

    2016-02-01

    MaiLuoNing injection is a traditional Chinese medicine that used clinically since the 1950s in China. However, anaphylactic reactions, through the potentiation of mast cell degranulation, have been reported. In the present study, a rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 cell membrane chromatography coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization-ion trap-time of flight-mass spectrometry method was established for screening, analyzing, and identifying the potential anaphylactic components of MaiLuoNing injection. Harpagoside, a potential degranulator of rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 cells, was retained in rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 cell membrane chromatography. We aimed to evaluate the retained components to determine which of those were capable of inducing degranulation of basophilic leukemia cells. A β-hexosaminidase assay revealed that harpagoside can induce rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 cell degranulation in a dose-dependent manner. BLBA/c mice also exhibit passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in response to harpagoside. These results indicate that rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 cell membrane chromatography coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry is effective in screening for the anaphylactic components of MaiLuoNing injection.

  8. Impact of Heterobasidion root-rot on fine root morphology and associated fungi in Picea abies stands on peat soils.

    PubMed

    Gaitnieks, Talis; Klavina, Darta; Muiznieks, Indrikis; Pennanen, Taina; Velmala, Sannakajsa; Vasaitis, Rimvydas; Menkis, Audrius

    2016-07-01

    We examined differences in fine root morphology, mycorrhizal colonisation and root-inhabiting fungal communities between Picea abies individuals infected by Heterobasidion root-rot compared with healthy individuals in four stands on peat soils in Latvia. We hypothesised that decreased tree vitality and alteration in supply of photosynthates belowground due to root-rot infection might lead to changes in fungal communities of tree roots. Plots were established in places where trees were infected and in places where they were healthy. Within each stand, five replicate soil cores with roots were taken to 20 cm depth in each root-rot infected and uninfected plot. Root morphological parameters, mycorrhizal colonisation and associated fungal communities, and soil chemical properties were analysed. In three stands root morphological parameters and in all stands root mycorrhizal colonisation were similar between root-rot infected and uninfected plots. In one stand, there were significant differences in root morphological parameters between root-rot infected versus uninfected plots, but these were likely due to significant differences in soil chemical properties between the plots. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer of fungal nuclear rDNA from ectomycorrhizal (ECM) root morphotypes of P. abies revealed the presence of 42 fungal species, among which ECM basidiomycetes Tylospora asterophora (24.6 % of fine roots examined), Amphinema byssoides (14.5 %) and Russula sapinea (9.7 %) were most common. Within each stand, the richness of fungal species and the composition of fungal communities in root-rot infected versus uninfected plots were similar. In conclusion, Heterobasidion root-rot had little or no effect on fine root morphology, mycorrhizal colonisation and composition of fungal communities in fine roots of P. abies growing on peat soils.

  9. Synergistic combination of novel tubulin inhibitor ABI-274 and vemurafenib overcome vemurafenib acquired resistance in BRAFV600E melanoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Chen, Jianjun; Miller, Duane D; Li, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Acquired clinical resistance to vemurafenib, a selective BRAF(V600E) inhibitor, arises frequently after short-term chemotherapy. Because inhibitions of targets in the RAF-MEK-ERK pathway result in G(0)-G(1) cell-cycle arrest, vemurafenib-resistant cancer cells are expected to escape this cell-cycle arrest and progress to the subsequent G(2)-M phase. We hypothesized that a combined therapy using vemurafenib with a G(2)-M phase blocking agent will trap resistant cells and overcome vemurafenib resistance. To test this hypothesis, we first determined the combination index (CI) values of our novel tubulin inhibitor ABI-274 and vemurafenib on parental human A375 and MDA-MB-435 melanoma cell lines to be 0.32 and 0.1, respectively, suggesting strong synergy for the combination. We then developed an A375RF21 subline with significant acquired resistance to vemurafenib and confirmed the strong synergistic effect. Next, we studied the potential mechanisms of overcoming vemurafenib resistance. Flow cytometry confirmed that the combination of ABI-274 and vemurafenib synergistically arrested cells in the G(1)-G(2)-M phase, and significantly increased apoptosis in both parental A375 and the vemurafenib-resistant A375RF21 cells. Western blot analysis revealed that the combination treatment effectively reduced the level of phosphorylated and total AKT, activated the apoptosis cascade, and increased cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP, but had no significant influence on the level of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. Finally, in vivo coadministration of vemurafenib with ABI-274 showed strong synergistic efficacy in the vemurafenib-resistant xenograft model in nude mice. Overall, these results offer a rational combination strategy to significantly enhance the therapeutic benefit in patients with melanoma who inevitably become resistant to current vemurafenib therapy.

  10. Holocene variability in the range distribution and abundance of Pinus, Picea abies, and Quercus in Romania; implications for their current status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feurdean, Angelica; Tanţău, Ioan; Fărcaş, Sorina

    2011-10-01

    This paper examines fourteen fossil pollen datasets from Romania. It aims to investigate the temporal and spatial variability in the range distribution and abundance of three forest taxa, Pinus, Picea abies, and Quercus, during the Holocene. This is essential for understanding their current status in the forests of Eastern Europe, the conditions under which they arose, and the timing and processes responsible for their variability. Results from this synthesis do not indicate any apparent time lag in the establishment of Pinus diploxylon type ( Pinus sylvestris and Pinus mugo), Pinus cembra, P. abies, and Quercus across Romania within the limits of the dating resolution. However, the onset of the mass expansion of P. abies was not uniform, spreading earlier from sites in the western and north-western Carpathians (11,000-10,500 yr BP) than in the east (10,000 yr BP). We found that sites from the western, north-western, and northern Carpathians contained higher abundances of P. abies, whilst Quercus was in higher abundances in sites from the east, but there was no regional distinctiveness in the abundance of Pinus across the study area. However, P. diploxylon type was found in much higher abundance than P. cembra. Additionally, results indicate a greater proportion of Pinus (mainly P. diplxylon type) at high elevations, P. abies at mid to high elevations, and Quercus at low elevations (<500 m). The dominance of Pinus in the early Holocene boreal forest is likely the legacy of its local glacial refugia, fast life history strategies, high stress tolerance, and large habitat availability. In contrast, Pinus exhibited poor competitive abilities and was quickly replaced with P. abies and temperate deciduous taxa after 10,500 yr BP. P. abies has persisted in large abundances at higher elevations (above 1000 m) until the present day, as a result of good competitive abilities, and resilience to climate change and disturbance. The long-term dominance of P. abies appears to

  11. A Study of Association of Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) and the Highly Sensitive C - Reactive Protein (hsCRP) in Type 2 Diabetic Patients and in Normal Subjects

    PubMed Central

    K.O., Thejaswini; M.S, Roopakala; G., Dayananda; S.P, Chandrakala; Kumar K.M., Prasanna

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI) objectively assesses the lower extremity arterial perfusion. A low ABI suggests atherosclerosis and Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD). PAD is more common in individuals with type2 Diabetes mellitus (Type2 DM). Inflammatory markers are found to be associated with Type2 DM. But the association of the inflammatory markers with the atherosclerotic burden remains poorly defined. Aims: To compare the ABI and the hsCRP in the Type 2 DM patients with those in the normal subjects and to study the association of serum hsCRP with ABI in the Type 2 DM patients and in normal subjects. Methods: The subjects were 40 Type2 DM and 40 age, sex and BMI matched normal subjects who were aged between 45-60 yrs. The subjects were assigned to two different groups, Group1- the Type2 DM patients and Group2- the healthy controls. The serum hsCRP levels were determined by the turbidimetry method (BIOSYSTEMS) and the ABI values were determined by using the traditional continuous wave (CW) Doppler of NICOLET VERSALAB. Statistical Analysis: The data was analyzed by using the Student’s t test (two tailed; independent) to find the significance of the study parameters between the two groups. Pearson’s Correlation was used to find the correlation of serum hsCRP with the ABI in the two groups. Results: The ABI showed a significantly low value (P=0.035*) and the serum hsCRP showed a trend towards a significant increase (p = 0.069+) in the type2diabetics as compared to those in the normals. There was a significant negative correlation between ABI and hsCRP in the Type 2 DM patients (r=-0.560, p<0.001**). However, such correlation was not observed in the normal subjects. Conclusion: As serum hsCRP is associated with ABI in the type2 DM patients, inflammation may play a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. PMID:23450165

  12. Redundant and distinct functions of the ABA response loci ABA-INSENSITIVE(ABI)5 and ABRE-BINDING FACTOR (ABF)3.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Ruth; Gampala, Srinivas S L; Lynch, Tim J; Thomas, Terry L; Rock, Christopher D

    2005-09-01

    Abscisic acid-responsive gene expression is regulated by numerous transcription factors, including a subgroup of basic leucine zipper factors that bind to the conserved cis-acting sequences known as ABA-responsive elements. Although one of these factors, ABA-insensitive 5 (ABI5), was identified genetically, the paucity of genetic data for the other family members has left it unclear whether they perform unique functions or act redundantly to ABI5 or each other. To test for potential redundancy with ABI5, we identified the family members with most similar effects and interactions in transient expression systems (ABF3 and ABF1), then characterized loss-of-function lines for those loci. The abf1 and abf3 monogenic mutant lines had at most minimal effects on germination or seed-specific gene expression, but the enhanced ABA- and stress-resistance of abf3 abi5 double mutants revealed redundant action of these genes in multiple stress responses of seeds and seedlings. Although ABI5, ABF3, and ABF1 have some overlapping effects, they appear to antagonistically regulate each other's expression at specific stages. Consequently, loss of any one factor may be partially compensated by increased expression of other family members.

  13. Abelson Interactor 1 (Abi1) and Its Interaction with Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein (Wasp) Are Critical for Proper Eye Formation in Xenopus Embryos*

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Arvinder; Winterbottom, Emily F.; Ji, Yon Ju; Hwang, Yoo-Seok; Daar, Ira O.

    2013-01-01

    Abl interactor 1 (Abi1) is a scaffold protein that plays a central role in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton dynamics as a constituent of several key protein complexes, and homozygous loss of this protein leads to embryonic lethality in mice. Because this scaffold protein has been shown in cultured cells to be a critical component of pathways controlling cell migration and actin regulation at cell-cell contacts, we were interested to investigate the in vivo role of Abi1 in morphogenesis during the development of Xenopus embryos. Using morpholino-mediated translation inhibition, we demonstrate that knockdown of Abi1 in the whole embryo, or specifically in eye field progenitor cells, leads to disruption of eye morphogenesis. Moreover, signaling through the Src homology 3 domain of Abi1 is critical for proper movement of retinal progenitor cells into the eye field and their appropriate differentiation, and this process is dependent upon an interaction with the nucleation-promoting factor Wasp (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein). Collectively, our data demonstrate that the Abi1 scaffold protein is an essential regulator of cell movement processes required for normal eye development in Xenopus embryos and specifically requires an Src homology 3 domain-dependent interaction with Wasp to regulate this complex morphogenetic process. PMID:23558677

  14. The experience of being a parent with an acquired brain injury (ABI) as an inpatient at a neuro-rehabilitation centre, 0-2 years post-injury.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Adrian Richard; Daisley, Audrey; Newby, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    Little research has been conducted exploring the issues surrounding parenting with an acquired brain injury (ABI). This study aimed to explore the experiences and needs of parents who suffered an ABI in the last 2 years from their own perspectives. For individuals with an ABI who have dependent children their ABI has the potential to impact upon their parenting abilities, skills and relationships. Interpretive phenomenological analysis (IPA) was used to analyse the data. Using IPA allowed the research questions and inquiry to be positioned epistemologically and directed towards 'meaning' rather than 'difference' or 'causality'. Five participants (two female, three male) were interviewed using a semi-structured interview schedule. Four main themes were identified: (i) Multiple losses, (ii) A mix of resigned acceptance and uncertain future, (iii) Giving and receiving support is part of the healing process and (iv) Hopes and aspirations. The results indicated that the participants experienced an oscillation between experiencing the multiple losses of their parental role and attempting to adapt and adjust to these changes. These findings are discussed in relation to clinical and theoretical implications for parents who are inpatients with an ABI up to 2 years post-injury.

  15. Lignans from the shed trunk barks of the critically endangered plant Abies beshanzuensis and their anti-neuroinflammatory activities.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chang-Ling; Xiong, Juan; Xu, Peng; Cheng, Ke-Jun; Yang, Guo-Xun; Hu, Jin-Feng

    2017-06-01

    During a further and comprehensive phytochemical investigation on the shed trunk barks of the critically endangered plant Abies beshanzuensis, one new (1) and ten known (2-11) lignans with diverse structures were isolated. On the basis of spectroscopic methods, the new structure was established to be (7S,8R,8'R)-4'-methoxyl-α-conidendrin (1). Among the isolated lignans, (-)-matairesinol (5) and (-)-arctigenin (6) showed significant anti-neuroinflammatory activities by inhibiting the overproduction of nitric oxide in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine BV-2 microglial cells, with IC50 values of 11.5 and 19.0 μM, respectively.

  16. Identification of Gibberellins in Norway Spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) by Combined Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Odén, Per Christer; Schwenen, Ludger; Graebe, Jan E.

    1987-01-01

    Gibberellins A1 (GA1), A3 and A9 were identified from extracts of shoots of 6-month old Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings by the use of sequential reverse and normal phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), bioassay, radioimmunoassay (RIA) and combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The bioassay and RIA were used after fractionation by HPLC to detect the GA-containing fractions, which were then examined by GC-MS. The GAs identified are considered to be endogenous. PMID:16665471

  17. Microdose fluorescence imaging of ABY-029 on an operating microscope adapted by custom illumination and imaging modules

    PubMed Central

    Dsouza, Alisha V.; Marra, Kayla; Pogue, Brian W.; Roberts, David W.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence guided surgery has the potential to positively impact surgical oncology; current operating microscopes and stand-alone imaging systems are too insensitive or too cumbersome to maximally take advantage of new tumor-specific agents developed through the microdose pathway. To this end, a custom-built illumination and imaging module enabling picomolar-sensitive near-infrared fluorescence imaging on a commercial operating microscope is described. The limits of detection and system specifications are characterized, and in vivo efficacy of the system in detecting ABY-029 is evaluated in a rat orthotopic glioma model following microdose injections, showing the suitability of the device for microdose phase 0 clinical trials. PMID:27699098

  18. Cavitation in dehydrating xylem of Picea abies: energy properties of ultrasonic emissions reflect tracheid dimensions.

    PubMed

    Mayr, Stefan; Rosner, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic emission (UE) testing is used to analyse the vulnerability of xylem to embolism, but the number of UEs often does not sufficiently reflect effects on hydraulic conductivity. We monitored the absolute energy of UE signals in dehydrating xylem samples hypothesizing that (i) conduit diameter is correlated with UE energy and (ii) monitoring of UE energy may enhance the utility of this technique for analysis of xylem vulnerability. Split xylem samples were prepared from trunk wood of Picea abies, and four categories of samples, derived from mature (I: earlywood, II: 30-50% latewood, III: >50% latewood) or juvenile wood (IV: earlywood) were used. Ultrasonic emissions during dehydration were registered and anatomical parameters (tracheid lumen area, number per area) were analysed from cross-sections. Attenuation of UE energy was measured on a dehydrating wood beam by repeated lead breaks. Vulnerability to drought-induced embolism was analysed on dehydrating branches by hydraulic, UE number or UE energy measurements. In split samples, the cumulative number of UEs increased linearly with the number of tracheids per cross-section, and UE energy was positively correlated with the mean lumen area. Ultrasonic emission energies of earlywood samples (I and IV), which showed normally distributed tracheid lumen areas, increased during dehydration, whereas samples with latewood (II and III) exhibited a right-skewed distribution of lumina and UE energies. Ultrasonic emission energy was hardly influenced by moisture content until ∼40% moisture loss, and decreased exponentially thereafter. Dehydrating branches showed a 50% loss of conductivity at -3.6 MPa in hydraulic measurements and at -3.9 and -3.5 MPa in UE analysis based on cumulative number or energy of signals, respectively. Ultrasonic emission energy emitted by cavitating conduits is determined by the xylem water potential and by the size of element. Energy patterns during dehydration are thus influenced by the

  19. Cavitation in dehydrating xylem of Picea abies: energy properties of ultrasonic emissions reflect tracheid dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Mayr, Stefan; Rosner, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic emission (UE) testing is used to analyse the vulnerability of xylem to embolism, but the number of UEs often does not sufficiently reflect effects on hydraulic conductivity. We monitored the absolute energy of UE signals in dehydrating xylem samples hypothesizing that (i) conduit diameter is correlated with UE energy and (ii) monitoring of UE energy may enhance the utility of this technique for analysis of xylem vulnerability. Split xylem samples were prepared from trunk wood of Picea abies, and four categories of samples, derived from mature (I: earlywood, II: 30–50% latewood, III: >50% latewood) or juvenile wood (IV: earlywood) were used. Ultrasonic emissions during dehydration were registered and anatomical parameters (tracheid lumen area, number per area) were analysed from cross-sections. Attenuation of UE energy was measured on a dehydrating wood beam by repeated lead breaks. Vulnerability to drought-induced embolism was analysed on dehydrating branches by hydraulic, UE number or UE energy measurements. In split samples, the cumulative number of UEs increased linearly with the number of tracheids per cross-section, and UE energy was positively correlated with the mean lumen area. Ultrasonic emission energies of earlywood samples (I and IV), which showed normally distributed tracheid lumen areas, increased during dehydration, whereas samples with latewood (II and III) exhibited a right-skewed distribution of lumina and UE energies. Ultrasonic emission energy was hardly influenced by moisture content until ~40% moisture loss, and decreased exponentially thereafter. Dehydrating branches showed a 50% loss of conductivity at −3.6 MPa in hydraulic measurements and at −3.9 and −3.5 MPa in UE analysis based on cumulative number or energy of signals, respectively. Ultrasonic emission energy emitted by cavitating conduits is determined by the xylem water potential and by the size of element. Energy patterns during dehydration are thus influenced by

  20. Are Early Somatic Embryos of the Norway Spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) Organised?

    PubMed Central

    Petrek, Jiri; Zitka, Ondrej; Adam, Vojtech; Bartusek, Karel; Anjum, Naser A.; Pereira, Eduarda; Havel, Ladislav; Kizek, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Background Somatic embryogenesis in conifer species has great potential for the forestry industry. Hence, a number of methods have been developed for their efficient and rapid propagation through somatic embryogenesis. Although information is available regarding the previous process-mediated generation of embryogenic cells to form somatic embryos, there is a dearth of information in the literature on the detailed structure of these clusters. Methodology/Principal Findings The main aim of this study was to provide a more detailed structure of the embryogenic tissue clusters obtained through the in vitro propagation of the Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). We primarily focused on the growth of early somatic embryos (ESEs). The data on ESE growth suggested that there may be clear distinctions between their inner and outer regions. Therefore, we selected ESEs collected on the 56th day after sub-cultivation to dissect the homogeneity of the ESE clusters. Two colourimetric assays (acetocarmine and fluorescein diacetate/propidium iodide staining) and one metabolic assay based on the use of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride uncovered large differences in the metabolic activity inside the cluster. Next, we performed nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. The ESE cluster seemed to be compactly aggregated during the first four weeks of cultivation; thereafter, the difference between the 1H nuclei concentration in the inner and outer clusters was more evident. There were clear differences in the visual appearance of embryos from the outer and inner regions. Finally, a cluster was divided into six parts (three each from the inner and the outer regions of the embryo) to determine their growth and viability. The innermost embryos (centripetally towards the cluster centre) could grow after sub-cultivation but exhibited the slowest rate and required the longest time to reach the common growth rate. To confirm our hypothesis on the organisation of the ESE cluster, we

  1. Modern sedimentation and varve formation processes in Lake Żabińskie, northeastern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonk, Alicja; Tylmann, Wojciech; Enters, Dirk; Grosjean, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Lake Żabińskie is the main study site of CLIMPOL, a project which aims at establishing a quantitative reconstruction of climate change in northern Poland during the last millennium. The lake is located in the Masurian Lake District (54°07'54.5"N; 21°59'01.1"E) and presents features typical for kettle-hole lakes, i.e. a small surface area (41.6 ha) and a considerable depth (44.4 m) in the central part of the lake bottom. A set of gravity and piston cores collected from the deepest part of the lake indicate that the sediment record contains an undisturbed and continuous sequence of varved deposits. A regular monitoring of lake water properties and modern sedimentation was initiated to better understand the influences of limnology on the processes of varve formation and preservation in this lake. During monthly field campaigns a broad range of physical and chemical parameters of the lake water column as well as sediment fluxes were measured. Seasonal changes in sediment composition registered in sediment trap allow establishing documentation of an annual deposition model which is here compared with results of microstratigraphic investigations of thin sections and high-resolution XRF scanning of impregnated sediment slabs. Multiple calcite deposition during growing season of one year is well reflected in the complex structure of varves which include up to six individual calcite laminae. During spring and summer, pennate and centric diatoms occur in addition to calcite crystals. In the late summer grains of vivianite and pyrite are present. Chrysophyte cysts are also very common but no distinct seasonality can be observed. During autumn and winter period minerogenic and organic detritus occurs. XRF measurements confirm that highest Ca concentrations occur during spring and summer which are followed by distinct maxima in Fe, K and S concentrations. Si concentrations, which represent mainly biogenic silica content in the sediments are consistent with Ca while Mn

  2. Two novel techniques to screen Abies seedlings for resistance to the balsam woolly adelgid, Adelges piceae.

    PubMed

    Newton, Leslie; Frampton, John; Monahan, John; Goldfarb, Barry; Hain, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Since its introduction into the Southern Appalachians in the 1950s, the balsam woolly adelgid, Adelges piceae Ratzeburg (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), has devastated native populations of Fraser fir, Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir. (Pinales: Pinaceae), and has become a major pest in Christmas tree plantations requiring expensive chemical treatments. Adelges piceae-resistant Fraser fir trees would lessen costs for the Christmas tree industry and assist in the restoration of native stands. Resistance screening is an important step in this process. Here, four studies directed toward the development of time- and cost-efficient techniques for screening are reported. In the first study, three methods to artificially infest seedlings of different ages were evaluated in a shade-covered greenhouse. Two-year-old seedlings had much lower infestation levels than 7 year-old seedlings. Placing infested bark at the base of the seedling was less effective than tying infested bark to the seedling or suspending infested bolts above the seedling. Although the two latter techniques resulted in similar densities on the seedlings, they each have positive and negative considerations. Attaching bark to uninfested trees is effective, but very time consuming. The suspended bolt method mimics natural infestation and is more economical than attaching bark, but care must be taken to ensure an even distribution of crawlers falling onto the seedlings. The second study focused on the density and distribution of crawlers falling from suspended bolts onto paper gridded into 7.6 × 7.6 cm cells. Crawler density in a 30 cm band under and to each side of the suspended bolt ranged from 400 to over 3000 crawlers per cell (1 to 55 crawlers per cm²). In the third study, excised branches from 4 year-old A. fraseri and A. vetchii seedlings were artificially infested with A. piceae to determine whether this technique may be useful for early resistance screening. The excised A. fraseri branches supported complete

  3. Two Novel Techniques to Screen Abies Seedlings for Resistance to the Balsam Woolly Adelgid, Adelges piceae

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Leslie; Frampton, John; Monahan, John; Goldfarb, Barry; Hain, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Since its introduction into the Southern Appalachians in the 1950s, the balsam woolly adelgid, Adelges piceae Ratzeburg (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), has devastated native populations of Fraser fir, Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir. (Pinales: Pinaceae), and has become a major pest in Christmas tree plantations requiring expensive chemical treatments. Adelges piceae—resistant Fraser fir trees would lessen costs for the Christmas tree industry and assist in the restoration of native stands. Resistance screening is an important step in this process. Here, four studies directed toward the development of time— and cost—efficient techniques for screening are reported. In the first study, three methods to artificially infest seedlings of different ages were evaluated in a shade—covered greenhouse. Two—year—old seedlings had much lower infestation levels than 7 year—old seedlings. Placing infested bark at the base of the seedling was less effective than tying infested bark to the seedling or suspending infested bolts above the seedling. Although the two latter techniques resulted in similar densities on the seedlings, they each have positive and negative considerations. Attaching bark to uninfested trees is effective, but very time consuming. The suspended bolt method mimics natural infestation and is more economical than attaching bark, but care must be taken to ensure an even distribution of crawlers falling onto the seedlings. The second study focused on the density and distribution of crawlers falling from suspended bolts onto paper gridded into 7.6 × 7.6 cm cells. Crawler density in a 30 cm band under and to each side of the suspended bolt ranged from 400 to over 3000 crawlers per cell (1 to 55 crawlers per cm2). In the third study, excised branches from 4 year—old A. fraseri and A. vetchii seedlings were artificially infested with A. piceae to determine whether this technique may be useful for early resistance screening. The excised A. fraseri branches supported

  4. The BABY BOOM Transcription Factor Activates the LEC1-ABI3-FUS3-LEC2 Network to Induce Somatic Embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Horstman, Anneke; Li, Mengfan; Heidmann, Iris; Weemen, Mieke; Chen, Baojian; Muino, Jose M; Angenent, Gerco C; Boutilier, Kim

    2017-10-01

    Somatic embryogenesis is an example of induced cellular totipotency, where embryos develop from vegetative cells rather than from gamete fusion. Somatic embryogenesis can be induced in vitro by exposing explants to growth regulators and/or stress treatments. The BABY BOOM (BBM) and LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1) and LEC2 transcription factors are key regulators of plant cell totipotency, as ectopic overexpression of either transcription factor induces somatic embryo formation from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings without exogenous growth regulators or stress treatments. Although LEC and BBM proteins regulate the same developmental process, it is not known whether they function in the same molecular pathway. We show that BBM transcriptionally regulates LEC1 and LEC2, as well as the two other LAFL genes, FUSCA3 (FUS3) and ABSCISIC ACIDINSENSITIVE3 (ABI3). LEC2 and ABI3 quantitatively regulate BBM-mediated somatic embryogenesis, while FUS3 and LEC1 are essential for this process. BBM-mediated somatic embryogenesis is dose and context dependent, and the context-dependent phenotypes are associated with differential LAFL expression. We also uncover functional redundancy for somatic embryogenesis among other Arabidopsis BBM-like proteins and show that one of these proteins, PLETHORA2, also regulates LAFL gene expression. Our data place BBM upstream of other major regulators of plant embryo identity and totipotency. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  5. A pyrosequencing insight into sprawling bacterial diversity and community dynamics in decaying deadwood logs of Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Björn; Krger, Krüger; Kahl, Tiemo; Arnstadt, Tobias; Buscot, François; Bauhus, Jürgen; Wubet, Tesfaye

    2015-04-08

    Deadwood is an important biodiversity hotspot in forest ecosystems. While saproxylic insects and wood-inhabiting fungi have been studied extensively, little is known about deadwood-inhabiting bacteria. The study we present is among the first to compare bacterial diversity and community structure of deadwood under field conditions. We therefore compared deadwood logs of two temperate forest tree species Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies using 16S rDNA pyrosequencing to identify changes in bacterial diversity and community structure at different stages of decay in forest plots under different management regimes. Alphaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria were the dominant taxonomic groups in both tree species. There were no differences in bacterial OTU richness between deadwood of Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies. Bacteria from the order Rhizobiales became more abundant during the intermediate and advanced stages of decay, accounting for up to 25% of the entire bacterial community in such logs. The most dominant OTU was taxonomically assigned to the genus Methylovirgula, which was recently described in a woodblock experiment of Fagus sylvatica. Besides tree species we were able to demonstrate that deadwood physico-chemical properties, in particular remaining mass, relative wood moisture, pH, and C/N ratio serve as drivers of community composition of deadwood-inhabiting bacteria.

  6. Genetic Structure and Diversity of the Endangered Fir Tree of Lebanon (Abies cilicica Carr.): Implications for Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Lara; Fady, Bruno; Khater, Carla; Roig, Anne; Cheddadi, Rachid

    2014-01-01

    The threatened conifer Abies cilicica currently persists in Lebanon in geographically isolated forest patches. The impact of demographic and evolutionary processes on population genetic diversity and structure were assessed using 10 nuclear microsatellite loci. All remnant 15 local populations revealed a low genetic variation but a high recent effective population size. FST-based measures of population genetic differentiation revealed a low spatial genetic structure, but Bayesian analysis of population structure identified a significant Northeast-Southwest population structure. Populations showed significant but weak isolation-by-distance, indicating non-equilibrium conditions between dispersal and genetic drift. Bayesian assignment tests detected an asymmetric Northeast-Southwest migration involving some long-distance dispersal events. We suggest that the persistence and Northeast-Southwest geographic structure of Abies cilicica in Lebanon is the result of at least two demographic processes during its recent evolutionary history: (1) recent migration to currently marginal populations and (2) local persistence through altitudinal shifts along a mountainous topography. These results might help us better understand the mechanisms involved in the species response to expected climate change. PMID:24587219

  7. ABI-like transcription factor gene TaABL1 from wheat improves multiple abiotic stress tolerances in transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dong-Bei; Gao, Shi-Qing; Ma, You-Zhi; Xu, Zhao-Shi; Zhao, Chang-Ping; Tang, Yi-Miao; Li, Xue-Yin; Li, Lian-Cheng; Chen, Yao-Feng; Chen, Ming

    2014-12-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays crucial roles in adaptive responses of plants to abiotic stresses. ABA-responsive element binding proteins (AREBs) are basic leucine zipper transcription factors that regulate the expression of downstream genes containing ABA-responsive elements (ABREs) in promoter regions. A novel ABI-like (ABA-insensitive) transcription factor gene, named TaABL1, containing a conserved basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain was cloned from wheat. Southern blotting showed that three copies were present in the wheat genome. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that TaABL1 belonged to the AREB subfamily of the bZIP transcription factor family and was most closely related to ZmABI5 in maize and OsAREB2 in rice. Expression of TaABL1 was highly induced in wheat roots, stems, and leaves by ABA, drought, high salt, and low temperature stresses. TaABL1 was localized inside the nuclei of transformed wheat mesophyll protoplast. Overexpression of TaABL1 enhanced responses of transgenic plants to ABA and hastened stomatal closure under stress, thereby improving tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses. Furthermore, overexpression of TaABL1 upregulated or downregulated the expression of some stress-related genes controlling stomatal closure in transgenic plants under ABA and drought stress conditions, suggesting that TaABL1 might be a valuable genetic resource for transgenic molecular breeding.

  8. Online awareness of functional tasks following ABI: the effect of task experience and associations with underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Rotenberg-Shpigelman, Shlomit; Rosen-Shilo, Lee; Maeir, Adina

    2014-01-01

    Self-awareness is a significant predictor of neurorehabilitation process and outcome and encompasses metacognitive knowledge and online awareness. The literature focuses primarily on intellectual awareness and research on online awareness is lacking. To examine online awareness for functional tasks, how it is affected by task experience and its relationships with neurogenic and psychogenic factors. Thirty six adults with ABI attending neurorehabilitation participated in this study. Online awareness was measured as the discrepancy between subjective ratings of performance and performance on functional tasks, as rated by experienced therapists. Participants' ratings were recorded before and immediately after task experience, as well as following a mediated review of task steps. The Impaired Self-Awareness scale (ISA) and the Denial of Disability scale (DD) rated neurogenic and psychogenic mechanisms of unawareness. Results indicated significant differences between therapists' and participants' ratings before and after IADL task performance, and following mediation. Participants typically overestimated their functional independence and did not significantly change their ratings after task experience. Significant moderate to strong correlations were found between online awareness measures and both DD and ISA scales. Overestimation of functional independence is common in persons with ABI, is related to both neurogenic and psychogenic factors and is not significantly affected by single task experience. Further studies are required to examine the effect of theoretically driven awareness interventions in neurorehabilitation.

  9. Exploring Parents' Perceptions and How Physiotherapy Supports Transition from Rehabilitation to School for Youth with an ABI.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tracy; Norton, Andrea; Hayes, Sue; Adamson, Keith; Schwellnus, Heidi; Evans, Cathy

    2017-11-01

    To explore parents' perceptions of their youth's transition from rehabilitation to school following an Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) and how physiotherapy influenced the youth's participation and physical function during the transition. The study utilized phenomenological qualitative methodology using semi-structured interviews with 11 parents of youth 10 to 18 years of age recruited from one pediatric rehabilitation hospital in Ontario. Each interview was audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and thematically analyzed. Parents valued physiotherapy and highlighted potential areas of improved service delivery to promote participation in an active lifestyle during this transition. In addition to being parents, they had to assume new roles and responsibilities in order to motivate their youth to continue with therapy and physical activity and had to facilitate their participation in school, recreational and social activities. For youth following an ABI, the transition back to school is complex and strategies should be supportive and responsive. Implications for physiotherapists include improved collaboration with community partners to motivate youth and promote physical activity; engage youth with their peers early in the rehabilitation process; and ongoing support for parents.

  10. Reconstitution of abscisic acid activation of SLAC1 anion channel by CPK6 and OST1 kinases and branched ABI1 PP2C phosphatase action.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Benjamin; Brodsky, Dennis E; Xue, Shaowu; Negi, Juntaro; Iba, Koh; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko; Ghassemian, Majid; Stephan, Aaron B; Hu, Honghong; Schroeder, Julian I

    2012-06-26

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is produced in response to abiotic stresses and mediates stomatal closure in response to drought via recently identified ABA receptors (pyrabactin resistance/regulatory component of ABA receptor; PYR/RCAR). SLAC1 encodes a central guard cell S-type anion channel that mediates ABA-induced stomatal closure. Coexpression of the calcium-dependent protein kinase 21 (CPK21), CPK23, or the Open Stomata 1 kinase (OST1) activates SLAC1 anion currents. However, reconstitution of ABA activation of any plant ion channel has not yet been attained. Whether the known core ABA signaling components are sufficient for ABA activation of SLAC1 anion channels or whether additional components are required remains unknown. The Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase CPK6 is known to function in vivo in ABA-induced stomatal closure. Here we show that CPK6 robustly activates SLAC1-mediated currents and phosphorylates the SLAC1 N terminus. A phosphorylation site (S59) in SLAC1, crucial for CPK6 activation, was identified. The group A PP2Cs ABI1, ABI2, and PP2CA down-regulated CPK6-mediated SLAC1 activity in oocytes. Unexpectedly, ABI1 directly dephosphorylated the N terminus of SLAC1, indicating an alternate branched early ABA signaling core in which ABI1 targets SLAC1 directly (down-regulation). Furthermore, here we have successfully reconstituted ABA-induced activation of SLAC1 channels in oocytes using the ABA receptor pyrabactin resistant 1 (PYR1) and PP2C phosphatases with two alternate signaling cores including either CPK6 or OST1. Point mutations in ABI1 disrupting PYR1-ABI1 interaction abolished ABA signal transduction. Moreover, by addition of CPK6, a functional ABA signal transduction core from ABA receptors to ion channel activation was reconstituted without a SnRK2 kinase.

  11. Inter- and intra-specific variation in drought sensitivity in Abies spec. and its relation to wood density and growth traits

    PubMed Central

    George, Jan-Peter; Schueler, Silvio; Karanitsch-Ackerl, Sandra; Mayer, Konrad; Klumpp, Raphael T.; Grabner, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Understanding drought sensitivity of tree species and its intra-specific variation is required to estimate the effects of climate change on forest productivity, carbon sequestration and tree mortality as well as to develop adaptive forest management measures. Here, we studied the variation of drought reaction of six European Abies species and ten provenances of Abies alba planted in the drought prone eastern Austria. Tree-ring and X-ray densitometry data were used to generate early- and latewood measures for ring width and wood density. Moreover, the drought reaction of species and provenances within six distinct drought events between 1970 and 2011, as identified by the standardized precipitation index, was determined by four drought response measures. The mean reaction of species and provenances to drought events was strongly affected by the seasonal occurrence of the drought: a short, strong drought at the beginning of the growing season resulted in growth reductions up to 50%, while droughts at the end of the growing season did not affect annual increment. Wood properties and drought response measures showed significant variation among Abies species as well as among A. alba provenances. Whereas A. alba provenances explained significant parts in the variation of ring width measures, the Abies species explained significant parts in the variation of wood density parameters. A consistent pattern in drought response across the six drought events was observed only at the inter-specific level, where A. nordmanniana showed the highest resistance and A. cephalonica showed the best recovery after drought. In contrast, differences in drought reaction among provenances were only found for the milder drought events in 1986, 1990, 1993 and 2000 and the ranking of provenances varied at each drought event. This indicates that genetic variation in drought response within A. alba is more limited than among Abies species. Low correlations between wood density parameters and

  12. Inter- and intra-specific variation in drought sensitivity in Abies spec. and its relation to wood density and growth traits.

    PubMed

    George, Jan-Peter; Schueler, Silvio; Karanitsch-Ackerl, Sandra; Mayer, Konrad; Klumpp, Raphael T; Grabner, Michael

    2015-12-15

    Understanding drought sensitivity of tree species and its intra-specific variation is required to estimate the effects of climate change on forest productivity, carbon sequestration and tree mortality as well as to develop adaptive forest management measures. Here, we studied the variation of drought reaction of six European Abies species and ten provenances of Abies alba planted in the drought prone eastern Austria. Tree-ring and X-ray densitometry data were used to generate early- and latewood measures for ring width and wood density. Moreover, the drought reaction of species and provenances within six distinct drought events between 1970 and 2011, as identified by the standardized precipitation index, was determined by four drought response measures. The mean reaction of species and provenances to drought events was strongly affected by the seasonal occurrence of the drought: a short, strong drought at the beginning of the growing season resulted in growth reductions up to 50%, while droughts at the end of the growing season did not affect annual increment. Wood properties and drought response measures showed significant variation among Abies species as well as among A. alba provenances. Whereas A. alba provenances explained significant parts in the variation of ring width measures, the Abies species explained significant parts in the variation of wood density parameters. A consistent pattern in drought response across the six drought events was observed only at the inter-specific level, where A. nordmanniana showed the highest resistance and A. cephalonica showed the best recovery after drought. In contrast, differences in drought reaction among provenances were only found for the milder drought events in 1986, 1990, 1993 and 2000 and the ranking of provenances varied at each drought event. This indicates that genetic variation in drought response within A. alba is more limited than among Abies species. Low correlations between wood density parameters and

  13. Ozone fumigation under dark/light conditions of Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) and Scots Pine (Pinus Sylvestris)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canaval, Eva; Jud, Werner; Hansel, Armin

    2015-04-01

    Norway Spruce (Picea abies) and Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) represent dominating tree species in the northern hemisphere. Thus, the understanding of their ozone sensitivity in the light of the expected increasing ozone levels in the future is of great importance. In our experiments we investigated the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of 3-4 year old Norway Spruce and Scots Pine seedlings under ozone fumigation (50-150 ppbv) and dark/light conditions. For the experiments the plants were placed in a setup with inert materials including a glass cuvette equipped with a turbulent air inlet and sensors for monitoring a large range of meteorological parameters. Typical conditions were 20-25°C and a relative humidity of 70-90 % for both plant species. A fast gas exchange rate was used to minimize reactions of ozone in the gas phase. A Switchable-Reagent-Ion-Time-of-Flight-MS (SRI-ToF-MS) was used to analyze the VOCs at the cuvette outlet in real-time during changing ozone and light levels. The use of H3O+ and NO+ as reagent ions allows the separation of certain isomers (e.g. aldehydes and ketones) due to different reaction pathways depending on the functional groups of the molecules. Within the Picea abies experiments the ozone loss, defined as the difference of the ozone concentration between cuvette inlet and outlet, remained nearly constant at the transition from dark to light. This indicates that a major part of the supplied ozone is depleted non-stomatally. In contrast the ozone loss increased by 50 % at the transition from dark to light conditions within Pinus sylvestris experiments. In this case the stomata represent the dominant loss channel. Since maximally 0.1% of the ozone loss could be explained by gas phase reactions with monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, we suggest that ozone reactions on the surface of Picea abies represent the major sink in this case and lead to an light-independent ozone loss. This is supported by the fact that we detected

  14. Alcohol Brief Interventions (ABIs) for male remand prisoners: protocol for development of a complex intervention and feasibility study (PRISM-A).

    PubMed

    Holloway, Aisha; Landale, Sarah; Ferguson, Jennifer; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy; Parker, Richard; Smith, Pam; Sheikh, Aziz

    2017-05-04

    In the UK, a significant proportion of male remand prisoners have alcohol problems. Alcohol Brief Interventions (ABIs) are an effective component of a population-level approach to harmful and hazardous drinking. ABIs have been shown to reduce the aggregate level of alcohol consumed and therefore reduce harm to the individual and to others. However, in relation to remand prisoners, there is no evidence as to how effective ABIs could be. The aims of this study are therefore to explore the feasibility and acceptability of an ABI for adult male remand prisoners and to develop an ABI for this group to be piloted in a future trial. The study will comprise three stages. Stage 1: a cross-sectional survey of adult male remand and convicted prisoners (n=500) at one Scottish prison and one English prison will be undertaken to assess acceptability and feasibility of delivering an ABI, as well as prevalence rates of harmful, hazardous and dependent drinking. Stage 2: in-depth interviews will be conducted with a sample of remand prisoners (n=24) who undertook the survey (n=12 in Scotland; n=12 in England). Two focus groups (one in Scotland and one in England) with six to eight key stakeholders associated with alcohol-related healthcare provision in prisons will be conducted to explore views on barriers, facilitators and levers to ABI delivery. Stage 3: through formal intervention mapping, the analysed data will inform the refinement of an acceptable ABI that is feasible to deliver to male remand prisoners. The project has been approved by the National Research Ethics Committee (NRES), National Offender Management System, Health Board Research and Development, Scottish Prison Service and ethics committee at The University of Edinburgh. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at local, national and international conferences. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No

  15. The isozyme selective phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor, ABI-4, attenuates the effects of lipopolysaccharide in human cells and rodent models of peripheral and CNS inflammation.

    PubMed

    Hedde, Joseph R; Hanks, Ashley N; Schmidt, Christopher J; Hughes, Zoë A

    2017-08-01

    Inhibitors of phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) have been approved for the treatment of inflammatory disorders, but are associated with dose-limiting nausea and vomiting. These side effects are hypothesized to be mediated by inhibition of the PDE4D isozyme. Here we demonstrate the anti-inflammatory effects of the novel brain penetrant PDE4D-sparing PDE4 inhibitor, ABI-4. ABI-4 was a potent (EC50∼14nM) inhibitor of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced TNF-α release from mouse microglia and human PBMCs. ABI-4 (0.32mg/kg) blocked LPS-induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6) in blood and brain of mice. In a rat model of endotoxin induced uveitis, ABI-4 (0.03-0.3mg/kg) demonstrated steroid-like efficacy in preventing leucocyte infiltration of the aqueous humor when administered 4h after LPS. LPS (0.32mg/kg×5days) caused a 30% upregulation of translocator protein (TSPO) binding which was prevented by co-administration of ABI-4 (0.32mg/kg). In a paradigm to assess motivation, LPS (0.32mg/kg) reduced the number of rewards received, whereas the effect was significantly blunted in mice dosed with ABI-4 (P<0.05) or in PDE4B-/- mice. PDE4B was also shown to modulate brain and plasma levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in aged mice. Aged mice dosed chronically with ABI-4 (0.32mg/kg) as well as aged PDE4B-/- mice, had significantly lower levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in brain and plasma relative to vehicle treated or PDE4+/+ mice. Together these data demonstrate that the PDE4D sparing, PDE4 inhibitor, ABI-4 retains potency and efficacy in exerting anti-inflammatory effects. This mechanism warrants further investigation in human disorders involving neuroinflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. NOAA Satellite Air Quality Proving Ground: Providing Near-Real Guidance to Forecasters on Dust and Haze Events using Suomi-NPP/VIIRS and GOES-R/ABI Aerosol Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoff, R. M.; Huff, A. K.; Kondragunta, S.; Zhang, H.; Ciren, P.; Xu, C.

    2013-12-01

    Air quality forecasters and analysts routinely use a wide range of NOAA and NASA satellite data products. Historically, these data have been available in near-real time but with limited numbers of observations per day. In 2015, this paradigm will change radically since the GOES-R ABI aerosol products will be available on time scales as short as 5 minutes. The NOAA Satellite Air Quality Proving Ground is preparing these users for this change in data availability and utility. To do so, a key component of the AQPG is the generation of simulated ABI aerosol imagery using air quality model output in conjunction with the ABI aerosol algorithm. Simulated ABI imagery allows users to anticipate how they will utilize actual ABI products and to provide feedback on product development before GOES-R launches in 2015. Results from the AQPG's July 2011 daily near real-time streaming testbed of simulated ABI aerosol imagery will be presented, as well as case studies of provisional VIIRS aerosol optical depth data for recent wildfire events. The AQPG works directly with a dedicated Advisory Group of approximately 40 representatives from the air quality user community who are providing feedback to NOAA on VIIRS and ABI aerosol product development. Improvements to VIIRS and ABI aerosol products based on user feedback will be discussed, and an overview of future AQPG activities will be presented, including upcoming training and outreach events to build capacity.

  17. A postal survey of data in general practice on the prevalence of Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) in patients aged 18-65 in one county in the west of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Finnerty, Fionnuala; Glynn, Liam; Dineen, Brendan; Colfer, Finbarr; Macfarlane, Anne

    2009-05-19

    Very little is known about the prevalence of acquired brain injury (ABI) in Ireland. ABI prevalence has previously been obtained from Belgian general practitioners using a postal survey. We attempted to ascertain the prevalence of ABI in County Mayo through a postal survey of all general practitioners in the county.The specific objectives of this project were to:1. identify whether general practitioners are a. aware of patients with ABI aged 18-65 in their practices b. able to provide prevalence data on ABI in patients aged 18-65 c. able to provide data on age, gender and patient diagnosis 2. analyse prevalence of ABI from any available data from general practitioners. A pilot postal survey was performed initially in order to assess the feasibility of the study. It was established that general practitioners did have the necessary information required to complete the questionnaire. A main postal survey was then undertaken. A postal questionnaire was administered to all general practices in County Mayo in the west of Ireland (n = 59). The response rate was 32.2% (n = 19). General practitioners who replied on behalf of their practice could provide data on patient age, gender and diagnosis. In the nineteen practices, there were 57 patients with ABI. The age-specific prevalence of ABI in the area surveyed was estimated at 183.7 per 100,000. The mean patient population per practice was 2,833 (SD = 950). There were found to be significantly more patients with ABI in rural areas than urban areas (p = 0.006). There were also significant differences in the ages of patients in the different ABI categories. Patients whose ABI was of traumatic origin were significantly younger than those patients with ABI of haemorrhagic origin (p = 0.002). Although this is a small-scale study, we have ascertained that general practitioners do have data on patients with ABI. Also, some prevalence data now exist where none was available before. These can be used to form the basis of a more

  18. Age-dependent climate-growth relationships and regeneration of Picea abies in a drought-prone mixed coniferous forest in the Alps

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Roman; Oberhuber, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Within dry inner Alpine environments climate warming is expected to affect the development of forest ecosystems by changing species composition and inducing shifts in forest distribution. By applying dendroecological techniques we evaluated climate sensitivity of radial growth and establishment of Picea abies in a drought-prone mixed-coniferous forest in the Austrian Alps. Time series of annual increments were developed from > 220 trees and assigned to four age classes. While radial growth of old P. abies trees (mean age 121 and 174 yr) responded highly significant to May-June precipitation, young trees (mean age 28 and 53 yr) were insensitive to precipitation in the current year. Because tree age was closely correlated to height and diameter (r2 = 0.709 and 0.784, respectively), we relate our findings to the increase in tree size rather than age per se. Synchronicity found among trend in basal area increment and tree establishment suggests that canopy openings increased light and water availability, which favoured growth and establishment of moderately shade-tolerant P. abies. We conclude that although P. abies is able to regenerate at this drought prone site, increasing inter-tree competition for water in dense stands gradually lowers competitive strength and restricts scattered occurrence to dry-mesic sites. PMID:24027351

  19. Age-dependent climate-growth relationships and regeneration of Picea abies in a drought-prone mixed coniferous forest in the Alps.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Roman; Oberhuber, Walter

    2013-05-01

    Within dry inner Alpine environments climate warming is expected to affect the development of forest ecosystems by changing species composition and inducing shifts in forest distribution. By applying dendroecological techniques we evaluated climate sensitivity of radial growth and establishment of Picea abies in a drought-prone mixed-coniferous forest in the Austrian Alps. Time series of annual increments were developed from > 220 trees and assigned to four age classes. While radial growth of old P. abies trees (mean age 121 and 174 yr) responded highly significant to May-June precipitation, young trees (mean age 28 and 53 yr) were insensitive to precipitation in the current year. Because tree age was closely correlated to height and diameter (r(2) = 0.709 and 0.784, respectively), we relate our findings to the increase in tree size rather than age per se. Synchronicity found among trend in basal area increment and tree establishment suggests that canopy openings increased light and water availability, which favoured growth and establishment of moderately shade-tolerant P. abies. We conclude that although P. abies is able to regenerate at this drought prone site, increasing inter-tree competition for water in dense stands gradually lowers competitive strength and restricts scattered occurrence to dry-mesic sites.

  20. Field testing of transgenic cotton expressing Arabidopsis ABA INSENSITIVE5 and B3- domain related to ABI3/VIVIPAROUS1 (RAV) transcription factors.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We conducted field trials for ABI5 and RAV transgenics under the most extreme heat and drought conditions on record. The data validate greenhouse experiments that show AtRAV1 and AtRAV2 overexpression results in an average of 9% increases in fiber length without yield penalty and with greater gin t...

  1. Protein phosphatase type 2C PP2CA together with ABI1 inhibits SnRK2.4 activity and regulates plant responses to salinity

    PubMed Central

    Krzywińska, Ewa; Kulik, Anna; Bucholc, Maria; Fernandez, Maria A.; Rodriguez, Pedro L.; Dobrowolska, Grażyna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Protein phosphatases 2C (PP2Cs) are important regulators of plant responses to abiotic stress. It is established that clade A PP2Cs inhibit ABA-activated SNF1-related protein kinases 2 (SnRK2s). Our recently published results show that ABI1, a member of clade A of PP2C is also a negative regulator of SnRK2.4, a kinase not activated in response to ABA. Here, we show that another member of this clade - PP2CA, interacts with and inhibits SnRK2.4. The salt-induced SnRK2.4/SnRK2.10 activity is higher in abi1–2 pp2ca-1 mutant than in wild type or single abi1 or pp2ca mutants, indicating that both phosphatases are inhibitors of SnRK2.4 and are at least partially redundant. Moreover, PP2CA together with ABI1 and SnRK2.4 regulates root growth in response to salinity. PMID:27901636

  2. Cloud immersion alters microclimate, photosynthesis and water relations in Rhododendron catawbiense and Abies fraseri seedlings in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA

    Treesearch

    Daniel M. Johnson; William K. Smith

    2008-01-01

    The high altitude spruce-fir (Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poiret.-Picea rubens Sarg.) forests of the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA, experience frequent cloud immersion. Recent studies indicate that cloud bases may have risen over the past 30 years, resulting in less frequent forest cloud immersion, and that further increases in cloud base height are...

  3. Cloud immersion alters microclimate, photosynthesis and water relations in Rhododendron catawbiense and Abies fraseri seedlings in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA

    Treesearch

    Daniel M. Johnson; William K. Smith

    2008-01-01

    The high altitude spruce-fir (Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poiret.-Picea rubens Sarg.) forests of the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA, experience frequent cloud immersion. Recent studies indicate that cloud bases may have risen over the past 30 years, resulting in less frequent forest cloud immersion, and that further increases in...

  4. Abscisic Acid Regulates Early Seed Development in Arabidopsis by ABI5-Mediated Transcription of SHORT HYPOCOTYL UNDER BLUE1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Zhi Juan; Zhao, Xiang Yu; Shao, Xing Xing; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Chao; Liu, Ying Gao; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Xian Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Seed development includes an early stage of endosperm proliferation and a late stage of embryo growth at the expense of the endosperm in Arabidopsis thaliana. Abscisic acid (ABA) has known functions during late seed development, but its roles in early seed development remain elusive. In this study, we report that ABA-deficient mutants produced seeds with increased size, mass, and embryo cell number but delayed endosperm cellularization. ABSCISIC ACID DEFICIENT2 (ABA2) encodes a unique short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase that functions in ABA biosynthesis, and its expression pattern overlaps that of SHORT HYPOCOTYL UNDER BLUE1 (SHB1) during seed development. SHB1 RNA accumulation was significantly upregulated in the aba2-1 mutant and was downregulated by the application of exogenous ABA. Furthermore, RNA accumulation of the basic/region leucine zipper transcription factor ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5), involved in ABA signaling, was decreased in aba2-1. Consistent with this, seed size was also increased in abi5. We further show that ABI5 directly binds to two discrete regions in the SHB1 promoter. Our results suggest that ABA negatively regulates SHB1 expression, at least in part, through the action of its downstream signaling component ABI5. Our findings provide insights into the molecular mechanisms by which ABA regulates early seed development. PMID:24619610

  5. Age and dark rearing bidirectionally regulate the level and laminar pattern of expression of Abelson interacting protein 2 (Abi-2): a novel candidate visual cortical plasticity gene.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cui Bo; Kiser, Paul J; Zheng, Yu Ting; Mower, George D

    2013-11-01

    Electrophysiological studies indicate that cat visual cortical critical period neuronal plasticity peaks around 5 weeks and largely disappears by 20 weeks. Dark rearing slows this time course. Normal cats are more plastic than dark-reared cats at 5 weeks, but the opposite is true at 20 weeks. Thus, a stringent criterion for identifying genes controlling neuronal plasticity is that normal and dark rearing produce opposite direction differences in expression between young and older animals. Differential display polymerase chain reaction identified Abelson interacting protein 2 (Abi-2) as a candidate plasticity gene regulated according to this criterion. Western blotting showed bidirectional regulation of Abi-2 protein levels in cats and mice that was specific to visual cortex and did not occur in frontal cortex. Immunohistochemistry indicated developmental changes in Abi-2 laminar expression in cat visual cortex. Dark rearing altered laminar expression such that at 5 weeks, dark-reared cats were similar to 1-week normally reared cats, and at 20 weeks, dark-reared cats were similar to 5-10-week normally reared animals. The effect of dark rearing on both Abi-2 expression levels and laminar expression patterns was to slow the normal developmental process, the same effect seen on physiologically assessed plasticity in visual cortex.

  6. Age and Dark Rearing Bidirectionally Regulate the Level and Laminar Pattern of Expression of Abelson Interacting Protein 2 (Abi-2), a Novel Candidate Visual Cortical Plasticity Gene

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Cui Bo; Kiser, Paul J.; Zheng, Yu Ting; Mower, George D.

    2013-01-01

    Electrophysiological studies indicate that cat visual cortical critical period neuronal plasticity peaks around 5 weeks and largely disappears by 20 weeks. Dark rearing slows this time course. Normal cats are more plastic than dark reared cats at 5 weeks but the opposite is true at 20 weeks. Thus, a stringent criterion for identifying genes controlling neuronal plasticity is that normal and dark rearing produce opposite direction differences in expression between young and older animals. Differential display PCR identified Abelson interacting protein 2 (Abi-2) as a candidate plasticity gene regulated according to this criterion. Western blotting showed bidirectional regulation of Abi-2 protein levels in cats and mice that was specific to visual cortex and did not occur in frontal cortex. Immunohistochemistry indicated developmental changes in Abi-2 laminar expression in cat visual cortex. Dark rearing altered laminar expression such that at 5 weeks dark reared cats were similar to 1 week normally reared cats and at 20 weeks, dark reared cats were similar to 5–10 week normally reared animals. The effect of dark rearing on both Abi-2 expression levels and laminar expression patterns was to slow the normal developmental process, the same effect seen on physiologically assessed plasticity in visual cortex. PMID:23828391

  7. Examination of the "Theory of Guidance" in the View of 'Ali Ibn Abi Talib (A): An Exploration into the Nahj Al-Balaghah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostami-Nasab, Abas Ali; Tajedini, Oranus; Sadatmoosavi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the "Theory of Guidance" according to 'Ali ibn Abi Talib (a). This theory is based on three divine covenants or fundamentals in guidance including the divine Prophet, the divine Book, and the divine human nature ("fitrat"). Research in this regard seems essential because this theory has not been previously…

  8. Multiresource effects of a stand-replacement prescribed fire in the Pinus contorta-Abies lasiocarpa vegetation zone of central Washington.

    Treesearch

    Arthur R. Tiedemann; Paul M. Woodard

    2002-01-01

    A stand-replacement prescribed fire in an over-mature lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.)-subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) stand (snag area) and in a mature lodgepole pine thicket (thicket area) resulted in lower plant diversity within the first year after burning, and as fire energy outputs increased...

  9. Annotation and re-sequencing of genes from de novo transcriptome assembly of Abies alba (Pinaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Roschanski, Anna M.; Fady, Bruno; Ziegenhagen, Birgit; Liepelt, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: We present a protocol for the annotation of transcriptome sequence data and the identification of candidate genes therein using the example of the nonmodel conifer Abies alba. • Methods and Results: A normalized cDNA library was built from an A. alba seedling. The sequencing on a 454 platform yielded more than 1.5 million reads that were de novo assembled into 25149 contigs. Two complementary approaches were applied to annotate gene fragments that code for (1) well-known proteins and (2) proteins that are potentially adaptively relevant. Primer development and testing yielded 88 amplicons that could successfully be resequenced from genomic DNA. • Conclusions: The annotation workflow offers an efficient way to identify potential adaptively relevant genes from the large quantity of transcriptome sequence data. The primer set presented should be prioritized for single-nucleotide polymorphism detection in adaptively relevant genes in A. alba. PMID:25202477

  10. The influence of climate and soil properties on calcium nutrition and vitality of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.).

    PubMed

    Potocić, Nenad; Cosić, Tomislav; Pilas, Ivan

    2005-10-01

    As a part of a broader research into the nutrition of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.), the variation of calcium concentrations was investigated in needles and soil in two subsequent, climatologically diverse years. Statistically significant differences between plots were determined in Ca concentrations in soils. Concentrations of Ca in needles were statistically different regarding plot, defoliation class, sampling date within the same year and also between years. Fir trees on acid-rock based soils had lower, often inadequate concentrations of Ca in needles; the opposite was true for trees growing on Ca-rich soils. Trees of lower vitality generally exhibited poor Ca nutrition. Drought in the second year of research caused poor absorption of Ca on all plots and in all defoliation classes, but the combined influence of climate and soil properties affected especially trees of low vitality on acid-rock based soils.

  11. Epidihydropinidine, the main piperidine alkaloid compound of Norway spruce (Picea abies) shows promising antibacterial and anti-Candida activity.

    PubMed

    Fyhrquist, Pia; Virjamo, Virpi; Hiltunen, Eveliina; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta

    2017-03-01

    This study reports for the first time promising antibacterial and antifungal effects of epidihydropinidine, the major piperidine alkaloid in the needles and bark of Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.) Karsten. Epidihydropinidine was growth inhibitory against all bacterial and fungal strains used in our investigation, showing the lowest MIC value of 5.37μg/mL against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Candida glabrata and C. albicans. Epidihydropinidine was nearly three times more active than tetracycline against P. aeruginosa and E. faecalis. Promising antibacterial effects were also recorded against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus (MIC 10.75μg/mL) as well as against Salmonella enterica (MIC and MBC 43μg/mL). Our preliminary results suggest that epidihydropinidine as well related alkaloids of Norway spruce could be powerful candidates for new antibiotics and for preventing food spoilage.

  12. [Cytogenetic abnormalities in seedlings of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) from the natural populations and introduction plantation].

    PubMed

    Korshikov, I I; Tkacheva, Iu A; Privalikhin, S N

    2012-01-01

    Comparative studies of the frequency and spectrum of pathological mitosis (PM), as well as of nucleoli number in the interphase cells of seedling roots have been performed in two natural populations of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) of Ukrainian Polesie and introduction plantation in the Donbass. Low levels of PM in the seed progeny populations (0.32-0.38%) and slightly higher in the progeny plantation (0.40%) have been installed. Number of nucleoli was slightly higher in the plants of natural populations (5.35-5.85) than that of the plantation (4.95). The frequency of PM in the offspring of low-heterozygous plants was higher (0.43%) than in highly heterozygous individuals (0.28%).

  13. Abies concolor growth responses to vegatation changes following shrub removal, northern Sierra Nevada, California. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Conard, S.G.; Sparks, S.R.

    1993-08-01

    Conifer productivity in western North America is often severely inhibited by competing vegetation. Abies concolor (Gord, and Glendl.) Lindl. (white fir) is an important species over much of this area, yet little information is available on response of A. concolor to vegetation management treatments. We revisited two sites in the northern Sierra Nevada to assess the responses of naturally regenerated A. concolor saplings to vegetation recovery 8-9 years after release treatments. Treatments caused major and persistent shifts in vegetation structure and composition on both sites. Differences in individual tree growth within treatments were strongly correlated with structure and composition of neighboring vegetation, even where no treatment effects were observed. Great variability in response between sites illustrates the strong effect of site characteristics on response to release treatments and the importance to managers of anticipating such differences before making treatment decisions.

  14. A comparison of challenges faced by parents of children with ABI with and without access to third party funding.

    PubMed

    Vilela, Tania; Phillips, Marjory; Minnes, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    In Canada, allocation of rehabilitation services is often based on the assumption that families who have third party insurance funding are well served by the private sector system and are not in need of publicly funded rehabilitation services. However, there has been little research comparing the experiences of caregivers with and without access to third party insurance funding; data that could inform service planning and provision. The current study compared the stresses, resources and psychological health of caregivers of children with Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) with and without third party funding. Caregivers with third party funding (MVA) reported a similar level of stress in comparison to caregivers without funding (non-MVA); however there were differences in what these families perceived as stressful. Although results indicated significant psychological distress and depressive symptoms for both groups, parents in both groups reported high availability of and satisfaction with services, although they used very few services. Implications for clinical services are discussed.

  15. A Picea abies Linkage Map Based on SNP Markers Identifies QTLs for Four Aspects of Resistance to Heterobasidion parviporum Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Mårten; Källman, Thomas; Chen, Jun; Ma, Xiao-Fei; Bousquet, Jean; Morgante, Michele; Zaina, Giusi; Karlsson, Bo; Elfstrand, Malin; Lascoux, Martin; Stenlid, Jan

    2014-01-01

    A consensus linkage map of Picea abies, an economically important conifer, was constructed based on the segregation of 686 SNP markers in a F1 progeny population consisting of 247 individuals. The total length of 1889.2 cM covered 96.5% of the estimated genome length and comprised 12 large linkage groups, corresponding to the number of haploid P. abies chromosomes. The sizes of the groups (from 5.9 to 9.9% of the total map length) correlated well with previous estimates of chromosome sizes (from 5.8 to 10.8% of total genome size). Any locus in the genome has a 97% probability to be within 10 cM from a mapped marker, which makes the map suited for QTL mapping. Infecting the progeny trees with the root rot pathogen Heterobasidion parviporum allowed for mapping of four different resistance traits: lesion length at the inoculation site, fungal spread within the sapwood, exclusion of the pathogen from the host after initial infection, and ability to prevent the infection from establishing at all. These four traits were associated with two, four, four and three QTL regions respectively of which none overlapped between the traits. Each QTL explained between 4.6 and 10.1% of the respective traits phenotypic variation. Although the QTL regions contain many more genes than the ones represented by the SNP markers, at least four markers within the confidence intervals originated from genes with known function in conifer defence; a leucoanthocyanidine reductase, which has previously been shown to upregulate during H. parviporum infection, and three intermediates of the lignification process; a hydroxycinnamoyl CoA shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase, a 4-coumarate CoA ligase, and a R2R3-MYB transcription factor. PMID:25036209

  16. LEA polypeptide profiling of recalcitrant and orthodox legume seeds reveals ABI3-regulated LEA protein abundance linked to desiccation tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Hundertmark, Michaela; Buitink, Julia

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to orthodox seeds that acquire desiccation tolerance during maturation, recalcitrant seeds are unable to survive drying. These desiccation-sensitive seeds constitute an interesting model for comparative analysis with phylogenetically close species that are desiccation tolerant. Considering the importance of LEA (late embryogenesis abundant) proteins as protective molecules both in drought and in desiccation tolerance, the heat-stable proteome was characterized in cotyledons of the legume Castanospermum australe and it was compared with that of the orthodox model legume Medicago truncatula. RNA sequencing identified transcripts of 16 homologues out of 17 LEA genes for which polypeptides are detected in M. truncatula seeds. It is shown that for 12 LEA genes, polypeptides were either absent or strongly reduced in C. australe cotyledons compared with M. truncatula seeds. Instead, osmotically responsive, non-seed-specific dehydrins accumulated to high levels in the recalcitrant cotyledons compared with orthodox seeds. Next, M. truncatula mutants of the ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3) gene were characterized. Mature Mtabi3 seeds were found to be desiccation sensitive when dried below a critical water content of 0.4g H2O g DW–1. Characterization of the LEA proteome of the Mtabi3 seeds revealed a subset of LEA proteins with severely reduced abundance that were also found to be reduced or absent in C. australe cotyledons. Transcripts of these genes were indeed shown to be ABI3 responsive. The results highlight those LEA proteins that are critical to desiccation tolerance and suggest that comparable regulatory pathways responsible for their accumulation are missing in both desiccation-sensitive genotypes, revealing new insights into the mechanistic basis of the recalcitrant trait in seeds. PMID:24043848

  17. LEA polypeptide profiling of recalcitrant and orthodox legume seeds reveals ABI3-regulated LEA protein abundance linked to desiccation tolerance.

    PubMed

    Delahaie, Julien; Hundertmark, Michaela; Bove, Jérôme; Leprince, Olivier; Rogniaux, Hélène; Buitink, Julia

    2013-11-01

    In contrast to orthodox seeds that acquire desiccation tolerance during maturation, recalcitrant seeds are unable to survive drying. These desiccation-sensitive seeds constitute an interesting model for comparative analysis with phylogenetically close species that are desiccation tolerant. Considering the importance of LEA (late embryogenesis abundant) proteins as protective molecules both in drought and in desiccation tolerance, the heat-stable proteome was characterized in cotyledons of the legume Castanospermum australe and it was compared with that of the orthodox model legume Medicago truncatula. RNA sequencing identified transcripts of 16 homologues out of 17 LEA genes for which polypeptides are detected in M. truncatula seeds. It is shown that for 12 LEA genes, polypeptides were either absent or strongly reduced in C. australe cotyledons compared with M. truncatula seeds. Instead, osmotically responsive, non-seed-specific dehydrins accumulated to high levels in the recalcitrant cotyledons compared with orthodox seeds. Next, M. truncatula mutants of the abscisic acid insensitive3 (ABI3) gene were characterized. Mature Mtabi3 seeds were found to be desiccation sensitive when dried below a critical water content of 0.4 g H2O g DW(-1). Characterization of the LEA proteome of the Mtabi3 seeds revealed a subset of LEA proteins with severely reduced abundance that were also found to be reduced or absent in C. australe cotyledons. Transcripts of these genes were indeed shown to be ABI3 responsive. The results highlight those LEA proteins that are critical to desiccation tolerance and suggest that comparable regulatory pathways responsible for their accumulation are missing in both desiccation-sensitive genotypes, revealing new insights into the mechanistic basis of the recalcitrant trait in seeds.

  18. Arabidopsis HY1-Modulated Stomatal Movement: An Integrative Hub Is Functionally Associated with ABI4 in Dehydration-Induced ABA Responsiveness1

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yanjie; Mao, Yu; Duan, Xingliang; Zhou, Heng; Lai, Diwen; Zhang, Yihua; Shen, Wenbiao

    2016-01-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO; EC 1.14.99.3) has recently been proposed as a novel component in mediating wide ranges of the plant adaptive signaling processes. However, the physiological significance and molecular basis underlying Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) HO1 (HY1) functioning in drought tolerance remained unclear. Here, we report that mutation of HY1 promoted, but overexpression of this gene impaired, Arabidopsis drought tolerance. This was attributed to the abscisic acid (ABA)-hypersensitive or -hyposensitive phenotypes, with the regulation of stomatal closure in particular. However, comparative transcriptomic profile analysis showed that the induction of numerous ABA/stress-dependent genes in dehydrated wild-type plants was differentially impaired in the hy1 mutant. In agreement, ABA-induced ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE4 (ABI4) transcript accumulation was strengthened in the hy1 mutant. Genetic analysis further identified that the hy1-associated ABA hypersensitivity and drought tolerance were arrested in the abi4 background. Moreover, the promotion of ABA-triggered up-regulation of RbohD abundance and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in the hy1 mutant was almost fully blocked by the mutation of ABI4, suggesting that the HY1-ABI4 signaling in the wild type involved in stomatal closure was dependent on the RbohD-derived ROS production. However, hy1-promoted stomatal closure was not affected by a nitric oxide scavenger. Correspondingly, ABA-insensitive behaviors in rbohD stomata were not affected by either the mutation of HY1 or its ectopic expression in the rbohD background, both of which responded significantly to exogenous ROS. These data indicate that HY1 functioned negatively and acted upstream of ABI4 in drought signaling, which was casually dependent on the RbohD-derived ROS in the regulation of stomatal closure. PMID:26704641

  19. Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of ABI-007, albumin-bound paclitaxel, administered every 3 weeks in Japanese patients with solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kazuhiko; Yamamoto, Noboru; Yamada, Yasuhide; Mukohara, Toru; Minami, Hironobu; Tamura, Tomohide

    2010-05-01

    ABI-007 is a novel Cremophor EL-free nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel. This Phase I study was designed to evaluate tolerability and determine recommended dose for Japanese patients when ABI-007 was administered in every-3-week schedule. Pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel was also assessed. Patients with advanced solid tumors refractory to standard therapy received a 30 min intravenous infusion of ABI-007 every 3 weeks without pre-medications at 200, 260 or 300 mg/m(2), respectively. Tolerability and recommended dose were determined by the standard '3 + 3' rule. No dose-limiting toxicity was observed, despite the dose escalation. In another cohort, 260 mg/m(2) was re-evaluated and resulted in no dose-limiting toxicity. Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia was reported for the majority of patients (n = 8) but no incidence of febrile neutropenia. Non-hematological toxicities were generally mild except for Grade 3 sensory neuropathy (n = 3). Pharmacokinetic study demonstrated the area under the curve of paclitaxel increased with increasing the dosage, and comparable pharmacokinetic parameters to the western population. Partial response was observed in three non-small cell lung cancer patients. Two of whom had received docetaxel-containing chemotherapy prior to the study. ABI-007 administered in every-3-week schedule was well tolerated up to 300 mg/m(2), and recommended dose was determined at 260 mg/m(2) in consideration of efficacy, toxicities and similarity of pharmacokinetic profile in western studies. Additional studies of single-agent ABI-007 as well as platinum-based combinations, particularly in patients with non-small cell lung cancer, are warranted.

  20. Detection of the C282Y and H63D polymorphisms associated with hereditary hemochromatosis using the ABI 7500 fast real time PCR platform.

    PubMed

    Tafe, Laura J; Belloni, Dorothy R; Tsongalis, Gregory J

    2007-06-01

    Classic hereditary hemochromatosis is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by iron overload and sequence variants in the HFE gene. The HFE gene is located at 6p21.3 and contains 2 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) C282Y and H63D, which are routinely tested for in the molecular diagnostics laboratory. In this study, we used DNA samples from 59 patients in which clinicians wanted to confirm or rule-out hereditary hemochromatosis that had been previously tested for the HFE SNPs using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay and the ABI 7700 real time PCR assay with a MGB Eclipse ASR Probe system. The new assay used TAQman SNP Genotyping Assays, which were performed on the ABI 7500 FAST real time PCR platform. Allelic discrimination was determined during a postamplification plate read. Of the 59 samples genotyped, 7 were homozygous for C282Y, 6 were heterozygous for C282Y, 9 were homozygous for H63D, 10 were heterozygous for H63D, 6 were compound heterozygotes, and 20 were wild type. With the exception of one sample that was indeterminate by the TAQman SNP Genotyping Assay, all others showed 100% concordance between the 3 assays. The one indeterminate sample was heterozygous for C282Y by the PCR-RFLP and ABI 7700 real time PCR assays, but there was an insufficient quantity of DNA to perform the TAQman SNP Genotyping Assay. Our study suggests that the ABI 7500 FAST TAQman SNP Genotyping Assay is comparable with the PCR-RFLP and ABI 7700 real time PCR methods in detecting and characterizing these 2 HFE SNPs. Improved software and thermocycling capabilities have resulted in a very robust TAQman assay with the advantage of a much improved turn-around-time and throughput.

  1. L'hémangiopéricytome méningé: une tumeur intracrânienne rare - à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Errachdi, Amal; Asabbane, Amal; Epala, Brice Nkoua; Hemmich, Mariem; Kabbali, Naoual; Diakité, Adama; Kebdani, Tayeb; Benjaafar, Noureddine

    2014-01-01

    L'hémangiopéricytomeméningé intracrânien est une tumeur rare qui représente moins de 1% des tumeurs cérébrales. Son aspect radiologique peut être trompeur et faire porter à tort le diagnostic de méningiome. Le diagnostic de confirmation est histologique. Le traitement repose sur la chirurgie et la radiothérapie. L’évolution après traitement est caractérisée par la fréquence des récidives et des métastases à distance, imposant un suivi prolongé. Nous rapportons l'observation d'un patient présentant un hémangiopéricytome intracrânien dont l’évolution était marquée par l'absence de récidive à 4 ans de suivi. PMID:25170367

  2. The efficacy of self-management programmes for increasing physical activity in community-dwelling adults with acquired brain injury (ABI): a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jones, Taryn M; Hush, Julia M; Dear, Blake F; Titov, Nickolai; Dean, Catherine M

    2014-04-21

    Acquired brain injury (ABI), often arising from stroke or trauma, is a common cause of long-term disability, physical inactivity and poor health outcomes globally. Individuals with ABI face many barriers to increasing physical activity, such as impaired mobility, access to services and knowledge regarding management of physical activity. Self-management programmes aim to build skills to enable an individual to manage their condition, including their physical activity levels, over a long period of time. Programme delivery modes can include traditional face-to-face methods, or remote delivery, such as via the Internet. However, it is unknown how effective these programmes are at specifically improving physical activity in community-dwelling adults with ABI, or how effective and acceptable remote delivery of self-management programmes is for this population. We will conduct a comprehensive search for articles indexed on MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, AMED, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PEDro and Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED) databases that assess the efficacy of a self-management intervention, which aims to enhance levels of physical activity in adults living in the community with ABI. Two independent reviewers will screen studies for eligibility, assess risk of bias, and extract relevant data. Where possible, a meta-analysis will be performed to calculate the overall effect size of self-management interventions on physical activity levels and on outcomes associated with physical activity. A comparison will also be made between face-to-face and remote delivery modes of self-management programmes, in order to examine efficacy and acceptability. A content analysis of self-management programmes will also be conducted to compare aspects of the intervention that are associated with more favourable outcomes. This systematic review aims to review the efficacy of self-management programmes aimed at increasing physical activity

  3. The efficacy of self-management programmes for increasing physical activity in community-dwelling adults with acquired brain injury (ABI): a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acquired brain injury (ABI), often arising from stroke or trauma, is a common cause of long-term disability, physical inactivity and poor health outcomes globally. Individuals with ABI face many barriers to increasing physical activity, such as impaired mobility, access to services and knowledge regarding management of physical activity. Self-management programmes aim to build skills to enable an individual to manage their condition, including their physical activity levels, over a long period of time. Programme delivery modes can include traditional face-to-face methods, or remote delivery, such as via the Internet. However, it is unknown how effective these programmes are at specifically improving physical activity in community-dwelling adults with ABI, or how effective and acceptable remote delivery of self-management programmes is for this population. Methods/Design We will conduct a comprehensive search for articles indexed on MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, AMED, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PEDro and Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED) databases that assess the efficacy of a self-management intervention, which aims to enhance levels of physical activity in adults living in the community with ABI. Two independent reviewers will screen studies for eligibility, assess risk of bias, and extract relevant data. Where possible, a meta-analysis will be performed to calculate the overall effect size of self-management interventions on physical activity levels and on outcomes associated with physical activity. A comparison will also be made between face-to-face and remote delivery modes of self-management programmes, in order to examine efficacy and acceptability. A content analysis of self-management programmes will also be conducted to compare aspects of the intervention that are associated with more favourable outcomes. Discussion This systematic review aims to review the efficacy of self-management programmes

  4. Prognostic value of ankle brachial index for future incident heart failure in patients without previous heart failure: data from the impressive predictive value of ankle brachial index for clinical long term outcome in patients with cardiovascular disease examined by ABI study.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Hitoshi; Miura, Takashi; Minamisawa, Masatoshi; Ueki, Yasushi; Abe, Naoyuki; Hashizume, Naoto; Mochidome, Tomoaki; Harada, Mikiko; Shimizu, Kunihiko; Shoin, Wataru; Yoshie, Koji; Oguchi, Yasutaka; Ebisawa, Soichiro; Motoki, Hirohiko; Izawa, Atsushi; Koyama, Jun; Ikeda, Uichi

    2017-03-01

    The ankle brachial index (ABI) is regarded as a predictor of future cardiovascular events. However, the relationship between ABI and incident heart failure (HF) in patients without previous HF is poorly understood. This study aimed to assess the prognostic value of ABI for incident HF in patients without previous HF. The IMPACT-ABI study was a retrospective, single-center, cohort study that enrolled and measured ABI in 3131 patients hospitalized for cardiovascular disease between January 2005 and December 2012. From this cohort, 307 patients were excluded because of previous HF and high (>1.4) ABI. The remaining 2824 patients were stratified into three groups: low ABI (≤0.9), borderline ABI (0.91-0.99), and normal ABI (1.0-1.4). The primary endpoint was hospitalization for HF. Over a mean 4.8-year follow-up, 105 cases of HF occurred. The cumulative incidence of HF was significantly higher in patients with low and borderline ABIs than in those with normal ABI (19.3 vs. 21.0 vs. 10.4 %, log rank P <0.001). In multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis, low ABI and borderline ABI were independent predictors of incident HF [hazard ratio (HR) 3.00; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.70-5.28; P < 0.001 and HR 2.68; 95 % CI 1.35-5.34; P = 0.005, respectively]. In conclusion, low and borderline ABI were strong predictors for future incident HF in patients without previous HF.

  5. (15)N-ammonium and (15)N-nitrate uptake of a 15-year-old Picea abies plantation.

    PubMed

    Buchmann, N; Schulze, E-D; Gebauer, G

    1995-06-01

    Throughfall nitrogen of a 15-year-old Picea abies (L.) Karst. (Norway spruce) stand in the Fichtelgebirge, Germany, was labeled with either (15)N-ammonium or (15)N-nitrate and uptake of these two tracers was followed during two successive growing seasons (1991 and 1992). (15)N-labeling (62 mg (15)N m(-2) under conditions of 1.5 g N m(-2) atmospheric nitrogen deposition) did not increase N concentrations in plant tissues. The (15)N recovery within the entire stand (including soils) was 94%±6% of the applied (15)N-ammonium tracer and 100%±6% of the applied (15)N-nitrate tracer during the 1st year of investigation. This decreased to 80%±24% and 83%±20%, respectively, during the 2nd year. After 11 days, the (15)N tracer was detectable in 1-year-old spruce needles and leaves of understory species. After 1 month, tracer was detectable in needle litter fall. At the end of the first growing season, more than 50% of the (15)N taken up by spruce was assimilated in needles, and more than 20% in twigs. The relative distribution of recovered tracer of both (15)N-ammonium and (15)N-nitrate was similar within the different foliage age classes (recent to 11-year-old) and other compartments of the trees. (15)N enrichment generally decreased with increasing tissue age. Roots accounted for up to 20% of the recovered (15)N in spruce; no enrichment could be detected in stem wood. Although (15)N-ammonium and (15)N-nitrate were applied in the same molar quantities ((15)NH 4(+) : (15)NO 3(-) =1:1), the tracers were diluted differently in the inorganic soil N pools ((15)NH 4(+) /NH 4(+) : (15)NO 3(-) /NO 3(-) =1:9). Therefore the measured (15)N amounts retained by the vegetation do not represent the actual fluxes of ammonium and nitrate in the soil solution. Use of the molar ammonium-to-nitrate ratio of 9:1 in the soil water extract to estimate (15)N uptake from inorganic N pools resulted in a 2-4 times higher ammonium than nitrate uptake by P. abies.

  6. Monitoring outcomes in children with acquired brain injury (ABI): a Persian validation study of Child and Family Follow-up Survey (CFFS).

    PubMed

    Azimi, P; Shahzadi, S; Mohammadi, H R; Shahzadi, A; Montazeri, A

    2015-01-08

    To translate and validate the Child and Family Follow--up Survey (CFFS) in Iran. 49 cases with Acquired Brain Injury (ABI), and 30 healthy children were included and the CFFS was completed. The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) also was completed. The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, known groups comparison and criterion validity were assessed. The mean age of participants was 10.9 years. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were Child and Adolescent Scale of Participation (CASP) (0.91), Child and Adolescent Factors Inventory (CAFI) (0.90) and Child and Adolescent Scale of Environment (CASE) (0.89). Reliability, validity and correlation of CASP and CAFI showed satisfactory results. Significant correlations among the three CFFS subscale scores were observed. These scores were also significantly correlated with the total scores of the PedsQL. The findings suggest that CFFS is a valid measure to monitor long--term outcomes of children and young adolescents with ABI.

  7. Comparative in silico analysis of SSRs in coding regions of high confidence predicted genes in Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda).

    PubMed

    Ranade, Sonali Sachin; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Van de Peer, Yves; García-Gil, María Rosario

    2015-12-26

    Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are DNA sequences consisting of 1-6 bp tandem repeat motifs present in the genome. SSRs are considered to be one of the most powerful tools in genetic studies. We carried out a comparative study of perfect SSR loci belonging to class I (≥20) and class II (≥12 and <20 bp) types located in coding regions of high confidence genes in Picea abies and Pinus taeda. SSRLocator was used to retrieve SSRs from the full length CDS of predicted genes in both species. Trimers were the most abundant motifs in class I followed by hexamers in Picea abies, while trimers and hexamers were equally abundant in Pinus taeda class I SSRs. Hexamers were most frequent within class II SSRs followed by trimers, in both species. Although the frequency of genes containing SSRs was slightly higher in Pinus taeda, SSR counts per Mbp for class I was similar in both species (P-value = 0.22); while for class II SSRs, it was significantly higher in Picea abies (P-value = 0.00009). AT-rich motifs were higher in abundance than the GC-rich motifs, within class II SSRs in both the species (P-values = 10(-9) and 0). With reference to class I SSRs, AT-rich and GC-rich motifs were detected with equal frequency in Pinus taeda (P-value = 0.24); while in Picea abies, GC-rich motifs were detected with higher frequency than the AT-rich motifs (P-value = 0.0005). Our study gives a comparative overview of the genome SSRs composition based on high confidence genes in the two recently sequenced and economically important conifers and, also provides information on functional molecular markers that can be applied in genetic studies in Pinus and Picea species.

  8. Interlaboratory Validation for a Real-Time PCR Salmonella Detection Method Using the ABI 7500 FAST Real-Time PCR System.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chorng-Ming; Doran, Tara; Lin, Wen; Chen, Kai-Shun; Williams-Hill, Donna; Pamboukian, Ruiqing

    2015-06-01

    Sixteen FERN (Food Emergency Response Network) member laboratories collaborated in this study to verify extension of the real-time PCR Salmonella detection method originally designed for the single-tube Cepheid SmartCycler II and validated against the Salmonella method of the U. S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual to the Applied Biosystems (ABI) 7500 FAST Real-Time PCR system multiwell plate platform. Four foods were selected for this study: chili powder, soft cheese, fish, and tomatoes; these foods represent products that are commonly analyzed for the presence of Salmonella for regulatory purposes. Each food consisted of six uninoculated control samples, six samples inoculated with low Salmonella levels (target 1 to 5 CFU/25 g), and six samples inoculated with high levels (target 10 to 50 CFU/25 g). All samples were tested for Salmonella using the 24-h quantitative PCR (qPCR) method for detecting Salmonella, which utilizes modified buffered peptone water as the sole enrichment medium and an internal control for the qPCR. Each of these 18 samples was individually analyzed for Salmonella by the collaborating laboratories using both the ABI 7500 FAST system (alternative method) and the SmartCycler II system (reference method). Statistical analysis of the data revealed no significant difference (P ≥ 0.05) between these two qPCR platforms except for the chili powder samples. The differences noted with chili powder (P = 0.0455) were attributed to the enhanced sensitivity of the ABI 7500 FAST system compared with the SmartCycler II system. The detection limit of both qPCR methods was 0.02 to 0.15 CFU/g. These results provide a solid basis for extending the 24-h qPCR Salmonella method to the ABI 7500 FAST system for high-throughput detection of Salmonella in foods.

  9. Arabidopsis ABA-Activated Kinase MAPKKK18 is Regulated by Protein Phosphatase 2C ABI1 and the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway.

    PubMed

    Mitula, Filip; Tajdel, Malgorzata; Cieśla, Agata; Kasprowicz-Maluśki, Anna; Kulik, Anna; Babula-Skowrońska, Danuta; Michalak, Michal; Dobrowolska, Grazyna; Sadowski, Jan; Ludwików, Agnieszka

    2015-12-01

    Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events play an important role in the transmission of the ABA signal. Although SnRK2 [sucrose non-fermenting1-related kinase2] protein kinases and group A protein phosphatase type 2C (PP2C)-type phosphatases constitute the core ABA pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are also involved in plant response to ABA. However, little is known about the interplay between MAPKs and PP2Cs or SnRK2 in the regulation of ABA pathways. In this study, an effort was made to elucidate the role of MAP kinase kinase kinase18 (MKKK18) in relation to ABA signaling and response. The MKKK18 knockout lines showed more vigorous root growth, decreased abaxial stomatal index and increased stomatal aperture under normal growth conditions, compared with the control wild-type Columbia line. In addition to transcriptional regulation of the MKKK18 promoter by ABA, we demonstrated using in vitro and in vivo kinase assays that the kinase activity of MKKK18 was regulated by ABA. Analysis of the cellular localization of MKKK18 showed that the active kinase was targeted specifically to the nucleus. Notably, we identified abscisic acid insensitive 1 (ABI1) PP2C as a MKKK18-interacting protein, and demonstrated that ABI1 inhibited its activity. Using a cell-free degradation assay, we also established that MKKK18 was unstable and was degraded by the proteasome pathway. The rate of MKKK18 degradation was delayed in the ABI1 knockout line. Overall, we provide evidence that ABI1 regulates the activity and promotes proteasomal degradation of MKKK18.

  10. Elucidating the Role of cAbl and the Abi-Family of cAbl Target Proteins in Cancer Development and Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-07-01

    s) and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army position , policy or decision unless so designated by other documentation...absence of supplemental histidine, and a lacZ reporter, conferring a blue color to yeast in a P-galactosidase assay (10). Positive interactions will be...elicited the loss Abi proteins following the onset of detectable Bcr-Abl expression. Examination of Ph’- positive leukemic cell lines and bone marrow from

  11. Arabidopsis ABA-Activated Kinase MAPKKK18 is Regulated by Protein Phosphatase 2C ABI1 and the Ubiquitin–Proteasome Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mitula, Filip; Tajdel, Malgorzata; Cieśla, Agata; Kasprowicz-Maluśki, Anna; Kulik, Anna; Babula-Skowrońska, Danuta; Michalak, Michal; Dobrowolska, Grazyna; Sadowski, Jan; Ludwików, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events play an important role in the transmission of the ABA signal. Although SnRK2 [sucrose non-fermenting1-related kinase2] protein kinases and group A protein phosphatase type 2C (PP2C)-type phosphatases constitute the core ABA pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are also involved in plant response to ABA. However, little is known about the interplay between MAPKs and PP2Cs or SnRK2 in the regulation of ABA pathways. In this study, an effort was made to elucidate the role of MAP kinase kinase kinase18 (MKKK18) in relation to ABA signaling and response. The MKKK18 knockout lines showed more vigorous root growth, decreased abaxial stomatal index and increased stomatal aperture under normal growth conditions, compared with the control wild-type Columbia line. In addition to transcriptional regulation of the MKKK18 promoter by ABA, we demonstrated using in vitro and in vivo kinase assays that the kinase activity of MKKK18 was regulated by ABA. Analysis of the cellular localization of MKKK18 showed that the active kinase was targeted specifically to the nucleus. Notably, we identified abscisic acid insensitive 1 (ABI1) PP2C as a MKKK18-interacting protein, and demonstrated that ABI1 inhibited its activity. Using a cell-free degradation assay, we also established that MKKK18 was unstable and was degraded by the proteasome pathway. The rate of MKKK18 degradation was delayed in the ABI1 knockout line. Overall, we provide evidence that ABI1 regulates the activity and promotes proteasomal degradation of MKKK18. PMID:26443375

  12. The Transcription Factor ABI4 Is Required for the Ascorbic Acid–Dependent Regulation of Growth and Regulation of Jasmonate-Dependent Defense Signaling Pathways in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Kerchev, Pavel I.; Pellny, Till K.; Vivancos, Pedro Diaz; Kiddle, Guy; Hedden, Peter; Driscoll, Simon; Vanacker, Hélène; Verrier, Paul; Hancock, Robert D.; Foyer, Christine H.

    2011-01-01

    Cellular redox homeostasis is a hub for signal integration. Interactions between redox metabolism and the ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE-4 (ABI4) transcription factor were characterized in the Arabidopsis thaliana vitamin c defective1 (vtc1) and vtc2 mutants, which are defective in ascorbic acid synthesis and show a slow growth phenotype together with enhanced abscisic acid (ABA) levels relative to the wild type (Columbia-0). The 75% decrease in the leaf ascorbate pool in the vtc2 mutants was not sufficient to adversely affect GA metabolism. The transcriptome signatures of the abi4, vtc1, and vtc2 mutants showed significant overlap, with a large number of transcription factors or signaling components similarly repressed or induced. Moreover, lincomycin-dependent changes in LIGHT HARVESTING CHLOROPHYLL A/B BINDING PROTEIN 1.1 expression were comparable in these mutants, suggesting overlapping participation in chloroplast to nucleus signaling. The slow growth phenotype of vtc2 was absent in the abi4 vtc2 double mutant, as was the sugar-insensitive phenotype of the abi4 mutant. Octadecanoid derivative-responsive AP2/ERF-domain transcription factor 47 (ORA47) and AP3 (an ABI5 binding factor) transcripts were enhanced in vtc2 but repressed in abi4 vtc2, suggesting that ABI4 and ascorbate modulate growth and defense gene expression through jasmonate signaling. We conclude that low ascorbate triggers ABA- and jasmonate-dependent signaling pathways that together regulate growth through ABI4. Moreover, cellular redox homeostasis exerts a strong influence on sugar-dependent growth regulation. PMID:21926335

  13. Thigmomorphogenesis: the role of ethylene in the response of Pinus taeda and Abies fraseri to mechanical perturbation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telewski, F. W.; Jaffe, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Ethylene production was monitored for 48 h in two half-sibs of Pinus taeda L. grown in the greenhouse and given mechanical perturbation (MP) by flexing; and for 22 h in Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir. grown in the field and exposed to wind-mediated MP. Both species produced a peak of ethylene 18 h after MP. Seedlings of P. taeda exposed to MP for the duration of the growing season (preconditioned) produced less ethylene compared to non-MP controls, with a peak production at 8 h. One half-sib which responded to MP by an increase in radial growth produced 16 times more ethylene than another half-sib which had no significant change in radial growth. Preconditioned A. fraseri produced no significant quantities of ethylene after MP. The production of wound ethylene appears to be different from MP-induced ethylene. When an ethylene-generating solution was applied to P. taeda seedlings, it mimicked many of the morphological and mechanical characteristics of MP seedlings. The putative role of ethylene in the thigmomorphogenetic response is addressed.

  14. [Responses of microbes in rhizospheric soil of Abies faxoniana to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ling; Wang, Kaiyun; Zhang, Yuanbin; Wu, Fuzhong; Lu, Yejiang

    2006-05-01

    With independent and top-enclosed chamber system, this paper studied the responses of culturable bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes in rhizospheric soil of Abies faxoniana sapling to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration (ambient +350( +/- 25) [micromol x mol(-1), EC), temperature (ambient + 2. 2 (+/- 0.5) degrees C; ET), and their combination (ECT) under high-frigid conditions of West Sichuan Province. The results showed that in comparing with the control, treatments EC and ET increased the number of rhizospheric bacteria by 35%, 164% and 312%, and 30%, 115% and 209% in June, August and October, respectively, but had little effects on the numbers of rhizospheric actinomycetes and fungi. In treatment ECT, the numbers of rhizospheric actinomycetes and fungi increased by 49%, 50% and 96% ,and 151%, 57% and 48% in June, August and October, respectively, while that of rhizospheric bacteria had little variation. EC, ET and ECT had significant effects on the total number of rhizospheric microbes, with the R/S being 1.93,1.27 and 1.46, respectively,but had little effects on non-rhizospheric microbes.

  15. Divergent climate response on hydraulic-related xylem anatomical traits of Picea abies along a 900-m altitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Castagneri, Daniele; Petit, Giai; Carrer, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Climate change can induce substantial modifications in xylem structure and water transport capacity of trees exposed to environmental constraints. To elucidate mechanisms of xylem plasticity in response to climate, we retrospectively analysed different cell anatomical parameters over tree-ring series in Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.). We sampled 24 trees along an altitudinal gradient (1200, 1600 and 2100 m above sea level, a.s.l.) and processed 2335 ± 1809 cells per ring. Time series for median cell lumen area (MCA), cell number (CN), tree-ring width (RW) and tree-ring-specific hydraulic conductivity (Kr) were crossed with daily temperature and precipitation records (1926-2011) to identify climate influence on xylem anatomical traits. Higher Kr at the low elevation site was due to higher MCA and CN. These variables were related to different aspects of intra-seasonal climatic variability under different environmental conditions, with MCA being more sensitive to summer precipitation. Winter precipitation (snow) benefited most parameters in all the sites. Descending the gradient, sensitivity of xylem features to summer climate shifted mostly from temperature to precipitation. In the context of climate change, our results indicate that higher summer temperatures at high elevations will benefit cell production and xylem hydraulic efficiency, whereas reduced water availability at lower elevations could negatively affect tracheids enlargement and thus stem capacity to transport water.

  16. Forest microsite effects on community composition of ectomycorrhizal fungi on seedlings of Picea abies and Betula pendula.

    PubMed

    Tedersoo, Leho; Suvi, Triin; Jairus, Teele; Kõljalg, Urmas

    2008-05-01

    Niche differentiation in soil horizons, host species and natural nutrient gradients contribute to the high diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi in boreal forests. This study aims at documenting the diversity and community composition of ectomycorrhizal fungi of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and silver birch (Betula pendula) seedlings in five most abundant microsites in three Estonian old-growth forests. Undisturbed forest floor, windthrow mounds and pits harboured more species than brown- and white-rotted wood. Several species of ectomycorrhizal fungi were differentially represented on either hosts, microsites and sites. Generally, the most frequent species in dead wood were also common in forest floor soil. Ordination analyses suggested that decay type determined the composition of EcM fungal community in dead wood. Root connections with in-growing mature tree roots from below affected the occurrence of certain fungal species on seedling roots systems in dead wood. This study demonstrates that ectomycorrhizal fungi differentially establish in certain forest microsites that is attributable to their dispersal and competitive abilities. Elevated microsites, especially decayed wood, act as seed beds for both ectomycorrhizal forest trees and fungi, thus affecting the succession of boreal forest ecosystems.

  17. Oribatid mite communities in the canopy of montane Abies amabilis and Tsuga heterophylla trees on Vancouver Island, British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Winchester, N N; Lindo, Z; Behan-Pelletier, V M

    2008-04-01

    To study the oribatid mite community inhabiting microhabitats in the canopy of montane Abies amabilis [(Douglas ex D. Don) Lindl.] and Tsuga heterophylla [(Raf.) Sarg] tree species across five elevational sites, we collected 180 branch tips and 180 foliose/crustose lichen samples over three time periods. Thirty-three species of oribatid mites were identified from the study area. Mite species richness and abundance was significantly affected by microhabitat, and this association was independent of sampling time. At the microhabitat scale, distinct species assemblages were associated with lichen and branch tip habitats, and to a lesser degree, tree species. Conifer specificity was most apparent in the closely related species of Jugatala, where Jugatala tuberosa Ewing was only found on branch tips from A. amabilis and Jugatala sp. was primarily found on branch tips from T. heterophylla. Microhabitat specificity was most pronounced in Dendrozetes sp. where most individuals were found on branch tips and Anachiperia geminus Lindo et al. that occurred primarily on lichens. Principal components analysis of oribatid mite community composition further showed a high degree of association with microhabitat and tree species. Habitat profiles are difficult to discern for many species because tree, microhabitat, and elevation preferences confound distribution patterns. Given the significant tree-microhabitat associations in species composition in this montane canopy study, we suggest that sampling multiple microhabitats across elevations to look for patterns in community structure offers opportunities to explicitly test organizing principles in community ecology.

  18. Good manufacturing practice production of [68Ga]Ga-ABY-025 for HER2 specific breast cancer imaging

    PubMed Central

    Velikyan, Irina; Wennborg, Anders; Feldwisch, Joachim; Lindman, Henrik; Carlsson, Jörgen; Sörensen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Therapies targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) have revolutionized breast cancer treatment, but require invasive biopsies and rigorous histopathology for optimal patient stratification. A non-invasive and quantitative diagnostic method such as positron emission tomography (PET) for the pre-therapeutic determination of the presence and density of the HER2 would significantly improve patient management efficacy and treatment cost. The essential part of the PET methodology is the production of the radiopharmaceutical in compliance with good manufacturing practice (GMP). The use of generator produced positron emitting 68Ga radionuclide would provide worldwide accessibility of the agent. GMP compliant, reliable and highly reproducible production of [68Ga]Ga-ABY-025 with control over the product peptide concentration and amount of radioactivity was accomplished within one hour. Two radiopharmaceuticals were developed differing in the total peptide content and were validated independently. The specific radioactivity could be kept similar throughout the study, and it was 6-fold higher for the low peptide content radiopharmaceutical. Intrapatient comparison of the two peptide doses allowed imaging optimization. The high peptide content decreased the uptake in healthy tissue, in particular liver, improving image contrast. The later imaging time points enhanced the contrast. The combination of high peptide content radiopharmaceutical and whole-body imaging at 2 hours post injection appeared to be optimal for routine clinical use. PMID:27186441

  19. Bifunctional cis-Abienol Synthase from Abies balsamea Discovered by Transcriptome Sequencing and Its Implications for Diterpenoid Fragrance Production*

    PubMed Central

    Zerbe, Philipp; Chiang, Angela; Yuen, Macaire; Hamberger, Björn; Hamberger, Britta; Draper, Jason A.; Britton, Robert; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The labdanoid diterpene alcohol cis-abienol is a major component of the aromatic oleoresin of balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and serves as a valuable bioproduct material for the fragrance industry. Using high-throughput 454 transcriptome sequencing and metabolite profiling of balsam fir bark tissue, we identified candidate diterpene synthase sequences for full-length cDNA cloning and functional characterization. We discovered a bifunctional class I/II cis-abienol synthase (AbCAS), along with the paralogous levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase and isopimaradiene synthase, all of which are members of the gymnosperm-specific TPS-d subfamily. The AbCAS-catalyzed formation of cis-abienol proceeds via cyclization and hydroxylation at carbon C-8 of a postulated carbocation intermediate in the class II active site, followed by cleavage of the diphosphate group and termination of the reaction sequence without further cyclization in the class I active site. This reaction mechanism is distinct from that of synthases of the isopimaradiene- or levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase type, which employ deprotonation reactions in the class II active site and secondary cyclizations in the class I active site, leading to tricyclic diterpenes. Comparative homology modeling suggested the active site residues Asp-348, Leu-617, Phe-696, and Gly-723 as potentially important for the specificity of AbCAS. As a class I/II bifunctional enzyme, AbCAS is a promising target for metabolic engineering of cis-abienol production. PMID:22337889

  20. Coping with low light under high atmospheric dryness: shade acclimation in a Mediterranean conifer (Abies pinsapo Boiss.).

    PubMed

    Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Flexas, Jaume; Herbette, Stéphane; Cochard, Hervé; Niinemets, Ülo; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2014-12-01

    Plant species living in the understory increase carbon (C) allocation toward leaf production for maximizing light capture at the expense of roots and stems, with negative consequences for the whole-plant hydraulic conductance. Moreover, under some conditions, the high atmospheric evaporative demand occurring in Mediterranean areas may be not well buffered by the canopy, which might be the case for relict conifer Abies pinsapo Boiss. growing in the forest understory. We hypothesized that acclimation to combined understory shade and high atmospheric dryness can be achieved through the adjustment of water losses to cope with the restriction in water transport. The results reveal high structural plasticity in A. pinsapo that allows light harvesting of this species to maximize light capture in the forest understory, and maintain a positive C balance under low light conditions. However, growth in the understory resulted in reduced leaf-specific conductivity, up to approximately four to five times, implying decreased plant capacity to supply water to the leaves. In order to cope with the high atmospheric evaporative demand in the understory, there is an adjustment of the stomatal conductance to the hydraulic conductivity by means of a reduction in the stomatal density in understory individuals, which is due to the almost complete lack of stomata in the adaxial side of the needles. To the extent of our knowledge, such a drastic phenotypic response found in a conifer when growing under shaded conditions had not been previously reported.

  1. Effect of bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) attack on bark VOC emissions of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghimire, Rajendra P.; Kivimäenpää, Minna; Blomqvist, Minna; Holopainen, Toini; Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, Päivi; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2016-02-01

    Climate warming driven storms are evident causes for an outbreak of the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) resulting in the serious destruction of mature Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) forests in northern Europe. Conifer species are major sources of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in the boreal zone. Climate relevant BVOC emissions are expected to increase when conifer trees defend against bark beetle attack by monoterpene (MT)-rich resin flow. In this study, BVOC emission rates from the bark surface of beetle-attacked and non-attacked spruce trees were measured from two outbreak areas, Iitti and Lahti in southern Finland, and from one control site at Kuopio in central Finland. Beetle attack increased emissions of total MTs 20-fold at Iitti compared to Kuopio, but decreased the emissions of several sesquiterpenes (SQTs) at Iitti. At the Lahti site, the emission rate of α-pinene was positively correlated with mean trap catch of bark beetles. The responsive individual MTs were tricyclene, α-pinene, camphene, myrcene, limonene, 1,8-cineole and bornyl acetate in both of the outbreak areas. Our results suggest that bark beetle outbreaks affect local BVOC emissions from conifer forests dominated by Norway spruce. Therefore, the impacts of insect outbreaks are worth of consideration to global BVOC emission models.

  2. Thigmomorphogenesis: the role of ethylene in the response of Pinus taeda and Abies fraseri to mechanical perturbation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telewski, F. W.; Jaffe, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Ethylene production was monitored for 48 h in two half-sibs of Pinus taeda L. grown in the greenhouse and given mechanical perturbation (MP) by flexing; and for 22 h in Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir. grown in the field and exposed to wind-mediated MP. Both species produced a peak of ethylene 18 h after MP. Seedlings of P. taeda exposed to MP for the duration of the growing season (preconditioned) produced less ethylene compared to non-MP controls, with a peak production at 8 h. One half-sib which responded to MP by an increase in radial growth produced 16 times more ethylene than another half-sib which had no significant change in radial growth. Preconditioned A. fraseri produced no significant quantities of ethylene after MP. The production of wound ethylene appears to be different from MP-induced ethylene. When an ethylene-generating solution was applied to P. taeda seedlings, it mimicked many of the morphological and mechanical characteristics of MP seedlings. The putative role of ethylene in the thigmomorphogenetic response is addressed.

  3. Differential regulation of Knotted1-like genes during establishment of the shoot apical meristem in Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Larsson, Emma; Sitbon, Folke; von Arnold, Sara

    2012-06-01

    Establishment of the shoot apical meristem (SAM) in Arabidopsis embryos requires the KNOXI transcription factor SHOOT MERISTEMLESS. In Norway spruce (Picea abies), four KNOXI family members (HBK1, HBK2, HBK3 and HBK4) have been identified, but a corresponding role in SAM development has not been demonstrated. As a first step to differentiate between the functions of the four Norway spruce HBK genes, we have here analyzed their expression profiles during the process of somatic embryo development. This was made both under normal embryo development and under conditions of reduced SAM formation by treatment with the polar auxin transport inhibitor NPA. Concomitantly with the formation of an embryonic SAM, the HBK2 and HBK4 genes displayed a significant up-regulation that was delayed by NPA treatment. In contrast, HBK1 and HBK3 were up-regulated prior to SAM formation, and their temporal expression was not affected by NPA. Ectopic expression of the four HBK genes in transgenic Arabidopsis plants further supported similar functions of HBK2 and HBK4, distinct from those of HBK1 and HBK3. Together, the results suggest that HBK2 and HBK4 exert similar functions related to the SAM differentiation and somatic embryo development in Norway spruce, while HBK1 and HBK3 have more general functions during embryo development.

  4. Development of growth media for solid substrate propagation of ectomycorrhizal fungi for inoculation of Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Vuorinen, Irmeli; Hamberg, Leena; Müller, Michael; Seiskari, Pekka; Pennanen, Taina

    2015-05-01

    A silica-based propagation medium was developed for large-scale production of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal inoculum by solid state fermentation. Development of the medium was started by screening for an optimal growth medium among six different semisynthetic agar media traditionally used in cultivation of ECM fungi. The majority (65 %) of the twenty tested ECM fungal strains that typically colonize Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings grew best on modified Melin-Norkrans (MMN) medium with reduced sugar content (½MMN). In order to develop a nutritionally similar medium for large-scale cultivation of the ECM fungi, we chose silica to form a solid matrix and light brewery malt extract to provide nutrients. The medium was supplemented with a commercial humic acid product that was shown to boost fungal growth. The optimal concentration of the constituents was screened for in two assays by determining the growth rates of seven potential inoculant ECM fungal strains (Amphinema sp., Cenococcum geophilum, Hebeloma sp., Meliniomyces bicolor, Paxillus involutus, Piloderma byssinum, and Tylospora asterophora). As a result, we composed a silica-based mass propagation medium (pH 5.8) containing 2.5 % brewery malt extract and 0.5 g/l humic acid product Lignohumate AM. This medium is easily produced and supported good growth of even the slowly growing and rarely studied Athelioid ECM strains. Furthermore, root systems of Norway spruce nursery seedlings were colonized by the tested ECM fungi by using solid inoculum formulated from the silica medium.

  5. Effect of debarking water from Norway spruce (Picea abies) on the growth of five species of wood-decaying fungi.

    PubMed

    Edfeldt, Amelie Fagerlund; Hedenström, Erik; Edman, Mattias; Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies) debarking water is an aqueous extract obtained as waste from the debarking of logs at paper mills. The debarking water contains a mixture of natural compounds that can exhibit diverse biological activities, potentially including fungicidal activity on some species of wood-decaying fungi. Thus, we investigated the growth rates of such fungi on agar plates to which debarking water extracts had been added. The experiment included five wood-decaying fungi, viz. Gloeophyllum sepiarium, Oligoporus lateritius, Ischnoderma benzoinum, Junghuhnia luteoalba, and Phlebia sp. Growth reduction was observed for all species at the highest tested concentrations of freeze-dried and ethanol-extracted debarking water, the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction and the diethyl ether-soluble fraction. However, the magnitude of the effect varied between different species and strains of individual species. The brown-rot fungi G. sepiarium and O. lateritius were generally the most sensitive species, with the growth of all tested strains being completely inhibited by the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction. These results indicate that development of antifungal wood-protecting agents from debarking water could potentially be a way to make use of a low-value industrial waste.

  6. Good manufacturing practice production of [(68)Ga]Ga-ABY-025 for HER2 specific breast cancer imaging.

    PubMed

    Velikyan, Irina; Wennborg, Anders; Feldwisch, Joachim; Lindman, Henrik; Carlsson, Jörgen; Sörensen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Therapies targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) have revolutionized breast cancer treatment, but require invasive biopsies and rigorous histopathology for optimal patient stratification. A non-invasive and quantitative diagnostic method such as positron emission tomography (PET) for the pre-therapeutic determination of the presence and density of the HER2 would significantly improve patient management efficacy and treatment cost. The essential part of the PET methodology is the production of the radiopharmaceutical in compliance with good manufacturing practice (GMP). The use of generator produced positron emitting (68)Ga radionuclide would provide worldwide accessibility of the agent. GMP compliant, reliable and highly reproducible production of [(68)Ga]Ga-ABY-025 with control over the product peptide concentration and amount of radioactivity was accomplished within one hour. Two radiopharmaceuticals were developed differing in the total peptide content and were validated independently. The specific radioactivity could be kept similar throughout the study, and it was 6-fold higher for the low peptide content radiopharmaceutical. Intrapatient comparison of the two peptide doses allowed imaging optimization. The high peptide content decreased the uptake in healthy tissue, in particular liver, improving image contrast. The later imaging time points enhanced the contrast. The combination of high peptide content radiopharmaceutical and whole-body imaging at 2 hours post injection appeared to be optimal for routine clinical use.

  7. Nuclear and chloroplast microsatellite analysis of Abies sachalinensis regeneration on fallen logs in a subboreal forest in Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Lian, Chunlan; Goto, Susumu; Kubo, Takuya; Takahashi, Yasuo; Nakagawa, Masahiko; Hogetsu, Taizo

    2008-06-01

    Fallen logs are the main regeneration sites for Abies sachalinensis (Sachalin fir) in subboreal forests in Japan. We surveyed the spatial genetic structure of different demographic stages in a 4.29-ha natural population of A. sachalinensis. Genetic structure was significant at short distances throughout all stages in this wind-dispersed conifer. To evaluate the effects of fallen-log-dependent recruitment on demography and spatial genetic structure, we conducted parentage analysis of offspring with highly polymorphic nuclear simple sequence repeat and chloroplast simple sequence repeat markers, and developed a new hierarchical Bayesian model to estimate the effects of mother trees and fallen logs on seed dispersal and offspring recruitment. Combined application of nuclear and chloroplast simple sequence repeat markers allowed us to unambiguously identify mother trees of most offspring (> 90%). Female reproductive success was extremely skewed; a few adults produced most of the offspring on fallen logs. Limited distance of effective dispersal and recruitment was seen in the parentage analysis and modelling estimation. These recruitment characters of A. sachalinensis, with a fallen-log-dependent recruitment process, may result in significant genetic structure in early demographic stages.

  8. Oleoresinosis in Grand Fir (Abies grandis) Saplings and Mature Trees (Modulation of this Wound Response by Light and Water Stresses).

    PubMed Central

    Lewinsohn, E.; Gijzen, M.; Muzika, R. M.; Barton, K.; Croteau, R.

    1993-01-01

    The stem content of diterpene resin acids (rosin) increases dramatically following wounding of grand fir (Abies grandis) saplings, but the level of monoterpene olefins (turpentine) in the stem decreases following injury, in spite of a significant increase in monoterpene cyclase (synthase) activity. However, this observation was explained when rapid evaporative losses of the volatile monoterpenes from the wound site was demonstrated by trapping experiments, a finding consistent with a role of turpentine as a solvent for the mobilization and deposition of rosin to seal the injury. Mature forest trees responded to stem wounding by the enhancement of monoterpene cyclization capacity in a manner similar to 2-year-old grand fir saplings raised in the greenhouse. Light and water stresses greatly reduced the constitutive level of monoterpene cyclase activity and abolished the wound-induced response. The diminution in monoterpene biosynthetic capacity was correlated with a dramatic decrease in cyclase protein as demonstrated by immunoblotting. Relief of stress conditions resulted in the restoration of cyclase activity (both constitutive and wound induced) to control levels. The results of these experiments indicate that grand fir saplings are a suitable model for studies of the regulation of defensive oleoresinosis in conifers. PMID:12231755

  9. Influence of Binasal and Uninasal Inhalations of Essential Oil of Abies koreana Twigs on Electroencephalographic Activity of Human

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Min; Sowndhararajan, Kandhasamy

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The present work investigates the effect of essential oil from the twigs of Abies koreana on electroencephalographic (EEG) activity of human brain in order to understand the influence of binasal and uninasal inhalations. Methods. To accomplish this study, the essential oil from the twigs of A. koreana (AEO) was isolated by steam distillation and the EEG readings were recorded using QEEG-8 system from 8 grounding electrodes according to the International 10-20 System. Results. D-Limonene (25.29%), bornyl acetate (19.31%), camphene (12.48%), α-pinene (11.88%), β-pinene (6.45%), and eudesm-7(11)-en-ol (5.38%) were the major components in the essential oil. In the EEG study, the absolute alpha (left frontal and right parietal) and absolute fast alpha (right parietal) values significantly increased during the binasal inhalation of AEO. In the uninasal inhalation, absolute beta and theta values decreased significantly, especially in the right frontal and left and right parietal regions. The results revealed that the AEO produced different EEG power spectrum changes according to the nostril difference. Conclusion. The changes in EEG values due to the inhalation of AEO may contribute to the enhancement of relaxation (binasal inhalation) and alertness/attention (right uninasal inhalation) states of brain which could be used in aromatherapy treatments. PMID:28042202

  10. Transcript Accumulation Dynamics of Phenylpropanoid Pathway Genes in the Maturing Xylem and Phloem of Picea abies during Latewood Formation.

    PubMed

    Emiliani, Giovanni; Traversi, Maria Laura; Anichini, Monica; Giachi, Guido; Giovannelli, Alessio

    2011-10-01

    In temperate regions, latewood is produced when cambial activity declines with the approach of autumnal dormancy. The understanding of the temporal (cambium activity vs dormancy) and spatial (phloem, cambial region, maturing xylem) regulation of key genes involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway during latewood formation represents a crucial step towards providing new insights into the molecular basis of xylogenesis. In this study, the temporal pattern of transcript accumulation of 12 phenylpropanoid genes (PAL1, C4H3/5, C4H4, 4CL3, 4CL4, HCT1, C3H3, CCoAOMT1, COMT2, COMT5, CCR2) was analyzed in maturing xylem and phloem of Picea abies during latewood formation. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed a well-defined RNA accumulation pattern of genes involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway during latewood formation. Differences in the RNA accumulation patterns were detected between the different tissue types analyzed. The results obtained here demonstrated that the molecular processes involved in monolignol biosynthesis are not restricted to the cambial activity timeframe but continued after the end of cambium cell proliferation. Furthermore, since it has been shown that lignification of maturing xylem takes place in late autumn, we argue on the basis of our data that phloem could play a key role in the monolignol biosynthesis process. © 2011 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  11. ,* Copper transport and accumulation in spruce stems (picea abies(L.) Karsten) revelaed by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Krajcarova, Dr. Lucie; Novotny, Dr. Karel; Babula, Dr. Petr; Pravaznik, Dr Ivo; Kucerova, Dr. Petra; Vojtech, Dr. Adam; Martin, Madhavi Z; Kizek, Dr. Rene; Kaiser, Jozef

    2013-01-01

    Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) in double pulse configuration (DP LIBS) was used for scanning elemental spatial distribution in annual terminal stems of spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karsten). Cross sections of stems cultivated in Cu2+ solution of different concentrations were prepared and analyzed by DP LIBS. Raster scanning with 150 m spatial resolution was set and 2D (2-dimentional) maps of Cu and Ca distribution were created on the basis of the data obtained. Stem parts originating in the vicinity of the implementation of the cross sections were mineralized and subsequently Cu and Ca contents were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results provide quantitative information about overall concentration of the elements in places, where LIBS measurements were performed. The fluorescence pictures were created to compare LIBS distribution maps and the fluorescence intensity (or the increase in autofluorescence) was used for the comparison of ICP-MS quantitative results. Results from these three methods can be utilized for quantitative measurements of copper ions transport in different plant compartments in dependence on the concentration of cultivation medium and/or the time of cultivation.

  12. Parents' experiences of their child's return to school following acquired brain injury (ABI): A systematic review of qualitative studies.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Kerstin; Bellon, Michelle; Walker, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    To examine parents' experiences during their child's return to school following ABI. Systematic literature review. Six electronic databases relevant to the fields of brain injury and education were searched between 1980-2015. In addition, two qualitative journals and references from articles were hand-searched for further literature. Search results were screened independently by two reviewers for relevance. Studies meeting the inclusion criteria were analysed using the McMasters Critical Review Form for Qualitative Studies. Two hundred and sixteen articles were screened after duplicates had been removed and 11 were assessed for relevance, resulting in six full text articles for review. The quality of studies was mixed, with only two presenting a high number of quality indicators for qualitative research. Ten themes were identified and grouped into three clusters: influencing factors (environment, school, parent and child factors); features of interaction (information, communication and collaboration); and quality levels of outcome (conflict, coping and construction of new roles and identities). Parents' experiences are influenced by the quality of information, communication and collaboration between the school, health professionals and the family. Further well designed qualitative studies examining parents' experiences and support needs are required.

  13. Antimicrobial activities of several parts of Pinus brutia, Juniperus oxycedrus, Abies cilicia, Cedrus libani and Pinus nigra.

    PubMed

    Diğrak, M; Ilçim, A; Hakki Alma, M

    1999-11-01

    In this study, the antimicrobial activities of several parts of various trees grown in the Kahramanmaraş region of Turkey were investigated by the disc diffusion method. Chloroform, acetone and methanol extracts of leaves, resins, barks, cones and fruits of Pinus brutia Ten., Juniperus oxycedrus L., Abies cilicia Ant. & Kotschy Carr., Cedrus libani A. Rich. and Pinus nigra Arn. were prepared and tested against Bacillus megaterium DSM 32, Bacillus subtilis IMG 22, Bacillus cereus FMC 19, Escherichia coli DM, Klebsiella pneumoniae FMC 3, Enterobacter aerogenes CCM 2531, Staphylococcus aureus Cowan 1, Mycobacterium smegmatis RUT, Proteus vulgaris FMC 1, Listeria monocytogenes Scoot A, Pseudomonas aeruginosa DSM 5007, Candida albicans CCM 314, Candida tropicalis MDC 86 and Penicillium italicum K. The results showed that antifungal effects were not observed for the whole extracts, E. coli was not inhibited by any of the plant extracts except by the chloroform and acetone extracts of the leaves of A. cilicia, which showed inhibition zones of 16-18 mm, respectively. All the plant extracts used in this study inhibited the development of the other bacteria studied. When the results of this study were compared with an ampicillin standard, it was found that the microorganisms studied were generally susceptible, intermediate or resistant to the extracts of species when compared with the ampicillin standard. On the other hand, the acetone and methanol extracts of Juniperus fruits were found to be quite resistant. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Mutational analysis of a monoterpene synthase reaction: altered catalysis through directed mutagenesis of (-)-pinene synthase from Abies grandis.

    PubMed

    Hyatt, David C; Croteau, Rodney

    2005-07-15

    Two monoterpene synthases, (-)-pinene synthase and (-)-camphene synthase, from grand fir (Abies grandis) produce different product mixtures despite having highly homologous amino acid sequences and, presumably, very similar three-dimensional structures. The major product of (-)-camphene synthase, (-)-camphene, and the major products of (-)-pinene synthase, (-)-alpha-pinene, and (-)-beta-pinene, arise through distinct mechanistic variations of the electrophilic reaction cascade that is common to terpenoid synthases. Structural modeling followed by directed mutagenesis in (-)-pinene synthase was used to replace selected amino acid residues with the corresponding residues from (-)-camphene synthase in an effort to identify the amino acids responsible for the catalytic differences. This approach produced an enzyme in which more than half of the product was channeled through an alternative pathway. It was also shown that several (-)-pinene synthase to (-)-camphene synthase amino acid substitutions were necessary before catalysis was significantly altered. The data support a model in which the collective action of many key amino acids, located both in and distant from the active site pocket, regulate the course of the electrophilic reaction cascade.

  15. The influence of O3, NO2 and SO2 on growth of Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica in the Carpathian Mountains.

    PubMed

    Muzika, R M; Guyette, R P; Zielonka, T; Liebhold, A M

    2004-07-01

    At 17 long-term pollution monitoring sites throughout the Carpathian Mountains, tree growth patterns and variation in growth rate were examined to determine relationship of tree growth to specific pollutants. Canopy dominant Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica were selected at each site. Basal area increment (BAI) values were calculated from raw ring widths and used as an estimate of tree growth. Across all sites, BAI chronologies were highly variable, therefore local conditions and forest structure accounted for considerable variation. Several significant relationships, however, implicated a role of pollutants on tree growth. Average levels (1997-1999) of NO(2) and SO(2) were inversely related to BAI means (1989-1999). Although average O(3) alone was not related to growth, the maximum O(3) value reported at the sites was negatively correlated with overall growth. A variable representing the combined effect of O(3), NO(2) and SO(2) was negatively correlated with both P. abies and F. sylvatica growth. Pollution data were used to categorize all sites into 'high' or 'low' pollution sites. Difference chronologies based on these categories indicated trends of decline in the 'high' pollution sites relative to 'low' pollution site. In the more heavily polluted sites, the BAI of Fagus sylvatica has declined approximately 50% and Picea abies has declined 20% over the past 45 years.

  16. Evaluating the usability of a single UK community acquired brain injury (ABI) rehabilitation service website: implications for research methodology and website design.

    PubMed

    Newby, Gavin; Groom, Christina

    2010-04-01

    Information provision is an important resource for those living with acquired brain injury (ABI) and their families. Web-based health information services are now common additions to health service provision. Ideally, they should be easy to use and provide useful, relevant and accurate information. ABI injuries do not affect individuals in the same way, and survivors can have a wide range of abilities and impairments. Therefore, any informational resource intended for this group should take account of their needs and help to compensate for their limitations. This pilot study recruited a group of individuals with ABI (of a median Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale rating of "lower moderate disability") who were clients of a UK National Health Service rehabilitation service and asked them to assess a specialised website provided by that service and hosted by their employing Primary Care Trust organisation. Participants completed a practical task and then gave their opinions on various aspects of website design, and content. They were also asked to suggest improvements and recommend additions. Overall the results were favourable. However, improvements in the legibility, layout and writing style were identified. There were also requests to add more information on the existing topics and add additional topics. The discussion also evaluates the utility of the methodology and the implications of the results for others considering constructing their own website.

  17. Analysis of the WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX gene family in the conifer picea abies reveals extensive conservation as well as dynamic patterns.

    PubMed

    Hedman, Harald; Zhu, Tianqing; von Arnold, Sara; Sohlberg, Joel J

    2013-06-12

    Members of the WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX (WOX) gene family have important functions during all stages of plant development and have been implicated in the development of morphological novelties during evolution. Most studies have examined the function of these genes in angiosperms and very little is known from other plant species. In this study we examine the presence and expression of WOX genes in the conifer Picea abies. We have cloned 11 WOX genes from both mRNA and genomic DNA and examined their phylogenetic relationship to WOX genes from other species as well as their expression during somatic embryogenesis and in adult tissues. Our study shows that all major radiations within the WOX gene family took place before the angiosperm-gymnosperm split and that there has been a recent expansion within the intermediate clade in the Pinaceae family. Furthermore, we show that the genes from the intermediate clade are preferentially expressed during embryo development in Picea abies. Our data also indicates that there are clear orthologs of both WUS and WOX5 present in the P. abies genome.

  18. Valorization of Romanian silver fir tree bark (Abies alba Mill.) wastes as low-cost sorbent of Cu(II) ions from polluted waters.

    PubMed

    Tofan, Lavinia; Paduraru, Carmen; Amalinei, Roxana Laura Mihailescu; Bunia, Ion; Miron, Anca

    2016-11-01

    Considering recycling as the first option in the hierarchy of sustainable waste management, and also the demand for efficient processes for wastewater treatment with reduced costs, the potential applicability of Romanian Abies alba bark, the main waste from the industrial processing of the wood of mature silver fir trees, as sorbent for Cu(II) has been studied in batch conditions. It was observed that the extent of Cu(II) sorption is strongly dependent on initial solution pH, sorbent dose, initial Cu(II) ion concentration, temperature and contact time. Equilibrium data fitted very well with both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The Langmuir maximum sorption capacity of Cu(II) ions on Abies alba bark waste was found to be 7.80 mg/g at 293 K. Kinetic studies showed a high affinity of the sorption experimental data to the pseudo-second order model. Gibbs free energy was spontaneous for all interactions and the sorption process exhibited endothermic enthalpy value. The waste of Abies alba bark was successfully used for the sorption removal of Cu(II) ions from industrial electroplating wastewaters.

  19. Plastic and locally adapted phenology in cambial seasonality and production of xylem and phloem cells in Picea abies from temperate environments.

    PubMed

    Gričar, Jožica; Prislan, Peter; Gryc, Vladimír; Vavrčík, Hanuš; de Luis, Martin; Cufar, Katarina

    2014-08-01

    Despite its major economic importance and the vulnerability of Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. to climate change, how its radial growth at intra-annual resolution is influenced by weather conditions in forest stands with a high production capacity has scarcely been explored. Between 2009 and 2011, phenological variation in seasonal cambial cell production (CP) was analysed in adult P. abies trees from three contrasting sites, differing in altitude and latitude. The results indicate that the timing of cambial CP is a highly synchronic process within populations since in all cases the cambium simultaneously started and stopped producing xylem and phloem cells. Our results also demonstrate that the phenology of cambial CP is highly variable and plastic between years, depending on seasonal temperature and precipitation variation. Differences among sites, however, are only partially explained by different environmental (elevation and altitude) and climatic conditions, suggesting that local adaptation may also play a decisive role in the strategy of P. abies for adapting wood and phloem increments to function optimally under local conditions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Affiliative and "self-as-doer" identities: Relationships between social identity, social support, and emotional status amongst survivors of acquired brain injury (ABI).

    PubMed

    Walsh, R Stephen; Muldoon, Orla T; Gallagher, Stephen; Fortune, Donal G

    2015-01-01

    Social support is an important factor in rehabilitation following acquired brain injury (ABI). Research indicates that social identity makes social support possible and that social identity is made possible by social support. In order to further investigate the reciprocity between social identity and social support, the present research applied the concepts of affiliative and "self-as-doer" identities to an analysis of relationships between social identity, social support, and emotional status amongst a cohort of 53 adult survivors of ABI engaged in post-acute community neurorehabilitation. Path analysis was used to test a hypothesised mediated model whereby affiliative identities have a significant indirect relationship with emotional status via social support and self-as-doer identification. Results support the hypothesised model. Evidence supports an "upward spiral" between social identity and social support such that affiliative identity makes social support possible and social support drives self-as-doer identity. Our discussion emphasises the importance of identity characteristics to social support, and to emotional status, for those living with ABI.

  1. Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin Decoction ameliorated the osteoporotic phenotype of ovariectomized mice without affecting the serum estrogen concentration or uterus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ling; Qiu, Xue-Min; Gui, Yu-Yan; Xu, Ying-Ping; Gober, Hans-Jürgen; Li, Da-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin Decoction (BSNXD), a traditional Chinese medicinal composition, has been used as a remedy for postmenopausal osteoporosis, but its effects on bone metabolism and the uterus have not been reported. Purpose We aimed to determine the respective effects of BSNXD on the bones and the uterus of ovariectomized (OVX) mice to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this herbal formula. Materials and methods Postmenopausal osteoporosis animal models that were generated by ovariectomy were treated with BSNXD. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed to analyze the bone mineral density, and histomorphometric analysis was performed to measure the parameters related to bone metabolism. Calcein labeling was performed to detect bone formation. The uteruses from the mice were weighed, and the histomorphometry was analyzed. Drug-derived serum was prepared to assess the 17-β-estradiol concentration via enzyme immunoassay. Results BSNXD administration ameliorated the osteoporotic phenotype of OVX mice, as evidenced by an increase in the bone mineral density and bone volume; these effects could not be abolished by the administration of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole. Moreover, BSNXD had no effect on the serum estrogen concentration or uterus. Conclusion These results suggest that BSNXD has ameliorating effects on bone loss due to estrogen deprivation without affecting the peripheral blood estrogen concentration or the uterus in OVX mice. PMID:26357466

  2. Impact of parameter fluctuations on the performance of ethanol precipitation in production of Re Du Ning Injections, based on HPLC fingerprints and principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Qiong; Wang, Shu-Yao; Li, Yan-Jing; Wang, Yong-Xiang; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Huang, Wen-Zhe; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Bi, Yu-An; Ding, Gang; Xiao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine the relationships between the performance of ethanol precipitation and seven process parameters in the ethanol precipitation process of Re Du Ning Injections, including concentrate density, concentrate temperature, ethanol content, flow rate and stir rate in the addition of ethanol, precipitation time, and precipitation temperature. Under the experimental and simulated production conditions, a series of precipitated resultants were prepared by changing these variables one by one, and then examined by HPLC fingerprint analyses. Different from the traditional evaluation model based on single or a few constituents, the fingerprint data of every parameter fluctuation test was processed with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to comprehensively assess the performance of ethanol precipitation. Our results showed that concentrate density, ethanol content, and precipitation time were the most important parameters that influence the recovery of active compounds in precipitation resultants. The present study would provide some reference for pharmaceutical scientists engaged in research on pharmaceutical process optimization and help pharmaceutical enterprises adapt a scientific and reasonable cost-effective approach to ensure the batch-to-batch quality consistency of the final products.

  3. Multiscale Modeling of Drug-induced Effects of ReDuNing Injection on Human Disease: From Drug Molecules to Clinical Symptoms of Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Fang; Gu, Jiangyong; Zhang, Xinzhuang; Chen, Lirong; Cao, Liang; Li, Na; Wang, Zhenzhong; Xiao, Wei; Xu, Xiaojie

    2015-05-01

    ReDuNing injection (RDN) is a patented traditional Chinese medicine, and the components of it were proven to have antiviral and important anti-inflammatory activities. Several reports showed that RDN had potential effects in the treatment of influenza and pneumonia. Though there were several experimental reports about RDN, the experimental results were not enough and complete due to that it was difficult to predict and verify the effect of RDN for a large number of human diseases. Here we employed multiscale model by integrating molecular docking, network pharmacology and the clinical symptoms information of diseases and explored the interaction mechanism of RDN on human diseases. Meanwhile, we analyzed the relation among the drug molecules, target proteins, biological pathways, human diseases and the clinical symptoms about it. Then we predicted potential active ingredients of RDN, the potential target proteins, the key pathways and related diseases. These attempts may offer several new insights to understand the pharmacological properties of RDN and provide benefit for its new clinical applications and research.

  4. Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin Decoction ameliorated the osteoporotic phenotype of ovariectomized mice without affecting the serum estrogen concentration or uterus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Qiu, Xue-Min; Gui, Yu-Yan; Xu, Ying-Ping; Gober, Hans-Jürgen; Li, Da-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin Decoction (BSNXD), a traditional Chinese medicinal composition, has been used as a remedy for postmenopausal osteoporosis, but its effects on bone metabolism and the uterus have not been reported. We aimed to determine the respective effects of BSNXD on the bones and the uterus of ovariectomized (OVX) mice to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this herbal formula. Postmenopausal osteoporosis animal models that were generated by ovariectomy were treated with BSNXD. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed to analyze the bone mineral density, and histomorphometric analysis was performed to measure the parameters related to bone metabolism. Calcein labeling was performed to detect bone formation. The uteruses from the mice were weighed, and the histomorphometry was analyzed. Drug-derived serum was prepared to assess the 17-β-estradiol concentration via enzyme immunoassay. BSNXD administration ameliorated the osteoporotic phenotype of OVX mice, as evidenced by an increase in the bone mineral density and bone volume; these effects could not be abolished by the administration of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole. Moreover, BSNXD had no effect on the serum estrogen concentration or uterus. These results suggest that BSNXD has ameliorating effects on bone loss due to estrogen deprivation without affecting the peripheral blood estrogen concentration or the uterus in OVX mice.

  5. Secondary metabolites of the lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. and their presence in spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) bark.

    PubMed

    Latkowska, Ewa; Bober, Beata; Chrapusta, Ewelina; Adamski, Michal; Kaminski, Ariel; Bialczyk, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Lichen species typically have a characteristic profile of secondary metabolites. Dense populations of Hypogymnia physodes growing frequently as epiphytes on tree branches have harmful effects on the host, likely due to their secondary compounds, which were undetected in tree tissues until now. The aim of the present study was to re-characterise the suite of secondary metabolites of H. physodes thalli and to estimate their translocation into spruce (Picea abies) bark. Thallus and bark extracts were compared using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The compounds were identified based on their UV, MS and MS/MS spectra as well as retention factors of their TLC analysis. In addition to the previously described secondary metabolites (protocetraric, physodalic, 3-hydroxyphysodic, physodic, and 2'-O-methylphysodic acids, atranorin and chloroatranorin) of H. physodes, further three were identified in its thalli: conphysodalic, 4-O-methylphysodic and α-alectoronic acids. Fragmentation patterns from the negative ionisation of each compound were proposed, some of which were described for the first time. Among all of the detected lichen substances, a few, e.g., physodalic, 3-hydroxyphysodic, physodic acids and atranorin, were present in the bark of spruce branches that were abundantly colonised by lichen. The newly identified compounds of H. physodes thalli may belong to its constant or accessory secondary metabolites. These compounds may be useful in the chemotaxonomic classification of this species. The presence of some lichen substances in spruce bark confirmed their ability to penetrate host tissues. These data suggest that H. physodes compounds may cause long-term effects on spruces in nature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Clavulina-Membranomyces is the most important lineage within the highly diverse ectomycorrhizal fungal community of Abies religiosa.

    PubMed

    Argüelles-Moyao, Andrés; Garibay-Orijel, Roberto; Márquez-Valdelamar, Laura Margarita; Arellano-Torres, Elsa

    2017-01-01

    Abies religiosa is an endemic conifer of Mexico, where its monodominant forests are the winter refuge of the monarch butterfly. Due to climate change, it has been estimated that by 2090, A. religiosa populations will decline by 96.5 %. To achieve success, reforestation programs should consider its ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. We used ITS nrDNA sequences to identify the ECM fungi associated with A. religiosa and, based on its abundance and frequency, determined the diversity and community structure in a pure A. religiosa forest near Mexico City. Using sequence metadata, we inferred the species geographic distribution and host preferences. We conducted phylogenetic analyses of the Clavulinaceae (the most important family). The ECM community held 83 species, among which the richest genera were Inocybe (21 species), Tomentella (10 species), and Russula (8 species). Besides its low species richness, the Clavulina-Membranomyces lineage was the most dominant family. Clavulina cf. cinerea and Membranomyces sp. exhibited the highest relative abundance and relative frequency values. Phylogenetic analyses placed the Clavulinaceae genotypes in three different clades: one within Membranomyces and two within Clavulina. A meta-analysis showed that the majority of the ECM fungi (45.78 %) associated with A. religiosa in Mexico have also been sequenced from North America and are shared by Pinaceae and Fagaceae. In contrast, because they have not been sequenced previously, 32.2 % of the species have a restricted distribution. Here, we highlight the emerging pattern that the Clavulina-Membranomyces lineage is dominant in several ECM communities in the Neotropics, including Aldinia and Dicymbe legume tropical forests in the Guyana Shield, the Alnus acuminata subtropical communities, and the A. religiosa temperate forests in Mexico.

  7. Influence of low- and high-elevation plant genomes on the regulation of autumn cold acclimation in Abies sachalinensis.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Wataru; Ono, Kiyomi; Hara, Toshihiko; Goto, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Boreal coniferous species with wide geographic distributions show substantial variation in autumn cold acclimation among populations. To determine how this variation is inherited across generations, we conducted a progeny test and examined the development of cold hardening in open-pollinated second-generation (F2) progeny of Abies sachalinensis. The F1 parents had different genetic backgrounds resulting from reciprocal interpopulational crosses between low-elevation (L) and high-elevation (H) populations: L × L, L × H, H × L, and H × H. Paternity analysis of the F2 progeny using molecular genetic markers showed that 91.3% of the fathers were located in surrounding stands of the F1 planting site (i.e., not in the F1 test population). The remaining fathers were assigned to F1 parents of the L × L cross-type. This indicates that the high-elevation genome in the F1 parents was not inherited by the F2 population via pollen flow. The timing of autumn cold acclimation in the F2 progeny depended on the cross-type of the F1 mother. The progeny of H × H mothers showed less damage in freezing tests than the progeny of other cross-types. Statistical modeling supported a linear effect of genome origin. In the best model, variation in freezing damage was explained by the proportion of maternally inherited high-elevation genome. These results suggest that autumn cold acclimation was partly explained by the additive effect of the responsible maternal genome. Thus, the offspring that inherited a greater proportion of the high-elevation genome developed cold hardiness earlier. Genome-based variation in the regulation of autumn cold acclimation matched the local climatic conditions, which may be a key factor in elevation-dependent adaptation.

  8. [Effects of snow pack on soil nitrogen transformation enzyme activities in a subalpine Abies faxioniana forest of western Sichuan, China].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Li; Xu, Zhen-Feng; Wu, Fu-Zhong; Yang, Wan-Qin; Yin, Rui; Li, Zhi-Ping; Gou, Xiao-Lin; Tang, Shi-Shan

    2014-05-01

    This study characterized the dynamics of the activities of urease, nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase in both soil organic layer and mineral soil layer under three depths of snow pack (deep snowpack, moderate snowpack and shallow snowpack) over the three critical periods (snow formed period, snow stable period, and snow melt period) in the subalpine Abies faxoniana forest of western Sichuan in the winter of 2012 and 2013. Throughout the winter, soil temperature under deep snowpack increased by 46.2% and 26.2%, respectively in comparison with moderate snowpack and shallow snowpack. In general, the three nitrogen-related soil enzyme activities under shallow snowpack were 0.8 to 3.9 times of those under deep snowpack during the winter. In the beginning and thawing periods of seasonal snow pack, shallow snowpack significantly increased the activities of urease, nitrate and nitrite reductase enzyme in both soil organic layer and mineral soil layer. Although the activities of the studied enzymes in soil organic layer and mineral soil layer were observed to be higher than those under deep- and moderate snowpacks in deep winter, no significant difference was found under the three snow packs. Meanwhile, the effects of snowpack on the activities of the measured enzymes were related with season, soil layer and enzyme type. Significant variations of the activities of nitrogen-related enzymes were found in three critical periods over the winter, and the three measured soil enzymes were significantly higher in organic layer than in mineral layer. In addition, the activities of the three measured soil enzymes were closely related with temperature and moisture in soils. In conclusion, the decrease of snow pack induced by winter warming might increase the activities of soil enzymes related with nitrogen transformation and further stimulate the process of wintertime nitrogen transformation in soils of the subalpine forest.

  9. Effect of Local Heating and Cooling on Cambial Activity and Cell Differentiation in the Stem of Norway Spruce (Picea abies)

    PubMed Central

    GRIČAR, JOŽICA; ZUPANČIČ, MARTIN; ČUFAR, KATARINA; KOCH, GERALD; SCHMITT, UWE; OVEN, PRIMOŽ

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims The effect of heating and cooling on cambial activity and cell differentiation in part of the stem of Norway spruce (Picea abies) was investigated. • Methods A heating experiment (23–25 °C) was carried out in spring, before normal reactivation of the cambium, and cooling (9–11 °C) at the height of cambial activity in summer. The cambium, xylem and phloem were investigated by means of light- and transmission electron microscopy and UV-microspectrophotometry in tissues sampled from living trees. • Key Results Localized heating for 10 d initiated cambial divisions on the phloem side and after 20 d also on the xylem side. In a control tree, regular cambial activity started after 30 d. In the heat-treated sample, up to 15 earlywood cells undergoing differentiation were found to be present. The response of the cambium to stem cooling was less pronounced, and no anatomical differences were detected between the control and cool-treated samples after 10 or 20 d. After 30 d, latewood started to form in the sample exposed to cooling. In addition, almost no radially expanding tracheids were observed and the cambium consisted of only five layers of cells. Low temperatures reduced cambial activity, as indicated by the decreased proportion of latewood. On the phloem side, no alterations were observed among cool-treated and non-treated samples. • Conclusions Heating and cooling can influence cambial activity and cell differentiation in Norway spruce. However, at the ultrastructural and topochemical levels, no changes were observed in the pattern of secondary cell-wall formation and lignification or in lignin structure, respectively. PMID:16613904

  10. Effect of local heating and cooling on cambial activity and cell differentiation in the stem of Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Gricar, Jozica; Zupancic, Martin; Cufar, Katarina; Koch, Gerald; Schmitt, Uwe; Oven, Primoz

    2006-06-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS The effect of heating and cooling on cambial activity and cell differentiation in part of the stem of Norway spruce (Picea abies) was investigated. A heating experiment (23-25 degrees C) was carried out in spring, before normal reactivation of the cambium, and cooling (9-11 degrees C) at the height of cambial activity in summer. The cambium, xylem and phloem were investigated by means of light- and transmission electron microscopy and UV-microspectrophotometry in tissues sampled from living trees. Localized heating for 10 d initiated cambial divisions on the phloem side and after 20 d also on the xylem side. In a control tree, regular cambial activity started after 30 d. In the heat-treated sample, up to 15 earlywood cells undergoing differentiation were found to be present. The response of the cambium to stem cooling was less pronounced, and no anatomical differences were detected between the control and cool-treated samples after 10 or 20 d. After 30 d, latewood started to form in the sample exposed to cooling. In addition, almost no radially expanding tracheids were observed and the cambium consisted of only five layers of cells. Low temperatures reduced cambial activity, as indicated by the decreased proportion of latewood. On the phloem side, no alterations were observed among cool-treated and non-treated samples. Heating and cooling can influence cambial activity and cell differentiation in Norway spruce. However, at the ultrastructural and topochemical levels, no changes were observed in the pattern of secondary cell-wall formation and lignification or in lignin structure, respectively.

  11. Comparative genome mapping among Picea glauca, P. mariana x P. rubens and P. abies, and correspondence with other Pinaceae.

    PubMed

    Pelgas, Betty; Beauseigle, Stéphanie; Acheré, Virginie; Jeandroz, Sylvain; Bousquet, Jean; Isabel, Nathalie

    2006-11-01

    A composite linkage map was constructed from four individual maps for the conifer Picea glauca (Moench) Voss, from anonymous and gene-specific markfers (714 AFLPs, 38 SSRs, and 53 ESTPs). A total of 12 linkage groups were delineated with an average marker density of 2.7 cM. Macro-synteny and macro-colinearity comparisons with two other composite linkage maps developed for the species complex P. mariana (Mill.) B.S.P. x P. rubens Sarg., and for P. abies (L.) Karst. revealed an identical number of linkage groups and a remarkable conservation of the gene content and gene order of linkage groups over the million years since the split between these taxa. Identical gene order among taxa was observed for 10 of the 12 assembled composite linkage groups. The discovery of one breakdown in synteny between P. glauca and the other two taxa indicated the occurrence of an inter-chromosomal rearrangement involving an insertional translocation. Analysis of marker colinearity also revealed a putative segmental duplication. The combined information from these three Picea genomes validated and improved large-scale genome comparisons at the inter-generic level in the family Pinaceae by allowing for the identification of 11 homoeologous linkage groups between Picea and Pinus, and nine such groups between Picea and Pseudotsuga menziesii. Notably, the analysis of synteny among the three genera revealed a putative case of chromosomal fission and an inter-chromosomal rearrangement in the genome of P. menziesii. Both of these changes are inter-connected, indicating much instability in this part of the P. menziesii genome. Overall, the macro-structure of the Pinaceae genome was well conserved, which is notable given the Cretaceous origin of its main lineages.

  12. A possible biochemical basis for fructose-induced inhibition of embryo development in Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Businge, Edward; Egertsdotter, Ulrika

    2014-06-01

    Sugars play an important role in various physiological processes during plant growth and development; however, the developmental roles and regulatory functions of hexoses other than glucose are still largely unclear. Recent studies suggest that blocked embryo development in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) is associated with accumulation of fructose. In the present study, the potential biochemical regulatory mechanism of glucose and fructose was studied during development of somatic embryos of Norway spruce from pro-embryogenic masses to mature embryos. The changes in protein fluorescence, a marker of the Maillard reaction, were monitored in two cell lines of Norway spruce that were grown on media containing sucrose (control), glucose or fructose. Manual time-lapse photography showed that growth of embryogenic cultures on medium containing sucrose was characterized by normal development of mature embryos whereas the embryogenic cultures that were grown on media containing glucose or fructose did not develop mature embryos. The biochemical analyses of embryogenic samples collected during embryo development showed that: (i) the content of glucose and fructose in the embryogenic cultures increased significantly during growth on each medium, respectively; (ii) the accumulation of Maillard products in the embryogenic cultures was highly correlated with the endogenous content of fructose but not glucose; and (iii) the embryogenic cultures grown on fructose displayed the highest protein carbonyl content and DNA damage whereas the highest content of glutathione was recorded in the embryogenic cultures that had grown on sucrose. Our data suggest that blocked development of embryos in the presence of fructose may be associated with the Maillard reaction.

  13. Shoot-level terpenoids emission in Norway spruce (Picea abies) under natural field and manipulated laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Raffaela; Lusini, Ilaria; Kristýna Večeřová; Petra Holišová; Pallozzi, Emanuele; Guidolotti, Gabriele; Urban, Otmar; Calfapietra, Carlo

    2016-11-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies) is a strong emitter of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). In the present study we investigated how shoot canopy position and high levels of stressors such as high temperature and ozone concentration, affect BVOC emission rates by means of in-situ and ex-situ experimental measurements. Therefore, BVOC emission from current-year spruce shoots was investigated under field and manipulated (temperature, ozone) laboratory conditions. Emitted BVOCs were sampled on desorption tubes, coupled with gas-exchange measurements of CO2 assimilation rate and stomatal conductance, and detected by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Total BVOC emission rates from sun shoots under standard conditions were higher than those from shade shoots, although this was significant only in July, on the contrary, only α-pinene and γ-terpinene emission rates showed significant differences between sun and shade acclimated shoots in August. Limonene, α-pinene, β-pinene, and myrcene were identified as the most abundant BVOCs in both campaigns with emission rates above 0.2 nmol m(-2) s(-1). Ex-situ measurements revealed a significantly higher total BVOC emissions under high temperature level (40 °C) by ca. 175% as compared with standard temperature (30 °C), while a short-term fumigation of acute O3 concentration (200 ppb) had no effect on BVOC emissions and its spectrum. These findings might have a relevance considering the role of these compounds in protecting against oxidative stress and their possible stimulation in particular stressful conditions. Implication of such results into emission models may contribute to a more accurate estimation of BVOC emissions for Central European mountain regions dominated by Norway spruce forests and their rate under predicted climate change.

  14. Altered HBK3 expression affects glutathione and ascorbate metabolism during the early phases of Norway spruce (Picea abies) somatic embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Belmonte, Mark F; Stasolla, Claudio

    2009-10-01

    Plant homeobox genes play an important role in plant development, including embryogenesis. Recently, the function of a class I homeobox of knox 3 gene, HBK3, has been characterized in the conifer Picea abies (L.) Karst (Norway spruce) [8]. During somatic embryogenesis, expression of HBK3 is required for the proper differentiation of proembryogenic masses into somatic embryos. This transition, fundamental for the overall embryogenic process, is accelerated in sense lines over-expressing HBK3 (HBK3-S) but precluded in antisense lines (HBK3-AS) where the expression of this gene is experimentally reduced. Altered HBK3 expression resulted in major changes of ascorbate and glutathione metabolism. During the initial phases of embryogeny the level of reduced GSH was higher in the HBK3-S lines compared to their control counterpart. An opposite profile was observed for the HBK3-AS lines where the glutathione redox state, i.e. GSH/GSH + GSSG, switched towards its oxidized form, i.e. GSSG. Very similar metabolic fluctuations were also measured for ascorbate, especially during the transition of proembryogenic masses into somatic embryos (7 days into hormone-free medium). At this stage the level of reduced ascorbate (ASC) in the HBK3-AS lines was about 75% lower compare to the untransformed line causing a switch of the ascorbate redox state, i.e. ASC/ASC + DHA + AFR, towards its oxidized forms, i.e. DHA + AFR. Changes in activities of several ascorbate and glutathione redox enzymes, including dehydroascorbate reductase (EC 1.8.5.1), ascorbate free radical reductase (EC 1.6.5.4) and glutathione reductase (GR; EC 1.6.4.2) were responsible for these metabolic differences. Data presented here suggest that HBK3 expression might regulate somatic embryo yield through alterations in glutathione and ascorbate metabolism, which have been previously implicated in controlling embryo development and maturation both in vivo and in vitro.

  15. Carbon dioxide concentration and nitrogen input affect the C and N storage pools in Amanita muscaria-Picea abies mycorrhizae.

    PubMed

    Turnau, K; Berger, A; Loewe, A; Einig, W; Hampp, R; Chalot, M; Dizengremel, P; Kottke, I

    2001-02-01

    We studied the influence of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) on the vacuolar storage pool of nitrogen-containing compounds and on the glycogen pool in the hyphal sheath of Amanita muscaria (L. ex Fr.) Hooker-Picea abies L. Karst. mycorrhizae grown with two concentrations of ammonium in the substrate. Mycorrhizal seedlings were grown in petri dishes on agar containing 5.3 or 53 mg N l(-1) and exposed to 350 or 700 microl CO2 l(-1) for 5 or 7 weeks, respectively. Numbers and area of nitrogen-containing bodies in the vacuoles of the mycorrhizal fungus were determined by light microscopy linked to an image analysis system. The relative concentration of nitrogen in the vacuolar bodies was measured by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Glycogen stored in the cytosol was determined at the ultrastructural level by image analysis after staining the sections (PATAg test). Shoot dry weight, net photosynthesis and relative amounts of N in vacuolar bodies were greater at the higher N and CO2 concentrations. The numbers and areas of vacuolar N-containing bodies were significantly greater at the higher N concentration only at ambient [CO2]. In the same treatment the percentage of hyphae containing glycogen declined to nearly zero. We conclude that, in the high N/low [CO2] treatment, the mycorrhizal fungus had an insufficient carbohydrate supply, partly because of increased amino acid synthesis by the non-mycorrhizal rootlets. When [CO2] was increased, the equilibrium between storage of glycogen and N-containing compounds was reestablished.

  16. The influence of Ceratocystis polonica inoculation and methyl jasmonate application on terpene chemistry of Norway spruce, Picea abies.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tao; Krokene, Paal; Björklund, Niklas; Långström, Bo; Solheim, Halvor; Christiansen, Erik; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2010-08-01

    Constitutive and inducible terpene production is involved in conifer resistance against bark beetles and their associated fungi. In this study 72 Norway spruce (Picea abies) were randomly assigned to methyl jasmonate (MJ) application, inoculation with the bluestain fungus Ceratocystis polonica, or no-treatment control. We investigated terpene levels in the stem bark of the trees before treatment, 30 days and one year after treatment using GC-MS and two-dimensional GC (2D-GC) with a chiral column, and monitored landing and attack rates of the spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus, on the trees by sticky traps and visual inspection. Thirty days after fungal inoculation the absolute amount and relative proportion of (+)-3-carene, sabinene, and terpinolene increased and (+)-alpha-pinene decreased. Spraying the stems with MJ tended to generally increase the concentration of most major terpenes with minor alteration to their relative proportions, but significant increases were only observed for (-)-beta-pinene and (-)-limonene. Fungal inoculation significantly increased the enantiomeric ratio of (-)-alpha-pinene and (-)-limonene 1 month after treatment, whereas MJ only increased that of (-)-limonene. One year after treatment, both MJ and fungal inoculation increased the concentration of most terpenes relative to undisturbed control trees, with significant changes in (-)-beta-pinene, (-)-beta-phellandrene and some other compounds. Terpene levels did not change in untreated stem sections after treatment, and chemical induction by MJ and C. polonica thus seemed to be restricted to the treated stem section. The enantiomeric ratio of (-)-alpha-pinene was significantly higher and the relative proportions of (-)-limonene were significantly lower in trees that were attractive to bark beetles compared to unattractive trees. One month after fungal inoculation, the total amount of diterpenes was significantly higher in putative resistant trees with shorter lesion lengths than in

  17. Tree water status and growth of saplings and mature Norway spruce (Picea abies) at a dry distribution limit

    PubMed Central

    Oberhuber, Walter; Hammerle, Albin; Kofler, Werner

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the size effect on stem water status and growth in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) occurring at the edge of its natural range in a dry inner Alpine environment (750 m asl, Tyrol, Austria). Intra-annual dynamics of stem water deficit (ΔW), maximum daily shrinkage (MDS), and radial growth (RG) were compared among saplings (stem diameter/height: 2.2 cm/93 cm; n = 7) and mature adult trees (25 cm/12.7 m; n = 6) during 2014. ΔW, MDS, and RG were extracted from stem diameter variations, which were continuously recorded by automatic dendrometers and the influence of environmental drivers was evaluated by applying moving correlation analysis (MCA). Additionally, we used Morlet wavelet analysis to assess the differences in cyclic radial stem variations between saplings and mature trees. Results indicate that saplings and mature trees were experiencing water limitation throughout the growing season. However, saplings exhibited a more strained stem water status and higher sensitivity to environmental conditions than mature trees. Hence, the significantly lower radial increments in saplings (0.16 ± 0.03 mm) compared to mature trees (0.54 ± 0.14 mm) is related to more constrained water status in the former, affecting the rate and duration of RG. The wavelet analysis consistently revealed more distinct diurnal stem variations in saplings compared to mature trees. Intra-annual RG was most closely related to climate variables that influence transpiration, i.e., vapor pressure deficit, relative air humidity, and air temperature. MCA, however, showed pronounced instability of climate–growth relationships, which masked missing temporal or significant correlations when the entire study period (April–October) was considered. We conclude that an increase in evaporative demand will impair regeneration and long-term stability of drought-prone inner Alpine Norway spruce forests. PMID:26442019

  18. Tree water status and growth of saplings and mature Norway spruce (Picea abies) at a dry distribution limit.

    PubMed

    Oberhuber, Walter; Hammerle, Albin; Kofler, Werner

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the size effect on stem water status and growth in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) occurring at the edge of its natural range in a dry inner Alpine environment (750 m asl, Tyrol, Austria). Intra-annual dynamics of stem water deficit (ΔW), maximum daily shrinkage (MDS), and radial growth (RG) were compared among saplings (stem diameter/height: 2.2 cm/93 cm; n = 7) and mature adult trees (25 cm/12.7 m; n = 6) during 2014. ΔW, MDS, and RG were extracted from stem diameter variations, which were continuously recorded by automatic dendrometers and the influence of environmental drivers was evaluated by applying moving correlation analysis (MCA). Additionally, we used Morlet wavelet analysis to assess the differences in cyclic radial stem variations between saplings and mature trees. Results indicate that saplings and mature trees were experiencing water limitation throughout the growing season. However, saplings exhibited a more strained stem water status and higher sensitivity to environmental conditions than mature trees. Hence, the significantly lower radial increments in saplings (0.16 ± 0.03 mm) compared to mature trees (0.54 ± 0.14 mm) is related to more constrained water status in the former, affecting the rate and duration of RG. The wavelet analysis consistently revealed more distinct diurnal stem variations in saplings compared to mature trees. Intra-annual RG was most closely related to climate variables that influence transpiration, i.e., vapor pressure deficit, relative air humidity, and air temperature. MCA, however, showed pronounced instability of climate-growth relationships, which masked missing temporal or significant correlations when the entire study period (April-October) was considered. We conclude that an increase in evaporative demand will impair regeneration and long-term stability of drought-prone inner Alpine Norway spruce forests.

  19. Effect of season, needle age and elevated CO2 concentration on photosynthesis and Rubisco acclimation in Picea abies.

    PubMed

    Urban, Otmar; Hrstka, Miroslav; Zitová, Martina; Holišová, Petra; Sprtová, Mirka; Klem, Karel; Calfapietra, Carlo; De Angelis, Paolo; Marek, Michal V

    2012-09-01

    While downward photosynthetic acclimation in response to elevated CO(2) (EC) is frequently accompanied by reduction in Rubisco (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase), the exact mechanism behind this decrease and its dynamics are not well understood. We comprehensively studied Rubisco adjustment to EC in coniferous Picea abies using an electrophoretic (protein content), spectrophotometric (initial (RA(initial)) and total (RA(total)) in vitro Rubisco activities), and gas-exchange (maximum carboxylation activity in vivo (V(Cmax))) techniques. With respect to differing carbon sink strength and nitrogen remobilization, we hypothesized greater acclimation of photosynthesis in one-year-old as compared to current-year needles and at the end than at the beginning of the vegetation season. EC treatment led to a decrease in V(Cmax) values in current-year needles, but the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP)-limited rate of photosynthesis (J(max)) remained unaffected. Indeed, both V(Cmax) and J(max) were reduced by the EC treatment in one-year-old needles. The extent of photosynthetic acclimation in EC plants did not increase, however, during the vegetation season. EC decreased the activation state of Rubisco (RA(initial)/RA(total)) by 16% and 5% in current-year and one-year-old needles, respectively (averaged over the growing season). While during spring (short-term effect) EC treatment did not influence the Rubisco content per unit leaf area and decreased its specific activity (activity per unit Rubisco mass) in both needle age classes studied, exposure to EC during the entire vegetation season tended to reduce the Rubisco content while increasing its specific activity. Irrespective of CO(2) treatment and needle age, a hyperbolic-decay relationship was observed between Rubisco-specific activity and its content.

  20. Photosynthesis Decrease and Stomatal Control of Gas Exchange in Abies alba Mill. in Response to Vapor Pressure Difference

    PubMed Central

    Guehl, Jean-Marc; Aussenac, Gilbert

    1987-01-01

    The responses of steady state CO2 assimilation rate (A), transpiration rate (E), and stomatal conductance (gs) to changes in leaf-to-air vapor pressure difference (ΔW) were examined on different dates in shoots from Abies alba trees growing outside. In Ecouves, a provenance representative of wet oceanic conditions in Northern France, both A and gs decreased when ΔW was increased from 4.6 to 14.5 Pa KPa−1. In Nebias, which represented the dry end of the natural range of A. alba in southern France, A and gs decreased only after reaching peak levels at 9.0 and 7.0 Pa KPa−1, respectively. The representation of the data in assimilation rate (A) versus intercellular CO2 partial pressure (Ci) graphs allowed us to determine how stomata and mesophyll photosynthesis interacted when ΔW was increased. Changes in A were primarily due to alterations in mesophyll photosynthesis. At high ΔW, and especially in Ecouves when soil water deficit prevailed, A declined, while Ci remained approximately constant, which may be interpreted as an adjustment of gs to changes in mesophyll photosynthesis. Such a stomatal control of gas exchange appeared as an alternative to the classical feedforward interpretation of E versus ΔW responses with a peak rate of E. The gas exchange response to ΔW was also characterized by considerable deviations from the optimization theory of IR Cowan and GD Farquhar (1977 Symp Soc Exp Biol 31: 471-505). PMID:16665243

  1. Rare coding variants in PLCG2, ABI3, and TREM2 implicate microglial-mediated innate immunity in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Sims, Rebecca; van der Lee, Sven J; Naj, Adam C; Bellenguez, Céline; Badarinarayan, Nandini; Jakobsdottir, Johanna; Kunkle, Brian W; Boland, Anne; Raybould, Rachel; Bis, Joshua C; Martin, Eden R; Grenier-Boley, Benjamin; Heilmann-Heimbach, Stefanie; Chouraki, Vincent; Kuzma, Amanda B; Sleegers, Kristel; Vronskaya, Maria; Ruiz, Agustin; Graham, Robert R; Olaso, Robert; Hoffmann, Per; Grove, Megan L; Vardarajan, Badri N; Hiltunen, Mikko; Nöthen, Markus M; White, Charles C; Hamilton-Nelson, Kara L; Epelbaum, Jacques; Maier, Wolfgang; Choi, Seung-Hoan; Beecham, Gary W; Dulary, Cécile; Herms, Stefan; Smith, Albert V; Funk, Cory C; Derbois, Céline; Forstner, Andreas J; Ahmad, Shahzad; Li, Hongdong; Bacq, Delphine; Harold, Denise; Satizabal, Claudia L; Valladares, Otto; Squassina, Alessio; Thomas, Rhodri; Brody, Jennifer A; Qu, Liming; Sánchez-Juan, Pascual; Morgan, Taniesha; Wolters, Frank J; Zhao, Yi; Garcia, Florentino Sanchez; Denning, Nicola; Fornage, Myriam; Malamon, John; Naranjo, Maria Candida Deniz; Majounie, Elisa; Mosley, Thomas H; Dombroski, Beth; Wallon, David; Lupton, Michelle K; Dupuis, Josée; Whitehead, Patrice; Fratiglioni, Laura; Medway, Christopher; Jian, Xueqiu; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Keller, Lina; Brown, Kristelle; Lin, Honghuang; Cantwell, Laura B; Panza, Francesco; McGuinness, Bernadette; Moreno-Grau, Sonia; Burgess, Jeremy D; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Proitsi, Petra; Adams, Hieab H; Allen, Mariet; Seripa, Davide; Pastor, Pau; Cupples, L Adrienne; Price, Nathan D; Hannequin, Didier; Frank-García, Ana; Levy, Daniel; Chakrabarty, Paramita; Caffarra, Paolo; Giegling, Ina; Beiser, Alexa S; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Hampel, Harald; Garcia, Melissa E; Wang, Xue; Lannfelt, Lars; Mecocci, Patrizia; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Crane, Paul K; Pasquier, Florence; Boccardi, Virginia; Henández, Isabel; Barber, Robert C; Scherer, Martin; Tarraga, Lluis; Adams, Perrie M; Leber, Markus; Chen, Yuning; Albert, Marilyn S; Riedel-Heller, Steffi; Emilsson, Valur; Beekly, Duane; Braae, Anne; Schmidt, Reinhold; Blacker, Deborah; Masullo, Carlo; Schmidt, Helena; Doody, Rachelle S; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Jr, W T Longstreth; Fairchild, Thomas J; Bossù, Paola; Lopez, Oscar L; Frosch, Matthew P; Sacchinelli, Eleonora; Ghetti, Bernardino; Yang, Qiong; Huebinger, Ryan M; Jessen, Frank; Li, Shuo; Kamboh, M Ilyas; Morris, John; Sotolongo-Grau, Oscar; Katz, Mindy J; Corcoran, Chris; Dunstan, Melanie; Braddel, Amy; Thomas, Charlene; Meggy, Alun; Marshall, Rachel; Gerrish, Amy; Chapman, Jade; Aguilar, Miquel; Taylor, Sarah; Hill, Matt; Fairén, Mònica Díez; Hodges, Angela; Vellas, Bruno; Soininen, Hilkka; Kloszewska, Iwona; Daniilidou, Makrina; Uphill, James; Patel, Yogen; Hughes, Joseph T; Lord, Jenny; Turton, James; Hartmann, Annette M; Cecchetti, Roberta; Fenoglio, Chiara; Serpente, Maria; Arcaro, Marina; Caltagirone, Carlo; Orfei, Maria Donata; Ciaramella, Antonio; Pichler, Sabrina; Mayhaus, Manuel; Gu, Wei; Lleó, Alberto; Fortea, Juan; Blesa, Rafael; Barber, Imelda S; Brookes, Keeley; Cupidi, Chiara; Maletta, Raffaele Giovanni; Carrell, David; Sorbi, Sandro; Moebus, Susanne; Urbano, Maria; Pilotto, Alberto; Kornhuber, Johannes; Bosco, Paolo; Todd, Stephen; Craig, David; Johnston, Janet; Gill, Michael; Lawlor, Brian; Lynch, Aoibhinn; Fox, Nick C; Hardy, John; Albin, Roger L; Apostolova, Liana G; Arnold, Steven E; Asthana, Sanjay; Atwood, Craig S; Baldwin, Clinton T; Barnes, Lisa L; Barral, Sandra; Beach, Thomas G; Becker, James T; Bigio, Eileen H; Bird, Thomas D; Boeve, Bradley F; Bowen, James D; Boxer, Adam; Burke, James R; Burns, Jeffrey M; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Cairns, Nigel J; Cao, Chuanhai; Carlson, Chris S; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Carney, Regina M; Carrasquillo, Minerva M; Carroll, Steven L; Diaz, Carolina Ceballos; Chui, Helena C; Clark, David G; Cribbs, David H; Crocco, Elizabeth A; DeCarli, Charles; Dick, Malcolm; Duara, Ranjan; Evans, Denis A; Faber, Kelley M; Fallon, Kenneth B; Fardo, David W; Farlow, Martin R; Ferris, Steven; Foroud, Tatiana M; Galasko, Douglas R; Gearing, Marla; Geschwind, Daniel H; Gilbert, John R; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Green, Robert C; Growdon, John H; Hamilton, Ronald L; Harrell, Lindy E; Honig, Lawrence S; Huentelman, Matthew J; Hulette, Christine M; Hyman, Bradley T; Jarvik, Gail P; Abner, Erin; Jin, Lee-Way; Jun, Gyungah; Karydas, Anna; Kaye, Jeffrey A; Kim, Ronald; Kowall, Neil W; Kramer, Joel H; LaFerla, Frank M; Lah, James J; Leverenz, James B; Levey, Allan I; Li, Ge; Lieberman, Andrew P; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Lyketsos, Constantine G; Marson, Daniel C; Martiniuk, Frank; Mash, Deborah C; Masliah, Eliezer; McCormick, Wayne C; McCurry, Susan M; McDavid, Andrew N; McKee, Ann C; Mesulam, Marsel; Miller, Bruce L; Miller, Carol A; Miller, Joshua W; Morris, John C; Murrell, Jill R; Myers, Amanda J; O'Bryant, Sid; Olichney, John M; Pankratz, Vernon S; Parisi, Joseph E; Paulson, Henry L; Perry, William; Peskind, Elaine; Pierce, Aimee; Poon, Wayne W; Potter, Huntington; Quinn, Joseph F; Raj, Ashok; Raskind, Murray; Reisberg, Barry; Reitz, Christiane; Ringman, John M; Roberson, Erik D; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Rosen, Howard J; Rosenberg, Roger N; Sager, Mark A; Saykin, Andrew J; Schneider, Julie A; Schneider, Lon S; Seeley, William W; Smith, Amanda G; Sonnen, Joshua A; Spina, Salvatore; Stern, Robert A; Swerdlow, Russell H; Tanzi, Rudolph E; Thornton-Wells, Tricia A; Trojanowski, John Q; Troncoso, Juan C; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M; Van Eldik, Linda J; Vinters, Harry V; Vonsattel, Jean Paul; Weintraub, Sandra; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C; Williamson, Jennifer; Wingo, Thomas S; Woltjer, Randall L; Wright, Clinton B; Yu, Chang-En; Yu, Lei; Garzia, Fabienne; Golamaully, Feroze; Septier, Gislain; Engelborghs, Sebastien; Vandenberghe, Rik; De Deyn, Peter P; Fernadez, Carmen Muñoz; Benito, Yoland Aladro; Thonberg, Hakan; Forsell, Charlotte; Lilius, Lena; Kinhult-Stählbom, Anne; Kilander, Lena; Brundin, RoseMarie; Concari, Letizia; Helisalmi, Seppo; Koivisto, Anne Maria; Haapasalo, Annakaisa; Dermecourt, Vincent; Fievet, Nathalie; Hanon, Olivier; Dufouil, Carole; Brice, Alexis; Ritchie, Karen; Dubois, Bruno; Himali, Jayanadra J; Keene, C Dirk; Tschanz, JoAnn; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Kukull, Walter A; Norton, Maria; Aspelund, Thor; Larson, Eric B; Munger, Ron; Rotter, Jerome I; Lipton, Richard B; Bullido, María J; Hofman, Albert; Montine, Thomas J; Coto, Eliecer; Boerwinkle, Eric; Petersen, Ronald C; Alvarez, Victoria; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Reiman, Eric M; Gallo, Maura; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Reisch, Joan S; Bruni, Amalia Cecilia; Royall, Donald R; Dichgans, Martin; Sano, Mary; Galimberti, Daniela; St George-Hyslop, Peter; Scarpini, Elio; Tsuang, Debby W; Mancuso, Michelangelo; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Winslow, Ashley R; Daniele, Antonio; Wu, Chuang-Kuo; Peters, Oliver; Nacmias, Benedetta; Riemenschneider, Matthias; Heun, Reinhard; Brayne, Carol; Rubinsztein, David C; Bras, Jose; Guerreiro, Rita; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Shaw, Christopher E; Collinge, John; Mann, David; Tsolaki, Magda; Clarimón, Jordi; Sussams, Rebecca; Lovestone, Simon; O'Donovan, Michael C; Owen, Michael J; Behrens, Timothy W; Mead, Simon; Goate, Alison M; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Holmes, Clive; Cruchaga, Carlos; Ingelsson, Martin; Bennett, David A; Powell, John; Golde, Todd E; Graff, Caroline; De Jager, Philip L; Morgan, Kevin; Ertekin-Taner, Nilufer; Combarros, Onofre; Psaty, Bruce M; Passmore, Peter; Younkin, Steven G; Berr, Claudine; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Rujescu, Dan; Dickson, Dennis W; Dartigues, Jean-François; DeStefano, Anita L; Ortega-Cubero, Sara; Hakonarson, Hakon; Campion, Dominique; Boada, Merce; Kauwe, John Keoni; Farrer, Lindsay A; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Ikram, M Arfan; Jones, Lesley; Haines, Jonathan L; Tzourio, Christophe; Launer, Lenore J; Escott-Price, Valentina; Mayeux, Richard; Deleuze, Jean-François; Amin, Najaf; Holmans, Peter A; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Amouyel, Philippe; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Ramirez, Alfredo; Wang, Li-San; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Seshadri, Sudha; Williams, Julie; Schellenberg, Gerard D

    2017-09-01

    We identified rare coding variants associated with Alzheimer's disease in a three-stage case-control study of 85,133 subjects. In stage 1, we genotyped 34,174 samples using a whole-exome microarray. In stage 2, we tested associated variants (P < 1 × 10(-4)) in 35,962 independent samples using de novo genotyping and imputed genotypes. In stage 3, we used an additional 14,997 samples to test the most significant stage 2 associations (P < 5 × 10(-8)) using imputed genotypes. We observed three new genome-wide significant nonsynonymous variants associated with Alzheimer's disease: a protective variant in PLCG2 (rs72824905: p.Pro522Arg, P = 5.38 × 10(-10), odds ratio (OR) = 0.68, minor allele frequency (MAF)cases = 0.0059, MAFcontrols = 0.0093), a risk variant in ABI3 (rs616338: p.Ser209Phe, P = 4.56 × 10(-10), OR = 1.43, MAFcases = 0.011, MAFcontrols = 0.008), and a new genome-wide significant variant in TREM2 (rs143332484: p.Arg62His, P = 1.55 × 10(-14), OR = 1.67, MAFcases = 0.0143, MAFcontrols = 0.0089), a known susceptibility gene for Alzheimer's disease. These protein-altering changes are in genes highly expressed in microglia and highlight an immune-related protein-protein interaction network enriched for previously identified risk genes in Alzheimer's disease. These genetic findings provide additional evidence that the microglia-mediated innate immune response contributes directly to the development of Alzheimer's disease.

  2. Synthesis, crystal structure, and photocatalytic activity of the new three-layer aurivillius phases, Bi{sub 2}ASrTi{sub 2}TaO{sub 12} (A=Bi, La)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Dong; Tang Kaibin; Liang Zhenhua; Zheng Huagui

    2010-02-15

    Two new three-layer Aurivillius phases Bi{sub 2}ASrTi{sub 2}TaO{sub 12} (A=Bi, La) have been synthesized. The detailed structure determination of Bi{sub 2}ASrTi{sub 2}TaO{sub 12} (A=Bi, La) performed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selected area electron microscopy (SAED) shows that they all crystallize in the space group I/4mmm. UV-visible diffuse reflection spectrum of the prepared Bi{sub 2}ASrTi{sub 2}TaO{sub 12} (A=Bi, La) indicates that it had absorption in the ultraviolet (UV) region. The photocatalytic activity of the Bi{sub 2}ASrTi{sub 2}TaO{sub 12} (A=Bi, La) powders was evaluated by degradation of rhodamine B (RB) molecules in water under UV light irradiation. The results showed that Bi{sub 2}ASrTi{sub 2}TaO{sub 12} (A=Bi, La) has high photocatalytic activity at room temperature. Therefore, the preparation and properties studies of Bi{sub 2}ASrTi{sub 2}TaO{sub 12} (A=Bi, La) with a three-layer Aurivillius structure suggest potential future applications in photocatalysis. - Graphical abstract: Two new three-layer Aurivillius phases Bi{sub 2}ASrTi{sub 2}TaO{sub 12} (A=Bi, La) have been synthesized by a conventional solid state reaction method. And this is the crystal structure of the three-layer Aurivillius phases, Bi{sub 2}ASrTi{sub 2}TaO{sub 12}.

  3. Quality evaluation of Guan-Xin-Ning injection based on fingerprint analysis and simultaneous separation and determination of seven bioactive constituents by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liying; Chang, Ruimiao; Chen, Meng; Li, Lou; Huang, Yayun; Zhang, Hongfen; Chen, Anjia

    2017-09-07

    The purpose of this study was to develop a comprehensive, rapid and practical capillary electrophoresis (CE) method for quality control (QC) of Guan-Xin-Ning (GXN) injection based on fingerprint analysis and simultaneous separation and determination of seven constituents. In fingerprint analysis, a capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method with a running buffer of 30 mM borate solution (pH 9.3) was established. Meanwhile, 10 batches of samples were used to establish the fingerprint electropherogram and 34 common peaks were obtained within 20 min. The RSD of relative migration times (RMT) and relative peak areas (RPA) were less than 5%. In order to further evaluate the quality of GXN injection, a micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method was developed for simultaneous separation and determination of bioactive constituents. Seven components reached baseline separation with a running buffer containing 35 mM SDS and 45 mM borate solution (pH 9.3). A good linearity was obtained with correlation coefficients from 0.9906 to 0.9997. The LOD and LOQ ranged from 0.12 to 1.50 μg/mL and from 0.40 to 4.90 μg/mL, respectively. The recoveries ranged between 99.0 and 104.4%. Therefore, it was concluded that the proposed method can be used for full-scale quality analysis of GXN injection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. ABA Regulates Subcellular Redistribution of OsABI-LIKE2, a Negative Regulator in ABA Signaling, to Control Root Architecture and Drought Resistance in Oryza sativa.

    PubMed

    Li, Chengxiang; Shen, Hongyun; Wang, Tao; Wang, Xuelu

    2015-12-01

    The phytohormone ABA is a key stress signal in plants. Although the identification of ABA receptors led to significant progress in understanding the Arabidopsis ABA signaling pathway, there are still many unsolved mysteries regarding ABA signaling in monocots, such as rice. Here, we report that a rice ortholog of AtABI1 and AtABI2, named OsABI-LIKE2 (OsABIL2), plays a negative role in rice ABA signaling. Overexpression of OsABIL2 not only led to ABA insensitivity, but also significantly altered plant developmental phenotypes, including stomatal density and root architecture, which probably caused the hypersensitivity to drought stress. OsABIL2 interacts with OsPYL1, SAPK8 and SAPK10 both in vitro and in vivo, and the phosphatase activity of OsABIL2 was repressed by ABA-bound OsPYL1. However, unlike many other solely nuclear-localized clade A type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), OsABIL2 is localized in both the nucleus and cytosol. Furthermore, OsABIL2 interacts with and co-localized with OsPYL1 mainly in the cytosol, and ABA treatment regulates the nucleus-cytosol distribution of OsABIL2, suggesting a different mechanism for the activation of ABA signaling. Taken together, this study provides significant insights into rice ABA signaling and indicates the important role of OsABIL2 in regulating root development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Different Alleles of a Gene Encoding Leucoanthocyanidin Reductase (PaLAR3) Influence Resistance against the Fungus Heterobasidion parviporum in Picea abies.

    PubMed

    Nemesio-Gorriz, Miguel; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Ihrmark, Katarina; Källman, Thomas; Olson, Åke; Lascoux, Martin; Stenlid, Jan; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Elfstrand, Malin

    2016-08-01

    Despite the fact that fungal diseases are a growing menace for conifers in modern silviculture, only a very limited number of molecular markers for pathogen resistance have been validated in conifer species. A previous genetic study indicated that the resistance of Norway spruce (Picea abies) to Heterobasidion annosum s.l., a pathogenic basidiomycete species complex, is linked to a quantitative trait loci that associates with differences in fungal growth in sapwood (FGS) that includes a gene, PaLAR3, which encodes a leucoanthocyanidin reductase. In this study, gene sequences showed the presence of two PaLAR3 allelic lineages in P. abies. Higher resistance was associated with the novel allele, which was found in low frequency in the four P. abies populations that we studied. Norway spruce plants carrying at least one copy of the novel allele showed a significant reduction in FGS after inoculation with Heterobasidion parviporum compared to their half-siblings carrying no copies, indicating dominance of this allele. The amount of (+) catechin, the enzymatic product of PaLAR3, was significantly higher in bark of trees homozygous for the novel allele. Although we observed that the in vitro activities of the enzymes encoded by the two alleles were similar, we could show that allele-specific transcript levels were significantly higher for the novel allele, indicating that regulation of gene expression is responsible for the observed effects in resistance, possibly caused by differences in cis-acting elements that we observe in the promoter region of the two alleles.

  6. Ancestry and divergence of subtropical montane forest isolates: molecular biogeography of the genus Abies (Pinaceae) in southern México and Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo-Correa, Juan P; Aguirre-Planter, Erika; Khasa, Damase P; Eguiarte, Luis E; Piñero, Daniel; Furnier, Glenn R; Bousquet, Jean

    2008-05-01

    The genus Abies has a complex history in southern México and Guatemala. In this region, four closely related species, Abies flinckii, A. guatemalensis, A. hickelii, and A. religiosa, are distributed in fragmented and isolated montane populations. Range-wide genetic variation was investigated across species using cytoplasmic DNA markers with contrasted inheritance. Variation at two maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA markers was low. All species shared two of the nine mitotypes detected, while the remaining seven mitochondrial DNA types were restricted to a few isolated stands. Mitochondrial genetic differentiation across taxa was high (G(ST) = 0.933), it was not related to the taxonomic identity (amova; P > 0.05) of the populations, and it was not phylogeographically structured (G(ST) approximately N(ST)). In contrast, variation at three paternally inherited chloroplast DNA microsatellites was high. Chloroplast genetic differentiation was lower (G(ST) = 0.402; R(ST) = 0.547) than for mitochondrial DNA, but it was significantly related to taxonomy (amova; P < 0.001), and exhibited a significant phylogeographical structure (G(ST) < R(ST)). Different analyses of population structure indicated that A. flinckii was the most divergent taxon, while the remaining three species formed a relatively homogeneous group. However, a small number of the populations of these three taxa, all located at the limits of their respective ranges or in the Transverse Volcanic Belt, diverged from this main cluster. These trends suggest that the Mesoamerican Abies share a recent common ancestor and that their divergence and speciation is mainly driven by genetic drift and isolation during the warm interglacial periods.

  7. Elevation Shift in Abies Mill. (Pinaceae) of Subtropical and Temperate China and Vietnam-Corroborative Evidence from Cytoplasmic DNA and Ecological Niche Modeling.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yi-Zhen; Zhang, Xian-Chun; Phan, Loc Ke; Xiang, Qiao-Ping

    2017-01-01

    The "elevational shift" scenario has been proposed as a model to explain the response of cold-adapted organisms to Quaternary climatic fluctuations in Europe and North America. However, the elevational shift model has not been well-explored in eastern Asia, which is more topographically complex than the other Northern Hemisphere biogeographic regions. Here, we evaluated the role of elevational shift in the closely related firs, or Abies Mill., of subtropical and temperate China. These firs are typical alpine trees with sensitivity to climate change. We tested the elevational shift hypothesis in firs of China using phylogeographic methods and ecological niche models. Our phylogeographic analyses comprised mitochondrial and chloroplast polymorphisms surveyed across 479 individuals from 43 populations representing 11 species. M1 of the 11 mitotypes and C1 of the 25 chlorotypes were inferred as the ancestral haplotype, and they had the widest distribution. The results of our phylogeographic survey revealed multiple centers of genetic diversity in distinct geographic regions and no latitudinal trend. Moreover, our results showed range expansions for seven taxa during the last glacial (64.9-18.2 or 32.5-9.1 kya), and this was consistent with the Quaternary fossil record of Abies in China. Taken together, our findings support a historical biogeographic pattern in firs of glacial expansions, probably through corridors at lower elevation, and interglacial fragmentations, through isolation at higher elevation peaks. Therefore, Abies in China probably undergoes elevational shift in response to climate change. Facing the forecasting global warming, the risk of several critically endangered firs was further enhanced as these species would have little escape space in situ to higher altitudes. According to our ENMs, we proposed an ex situ conservation strategy in the southern Hengduan Mountains region of south western China.

  8. High-Throughput Sequencing Reveals Drastic Changes in Fungal Communities in the Phyllosphere of Norway Spruce (Picea abies) Following Invasion of the Spruce Bud Scale (Physokermes piceae).

    PubMed

    Menkis, Audrius; Marčiulynas, Adas; Gedminas, Artūras; Lynikienė, Jūratė; Povilaitienė, Aistė

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diversity and composition of fungal communities in damaged and undamaged shoots of Norway spruce (Picea abies) following recent invasion of the spruce bud scale (Physokermes piceae) in Lithuania. Sampling was done in July 2013 and included 50 random lateral shoots from ten random trees in each of five visually undamaged and five damaged 40-50-year-old pure stands of P. abies. DNA was isolated from 500 individual shoots, subjected to amplification of the internal transcribed spacer of fungal ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA), barcoded and sequenced. Clustering of 149,426 high-quality sequences resulted in 1193 non-singleton contigs of which 1039 (87.1 %) were fungal. In total, there were 893 fungal taxa in damaged shoots and 608 taxa in undamaged shoots (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, 431 (41.5 %) fungal taxa were exclusively in damaged shoots, 146 (14.0 %) were exclusively in undamaged shoots, and 462 (44.5 %) were common to both types of samples. Correspondence analysis showed that study sites representing damaged and undamaged shoots were separated from each other, indicating that in these fungal communities, these were largely different and, therefore, heavily affected by P. piceae. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that invasive alien tree pests may have a profound effect on fungal mycobiota associated with the phyllosphere of P. abies, and therefore, in addition to their direct negative effect owing physical damage of the tissue, they may also indirectly determine health, sustainability and, ultimately, distribution of the forest tree species.

  9. FERONIA interacts with ABI2-type phosphatases to facilitate signaling cross-talk between abscisic acid and RALF peptide in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jia; Yu, Feng; Liu, Ying; Du, Changqing; Li, Xiushan; Zhu, Sirui; Wang, Xianchun; Lan, Wenzhi; Rodriguez, Pedro L.; Liu, Xuanming; Li, Dongping; Chen, Liangbi; Luan, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Receptor-like kinase FERONIA (FER) plays a crucial role in plant response to small molecule hormones [e.g., auxin and abscisic acid (ABA)] and peptide signals [e.g., rapid alkalinization factor (RALF)]. It remains unknown how FER integrates these different signaling events in the control of cell growth and stress responses. Under stress conditions, increased levels of ABA will inhibit cell elongation in the roots. In our previous work, we have shown that FER, through activation of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 (GEF1)/4/10-Rho of Plant 11 (ROP11) pathway, enhances the activity of the phosphatase ABA Insensitive 2 (ABI2), a negative regulator of ABA signaling, thereby inhibiting ABA response. In this study, we found that both RALF and ABA activated FER by increasing the phosphorylation level of FER. The FER loss-of-function mutant displayed strong hypersensitivity to both ABA and abiotic stresses such as salt and cold conditions, indicating that FER plays a key role in ABA and stress responses. We further showed that ABI2 directly interacted with and dephosphorylated FER, leading to inhibition of FER activity. Several other ABI2-like phosphatases also function in this pathway, and ABA-dependent FER activation required PYRABACTIN RESISTANCE (PYR)/PYR1-LIKE (PYL)/REGULATORY COMPONENTS OF ABA RECEPTORS (RCAR)–A-type protein phosphatase type 2C (PP2CA) modules. Furthermore, suppression of RALF1 gene expression, similar to disruption of the FER gene, rendered plants hypersensitive to ABA. These results formulated a mechanism for ABA activation of FER and for cross-talk between ABA and peptide hormone RALF in the control of plant growth and responses to stress signals. PMID:27566404

  10. Synthesis, structures and photocatalytic activities of microcrystalline ABi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} (A=Sr, Ba) powders

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Weiming; Liang, Shijing; Wang, Xiaowei; Bi, Jinhong; Liu, Ping; Wu, Ling

    2011-01-15

    Microcrystalline ABi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} (A=Sr, Ba) photocatalysts were successfully synthesized by a citrate complex method. The as-prepared samples were characterized by the X-ray diffraction technique, BET surface area analysis, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrum, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. The results indicated that single-phase orthorhombic SrBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} could be obtained after being calcined above 650 {sup o}C, while BaBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} was tetragonal. Based on the diffuse reflectance spectra, the band gaps of the obtained samples were calculated to be around 3.34-3.54 eV. For the photocatalytic redox reaction of methyl orange under UV-light irradiation, SrBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than that of BaBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9}. The effects of the crystallinities, BET surface areas and crystal structures of the samples on the photocatalytic activities were discussed in detail. -- Graphical abstract: Aurivillius-type ABi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} (A=Sr, Ba) photocatalysts were successfully synthesized by a citrate complex method. SrBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} and BaBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} showed different photocatalytic performances in the redox reaction of methyl orange (MO) under UV-light ({lambda}=254 nm), due to the different crystal structures of ABi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} (A=Sr, Ba). Display Omitted

  11. ENL, the MLL fusion partner in t(11;19), binds to the c-Abl interactor protein 1 (ABI1) that is fused to MLL in t(10;11)+.

    PubMed

    García-Cuéllar, M P; Schreiner, S A; Birke, M; Hamacher, M; Fey, G H; Slany, R K

    2000-03-30

    Translocations of the chromosomal locus 11q23 that disrupt the MLL gene (alternatively ALL-1 or HRX) are frequently found in children's leukemias. These events fuse the MLL amino terminus in frame with a variety of unrelated proteins. Up to date, 16 different fusion partners have been characterized and more are likely to exist. No general unifying property could yet be detected amongst these proteins. We show here that the frequent MLL fusion partner ENL at 19p13.1 interacts with the human homologue of the mouse Abl-Interactor 1 (ABI1) protein. ABI1 in turn, is fused to MLL in the t(10;11)(p11.2;q23) translocation. ABI1 was identified as an ENL binding protein by a yeast two-hybrid screen. The interaction of ENL and ABI1 could be verified in vitro by far-Western blot assays and GST-pulldown studies as well as in vivo by co-immunoprecipitation experiments. A structure-function analysis identified an internal region of ENL and a composite motif of ABI1 including an SH3 domain as mutual binding partners. These data introduce novel aspects that might contribute to the understanding of the process of leukemogenesis by MLL fusion proteins.

  12. The run-off resistance (ROR) assessed on MR angiograms may serve as a valid scoring system in patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and correlates with the ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI).

    PubMed

    Gorny, O; Santner, W; Fraedrich, G; Jaschke, W; Greiner, A; Schocke, M F

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the correlation between the hemodynamic parameter ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI) and the run-off resistance (ROR) assessed on MR angiograms (MRA) in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) Fontaine Stage I and II and its potential as reliable reporting system in clinical routine. Contrast-enhanced MRA was performed in 321 PAD patients using a 1.5T MR scanner with moving bed technique. The ROR and resting ABI were determined in each patient's leg and correlation analysis was performed using the Pearson test. A significant negative correlation (r = -.513; p<.001) between ROR (mean 11.03±5.42) and resting ABI (mean .81±.26) was identified. An even more pronounced correlation was found in patients younger than median age who had higher ABI values (r = -.608; p<.001). The ROR scoring system evaluated in this series correlates better with the ABI than previously published scoring systems and could be suggested as reporting system for routine MRA evaluation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Migration and population expansion of Abies, Fagus, Picea, and Quercus since 15000 years in and across the Alps, based on pollen-percentage threshold values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Knaap, W. O.; van Leeuwen, Jacqueline F. N.; Finsinger, Walter; Gobet, Erika; Pini, Roberta; Schweizer, Astrid; Valsecchi, Verushka; Ammann, Brigitta

    2005-03-01

    Aims: The aim of this study is to explore the migration (colonization of new areas) and subsequent population expansion (within an area) since 15 ka cal BP of Abies, Fagus, Picea, and Quercus into and through the Alps solely on the basis of high-quality pollen data. Methods: Chronologies of 101 pollen sequences are improved or created. Data from the area delimited by 45.5-48.1°N and 6-14°E are summarized in three ways: (1) in a selection of pollen-percentage threshold maps (thresholds 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 4%, 8%, 16%, and 32% of land pollen); (2) in graphic summaries of 250-year time slices and geographic segments (lengthwise and transverse in relation to the main axis of the Alps) as pollen-percentage curves, pollen-percentage difference curves, and pollen-percentage threshold ages cal BP graphed against both the length and the transverse Alpine axes; and (3) in tables showing statistical relationships of either pollen-percentage threshold ages cal BP or pollen expansion durations (=time lapse between different pollen-percentage threshold ages cal BP) with latitude, longitude, and elevation; to establish these relationships we used both simple linear regression and multiple linear regression after stepwise-forward selection. Results: The statistical results indicate that (a) the use of pollen-percentage thresholds between 0.5% and 8% yield mostly similar directions of tree migration, so the method is fairly robust, (b) Abies migrated northward, Fagus southward, Picea westward, and Quercus northward; more detail does not emerge due to an extreme scarcity of high-quality data especially along the southern foothills of the Alps and in the eastern Alps. This scarcity allows the reconstruction of one immigration route only of Abies into the southern Alps. The speed of population expansion (following arrival) of Abies increased and of Picea decreased during the Holocene, of Fagus it decreased especially during the later Holocene, and of Quercus it increased especially at the

  14. Raman Spectroscopic Online Investigation of Respiratory Quotients in Pinus Sylvestris and Picea Abies during Drought and Shading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanf, S.; Fischer, S.; Hartmann, H.; Trumbore, S.; Popp, J.; Frosch, T.

    2014-12-01

    Drought and heat waves have been linked to forest mortality event across the globe. The underlying physiological processes are still not elucidated but both tree carbon and water relations have been identified as the driving forces. While studies on tree hydraulics are straightforward, studies on the tree carbon balance are not. For example, the use of different carbon compounds for maintenance respiration during drought cannot be assessed with measurements of carbon pools but requires real-time analyses of respiration stoichiometry. However, so far there were no technical solutions for such applications. Here we introduce cavity-enhanced Raman spectrometry (CERS) for simultaneous real-time monitoring of O2 and CO2 and rapid and continuous quantification of dark respiration rates and the respiratory quotient (RQ), i.e. the ratio of CO2 produced over O2 consumed during respiration. This ratio indicates the proportions of different substrates (carbohydrates [COH], lipids, proteins) used during respiration and allows fundamental insights into tree physiology. CERS combines high temporal resolution with a high dynamic concentration range for all important gases, ranging from few ppm to 100 vol. % with a single measurement every few seconds. The respiration analysis of tree branches was performed in a closed chamber for two species of different drought tolerance, Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies. We applied not only drought but also a shading treatment because both cause reductions in carbon assimilation rates but have different effects on tree hydraulics. Declines in RQ during shading in both species indicate a switch from pure COH metabolism to a mixture of COH, lipids and proteins. During drought such declines occurred only in the drought-tolerant pine but not in spruce and the underlying more dynamic carbon use strategy in pine may provide a physiological basis for its drought tolerance, more detailed investigation still pending. Our study highlights the suitability

  15. Mistletoe lectin is not the only cytotoxic component in fermented preparations of Viscum album from white fir (Abies pectinata)

    PubMed Central

    Eggenschwiler, Jenny; von Balthazar, Leopold; Stritt, Bianca; Pruntsch, Doreen; Ramos, Mac; Urech, Konrad; Rist, Lukas; Simões-Wüst, A Paula; Viviani, Angelika

    2007-01-01

    Background Preparations of mistletoe (Viscum album) are the form of cancer treatment that is most frequently used in the complementary medicine. Previous work has shown that these preparations are able to exert cytotoxic effects on carcinoma cells, the extent of which might be influenced by the host tree species and by the content of mistletoe lectin. Methods Using colorimetric assays, we have now compared the cytotoxic effects of Viscum album preparations (VAPs) obtained from mistletoe growing on oak (Quercus robur and Q. petraea, VAP-Qu), apple tree (Malus domestica,, VAP-M), pine (Pinus sylvestris, VAP-P) or white fir (Abies pectinata, VAP-A), on the in vitro growth of breast and bladder carcinoma cell lines. While MFM-223, KPL-1, MCF-7 and HCC-1937 were the breast carcinoma cell lines chosen, the panel of tested bladder carcinoma cells comprised the T-24, TCC-SUP, UM-UC-3 and J-82 cell lines. Results Each of the VAPs inhibited cell growth, but the extent of this inhibition differed with the preparation and with the cell line. The concentrations of VAP-Qu, VAP-M and VAP-A which led to a 50 % reduction of cell growth (IC50) varied between 0.6 and 0.03 mg/ml. Higher concentrations of VAP-P were required to obtain a comparable effect. Purified mistletoe lectin I (MLI) led to an inhibition of breast carcinoma cell growth at concentrations lower than those of VAPs, but the sensitivity towards purified MLI did not parallel that towards VAPs. Bladder carcinoma cells were in most cases more sensitive to VAPs treatment than breast carcinoma cells. The total mistletoe lectin content was very high in VAP-Qu (54 ng/mg extract), intermediate in VAP-M (25 ng/mg extract), and very low in VAP-P (1.3 ng/mg extract) and in VAP-A (1 ng/mg extract). As to be expected from the low content of mistletoe lectin, VAP-P led to relatively weak cytotoxic effects. Most remarkably, however, the lectin-poor VAP-A revealed a cytotoxic effect comparable to, or even stronger than, that of the

  16. [Response of Picea purpurea and Abies faxoniana tree rings at different slope aspects to rapid warming in western Sichuan, China].

    PubMed

    Guo, Bin-de; Zhang, Yuan-dong; Wang, Xiao-chun

    2016-02-01

    By using an empirical 'signal-free' standardization approach, we constructed four Picea purpurea and Abies faxoniana tree-ring chronologies at southeast and northwest slope aspects of Erdaohai and east slope aspect of Zharisi, Songpan, west Sichuan, China. The response analysis and multivariate analysis of variance between tree rings and climatic variables were conducted to explore the divergent responses of tree growth at different slope aspects to the recent warming climate. Results showed that tree growth of P. purpurea at east slope aspect was obviously accelerated (0.011 a-1) since rapid warming in 1980, whereas those at northwest slope aspect was significantly reduced (-0.006 a-1). Tree growth of P. purpurea at southeast slope aspect and A. faxoniana at northwest slope aspect decreased in significantly. With the rapid warming, growth-climate relationships of P. purpurea and A. faxoniana at different slope aspects changed significantly. After rapid warming in 1980, the promoting effects of growing season temperature (GST) on P. purpurea growth at east slope increased significantly, while the inhibitory effects of GST on its growth at southeast and northwest slopes also increased significantly. However, the effects of GST on A. faxoniana growth at northwest slope did not change significantly before and after rapid warming. The effects of precipitation in May (PM) on P. purpurea growth at east slope was changed from inhibition before rapid warming to significant promotion after rapid warming, while the inhibitory effects of PM on P. purpurea growth at southeast and northwest slopes increased significantly. For A. faioniana at northwest slope, however, it did not change obviously before and after rapid warming. The response analysis between tree growth and the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) showed that soil moisture variations at different slope aspects were an important reason of tree-ring growth response difference since rapid warming. In addition, the

  17. Population dynamics and genetic changes of Picea abies in the South Carpathians revealed by pollen and ancient DNA analyses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies on allele length polymorphism designate several glacial refugia for Norway spruce (Picea abies) in the South Carpathian Mountains, but infer only limited expansion from these refugia after the last glaciation. To better understand the genetic dynamics of a South Carpathian spruce lineage, we compared ancient DNA from 10,700 and 11,000-year-old spruce pollen and macrofossils retrieved from Holocene lake sediment in the Retezat Mountains with DNA extracted from extant material from the same site. We used eight primer pairs that amplified short and variable regions of the spruce cpDNA. In addition, from the same lake sediment we obtained a 15,000-years-long pollen accumulation rate (PAR) record for spruce that helped us to infer changes in population size at this site. Results We obtained successful amplifications for Norway spruce from 17 out of 462 pollen grains tested, while the macrofossil material provided 22 DNA sequences. Two fossil sequences were found to be unique to the ancient material. Population genetic statistics showed higher genetic diversity in the ancient individuals compared to the extant ones. Similarly, statistically significant Ks and Kst values showed a considerable level of differentiation between extant and ancient populations at the same loci. Lateglacial and Holocene PAR values suggested that population size of the ancient population was small, in the range of 1/10 or 1/5 of the extant population. PAR analysis also detected two periods of rapid population growths (from ca. 11,100 and 3900 calibrated years before present (cal yr BP)) and three bottlenecks (around 9180, 7200 and 2200 cal yr BP), likely triggered by climatic change and human impact. Conclusion Our results suggest that the paternal lineages observed today in the Retezat Mountains persisted at this site at least since the early Holocene. Combination of the results from the genetic and the PAR analyses furthermore suggests that the higher level of genetic

  18. Tree growth and competition in an old-growth Picea abies forest of boreal Sweden: influence of tree spatial patterning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fraver, Shawn; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Bradford, John B.; Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar; Jönsson, Mari; Esseen, Per-Anders

    2013-01-01

    Question: What factors best characterize tree competitive environments in this structurally diverse old-growth forest, and do these factors vary spatially within and among stands? Location: Old-growth Picea abies forest of boreal Sweden. Methods: Using long-term, mapped permanent plot data augmented with dendrochronological analyses, we evaluated the effect of neighbourhood competition on focal tree growth by means of standard competition indices, each modified to include various metrics of trees size, neighbour mortality weighting (for neighbours that died during the inventory period), and within-neighbourhood tree clustering. Candidate models were evaluated using mixed-model linear regression analyses, with mean basal area increment as the response variable. We then analysed stand-level spatial patterns of competition indices and growth rates (via kriging) to determine if the relationship between these patterns could further elucidate factors influencing tree growth. Results: Inter-tree competition clearly affected growth rates, with crown volume being the size metric most strongly influencing the neighbourhood competitive environment. Including neighbour tree mortality weightings in models only slightly improved descriptions of competitive interactions. Although the within-neighbourhood clustering index did not improve model predictions, competition intensity was influenced by the underlying stand-level tree spatial arrangement: stand-level clustering locally intensified competition and reduced tree growth, whereas in the absence of such clustering, inter-tree competition played a lesser role in constraining tree growth. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that competition continues to influence forest processes and structures in an old-growth system that has not experienced major disturbances for at least two centuries. The finding that the underlying tree spatial pattern influenced the competitive environment suggests caution in interpreting traditional tree

  19. Airborne fungal colonisation of coarse woody debris in North Temperate Picea abies forest: impact of season and local spatial scale.

    PubMed

    Vasiliauskas, Rimvydas; Lygis, Vaidotas; Larsson, Karl-Henrik; Stenlid, Jan

    2005-04-01

    Coarse woody debris is important for mycodiversity in forest ecosystems, but its availability in managed stands is reduced. Leaving dead wood during felling is suggested as an option to sustain and restore the diversity. However, little is known what fungi would colonise freshly cut wood left on managed sites, and how the colonisation process is influenced by ecological factors. During summer and autumn, 120 freshly cut Picea abies stem sections over 8 cm in diameter were placed upright in mapped locations over two discrete plots separated by 100 m in a north-temperate forest. After seven weeks the sections were collected, and isolation and identification of fungi was done from their upper surfaces. In all 943 fungal strains were isolated, representing 97 species. Species richness in the summer survey was 42.5% higher than during the autumn survey. Low species similarity characterized the different seasons (Sorensen indices: S(S) = 0.36 and S(N) = 0.34) and for 21 species (22%) observation frequency was significantly affected by season. As a result, community structures in summer and autumn differed notably (z-test; P < 0.001). Species richness between the two plots differed by less than 10%, but there were 64 species (66%) found only in one of them, thus qualitative similarity was low (S(S) = 0.49). Quantitative similarity was higher (S(N) = 0.63), indicating that the dominant species colonised wood to a similar extent in both areas. Fungal community structure differed significantly among the two plots (z-test; P < 0.001). Our data showed that freshly cut CWD contributed to mycodiversity in managed north-temperate forest, providing habitats for numerous individuals from over 100 species. The fungal community within a single stand differed markedly both across small distances and over the seasons. In order to sustain and enhance mycodiversity in managed stands. coarse wood should always be left during harvesting. This study also demonstrates the importance of

  20. Water content and bark thickness of Norway spruce (Picea abies) stems: phloem water capacitance and xylem sap flow.

    PubMed

    Gall, Rolf; Landolt, W; Schleppi, P; Michellod, V; Bucher, J B

    2002-06-01

    To determine the relationship between phloem transport and changes in phloem water content, we measured temporal and spatial variations in water content and sucrose, glucose and fructose concentrations in phloem samples and phloem exudates of 70- and 30-year-old Norway spruce trees (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). Large temporal and spatial variations in phloem water content (1.4-2.6 mg mg(dw)(-1)) and phloem total sugar concentration (31-70 mg g(dw)(-1)) paralleled each other (r(2) = 0.83, P < 0.0001 for the temporal profile and r(2) = 0.96, P < 0.008 for the spatial profile), indicating that phloem water content depends on the total amount of sugar to be transferred. Changes in phloem water content were unrelated to changes in bark thickness. Maximum changes in phloem water content calculated from dendrometer readings were only 8-11% of the maximum measured changes in phloem water content, indicating that reversible changes in bark thickness did not reflect changes in internal water relations. We also studied the relationship between xylem sap velocity and changes in bark thickness in 70-year-old trees during summer 1999 and winter 1999-2000. Sap flow occurred sporadically throughout the winter, but there was no relationship between bark shrinkage or swelling and sap velocity. In winter, mean daily xylem sap velocity was significantly correlated with mean daily vapor pressure deficit and air temperature (P < 0.0001, in both cases). Changes in bark thickness corresponded with both short- and long-term changes in relative humidity, in both winter and summer. Under controlled conditions at > 0 degrees C, changes in relative humidity alone caused changes in thickness of boiled bark samples. Because living bark of Norway spruce trees contains large areas with crushed and dead sieve cell zones-up to 24% of the bark is air-filled space-we suggest that this space can compensate for volume changes in living phloem cells independently of total tissue water content. We conclude

  1. Atteinte cérébro-méningée multiple révélant une Tuberculose multifocale chez un immunocompétent

    PubMed Central

    Boulahri, Tarik; Taous, Abdellah; Berri, Maha Aït; Traibi, Imane; Rouimi, Abdelhadi

    2016-01-01

    La Tuberculose constitue un problème de santé publique au Maroc. L’atteinte du système nerveux central est néanmoins rare, survenant dans un contexte de tuberculose multifocale ou miliaire tuberculeuse. Cependant elle peut être un mode de révélation même chez un sujet immunocompétent. Nous rapportons le cas d’un homme de 30 ans qui avait présenté un trouble du langage évoluant dans un contexte d’altération de l’état général avec à l’examen clinique une aphasie motrice de type Broca, un syndrome pyramidal latéralisé à droite et des adénopathies latéro-cérvicales. la sérologie HIV était négative. L’IRM cérébrale: montrait des lésions associant des tuberculomes intracrâniens multiple et une image de méningo-encéphalite. La TDM thoracique montrait de multiples micronodules pulmonaires, une image cavitaire à paroi épaissie et DDB du fowler droit et du culmen. La biopsie des ganglions lymphatiques révélait la présence de granulome typique de tuberculose. Le diagnostic de tuberculose multifocale fut retenu et le patient fut mis sous traitement anti-bacillaire associé à une corticothérapie avec une bonne évolution clinico-radiologique. Cette observation est particulière par l’aspect et le siège des lésions tuberculeuse retrouvées à l’imagerie cérébrale, par l’absence d’immunodéficience, par la bonne évolution sous traitement et souligne l’intérêt de rechercher activement par un bilan exhaustif une infection tuberculeuse extra-cérébrale associée devant toute lésion cérébro-méningée évocatrice de tuberculose. PMID:28293347

  2. Ibn Abi Ussaibea "Oyoun aI-Anbaa Fi Tabaqat al-Attiba" a selected review of this Index of Physicians and their Works; (from early Greeks to his time in Egypt).

    PubMed

    Kotby, M Nasser; Wahba, Hassan; Mabrouk, Amr

    2010-12-01

    Muwaffaq-al-Deen abu-al-Abbas Ahmad ibn Abi Ussaibea (1203-1270) was born in Damascus. He started his brilliant career in his birth place then moved to Cairo where he worked and excelled for the rest of his life. His learning was intensified by the scholarly contacts of the intellectual leaders of the day. In this study we review The Index of Physicians-Oyoun al-Anbaa Fi Tabaqat al-Attiba--(Sources of Information in the Classes of Physicians) of ibn Abi Ussaibea.The biographies in this book do not just cover physicians only but also the learned people of his day whose knowledge and expertise covered medicine, astronomy, mathematics, philosophy, and botany. For this reason the book of ibn Abi Ussaibea represents an indispensable source of the scientific and philosophical achievements of the Arabic/Islamic civilization.

  3. Comparison of the ABI 7700 System (TaqMan) and Competitive PCR for Quantification of IS6110 DNA in Sputum during Treatment of Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Desjardin, L. e.; Chen, Y.; Perkins, M. D.; Teixeira, L.; Cave, M. D.; Eisenach, K. D.

    1998-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis can persist in sputum for long periods of time after the initiation of antituberculosis chemotherapy. The purpose of this study was to determine whether quantitative estimates of M. tuberculosis DNA in sputum correlate with the numbers of viable bacilli and thus measure the therapeutic response of patients during treatment. Two methods of M. tuberculosis DNA quantification were examined by using DNA isolated from sputum specimens serially collected during the course of chemotherapy. A competitive PCR assay was compared to an automated system of real-time quantification with the ABI Prism 7700 Sequence Detection System (TaqMan). The ABI 7700 system uses standard PCR in conjunction with a fluorogenic probe in which the intensity of fluorescence is proportional to the amount of target DNA present. The results showed that both PCR systems are reproducible and accurate. The amounts of M. tuberculosis DNA quantified in sputum corresponded well with the numbers of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) counted by microscopy. Before initiation of antituberculosis therapy, measures of AFB, M. tuberculosis DNA, and cultivable bacilli were similar, suggesting that quantification of DNA is a good method for measuring the initial bacillary load. However, the rate of disappearance of both AFB and M. tuberculosis DNA did not correlate with the decline in cultivable bacilli in the specimen; therefore, these tests are not appropriate for monitoring treatment efficacy. PMID:9650945

  4. Hands-on Activities Designed to Familiarize Users with Data from ABI on GOES-R and AHI on Himawari-8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindstrom, S. S.; Schmit, T.; Gerth, J.; Gunshor, M. M.; Mooney, M. E.; Whittaker, T. M.

    2016-12-01

    Recent and ongoing launches of next-generation geostationary satellites offer a challenge to familiarize National Weather Service (and other) forecasters with the new capabilities of different spectral channels sensed by the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) on GOES-R and the Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) on Himawari-8. Hands on HTML5-based applets developed at the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies allow for quick comparisons of reflectance in the visible (0.4 to 0.7 um) and near-infrared channels (0.86 to 2.2 um) and brightness temperatures in the infrared (3.9 to 13.3 um). The web apps to explore the different channels on ABI and AHI are at http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/webapps/bandapp/; those that offer guidance on how to produce Red/Green/Blue composites are at http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/webapps/satrgb/overview.html. This talk will briefly discuss highlights from both websites, and suggest ways the applications can be used to educate forecasters and the general public.

  5. A randomized clinical trial study on the effectiveness of a tele-analogy-based problem-solving programme for people with acquired brain injury (ABI).

    PubMed

    Man, David W K; Soong, W Y L; Tam, S F; Hui-Chan, Christina W Y

    2006-01-01

    The present study reports the results of 103 persons with acquired brain injury who were randomly assigned to one of three 20-session analogy problem-solving skill training groups, namely: online training (through computer video conferencing with interactive software); computer-assisted training (through interactive patient-directed software); therapist administered training (face-to-face therapist guided training activities); and a "no-treatment" control group. Pre- and post-test quasi-experimental design. Individuals' problem-solving skills and self-efficacy in all four groups were assessed over a four-week period. Overall, the training methods were found to be effective in improving problem solving skills regardless of the modes of delivery (except in the case of the control group). The continuous "human touch" characteristics of the therapist-administered group showed significant better improvements in self-efficacy in problem-solving. The statistically significantly improvement in problem solving skills in the online-group suggests that this approach could effectively improve cognitive functions of person with ABI and yield training outcomes comparable to other modes of delivery such as the face-to-face training. The conceptualization and applicability of tele-cognitive rehabilitation, its implications for persons with ABI, and future studies in this research area are also discussed.

  6. Constitutive Equations and ANN Approach to Predict the Flow Stress of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Based on ABI Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fuzeng; Zhao, Jun; Zhu, Ningbo

    2016-11-01

    The flow behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy was studied by automated ball indentation (ABI) tests in a wide range of temperatures (293, 493, 693, and 873 K) and strain rates (10-6, 10-5, and 10-4 s-1). Based on the experimental true stress-plastic strain data derived from the ABI tests, the Johnson-Cook (JC), Khan-Huang-Liang (KHL) and modified Zerilli-Armstrong (ZA) constitutive models, as well as artificial neural network (ANN) methods, were employed to predict the flow behavior of Ti-6Al-4V. A comparative study was made on the reliability of the four models, and their predictability was evaluated in terms of correlation coefficient ( R) and mean absolute percentage error. It is found that the flow stresses of Ti-6Al-4V alloy are more sensitive to temperature than strain rate under current experimental conditions. The predicted flow stresses obtained from JC model and KHL model show much better agreement with the experimental results than modified ZA model. Moreover, the ANN model is much more efficient and shows a higher accuracy in predicting the flow behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy than the constitutive equations.

  7. Terpenoid-based defenses in conifers: cDNA cloning, characterization, and functional expression of wound-inducible (E)-α-bisabolene synthase from grand fir (Abies grandis)

    PubMed Central

    Bohlmann, Jörg; Crock, John; Jetter, Reinhard; Croteau, Rodney

    1998-01-01

    (E)-α-Bisabolene synthase is one of two wound-inducible sesquiterpene synthases of grand fir (Abies grandis), and the olefin product of this cyclization reaction is considered to be the precursor in Abies species of todomatuic acid, juvabione, and related insect juvenile hormone mimics. A cDNA encoding (E)-α-bisabolene synthase was isolated from a wound-induced grand fir stem library by a PCR-based strategy and was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli and shown to produce (E)-α-bisabolene as the sole product from farnesyl diphosphate. The expressed synthase has a deduced size of 93.8 kDa and a pI of 5.03, exhibits other properties typical of sesquiterpene synthases, and resembles in sequence other terpenoid synthases with the exception of a large amino-terminal insertion corresponding to Pro81–Val296. Biosynthetically prepared (E)-α-[3H]bisabolene was converted to todomatuic acid in induced grand fir cells, and the time course of appearance of bisabolene synthase mRNA was shown by Northern hybridization to lag behind that of mRNAs responsible for production of induced oleoresin monoterpenes. These results suggest that induced (E)-α-bisabolene biosynthesis constitutes part of a defense response targeted to insect herbivores, and possibly fungal pathogens, that is distinct from induced oleoresin monoterpene production. PMID:9618485

  8. EXTRA SPINDLE POLES (Separase) controls anisotropic cell expansion in Norway spruce (Picea abies) embryos independently of its role in anaphase progression.

    PubMed

    Moschou, Panagiotis N; Savenkov, Eugene I; Minina, Elena A; Fukada, Kazutake; Reza, Salim Hossain; Gutierrez-Beltran, Emilio; Sanchez-Vera, Victoria; Suarez, Maria F; Hussey, Patrick J; Smertenko, Andrei P; Bozhkov, Peter V

    2016-10-01

    The caspase-related protease separase (EXTRA SPINDLE POLES, ESP) plays a major role in chromatid disjunction and cell expansion in Arabidopsis thaliana. Whether the expansion phenotypes are linked to defects in cell division in Arabidopsis ESP mutants remains elusive. Here we present the identification, cloning and characterization of the gymnosperm Norway spruce (Picea abies, Pa) ESP. We used the P. abies somatic embryo system and a combination of reverse genetics and microscopy to explore the roles of Pa ESP during embryogenesis. Pa ESP was expressed in the proliferating embryonal mass, while it was absent in the suspensor cells. Pa ESP associated with kinetochore microtubules in metaphase and then with anaphase spindle midzone. During cytokinesis, it localized on the phragmoplast microtubules and on the cell plate. Pa ESP deficiency perturbed anisotropic expansion and reduced mitotic divisions in cotyledonary embryos. Furthermore, whilst Pa ESP can rescue the chromatid nondisjunction phenotype of Arabidopsis ESP mutants, it cannot rescue anisotropic cell expansion. Our data demonstrate that the roles of ESP in daughter chromatid separation and cell expansion are conserved between gymnosperms and angiosperms. However, the mechanisms of ESP-mediated regulation of cell expansion seem to be lineage-specific. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Needle life span, photosynthetic rate and nutrient concentration of Picea glehnii, P. jezoensis and P. abies planted on serpentine soil in northern Japan.

    PubMed

    Kayama, Masazumi; Sasa, Kaichiro; Koike, Takayoshi

    2002-07-01

    We investigated the adaptation of three spruce species (Picea glehnii Masters, P. jezoensis Carr. and P. abies Karst.) to growth in northern Japan on serpentine soils (characterized by high concentrations of heavy metals and Mg, a low Ca/Mg ratio and low fertility) and fertile brown forest soils. Among species, seedling survival on serpentine soil was highest in P. glehnii. Shoot growth of P. glehnii was similar whether grown on serpentine or brown forest soil, whereas shoot growth of the other species was significantly less on serpentine soil than on brown forest soil. On serpentine soil, needle life span of P. glehnii was at least 3 years longer than that of the other two species. Needle area per shoot of P. glehnii was significantly higher on serpentine soil than on brown forest soil up to a shoot age of 8 years. In all three species, light-saturated photosynthetic rate (Pmax) decreased with needle age independently of soil type. However, on serpentine soil, Pmax in P. glehnii was higher, particularly in older needles, than in the other species. Furthermore, on serpentine soil, needle concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus were higher in P. glehnii than in the other species. We conclude that P. glehnii is better adapted to serpentine soil than P. jezoensis and P. abies at least in part because of its greater needle life span and higher needle nutrient concentrations.

  10. Effectiveness of a process-oriented patient-tailored outpatient neuropsychological rehabilitation programme for patients in the chronic phase after ABI.

    PubMed

    Brands, I M H; Bouwens, S F M; Wolters Gregório, G; Stapert, S Z; van Heugten, C M

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this prospective cohort study was to examine the effectiveness of an outpatient neuropsychological rehabilitation programme for patients with acquired brain injury (ABI) and their relatives. The participants were 26 ABI patients with a mean age of 44.7 (SD 11.7) years and 24 caregivers. Mean time since injury was 3.0 (SD 3.6) years. The intervention consisted of a patient-tailored process-oriented neuropsychological rehabilitation programme focusing on facilitation of the adaptation process. Repeated measurements were taken prior to treatment (T0), directly after treatment (T1) and 6 months later (T2). Primary outcome measures were cognitive failures (CFQ), quality of life (SA-SIP30), and individualised goals (GAS). Patients improved significantly on individualised goals between T0 and T1 (p < .01). This effect retained at T2. There were no significant differences on CFQ and SA-SIP30. The programme had a positive effect on attainment of the patient's individual goals. This was not associated with a higher level of participation or a better quality of life.

  11. Hémorragie méningée et hématome parenchymateux révélant une thrombose veineuse cérébrale

    PubMed Central

    Joulali, Toufik; Derkaoui, Ali; Besri, Sophia; Malki, Mohammed; Shimi, Abdelkarim; Khatouf, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    La thrombophlébite cérébrale (TVC) est une cause non négligeable des accidents vasculaires cérébraux avec une grande diversité de leur présentation Clinique source d'errance et de retard thérapeutique. Nous rapportons l'observation d'une patiente présentant une TVC révélée par une hémorragie méningée. Le diagnostic a été suspecté à l'artériographie réalisée dans le cadre du bilan étiologique et thérapeutique de l'hémorragie méningée et confirmé par la suite sur l'angio-scanner. La particularité de cette observation est la difficulté aussi bien diagnostique de la TVC et sa révélation par une hémorragie méningée, que thérapeutique concernant l'utilisation des anticoagulants. PMID:26161216

  12. Age-related effects on leaf area/sapwood area relationships, canopy transpiration and carbon gain of Norway spruce stands (Picea abies) in the Fichtelgebirge, Germany.

    PubMed

    Köstner, B; Falge, E; Tenhunen, J D

    2002-06-01

    Stand age is an important structural determinant of canopy transpiration (E(c)) and carbon gain. Another more functional parameter of forest structure is the leaf area/sapwood area relationship, A(L)/A(S), which changes with site conditions and has been used to estimate leaf area index of forest canopies. The interpretation of age-related changes in A(L)/A(S) and the question of how A(L)/A(S) is related to forest functions are of current interest because they may help to explain forest canopy fluxes and growth. We conducted studies in mature stands of Picea abies (L.) Karst. varying in age from 40 to 140 years, in tree density from 1680 to 320 trees ha(-1), and in tree height from 15 to 30 m. Structural parameters were measured by biomass harvests of individual trees and stand biometry. We estimated E(c) from scaled-up xylem sap flux of trees, and canopy-level fluxes were predicted by a three-dimensional microclimate and gas exchange model (STANDFLUX). In contrast to pine species, A(L)/A(S) of P. abies increased with stand age from 0.26 to 0.48 m(2) cm(-2). Agreement between E(c) derived from scaled-up sap flux and modeled canopy transpiration was obtained with the same parameterization of needle physiology independent of stand age. Reduced light interception per leaf area and, as a consequence, reductions in net canopy photosynthesis (A(c)), canopy conductance (g(c)) and E(c) were predicted by the model in the older stands. Seasonal water-use efficiency (WUE = A(c)/E(c)), derived from scaled-up sap flux and stem growth as well as from model simulation, declined with increasing A(L)/A(S) and stand age. Based on the different behavior of age-related A(L)/A(S) in Norway spruce stands compared with other tree species, we conclude that WUE rather than A(L)/A(S) could represent a common age-related property of all species. We also conclude that, in addition to hydraulic limitations reducing carbon gain in old stands, a functional change in A(L)/A(S) that is related to

  13. Cadmium Accumulation in Tissues of Sarotherodon melanotheron (Rüppel, 1852) from the Aby Lagoon System in Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Cyrille, Yapi Dope Armel; Victor, Kouame; Sanogo, Tidou Abiba; Boukary, Sawadogo; Joseph, Wethe

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the concentrations of cadmium in the gills, livers and muscles of a commercially important tilapia fish (Sarotherodon melanotheron) from Aby Lagoon in Adiaké, Côte d’Ivoire, between January and December, 2010. The organisms were grouped into two composite samples (juvenile and adult) of five individuals. Levels of cadmium were determined in tissues using Perkin-Elmer (AAnalyst 200) Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) after a digestion method. Fish muscle appeared to have a significantly higher tendency to accumulate cadmium (1.19–5.18 µg/g dw) while gills and livers had minimum concentrations (0.07–1.32 and 0.12–1.25 µg/g dw). This study has revealed that the concentrations of Cd in Sarotherodon melanotheron muscle tissue were above the maximum acceptable concentrations for human consumption, thus precautions need to be taken in order to prevent future contamination. PMID:22690166

  14. Cadmium accumulation in tissues of Sarotherodon melanotheron (Rüppel, 1852) from the Aby Lagoon system in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Cyrille, Yapi Dope Armel; Victor, Kouame; Sanogo, Tidou Abiba; Boukary, Sawadogo; Joseph, Wethe

    2012-03-01

    This study assessed the concentrations of cadmium in the gills, livers and muscles of a commercially important tilapia fish (Sarotherodon melanotheron) from Aby Lagoon in Adiaké, Côte d'Ivoire, between January and December, 2010. The organisms were grouped into two composite samples (juvenile and adult) of five individuals. Levels of cadmium were determined in tissues using Perkin-Elmer (AAnalyst 200) Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) after a digestion method. Fish muscle appeared to have a significantly higher tendency to accumulate cadmium (1.19-5.18 µg/g dw) while gills and livers had minimum concentrations (0.07-1.32 and 0.12-1.25 µg/g dw). This study has revealed that the concentrations of Cd in Sarotherodon melanotheron muscle tissue were above the maximum acceptable concentrations for human consumption, thus precautions need to be taken in order to prevent future contamination.

  15. Holophyllane A: A Triterpenoid Possessing an Unprecedented B-nor-3,4-seco-17,14-friedo-lanostane Architecture from Abies holophylla

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chung Sub; Oh, Joonseok; Subedi, Lalita; Kim, Sun Yeou; Choi, Sang Un; Lee, Kang Ro

    2017-01-01

    A novel triterpenoid, holophyllane A (1), featuring a B-nor-3,4-seco-17,14-friedo-lanostane, along with its putative precursor, compound 2 were isolated from the methanol extract of the trunks of Abies holophylla. The 2D structure and relative configuration of 1 were initially determined via analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data and the assignment was confirmed by quantum mechanics-based NMR chemical shift calculations. The absolute configuration was established by comparison of the experimental and simulated ECD data generated at different theory levels. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited moderate to weak cytotoxicity and significant inhibitory activity against nitric oxide (NO) production. PMID:28252664

  16. Combined analysis by GC (RI), GC-MS and 13C NMR of the supercritical fluid extract of Abies alba twigs.

    PubMed

    Duquesnoy, Emilie; Marongiu, Bruno; Castola, Vincent; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Casanova, Joseph

    2010-12-01

    Two samples (leaves and twigs) of Abies alba Miller from Corsica were extracted using supercritical CO2 and their chemical compositions were compared with those of the essential oils obtained from the same batch of plant material. In total 45 components were identified using combined analysis by GC (RI), GC-MS and 13C NMR. It was observed that the contents of monoterpenes (mainly represented by limonene, alpha-pinene and camphene) were significantly lower in the supercritical fluid extract (SFE) than in the essential oil (EO). Conversely, the proportions of sesquiterpenes were much higher in CO2 extracts than in essential oils (around 30% vs 4%). Cis-abienol, a diterpene alcohol, was identified only in SFE, and the proportions of this constituent (7.5% and 17.3%) were determined using quantitative 13C NMR since it was under estimated using the standard conditions of GC.

  17. Holophyllane A: A Triterpenoid Possessing an Unprecedented B-nor-3,4-seco-17,14-friedo-lanostane Architecture from Abies holophylla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chung Sub; Oh, Joonseok; Subedi, Lalita; Kim, Sun Yeou; Choi, Sang Un; Lee, Kang Ro

    2017-03-01

    A novel triterpenoid, holophyllane A (1), featuring a B-nor-3,4-seco-17,14-friedo-lanostane, along with its putative precursor, compound 2 were isolated from the methanol extract of the trunks of Abies holophylla. The 2D structure and relative configuration of 1 were initially determined via analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data and the assignment was confirmed by quantum mechanics-based NMR chemical shift calculations. The absolute configuration was established by comparison of the experimental and simulated ECD data generated at different theory levels. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited moderate to weak cytotoxicity and significant inhibitory activity against nitric oxide (NO) production.

  18. PSII photochemistry in vegetative buds and needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) probed by OJIP chlorophyll a fluorescence measurement.

    PubMed

    Katanić, Zorana; Atić, Lejla; Ferhatović, Dž; Cesar, Vera; Lepeduš, H

    2012-06-01

    Vegetative buds represent developmental stage of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) needles where chloroplast biogenesis and photosynthetic activity begin. We used the analyses of polyphasic chlorophyll a fluorescence rise (OJIP) to compare photosystem II (PSII) functioning in vegetative buds and fully photosynthetically active mature current-year needles. Considerably decreased performance index (PIABS) in vegetative buds compared to needles pointed to their low photosynthetic efficiency. Maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) in buds was slightly decreased but above limited value for functionality indicating that primary photochemistry of PSII is not holdback of vegetative buds photosynthetic activity. The most significant difference observed between investigated developmental stages was accumulation of reduced primary quinine acceptor of PSII (QA-) in vegetative buds, as a result of its limited re-oxidation by passing electrons to secondary quinone acceptor, QB. We suggest that reduced electron transfer from QA- to QB could be the major limiting factor of photosynthesis in vegetative buds.

  19. The mycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria induces chitinase activity in roots and in suspension-cultured cells of its host Picea abies.

    PubMed

    Sauter, M; Hager, A

    1989-08-01

    A cell-wall fraction of the mycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria increased the chitinase activity in suspension-cultured cells of spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) which is a frequent host of Amanita muscaria in nature. Chitinase activity was also increased in roots of spruce trees upon incubation with the fungal elicitor. Non-induced levels of chitinase activity in spruce were higher in suspension cells than in roots whereas the elicitorinduced increase of chitinase activity was higher in roots. Treatment of cells with hormones (auxins and cytokinin) resulted in a severalfold depression of enzyme activity. However, the chitinase activity of hormone-treated as well as hormone-free cells showed an elicitor-induced increase. Suspension cells of spruce secreted a large amount of enzyme into the medium. It is postulated that chitinases released from the host cells in an ectomycorrhizal system partly degrade the fungal cell walls, thus possibly facilitating the exchange of metabolites between the symbionts.

  20. Population differentiation in tree-ring growth response of white fir (Abies concolor) to climate: Implications for predicting forest responses to climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Deborah Bowne

    1993-01-01

    Forest succession models and correlative models have predicted 200--650 kilometer shifts in the geographic range of temperate forests and forest species as one response to global climate change. Few studies have investigated whether population differences may effect the response of forest species to climate change. This study examines differences in tree-ring growth, and in the phenotypic plasticity of tree-ring growth in 16-year old white fir, Abies concolor, from ten populations grown in four common gardens in the Sierra Nevada of California. For each population, tree-ring growth was modelled as a function of precipitation and degree-day sums. Tree-ring growth under three scenarios of doubled CO2 climates was estimated.

  1. Soil acidity reconstruction based on tree ring information of a dominant species Abies fabri in the subalpine forest ecosystems in southwest China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Wu, Fei-Hua; Liu, Ting-Wu; Chen, Juan; Li, Zhen-Ji; Pei, Zhen-Ming; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2010-10-01

    To assess the suitability of dendrochemistry as an indicator of soil acidification, soil chemistry and tree ring information of Abies fabri were measured at two distinct sites (severe acid deposition site-Emei Mountain and clean site-Gongga Mountain) of the subalpine forest ecosystems of western Sichuan, southwest China. The actual soil acidity (pH) was significantly correlated with some of the recent xylem cation (Ca, Mg, Mn, Al, Sr and Ba) concentrations and their molar ratios. Xylem Ca/Mg and Ca/Mn of A. fabri were ultimately selected to reconstruct the historical changes of soil pH in Emei Mountain and Gongga Mountain, respectively. The validity of those rebuild was also verified to a certain extent. We conclude that xylem cation molar ratios of A. fabri were superior to the single cation concentrations in soil acidity rebuild at the study sites due to normalizing for concentration fluctuations.

  2. How does climate influence xylem morphogenesis over the growing season? Insights from long-term intra-ring anatomy in Picea abies.

    PubMed

    Castagneri, Daniele; Fonti, Patrick; von Arx, Georg; Carrer, Marco

    2017-04-01

    During the growing season, the cambium of conifer trees produces successive rows of xylem cells, the tracheids, that sequentially pass through the phases of enlargement and secondary wall thickening before dying and becoming functional. Climate variability can strongly influence the kinetics of morphogenetic processes, eventually affecting tracheid shape and size. This study investigates xylem anatomical structure in the stem of Picea abies to retrospectively infer how, in the long term, climate affects the processes of cell enlargement and wall thickening. Tracheid anatomical traits related to the phases of enlargement (diameter) and wall thickening (wall thickness) were innovatively inspected at the intra-ring level on 87-year-long tree-ring series in Picea abies trees along a 900 m elevation gradient in the Italian Alps. Anatomical traits in ten successive tree-ring sectors were related to daily temperature and precipitation data using running correlations. Close to the altitudinal tree limit, low early-summer temperature negatively affected cell enlargement. At lower elevation, water availability in early summer was positively related to cell diameter. The timing of these relationships shifted forward by about 20 (high elevation) to 40 (low elevation) d from the first to the last tracheids in the ring. Cell wall thickening wa