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Sample records for ninth asia pacific

  1. OCLC in Asia Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Min-min

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) and the changing Asia Pacific library scene under the broad headings of the three phases of technology innovation. Highlights include WorldCat and the OCLC shared cataloging system; resource sharing and interlibrary loan; enriching OCLC online catalog with Asian collections; and future outlooks.…

  2. Asia-Pacific energy database

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    Statistical data is presented in graphic and tabular form on the petroleum market in Asia and Pacific nations. Seven major categories are reported: (1) primary energy production and consumption; (2) historical petroleum product demand and forecasts; (3) crude oil production and exports; (4) import dependence; (5) crude and product pricing assumptions; (6) market share of refined products by suppliers in selected countries; and (7) refining margins. Petroleum demand and forecasts and crude oil production and exports are reported by country. Historical data are presented from 1970 through 1996, and forecasts are made through 2010.

  3. Education Indicators for East Asia and Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acedo, Clementina; Uemura, Mitsue

    This set of education indicators for the World Bank's East Asia and Pacific Region is designed to provide key policy-oriented data for World Bank staff and clients. The framework is divided into six main chapters: (1) the demographic, social and economic context of education; (2) financial and human resources invested in education; (3) access to…

  4. Assistance Focus: Asia/Pacific Region (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center Ask an Expert service connects governments seeking policy information and advice with one of more than 30 global policy experts who can provide reliable and unbiased quick-response advice and information. The service is available at no cost to government agency representatives from any country and the technical institutes assisting them. This publication presents summaries of assistance provided to governments in the Asia/Pacific region, including the benefits of that assistance.

  5. Leptospirosis in the Asia Pacific region

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonotic infection that has been recognized for decades, but the problem of the disease has not been fully addressed, particularly in resource-poor, developing countries, where the major burden of the disease occurs. This paper presents an overview of the current situation of leptospirosis in the region. It describes the current trends in the epidemiology of leptospirosis, the existing surveillance systems, and presents the existing prevention and control programs in the Asia Pacific region. Methods Data on leptospirosis in each member country were sought from official national organizations, international public health organizations, online articles and the scientific literature. Papers were reviewed and relevant data were extracted. Results Leptospirosis is highly prevalent in the Asia Pacific region. Infections in developed countries arise mainly from occupational exposure, travel to endemic areas, recreational activities, or importation of domestic and wild animals, whereas outbreaks in developing countries are most frequently related to normal daily activities, over-crowding, poor sanitation and climatic conditions. Conclusion In the Asia Pacific region, predominantly in developing countries, leptospirosis is largely a water-borne disease. Unless interventions to minimize exposure are aggressively implemented, the current global climate change will further aggravate the extent of the disease problem. Although trends indicate successful control of leptospirosis in some areas, there is no clear evidence that the disease has decreased in the last decade. The efficiency of surveillance systems and data collection varies significantly among the countries and areas within the region, leading to incomplete information in some instances. Thus, an accurate reflection of the true burden of the disease remains unknown. PMID:19732423

  6. Mineral facilities of Asia and the Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric; Soto-Viruet, Yadira

    2010-01-01

    This map displays over 1,500 records of mineral facilities throughout the continent of Asia and the countries of the Pacific Ocean. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the 2008 U.S. Geological Survey Minerals Yearbook (Asia and the Pacific volume), (2) minerals statistics and information from the U.S. Geological Survey Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/), and (3) data collected by U.S. Geological Survey minerals information country specialists. Other sources include statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Due to the sensitivity of some energy commodity data, the quality of these data should be evaluated on a country-by-country basis. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

  7. Education Standards in the Asia-Pacific Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Lenore Yaffee

    This report presents an overview of some of the similarities and differences in education standards in the Asia-Pacific region that are revealed in survey responses of members of APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation). All 14 member states of APEC submitted responses to the survey; the members are: Australia, Brunei, Darussalam, Canada, People's…

  8. Health Care for the International Student: Asia and the Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naughton, June C., Ed.; And Others

    This handbook consists of 24 papers addressing various aspects on health care and health care systems and services for foreign students from the Asia Pacific Region. The papers are: "Providing Health Care for International Students" (Donald F. B. Char); "Major Health Care Systems in Asia and the Pacific: Mainland China, Taiwan, Hong…

  9. Shaping Education Policy Research in an Asia-Pacific Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Dong Wook; Lee, Ho Jun; Lee, Seung Ho; Wi, Eunjoo

    2014-01-01

    Globalization increasingly calls for comparing educational policies across countries. In this study, we assemble and analyze academic journal publications of the past decade in order to shape education policy research within an Asia-Pacific context. After examining Asia-Pacific research publication data from the Web of Science, we find a few…

  10. Emerging strengths in Asia Pacific bioinformatics

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, Shoba; Hsu, Wen-Lian; Yang, Ueng-Cheng; Tan, Tin Wee

    2008-01-01

    The 2008 annual conference of the Asia Pacific Bioinformatics Network (APBioNet), Asia's oldest bioinformatics organisation set up in 1998, was organized as the 7th International Conference on Bioinformatics (InCoB), jointly with the Bioinformatics and Systems Biology in Taiwan (BIT 2008) Conference, Oct. 20–23, 2008 at Taipei, Taiwan. Besides bringing together scientists from the field of bioinformatics in this region, InCoB is actively involving researchers from the area of systems biology, to facilitate greater synergy between these two groups. Marking the 10th Anniversary of APBioNet, this InCoB 2008 meeting followed on from a series of successful annual events in Bangkok (Thailand), Penang (Malaysia), Auckland (New Zealand), Busan (South Korea), New Delhi (India) and Hong Kong. Additionally, tutorials and the Workshop on Education in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology (WEBCB) immediately prior to the 20th Federation of Asian and Oceanian Biochemists and Molecular Biologists (FAOBMB) Taipei Conference provided ample opportunity for inducting mainstream biochemists and molecular biologists from the region into a greater level of awareness of the importance of bioinformatics in their craft. In this editorial, we provide a brief overview of the peer-reviewed manuscripts accepted for publication herein, grouped into thematic areas. As the regional research expertise in bioinformatics matures, the papers fall into thematic areas, illustrating the specific contributions made by APBioNet to global bioinformatics efforts. PMID:19091008

  11. EPA Efforts in the Asia-Pacific Region

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s engagement in Asia and the Pacific Islands helps safeguard our domestic environment; protect the health of our citizens; address global environmental issues; and improve the safety of products and food.

  12. UNESCO in Asia and the Pacific: 40 Years On.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Bruce, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Articles focusing on UNESCO's role in educational development in Asian and Pacific countries are gathered in this issue commemorating UNESCO's 40th anniversary and the 25th anniversary of the Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific. Following an overview of educational needs and achievements, current activities of four UNESCO offices…

  13. Endemic fungal infections in the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, A; Slavin, M A

    2011-05-01

    Endemic mycoses are important fungal infections in their respective habitats. In the Asia-Pacific region, an accurate epidemiological picture of endemic mycoses is elusive; few epidemiological surveys have been performed, and limited laboratory facilities and experience with fungal infections have further hampered recognition of infection. However, pockets of endemicity do indeed exist, and endemic fungal infections can have a significant impact on public health. This article reviews the most common endemic mycoses in the Asia-Pacific region: histoplasmosis, penicilliosis, and sporotrichosis. Blastomycosis, which has been infrequently reported within the region, is also briefly discussed. Certain areas of the Asia-Pacific region are endemic for histoplasmosis; however, the ecologic niche for this infection remains unclear. Penicilliosis is restricted to Southeast and Eastern Asia, whereas sporotrichosis is encountered in tropical areas of the Asia-Pacific region linked to environmental reservoirs distinct from those seen in the Western world. Before the advent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), histoplasmosis and penicilliosis were only occasionally reported; however, the incidence of both mycoses has increased with the rise in the incidence of AIDS. Comprehensive studies are needed to fully assess the areas of endemicity and the impact of endemic mycoses in the Asia-Pacific region.

  14. Advancing Research on Comparative and International Education in Asia: Contribution of the "Asia Pacific Education Review"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gok, Enes; Weidman, John C.

    2015-01-01

    This article explored the contribution of Asia Pacific Education Review (APER) to expanding the scope of research on comparative and international education in Asia. We developed a rubric based on extensive studies (Rust et al. in "Comp Educ Rev," 43(1):86-109, 1999; Foster et al. in "Int J Educ Dev" 32:711-732, 2012) of…

  15. Food irradiation: regulatory aspects in the Asia and Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luckman, Gary James

    2002-03-01

    Irradiation treatment of food is becoming an increasingly accepted processing option for countries in the Asia Pacific region wishing to meet growing sanitary and phytosanitary requirements in international trade. There remain however, large differences between the regulatory requirements in the countries in this region. This paper gives an outline on existing food irradiation regulations in the separate countries of the Asia Pacific region. New developments such as the recent decision by the Australia New Zealand Food Authority to start assessing applications for food irradiation treatment are discussed. Australia's intention to regulate the export of food treated by irradiation will also be outlined. Details of the decision to harmonise food irradiation regulations by 13 countries in the Asia Pacific region based on conformance with Codex requirements is outlined. The likelihood of other Asia Pacific countries enacting similar harmonisation of their regulations will be examined. Future development such as certification of irradiation as a sanitary treatment for food are discussed. The expected result of these initiatives is a likely increase in irradiated foods traded within the Asia Pacific region.

  16. Combination therapy in hypertension: an Asia-Pacific consensus viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Abdul Rahman, Abdul Rashid; Reyes, Eugenio B; Sritara, Piyamitr; Pancholia, Arvind; Van Phuoc, Dang; Tomlinson, Brian

    2015-05-01

    Hypertension incurs a significant healthcare burden in Asia-Pacific countries, which have suboptimal rates of blood pressure (BP) treatment and control. A consensus meeting of hypertension experts from the Asia-Pacific region convened in Hanoi, Vietnam, in April 2013. The principal objectives were to discuss the growing problem of hypertension in the Asia-Pacific region, and to develop consensus recommendations to promote standards of care across the region. A particular focus was recommendations for combination therapy, since it is known that most patients with hypertension will require two or more antihypertensive drugs to achieve BP control, and also that combinations of drugs with complementary mechanisms of action achieve BP targets more effectively than monotherapy. The expert panel reviewed guidelines for hypertension management from the USA and Europe, as well as individual Asia-Pacific countries, and devised a treatment matrix/guide, in which they propose the preferred combination therapy regimens for patients with hypertension, both with and without compelling indications. This report summarizes key recommendations from the group, including recommended antihypertensive combinations for specific patient populations. These strategies generally entail initiating therapy with free drug combinations, starting with the lowest available dosage, followed by treatment with single-pill combinations once the BP target has been achieved. A single reference for the whole Asia-Pacific region may contribute to increased consistency of treatment and greater proportions of patients achieving BP control, and hence reducing hypertension-related morbidity and mortality.

  17. Satellite broadcasting and communications in the Asia-Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonzon, S.

    1985-12-01

    Against the general context of worldwide developments in satellite communications and broadcasting, and the recent ORB'85 Conference, this paper assesses the future for satellite communication and broadcasting in the Asia-Pacific region. While most attention focusses on satellite developments for the industrialized world, the Asia-Pacific region is expected to play an increasingly significant role, and the needs of its population will be satisfied by development of satellite communications and broadcasting systems. Particular emphasis is placed in this paper on the broadcasting aspects, and their relationship to cultural and economic development.

  18. Co-operation in Environmental Education at the Tertiary Level in the Asia-Pacific Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Masahisa; Bhandari, Bishnu; Abe, Osamu

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes the co-operation in environmental education at the tertiary level with regard to sub-regions, which include North-East Asia, South-East Asia, South Asia, and the South Pacific. (Contains 17 references.) (YDS)

  19. New Partnerships and Education Policy in Asia and the Pacific

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassity, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Forming more effective partnerships with national governments in the Asia-Pacific region has been an important policy focus for the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) since 2006. AusAID is increasingly engaging in sector-wide approaches and working through partner government systems. This paper explores how new partnerships…

  20. Asia-Pacific Partnership for Human Development through TVET.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basu, C. K.

    Despite their great geographic, economic, and demographic diversity, Asia-Pacific countries share many common challenges and pose many common issues that are fundamental to improving the quality and relevance of technical-vocational education and training (TVET) as a means of human resource development (HRD). Because of their great need for…

  1. Population Education in Asia and the Pacific Newsletter, Number 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    This UNESCO newsletter contains six sections concerned with various aspects of population education. Section 1 deals with workshops for monitoring and evaluating population education programs. Section 2 evaluates the programs of six Asia-Pacific countries (China, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, India, Pakistan, Philippines, and Thailand).…

  2. Education in Asia and the Pacific. Retrospect: Prospect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Raja Roy

    Offered as a tribute to the growing and fruitful spirit of regional cooperation in education in Asia and the Pacific, this volume provides a retrospective and prospective view of cooperative efforts and conditions in the 28 countries of the region. Part One outlines landmark efforts accomplished through a series of UNESCO regional conferences…

  3. The 2015 CASE Asia-Pacific Alumni Relations Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroll, Judith A.; Bakerman, Philip

    2015-01-01

    The Council for Advancement and Support of Education (CASE) launched the volunteer-led Asia-Pacific Alumni Relations Survey in 2014 to provide a resource for alumni relations professionals to benchmark performance internally and against fellow institutions of higher education. That was the first survey CASE has done on alumni relations programmes…

  4. The Asia Pacific Rebalance: Tipping the Scale with Landpower

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    partners from the more important discussion of an overall military strategy for the Asia-Pacific. As Michael O ” Hanlon and James Steinberg noted, 4...13 Ibid. 14 Michael O ” Hanlon and James Steinberg, “How Air-Sea Battle Fits in U.S. Planning,” Washington Post, August 24, 2012, http

  5. The Asia Pacific LNG trade: Status and technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Hovdestad, W.R.

    1995-10-01

    The Asia Pacific Region is experiencing a period of sustained economic expansion. Economic growth has led to an increasing demand for energy that has spurred a rapid expansion of baseload liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities in this region. This is illustrated by the fact that seven of the ten baseload facilities in existence provide LNG for markets in the Asia Pacific region. With the three exceptions having been initially commissioned in 1972 and earlier, it is fair to observed that most advances in LNG technology have been developed and applied for this market. The paper presents the current status and identified future trends for the Asia Pacific LNG trade. Technology development in terms of application to onstream production, processing and transportation facilities, including LNG tankers, is presented. The potential of future advances to applied technology and operational practices to improve the cost-effectiveness of new and existing facilities is discussed. Current design data and methods as actually used are examined in terms of identifying where fundamental research and basic physical data are insufficient for optimization purposes. These findings are then summarized and presented in terms of the likely evolution of future and existing LNG projects in the Asia Pacific region.

  6. Inventory of Educational Innovations in Asia and the Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asian Centre of Educational Innovation for Development, Bangkok (Thailand).

    Fourteen innovative educational programs implemented by countries in Asia and the Pacific region are described to aid other educators engaged in planning and implementing innovative programs. The programs are: faculty-oriented breakfast programme (Australia); farm school on the air (India); multimedia, inservice teacher training for primary…

  7. Asia and the Pacific in 2020: Scenarios for Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Colin

    2009-01-01

    By 2020 our world will have changed and with it the shape and role of education and of educational research. One cannot predict the future, but in this paper three possible scenarios are outlined reflecting alternative approaches of government to the economic, political, social and environmental challenges facing the Asia Pacific region. For each…

  8. The funding landscape for HIV in Asia and the Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Robyn M; Lief, Eric; Donald, Braedon; Wilson, David; Wilson, David P

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite recent and robust economic growth across the Asia-Pacific region, the majority of low- and middle-income countries in the region remain dependent on some donor support for HIV programmes. We describe the availability of bilateral and multilateral official development assistance (ODA) for HIV programmes in the region. Methods The donor countries considered in this analysis are Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. To estimate bilateral and multilateral ODA financing for HIV programmes in the Asia-Pacific region between 2004 and 2013, we obtained funding data from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Creditor Reporting System database. Where possible, we checked these amounts against the funding data available from government aid agencies. Estimates of multilateral ODA financing for HIV/AIDS were based on the country allocations announcement by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (the Global Fund) for the period 2014 to 2016. Results Countries in the Asia-Pacific region receive the largest share of aid for HIV from the Global Fund. Bilateral funding for HIV in the region has been relatively stable over the last decade and is projected to remain below 10% of the worldwide response to the epidemic. Bilateral donors continue to prioritize ODA for HIV to other regions, particularly sub-Saharan Africa; Australia is an exception in prioritizing the Asia-Pacific region, but the United States is the bilateral donor providing the greatest amount of assistance in the region. Funding from the Global Fund has increased consistently since 2005, reaching a total of US$1.2 billion for the Asia-Pacific region from 2014 to 2016. Conclusions Even with Global Fund allocations, countries in the Asia-Pacific region will not have enough resources to meet their epidemiological targets. Prevention funding is particularly vulnerable and requires greater

  9. Adult Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulletin of the Unesco Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific, 1982

    1982-01-01

    This issue reproduces articles adapted from country reports presented to a Regional Seminar on Adult Education and Development in Asia and Oceania, Bangkok, November 1980. A summary of adult and nonformal education in the region forms section 1. Highlights of the country articles in section 2 include Afghanistan--national literacy campaign;…

  10. Environmental Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulletin of the Unesco Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Environmental education issues and programs in Asian and Pacific countries are examined in four sections. Section One presents a general overview of environmental education in the region. Topics discussed include environmental problems, goals and objectives for environmental education, legislation, the nature of environmental education, curriculum…

  11. Tuberculosis and mental health in the Asia-Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Paul H; Sweetland, Annika C; Fox, Greg J; Halovic, Shaun; Nguyen, Thu Anh; Marks, Guy B

    2017-01-01

    Objective This opinion piece encourages mental health researchers and clinicians to engage with mental health issues among tuberculosis patients in the Asia-Pacific region in a culturally appropriate and ethical manner. The diversity of cultural contexts and the high burden of tuberculosis throughout the Asia-Pacific presents significant challenges. Research into tuberculosis and mental illness in this region is an opportunity to develop more nuanced models of mental illness and treatment, while simultaneously contributing meaningfully to regional tuberculosis care and prevention. Conclusions We overview key issues in tuberculosis and mental illness co-morbidity, highlight ethical concerns and advocate for a regional approach to tuberculosis and mental health that is consistent with the transnational challenges presented by this airborne infectious disease. Integrating tuberculosis and mental health services will go a long way to addressing the needs of vulnerable populations and stopping the transmission of one of the world’s biggest infectious killers. PMID:27206468

  12. The Asia pacific cohort studies collaboration: a decade of achievements.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Mark; Huxley, Rachel; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Fang, Xianghua; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2012-12-01

    The Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration (APCSC) was established in the late 1990s when there was a distinct shortfall in evidence of the importance of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Asia. With few exceptions, most notably from Japan, most of the published reports on cardiovascular disease in the last century were from Western countries, and there was uncertainty how far etiological associations found in the West could be assumed to prevail in the East. Against this background, APCSC was set up as a pooling project, combining individual participant data (about 600,000 subjects) from all available leading cohort studies (36 from Asia and 8 from Australasia) in the region, to fill the knowledge gaps. In the past 10 years, APCSC has published 50 peer-reviewed publications of original epidemiological research, primarily concerned with coronary heart disease, stroke, and cancer. This work has established that Western risk factors generally act similarly in Asia and in Australasia, just as they do in other parts of the world. Consequently, strategies to reduce the prevalence of elevated blood pressure, obesity, and smoking are at least as important in Asia as elsewhere- and possibly more important when the vast size of Asia is considered. This article reviews the achievements of APCSC in the past decade, with an emphasis on coronary heart disease.

  13. Russia, America, and Security in the Asia-Pacific

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    educational experiences, and, most importantly, expanding a regional community of security influence that shares a mutual concern for a secure...Far East remains. China is becoming a much more influential actor in Asian affairs because of its growing economy and its successful bilateral and...equality, and mutual respect for the legitimate interests of all states. The fact that the vast majority of the Asia- Pacific states share this approach

  14. Progress in island health in the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Hokama, Tomiko; Binns, Colin

    2015-01-01

    The Asia-Pacific region contains many islands, perhaps up to 100 000. The provision of public health and health care to small isolated groups poses particular challenges in the 21st century. The health of island populations has improved over the past 3 decades, but maintaining and improving current levels of health is made more difficult by emigration and the difficulty of maintaining communications.

  15. Defending Australia in the Asia Pacific Century: Force 2030

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-24

    Defending Australia in the Asia Pacific Century: Force 2030 Defence White Paper 2009 and energy; population movements, environmental crises or food ...combined with booming population growth, will sharpen competition for scarce food , water and energy resources in many parts of the world, particularly in...budgets, including in critical areas such as health programs, food and fuel subsidies, or even counter-terrorism activities. 4.11 For nations

  16. Guam USA: America’s Forward Fortress in Asia Pacific

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-09

    uninhabited island for naval gunnery and aircraft target practice. The Farallon de Mendinilla Island north of Saipan and Tinian is currently being used by both...33 "New Japan Leader Urges Stronger Military," The Honolulu Advertiser 28 April 2001, sec. A, p.2. and Thomas Plate , "Would a Militarized Japan...Mission Brings B-2 Bombers to Guam." Hagatna (GU) Pacific Daily News. 30 March 2002, p. 1. Plate , Thomas. "Would a Militarized Japan Benefit Asia?" The

  17. Asia Pacific Center for Security Studies 2007 Annual Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies,2058 Maluhia Road,Honolulu,HI,96815 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...improv- ing what we contribute have worked diligently to transform systems to meet needs and expectations. 2007 has been a year of refocusing...development of a collaborative international institutional and leadership capacity, and willingness, to addresses complex security-related systems in

  18. Dependence values of Asia-Pacific stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razak, Ruzanna Ab; Ismail, Noriszura

    2014-06-01

    Return series of stock markets tend to have leptokurtic distribution thus making linear correlation an inappropriate measure of dependence. Copula theory can be used as an alternative to show the dependencies between return series. In this paper, we study the dependence structure of extreme returns between several Asia-Pacific stock markets by applying the Copula based marginal GARCH approach. The results of our study are discussed in this paper.

  19. Drug production, trafficking and trade in Asia and Pacific Island countries.

    PubMed

    Reid, Gary; Devaney, Madonna L; Baldwin, Simon

    2006-11-01

    We report here on illicit drug production, trafficking and transit routes found in the Asia Pacific region. The report is based on the 'Situational analysis of illicit drug issues and responses in Asia and the Pacific', commissioned by the Australian National Council on Drugs Asia Pacific Drug Issues Committee. The situational analysis was a comprehensive desk based review; data sources included published and unpublished literature and key informant reports. It was found that Myanmar was the main producer of opium, heroin and amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) in the Asia-Pacific region. China is now considered a major producer of methamphetamines, but other Asia-Pacific nations are also involved in production. Cannabis production was found throughout most of the Asia-Pacific region, in particular Cambodia and the Philippines. Drug trafficking and transit routes of Asia and the Pacific were proliferating and dynamic. The Pacific is mainly known as a trans-shipment point for drugs entering other countries in the region. Drug cultivation and production in Asia is substantial. The expansion of ATS production in the Asia Pacific region is causing much concern. Most drug traffickers change routes and tactics to exploit available vulnerable points along international borders. Responding effectively to the complexity and scale of drug production and trafficking in the Asia-Pacific region will remain a major challenge.

  20. Cysticercosis/taeniasis in Asia and the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Ito, Akira; Wandra, Toni; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Nakao, Minoru; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Margono, Sri S; Suroso, Thomas; Gauci, Charles; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2004-01-01

    Three taeniid tapeworms infect humans in Asia and the Pacific: Taenia solim, Taenia saginata, and Taenia asiatica. Although there is continuing debate about the definition of a new species, phylogenetic analyses of these parasites have provided multiple lines of evidence that T. asiatica is an independent species and the sister species of T. saginata. Here we review briefly the morphology, pathology, molecular biology, distribution and control options of taeniasis/cysticercosis in Asia and the Pacific and comment on the potential role which dogs may play in the transmission of T. solium. Special attention is focused on Indonesia: taeniasis caused by T. asiatica in North Sumatra, taeniasis/cysticercosis of T. solium and taeniasis of T. saginata in Bali, and taeniasis/cysticercosis of T. solium in Papua (formerly Irian Jaya). Issues relating to the spread of taeniasis/cysticercosis caused by T. solium in Papua New Guinea are highlighted, since serological evidence suggests that cysticercosis occurs among the local residents. The use of modern techniques for detection of taeniasis in humans and cysticercosis in humans, pigs and dogs, with the possible adoption of new control measures will provide a better understanding of the epidemiology of taeniasis/cysticercosis in Asia and the Pacific and lead to improved control of zoonotic and simultaneously meat-borne disease transmission.

  1. AIDS in Asia and the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Karel, S G; Robey, B

    1988-09-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has been an African and Western concern due to its epidemic nature. Although nearly 99% of all reported cases occurred in these regions, Asia has reported cases, and the potential for devastation of Asia's already strained health care reserves are undeniable. This review compiled by analysis of 1986-88 articles on AIDS research, demographics, official statements from government and health organizations, news reports, and public statements describe how AIDS has spread in well documented regions like America, Europe, and Africa, and how the Asian regions have attempted to handle the AIDS epidemic before it becomes as serious as in the West. The topics covered include a clinical overview of how human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes AIDS, how it is transmitted, and what are the primary forms of transmission in well documented regions. The report briefly documents what policies China, Hong Kong, Japan, Republic of Korea, Taiwan, Philippines, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, Australia, and New Zealand have individually instituted to stem the flow of AIDS into their country, and/or stop the spread of AIDS already found there. The efforts to combat AIDS globally by the World Health Organization/United Nations Development Program alliance (WHO-UNDP) along with the US Agency for International Development (USAID), and UNICEF are highlighted. The available research and aid programs are contrasted with how the Asian nations are preparing to deal with the AIDS epidemic. 1) AIDS has an incubation time wherein an infected individual is not AIDS symptomatic, but is capable of infecting others, and this hidden infected population makes it essential that containment policies are also enforced in countries with few reported cases. 2) A committee should be established in all Asian countries to coordinate education on safe sexual behaviors with specific programs for prostitutes

  2. U. S.-Thailand Combatant Commander Considerations for the Asia-Pacific Rebalance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    NUMBER AsiaPacific Rebalance 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...Southeast Asia region and pivotal to the AsiaPacific rebalance. U.S. – Thai relations have stalled following a bloodless military coup which deposed...the dangers associated with strict adherence to Section 508 mandates with the growing emergence of China as a region power in Southeast Asia . It

  3. India: Asia-Pacific energy series country report

    SciTech Connect

    Gazdar, M.N.

    1992-03-01

    As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Resources Programs of the East-West Center series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for International Affairs and Energy Emergencies, have covered Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies provide an overview of the economic and political situation in the various countries. We have highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. To the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics. Staff members have traveled extensively in-and at times have lived in-the countries under review and have held discussions with senior policymakers in government and industry. Thus, these reports provide not only information but also the latest thinking on energy issues in the various countries. Over the next few years these country studies can be updated and will provide a continuous, long-term source of energy sector analysis for the Asia-Pacific region. This India Asia-Pacific Energy Series Country Report is the follow-on to a study by Victor Lobo, Energy in India: The Oil Sector, which was published by the East-West Center in December 1989. The study focused on the petroleum industry, particularly refining, infrastructure, marketing and distribution, specifications of products, demand structure and pricing. This current study, must be seen as a supplement to our 1989 study and, as such, does not cover the petroleum sector in depth.

  4. Food crisis in the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Weinberger, Katinka M; Easdown, Warwick J; Yang, Ray-yu; Keatinge, John Donough H

    2009-01-01

    The Asia-Pacific region was on track to achieve the Millennium Development Goal of halving the prevalence of extreme poverty by 2015, but recent dramatic rises in the price of rice and other staples have pushed millions of people back into hunger and poverty. This indicates that the region's food supply system is more fragile and imbalanced than what was previously believed. Proximate causes of the rise in staple prices can be found in market forces such as export restrictions and rising energy prices but the ultimate causes are policies that have led to under-investment in agricultural research and emergency mitigation. Large numbers of people in the Asia-Pacific were already undernourished prior to the recent price rises, relying on monotonous diets dominated by a few staples. Pushed into reducing their dietary diversity even further, many more millions are now suffering from hunger and deteriorating health. The most fundamental food crisis in the Asia-Pacific is one of poor diets, and this affects the obese just as much as the undernourished. The solution lies in a food system that focuses on producing balanced diets, developing safe production practices, increasing food supplies by reducing losses, and investing in the research that make it all happen. Improving food systems is a fundamental community expectation and can be a matter of government survival, but if the urgency to improve food supplies overrides improving diets, the long-term impact on national health will be severe. Proactive policies, regional responses, and more integrated scientific approaches are needed.

  5. 2011 Asia Pacific Few-Body Conference Summary Remarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, B. F.

    2013-03-01

    These remarks represent the author's personal perspective regarding ideas presented at this fifth Asia Pacific Conference on Few-Body Problems in Physics. They are not intended as a comprehensive summary of what we witnessed during this week of stimulating presentations and intense discussions. However, these remarks do characterize some of the physics we heard and some of the key questions raised. The ideas presented will hopefully outlive the rapporteurs who brought their work and that of others to our attention here in the International Hall of the Sungkyunkwan University in Seoul, Republic of Korea. Finally, we bid adieu to our friend, colleague, and mentor, John A. Tjon.

  6. New Zealand Asia-Pacific energy series country report

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Keevill, H.D.

    1992-03-01

    This report on New Zealand is one of a series of country studies intended to provide a continuous, long-term source of energy sector analysis for the Asia-Pacific region. This report addresses significant changes occurring due to the reform, deregulation, and privatization of the economy in general and the energy sector in particular; provides the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation; petroleum and gas issues are highlighted, particularly the implications of foreign trade in oil and gas; provides the latest available statistics and insights to energy policy that are not generally available elsewhere.

  7. Natural disasters and dialysis care in the Asia-Pacific.

    PubMed

    Gray, Nicholas A; Wolley, Martin; Liew, Adrian; Nakayama, Masaaki

    2015-12-01

    The impact of natural disasters on the provision of dialysis services has received increased attention in the last decade following Hurricane Katrina devastating New Orleans in 2005. The Asia-Pacific is particularly vulnerable to earthquakes, tsunami, typhoons (also known as cyclones and hurricanes) or storms and flooding. These events can seriously interrupt provision of haemodialysis with adverse effects for patients including missed dialysis, increased hospitalization and post-traumatic stress disorder. Furthermore, haemodialysis patients may need to relocate and experience prolonged periods of displacement from family and social supports. In contrast to haemodialysis, most literature suggests peritoneal dialysis in a disaster situation is more easily managed and supported. It has become apparent that dialysis units and patients should be prepared for a disaster event and that appropriate planning will result in reduced confusion and adverse outcomes should a disaster occur. Numerous resources are now available to guide dialysis units, patients and staff in preparation for a possible disaster. This article will examine the disaster experiences of dialysis units in the Asia-Pacific, the impact on patients and staff, methods employed to manage during the disaster and suggested plans for reducing the impact of future disasters.

  8. Snapshots of Primary and Secondary Education in Asia-Pacific. Educational Innovation for Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, John Dewar

    In responding to the emerging challenges to education in Asia and the Pacific in this new century, this Asia-Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) book series, "Educational Innovation for Development," is launched to reflect a knowledge base of rethinking on roles of education in development. The series…

  9. An Inventory of Documents on Educational Planning and Management in Asia and the Pacific, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    This inventory of documents on educational planning and management includes from 20 UNESCO (United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization) member countries in Asia and the Pacific. A new section in this edition, the Asia and Pacific region, includes citations that address trends and conceptual issues affecting member states of…

  10. Sustainability in Business Education in the Asia Pacific Region: A Snapshot of the Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naeem, Malik; Neal, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide information about the extent to which sustainability is integrated into business school education and learning in the Asia Pacific region. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was developed, and administered to business schools in the Asia Pacific region. In addition to measuring the number of…

  11. Population Education in Asia and the Pacific. Bulletin of the Unesco Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific. Number 23, June, 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    The necessity of successfully managing population and development to ensure the quality of life in Asia in the coming decade is emphasized in this bulletin, which is arranged into four sections. Section one contains an article dealing with change and development of population education in Asia and the Pacific and a demographic analysis. Section…

  12. Emerging viral diseases of Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, J S; Chua, K B; Daniels, P W; Eaton, B T; Field, H E; Hall, R A; Halpin, K; Johansen, C A; Kirkland, P D; Lam, S K; McMinn, P; Nisbet, D J; Paru, R; Pyke, A T; Ritchie, S A; Siba, P; Smith, D W; Smith, G A; van den Hurk, A F; Wang, L F; Williams, D T

    2001-01-01

    Over the past 6 years, a number of zoonotic and vectorborne viral diseases have emerged in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific. Vectorborne disease agents discussed in this article include Japanese encephalitis, Barmah Forest, Ross River, and Chikungunya viruses. However, most emerging viruses have been zoonotic, with fruit bats, including flying fox species as the probable wildlife hosts, and these will be discussed as well. The first of these disease agents to emerge was Hendra virus, formerly called equine morbillivirus. This was followed by outbreaks caused by a rabies-related virus, Australian bat lyssavirus, and a virus associated with porcine stillbirths and malformations, Menangle virus. Nipah virus caused an outbreak of fatal pneumonia in pigs and encephalitis in humans in the Malay Peninsula. Most recently, Tioman virus has been isolated from flying foxes, but it has not yet been associated with animal or human disease. Of nonzoonotic viruses, the most important regionally have been enterovirus 71 and HIV.

  13. Emerging viral diseases of Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific.

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, J. S.; Chua, K. B.; Daniels, P. W.; Eaton, B. T.; Field, H. E.; Hall, R. A.; Halpin, K.; Johansen, C. A.; Kirkland, P. D.; Lam, S. K.; McMinn, P.; Nisbet, D. J.; Paru, R.; Pyke, A. T.; Ritchie, S. A.; Siba, P.; Smith, D. W.; Smith, G. A.; van den Hurk, A. F.; Wang, L. F.; Williams, D. T.

    2001-01-01

    Over the past 6 years, a number of zoonotic and vectorborne viral diseases have emerged in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific. Vectorborne disease agents discussed in this article include Japanese encephalitis, Barmah Forest, Ross River, and Chikungunya viruses. However, most emerging viruses have been zoonotic, with fruit bats, including flying fox species as the probable wildlife hosts, and these will be discussed as well. The first of these disease agents to emerge was Hendra virus, formerly called equine morbillivirus. This was followed by outbreaks caused by a rabies-related virus, Australian bat lyssavirus, and a virus associated with porcine stillbirths and malformations, Menangle virus. Nipah virus caused an outbreak of fatal pneumonia in pigs and encephalitis in humans in the Malay Peninsula. Most recently, Tioman virus has been isolated from flying foxes, but it has not yet been associated with animal or human disease. Of nonzoonotic viruses, the most important regionally have been enterovirus 71 and HIV. PMID:11485641

  14. Asia-Pacific consensus statements on Crohn's disease. Part 2: Management.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Choon Jin; Makharia, Govind K; Hilmi, Ida; Gibson, Peter R; Fock, Kwong Ming; Ahuja, Vineet; Ling, Khoon Lin; Lim, Wee Chian; Thia, Kelvin T; Wei, Shu-chen; Leung, Wai Keung; Koh, Poh Koon; Gearry, Richard B; Goh, Khean Lee; Ouyang, Qin; Sollano, Jose; Manatsathit, Sathaporn; de Silva, H Janaka; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Pisespongsa, Pises; Abu Hassan, Muhamad Radzi; Sung, Joseph; Hibi, Toshifumi; Boey, Christopher C M; Moran, Neil; Leong, Rupert W L

    2016-01-01

    The Asia Pacific Working Group on Inflammatory Bowel Disease was established in Cebu, Philippines, at the Asia Pacific Digestive Week conference in 2006 under the auspices of the Asian Pacific Association of Gastroenterology (APAGE) with the goal of developing best management practices, coordinating research and raising awareness of IBD in the region. The consensus group previously published recommendations for the diagnosis and management of ulcerative colitis (UC) with specific relevance to the Asia-Pacific region. The present consensus statements were developed following a similar process to address the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of Crohn's disease (CD). The goals of these statements are to pool the pertinent literature specifically highlighting relevant data and conditions in the Asia-Pacific region relating to the economy, health systems, background infectious diseases, differential diagnoses and treatment availability. It does not intend to be all-comprehensive and future revisions are likely to be required in this ever-changing field.

  15. Recommendations for cervical cancer prevention in Asia Pacific.

    PubMed

    Garland, Suzanne M; Cuzick, Jack; Domingo, Efren J; Goldie, Sue J; Kim, Young-Tak; Konno, Ryo; Parkin, D Maxwell; Qiao, You-Lin; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Stern, Peter L; Tay, Sun Kuie; Bosch, F Xavier

    2008-08-19

    Asia Oceania includes countries from both the Asia Pacific region and Australasia, which cover very diverse geographical areas and populations as well as bearing 52% of the cervical cancer burden in the world. Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in women with normal cytology varies between countries in this region, as well as with the distribution typically observed in worldwide estimates or in Western countries. HPV-16 remains the predominant oncogenic type for high-grade cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer across the region, and HPV-18 is generally among the five most common types. HPV-58 is commonly found in cervical cancer as well as in women with normal cytology, and HPV-31, 33 and 35 are relatively less frequent in these regions compared to the West. While screening programmes have been proposed and implemented in several populations, successful programmes are rather limited and the majority of countries still have no or minimal screening services. Prophylactic HPV vaccination will only be feasible when it becomes affordable, thus the current priority and the short-term goal for cervical cancer control is to identify feasible and effective screening measures, and to find the most effective way to combine vaccination with sustainable screening programmes. This Regional Report has carefully described the disease burden of HPV and cervical cancer and the current situations in cervical cancer prevention for many countries in the Asia Oceania region. These data identify the many challenges and opportunities to be considered for policy decisions for cervical cancer control. Furthermore, this report presents the results of advanced decision analytic models calibrated to countries in the region that provide early insight into what strategies are most promising and those likely to be cost-effective and affordable. It thus provides a synthesis of the available evidence-based scientific information, in the context of a significant and systematic

  16. Asia Pacific Consensus Statements on Crohn's disease. Part 1: Definition, diagnosis, and epidemiology: (Asia Pacific Crohn's Disease Consensus--Part 1).

    PubMed

    Ooi, Choon Jin; Makharia, Govind K; Hilmi, Ida; Gibson, Peter R; Fock, Kwong Ming; Ahuja, Vineet; Ling, Khoon Lin; Lim, Wee Chian; Thia, Kelvin T; Wei, Shu-chen; Leung, Wai Keung; Koh, Poh Koon; Gearry, Richard B; Goh, Khean Lee; Ouyang, Qin; Sollano, Jose; Manatsathit, Sathaporn; de Silva, H Janaka; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Pisespongsa, Pises; Abu Hassan, Muhamad Radzi; Sung, Joseph; Hibi, Toshifumi; Boey, Christopher C M; Moran, Neil; Leong, Rupert W L

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) was previously thought to be rare in Asia, but emerging data indicate rising incidence and prevalence of IBD in the region. The Asia Pacific Working Group on Inflammatory Bowel Disease was established in Cebu, Philippines, at the Asia Pacific Digestive Week conference in 2006 under the auspices of the Asian Pacific Association of Gastroenterology with the goal of developing best management practices, coordinating research, and raising awareness of IBD in the region. The consensus group previously published recommendations for the diagnosis and management of ulcerative colitis with specific relevance to the Asia-Pacific region. The present consensus statements were developed following a similar process to address the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of Crohn's disease. The goals of these statements are to pool the pertinent literature specifically highlighting relevant data and conditions in the Asia-Pacific region relating to the economy, health systems, background infectious diseases, differential diagnoses, and treatment availability. It does not intend to be all comprehensive and future revisions are likely to be required in this ever-changing field.

  17. Report of the first Asia-Pacific Forum on antiviral treatment of influenza, Asia-Pacific Alliance for the Control of Influenza, Bangkok, 14 June 2012.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Lance C; Smith, David W; Chan, Paul K S

    2013-11-01

    On 14 June 2012, the Asia-Pacific Alliance for the Control of Influenza (APACI) convened the first Antiviral Forum jointly with the Influenza Foundation of Thailand and the Thailand Department of Disease Control. The goals of the meeting were to improve pandemic planning in the region from lessons learned during the 2009 pandemic, particularly with regard to the safety and efficacy of antiviral use; gain a better understanding of the therapeutic use of antivirals in seasonal influenza; review and analyse the official influenza control policies of Asia-Pacific countries and evidence gaps to support policy development; and to establish collaborative relationships to promote best practices in the use of antivirals for the treatment of influenza. The urgent need for education highlighting the importance of influenza and the benefits of antiviral drug use in the Asia-Pacific region was identified.

  18. Report of the first Asia-Pacific influenza summit, Asia-Pacific Alliance for the Control of Influenza (APACI), Bangkok, 12-13 June 2012.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Lance C; Smith, David W; Chan, Paul K S

    2013-11-01

    On June 12-13, 2012, the Asia-Pacific Alliance for the Control of Influenza (APACI) convened jointly with the Influenza Foundation of Thailand and the Thailand Department of Disease Control, the First Asia-Pacific Influenza Summit. The objectives of the meeting were to review the current state of official influenza control policies in Asia-Pacific countries; identify, summarize and communicate influenza control strategies that have successfully increased vaccine uptake in the region; develop policy and advocacy approaches to improve influenza vaccine uptake in high-risk groups and healthcare workers in the region; and establish collaborative relationships to promote best practices for the control of influenza. In moving forward, the challenge for the region will be establishing collaborations able to effectively communicate risk and key messages about influenza vaccination.

  19. Indonesia: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report

    SciTech Connect

    Prawiraatmadja, W.; Yamaguchi, N.; Breazeale, K.; Basari, S.R.

    1991-04-01

    As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Energy Program has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy have covered Australia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various countries. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics -- often from unpublished and disparate sources that are unavailable to most readers. Staff members have traveled extensively in -- and at times have lived in -- the countries under review and have held discussions with senior policymakers in government and industry. Thus, these reports provide not only information but also the latest thinking on energy issues in the various countries. This report covers Indonesia. 37 refs., 36 figs., 64 tabs.

  20. Pakistan: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report

    SciTech Connect

    Gazdar, M.N.

    1992-03-01

    As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Energy Program has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various countries. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics -- often from unpublished and disparate sources that are unavailable to most readers. Staff members have traveled extensively in -- and at times have lived in -- the countries under review and have held discussions with senior policymakers in government and industry. Thus, these reports provide not only information but also the latest thinking on energy issues in the various countries. This report summarizes the energy and economic situation in Pakistan.

  1. Education in Asia and the Pacific: Reviews, Reports, and Notes. Number 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This volume consists of report summaries, literature reviews, and document annotations on the subject of education in Asia and the Pacific. The reviewed literature includes the following: "Reorientation and Reform of Secondary Education in the Asian and Pacific Region: A Status Report," edited by R.S. Adams; Unesco's "Primary…

  2. Vocational Training in Asia and the Pacific: A Profile of Bangladesh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Office, Islamabad (Pakistan). Asian and Pacific Skill Development Programme.

    This country profile of Bangladesh is one of a series of country profiles intended to give the user a graphic view of the structure, outputs, and legal basis of the vocational training system of individual countries in the Asia-Pacific region. The data, gathered by the Asian and Pacific Skill Development Programme in Pakistan, generally cover the…

  3. Dioxins and organohalogen contaminants in the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Shinsuke; Minh, Tu Binh

    2010-03-01

    This article reviews the outcome of comprehensive investigations conducted in our laboratory at CMES, Ehime University over the past three decades on the distribution, sources, temporal trends and toxic impacts of the persistent and bioaccumulative organohalogen contaminants in Asia-Pacific region with a particular emphasis on developing countries. Results of multi-media monitoring studies were compiled and discussed to provide in-depth understanding on various issues of dioxins and organohalogen contamination in both ambient environment and animals including humans. Prominent contaminations were found in the regions where they have been heavily used. The eastern Asian region is probably a potential source of pollution, particularly by the new contaminants such as polybrominated diphenyls ethers. These groups of contaminants, together with polychlorinated biphenyls, exhibited either decreasing or increasing trends depending on the extent of industrialization in Asian developing region, indicating the necessity for long term monitoring. The open dumping sites for municipal wastes in major cities are significant sources of many toxic chemicals, and these areas are probably one of the challenges for future research due to the long term impacts on the environmental quality and human health. The formation of dioxins and related compounds in such dumping sites and their elevated residues found in breast milk of residents living in and around warrant long term impacts of dioxins upon next generations. Comprehensive and long term monitoring programs are urgently needed with close collaboration and proper capacity building in Asian developing countries in order to mitigate dioxin and organohalogen emission and their risk on ecosystems and human health.

  4. New Zealand: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Keevill, H.D.

    1992-03-01

    The New Zealand energy sector has undergone significant changes in the past few years. Reform and deregulation came to New Zealand in large doses and at a rapid pace. Unlike Japan where deregulation was designed for a five-year phase-in period or even Australia where the government was fully geared up to handle deregulation, deregulation occurred in New Zealand almost with no phase-in period and very little planning. Under fast-paced Rogernomics,'' the energy sector was but one more element of the economy to be deregulated and/or privatized. While the New Zealand energy sector deregulation is generally believed to have been successful, there are still outstanding questions as to whether the original intent has been fully achieved. The fact that a competent energy bureaucracy was mostly lost in the process makes it even more difficult to find those with long enough institutional memories to untangle the agreements and understandings between the government and the private sector over the previous decade. As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Resources Programs at the East-West Center has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for International Affairs and Energy Emergencies, have covered Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various counties. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics.

  5. Migration and Singapore: implications for the Asia Pacific.

    PubMed

    Low, L

    1994-01-01

    Regarding immigration and emigration issues, there is a need for greater and more detailed data collection, an emphasis on data on illegal as well as legal migration, an examination of the impact of direct foreign investment on job creation and new labor market entrants, and a strengthening of international conventions for protection of foreign workers. The Pacific Economic Cooperation Council (PECC), Human Resource Development Task Force, is the source for projections of labor demand and supply for 18 PECC countries in 1993 and 1994. These projections indicate labor shortages in 1993 in Canada, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. The greatest labor supplier will be China. Japan and Korea are expected to have economic downturns, which will increase excess labor. The extent of excess labor is estimated to be 8.01 million in 1993 and 12.43 in 1994. The nature of the calculations could potentially exaggerate existing demand. A variety of theories are used to determine the direction and flow of migration, capital, goods and services, and technology. Estimates of migration flows indicate an increase to 100 million migrants in 1992, or 1.8% of world population (35 million in Sub-Saharan Africa, 15 million in Asia and the Middle East, and almost 13 million in Western Europe and North America). The value of remittances is estimated at $66 million (US dollars), which is slightly less than the value of oil trade and exceeds the $46 million in foreign aid. It is hypothesized that wider spatial and income inequalities with expanding globalization will increase migration flows. The case of Singapore illustrates how manipulation of the labor market reduces potential problems. Immigration policy historically encouraged migration of skilled and professional workers. In 1990 foreign workers in Singapore constituted 12% of the labor force. Since 1982 a monthly foreign worker levy has been imposed. The levy is increased when needed in order to slow demand. In 1992

  6. Health Professional Workforce Education in the Asia Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Lees, Jessica; Webb, Gillian; Coulston, Frances; Smart, Aidan; Remedios, Louisa

    2016-01-01

    . Significance for public health The Global Learning Partnership model aims to contribute to the capacity building of a health workforce that is capable of working effectively in cross cultural and interprofessional health care teams. A shared public health focused global placement has the potential to catalyse collaborative relationships between educational institutions in the Asia Pacific region. PMID:27190976

  7. Consolidating newborn screening efforts in the Asia Pacific region : Networking and shared education.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Carmencita David; Therrell, Bradford L

    2012-01-01

    Many of the countries in the Asia Pacific Region, particularly those with depressed and developing economies, are just initiating newborn screening programs for selected metabolic and other congenital disorders. The cultural, geographic, language, and economic differences that exist throughout the region add to the challenges of developing sustainable newborn screening systems. There are currently more developing programs than developed programs within the region. Newborn screening activities in the Asia Pacific Region are particularly important since births there account for approximately half of the world's births. To date, there have been two workshops to facilitate formation of the Asia Pacific Newborn Screening Collaboratives. The 1st Workshop on Consolidating Newborn Screening Efforts in the Asia Pacific Region occurred in Cebu, Philippines, on March 30-April 1, 2008, as a satellite meeting to the 7th Asia Pacific Conference on Human Genetics. The second workshop was held on June 4-5, 2010, in Manila, Philippines. Workshop participants included key policy-makers, service providers, researchers, and consumer advocates from 11 countries with 50% or less newborn screening coverage. Expert lectures included experiences in the United States and the Netherlands, international quality assurance activities and ongoing and potential research activities. Additional meeting support was provided by the U.S. National Institutes of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the U.S. National Newborn Screening and Genetics Resource Center, the International Society for Neonatal Screening, and the March of Dimes. As part of both meeting activities, participants shared individual experiences in program implementation with formal updates of screening information for each country. This report reviews the activities and country reports from two Workshops on Consolidating Newborn Screening Efforts in the Asia Pacific Region with emphasis on the second workshop. It

  8. Accreditation of public health education in the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Karunathilake, Indika M; Liyanage, Chiranthi K

    2015-01-01

    There has been dramatic advancement in health status in the Asia-Pacific region (APR) over the past 50 years. This ever-changing paradigm of public health calls for continuous review and quality improvement of public health education (PHE). Since its founding in 1984, the mission of the Asia-Pacific Academic Consortium for Public Health (APACPH) has been to improve the quality and relevance of PHE to combat the diverse, dynamic, and unique challenges in the APR. Prof Walter Patrick was a forerunner in this movement and played an instrumental role in establishing APACPH's position in accreditation and improvement of PHE.

  9. Promoting National Book Strategies in Asia and the Pacific--Problems and Perspectives. Studies on Books and Reading No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasan, Abul

    Focusing on the present state of book development in the Asia-Pacific region, where countries are separated by vast distances, this report examines measures that might improve local book industries and meet the needs for endogenous literature. The various sections of the report discuss (1) the book situation and needs in the Asia-Pacific region;…

  10. Aerosol Characterization Data from the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Project (ACE-Asia)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Aerosol Characterization Experiments (ACE) were designed to increase understanding of how atmospheric aerosol particles affect the Earth's climate system. These experiments integrated in-situ measurements, satellite observations, and models to reduce the uncertainty in calculations of the climate forcing due to aerosol particles and improve the ability of models to predict the influences of aerosols on the Earth's radiation balance. ACE-Asia was the fourth in a series of experiments organized by the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Program (A Core Project of the International Geosphere Biosphere Program). The Intensive Field Phase for ACE-Asia took place during the spring of 2001 (mid-March through early May) off the coast of China, Japan and Korea. ACE-Asia pursued three specific objectives: 1) Determine the physical, chemical, and radiative properties of the major aerosol types in the Eastern Asia and Northwest Pacific region and investigate the relationships among these properties. 2) Quantify the physical and chemical processes controlling the evolution of the major aerosol types and in particular their physical, chemical, and radiative properties. 3) Develop procedures to extrapolate aerosol properties and processes from local to regional and global scales, and assess the regional direct and indirect radiative forcing by aerosols in the Eastern Asia and Northwest Pacific region [Edited and shortened version of summary at http://data.eol.ucar.edu/codiac/projs?ACE-ASIA]. The Ace-Asia collection contains 174 datasets.

  11. United Nations Literacy Decade in Asia and the Pacific: Progress to Date

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In December 2001, The United Nations General Assembly unanimously adopted a resolution to establish the United Nations Literacy Decade (UNLD), 2003-2012. The UNLD stresses "Literacy for All: A voice for all, learning for all." The publication records UNLD activities in the Asia and Pacific region during 2003 to 2004 and introduces…

  12. Ocular Pathology: Role of Emerging Viruses in the Asia-Pacific Region-A Review.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Ratnesh; Ranjan, Shikha

    2014-01-01

    The role of viral infections in ocular pathology varies greatly, involving all the components of the eye. Some viruses like herpes simplex, herpes zoster, adenovirus, enterovirus 70, influenza virus, human immunodeficiency virus, and cytomegalovirus are well-known for their role in ocular pathology. In recent years, emerging and resurging viral infections represent an important public health problem. The Asia-Pacific region has witnessed a number of pandemic and epidemic outbreaks caused by these viruses during the last 2 decades. The number of ocular complications being reported in patients of these viral infections has also increased significantly during this period. Ophthalmologists and physicians should be aware of ocular manifestations of newly emerging or resurging viral diseases. We conducted a review of the literature published during the last 20 years with the objectives of finding out outbreaks of emerging and reemerging viruses in the Asia-Pacific region and finding out any ocular involvement in these viral infections. An iterative search of the MEDLINE and the Google databases was made using the search terms emerging virus, ocular manifestations, ocular complications, Chikungunya, Dengue, Japanese encephalitis, West Nile fever, Kyasanur forest disease, Rift valley fever, Hantavirus, Henipavirus, Influenza virus, Enterovirus 71, and Asia-Pacific region, separately and with reported ocular involvement in combination. This review article discusses the epidemiology and the systemic and ocular manifestations of all emerging viral infections with reported ocular involvement in the Asia-Pacific region.

  13. Directory of Early Childhood Care and Education Organization in Asia and the Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    The care and education of children is a primary task of all societies, and the role of parents, families, and communities is essential in this process. This directory describes the major activities of 360 non-governmental and governmental organizations, based in 30 countries in Asia and the Pacific region (Australia; Bangladesh; Bhutan; Cambodia;…

  14. New Challenges for Higher Education: Global and Asia-Pacific Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Jung Cheol; Harman, Grant

    2009-01-01

    With rapid socio-economic changes, twenty-first century higher education is facing major challenges to its governance systems, curriculum, mission focus, external relations, research, and financing. A theoretical framework to analyze these post-massification challenges is suggested, with a focus on the Asia-Pacific region as well as global issues.…

  15. Future Developments of Educational Research in the Asia-Pacific Region: Paradigm Shifts, Reforms, and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Yin Cheong

    2007-01-01

    In facing up to the challenges and impacts of globalization, high technology, economic transformation, international competitions and local developments in the new century, there have been numerous educational reforms and initiatives in many countries in the Asia-Pacific Region (Cheng, 2005a, A new paradigm for re-engineering education:…

  16. Sustainability in Higher Education in the Asia-Pacific: Developments, Challenges, and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Alexandra; Tilbury, Daniella; Corcoran, Peter Blaze; Abe, Osamu; Nomura, Ko

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the contributions of the Asia-Pacific region to leading practice in sustainability in higher education (HE), as prelude and orientation to this special issue collection from different countries and regions. Design/methodology/approach: This is a critical review that includes…

  17. Educational Developments in Asia and the Pacific--A Graphic Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).

    This booklet reproduces 25 graphic panels designed to depict the development of education in Asia and the Pacific. The contents are divided into five sections. The population section includes data on total population; percentage distribution of population estimates (total and school-age), 1985; percentage illiterate, estimates and projections by…

  18. Educational Co-operation in Asia and the Pacific: 30 Years of NIER's Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanabe, Ryo, Ed.; Numano, Taro, Ed.; Nagata, Yoshiyuki, Ed.

    The history of the regional cooperation program of the National Institute for Educational Research (NIER) is recorded in this document. Specifically, the report outlines the past 30 years of the program in Asia and the Pacific. Throughout those years, 93 seminars, workshops, and symposia have been organized. In addition, information about the…

  19. Youth Driving Community Education: Testimonies of Empowerment from Asia and the Pacific

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The case stories presented in this publication focus on young people from vulnerable communities that the Asia South Pacific Association for Basic and Adult Education (ASPBAE) members are actively engaged with and who have been mobilized in ASPBAE programs for youth leadership and capacity development. Their narratives showcase the successes of…

  20. Educational Psychology as an Evolving Discipline: Trends and Synthesis in Asia Pacific Education Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dong-il; Koh, Hye-jung; Jo, Su-yeon; Nam, JeeEun Karin; Kim, Myeung-chan

    2014-01-01

    Educational psychology has seen rapid growth as an academic discipline in recent years. The current study reviewed research articles published in "Asia Pacific Education Review" ("APER"), a journal that has been gaining greater international recognition, to reveal recent trends in educational psychology research in Asia…

  1. Case Studies on Technical and Vocational Education in Asia and the Pacific. An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Adrian

    A project considered issues that might contribute toward raising the status of technical and vocational education (TVE) in Asia and the Pacific region. It also provided a review of TVE in Australia, Bangladesh, China, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Researchers involved in the…

  2. Integration of Technology Education in Basic and General Education Curriculum in Asia-Pacific Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basu, C. K.

    Despite the expansion of technical-vocational education and training (TVET) in nearly all Asia-Pacific countries during the past 10-15 years, many of the region's policymakers have called for greater and more effective integration of technical-vocational components in basic and general education curricula. The idea that technology education should…

  3. Feeding a Hungry World: Focus on Rice in Asia and the Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukai, Gary; And Others

    This unit introduces students to the diversity of rice culture and rice-based farming systems in Asia and the Pacific. Students examine issues related to the needs of the future global population. Six rice-producing countries are under study: Bangladesh, China, Indonesia, Japan, Philippines, and Thailand. The lessons include: (1) "Rice in…

  4. Educational Reforms in the Asia-Pacific Region: Trends, Challenges and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Yin Cheong

    This paper analyzes trends and challenges in recent educational reform and development in the Asia-Pacific region and explores related implications for educational research. There are numerous educational reforms in nearly all countries in the region as they respond to challenges of globalization, information technology, knowledge-based economy,…

  5. Climate change in Asia and the Pacific: How can countries adapt?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asia Pacific (AP) region is more vulnerable to climate change risks than other regions, given its dependence on the natural resources and agricultural sector for economic development with densely populated coastal areas, weak institutions, and the poverty of a considerable proportion of its popu...

  6. Promotion of Sustainability in Postgraduate Education in the Asia Pacific Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naeem, Malik A.; Peach, Neil W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe how a consortium of universities in the Asia Pacific region are endeavouring to make a contribution to the implementation of education for sustainable development (ESD) through their participation with and the operation of the Promotion of Sustainability in Postgraduate Education and Research Net…

  7. Malaysia. National Studies. Asia-Pacific Programme of Education for All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This study examines the work of the Asia-Pacific Programme of Education for All (APPEAL) since its 1987 inception. Efforts to assess educational achievement at the local, regional, and national levels in Malaysia are examined with a view to achieving universal primary education; eradicating illiteracy; and providing continuing education in support…

  8. Globalization and the Asia Pacific: An Exploration of Efficiency and Equality Aims of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Laura C.; Rutkowski, David J.

    2008-01-01

    The paper aims to explore the relationship between globalization and education through an investigation of educational policy development in the specific context of the Asia Pacific. The paper's primary focus is on data collected from the World Bank, OECD, IMF and UNESCO to look primarily at three interrelated trends in education: increasing…

  9. Taeniasis and cysticercosis in Asia and the Pacific: present state of knowledge and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ito, Akira; Nakao, Minoru; Wandra, Toni; Suroso, Thomas; Okamoto, Munehiro; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakaya, Kazuhiro

    2005-01-01

    Several topics on taeniasis and cysticercosis in Asia and the Pacific are overviewed. In Asia and the Pacific, three human taeniid species have been recognized: Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica. The first topic is on evolution of T. solium. Mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms of T. solium worldwide are discussed with emphasis of two specific genotypes: American-African and Asian. The second topic is recent major advances in sero- and molecular-diagnosis of T. solium cysticercosis in humans, pigs and dogs. The third is the present situation of T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in Papua (Irian Jaya), Indonesia. The forth is the present situation of T. solium cysticercosis and T. saginata taeniasis in Bali, Indonesia. The fifth is the present situation of T. asiatica taeniasis in Asia and the Pacific and in North Sumatra, Indonesia. The sixth is on the debate of the exact definition of T. asiatica. Because T. asiatica can not be differentiated from T. saginata morphologically, it is time to re-evaluate T. saginata in Asia and the Pacific. New and broad-based surveys across this region are necessary from epidemiological and public health perspectives, based on evidence.

  10. Emerging University Student Experiences of Learning Technologies across the Asia Pacific

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, B. F. D.; Higa, C.; Ellis, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    Three hundred students across eight countries and eleven higher education institutions in the Asia Pacific Region participated in two courses on climate change and disaster management that were supported by learning technologies: a satellite-enabled video-conferencing system and a learning management system. Evaluation of the student experience…

  11. Design and Usability of Digital Libraries: Case Studies in the Asia Pacific

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theng, Yin-Leng, Ed.; Foo, Schubert, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This book showcases some of the best digital library practices from organizations in the Asia Pacific. Particular emphasis has been placed on the design, use and usability of digital libraries. Not only are digital libraries examined, but related technologies, the management of knowledge in digital libraries, and the associated usability and…

  12. Online Learning and Information Technology in the Asia-Pacific Region: Perspectives, Issues, and Divides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, David; Chen, Der-Thanq

    2003-01-01

    This special issue presents articles contributed by academics from the Asia-Pacific region on perspectives and progress made in online learning and information technology (IT). The articles discuss online learning and IT efforts in South Korea, Hong Kong, China, Taiwan, Japan, Singapore, Australia, Guam, and New Zealand. (AEF)

  13. An Analysis of Asia-Pacific Educational Technology Research Published Internationally in 2000-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Insung; Yoo, Mina

    2014-01-01

    The past fourteen years have seen a significant rise in the percentage of Asia-Pacific papers on educational technology (ET) published internationally: from 13.7% in 2000 to 38.4% in 2013. This study seeks to identify the overall trends and gaps in this research. Of the 4,332 articles published in five selected international journals between 2000…

  14. Distance Education Regulatory Frameworks: Readiness for Openness in Southwest Pacific/South East Asia Region Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tynan, Belinda; James, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports in brief the pilot study, Distance Education Regulatory Frameworks, undertaken by the International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE) in 2010-2012 and the implications for openness for higher education in Southwest Pacific/South East Asia region nations. The project developed a methodological approach to…

  15. Continuing Professional Development in the Accounting Profession: Practices and Perceptions from the Asia Pacific Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Lange, Paul; Jackling, Beverley; Suwardy, Themin

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on research in the sociology of professions as a reference point, this study examines the practices and perceptions of professional accountants towards the requirements of IES7 on continuing professional development (CPD). Responses from 1310 accountants in the Asia Pacific region suggest while increasing globalisation has led to more…

  16. Rethinking the Mission of Internationalization of Higher Education in the Asia-Pacific Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Shun Wing

    2012-01-01

    This article adopts the critical theory approach to reflect and analyse the impacts of globalization on the internationalization process of higher education in the Asia-Pacific region. It argues that globalization forces many of the higher education institutions in the region to follow global practices and ideologies of the Anglo-American paradigm…

  17. Towards Education for a Sustainable Future in Asia and the Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fien, John; Obe, Osamu; Bhandari, Bishnu

    2000-01-01

    Outlines initial steps toward education for a sustainable future in the Asia-Pacific Region. Presents results from over 10,000 secondary students in 13 countries on environmental interest and attitudes and willingness to adopt a sustainable lifestyle. Describes an international program to support teacher educators as they reorient teacher…

  18. Retrospective seroepidemiological study of chikungunya infection in South Asia, Southeast Asia and the Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Ngwe Tun, M M; Inoue, S; Thant, K Z; Talemaitoga, N; Aryati, A; Dimaano, E M; Matias, R R; Buerano, C C; Natividad, F F; Abeyewickreme, W; Thuy, N T T; Mai, L T Q; Hasebe, F; Hayasaka, D; Morita, K

    2016-08-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Ross River virus (RRV) of the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae are mainly transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and the symptoms they cause in patients are similar to dengue. A chikungunya (CHIK) outbreak re-emerged in several Asian countries during 2005-2006. This study aimed to clarify the prevalence of CHIKV infection in suspected dengue patients in six countries in South Asia and Southeast Asia. Seven hundred forty-eight serum samples were from dengue-suspected patients in South Asia and Southeast Asia, and 52 were from patients in Fiji. The samples were analysed by CHIKV IgM capture ELISA, CHIKV IgG indirect ELISA and focus reduction neutralization test against CHIKV or RRV. CHIK-confirmed cases in South Asia, particularly Myanmar and Sri Lanka, were 4·6%, and 6·1%, respectively; and in Southeast Asia, particularly Indonesia, the Philippines and Vietnam, were 27·4%, 26·8% and 25·0%, respectively. It suggests that CHIK was widely spread in these five countries in Asia. In Fiji, no CHIK cases were confirmed; however, RRV-confirmed cases represented 53·6% of suspected dengue cases. It suggests that RRV is being maintained or occasionally entering from neighbouring countries and should be considered when determining a causative agent for dengue-like illness in Fiji.

  19. Security of water, energy, and food nexus in the Asia-Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, M.; Endo, A.; Fujii, M.; Shoji, J.; Baba, K.; Gurdak, J. J.; Allen, D. M.; Siringan, F. P.; Delinom, R.

    2014-12-01

    Water, energy, and food are the most important and fundamental resources for human beings and society. Demands for these resources are escalating rapidly because of increases in populations and changes in lifestyles. Therefore intensive demand for those resources makes conflicts between resources. Securities of water, energy, and food are treated separately, however they should be considered as one integrated matter, because water-energy-food are connected and it makes nexus and tradeoff. Security in terms of self-production, diversity of alternatives, and variability are evaluated for water, energy and food for thirty two countries in the Asia-Pacific region. The water and energy nexus includes water consumption for the cooling of power plant systems, water use for hydro power generation, and energy consumption for water allocation and pumping. The water and food nexus consists of water consumption for agriculture and aquaculture. The energy and food nexus includes energy consumption for food production and biomass for energy. Analyses of 11 countries within the Asia- Pacific region show that energy consumption for fish is the largest among foods in Japan, Philippines, and Peru, while energy consumption for cereals is the largest among foods in Canada, US, Indonesia, and others. Water consumption for different types of food and energy are also analyzed, including nexus ratio to total water consumption. The water-energy-food nexus at a local level in the Asia Pacific region are examined by the Research Institute for Humanity and Nature project "Human environmental security in Asia Pacific Ring of Fire". Themes including geothermal power plants for energy development and hot springs as water, shale gas for energy development and water consumption/contamination, aquaculture for food and water contamination are used to evaluate the water-energy-food nexus in the Asia-Pacific region.

  20. Education for Women's Empowerment in Asia and South Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruzada, Elizabeth, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This issue contains an editorial, "Empowering Women through Education" (Elizabeth Cruzada), and eight articles. "Women and Education" (Swarna Jayaweera) presents the status of women and girls' education in Asia vis-a-vis the goals set in the Nairobi Forward Looking Strategies. "Education Reforms and Development of Chinese…

  1. Cautious Peace: Strategy and Circumstance in Asia-Pacific Security.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-07-01

    Away Asia’s Security Bedrock," Asian Wall Street Journal, July 27, 1993 Simon Dalby , "A Climate of Conflict? Environment and Security in the...34 International Security, 8(1), 1983; Jessica Tuchman Mathews, "Redefining Security," Foreign Affairs, Spring 1989; and Simon Dalby , "A Climate of Conflict

  2. Asia-Pacific Responses to U.S. Security Policies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    to involve itself). Australia’s Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade ( DFAT ) major policy document, entitled Advancing the National Interest...demonstrates that Indonesia, and Southeast Asia more widely, is threatened by the presence of terrorist cells linked to the al Qaeda network. Yet even...persuaded about the existence of terrorist cells within Indonesia. Although most Indonesians were as horrified by the September 11 attacks, there has

  3. The Asia-Pacific: A Region in Transition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    as the national and sole official language . This cause suspicion within the Chinese community, particularly those concerned with preserving their... modernity . Malaysia is a country undergoing many transitions: in identity; in education and language ; and in the role of Islam, to name a few. Michael...China, calls for more democracy could be seen on Chinese websites, although they were officially discouraged. It is clear that Asia has embarked on a

  4. Model-informed risk assessment for Zika virus outbreaks in the Asia-Pacific regions.

    PubMed

    Teng, Yue; Bi, Dehua; Xie, Guigang; Jin, Yuan; Huang, Yong; Lin, Baihan; An, Xiaoping; Tong, Yigang; Feng, Dan

    2017-02-09

    Recently, Zika virus (ZIKV) has been recognized as a significant threat to global public health. The disease was present in large parts of the Americas, the Caribbean, and also the western Pacific area with southern Asia during 2015 and 2016. However, little is known about the factors affecting the transmission of ZIKV. We used Gradient Boosted Regression Tree models to investigate the effects of various potential explanatory variables on the spread of ZIKV, and used current with historical information from a range of sources to assess the risks of future ZIKV outbreaks. Our results indicated that the probability of ZIKV outbreaks increases with vapor pressure, the occurrence of Dengue virus, and population density but decreases as health expenditure, GDP, and numbers of travelers. The predictive results revealed the potential risk countries of ZIKV infection in the Asia-Pacific regions between October 2016 and January 2017. We believe that the high-risk conditions would continue in South Asia and Australia over this period. By integrating information on eco-environmental, social-economical, and ZIKV-related niche factors, this study estimated the probability for locally acquired mosquito-borne ZIKV infections in the Asia-Pacific region and improves the ability to forecast, and possibly even prevent, future outbreaks of ZIKV.

  5. Persistence in rainfall occurrence over Tropical south-east Asia and equatorial Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahale, S. D.; Panchawagh, N.; Singh, S. V.; Ranatunge, E. R.; Brikshavana, M.

    1994-03-01

    Daily rainfall observations during the principal rainy seasons over a large part of Tropical Asia and the equatorial Pacific are analysed for persistence by fitting Markov chains of various order. Daily rainfall data of 98 stations from India, Sri Lanka and Thailand falling in the monsoonal regime and 9 stations in the non-monsoonal regime of the equatorial Pacific are examined. The appropriate order of Markov chain is determined by analyzing wet and dry spell length characteristics and by applying the Schwarz Baysian Criterion to the arbitrary sequences of 5-day length. Markov chains of order greater than 1 are found to characterize the persistence in rainfall over India and to some extent over wet zones of Sri Lanka and central equatorial Pacific. Simple Markov chains are suggested for Thailand, the dry zone of Sri Lanka and the stations of central equatorial Pacific lying some what away from the equator.

  6. Strategic Pivot Toward the Asia-Pacific: Implications for USMC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    power if it is needed to protect the state’s national interests. Robert Bunker appears to be similarly influenced by the importance of the Western...variety of operational missions. Former Secretary of Defense Robert Gates affirmed the value of such a force in this era of fiscal constraints: Looking...Press, 2006), 22 10 Henry S. Albinski, Richard Herr, Robert C. Kiste, Ross Babbage, Denis McLean; The South Pacific: Political, Economic, and

  7. Asia-Pacific Economic Update, 2012. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    dynamic and important region. We hope that the APEU will inform more nuanced, effective policy , and decision‐making related to security and energy...provide new insights for readers and a view for new policy options that can be entertained. The first of the three papers in this volume, “US and...Korea. The trillion dollar club is important because it represents over 80% of the Asia-Pacific’s GDP, and about 67% of the region’s total exports

  8. Combined effect of the Arctic Oscillation and the Western Pacific pattern on East Asia winter temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hye-Jin; Ahn, Joong-Bae

    2016-05-01

    The combined effect of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and Western Pacific (WP) teleconnection pattern on the temperature variation during the winter in the northern hemisphere and East Asia over the last 56 years (1958/1959-2013/2014) was investigated using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. The study results revealed that the effect of the AO on winter temperature in East Asia could be changed depending on the phase of the WP pattern in the North Pacific. The negative relationship between the temperature of East Asia (25-45°N, 110-145°E) and the AO increased when the AO and WP were in-phase with each other. Hence, when winter negative (positive) AO was accompanied by negative (positive) WP, negative (positive) temperature anomalies were dominant across the entire East Asia region. Conversely, when the AO and WP were out-of-phase, the winter temperature anomaly in East Asia did not show distinct changes. Furthermore, from the perspective of stationary planetary waves, the zonal wavenumber-2 patterns of sea level pressure and geopotential height at 500 hPa related to the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) circulation strengthened when the AO and WP were in-phase but were not significant for the out-of-phase condition. An index considering the effect of both AO and WP on East Asia winter temperature was proposed. The correlation between the index and the East Asia winter temperature was statistically significant at the 99 % confidence level. The index was correlated with synoptic characteristics of the EAWM, including the Siberian High, East Asian trough, East Asian jet stream and surface air temperature.

  9. The future liver of the Asia pacific: fatter and firmer from more fructose and fortune?

    PubMed

    Mahady, Suzanne E; George, Jacob

    2013-06-01

    The Asia Pacific region is the most diverse and the most populous region in the world. Recent socioeconomic changes have resulted in an emerging epidemic of non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Asian Pacific countries now approximates that seen in Western countries. This increase is fueled by rising obesity, partly due to adoption of Western style diets and exposure to compounds such as high fructose corn syrup that are not included in traditional diets. Furthermore, South Asian populations may be more genetically susceptible via the inheritance of polymorphisms in apolipoprotein 3 that increase insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Importantly, there remains a substantial lack of data on the incidence and natural history of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and subsequent complications such as hepatocellular carcinoma in Asian Pacific populations. This information gap prevents estimation of current and future disease burden and impedes efforts to lobby health policymakers to improve public health measures, as given the size of Asian Pacific populations, prevention rather than treatment of non-communicable diseases remains key. This review article addresses these issues and highlights research priorities for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease within the Asia Pacific region.

  10. The Future Liver of the Asia Pacific: Fatter and Firmer from More Fructose and Fortune?

    PubMed Central

    Mahady, Suzanne E.; George, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    The Asia Pacific region is the most diverse and the most populous region in the world. Recent socioeconomic changes have resulted in an emerging epidemic of non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Asian Pacific countries now approximates that seen in Western countries. This increase is fueled by rising obesity, partly due to adoption of Western style diets and exposure to compounds such as high fructose corn syrup that are not included in traditional diets. Furthermore, South Asian populations may be more genetically susceptible via the inheritance of polymorphisms in apolipoprotein 3 that increase insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Importantly, there remains a substantial lack of data on the incidence and natural history of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and subsequent complications such as hepatocellular carcinoma in Asian Pacific populations. This information gap prevents estimation of current and future disease burden and impedes efforts to lobby health policymakers to improve public health measures, as given the size of Asian Pacific populations, prevention rather than treatment of non-communicable diseases remains key. This review article addresses these issues and highlights research priorities for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease within the Asia Pacific region. PMID:25755484

  11. Age of the subducting Pacific slab beneath East Asia and its geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Zhao, Dapeng; Li, Sanzhong; Wei, Wei

    2017-04-01

    We study the age of the subducting Pacific slab beneath East Asia using a high-resolution model of P-wave tomography and paleo-age data of ancient seafloor. Our results show that the lithosphere age of the subducting slab becomes younger from the Japan Trench (∼130 Ma) to the slab's western edge (∼90 Ma) beneath East China, and the flat (stagnant) slab in the mantle transition zone (MTZ) is the subducted Pacific plate rather than the proposed Izanagi plate which should have already collapsed into the lower mantle. The flat Pacific slab has been in the MTZ for no more than ∼10-20 million years, considerably less than the age of the big mantle wedge beneath East Asia (>110 million years). Hence, the present flat Pacific slab in the MTZ has contributed to the Cenozoic destruction of the East Asian continental lithosphere with extensive intraplate volcanism and back-arc spreading, whereas the destruction of the North China Craton during the Early Cretaceous (∼140-110 Ma) was caused by the subduction of the Izanagi (or the Paleo-Pacific) plate.

  12. Advances in translational bioinformatics and population genomics in the Asia-Pacific.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Shoba; Tongsima, Sissades; Chan, Jonathan; Tan, Tin Wee; Schönbach, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The theme of the 2012 International Conference on Bioinformatics (InCoB) in Bangkok, Thailand was "From Biological Data to Knowledge to Technological Breakthroughs." Besides providing a forum for life scientists and bioinformatics researchers in the Asia-Pacific region to meet and interact, the conference also hosted thematic sessions on the Pan-Asian Pacific Genome Initiative and immunoinformatics. Over the seven years of conference papers published in BMC Bioinformatics and four years in BMC Genomics, we note that there is increasing interest in the applications of -omics technologies to the understanding of diseases, as a forerunner to personalized genomic medicine.

  13. Application of radiation processing in asia and the pacific region: Focus on malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Dahlan, Khairul Zaman HJ.

    1995-09-01

    Applications of radiation processing in Malaysia and other developing countries in Asia and the Pacific region is increasing as the countries move toward industrialisation. At present, there are more than 85 gamma facilities and 334 electron accelerators in Asia and the Pacific region which are mainly in Japan, Rep. of Korea and China. The main applications which are in the interest of the region are radiation sterilisation of medical products; radiation crosslinking of wire and cable, heat shrinkable film and tube, and foam; radiation curing of surface coatings, printing inks and adhesive; radiation vulcanisation of natural rubber latex; radiation processing of agro-industrial waste; radiation treatment of sewage sludge and municipal waste; food irradiation; tissue grafts and radiation synthesis of bioactive materials.

  14. 'Getting the biosecurity architecture right' in the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Minehata, Masamichi

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers insights to enhance biosecurity in the Asia-Pacific by asking three questions. What risks/threats are significant in the region? Which security measures should be prioritized? What kind of regional--institutionalized and ad-hoc--arrangements should be implemented? By doing so the paper specifically focuses on two important aspects of biosecurity. Firstly, the issue of immediate capacity-building in the context of disaster relief, public health preparedness and biodefence. Secondly, the long-term preventive aspect, namely education and awareness-raising activities to more broadly promote responsible conduct in life science research in terms of laboratory accidents as well as the intentional use of biological agents for hostile purposes. In order to promote both aspects of biosecurity within the policy process, the paper analyses the strategic value of the US-Japan partnership in its efforts to build a biosecurity architecture in the Asia-Pacific region.

  15. Dynamic Spatiotemporal Trends of Dengue Transmission in the Asia-Pacific Region, 1955–2004

    PubMed Central

    Banu, Shahera; Hu, Wenbiao; Guo, Yuming; Naish, Suchithra; Tong, Shilu

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue fever (DF) is one of the most important emerging arboviral human diseases. Globally, DF incidence has increased by 30-fold over the last fifty years, and the geographic range of the virus and its vectors has expanded. The disease is now endemic in more than 120 countries in tropical and subtropical parts of the world. This study examines the spatiotemporal trends of DF transmission in the Asia-Pacific region over a 50-year period, and identified the disease’s cluster areas. Methodology and Findings The World Health Organization’s DengueNet provided the annual number of DF cases in 16 countries in the Asia-Pacific region for the period 1955 to 2004. This fifty-year dataset was divided into five ten-year periods as the basis for the investigation of DF transmission trends. Space-time cluster analyses were conducted using scan statistics to detect the disease clusters. This study shows an increasing trend in the spatiotemporal distribution of DF in the Asia-Pacific region over the study period. Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, Singapore and Malaysia are identified as the most likely clusters (relative risk = 13.02) of DF transmission in this region in the period studied (1995 to 2004). The study also indicates that, for the most part, DF transmission has expanded southwards in the region. Conclusions This information will lead to the improvement of DF prevention and control strategies in the Asia-Pacific region by prioritizing control efforts and directing them where they are most needed. PMID:24586780

  16. Development of Crop Yield Estimation Method by Applying Seasonal Climate Prediction in Asia-Pacific Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Y.; Lee, E.

    2015-12-01

    Under the influence of recent climate change, abnormal weather condition such as floods and droughts has issued frequently all over the world. The occurrence of abnormal weather in major crop production areas leads to soaring world grain prices because it influence the reduction of crop yield. Development of crop yield estimation method is important means to accommodate the global food crisis caused by abnormal weather. However, due to problems with the reliability of the seasonal climate prediction, application research on agricultural productivity has not been much progress yet. In this study, it is an object to develop long-term crop yield estimation method in major crop production countries worldwide using multi seasonal climate prediction data collected by APEC Climate Center. There are 6-month lead seasonal predictions produced by six state-of-the-art global coupled ocean-atmosphere models(MSC_CANCM3, MSC_CANCM4, NASA, NCEP, PNU, POAMA). First of all, we produce a customized climate data through temporal and spatial downscaling methods for use as a climatic input data to the global scale crop model. Next, we evaluate the uncertainty of climate prediction by applying multi seasonal climate prediction in the crop model. Because rice is the most important staple food crop in the Asia-Pacific region, we assess the reliability of the rice yields using seasonal climate prediction for main rice production countries. RMSE(Root Mean Squire Error) and TCC(Temporal Correlation Coefficient) analysis is performed in Asia-Pacific countries, major 14 rice production countries, to evaluate the reliability of the rice yield according to the climate prediction models. We compare the rice yield data obtained from FAOSTAT and estimated using the seasonal climate prediction data in Asia-Pacific countries. In addition, we show that the reliability of seasonal climate prediction according to the climate models in Asia-Pacific countries where rice cultivation is being carried out.

  17. Teaching Neuro-Ophthalmology in the Asia-Pacific Region and China: A Personal Perspective.

    PubMed

    Crompton, John

    2015-12-01

    Over the last 30 years, I have been involved in a number of projects helping to educate and train local ophthalmologists in many parts of Asia and the Pacific Islands, which lack adequate training and service in neuro-ophthalmology. In this article, I offer an overview of a number of different teaching initiatives and offer practical suggestions to anyone who might wish to become involved.

  18. The United States Strategy in East Asia-Pacific-Implications for Australia’s Defenses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    power by wealth, has been a dominant historical catalyst for human conflict. When Charles Darwin published The Descent of Man in 1871 he made the...71 Ross Babbage , "Trends in Asia-Pacific Security." In The Army and the Future. Ed. David Horner, 47-48. Canberra: Directorate of...Keehn, 112. 165 General Charles Krulak, Commandant USMC, in an interview with The Navy Times, 1 January 1996, 18. 166 General Dennis J. Reimer, in

  19. United States security strategy for the east Asia-Pacific region

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The United States National Security Strategy published in July 1994 is based on enlarging the community of market democracies while deterring and containing a range of threats to our nation, our allies and our interests. Focusing on new threats and new opportunities, its central goals are: to enhance security by maintaining a strong defense capability and promoting cooperative security measures; to open foreign markets and spur global economic growth; and to promote democracy abroad. In accordance with the National Security Strategy, this document explains United States defense policy toward furthering these goals in the Asia-Pacific region. It builds upon the Strategy`s emphasis on maintaining a strong defense capability to enhance U.S. security and to provide a foundation for regional stability through mutually beneficial security partnerships. As the Strategy states, East Asia is a region of growing importance to American goals: nowhere are the strands of our three-part strategy more intertwined; nowhere is the need for continued engagement more evident. In thinking about the Asia-Pacific region, security comes first, and a committed United States military presence will continue to serve as a bedrock for America`s security role in this dynamic area of the world. The regional security strategy for the Asia-Pacific region emphasizes strengthening the bilateral alliances that have been at the heart of United States strategy for more than forty years. The United States is also committed to contribute to regional security through active participation in new multi-lateral fora like the ASEAN Regional Forum. Through such multi-lateral mechanisms the countries of the region seek to develop new cooperative approaches to achieve greater stability and security. Additionally, the Pacific Command sponsors multi-national military activities.

  20. Assistance Focus: Asia/Pacific Region; Clean Energy Solutions Center (CESC)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-11

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center Ask an Expert service connects governments seeking policy information and advice with one of more than 30 global policy experts who can provide reliable and unbiased quick-response advice and information. The service is available at no cost to government agency representatives from any country and the technical institutes assisting them. This publication presents summaries of assistance provided to governments in the Asia/Pacific region, including the benefits of that assistance.

  1. Cooperative measures to mitigate Asia-Pacific maritime conflicts.

    SciTech Connect

    Chai, Wen-Chung

    2003-05-01

    The economies of East Asia are predominantly export based and, therefore, place special emphasis on the security of the sea lines of communication (SLOCs). Due to economic globalization, the United States shares these concerns. Cooperative measures by the concerned parties could reduce the potential for disruption by maritime conflicts. Primary threats against the SLOCs are disputes over the resources under the seas, disputes over some small island groups, disputes between particular parties (China-Taiwan and North-South Korea), or illegal activities like smuggling, piracy, or terrorism. This paper provides an overview on these threats, issue by issue, to identify common elements and needed cooperation. Cooperation on other topics such as search and rescue, fisheries protection, and oil spill response may help support improved relations to prevent maritime conflicts. Many technologies can help support maritime cooperation, including improved communications links, tracking and emergency beacon devices, and satellite imaging. Appropriate technical and political means are suggested for each threat to the SLOCs.

  2. Mechanical circulatory support and heart transplantation in the Asia Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Sivathasan, Cumaraswamy; Lim, Choon Pin; Kerk, Ka Lee; Sim, David K L; Mehra, Mandeep R

    2017-01-01

    . By the end of 2015, 243 HeartWare HVADs had been implanted in Asia Pacific. There is a need for focused efforts at improving the reporting of data and intensifying health policy within the region to advocate organ transplantation. Individual governments need to take national responsibility to fulfill organ donation and transplantation needs of their populations. International collaboratives, coordinated by societies such as the ISHLT, will be essential in moving this field forward in Asia Pacific.

  3. PrEP implementation in the Asia-Pacific region: opportunities, implementation and barriers

    PubMed Central

    Zablotska, Iryna; Grulich, Andrew E; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Anand, Tarandeep; Janyam, Surang; Poonkasetwattana, Midnight; Baggaley, Rachel; van Griensven, Frits; Lo, Ying-Ru

    2016-01-01

    Introduction HIV epidemics in the Asia-Pacific region are concentrated among men who have sex with men (MSM) and other key populations. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective HIV prevention intervention and could be a potential game changer in the region. We discuss the progress towards PrEP implementation in the Asia-Pacific region, including opportunities and barriers. Discussion Awareness about PrEP in the Asia-Pacific is still low and so are its levels of use. A high proportion of MSM who are aware of PrEP are willing to use it. Key PrEP implementation barriers include poor knowledge about PrEP, limited access to PrEP, weak or non-existent HIV prevention programmes for MSM and other key populations, high cost of PrEP, stigma and discrimination against key populations and restrictive laws in some countries. Only several clinical trials, demonstration projects and a few larger-scale implementation studies have been implemented so far in Thailand and Australia. However, novel approaches to PrEP implementation have emerged: researcher-, facility- and community-led models of care, with PrEP services for fee and for free. The WHO consolidated guidelines on HIV testing, treatment and prevention call for an expanded access to PrEP worldwide and have provided guidance on PrEP implementation in the region. Some countries like Australia have released national PrEP guidelines. There are growing community leadership and consultation processes to initiate PrEP implementation in Asia and the Pacific. Conclusions Countries of the Asia-Pacific region will benefit from adding PrEP to their HIV prevention packages, but for many this is a critical step that requires resourcing. Having an impact on the HIV epidemic requires investment. The next years should see the region transitioning from limited PrEP implementation projects to growing access to PrEP and expansion of HIV prevention programmes. PMID:27760688

  4. The Changing Face of Crises and Aid in the Asia-Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Burkle, Frederick M.; Hamon, David W.; Walker, Peter; Benjamin, Georges C.

    2014-01-01

    Both US foreign policy and global attention attest to the strategic, economic, and political importance of Asia. Yet, the region faces urgent challenges that must be addressed if it is to remain stable and prosperous. The densely populated countries of the Asia-Pacific are beleaguered by poverty, population displacement, decreasing access to potable water and adequate sanitation, and high rates of disease morbidity and mortality. New and reemerging diseases known to have originated in Asia over the past decades have spread globally by international trade, tourism, worker migration, and agricultural exportation. Unremitting naturally occurring and man-made disasters have strained Southeast Asia's already fragile disaster and public health response infrastructures and the essential services they provide (eg, surveillance, vaccination, maternal and child health, and mental health programs). Following disasters, governments often contract with the broader humanitarian community (eg, indigenous and international NGOs) and seek the assistance of militaries to provide essential services. Yet, their roles and capabilities in addressing acute and chronic health issues in the wake of complex disasters remain unclear. Current mechanisms of nation-state and outside organization interaction, including dissimilar operational platforms, may limit true partnership on behalf of the health security mission. Additionally, concerns regarding skill sets and the lack of standards-based training raise questions about the balance between developing internal response capabilities and professionalizing external, deployable resources. Both the mega-disasters that are forecast for the region and the global health security threats that are expected to emanate from them require an increased focus on improving the Asia-Pacific's emergency preparedness and response posture. PMID:25268048

  5. The changing face of crises and aid in the Asia-Pacific.

    PubMed

    Gursky, Elin A; Burkle, Frederick M; Hamon, David W; Walker, Peter; Benjamin, Georges C

    2014-01-01

    Both US foreign policy and global attention attest to the strategic, economic, and political importance of Asia. Yet, the region faces urgent challenges that must be addressed if it is to remain stable and prosperous. The densely populated countries of the Asia-Pacific are beleaguered by poverty, population displacement, decreasing access to potable water and adequate sanitation, and high rates of disease morbidity and mortality. New and reemerging diseases known to have originated in Asia over the past decades have spread globally by international trade, tourism, worker migration, and agricultural exportation. Unremitting naturally occurring and man-made disasters have strained Southeast Asia's already fragile disaster and public health response infrastructures and the essential services they provide (eg, surveillance, vaccination, maternal and child health, and mental health programs). Following disasters, governments often contract with the broader humanitarian community (eg, indigenous and international NGOs) and seek the assistance of militaries to provide essential services. Yet, their roles and capabilities in addressing acute and chronic health issues in the wake of complex disasters remain unclear. Current mechanisms of nation-state and outside organization interaction, including dissimilar operational platforms, may limit true partnership on behalf of the health security mission. Additionally, concerns regarding skill sets and the lack of standards-based training raise questions about the balance between developing internal response capabilities and professionalizing external, deployable resources. Both the mega-disasters that are forecast for the region and the global health security threats that are expected to emanate from them require an increased focus on improving the Asia-Pacific's emergency preparedness and response posture.

  6. United States security strategy for the East Asia-Pacific region

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The three years since release of the last East Asia Strategy Report (EASR) have produced important development in the security environment of the Asia-Pacific region. The 1998 EASR outlines a multifaceted regional security strategy, including: maintenance of comprehensive US engagement, including not only the presence of approximately 100,000 US military personnel in Asia but also a variety of other public and private interaction with the region; continued enhancement of the alliance relationships with Japan, Korea, Australia, Thailand and the Philippines; comprehensive engagement with China to build the foundation for a long-term relationship based on cooperation and mutual interest; broadening of cooperation with the nations of Southeast Asia on security and confidence building; expansion of regional cooperation with Russia; support for the development of security pluralism, including expansion of multilateral, minilateral and bilateral dialogue in the region; promotion of democracy; stemming and countering proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD): and increased attention to terrorism, environmental degradation, emerging infectious diseases, drug trafficking and other transnational challenges as critical elements of `comprehensive security.`

  7. [Current trends of NASH/NAFLD in Asia-Pacific region].

    PubMed

    Ishii, Hiromasa

    2006-06-01

    In Japan, much attention has been paid to NASH and NAFLD for the past several years and the prevalence of this disease entity has been estimated, and NASH is thought to be present in 10% of those who have fatty liver diseases. Other points out the prevalence of NASH in Japan as 6 to 8 hundred thousand patients. The last two or three decades have seen the evolution of Western-style life of near complete inactivity, energy-dense food choices and liberal fiscal resources to obtain them and other means to avoid physical activity. Moreover, what is increasingly apparent is that NASH and NAFLD is not a Western disease and many population groups in the Asia-Pacific region are particularly prone to type 2 diabetes. Thus, it is not surprising that NASH has increasingly been diagnosed in several regions in Asia including Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and India.

  8. Responding to the threat of global warming: Options for the Pacific and Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Streets, D.G.; Siddiqi, T.A.

    1989-01-01

    In June 1989, Argonne National Laboratory and the Environment and Policy Institute of the East-West Center jointly sponsored a workshop that was held at the East-West Center in Honolulu, Hawaii. The primary goal of the workshop was to explore the options that the countries of the Pacific and Asia have for dealing with the threat of global warming. The countries of the Pacific and Asia must address a variety of issues related to global warming, ranging from determining the advisability of reducing greenhouse-gas emissions to assessing the vulnerability of various communities to the consequences of climate change only adds to the many other important health and socioeconomic problems they must face. The goal of this workshop was to bring together policy makers, scientists, and analysts who are concerned about the issue of climate change in this region so they could begin to develop information that will help decision makers formulate rational policy alternatives. Four principal areas of discussion were addressed in the workshop: the current state of knowledge about global climate change and its likely consequences; energy policy options for slowing the expected growth in emissions of greenhouse gases; mitigation measures to cope with the impacts (including impacts related to agriculture and sea-level rise), should they occur, and research needs to assist decision makers in the Pacific and Asia. This volume compiles the proceedings of the workshop. The invited and contributed papers included here are in the form in which they were submitted to the meeting. This volume contains 37 papers. Individual papers are indexed separately on the energy database.

  9. Dynamic spanning trees in stock market networks: The case of Asia-Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sensoy, Ahmet; Tabak, Benjamin M.

    2014-11-01

    This article proposes a new procedure to evaluate Asia Pacific stock market interconnections using a dynamic setting. Dynamic spanning trees (DST) are constructed using an ARMA-FIEGARCH-cDCC process. The main results show that: 1. the DST significantly shrinks over time; 2. Hong Kong is found to be the key financial market; 3. the DST has a significantly increased stability in the last few years; 4. the removal of the key player has two effects: there is no clear key market any longer and the stability of the DST significantly decreases. These results are important for the design of policies that help develop stock markets and for academics and practitioners.

  10. Control of neglected tropical diseases in Asia Pacific: implications for health information priorities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Poverty magnifies limitations posed by traditional biases and environmental risks. Any approach towards disease control needs to recognise that socially embedded vulnerabilities can be as powerful as externally imposed infections. Asia Pacific has a specific panorama of infectious diseases, which, in common with other endemic areas, have a tendency to emerge or re-emerge if not carefully monitored. Sustained control aiming at elimination requires strong emphasis on surveillance and response. Well-designed informatics platforms can improve support systems and strengthen control activities, as they rapidly locate high-risk areas and provide detailed, up-to-date information on the performance of ongoing control programmes. PMID:23849136

  11. More arms, less stability: Nuclear, chemical, and missile proliferation in the Asia-Pacific. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, A.

    1991-04-01

    In the wake of the Gulf War, the Bush Administration has reaffirmed its determination to seek controls over weapons of mass destruction in the Third World, in particular nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons (CBW); and over ballistic missiles, one possible delivery system for nuclear and CBW systems. Attention over the past eight months has naturally focused on the Middle East, but the Asia-Pacific region contains a number of countries which are alleged to have CW and BW programs. One country, North Korea, is far closer to manufacturing nuclear weapons than Iraq was.

  12. Seismic imaging of the stagnant Pacific slab in the mantle transition zone under East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, D.

    2008-12-01

    We used regional and global seismic tomography to determine high-resolution 3-D P-wave velocity structure of the crust and mantle down to 1200 km depth under Western Pacific to East Asia (Zhao, 2004, 2007; Huang and Zhao, 2006). A large number of arrival times of P, pP, PP and PcP waves recorded by many seismic stations in East Asia are used in the tomographic inversions. The subducting Pacific slab is imaged clearly as a high-velocity zone from the oceanic trenches down to 670-km depth, and intermediate-depth and deep earthquakes are located within the slab. The Pacific slab becomes stagnant in the mantle transition zone under eastern China. The western edge of the stagnant slab is generally parallel with the Japan trench and the Ryukyu trench and roughly coincides with a prominent surface topographic boundary in East China. Although there are some discrepancies between the topographic boundary and the western edge of the stagnant slab, both of them are located approximately 1800 km west of the trenches. The entire Pacific slab is stagnant in the mantle transition zone under Northeast China (53-37 degree north latitude). Under 37-28 degree north latitude, however, some of the slab materials are visible below the 670-km discontinuity, though most of the slab materials are still in the transition zone, suggesting that part of the slab materials have started to drop down to the lower mantle. Under the Mariana arc, the Pacific slab penetrates directly down to the lower mantle. It is also visible that the Philippine Sea slab has subducted down to the mantle transition zone depth under western Japan and the Ryukyu back-arc region (Abdelwahed and Zhao, 2007). There are three active intraplate volcanoes in China. The Changbai and Wudalianchi volcanoes in Northeast China are underlain by significant slow anomalies in the upper mantle, above the stagnant Pacific slab, suggesting that the two active volcanoes are not hot spots but a kind of back-arc volcanoes associated with

  13. Imperial Queerness: The U.S. Homophile Press and Constructions of Sexualities in Asia and the Pacific, 1953-1964.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Carly

    2017-01-17

    This essay examines the ways in which U.S. homophile magazines represented and constructed Asia and the Pacific from 1953 to 1964. Through an analysis of 209 items that referenced Asia and the Pacific in ONE, Mattachine Review, and the Ladder, the essay argues that U.S. homophiles referenced the region in three primary ways: first, to create relationships, allies, and exchanges with people living in the region; second, to highlight the inferiority of the East and superiority of the West; and third, to reveal the cross-cultural and transhistorical nature of homosexuality. These references were influenced by Orientalism, colonialism, and the Cold War, which framed Asia and the Pacific as both sexually and culturally backwards, but also as a potential tourist destination for gay men and lesbian women.

  14. Children's exposure to food advertising on free-to-air television: an Asia-Pacific perspective.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Bridget; Hebden, Lana; King, Lesley; Xiao, Yang; Yu, Yang; He, Gengsheng; Li, Liangli; Zeng, Lingxia; Hadi, Hamam; Karupaiah, Tilakavati; Hoe, Ng See; Noor, Mohd Ismail; Yoon, Jihyun; Kim, Hyogyoo

    2016-03-01

    There is an established link between food promotions and children's food purchase and consumption. Children in developing countries may be more vulnerable to food promotions given the relative novelty of advertising in these markets. This study aimed to determine the scope of television food advertising to children across the Asia-Pacific to inform policies to restrict this marketing. Six sites were sampled, including from China, Indonesia, Malaysia and South Korea. At each site, 192 h of television were recorded (4 days, 16 h/day, three channels) from May to October 2012. Advertised foods were categorized as core/healthy, non-core/unhealthy or miscellaneous, and by product type. Twenty-seven percent of advertisements were for food/beverages, and the most frequently advertised product was sugar-sweetened drinks. Rates of non-core food advertising were highest during viewing times most popular with children, when between 3 (South Korea) and 15 (Indonesia) non-core food advertisements were broadcast each hour. Children in the Asia-Pacific are exposed to high volumes of unhealthy food/beverage television advertising. Different policy arrangements for food advertising are likely to contribute to regional variations in advertising patterns. Cities with the lowest advertising rates can be identified as exemplars of good policy practice.

  15. Particularities of hydro lidar missions in the Asia-Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feygels, Viktor I.; Kopilevich, Yuri; Park, Joong Yong; Kim, Minsu; Aitken, Jennifer

    2014-11-01

    The Asia-Pacific ocean region is one of the areas where airborne lidar is a promising tool for depth measurement. The anticipated efficiency of a laser bathymetry survey of a coastal zone in the region varies with the optical characteristics of the water. Near-shore waters in open areas of several countries (Philippines, Indonesia, Taiwan, and the east coast of South Korea) may be described as Class II in the Jerlov 1 classification (turbid tropical-subtropical water), while water properties in internal seas are described as Classes 1 to 9 (coastal waters of increasing turbidity); the optical characteristics of the coastal waters of the East China Sea are beyond the Jerlov classification. In this paper, the applicability of the CZMIL (Coastal Zone Mapping and Imaging Lidar) 2, 3 system developed by Optech is considered for lidar bathymetry in the Asia-Pacific region. The Optech CZMIL has several attributes that enable it to significantly improve seafloor detectability in shallow and, in particular, turbid waters, namely a high-energy laser, a short system response function, increased receiver sensitivity, and high point density. The system capability was tested in a relatively turbid area of the Gulf Coast of Mississippi. The maximal depth for bathymetry with the CZMIL system is estimated theoretically in various countries, accounting for the spatial and seasonal variability of the internal optical properties of near-shore water

  16. Food security in the Asia-Pacific: Malthus, limits and environmental challenges.

    PubMed

    Butler, Colin D

    2009-01-01

    This is the first of two articles on the steepening challenges which confront global agriculture, food security and hence nutrition and population health. The recent deterioration in global food security has caught most experts by surprise. While the Asia Pacific region as a whole has so far fared reasonably well, there should be no complacency about medium to long term food security in the region, whether or not food security improves in the near future. The first paper places this debate in the context of the long-standing arguments between Malthusianists and optimists. The apparent reversal of position in the last decade of two leading agricultural experts is discussed. Their recent writings reflect intensified Malthusian concerns curbed in their writings from the 1990s. The paper concludes that far more credence needs to be given to the pessimistic position in order to avoid it becoming reality. The second paper focusses on five interrelated challenges to future food security in the Asia Pacific. These may be conceptualised as pathways by which pessimistic Malthusian scenarios become manifest. The mechanisms are (1) climate change, (2) water scarcity, (3) tropospheric ozone pollution, (4) impending scarcity of phosphorus and conventional oil and (5) the possible interaction between future population displacement, conflict and poor governance. The article concludes that a sustainable improvement in food security requires a radical transformation in society's approach to the environment, population growth, agricultural research and the distribution of rights, opportunities and entitlements.

  17. Medical physics aspects of cancer care in the Asia Pacific region: 2014 survey results.

    PubMed

    Kron, Tomas; Azhari, H A; Voon, E O; Cheung, K Y; Ravindran, P; Soejoko, D; Inamura, K; Han, Y; Ung, N M; TsedenIsh, Bolortuya; Win, U M; Srivastava, R; Marsh, S; Farrukh, S; Rodriguez, L; Kuo, Men; Baggarley, S; DilipKumara, A H; Lee, C C; Krisanachinda, A; Nguyen, X C; Ng, K H

    2015-09-01

    It was the aim of this work to assess and track the workload, working conditions and professional recognition of radiation oncology medical physicists (ROMPs) in the Asia Pacific region over time. In this third survey since 2008, a structured questionnaire was mailed in 2014 to 22 senior medical physicists representing 23 countries. As in previous surveys the questionnaire covered seven themes: 1 education, training and professional certification, 2 staffing, 3 typical tasks, 4 professional organisations, 5 resources, 6 research and teaching, and 7 job satisfaction. The response rate of 100% is a result of performing a survey through a network, which allows easy follow-up. The replies cover 4841 ROMPs in 23 countries. Compared to 2008, the number of medical physicists in many countries has doubled. However, the number of experienced ROMPs compared to the overall workforce is still small, especially in low and middle income countries. The increase in staff is matched by a similar increase in the number of treatment units over the years. Furthermore, the number of countries using complex techniques (IMRT, IGRT) or installing high end equipment (tomotherapy, robotic linear accelerators) is increasing. Overall, ROMPs still feel generally overworked and the professional recognition, while varying widely, appears to be improving only slightly. Radiation oncology medical physics practice has not changed significantly over the last 6 years in the Asia Pacific Region even if the number of physicists and the number and complexity of treatment techniques and technologies have increased dramatically.

  18. Meningococcal disease in the Asia-Pacific region: Findings and recommendations from the Global Meningococcal Initiative.

    PubMed

    Borrow, Ray; Lee, Jin-Soo; Vázquez, Julio A; Enwere, Godwin; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Kamiya, Hajime; Kim, Hwang Min; Jo, Dae Sun

    2016-11-21

    The Global Meningococcal Initiative (GMI) is a global expert group that includes scientists, clinicians, and public health officials with a wide range of specialties. The purpose of the Initiative is to promote the global prevention of meningococcal disease (MD) through education, research, and cooperation. The first Asia-Pacific regional meeting was held in November 2014. The GMI reviewed the epidemiology of MD, surveillance, and prevention strategies, and outbreak control practices from participating countries in the Asia-Pacific region.Although, in general, MD is underreported in this region, serogroup A disease is most prominent in low-income countries such as India and the Philippines, while Taiwan, Japan, and Korea reported disease from serogroups C, W, and Y. China has a mixed epidemiology of serogroups A, B, C, and W. Perspectives from countries outside of the region were also provided to provide insight into lessons learnt. Based on the available data and meeting discussions, a number of challenges and data gaps were identified and, as a consequence, several recommendations were formulated: strengthen surveillance; improve diagnosis, typing and case reporting; standardize case definitions; develop guidelines for outbreak management; and promote awareness of MD among healthcare professionals, public health officials, and the general public.

  19. Regional ash fall hazard II: Asia-Pacific modelling results and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Susanna; McAneney, John; Magill, Christina; Blong, Russell

    2012-09-01

    In a companion paper (this volume), the authors propose a methodology for assessing ash fall hazard on a regional scale. In this study, the methodology is applied to the Asia-Pacific region, determining the hazard from 190 volcanoes to over one million square kilometre of urban area. Ash fall hazard is quantified for each square kilometre grid cell of urban area in terms of the annual exceedance probability (AEP), and its inverse, the average recurrence interval (ARI), for ash falls exceeding 1, 10 and 100 mm. A surrogate risk variable, the Population-Weighted Hazard Score: the product of AEP and population density, approximates the relative risk for each grid cell. Within the Asia-Pacific region, urban areas in Indonesia are found to have the highest levels of hazard and risk, while Australia has the lowest. A clear demarcation emerges between the hazard in countries close to and farther from major subduction plate boundaries, with the latter having ARIs at least 2 orders of magnitude longer for the same thickness thresholds. Countries with no volcanoes, such as North Korea and Malaysia, also face ash falls from volcanoes in neighbouring countries. Ash falls exceeding 1 mm are expected to affect more than one million people living in urban areas within the study region; in Indonesia, Japan and the Philippines, this situation could occur with ARIs less than 40 years.

  20. A Food in Health Security (FIHS) platform in the Asia-Pacific Region: the way forward.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L; Keatinge, John Donough H; Butler, Colin D; Friel, Sharon; McKay, John; Easdown, Warwick; Kuo, Ken N; Huang, Ching-jang; Pan, Wen-Harn; Yang, Ray-Yu; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Chiu, Ya-Wen; Jaron, Dov; Krawinkel, Michael; Barlow, Snow; Walsh, Greg; Chiang, Tung-liang; Huang, Po-Chao; Li, Duo

    2009-01-01

    The advent of multiple global crises, especially those of climate change, economics, energy, water, food and health evident in 2008, is of considerable moment to those who are suffering their consequences and for those with responsibility and interest in the systems affected. A coalition of parties in the Asia Pacific Region who work in the food and health systems met in August, 2009 in Taiwan and instigated a Food in Health Security (FIHS) Network which might join with other like-minded networks in and beyond the region. Sustainable health has many dimensions, among which food and nutrition is often neglected; there is a wide spectrum of nutritionally-related disorders. Malnutrition remains the global concern for agricultural research and development scientists and linkage with the health sector is key to progress. The disconnect between agricultural and health sectors negatively impacts consumer nutrition and health. Ethical and equity affect food and health systems. Food and health security is attainable only when the underlying social inequities are addressed; it is an ethical issue as reflected in the UN Universal declaration of Human Rights which includes the right to food for health and well-being. Food and health security are part of the larger security agenda and merit corresponding attention. Policy recommendations with immediacy are greater investment in combined food and health research; an Asia Pacific security agenda which emphasizes planetary, human, health and food security as relevant to traditional defence security; and community and household security measures which include maternal literacy, communication technology and entrepreneurial opportunity.

  1. Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection-focus on the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Q M; Nguyen, H L; Nguyen, V N; Nguyen, T V A; Sintchenko, V; Marais, B J

    2015-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading opportunistic disease and cause of death in patients with HIV infection. In 2013 there were 1.1 million new TB/HIV co-infected cases globally, accounting for 12% of incident TB cases and 360,000 deaths. The Asia-Pacific region, which contributes more than a half of all TB cases worldwide, traditionally reports low TB/HIV co-infection rates. However, routine testing of TB patients for HIV infection is not universally implemented and the estimated prevalence of HIV in new TB cases increased to 6.3% in 2013. Although HIV infection rates have not seen the rapid rise observed in Sub-Saharan Africa, indications are that rates are increasing among specific high-risk groups. This paper reviews the risks of TB exposure and progression to disease, including the risk of TB recurrence, in this vulnerable population. There is urgency to scale up interventions such as intensified TB case-finding, isoniazid preventive therapy, and TB infection control, as well as HIV testing and improved access to antiretroviral treatment. Increased awareness and concerted action is required to reduce TB/HIV co-infection rates in the Asia-Pacific region and to improve the outcomes of people living with HIV.

  2. Cross-sectional survey of the disaster preparedness of nurses across the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Usher, Kim; Mills, Jane; West, Caryn; Casella, Evan; Dorji, Passang; Guo, Aimin; Koy, Virya; Pego, George; Phanpaseuth, Souksavanh; Phouthavong, Olaphim; Sayami, Jamuna; Lak, Muy Seang; Sio, Alison; Ullah, Mohammad Mofiz; Sheng, Yu; Zang, Yuli; Buettner, Petra; Woods, Cindy

    2015-12-01

    Healthcare workers who have received disaster preparedness education are more likely to report a greater understanding of disaster preparedness. However, research indicates that current nursing curricula do not adequately prepare nurses to respond to disasters. This is the first study to assess Asia-Pacific nurses' perceptions about their level of disaster knowledge, skills, and preparedness. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 757 hospital and community nurses in seven Asia-Pacific countries. Data were collected using the modified Disaster Preparedness Evaluation Tool. Participants were found to have overall low-to-moderate levels of disaster knowledge, skills and preparedness, wherein important gaps were identified. A majority of the variance in disaster preparedness scores was located at the level of the individual respondent, not linked to countries or institutions. Multilevel random effects modelling identified disaster experience and education as significant factors of positive perceptions of disaster knowledge, skills, and management. The first step toward disaster preparedness is to ensure frontline health workers are able to respond effectively to disaster events. The outcomes of this study have important policy and education implications.

  3. Emerging issues in health and education in Asia-Pacific: a focus on speech-language pathology.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Li-Rong Lilly

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present some emerging issues in health and education in the Asia-Pacific region. Special attention will be given to the education of speech-language pathologists (SLP) and to service provision for the people with communicative disorders whenever possible. Information on the education of SLP in Asia-Pacific is not easy to gather because of the geographical distances between areas, language differences in the data compiled and the lack of consistent collaboration and information exchanges. In this article, a case study from Singapore is also presented. Implications for clinical services and education are discussed at the end of this paper.

  4. [UNESCO] Regional Consultation Meeting on the Asia and Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) (12th, Chaing Mai, Thailand, August 20-27, 1990). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This document is the final report of a Regional Consultation Meeting (RCM) on the Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID), a mechanism developed by UNESCO to bring about regional cooperation in education in Asia and the Pacific. This RCM was attended by 55 participants, resource persons, and observers from…

  5. 2013 Asia-Pacific Education Research Institutes Network (ERI-Net) Regional Study on Transversal Competencies in Education Policy & Practice (Phase I). Regional Synthesis Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoko, Satoko

    2015-01-01

    This report provides an understanding of how transversal competencies are viewed, implemented, and adapted in education policy and curriculum across the Asia-Pacific region. The publication consolidates the results of ten country studies carried out in 2013-2014 in ten countries and economies of the Asia-Pacific region, including: Australia; China…

  6. Role of bilastine in the management of allergic rhinitis and urticaria: an Asia-Pacific consensus statement

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dennis Lip Yen; Abong, Jovilia; Siasoco, Bella; Chow, Steven KW; Leong, Jern-Lin; Singh, Harvinder; Kuljit, S; Campomanes, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases is increasing globally, most particularly in middle- to low-income countries. This article examines the burden of allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria in the Asia-Pacific region, unmet clinical needs, and the potential role of bilastine in the management of these conditions. An International Advisory Group meeting was convened in association with the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology Annual Congress in November 2014, followed by a literature review, and consensus-based outcomes from the meeting and literature review are described. Regional estimates of the prevalence of allergic rhinitis range from 10% to 50%, while little is known regarding the burden of urticaria in the Asia-Pacific region. A survey of allergy patients in the region identified fast, complete, and long-lasting symptom relief as the medication attributes most important to patients. International treatment guidelines for allergic rhinitis and urticaria advocate the first-line use of second-generation, no-sedating H1-antihistamines, such as bilastine, over their first-generation counterparts and a range of these agents are available to Asia-Pacific patients. The newer agents possess many of the properties of an "ideal" antihistamine (once daily administration, rapid and complete symptom relief, limited potential for drug-drug interactions, minimal side effects). The burgeoning prevalence of allergic diseases in the Asia-Pacific region and the uncontrolled symptoms that these patients experience demand a new antihistamine that offers the highest number of positive features according to the international guidelines. PMID:26844221

  7. Role of bilastine in the management of allergic rhinitis and urticaria: an Asia-Pacific consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Mösges, Ralph; Lee, Dennis Lip Yen; Abong, Jovilia; Siasoco, Bella; Chow, Steven Kw; Leong, Jern-Lin; Singh, Harvinder; Kuljit, S; Campomanes, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases is increasing globally, most particularly in middle- to low-income countries. This article examines the burden of allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria in the Asia-Pacific region, unmet clinical needs, and the potential role of bilastine in the management of these conditions. An International Advisory Group meeting was convened in association with the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology Annual Congress in November 2014, followed by a literature review, and consensus-based outcomes from the meeting and literature review are described. Regional estimates of the prevalence of allergic rhinitis range from 10% to 50%, while little is known regarding the burden of urticaria in the Asia-Pacific region. A survey of allergy patients in the region identified fast, complete, and long-lasting symptom relief as the medication attributes most important to patients. International treatment guidelines for allergic rhinitis and urticaria advocate the first-line use of second-generation, no-sedating H1-antihistamines, such as bilastine, over their first-generation counterparts and a range of these agents are available to Asia-Pacific patients. The newer agents possess many of the properties of an "ideal" antihistamine (once daily administration, rapid and complete symptom relief, limited potential for drug-drug interactions, minimal side effects). The burgeoning prevalence of allergic diseases in the Asia-Pacific region and the uncontrolled symptoms that these patients experience demand a new antihistamine that offers the highest number of positive features according to the international guidelines.

  8. Autoimmune liver diseases in the Asia-Pacific region: Proceedings of APASL symposium on AIH and PBC 2016.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Atsushi; Ma, Xiong; Yokosuka, Osamu; Weltman, Martin; You, Hong; Amarapurkar, Deepak N; Kim, Yoon Jun; Abbas, Zaigham; Payawal, Diana A; Chang, Ming-Ling; Efe, Cumali; Ozaslan, Ersan; Abe, Masanori; Mitchell-Thain, Robert; Zeniya, Mikio; Han, Kwang Hyub; Vierling, John M; Takikawa, Hajime

    2016-11-01

    During the 25th annual meeting of the Asia-Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver (APASL 2016) in Tokyo, we organized and moderated an inaugural satellite symposium on the autoimmune liver diseases, autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). Following the keynote lecture by John M. Vierling (USA), speakers from the Asia-Pacific region provided an up-to-date perspective on the epidemiology, clinical practice and research in AIH and PBC in the Asia-Pacific region. Although epidemiology and clinical features of AIH seem to be similar in East Asia compared to those in western countries, the majority of patients with AIH are detected at an advanced stage and have higher mortality rates in South Asia, indicating an unmet need for earlier diagnosis and the initiation of appropriate immunosuppressive treatment. PBC is more commonly seen in Australia and East Asia. As of 2016, clinical practice guidelines (CPG) for PBC have been published in Japan and China. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is recommended as a first-line therapy by both CPG. Nevertheless, one of the unmet therapeutic needs in PBC is the treatment of patients refractory to or intolerant of UDCA. It is of interest that the prevalence of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in PBC patients was low in Taiwan and mainland China where the prevalence of CHB is very high. In this review, we overview this exciting and epoch-making symposium.

  9. The United States and the Asia-Pacific Region: National Interests and Strategic Imperatives (Strategic Forum, Number 239, April 2009)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    American territory in the Pacific Ocean extended from the Aleutian Islands to Guam, Secretary Gates characterized the United States as a “resident power...extend their operational reach to the Indian Ocean and Persian Gulf. It is noteworthy to recall that the first U.S. forces to reach the Persian Gulf...alliance cooperation beyond the Asia-Pacific region. Japan’s Maritime Self- Defense Force is engaged in refueling oper- ations in the Indian Ocean

  10. Challenges and solutions in medically managed ACS in the Asia-Pacific region: expert recommendations from the Asia-Pacific ACS Medical Management Working Group.

    PubMed

    Huo, Yong; Thompson, Peter; Buddhari, Wacin; Ge, Junbo; Harding, Scott; Ramanathan, Letchuman; Reyes, Eugenio; Santoso, Anwar; Tam, Li-Wah; Vijayaraghavan, Govindan; Yeh, Hung-I

    2015-03-15

    Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) remain a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the Asia-Pacific (APAC) region. International guidelines advocate invasive procedures in all but low-risk ACS patients; however, a high proportion of ACS patients in the APAC region receive solely medical management due to a combination of unique geographical, socioeconomic, and population-specific barriers. The APAC ACS Medical Management Working Group recently convened to discuss the ACS medical management landscape in the APAC region. Local and international ACS guidelines and the global and APAC clinical evidence-base for medical management of ACS were reviewed. Challenges in the provision of optimal care for these patients were identified and broadly categorized into issues related to (1) accessibility/systems of care, (2) risk stratification, (3) education, (4) optimization of pharmacotherapy, and (5) cost/affordability. While ACS guidelines clearly represent a valuable standard of care, the group concluded that these challenges can be best met by establishing cardiac networks and individual hospital models/clinical pathways taking into account local risk factors (including socioeconomic status), affordability and availability of pharmacotherapies/invasive facilities, and the nature of local healthcare systems. Potential solutions central to the optimization of ACS medical management in the APAC region are outlined with specific recommendations.

  11. How To Establish Effective Book Marketing and Distribution Systems in Asia/Pacific. Report of the Regional Training Course on Book Production in Asia/Pacific (Tokyo, Japan, September 21-October 9, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asian Cultural Centre for UNESCO, Tokyo (Japan).

    The participants in this 1994 regional training course examined the issue of book distribution and marketing. They focused on book marketing together with the development of distribution in order to prepare practical action plans for improvement. Twenty-three experts from 20 countries in Asia/Pacific and Africa analyzed problems, exchanged…

  12. Political Science in Asia and the Pacific: Status Reports on Teaching and Research in Ten Countries. Social and Human Sciences in Asia and the Pacific, RUSHSAP Series on Occasional Monographs and Papers, 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchida, Takeo

    This publication contains reports on the status of teaching and research in political science in ten countries in the Asia-Pacific Region. These reports prepared according to a common guideline provide an opportunity for comparison. The essays review how political science has grown and taken root in the respective countries; the problems it faces;…

  13. Teachers, Teacher Education and Development: Report on an APEID Regional Meeting of Directors of Educational Research and Development Institutes in the Asia and the Pacific Region. Final Report of a Regional Meeting (July 7-15, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).

    The 1997 Asia-Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) Regional Meeting of Directors of Educational Research and Development Institutes in the Asia and the Pacific Region reviewed research from the Asia-Pacific region related to teachers, teacher education, and teacher development. The meeting identified common…

  14. A Holistic Approach towards Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for Addressing Education Challenges in Asia and the Pacific

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ra, Sungsup; Chin, Brian; Lim, Cher Ping

    2016-01-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) offers opportunities for governments to address key education challenges of quality, equity, and efficiency. While governments and educational institutions in developed countries may have taken up these opportunities, many developing countries in Asia and the Pacific region have often missed them out.…

  15. Teaching with Educational Technology in the 21st Century: The Case of the Asia-Pacific Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoue, Yukiko; Bell, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    With the emphasis on faculty experiences and efforts to enhance higher learning in less-developed regions, "Teaching with Educational Technology in the 21st Century: The Case of the Asia-Pacific Region" is a comprehensive study of teaching applications involving educational technology. The book encourages collaboration across…

  16. The Impact of English as a Global Language on Educational Policies and Practices in the Asia-Pacific Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunan, David

    2003-01-01

    This article presents the results of an investigation into the place of English in the curriculum in several countries in the Asia-Pacific region. The study indicates that the emergence of English as a global language is having considerable impact on policies and practices in all countries surveyed. However, it also reveals significant problems,…

  17. Why Offer the International Baccalaureate Middle Years Programme? A Comparison between Schools in Asia-Pacific and Other Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Ewan; Lee, Moosung; Tang, Hayes; Chak Pong Tsui, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    The International Baccalaureate (IB) has become a powerful educational brand by developing a reputation for combining progressive approaches with academic rigour. This can be identified by the growing number of schools adopting IB programmes globally and especially in the IB Asia-Pacific region. As part of this trend, the IB Middle Years Programme…

  18. Letter from Seoul: Correspondence from the International Arts Education Symposium and the Asia-Pacific Regional Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aprill, Arnold; Schroeder-Yu, Gigi

    2006-01-01

    Arts educator Gigi Schroeder-Yu and Arnold Aprill arrived in Seoul, Korea to participate in the International Arts Education Symposium and in the Asia-Pacific Regional Conference that are part of the wind up for the pitch of the UNESCO World Conference on Arts Education to be held in Lisbon in March 2006. In this article, they reflect on their…

  19. A Framework for Improvement of Educational and Vocational Guidance Services for Girls and Women in Asia and the Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    There is a shortfall in the provision of guidance programs to meet the specific educational and vocational needs of girls and women in Asia and the Pacific. Unemployment rates of women are higher than those of men, the lack of articulation between vocational education and the realities of the labor market lead to unemployment, and the narrow range…

  20. Non-Formal Education in Asia and the Pacific. An Overview. Asian Programme of Educational Innovation for Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Chris; Vorapipatana, Kowit

    Formal education has traditionally played the conservative role of transmitting values, culture, skills, and knowledge from one generation to the next. Its role has become dysfunctional in societies such as those in Asia and the Pacific that are characterized by rapid change. In societies such as these, the need now is for education for…

  1. A structural and stochastic optimal model for projections of LNG imports and exports in Asia-Pacific.

    PubMed

    Kompas, Tom; Che, Tuong Nhu

    2016-06-01

    The Asia-Pacific region, the largest and fastest growing liquefied natural gas (LNG) market in the world, has been undergoing radical changes over the past few years. These changes include considerable additional supplies from North America and Australia, and a recent LNG price slump resulting from an oil-linked pricing mechanism and demand uncertainties. This paper develops an Asia-Pacific Gas Model (APGM), based on a structural, stochastic and optimising framework, providing a valuable tool for the projection of LNG trade in the Asia-Pacific region. With existing social-economic conditions, the model projects that Asia-Pacific LNG imports are expected to increase by 49.1 percent in 2020 and 95.7 percent in 2030, compared to 2013. Total LNG trade value is estimated to increase to US$127.2 billion in 2020 and US$199.0 billion in 2030. Future LNG trade expansion is mainly driven by emerging and large importers (i.e., China and India), and serviced, most importantly, by new supplies from Australia and the USA. The model's projected results are sensitive to changes in expected oil prices, pricing mechanisms, economic growth and energy policies, as well as unexpected geopolitical-economic events.

  2. The Institutionalization of Comparative Education in Asia and the Pacific: Roles and Contributions of Comparative Education Societies and the WCCES

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Mark; Manzon, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The institutional framework of the field of comparative education has developed significantly in recent decades. One manifestation of development has been the establishment and activities of professional societies. This paper focuses on 12 societies that operate in Asia and the Pacific. Some of these societies have long histories while others are…

  3. Surveillance colonoscopy after endoscopic treatment for colorectal neoplasia: From the standpoint of the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Takahisa; Chiu, Han-Mo; Sano, Yasushi; Fujii, Takahiro; Ono, Akiko; Saito, Yutaka

    2016-04-01

    Colonoscopy is considered the gold standard to detect and remove colorectal neoplasia. The efficacy of colonoscopy with polypectomy to reduce colorectal cancer incidence and mortality has been demonstrated. Recently, post-polypectomy surveillance colonoscopy has become a necessary intervention in daily practice not only in Western countries but also in the Asia-Pacific region. Therefore, it is crucial to establish new clinical practice guidelines to reduce the number of unnecessary surveillance colonoscopies in order to create space for screening colonoscopy. The Asia-Pacific Consensus group recommended that surveillance colonoscopy interval should be tailored according to risk level of index colonoscopy. However, precise guidelines on interval of surveillance cannot be given because of a lack of prospective data. According to Korean and Australian guidelines, surveillance intervals after index colonoscopy of 5 years for low-risk subjects and 3 years for high-risk subjects are recommended in Asia-Pacific regions at present. Prospective data including long-term outcomes from the Japan Polyp Study, which is a multicenter randomized control trial, would be useful to establish the Asia-Pacific consensus in the near future.

  4. Leadership Challenges in International Schools in the Asia Pacific Region: Evidence from Programme Implementation of the International Baccalaureate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Moosung; Hallinger, Philip; Walker, Allan

    2012-01-01

    Over the last four decades, International Baccalaureate (IB) schools have become increasingly important in the global market of international education. This is especially evident in Asia Pacific, which has evidenced the fastest growth in IB schools, as well as international schools more generally, across the world over the last decade. Despite…

  5. Aphasia Rehabilitation in Asia and the Pacific Region: Japan, China, India, Australia and New Zealand. Monograph #45.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarno, Martha Taylor, Ed.; Woods, Diane E., Ed.

    This monograph presents a "state of the art" overview of contemporary aphasia rehabilitation policies and resources in Asia and the Pacific region. Following Martha Taylor Sarno's introduction, Sumiko Sasanuma discusses the history and development of Japan's aphasia rehabilitation services, focusing on demography and data sources,…

  6. Parasites as valuable stock markers for fisheries in Australasia, East Asia and the Pacific Islands.

    PubMed

    Lester, R J G; Moore, B R

    2015-01-01

    Over 30 studies in Australasia, East Asia and the Pacific Islands region have collected and analysed parasite data to determine the ranges of individual fish, many leading to conclusions about stock delineation. Parasites used as biological tags have included both those known to have long residence times in the fish and those thought to be relatively transient. In many cases the parasitological conclusions have been supported by other methods especially analysis of the chemical constituents of otoliths, and to a lesser extent, genetic data. In analysing parasite data, authors have applied multiple different statistical methodologies, including summary statistics, and univariate and multivariate approaches. Recently, a growing number of researchers have found non-parametric methods, such as analysis of similarities and cluster analysis, to be valuable. Future studies into the residence times, life cycles and geographical distributions of parasites together with more robust analytical methods will yield much important information to clarify stock structures in the area.

  7. Groundwater storage inferred from earthquake activities around East Asia and West Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, David Ching-Fang

    2017-01-01

    Groundwater is a necessary and indispensable resource in the gradual depletion of the amount in the world. Groundwater storage is an important indicator to evaluate the capability of volume of water can be released from the aquifer. This research highlights a new assessment to infer the storage of aquifer using earthquakes activated around East Asia and the ring of fire at West Pacific Ocean. Ten significant seismic events are used to evaluate the groundwater storage at an observation station. By analyzing the spectra of groundwater level and seismogram, it is evident that the period varied in 7-25 s of Rayleigh waves significantly dominate propagation from the epicenter of earthquakes to the observation station. The storage coefficient is then shown in the order of 10-4-10-3. The major innovation of this study suggests that to concretely deduce the groundwater storage by earthquake activity has become feasible.

  8. Child Survival and Development toward Health for All: roles and strategies for Asia-Pacific universities.

    PubMed

    Raymond, J S; Patrick, W

    1989-01-01

    Recently, discussion among academics and practitioners has focused on the potential roles, strategies, and functions of universities in the Asia-Pacific region in the next ten to fifteen years in the global initiative commonly referred to as the Child Survival and Development Revolution toward Health for All. (1) The purpose of this paper is to capture the practical key elements of recent discussions and to extend the current thinking into potentially useful guidelines or frameworks for universities of the region. Universities may then be better prepared to move forward in ways which promote the goals and interests of the Health For All movement and the well-being of particularly the world's children.

  9. Climate Change, Extreme Weather Events, and Human Health Implications in the Asia Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Hashim, Zailina

    2016-03-01

    The Asia Pacific region is regarded as the most disaster-prone area of the world. Since 2000, 1.2 billion people have been exposed to hydrometeorological hazards alone through 1215 disaster events. The impacts of climate change on meteorological phenomena and environmental consequences are well documented. However, the impacts on health are more elusive. Nevertheless, climate change is believed to alter weather patterns on the regional scale, giving rise to extreme weather events. The impacts from extreme weather events are definitely more acute and traumatic in nature, leading to deaths and injuries, as well as debilitating and fatal communicable diseases. Extreme weather events include heat waves, cold waves, floods, droughts, hurricanes, tropical cyclones, heavy rain, and snowfalls. Globally, within the 20-year period from 1993 to 2012, more than 530 000 people died as a direct result of almost 15 000 extreme weather events, with losses of more than US$2.5 trillion in purchasing power parity.

  10. Health policy in Asia and the Pacific: Navigating local needs and global challenges

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kelley

    2014-01-01

    Asia and the Pacific are undergoing a remarkable economic transformation which is occurring at an exceptional pace. There is clear evidence of an equally rapid epidemiological transition in the region. This paper sets out the policy challenges of building healthy societies in the context of rapid economic change. The region’s location at the crossroads of contemporary globalization, resulting in intensified population mobility, large-scale trade and investment, and pressures to take collective action on shared problems, adds to the complexity of this task. The paper argues that health is integral to building stable and sustainable societies, and that there are opportunities to develop more holistic approaches that bring together hitherto separate policy spheres. PMID:24592312

  11. Remote sensing helps to assess natural hazards and environmental changes in Asia-Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thouret, Jean-Claud; Liew, Soo Chin; Gupta, Avijit

    2012-04-01

    Conference on Remote Sensing, Natural Hazards, and Environmental Change; Singapore, 28-29 July 2011 Natural hazards and anthropogenic environmental changes, both significant in the Asia-Pacific region, were the two themes of a conference organized by the National University of Singapore's Centre for Remote Imaging, Sensing and Processing (CRISP) and the Université Blaise Pascal's Laboratoire Magmas et Volcans. The application of satellite imagery at a wide range of resolutions, from 500 meters to 50 centimeters, was a unifying approach in many of the studies presented. The recent arrival of a new generation of satellites with extremely high resolution (50 centimeters) has improved scientists' ability to carry out detailed studies of natural hazards and environmental change.

  12. Public Health & Nutrition in the Asia-Pacific: reflections on a quarter century.

    PubMed

    Cavalli-Sforza, Luca Tommaso

    2015-01-01

    Some reflections from work in the Asia Pacific Region, mostly with WHO, in the past 25 years, and the changes in nutrition seen in this time are shared. In 1988-89 I helped to start a Centre for Child Nutrition in Chengdu, Sichuan, through the Italian Development Cooperation. The nutritional problems in urban and rural China, 25 years ago, were similar to those elsewhere in the Region. Like China, these countries underwent rapid economic development and changes in health patterns, within two decades. The main problems for child nutrition had to do with infant feeding practices and less breastfeeding: anaemia, protein energy malnutrition and rickets were frequent. How did China and other countries tackle these and other nutrition problems? In the 1990s the global nutrition community started working on a problem-solving framework. In 1992, at the 1st FAO/WHO International Conference on Nutrition, 159 countries agreed to develop national nutrition plans. In 2014, 22 years later, FAO and WHO invited countries to review their national nutrition situation and plans. The epidemiological picture today is profoundly different. Many Asia-Pacific countries have achieved remarkable progress in socio-economic development, including malnutrition reduction. To reach the MDGs and the post-MDG goals being formulated, the remaining under-nutrition problems need to be alleviated, inequalities between sectors of society reduced, and also the growing threat of overweight/obesity and NCDs prevented and controlled. Assessing, monitoring and evaluating programmes to improve progress, now requires focusing not only on biological outcomes, but also on food security, programme process, and the policy environment.

  13. The burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiangming; Fry, Deborah A; Brown, Derek S; Mercy, James A; Dunne, Michael P; Butchart, Alexander R; Corso, Phaedra S; Maynzyuk, Kateryna; Dzhygyr, Yuriy; Chen, Yu; McCoy, Amalee; Swales, Diane M

    2015-04-01

    This study estimated the health and economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region, addressing a significant gap in the current evidence base. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the prevalence of child physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, and witnessing parental violence. Population Attributable Fractions were calculated and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost from physical and mental health outcomes and health risk behaviors attributable to child maltreatment were estimated using the most recent comparable Global Burden of Disease data. DALY losses were converted into monetary value by assuming that one DALY is equal to the sub-region's per capita GDP. The estimated economic value of DALYs lost to violence against children as a percentage of GDP ranged from 1.24% to 3.46% across sub-regions defined by the World Health Organization. The estimated economic value of DALYs (in constant 2000 US$) lost to child maltreatment in the EAP region totaled US $151 billion, accounting for 1.88% of the region's GDP. Updated to 2012 dollars, the estimated economic burden totaled US $194 billion. In sensitivity analysis, the aggregate costs as a percentage of GDP range from 1.36% to 2.52%. The economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region is substantial, indicating the importance of preventing and responding to child maltreatment in this region. More comprehensive research into the impact of multiple types of childhood adversity on a wider range of putative health outcomes is needed to guide policy and programs for child protection in the region, and globally.

  14. The burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region☆

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xiangming; Fry, Deborah A.; Brown, Derek S.; Mercy, James A.; Dunne, Michael P.; Butchart, Alexander R.; Corso, Phaedra S.; Maynzyuk, Kateryna; Dzhygyr, Yuriy; Chen, Yu; McCoy, Amalee; Swales, Diane M.

    2015-01-01

    This study estimated the health and economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region, addressing a significant gap in the current evidence base. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the prevalence of child physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, and witnessing parental violence. Population Attributable Fractions were calculated and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost from physical and mental health outcomes and health risk behaviors attributable to child maltreatment were estimated using the most recent comparable Global Burden of Disease data. DALY losses were converted into monetary value by assuming that one DALY is equal to the sub-region’s per capita GDP. The estimated economic value of DALYs lost to violence against children as a percentage of GDP ranged from 1.24% to 3.46% across sub-regions defined by the World Health Organization. The estimated economic value of DALYs (in constant 2000 US$) lost to child maltreatment in the EAP region totaled US $151 billion, accounting for 1.88% of the region’s GDP. Updated to 2012 dollars, the estimated economic burden totaled US $194 billion. In sensitivity analysis, the aggregate costs as a percentage of GDP range from 1.36% to 2.52%. The economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region is substantial, indicating the importance of preventing and responding to child maltreatment in this region. More comprehensive research into the impact of multiple types of childhood adversity on a wider range of putative health outcomes is needed to guide policy and programs for child protection in the region, and globally. PMID:25757367

  15. Telemedicine for gastrointestinal endoscopy: The Endoscopic Club E-conference in the Asia Pacific Region

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Shiaw-Hooi; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Kudo, Kuriko; Tomimatsu, Shunta; Ahmad, Mohamad Zahir; Aso, Akira; Seo, Dong Wan; Goh, Khean-Lee; Shimizu, Shuji

    2017-01-01

    Background and study aims An Endoscopic Club E-conference (ECE) was set up in May 2014 to cater to increased demand for gastrointestinal endoscopy-related teleconferences in the Asia-Pacific region which were traditionally organized by the medical working group (MWG) of Asia-Pacific Advanced Network. This study describes how the ECE meeting was run, examines the group dynamics, outlines feedback and analyzes factors affecting the enthusiasm of participants. It is hoped that the findings here can serve as guidance for future development of other teleconference groups. Methods The preparation, running of and feedback on the ECE teleconference were evaluated and described. The country’s economic situation, time zone differences, connectivity with a research and education network (REN) and engineering cooperation of each member were recorded and analyzed with regard to their association with participant enthusiasm, which was taken as participation in at least 50 % of the meetings since joining. Associations were calculated using 2-way table with chi-square test to generate odds ratio and P value. Results To date, ECE members have increased from 7 to 29 (increment of 314 %). Feedback received indicated a high level of satisfaction with program content, audiovisual transmission and ease of technical preparation. Upper gastrointestinal luminal endoscopy-related topics were the most favored program content. Those topics were presented mainly via case studies with a focus on management challenges. Time zone differences of more than 6 hours and poor engineering cooperation were independently associated with inactive participation (P values of 0.04 and 0.001 respectively). Conclusions Good program content and high-quality audiovisual transmission are keys to the success of an endoscopic medical teleconference. In our analysis, poor engineering cooperation and discordant time zones contributed to inactive participation while connectivity with REN and a country

  16. Burden of allergic rhinitis: allergies in America, Latin America, and Asia-Pacific adult surveys.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Eli O; Blaiss, Michael S; Naclerio, Robert M; Stoloff, Stuart W; Derebery, M Jennifer; Nelson, Harold S; Boyle, John M; Wingertzahn, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR; also nasal allergies or "hay fever") is a chronic upper airway inflammatory disease that affects ∼60 million adults and children in the United States. The duration and severity of AR symptoms contribute to a substantial burden on patients' quality of life (QoL), sleep, work productivity, and activity. This study was designed to examine symptoms, QoL, productivity, comorbidities, disease management, and pharmacologic treatment of AR in United States and ex-U.S. sufferers. Allergies in America was a comprehensive telephone-based survey of 2500 adults with AR. These data are compared and contrasted with findings from the Pediatric Allergies in America, Allergies in Latin America, and Allergies in Asia-Pacific telephone surveys. The prevalence of physician-diagnosed AR was 14% in U.S. adults, 7% in Latin America adults, and 9% in Asia-Pacific adults. Nasal congestion is the most common and bothersome symptom for adults. Approximately two-thirds of adults rely on medication to relieve intolerable AR symptoms. Incomplete relief, slow onset, <24-hour relief, and reduced efficacy with sustained use were commonly reported with AR medications, including intranasal corticosteroids. One in seven U.S. adults reported achieving little to no relief with AR medications. Bothersome adverse effects of AR medications included drowsiness, a drying feeling, medication dripping down the throat, and bad taste. Perception of inadequate efficacy was the leading cause of medication discontinuation or change and contributed to treatment dissatisfaction. These findings support the assertion that AR burden has been substantially underestimated and identify several important challenges to successful management of AR.

  17. A University-Level Curriculum in Climate Change for SE Asia and the Asian Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furniss, M. J.; Saah, D. S.; Hines, S. J.; Radel, C. A.; McGroddy, M. E.; Ganz, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    A university-level curriculum has been developed for the SE Asia and Asia Pacific region and is currently being implemented by 12+ universities; in Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea. The curriculum is supported by USAID (U.S. Agency for International Development) through the LEAF program (Lowering Emissions in Asian Forests), under the technical leadership of the U.S. Forest Service. Four modules have been developed: Basic Climate Change, Low-Emissions Land Use Planning, Social and Environmental Soundness, and Carbon Measurement and Monitoring. This presentation will focus on the Basic Climate Change module. This is a survey course that covers a wide range of climate change topics, including causes, effects, and responses. The level of detail in each of the covered topics is calibrated to current issues in the region. The module is elaborated in English and will be translated into the national language of the participating countries. The module is designed to be flexible and can be tailored to both degree and non-degree programs; as well as for trainings for natural resources professionals and policy-makers. Important training topics can be selected as short course trainings for practitioners and leaders working on climate change.

  18. Diabetes in Asia and the Pacific: Implications for the Global Epidemic.

    PubMed

    Nanditha, Arun; Ma, Ronald C W; Ramachandran, Ambady; Snehalatha, Chamukuttan; Chan, Juliana C N; Chia, Kee Seng; Shaw, Jonathan E; Zimmet, Paul Z

    2016-03-01

    The last three decades have witnessed an epidemic rise in the number of people with diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes, and particularly in developing countries, where more than 80% of the people with diabetes live. The rise of type 2 diabetes in South Asia is estimated to be more than 150% between 2000 and 2035. Although aging, urbanization, and associated lifestyle changes are the major determinants for the rapid increase, an adverse intrauterine environment and the resulting epigenetic changes could also contribute in many developing countries. The International Diabetes Federation estimated that there were 382 million people with diabetes in 2013, a number surpassing its earlier predictions. More than 60% of the people with diabetes live in Asia, with almost one-half in China and India combined. The Western Pacific, the world's most populous region, has more than 138.2 million people with diabetes, and the number may rise to 201.8 million by 2035. The scenario poses huge social and economic problems to most nations in the region and could impede national and, indeed, global development. More action is required to understand the drivers of the epidemic to provide a rationale for prevention strategies to address the rising global public health "tsunami." Unless drastic steps are taken through national prevention programs to curb the escalating trends in all of the countries, the social, economic, and health care challenges are likely to be insurmountable.

  19. Asian Monsoon Variability from the Monsoon Asia Drought Atlas (MADA) and Links to Indo-Pacific Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ummenhofer, Caroline; D'Arrigo, Rosanne; Anchukaitis, Kevin; Hernandez, Manuel; Buckley, Brendan; Cook, Edward

    2014-05-01

    Drought patterns across monsoon and temperate Asia over the period 1877-2005 are linked to Indo-Pacific climate variability associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). Using the Monsoon Asia Drought Atlas (MADA) composed of a high-resolution network of hydroclimatically sensitive tree-ring records with a focus on the June-August months, spatial drought patterns during El Niño and IOD events are assessed as to their agreement with an instrumental drought index and consistency in the drought response amongst ENSO/IOD events. Spatial characteristics in drought patterns are related to regional climate anomalies over the Indo-Pacific basin, using reanalysis products, including changes in the Asian monsoon systems, zonal Walker circulation, moisture fluxes, and precipitation. A weakening of the monsoon circulation over the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia during El Niño events, along with anomalous subsidence over monsoon Asia and reduced moisture flux, is reflected in anomalous drought conditions over India, Southeast Asia and Indonesia. When an IOD event co-occurs with an El Niño, severe drought conditions identified in the MADA for Southeast Asia, Indonesia, eastern China and central Asia are associated with a weakened South Asian monsoon, reduced moisture flux over China, and anomalous divergent flow and subsidence over Indonesia. Variations in the strength of the South Asian monsoon can also be linked to the Strange Parallels Drought (1756-1768) affecting much of Southeast Asia and the Indian subcontinent in the mid-18th Century. Large-scale climate anomalies across the wider region during years with an anomalously strengthened/weakened South Asian monsoon are discussed with implications for severe droughts prior to the instrumental period. Insights into the relative influences of Pacific and Indian Ocean variability for Asian monsoon climate on interannual to decadal and longer timescales, as recorded in the

  20. How well do climate models simulate atmospheric teleconnctions over the North Pacific and East Asia associated with ENSO?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sunyong; Son, Hye-Young; Kug, Jong-Seong

    2017-02-01

    During the El Niño and La Niña mature phase, atmospheric teleconnections over the North Pacific and East Asia vary considerably on sub-seasonal time scales, and are strongly phase-locked to the sub-seasonal evolution. In this study, we investigate how well climate models that participated in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) simulate the sub-seasonal evolution of teleconnections over the North Pacific and East Asia associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In the observations, there is a prominent anticyclone anomaly over the Kuroshio extension region (i.e. Kuroshio anticyclone), which significantly affects East Asian climate in the early winter (November-December) of El Niño years. However, in January, the Kuroshio anticyclone suddenly disappears, and a cyclonic flow dominates over the North Pacific. It is found here that the CMIP5 models simulate the overall extratropical teleconnection patterns, but they fail to reproduce some of these sub-seasonally-varying features in atmospheric circulation. For example, the models tend to simulate a weaker Kuroshio anticyclone in the early winter during El Niño phases, and fail to capture the abrupt decay of the Kuroshio anticyclone in the late winter. We demonstrate here that these systematic errors in ENSO teleconnection can be explained by systematic errors in tropical precipitation associated with ENSO. That is, negative precipitation anomalies over the western North Pacific (WNP) are too weak in the models compared to that in the observations, and their amplitude tends to be strengthened from December to the following January, while they are weakened in the observations. In addition, analyses on the inter-model diversity strongly support that relative magnitudes of WNP and central Pacific precipitation anomalies are critical for determining sub-seasonal evolution of ENSO teleconnections over the North Pacific and East Asia.

  1. Gravity Derived Moho Depths of East/Southeast Asia and Western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Li, C. F.

    2014-12-01

    East and Southeast Asia and Western Pacific have extreme topography and both the youngest and oldest oceanic basins in the world, and are ideal places to understand oceanic basin evolution and continent-ocean interactions. Crustal structure is critical to understand the regional geodynamic processes. We present our recent inversion of Moho depths of East/Southeast Asia and Western Pacific from satellite gravity data. Because the marginal basins have experienced different cooling histories, we perform thermal correction after the simple Bouguer correction based on the plate cooling model. The model parameters are tested by varying the input plate thickness and mantle temperature with 5 km and 50°C steps, respectively. The evaluation criteria of thermal correction is that the regions with similar water depths have similar Moho depths. We find the best-fit plate thickness and mantle temperature are 95 km and 1300°C, respectively. The Moho undulations are then estimated from residual Bouguer gravity based on the Parker-Oldenburg algorithm. Because the study area convers distinct geological settings, we implement two gravity inversion strategies. In the first strategy, we use a constant density contrast of 0.38 g/cm3 across the Moho and a reference depth of 25 km for the entire study area. Using just one density contrast results in an obvious shallow Moho in continental region. In the second strategy, the study area is divided into four blocks, each covering either the continents or oceans mainly. Moho depths range approximately between 5 and 65 km. The average Moho depths of continental and continental shelf domains are about 35 and 23 km, respectively. Moho depths beneath the marginal basins are averaged at about 16 km. This large mean Moho depth is attributed to numerous seamounts, volcanic chains and ridges, where the Moho depths can be up to ~35 km. We find that the density contrast across the Moho varies between 0.33 and 0.40 g/cm3, approximately 0.40 g/cm3 in

  2. February 27, 2010 Chilean Tsunami in Pacific and its Arrival to North East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaytsev, Andrey; Pelinovsky, EfiM.; Yalciner, Ahmet C.; Ozer, Ceren; Chernov, Anton; Kostenko, Irina; Shevchenko, Georgy

    2010-05-01

    The outskirts of the fault plane broken by the strong earthquake on February 27, 2010 in Chili with a magnitude 8.8 at the 35km depth of 35.909°S, 72.733°W coordinates generated a moderate size tsunami. The initial amplitude of the tsunami source is not so high because of the major area of the plane was at land. The tsunami waves propagated far distances in South and North directions to East Asia and Wet America coasts. The waves are also recorded by several gauges in Pacific during its propagation and arrival to coastal areas. The recorded and observed amplitudes of tsunami waves are important for the potential effects with the threatening amplitudes. The event also showed that a moderate size tsunami can be effective even if it propagates far distances in any ocean or a marginal sea. The far east coasts of Russia at North East Asia (Sakhalin, Kuriles, Kamchatka) are one of the important source (i.e. November 15, 2006, Kuril Island Tsunami) and target (i.e. February, 27, 2010 Chilean tsunami) areas of the Pacific tsunamis. Many efforts have been spent for establishment of the monitoring system and assessment of tsunamis and development of the mitigation strategies against tsunamis and other hazards in the region. Development of the computer technologies provided the advances in data collection, transfer, and processing. Furthermore it also contributed new developments in computational tools and made the computer modeling to be an efficient tool in tsunami warning systems. In this study the tsunami numerical model NAMI DANCE Nested version is used. NAMI-DANCE solves Nonlinear form of Long Wave (Shallow water) equations (with or without dispersion) using finite difference model in nested grid domains from the source to target areas in multiprocessor hardware environment. It is applied to 2010 Chilean tsunami and its propagation and coastal behavior at far distances near Sakhalin, Kuril and Kamchatka coasts. The main tide gauge records used in this study are from

  3. Environmental threats to children's health in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific.

    PubMed

    Suk, William A; Ruchirawat, Kuhnying Mathuros; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Berger, Martha; Carpenter, David; Damstra, Terri; de Garbino, Jenny Pronczuk; Koh, David; Landrigan, Philip J; Makalinao, Irma; Sly, Peter D; Xu, Y; Zheng, B S

    2003-08-01

    The Southeast Asia and Western Pacific regions contain half of the world's children and are among the most rapidly industrializing regions of the globe. Environmental threats to children's health are widespread and are multiplying as nations in the area undergo industrial development and pass through the epidemiologic transition. These environmental hazards range from traditional threats such as bacterial contamination of drinking water and wood smoke in poorly ventilated dwellings to more recently introduced chemical threats such as asbestos construction materials; arsenic in groundwater; methyl isocyanate in Bhopal, India; untreated manufacturing wastes released to landfills; chlorinated hydrocarbon and organophosphorous pesticides; and atmospheric lead emissions from the combustion of leaded gasoline. To address these problems, pediatricians, environmental health scientists, and public health workers throughout Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific have begun to build local and national research and prevention programs in children's environmental health. Successes have been achieved as a result of these efforts: A cost-effective system for producing safe drinking water at the village level has been devised in India; many nations have launched aggressive antismoking campaigns; and Thailand, the Philippines, India, and Pakistan have all begun to reduce their use of lead in gasoline, with resultant declines in children's blood lead levels. The International Conference on Environmental Threats to the Health of Children, held in Bangkok, Thailand, in March 2002, brought together more than 300 representatives from 35 countries and organizations to increase awareness on environmental health hazards affecting children in these regions and throughout the world. The conference, a direct result of the Environmental Threats to the Health of Children meeting held in Manila in April 2000, provided participants with the latest scientific data on children's vulnerability to

  4. A review of accessibility of administrative healthcare databases in the Asia-Pacific region

    PubMed Central

    Milea, Dominique; Azmi, Soraya; Reginald, Praveen; Verpillat, Patrice; Francois, Clement

    2015-01-01

    Objective We describe and compare the availability and accessibility of administrative healthcare databases (AHDB) in several Asia-Pacific countries: Australia, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, China, Thailand, and Malaysia. Methods The study included hospital records, reimbursement databases, prescription databases, and data linkages. Databases were first identified through PubMed, Google Scholar, and the ISPOR database register. Database custodians were contacted. Six criteria were used to assess the databases and provided the basis for a tool to categorise databases into seven levels ranging from least accessible (Level 1) to most accessible (Level 7). We also categorised overall data accessibility for each country as high, medium, or low based on accessibility of databases as well as the number of academic articles published using the databases. Results Fifty-four administrative databases were identified. Only a limited number of databases allowed access to raw data and were at Level 7 [Medical Data Vision EBM Provider, Japan Medical Data Centre (JMDC) Claims database and Nihon-Chouzai Pharmacy Claims database in Japan, and Medicare, Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS), Centre for Health Record Linkage (CHeReL), HealthLinQ, Victorian Data Linkages (VDL), SA-NT DataLink in Australia]. At Levels 3–6 were several databases from Japan [Hamamatsu Medical University Database, Medi-Trend, Nihon University School of Medicine Clinical Data Warehouse (NUSM)], Australia [Western Australia Data Linkage (WADL)], Taiwan [National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD)], South Korea [Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA)], and Malaysia [United Nations University (UNU)-Casemix]. Countries were categorised as having a high level of data accessibility (Australia, Taiwan, and Japan), medium level of accessibility (South Korea), or a low level of accessibility (Thailand, China, Malaysia, and Singapore). In some countries, data may be available but

  5. Environmental threats to children's health in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific.

    PubMed Central

    Suk, William A; Ruchirawat, Kuhnying Mathuros; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Berger, Martha; Carpenter, David; Damstra, Terri; de Garbino, Jenny Pronczuk; Koh, David; Landrigan, Philip J; Makalinao, Irma; Sly, Peter D; Xu, Y; Zheng, B S

    2003-01-01

    The Southeast Asia and Western Pacific regions contain half of the world's children and are among the most rapidly industrializing regions of the globe. Environmental threats to children's health are widespread and are multiplying as nations in the area undergo industrial development and pass through the epidemiologic transition. These environmental hazards range from traditional threats such as bacterial contamination of drinking water and wood smoke in poorly ventilated dwellings to more recently introduced chemical threats such as asbestos construction materials; arsenic in groundwater; methyl isocyanate in Bhopal, India; untreated manufacturing wastes released to landfills; chlorinated hydrocarbon and organophosphorous pesticides; and atmospheric lead emissions from the combustion of leaded gasoline. To address these problems, pediatricians, environmental health scientists, and public health workers throughout Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific have begun to build local and national research and prevention programs in children's environmental health. Successes have been achieved as a result of these efforts: A cost-effective system for producing safe drinking water at the village level has been devised in India; many nations have launched aggressive antismoking campaigns; and Thailand, the Philippines, India, and Pakistan have all begun to reduce their use of lead in gasoline, with resultant declines in children's blood lead levels. The International Conference on Environmental Threats to the Health of Children, held in Bangkok, Thailand, in March 2002, brought together more than 300 representatives from 35 countries and organizations to increase awareness on environmental health hazards affecting children in these regions and throughout the world. The conference, a direct result of the Environmental Threats to the Health of Children meeting held in Manila in April 2000, provided participants with the latest scientific data on children's vulnerability to

  6. Report of the 10(th) Asia-Pacific Federation of Societies for Surgery of the Hand Congress (Organising Chair and Scientific Chair).

    PubMed

    A, Roohi Sharifah; Abdullah, Shalimar

    2016-10-01

    A report on the 10(th) Asia-Pacific Federation of Societies for the Surgery of the Hand and 6(th) Asia-Pacific Federation of Societies for Hand Therapists is submitted detailing the numbers of attendees participating, papers presented and support received as well the some of the challenges faced and how best to overcome them from the local conference chair and scientific chair point of view.

  7. Rewilding the tropics, and other conservation translocations strategies in the tropical Asia-Pacific region

    PubMed Central

    Louys, Julien; Corlett, Richard T; Price, Gilbert J; Hawkins, Stuart; Piper, Philip J

    2014-01-01

    Alarm over the prospects for survival of species in a rapidly changing world has encouraged discussion of translocation conservation strategies that move beyond the focus of ‘at-risk’ species. These approaches consider larger spatial and temporal scales than customary, with the aim of recreating functioning ecosystems through a combination of large-scale ecological restoration and species introductions. The term ‘rewilding’ has come to apply to this large-scale ecosystem restoration program. While reintroductions of species within their historical ranges have become standard conservation tools, introductions within known paleontological ranges—but outside historical ranges—are more controversial, as is the use of taxon substitutions for extinct species. Here, we consider possible conservation translocations for nine large-bodied taxa in tropical Asia-Pacific. We consider the entire spectrum of conservation translocation strategies as defined by the IUCN in addition to rewilding. The taxa considered are spread across diverse taxonomic and ecological spectra and all are listed as ‘endangered’ or ‘critically endangered’ by the IUCN in our region of study. They all have a written and fossil record that is sufficient to assess past changes in range, as well as ecological and environmental preferences, and the reasons for their decline, and they have all suffered massive range restrictions since the late Pleistocene. General principles, problems, and benefits of translocation strategies are reviewed as case studies. These allowed us to develop a conservation translocation matrix, with taxa scored for risk, benefit, and feasibility. Comparisons between taxa across this matrix indicated that orangutans, tapirs, Tasmanian devils, and perhaps tortoises are the most viable taxa for translocations. However, overall the case studies revealed a need for more data and research for all taxa, and their ecological and environmental needs. Rewilding the Asian-Pacific

  8. The Asia-Pacific Maritime Security Strategy: Achieving U.S. National Security Objectives in a Changing Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-27

    ACHIEVING U.S. NATIONAL SECURITY OBJECTIVES IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT Indian Ocean In sharp contrast to the South and East China Seas, the Indian ... ENVIRONMENT Second, we are working together with our allies and partners from Northeast Asia to the Indian Ocean to build their maritime capacity. We...Pacific Maritime Security Strategy: Achieving U.S. National Security Objectives in a Changing Environment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  9. Soil health as a factor of ensuring food security (the case of the Asia-Pacific Region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravchenko, Alla; Nesterova, Olga; Tregubova, Valentina; Semal, Viktoriia; Derbentseva, Alla; Purtova, Lyudmila; Kostenkov, Nikolay; Tyurina, Elena; Glotova, Elena; Sergeeva, Olesya; Korshenko, Ekaterina

    2016-04-01

    Soil health as a factor of ensuring food security (the case of the Asia-Pacific Region) Food security is a complex issue of both international and national levels. The food embargo on imported products has defined the preservation and regeneration of soils as a priority task in ensuring the food security of the Russian Federation. Soils are a finite, non-renewable resource and their preservation is extremely important for the national food security. Food production is the major function of soils; production of high-quality foods, rich in nutrients, is possible only in healthy soils. Therefore, a healthy and fertile soil is the most important factor in ensuring the food security and improved subsistence. By 2050, in order to meet the demand for food, the global agricultural production has to increase by 60%, and almost by 100% in the developing countries. In many countries and subregions of the Asia-Pacific Region, the population growth rates outrun the rates of food production. The possibilities of incorporating new lands into agricultural activities and providing their irrigation are also limited. In the context of expanding cooperation with the Asia-Pacific neighbors, Russia can make its contribution into improving the food security of the region. Russia has vast territories that could be used for crops farming; a substantial part of these lands have not been farmed yet. Hence, in the Russian Far East, production of grain crops can be increased by incorporating the unused territories into agricultural activities. Therefore, the Russian Far East is a unique site for creating a crops farming territory. And the preservation and regeneration of soils will provide for the production growth and ensure the food security of Russia and the Asia-Pacific region.

  10. Non-communicable diseases in the Asia-Pacific region: Prevalence, risk factors and community-based prevention.

    PubMed

    Low, Wah-Yun; Lee, Yew-Kong; Samy, Alexander Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) lead to substantial mortality and morbidity worldwide. The most common NCDs are cardiovascular diseases (CVD), diabetes, cancer and chronic respiratory diseases. With the rapid increase in NCD-related deaths in Asia Pacific countries, NCDs are now the major cause of deaths and disease burden in the region. NCDs hamper achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). People in the low socio-economic group are most affected by NCDs as they have poor access to policies, legislations, regulations and healthcare services meant to combat NCDs. This results in loss of productivity by a decreasing labor force with implications at the macroeconomic level. The 3 major NCDs in the Asia Pacific region are CVDs, cancer and diabetes due to the increasing loss of disability adjusted life years (DALYs). The 4 major behavioral risk factors for NCDs are: tobacco use, alcohol consumption, inadequate physical activity and unhealthy diet. The underlying risk factors are urbanization, globalization, sedentary lifestyle, obesity and hypertension. Strategies to combat NCDs in the Asia Pacific region are as follows: population-based dietary salt reduction, health education, psychological interventions, i.e., cognitive behavioral therapy and motivational-interviewing, taxation and bans on tobacco-related advertisements, implementing smoke-free zones and surveillance by the World Health Organization. Control measures must focus on prevention and strengthening inter-sectorial collaboration.

  11. Health systems and noncommunicable diseases in the Asia-Pacific region: a review of the published literature.

    PubMed

    Mannava, Priya; Abdullah, Asnawi; James, Chris; Dodd, Rebecca; Annear, Peter Leslie

    2015-03-01

    Addressing the growing burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in countries of the Asia-Pacific region requires well-functioning health systems. In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), however, health systems are generally characterized by inadequate financial and human resources, unsuitable service delivery models, and weak information systems. The aims of this review were to identify (a) health systems interventions being implemented to deliver NCD programs and services and their outcomes and (b) the health systems bottlenecks impeding access to or delivery of these programs and services in LMICs of the Asia-Pacific region. A search of 4 databases for literature published between 1990 and 2010 retrieved 36 relevant studies. For each study, information on basic characteristics, type of health systems bottleneck/intervention, and outcome was extracted, and methodological quality appraised. Health systems interventions and bottlenecks were classified as per the World Health Organization health systems building blocks framework. The review identified interventions and bottlenecks in the building blocks of service delivery, health workforce, financing, health information systems, and medical products, vaccines, and technologies. Studies, however, were heterogeneous in methodologies used, and the overall quality was generally low. There are several gaps in the evidence base around NCDs in the Asia-Pacific region that require further investigation.

  12. The impacts of summer monsoons on the ozone budget of the atmospheric boundary layer of the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xuewei; Zhu, Bin; Fei, Dongdong; Wang, Dongdong

    2015-01-01

    The seasonal and inter-annual variations of ozone (O3) in the atmospheric boundary layer of the Asia-Pacific Ocean were investigated using model simulations (2001-2007) from the Model of Ozone and Related chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4). The simulated O3 and diagnostic precipitation are in good agreement with the observations. Model results suggest that the Asia-Pacific monsoon significantly influences the seasonal and inter-annual variations of ozone. The differences of anthropogenic emissions and zonal winds in meridional directions cause a pollutants' transition zone at approximately 20°-30°N. The onset of summer monsoons with a northward migration of the rain belt leads the transition zone to drift north, eventually causing a summer minimum of ozone to the north of 30°N. In years with an early onset of summer monsoons, strong inflows of clean oceanic air lead to low ozone at polluted oceanic sites near the continent, while strong outflows from the continent exist, resulting in high levels of O3 over remote portions of the Asia-Pacific Ocean. The reverse is true in years when the summer monsoon onset is late.

  13. The 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) sequence and subduction dynamics in Western Pacific and East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dapeng

    2015-02-01

    We review recent findings on the causal mechanism of the great 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) sequence and related issues on seismic structure and subduction dynamics in Western Pacific and East Asia. High-resolution tomography revealed significant lateral heterogeneities in the interplate megathrust zone beneath the Tohoku, South Kuril and Southwest Japan forearc regions. Large megathrust earthquakes since 1900 generally occurred in or around high-velocity (high-V) patches in the megathrust zone, which may reflect asperities resulting from subducted seamounts, oceanic ridges and other topographic highs on the Pacific seafloor. In contrast, low-velocity (low-V) patches in the megathrust zone may contain more sediments and fluids, where the subducting oceanic plate and the overlying continental plate are less coupled or even decoupled. The nucleation of large crustal earthquakes in the Japan Islands, including the 11 April 2011 Iwaki earthquake (M 7.0) in SE Tohoku, is affected by arc magma and fluids resulting from slab dehydration. The Philippine Sea plate has subducted aseismically down to 430-460 km depth under East China Sea, Tsushima Strait and Japan Sea. A window in the aseismic Philippine Sea slab is detected, which may be caused by splitting of weak parts of the slab at the subducted ridges (e.g., Kyushu-Paula ridge) and hot upwelling in the mantle wedge above the Pacific slab. The intraplate volcanism in Northeast Asia is caused by hot and wet upwelling flows in the big mantle wedge above the stagnant Pacific slab in the mantle transition zone. Frequent generation of large deep earthquakes (>500 km depth) in the Pacific slab may supply additional fluids preserved in the slab to the mantle wedge under the Changbai volcano, making Changbai the largest and most active intraplate volcano in Northeast Asia. Fluids may be involved in nucleation and rupture processes of all types of earthquakes.

  14. Infectious Diseases and Their Outbreaks in Asia-Pacific: Biodiversity and Its Regulation Loss Matter

    PubMed Central

    Morand, Serge; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Abdullah, Mohd Tajuddin; Huan, Tan Boon

    2014-01-01

    Despite increasing control measures, numerous parasitic and infectious diseases are emerging, re-emerging or causing recurrent outbreaks particularly in Asia and the Pacific region, a hot spot of both infectious disease emergence and biodiversity at risk. We investigate how biodiversity affects the distribution of infectious diseases and their outbreaks in this region, taking into account socio-economics (population size, GDP, public health expenditure), geography (latitude and nation size), climate (precipitation, temperature) and biodiversity (bird and mammal species richness, forest cover, mammal and bird species at threat). We show, among countries, that the overall richness of infectious diseases is positively correlated with the richness of birds and mammals, but the number of zoonotic disease outbreaks is positively correlated with the number of threatened mammal and bird species and the number of vector-borne disease outbreaks is negatively correlated with forest cover. These results suggest that, among countries, biodiversity is a source of pathogens, but also that the loss of biodiversity or its regulation, as measured by forest cover or threatened species, seems to be associated with an increase in zoonotic and vector-borne disease outbreaks. PMID:24587201

  15. Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma in Asia Pacific and the ARIA Update 2008

    PubMed Central

    Bunnag, Chaweewan; Khaltaev, Nikolai; Bousquet, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: The prevalence of allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma are markedly increasing to epidemic proportions worldwide as societies adopt Western lifestyles. An estimated 300 million persons worldwide have asthma, about 50% of whom live in developing countries, and about 400 million people suffer from AR. AR has a marked impact on quality of life, socially, at school, and in the workplace and is a huge socioeconomic burden. Thus, there was clearly a need for a global evidence-based guideline not only for managing AR but also highlighting the interactions between the upper and lower airways including diagnosis, epidemiology, common risk factors, management, and prevention. The Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) document was first published in 2001 as a state-of-the-art document for the specialist, the general practitioner, and other health care professionals. Subsequent research and increasing knowledge have resulted in the ARIA 2008 update. The present review summarizes the ARIA update with particular emphasis on the current status of AR and asthma in Asia Pacific. PMID:23268481

  16. Plan of Korean Geostationary Environment Satellite over Asia-Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sukjo; Hong, Youdeog; Song, Chang-Keun; Lee, Joonsuk; Choi, Won-Jun; Kim, Dukrae; Moon, Kyung-Jung; Kim, Jhoon

    2010-05-01

    National Institute of Environmental Research(NIER/Ministry of Environment Korea) is planning GEMS (Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer) program to be launched in 2017-2018 onboard a MP-GEOSAT(Multi-Purpose GEOstationary SATellite) which is supposed to be the successive mission of COMS(Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite). GEMS is a scanning UV-Visible Spectrometer to monitor trans-boundary pollution events in Asia-Pacific region, together with ABI(Advanced Baseline Imager) and GOCI-2 (Geostationary Ocean Color Imager). The objective of GEMS is to provide high resolution atmospheric chemistry measurements, to monitor regional and transboundary events, to understand on interactions between atmospheric chemistry and climate, and to improve chemical weather forecast with constraining hourly emissions and data assimilation of chemical observations. Opportunity of international collaboration with NASA and ESA, for the constellation with the GEMS of Korea, Japanese air quality mission, GEO-CAPE of U.S.A and Sentennial-4 of Europe planned to be launched in 2017- 2020 time frame, which can make great synergistic outcomes for better understanding in global air quality and climate change issues.

  17. Prawn biomonitors of nutrient and trace metal pollution along Asia-Pacific coastlines.

    PubMed

    Fry, Brian; Carter, James F; Tinggi, Ujang; Arman, Ali; Kamal, Masud; Metian, Marc; Waduge, Vajira Ariyaratna; Yaccup, Rahman Bin

    2016-12-01

    To assess coastal ecosystem status and pollution baselines, prawns were collected from the commercial catches of eight Asia-Pacific countries (Australia, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Myanmar, Philippines, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Thailand). Samples collected from 21 sites along regional coastlines were analysed for trace metal and stable isotopic compositions of H, C, N, O and S. A combination of simple averaging and multivariate analyses was used to evaluate the data. Sites could be assigned to easily recognise polluted and unpolluted groups based on the prawn results. Some filter-feeding clams were also collected and analysed together with the benthic-feeding prawns, and the prawns generally had lower trace metal burdens. Climate change effects were not strongly evident at this time, but altered ocean circulation and watershed run-off patterns accompanying future climate change are expected to change chemical patterns recorded by prawns along these and other coastlines. Stable isotopes, especially (15)N, can help to distinguish between relatively polluted and unpolluted sites.

  18. Submicron aerosols during the Beijing Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation conference in 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J. K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, Y. H.; Wang, Y. S.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 30%-40% of industrial practices and 50% of vehicles in operation were limited in Beijing and its surroundings regions during the Beijing Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) conference in 2014. Compared with values obtained prior to the APEC conference, the atmospheric concentration of submicron aerosol particles (PM1) decreased from 101 to 36.9 μg m-3, or 63%. Of all the inorganic species and black carbon present, the concentrations of nitrate to the total concentration of PM1 decreased the most in terms of both mass concentration, from 25.5 to 7.1 μg m-3, and relative contribution, from 21% to 14%. In addition, both sulfate and ammonium decreased substantially by 9.5 and 8.5 μg m-3, respectively. Accordingly, the relative contributions of ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate to light extinction decreased by 10% and 5%, respectively, as a result of the pollution control measures implemented during that period. In addition, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in vehicle emissions were reduced significantly.

  19. Development of entrained-flow gasification technologies in the Asia-Pacific region (review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhkov, A. F.; Bogatova, T. F.; Lingyan, Zeng; Osipov, P. V.

    2016-11-01

    The gasifier that provides solid fuel conversion to produce syngas with relevant parameters is the key element of plants generating electric and thermal power, producing chemicals from coal. The purpose of this article is to analyze the modern trends in the development of gasification technologies and determine technical solutions providing the high efficiency of gasifiers and the characteristics of generated syngas that meet the requirements established by the process user. Based on the analysis of the world gasification technologies database, which includes all types of gasifiers in use and gasifiers at the construction or design stage, the data on the development of entrained-flow gasification technologies in the Asia-Pacific (AP) countries are discussed. The major constructional components of gasification plants, fuel-feed and syngas cooling methods and their influence on the efficiency and operational reliability are considered. The analysis of technological solutions confirmed the prospectivity of dry-feed entrained-flow technologies. The staged organization of the gasification process makes it possible to solve issues of increasing the economic and environmental indicators of gasification plant operation. The basic directions of modernization of entrained-flow gasifiers for improving their technical-and-economic perfomance was determined.

  20. Possible influence of western North Pacific monsoon on TC activity in mid-latitudes of East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ki-Seon; Cha, Yumi; Kim, Hae-Dong; Kang, Sung-Dae

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the correlation between tropical cyclone (TC) frequency and the Western North Pacific monsoon index (WNPMI), which have both been influential in East Asia's mid-latitude regions during the summer season over the past 37 years (1977-2013). A high positive correlation existed between these two variables, which was not reduced even if El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) years were excluded. To determine the cause of this positive correlation, the highest (positive WNPMI phase) and lowest WNPMIs (negative WNPMI phase) during a nine-year period were selected to analyze the mean difference between them, excluding ENSO years. In the positive WNPMI phase, TCs were mainly generated in the eastern seas of the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific, passing through the East China Sea and moving northward toward Korea and Japan. In the negative phase, TCs were mainly generated in the western seas of the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific, passing through the South China Sea and moving westward toward China's southern regions. Therefore, TC intensity in the positive phase was stronger due to the acquisition of sufficient energy from the sea while moving a long distance up to East Asia's mid-latitude. Additionally, TCs occurred more in the positive phase. Regarding the difference of the two phases between the 850 and 500-hPa streamlines, anomalous cyclones were strengthened in the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific, whereas anomalous anticyclones were strengthened in East Asia's mid-latitude regions. Due to these two anomalous pressure systems, anomalous southeasterlies developed in East Asia's mid-latitude regions, which played a role in the anomalous steering flows that moved TCs into these regions. Furthermore, due to the anomalous cyclones that developed in the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific, more TCs could be generated in the positive phase. Both the lower and upper tropospheric layers had warm anomalies

  1. Long range transport of acidic species over East Asia and the western Pacific Ocean in winter monsoon - a numerical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kitada, Toshihiro; Nishizawa, Masato; Isogawa, Seiji; Kondo, Yutaka

    1996-12-31

    In winter season, wind system in East Asia is generally dominated by monsoon. The monsoon is caused by persistent high pressure over Siberia and low pressure over Sea of Okhotsk and Bering Sea, the high pressure which is formed by radiative cooling of air mass over the continent. In Japan area, the monsoon appears as westerly or northwesterly, and usually brings heavy snow over the Japan Sea side of Japanese islands. Since the air mass associated with the monsoon passes over strong emission sources of the East Asia continent, it carries much air pollutants. Significant part of the pollutants should fall to the surface with snow over Japanese islands, and the rest of the pollutants would be distributed into troposphere over the western Pacific Ocean. In this study, to estimate mass budget of air pollutants released over countries in East Asia we have performed 3-D transport/chemistry/deposition simulations for the area of East Asia and the western Pacific Ocean for one month of March, 1994, when an extensive field observation campaign called TEM-WEST Phase B (Pacific Exploratory Mission-West){close_quotes} was conducted. The simulation model includes most of the important chemical species such as NO{sub x}, HNO{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, sulfate, hydrocarbons, O{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, etc., and covers 3-D region from 80 to 180 degrees east in longitude, 10 degrees south to 60 degrees north in latitude, and earth`s surface to 10 hPa in vertical. The simulation results will be discussed in connection with the PEM-WEST(B) observation.

  2. Asia-Pacific mussel watch: monitoring of butyltin contamination in coastal waters of Asian developing countries.

    PubMed

    Sudaryanto, Agus; Takahashi, Shin; Monirith, In; Ismail, Ahmad; Muchtar, Muswerry; Zheng, Jinshu; Richardson, Bruce J; Subramanian, Annamalai; Prudente, Maricar; Hue, Nguyen Duc; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2002-10-01

    anthropogenic BTs represent the major source of tin accumulation in mussels. To our knowledge, this is a first comprehensive report on butyltin pollution monitoring in developing countries in the Asia-Pacific region.

  3. Megacities in the Asia/Pacific Region: Focusing on Their Environmental Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukai, Gary; Kim, Pearl; Li, Alan; Chenette, Sara

    This curriculum unit explains that currently Asia has 9 of the world's 14 megacities (a city with a population of 10 million people or more) and that by the year 2015 there will be 27 megacities with 17 of them in Asia. The unit introduces students to several megacities in Asia and uses these cities as examples for understanding the ecological…

  4. U.S. Pacific Command Theater Security Cooperation: A Building Block to Cooperative Security in the Asia Pacific Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-17

    Islands Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu Commander, U.S. Pacific Command, "Partnership, Readiness, Presence" United States Pacific Command Strategy, (Camp H...Guinea Philippines Singapore Solomon Islands Sri Lanka Thailand Tonga Tuvalu UK us Vanuatu Vietnam (31 countries) UNCLASSIFIED 6 Multinational

  5. PREFACE: Asia-Pacific Interdisciplinary Research Conference 2011 (AP-IRC 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhu, Adarsh; Okada, Hiroshi; Maekawa, Toru; Okano, Ken

    2012-03-01

    AP-IRC Logo Scientists, engineers, entrepreneurs and policymakers gather at the first truly interdisciplinary conference held in Asia-Pacific http://www.apirc.jp/ The inaugural Asia-Pacific Interdisciplinary Research Conference 2011 (AP-IRC 2011) was held at Toyohashi University of Technology (Toyohashi Tech) on 17-18 November 2011. The conference is a forum for enhancing mutual understanding between scientists, engineers, policymakers and experts from a wide spectrum of pure and applied sciences, to resolve the daunting global issues facing mankind. The conference attracted approximately 300 participants including delegates from France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Russia, Sweden, United Kingdom, USA and Vietnam. AP-IRC 2011 was chaired by Dr Yoshiyuki Sakaki, President of Toyohashi Tech, who opened the proceedings by stressing the importance of an interdisciplinary approach to research, to resolve global scientific and technical issues. Recalling his own experience as the leader of Japan's efforts in the Human Genome Project, Sakaki also encouraged participants to make an effort to try to understand the sometimes difficult concepts and terminology of other areas of research. The presentations at AP-IRC 2011 were divided into three focus sessions: innovative mechano-magneto-electronic systems, life sciences, and green science and technology. A total of 174 papers were presented over the two-day conference including eight by invited speakers. Highlights of AP-IRC 2011 included a first-hand account of the damage caused by the massive earthquake in March 2011 to experimental facilities at Tohoku University by Masayoshi Esashi; the fascinating world of bees and the inborn numerical competence of humans and animals by Hans J Gross; research on robots and cognition-enabled technical systems at Technische Universität München by Sandra Hirche; the history of events leading to the invention of the world's strongest NdFeB permanent magnet by Masato Sagawa

  6. Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (gems) Over the Korea Peninsula and Asia-Pacific Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasnik, J.; Stephens, M.; Baker, B.; Randall, C.; Ko, D. H.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Lee, E. S.; Chang, S.; Park, J. M.; SEO, S. B.; Youk, Y.; Kong, J. P.; Lee, D.; Lee, S. H.; Kim, J.

    2014-12-01

    Introduction: The Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS) is one of two instruments manifested aboard the South Korean Geostationary Earth Orbit KOrea Multi-Purpose SATellite-2B (GEO-KOMPSAT-2B or GK2B), which is scheduled to launch in 2018. Jointly developed/built by KARI and Ball Aerospace, GEMS is a geostationary UV-Vis hyperspectral imager designed to monitor trans-boundary tropospheric pollution events over the Korean peninsula and Asia-Pacific region. The spectrometer provides high temporal and spatial resolution (3.5 km N/S by 7.2 km E/W) measurements of ozone, its precursors, and aerosols. Over the short-term, hourly measurements by GEMS will improve early warnings for potentially dangerous pollution events and monitor population exposure. Over the 10-year mission-life, GEMS will serve to enhance our understanding of long-term climate change and broader air quality issues on both a regional and global scale. The GEMS sensor design and performance are discussed, which includes an overview of measurement capabilities and the on-orbit concept of operations. GEMS Sensor Overview: The GEMS hyperspectral imaging system consists of a telescope and Offner grating spectrometer that feeds a single CCD detector array. A spectral range of 300-500 nm and sampling of 0.2 nm enables NO2, SO2, HCHO, O3, and aerosol retrieval. The GEMS field of regard (FOR), which extends from 5°S to 45°N in latitude and 75°E to 145°E in longitude, is operationally achieved using an onboard two-axis scan mirror. On-orbit, the radiometric calibration is maintained using solar measurements, which are performed using two onboard diffusers: a working diffuser that is deployed routinely for the purpose of solar calibration, and a reference diffuser that is deployed sparingly for the purpose of monitoring working diffuser performance degradation.

  7. New mechanism under International Flood Initiative toward robustness for flood management in the Asia Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murase, M.; Yoshitani, J.; Takeuchi, K.; Koike, T.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is likely to result in increases in the frequency or intensity of extreme weather events. It is imperative that a good understanding is developed of how climate change affects the events that are reflected in hydrological extremes such as floods and how practitioners in water resources management deal with them. Since there is still major uncertainty as to how the impact of climate change affect actual water resources management, it is important to build robustness into management schemes and communities. Flood management under such variety of uncertainty favors the flexible and adaptive implementation both in top-down and bottom-up approaches. The former uses projections of global or spatially downscaled models to drive resource models and project resource impacts. The latter utilizes policy or planning tools to identify what changes in climate would be most threatening to their long-range operations. Especially for the bottom-up approaches, it is essential to identify the gap between what should be done and what has not been achieved for disaster risks. Indicators or index are appropriate tools to measure such gaps, but they are still in progress to cover the whole world. The International Flood Initiative (IFI), initiated in January 2005 by UNESCO and WMO in close cooperation with UNU and ISDR, IAHS and IAHR, has promoted an integrated approach to flood management to take advantage of floods and use of flood plains while reducing the social, environmental and economic risks. Its secretariat is located in ICHARM. The initiative objective is to support national platforms to practice evidence-based disaster risk reduction through mobilizing scientific and research networks at national, regional and international levels. The initiative is now preparing for a new mechanism to facilitate the integrated approach for flood management on the ground regionally in the Asia Pacific (IFI-AP) through monitoring, assessment and capacity building.

  8. Paediatric palliative care in the Asia Pacific region: where are we now?

    PubMed

    Chong, Poh Heng; Hamsah, Ednin; Goh, Cynthia

    2017-03-01

    Paediatric palliative care services have increased both in numbers and capacity around the world in response to the needs of children living with life-limiting conditions. Members of the Asia Pacific Hospice Network, who render care to children, have increasingly realised the need to map existing services for enhanced collaborative, educational and advocacy efforts. An online survey was conducted over 2 months among professionals in the region to document current service provision, and at the same time to explore individual training needs and practice challenges. A questionnaire crafted through consensus by members of a new special interest group within the network was used to collect data. 59 distinct responses from 16 countries were obtained to build a directory, which has already been circulated. Content analyses of narrative responses yield further findings. Half of these services catered to adults as well as to children. Staffing and service provision varied across the region but most members worked in teams consisting of multidisciplinary professionals. Numerous service and funding models were found, reflecting wide differences in local conditions and responses to diverse patient populations unique to paediatric palliative care. The highest training needs centred around bereavement and spiritual care. Capacity and funding issues were expected, but significant lack of support by paediatricians was found to be alarming and warrants further study. Amid the heterogeneity, these services share common struggles and face similar needs. Identifying individual profiles of different services potentially helps to draw everyone together, towards a common vision, and towards creating opportunities for sharing of expertise and experience.

  9. Status of radiation protection in various interventional cardiology procedures in the Asia Pacific region

    PubMed Central

    Tsapaki, Virginia; Faruque Ghulam, Mohammed; Lim, Soo Teik; Ngo Minh, Hung; Nwe, Nwe; Sharma, Anil; Sim, Kui-Hian; Srimahachota, Suphot; Rehani, Madan Mohan

    2011-01-01

    Objective Increasing use of interventional procedures in cardiology with unknown levels of radiation protection in many countries of Asia-Pacific region necessitates the need for status assessment. The study was part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) project for achieving improved radiation protection in interventional cardiology (IC) in developing countries. Design The survey covers 18 cardiac catheterisation laboratories in seven countries (Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam). An important step was the creation of the ‘Asian network of Cardiologists in Radiation Protection’ and a newsletter. Data were collected on: radiation protection tools, number of IC laboratories, and annual number of various IC paediatric and adult procedures in the hospital and in the country. Patient radiation dose data were collected in terms of Kerma Area Product (KAP) and cumulative dose (CD). Results It is encouraging that protection devices for staff are largely used in the routine practice. Only 39% of the angiographic machines were equipped with a KAP meter. Operators' initial lack of awareness on radiation-protection optimisation improved significantly after participation in IAEA radiation-protection training. Only two out of five countries reporting patient percutaneous coronary intervention radiation-dose data were fully within the international guidance levels. Data from 51 patients who underwent multiple therapeutic procedures (median 2–3) indicated a total KAP reaching 995 Gy.cm2 (range 10.1–995) and CD 15.1 Gy (range 0.4–15.1), stressing the importance of dose monitoring and optimisation. Conclusions There is a need for interventional cardiology societies to play an active role in training actions and implementation of radiation protection. PMID:27325974

  10. Inequities in access to healthcare: analysis of national survey data across six Asia-Pacific countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that there is a link between inequitable access to healthcare and inequitable distribution of illness. A recent World Health Organization report stated that there is a need for research and policy to address the critical role of health services in reducing inequities and preventing future inequities. The aim of this manuscript is to highlight disparities and differences in terms of the factors that distinguish between poor and good access to healthcare across six Asia-Pacific countries: Australia, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. Methods A population survey was undertaken in each country. This paper is a secondary analysis of these existing data. Data were collected in each country between 2009 and 2010. Four variables related to difficulties in access to healthcare (distance, appointment, waiting time, and cost) were analysed using binomial logistic regression to identify socio- and demographic predictors of inequity. Results Consistent across the findings, poor health and low income were identified as difficulties in access. Country specific indicators were also identified. For Thailand, the poorest level of access appears to be for respondents who work within the household whereas in Taiwan, part-time work is associated with difficulties in access. Within Hong Kong, results suggest that older (above 60) and retired individuals have the poorest access and within Australia, females and married individuals are the worst off. Conclusion Recognition of these inequities, from a policy perspective, is essential for health sector policy decision-making. Despite the differences in political and economic climate in the countries under analysis, our findings highlight patterns of inequity which require policy responses. Our data should be used as a means of deciding the most appropriate policy response for each country which includes, rather than excludes, socially marginalised population groups. These findings should be of

  11. Promoting mental health in Asia-Pacific: Systematic review focusing on Thailand and China.

    PubMed

    Moeller-Saxone, Kristen; Davis, Elise; Herrman, Helen

    2015-12-01

    Mental health is essential for functioning, general health, and quality of life in low and middle-income countries (LAMICs), as for high-income countries. This study aimed first to search in the English language peer-reviewed literature for reviews of mental health promotion interventions in the Asia-Pacific region. A global rapid review by Barry and colleagues indicated a paucity of publications on this topic in the peer-reviewed literature. The second aim of the study followed from this observation. Two systematic reviews of English language literature were conducted as case studies in two countries with known interest in mental health promotion, Thailand and China. The reviews covered publications in peer-reviewed journals and the "grey" literature. In Thailand, the review demonstrated: strong evidence for an empowerment program for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected mothers; a reduction in HIV-related stigma in a community-based program; and a coping program for adolescents. The second review concerned suicide prevention interventions in China. It found one relevant study, a WHO multi-site study of suicide prevention. We found surprisingly little evidence in either country of interventions focused on health equity or modifying the social determinants of mental health. We agree with Barry and colleagues that there is an urgent need to invest in the policy, practice, and research capacity for mental health promotion in LAMICs so that mental health promotion can be incorporated into the wider health promotion and global health development agenda. This includes the Global Action for Health Equity Network. Evidence-based interventions in parenting, schools, workplaces, and among older people can be initiated or adapted and evaluated in LAMIC settings.

  12. Medical physics aspects of cancer care in the Asia Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Kron, T; Cheung, Ky; Dai, J; Ravindran, P; Soejoko, D; Inamura, K; Song, Jy; Bold, L; Srivastava, R; Rodriguez, L; Wong, Tj; Kumara, A; Lee, Cc; Krisanachinda, A; Nguyen, Xc; Ng, Kh

    2008-07-01

    Medical physics plays an essential role in modern medicine. This is particularly evident in cancer care where medical physicists are involved in radiotherapy treatment planning and quality assurance as well as in imaging and radiation protection. Due to the large variety of tasks and interests, medical physics is often subdivided into specialties such as radiology, nuclear medicine and radiation oncology medical physics. However, even within their specialty, the role of radiation oncology medical physicists (ROMPs) is diverse and varies between different societies. Therefore, a questionnaire was sent to leading medical physicists in most countries/areas in the Asia/Pacific region to determine the education, role and status of medical physicists.Answers were received from 17 countries/areas representing nearly 2800 radiation oncology medical physicists. There was general agreement that medical physicists should have both academic (typically at MSc level) and clinical (typically at least 2 years) training. ROMPs spent most of their time working in radiotherapy treatment planning (average 17 hours per week); however radiation protection and engineering tasks were also common. Typically, only physicists in large centres are involved in research and teaching. Most respondents thought that the workload of physicists was high, with more than 500 patients per year per physicist, less than one ROMP per two oncologists being the norm, and on average, one megavoltage treatment unit per medical physicist.There was also a clear indication of increased complexity of technology in the region with many countries/areas reporting to have installed helical tomotherapy, IMRT (Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy), IGRT (Image Guided Radiation Therapy), Gamma-knife and Cyber-knife units. This and the continued workload from brachytherapy will require growing expertise and numbers in the medical physics workforce. Addressing these needs will be an important challenge for the future.

  13. MDR-TB--its characteristics and control in Asia-Pacific rim symposium in USJCMSP 10th international conference on emerging infectious diseases in the Pacific rim.

    PubMed

    Mori, Toru

    2007-08-01

    The strategy of directly observed treatment, short course (DOTS) is achieving substantial progress in coverage and quality improvements worldwide. However, the problem of multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has emerged as a new challenge to TB control in both developing and industrialized countries. The effort of various countries of the Pacific Rim to fight this problem, one of the negative progenies from the 20th century, was a major theme of the conference. Asia, WHO's Southwest Asia and Western Pacific Regions, combined, account globally for almost 60% of the newly occurring MDR-TB cases. However, the problem has likely been overlooked, as it was masked by taking averages for countries or wider regions. In this way, we may have lost sight of "hot zones" with extremely high prevalence of MDR-TB in smaller areas or in population segments. The problem was basically a result of the low-quality treatment program, but recently it may be amplified in some areas by the HIV epidemic that is another new challenge to TB strategies. So far, developing countries have not been taking active measures to manage this problem. However, some countries, such as the Philippines and Peru, have undertaken aggressive efforts, supported technically and financially by the new international mechanisms, such as the Stop TB Partnership and the Global Fund to fight AIDS, TB and Malaria. These efforts would be more effective if there were further technical innovation in diagnosis and treatment, supported by a strong political commitment.

  14. A review of population-based prevalence studies of physical activity in adults in the Asia-Pacific region

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) surveillance is an important component of non-communicable disease risk factor monitoring, and occurs through national and international surveillance systems. This review identifies population PA estimates for adults in the Asia-Pacific region, and examines variation in trends and prevalence rates obtained using different PA measures. Methods Data were obtained from a MEDLINE search; World Health Organization's Global Health Infobase; Government websites and reference lists of relevant papers. Inclusion criteria included: national studies or those reporting large scale population-level data; data published from 2000 to 2010 and trend data prior; sample sizes over n = 1000, or fewer subjects in small nations. Results In total, 56 population surveys from 29 Asia-Pacific countries were identified. Data on 'sufficient physical activity' amongst adults were available from 45 studies (80%), with estimates ranging from 7% to 93% (median 62%, inter-quartile range 40%-85%). For 14 countries, estimates of 'sufficient activity' were documented in multiple surveys using different methods, with the largest variation from 18% to 92% in Nepal. Median or mean MET-minutes/day, reported in 20 studies, ranged from 6 to 1356. Serial trend data were available for 11 countries (22%), for periods spanning 2-10 years. Of these, five countries demonstrated increases in physical activity over time, four demonstrated decreases and three showed no changes. Conclusions Many countries in the Asia-Pacific region collect population-level PA data. This review highlights differences in estimates within and between countries. Some differences may be real, others due to variation in the PA questions asked and survey methods used. Use of standardized protocols and measures, and combined reporting of data are essential goals of improved international PA surveillance. PMID:22251660

  15. Spiders of medical importance in the Asia-Pacific: atracotoxin, latrotoxin and related spider neurotoxins.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Graham M; Graudins, Andis

    2002-09-01

    1. The spiders of medical importance in the Asia-Pacific region include widow (family Theridiidae) and Australian funnel-web spiders (subfamily Atracinae). In addition, cupboard (family Theridiidae) and Australian mouse spiders (family Actinopodidae) may contain neurotoxins responsible for serious systemic envenomation. Fortunately, there appears to be extensive cross-reactivity of species-specific widow spider antivenom within the family Theridiidae. Moreover, Sydney funnel-web antivenom has been shown to be effective in the treatment of mouse spider envenomation. 2. alpha-Latrotoxin (alpha-LTx) appears to be the main neurotoxin responsible for the envenomation syndrome known as "latrodectism" following bites from widow spiders. This 120 kDa protein binds to distinct receptors (latrophilin 1 and neurexins) to induce neurotransmitter vesicle exocytosis via both Ca2+-dependent and -independent mechanisms, resulting in vesicle depletion. This appears to involve disruption to a process that normally inhibits vesicle fusion in the absence of Ca2+. Precise elucidation of the mechanism of action of alpha-LTx will lead to a major advancement in our understanding of vesicle exocytosis. 3. delta-Atracotoxins (delta-ACTX) are responsible for the primate-specific envenomation syndrome seen following funnel-web spider envenomation. These peptides induce spontaneous repetitive firing and prolongation of action potentials in excitable cells. This results from a hyperpolarizing shift of the voltage-dependence of activation and a slowing of voltage-gated Na+ channel inactivation. This action is due to voltage-dependent binding to neurotoxin receptor site-3 on insect and mammalian voltage-gated Na+ channels in a manner similar, but not identical, to scorpion alpha-toxins and sea anemone toxins. delta-Atracotoxins provide us with highly specific tools to study Na+ channel structure and function 4. omega- and Janus-faced ACTX, from funnel-web spider venom, are novel neurotoxins that

  16. An International Multicenter Study Assessing the Role of Ethnicity on Variation of Lumbar Facet Joint Orientation and the Occurrence of Degenerative Spondylolisthesis in Asia Pacific: A Study from the AOSpine Asia Pacific Research Collaboration Consortium.

    PubMed

    Williams, Richard; Cheung, Jason Pui Yin; Goss, Ben; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Kawaguchi, Yoshiharu; Acharya, Shankar; Kawakami, Mamoru; Satoh, Shigenobu; Chen, Wen-Jer; Park, Chun-Kun; Lee, Chong-Suh; Foocharoen, Thanit; Nagashima, Hideki; Kuh, Sunguk; Zheng, Zhaomin; Condor, Richard; Ito, Manabu; Iwasaki, Motoki; Jeong, Je Hoon; Luk, Keith D K; Prijambodo, Bambang; Rege, Amol; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Luo, Zhuojing; Tassanawipas, Warat; Acharya, Narayana; Pokharel, Rohit; Shen, Yong; Ito, Takui; Zhang, Zhihai; Aithala P, Janardhana; Kumar, Gomatam Vijay; Jabir, Rahyussalim Ahmad; Basu, Saumyajit; Li, Baojun; Moudgil, Vishal; Sham, Phoebe; Samartzis, Dino

    2016-02-01

    Study Design A multinational, multiethnic, cross-sectional image-based study was performed in 33 institutions, representing 10 countries, which were part of the AOSpine Asia Pacific Research Collaboration Consortium. Objective Lumbar facet joint orientation has been reported to be associated with the development of degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). The role of ethnicity regarding facet joint orientation remains uncertain. As such, the following study was performed across a wide-ranging population base to assess the role of ethnicity in facet joint orientation in patients with DS in the Asia Pacific region. Methods Lateral standing X-rays and axial magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained for patients with lumbar DS. The DS parameters and facet joint angulations were assessed from L3-S1. Sex, age, body mass index (BMI), and ethnicity were also noted. Results The study included 371 patients with known ethnic origin (mean age: 62.0 years; 64% males, 36% females). The mean BMI was 25.6 kg/m(2). The level of DS was most prevalent at L4-L5 (74.7%). There were 28.8% Indian, 28.6% Japanese, 18.1% Chinese, 8.6% Korean, 6.5% Thai, 4.9% Caucasian, 2.7% Filipino, and 1.9% Malay patients. Variations in facet joint angulations were noted from L3 to S1 and between patients with and without DS (p < 0.05). No differences were noted with regards to sex and overall BMI to facet joint angulations (p > 0.05); however, increasing age was found to increase the degree of angulation throughout the lumbar spine (p < 0.05). Accounting for age and the presence or absence of DS at each level, no statistically significant differences between ethnicity and degree of facet joint angulations from L3-L5 were noted (p > 0.05). Ethnic variations were noted in non-DS L5-S1 facet joint angulations, predominantly between Caucasian, Chinese, and Indian ethnicities (p < 0.05). Conclusions This study is the first to suggest that ethnicity may not play a role in facet

  17. Integrating male sexual diversity into violence prevention efforts with men and boys: evidence from the Asia-Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    Miedema, Stephanie S; Yount, Kathryn M; Chirwa, Esnat; Dunkle, Kristin; Fulu, Emma

    2017-02-01

    Men's perpetration of gender-based violence remains a global public health issue. Violence prevention experts call for engagement of boys and men to change social norms around masculinity in order to prevent gender-based violence. Yet, men do not comprise a homogenous category. Drawing on probability estimates of men who report same-sex practices and preferences captured in a multi-country gender-based violence prevention survey in the Asia-Pacific region, we test the effects of sexuality-related factors on men's adverse life experiences. We find that sexual minority men face statistically higher risk of lifetime adversity related to gender-based violence, stemming from gender inequitable norms in society. Sexuality is thus a key axis of differentiation among men in the Asia-Pacific region, influencing health and wellbeing and reflecting men's differential engagement with dominant norms of masculinity. Integrating awareness of male sexual diversity into gender-based violence prevention interventions, particularly those that work with boys and men, and bridging violence prevention programming between sexual minority communities and women, are essential to tackle the root drivers of violence.

  18. Preparing for introduction of a dengue vaccine: recommendations from the 1st Dengue v2V Asia-Pacific Meeting.

    PubMed

    Lam, Sai Kit; Burke, Donald; Capeding, Maria Rosario; Chong, Chee Keong; Coudeville, Laurent; Farrar, Jeremy; Gubler, Duane; Hadinegoro, Sri Rezeki; Hanna, Jeffrey; Lang, Jean; Lee, Han Lim; Leo, Yee Sin; Luong, Chan Quang; Mahoney, Richard; McBride, John; Mendez-Galvan, Jorge; Ng, Lee Ching; Nimmannitya, Suchitra; Ooi, Eng Eong; Shepard, Donald; Smit, Jaco; Teyssou, Rémy; Thomas, Laurent; Torresi, Joseph; Vasconcelos, Pedro; Wirawan, Dewa Nyoman; Yoksan, Sutee

    2011-11-28

    Infection with dengue virus is a major public health problem in the Asia-Pacific region and throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Vaccination represents a major opportunity to control dengue and several candidate vaccines are in development. Experts in dengue and in vaccine introduction gathered for a two day meeting during which they examined the challenges inherent to the introduction of a dengue vaccine into the national immunisation programmes of countries of the Asia-Pacific. The aim was to develop a series of recommendations to reduce the delay between vaccine licensure and vaccine introduction. Major recommendations arising from the meeting included: ascertaining and publicising the full burden and cost of dengue; changing the perception of dengue in non-endemic countries to help generate global support for dengue vaccination; ensuring high quality active surveillance systems and diagnostics; and identifying sustainable sources of funding, both to support vaccine introduction and to maintain the vaccination programme. The attendees at the meeting were in agreement that with the introduction of an effective vaccine, dengue is a disease that could be controlled, and that in order to ensure a vaccine is introduced as rapidly as possible, there is a need to start preparing now.

  19. Numerical Modeling of 1997-2006 Asian Dust and Mass Budget Analysis in East Asia and West Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, M.; Westphal, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    East Asia has two of the Earth's major natural dust sources: the Taklamakan Desert in west China and the Gobi Desert in Mongolia and northwest China. Desertification has increased dust-erodible areas surrounding the deserts so the dust storm frequency has increased in the last few decades. Severe dust storms not only impact East Asia, but also can reach far beyond the continent, as did the dust clouds of April 1998, 2001 and 2005 that drifted over the Pacific Ocean and to North America. The US Navy's operational Coupled Ocean/Atmospheric Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) is used to simulate the dust events for the springs of 1997 through 2006 at a resolution of one quarter of degree with multiple size bins. We use the modeled data to investigate the spatial and temporal dependence of dust emission, transport and deposition, and estimate the impacts of dust on environment. The distribution of dust plumes in area coverage and vertical depth is studied, as is the inter-annual variation of dust patterns from the different deserts of China and Mongolia, and the fluxes across the Pacific. It is found that PM10 is the dominant fraction particles over the continent and near the ocean, while PM2.5 becomes dominant in the boundary outflow along 170E. The details of analyzed model results will be presented at the meeting.

  20. Ensuring Opportunities for the Professional Development of Teachers. Innovation and Reform in Teacher Education for the 21st Century in the Asia-Pacific Region. Seminar Report (Hiroshima, Japan, September 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabata, Yoshinori, Ed.; Griek, Lyckle, Ed.

    This is the second seminar report in the sixth cycle of the UNESCO-APEID (Asia-Pacific Program of Educational Innovation for Development) Program on Innovation and Reform in Teacher Education for the 21st Century in the Asia-Pacific Region. The seminar focused on ensuring opportunities for the professional development of teachers. Experts from 10…

  1. Landpower in Asia -- Historical Insights for the Pivot to the Pacific

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-23

    Defense, “Defense.gov News Transcript: Background Briefing on Air - Sea Battle by Defense Officials from the Pentagon,” government, Www.defense.gov...23 Ibid., 124. 24 BBC News , “Japan and China Trade barbs over Islands at UN,” News , BBC News Asia , September 28, 2012, www.bbc.co.uk/ news /world... asia -19754353?print=true (accessed September 28, 2012); BBC News , “Japan envoy heads to China as ships sail near islands,” News , BBC News Asia

  2. Invasion history of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in the Pacific-Asia region: two main invasion routes.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xuanwu; Liu, Yinghong; Zhang, Bin

    2012-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, was initially recorded in Taiwan Island in 1912, and has dispersed to many areas in the Pacific-Asia region over the last century. The area of origin of the species may be confidently placed in South-East China. However, routes of range expansion to new areas and underlying population processes remain partially unclear, despite having been the subject of several studies. To explore the invasion history of this species, a partition of the cox1 gene of mitochondrial DNA was used to investigate genetic diversity, haplotype phylogeny and demographic history of 35 populations, covering China and South-East Asia and including marginal populations from Pakistan and Hawaii. Based on neighbor-joining tree analysis and the distribution of haplotypes, two main invasion routes are inferred: one from South-East China to Central China, another from South-East China to South-East Asia, with both routes probably coinciding in Central China. Populations in Taiwan Island and Hainan Island might have originated in South-East China. The marginal populations in Pakistan and Hawaii might have undergone founding events or genetic bottlenecks. Possible strategies for the control of this species are proposed based on the invasion history and reconstructed expansion routes.

  3. Higher Education and the Asia-Pacific Century. Proceedings of the '88 PRAHE Seoul Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Chul-hwan, Ed.; Lee, Wha-kuk, Ed.

    Proceedings of the Pacific Region Association for Higher Education (PRAHE) are presented, including 5 opening speeches, 6 plenary lectures, 7 invited lectures, and 13 general papers. Presentation topics include: higher education and societal change; educational exchange and the Pacific Rim; international cooperation through electronic media;…

  4. Assessment of Capacity Building by UN Centre For Space Science and Technology Education in Asia and Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukund, Rao; Deekshatulu, B. L.; Sundarramiah, V.; Kasturirangan, K.

    2002-01-01

    Space technology has introduced new dimensions into the study and understanding of Earth's processes and in improving the quality of life for the humanity. The benefits from the space technology are mostly confined to the space faring nations. United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UN-OOSA) has taken initiative to disseminate the scientific and technology knowledge to developing countries through the establishment of regional Centres mainly dedicated to the education, training and research. The establishment of the UN Centre for Space Science and Technology Education in Asia and the Pacific (UN CSSTE-AP), in 1995 in India, has opened up new vistas for sharing and learning from experiences and also in capacity building in the region. The Centre has education and research programmes in the field of Remote Sensing, Satellite Communications, Satellite Meteorology and Space Sciences. The education courses are comprising of two phases viz. Phase I, of 9 months duration and is a resident programme in India. The 9 months programme is modular in structure dealing with fundamentals, applications and pilot projects. The Phase II, of 12 months duration, concludes with the submission of a project work assignment in the home country institution. The research programmes are oriented towards carrying out advanced research and development in these fields and provides an opportunity to Asia Pacific students to build their academic capabilities. The education course curriculum is primarily aimed to disseminate the Space Science and Technology in the Asia Pacific region and draws on the experiences and needs of the region. The Centre also assists in research and consultancy in environmental analysis, monitoring, judicious exploitation, rural/urban communication, understanding weather system, conservation of natural resources and sustainable development. The issues are of utmost importance in the backdrop of high population density, unstable economic status, depleting natural

  5. Recent Reform and Perspectives in Higher Education: Report of the Seminar Including a Range of Countries from Asia-Pacific and Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).

    This report describes a 1998 seminar held to review the situation of higher education reform in Asia and the Pacific region, as well as in some Western nations, and to identify common issues and priorities, and then develop a collaborative framework for addressing these issues and setting priorities. Seventeen participants from 16 countries…

  6. Prospects for Adult Education and Development in Asia and the Pacific. Report of a Regional Seminar (Bangkok, November 24-December 4, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    Adult education and the economic development of the countries of Asia and the Pacific was discussed at a UNESCO conference held in Bangkok in November-December, 1980. The conference was opened by Raja Roy Singh, who emphasized the crucial significance of adult education in national development. He said that development is no longer construed only…

  7. Education Standards for the 21st Century: Opening Statements of Ministers at the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Education Ministerial, August 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Policy and Planning (ED), Washington, DC.

    While the member countries of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) have many differences in culture, history, and level of economic development, all APEC representatives who attended this ministerial agreed on the importance of establishing education standards and examination systems to meet the needs of their people in the 21st century.…

  8. Asia and the Pacific: A Survey of Distance Education 1992. Vol. II: Republic of Korea-Vietnam. New Papers on Higher Education: Studies and Research, No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Suk-Ying; And Others

    This report is intended to serve as a general reference for people either new to the field or involved in planning and decision-making in the field of distance education, specifically in Asia and the Pacific region. Volume II contains data from 15 countries: the Republic of Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, New Zealand, Pakistan,…

  9. Regional Consultation Meeting on the Asia and Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (13th, Jomtien, Thailand, June 22-26, 1992). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This report summarizes the proceedings of the Thirteenth Regional Consultation Meeting on the Asia and Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID). The meeting's objectives were to: (1) make an overall review of APEID's work during the 5-year period 1987-91; (2) to discuss major educational innovations that have…

  10. What Lessons to Take from Educational Reforms in Asia-Pacific Region? Factors That May Influence the Restructuring of Secondary Education in East Timor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capelo, Ana; Pedrosa, Maria Arminda; Almeida, Patrícia Albergaria

    2013-01-01

    To better understand current curricular reforms in some Asia-Pacific countries that came out of conflict periods, documents and information posted on various national and international agency websites were analysed. In this paper we aimed to (i) present a brief description of the conditions under which new secondary education curricula are being…

  11. Report of the Regional Consultation for Asia-Pacific Co-operative Programme in Reading Promotion and Book Development (APPREB) (Tokyo, Japan, November 20-21, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asia/Pacific Cultural Centre for UNESCO, Tokyo (Japan).

    The 1997 Regional Consultation for Asia-Pacific Cooperative Programme for Reading Promotion and Book Development (APPREB) held at Japan Publishers Building, Tokyo, Japan, on November 20-21, 1997, highlighted the vital areas where more intensive regional cooperation is required to promote books and reading in this time of drastic changes. Included…

  12. Asia and the Pacific: A Survey of Distance Education 1992. Vol. I: Australia-Japan. New Papers on Higher Education: Studies and Research, No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Suk-Ying; And Others

    This report is intended to serve as a general reference for people either new to the field or involved in planning and decision-making in the field of distance education, specifically in Asia and the Pacific region. Volume I contains data from eight countries: Australia, Bangladesh, the People's Republic of China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia,…

  13. An Observational, Prospective Survey Assessing the Control of Atrial Fibrillation in Asia Pacific: Rationale and Design of the RecordAF-AP Registry

    PubMed Central

    Amerena, John; Chen, Shih-Ann; Sriratanasathavorn, Charn; Cho, Jeong-Gwan; Dejia, Huang; Omar, Razali; Fat, Tse Hung; King, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Background: The literature suggests that the prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) may be lower in Asian countries than in Western countries. Nevertheless, AF remains a significant public health problem in the region. The burden of AF, the experiences of previous trials and the lack of data on AF and its management in Asia Pacific highlight the need for a comprehensive prospective study of AF management. Methods: The REgistry on Cardiac rhythm disORDers assessing the control of Atrial Fibrillation Asia Pacific (RecordAF-AP) is a prospective, observational survey of the management of recently diagnosed AF patients with 1-year follow-up in 8 countries across Asia Pacific. Eligible patients presenting with AF, treated or not, will be included in the registry and data will be recorded prospectively during follow-up visits at 6 and 12 months. Results: RecordAF-AP will recruit more than 3000 patients. Study recruitment commenced in April 2009 and the final results anticipated at the end of 2011. Conclusions: RecordAF-AP will assess the real-life management of AF patients in Asia Pacific, including a comparison of clinical outcomes in rhythm versus rate control strategies, providing much needed insight into the costs, treatment choices and clinical outcomes of AF patients in this region. PMID:21344019

  14. Agroforestry In-Service Training. A Training Aid for Asia & the Pacific Islands (Honiara, Solomon Islands, South Pacific, October 23-29, 1983). Training for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Training Manual No. T-16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fillion, Jacob; Weeks, Julius

    The Forestry/Natural Resources Sector in the Office of Training and Program Support of the Peace Corps conducted an agroforestry inservice training workshop in Honiara, Solomon Islands, in 1983. Participants included Peace Corps volunteers and their host country national counterparts from six countries of the Pacific Islands and Asia (Western…

  15. The Admission and Placement of Students From the Pacific-Asia Area. A Workshop Report. Australia, Ceylon, Hong Kong, India, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Singapore, Okinawa, and Pacific Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jameson, Sanford, Ed.

    This is the report from the workshop for the admission and placement of students from the Pacific-Asia Area. The basic purpose of this workshop was to bring together a group of experienced admissions officers and resource persons with expertise in the particular countries to be covered, in order to study, in some depth, foreign educational systems…

  16. Mainstreaming climate adaptation in the Asia-Pacific: Role of networks and universities in promoting climate literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, F. H.; Yasuhara, K.; Tamura, M.; Tabayashi, Y.; Mimura, N.

    2011-12-01

    As the international climate regime continues to evolve, adaptation has emerged as a key component of responding to climate change. Due to limited scientific, financial, and institutional capacities, as well as perceived competition with multiple priorities, strategies for adaptive measures are not being implemented at the pace needed to address current and future climate risks. Adaptation networks, both global and in the Asia-Pacific region, have formed to overcome the lack of sufficient communication and collaboration among different stakeholders and domains of expertise. In this presentation, we discuss various efforts at Ibaraki University in Japan to integrate technical and social aspects of adaptation into a multidisciplinary effort, to foster synergies among various networks, to clarify the roles of developed and developing countries, and to develop a standard for assessing vulnerability and adaptability across various geographical contexts.

  17. Reverse relationship between drought of mid-latitudes in East Asia and Northwest Pacific tropical cyclone genesis frequency in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jae-Won; Cha, Yumi; Kim, Jeoung-Yun

    2016-12-01

    This study found that there is a significant negative correlation between summer drought in Korea, China and Japan and the frequency of tropical cyclone (TC) in the subtropical western North Pacific (SWNP) using effective drought index (EDI). The frequency of TCs that affect Korea is low (high) in a year of summer drought (non-drought). As a case study, in 1994 when there is extremely severe summer drought in Korea, there was high frequency of TCs while in 2003 when there was least severe summer drought, the frequency of TCs is the lowest. Changes in the anomalous secondary circulation, namely anomalous upward (downward) flow in the SWNP and anomalous downward (upward) flow in the mid-latitudes of East Asia, are one of the causes of drought (non-drought).

  18. The consequences of maltreatment on children's lives: a systematic review of data from the East Asia and Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    Fry, Deborah; McCoy, Amalee; Swales, Diane

    2012-10-01

    This study explores the consequences of child maltreatment in East Asia and the Pacific region based on the results of a systematic review of 16 English and non-English databases for journal articles and "gray" literature published between January 2001 and November 2010. This review shows that children in the region experiencing maltreatment are at increased risk of experiencing mental health consequences, physical health sequelae, high-risk sexual behaviors, and increased exposure to future violence including intimate partner violence (IPV) as an adult. Children who suffer from child sexual abuse have a median twofold increased risk of experiencing mental health disorders than those who have never experienced child maltreatment.  Similar findings were found for those who experience physical abuse.  Children who have been maltreated in the region are also at an increased risk of suicide ideation and attempts than those that have experienced child sexual or physical abuse being at a median fourfold increased risk. Children who have experienced physical abuse or those who have witnessed parental domestic abuse as a child are at median twofold increased risk of experiencing IPV as an adult, while children who have been sexually abused have a median threefold increase in risk of IPV later in life. There are still gaps in our understanding of the consequences of child maltreatment, but we do know that the consequences are profound and far-reaching. The findings indicate that there is an urgent need for governments, civil society organizations, development agencies, and academia to advocate for, invest in, and collaborate across sectors for the strengthening of child protection systems in the East Asia and Pacific Region, with a focus on evidence-based child maltreatment prevention policies and programs.

  19. Model-Informed Risk Assessment and Decision Making for an Emerging Infectious Disease in the Asia-Pacific Region

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Robert; Hickson, Roslyn I.; McVernon, Jodie; McCaw, James M.; Hort, Krishna; Black, Jim; Madden, John R.; Tran, Nhi H.; McBryde, Emma S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Effective response to emerging infectious disease (EID) threats relies on health care systems that can detect and contain localised outbreaks before they reach a national or international scale. The Asia-Pacific region contains low and middle income countries in which the risk of EID outbreaks is elevated and whose health care systems may require international support to effectively detect and respond to such events. The absence of comprehensive data on populations, health care systems and disease characteristics in this region makes risk assessment and decisions about the provision of such support challenging. Methodology/principal findings We describe a mathematical modelling framework that can inform this process by integrating available data sources, systematically explore the effects of uncertainty, and provide estimates of outbreak risk under a range of intervention scenarios. We illustrate the use of this framework in the context of a potential importation of Ebola Virus Disease into the Asia-Pacific region. Results suggest that, across a wide range of plausible scenarios, preemptive interventions supporting the timely detection of early cases provide substantially greater reductions in the probability of large outbreaks than interventions that support health care system capacity after an outbreak has commenced. Conclusions/significance Our study demonstrates how, in the presence of substantial uncertainty about health care system infrastructure and other relevant aspects of disease control, mathematical models can be used to assess the constraints that limited resources place upon the ability of local health care systems to detect and respond to EID outbreaks in a timely and effective fashion. Our framework can help evaluate the relative impact of these constraints to identify resourcing priorities for health care system support, in order to inform principled and quantifiable decision making. PMID:27661978

  20. Towards the international collaboration for detection, surveillance and control of taeniasis/ cysticercosis and echinococcosis in Asia and the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Ito, Akira; Wandra, Toni; Sato, Marcello O; Mamuti, Wulamu; Xiao, Ning; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Munehiro; Craig, Philip S

    2006-01-01

    Both cysticercosis and echinococcosis are potentially among the most serious helminth zoonoses threatening human health worldwide. However, due to the lack of reliable tools for confirmation or identification of patients or infected animals, epidemiological data are expected to be underestimated. Conversely, sometimes, such data are over estimated due to the lack of specificity. The most important issue for doing field surveys is that they use evidence based science. In this communication, advanced immunological and molecular tools for detection of individuals infected with either metacestodes or adult tapeworms are briefly overviewed, and the applications of such tools for epidemiological surveys in Indonesia, China and other countries are introduced. As immunological tools are based on antigen-antibody responses, there may exist some cross-reactions. Therefore, immunodiagnostic tools are expected to be useful for primary screening, and should be combined with confirmation of direct parasitological evidence (morphology or DNA), and imaging techniques for cysts. As a risk factor for human cysticercosis is the presence of tapeworm carriers, detection of taeniasis cases and differentiation of the three human Taenia species (Taenia solium, T. saginata and T. asiatica) in Asia and the Pacific requires consideration. Similarly, in northwest China, Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis are coendemic and differentiation of these species is required in humans and definitive hosts. It is stressed that combination of several tools for identification of the parasite and for confirmation of diseases is important for obtaining highly reliable data before consideration of control of these zoonoses. Recent projects coordinated by Asahikawa Medical College have concentrated on immunological and molecular diagnostic techniques transferable to colleagues from endemic regions of Asia and the Pacific, and on organization of two international symposia to establish a platform

  1. Perspectives on the Development of LNG Market Hubs in the Asia Pacific Region

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    The report discusses current initiatives to establish regional liquefied natural gas (LNG) trading hubs and pricing benchmarks in Asia and assesses the prospects for the Asian gas hubs in the near future. The report examines the characteristics of successful natural gas trading hubs and develops qualitative and quantitative indicators of the components of effective hubs, with emphasis on applying these indicators to Asian markets

  2. Values in Education: Social Capital Formation in Asia and the Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, John D., Ed.

    Social capital creates or reinforces the mutual trust that binds people together. Some of the traditional human values in Asia and the cultural changes Asians face in order to survive in an era of globalization are presented in this collection of essays. The chapters emphasize the strong influence of values on education, the role of education in…

  3. A continuation of the Asia-Pacific Risk Index for natural disasters: extending the record for an updated analysis from 1900-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, James; Daniell, Trevor; Daniell, Katherine; Khazai, Bijan; Schaefer, Andreas; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2016-04-01

    In 2010, an Asia-Pacific risk index was created for the CECAR5 (Civil Engineering Conference for the Asia-Pacific Region) by Daniell et al. (2010a) for floods and earthquakes, using empirical and analytical risk data for direct as well as socio-economic community vulnerability. The socio-economic situation of countries can aggravate the physical risk of natural disaster impacts, as demonstrated by the impacts of earthquakes in Christchurch and Tohoku 2011; add to this a number of deadly typhoon (Haiyan 2013), cyclone (Yasi 2011), flood (Thailand 2011), bushfire and weather effects, and significant changes to the index in 2010 have been seen. At least 10,000 historical events have been recorded since 1900 across the Asia-Pacific region (western Pacific). The database for global socio-economic indicators was produced to allow comparison of countries in terms of their socio-economic situation for use in risk studies. In addition, a global damaging natural disasters database (CATDAT) has been created over the last 14 years to better understand the historical impact of natural disasters on the Asia-Pacific region as well as globally. Simplified hazard models have been used in conjunction with historical damage data added to human exposure. Post-flood and post-typhoon loss models have been produced this methodology. The relative country level rural and urban building inventories and historical building trends are used to define levels of vulnerability, exposure and hazard. From this, physical and community risk indices are derived for the countries of the Asia-Pacific region. It was found that the vulnerabilities in communities of developing countries such as Indonesia and the Philippines can further intensify the impact from direct damages by many times, showing the increased need for earthquake and flood risk reduction policy. Trends based on HDI and other indicators within the fields of economy, poverty, demographics, governance and environment are also presented

  4. Distribution and transportability of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in the Asia-Pacific region using skipjack tuna as a bioindicator.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Daisuke; Alaee, Mehran; Marvin, Chris; Muir, Derek C G; Macinnis, Gordia; Reiner, Eric; Crozier, Patrick; Furdui, Vasile I; Subramanian, Annamalai; Fillmann, Gilberto; Lam, Paul K S; Zheng, Gene J; Muchtar, Muswerry; Razak, Hamidah; Prudente, Maricar; Chung, Kyu-hyuck; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2006-11-01

    The geographical distribution of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) was investigated through analysis of muscle tissue of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) collected from offshore waters of Asia-Pacific region (Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, Seychelles, Brazil, Japan Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea, Indian Ocean and North Pacific Ocean). HBCD was detected in almost all samples analyzed (<0.1 to 45 ng/g lipid weight basis), indicating widespread presence of this compound in the marine environment. Elevated concentrations of HBCD were found in skipjack tuna from areas around Japan, which have the larger modern industrial/urban societies, and implicated these areas as primary regional sources. All three individual HBCD isomers (alpha-, gamma- and beta-HBCD) were detected in almost all samples; the percentage contribution of the alpha-isomer to total HBCD increased with increasing latitude. The estimated empirical 1/2 distance for alpha-HBCD was 8500 km, which is one of the highest atmospheric transportability among various halogenated persistent organic pollutants (POPs).

  5. UNESCO in Asia and the Pacific: 40 Years On. Bibliographical Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulletin of the Unesco Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific, 1986

    1986-01-01

    This bibliography of approximately 1,850 published and unpublished materials concerning all aspects of education in Asian and Pacific countries updates a 1979 bibliography by the same organization. Types of materials listed include conference papers, research reports, books, statistical compilations, government/international organization…

  6. Cenozoic geological and plate tectonic evolution of SE Asia and the SW Pacific: computer-based reconstructions, model and animations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Robert

    2002-04-01

    A plate tectonic model for the Cenozoic development of the region of SE Asia and the SW Pacific is presented and its implications are discussed. The model is accompanied by computer animations in a variety of formats, which can be viewed on most desktop computers. GPS measurements and present seismicity illustrate the high rates of motions and tectonic complexity of the region, but provide little help in long-term reconstruction. Plate boundaries shifted rapidly in the Cenozoic. During convergence of the major plates, there were numerous important episodes of extension, forming ocean basins and causing subsidence within continental regions, probably driven by subduction. Within eastern Indonesia, New Guinea and the Melanesian arcs, there are multiple Cenozoic sutures, with very short histories compared to most well-known older orogenic belts. They preserve a record of major changes in tectonics, including subduction polarity reversals, elimination of volcanic arcs, changing plate boundaries and extension within an overall contractional setting. Rapid tectonic changes have occurred within periods of less than 5 Ma. Many events would be overlooked or ignored in older orogenic belts, even when evidence is preserved, because high resolution dating is required to identify them, and the inference of almost simultaneous contraction and extension seems contradictory. There were three important periods in regional development: at about 45, 25 and 5 Ma. At these times, plate boundaries and motions changed, probably because of major collision events. The 45 Ma plate reorganisation may be related to India-Asia collision, although some important intra-Pacific events, such as voluminous Eocene boninite magmatism, seem to be older and require other causes. Indentation of Asia by India modified the Asian continent, but there is little indication that India has been the driving force of tectonics in most of SE Asia. The most important Cenozoic plate boundary reorganisation was at

  7. Potential for thermal coal and Clean Coal Technology (CCT) in the Asia-Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.J.; Long, S.

    1991-11-22

    The Coal Project was able to make considerable progress in understanding the evolving energy situation in Asia and the future role of coal and Clean Coal Technologies. It is clear that there will be major growth in consumption of coal in Asia over the next two decades -- we estimate an increase of 1.2 billion metric tons. Second, all governments are concerned about the environmental impacts of increased coal use, however enforcement of regulations appears to be quite variable among Asian countries. There is general caution of the part of Asian utilities with respect to the introduction of CCT's. However, there appears to be potential for introduction of CCT's in a few countries by the turn of the century. It is important to emphasize that it will be a long term effort to succeed in getting CCT's introduced to Asia. The Coal Project recommends that the US CCT program be expanded to allow the early introduction of CCT's in a number of countries.

  8. Amphibious Force Sustainment Shortfalls Applied to the Asia-Pacific Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-15

    of Normandy. 2012 Portsmouth City Council. Accessed 21 Dec 2012. http://www.ddaymuseum.co.uk 2 Dakota L. Wood. Caught on a Lee Shore. The American...World War II and Korea leveraged forward staging, and a robust sustainment pipeline creating operational endurance for the amphibious force. As has...trust on two fronts. First this solution requires coalition and host nation partnership in order to ensure port access in the 1st and 2nd tier Pacific

  9. Role of sea surface temperature anomalies in the tropical Indo-Pacific region in the northeast Asia severe drought in summer 2014: month-to-month perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhiqing; Fan, Ke; Wang, HuiJun

    2016-10-01

    The severe drought over northeast Asia in summer 2014 and the contribution to it by sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the tropical Indo-Pacific region were investigated from the month-to-month perspective. The severe drought was accompanied by weak lower-level summer monsoon flow and featured an obvious northward movement during summer. The mid-latitude Asian summer (MAS) pattern and East Asia/Pacific teleconnection (EAP) pattern, induced by the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) and western North Pacific summer monsoon (WNPSM) rainfall anomalies respectively, were two main bridges between the SST anomalies in the tropical Indo-Pacific region and the severe drought. Warming in the Arabian Sea induced reduced rainfall over northeast India and then triggered a negative MAS pattern favoring the severe drought in June 2014. In July 2014, warming in the tropical western North Pacific led to a strong WNPSM and increased rainfall over the Philippine Sea, triggering a positive EAP pattern. The equatorial eastern Pacific and local warming resulted in increased rainfall over the off-equatorial western Pacific and triggered an EAP-like pattern. The EAP pattern and EAP-like pattern contributed to the severe drought in July 2014. A negative Indian Ocean dipole induced an anomalous meridional circulation, and warming in the equatorial eastern Pacific induced an anomalous zonal circulation, in August 2014. The two anomalous cells led to a weak ISM and WNPSM, triggering the negative MAS and EAP patterns responsible for the severe drought. Two possible reasons for the northward movement of the drought were also proposed.

  10. Human resource development in the Asia-Pacific region: implications for Australia.

    PubMed

    Jones, G W

    1997-11-01

    "Educational development has played a role in rapid economic development in East and Southeast Asia.... Australia faces problems in common with countries of the region, including the need to provide greater equality of educational opportunity to students from disadvantaged backgrounds, and to find the appropriate disciplinary mix in tertiary education. The massive growth of the numbers with secondary and higher education in the region will provide opportunities to market our education, pose issues for Australian immigration policy, and provide both risks and opportunities in building a favourable image of Australia."

  11. Genetic diversity of taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott, in Southeast Asia and the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Kreike, C M; Van Eck, H J; Lebot, V

    2004-08-01

    The genetic diversity of 255 taro (Colocasia esculenta) accessions from Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia,Indonesia, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea and Vanuatu was studied using AFLPs. Three AFLP primer combinations generated a total of 465 scorable amplification products. The 255 accessions were grouped according to their country of origin, to their ploidy level (diploid or triploid) and to their habitat--cultivated or wild. Gene diversity within these groups and the genetic distance between these groups were computed. Dendrograms were constructed using UPGMA cluster analysis. In each country, the gene diversity within the groups of wild genotypes was the highest compared to the diploid and triploid cultivars groups. The highest gene diversity was observed for the wild group from Thailand (0.19), the lowest for the diploid cultivars group from Thailand(0.007). In Malaysia there was hardly any difference between the gene diversity of the cultivars and wild groups, 0.07 and 0.08, respectively. The genetic distances between the diploid cultivars groups ranges from 0.02 to 0.10, with the distance between the diploid accessions from Thailand and Malaysia being the highest. The genetic distances between the wild groups range from 0.05 to 0.07. First, a dendrogram was constructed with only the diploids cultivars from all countries. The accessions formed clusters largely according to the country from which they originated. Two major groups of clusters were revealed, one group assembling accessions from Asian countries and the other assembling accessions from the Pacific. Surprisingly, the group of diploid cultivars from Thailand clustered among the Pacific countries. Secondly,a dendrogram was constructed with diploid cultivated,triploid cultivated and wild accessions. Again the division of the accessions into an Asian and a Pacific gene pool is obvious. The presence of two gene pools for cultivated diploid taro has major implications for the breeding and conservation of

  12. Capacity building and predictors of success for HIV-1 drug resistance testing in the Asia-Pacific region and Africa

    PubMed Central

    Land, Sally; Zhou, Julian; Cunningham, Philip; Sohn, Annette H; Singtoroj, Thida; Katzenstein, David; Mann, Marita; Sayer, David; Kantor, Rami

    2013-01-01

    Background The TREAT Asia Quality Assessment Scheme (TAQAS) was developed as a quality assessment programme through expert education and training, for laboratories in the Asia-Pacific and Africa that perform HIV drug-resistance (HIVDR) genotyping. We evaluated the programme performance and factors associated with high-quality HIVDR genotyping. Methods Laboratories used their standard protocols to test panels of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive plasma samples or electropherograms. Protocols were documented and performance was evaluated according to a newly developed scoring system, agreement with panel-specific consensus sequence, and detection of drug-resistance mutations (DRMs) and mixtures of wild-type and resistant virus (mixtures). High-quality performance was defined as detection of ≥95% DRMs. Results Over 4.5 years, 23 participating laboratories in 13 countries tested 45 samples (30 HIV-1 subtype B; 15 non-B subtypes) in nine panels. Median detection of DRMs was 88–98% in plasma panels and 90–97% in electropherogram panels. Laboratories were supported to amend and improve their test outcomes as appropriate. Three laboratories that detected <80% DRMs in early panels demonstrated subsequent improvement. Sample complexity factors – number of DRMs (p<0.001) and number of DRMs as mixtures (p<0.001); and laboratory performance factors – detection of mixtures (p<0.001) and agreement with consensus sequence (p<0.001), were associated with high performance; sample format (plasma or electropherogram), subtype and genotyping protocol were not. Conclusion High-quality HIVDR genotyping was achieved in the TAQAS collaborative laboratory network. Sample complexity and detection of mixtures were associated with performance quality. Laboratories conducting HIVDR genotyping are encouraged to participate in quality assessment programmes. PMID:23845227

  13. Typhoid Fever surveillance and vaccine use - South-East Asia and Western Pacific regions, 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    Date, Kashmira A; Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa D; Fox, Kimberley K; Abeysinghe, Nihal; Mintz, Eric D; Khan, M Imran; Sahastrabuddhe, Sushant; Hyde, Terri B

    2014-10-03

    Typhoid fever is a serious, systemic infection resulting in nearly 22 million cases and 216,500 deaths annually, primarily in Asia. Safe water, adequate sanitation, appropriate personal and food hygiene, and vaccination are the most effective strategies for prevention and control. In 2008, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended use of available typhoid vaccines to control endemic disease and outbreaks and strengthening of typhoid surveillance to improve disease estimates and identify high-risk populations (e.g., persons without access to potable water and adequate sanitation). This report summarizes the status of typhoid surveillance and vaccination programs in the WHO South-East Asia (SEAR) and Western Pacific regions (WPR) during 2009-2013, after the revised WHO recommendations. Data were obtained from the WHO/United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Joint Reporting Form on Immunization, a supplemental survey of surveillance and immunization program managers, and published literature. During 2009-2013, 23 (48%) of 48 countries and areas of SEAR (11) and WPR (37) collected surveillance or notifiable disease data on typhoid cases, with most surveillance activities established before 2008. Nine (19%) countries reported implementation of typhoid vaccination programs or recommended vaccine use during 2009-2013. Despite the high incidence, typhoid surveillance is weak in these two regions, and vaccination efforts have been limited. Further progress toward typhoid fever prevention and control in SEAR and WPR will require country commitment and international support for enhanced surveillance, targeted use of existing vaccines and availability of newer vaccines integrated within routine immunization programs, and integration of vaccination with safe water, sanitation, and hygiene measures.

  14. Heart failure in patients presenting with dyspnoea to the emergency department in the Asia Pacific region: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Anne-Maree; Cullen, Louise; Klim, Sharon; Craig, Simon; Kuan, Win Sen; Jones, Peter; Holdgate, Anna; Lawoko, Charles; Laribi, Said

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To describe demographic features, assessment, management and outcomes of patients who were diagnosed with heart failure after presenting to an emergency department (ED) with a principal symptom of dyspnoea. Design Planned substudy of the prospective, descriptive cohort study: Asia, Australia and New Zealand Dyspnoea in Emergency Departments (AANZDEM). Setting 46 EDs in Australia, New Zealand, Singapore, Hong Kong and Malaysia collected data over 3 72-hour periods in May, August and October 2014. Participants Patients with an ED diagnosis of heart failure. Outcome measures Outcomes included patient epidemiology, investigations ordered, treatment modalities used and patient outcomes (hospital length of stay (LOS) and mortality). Results 455 (14.9%) of the 3044 patients had an ED diagnosis of heart failure. Median age was 79 years, half were male and 62% arrived via ambulance. 392 (86%) patients were admitted to hospital. ED diagnosis was concordant with hospital discharge diagnosis in 81% of cases. Median hospital LOS was 6 days (IQR 4–9) and in-hospital mortality was 5.1%. Natriuretic peptide levels were ordered in 19%, with lung ultrasound (<1%) and echocardiography (2%) uncommonly performed. Treatment modalities included non-invasive ventilation (12%), diuretics (73%), nitrates (25%), antibiotics (16%), inhaled β-agonists (13%) and corticosteroids (6%). Conclusions In the Asia Pacific region, heart failure is a common diagnosis among patients presenting to the ED with a principal symptom of dyspnoea. Admission rates were high and ED diagnostic accuracy was good. Despite the seemingly suboptimal adherence to investigation and treatment guidelines, patient outcomes were favourable compared with other registries. PMID:28246137

  15. Accelerating harm reduction interventions to confront the HIV epidemic in the Western Pacific and Asia: the role of WHO (WPRO).

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Fabio; Jacka, David; Ricard, Dominique; Shaw, Graham; Tieru, Han; Hu, Yifei; Poundstone, Katharine; Salva, Madeline; Fujita, Masami; Singh, Nirmal

    2008-08-05

    The epidemic of HIV/AIDS linked to injecting drug usage is one of the most explosive in recent years. After a historical epicentre in Europe, South and North America, at present it is clearly the main cause of dissemination of the epidemic in Eastern Europe and some key Asian countries. Recently, 10 African countries reported the spread of HIV through people who inject drugs (PWID), breaking one of the final geographical barriers to the globalization of the epidemic of HIV among and from PWID. Several countries of the Asia and Pacific Region have HIV epidemics that are driven by injecting drug usage. Harm reduction interventions have been implemented in many countries and potential barriers to implementation are being overcome. Harm reduction is no longer a marginal approach in the Region; instead, it is the core tool for responding to the HIV/AIDS epidemic among PWID. The development of a comprehensive response in the Region has been remarkable, including scaling up of needle and syringe programmes (NSPs), methadone maintenance treatment (MMT), and care, support and treatment for PWID. This development is being followed up by strong ongoing changes in policies and legislations. The main issue now is to enhance interventions to a level that can impact the epidemic. The World Health Organization (WHO) is one of the leading UN agencies promoting harm reduction. Since the establishment of the Global Programme on AIDS, WHO has been working towards an effective response to the HIV epidemic among PWID. WHO's work is organized into a number of components: establishing an evidence base; advocacy; development of normative standards, tools and guidelines; providing technical support to countries; ensuring access to essential medicines, diagnostics and commodities; and mobilizing resources. In this paper, we trace the course of development of the HIV/AIDS epidemic among and from PWID in the Western Pacific and Asia Region (WPRO) as well as WHO's role in supporting the

  16. Risk factors for leptospirosis infection in humans and implications for public health intervention in Indonesia and the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Sakundarno, Mateus; Bertolatti, Dean; Maycock, Bruce; Spickett, Jeffery; Dhaliwal, Satvinder

    2014-01-01

    Prevention and control of leptospirosis require an understanding of risk factors. This review identifies risk factors associated with leptospirosis infection from countries in the Asia-Pacific region, and compares and contrasts these data with those available from Indonesia. MEDLINE, PubMed, and Scopus databases were used to search for relevant articles. Indonesian gray literature was searched for leptospirosis risk factor studies in Indonesia. A total of 34 articles were included in this review. The contrast between peer-reviewed publications and Indonesian gray literature revealed that the variety of risk factors associated with leptospirosis infection is region or area specific. The presence of skin wounds, the existence of rodents, especially rats, and activities related to contact with contaminated surface water are factors frequently reported to have significant association with leptospirosis infection in human in Indonesia and in other Asia-Pacific countries.

  17. Asia-Pacific mussel watch for emerging pollutants: Distribution of synthetic musks and benzotriazole UV stabilizers in Asian and US coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Haruhiko; Shinohara, Ryu-Ichi; Nakazawa, Yusuke; Isobe, Tomohiko; Sudaryanto, Agus; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Zheng, Gene J; Lam, Paul K S; Kim, Eun Young; Min, Byung-Yoon; We, Sung-Ug; Viet, Pham Hung; Tana, Touch Seang; Prudente, Maricar; Frank, Donnell; Lauenstein, Gunnar; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2012-10-01

    We analyzed 68 green and blue mussels collected from Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam and the USA during 2003 and 2007, to elucidate the occurrence and widespread distributions of emerging pollutants, synthetic musks and benzotriazole UV stabilizers (BUVSs) in Asia-Pacific coastal waters. Synthetic musks and BUVSs were detected in mussels from all countries, suggesting their ubiquitous contamination and widespread distribution. High concentrations of musks and BUVSs were detected in mussels from Japan and Korea, where the levels were comparable or greater than those of PCBs, DDTs and PBDEs. Significant correlations were found between the concentrations of HHCB and AHTN, and also between the concentrations of UV-327 and UV-328, which suggest similar sources and compositions of these compounds in commercial and industrial products. To our knowledge, this is the first study of large-scale monitoring of synthetic musks and BUVSs in Asia-Pacific coastal waters.

  18. Never Let the Opportunity to Prepare for a Crisis Go to Waste: The Need for Proactive Measures in the Asia-Pacific Region to Mitigate the Impacts of Climate Change

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-21

    Impacts of Climate Change A Monograph by MAJ Jeffrey P. Rhodes United States Army School of Advanced Military Studies United States...Proactive Measures in the Asia-Pacific Region to Mitigate the Impacts of Climate Change 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...threat. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Climate Change , PACOM, Asia-Pacific, the Philippines, Migration, Humanitarian Assistance / Disaster Response, natural

  19. Data and Data Products for Climate Research: Web Services at the Asia-Pacific Data-Research Center (APDRC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCarlo, S.; Potemra, J. T.; Wang, K.

    2012-12-01

    The International Pacific Research Center (IPRC) at the University of Hawaii maintains a data center for climate studies called the Asia-Pacific Data-Research Center (APDRC). This data center was designed within a center of excellence in climate research with the intention of serving the needs of the research scientist. The APDRC provides easy access to a wide collection of climate data and data products for a wide variety of users. The data center maintains an archive of approximately 100 data sets including in-situ and remote data, as well as a range of model-based output. All data are available via on-line browsing tools such as a Live Access Server (LAS) and DChart, and direct binary access is available through OPeNDAP services. On-line tutorials on how to use these services are now available. Users can keep up-to-date with new data and product announcements via the APDRC facebook page. The main focus of the APDRC has been climate scientists, and the services are therefore streamlined to such users, both in the number and types of data served, but also in the way data are served. In addition, due to the integration of the APDRC within the IPRC, several value-added data products (see figure for an example using Argo floats) have been developed via a variety of research activities. The APDRC, therefore, has three main foci: 1. acquisition of climate-related data, 2. maintenance of integrated data servers, and 3. development and distribution of data products The APDRC can be found at http://apdrc.soest.hawaii.edu. The presentation will provide an overview along with specific examples of the data, data products and data services available at the APDRC.; APDRC product example: gridded field from Argo profiling floats

  20. The Asia-Pacific effects of a megatsunami along the Tonga Trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Andreas; Daniell, James; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2015-04-01

    A megatsunami (M>9.0) along the Tonga Trench has far-reaching consequences for 4 major continents of the world, and exposure ranging from the cities of Sydney and Brisbane, the coastlines of Japan, Canada, USA, and along South America not to mention the Pacific Islands. Using the TSUDAT software of Geoscience Australia, relevant scenarios are selected for the location. Fault mechanics and the possible regime are also then examined to create the scenario. In this study, the effects of a megatsunami scenario are investigated including the run-up heights in coastal regions on these four continents in addition to other hazard effects. Global level DEM and bathymetry data is used to provide a first estimate of the exposed population, built infrastructure (capital stock) and GDP in the tsunami inundation area. The uncertainties of such a study are taken into account by adjusting the scenario via source mechanism, magnitude range and directivity effects. This is combined with basic vulnerability functions from historical tsunamis in order to give an exposed and estimated loss and cost of reconstruction across the Pacific rim. Notes as to the warning times, country preparation and evacuation plans for tsunamis are also made given long lead times in some cases.

  1. Proceedings of Regional Asia Pacific Defence Environmental Workshop Held in Darwin, Australia on 11-14 May 1998 (Environmental Security Series Number 5)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-01

    Puckapunyal Training Area in Victoria and Shoalwater Bay Training Area (SWBTA) in North Queensland as examples where much has been done by the Australian...disharmony between states. For example, the problems posed by acid rain originating from the eastern European countries and falling in Germany and...countries, Eastern and Central Europe and Russia. Conferences such as the one hosted by the Asia-Pacific Center in June 1997 are also important steps in

  2. Asia-Pacific mussel watch: monitoring contamination of persistent organochlorine compounds in coastal waters of Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Monirith, In; Ueno, Daisuke; Takahashi, Shin; Nakata, Haruhiko; Sudaryanto, Agus; Subramanian, Annamalai; Karuppiah, Subramanian; Ismail, Ahmad; Muchtar, Muswerry; Zheng, Jinshu; Richardson, Bruce J; Prudente, Maricar; Hue, Ngyen Duc; Tana, Touch Seang; Tkalin, Alexander V; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2003-03-01

    Contamination of persistent organochlorines (OCs) such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane) isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), and HCB (hexachlorobenzene) were examined in mussels collected from coastal waters of Asian countries such as Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Far East Russia, Singapore, and Vietnam in 1994, 1997, 1998, 1999, and 2001 to elucidate the contamination status, distribution and possible pollution sources and to assess the risks on aquatic organisms and human. OCs were detected in all mussels collected from all the sampling sites investigated. Considerable residue levels of p,p(')-DDT and alpha-HCH were found in mussels and the concentrations of DDTs and HCHs found in mussels from Asian developing countries were higher than those in developed nations suggesting present usage of DDTs and HCHs along the coastal waters of Asian developing countries. On the other hand, lower concentrations of PCBs detected in mussels from Asian developing countries than those in developed countries indicate that PCBs contamination in mussels is strongly related to industrial and activities. To our knowledge, this is a first comprehensive report on monitoring OCs pollution in the Asia-Pacific region.

  3. Variation of airborne quartz in air of Beijing during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Economic Leaders' Meeting.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Li, Yingming; Zhang, Hongxing; Li, Honghua; Gao, Guanjun; Zhou, Qian; Gao, Yuan; Li, Wenjuan; Sun, Huizhong; Wang, Xiaoke; Zhang, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Quartz particles are a toxic component of airborne particulate matter (PM). Quartz concentrations were analyzed by X-ray diffraction in eighty-seven airborne PM samples collected from three locations in Beijing before, during, and after the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Leaders' Meeting in 2014. The results showed that the mean concentrations of quartz in PM samples from the two urban sites were considerably higher than those from the rural site. The quartz concentrations in samples collected after the APEC meeting, when the pollution restriction lever was lifted, were higher than those in the samples collected before or during the APEC meeting. The quartz concentrations ranged from 0.97 to 13.2 μg/m(3), which were among the highest values amid those reported from other countries. The highest quartz concentration exceeded the Californian Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment reference exposure level and was close to the occupational threshold limit values for occupational settings. Moreover, a correlation analysis showed that quartz concentrations were positively correlated with concentrations of pollution parameters PM10, PM2.5, SO2 and NOx, but were negatively correlated with O3 concentration. The results suggest that the airborne quartz particles may potentially pose health risks to the general population of Beijing.

  4. Impacts of vegetation onset time on the net primary productivity in a mountainous island in Pacific Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chung-Te; Wang, Hsueh-Ching; Huang, Cho-ying

    2013-12-01

    Vegetation phenology reflects the response of a terrestrial ecosystem to climate change. In this study, we attempt to evaluate the El Niño/La Niña-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-associated temporal dynamics of the vegetation onset and its influence on the net primary productivity (NPP) in a subtropical island (Taiwan) of Pacific Asia. We utilized a decade-long (2001-2010) time series of photosynthetically active vegetation cover (PV) data, which were derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) reflectance data, to delineate the vegetation phenology. These data served as inputs for the phenological analysis toolbox TIMESAT. The results indicated that the delayed vegetation onset time was directly influenced by a dry spring (February and March) in which less than 40 mm of rainfall was received. This seasonal drought impeded vegetation growth in the subsequent growing season, most likely due to delayed impacts of moisture stress related to the preceding ENSO events. The significant correlations obtained between the annual MODIS NPP and both the vegetation onset time and the length of the growing season may imply that the accumulated rainfall in the spring season governs the annual NPP. The model simulations revealed that the frequency and intensity of the ENSO-related spring droughts might increase, which would result in cascading effects on the ecosystem metabolism.

  5. Outwitting dengue threat and epidemics resurgence in Asia-Pacific countries: strengthening integrated dengue surveillance, monitoring and response systems.

    PubMed

    Tambo, Ernest; Chen, Jun-Hu; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Khater, Emad I M

    2016-05-27

    Dengue is still a substantial vector-borne viral disease threat and burden of public health importance worldwide. This situation is complicated by dengue virus unprecedented resurgence and persistence of varied serotypes in endemic-prone areas, and man-made and natural activities consequences that promote vector emergence, transmission dynamics and spread across the Asia-Pacific region. There is an urgent need to strengthen operational and contextual surveillance-response research in improving early detection of active reservoir detection, novel drug in case management and quality evidence-based response including the deployment of dengue mass vaccination. Moreover, sustained mapping and watching of dengue risk factors or determinants, performance and outcome indicators of control or elimination programs effectiveness in defining minimum effective data towards community knowledge-based decision-making policy and effective response packages is imperative. Moreover, implementation of a robust, integrated dengue early warning surveillance, monitoring and response systems metrics is required for evidence-based, timely and cost-effective contextual mitigation strategies, and innovative interventions.

  6. Construction of a mathematical model for tuberculosis transmission in highly endemic regions of the Asia-Pacific.

    PubMed

    Trauer, James M; Denholm, Justin T; McBryde, Emma S

    2014-10-07

    We present a mathematical model to simulate tuberculosis (TB) transmission in highly endemic regions of the Asia-Pacific, where epidemiology does not appear to be primarily driven by HIV-coinfection. The ten-compartment deterministic model captures many of the observed phenomena important to disease dynamics, including partial and temporary vaccine efficacy, declining risk of active disease following infection, the possibility of reinfection both during the infection latent period and after treatment, multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB) and de novo resistance during treatment. We found that the model could not be calibrated to the estimated incidence rate without allowing for reinfection during latency, and that even in the presence of a moderate fitness cost and a lower value of R0, MDR-TB becomes the dominant strain at equilibrium. Of the modifiable programmatic parameters, the rate of detection and treatment commencement was the most important determinant of disease rates with each respective strain, while vaccination rates were less important. Improved treatment of drug-susceptible TB did not result in decreased rates of MDR-TB through prevention of de novo resistance, but rather resulted in a modest increase in MDR-TB through strain replacement. This was due to the considerably greater relative contribution of community transmission to MDR-TB incidence, by comparison to de novo amplification of resistance in previously susceptible strains.

  7. Assessment of the Contribution of BeiDou GEO, IGSO, and MEO Satellites to PPP in Asia-Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qile; Wang, Chen; Guo, Jing; Liu, Xianglin

    2015-12-01

    In contrast to the US Global Positioning System (GPS), the Russian Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) and the European Galileo, the developing Chinese BeiDou satellite navigation system (BDS) consists of not only Medium Earth Orbit (MEO), but also Geostationary Orbit (GEO) as well as Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit (IGSO) satellites. In this study, the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) and PPP with Integer Ambiguity Resolution (IAR) are obtained. The contributions of these three different types of BDS satellites to PPP in Asia-Pacific region are assessed using data from selected 20 sites over more than four weeks. By using various PPP cases with different satellite combinations, in general, the largest contribution of BDS IGSO among the three kinds of BDS satellites to the reduction of convergence time and the improvement of positioning accuracy, particularly in the east direction, is identified. These PPP cases include static BDS only solutions and static/kinematic ambiguity-float and -fixed PPP with the combination of GPS and BDS. The statistical results demonstrate that the inclusion of BDS GEO and MEO satellites can improve the observation condition and result in better PPP performance as well. When combined with GPS, the contribution of BDS to the reduction of convergence time is, however, not as significant as that of GLONASS. As far as the positioning accuracy is concerned, GLONASS improves the accuracy in vertical component more than BDS does, whereas similar improvement in horizontal component can be achieved by inclusion of BDS IGSO and MEO as GLONASS.

  8. Stevens-Johnson syndrome / toxic epidermal necrolysis: an Asia-Pacific perspective

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCAR) to drugs which are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. High risk drugs in Asia are similar to those reported worldwide. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-related risk alleles for carbamazepine and allopurinol SCAR are unique to Asians. Although prognostic scoring systems like the SCORTEN have been used for more than a decade, pitfalls and caveats need to be recognized, in particular in patients with multiple medical co-morbidities and systemic features in SJS/TEN. In centres without a tertiary Burns Centre, SJS/TEN patients can still be managed successfully in general and dermatology wards with well-executed supportive/nursing care. Controversy remains regarding the effectiveness of immunomodulation in reducing SJS/TEN morbidity, mortality and hastening re-epithelialization. Despite paucity of robust evidence, intravenous immunoglobulins and ciclosporin remain the most commonly used modalities worldwide. Acute and long-term ocular effects are an important source of morbidity for which emerging ophthalmic therapies appear promising. Quality of life issues have now become an important outcome in patients with SJS/TEN as they often impact survivors' future attitudes towards pharmacotherapy. Even though pharmacogenetic testing for high-risk drugs appears to be the panacea for preventing carbamazepine- and allopurinol-induced SJS/TEN in ethnic Asians, many issues remain before health regulators in our region can conclusively determine whether testing should be made mandatory or highly recommended as standard of care. PMID:24260726

  9. JPRS Report East Asia Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    209098 JPRS- SEA -87-080 16 JUNE 1987 #■■■■■ !■■■■! \\lIPf/ FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE JPRS tit East Asia Southeast Asia JBKC...of interest to readers of this report are as follows: The SOUTHEAST ASIA REPORT ( SEA ) will be titled EAST AS IA/SOUTHEAST ASIA ( SEA ). The JAPAN...Virginia 22161. JPRS- SEA -87-080 16 JUNE 1987 EAST ASIA SOUTHEAST ASIA CONTENTS INTER-ASIAN LAOS Pacific Forum Offers Fiji Aid, No Recognition (AFP

  10. Rationale, Methodology, and Implementation of a Dispatcher-assisted Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Trial in the Asia-Pacific (Pan-Asian Resuscitation Outcomes Study Phase 2).

    PubMed

    Ong, Marcus Eng Hock; Shin, Sang Do; Tanaka, Hideharu; Ma, Matthew Huei-Ming; Nishiuchi, Tatsuya; Lee, Eui Jung; Ko, Patrick Chow-In; Edwin Doctor, Nausheen; Khruekarnchana, Pairoj; Naroo, Ghulam Yasin; Wong, Kwanhathai Darin; Nakagawa, Takashi; Ryoo, Hyun Wook; Lin, Chih-Hao; Goh, E-Shaun; Khunkhlai, Nalinas; Alsakaf, Omer Ahmed; Hisamuddin, Nik A B Rahman Nik; Bobrow, Bentley J; McNally, Bryan; Assam, Pryseley Nkouibert; Chan, Edwin S Y

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background. Survival outcomes from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in Asia are poor (2-11%). Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) rates are relatively low in Asia. Dispatcher-assisted CPR (DA-CPR) has recently emerged as a potentially cost-effective intervention to increase bystander CPR and survival from OHCA. The Pan-Asian Resuscitation Outcomes Study (PAROS), an Asia-Pacific cardiac arrest registry, was set up in 2009, with the aim of understanding OHCA as a disease in Asia and improving OHCA survival. The network has adopted DA-CPR as part of its strategy to improve OHCA survival. Objective. This article aims to describe the conceptualization, study design, potential benefits, and difficulties for implementation of DA-CPR trial in the Asia-Pacific. Methods. Two levels of intervention, basic and comprehensive, will be offered to PAROS participating sites. The basic level consists of implementation of a DA-CPR protocol and training program, while the comprehensive level consists of implementation of the basic level, with the addition of a dispatch quality measurement tool, quality improvement program, and community education program. Sites that are not able to implement the package will contribute control data. The primary outcome of the study is survival to hospital discharge or survival to 30 days post cardiac arrest. DA-CPR and bystander CPR are secondary outcomes. Conclusion. Implementation of DA-CPR requires concerted efforts by EMS leaders and supervisors, dispatchers, hospital stakeholders, policy makers, and the general public. The DA-CPR trial implemented by the PAROS sites, if successful, can serve as a model for other countries considering such an intervention in their EMS systems.

  11. Chemical and optical characteristics of atmospheric aerosols in Beijing during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation China 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Jun; Gao, Jian; Zhang, Leiming; Wang, Han; Qiu, Xionghui; Zhang, Zhisheng; Wu, Yunfei; Chai, Fahe; Wang, Shulan

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of regional pollution control measures for improving visibility imposed during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) period, day- and nighttime PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected at an urban site in Beijing from October to November, 2014. PM2.5 and PM10 samples were subject to chemical analysis for major water-soluble ions, organic carbon (OC), element carbon (EC), and biomass burning tracers - anhydrosugar levoglucosan (LG). In addition, aerosol scattering coefficient (bsp) and aerosol absorption coefficient (bap) at dry condition were measured. PM2.5 mass concentration was 190 ± 125, 88 ± 60, 199 ± 142 μg m-3 during the pre-, during- and post-APEC period, respectively, while the concentration of the sum of (NH4)2SO4 and NH4NO3 was 75 ± 69, 19 ± 22 and 40 ± 46 μg m-3, respectively. The sum of (NH4)2SO4 and NH4NO3 accounted for 49 ± 24%, 19 ± 12% and 24 ± 12% of bext (the sum of bsp and bap) at ambient condition during the pre-, during- and post-APEC period, respectively, and the corresponding numbers are 39 ± 18%, 62 ± 8% and 61 ± 10% for the sum of OM and EC. Reduction of secondary inorganic aerosols played a key role in the "APEC blue", especially under moisture conditions due to their hygroscopic properties. As a result, visibility was improved significantly during the APEC period with five out of the 12 days having a visibility higher than 20 km. Control of biomass burning, especially during the nighttime, was not performed well during the APEC period, which should be paid more attention in making future emission control measures.

  12. Modeled size-segregated wet and dry deposition budgets of soil dust aerosol during ACE-Asia 2001: Implications for trans-Pacific transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, T. L.; Gong, S. L.; Zhang, X. Y.; McKendry, I. G.

    2003-12-01

    Size-segregated budgets of soil dust aerosols in Asia for spring 2001 during ACE-Asia were investigated using the NARCM model [, 2003b]. Simulated mass size distributions of dust deposition showed a similar size distribution to the dust emission fluxes over the source regions and a decreased peak corresponding to a 1-3 μm diameter range over downwind regions. The simulations suggest that dry deposition was a dominant dust removal process near the source areas and the removal of dust particles by precipitation was the major process over the trans-Pacific transport pathway, where wet deposition exceeded dry deposition by up to a factor of 10. The Asian dust deposition from the atmosphere to the North Pacific Ocean was correlated not only with precipitation over the North Pacific but also with the dust transport patterns. Variations of monthly Asian dust outflow were identified with the latitudinal center of transport at 38°N in March, 42°N in April, and 47°N in May. The monthly trans-Pacific transport patterns of Asian dust in spring were characterized. The transport axis extended around 30°N and 40°N from the east Asian subcontinent to the North Pacific in March. A zonal transport pathway around 40°N was well developed in April over the North Pacific and reached North America. However, the transport in May was separated into two pathways: an eastward zonal path over the North Pacific and a meridional path from the source regions to the northeast Asian continent. On the basis of the averaged dust budgets during spring 2001, it was found that the major sources of Asian dust were located in the desert regions in China and Mongolia with an estimated dust emission of 21.5 tons km-2, and the regions from the Loess Plateau to the North Pacific were sinks of soil dust aerosols with the Loess Plateau as the main sink for Asian dust.

  13. The burden of segregated respiratory diseases in India and the quality of care in these patients: Results from the Asia-Pacific Burden of Respiratory Diseases study

    PubMed Central

    Ghoshal, Aloke Gopal; Ravindran, G D; Gangwal, Paras; Rajadhyaksha, Girish; Cho, Sang-Heon; Muttalif, Abdul Razak Bin Abdul; Lin, Horng-Chyuan; Thanaviratananich, Sanguansak; Bagga, Shalini; Faruqi, Rab; Sajjan, Shiva; Shetty, Pradeep; Syed, Raeesuddin; Hamrosi, Kim K; Wang, De Yun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis (AR), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and rhinosinusitis are becoming increasingly prevalent in the Asia-Pacific region. The Asia-Pacific Burden of Respiratory Diseases study examined the disease and economic burden of AR, asthma, COPD, and rhinosinusitis across the Asia-Pacific and more specifically India. Objectives: To estimate the proportion of adults receiving care for asthma, AR, COPD, and rhinosinusitis and assess the economic burden, both direct and indirect of these chronic respiratory disease. Subjects and Methods: Consecutive participants aged ≥18 years with a primary diagnosis of asthma, AR, COPD, or rhinosinusitis were enrolled. Surveys comprising questions about respiratory disease symptoms, healthcare resource utilization, work productivity, and activity impairment were completed by treating physicians and participants during one study visit. Costs, indirect and direct, that contributed to treatment for each of the four respiratory diseases were calculated. Results: A total of 1000 patients were enrolled. Asthma was the most frequent primary diagnosis followed by AR, COPD, and rhinosinusitis. A total of 335 (33.5%) patients were diagnosed with combinations of the four respiratory diseases; the most frequently diagnosed combinations were asthma/AR and rhinosinusitis/AR. Cough or coughing up sputum was the primary reason for the current visit by patients diagnosed with asthma and COPD while AR patients reported a watery, runny nose, and sneezing; patients with rhinosinusitis primarily reported a colored nasal discharge. The mean annual cost per patient was US$637 (SD 806). The most significant driver of direct costs was medications. The biggest cost component was productivity loss. Conclusions: Given the ongoing rapid urbanization of India, the frequency of respiratory diseases and their economic burden will continue to rise. Efforts are required to better

  14. Comparative in vitro activity of carbapenems against major Gram-negative pathogens: results of Asia-Pacific surveillance from the COMPACT II study.

    PubMed

    Kiratisin, Pattarachai; Chongthaleong, Anan; Tan, Thean Yen; Lagamayo, Evelina; Roberts, Sally; Garcia, Jemelyn; Davies, Todd

    2012-04-01

    Resistance rates amongst Gram-negative pathogens are increasing in the Asia-Pacific region. The Comparative Activity of Carbapenem Testing (COMPACT) II study surveyed the carbapenem susceptibility and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of doripenem, imipenem and meropenem against 1260 major Gram-negative pathogens isolated from hospitalised patients at 20 centres in five Asia-Pacific countries (New Zealand, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam) during 2010. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=625), Enterobacteriaceae (n=500), and other Gram-negative pathogens including Acinetobacter baumannii (n=135) were collected from patients with bloodstream infection (32.2%), nosocomial pneumonia including ventilator-associated pneumonia (58.1%), and complicated intra-abdominal infection (9.7%), with 36.7% being isolated from patients in an Intensive Care Unit. As high as 29.8% of P. aeruginosa and 73.0% of A. baumannii isolates were not susceptible to at least a carbapenem, whereas the majority of Enterobacteriaceae (97.2%) were susceptible to all carbapenems. Respective MIC(50)/MIC(90) values (MICs for 50% and 90% of the organisms, respectively) of doripenem, imipenem and meropenem were: 0.38/8, 1.5/32 and 0.38/16 mg/L for P. aeruginosa; 0.023/0.094, 0.25/0.5 and 0.032/0.094 mg/L for Enterobacteriaceae; and 32/64, 32/128 and 32/64 mg/L for A. baumannii. Doripenem and meropenem had comparable activity against P. aeruginosa, both being more active than imipenem. All carbapenems were highly potent against Enterobacteriaceae, although imipenem demonstrated higher MIC values than doripenem and meropenem. The three carbapenems showed less activity against A. baumannii. The high prevalence of carbapenem resistance amongst important nosocomial pathogens (P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii) warrants rigorous infection control measures and appropriate antimicrobial use in the Asia-Pacific region.

  15. The Forgotten Service: Determining the US Army’s Role in Shaping American Strategy in the Asia-Pacific Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    39 2 Army Campaigns in the Pacific, 1945-1975 ……………………… 40 3 WWII US Overseas Deployments as of December 1943...immense size, and politics, officials divided the Pacific Theater during WWII into two, independent, coordinate commands. General of the Army Douglas...gains during the war. WWII proved the Pacific to be a joint theater. By 1942, the Army and USAAF units had sent approximately 350,000 men to the

  16. Making Ninth Grade Orientation Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehrke, Nathalie J.; Butler, William F.

    1985-01-01

    Rainier Beach High School, Seattle, Washington, uses a three-day freshman orientation program to prepare ninth graders for the high school experience and to help the high school to better know and provide for them. (DCS)

  17. The relationship between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, and water resources in the panel of selected Asia-Pacific countries.

    PubMed

    Rafindadi, Abdulkadir Abdulrashid; Yusof, Zarinah; Zaman, Khalid; Kyophilavong, Phouphet; Akhmat, Ghulam

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, water resources, and natural resource rents in the panel of selected Asia-Pacific countries, over a period of 1975-2012. The study includes number of variables in the model for robust analysis. The results of cross-sectional analysis show that there is a significant relationship between air pollution, energy consumption, and water productivity in the individual countries of Asia-Pacific. However, the results of each country vary according to the time invariant shocks. For this purpose, the study employed the panel least square technique which includes the panel least square regression, panel fixed effect regression, and panel two-stage least square regression. In general, all the panel tests indicate that there is a significant and positive relationship between air pollution, energy consumption, and water resources in the region. The fossil fuel energy consumption has a major dominating impact on the changes in the air pollution in the region.

  18. Efficacy and Safety of Vernakalant for Cardioversion of Recent-onset Atrial Fibrillation in the Asia-Pacific Region: A Phase 3 Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Beatch, Gregory N; Bhirangi, Kiran; Juul-Moller, Steen; Rustige, Jörg

    2017-02-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common clinically significant cardiac arrhythmia. This phase 3 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial assessed the efficacy and safety of vernakalant hydrochloride for the pharmacological conversion of AF to sinus rhythm in patients with recent-onset (>3 hours to ≤7 days) symptomatic AF from the Asia-Pacific region. Patients received an infusion of vernakalant (3 mg/kg) or placebo for 10 minutes. If AF had not been terminated 15 minutes later, a second infusion of vernakalant (2 mg/kg) or placebo for 15 minutes was administered. The primary efficacy end point was conversion of AF to sinus rhythm for >1 minute within 90 minutes. The study was terminated early for administrative reasons; 123 patients from Korea, Taiwan, and India were randomized to receive vernakalant (n = 55) or placebo (n = 56). A greater proportion of patients who received vernakalant (52.7%) than placebo (12.5%) met the primary end point (P < 0.001), and cardioversion was faster in the vernakalant group than in the placebo group (P < 0.001). Vernakalant was generally well tolerated; the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was similar between the groups. We conclude that vernakalant is efficacious in the rapid cardioversion of recent-onset AF in patients from the Asia-Pacific region.

  19. Low-frequency oscillations of the East Asia-Pacific teleconnection pattern and their impacts on persistent heavy precipitation in the Yangtze-Huai River valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lei; Zhai, Panmao; Chen, Yang; Ni, Yunqi

    2016-06-01

    Based on the daily reanalysis data from NCEP-NCAR and daily precipitation data from the China National Meteorological Information Center, an ensemble empirical mode decomposition method is employed to extract the predominant oscillation modes of the East Asia-Pacific (EAP) teleconnection pattern. The influences of these low-frequency modes on persistent heavy precipitation in the Yangtze-Huai River (YHR) valley are investigated. The results indicate that the EAP pattern and rainfall in YHR valley both exhibit remarkable 10-30- and 30-60-day oscillations. The impacts of the EAP pattern on the YHR persistent heavy precipitation can be found on both the 10-30- and 30-60-day timescales—the 10-30-day scale for most cases. Composite analysis indicates that, on the 10-30-day timescale, formation of the EAP pattern in the lower and middle troposphere is determined by convective systems near the tropical western Pacific; whereas in the middle troposphere, the phase transition is jointly contributed by both the dispersion of zonal wave energies at higher latitudes and convective systems over the South China Sea. In the context of the 10-30-day EAP pattern, the anomalously abundant moisture is transported by an anomalous subtropical anticyclone system, and strong moisture convergence results from that anomalous anticyclone system and a cyclonic system in the midlatitude East Asia. Such a combination of systems persists for at least three days, contributing to the formation of persistent heavy precipitation in the YHR valley.

  20. Clinical efficacy and safety evaluation of tailoring iron chelation practice in thalassaemia patients from Asia-Pacific: a subanalysis of the EPIC study of deferasirox.

    PubMed

    Viprakasit, Vip; Ibrahim, Hishamshah; Ha, Shau-Yin; Ho, Phoebe Joy; Li, Chi-Kong; Chan, Lee-Lee; Chiu, Chang-Fang; Sutcharitchan, Pranee; Habr, Dany; Domokos, Gabor; Roubert, Bernard; Xue, Hong-Ling; Bowden, Donald K; Lin, Kai-Hsin

    2011-03-01

    Although thalassaemia is highly prevalent in the Asia-Pacific region, clinical data on efficacy and safety profiles of deferasirox in patients from this region are rather limited. Recently, data from the multicentre Evaluation of Patients' Iron Chelation with Exjade (EPIC) study in 1744 patients with different anaemias has provided an opportunity to analyse 1115 thalassaemia patients, of whom 444 patients were from five countries in the Asia-Pacific region (AP) for whom thalassaemia management and choice of iron chelators were similar. Compared to the rest of the world (ROW), baseline clinical data showed that the AP group appeared to be more loaded with iron (3745.0 vs. 2822.0 ng/ml) and had a higher proportion on deferoxamine monotherapy prior to the study (82.9 vs. 58.9%). Using a starting deferasirox dose based on transfusional iron intake and tailoring it to individual patient response, clinical efficacy based on serum ferritin reduction in AP and ROW thalassaemia patients was similar. Interestingly, the AP group developed a higher incidence of drug-related skin rash compared to ROW (18.0 vs. 7.2%), which may indicate different pharmacogenetic backgrounds in the two populations. Our analysis confirms that, with appropriate adjustment of dose, deferasirox can be clinically effective across different regions, with manageable side effects.

  1. Use of targeted therapies for advanced renal cell carcinoma in the Asia-Pacific region: opinion statement from China, Japan, Taiwan, Korea, and Australia.

    PubMed

    Ye, Dingwei; Eto, Masatoshi; Chung, Jin Soo; Kimura, Go; Chang, Wen-Cheng; Chang, Yen-Hwa; Pang, See-Tong; Lee, Jae Lyun; Niu, Yuanjie; Gurney, Howard; Uemura, Hirotsugu

    2014-08-01

    Rates of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) morbidity and mortality vary widely by geography, with increasing incidence in most countries. Interestingly, RCC incidence is significantly lower in Asian countries relative to other regions, which is attributed to environmental and genetic influences. Additionally, it has been demonstrated that different ethnic groups differ in their RCC characteristics which might lead to varied responses to therapy. In this review, physicians drawn from countries across the Asia-Pacific region--China, Japan, Taiwan, Republic of Korea, and Australia--take all available data into consideration to develop the first opinion statement on treatment of advanced RCC in the region. We have sought to determine what factors influence treatment patterns and availability of therapeutic agents in our respective countries, discussed whether these factors are fully justified or should be modified, and considered what additional efforts should be undertaken to optimize treatment outcomes in RCC. Additionally, we have addressed the limitations on treatment of RCC in the region, capturing the restrictive situations of targeted therapy use in the Asia-Pacific region, mainly because of drug availability and treatment reimbursement. Often this illustrates the gap between Western and regional or even among local guidelines, the opinions of leading physicians regarding the treatment, and the realistic access to agents for most patients. Proposals made in this document are based on clinical experience and data from clinical trials of RCC therapies in which Asian patients have been included.

  2. Chemical Characteristics of Continental Outflow from Asia to the Troposphere over the Western Pacific Ocean during September - October 1991: Results from PEM-West A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbot, R. W.; Dibb, J. E.; Klemm, K. I.; Bradshaw, J. D.; Sandholm, S. T.; Blake, D. R.; Sachse, G. W.; Collins, J.; Heikes, B. G.; Gregory, G. L.; Anderson, B. E.; Singh, H. B.; Thornton, D. C.; Merrill J. T.

    1996-01-01

    An important objective of the Pacific Exploratory Mission-West A (PEM-West A) was the chemical characterization of the outflow of tropospheric trace gases and aerosol particles from the Asian continent over the western Pacific Ocean. This paper summarizes the chemistry of this outflow during the period September - October 1991. The vertical distributions of CO, C2H6, and NO(x), showed regions of outflow at altitudes below 2 km and from 8 to 12 km. Mixing ratios of CO were approx. equals 130 parts per billion by volume (ppbv), approx. equals 1OOO parts per trillion by volume (pptv) for C2H6, and approx. equals 100 pptv for NO(x) in both of these regions. Direct outflow of Asian industrial materials was clearly evident at altitudes below 2 km, where halocarbon tracer compounds such as CH3CCl3 and C2Cl4 were enhanced about threefold compared to aged Pacific air. The source attribution of species outflowing from Asia to the Pacific at 8-12 km altitude was not straightforward. Above 10 km altitude there were substantial enhancements of NO(y), O3, CO, CH4, SO2, C2H6, C3H8, C2H2, and aerosol Pb-210 but not halocarbon industrial tracers. These air masses were rich in nitrogen relative to sulfur and contained ratios of C2H2/CO and C3H8/C2H6 (approx. equals l.5 and 0.1 respectively) indicative of several- day-old combustion emissions. It is unclear if these emissions were of Asian origin, or if they were rapidly transported to this region from Europe by the high wind speeds in this tropospheric region (60 - 70 m/s). The significant cyclonic activity over Asia at this time could have transported to the upper troposphere emissions from biomass burning in Southeast Asia or emissions from the extensive use of various biomass materials for cooking and space heating. Apparently, the emissions in the upper troposphere were brought there by wet convective systems since water-soluble gases and aerosols were depleted in these air masses. Near 9 km altitude there was a distinct

  3. Chemical characteristics of continental outflow from Asia to the troposphere over the western Pacific Ocean during September-October 1991: Results from PEM-West A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbot, R. W.; Dibb, J. E.; Klemm, K. I.; Bradshaw, J. D.; Sandholm, S. T.; Blake, D. R.; Sachse, G. W.; Collins, J.; Heikes, B. G.; Gregory, G. L.; Anderson, B. E.; Singh, H. B.; Thornton, D. C.; Merrill, J. T.

    1996-01-01

    An important objective of the Pacific Exploratory Mission-West A (PEM-West A) was the chemical characterization of the outflow of tropospheric trace gases and aerosol particles from the Asian continent over the western Pacific Ocean. This paper summarizes the chemistry of this outflow during the period September - October 1991. The vertical distributions of CO, C2H6, and NOx showed regions of outflow at altitudes below 2 km and from 8 to 12 km. Mixing ratios of CO were ≈130 parts per billion by volume (ppbv), ≈1000 parts per trillion by volume (pptv) for C2H6, and ≈100 pptv for NOx in both of these regions. Direct outflow of Asian industrial materials was clearly evident at altitudes below 2 km, where halocarbon tracer compounds such as CH3CCl3 and C2Cl4 were enhanced about threefold compared to aged Pacific air. The source attribution of species outflowing from Asia to the Pacific at 8-12 km altitude was not straightforward. Above 10 km altitude there were substantial enhancements of NOy, O3, CO, CH4 SO2, C2H6, C3H8, C2H2, and aerosol 210Pb but not halocarbon industrial tracers. These air masses were rich in nitrogen relative to sulfur and contained ratios of C2H2/CO and C3H8/C2H6 (≈1.5 and 0.1 respectively) indicative of several-day-old combustion emissions. It is unclear if these emissions were of Asian origin, or if they were rapidly transported to this region from Europe by the high wind speeds in this tropospheric region (60 - 70 m s-1). The significant cyclonic activity over Asia at this time could have transported to the upper troposphere emissions from biomass burning in Southeast Asia or emissions from the extensive use of various biomass materials for cooking and space heating. Apparently, the emissions in the upper troposphere were brought there by wet convective systems since water-soluble gases and aerosols were depleted in these air masses. Near 9 km altitude there was a distinct regional outflow that appeared to be heavily influenced by

  4. Seasonal variations of Asian black carbon outflow to the Pacific: Contribution from anthropogenic sources in China and biomass burning sources in Siberia and Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, H.; Koike, M.; Kondo, Y.; Oshima, N.; Moteki, N.; Kanaya, Y.; Takami, A.; Irwin, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Community Multiscale Air Quality model with a source and process tagged method (CMAQ/PASCAL) was used to understand source regions and types (anthropogenic (AN) and biomass burning (BB)) of Asian black carbon (BC) outflow to the Pacific during 2008 - 2010. The model simulations generally reproduced absolute concentrations and temporal (seasonal, monthly, and day-to-day) variations of BC mass concentrations, observed by both surface and aircraft measurements in outflow regions in East Asia. These model simulations show that both the total eastward flux and transport efficiency (fractions transported from sources) of BC are highest during spring (26 kg s-1 and 33% at 150E) and lowest during summer (8 kg s-1 and 20% at 150E). These seasonal variations of Asian BC outflow are generally controlled by transport patterns (monsoons, frontal passages, and convection) and emissions, from the following three sources: (1) AN emissions from China (China AN), (2) BB emissions from Southeast Asia and South China (SEA BB) during February - April, and (3) BB emissions from Siberia and Kazakhstan (Siberia BB) during April - July. In our simulations, China AN dominates the total eastward BC flux on a three-year average (61%, 17%, and 6% from China AN, Siberia BB, and SEA BB, respectively, at 150E). In contrast, SEA and Siberia BB account for 30 - 50% of the total eastward BC flux (150E and 175E) during spring and summer, and they increase the seasonal variability of the Asian BC outflow flux. BC from Siberia BB is also found to be transported to the Pacific more efficiently than BC from other sources. Although the magnitudes of BB emissions are highly uncertain, our results suggest that the control of Siberia BB will be important in terms of the trans-boundary transport of BC to the Pacific, North America, and the Arctic.

  5. Seasonal variations of Asian black carbon outflow to the Pacific: Contribution from anthropogenic sources in China and biomass burning sources in Siberia and Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, H.; Koike, M.; Kondo, Y.; Oshima, N.; Moteki, N.; Kanaya, Y.; Takami, A.; Irwin, M.

    2013-09-01

    The Community Multiscale Air Quality model with a source and process tagged method (CMAQ/PASCAL) was used to understand source regions and types (anthropogenic (AN) and biomass burning (BB)) of Asian black carbon (BC) outflow to the Pacific during 2008-2010. The model simulations generally reproduced absolute concentrations and temporal (seasonal, monthly, and day-to-day) variations of BC mass concentrations, observed by both surface and aircraft measurements in outflow regions in East Asia. These model simulations show that both the total eastward flux and transport efficiency (fractions transported from sources) of BC are highest during spring (26 kg s-1 and 33% at 150°E) and lowest during summer (8 kg s-1 and 20% at 150°E). These seasonal variations of Asian BC outflow are generally controlled by transport patterns (monsoons, frontal passages, and convection) and emissions from the following three sources: (1) AN emissions from China (China AN), (2) BB emissions from Southeast Asia and South China (SEA BB) during February-April, and (3) BB emissions from Siberia and Kazakhstan (Siberia BB) during April-July. In our simulations, China AN dominates the total eastward BC flux on a 3 year average (61%, 17%, and 6% from China AN, Siberia BB, and SEA BB, respectively, at 150°E). In contrast, SEA and Siberia BB account for 30-50% of the total eastward BC flux (150°E and 175°E) during spring and summer, and they increase the seasonal variability of the Asian BC outflow flux. BC from Siberia BB is also found to be transported to the Pacific more efficiently than BC from other sources. Although the magnitudes of BB emissions are highly uncertain, our results suggest that the control of Siberia BB will be important in terms of the transboundary transport of BC to the Pacific, North America, and the Arctic.

  6. Proceedings for the 5th Asia-Pacific Conference on Disaster Medicine: creating an agenda for action.

    PubMed

    De Grace, M; Ericson, D; Folz, H; Greene, W; Ho, K; Pearce, L

    2001-01-01

    again identified as the vehicle for promoting this action. The responsibility of the next meeting of the Asia-Pacific Conference on Disaster Medicine will be to measure progress made in these areas by assessing how well these collective decisions have been implemented.

  7. Outflow of Anthropogenic Semivolatile Organic Compounds From Asia and Trans-Pacific Transport to the Pacific Northwest of the U.S.A. in Spring 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primbs, T.; Wilson, G.; Schmedding, D.; Higginbotham, C.; Simonich, S.

    2005-12-01

    Air pollutants, including semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs), may undergo long-range atmospheric transport from Eurasian sources to the Pacific Coast of North America. SOCs can serve as molecular markers to indicate pollutant source type and geographical origin because they represent emissions from combustion (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)), agricultural (pesticides), and industrial (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)) sources. Additionally, SOCs exist in the gas and/or particle phases and have a wide range of atmospheric lifetimes (hours-months). Atmospheric measurements of anthropogenic SOCs were made at a high elevation site in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. and at a site close to Eurasian sources (Okinawa, Japan) to further understand the trans-Pacific transport of SOCs. High volume air sampling (~25 m3/hr for 24 hour periods) of both the gas and particulate phases was conducted on top of the summit building of Mt Bachelor, Oregon, U.S.A., located in Oregon's Cascade Mountain Range, beginning the 20th of April 2004 and is ongoing. Additionally, high volume air sampling was conducted at Hedo Point, Okinawa, Japan during a six week campaign from the 19th of March to the 1st of May 2004. The gas phase was collected using a combination of polyurethane foam (PUF) and XAD-2 resin, while the particle phase was collected using quartz fiber filters. The samples were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction and the extracts analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (electron impact and electron capture negative ionization). Air trajectories were calculated using data from NOAA`s HYSPLIT model and imported into the ARC/GIS program for spatial representation. The presence of 80 anthropogenic SOCs was investigated. Initial results from the measurements in Okinawa showed elevated levels of particulate phase PAHs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and hexachlorcyclohexanes (HCHs) in samples corresponding to trajectories from the direction of

  8. Developing a Non-Formal Education and Literacy Database in the Asia-Pacific Region. Final Report of the Expert Group Consultation Meeting (Dhaka, Bangladesh, December 15-18, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    The objectives of the Expert Group Consultation Meeting for Developing a Non-Formal Education and Literacy Database in the Asia-Pacific Region were: to exchange information and review the state-of-the-art in the field of data collection, analysis and indicators of non-formal education and literacy programs; to examine and review the set of…

  9. How To Write Good Science Books for Children & Youths. Asian Cultural Center Training Course on Book Production in Asia and the Pacific (25th, Tokyo, Japan, October 30-November 16, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asian Cultural Centre for UNESCO, Tokyo (Japan).

    It is of critical importance in the Asia/Pacific region to produce quality science books which are attractive and interesting for children and youths and which can also stimulate their interest in science and provide them with accurate scientific knowledge in an easily understandable way. This publication is a report of a training course on book…

  10. Basic Education for Empowerment of the Poor. Report of a Regional Study on "Literacy as a Tool for Empowerment of the Poor." Asia-Pacific Programme of Education for All (APPEAL).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordonez, Victor; Kasaju, Prem K.; Seshadri, C.

    This book is the outcome of a regional study on using literacy as a tool for empowering the poor, carried out by the UNESCO Asia and Pacific Programme of Education for All (APPEAL) with collaborative support of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The book sketches a program for empowerment of the poor through basic education on the…

  11. Report on the '92 Seoul International Conference on the Role of the University Education in the Asia/Pacific Age (Seoul, Republic of Korea, April 8-10, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Robert A.

    This report, by the U.S. representative to the conference, presents observations on and basic results of the 1992 Seoul International Conference on the Role of the University in the Asia/Pacific Age, as well as the conference agenda and program, the minutes of the meeting, and other related documents. The conference convened 51 representatives…

  12. Comparing Coral Reef Survey Methods. Unesco Reports in Marine Science No. 21 Report of a Regional Unesco/UNEP Workshop on Coral Reef Survey Management and Assessment Methods in Asia and the Pacific (Phuket, Thailand, December 13-17, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Marine Sciences.

    This report includes nine papers prepared for a workshop on coral reef survey management and assessment methods in Asia and the Pacific. The papers are: "A Contrast in Methodologies between Surveying and Testing" (Charles Birkeland); "Coral Reef Survey Methods in the Andaman Sea" (Hansa Chansang); "A Review of Coral Reef…

  13. Development of Basic Literacy Learning Materials for Minority Peoples in Asia and the Pacific. Final Report of the Second Sub-Regional Workshop (Chiang Rai, Thailand, February 22-March 5, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, Bangkok (Thailand).

    A report of a regional workshop on development of instructional materials for basic literacy education of minority groups in Asia and the Pacific is presented. Countries represented include: China; Indonesia; Laos; Malaysia; Mongolia; Myanmar (Burma); Philippines; Vietnam; and Thailand. The workshop's objectives were to discuss the need for…

  14. Teacher Education for the Effective Use of New Information Media in Schools. Innovation and Reform in Teacher Education for the 21st Century in the Asia-Pacific Region. 1997 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakayama, Shuichi, Ed.; Griek, Lyckle, Ed.

    The International Seminar on Teacher Education for the 21st Century in Hiroshima explores innovative strategies to enhance the quality of teacher education in the Asia-Pacific Region. The goal of the seminar is to identify problems and issues related to teacher competencies at rural as well as urban schools in the region; the focus of the 1997…

  15. Practical Method for Preparation of Neo-Literate Materials. Final Report. Proceedings of the Regional Workshop on the Preparation of Literacy Follow-up Materials in Asia and the Pacific (4th, Jayagiri, Bandung, Indonesia, October 20-29, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education and Culture (Indonesia).

    Activities related to the preparation of literacy follow-up materials in Asia and the Pacific are described in this final report of a regional workshop. Following a summary of the proceedings of the workshop, chapter 1 reviews preparation and field testing of printed book materials, printed nonbook materials, electronic media materials, and games…

  16. Patterns of polymorphism and divergence in the VP1 gene of enterovirus 71 circulating in the Asia-Pacific region between 1994 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun-Song; Zhao, Na; Pan, Hao; Wang, Cheng-Min; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Hong-Mei; He, Hong-Xuan; Liu, Dan; Amer, Said; Liu, She-Lan

    2013-11-01

    Enterovirus 71 has been implicated in several outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease in the Asia-Pacific region. The present study aimed to achieve comprehensive evolutionary dynamic aspects of EV71 during 1994-2013, based on phylogenetic analyses of the VP1 sequences. The results indicated that 4 genotypes, namely C4, C1, C2 and B4 are the predominant strains, especially in Southeast Asian countries. No common ancestor was shared in different countries. Fourteen sites of substitutions were detected in the VP1 gene sequences; including the most common sites related to neutralization at position V249I [47.1% (189/401)] and A289T [42.6% (171/401)]. However, the sites Q22H and Q22R associated with increased virulence were recognized only in 13.7% (55/401) and 18% (72/401), respectively. None of the above mutations seemed to become fixed because the ratio of Ka/Ks was greater than 1.0. Mutations K43E, A58T, S184T, and T240S could possibly change the spatial structure. Two mutations, G145E and T240S, could obviously affect the hydrophobicity of VP1 and thus alter the EV71 immunoreactivity. In conclusion, the VP1 gene of EV71 strains circulating in the Asia-Pacific region during 1994-2013, showed polymorphisms and divergence with very slow evolution rate, which may be one of the reasons for periodic outbreaks in this area.

  17. One hundred case studies of Asia-Pacific telemedicine using a digital video transport system over a research and education network.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Shuji; Nakashima, Naoki; Okamura, Koji; Tanaka, Masao

    2009-01-01

    Although the use of video in telemedicine is most helpful, the transmission of high-quality moving images is difficult in conventional systems due to the limitation of network bandwidth and the quality of service. We have established a new system via the academic broadband network that can preserve the original quality and assure smooth movement of the image. Here we report on 100 case studies and discuss the lessons we have learned. Kyushu University Hospital in Fukuoka, Japan, was linked to 53 medical institutions and meeting venues in 13 countries and regions over the Asia-Pacific Advanced Network, an international research and education consortium. The digital video transport system (DVTS), free software that transforms digital video signals directly into Internet Protocol, was installed on a personal computer (PC) with a network bandwidth of 30 Mbps per channel. Between February 2003 and June 2007, 100 telecommunication sessions were held, 94 of which were international and 6 domestic. Furthermore, 47 involved real-time demonstrations and 53 interactive teleconferences using video or PC presentations. Multiple stations were connected in 37 events, and the number of connected stations in total reached 269. The time delay was restricted to 0.3-1.0 seconds between the stations. Participants provided feedback via questionnaires, and with respect to image quality, 509 (68.3%) participants reported "very good," 206 (27.7%) reported "good," 19 (2.6%) reported "poor," and 11 (1.5%) reported "very poor." DVTS is both economical, with a minimal initial investment, and simple to set up, and this is the first time that this advanced system has been used so widely in the Asia-Pacific region. Because the high-speed academic network for research and education is available worldwide, we believe our cutting-edge technology will facilitate medical standardization beyond geographic borders in the world.

  18. Clinical Recommendations for the Use of Donepezil 23 mg in Moderate-to-Severe Alzheimer's Disease in the Asia-Pacific Region

    PubMed Central

    Sabbagh, Marwan; Han, SeolHeui; Kim, SangYun; Na, Hae-Ri; Lee, Jae-Hong; Kandiah, Nagaendran; Phanthumchinda, Kammant; Suthisisang, Chuthamanee; Senanarong, Vorapun; Pai, Ming-Chyi; Narilastri, Diatri; Sowani, Ajit M.; Ampil, Encarnita; Dash, Amitabh

    2016-01-01

    Background The ‘Asia-Pacific Expert Panel (APEX) for donepezil 23 mg’ met in November 2015 to review evidence for the recently approved high dose of donepezil and to provide recommendations to help physicians in Asia make informed clinical decisions about using donepezil 23 mg in patients with moderate-to-severe Alzheimer's disease (AD). Summary In a global phase III study (study 326) in patients with moderate-to-severe AD, donepezil 23 mg/day demonstrated significantly greater cognitive benefits versus donepezil 10 mg/day, with a between-treatment difference in mean change in the Severe Impairment Battery score of 2.2 points (p < 0.001) in the overall population and 3.1 points (p < 0.001) in patients with advanced AD. A subanalysis of study 326 demonstrated that the benefits and risks associated with donepezil 23 mg/day versus donepezil 10 mg/day in Asian patients with moderate-to-severe AD were comparable to those in the global study population. Key Message Donepezil 23 mg is a valuable treatment for patients with AD, particularly those with advanced disease. The APEX emphasized the importance of patient selection (AD severity, tolerability of lower doses of donepezil, and absence of contraindications), a stepwise titration strategy for dose escalation, and appropriate monitoring and counseling of patients and caregivers in the management of patients with AD. PMID:27703471

  19. Statistical-dynamical seasonal forecast of western North Pacific and East Asia landfalling tropical cyclones using the high-resolution GFDL FLOR coupled model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Villarini, Gabriele; Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Murakami, Hiroyuki; Gudgel, Richard

    2016-06-01

    This study examines the seasonal prediction of western North Pacific [WNP) and East Asia landfalling tropical cyclones (TCs) using the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory(GFDL) Forecast-oriented Low Ocean Resolution version of CM2.5 with Flux Adjustment (FLOR-FA) and finite-mixture-model (FMM)-based statistical cluster analysis. Using the FMM-based cluster analysis, seven clusters are identified from the historical and FLOR-FA-predicted TC tracks for the period 1980-2013. FLOR-FA has significant skill in predicting year-to-year variations in the frequency of TCs within clusters 1 (recurving TCs) and 5 (straight-moving TCs). By building Poisson regression models for each cluster using key predictors (i.e., sea surface temperature, 500 hPa geopotential height, and zonal vertical wind shear), the predictive skill for almost all the clusters at all initialization months improves with respect to the dynamic prediction. The prediction of total WNP TC frequency made by combining hybrid predictions for each of the seven clusters in the hybrid model shows skill higher than what achieved using the TC frequency directly from FLOR-FA initialized from March to July. However, the hybrid predictions for total WNP TC frequency initialized from January to February exhibit lower skill than FLOR-FA. The prediction of TC landfall over East Asia made by combining the hybrid models of TC frequency in each cluster and its landfall rate over East Asia also outperforms FLOR-FA for all initialization months January through July.

  20. Interhemispheric Orbital-Scale Asymmetry of the Intertropical Convergence Zone Movement at the Asia-Pacific Realm over the Past 3 Glacial-Interglacial Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, L.; Shen, C. C.; Lo, L.; Shi, Z.; Wei, K. Y.; Chou, C. J.; WU, C. C.; Mii, H. S.; Chuang, C. K.; Amakawa, H.; Burr, G. S.; Chen, Y. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Intertropical convergence Zone (ITCZ) is the heaviest rain belt on earth and provides global water-resources for human populations around the world. Here we present a tropical precipitation record from the Southern Hemisphere covering the past 284,000 years, inferred from a marine sedimentary sequence of planktonic foraminifera collected off the eastern coast of Papua New Guinea (PNG). The foraminiferal tests of Globigerinoides ruber were sampled from a marine sediment core MD05-2925 (9o20.60'S, 151o27.54'E; water depth 1661 m). Using inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometric (ICP-SF-MS) techniques with 2s precision of 2-6%, we measured rare earth elements (REEs) to Ca ratios in the planktonic foraminifer to reconstruct precipitation and make inferences about the orbital-timescale evolution of the Pacific ITCZ. In addition to precessional feature, which is expressed in the East Asian counterpart, our record shows that the Pacific ITCZ migration was dominantly influenced by obliquity changes. Model simulations suggest that this obliquity forcing could be primarily delivered by a meridional thermal/pressure contrast, resulting from the asymmetric continental configuration between Asia and Australia in a coupled East Asian-Australian circulation system.

  1. Analysis of seasonal ozone budget and spring ozone latitudinal gradient variation in the boundary layer of the Asia-Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Xuewei; Zhu, Bin; Kang, Hanqing; Gao, Jinhui

    2014-09-01

    The ozone (O3) budget in the boundary layer of the Asia-Pacific region (AP) was studied from 2001 to 2007 using the output of Model of Ozone and Related chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4). The model-simulated O3 data agree well with observed values. O3 budget analysis using the model output confirms that the dominant factor controlling seasonal variation of O3 differs by region. Photochemistry was found to play a critical role over Japan, the Korean Peninsula and Eastern China. Over the northwestern Pacific Ocean, advective flux was found to drive the seasonal variation of O3 concentrations. The large latitudinal gradient in O3 with a maximum of 52 ppbv over the marine boundary layer around 35°N during the spring was mainly due to chemistry; meanwhile, advection was found to weaken the gradient. The contribution of stratospheric O3 was ranked second (20%) to the local contribution (25%) in Japan and the Korean Peninsula near 35°N. The rate of O3 export from China's boundary layer was the highest (approximately 30%) in low latitudes and decreased with increasing latitude, while the contribution of North America and Europe increased with increasing latitude, from 10% in lower latitudes to 24% in higher latitudes.

  2. Funding for Higher Education in Asia and the Pacific. Strategies To Increase Cost Efficiency and Attract Additional Financial Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Grant, Ed.; Selim, M., Ed.

    This book presents articles that document the serious funding problems faced by higher education institutions and systems in the Asian and Pacific region, and explores possible strategies to address these problems. It presents an overview of the financial situation faced by higher education in the region, and then discusses two main strategies…

  3. Solomon Islands: Summary Report. Educational Experience Survey: Education, Language and Literacy Experience. Asia-South Pacific Education Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guzman, Sylvia

    2007-01-01

    The Education Watch initiative is being implemented in the Solomon Islands by the Coalition on Education Solomon Islands (COESI) in partnership with Asian South Pacific Bureau of Adult Education (ASPBAE). COESI aims to generate a reliable body of information that will: (1) Accurately explain how much the national government has done and can do to…

  4. Aerosol particles collected on aircraft flights over the northwestern Pacific region during the ACE-Asia campaign: Composition and major sources of the organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoneit, Bernd R. T.; Kobayashi, Minoru; Mochida, Michihiro; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Huebert, Barry J.

    2004-10-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter, collected over the polluted east Asia/Pacific region in spring 2001 during research flights with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) C-130 aircraft, was analyzed for different types of organic compounds using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. More than 70 organic species were detected in the aerosols and grouped into different compound classes on the basis of functional groups, including n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, fatty acids, dehydroabietic acid, alkanols, water-soluble sugars (including glucose, sucrose, mycose, and levoglucosan), monocarboxylic and dicarboxylic acids, urea, and phthalates. Interestingly, the water-soluble compounds (72-133 ng m-3) were found to account for 16-50% (average 34%) of the total identified compound mass (TCM). Organic compounds were further categorized into several groups to suggest their sources. Fossil fuel combustion was recognized as the most significant source for the TCM (contributing 33-80% of TCM, average 50%), followed by soil resuspension (5-25%, average 19%) and secondary oxidation products (4-15%, average 9%). In contrast, the contribution of natural sources such as terrestrial plant wax and marine lipids (fatty acids and alkanols) was relatively small (3.4% and 9.4% on average, respectively). Biomass burning was suggested to contribute only a minor portion to the TCM of the Asian aerosols during the spring season (1.4% on average based on levoglucosan). However, levoglucosan may have been hydrolyzed and/or oxidized in part during long-range transport, and therefore this value represents a lower limit. The organic compound compositions of these samples are very different from those reported for aerosol particles of the Atlantic Ocean and from the earlier data for the mid-Pacific in terms of the abundant presence of water-soluble compounds consisting of saccharides, anhydrosaccharides, and the secondary dicarboxylic acids. This study

  5. Potential for thermal coal and Clean Coal Technology (CCT) in the Asia-Pacific. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.J.; Long, S.

    1991-11-22

    The Coal Project was able to make considerable progress in understanding the evolving energy situation in Asia and the future role of coal and Clean Coal Technologies. It is clear that there will be major growth in consumption of coal in Asia over the next two decades -- we estimate an increase of 1.2 billion metric tons. Second, all governments are concerned about the environmental impacts of increased coal use, however enforcement of regulations appears to be quite variable among Asian countries. There is general caution of the part of Asian utilities with respect to the introduction of CCT`s. However, there appears to be potential for introduction of CCT`s in a few countries by the turn of the century. It is important to emphasize that it will be a long term effort to succeed in getting CCT`s introduced to Asia. The Coal Project recommends that the US CCT program be expanded to allow the early introduction of CCT`s in a number of countries.

  6. PTC '87: Telecommunications--Asia, Americas, Pacific. Pacific Telecommunications Users: A Spectrum of Requirements. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Pacific Telecommunications Council (9th, Honolulu, Hawaii, January 18-21, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedemeyer, Dan J., Ed.; Bissell, Mary Sue, Ed.

    More than 60 papers presented at the 1987 Pacific Telecommunications Council (PTC) conference on telecommunications needs, primarily in and around the Pacific region, are included in this volume. Contributions from major industry user groups, governments, developmental institutions, and the small user are represented. Four keynote addresses open…

  7. Telecommunications--Asia, Americas, Pacific: PTC '86. "Evolution of the Digital Pacific." Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Pacific Telecommunications Council (8th, Honolulu, Hawaii, January 12-15, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedemeyer, Dan J., Ed.; Pennings, Anthony J., Ed.

    The eighth Annual Pacific Telecommunications Conference (PTC) proceedings contain 61 papers related to the conference theme, "Evolution of the Digital Pacific." These papers look at the ramifications of future technological breakthroughs and transitional needs. The first two days of the conference focused on state-of-the-art developments…

  8. Long-Range Atmospheric Transport of Soil Dust from Asia to the Tropical North Pacific: Temporal Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duce, R. A.; Unni, C. K.; Ray, B. J.; Prospero, J. M.; Merrill, J. T.

    1980-09-01

    The concentration of airborne soil dust at Enewetak Atoll (11 degrees N, 162 degrees E) in April 1979 was 2.3 micrograms per cubic meter but decreased steadily to 0.02 microgram per cubic meter over the next 5 months. The spring dust is probably derived from China; its deposition rate (~ 0.3 millimeter per 1000 years) suggests that it may be a significant contributor to the deep-sea sediments of the North Pacific.

  9. Long-range atmospheric transport of soil dust from Asia to the tropical north pacific: temporal variability.

    PubMed

    Duce, R A; Unni, C K; Ray, B J; Prospero, J M; Merrill, J T

    1980-09-26

    The concentration of airborne soil dust at Enewetak Atoll(11 degrees N, 162 degrees E) in April 1979 was 2.3 micrograms per cubic meter but decreased steadily to 0.02 microgram per cubic meter over the next 5 months. The spring dust is probably derived from China; its deposition rate ( approximately 0.3 millimeter per 1000 years) suggests that it may be a significant contributor to the deep-sea sediments of the North Pacific.

  10. Strategic Requirements for the Army to the Year 2000. Volume VI. East Asia and the Western Pacific Basin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    is concerned, the region is basically Air Force and Navy country. Except for Korea and Thailand, there are no friendly locations where ground troops...Pacific Islands, along with the freedom to modify that structure to meet new exigencies. o Free U.S. and allied accessibility to vital air routes and sea... polluted Japan with a left-wing blue collar labor movement, and a I greater dependence than ever on South Asian food and raw materials, particularly

  11. An unrecognized major collision of the Okhotomorsk Block with East Asia during the Late Cretaceous, constraints on the plate reorganization of the Northwest Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yong-Tai

    2013-11-01

    Interactions at plate boundaries induce stresses that constitute critical controls on the structural evolution of intraplate regions. However, the traditional tectonic model for the East Asian margin during the Mesozoic, invoking successive episodes of paleo-Pacific oceanic subduction, does not provide an adequate context for important Late Cretaceous dynamics across East Asia, including: continental-scale orogenic processes, significant sinistral strike-slip faulting, and several others. The integration of numerous documented field relations requires a new tectonic model, as proposed here. The Okhotomorsk continental block, currently residing below the Okhotsk Sea in Northeast Asia, was located in the interior of the Izanagi Plate before the Late Cretaceous. It moved northwestward with the Izanagi Plate and collided with the South China Block at about 100 Ma. The indentation of the Okhotomorsk Block within East Asia resulted in the formation of a sinistral strike-slip fault system in South China, formation of a dextral strike-slip fault system in North China, and regional northwest-southeast shortening and orogenic uplift in East Asia. Northeast-striking mountain belts over 500 km wide extended from Southeast China to Southwest Japan and South Korea. The peak metamorphism at about 89 Ma of the Sanbagawa high-pressure metamorphic belt in Southwest Japan was probably related to the continental subduction of the Okhotomorsk Block beneath the East Asian margin. Subsequently, the north-northwestward change of motion direction of the Izanagi Plate led to the northward movement of the Okhotomorsk Block along the East Asian margin, forming a significant sinistral continental transform boundary similar to the San Andreas fault system in California. Sanbagawa metamorphic rocks in Southwest Japan were rapidly exhumed through the several-kilometer wide ductile shear zone at the lower crust and upper mantle level. Accretionary complexes successively accumulated along the East

  12. PREFACE: 11th Asia-Pacific Conference on Plasma Science and Technology (APCPST-11) and 25th Symposium on Plasma Science for Materials (SPSM-25)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Takayuki; Kaneko, Toshio; Sekine, Makoto; Tanaka, Yasunori

    2013-06-01

    The 11th Asia-Pacific Conference on Plasma Science and Technology (APCPST-11) was held in Kyoto, Japan on 2-5 October 2012 with the 25th Symposium on Plasma Science for Materials (SPSM-25). SPSM has been held annually since 1988 under the sponsorship of The 153rd Committee on Plasma Materials Science, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS). This symposium is one of the major activities of the Committee, which is organized by researchers in academia and industry for the purpose of advancing intersectional scientific information exchange and discussion of science and technology of plasma materials processing. APCPST and SPSM are jointly held biennially to survey the current status of low temperature and thermal plasma physics and chemistry for industrial applications. The whole area of plasma processing was covered from fundamentals to applications. Previous meetings were held in China, Japan, Korea, and Australia, attended by scientists from the Asia-Pacific and other countries. The joint conference was organized in plenary lectures, invited, contributed oral presentations and poster sessions. At this meeting, we had 386 participants from 10 countries and 398 presentations, including 26 invited presentations. This year, we arranged special topical sessions that covered green innovation, life innovation, and technical reports from industry. This conference seeks to bring the plasma community together and to create a forum for discussing the latest developments and issues, the challenges ahead in the field of plasma research and applications among engineers and scientists in Asia, the Pacific Rim, as well as Europe. This volume presents 44 papers that were selected via a strict peer-review process from full papers submitted for the proceedings of the conference. The topics range from the basic physics and chemistry of plasma processing to a broad variety of materials processing and environmental applications. This volume offers an overview of recent

  13. Common features of the tectonosphere deep structure in the Western Pacific Margins (Northeast Asia Region and Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrishchevsky, A. M.

    2016-11-01

    This paper analyses the spatial distributions of gravity sources and density contrast of geological media between the centers of mass of density heterogeneities and surfaces of some layers, which is reflected by the values of parameter μz, in the Northeast Asia Region and Australia. Statistical images of complex distributions of density heterogeneities are generally consistent with the shallowest tectonic structures, wave velocity, and electric anomalies. The correlation of μz minimums with high heat flow suggests melted magmas beneath the crust base and in the asthenosphere. In the lower crust layer, large μz maximums correlate with major continental megaelements, which are divided by extended linear μz minimums, high conductivity anomalies, and Vp/ Vs maximums marking zones of lower viscosity. Deep boundaries and a thickness of lithospheric plates and asthenosphere lenses have been defined in the Northeast Asia Region. In Australia, two roughly NS-striking low-viscosity zones crossing the continent reflect the deep setting of the Lasseter (in the west) and the Tasman (in the east) lines. These zones are displayed in a wide depth range (15-120 km) and are confined to the Archean-Proterozoic and Proterozoic-Phanerozoic boundaries in the Australian lithosphere. Statistical gravity models derived without external (relatively to gravity) geological and geophysical information prove the multilayered tectonosphere structure of both continents and the similar deep structure features of their margins.

  14. Asia-Pacific International Space Year (ISY) Conference, Tokyo, Japan, Nov. 16-20, 1992, Proceedings. Vols. 1 & 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topics discussed include the Mission to Planet Earth, the Space Station, and space activities in the Pacific Rim region. Possible future space missions are also examined, with particular attention given to medium-term and long-term perspectives in the ESA scientific program, projected lunar and planetary missions in the Japanese space program, and post-Cold War international cooperation in planetary exploration. Also presented are workshops on such topics as the future space transportation system, JERS-1 and ERS-1, and cover change and disaster mitigation, polar stratospheric ozone, and Space Station utilization.

  15. Significant impact of the East Asia monsoon on ozone seasonal behavior in the boundary layer of Eastern China and the west Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Y. J.; Uno, I.; Wang, Z. F.; Pochanart, P.; Li, J.; Akimoto, H.

    2008-08-01

    The impact of the East Asia monsoon on the seasonal behavior of O3 in the boundary layer of Eastern China and the west Pacific region was analyzed for 2004 2006 by means of full-year nested chemical transport model simulations and continuous observational data obtained from three inland mountain sites in central and eastern China and three oceanic sites in the west Pacific region. The basic common features of O3 seasonal behaviors over all the monitoring sites are the pre- and post-monsoon peaks with a summer trough. Such bimodal seasonal patterns of O3 are predominant over the region with strong summer monsoon penetration, and become weaker or even disappear outside the monsoon region. The seasonal/geographical distribution of the pre-defined Monsoon Index indicated that the East Asia summer monsoon is responsible for the bimodal seasonal O3 pattern, and also partly account for the differences in the O3 seasonal variations between the inland mountain and oceanic sites. Over the inland mountain sites, the O3 concentration increased gradually from the beginning of the year, reached a maximum in June, decreased rapidly to a minimum in July or August, and then peaked in September or October, thereafter decreased gradually again. Over the oceanic sites, O3 abundance showed a similar increasing trend beginning in January, but then decreased gradually from the end of March, followed by a wide trough with the minimum in July and August and a small peak in October or November. A sensitivity analysis performed by setting China-emission to zero revealed that the chemically produced O3 from China-emission contributed more than 40% of total boundary layer O3 during summertime (60 70% in June) and accounted for about 40 ppb of each peak value over the inland region. In contrast, over the oceanic region in the high monsoon index zone, the contribution of China-emission to total O3 was always less than 20% (<10 ppb), and less than 10% in summer.

  16. Significant impact of the East Asia monsoon on ozone seasonal behavior in the boundary layer of Eastern China and the west Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Y. J.; Uno, I.; Wang, Z. F.; Pochanart, P.; Li, J.; Akimoto, H.

    2008-12-01

    The impact of the East Asia monsoon on the seasonal behavior of O3 in the boundary layer of Eastern China and the west Pacific region was analyzed for 2004-2006 by means of full-year nested chemical transport model simulations and continuous observational data obtained from three inland mountain sites in central and eastern China and three oceanic sites in the west Pacific region. The basic common features of O3 seasonal behaviors over all the monitoring sites are the pre- and post-monsoon peaks with a summer trough. Such bimodal seasonal patterns of O3 are predominant over the region with strong summer monsoon penetration, and become weaker or even disappear outside the monsoon region. The seasonal/geographical distribution of the pre-defined monsoon index indicated that the East Asia summer monsoon is responsible for the bimodal seasonal O3 pattern, and also partly account for the differences in the O3 seasonal variations between the inland mountain and oceanic sites. Over the inland mountain sites, the O3 concentration increased gradually from the beginning of the year, reached a maximum in June, decreased rapidly to the summer valley in July or August, and then peaked in September or October, thereafter decreased gradually again. Over the oceanic sites, O3 abundance showed a similar increasing trend beginning in January, but then decreased gradually from the end of March, followed by a wide trough with the minimum in July and August and a small peak in October or November. A sensitivity analysis performed by setting China-emission to zero revealed that the chemically produced O3 from China-emission contributed substantially to the O3 abundance, particularly the pre- and post-monsoon O3 peaks, over China mainland. We found that China-emission contributed more than 40% to total boundary layer O3 during summertime (60-70% in July) and accounted for about 40 ppb of each peak value over the inland region if without considering the effect of the nonlinear chemical

  17. Research on dengue and dengue-like illness in East Asia and the Western Pacific during the First Half of the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Kuno, Goro

    2007-01-01

    Dengue has become an enormous medical problem worldwide since the end of the World War II (WWII). Despite a voluminous amount of research conducted worldwide for many years to elucidate the mechanism of the development of the two severe forms of dengue (dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS)), to develop effective vaccines and to design reliable disease control and prevention strategies, the goals of achieving these objectives are not in sight yet. For such a medical research that requires a multi-directional approach to resolve a variety of research questions, sometimes it is necessary to step back and re-examine historically how the current status of the expanding global problems and sudden emergence of severe forms of dengue have evolved in the first place. To examine the history of dengue epidemiology, it is first necessary to put in perspective all relevant documents, including a large number of nearly forgotten, old Japanese publications regarding dengue outbreaks and allied background information in East Asia and the Western Pacific that were documented before the emergence of the haemorrhagic disease outbreaks in the 1950s there. The compiled data in this review, thus, fill in for the first time many blanks in the early epidemiologic history of dengue in this part of the world. Besides the data for epidemiologists, virologic data, clinical studies of haemorrhagic manifestation, significance in military medicine and entomologic investigations covered in this review should be useful for the current researchers investigating any of those subjects.

  18. Efficiency of Emission Control Measures on Particulate Matter-Related Health Impacts and Economic Cost during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Meeting in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qichen; Huang, Jing; Guo, Bin; Guo, Xinbiao

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) meeting was held from 5 November to 11 November 2014 in Beijing, and comprehensive emission control measures were implemented. The efficiency of these measures on particulate matter-related health impacts and economic cost need to be evaluated. Methods: The influences of emission control measures during APEC on particulate matter were evaluated, and health economic effects were assessed. Results: Average concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 during APEC were reduced by 57.0%, and 50.6% respectively, compared with pre-APEC period. However, the concentrations of particulate matter rebounded after APEC. Compared with the pre-APEC and post-APEC periods, the estimated number of deaths caused by non-accidental, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases that could be attributed to PM2.5 and PM10 during the APEC were the lowest. The economic cost associated with mortality caused by PM2.5 and PM10 during the APEC were reduced by (61.3% and 66.6%) and (50.3% and 60.8%) respectively, compared with pre-APEC and post-APEC. Conclusions: The emission control measures were effective in improving short term air quality and reducing health risks and medical expenses during 2014 APEC, but more efforts is needed for long term and continuous air quality improvement and health protection. PMID:28036006

  19. Righting the mismatch between law, policy and the sexual and reproductive health needs of young people in the Asia-Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    Godwin, John; Szabo, Gabrielle; Sass, Justine; Sauvarin, Josephine

    2014-11-01

    The context of sexual relations is changing in the Asia-Pacific. While the age of sexual debut remains the same, young people are generally marrying later and sex outside of marriage is increasing. The first systematic review of how laws and policies govern young people's access to sexual and reproductive health services was conducted in 2013. The study considered >400 national documents and held focus group discussions with >60 young people across three countries in the region. This paper examines the study findings in light of epidemiological data on young people's sexual behaviour and health, exposing a critical mismatch between the onset of sexual activity and laws and policies governing consent (to sex and medical treatment), and the restriction and orientation of services to married persons. An enabling legal and policy environment is an essential foundation for efforts to improve young people's sexual and reproductive health. This paper argues that international guidance and commitments (including the widely ratified Convention on the Rights of the Child) provide a framework for recognising young people's evolving capacity for independent decision-making, including in the realm of sexual and reproductive health. A number of countries in the region are using these frameworks to expand access to services, providing valuable examples for others to build on.

  20. Consensus for Radiotherapy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma from The 5th Asia-Pacific Primary Liver Cancer Expert Meeting (APPLE 2014): Current Practice and Future Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hee Chul; Yu, Jeong Il; Cheng, Jason Chia-Hsien; Zeng, Zhao Chong; Hong, Ji Hong; Wang, Michael Lian Chek; Kim, Mi Sook; Chi, Kwan Hwa; Liang, Po-Ching; Lee, Rheun-Chuan; Lau, Wan-Yee; Han, Kwang Hyub; Chow, Pierce Kah-Hoe; Seong, Jinsil

    2016-01-01

    A consensus meeting to develop practice guidelines and to recommend future clinical trials for radiation therapy (RT), including external beam RT (EBRT), and selective internal RT (SIRT) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was held at the 5th annual meeting of the Asia-Pacific Primary Liver Cancer Expert consortium. Although there is no randomized phase III trial evidence, the efficacy and safety of RT in HCC has been shown by prospective and retrospective studies using modern RT techniques. Based on these results, the committee came to a consensus on the utility and efficacy of RT in the management of HCC according to each disease stage as follows: in early and intermediate stage HCC, if standard treatment is not compatible, RT, including EBRT and SIRT can be considered. In locally advanced stage HCC, combined EBRT with transarterial chemoembolization or hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy, and SIRT can be considered. In terminal stage HCC, EBRT can be considered for palliation of symptoms and reduction of morbidity caused by the primary tumor or its metastases. Despite the currently reported benefits of RT in HCC, the committee agreed that there is a compelling need for large prospective studies, including randomized phase III trial evidence evaluating the role of RT. Specifically studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of sequential combination of EBRT and SIRT are strongly recommended. PMID:27493892

  1. An International Observational Prospective Survey Assessing the Control of Atrial Fibrillation in Asia-Pacific: Results of the Record-AFAP Registry

    PubMed Central

    Amerena, John; Chen, Shih-Ann; Sriratanasathavorn, Charn; Cho, Jeong-Gwan; Dejia, Huang; Omar, Razali; Fat, Tse Hung; King, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    A prospective 1-year observational survey was designed to assess the management and control of atrial fibrillation (AF) in eight countries within the Asia-Pacific region. Patients (N = 2,604) with recently diagnosed AF or a history of AF ≤1 year were included. Clinicians chose the treatment strategy (rhythm or rate control) according to their standard practice and medical discretion. The primary endpoint was therapeutic success. At baseline, rhythm- and rate-control strategies were applied to 35.7% and 64.3% of patients, respectively. At 12 months, therapeutic success was 43.2% overall. Being assigned to rhythm-control strategy at baseline was associated with a higher therapeutic success (46.5% vs 41.4%; P = 0.0214) and a lower incidence of clinical outcomes (10.4% vs 17.1% P < 0.0001). Patients assigned to rate-control strategies at baseline had higher cardiovascular morbidities (history of heart failure or valvular heart disease). Cardiovascular outcomes may be less dependent on the choice of treatment strategy than cardiovascular comorbidities. PMID:26279634

  2. Ninth Triennial Toxicology Salary Survey.

    PubMed

    Gad, Shayne Cox; Sullivan, Dexter Wayne

    2016-01-01

    This survey serves as the ninth in a series of toxicology salary surveys conducted at 3-year intervals and beginning in 1988. An electronic survey instrument was distributed to 5919 individuals including members of the Society of Toxicology, American College of Toxicology, and 23 additional professional organizations. Question items inquired about gender, age, degree, years of experience, certifications held, areas of specialization, society membership, employment and income. Overall, 1293 responses were received (response rate 21.8%). The results of the 2014 survey provide insight into the job market and career path for current and future toxicologists.

  3. The Ninth National Space Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipskin, Beth Ann; Patterson, Sara; Brescia, David A.; Burk, Donna; Flannery, Jack; St. John, Pat; Zimkas, Chuck

    Proceedings of the Ninth National Space Symposium held 13-16 April 1993 by the United States Space Foundation are presented. Presentations made at the symposium are included. Topics discussed include: Change, Challenge and Opportunity; Washington Insiders: National Space Policy and Budget Issues; Civil Space: a Vision for the Future; Space Power for an Expanded Vision; Unparalled Launch Vehicle Propulsion Capabilities; National Security Space Issues; Perspectives on the Air Force in Space; Future Technology: Space Propulsion, Earth Observation and International Cooperation; Achieving Efficient Space Transportation; the Future in Space Exploration; Kids, Parents and Teachers are into Space; and Public Congressional Forum on Space - International Space Issues.

  4. A Bilateral U.S. - Russia Contribution to Disaster Risk Reduction in the Asia-Pacific Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, J. C.; Gordeev, E.; Bratton, J.; Ismail-Zadeh, A.

    2012-12-01

    collaboration in dealing with the geohazards of the Russian Far East - Alaska region. Subduction within this segment of the Pacific Rim has produced 50% of the top 30 earthquakes recorded instrumentally worldwide, numerous Pacific-crossing tsunamis, and the largest ash eruption in almost 200 years. Recognizing that Russia and the United States need to develop a whole-region perspective of disaster risk, scientists and program managers from several Russian and U.S. government agencies met at the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow in July to identify bilateral steps that would improve safety for communities of the Kuril-Kamchatka-Aleutian-Alaska region. Significantly, the meeting included disaster preparation and response agencies EMERCOM and FEMA. Participants proposed development of a standing committee to advocate and facilitate bilateral collaboration, expanded exchange of real-time monitoring data, development of a strategy for monitoring currently unmonitored sections of plate and micro-plate boundaries, and holding of an inclusive, all-stakeholders meeting in the U.S. next year.

  5. Confronting the HIV epidemic in Asia and the Pacific: developing successful strategies to minimize the spread of HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Moodie, R; Aboagye-Kwarteng, T

    1993-12-01

    In Asia, the cumulative total of HIV-infected adults will reach 1.22 million by 1995, and, by 2000, the number is estimated to reach 11-45 million. The modes of transmission vary from country to country and include injecting drug users, commercial sex workers and their clients, commercial blood donors, hemophiliacs, and homosexuals. Social, cultural, and health factors also affect transmission, such as rites of passage to adulthood, lack of female autonomy, multiple sex partners, wars and civil unrest, and availability of drugs. The HIV epidemic has economic ramifications and causes, e.g., migrant worker camps, the sex industry, and rapid urbanization luring Burmese girls to Thailand. Governments must create an environment for behavior-change through financial, political, and legislative measures. Community organizations also play a role in prevention, as in programs initiated by a squatter settlement in Bangkok, where 36% of IV drug users were found to be HIV-positive. In Maharashtra State, India, peer-based prevention programs were developed for sex workers. Successful behavior change of individuals is based on redefinition of peer norms, understanding the danger and vulnerability to infection, and building confidence to change behavior. Successful programs require placing priority on HIV issues on the political agenda, negotiation and consensus-building skills, and competent program management. For instance, in Zimbabwe a project enlisted 380,000 people in 4500 education sessions within 2 years, and distributed 2.5 million condoms. Among sex workers, condom use increased from 5% to 50%. Implementation strategies include the provision of information and interpersonal education. In Zaire, mass media and social marketing efforts boosted condom sales from less than half a million in 1987 to over 20 million in 1991. The means to change behavior requires the availability of good quality condoms, disinfectants, and syringes. Furthermore, clinical management of

  6. The dominant Anopheles vectors of human malaria in the Asia-Pacific region: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic précis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    aspects of taxonomy, biology and ecology relevant to species-specific vector control. This research is particularly relevant to help unravel the complicated taxonomic status, ecology and epidemiology of the vectors of the Asia-Pacific region. All the occurrence data, predictive maps and EO-shape files generated during the production of these publications will be made available in the public domain. We hope that this will encourage data sharing to improve future iterations of the distribution maps. PMID:21612587

  7. Asia-Pacific Region Global Earthquake and Volcanic Eruption Risk Management (G-EVER) project and a next-generation real-time volcano hazard assessment system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takarada, S.

    2012-12-01

    The first Workshop of Asia-Pacific Region Global Earthquake and Volcanic Eruption Risk Management (G-EVER1) was held in Tsukuba, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan from February 23 to 24, 2012. The workshop focused on the formulation of strategies to reduce the risks of disasters worldwide caused by the occurrence of earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions. More than 150 participants attended the workshop. During the workshop, the G-EVER1 accord was approved by the participants. The Accord consists of 10 recommendations like enhancing collaboration, sharing of resources, and making information about the risks of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions freely available and understandable. The G-EVER Hub website (http://g-ever.org) was established to promote the exchange of information and knowledge among the Asia-Pacific countries. Several G-EVER Working Groups and Task Forces were proposed. One of the working groups was tasked to make the next-generation real-time volcano hazard assessment system. The next-generation volcano hazard assessment system is useful for volcanic eruption prediction, risk assessment, and evacuation at various eruption stages. The assessment system is planned to be developed based on volcanic eruption scenario datasets, volcanic eruption database, and numerical simulations. Defining volcanic eruption scenarios based on precursor phenomena leading up to major eruptions of active volcanoes is quite important for the future prediction of volcanic eruptions. Compiling volcanic eruption scenarios after a major eruption is also important. A high quality volcanic eruption database, which contains compilations of eruption dates, volumes, and styles, is important for the next-generation volcano hazard assessment system. The volcanic eruption database is developed based on past eruption results, which only represent a subset of possible future scenarios. Hence, different distributions from the previous deposits are mainly observed due to the differences in

  8. Identifying Vulnerable Populations Using a Social Determinants of Health Framework: Analysis of National Survey Data across Six Asia-Pacific Countries

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Paul R.; Mamerow, Loreen; Meyer, Samantha B.

    2013-01-01

    Background In order to improve the health of the most vulnerable groups in society, the WHO called for research on the multiple and inter-linking factors shaping the social determinants of health (SDH). This paper analyses four key SDH (social cohesion, social inclusion, social empowerment and socioeconomic security) across six Asia-Pacific countries: Australia, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. Methods Population surveys were undertaken using a validated instrument in 2009-10, with sample sizes around 1000 in each country. The four SDH were analysed using multivariate binomial logistic regression to identify socio-demographic predictors in each country. Results Low socio-economic security was associated with low income in all six study countries and with poor subjective health in Japan, South Korea and Thailand and with being married or cohabiting in Australia and Hong Kong. Low social cohesion was associated with low income in all countries and with undertaking household duties in South Korea, Thailand and Taiwan. Low social inclusion was associated with low income in Australia, South Korea and Taiwan and with poor subjective health in Australia, Japan and South Korea. Older people had lower social inclusion in Taiwan (50-59 years) and Hong Kong (retired), younger people in Japan and South Korea (20-29 years in both countries) and younger and middle-aged people in Australia. Low social empowerment was associated with low income in Australia, Thailand and Taiwan, with being aged 60 years or over in Australia, Hong Kong and South Korea, and over 50 years in Thailand. Conclusions This paper provides baseline measures for identifying where and how policy should be altered to improve the SDH. Furthermore, these data can be used for future policy evaluation to identify whether changes in policy have indeed improved the SDH, particularly for marginalised and vulnerable populations. PMID:24349417

  9. Characterization of ambient volatile organic compounds and their sources in Beijing, before, during, and after Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation China 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Xie, S. D.; Zeng, L. M.; Li, L. Y.; Li, Y. Q.; Wu, R. R.

    2015-04-01

    Ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured using an online system, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/flame ionization detector (GC-MS/FID), in Beijing, China, before, during and after Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) China 2014, when stringent air quality control measures were implemented. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to identify the major VOC contributing sources and their temporal variations. The secondary organic aerosols potential (SOAP) approach was used to estimate variations of precursor source contributions to SOA formation. The average VOC mixing ratios during the three periods were 86.17, 48.28, and 72.97 ppbv, respectively. The mixing ratios of total VOC during the control period were reduced by 44%, and the mixing ratios of acetonitrile, halocarbons, oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs), aromatics, acetylene, alkanes, and alkenes decreased by approximately 65, 62, 54, 53, 37, 36, and 23%, respectively. The mixing ratios of all measured VOC species decreased during control, and the most affected species were chlorinated VOCs (chloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethylene, chlorobenzene). PMF analysis indicated eight major sources of ambient VOCs, and emissions from target control sources were clearly reduced during the control period. Contributions of vehicular exhaust were most reduced (19.65 ppbv, the contributions before the control period minus the values after the control period), followed by industrial manufacturing (10.29 ppbv) and solvent utilization (6.20 ppbv). Contributions of evaporated or liquid gasoline and industrial chemical feedstock were slightly reduced, with values of 2.85 and 0.35 ppbv, respectively. Contributions of secondary and long-lived species were relatively stable. Due to central heating, emissions from fuel combustion kept on increasing during the whole campaign; because of weak control of liquid petroleum gas (LPG), the highest emissions of LPG occurred in the control period. Vehicle-related sources were

  10. Relative impact of emissions controls and meteorology on air pollution mitigation associated with the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) conference in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuqin; Zhang, Yang; Schauer, James Jay; de Foy, Benjamin; Guo, Bo; Zhang, Yuanxun

    2016-11-15

    The Beijing government and its surrounding provinces implemented a series of measures to ensure haze-free skies during the 22(nd) Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) conference (November 10(th)-11(th), 2014). These measures included restrictions on traffic, construction, and industrial activity. Twelve hour measurements of the concentration and composition of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were performed for 5 consecutive months near the APEC conference site before (September 11(th)-November 2(nd), 2014), during (November 3(rd)-12(th), 2014) and after (November 13(th), 2014-January 31(st), 2015). The measurements are used in a positive matrix factorization model to determine the contributions from seven sources of PM2.5: secondary aerosols, traffic exhaust, industrial emission, road dust, soil dust, biomass burning and residual oil combustion. The source apportionment results are integrated with backward trajectory analysis using Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) meteorological simulations, which determine the relative influence of new regulation and meteorology upon improved air quality during the APEC conference. Data show that controls are very effective, but meteorology must be taken into account to determine the actual influence of the controls on pollution reduction. The industry source control is the most effective for reducing concentrations, followed by secondary aerosol and biomass controls, while the least effective control is for the residual oil combustion source. The largest reductions in concentrations occur when air mass transport is from the west-northwest (Ulanqab). Secondary aerosol and traffic exhaust reductions are most significant for air mass transport from the north-northwest (Xilingele League) origin, and least significant for northeast transport (Chifeng via Tangshan conditions). The largest reductions of soil dust, biomass burning, and industrial source are distinctly seen for Ulanqab conditions and least distinct for

  11. Characterization of ambient volatile organic compounds and their sources in Beijing, before, during, and after Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation China 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Xie, S. D.; Zeng, L. M.; Li, L. Y.; Li, Y. Q.; Wu, R. R.

    2015-07-01

    Ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured using an online system, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/flame ionization detector (GC-MS/FID), in Beijing, China, before, during, and after Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) China 2014, when stringent air quality control measures were implemented. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to identify the major VOC contributing sources and their temporal variations. The secondary organic aerosols potential (SOAP) approach was used to estimate variations of precursor source contributions to SOA formation. The average VOC mixing ratios during the three periods were 86.17, 48.28, and 72.97 ppbv, respectively. The mixing ratios of total VOC during the control period were reduced by 44 %, and the mixing ratios of acetonitrile, halocarbons, oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs), aromatics, acetylene, alkanes, and alkenes decreased by approximately 65, 62, 54, 53, 37, 36, and 23 %, respectively. The mixing ratios of all measured VOC species decreased during control, and the most affected species were chlorinated VOCs (chloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethylene, chlorobenzene). PMF analysis indicated eight major sources of ambient VOCs, and emissions from target control sources were clearly reduced during the control period. Compared with the values before control, contributions of vehicular exhaust were most reduced, followed by industrial manufacturing and solvent utilization. Reductions of these three sources were responsible for 50, 26, and 16 % of the reductions in ambient VOCs. Contributions of evaporated or liquid gasoline and industrial chemical feedstock were slightly reduced, and contributions of secondary and long-lived species were relatively stable. Due to central heating, emissions from fuel combustion kept on increasing during the whole campaign; because of weak control of liquid petroleum gas (LPG), the highest emissions of LPG occurred in the control period. Vehicle-related sources were the most important

  12. Statistical coherence of primary schooling in IPUMS-International integrated population samples for China, India, Vietnam, and ten other Asia-Pacific countries1

    PubMed Central

    McCaa, Robert; Cleveland, Lara; Kelly-Hall, Patricia; Ruggles, Steven; Sobek, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    IPUMS-International www.ipums.org/international disseminates harmonized census microdata for more than 80 countries at no cost, although access is restricted to bona-fide researchers and students who agree to the stringent conditions of use license. Currently over 270 samples are available, totalling more than 600 million person records. Each year 15–20 additional samples are released, as more countries cooperate with the IPUMS initiative and the integration of 2010 round census samples is completed. With so much microdata so readily available, questions of data quality naturally arise. This paper focusses on the concept of statistical coherence over time for a single concept, primary schooling completed. From an analysis of the percentage completing primary schooling by birth year for pairs of samples for thirteen Asia-Pacific countries, we find outstanding coherence for four—China, Mongolia, Vietnam, and Indonesia—with mean differences of less than 0.5 percentage points, regression coefficient (b) ranging from 0.93 to 1.07 and R2 =.99. For the thirteen countries as a group there is considerable variation overall with mean absolute difference as high as 16 percentage points, b ranging from 0.62–1.44 and R2=.65–.99. As a whole, statistical coherence of primary schooling is outstanding. Nonetheless, to make expert use of the harmonized microdata, researchers are cautioned to carefully study the IPUMS integrated metadata as well as the original source documentation. National Statistical Offices not currently cooperating or that have not yet entrusted 2010 round census microdata are invited to do so. PMID:26478685

  13. The impact of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program on radiation and tissue banking in Asia and the Pacific and the Latin American regions.

    PubMed

    Morales Pedraza, Jorge; Phillips, Glyn O

    2009-05-01

    The technical assistance program of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for its member states in the framework of the implementation of its program on radiation and tissue banking focuses on ensuring the availability of quality radiation-sterilised tissue grafts. The IAEA also helps its member states to develop quality control capabilities in order to ensure the safe use of the processed tissues in certain medical treatments. The majority of developing countries does not have such capacity, and must import expensive sterilised tissues from developed countries. The IAEA's core contribution to its program on radiation and tissue banking in Asia and the Pacific and the Latin American regions is a technology for sterilisation by gamma radiation and a training program for tissue bank operators and medical personnel. The Agency develops capabilities for radiation sterilisation of tissue grafts, both for reducing the pre-processing bacterial load, and as a terminal sterilisation process. Sterilising tissue grafts offers a clear advantage in terms of safety. Moreover, compared to alternative sterilisation methods, radiation sterilisation is considered particularly safe in relation to environmental concerns, and the deposition of harmful residuals in the tissue, which occurs for example in the use of chemical such as ethylene oxide gas. Radiation sterilisation, thus, has become the method of choice for an increasing number of tissue banks. Radiation sterilisation of tissue grafts is a critical component in the chain connecting donors to recipients of high quality tissue grafts. Due to this fact, the IAEA has evolved as the only organisation in the UN System with expertise related to tissue banking.

  14. The Use of Mixed Effects Models for Obtaining Low-Cost Ecosystem Carbon Stock Estimates in Mangroves of the Asia-Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Bukoski, Jacob J.; Broadhead, Jeremy S.; Donato, Daniel C.; Murdiyarso, Daniel; Gregoire, Timothy G.

    2017-01-01

    Mangroves provide extensive ecosystem services that support local livelihoods and international environmental goals, including coastal protection, biodiversity conservation and the sequestration of carbon (C). While voluntary C market projects seeking to preserve and enhance forest C stocks offer a potential means of generating finance for mangrove conservation, their implementation faces barriers due to the high costs of quantifying C stocks through field inventories. To streamline C quantification in mangrove conservation projects, we develop predictive models for (i) biomass-based C stocks, and (ii) soil-based C stocks for the mangroves of the Asia-Pacific. We compile datasets of mangrove biomass C (197 observations from 48 sites) and soil organic C (99 observations from 27 sites) to parameterize the predictive models, and use linear mixed effect models to model the expected C as a function of stand attributes. The most parsimonious biomass model predicts total biomass C stocks as a function of both basal area and the interaction between latitude and basal area, whereas the most parsimonious soil C model predicts soil C stocks as a function of the logarithmic transformations of both latitude and basal area. Random effects are specified by site for both models, which are found to explain a substantial proportion of variance within the estimation datasets and indicate significant heterogeneity across-sites within the region. The root mean square error (RMSE) of the biomass C model is approximated at 24.6 Mg/ha (18.4% of mean biomass C in the dataset), whereas the RMSE of the soil C model is estimated at 4.9 mg C/cm3 (14.1% of mean soil C). The results point to a need for standardization of forest metrics to facilitate meta-analyses, as well as provide important considerations for refining ecosystem C stock models in mangroves. PMID:28068361

  15. The Use of Mixed Effects Models for Obtaining Low-Cost Ecosystem Carbon Stock Estimates in Mangroves of the Asia-Pacific.

    PubMed

    Bukoski, Jacob J; Broadhead, Jeremy S; Donato, Daniel C; Murdiyarso, Daniel; Gregoire, Timothy G

    2017-01-01

    Mangroves provide extensive ecosystem services that support local livelihoods and international environmental goals, including coastal protection, biodiversity conservation and the sequestration of carbon (C). While voluntary C market projects seeking to preserve and enhance forest C stocks offer a potential means of generating finance for mangrove conservation, their implementation faces barriers due to the high costs of quantifying C stocks through field inventories. To streamline C quantification in mangrove conservation projects, we develop predictive models for (i) biomass-based C stocks, and (ii) soil-based C stocks for the mangroves of the Asia-Pacific. We compile datasets of mangrove biomass C (197 observations from 48 sites) and soil organic C (99 observations from 27 sites) to parameterize the predictive models, and use linear mixed effect models to model the expected C as a function of stand attributes. The most parsimonious biomass model predicts total biomass C stocks as a function of both basal area and the interaction between latitude and basal area, whereas the most parsimonious soil C model predicts soil C stocks as a function of the logarithmic transformations of both latitude and basal area. Random effects are specified by site for both models, which are found to explain a substantial proportion of variance within the estimation datasets and indicate significant heterogeneity across-sites within the region. The root mean square error (RMSE) of the biomass C model is approximated at 24.6 Mg/ha (18.4% of mean biomass C in the dataset), whereas the RMSE of the soil C model is estimated at 4.9 mg C/cm3 (14.1% of mean soil C). The results point to a need for standardization of forest metrics to facilitate meta-analyses, as well as provide important considerations for refining ecosystem C stock models in mangroves.

  16. Radiocarbon-derived source apportionment of fine carbonaceous aerosols before, during, and after the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junwen; Mo, Yangzhi; Li, Jun; Liu, Di; Shen, Chengde; Ding, Ping; Jiang, Haoyu; Cheng, Zhineng; Zhang, Xiangyun; Tian, Chongguo; Chen, Yingjun; Zhang, Gan

    2016-04-01

    The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit took place in Beijing, China, 5-11 November 2014, during which numerous measures were performed to control the air pollution, and consequently, the sky of Beijing was so clean that the public called it "APEC blue." The concentrations before, during, and after the APEC summit are 14.4 ± 6.81 µg C/m3, 6.66 ± 2.99 µg C/m3, and 32.3 ± 10.6 µg C/m3, respectively, for organic carbon (OC), and 2.27 ± 1.17 µg C/m3, 0.76 ± 0.52 µg C/m3, and 4.99 ± 1.74 µg C/m3, respectively, for elemental carbon (EC). We quantify the contributions of fossil and nonfossil sources to the OC and EC using radiocarbon. Results show that the contribution of nonfossil sources is 56 ± 1% (before APEC), 61 ± 1% (during APEC), and 48 ± 1% (after APEC), respectively, for OC, and 36 ± 4% (before APEC), 46 ± 1% (during APEC), and 33 ± 4% (after APEC), respectively, for EC. Comparing to the period before APEC, 70% and 60% of fossil EC and OC and 60% and 50% of nonfossil EC and OC are reduced, respectively, implying that the control on the nonfossil sources has considerable contribution to the good air quality in Beijing. Both EC and OC mass loadings during the APEC summit would have increased by 60% if the biomass-burning activities were not taken into account for control. In such a case, the atmospheric visibility would decrease 20% at least and the blue sky thereby would likely not have been visible during the summit.

  17. Co-evolution of monsoonal precipitation in East Asia and the tropical Pacific ENSO system since 2.36 Ma: New insights from high-resolution clay mineral records in the West Philippine Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhaojie; Wan, Shiming; Colin, Christophe; Yan, Hong; Bonneau, Lucile; Liu, Zhifei; Song, Lina; Sun, Hanjie; Xu, Zhaokai; Jiang, Xuejun; Li, Anchun; Li, Tiegang

    2016-07-01

    Clay mineralogical analysis and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis were performed on deep-sea sediments cored on the Benham Rise (core MD06-3050) in order to reconstruct long-term evolution of East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) rainfall in the period since 2.36 Ma. Clay mineralogical variations are due to changes in the ratios of smectite, which derive from weathering of volcanic rocks in Luzon Island during intervals of intensive monsoon rainfall, and illite- and chlorite-rich dusts, which are transported from East Asia by winds associated with the East Asian Winter Monsoon (EAWM). Since Luzon is the main source of smectite to the Benham Rise, long-term consistent variations in the smectite/(illite + chlorite) ratio in core MD06-3050 as well as ODP site 1146 in the Northern South China Sea suggest that minor contributions of eolian dust played a role in the variability of this mineralogical ratio and indicate strengthening EASM precipitation in SE Asia during time intervals from 2360 to 1900 kyr, 1200 to 600 kyr, and after 200 kyr. The EASM rainfall record displays a 30 kyr periodicity suggesting the influence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). These intervals of rainfall intensification on Luzon Island are coeval with a reduction in precipitation over central China and an increase in zonal SST gradient in the equatorial Pacific Ocean, implying a reinforcement of La Niña-like conditions. In contrast, periods of reduced rainfall on Luzon Island are associated with higher precipitation in central China and a weakening zonal SST gradient in the equatorial Pacific Ocean, thereby suggesting the development of dominant El Niño-like conditions. Our study, therefore, highlights for the first time a long-term temporal and spatial co-evolution of monsoonal precipitation in East Asia and of the tropical Pacific ENSO system over the past 2.36 Ma.

  18. Impact of revised CLSI breakpoints for susceptibility to third-generation cephalosporins and carbapenems among Enterobacteriaceae isolates in the Asia-Pacific region: results from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART), 2002-2010.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chi-Chang; Chen, Yao-Shen; Toh, Han-Siong; Lee, Yu-Lin; Liu, Yuag-Meng; Ho, Cheng-Mao; Lu, Po-Liang; Liu, Chun-Eng; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Wang, Jen-Hsien; Tang, Hung-Jen; Yu, Kwok-Woon; Liu, Yung-Ching; Chuang, Yin-Ching; Xu, Yingchun; Ni, Yuxing; Ko, Wen-Chien; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2012-06-01

    This study examined the rates of susceptibility to third-generation cephalosporins and carbapenems among Enterobacteriaceae isolates that had been obtained from patients with intraabdominal infections in the Asia-Pacific region as part of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART). Susceptibility profiles obtained using 2009 Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) breakpoints were compared with those obtained using the 2011 CLSI breakpoints. From 2002 to 2010, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae together accounted for more than 60% of the 13714 Enterobacteriaceae isolates analyzed during the study period. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers comprised 28.2% of E. coli isolates and 22.1% of K. pneumoniae isolates in the Asia-Pacific region, with China (55.6% and 33.7%, respectively) and Thailand (43.1% and 40.7%, respectively) having the highest proportions of ESBL producers. Based on the 2011 CLSI criteria, 77.2% of the Enterobacteriaceae isolates, 40.4% of ESBL-producing E. coli, and 25.2% of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates were susceptible to ceftazidime. Carbapenems showed in vitro activity against >90% of Enterobacteriaceae isolates in all participating countries, except for ertapenem in South Korea (susceptibility rate 82.2%). Marked differences (>5%) in susceptibility of ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates to carbapenems were noted between the profiles obtained using the 2009 CLSI criteria and those using the 2011 CLSI criteria. Continuous monitoring of antimicrobial resistance is necessary in the Asia-Pacific region.

  19. Strategic Analysis of the Asia-Pacific Region: Is a Forward-Based Aircraft Carrier Required in the Post-Cold War Era?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-07

    include Southeast Asia, Indonesia and Thailand (East Indian Ocean ) in the west, the Australian continent in the south to Northeast Asia the Kurile...purposes, the area bounded by western Indonesia and Thailand (East Indian Ocean /South Asia) in the west extending northwesterly to include the Arabian Sea...relations, regional stability, and freedom of oceanic trade routes. In Europe, the multilateral NATO military alliance protected free democracies against the

  20. The Ninth-Century Renaissance in Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Charlotte

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the events in the ninth century that moved astronomy away from the pursuit of mystical hermetic sciences and astrology back toward observation and measurement. Describes the achievements of astronomers and the instruments and calculations used during that period. (JRH)

  1. Ninth Cambridge Workshop on Cool Stars, Stellar Systems and the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupree, Andrea K.

    1998-01-01

    This Grant was used to publish the Proceedings from the Ninth Cambridge Workshop on Cool Stars, Stellar Systems, and the Sun held in Florence, Italy from 3 to 6 October 1995. The Proceedings were published by the Astronomical Society of the Pacific in their Conference Series, Volume 109 in 1996. This volume was edited by Roberto Pallavicini and Andrea K. Dupree. A copy of the title page and the Table of Contents of the volume is appended.

  2. JPRS Report, East Asia, Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Economic Management 7 PASASON Sees Need for Enterprises To Adopt Capitalist Expertise 7 MALAYSIA Mahathir Hands Over $100,000 to PLO 9 Libyan...Diplomats in Malaysia Spearhead Asia-Pacific ’Offensive’ 9 Mahathir Warns Japanese Investors About ’Western Media Distortion’ 10 Negotiations To...9604 JPRS-SEA-88-033 10 August 1988 FIJI Study of Nation’s Leadership 42130148a Kuala Lumpur UTUSAN MALAYSIA in Malay 2 Jun 88 p 6 [Article by

  3. Epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of pathogens causing urinary tract infections in the Asia-Pacific region: Results from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART), 2010-2013.

    PubMed

    Jean, Shio-Shin; Coombs, Geoffrey; Ling, Thomas; Balaji, V; Rodrigues, Camilla; Mikamo, Hiroshige; Kim, Min-Ja; Rajasekaram, Datin Ganeswrie; Mendoza, Myrna; Tan, Thean Yen; Kiratisin, Pattarachai; Ni, Yuxing; Weinman, Barry; Xu, Yingchun; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2016-04-01

    A total of 9599 isolates of Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) causing urinary tract infections (UTIs) were collected from 60 centres in 13 countries in the Asia-Pacific region from 2010-2013. These isolates comprised Enterobacteriaceae species (mainly Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter cloacae and Morganella morganii) and non-fermentative GNB species (predominantly Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii). In vitro susceptibilities were determined by the agar dilution method and susceptibility profiles were determined using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) interpretive breakpoints recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute in 2015. Production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) amongst E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. mirabilis and K. oxytoca isolates was determined by the double-disk synergy test. China, Vietnam, India, Thailand and the Philippines had the highest rates of GNB species producing ESBLs and the highest rates of cephalosporin resistance. ESBL production and hospital-acquired infection (isolates obtained ≥48 h after admission) significantly compromised the susceptibility of isolates of E. coli and K. pneumoniae to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and most β-lactams, with the exception of imipenem and ertapenem. However, >87% of ESBL-producing E. coli strains were susceptible to amikacin and piperacillin/tazobactam, indicating that these antibiotics might be appropriate alternatives for treating UTIs due to ESBL-producing E. coli. Fluoroquinolones were shown to be inappropriate as empirical therapy for UTIs. Antibiotic resistance is a serious problem in the Asia-Pacific region. Therefore, continuous monitoring of evolutionary trends in the susceptibility profiles of GNB causing UTIs in Asia is crucial.

  4. Predictors and Extent of Institutional Trust in Government, Banks, the Media and Religious Organisations: Evidence from Cross-Sectional Surveys in Six Asia-Pacific Countries

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Emma; Pearce, Alex R.; Meyer, Samantha B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Building or maintaining institutional trust is of central importance in democratic societies since negative experiences (potentially leading to mistrust) with government or other institutions may have a much more profound effect than positive experiences (potentially maintaining trust). Healthy democracy relies on more than simply trusting the national government of the time, and is mediated through other symbols of institutional power, such as the legal system, banks, the media and religious organisations. This paper focuses on institutional trust–the level and predictors of trust in some of the major institutions in society, namely politics, the media, banks, the legal system and religious organisations. We present analyses from a consolidated dataset containing data from six countries in the Asia Pacific region–Australia, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan and Thailand. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were undertaken in each country in 2009–10, with an overall sample of 6331. Analyses of differences in overall levels of institutional trust between countries were undertaken using Chi square analyses. Multivariate binomial logistic regression analysis was undertaken to identify socio-demographic predictors of trust in each country. Results Religious institutions, banks and the judicial system had the highest overall trust across all countries (70%, 70% and 67% respectively), followed by newspapers and TV (59% and 58%) and then political leaders (43%). The range of levels of higher trust between countries differed from 43% for banks (range 49% in Australia to 92% in Thailand) to 59% for newspapers (28% in Australia to 87% in Japan). Across all countries, except for Australia, trust in political leaders had the lowest scores, particularly in Japan and South Korea (25% in both countries). In Thailand, people expressed the most trust in religious organisations (94%), banks (92%) and in their judicial/legal system (89%). In Hong Kong, people

  5. Joint conference of iMEC 2015 (2nd International Manufacturing Engineering Conference & APCOMS 2015 (3rd Asia-Pacific Conference on Manufacturing Systems)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-02-01

    The iMEC 2015 is the second International Manufacturing Engineering Conference organized by the Faculty of Manufacturing, Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP), held from 12-14th November 2015 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, with a theme "Materials, Manufacturing and Systems for Tomorrow". For the first time, iMEC is organized together with 3rd Asia- Pacific Conference on Manufacturing System (APCOMS 2015) which owned by Fakulti Teknologi Industri, Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB), Indonesia. This is an extended collaboration between UMP and ITB to intensify knowledge sharing and experiences between higher learning institutions. This conference (iMEC & APCOMS 2015) is a platform for knowledge exchange and the growth of ideas, particularly in manufacturing engineering. The conference aims to bring researchers, academics, scientists, students, engineers and practitioners from around the world together to present their latest findings, ideas, developments and applications related to manufacturing engineering and other related research areas. With rapid advancements in manufacturing engineering, iMEC is an appropriate medium for the associated community to keep pace with the changes. In 2015, the conference theme is “Materials, Manufacturing and Systems for Tomorrow” which reflects the acceleration of knowledge and technology in global manufacturing. The papers in these proceedings are examples of the work presented at the conference. They represent the tip of the iceberg, as the conference attracted over 200 abstracts from Malaysia, Indonesia, Japan, United Kingdom, Australia, India, Bangladesh, South Africa, Turkey and Morocco and 151 full papers were accepted in these proceedings. The conference was run in four parallel sessions with 160 presenters sharing their latest finding in the areas of manufacturing process, systems, advanced materials and automation. The first keynote presentation was given by Prof. B. S. Murthy (IIT, Madras) on "Nanomaterials with Exceptional

  6. 1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is the 9th Street facade of 816 E Street. Both buildings were originally one property. - Riley Building, Rendezvous Adult Magazines & Films, 437 Ninth Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. Towards Formulating Goals, Aims, and Objectives of Secondary Education for the Twenty-First Century. Final Report of a Regional Seminar on Goals, Aims and Objectives of Secondary Education in Asia and the Pacific (Tokyo, Japan, October 16-31, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).

    A regional seminar examined and defined the goals of secondary education in countries of the Asia and Pacific region seminar; it also analyzed causes for changes in secondary education goals and emerging trends. A total of 20 participants from the following countries--Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Nepal, New…

  8. Development of Literacy Follow-up Materials on Agricultural Vocational Training (Horticulture and Animal Raising) for Adults in Rural Areas. Final Report. Regional Workshop on the Preparation of Literacy Follow-up Materials in Asia and the Pacific (11th, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, November 22-December 3, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This final report contains the proceedings and other materials from a workshop to provide training experience in literacy follow-up materials development to participants from UNESCO member states in the Asia and Pacific region. Focus is on practical agricultural training for adults. The proceedings discuss the objectives of the workshop and…

  9. Field Survey, Preparation and Field-Testing of Neo-Literate Materials. Proceedings of the Regional Workshop on the Preparation of Literacy Follow-Up Materials in Asia and the Pacific (5th, Pune, Maharashtra, India, November 9-18, 1987). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    This report documents the proceedings of a workshop designed to provide training experience for the participants in the development, distribution, and utilization of neo-literate materials relevant to the needs of rural peoples in the countries of Asia and the Pacific region. A summary of the activities and presentations made at the workshop is…

  10. Ninth Annual V. M. Goldschmidt Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the Ninth Annual V. M. Goldschmidt Conference, August 22-27, 1999, hosted by the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. The meeting is a forum for presenting and discussing new chemical and isotopic measurements, experimental and theoretical results, and discoveries in geochemistry and cosmochemistry.

  11. A Guide for Teaching Ninth Grade English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tokars, Lester E.

    Various usages for newspapers in the ninth-grade English classroom are suggested in detail in this teacher's guide. Two large sections--one designed for classes with average learners and one for classes with slow learners--are subdivided into units on the short story, drama, nonfiction, and the novel. Newspapers are used for teaching reading,…

  12. Distribution of extended-spectrum β-lactamases, AmpC β-lactamases, and carbapenemases among Enterobacteriaceae isolates causing intra-abdominal infections in the Asia-Pacific region: results of the study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART).

    PubMed

    Sheng, Wang-Huei; Badal, Robert E; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2013-07-01

    The increasing trend of β-lactam resistance among Enterobacteriaceae is a worldwide threat. Enterobacteriaceae isolates causing intra-abdominal infections (IAI) from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) collected in 2008 and 2009 from the Asia-Pacific region were investigated. Detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC β-lactamases, and carbapenemases was performed by multiplex PCR. A total of 699 Enterobacteriaceae isolates with positive genotypic results, included Escherichia coli (n = 443), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 187), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 45), Klebsiella oxytoca (n = 9), Citrobacter freundii (n = 5), Proteus mirabilis (n = 3), Enterobacter aerogenes (n = 2), Morganella morganii (n = 2), and one each of Enterobacter asburiae, Proteus vulgaris, and Providencia rettgeri were analyzed. Nearly 20% of these β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates were from community-associated IAI. CTX-M (588 isolates, including 428 [72.8%] with CTX-M-15) was the most common ESBL, followed by SHV (n = 59) and TEM (n = 4). CMY (n = 110, including 102 [92.7%] with CMY-2) was the most common AmpC β-lactamase, followed by DHA (n = 46) and ACT/MIR (n = 40). NDM (n = 65, including 62 [95.4%] with NDM-1) was the most common carbapenemase, followed by IMP (n = 7) and OXA (n = 7). Isolates from hospital-associated IAI had more complicated β-lactamase combinations than isolates from the community. Carbapenemases were all exclusively detected in Enterobacteriaceae isolates from India, except that IMP β-lactamases were also detected in Philippines and Australia. CTX-M β-lactamases were the predominant ESBLs produced by Enterobacteriaceae causing IAI in the Asia-Pacific region. Emergence of CTX-M-15-, CMY-2-, and NDM-1-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates is of major concern and highlights the need for further surveillance in this area.

  13. Activities of Tedizolid and Linezolid Determined by the Reference Broth Microdilution Method against 3,032 Gram-Positive Bacterial Isolates Collected in Asia-Pacific, Eastern Europe, and Latin American Countries in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Pfaller, Michael A.; Flamm, Robert K.; Jones, Ronald N.; Farrell, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Tedizolid and linezolid in vitro activities against 3,032 Gram-positive pathogens collected in Asia-Pacific, Eastern European, and Latin American medical centers during 2014 were assessed. The isolates were tested for susceptibility by the current reference broth microdilution methods. Due to concern over the effect of MIC endpoint criteria on the results of testing the oxazolidinones tedizolid and linezolid, MIC endpoint values were read by two methods: (i) reading the MIC at the first well where the trailing began without regard for pinpoint trailing, according to CLSI M07-A10 and M100-S26 document instructions for reading linezolid (i.e., 80% inhibition of growth; these reads were designated tedizolid 80 and linezolid 80), and (ii) at 100% inhibition of growth (designated tedizolid 100 and linezolid 100). All Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus anginosus group, and Enterococcus faecalis isolates were inhibited at tedizolid 80 and 100 MIC values of 0.25 and 0.5, 0.25 and 0.25, 0.25 and 0.5, 0.12 and 0.25, and 0.5 and 1 μg/ml, respectively. Generally, MIC50 and MIC90 results for tedizolid 80 and linezolid 80 were one doubling dilution lower than those read at 100% inhibition. Tedizolid was 4- to 8-fold more potent than linezolid against all the isolates tested regardless of the MIC endpoint criterion used. Despite the differences in potency, >99.9% of isolates tested in this survey were susceptible to both linezolid and tedizolid using CLSI and EUCAST interpretive criteria. In conclusion, tedizolid demonstrated greater in vitro potency than linezolid against Gram-positive pathogens isolated from patients in medical centers across the Asia-Pacific region, Eastern Europe, and Latin America. PMID:27353270

  14. Faster Growth of Road Transportation CO2 Emissions in Asia Pacific Economies: Exploring Differences in Trends of the Rapidly Developing and Developed Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcotullio, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    Researchers have identified how in some rapidly developing countries, road and aviation transportation CO2 emissions are rising faster (over time) when compared to the experiences of the USA at similar levels of economic development. While suggestive of how experiences of the rapidly developing Asia are different from those of the developed world…

  15. Quality in Cross-Border Higher Education and Challenges for the Internationalization of National Quality Assurance Agencies in the Asia-Pacific Region: The Taiwanese Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, Angela Yung-chi

    2014-01-01

    Cross-border higher education has created a need to build capacity -- particularly in the internationalization dimension -- for national quality assurance agencies to evaluate cross-border education provided by foreign educational providers, or jointly by local and foreign institutions. This is quickly becoming a key issue in the Asia-Pacific…

  16. Distance Education in Asia and the Pacific. Volume II. Proceedings of the Regional Seminar on Distance Education (Bangkok, Thailand, November 26-December 3, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asian Development Bank, Manila (Philippines).

    The paper presented in this three-part conference report trace the growth and development of distance education in the Asian and Pacific region. Part 1 provides a general review. Part 2 contains the following case studies: "Distance Education in India" (S. P. Mullick); "Distance Education in Indonesia" (Professor Setijadi);…

  17. United States interests in South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-11

    sea lanes running from the Persian Gulf to South East Asia . Therefore the purpose of this study is to analyze the five factors; geography, security...Sri Lanka which is strategically located in the Indian Ocean close to the major sea lanes running from the Persian Gulf to South East Asia . Therefore...Indian Ocean is the third largest ocean in the world after Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. It lies South of Asia , between Africa and Australia with

  18. Asia Smoke

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... title:  Smoke from Asian Fires Traverses the Pacific     View Larger Image ... moved eastwards over the northern portion of the Pacific Ocean, the thickness of the smoke passing over an area south of the Aleutian ...

  19. Pharmacological and Safety Profile of Dexlansoprazole: A New Proton Pump Inhibitor - Implications for Treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in the Asia Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    Goh, Khean Lee; Choi, Myung Gyu; Hsu, Ping I; Chun, Hoon Jai; Mahachai, Varocha; Kachintorn, Udom; Leelakusolvong, Somchai; Kim, Nayoung; Rani, Abdul Aziz; Wong, Benjamin C Y; Wu, Justin; Chiu, Cheng Tang; Shetty, Vikram; Bocobo, Joseph C; Chan, Melchor M; Lin, Jaw-Town

    2016-07-30

    Although gastroesophageal reflux disease is not as common in Asia as in western countries, the prevalence has increased substantially during the past decade. Gastroesophageal reflux disease is associated with considerable reductions in subjective well-being and work productivity, as well as increased healthcare use. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are currently the most effective treatment for gastroesophageal reflux disease. However, there are limitations associated with these drugs in terms of partial and non-response. Dexlansoprazole is the first PPI with a dual delayed release formulation designed to provide 2 separate releases of medication to extend the duration of effective plasma drug concentration. Dexlansoprazole has been shown to be effective for healing of erosive esophagitis, and to improve subjective well-being by controlling 24-hour symptoms. Dexlansoprazole has also been shown to achieve good plasma concentration regardless of administration with food, providing flexible dosing. Studies in healthy volunteers showed no clinically important effects on exposure to the active metabolite of clopidogrel or clopidogrel-induced platelet inhibition, with no dose adjustment of clopidogrel necessary when coprescribed. This review discusses the role of the new generation PPI, dexlansoprazole, in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease in Asia.

  20. Pharmacological and Safety Profile of Dexlansoprazole: A New Proton Pump Inhibitor – Implications for Treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in the Asia Pacific Region

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Khean Lee; Choi, Myung Gyu; Hsu, Ping I; Chun, Hoon Jai; Mahachai, Varocha; Kachintorn, Udom; Leelakusolvong, Somchai; Kim, Nayoung; Rani, Abdul Aziz; Wong, Benjamin C Y; Wu, Justin; Chiu, Cheng Tang; Shetty, Vikram; Bocobo, Joseph C; Chan, Melchor M; Lin, Jaw-Town

    2016-01-01

    Although gastroesophageal reflux disease is not as common in Asia as in western countries, the prevalence has increased substantially during the past decade. Gastroesophageal reflux disease is associated with considerable reductions in subjective well-being and work productivity, as well as increased healthcare use. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are currently the most effective treatment for gastroesophageal reflux disease. However, there are limitations associated with these drugs in terms of partial and non-response. Dexlansoprazole is the first PPI with a dual delayed release formulation designed to provide 2 separate releases of medication to extend the duration of effective plasma drug concentration. Dexlansoprazole has been shown to be effective for healing of erosive esophagitis, and to improve subjective well-being by controlling 24-hour symptoms. Dexlansoprazole has also been shown to achieve good plasma concentration regardless of administration with food, providing flexible dosing. Studies in healthy volunteers showed no clinically important effects on exposure to the active metabolite of clopidogrel or clopidogrel-induced platelet inhibition, with no dose adjustment of clopidogrel necessary when coprescribed. This review discusses the role of the new generation PPI, dexlansoprazole, in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease in Asia. PMID:26932927

  1. Hygroscopic growth of water-soluble matter extracted from remote marine aerosols over the western North Pacific: Influence of pollutants transported from East Asia.

    PubMed

    Boreddy, S K R; Kawamura, K

    2016-07-01

    We examined the hygroscopic properties of water-soluble matter (WSM) nebulized from water extracts of total suspended particles (TSP) collected at Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific during January to September 2003. The hygroscopic growth factor g(RH) of the aerosol particles was measured using a hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) with an initial dry particle diameter of 100nm and relative humidity (RH) of 5-95%. The measured growth factor at 90% RH, g(90%), ranged from 1.51 to 2.14 (mean: 1.76±0.15), significantly lower than that of sea salts (2.1), probably owing to the heterogeneous reactions associated with chloride depletion in sea-salt particles and water-soluble organic matter (WSOM). The g(90%) maximized in summer and minimized in spring. The decrease in spring was most likely explained by the formation of less hygroscopic salts or particles via organometallic reactions during the long-range transport of Asian dust. Cl(-) and Na(+) dominate the mass fractions of WSM, followed by nss-SO4(2-) and WSOM. Based on regression analysis, we confirmed that g(90%) at Chichijima Island largely increased due to the dominant sea spray; however, atmospheric processes associated with chloride depletion in sea salts and WSOM often suppressed g(90%). Furthermore, we explored the deviation (average: 18%) between the measured and predicted g(90%) by comparing measured and model growth factors. The present study demonstrates that long-range atmospheric transport of anthropogenic pollutants (SO2, NOx, organics, etc.) and the interactions with sea-salt particles often suppress the hygroscopic growth of marine aerosols over the western North Pacific, affecting the remote background conditions. The present study also suggests that the HCl liberation leads to the formation of less hygroscopic aerosols over the western North Pacific during long-range transport.

  2. Epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Gram-negative bacteria causing urinary tract infections in the Asia-Pacific region: 2009-2010 results from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART).

    PubMed

    Lu, Po-Liang; Liu, Yung-Ching; Toh, Han-Siong; Lee, Yu-Lin; Liu, Yuag-Meng; Ho, Cheng-Mao; Huang, Chi-Chang; Liu, Chun-Eng; Ko, Wen-Chien; Wang, Jen-Hsien; Tang, Hung-Jen; Yu, Kwok-Woon; Chen, Yao-Shen; Chuang, Yin-Ching; Xu, Yingchun; Ni, Yuxing; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2012-06-01

    In 2009, the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) was expanded to include surveillance of Gram-negative pathogens causing urinary tract infections (UTIs) in the Asia-Pacific region. A total of 1762 isolates were collected from 38 centers in 11 countries from patients with UTIs in 2009 and 2010. In vitro susceptibilities were determined by the broth microdilution method and susceptibility profiles were determined using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) interpretive criteria, as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) in 2010 (M100-S20), in 2011 (M100-S21), and in 2012 (M100-S22). Enterobacteriaceae comprised 86.0% of the isolates, of which Escherichia coli (56.5%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (13.8%) were the two most common species. Amikacin was the most effective antibiotic (91.7%), followed by ertapenem (86.9%), imipenem (86.6%), and piperacillin-tazobactam (84.9%). Rates of susceptibility were 50.3% for cefoxitin and ranged from 50.3% to 74.2% for the third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins. For ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin, the susceptibility rates were 51.4% and 54.4%, respectively. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae comprised 28.2% of all isolates. We also found a high rate of resistance to carbapenems among Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa causing UTI. Interestingly, according to 2012 CLSI breakpoints, approximately 33.4% of ESBL producers were still susceptible to ceftazidime. However, this in vitro efficacy of ceftazidime needs to be validated in vivo by clinical data. The lowered CLSI interpretive breakpoints for piperacillin-tazobactam, carbapenems, and some cephalosporins in 2011-2012 for Enterobacteriaceae resulted in an approximate 5% drop in susceptibility rates for each drug, with the exception of imipenem for which the susceptibility rate dropped from 99.4% according to 2010 criteria to 91.2% according to 2011 criteria. With the updated

  3. Evaluating the impacts of cumulus, land surface and ocean surface schemes on summertime rainfall simulations over East-to-southeast Asia and the western north Pacific by RegCM4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yu-Bin; Tam, Chi-Yung; Huang, Wan-Ru; Cheung, Kevin K. W.; Gao, Zhiqiu

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluates the sensitivity of summertime rainfall simulations over East-to-southeast Asia and the western north Pacific in the regional climate model version 4 (RegCM4) to cumulus (including Grell with Arakawa-Schubert type closure, Grell with Fritsch-Chappell type closure, and Emanuel), land surface (Biosphere-atmosphere transfer scheme or BATS, and the community land model or CLM) and ocean surface (referred to as Zeng1, Zeng2 and BATS1e in the model) schemes by running the model with different combinations of these parameterization packages. For each of these experiments, ensemble integration of the model was carried out in the extended boreal summer of May-October from 1998 to 2007. The simulated spatial distribution, intensity and inter-annual variation of the precipitation, latent heat flux, position of the subtropical high and tropical cyclone genesis patterns from these numerical experiments were analyzed. Examinations show that the combination of Emanuel, CLM and Zeng2 (E-C-Z2) yields the best overall results, consistent with the fact that physical mechanisms considered in E-C-Z2 tend to be more comprehensive in comparison with the others. Additionally, the rainfall quantity is found very sensitive to sea surface roughness length, and the reduction of the roughness length constant (from 2 × 10-4 to 5 × 10-5 m) in our modified BATS1e mitigates the drastic overestimation of latent heat flux and rainfall, and is therefore preferable to the default value for simulations in the western north Pacific region in RegCM4.

  4. Career and College Planning Needs of Ninth Graders--as Reported by Ninth Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Melinda M.; Borders, L. DiAnne; Wiles, Mark E.; Stephan, Julie B.; Davis, Patrick E.

    2006-01-01

    Few researchers have asked students directly about what they know and need to know regarding college and career planning. Given the critical choices made early in high school, ninth graders (n = 222) were surveyed regarding their educational and career plans and the resources they were using in their decision-making. Overall results as well as…

  5. Ninth Spectrum of Bromine: Br IX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Y. N.; van Kleef, Th A. M.

    1981-03-01

    The spectrum of bromine was photographed on a 6.60 m and a 10.7 m grazing incidence spectrograph in the region 300-90 Å. The source used was a triggered spark. The ninth spectrum of bromine was analysed on the basis of 3d9-3d84p transitions between 125-104 Å. Parametric level fitting calculations support the analysis. 44 lines are classified in this spectrum. Some Br VIII lines appearing in this region have been accurately measured.

  6. Short-term risk of anaemia following initiation of combination antiretroviral treatment in HIV-infected patients in countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia-Pacific, and central and South America

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The objective was to examine the short-term risk and predictors of anaemia following initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in HIV-infected patients from the Western Africa, Eastern Africa, Southern Africa, Central Africa, Asian-Pacific, and Caribbean and Central and South America regions of the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) collaboration. Methods Anaemia was defined as haemoglobin of < 10 g/dL. Patients were included if they started cART with three or more drugs, had prior haemoglobin of > = 10 g/dL, and had one or more follow-up haemoglobin tests. Factors associated with anaemia up to 12 months were examined using Cox proportional hazards models and stratified by IeDEA region. Results Between 1998 and 2008, 19,947 patients initiated cART with baseline and follow-up haemoglobin tests (7358, 7289, 2853, 471, 1550 and 426 in the Western Africa, Eastern Africa, Southern Africa, Central Africa, Asian-Pacific, and Caribbean and Central and South America regions, respectively). At initiation, anaemia was found in 45% of Western Africa patients, 29% of Eastern Africa patients, 21% of Southern Africa patients, 36% of Central Africa patients, 15% of patients in Asian-Pacific and 14% of patients in Caribbean and Central and South America. Among patients with haemoglobin of > = 10 g/dL at baseline (13,445), the risks of anaemia were 18.2, 6.6, 9.7, 22.9, 11.8 and 19.5 per 100 person-years in the Western Africa, Eastern Africa, Southern Africa, Central Africa, Asian, and Caribbean and Central and South America regions, respectively. Factors associated with anaemia were female sex, low baseline haemoglobin level, low baseline CD4 count, more advanced disease stage, and initial cART containing zidovudine. Conclusions In data from 34 cohorts of HIV-infected patients from sub-Saharan Africa, Central and South America, and Asia, the risk of anaemia within 12 months of initiating cART was moderate. Routine haemoglobin

  7. Chemical Characteristics of Continental Outflow from Asia to the Troposphere Over the Western Pacific Ocean during February - March 1994: Results from PEM-West B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbot, R. W.; Dibb, J. E.; Lefer, B. L.; Bradshaw, J. D.; Sandholm, S. T.; Blake, D. R.; Blake, N. J.; Sachse, G. W.; Sachse, G. W.; Heikes, B. G.; Merrill, J. T.; Gregory, G. L.; Anderson, B. E.; Singh, H. B.; Thornton, D. C.; Bandy, A. R.; Pueschel, R. F.

    1997-01-01

    We present here the chemical composition of outflow from the Asian continent to the atmosphere over the western Pacific basin during the Pacific Exploratory Mission-West (PEM-West B) in February-March 1994. Comprehensive measurements of important tropospheric trace gases and aerosol particulate matter were performed from the NASA DC-8 airborne laboratory. Backward 5 day isentropic trajectories were used to partition the outflow from two major source regions- continental north (greater than 20 deg N) and continental south (less than 20 deg N). Air parcels that had not passed over continental areas for the previous 5 days were classified as originating from an aged marine source. The trajectories and the chemistry together indicated that there was extensive rapid outflow of air parcels at altitudes below 5 km, while aged marine air was rarely encountered and only at less than 20 deg N latitude. The outflow at low altitudes had enhancements in common industrial solvent vapors such as C2Cl4, CH3CCl3, and C6H6, intermixed with the combustion emission products C2H2, C2H6, CO, and NO. The mixing ratios of all species were up to tenfold greater in outflow from the continental north compared to the continental south source region, with Pb-210 concentrations reaching 38 fCi (10(exp -15) curies) per standard cubic meter. In the upper troposphere we again observed significant enhancements in combustion-derived species in the 8-10 km altitude range, but water-soluble trace gases and aerosol species were depleted. These observations suggest that ground level emissions were lofted to the upper troposphere by wet convective systems which stripped water-soluble components from these air parcels. There were good correlations between C2H2 and CO and C2H6 (r(sup 2) = 0.70 - 0.97) in these air parcels and much weaker ones between C2H2 and H2O2 or CH3OOH (r(sup 2) = 0.50). These correlations were the strongest in the continental north outflow where combustion inputs appeared to be

  8. Chemical characteristics of continental outflow from Asia to the troposphere over the western Pacific Ocean during February-March 1994: Results from PEM-West B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbot, R. W.; Dibb, J. E.; Lefer, B. L.; Bradshaw, J. D.; Sandholm, S. T.; Blake, D. R.; Blake, N. J.; Sachse, G. W.; Collins, J. E.; Heikes, B. G.; Merrill, J. T.; Gregory, G. L.; Anderson, B. E.; Singh, H. B.; Thornton, D. C.; Bandy, A. R.; Pueschel, R. F.

    1997-12-01

    We present here the chemical composition of outflow from the Asian continent to the atmosphere over the western Pacific basin during the Pacific Exploratory Mission-West (PEM-West B) in February-March 1994. Comprehensive measurements of important tropospheric trace gases and aerosol particulate matter were performed from the NASA DC-8 airborne laboratory. Backward 5 day isentropic trajectories were used to partition the outflow from two major source regions: continental north (>20°N) and continental south (<20°N). Air parcels that had not passed over continental areas for the previous 5 days were classified as originating from an aged marine source. The trajectories and the chemistry together indicated that there was extensive rapid outflow of air parcels at altitudes below 5 km, while aged marine air was rarely encountered and only at <20°N latitude. The outflow at low altitudes had enhancements in common industrial solvent vapors such as C2Cl4, CH3CCl3, and C6H6, intermixed with the combustion emission products C2H2, C2H6, CO, and NO. The mixing ratios of all species were up to tenfold greater in outflow from the continental north compared to the continental south source region, with 210Pb concentrations reaching 38 fCi (10-15 curies) per standard cubic meter. In the upper troposphere we again observed significant enhancements in combustion-derived species in the 8-10 km altitude range, but water-soluble trace gases and aerosol species were depleted. These observations suggest that ground level emissions were lofted to the upper troposphere by wet convective systems which stripped water-soluble components from these air parcels. There were good correlations between C2H2 and CO and C2H6 (r2=0.70-0.97) in these air parcels and much weaker ones between C2H2 and H2O2 or CH3OOH (r2 ≈0.50). These correlations were the strongest in the continental north outflow where combustion inputs appeared to be recent (1-2 days old). Ozone and PAN showed general correlation in

  9. Symposium: "Oncology Leadership in Asia".

    PubMed

    Noh, Dong-Young; Roh, Jae Kyung; Kim, Yeul Hong; Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Baba, Hideo; Samson-Fernando, Marie Cherry Lynn; Misra, Sanjeev; Aziz, Zeba; Umbas, Rainy; P Singh, Yogendra; Shu Kam Mok, Tony; Yang, Han-Kwang; Akaza, Hideyuki

    2017-03-09

    The Symposium on "Oncology Leadership in Asia" was held as part of the official program of the 42nd Annual Meeting of the Korean Cancer Association. Given the increasing incidence of cancer in all countries and regions of Asia, regardless of developmental stage, and also in light of the recognized need for Asian countries to enhance collaboration in cancer prevention, research, treatment and follow-up, the symposium was held with the aim of bringing together oncology specialists from eight countries and regions in Asia to present the status in their own national context and discuss the key challenges and requirements in order to establish a greater Asian presence in the area of cancer control and research. The task of bringing together diverse countries and regions is made all the more urgent in that while Asia now accounts for more than half of all new cancer cases globally, clinical guidelines are based predominantly on practices adopted in western countries, which may not be optimized for unique ethnic, pharmacogenomic and cultural characteristics in Asia. Recognizing the need for Asia to better gather information and data for the compilation of Asia-specific clinical guidelines, the participants discussed the current status in Asia in the national and regional contexts and identified future steps towards integrated and collaborative initiatives in Asia. A key outcome of the symposium was a proposal to combine and integrate the activities of existing pan-Asian societies, including the Asia Pacific Federation of Organizations for Cancer Research and Control (APFOCC) and Asian Clinical Oncology Society (ACOS). Further proposals included the expansion of pan-Asian society membership to include individuals and the essential need to encourage the participation of young researchers in order to ensure self-sustainability of cancer control efforts in the future.

  10. Chemical properties and outflow patterns of anthropogenic and dust particles on Rishiri Island during the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Uyama, Yukiko; Hayano, Teruaki; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Uno, Itsushi; Uematsu, Mitsuo

    2003-12-01

    Investigations of chemical properties and transport mechanisms of continental aerosols are necessary for estimating their influences on global radiative budget and on the global material cycle. Intensive measurements of atmospheric aerosols and the associated species on Rishiri Island, near the northern tip of Japan, were conducted from March to May 2001, in order to understand the chemical properties, source regions, transport pathways, and transport patterns of anthropogenic and mineral aerosols over the east Asian Pacific Rim region during the spring. Mean concentrations of nss-SO42-, NO3-, NH4+, nss-Ca2+ in aerosols were 2.48, 0.64, 0.72, and 0.17 μg m-3, respectively. Elemental carbon and organic carbon in fine particles (d < 2.5 μm) yielded mean concentrations of 0.25 and 0.80 μg m-3, respectively. The concentrations of these species frequently increased to higher values because of outbreaks of continental polluted air masses, whereas under background conditions, they decreased to lower values similar to those observed over the remote ocean. Our results demonstrate that nss-SO42- and NH4+ coexist in fine particles, that NO3- and nss-Ca2+ coexist in coarse particles, and that each set is transported in an alternate manner. Continentally derived NO3- is transported as coarse particle to the east Asian Pacific Rim region. Anthropogenic pollutants and dust particles are not necessarily transported together. It was often found that anthropogenic fine particles containing abundant nss-SO42- appeared first and were then followed by large mineral particles that had absorbed NO3-. Short-term intrusion of the air masses containing abundant particulate carbonaceous compounds, probably due to the influence of biomass burning, also often occurred during the outflow events of continental air masses. Atmospheric behaviors of sulfate, nitrate, and carbonaceous species are different from one another, although they are all derived mainly from combustion processes.

  11. 2. VIEW NORTHWEST FROM NINTH AVENUE (Compare with HABS NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW NORTHWEST FROM NINTH AVENUE (Compare with HABS NO. WI-308-89, taken in 1943.) - Fort McCoy, Building No. T-1065, Northeast of Intersection of South Ninth Avenue & South "Y" Street, Block 10, Sparta, Monroe County, WI

  12. Supplemental Reading for Ninth Graders: Classic or Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Katherine Jane Roney

    2012-01-01

    The project addressed the debate over supplemental literature: young adult or classic selections to better support teaching ninth graders Tennessee's English I curriculum standards. Research supported both classical and contemporary literature for teaching ninth graders, making it difficult to determine which type of literature might produce the…

  13. 33 CFR 67.50-30 - Ninth Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ninth Coast Guard District. 67.50-30 Section 67.50-30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS....50-30 Ninth Coast Guard District. (a) Description. See § 3.45-1 of this chapter. (b) Line...

  14. 33 CFR 67.50-30 - Ninth Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ninth Coast Guard District. 67.50-30 Section 67.50-30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS....50-30 Ninth Coast Guard District. (a) Description. See § 3.45-1 of this chapter. (b) Line...

  15. 33 CFR 67.50-30 - Ninth Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ninth Coast Guard District. 67.50-30 Section 67.50-30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS....50-30 Ninth Coast Guard District. (a) Description. See § 3.45-1 of this chapter. (b) Line...

  16. 33 CFR 67.50-30 - Ninth Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ninth Coast Guard District. 67.50-30 Section 67.50-30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS....50-30 Ninth Coast Guard District. (a) Description. See § 3.45-1 of this chapter. (b) Line...

  17. 33 CFR 67.50-30 - Ninth Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ninth Coast Guard District. 67.50-30 Section 67.50-30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS....50-30 Ninth Coast Guard District. (a) Description. See § 3.45-1 of this chapter. (b) Line...

  18. [Patterns of genetic diversity in population complexes of Pacific chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta Walbaum, from Asia and Northern America, inferred from allozyme polymorphism data].

    PubMed

    Savin, V A; Varnavskaia, N V; Shaporev, R A

    2009-06-01

    Based on the data of Russian and foreign researchers, a database, consisting of 100 allozyme-coding loci examined in 288 chum salmon populations from Asia and Northern America, was constructed. Using G-test, genetic heterogeneity of Asian population samples of chum salmon was evaluated. Correlations between the frequencies of major alleles and geographic latitude of the mouths of native rivers were estimated. Using the methods of Nei and Cavalli-Sforza and Edwards, for different local chum salmon stock groups the genetic distances at the number of polymorphic enzyme loci were determined. Analysis of these distances made it possible to evaluate the patterns of genetic diversity in regional population groups from the Russian Far East, Japan, and North America. The proportions of genetic variation at each hierarchical level, identified in accordance with the geographical positions of the populations, were estimated through partitioning of variation in Asian populations into within and between-population components. It was demonstrated that intraspecific genetic structure of chum salmon corresponded geographic subdivision into regional population groups.

  19. The distribution and origin of PAHs over the Asian marginal seas, the Indian, and the Pacific Oceans: Implications for outflows from Asia and Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junwen; Xu, Yue; Li, Jun; Liu, Di; Tian, Chongguo; Chaemfa, Chakra; Zhang, Gan

    2014-02-01

    Aerosol samples were collected aboard the R/V Dayang Yihao from 8 January to 7 August 2007 to investigate the geographical distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) over oceans and to assess their continental origins. The highest concentrations were found over the marginal seas in Asia, especially the East and South China Seas, indicating that China is a top source of emissions into the marine atmosphere in the areas monitored on this cruise. PAH concentrations over the west oceanic region in the South Indian Ocean were noticeably higher than in other areas of the Indian Ocean, most likely because air masses from Africa, the Arabian Sea, and the Bay of Bengal exert a negative impact on those regions through long-range atmospheric transport. The PAH isomer ratio values varied over the oceans that were impacted by continental sources but remained relatively uniform over most of the remote oceans. Using diagnostic ratio analysis, we found PAHs emitted from China were mainly associated with biomass/coal burning. The measurements of levoglucosan were consistent with the results mentioned above. The western part of the South Indian Ocean atmosphere was likely affected by wildfire emissions from Africa, while the northern part was by petroleum combustion, biofuel, and wildfire burning, because the winter monsoon most likely carries aerosol from the Arabian Peninsula and India across the equator. Using the monthly images of fire activity and aerosol optical depth, it can be confirmed biomass burning from Africa can significantly influence the aerosol over the Indian Ocean.

  20. [Tuberculosis control strategy in Asia for the 21st century--tuberculosis control in the Western Pacific Region of World Health Organization].

    PubMed

    Omi, Shigeru

    2003-01-01

    The unprecedented and rapid changes at the global level posed a big challenge to public health. The tuberculosis disease as one of major health problems today should be viewed from this context. These global challenges include 1) population issue particularly on growth and ageing; 2) epidemiological issue such as health transition; and, 3) social and environmental issues such as rapid urbanization and global warming. Furthermore, we should also take into account other changes such as the role of the government in the health service delivery, clinical or cure-oriented approach to prevention, increasing consumer demand and health financing. The burden of tuberculosis is devastating. Everyday in the Western Pacific Region (WPR), about 1000 people lose their life due to tuberculosis. Most of them are between the ages 14-54, which are the so-called economically productive age group. The economic impact, therefore, is significant. In addition TB is a disease of poverty of which the risk of getting TB is higher in poor who have less access to TB services due to financial barrier and lack of knowledge. Despite this devastating situation, TB has a significant and cost effective tool called DOTS. WPRO put highest priority in TB control programme not only because of the facts mentioned above but I also consider TB as an agenda carried over from the last century. I would like, then, to commit myself to this cause for the betterment of the future of the next generation.

  1. Preface: The Ninth International Flatfish Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loher, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    The papers contained in this volume of the Journal of Sea Research, and in a second issue to be published subsequently, represent research findings that were presented in whole or in part at the Ninth International Flatfish Symposium (IFS), convened in Cle Elum, Washington, USA, in November of 2014. This conference represented the most recent in a series that was begun nearly three decades ago (see Berghahn, this issue), and established to bring together the world's leading flatfish scientists, as well as students and researchers just beginning to embark upon flatfish research, to share emerging results, exchange ideas, and foster greater international collaboration and understanding of this taxon. For each symposium, an overarching theme is chosen and papers are presented within a series of Topic Sessions that both encompass the general theme while allowing unfettered presentation of research that may lie outside of that primary focus.

  2. 76 FR 25515 - Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... American dream for centuries. Generations of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders have helped develop and... women from the Asia-Pacific region have forged enduring links between America and other nations as they... States of our rich shared history and integrated future with the dynamic Asia-Pacific region....

  3. The Role of the U.S. Army in Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    Shift: Australia’s Future between Washington and Beijing,” Quarterly Essay 39 (Collingwood, Victoria, Australia), September 2010. See also the...help the Army think about its future role in the Asia-Pacific region. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT...is meant to help the Army think about its future role in the Asia-Pacific region. ii This page intentionally left blank

  4. VIEW ACROSS NINTH HOLE TO SPECIMEN JUNIPER AT ENTRANCE TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW ACROSS NINTH HOLE TO SPECIMEN JUNIPER AT ENTRANCE TO CHEROKEE, THE HILL, FACING SOUTHEAST - Overhills, Fort Bragg Military Reservation, Approximately 15 miles NW of Fayetteville, Overhills, Harnett County, NC

  5. 28. Under ninth bridge, view to concrete dam and eighth ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Under ninth bridge, view to concrete dam and eighth bridge in background during heavy rain, view to the SW. - Vicksburg National Military Park Roads & Bridges, Melan Arch Bridges, Spanning various tributaries at Confederate Avenue, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  6. SERVICE AREA AT THE REAR OF RESIDENCES, BETWEEN NINTH AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SERVICE AREA AT THE REAR OF RESIDENCES, BETWEEN NINTH AND TENTH STREETS. NOTE THE WATER TOWER JUST VISIBLE ABOVE THE TREES AT LEFT CENTER. VIEW FACING WEST NORTHWEST. - Hickam Field, Hickam Historic Housing, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  7. 27. View of underside of ninth bridge, showing concrete mixture, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. View of underside of ninth bridge, showing concrete mixture, view to the NW. - Vicksburg National Military Park Roads & Bridges, Melan Arch Bridges, Spanning various tributaries at Confederate Avenue, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  8. We, the Asian and Pacific Islander Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dwight L.; And Others

    Demographic data are presented about the people who have immigrated to the United States from Asia and the Pacific Islands. Twelve figures (pie charts, bar graphs, and maps), and eight tables provide detailed, statistical information on such things as (1) distribution of Asians and Pacific Islanders in the United States, (2) states with the…

  9. Adventures in Advocacy: Real World Strategies for Education in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortunato, Barbara; De Guzman, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    In the face of compelling challenges, the Asia South Pacific Association for Basic and Adult Education (ASPBAE), the Global Campaign for Education (GCE), as well as the national education coalitions in Asia, have levelled up efforts in the past five years to advance the right of all citizens to quality education and learning opportunities…

  10. Proceedings of the Ninth American Woodcock Symposium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAuley, Daniel G.; Bruggink, John G.; Sepik, Greg F.

    2000-01-01

    The Ninth Woodcock Symposium was held January 26-28, 1997 in Baton Rough, Louisiana. Contents include: American Woodcock Management, Past, Present, and Future; Current Population Status and Likely Future Trends for American Woodcock; American Woodcock Use of Reclaimed Surface Mines in West Virginia; Food Habits and Preferences of American Woodcock in East Texas Pine Plantations; Activities and Preliminary Results of Research on Woodcock (Scolopax rusticola) in Europe; Determining Multiscale Habitat and Landscape Associations for American Woodcock in Pennsylvania; Habitat Management for Wintering American Woodcock in the Southeastern United States; Sources of Variation in Survival and Recovery Rates of American Woodcock; Survival of Female American Woodcock Breeding in Maine; Direct Recoveries From In-season Banding of American Woodcock in South-central Louisiana; Gonadal Condition of American Woodcock Harvested in Louisiana During the 1986-1988 Hunting Seasons; Weight Variation Among American Woodcock Wintering in South-central Louisiana; Factors Influencing Recruitment and Condition of American Woodcock in Minnesota; The Woodcock Trail Demonstration Area in Pennsylvania; Land-use/Land-cover Changes Along Woodcock Singing-ground Survey Routes in West Virginia; Assessing Habitat Selection in Spring by Male American Woodcock in Maine with a Geographic Information System.

  11. Ninth Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakowski, Barbara (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    The Ninth Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS 98) was held at the Ohio Aerospace Institute in Cleveland, Ohio from August 31 to September 4, 1998. The theme for the hands-on training workshop and conference was "Integrating Computational Fluid Dynamics and Heat Transfer into the Design Process." Highlights of the workshop (in addition to the papers published herein) included an address by the NASA Chief Engineer, Dr. Daniel Mulville; a CFD short course by Dr. John D. Anderson of the University of Maryland; and a short course by Dr. Robert Cochran of Sandia National Laboratories. In addition, lectures and hands-on training were offered in the use of several cutting-edge engineering design and analysis-oriented CFD and Heat Transfer tools. The workshop resulted in international participation of over 125 persons representing aerospace and automotive industries, academia, software providers, government agencies, and private corporations. The papers published herein address issues and solutions related to the integration of computational fluid dynamics and heat transfer into the engineering design process. Although the primary focus is aerospace, the topics and ideas presented are applicable to many other areas where these and other disciplines are interdependent.

  12. Impact of a Ninth-Grade Transition Program on Cumulative GPAs and Credits, Ninth-Grade Dropout Rates, and Student Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buhrman, B. R.

    2010-01-01

    Concerned educators have been implementing ninth-grade transition programs to help freshmen adjust to the demands in high school and to reduce ninth-grade failure rates. The purpose of this quasi-experimental quantitative study was to investigate the impact of a ninth-grade transition program. The research questions addressed impact on cumulative…

  13. 75 FR 24363 - Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... centuries, America's story has been tied to the Pacific. Generations of brave men and women have crossed... honor all Americans who trace their ancestry to Asia and the Pacific Islands, we must acknowledge...

  14. Characteristics and comprehensiveness of adult HIV care and treatment programmes in Asia-Pacific, sub-Saharan Africa and the Americas: results of a site assessment conducted by the International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Duda, Stephany N; Farr, Amanda M; Lindegren, Mary Lou; Blevins, Meridith; Wester, C William; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara; Ekouevi, Didier K; Egger, Matthias; Hemingway-Foday, Jennifer; Cooper, David A; Moore, Richard D; McGowan, Catherine C; Nash, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Introduction HIV care and treatment programmes worldwide are transforming as they push to deliver universal access to essential prevention, care and treatment services to persons living with HIV and their communities. The characteristics and capacity of these HIV programmes affect patient outcomes and quality of care. Despite the importance of ensuring optimal outcomes, few studies have addressed the capacity of HIV programmes to deliver comprehensive care. We sought to describe such capacity in HIV programmes in seven regions worldwide. Methods Staff from 128 sites in 41 countries participating in the International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS completed a site survey from 2009 to 2010, including sites in the Asia-Pacific region (n=20), Latin America and the Caribbean (n=7), North America (n=7), Central Africa (n=12), East Africa (n=51), Southern Africa (n=16) and West Africa (n=15). We computed a measure of the comprehensiveness of care based on seven World Health Organization-recommended essential HIV services. Results Most sites reported serving urban (61%; region range (rr): 33–100%) and both adult and paediatric populations (77%; rr: 29–96%). Only 45% of HIV clinics that reported treating children had paediatricians on staff. As for the seven essential services, survey respondents reported that CD4+ cell count testing was available to all but one site, while tuberculosis (TB) screening and community outreach services were available in 80 and 72%, respectively. The remaining four essential services – nutritional support (82%), combination antiretroviral therapy adherence support (88%), prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) (94%) and other prevention and clinical management services (97%) – were uniformly available. Approximately half (46%) of sites reported offering all seven services. Newer sites and sites in settings with low rankings on the UN Human Development Index (HDI), especially those in the President's Emergency Plan

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens isolated from hospitalized patients with intra-abdominal and urinary tract infections in Asia-Pacific countries: SMART 2013-2015.

    PubMed

    Karlowsky, James A; Hoban, Daryl J; Hackel, Meredith A; Lob, Sibylle H; Sahm, Daniel F

    2017-01-01

    Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter spp.) are responsible for increases in antimicrobial-resistant infections worldwide. We determined in vitro susceptibilities to eight parenteral antimicrobial agents using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution methodology for Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens isolated from hospitalized patients with intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) (n=3052) and urinary tract infections (UTIs) (n=1088) in 11 Asia-Pacific countries/regions from 2013 to 2015. Amikacin (98.3, 96.4 %), imipenem (97.1, 95.5 %) and ertapenem (95.3, 93.2 %) demonstrated the highest rates of susceptibility for isolates of K. pneumoniae from IAI and UTI, respectively, whereas susceptibility to advanced-generation cephalosporins was <84 and <71 %, respectively. K. pneumoniae with an extended-spectrum β-lactamase-positive phenotype were more common in UTI (27.1 %) than IAI (16.2 %). Imipenem and amikacin were the most active agents against extended-spectrum β-lactamase-positive K. pneumoniae from IAI (95.1, 91.8 %) and UTI (94.9, 92.3 %), respectively, whereas <54 % were susceptible to piperacillin-tazobactam. Against Enterobacter spp. and P. aeruginosa, amikacin demonstrated the highest rates of susceptibility for isolates from IAI (99.7, 95.5 %) and UTI (90.9, 91.5 %), respectively. K. pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp. and P. aeruginosa from urine demonstrated lower susceptibility to levofloxacin (74.1, 81.8 and 73.8 %) than from IAI (87.6, 91.8 and 85.4 %). For A. baumannii, rates of susceptibility to all agents tested were <43 %. We conclude that the studied Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens demonstrated reduced susceptibility to commonly prescribed advanced-generation cephalosporins, piperacillin-tazobactam and levofloxacin, while amikacin and carbapenems were the most active. Ongoing surveillance to monitor evolving resistance trends and

  16. Adult Education in Asia. Courier No. 38.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ASPBAE Courier, 1986

    1986-01-01

    This journal issue contains a series of papers concerned with exploring the role that adult education can play in developing communities. The first paper, "Major Challenges and Prospect of Adult Education for the Year 2000" (T. M. Sakya), provides an overview of adult education in Asia and the Pacific, emphasizing the vastness of the…

  17. A Ninth Planet in Our Solar System?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    The recent discovery that the orbits of some Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) share properties has proved puzzling. A pair of scientists have now proposed a bold explanation: there may be a planet-sized object yet undetected in our solar system.Mysterious ClusteringKBOs, the population of mainly small objects beyond Neptune, have proven an especially interesting subject of study in the last decade as many small, distant bodies (such as Eris, the object that led to the demotion of Pluto to dwarf planet) have been discovered.Previous studies have recently discovered that some especially distant KBOs those that orbit with semimajor axes of a 150 AU, nearly four times that of Pluto all cross the ecliptic at a similar phase in their elliptical trajectories. This is unexpected, since gravitational tugs from the giant planets should have randomized this parameter over our solar systems multi-billion-year lifespan.Physical alignment of the orbits of Kuiper belt objects with a 250 AU (and two objects with a 150 AU that are dynamically stable). [Batygin Brown 2016]Two scientists at California Institute of Technology, Konstantin Batygin and Michael Brown (you might recognize Brown as the man who killed Pluto) have now increased the mystery. In a recently published a study, they demonstrate that for KBOs that have orbits with a 250 AU, the orbits are actually physically aligned.To explain this unexpected alignment which Batygin and Brown calculate has only a 0.007% probability of having occurred by chance the authors ask an exciting question: could this be caused by the presence of an unseen, large, perturbing body further out in the solar system?Simulating a Ninth PlanetThe authors test this hypothesis by carrying out both analytical calculations and numerical N-body simulations designed to determine if the gravitational influence of a distant, planetary-mass companion can explain the behavior we observe from the large-orbit KBOs.Simulation of the effect of a distant planet (M = 10

  18. Asia-Pacific: A Strategic Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    the Senkaku/Diaoyu Islands in the dis- puted area. Those islands consist of three tiny unin- habited islands and five barren rocks that are barely... pines ’ claimed South China Sea territories.87 Chinese leaders have taken watchful notes of the U.S. adjustments in its position toward the South

  19. Philippines: Asia Pacific energy series: Country report

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, S.

    1988-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to present an overview of Philippines energy planning and policy and to analyze its energy resources and economic developments. Geography, population, geothermal reserves, coal, oil industry, electricity, and renewable energy are the major topics included in the report. A chapter is focused on national economy and energy policy. 40 tabs., 2 figs.

  20. 2011 minerals yearbook: Asia and the Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fong-Sam, Yolanda; Kuo, Chin S.; Shi, Lin; Tse, Pui-Kwan; Wacaster, Susan; Wilburn, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Australia and china were among the world’s leading mineral producers in 2011. Australia has large resources of bauxite, coal, cobalt, copper, diamond, gold, iron ore, lead, lithium, manganese, mineral sands, nickel, tantalum, and uranium. china has large resources of antimony, arsenic, barite, coal, fluorspar, gold, graphite, iron ore, magnesium, rare earths, strontium, tin, tungsten, and zinc. India also was one of the world’s significant mineral producers and has large resources of barite, bauxite, chromium, iron ore, manganese, rare earths, and salt. Other significant mineral producers in the region were Indonesia, which has large resources of coal, copper, gold, nickel, and tin; Mongolia, which has large resources of copper, fluorspar, and molybdenum; Papua new Guinea, which has large resources of copper, gold, and molybdenum; and the Philippines, which has large resources of copper, gold, and nickel.

  1. Asia-Pacific: A Selected Bibliography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    2010): 1162-1183. JSTOR Laffey, Mark, and Suthaharan Nadarajah. "The Hybridity of Liberal Peace: States, Diasporas and Insecurity." [Sri Lanka...3 (May/June 2010): 615-639. JSTOR Case, William. "Electoral Authoritarianism and Backlash: Hardening Malaysia, Oscillating Thailand...615-639. JSTOR Callahan, William A. "China’s Strategic Futures: Debating the Post-American World Order." Asian Survey 52, no. 4 (July/August 2012

  2. Asia-South Pacific Trade Preferences Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Feinstein, Dianne [D-CA

    2011-07-28

    07/28/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Finance. (text of measure as introduced: CR S5021-5022) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Effectiveness of Ninth-Grade Physics in Maine: Conceptual Understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Michael J.; Thompson, John R.

    2009-04-01

    The Physics First movement—teaching a true physics course to ninth-grade students—is gaining popularity in high schools. There are several different rhetorical arguments for and against this movement, and it is quite controversial in physics education. However, there is no actual evidence to assess the success, or failure, of this substantial shift in the science teaching sequence. We have undertaken a comparison study of physics classes taught in ninth- and 12th-grade classes in Maine. Comparisons of student understanding and gains with respect to mechanics concepts were made with excerpts from well-known multiple-choice surveys and individual student interviews. Results indicate that both populations begin physics courses with similar content knowledge and specific difficulties, but when learning concepts, ninth-graders are more sensitive to the instructional method used.

  4. United States Pacific Command, Asia-Pacific Economic Update.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    region appear to be modernization of military forces, adaptation to new requirements for naval and air defense, and procurement of high-tech...Lo in Vietnam, Penang and Klang in Malaysia; Indonesia’s Batam Island near Singapore; Subic Bay in the Philippines; and at ports along coastal China...to cooperate on maritime safety, pollution , search and rescue, and combating piracy and drug trafficking. The United States and China subsequently

  5. Ninth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Gudmundsson, J.S.

    1983-12-15

    (Reservoir Chemistry), Greg Raasch (Production), Manny Nathenson (Injection), Susan Petty (Injection), Subir Sanyal (Simulation), Marty Molloy (Petrothermal), and Allen Moench (Reservoir Physics). The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff and students. We would like to thank Jean Cook, Joanne Hartford, Terri Ramey, Amy Osugi, and Marilyn King for their valued help with the Workshop arrangements and the Proceedings. We also owe thanks to the program students who arranged and operated the audio-visual equipment. The Ninth Workshop was supported by the Geothermal and Hydropower Technologies Division of the U . S . Department of Energy through contract DE-AT03-80SF11459. We deeply appreciate this continued support. H. J. Ramey, Jr., R. N. Horne, P. Kruger, W. E. Brigham, F. G. Miller, J. S . Gudmundsson -vii

  6. Managing the Transition to Ninth Grade in a Comprehensive Urban High School. Snapshot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    This "snapshot" illustrates how one school is managing to make a positive difference for ninth graders. It describes the Ninth Grade Success Academy, a school-within-a-school at Thomas A. Edison High School in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, which has a number of features specifically designed to help ninth-graders make successful…

  7. Ninth Grade Centers: What the Research Shows. Information Capsule. Volume 0611

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romanik, Dale

    2007-01-01

    Researchers have identified ninth grade as one of the most critical periods of time for intervention to prevent the loss of motivation, failing grades, and dropping out of school. This Information Capsule is concerned with the efficacy of ninth-grade centers or academies which isolate ninth-grade students into separate school buildings or in wings…

  8. Southeast Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Home to beautiful jungles, booming industry, and age-old temples, Southeast Asia has become a confluence of ancient and modern life. This true-color image of mainland Southeast Asia was acquired on November 30, 2001, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The body of water in the upper righthand corner of the image is the Gulf of Tonkin. East and southeast of the gulf are the dark green jungles of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. The light brown Mekong River winds its way through the center of the Cambodian jungle and into southern Vietnam. The dark blue patch to the left of the river at the bottom of the image is the Tonle Sap. Literally translated to mean 'Great Lake,' the Tonle Sap is the largest freshwater lake in Southeast Asia. During the rainy season from May to October, the lake will more than double in size growing from its wintertime extent of 3,000 square kilometers to over 7,500 square kilometers. North of the lake, approximately in the center of the image, is a saucer-shaped patch of reddish brown land known as the Khorat Plateau. Situated 90 to 200 meters above sea level in eastern Thailand, the dry plateau is mostly covered with farmland and savanna-type grasses and shrubs. Moving south again, the large body of light blue water at the bottom central portion of the image is the Gulf of Thailand. By switching to the full resolution image (250 meters per pixel) and following the Gulf of Thailand to its northernmost extent, one can see a pinkish beige patch of terrain covered by a faint latticework of fine lines. These are likely to be the network of roads that crisscross Bangkok and its surrounding suburbs and fertile farmland. The narrow strip of land to the east of the Gulf of Thailand is the Malay Peninsula. The body of water to the left of the peninsula is the Gulf of Martaban, which borders Myanmar (Burma). At the far upper lefthand corner of the image, the water has turned light brown from

  9. The New Great Game: Chinese Views on Central Asia. Proceedings of the Central Asia Symposium held in Monterey, CA on August 7-11, 2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    the World Bank, the total population of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan alone will reach 60 million in 2015 , while that of all five of the Central Asian...Law in Kazakhstan; Strategy for Political, Economic and Cultural Development by 2020 in Turkmenistan; and Strategy for Economic Development by 2015 ...2000) supported by the Program for International Studies in Asia ( PISA ); the Ninth Workshop on Defense, Technology and Cooperative Security in

  10. Effectiveness of Ninth-Grade Physics in Maine: Conceptual Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Michael J.; Thompson, John R.

    2009-01-01

    The Physics First movement--teaching a true physics course to ninth-grade students--is gaining popularity in high schools. There are several different rhetorical arguments for and against this movement, and it is quite controversial in physics education. However, there is no actual evidence to assess the success, or failure, of this substantial…

  11. The Ninth Annual Pharmacogenetics in Psychiatry Meeting report.

    PubMed

    Aitchison, Katherine J; Malhotra, Anil K

    2011-04-01

    The Ninth Annual Pharmacogenetics in Psychiatry meeting was held in New York City on 23-24 April 2010 with a series of panel presentations, as well as a debate on the commercialization of genetic testing and a poster reception. The following is a brief report of the meeting presentations.

  12. Innovative Learning Strategies. Ninth Yearbook, 1989-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggs, Shirley A., Ed.; Bullock, Terry, Ed.

    The ninth yearbook of innovative learning strategies presents the following articles, grouped in three major sections. The first section, Program Models, contains: (1) "Cooperative Learning in a Study Skills Course" (Corrine Plotkin); (2) "Peer Tutor Preparation: A Guide to Training" (Kathy Carpenter); (3) "A Community…

  13. Milford Futurology Program: Effective Education for Gifted Ninth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Geoffrey H.; Wooddell, Gary D.

    1980-01-01

    A program is described which was intended to assist gifted ninth graders to develop skills, perspective, and characteristics needed to deal effectively with change. The program's goals (development of a futures perspective, futuring competencies, and self-actualization); philosophy; organization; evaluation; and content are reviewed. (CL)

  14. Career Maturity of Ninth Grade Pupils: Real or Imaginary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westbrook, Bert W.; Cutts, Catherine C.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the construct validity of the Career Maturity Inventory with ninth grade pupils. To demonstrate the construct validity it must be shown that the Career Maturity Inventory correlates highly with other variables with which it should theoretically correlate, and that it does not correlate with variables…

  15. General Science, Ninth Grade: Theme I and Theme II. Experimental.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This document was designed to assist teachers who are helping ninth grade students in New York City learn scientific concepts. In addition, the guide emphasizes basic reasoning skills which underlie problem-solving processes in scientific and nonscientific disciplines. The first section of the guide contains lessons on what a scientist does,…

  16. Helping Ninth-Graders Make Responsible Health Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, John R.

    1981-01-01

    With the help of experts and resources from several departments, a high school developed a course in health education. Designed specifically for ninth-graders, the course presents activity-based instruction on topics of fitness and nutrition, substance abuse, stress management, and human relations. (JN)

  17. Improving Reading and Communication Skills of Ninth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Walter J., III

    A program was developed to improve the reading scores and communication skills of ninth-grade students from multicultural backgrounds. The students' socioeconomic status ranges from below the poverty level to upper middle class. The population of the high school in suburban Chicago (Illinois) is multiethnic, the English is not always the primary…

  18. The State of Washington's Children, Fall 2001. [Ninth Annual Report].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Univ., Seattle. School of Public Health and Community Medicine.

    This Kids Count report is the ninth to examine annually statewide trends in the well-being of Washington's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of child well-being in five areas: (1) family and community, including teen birth rate, teen pregnancy rate, divorces involving children, and births to unmarried mothers; (2) economic…

  19. Project Success--A Group Contingency Model for Ninth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinsker, Mark; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes an alternative program for ninth-graders "having adjustment problems." The voluntary program includes simple and consistent classroom rules, frequent graded assignments, and a focus on relevance to students' life experiences; students are encouraged to do schoolwork through a system of group rewards. (MCG)

  20. General Science, Ninth Grade: Theme III and Theme IV. Experimental.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This document was designed to help teachers provide ninth grade students in New York City with opportunities to learn about scientific processes as well as basic reasoning skills which underlie problem-solving processes in scientific and nonscientific disciplines. The first section of the guide, "The Environment," contains lessons which…

  1. Southeast Asia Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    cover colors will be as follows : CHINA aqua E/YST EUROPE gold SOVIET UNION salmon EAST ASIA yellow NEAR EAST § SOUTH ASIA. ..blue LATIN AMERICA...remaining 14 national MP’s from New South Wales and Victoria. Both Mr Howard and Mr Sinclair blamed the split on the Queenslanders . Mr Sinclair’s...report are as follows: The SOUTHEAST ASIA REPORT (SEV) will be titled EAST ASIA/SOUTHEAST ASIA (SEA). The JAPAN REPORT (JAR) will be titled EAST

  2. Linking Asian/Pacific Collections to America. Proceedings of the Asian/Pacific American Librarians Association (14th, Miami Beach, Florida, June 25-27, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, R. N., Ed.

    The Asian/Pacific population in the United States is growing. Therefore, it is important to know what types of collections and facilities are available for ethnic groups within U.S. libraries. This is the issue addressed by the Asian/Pacific Librarians Association (APALA) at this conference. The four speeches are: "Redefining 'Asia/Pacific'…

  3. A Physical Model for Extreme Drought over Southwest Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoell, A.; Barlow, M. A.; Funk, C. C.; Cannon, F.

    2015-12-01

    The socioeconomic difficulties of Southwest Asia, defined as the area bound by the domain 25°N-40°N and 40°E-70°E, which includes the countries of Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan, are exacerbated by extreme precipitation deficits during the November-April rainy season. The precipitation deficits during many Southwest Asia droughts have been examined in terms of the forcing by climate variability originating over the Pacific Ocean as a result of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Variability (PDV) and the long-term warming of Pacific (LT) sea surface temperatures (SST). Here, we 1) examine how the most extreme November-April Southwest Asia droughts relate to global SSTs and the associated large-scale atmospheric circulation anomalies, 2) analyze the specific atmospheric forcing mechanisms responsible for changes in regional Southwest Asian precipitation and 3) examine the causal mechanisms responsible for the increased frequency of Southwest Asia drought in recent decades. The driest November-April seasons during 1948-2012 over Southwest Asia are forced by subsidence and reductions of moisture fluxes as a result of the interaction of the mean flow with anomalous zonally-symmetric high pressure throughout the Northern Hemisphere. The anomalous zonally-symmetric high pressure throughout the Northern Hemisphere occurs simultaneously with cool central and eastern Pacific SST anomalies associated with La Niña and the negative phase of PDV and a warm west Pacific Ocean caused in part by the long-term warming of the west Pacific Ocean. The long-term warming of the Pacific Ocean has driven the regional precipitation declines in recent decades, with the strongest signal occurring over areas bordering the Arabian Sea.

  4. Case Studies on Technical and Vocational Education in Asia and the Pacific. Report of Regional Meeting (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, December 12-15, 1994). Exemplar Curriculum Project Working Group Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Adrian, Ed.

    This conference report provides summaries of presentations of country case studies from a project to investigate factors that impinged upon the status of technical and vocational education (TVE) in Asian and Pacific countries. The report includes the case study project terms of reference, a list of delegates, and agenda. Summaries follow of the…

  5. Pacific Telecommunications Council Annual Conference Proceedings (22nd, Honolulu, Hawaii, January 31-February 2, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Telecommunications Council, Honolulu, HI.

    This proceedings of the 2000 conference of the Pacific Telecommunications Council contains papers and summaries of sessions in the following areas: (1) socio/economic, including regional studies of China, the South Pacific, Southeast Asian, Latin America, Oceania, Korea, India, and the Asia-Pacific telecommunications market; (2) applications,…

  6. First Language First: Community-Based Literacy Programmes for Minority Language Contexts in Asia (Kunming, China, May 17-22, 2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2005

    2005-01-01

    There are at least 6,000--7,000 languages spoken in the world today, with over half of them endangered. And 61 percent of the endangered languages are within the Asia and Pacific Region. The publication is a report derived from the Regional (Asia and Pacific Region) Workshop on Mother Tongue/Bilingual Literacy Programs for Ethnic Minorities, held…

  7. Recommended Methods for Planning Literature Lessons in the Ninth Grade (1974/75 School Year)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kachurin, M. G.; Shneerson, M. A.

    1976-01-01

    Topics, materials, and assignments are provided for 123 literature lessons for ninth grade. Subject matter includes Second Period of Russian Liberation Movement, Ostrovskii, Shakespeare, Goethe, and Balzac. (ND)

  8. Proceedings of the American Society for Composites: Ninth technical conference

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The Ninth Annual Technical Conference of the American Society for Composites was held on September 20--22, 1994, at the University of Delaware, John M. Clayton Conference Center, Newark, Delaware. Technical papers were presented on a broad range of topics that range across the entire scope of interest of polymer, metal and ceramic matrix composites. Topics included biomedical and intelligent composites, mechanical behavior, textile structural composites, joining, interfaces, design, plates and shells, environmental effects and processing. One hundred and forty one papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  9. JPRS Report East Asia Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-17

    aqua EAST EUROPE gold SOVIET UNION salmon EAST ASIA yellow NEAR EAST £ SOUTH ASIA. ..blue LATIN AMERICA pink WEST EUROPE ivory AFRICA (SUB...established with a view to improving technical knowledge. Then unified accounting was set up, particularly on behalf of the cadres who go out to...has reduced their number from 23 to 11, etc. In terms of management, through accounting and financial planning, it is possible to ascertain the

  10. AIDS. Grim news for Asia.

    PubMed

    1992-12-04

    While Asia was the last region to be exposed to the global spread of HIV and AIDS, the incidence of HIV infection there is increasing fastest. The Asian Development Bank predicts mortality from AIDS will cause some town and village populations to begin declining by the year 2000. With an estimated 1 million people infected in India, and 400,000 in Thailand, these 2 countries are particularly exposed to the risk of epidemic HIV spread. In 5 years, more people may be affected by AIDS in India than anywhere else in the world. Concern over a growing presence of HIV is also merited for the Philippines, Indonesia, China, and the drug trade's Golden Triangle. The Second International Conference on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific in November 1992 stressed that AIDS no longer affects only homosexual and IV drug using populations. 50% of new infections worldwide in the first half of 1992 were among women, 65% of Thailand's AIDS cases are among heterosexuals, and 3-5% of Thailand's long-haul truck drivers have tested positive for HIV infection. HIV and AIDS robs economies and societies of their best workers. The immediate costs of caring for AIDS patients will pale next to the far greater losses to be realized in private sector economic productivity. Asia's more developed economies will probably be able to survive the epidemic, but small, poor countries like Laos will wilt. Prompt action must be taken to overcome public and religious ignorance and objections to promoting and using condoms throughout the region. For the first time, Beijing has organized an AIDS awareness conference for male homosexuals. Further, Singapore has implemented compulsory testing for lower-income foreign workers. Pakistan has even solicited educational assistance and support from Islamic religious leaders; similar action is being considered in Bangladesh.

  11. The High Road to Tokyo Bay. The AAF in the Asiatic-Pacific Theater

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    Bering Sea and from Manchuria to the Coral Sea. Just three years later, Japan surrendered, having lost most of its vast domain. Coordinated action by...operations in Asia and the Pacific areas during World War II. A subsequent pamphlet will cover the strategic bombardment of Japan . REPORT DOCUMENTATION...8217 tactical air operations against Japan in the China-Burma-India, Southwest Pacific, Central Pacific, and Western Pacific theaters. 34 pp., maps, photos

  12. Democratic Values and Citizen Action: A View from US Ninth Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Carole L.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the IEA study of civic education, US ninth graders were assessed for their civic knowledge, concepts, attitudes, and experiences. The study yielded information about the development of democratic attitudes and dispositions toward social action. US ninth graders rated free expression and free elections as most important for democracy.…

  13. Self-Perception and Satisfaction with School: Effects of Ninth-Grade Placement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Philip L.; Zsiray, Stephen W., Jr.

    The placement of ninth-grade students has often been a decision based upon available resources and not the best interests of the students. This study provides some evidence of the different influences of three types of ninth-grade placement. Self-perception data were collected for 161 randomly selected eighth-grade students in middle school…

  14. Understanding the Impact of a Ninth-Grade Transition Program in Texas. Vignette

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Institutes for Research, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Ninth grade often is considered a make-or-break year in determining whether students will be successful in high school and beyond. The Texas Education Agency (TEA) created the Texas Ninth Grade Transition and Intervention Program to ease the transition of at-risk students into high school and increase the likelihood that they graduate on time and…

  15. The Gateway Grade: The Ninth Grade Academy Practice in Terms of Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starke, Adam Robert

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the concept of the ninth grade academy structure in Texas high schools affects a variety of variables indicative of student achievement. Data representative of performance by students served in 30 schools with a separately structured ninth grade academy were compared to data representative of…

  16. Facilitating Conceptual Change in Ninth Grade Students' Understanding of Human Circulatory System Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkhawaldeh, Salem A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the conceptual change text oriented instruction over traditionally designed instruction on ninth grade students' understanding of the human circulatory system concepts, and their retention of this understanding. The subjects of this study consist of 73 ninth grade female students…

  17. 76 FR 13508 - Ninth Coast Guard District Sector Realignment; Northern Lake Michigan and Lake Huron

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 3 RIN 1625-ZA29 Ninth Coast Guard District Sector Realignment; Northern Lake Michigan and Lake Huron AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final Rule. SUMMARY: This rule makes..., call or e-mail Mr. Doug McCann, Ninth District Resources Planning Branch, U.S. Coast Guard,...

  18. Everybody Needs To Feel Like Somebody: Building a Ninth Grade Program To Reflect Student Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zsiray, Stephen W., Jr.; And Others

    Ninth grade poses unique academic, physical, social, and emotional challenges to students; in fact, it may be the defining year for predicting high school success. It could also be the last chance to catch pupils who are in danger of dropping out of school. The Freshman Center program attempts to give ninth graders the opportunity to succeed. This…

  19. Sensory Response Patterns of Academically Successful and Unsuccessful Ninth-grade Students of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRocque, Geraldine E.

    Testing Marshall McLuhan's thesis that the educational system favors the visually oriented student and militates against the audile-tactile youngster, this pilot study attempted to discover whether or not academically successful ninth-grade English students have a different sensory response pattern than unsuccessful ninth-grade English students.…

  20. The Effectiveness of a Ninth Grade Academy and Link Crew Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, Cynthia Greene

    2013-01-01

    The importance of a smooth transition from eighth grade to ninth grade is critical as this transition can have a lasting impact on a student's success or failures beyond high school. Studies in this body of research suggest that ninth grade students lead the list of high school grade students when it comes to tardiness, the number of discipline…

  1. Could it be the ninth planet in the Solar system?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions of M. Brown and K. Batygin about the ninth planet are based on computer calculations for the orbits of several known trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs), including Sedna, 2007TG422, 2004VN112, 2012VP113, 2010GB174 and 2013RF98. They suggested that the orientations of the orbits of these objects are positioned so that they should be affected by the existence of unknown large body. It may be a new planet, which respond at them by powerful gravitational influence. We draw attention to the orbits orientation and location of these 6 TNOs at moments close to their discovery. All of them are located quite close to the perihelion, when their brightness for terrestrial observer was maximal. However after 50-100 years they passed a comfortable place in space for their possible discoveries. In this regard, it is reasonable to assume that several orders of magnitude greater amount of TNOs should be on the same or at similar orbits as those 6 objects. But in currently they are not visible for a terrestrial observer, due to their location far from perihelion distance. Therefore the probable number of relatively large TNOs with very eccentric orbits must be counted by many thousands of units. Thus, the question of the presence of the ninth planet in the solar system remains on the agenda

  2. Important health provider characteristics: the perspective of urban ninth graders.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, Kenneth R; Forke, Christine M; Cnaan, Avital; Slap, Gail B

    2002-08-01

    Clinicians caring for adolescents may be better positioned to provide health care when equipped with an understanding of adolescents' preferences regarding provider characteristics. The purpose of this study is to obtain a manageable framework of adolescents' concerns about health care providers. A series of qualitative and quantitative data-collection methods were used to elicit and organize ideas about health care providers from ninth-grade students in Philadelphia. A 5-point Likert survey, based on ideas generated and prioritized in earlier qualitative stages, was administered in school. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was used to uncover latent factors. A total of 2602 students returned usable surveys. A confirmatory factor analysis model including four latent factors (patient's interpersonal relationship with provider, concern for physical safety, concern for emotional safety, and provider counseling ability) explained 51.6% of the model variability. Urban ninth graders want providers with whom they can develop strong relationships, feel emotionally and physically safe, and turn to for counseling. Communication with adolescent-aged patients should be a standard component of health care training and should promote provider sensitivity to adolescent fears and needs in the health care setting.

  3. A Ninth Planet Would Produce a Distinctly Different Kuiper Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, Samantha; Shankman, Cory; Kaib, Nathan A.; Bannister, Michele T.; Gladman, Brett; Kavelaars, J. J.

    2016-10-01

    The orbital element distribution of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) with large pericenters has been suggested to be influenced by the presence of an undetected, large planet at 200 or more AU from the Sun. We perform 4 Gyr N-body simulations with the currently known Solar System planetary architecture, plus a 10 Earth mass planet with similar orbital parameters to those suggested by Batygin and Brown (2016) or Trujillo and Sheppard (2014), and a hundred thousand test particles in an initial planetesimal disk. We find that including a distant superearth-mass ninth planet produces a substantially different orbital distribution for the scattering and detached TNOs, raising the pericenters and inclinations of moderate semimajor axis (50 < a < 500 AU) objects. We test whether this signature is detectable via a simulator with the observational characteristics of four precisely characterized TNO surveys. We find that the qualitatively very distinct Solar System models that include a ninth planet are essentially observationally indistinguishable from an outer Solar System produced solely by the four giant planets. We also find that the mass of the Kuiper Belt's current scattering and detached populations is required be 3-10 times larger in the presence of an additional planet. Wide-field, deep surveys targeting inclined high-pericenter objects will be required to distinguish between these different scenarios.

  4. Hydroclimate variations in central and monsoonal Asia over the past 700 years.

    PubMed

    Fang, Keyan; Chen, Fahu; Sen, Asok K; Davi, Nicole; Huang, Wei; Li, Jinbao; Seppä, Heikki

    2014-01-01

    Hydroclimate variations since 1300 in central and monsoonal Asia and their interplay on interannual and interdecadal timescales are investigated using the tree-ring based Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) reconstructions. Both the interannual and interdecadal variations in both regions are closely to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). On interannual timescale, the most robust correlations are observed between PDO and hydroclimate in central Asia. Interannual hydroclimate variations in central Asia are more significant during the warm periods with high solar irradiance, which is likely due to the enhanced variability of the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean, the high-frequency component of PDO, during the warm periods. We observe that the periods with significant interdecadal hydroclimate changes in central Asia often correspond to periods without significant interdecadal variability in monsoonal Asia, particularly before the 19th century. The PDO-hydroclimate relationships appear to be bridged by the atmospheric circulation between central North Pacific Ocean and Tibetan Plateau, a key area of PDO. While, in some periods the atmospheric circulation between central North Pacific Ocean and monsoonal Asia may lead to significant interdecadal hydroclimate variations in monsoonal Asia.

  5. Hydroclimate Variations in Central and Monsoonal Asia over the Past 700 Years

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Keyan; Chen, Fahu; Sen, Asok K.; Davi, Nicole; Huang, Wei; Li, Jinbao; Seppä, Heikki

    2014-01-01

    Hydroclimate variations since 1300 in central and monsoonal Asia and their interplay on interannual and interdecadal timescales are investigated using the tree-ring based Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) reconstructions. Both the interannual and interdecadal variations in both regions are closely to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). On interannual timescale, the most robust correlations are observed between PDO and hydroclimate in central Asia. Interannual hydroclimate variations in central Asia are more significant during the warm periods with high solar irradiance, which is likely due to the enhanced variability of the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean, the high-frequency component of PDO, during the warm periods. We observe that the periods with significant interdecadal hydroclimate changes in central Asia often correspond to periods without significant interdecadal variability in monsoonal Asia, particularly before the 19th century. The PDO-hydroclimate relationships appear to be bridged by the atmospheric circulation between central North Pacific Ocean and Tibetan Plateau, a key area of PDO. While, in some periods the atmospheric circulation between central North Pacific Ocean and monsoonal Asia may lead to significant interdecadal hydroclimate variations in monsoonal Asia. PMID:25119567

  6. A Decade of Drought: Southwest Asia during the 2000s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoell, A.; Shukla, S.; Funk, C. C.; Barlow, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Southwest Asia, which contains the nations of Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan, is a water-stressed and semi-arid region that receives nearly 80 percent of its annual rainfall during November-April. The cold season climate of Southwest Asia is strongly influenced by tropical Indo-Pacific variability on intraseasonal, interannual, and decadal time scales, much of which can be attributed to sea surface temperature (SST) variations. A decade of dry conditions, and many of the driest years within the observational record since 1940, occurred during the 2000s, which resulted in adverse socioeconomic impacts, including widespread famine in the region. Here, we examine: 1) the historical context of the 2000s drought over Southwest Asia in terms of the atmospheric forcing of precipitation and their influences on soil moisture and runoff and 2) the potential predictability of future seasonal and decadal hydrologic extremes. The synchronous SST forcing of Pacific Decadal variability in the negative phase and a warm west Pacific Ocean throughout the 2000s resulted in persistent atmospheric circulations responsible for reduced Southwest Asia precipitation. The Pacific SSTs forced anomalous anticyclonic circulation over Southwest Asia, which displaced the climatological storm track northward and interacted with the mean climate, resulting in subsidence and reduced precipitation. These atmospheric conditions over Southwest Asia were extraordinary, having never occurred for such an extended time in the observational record. During La Niña events, the aforementioned atmospheric circulations were intensified, resulting in three of the driest years since 1940. We utilize model based soil moisture and runoff as well as observed streamflow data for analyzing 2000s drought events and examine the contribution of initial hydrologic state in seasonal scale drought predictability in this region.

  7. The Tertiary tectonics of the southeast Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Honza, Eiichi )

    1990-06-01

    Most of the terranes in eastern Asia appear to be relics of arcs, oceanic islands, and subduction complexes. They have collided and accreted from the inner (northwestern) side in China since the Silurian. They are characterized by three stages of Pacific and Tethys evolution. The first collision is related to the Pacific domain in the Permian in which these movements are not clearly reconstructed. The second collision is related to the closure of the Paleo-Tethys in the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic. The third is related to closure of the Neo-Tethys and the subsequent collision of India in the Tertiary. Southeast Asia is in one of the most enigmatic plate boundaries in the world, forming many small plates, collisions, and consumptions. This complication is also suggested to be a result of the northward movement of Australia since its break-up from Gondwanaland in the Cretaceous. During their evolution, most of them have associated with arcs. These arcs also have formed superimpositions on the older exotic blocks of terranes. They are reconstructed on the base of the regular duration on the formation of arcs and backarc basins, which can be seen in the Western Pacific Arc Chain.

  8. Validation of Hotspots Detected by Satellites in Sentinel Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaku, K.; Kushida, K.; Fukuda, M.

    2008-12-01

    The Sentinel Asia (SA) initiative is a collaboration between space agencies and disaster management agencies, applying remote sensing and Web-GIS technologies to assist disaster management in the Asia- Pacific region. It aims to: "EImprove safety in society by ICT and space technology "EImprove speed and accuracy of disaster preparedness and early warning "EMinimize the number of victims and social/economic losses. SA is a voluntary initiative led by the Asia-Pacific Regional Space Agency Forum (APRSAF) to share disaster information in near-real-time across the Asia-Pacific region. Wildfire is a major and recurring phenomenon that has a serious impact on property and human health, affecting many countries in the Asia region. Compared to other disasters in the area, it does not necessarily cause many immediate fatalities. However, it causes serious impact on property and human health due to smoke. Furthermore, its effects are of great relevance both at a regional and global level, and accordingly bear substantial influence on global warming. Responding to requirements from Asian countries, under Sentinel Asia a dedicated Wildfire Working Group (WG) has been established to apply remote sensing technology to the management of wildfire. Having accurate information on the location and intensity of the fires, and subsequent control of wildfire, are therefore very important and urgent tasks across the region. SA primarily addresses the issue of near-real-time information distribution on wildfires in the region. Concerning hotspot data obtained by satellites, it is essential to validate and improve its accuracy. In the framework of Sentinel Asia Wildfire WG, various approaches to hotspot detection, including MOD14 algorithm for MODIS hotspots, were studied, and their validations were carried out, comparing them with active fires extracted from satellite imagery and ground truth data in Chiengmai, Thailand and in Kalimantan, Indonesia.

  9. The Pacific Community Concept. Proposals for Further Development and Co-Operation between Countries of the Pacific Basin and Reaction to Such Proposals by Pacific Basin Countries. A Select Bibliography. Development of Resource Sharing Networks. Networks Study No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Library of Australia, Canberra.

    As part of its statutory duty to foster international cooperation, the National Library of Australia has produced this annotated bibliography based on a review of material published since 1968 on the Pacific Community Concept or cooperation between countries in the Pacific Basin area of Asia and Oceania. The 159 items listed cover the following…

  10. On the mass and orbit of the ninth planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugwoke, Azubike Christian

    2016-07-01

    ON THE MASS AND ORBIT OF THE NINTH PLANET A new planet is currently being proposed in the literature.This yet to be observed planet has its mass and orbit yet to be determined. However, if this planet is to escape being labelled a plutinoid, it must posses all the characteristics of a planet as currently set by the IAU. In addition it must be massive enough to enable it couple into the gravitational potential of the sun. Our earlier paper on this issue has suggested that no new planets are expected beyond Neptune , due to the vanishing gravitational potential of the sun within that orbit.Any new planet must be indeed very massive to be gravitationally linked sufficiently to the sun. In the current paper we have obtained estimates for planet 9 orbit and mass using this method.

  11. Proceedings of the ninth annual underground coal gasification symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Wieber, P.R.; Martin, J.W.; Byrer, C.W.

    1983-12-01

    The Ninth Underground Coal Gasification Symposium was held August 7 to 10, 1983 at the Indian Lakes Resort and Conference Center in Bloomingdale, Illinois. Over one-hundred attendees from industry, academia, National Laboratories, State Government, and the US Government participated in the exchange of ideas, results and future research plans. Representatives from six countries including France, Belgium, United Kingdom, The Netherlands, West Germany, and Brazil also participated by presenting papers. Fifty papers were presented and discussed in four formal sessions and two informal poster sessions. The presentations described current and future field testing plans, interpretation of field test data, environmental research, laboratory studies, modeling, and economics. All papers were processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  12. AED in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Founded in 1961, the Academy for Educational Development (AED) is an independent, nonprofit, charitable organization that operates development programs in the United States and throughout the world. This directory presents an overview of AED endeavors in Asia. AED's work in Asia has centered on institution-building, taking advantage of its…

  13. The Pacific RANET Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postawko, S.; Ah Poe, A.; Morrissey, M.

    2004-12-01

    There are few places in the world more vulnerable to the effects of climate variability and change than the island nations of the tropical Pacific Ocean. The region also faces great challenges in communicating the issues related to climate to the general population. Lack of communications infrastructure, multiple languages, and knowledgeable personnel to deliver information, are all challenges for these countries. However, a recently developed international consortium is taking the first steps to addressing these challenges. The RANET (RAdio and interNET communications) project was originally developed for the countries of Africa, with initial funding from NOAA, to make weather, climate, and other environmental information more accessible to remote and resource-poor communities. The program is now expanding into Asia and the Pacific. RANET works to build telecommunication bridges between scientific-based products and remote communities that could benefit from such information.?The RANET project in the Pacific is a consortium of partners from the Pacific Island nations, the U.S., New Zealand, Australia, and others. Coordination of the project is loosely overseen by a Steering Committee, made up of representatives from the various interested partners. For regions where the appropriate technology exists (which includes the capital cities of nearly all of the island states of the Pacific), information is downloaded via a digital satellite receiver. This can then be broadcast within a country by many means, including Community FM Radio stations. The information distributed includes technical information needed by meteorological and related services to improve their own products and services, as well as a second level of information designed to serve communities, including weather forecasts, bulletins, warnings, etc. The primary challenge at this time is developing content that is both relevant and understandable to these remote communities. While some information will

  14. Modeling air temperature changes in Northern Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onuchin, A.; Korets, M.; Shvidenko, A.; Burenina, T.; Musokhranova, A.

    2014-11-01

    Based on time series (1950-2005) of monthly temperatures from 73 weather stations in Northern Asia (limited by 70-180° EL and 48-75° NL), it is shown that there are statistically significant spatial differences in character and intensity of the monthly and yearly temperature trends. These differences are defined by geomorphological and geographical parameters of the area including exposure of the territory to Arctic and Pacific air mass, geographic coordinates, elevation, and distances to Arctic and Pacific oceans. Study area has been divided into six domains with unique groupings of the temperature trends based on cluster analysis. An original methodology for mapping of temperature trends has been developed and applied to the region. The assessment of spatial patterns of temperature trends at the regional level requires consideration of specific regional features in the complex of factors operating in the atmosphere-hydrosphere-lithosphere-biosphere system.

  15. Temporal trends of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in eggs of coastal and offshore birds: Increasing PFAS levels associated with offshore bird species breeding on the Pacific coast of Canada and wintering near Asia.

    PubMed

    Miller, Aroha; Elliott, John E; Elliott, Kyle H; Lee, Sandi; Cyr, Francois

    2015-08-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) such as perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) have become virtually ubiquitous throughout the environment, and, based on laboratory studies, have known toxicological consequences. Various national and international voluntary phase-outs and restrictions on these compounds have been implemented over the last 10 to 15 years. In the present study, we examine trends (1990/1991-2010/2011) in aquatic birds (ancient murrelet, Synthliboramphus antiquus [2009 only]; Leach's storm-petrels, Oceanodroma leucorhoa; rhinoceros auklets, Cerorhinca monocerata; double-crested cormorants, Phalacrocorax auritus; and great blue herons, Ardea herodias). The PFCA, PFSA, and stable isotope (δ(15) N and δ(13) C) data collected from these species from the Pacific coast of Canada, ranging over 20 to 30 years, were used to investigate temporal changes in PFAS coupled to dietary changes. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), the dominant PFSA compound in all 4 species, increased and subsequently decreased in auklet and cormorant eggs in line with the manufacturing phase-out of PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), but concentrations continuously increased in petrel eggs and remained largely unchanged in heron eggs. Dominant PFCA compounds varied between the offshore and coastal species, with increases seen in the offshore species and little or variable changes seen in the coastal species. Little temporal change was seen in stable isotope values, indicating that diet alone is not driving observed PFAS concentrations.

  16. Glaciers of Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter is the ninth to be released in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1386, Satellite Image Atlas of Glaciers of the World, a series of 11 chapters. In each of the geographic area chapters, remotely sensed images, primarily from the Landsat 1, 2, and 3 series of spacecraft, are used to analyze the specific glacierized region of our planet under consideration and to monitor glacier changes. Landsat images, acquired primarily during the middle to late 1970s and early 1980s, were used by an international team of glaciologists and other scientists to study various geographic regions and (or) to discuss related glaciological topics. In each glacierized geographic region, the present areal distribution of glaciers is compared, wherever possible, with historical information about their past extent. The atlas provides an accurate regional inventory of the areal extent of glacier ice on our planet during the 1970s as part of a growing international scientific effort to measure global environmental change on the Earth?s surface. The chapter is divided into seven geographic parts and one topical part: Glaciers of the Former Soviet Union (F-1), Glaciers of China (F-2), Glaciers of Afghanistan (F?3), Glaciers of Pakistan (F-4), Glaciers of India (F-5), Glaciers of Nepal (F?6), Glaciers of Bhutan (F-7), and the Paleoenvironmental Record Preserved in Middle-Latitude, High-Mountain Glaciers (F-8). Each geographic section describes the glacier extent during the 1970s and 1980s, the benchmark time period (1972-1981) of this volume, but has been updated to include more recent information. Glaciers of the Former Soviet Union are located in the Russian Arctic and various mountain ranges of Russia and the Republics of Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Kazakstun. The Glacier Inventory of the USSR and the World Atlas of Ice and Snow Resources recorded a total of 28,881 glaciers covering an area of 78,938 square kilometers (km2). China includes many of the mountain

  17. Environmental Education in Asia and Beyond: Proceedings of an International Workshop (Republic of Korea, October 11-15, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains the proceedings from an international workshop entitled "Environmental Education in Asia and Beyond" held October 11-15, 1990 in the Republic of Korea. Papers include: (1) "Towards Education for a Sustainable Future in Asia and the Pacific" (Heck, Debbie); (2) "Communication Strategies for…

  18. East Asia and the United States into the Twenty-First Century. Planning Future American Policy and Strategy Options

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-01

    reduce US deterrent power. jeopardize Indian Ocean access, and create security vacuums into which Chinese. Japanese. or Soviet power might enter. The...Pacific in Hawaii. US lorces in the Philip- into the Indian Ocean , across which is pines/Southeast Asia can reiniorce our strung the oil lifeline...from the Persian forces in Northeast Asia and out into the Gulf to Asia’s most productive economies. Indian Ocean , and our Japanese- and IA fourth, less

  19. Statistical correction of central Southwest Asia winter precipitation simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tippett, Michael K.; Barlow, Mathew; Lyon, Bradfield

    2003-10-01

    Severe drought is a notable feature of the hydrology of central Southwest (CSW) Asia. Although studies have linked the region's interannual precipitation variability to remote forcings that include East Asia jet stream variability and western Pacific tropical convection, atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs) forced by observed sea-surface temperatures demonstrate little skill in simulating interannual precipitation variability in this region. Here, statistical methods of correcting systematic errors in GCM simulations of CSW Asia precipitation are investigated. Canonical correlation analysis is used to identify model fields related to observed precipitation anomaly patterns. These relationships are then used to predict observed precipitation anomalies. This approach is applied to the ECHAM 4.5 GCM using regional precipitation, upper-level winds and western Pacific tropical precipitation as predictors of observed CSW Asia precipitation anomalies. The statistical corrections improve the GCM precipitation simulations, resulting in modest, but statistically significant, cross-validated skill in simulating CSW Asia precipitation anomalies. Applying the procedure to hindcasts with persisted sea-surface temperatures gives lower, but statistically significant, precipitation correlations in the region along the Hindu Kush mountain range.

  20. Neurology in Asia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chong-Tin

    2015-02-10

    Asia is important as it accounts for more than half of the world population. The majority of Asian countries fall into the middle income category. As for cultural traditions, Asia is highly varied, with many languages spoken. The pattern of neurologic diseases in Asia is largely similar to the West, with some disease features being specific to Asia. Whereas Asia constitutes 60% of the world's population, it contains only 20% of the world's neurologists. This disparity is particularly evident in South and South East Asia. As for neurologic care, it is highly variable depending on whether it is an urban or rural setting, the level of economic development, and the system of health care financing. To help remedy the shortage of neurologists, most counties with larger populations have established training programs in neurology. These programs are diverse, with many areas of concern. There are regional organizations serving as a vehicle for networking in neurology and various subspecialties, as well as an official journal (Neurology Asia). The Asian Epilepsy Academy, with its emphasis on workshops in various locations, EEG certification examination, and fellowships, may provide a template of effective regional networking for improving neurology care in the region.

  1. Springtime trans-Pacific transport of Asian pollutants characterized by the Western Pacific (WP) pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Ja-Ho; Kim, Jaemin; Kim, Jhoon; Lee, Hanlim; Noh, Young Min; Lee, Yun Gon

    2016-12-01

    Springtime trans-Pacific transport of Asian air pollutants has been investigated in many ways to figure out its mechanism. Based on the Western Pacific (WP) pattern, one of climate variabilities in the Northern Hemisphere known to be associated with the pattern of atmospheric circulation over the North Pacific Ocean, in this study, we characterize the pattern of springtime trans-Pacific transport using long-term satellite measurements and reanalysis datasets. A positive WP pattern is characterized by intensification of the dipole structure between the northern Aleutian Low and the southern Pacific High over the North Pacific. The TOMS/OMI Aerosol Index (AI) and MOPITT CO show the enhancement of Asian pollutant transport across the Pacific during periods of positive WP pattern, particularly between 40 and 50°N. This enhancement is confirmed by high correlations of WP index with AI and CO between 40 and 50°N. To evaluate the influence of the WP pattern, we examine several cases of trans-Pacific transport reported in previous research. Interestingly, most trans-Pacific transport cases are associated with the positive WP pattern. During the period of negative WP pattern, reinforced cyclonic wave breaking is consistently found over the western North Pacific, which obstructs zonal advection across the North Pacific. However, some cases show the trans-Pacific transport of CO in the period of negative WP pattern, implying that the WP pattern is more influential on the transport of particles mostly emitted near ∼40°N. This study reveals that the WP pattern can be utilized to diagnose the strength of air pollutant transport from East Asia to North America.

  2. Zika virus in Asia.

    PubMed

    Duong, Veasna; Dussart, Philippe; Buchy, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest in Uganda in 1947. In Asia, the virus was isolated in Malaysia from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in 1966, and the first human infections were reported in 1977 in Central Java, Indonesia. In this review, all reported cases of ZIKV infection in Asia as of September 1, 2016 are summarized and some of the hypotheses that could currently explain the apparently low incidence of Zika cases in Asia are explored.

  3. 76 FR 22163 - Ninth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 221: Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... of RTCA Special Committee 221 meeting: Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight Deck... Special Committee 221: Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight Deck Security Procedures. DATES... Federal Aviation Administration Ninth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 221: Aircraft Secondary Barriers...

  4. Pass Over Southeastern Asia

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video over Southeastern Asia was taken by the crew of Expedition 29 aboard the International Space Station. This sequence of shots was taken on Oct. 7, 2011, from 12:41:10 to 12:50:46 GMT, on ...

  5. Southeast Asia Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-12

    South - East Asia unloading dollars in the expectation that the US currency will fall still further. In Tokyo, the US dollar closed at 222.10 yen after a...consideration of the fact that South - East Asia, despite the concept of Zone of Peace, Freedom and Neutrality (ZOPFAN), is still a zone of...at McMurdo and South Pole, I accepted in microseconds and waited some months with impatience. Christchurch, in New Zealand’s South Island, is the US

  6. Southeast Asia Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    126199 JPRS- SEA -87-027 25 FEBRUARY 1987 Southeast Asia Report DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT’ Ä Approved for pubi’> ro’^ase; Distribution Uülimiied...Service, 1000 North Glebe Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS- SEA -87-027 25 FEBRUARY 1987 SOUTHEAST ASIA REPORT CONTENTS AUSTRALIA Energy Minister...Senator Evans said there had been some renewal of exploration drilling in the Northwest shelf and the Timor Sea areas since prices firmed to more than

  7. Southeast Asia Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    126192 JPRS- SEA -87-040 19 MARCH 1987 DISTRIBUTION STATf; Distribution Unruled ;v7 A Southeast Asia Report 19980616 021 FBIS FOREIGN...Arlington, Virginia 22201. SOUTHEAST ASIA REPORT JPRS- SEA -87-040 19 MARCH 1987 CONTENTS AUSTRALIA National Party Official Urges Ending Federal...forces. New Zealand’s defense minister, Mr O’Flynn, has welcomed the contract as a major step forward in Trans- Tasman defense cooperation. [Text

  8. JPRS Report, East Asia, Southeast Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    During the same period , capital flight from Brazil amounted to $18.7 billion and from Venezuela $30.5 billion. In Asia, capital flight from South...up to Bank Indonesia. "We are merely implementers," said Ronny Suyanto. W. Kidarsa said that Bank Indonesia’s plans to end the tight money period ...34 Kidarsa stated. He hoped that bankers will continue to be selective in providing credit after the tight money period ends. To revive the sluggish economy

  9. JPRS Report, East Asia, Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Deficit With Malaysia Reported 16 Sumarlin Tries To Allay Concern About Foreign Debts 16 ’Four Tigers’ Move To Take Advantage of Lower Production...Southeast Asia MALAYSIA National Front Wants Legislators To Declare Stand 22 Mahathir Meets With New UMNO Leaders 22 MP Datuk Abdullah Urges Uniting...Japan, but after exten- sive explanation by the Indonesian side, their opposition changed into acceptance. /08309 Trade Deficit With Malaysia

  10. JPRS Report, East Asia, Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-03

    exchange programme between the two countries, together with Workers Asia- yone Central Body Secretary U Nyunt Thein and Central Executive Committee...The delegation then proceeded to the National Museum at 11 am. In the evening, Vice-Chairman of the Workers Asiayone Central Body U Kyi Thein hosted...now as a sociopolitical organization in terms of unity and integrity. Tonny said that since the " Group of 17" is a problem of the central office it

  11. JPRS Report, East Asia, Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-23

    interests of socialism and peace and stability in the region and the world over." /12913 CSO: 4209/663 PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF KAMPUCHEA KAMPUCHEA...will be further strengthened and developed for the social development of each country and for peace and stability in the region and the world. [Text...contributed to the safeguarding of peace and stability in Indochina, Southeast Asia and the world. We are very proud of these successes and consider

  12. 77 FR 26643 - Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... connected our coasts one-and-a-half centuries ago, to the patriots who fought overseas while their families... reminder of America's standing as a Pacific nation. Over the centuries, we have maintained a long, rich history of engagement in the Asia-Pacific region, and our AAPI communities have been essential...

  13. Pacific Telecommunications Council Annual Conference Proceedings (21st, Honolulu, Hawaii, January 18-20, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Telecommunications Council, Honolulu, HI.

    This proceedings of the 1999 conference of the Pacific Telecommunications Council contains 134 papers divided into the following topical areas: (1) Internet, including business developments, telephony, commerce, country developments in the Asia-Pacific region, Internet deployment, and Internetworking technology; (2) policy/regulatory, including…

  14. Laser induced damage in optical materials: ninth ASTM symposium.

    PubMed

    Glass, A J; Guenther, A H

    1978-08-01

    The Ninth Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers (Boulder Damage Symposium) was held at the National Bureau of Standards in Boulder, Colorado, 4-6 October 1977. The symposium was under the auspices of ASTM Committee F-1, Subcommittee on Laser Standards, with the joint sponsorship of NBS, the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency, the Department of Energy (formerly ERDA), and the Office of Naval Research. About 185 scientists attended, including representatives of the United Kingdom, France, Canada, Australia, Union of South Africa, and the Soviet Union. The Symposium was divided into sessions concerning Laser Windows and Materials, Mirrors and Surfaces, Thin Films, Laser Glass and Glass Lasers, and Fundamental Mechanisms. As in previous years, the emphasis of the papers was directed toward new frontiers and new developments. Particular emphasis was given to materials for use from 10.6 microm to the uv region. Highlights included surface characterization, thin film-substrate boundaries, and advances in fundamental laser-matter threshold interactions and mechanisms. The scaling of damage thresholds with pulse duration, focal area, and wavelength were also discussed. Alexander J. Glass of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and Arthur H. Guenther of the Air Force Weapons Laboratory were co-chairpersons. The Tenth Annual Symposium is scheduled for 12-14 September 1978 at the National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, Colorado.

  15. Expecting success: Factors influencing ninth graders' science self-efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donahue, Elizabeth

    What factors influence ninth grade students' expectations for success in science? Using social cognitive theory and bioecological systems theory as theoretical frameworks, this dissertation employs data from the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09) to examine the relative impact of teacher practices and their perceived attitudes on students' science self-efficacy. Further, as they relate to this broader issue, the relative impact of student subjective task value and teacher characteristics is also investigated. It has been well documented that U.S. students are not achieving at satisfactory levels in science. Education policy has focused on improving science teacher quality as one way to address this problem. Teacher effectiveness has been primarily measured by student achievement on standardized tests. However, not enough attention has been given to the social cognitive factors that can lead to increased achievement and persistence in science as well as how teachers may influence these factors. This study interrogates the relationship between student and teacher variables and the social cognitive construct of self-efficacy, which has proven to have a significant impact on student achievement and persistence in science. Findings add to the current literature surrounding ways that educators may increase student performance in science by employing policies and practices that benefit the development of student science self-efficacy.

  16. East Asia: Seismotectonics, magmatism and mantle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dapeng; Yu, Sheng; Ohtani, Eiji

    2011-02-01

    In this article, we review the significant recent results of geophysical studies and discuss their implications on seismotectonics, magmatism, and mantle dynamics in East Asia. High-resolution geophysical imaging revealed structural heterogeneities in the source areas of large crustal earthquakes, which may reflect magma and fluids that affected the rupture nucleation of large earthquakes. In subduction zone regions, the crustal fluids originate from the dehydration of the subducting slab. Magmatism in arc and back-arc areas is caused by the corner flow in the mantle wedge and dehydration of the subducting slab. The intraplate magmatism has different origins. The continental volcanoes in Northeast Asia (such as Changbai and Wudalianchi) seem to be caused by the corner flow in the big mantle wedge (BMW) above the stagnant slab in the mantle transition zone and the deep dehydration of the stagnant slab as well. The Tengchong volcano in Southwest China is possibly caused by a similar process in BMW above the subducting Burma microplate (or Indian plate). The Hainan volcano in southernmost China seems to be a hotspot fed by a lower-mantle plume associated with the Pacific and Philippine Sea slabs' deep subduction in the east and the Indian slab's deep subduction in the west down to the lower mantle. The occurrence of deep earthquakes under the Japan Sea and the East Asia margin may be related to a metastable olivine wedge in the subducting Pacific slab. The stagnant slab finally collapses down to the bottom of the mantle, which may trigger upwelling of hot mantle materials from the lower mantle to the shallow mantle beneath the subducting slabs and cause the slab-plume interactions. Some of these issues, such as the origin of intraplate magmatism, are still controversial, and so further detailed studies are needed from now.

  17. Realities of Revolutionary Violence in Southeast Asia: Challenges and Responses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    compassion of the cal groups. As a result, the army in Javanese . Filipinos, with more particular became the custodian of In- democratic values but little...no single cultural or political the key transit point between the Pacific legacy comparable to the Chinese (or and Indian oceans. Not surprisingly, the...I’Sinic’) legacy in Northeast Asia. China’s United States and the Soviet Union have culture and social structure penetrated invested money and

  18. Asian-Pacific Papers. Occasional Papers Number 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Brian, Ed.

    Sixteen papers are presented. Topics covered include language teaching, discourse analysis, code switching, phonetics, language and cultural identity, and descriptive and comparative studies. All presenters were from the Asia-Pacific area of the world. Papers include: "The Baba Malay Lexicon: Hokkien Loanwords in Baba Malay" (Anne…

  19. Epilepsy: Asia versus Africa.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Devender; Tchalla, Achille Edem; Marin, Benoît; Ngoungou, Edgard Brice; Tan, Chong Tin; Preux, Pierre-Marie

    2014-09-01

    Is epilepsy truly an "African ailment"? We aimed to determine this, since international health agencies often refer to epilepsy as an African disease and the scientific literature has spoken the same tone. Various published materials, mainly reports, articles, were used to gather Asian and African evidence on various aspects of epilepsy and many of its risk and associated factors. Our results suggest that in no way can epilepsy be considered as an African ailment and such characterization is most likely based on popular beliefs rather than scientific evidence. In comparison to Africa, Asia has a 5.0% greater burden from all diseases, and is 17.0% more affected from neuropsychiatric disorders (that include epilepsy). Given that more countries in Asia are transitioning, there may be large demographic and lifestyle changes in the near future. However these changes are nowhere close to those expected in Africa. Moreover, 23 million Asians have epilepsy in comparison to 3.3 million Africans and 1.2 million sub-Saharan Africans. In comparison to Africa, Asia has more untreated patients, 55.0% more additional epilepsy cases every year, because of its larger population, with greater treatment cost and possibly higher premature mortality. Of several associated factors discussed herein, many have more importance for Asia than Africa. The current state of epilepsy in Asia is far less than ideal and there is an urgent need to recognize and accept the importance of epilepsy in Asia. In no way can epilepsy be considered as an African ailment. This is most likely based on popular beliefs rather than scientific evidence. A PowerPoint slide summarizing this article is available for download in the Supporting Information section here.

  20. Pacific HYCOM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-21

    Pacific HYCOM E. Joseph Metzger†, Harley E. Hurlburt†, Alan J. Wallcraft†, Luis Zamudio ‡ and Patrick J. Hogan† †Naval Research Laboratory, Stennis...Simulations • HYCOM code upgrade: v2.0.02 v2.1.09 • Thin deep isopycnal layer capability • PLM vertical remapping for fixed coordinate layers • COARE 2.6 heat...flux (flxflg = 4) vs. Kara et al. (flxflg = 2) • Bug- fixed ice model • Longwave SST correction • Monthly shortwave attenuation coefficients - turbidity

  1. Central Asia After 2014

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    Disputes With China,” Eurasia Daily Monitor, October 26, 2011. 9. Linda Jakobson et al., ”China’s Energy and Security relati- ons with Russia,” SIPRI...the_limits_of_regional_cooperati- on_in_south_asia. 65. Roman Muzalevski, ”India Seeks to Project Power In and Out of Central Asia,” Eurasia Daily...available from www.kom- mersant.ru/doc/1407757. 77. SIPRI Yearbook 2010, p. 291. 78. Kommersant, March 14, 2011. 79. Ibid. 80. Jakobson et al., ”China’s

  2. Southeast Asia Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    006033 JPRS- SEA -85- 1 33 3 0 A u g u st 1 9 8 5 Southeast Asia Report Appro^d tor pwfeM« tttoaa», 19980729 130 FBIS k W1C QUALITY...Research Service, 1000 North Glebe Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS- SEA -85-133 30 August 1985 SOUTHEAST ASIA REPORT CONTENTS AUSTRALIA Labor...40 Years of Electricity Service (VNA, 2 Aug 85) 137 139 140 141 -f- JPRS- SEA -85-133 30 August 1985 AUSTRALIA LABOR SENATOR CALLS FOR END

  3. NASA's East and Southeast Asia Initiatives: BASE-ASIA and EAST-AIRE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, S.; Maring, H.

    2005-01-01

    Airborne dust from northern China influences air quality and regional climate in Asia during springtime. However, with the economic growth in China, increased emission of particulate air pollutants from industrial and vehicular sources will not only impact the earth's radiation balance, but also adversely affect human health year round. In addition, both of dust and aerosol pollutants can be transported swiftly across the Pacific affecting North America within a few days. Asian dust and pollutant aerosols can be detected by their colored appearance using current Earth observing satellites (e.g., MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, etc.) and by sunphotometers deployed on the surface of the earth. Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Globally significant sources of greenhouse gases (eg., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning. These gases influence the Earth-atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play a role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, altering the earth's radiation and water budgets. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds; the hydrological cycle; land surface reflectivity and emissivity; and ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Two NASA initiatives, EAST-AIRE (East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment) and BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment) will be presented. The objectives of these initiatives is to

  4. New Confrontations in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thien, Ton That

    1978-01-01

    Examines political, social, and economic developments in Southeast Asia under Communist forces which conquered Southeast Asia after the American disengagement. Topics discussed include refugees, Vietnamese who have chosen to live in exile, civil administration in Vietnam, Sino-Soviet relations, and predictions about the future of Southeast Asia.…

  5. The TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jialun; Kumarasamy, N.; Ditangco, Rossana; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Lee, Christopher K. C.; Li, Patrick C. K.; Paton, Nicholas I.; Phanuphak, Praphan; Pujari, Sanjay; Vibhagool, Asda; Wong, Wing-Wai; Zhang, Fujie; Chuah, John; Frost, Kevin R.; Cooper, David A.; Law, Matthew G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Relatively little is known regarding HIV disease natural history and response to antiretroviral treatments among Asian people infected with HIV. The Therapeutics Research, Education, and AIDS Training in Asia (TREAT Asia) HIV Observational Database (TAHOD) is a recently established collaborative observational cohort study that aims to assess HIV disease natural history in treated and untreated patients in the Asia-Pacific region. Methods Observational data are collected on HIV-infected patients from 11 sites in the Asia-Pacific region. Data are centrally aggregated for analyses, with the first baseline and retrospective data transferred in September 2003. Retrospective data were analyzed to assess the response to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) over a 6-month period in terms of changes in CD4 count and proportions of patients achieving an undetectable HIV viral load (<400 copies/mL). Results By the end of May 2004, 1887 patients had been recruited to the TAHOD. Seventy-two percent of patients were male, with median age 36 years. Seventy-eight percent of patients reported HIV infection through heterosexual contact. Forty-three percent of patients had a previous AIDS diagnosis, of whom 55% had tuberculosis. The mean 6-month CD4 count increase was 115 cells/μL (SD = 127) after starting triple-combination therapy. Smaller CD4 count increases were associated with a higher CD4 count before starting treatment, prior treatment with monotherapy or double therapy, and treatment with a HAART regimen containing a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) and/or protease inhibitor (PI) but without a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). Five hundred and ninety-eight patients started HAART and had a viral load assessment at 6 months, with 69% attaining an undetectable viral load. Older patients, patients not exposed to HIV through heterosexual contact, and patients treated with HAART containing NRTIs and NNRTIs but without PIs

  6. Literature of Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echols, John M.

    This paper provides a brief description of the literature of Southeast Asia. This area, which embraces the region south of China and east of India, includes the modern nations of Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, The Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia. The earliest historical influence came from India around the beginnings of the…

  7. Multicultural Central Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Eric D.

    This article addresses the multicultural aspect of Central Asia in response to the discussion on diversity in U.S. classrooms. Many areas of the world are more diverse than the U.S., and these areas experience successes and failures with many of the same issues the U.S. is currently struggling with. Comparing the U.S. diversity debate with similar…

  8. ESP in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crooks, Tony, Ed.

    Seven conference papers discuss English language training and political development in Asia, including language project design and evaluation, counterparting, sustainability, appropriate technology, and languages and the politics of development. Papers included are: "Linguistic and Cultural Considerations of Writing ELT Texts for Use in…

  9. HRD Issues in Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on human resource development (HRD) issues in Asia. "The Japanese Human Resource Development System" (Kiyoe Harada) provides a comprehensive model of the Japanese HRD system based on the current state of the art, including management practices and issues and trends in Japanese HRD.…

  10. Performance Theory: Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Michael, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Focusing on the contemporary theatre in Southeast Asia, this journal issue sheds light on the intercultural relationships that exist between that part of the world and the Western world. In addition to a transcript of a Balinese "topeng" (storytelling) performance, the journal contains eight articles that provide information on the…

  11. Ninth Grade Student Responses to Authentic Science Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, Michael Steven

    This mixed methods case study documents an effort to implement authentic science and engineering instruction in one teacher's ninth grade science classrooms in a science-focused public school. The research framework and methodology is a derivative of work developed and reported by Newmann and others (Newmann & Associates, 1996). Based on a working definition of authenticity, data were collected for eight months on the authenticity in the experienced teacher's pedagogy and in student performance. Authenticity was defined as the degree to which a classroom lesson, an assessment task, or an example of student performance demonstrates construction of knowledge through use of the meaning-making processes of science and engineering, and has some value to students beyond demonstrating success in school (Wehlage et al., 1996). Instruments adapted for this study produced a rich description of the authenticity of the teacher's instruction and student performance. The pedagogical practices of the classroom teacher were measured as moderately authentic on average. However, the authenticity model revealed the teacher's strategy of interspersing relatively low authenticity instructional units focused on building science knowledge with much higher authenticity tasks requiring students to apply these concepts and skills. The authenticity of the construction of knowledge and science meaning-making processes components of authentic pedagogy were found to be greater, than the authenticity of affordances for students to find value in classroom activities beyond demonstrating success in school. Instruction frequently included one aspect of value beyond school, connections to the world outside the classroom, but students were infrequently afforded the opportunity to present their classwork to audiences beyond the teacher. When the science instruction in the case was measured to afford a greater level of authentic intellectual work, a higher level of authentic student performance on

  12. Preventable Failure: Improvements in Long-Term Outcomes When High Schools Focused on the Ninth Grade Year. Research Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roderick, Melissa; Kelley-Kemple, Thomas; Johnson, David W.; Beechum, Nicole O.

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, spurred by University of Chicago Consortium on Chicago School Research (UChicago CCSR) research reports, leadership at the Chicago Public Schools (CPS) began a new targeted approach to reducing course failure in the ninth grade. The research suggested that the transition between eighth and ninth grade played a critical role in shaping…

  13. 77 FR 56253 - Ninth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems-Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Ninth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the ninth meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium...

  14. Texas Study of Students at Risk: Case Studies of Initiatives Supporting Ninth Graders' Success. Cross-Site Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapley, Kelly; Vicknair, Keven; Sheehan, Daniel; Pieper, Amy; Jepson, Dana; Sturges, Keith; Bush, Joan; Vandiver, Sherrie

    2004-01-01

    Researchers conducted case studies of Ninth Grade Success Initiative (NGSI) grants to gain a greater understanding of issues facing large numbers of at-risk students, many of whom, despite potentially receiving services as early as kindergarten, still reach ninth grade unprepared to succeed academically in high school. Case studies focused on NGSI…

  15. Helping Students Make the Transition into High School: The Effect of Ninth Grade Academies on Students' Academic and Behavioral Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Marie-Andrée; Garcia, Ivonne

    2016-01-01

    Ninth Grade Academies (NGAs)--also called Freshman Academies--have attracted national attention as a particularly intensive and promising approach for supporting a successful transition for high school freshmen. An NGA is a self-contained learning community for ninth-graders that operates as a school within a school. NGAs have four core structural…

  16. Matching of Learning Styles and Teaching Styles: Advantage and Disadvantage on Ninth-Grade Students' Academic Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damrongpanit, Suntonrapot; Reungtragul, Auyporn

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify learning styles of ninth-grade students, to identify teaching styles of four subject teachers, and to compare four academic achievements between different matching conditions of students' learning styles and teachers' teaching styles. The research participants comprised of 3,382 ninth-grade students and,…

  17. Acid deposition in east Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Phadnis, M.J.; Carmichael, G.R.; Ichikawa, Y.

    1996-12-31

    A comparison between transport models was done to study the acid deposition in east Asia. The two models in question were different in the way the treated the pollutant species and the way simulation was carried out. A single-layer, trajectory model with simple (developed by the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Japan) was compared with a multi-layered, eulerian type model (Sulfur Transport Eulerian Model - II [STEM-II]) treating the chemical processes in detail. The acidic species used in the simulation were sulfur dioxide and sulfate. The comparison was done for two episodes: each a month long in winter (February) and summer (August) of 1989. The predicted results from STEM-II were compared with the predicted results from the CRIEPI model as well as the observed data at twenty-one stations in Japan. The predicted values from STEM-II were similar to the ones from the CRIEPI results and the observed values in regards to the transport features. The average monthly values of SO{sub 2} in air, sulfate in air and sulfate in precipitation were in good agreement. Sensitivity studies were carried out under different scenarios of emissions, dry depositions velocities and mixing heights. The predicted values in these sensitivity studies showed a strong dependence on the mixing heights. The predicted wet deposition of sulfur for the two months is 0.7 gS/m2.mon, while the observed deposition is around 1.1 gS/m2.mon. It was also observed that the wet deposition on the Japan sea side of the islands is more than those on the Pacific side and the Okhotsk sea, mainly because of the continental outflow of pollutant air masses from mainland China and Korea. The effects of emissions from Russia and volcanoes were also evaluated.

  18. Educational Publishing: Experiences from Asia and the Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Asian Centre for Educational Innovation for Development.

    This resource book on educational publishing presents examples of evaluation and planning; try-out procedures; the production process; and warehousing and distribution, all reinforced by examples of systems and structures and case studies which were presented at the 1985 Manila and Tonga Seminars. Part one, Planning, Try-out and Evaluation of…

  19. The Asia-Pacific Century: Challenges and Opportunities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    countries were those who were children during the post–World War 2 period. The lesson they could have taken from that time was one associated with the...economic might. The earliest such prediction was by German scholar and poly- math, Wilhelm Fucks , in his economic essay Formeln zur Macht (For- mulas...france.t_0.html. 7. Wilhelm Fucks , Formeln zur Macht [Formulas for Power] (Stuttgart, West Ger- many: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 1965). 8. Joseph A

  20. The Strategic Shift to the Asia-Pacific

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943–5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING...Maui, HI: AMOS , 2007), 321, http://www.m.celestrak.com/publications/ AMOS /2007/ AMOS -2007.pdf. 91 Bates Gill and Martin Kleiber, “China’s Space Odyssey...Space Environment.” In 2007 Advanced Maui Optical and Space Surveillance Technologies Conference, 321–330. Maui, HI: AMOS , 2007. http://www.m