Science.gov

Sample records for nirspec brown dwarf

  1. Preliminary Analysis of M and L Dwarf Surface Gravities in the NIRSPEC Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Emily C.; Mace, Gregory N.; McLean, Ian S.; Logsdon, Sarah E.; Rice, Emily L.

    2015-01-01

    Using previously published gravity-sensitive indices, we report on the analysis of near-infrared spectra for ˜ 80 M and L dwarfs . The spectra were obtained as part of the Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Survey (BDSS) using NIRSPEC at the Keck Observatory, and each has a resolving power of R ˜ 2000 in the J band. With established gravity indices in the J band we can disentangle the degeneracy between temperature and age for brown dwarfs of various masses. By comparing a subset of the BDSS database with gravity indices defined at lower spectral resolution, we demonstrate that these indices also work well for higher resolution spectra. We then apply these techniques to M and L dwarfs in the BDSS to classify the diverse surface gravities of this large sample in a consistent manner. This analysis provides new age estimates for many M and L dwarfs, which will guide future studies of the young and old brown dwarf populations.

  2. The physics of brown dwarfs and exoplanets - JWST/NIRSpec GTO program overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkmann, Stephan; Alves de Oliveira, Catarina; Valenti, Jeff A.; Ferruit, Pierre; NIRSpec GTO Team

    2017-06-01

    The Near Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) is one of the science instruments on the James Webb Space Telescope that is scheduled for launch in October 2018. The NIRSpec guaranteed time observer (GTO) team will use ~70 hours of NIRSpec guaranteed time to carry out spectroscopic observations of brown dwarfs as well as transiting and directly imaged exoplanets with NIRSpec. The instrument offers four distinct observing modes to proposers that will all be exercised by the GTO programs presented here: 1) multi object spectroscopy (MOS) of 10s to 100s of sources in a ~9 arcmin field of view (FOV), 2) integral field spectroscopy (IFS) with a 3” x 3” FOV, 3) high contrast slit spectroscopy of individual objects and 4) time series observations of bright sources, e.g. transiting exoplanets host stars. Seven dispersers are available in all observing modes: a prism covering the wavelength range from 0.6 to 5.3 micron with a spectral resolution R of ~30 to 300, and two sets of three gratings covering 0.7 to 5.2 micron with medium (R~1000) and high (R~2700) spectral resolution.We will present the science goals and targets for the brown dwarf and exoplanet GTO programs and discuss the planned implementation of the observations. The latter might be of particular interest to future JWST/NIRSpec proposers.

  3. Surface Gravities for 228 M, L, and T Dwarfs in the NIRSPEC Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Emily C.; Mace, Gregory N.; McLean, Ian S.; Logsdon, Sarah E.; Rice, Emily L.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Burgasser, Adam J.; McGovern, Mark R.; Prato, Lisa

    2017-03-01

    We combine 131 new medium-resolution (R ˜ 2000) J-band spectra of M, L, and T dwarfs from the Keck NIRSPEC Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Survey (BDSS) with 97 previously published BDSS spectra to study surface-gravity-sensitive indices for 228 low-mass stars and brown dwarfs spanning spectral types M5-T9. Specifically, we use an established set of spectral indices to determine surface gravity classifications for all of the M6-L7 objects in our sample by measuring the equivalent widths (EW) of the K i lines at 1.1692, 1.1778, and 1.2529 μm, and the 1.2 μm FeH J absorption index. Our results are consistent with previous surface gravity measurements, showing a distinct double peak—at ˜L5 and T5—in K i EW as a function of spectral type. We analyze the K i EWs of 73 objects of known ages and find a linear trend between log(Age) and EW. From this relationship, we assign age ranges to the very low gravity, intermediate gravity, and field gravity designations for spectral types M6-L0. Interestingly, the ages probed by these designations remain broad, change with spectral type, and depend on the gravity-sensitive index used. Gravity designations are useful indicators of the possibility of youth, but current data sets cannot be used to provide a precise age estimate. The data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  4. J-Band Infrared Spectroscopy of a Sample of Brown Dwarfs Using NIRSPEC on Keck II.

    PubMed

    McLean; Wilcox; Becklin; Figer; Gilbert; Graham; Larkin; Levenson; Teplitz; Kirkpatrick

    2000-04-10

    Near-infrared spectroscopic observations of a sample of very cool, low-mass objects are presented with higher spectral resolution than in any previous studies. Six of the objects are L dwarfs, ranging in spectral class from L2 to L8/9, and the seventh is a methane or T dwarf. These new observations were obtained during commissioning of the near-infrared spectrometer (NIRSPEC), the first high-resolution near-infrared cryogenic spectrograph for the Keck II 10 m telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Spectra with a resolving power of R approximately 2500 from 1.135 to 1.360 µm (approximately J band) are presented for each source. At this resolution, a rich spectral structure is revealed, much of which is due to blending of unresolved molecular transitions. Strong lines due to neutral potassium (K i) and bands due to iron hydride (FeH) and steam (H2O) change significantly throughout the L sequence. Iron hydride disappears between L5 and L8, the steam bands deepen, and the K i lines gradually become weaker but wider because of pressure broadening. An unidentified feature occurs at 1.22 µm that has a temperature dependence like FeH but has no counterpart in the available FeH opacity data. Because these objects are 3-6 mag brighter in the near-infrared compared with the I band, spectral classification is efficient. One of the objects studied (2MASSW J1523+3014) is the coolest L dwarf discovered so far by the 2 Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS), but its spectrum is still significantly different from the methane-dominated objects such as Gl 229B or SDSS 1624+0029.

  5. RADIAL VELOCITY VARIABILITY OF FIELD BROWN DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Prato, L.; Mace, G. N.; Rice, E. L.; McLean, I. S.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Burgasser, A. J.; Kim, Sungsoo S.

    2015-07-20

    We present paper six of the NIRSPEC Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Survey, an analysis of multi-epoch, high-resolution (R ∼ 20,000) spectra of 25 field dwarf systems (3 late-type M dwarfs, 16 L dwarfs, and 6 T dwarfs) taken with the NIRSPEC infrared spectrograph at the W. M. Keck Observatory. With a radial velocity (RV) precision of ∼2 km s{sup −1}, we are sensitive to brown dwarf companions in orbits with periods of a few years or less given a mass ratio of 0.5 or greater. We do not detect any spectroscopic binary brown dwarfs in the sample. Given our target properties, and the frequency and cadence of observations, we use a Monte Carlo simulation to determine the detection probability of our sample. Even with a null detection result, our 1σ upper limit for very low mass binary frequency is 18%. Our targets included seven known, wide brown dwarf binary systems. No significant RV variability was measured in our multi-epoch observations of these systems, even for those pairs for which our data spanned a significant fraction of the orbital period. Specialized techniques are required to reach the high precisions sensitive to motion in orbits of very low-mass systems. For eight objects, including six T dwarfs, we present the first published high-resolution spectra, many with high signal to noise, that will provide valuable comparison data for models of brown dwarf atmospheres.

  6. KECK NIRSPEC RADIAL VELOCITY OBSERVATIONS OF LATE-M DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, Angelle; White, Russel; Bailey, John; Blake, Cullen; Blake, Geoffrey; Cruz, Kelle; Burgasser, Adam J.; Kraus, Adam

    2012-11-15

    We present the results of an infrared spectroscopic survey of 23 late-M dwarfs with the NIRSPEC echelle spectrometer on the Keck II telescope. Using telluric lines for wavelength calibration, we are able to achieve measurement precisions of down to 45 m s{sup -1} for our late-M dwarfs over a one- to four-year long baseline. Our sample contains two stars with radial velocity (RV) variations of >1000 m s{sup -1}. While we require more measurements to determine whether these RV variations are due to unseen planetary or stellar companions or are the result of starspots known to plague the surface of M dwarfs, we can place upper limits of <40 M{sub J} sin i on the masses of any companions around those two M dwarfs with RV variations of <160 m s{sup -1} at orbital periods of 10-100 days. We have also measured the rotational velocities for all the stars in our late-M dwarf sample and offer our multi-order, high-resolution spectra over 2.0-2.4 {mu}m to the atmospheric modeling community to better understand the atmospheres of late-M dwarfs.

  7. Brown Dwarf Comparison

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-11-17

    NASA Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer will uncover many failed stars, or brown dwarfs, in infrared light. This diagram shows a brown dwarf in relation to Earth, Jupiter, a low-mass star and the sun.

  8. Spectroscopy of Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebolo, R.

    Recent searches for brown dwarfs have succeeded in finding these elusive objects. Massive brown dwarfs (40-70 Jupiter masses) have been found in the Pleiades, orbiting around a nearby star and, very recently, in the field. A review is given of their observed photometric and spectroscopic properties in the optical and near-infrared. The diagnosis of substellar nature based on lithium lines and methane bands is discussed in detail. While lithium has proved useful to test brown dwarfs with effective temperatures hotter than ~1600 K, methane is a substellar indicator at lower temperatures.

  9. Understanding Brown Dwarf Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Surveys of brown dwarf variability continue to find that roughly half of all brown dwarfs are variable. While variability is observed amongst all types of brown dwarfs, amplitudes are typically greatest for L-T transition objects. In my talk I will discuss the possible physical mechanisms that are responsible for the observed variability. I will particularly focus on comparing and contrasting the effects of changes in atmospheric thermal profile and cloud opacity. The two different mechanisms will produce different variability signatures and I will discuss the extent to which the current datasets constrain both mechanisms. By combining constraints from studies of variability with existing spectral and photometric datasets we can begin to construct and test self-consistent models of brown dwarf atmospheres. These models not only aid in the interpretation of existing objects but also inform studies of directly imaged giant planets.

  10. Brown Dwarf Microlensing (Illustration)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-10

    This illustration depicts a newly discovered brown dwarf, an object that weighs in somewhere between our solar system's most massive planet (Jupiter) and the least-massive-known star. This brown dwarf, dubbed OGLE-2015-BLG-1319, interests astronomers because it may fall in the "desert" of brown dwarfs. Scientists have found that, for stars roughly the mass of our sun, less than 1 percent have a brown dwarf orbiting within 3 AU (1 AU is the distance between Earth and the sun). This brown dwarf was discovered when it and its star passed between Earth and a much more distant star in our galaxy. This created a microlensing event, where the gravity of the system amplified the light of the background star over the course of several weeks. This microlensing was observed by ground-based telescopes looking for these uncommon events, and was the first to be seen by two space-based telescopes: NASA's Spitzer and Swift missions. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21076

  11. New White Dwarf-Brown Dwarf Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casewell, S. L.; Geier, S.; Lodieu, N.

    2017-03-01

    We present follow-up spectroscopy to 12 candidate white dwarf-brown dwarf binaries. We have confirmed that 8 objects do indeed have a white dwarf primary (7 DA, 1 DB) and two are hot subdwarfs. We have determined the Teff and log g for the white dwarfs and subdwarfs, and when combining these values with a model spectrum and the photometry, we have 3 probable white dwarf-substellar binaries with spectral types between M6 and L6.

  12. Brown Dwarf Microlensing Diagram

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-10

    For the first time, two space-based telescopes have teamed up with ground-based observatories to observe a microlensing event, a magnification of the light of a distant star due to the gravitational effects of an unseen object in the foreground. In this case, the cause of the microlensing event was a brown dwarf, dubbed OGLE-2015-BLG-1319, orbiting a star. In terms of mass, brown dwarfs fall somewhere between the size of the largest planets and the smallest stars. Curiously, scientists have found that, for stars roughly the mass of our sun, less than 1 percent have a brown dwarf orbiting within 3 AU (1 AU is the distance between Earth and the sun). This newly discovered brown dwarf may fall in that distance range. This microlensing event was observed by ground-based telescopes looking for these uncommon events, and subsequently seen by NASA's Spitzer and Swift space telescopes. As the diagram shows, Spitzer and Swift offer additional vantage points for viewing this chance alignment. While Swift orbits close to Earth, and saw (blue diamonds) essentially the same change in light that the ground-based telescopes measured (grey markers), Spitzer's location much farther away from Earth gave it a very different perspective on the event (red circles). In particular, Spitzer's vantage point resulted in a time lag in the microlensing event it observed, compared to what was seen by Swift and the ground-based telescope. This offset allowed astronomers to determine the distance to OGLE-2015-BLG-1319 as well as its mass: around 30-65 times that of Jupiter. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21077

  13. Origins, Evolution, and Fate of Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Research related to the origins, evolution and fate of brown dwarfs is presented. The topics include: 1) Imaging surveys for brown dwarfs; 2) Companion detection techniques; 3) Measurements of fundamental properties of brown dwarfs; 4) Classification schemes for ultracool dwarfs; 5) Origins and evolution of brown dwarfs; 6) Ultracool atmospheres and interiors; 7) Time variable phenomena in brown dwarfs; 8) Comparisons between brown dwarfs and planets; 9) Substellar mass functions; and 10) Future facilities.

  14. How, Now, Brown Dwarfs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    The vocabulary of astronomy is riddled with colorful names for stars, from red giants to blue stragglers. Objects with masses between roughly .01 and .1 solar masses are called "brown dwarfs". Do they - could they - ever actually appear brown? Color is not a one-dimensional physical parameter like wavelength. It is a complex, psychophysical phenomenon involving not only three degrees of freedom - hue (often incorrectly equated with "color"), saturation and brightness - but also observational context. The perceptual nature of color has been known since Newton wrote in his "Opticks” in 1704: "For the Rays to speak properly are not coloured. In them there is nothing else than a certain Power and disposition to stir up a Sensation of this or that Colour.” To most observers, the 2000 or so naked eye stars observable from the northern hemisphere all appear white, with the half dozen exceptions which look reddish/orange like Betelgeuse, Arcturus and Antares. But what color would Betelgeuse (effective temperature 3600 K) appear at a distance of, say, 100 times the Earth-Sun separation? Not red. In fact, it has a temperature about 40% higher than that of an ordinary incandescent light bulb. It would appear white (or yellowish)! Can a very cool radiating (emissive) object ever appear brown? What is brown anyway? It is not a primary or even secondary color. In this presentation, we will explore the nature and meaning of "brown” by the use of several physical and computer demonstrations developed as part of "Project LITE- Light Inquiry Through Experiments", an educational materials development project. These demonstrations show that an isolated thermally radiating object will never appear brown. Hence the term "Brown Dwarf” is as nonsensical as the phrase "How, Now, Brown Cow?". Project LITE is supported by the NSF through DUE Grant # 0715975.

  15. Brown Dwarf Weather (Artist's Concept)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-17

    This artist's concept animation shows a brown dwarf with bands of clouds, thought to resemble those seen on Neptune and the other outer planets in the solar system. By using NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, astronomers have found that the varying glow of brown dwarfs over time can be explained by bands of patchy clouds rotating at different speeds. Videos are available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21752

  16. The brown dwarf kinematics project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faherty, Jackie K.

    2010-10-01

    Brown dwarfs are a recent addition to the plethora of objects studied in Astronomy. With theoretical masses between 13 and 75 MJupiter , they lack sustained stable Hydrogen burning so they never join the stellar main sequence. They have physical properties similar to both planets and low-mass stars so studies of their population inform on both. The distances and kinematics of brown dwarfs provide key statistical constraints on their ages, moving group membership, absolute brightnesses, evolutionary trends, and multiplicity. Yet, until my thesis, fundamental measurements of parallax and proper motion were made for only a relatively small fraction of the known population. To address this deficiency, I initiated the Brown Dwarf Kinematics (BDKP). Over the past four years I have re-imaged the majority of spectroscopically confirmed field brown dwarfs (or ultracool dwarfs---UCDs) and created the largest proper motion catalog for ultracool dwarfs to date. Using new astrometric information I examined population characteristics such as ages calculated from velocity dispersions and correlations between kinematics and colors. Using proper motions, I identified several new wide co-moving companions and investigated binding energy (and hence formation) limitations as well as the frequency of hierarchical companions. Concurrently over the past four years I have been conducting a parallax survey of 84 UCDs including those showing spectral signatures of youth, metal-poor brown dwarfs, and those within 20 pc of the Sun. Using absolute magnitude relations in J,H, and K, I identified overluminous binary candidates and investigated known flux-reversal binaries. Using current evolutionary models, I compared the MK vs J-K color magnitude diagram to model predictions and found that the low-surface gravity dwarfs are significantly red-ward and underluminous of predictions and a handful of late-type T dwarfs may require thicker clouds to account for their scatter.

  17. FLITECAM/SOFIA Commissioning and Early Science and A Study of Late-T Dwarf Color Outliers with NIRSPEC/Keck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logsdon, Sarah E.

    2017-01-01

    My thesis combines the development of infrared instrumentation with the application of infrared imaging and spectroscopy to the characterization of the highest and lowest mass products of the star formation process. I supported the development and commissioning of FLITECAM, a 1-5 μm imager and spectrograph for SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy), as the UCLA FLITECAM Instrument Scientist, and used FLITECAM to probe high-mass star formation. In parallel, I used the NIRSPEC spectrograph at Keck Observatory to study the lowest mass products of star formation, brown dwarfs. Here, I present an overview of FLITECAM’s in-flight performance in both imaging and spectroscopy modes. I also describe the results of an imaging survey of the NGC 2024 and W3 star-forming regions using FLITECAM’s Paschen-α (1.87 μm) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH; 3.3 μm) filters. These filters provide an effective way to trace the ionized gas emission and the emission from small grains. Additionally, I present the results of a NIRSPEC/Keck spectroscopic follow-up survey of 13 late-type T dwarfs (T6-T9) with unusually red or blue J-H colors. Previous work suggests that J-H color outliers may represent the high-gravity, low-metallicity (old) and low-gravity, high-metallicity (young) extremes of the late-T dwarf population. I find that the T dwarf color outliers in this sample are more homogenous than expected. Nevertheless, comparisons to spectral standards and publicly available atmospheric models do reveal subtle physical differences in their spectral morphologies.

  18. Brown dwarfs from decaying accreting triple systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umbreit, S.; Burkert, A.; Henning, Th.; Mikkola, S.; Spurzem, R.

    We investigate the dynamical decay of non-hierarchical accreting triple systems and its implications on the ejection model as Brown Dwarf formation scenario. We analyse the end states of these systems and determine the fraction of Brown Dwarfs formed as well as the semi-major axis distribution of the formed Brown Dwarf binaries. Furthermore we estimate how destructive such triple interactions can be to disks surrounding the Brown Dwarfs.

  19. Brown Dwarf Weather (Artist's Concept)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-06

    This artist's concept shows what the weather might look like on cool star-like bodies known as brown dwarfs. These giant balls of gas start out life like stars, but lack the mass to sustain nuclear fusion at their cores, and instead, fade and cool with time. Observations from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope suggest that most brown dwarfs are roiling with one or more planet-size storms akin to Jupiter's "Great Red Spot." https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21475

  20. Brown Dwarf HIP 79124 B

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-30

    This image shows brown dwarf HIP 79124 B, located 23 times as far from its host star as Earth is from the sun. The vortex coronagraph, an instrument at the W.M. Keck Observatory, was used to suppress light from the much brighter host star, allowing its dim companion to be imaged for the first time. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21417

  1. Brown dwarfs in young stellar clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stringfellow, Guy S.

    1991-01-01

    The present calculations of the early evolution of brown dwarfs and very low mass stars (LMSs) yield isochrones spanning 0.01-0.2 solar masses for ages in the 1 to 300 million year range. Since the brown dwarfs remain sharply segregated in T(eff) from LMSs for ages of less than 100 million years, it follows that for coeval populations of known age, a domain exists in the H-R diagram in which only brown dwarfs exist. These theoretical results are compared with recent observations of the Pleiades brown dwarf candidates, using two new sets of color-T(eff) transformations. Both sets yield consistent interpretations.

  2. Collecting Brown Dwarfs in the Night Sky

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-09

    The green dot in the middle of this image might look like an emerald amidst glittering diamonds, but is a dim star belonging to a class called brown dwarfs; it is the first ultra-cool brown dwarf discovered by NASA Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer.

  3. Young Brown Dwarfs as Giant Exoplanets Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faherty, Jacqueline; Cruz, Kelle; Rice, Emily; Riedel, Adric

    2013-07-01

    Young brown dwarfs and directly-imaged exoplanets have enticingly similar photometric, spectroscopic, and luminosity characteristics, indicating that their cool, low gravity atmospheres should be studied in concert. We have identified, confirmed, and characterized several new young M and L type brown dwarfs (see Faherty et al. 2013) and compared them to directly-imaged planetary mass companions and exoplanets like 2MASS 1207b and HR8799b. Similarities between the peculiar shaped H band and location on near-IR color magnitude diagrams provide important clues about how to extract physical properties of planets from current brown dwarf observations. In this poster I present a sample of age-calibrated young brown dwarfs that form the basis for comparative brown-dwarf exoplanet studies

  4. Brown dwarf disks with ALMA

    SciTech Connect

    Ricci, L.; Isella, A.; Testi, L.; De Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.; Natta, A.; Scholz, A.

    2014-08-10

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array continuum and spectral line data at 0.89 mm and 3.2 mm for three disks surrounding young brown dwarfs and very low mass stars in the Taurus star forming region. Dust thermal emission is detected and spatially resolved for all the three disks, while CO(J = 3-2) emission is seen in two disks. We analyze the continuum visibilities and constrain the disks' physical structure in dust. The results of our analysis show that the disks are relatively large; the smallest one has an outer radius of about 70 AU. The inferred disk radii, radial profiles of the dust surface density, and disk to central object mass ratios lie within the ranges found for disks around more massive young stars. We derive from our observations the wavelength dependence of the millimeter dust opacity. In all the three disks, data are consistent with the presence of grains with at least millimeter sizes, as also found for disks around young stars, and confirm that the early stages of the solid growth toward planetesimals occur also around very low-mass objects. We discuss the implications of our findings on models of solids evolution in protoplanetary disks, the main mechanisms proposed for the formation of brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars, as well as the potential of finding rocky and giant planets around very low-mass objects.

  5. Principal Component Analysis of Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleary, Colleen; Rodriguez, David

    2017-01-01

    Principal component analysis is a technique for reducing variables and emphasizing patterns in a data set. In this study, the data set consisted of the attributes of 174 brown dwarfs. The PCA was performed on several photometric measurements in near-infrared wavelengths and colors in order to determine if these variables showed a correlation with the physical parameters. This research resulted in two separate models that predict luminosity and temperature. The application of principal component analysis on the near-infrared photometric measurements and colors of brown dwarfs, along with models, provides alternate methods for predicting the luminosity and temperature of brown dwarfs using only photometric measurements.

  6. Young Brown Dwarfs as Giant Exoplanet Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Rice, Emily L.; Riedel, Adric

    2014-01-01

    Young brown dwarfs and directly-imaged exoplanets have enticingly similar photometric and spectroscopic characteristics, indicating that their cool, low gravity atmospheres should be studied in concert. Similarities between the peculiar shaped H band, near and mid-IR photometry as well as location on color magnitude diagrams provide important clues about how to extract physical properties of planets from current brown dwarf observations. In this proceeding we discuss systems newly assigned to 10-150 Myr nearby moving groups, highlight the diversity of this uniform age-calibrated brown dwarf sample, and reflect on their implication for understanding current and future planetary data.

  7. Young brown dwarfs as giant exoplanet analogs .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faherty, J. K.; Cruz, K. L.; Rice, E. L.; Riedel, A.

    Young brown dwarfs and directly-imaged exoplanets have enticingly similar photometric and spectroscopic characteristics, indicating that their cool, low gravity atmospheres should be studied in concert. Similarities between the peculiar shaped H band, near and mid-IR photometry, as well as location on color magnitude diagrams provide important clues about how to extract physical properties of planets from current brown dwarf observations. In this proceeding we discuss systems newly assigned to 10-150 Myr nearby moving groups, highlight the diversity of this uniform age-calibrated brown dwarf sample, and reflect on their implication for understanding current and future planetary data.

  8. Brown Dwarfs at the Exoplanet Mass Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faherty, J. K.; Cruz, K. L.; Rice, E. L.; Riedel, A.

    2014-10-01

    Young brown dwarfs and directly-imaged exoplanets have enticingly similar photometric and spectroscopic characteristics, indicating that their cool, low gravity atmospheres should be studied in concert. Similarities between the peculiar shaped H band, near and mid-IR photometry as well as location on color magnitude diagrams provide important clues about how to extract physical properties of planets from current brown dwarf observations. Our team has assigned >30 brown dwarfs to 10-150 Myr nearby moving groups. In so doing, we have discovered important diversity among this extremely low-mass (10 - 30 M_{Jup}) age-calibrated sample indicating that cloud properties play a critical role in their observables.

  9. Polarization of Young Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjavacas, Elena; Miles-Páez, Paulo A.; Zapatero-Osorio, Maria Rosa; Goldman, Bertrand; Buenzli, Esther; Henning, Thomas; Pallé, Enric

    2016-08-01

    Linear polarization due to scattering processes can be used as a probe of the existence of atmospheric condensates in ultracool dwarfs. Models predict that the observed linear polarization increases with the degree of oblateness, which is inverse to the surface gravity.We aimed to measure optical linear polarization from a sample of six young brown dwarfs, with spectral types between M6 to L2, and cataloged previously as objects with low gravity using spectroscopy. These targets are believed to have dusty atmospheres as a consequence of their low gravity, therefore linearly polarized light is expected from these objects.Linear polarimetric data were collected in I and R-band using CAFOS at the 2.2m telescope in Calar Alto Observatory.We obtained results of linear polarization in the I-band compatible with non polarization for all the objects, and similar results for the polarization degree in the R-band for all objects with the exception of 2M0422. For this object we find a linear polarization degree of 0.81+-0.18%. 2M0422 is 10 deg to the south of the Taurus star-forming region, thus, we suspect that its polarization is caused by the dust in the cloud in which 2M0422 might be embedded.

  10. A Million Years Young: Determining the Ages of 11 Suspected Young Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, Ellie; DiTomasso, Victoria; Riedel, Adric R.; Rice, Emily L.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; BDNYC

    2016-01-01

    Brown dwarfs continuously cool and fade with time, so knowing an object's age is necessary in order to estimate its mass. One of the most reliable ways to constrain the age is to identify objects as members of coeval moving groups with reliable ages based on higher mass members. Confirming membership requires knowledge of an object's parallax distance, proper motion, and radial velocity (RV), which requires a high-resolution spectrum. We obtained high-resolution NIRSPEC J-band data and measured radial velocities for a sample of 11 suspected young, nearby M and L dwarfs. We combined these RV values with previously calculated parallax distances and proper motions to determine the likelihood of young moving group membership using the LACeWING code (Riedel et al. 2015). We confirmed memberships in the Argus Association (~40 Myr) and Tucana-Horologium (~30 Myr) with a probability of >66.7% for two of the 11 brown dwarfs. Another one of the dwarfs had a >79.5% probability of membership in both the AB Doradus (110 Myr) and Hercules-Lyra (257 Myr) groups, which will require further inquiry to resolve. We also compare spectra of our 11 brown dwarfs to spectra of established young and field brown dwarfs in order to further understand spectral indicators of youth at high spectral resolution.

  11. Anatomy of Brown Dwarf Atmosphere Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-01-08

    This artist illustration shows the atmosphere of a brown dwarf called 2MASSJ22282889-431026, which was observed simultaneously by NASA Spitzer and Hubble space telescopes. The results were unexpected, revealing offset layers of material.

  12. A Trio of Brown Dwarfs Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-23

    This artist conception based on data from NASA Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer illustrates what brown dwarfs of different types might look like to a hypothetical interstellar traveler who has flown a spaceship to each one.

  13. Thermochemical modelling of brown dwarf discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, A. J.; Kamp, I.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Woitke, P.; Thi, W.-F.; Rab, Ch.; Aresu, G.; Spaans, M.

    2017-05-01

    The physical properties of brown dwarf discs, in terms of their shapes and sizes, are still largely unexplored by observations. ALMA has by far the best capabilities to observe these discs in sub-mm CO lines and dust continuum, while also spatially resolving some discs. To what extent brown dwarf discs are similar to scaled-down T Tauri discs is currently unknown, and this work is a step towards establishing a relationship through the eventual modelling of future observations. We use observations of the brown dwarf disc ρ Oph 102 to infer a fiducial model around which we build a small grid of brown dwarf disc models, in order to model the CO, HCN, and HCO+ line fluxes and the chemistry which drives their abundances. These are the first brown dwarf models to be published which relate detailed, 2D radiation thermochemical disc models to observational data. We predict that moderately extended ALMA antenna configurations will spatially resolve CO line emission around brown dwarf discs, and that HCN and HCO+ will be detectable in integrated flux, following our conclusion that the flux ratios of these molecules to CO emission are comparable to that of T Tauri discs. These molecules have not yet been observed in sub-mm wavelengths in a brown dwarf disc, yet they are crucial tracers of the warm surface-layer gas and of ionization in the outer parts of the disc. We present the prediction that if the physical and chemical processes in brown dwarf discs are similar to those that occur in T Tauri discs - as our models suggest - then the same diagnostics that are used for T Tauri discs can be used for brown dwarf discs (such as HCN and HCO+ lines that have not yet been observed in the sub-mm), and that these lines should be observable with ALMA. Through future observations, either confirmation (or refutation) of these ideas about brown dwarf disc chemistry will have strong implications for our understanding of disc chemistry, structure, and subsequent planet formation in brown

  14. Formation of Brown Dwarfs LTSA 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    The goals of the work funded by this grant are: 1) The measurement of the mass function and minimum mass of free-floating brown dwarfs down to the mass of Jupiter. 2) The measurement of the frequency of wide brown dwarf and planetary companions down to the mass of Jupiter as function of primary mass (0.02-2 Msun), age (1-10 Myr), and environment (clusters vs. dispersed regions).

  15. Formation of Brown Dwarfs LTSA 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    The goals of the work funded by this grant are: 1) The measurement of the mass function and minimum mass of free-floating brown dwarfs down to the mass of Jupiter. 2) The measurement of the frequency of wide brown dwarf and planetary companions down to the mass of Jupiter as function of primary mass (0.02-2 Msun), age (1-10 Myr), and environment (clusters vs. dispersed regions).

  16. MICROLENSING BINARIES WITH CANDIDATE BROWN DWARF COMPANIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, I.-G.; Han, C.; Gould, A.; Skowron, J.; Udalski, A.; Szymanski, M. K.; Kubiak, M.; Soszynski, I.; Pietrzynski, G.; Poleski, R.; Ulaczyk, K.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Kozlowski, S.; Wyrzykowski, L.; Sumi, T.; Dominik, M.; Beaulieu, J.-P.; Tsapras, Y.; Bozza, V.; Abe, F.; Collaboration: OGLE Collaboration; MOA Collaboration; muFUN Collaboration; and others

    2012-12-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing events discovered during the 2004-2011 observation seasons. Based on the low mass ratio criterion of q < 0.2, we found seven candidate events: OGLE-2004-BLG-035, OGLE-2004-BLG-039, OGLE-2007-BLG-006, OGLE-2007-BLG-399/MOA-2007-BLG-334, MOA-2011-BLG-104/OGLE-2011-BLG-0172, MOA-2011-BLG-149, and MOA-201-BLG-278/OGLE-2011-BLG-012N. Among them, we are able to confirm that the companions of the lenses of MOA-2011-BLG-104/OGLE-2011-BLG-0172 and MOA-2011-BLG-149 are brown dwarfs by determining the mass of the lens based on the simultaneous measurement of the Einstein radius and the lens parallax. The measured masses of the brown dwarf companions are 0.02 {+-} 0.01 M {sub Sun} and 0.019 {+-} 0.002 M {sub Sun} for MOA-2011-BLG-104/OGLE-2011-BLG-0172 and MOA-2011-BLG-149, respectively, and both companions are orbiting low-mass M dwarf host stars. More microlensing brown dwarfs are expected to be detected as the number of lensing events with well-covered light curves increases with new-generation searches.

  17. The WISE View of Ultracool Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cushing, Michael; Kirkpatrick, J.; Mainzer, A.; Gelino, C.; Griffith, R.; Skrutskie, M.

    2011-01-01

    One of the primary science goals of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), a NASA MIDEX mission to survey the entire sky at four mid-infrared wavelengths, is to identify the coolest (Teff < 500K) brown dwarfs in the solar neighborhood. Study of these ultracool brown dwarfs will allow us to constrain the low-mass mass function and extend our studies of low-temperature, high-pressure atmospheric physics well into the exoplanet regime. I will present some early results of our brown dwarf program and in particular, will present near-infrared spectra of some of the very late-type T dwarfs we have discovered as well as the initial results of model atmosphere comparisons. This research was supported [in part] by an appointment to the NASA Postdoctoral Program at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, administered by Oak Ridge Associated Universities through a contract with NASA.

  18. The luminosities of the coldest brown dwarfs

    SciTech Connect

    Tinney, C. G.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Cushing, Mike; Morley, Caroline V.; Wright, Edward L.

    2014-11-20

    In recent years, brown dwarfs have been extended to a new Y-dwarf class with effective temperatures colder than 500 K and masses in the range of 5-30 Jupiter masses. They fill a crucial gap in observable atmospheric properties between the much colder gas-giant planets of our own solar system (at around 130 K) and both hotter T-type brown dwarfs and the hotter planets that can be imaged orbiting young nearby stars (both with effective temperatures in the range of 1500-1000 K). Distance measurements for these objects deliver absolute magnitudes that make critical tests of our understanding of very cool atmospheres. Here we report new distances for nine Y dwarfs and seven very late T dwarfs. These reveal that Y dwarfs do indeed represent a continuation of the T-dwarf sequence to both fainter luminosities and cooler temperatures. They also show that the coolest objects display a large range in absolute magnitude for a given photometric color. The latest atmospheric models show good agreement with the majority of these Y-dwarf absolute magnitudes. This is also the case for WISE0855-0714, the coldest and closest brown dwarf to the Sun, which shows evidence for water ice clouds. However, there are also some outstanding exceptions, which suggest either binarity or the presence of condensate clouds. The former is readily testable with current adaptive optics facilities. The latter would mean that the range of cloudiness in Y dwarfs is substantial with most hosting almost no clouds—while others have dense clouds, making them prime targets for future variability observations to study cloud dynamics.

  19. Your Age is Showing: Understanding the Spectral Features of Young Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiTomasso, Victoria; Schwab, Ellianna; Rice, Emily L.; Riedel, Adric R.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Faherty, Jackie

    2017-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are substellar objects that continuously cool, shrink, and fade over billions of years. These physical changes lead us to expect that young objects will have spectral indicators of low gravity. We selected 11 brown dwarfs ranging in spectral type from M7-L7 whose optical and/or low resolution NIR spectroscopy suggest that they are low gravity, hence young, objects. Using high-resolution (R~20,000) near-infrared data from the NIRSPEC instrument at the Keck II telescope in Hawaii, we analyzed J-band (1.1-1.4 μm) spectra of these targets. We calculated their radial velocities and combined those values with previously calculated parallax distances and proper motions to determine their likelihood of membership in nearby young moving groups, successfully placing three of them. We also compared our high-resolution spectra to observations of confirmed young (<500 Myr old) and field age (1-5 Gyr old) brown dwarfs. We examined differences in the gravity-sensitive potassium (K I) lines at 1.175 μm and 1.25 μm both qualitatively and quantitatively. By analyzing the high resolution spectroscopy of these candidate young brown dwarfs we can evaluate the consistency of spectral indicators of youth across spectral type, age, resolution, and wavelength regime.

  20. GROWTH OF GRAINS IN BROWN DWARF DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Meru, Farzana; Galvagni, Marina; Olczak, Christoph

    2013-09-01

    We perform coagulation and fragmentation simulations using the new physically motivated model by Garaud et al. to determine growth locally in brown dwarf disks. We show that large grains can grow and that if brown dwarf disks are scaled-down versions of T Tauri disks (in terms of stellar mass, disk mass, and disk radius) growth at an equivalent location with respect to the disk truncation radius can occur to the same size in both disks. We show that similar growth occurs because the collisional timescales in the two disks are comparable. Our model may therefore potentially explain the recent observations of grain growth to millimeter sizes in brown dwarf disks, as seen in T Tauri disks.

  1. The Formation of Brown Dwarfs : Observational Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huelamo, Nuria

    2017-06-01

    How do brown dwarfs (BDs) form? The formation of substellar objects is still under debate, and several mechanisms have been proposed to explain their origin, e.g. gravoturbulent fragmentation, disk fragmentation or the ejection from a multiple system at very early stages of their evolution. In this talk I will review different observational studies focused on understanding the origin of brown dwarfs: I will describe the main properties of the so-called Very Low Luminosity Objects (VeLLOs), the first hydrostatic cores, and some interesting properties of young BDs that can shed light on their formation mechanism.

  2. A Panchromatic View of Brown Dwarf Aurorae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineda, J. Sebastian; Hallinan, Gregg; Kao, Melodie M.

    2017-09-01

    Stellar coronal activity has been shown to persist into the low-mass star regime, down to late M-dwarf spectral types. However, there is now an accumulation of evidence suggesting that at the end of the main sequence, there is a transition in the nature of the magnetic activity from chromospheric and coronal to planet-like and auroral, from local impulsive heating via flares and MHD wave dissipation to energy dissipation from strong large-scale magnetospheric current systems. We examine this transition and the prevalence of auroral activity in brown dwarfs through a compilation of multiwavelength surveys of magnetic activity, including radio, X-ray, and optical. We compile the results of those surveys and place their conclusions in the context of auroral emission as a consequence of large-scale magnetospheric current systems that accelerate energetic electron beams and drive the particles to impact the cool atmospheric gas. We explore the different manifestations of auroral phenomena, like Hα, in brown dwarf atmospheres and define their distinguishing characteristics. We conclude that large-amplitude photometric variability in the near-infrared is most likely a consequence of clouds in brown dwarf atmospheres, but that auroral activity may be responsible for long-lived stable surface features. We report a connection between auroral Hα emission and quiescent radio emission in electron cyclotron maser instability pulsing brown dwarfs, suggesting a potential underlying physical connection between quiescent and auroral emissions. We also discuss the electrodynamic engines powering brown dwarf aurorae and the possible role of satellites around these systems both to power the aurorae and seed the magnetosphere with plasma.

  3. PHL 5038: a spatially resolved white dwarf + brown dwarf binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, P. R.; Burleigh, M. R.; Farihi, J.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Jameson, R. F.; Dobbie, P. D.; Barstow, M. A.

    2009-06-01

    A near-infrared excess is detected at the white dwarf PHL 5038 in UKIDSS photometry, consistent with the presence of a cool, substellar companion. We have obtained H- and K-grism spectra and images of PHL 5038 using NIRI on Gemini North. The target is spatially and spectrally resolved into two components: an 8000 K DA white dwarf, and a likely L8 brown dwarf companion, separated by 0.94 arcsec. The spectral type of the secondary was determined using standard spectral indices for late L and T dwarfs. The projected orbital separation of the binary is 55 AU, so it becomes only the second known wide WD+dL binary to be found after GD 165AB. This object could potentially be used as a benchmark for testing substellar evolutionary models at intermediate to older ages.

  4. Parallax measurements of six brown dwarfs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjavacas, E.; Goldman, B.; Reffert, S.; Henning, T.

    Accurate parallax measurements allow us to determine physical properties of brown dwarfs, and help us to constrain evolutionary and atmospheric models and reveal unresolved binaries. We measured absolute trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions of six cool brown dwarfs using background galaxies to establish an absolute reference frame. The brown dwarfs in our sample have spectral types between T2.5 and T7.5. The observations were taken in the J-band with the Omega2000 camera at the 3.5 m telescope at CAHA during a time period of 27 months. We obtained absolute parallaxes for our 6 brown dwarfs with a precision between 3 and 6 mas. We compared our results with the study by \\cite{Dupuy} and with the evolutionary models of \\cite{Allard}. For four of the six targets we found a good agreement in luminosity among objects of similar spectral types. The object 2MASS J11061197+2754225 is more than 1 mag overluminous in all bands pointing to binarity or higher order multiplicity. Based on observations taken with Omega-2000 at the 3.5 m telescope at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated by the Max Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC).

  5. Brown Dwarfs: Discovery and Detailed Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.

    2001-01-01

    We obtained the optical and IR spectra of Gliese 229B and identified Cs, I, and CO features - as expected in theoretical models. Our optical IR spectrum showed that most of the refractory metals have condensed out of the atmosphere and the presence of Cs, I and CO shows evidence for disequilibrium chemistry. We reported orbital evidence for Gliese 229B. The HST measured optical magnitudes provide additional evidence for the absence of dust in the atmosphere of this cool object. The luminosity of brown dwarfs depend on their masses and ages and in order to interpret the results of the survey we have carried out an extensive Monte Carlo analysis. Our conclusion is that warm brown dwarfs are rare, as companions in the orbital period range beyond approximately 30 - 50 AU. The Palomer survey poses no constraint for brown dwarfs in planetary orbits similar to those of the outer planets. We have just started a program of imaging nearby stars with the newly commissioned AO system at Palomar and Keck and have already found a brown dwarf candidate.

  6. Doppler Imaging of Exoplanets and Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crossfield, I.; Biller, B.; Schlieder, J.; Deacon, N.; Bonnefoy, M.; Homeier, D.; Allard, F.; Buenzli, E.; Henning, T.; Brandner, W.; Goldman, Bertr; Kopytova, T.

    2014-03-01

    Doppler Imaging produces 2D global maps. When applied to cool planets or more massive brown dwarfs, it can map atmospheric features and track global weather patterns. The first substellar map, of the 2pc-distant brown dwarf Luhman 16B (Crossfeld et al. 2014), revealed patchy regions of thin & thick clouds. Here, I investigate the feasibility of future Doppler Imaging of additional objects. Searching the literature, I find that all 3 of P, v sin i, and variability are published for 22 brown dwarfs. At least one datum exists for 333 targets. The sample is very incomplete below ~L5; we need more surveys to find the best targets for Doppler Imaging! I estimate limiting magnitudes for Doppler Imaging with various hi-resolution near-infrared spectrographs. Only a handful of objects - at the M/L and L/T transitions - can be mapped with current tools. Large telescopes such as TMT and GMT will allow Doppler Imaging of many dozens of brown dwarfs and the brightest exoplanets. More targets beyond type L5 likely remain to be found. Future observations will let us probe the global atmospheric dynamics of many diverse objects.

  7. Detection of Brown Dwarf and Planet Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheaton, N.; Cisneros, E.; Munoz, L.; Munoz, T.; Ramos, D.; Medrano, O.; Mason, P.

    2013-12-01

    Data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) was analyzed by our team. These data were part of the Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS). These included observations of 2,580 targets requiring classification. As the result of our analysis we found: 188 binary stars, 289 possible brown dwarfs, and 1,427 possible exoplanets.

  8. Formation of Brown Dwarfs LTSA 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luhman, Kevin L.; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The goals of the work funded by this grant are: 1) The measurement of the mass function and minimum mass of free-floating brown dwarfs down to the mass of Jupiter; 2) The measurement of the frequency of wide brown dwarf and planetary companions down to the mass of Jupiter as function of primary mass (0.02-2 Msun), age (1-10 Myr), and environment (clusters vs. dispersed regions). For the first objective, we have completed the design of guaranteed SIRTF observations of nearby star-forming regions. With the successful launch of the SIRTF mission in August of 2003, we now await the execution of these observations, which should begin in early 2004. In support of these upcoming observations, in the fall of 2002 and spring of 2003 we obtained optical spectroscopy at the MMT, the 1.5 meter telescope at Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, and Magellan Observatory for several hundred candidate young low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in the IC348, Taurus, and Chamaeleon star-forming regions. All of these data have been published in three papers in The Astrophysical Journal. We also recently used the MMT to obtain deep near-IR images of IC348 to accompany the SIRTF images and have time in the next month at the IRTF and Keck for spectroscopy of candidate brown dwarfs in IC348 and Taurus. We have submitted proposals for deep optical and near-IR imaging of the SIRTF fields in Chamaeleon and Ophiuchus for spring 2004 with Magellan and the AAT. Results from this research have been presented in invited talks at UU Symposium 221 (July 2003) and at the SIRTF Galactic Science Workshop (August 2003). For the second objective, we have used deep HST WFPC2 images to search for young giant planets and brown dwarfs around approx. 100 low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in the nearby cluster IC348. We have completed all data reduction and have checked these data for candidate companions. We expect to submit the paper describing these observations to The Astrophysical Journal by the end of the year

  9. Formation of Brown Dwarfs LTSA 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luhman, Kevin L.; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The goals of the work funded by this grant are: 1) The measurement of the mass function and minimum mass of free-floating brown dwarfs down to the mass of Jupiter; 2) The measurement of the frequency of wide brown dwarf and planetary companions down to the mass of Jupiter as function of primary mass (0.02-2 Msun), age (1-10 Myr), and environment (clusters vs. dispersed regions). For the first objective, we have completed the design of guaranteed SIRTF observations of nearby star-forming regions. With the successful launch of the SIRTF mission in August of 2003, we now await the execution of these observations, which should begin in early 2004. In support of these upcoming observations, in the fall of 2002 and spring of 2003 we obtained optical spectroscopy at the MMT, the 1.5 meter telescope at Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, and Magellan Observatory for several hundred candidate young low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in the IC348, Taurus, and Chamaeleon star-forming regions. All of these data have been published in three papers in The Astrophysical Journal. We also recently used the MMT to obtain deep near-IR images of IC348 to accompany the SIRTF images and have time in the next month at the IRTF and Keck for spectroscopy of candidate brown dwarfs in IC348 and Taurus. We have submitted proposals for deep optical and near-IR imaging of the SIRTF fields in Chamaeleon and Ophiuchus for spring 2004 with Magellan and the AAT. Results from this research have been presented in invited talks at UU Symposium 221 (July 2003) and at the SIRTF Galactic Science Workshop (August 2003). For the second objective, we have used deep HST WFPC2 images to search for young giant planets and brown dwarfs around approx. 100 low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in the nearby cluster IC348. We have completed all data reduction and have checked these data for candidate companions. We expect to submit the paper describing these observations to The Astrophysical Journal by the end of the year

  10. Clouds in the Coldest Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Tinney, Christopher G.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Skemer, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The NASA WISE satellite has been extremely effective at discovering and characterizing the coldest brown dwarfs. Among the objects in the "300 K or below club" are our best analogs to Jupiter (~125 K). Since 2011 our team has been using the Magellan FourStar infrared imager to measure parallaxes of a subset of the current collection of Y dwarfs. We have also used the VLT ISAAC infrared imager to record J, H and/or K band magnitudes. In this contribution, we will report new parallax and photometric measurements for a subset of the population and examine atmospheric implications from model comparisons of color magnitude diagrams. While warmer T dwarfs are often regarded as cloudless, we find that clouds return as temperatures cool and sulfide clouds help explain the diversity in absolute magnitudes of Y dwarfs. In the case of the coldest brown dwarf known (W0855; Luhman 2014) there are indications that water and sulfide ice clouds are present in the atmosphere.

  11. A Very Cool Pair of Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-03-01

    Observations with the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope, along with two other telescopes, have shown that there is a new candidate for the coldest known star: a brown dwarf in a double system with about the same temperature as a freshly made cup of tea - hot in human terms, but extraordinarily cold for the surface of a star. This object is cool enough to begin crossing the blurred line dividing small cold stars from big hot planets. Brown dwarfs are essentially failed stars: they lack enough mass for gravity to trigger the nuclear reactions that make stars shine. The newly discovered brown dwarf, identified as CFBDSIR 1458+10B, is the dimmer member of a binary brown dwarf system located just 75 light-years from Earth [1]. The powerful X-shooter spectrograph on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) was used to show that the composite object was very cool by brown dwarf standards. "We were very excited to see that this object had such a low temperature, but we couldn't have guessed that it would turn out to be a double system and have an even more interesting, even colder component," said Philippe Delorme of the Institut de planétologie et d'astrophysique de Grenoble (CNRS/Université Joseph Fourier), a co-author of the paper. CFBDSIR 1458+10 is the coolest brown dwarf binary found to date. The dimmer of the two dwarfs has now been found to have a temperature of about 100 degrees Celsius - the boiling point of water, and not much different from the temperature inside a sauna [2]. "At such temperatures we expect the brown dwarf to have properties that are different from previously known brown dwarfs and much closer to those of giant exoplanets - it could even have water clouds in its atmosphere," said Michael Liu of the University of Hawaii's Institute for Astronomy, who is lead author of the paper describing this new work. "In fact, once we start taking images of gas-giant planets around Sun-like stars in the near future, I expect that many of them

  12. Formation of Brown Dwarfs LTSA 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luhman, Kevin L.; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The goals of the work funded by this grant are: (1) The measurement of the mass function and minimum mass of free-floating brown dwarfs down to the mass of Jupiter; (2) The measurement of the frequency of wide brown dwarf and planetary companions down to the mass of Jupiter as function of primary mass (0.02-2 Msun), age (1-10 Myr), and environment (clusters vs. dispersed regions). For the first objective, we have completed the design of guaranteed SIRTF observations of nearby star-forming regions and now await the launch of the mission in April 2003. In support of these upcoming observations, in the fall of 2002 we obtained optical spectroscopy at the MMT and the 1.5-meter telescope at Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory for candidate young low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in the IC348 and Taurus star-forming regions. Two papers that include these data in new measurements of the mass functions in these regions are near completion and will be submitted for publication to the Astrophysical Journal in January. We have also proposed deep optical and near-IR imaging of the SIRTF fields in the IC348, Chamaeleon, and Ophiuchus star-forming regions with the MMT, Magellan, and Gemini North telescopes in early 2003. For the second objective, we have used deep HST WFPC2 images to search for young giant planets and brown dwarfs around approximately 100 low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in the nearby cluster IC 348. We have completed all data reduction and have checked these data for candidate companions. We are in the process of writing a paper that describes these candidate companions and presents the companion detection limits that were achieved with HST. We will attempt followup spectroscopy of the most promising candidate companions to confirm their nature as cool companions rather than background field stars during the commissioning of the facility adaptive optics system for the Gemini North telescope early in 2003. In addition, in SIRTF guaranteed time observations we plan to

  13. Formation of Brown Dwarfs LTSA 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luhman, Kevin L.; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The goals of the work funded by this grant are: (1) The measurement of the mass function and minimum mass of free-floating brown dwarfs down to the mass of Jupiter; (2) The measurement of the frequency of wide brown dwarf and planetary companions down to the mass of Jupiter as function of primary mass (0.02-2 Msun), age (1-10 Myr), and environment (clusters vs. dispersed regions). For the first objective, we have completed the design of guaranteed SIRTF observations of nearby star-forming regions and now await the launch of the mission in April 2003. In support of these upcoming observations, in the fall of 2002 we obtained optical spectroscopy at the MMT and the 1.5-meter telescope at Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory for candidate young low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in the IC348 and Taurus star-forming regions. Two papers that include these data in new measurements of the mass functions in these regions are near completion and will be submitted for publication to the Astrophysical Journal in January. We have also proposed deep optical and near-IR imaging of the SIRTF fields in the IC348, Chamaeleon, and Ophiuchus star-forming regions with the MMT, Magellan, and Gemini North telescopes in early 2003. For the second objective, we have used deep HST WFPC2 images to search for young giant planets and brown dwarfs around approximately 100 low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in the nearby cluster IC 348. We have completed all data reduction and have checked these data for candidate companions. We are in the process of writing a paper that describes these candidate companions and presents the companion detection limits that were achieved with HST. We will attempt followup spectroscopy of the most promising candidate companions to confirm their nature as cool companions rather than background field stars during the commissioning of the facility adaptive optics system for the Gemini North telescope early in 2003. In addition, in SIRTF guaranteed time observations we plan to

  14. Photometric variability of three brown dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samaddar, Debasmita

    We report a study of the photometric variability of 3 low-mass, sub-stellar objects. Two of them, 2MASS 1207334-393254 and 2MASS 1139511-315921, are young (10 Myr) brown dwarfs of M8 spectral class. 2MASS 1207334-393254 was observed in the I, R, J and Y bands, through April--May 2004, and in B and I bands through March--April 2005. 2MASS 1139511-315921 was observed in the I band, from October to December, 2004. The third object, 2MASS 04234858-0414035, a field T dwarf, was observed in the I band.

  15. Brown dwarfs as close companions to white dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stringfellow, Guy S.; Bodenheimer, Peter; Black, David C.

    1990-01-01

    The influence of the radiation flux emitted by a white dwarf primary on the evolution of a closely orbiting brown dwarf (BD) companion is investigated. Full stellar evolutionary calculations are presented for both isolated and thermal bath cases, including effects of large variations in the atmospheric grain opacities. High grain opacities significantly increase the radii of the BDs, but the thermal bath does not. The major influence of the thermal bath is to increase substantially the surface temperature and luminosity of the BD at a given age. These results are compared with the observational properties of the possible BD companion of the white dwarf G29-38. Inclusion of both physical effects, high grain opacities and thermal bath, increases the mass range (0.034-0.063 solar masses) of viable models significantly, yet the final determination of whether the object is indeed a BD requires improvements in the observations of the system's properties.

  16. SPECTROSCOPY OF PUTATIVE BROWN DWARFS IN TAURUS

    SciTech Connect

    Luhman, K. L.; Mamajek, E. E.

    2010-06-20

    Quanz and coworkers have reported the discovery of the coolest known member of the Taurus star-forming complex (L2 {+-} 0.5), and Barrado and coworkers have identified a possible protostellar binary brown dwarf in the same region. We have performed infrared spectroscopy on the former and the brighter component of the latter to verify their substellar nature. The resulting spectra do not exhibit the strong steam absorption bands that are expected for cool objects, demonstrating that they are not young brown dwarfs. The optical magnitudes and colors for these sources are also indicative of background stars rather than members of Taurus. Although the fainter component of the candidate protostellar binary lacks spectroscopy, we conclude that it is a galaxy rather than a substellar member of Taurus based on its colors and the constraints on its proper motion.

  17. SILICATE EVOLUTION IN BROWN DWARF DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Riaz, B.

    2009-08-10

    We present a compositional analysis of the 10 {mu}m silicate spectra for brown dwarf disks in the Taurus and Upper Scorpius (UppSco) star-forming regions, using archival Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph observations. A variety in the silicate features is observed, ranging from a narrow profile with a peak at 9.8 {mu}m, to nearly flat, low-contrast features. For most objects, we find nearly equal fractions for the large-grain and crystalline mass fractions, indicating both processes to be active in these disks. The median crystalline mass fraction for the Taurus brown dwarfs is found to be 20%, a factor of {approx}2 higher than the median reported for the higher mass stars in Taurus. The large-grain mass fractions are found to increase with an increasing strength in the X-ray emission, while the opposite trend is observed for the crystalline mass fractions. A small 5% of the Taurus brown dwarfs are still found to be dominated by pristine interstellar medium-like dust, with an amorphous submicron grain mass fraction of {approx}87%. For 15% of the objects, we find a negligible large-grain mass fraction, but a >60% small amorphous silicate fraction. These may be the cases where substantial grain growth and dust sedimentation have occurred in the disks, resulting in a high fraction of amorphous submicron grains in the disk surface. Among the UppSco brown dwarfs, only usd161939 has a signal-to-noise ratio high enough to properly model its silicate spectrum. We find a 74% small amorphous grain and a {approx}26% crystalline mass fraction for this object.

  18. Powerful Auroras Found at Brown Dwarf

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    This artist's concept shows an auroral display on a brown dwarf. If you could see an aurora on a brown dwarf, it would be a million times brighter than an aurora on Earth. Credits: Chuck Carter and Gregg Hallinan/Caltech --- Mysterious objects called brown dwarfs are sometimes called "failed stars." They are too small to fuse hydrogen in their cores, the way most stars do, but also too large to be classified as planets. But a new study in the journal Nature suggests they succeed in creating powerful auroral displays, similar to the kind seen around the magnetic poles on Earth. "This is a whole new manifestation of magnetic activity for that kind of object," said Leon Harding, a technologist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, and co-author on the study. On Earth, auroras are created when charged particles from the solar wind enter our planet's magnetosphere, a region where Earth's magnetic field accelerates and sends them toward the poles. There, they collide with atoms of gas in the atmosphere, resulting in a brilliant display of colors in the sky. Read more: www.nasa.gov/jpl/powerful-auroras-found-at-brown-dwarf NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  19. Brown Dwarfs: Discovery and Detailed Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.

    2003-01-01

    The grant supported my research and that of my student (Ben Lane) and post-doctoral fellow (Zapatero Osorio). We were productive as can be seen from the list of publications below. In particular, we note three firsts. Using the exquisite angular resolution provided by the AO system at Keck we were able to directly determine the masses of two objects and show that one was a brown dwarf -- the first direct determination of the mass of a brown dwarf. Next, Mr. Lane reported the first direct demonstration of pulsations of a Cepheid star (this report received attention in the popular press). Finally, Dr. Zapatero Osorio continued her work on the search for young brown dwarfs and planets in young clusters with considerable success -- namely the detection of objects with mass below 10 M_J (these can be plausibly argued to be freely floating planets). Mr. Lane graduated and is now a Pappalardo Fellow at MIT and Dr. Zapatero Osorio obtained a position back in her home country.

  20. Brown Dwarfs: Discovery and Detailed Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.

    2003-01-01

    The grant supported my research and that of my student (Ben Lane) and post-doctoral fellow (Zapatero Osorio). We were productive as can be seen from the list of publications below. In particular, we note three firsts. Using the exquisite angular resolution provided by the AO system at Keck we were able to directly determine the masses of two objects and show that one was a brown dwarf -- the first direct determination of the mass of a brown dwarf. Next, Mr. Lane reported the first direct demonstration of pulsations of a Cepheid star (this report received attention in the popular press). Finally, Dr. Zapatero Osorio continued her work on the search for young brown dwarfs and planets in young clusters with considerable success -- namely the detection of objects with mass below 10 M_J (these can be plausibly argued to be freely floating planets). Mr. Lane graduated and is now a Pappalardo Fellow at MIT and Dr. Zapatero Osorio obtained a position back in her home country.

  1. Young Brown Dwarfs at Low Spectral Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Emily; Filippazzo, Joe; Faherty, Jackie; Cruz, Kelle

    2013-07-01

    We are testing the utility of colors, very low resolution (R 30) near-infrared spectra, and optical through mid-infrared spectral energy distributions in distinguishing young, low-gravity objects from field brown dwarfs and in disentangling estimates of temperature and gravity. An increasing number of young ( 10-100s Myr) brown dwarfs are being discovered and characterized, and their observational properties are enticingly similar to directly-imaged planetary mass companions. However, the ambiguity of the effects of physical parameters such as effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, and dust and clouds on observational properties is particularly troublesome at low effective temperatures (<2500 K). Developing efficient and reliable methods to characterize these objects is of key importance to understanding the formation and evolution of substellar objects and the atmospheric properties of massive gas giant planets. We present preliminary results using PHOENIX model atmospheres and the extensive database of optical and near-infrared spectra and parallaxes gathered by the BDNYC, our Brown Dwarf research collaboration based in New York City.

  2. Brown Dwarf Variability: What's Varying and Why?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mark Scott

    2014-01-01

    Surveys by ground based telescopes, HST, and Spitzer have revealed that brown dwarfs of most spectral classes exhibit variability. The spectral and temporal signatures of the variability are complex and apparently defy simplistic classification which complicates efforts to model the changes. Important questions include understanding if clearings are forming in an otherwise uniform cloud deck or if thermal perturbations, perhaps associated with breaking gravity waves, are responsible. If clouds are responsible how long does it take for the atmospheric thermal profile to relax from a hot cloudy to a cooler cloudless state? If thermal perturbations are responsible then what atmospheric layers are varying? How do the observed variability timescales compare to atmospheric radiative, chemical, and dynamical timescales? I will address such questions by presenting modeling results for time-varying partly cloudy atmospheres and explore the importance of various atmospheric processes over the relevant timescales for brown dwarfs of a range of effective temperatures. Regardless of the origin of the observed variability, the complexity seen in the atmospheres of the field dwarfs hints at the variability that we may encounter in the next few years in directly imaged young Jupiters. Thus understanding the nature of variability in the field dwarfs, including sensitivity to gravity and metallicity, is of particular importance for exoplanet characterization.

  3. Unusual Slowly Rotating Brown Dwarfs Discovered through Precision Spitzer Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinze, Aren; Metchev, S.

    2014-01-01

    Many brown dwarfs exhibit low-amplitude rotationally modulated variability due to photospheric inhomogeneities caused by condensate clouds in their atmospheres. The Spitzer Space Telescope 'Weather on Other Worlds' (WoW) project has monitored 44 brown dwarfs at unprecedented photometric precision from space. We present one of several important new results from WoW: the discovery of brown dwarfs with unexpectedly slow rotation periods. While most brown dwarfs have periods of 2-12 hours, we have identified two with well-constrained periods of 13±1 and >20 hours, respectively, and 2 others that show more tentative evidence of longer than 20-hour periods. By serving as almost non-rotating standards, these objects will allow more accurate calibration of spectroscopic measurements of brown dwarfs' projected rotational velocities. The existence of such slowly-rotating objects also constrains models of brown dwarf formation and angular momentum evolution.

  4. High contrast imaging with the JWST-NIRSpec Integral Field Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ygouf, Marie; Beichman, Charles A.; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Roellig, Thomas L.; NIRCam GTO

    2017-06-01

    With its integral field unit, the near-infrared spectrograph NIRSpec on JWST will allow to measure high-resolution spectra into the 3-5 μm range with an increased sensitivity over ground-based systems. This capability will considerably extend our knowledge of brown dwarfs and bright exoplanets at large separations from their host star. But because there is not any coronagraph on NIRSpec, the performance in term of contrast at close separation will be extremely limited. In this communication, we explore possibilities to further push this limitation by comparing different observing strategies and associated post-processing techniques.

  5. Parallax measurements of cool brown dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjavacas, E.; Goldman, B.; Reffert, S.; Henning, T.

    2013-12-01

    Context. Accurate parallax measurements allow us to determine physical properties of brown dwarfs and help us constrain evolutionary and atmospheric models, break age-mass degeneracy, and reveal unresolved binaries. Aims: We measured absolute trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions of six cool brown dwarfs using background galaxies to establish an absolute reference frame. We derive the absolute J-band magnitude. The six T brown dwarfs in our sample have spectral types between T2.5 and T8 and magnitudes between 13.9 and 18.0 in the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) with photometric distances below 25 pc. Methods: The observations were taken in the J-band with the Omega-2000 camera on the 3.5 m telescope at Calar Alto during a time period of 27 months between March 2011 and June 2013. The number of epochs varied between 11 and 12 depending on the object. The reduction of the astrometric measurements was carried out with respect to the field stars. The relative parallax and proper motions were transformed into absolute measurements using the background galaxies in our fields. Results: We obtained absolute parallaxes for our six brown dwarfs with a precision between 3 and 6 mas. We compared our results in a color-magnitude diagram with other brown dwarfs with determined parallax and with the BT-Settl 2012 atmospheric models. For four of the six targets, we found a good agreement in luminosity with objects of similar spectral types. We obtained an improved accuracy in the parallaxes and proper motions in comparison to previous works. The object 2MASS J11061197+2754225 is more than 1 mag overluminous in all bands, which point to binarity or high order multiplicity. Based on observations taken with Omega-2000 at the 3.5 m telescope at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated by the Max Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC).Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  6. Forming isolated brown dwarfs by turbulent fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomax, O.; Whitworth, A. P.; Hubber, D. A.

    2016-05-01

    We use Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics to explore the circumstances under which an isolated very low mass pre-stellar core can be formed by colliding turbulent flows and collapse to form a brown dwarf. Our simulations suggest that the flows need not be very fast, but do need to be very strongly convergent, i.e. the gas must flow in at comparable speeds from all sides, which seems rather unlikely. We therefore revisit the object Oph-B11, which André et al. have identified as a pre-stellar core with mass between ˜0.020 M⊙ and ˜0.030 M⊙. We re-analyse the observations using a Markov-chain Monte Carlo method that allows us (i) to include the uncertainties on the distance, temperature and dust mass opacity, and (ii) to consider different Bayesian prior distributions of the mass. We estimate that the posterior probability that Oph-B11 has a mass below the hydrogen-burning limit at ˜0.075 M⊙, is between 0.66 and 0.86 . We conclude that, if Oph-B11 is destined to collapse, it probably will form a brown dwarf. However, the flows required to trigger this appear to be so contrived that it is difficult to envisage this being the only way, or even a major way, of forming isolated brown dwarfs. Moreover, Oph-B11 could easily be a transient, bouncing, prolate core, seen end-on; there could, indeed should, be many such objects masquerading as very low mass pre-stellar cores.

  7. 37 NEW T-TYPE BROWN DWARFS IN THE CANADA-FRANCE BROWN DWARFS SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, Loic; Artigau, Etienne; Delorme, Philippe; Reyle, Celine; Forveille, Thierry; Delfosse, Xavier

    2011-06-15

    The Canada-France Brown Dwarfs Survey is an i'- and z'-band survey realized with MegaCam at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope that covers a surface area of 780 deg{sup 2}. Image analysis is now completed while J-band follow-up campaigns are {approx}90% done. The survey identified about 70 T dwarf candidates, of which 43 now have near-infrared spectra obtained with NIRI and GNIRS at Gemini and ISAAC at the Very Large Telescope. Six of these were previously published and we present here the 37 new discoveries, all T dwarfs. They range from T0 to T8.5 with four being of type T7 or later. Both newly identified T8 dwarfs are possibly high log (g) massive brown dwarfs of thin disk age. One T4.5 dwarf shows signs of sub-metallicity. We present proper motions and near-infrared photometry, and discuss about the most peculiar/interesting objects in some details.

  8. Bridging the Brown Dwarf/Jupiter Temperature Gap with a Very Cold Brown Dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Michael

    2011-10-01

    Residing at the extremes of low mass, luminosity and temperature, brown dwarfs serve as laboratories for understanding gas-giant extrasolar planets. Still, until a few months ago, the coolest brown dwarf known was ~4 times warmer than Jupiter. We have now identified the nearby T9.5 dwarf CFBDSIR J1458+10 as a 0.11" physical binary. As established by our near-IR parallax to the system, the very blue secondary component is the coldest and least luminous object outside the solar system directly imaged. With an estimated temperature of ~350-400 K, it is the coolest known brown dwarf by ~150 K and the least luminous by a factor of 4-5. As such, CFBDSIR J1458+10B provides a gateway for measuring the properties of substellar objects at previously unexplored extremes.We propose to use HST to obtain far-red and near-IR medium-band photometry of CFBDSIR J1458+10B and to measure its 0.8-1.6 micron spectral energy distribution. Theoretical models predict this wavelength range to be highly sensitive to completely new physical processes not yet seen in brown dwarfs, including the formation of photospheric water clouds and the disappearance of the very broad potassium line that dominates the far-red spectra of T dwarfs. The impact of these changes on the emergent spectrum, however, depends on very uncertain input physics. Our observations will sensitively probe these processes, with the A and B components providing a pure temperature probe at constant metallicity and age.

  9. Race to the Top: Transiting Brown Dwarfs and Hot Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beatty, Thomas G.

    2015-12-01

    There are currently twelve known transiting brown dwarfs, nine of which orbit single main-sequence stars. These systems give us one of the only ways in which we may directly measure the masses and radii brown dwarfs, which in turn provides strong constraints on theoretical models of brown dwarf interiors and atmospheres. In addition, the transiting brown dwarfs allow us to forge a link between our understanding of transiting hot Jupiters, and our understanding of the field brown dwarf population. Comparing the two gives us a unique avenue to explore the role and interaction of surface gravity and stellar irradiation in the atmospheres of sub-stellar objects. It also allows us to leverage the detailed spectroscopic information we have for field brown dwarfs to interpret the broadband colors of hot Jupiters. This provides us with insight into the L/T transition in brown dwarfs, and the atmospheric chemistry changes that occur in hot Jupiter atmospheres as they cool. I will discuss recent observational results, with a particular focus on the transiting brown dwarf KELT-1b, and suggest how more of these important systems may be discovered in the future.

  10. The Formation of Brown Dwarfs as Ejected Stellar Embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reipurth, Bo; Clarke, Cathie

    2001-07-01

    We conjecture that brown dwarfs are substellar objects because they have been ejected from small newborn multiple systems that have decayed in dynamical interactions. In this view, brown dwarfs are stellar embryos for which the star formation process was aborted before the hydrostatic cores could build up enough mass to eventually start hydrogen burning. The disintegration of a small multiple system is a stochastic process, which can be described only in terms of the half-life of the decay. A stellar embryo competes with its siblings in order to accrete infalling matter, and the one that grows slowest is most likely to be ejected. With better luck, a brown dwarf would therefore have become a normal star. This interpretation of brown dwarfs readily explains the rarity of brown dwarfs as close companions to normal stars, the absence of wide brown dwarf binaries, and the flattening of the low-mass end of the initial mass function. Possible observational tests of this scenario include statistics of brown dwarfs near Class 0 sources and the kinematics of brown dwarfs in star-forming regions, while they still retain a kinematic signature of their expulsion. Because the ejection process limits the amount of gas brought along in a disk, it is predicted that substellar equivalents to the classical T Tauri stars should be rather short-lived.

  11. An unsuccessful search for brown dwarf companions to white dwarf stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipman, Harry L.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a survey to detect excess infrared emission from white dwarf stars which would be attributable to a low mass companion are reviewed. Neither a simple comparison of spectroscopically identified white dwarf stars with the IRAS Point Source Catalog nor the coadding of IRAS survey data resulted in a detection of a brown dwarf. The seven nearest stars where the most stringent limits to the presence of a brown dwarf were obtained are listed, and an effort to detect brown dwarfs in the solar neighborhood is discussed.

  12. Are free-floating brown dwarfs single?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Eduardo

    1997-07-01

    Very recently the first two free-floating brown dwarfs have been discovered. They have been published in the last few weeks {Delfosse et al. 1997 AA, 327, L25; Ruiz et al. 1997 ApJ, 491, L107}. High resolution Keck spectroscopy has confirmed strong lithium lines in both of them {Martin et al. 1997, AA, 327, L29; Basri et al. 1997, in "Cool Stars X"}. The temperature and lithium of these brown dwarfs imply that they are less massive than 60 Jupiters and younger than 1 Gyr. If they have companions, those would be still less massive and thus would be low-mass brown dwarfs or giant planets. NICMOS observations can detect companions with masses as low as 5 Jupiters around these brown dwarfs at separations comparable to our solar system's outer planets. This proposal was not submitted to the most recent TAC because the two discovery papers had not yet been accepted for publication. The need for NICMOS implies that the proposed observations cannot wait until the next TAC for evaluation. Brown Dwarfs {BDs} have become astronomical objects only in the last 2 years. In 1995, the first two uncontrovertible BDs were announced, one in the Pleiades cluster {Teide1, Rebolo et al. 1995, Nature, 377, 129} and the other in the vicinity of a nearby star {Gliese 229B, Nakajima et al. 1995, Nature, 378, 463}. Both of them have been subsequently confirmed with follow- up spectroscopic observations {Rebolo et al. 1996, ApJ, 469, L53; Matthews et al. 1996, AJ, 112, 1678}. More BDs are continuing to be revealed in the Pleiades cluster {Zapatero- Osorio et al. 1997, 491, L81} indicating that they are quite numerous. Wide field deep searches are also starting to provide the first discoveries of nearby free-floating BDs. The first two such objects have just been published. It is fortunate that we are still in time to use HST NICMOS to look for faint companions to them. The presence of lithium in both BDs confirms that they have substellar masses of less than 60 Jupiters because otherwise this

  13. Brown dwarfs and Jovian planets: A comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunine, J. I.; Hubbard, W. B.; Marley, M.

    1986-01-01

    The recent detection of a subluminous companion to the M dwarf star VB8 has renewed interest in the characteristics of objects spanning the mass range from Jupiter to hydrogen burning stars. Atmospheric and interior models were constructed for objects in this mass regime, up to 30 Jupiter masses, with emphasis on understanding the relationship of brown dwarfs such as the VB8 companion to the better-studied Jovian planets. The atmospheric model solves the equation of radiative transfer assuming frequency dependent molecular opacity sources H2, He, H2O, CO, and CH4 which are important by virtue of the high cosmic abundance of their constituent atoms. Condensation of cosmochemically important materials, iron and silicates, in the atmosphere is possible, and the effect of such grains as opacity sources is assessed. The luminosity of the object is presumed due to degenerate cooling following a collapse phase and possibly deuterium burning and an interior model is constructed using as an outer boundary condition the temperature and pressure level at which the atmosphere becomes convective. The interior model is analogous to Jupiter, with a large liquid metallic-hydrogen core and a thinner molecular-hydrogen envelope. The oxidation state of carbon in the outer envelope of a brown dwarf of similar age to Jupiter is a function of the object's mass. This makes the wavelength dependence of the atmospheric opacity sensitive to the carbon to oxygen ratio, since the abundance of the primary source of molecular opacity, H2O, decreases as more oxygen is tied up as CO.

  14. Very Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebolo, Rafael; Rosa Zapatero-Osorio, Maria

    2001-02-01

    Part I. Searches in Clusters, Stellar Associations and the Field: 1. Open clusters after HIPPARCOS J. S. Mermilliod; 2. Proper motions of very low mass stars and brown dwarfs in open clusters N. C. Hambly; 3. Parallaxes for brown dwarfs in clusters C. G. Tinney; 4. Very low mass stars and brown dwarfs in the Belt of Orion S. J. Wolk and F. M. Walter; 5. Photometric surveys in open clusters M. R. Zapatero Osorio; 6. The mass function of the Pleiades R. F. Jameson et al.; 7. Brown dwarfs and the low-mass initial mass function in young clusters K. L. Luhman; 8. Very low mass stars in globular clusters I. R. King and G. Piotto; 9. The DENIS very low mass star and brown dwarf results X. Delfosse and T. Forveille; 10. Preliminary results from the 2MASS core project J. Liebert et al.; Part II. Spectroscopic Properties, Fundamental Parameters and Modelling: 11. Properties of M dwarfs in clusters and the field S. L. Hawley et al.; 12. Spectroscopy of very low mass stars and brown dwarfs in young clusters E. L. Martin; 13. High resolution spectra of L type stars and brown dwarfs G. Basri et al.; 14. Modelling very low mass stars and brown dwarf atmospheres F. Allard; 15. Dust in very cool dwarfs T. Tsuji; 16. On the interpretation of the optical spectra of very cool dwarfs Ya. V. Pavlenko; 17. Absolute dimensions for M type dwarfs A. Gimenez; 18. Theory of very low mass stars and brown dwarfs I. Baraffe; Part III. Convection, Rotation and Acitivity: 19. Convection in low mass stars F. D'Antona; 20. Rotation law and magnetic field in M dwarf models G. Rudiger and M. Kuker; 21. Doppler imaging of cool dwarf stars K. G. Strassmeier; 22. X-ray Emission from cool dwarfs in clusters S. Randich; 23. X-ray variability for dM stars G. Micela and A. Marino; 24. The coronae of AD Leo and EV Lac S. Sciortino et al.; 25. Prospects of vuture X-ray missions for low mass stars and cluster stars R. Pallavicini.

  15. X-Rays Found From a Lightweight Brown Dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-04-01

    Using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, scientists have detected X-rays from a low mass brown dwarf in a multiple star system, which is as young as 12 million years old. This discovery is an important piece in an increasingly complex picture of how brown dwarfs - and perhaps the very massive planets around other stars - evolve. Chandra's observations of the brown dwarf, known as TWA 5B, clearly resolve it from a pair of Sun-like stars known as TWA 5A. The system is about 180 light years from the Sun and a member of a group of about a dozen young stars in the southern constellation Hydra. The brown dwarf orbits the binary stars at a distance about 2.75 times that of Pluto's orbit around the Sun. This is first time that a brown dwarf this close to its parent star(s) has been resolved in X-rays. "Our Chandra data show that the X-rays originate from the brown dwarf's coronal plasma which is some 3 million degrees Celsius," said Yohko Tsuboi of Chuo University in Tokyo and lead author of the April 10th issue of Astrophysical Journal Letters paper describing these results. "The brown dwarf is sufficiently far from the primary stars that the reflection of X-rays is unimportant, so the X-rays must come the brown dwarf itself." TWA 5B is estimated to be only between 15 and 40 times the mass of Jupiter, making it one of the least massive brown dwarfs known. Its mass is rather near the currently accepted boundary (about 12 Jupiter masses) between planets and brown dwarfs. Therefore, these results may also have implications for very massive planets, including those that have been discovered as extrasolar planets in recent years. Brown Dwarf size comparison schematic Brown Dwarf size comparison schematic "This brown dwarf is as bright as the Sun today in X-ray light, while it is fifty times less massive than the Sun," said Tsuboi. "This observation, thus, raises the possibility that even massive planets might emit X-rays by themselves during their youth!" This research on TWA 5

  16. VLA Detects Unexplained Radio Emission From Three Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-01-01

    Astronomers have discovered three brown dwarfs -- enigmatic objects that are neither stars nor planets -- emitting radio waves that scientists cannot explain. The three newly-discovered radio-emitting brown dwarfs were found as part of a systematic study of nearby brown dwarfs using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope. The VLA The Very Large Array CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on image for VLA gallery) Until 2001, scientists believed that brown dwarfs, which are intermediate in mass between stars and planets, could not emit detectable amounts of radio waves. That year, summer students at the VLA made the first discovery of radio emission from a brown dwarf. Subsequently, as many as a half- dozen more radio-emitting brown dwarfs were discovered. "It clearly had become time to make a systematic study and try to find out just what percentage of brown dwarfs are emitting radio waves," said Rachel Osten, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Charlottesville, Virginia. Osten was assisted in the project in the summer of 2004 by Lynnae Quick, a student at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University; Tim Bastian, also an astronomer at NRAO; and Suzanne Hawley, an astronomer at the University of Washington. The research team presented their results to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in San Diego, CA. The three new detections of radio-emitting brown dwarfs are just the first results from the systematic study, which aims to observe all the known brown dwarfs within about 45 light-years of Earth. "We want to be able to say definitively just how common radio emission is among brown dwarfs," Osten explained. The study involves observing 65 individual brown dwarfs, so these new detections represent just the beginning of the results expected from the study. Brown dwarfs are too big to be planets but too small to be true stars, as they have too little mass to trigger hydrogen fusion reactions

  17. Wild Weather: Brown Dwarfs with Dynamic, Rapidly Changing Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinze, Aren N.; Metchev, Stanimir

    2015-01-01

    Brown dwarfs have exotic clouds made of silicates and molten iron. Uneven distribution of these clouds over a brown dwarf's photosphere will cause the object to exhibit periodic flux variations as it rotates. Several brown dwarfs that vary in this way have been discovered. Others, however, have been found to exhibit non-periodic variations. As recently as two years ago, the reality of these was regarded with skepticism --- quite reasonably, since measurement systematics can mimic non-periodic variations, and theory did not predict the swift, global changes in brown dwarf cloud distributions that the data seemed to imply. However, new evidence shows that aperiodic variability is real: the photometric amplitude and phase of some brown dwarfs do change on a rotational timescale. We present four new brown dwarfs with confirmed aperiodic behavior, and show that there is a wide range in the degree of their departure from perfect periodicity. The extent of this departure should be determined mostly by the rapidity of cloud evolution on the brown dwarf, and therefore aperiodicity constitutes a direct probe of the atmospheric dynamics of these fascinating objects.

  18. EVIDENCE FOR ACCRETION IN A NEARBY, YOUNG BROWN DWARF

    SciTech Connect

    Reiners, Ansgar

    2009-09-10

    We report on the discovery of the young, nearby, brown dwarf 2MASS J0041353-562112. The object has a spectral type of M7.5; it shows Li absorption and signatures of accretion, which implies that it still has a disk and suggests an age below 10 Myr. The space motion vector and position on the sky indicate that the brown dwarf is probably a member of the {approx}20 Myr old Tuc-Hor association, or that it may be an ejected member of the {approx}12 Myr old {beta} Pic association; both would imply that 2MASS J0041353-562112 may in fact be older than 10 Myr. No accreting star or brown dwarf was previously known in these associations. Assuming an age of 10 Myr, the brown dwarf has a mass of about 30 M{sub Jup} and is located at 35 pc distance. The newly discovered object is the closest accreting brown dwarf known. Its membership to an association older than 10 Myr implies that either disks in brown dwarfs can survive as long as in more massive stars, perhaps even longer, or that star formation in Tuc-Hor or {beta} Pic occurred more recently than previously thought. The history and evolution of this object can provide new fundamental insight into the formation process of stars, brown dwarfs, and planets.

  19. Discovery of Nearest Known Brown Dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    Bright Southern Star Epsilon Indi Has Cool, Substellar Companion [1] Summary A team of European astronomers [2] has discovered a Brown Dwarf object (a 'failed' star) less than 12 light-years from the Sun. It is the nearest yet known. Now designated Epsilon Indi B, it is a companion to a well-known bright star in the southern sky, Epsilon Indi (now "Epsilon Indi A"), previously thought to be single. The binary system is one of the twenty nearest stellar systems to the Sun. The brown dwarf was discovered from the comparatively rapid motion across the sky which it shares with its brighter companion : the pair move a full lunar diameter in less than 400 years. It was first identified using digitised archival photographic plates from the SuperCOSMOS Sky Surveys (SSS) and confirmed using data from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). Follow-up observations with the near-infrared sensitive SOFI instrument on the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT) at the La Silla Observatory confirmed its nature and has allowed measurements of its physical properties. Epsilon Indi B has a mass just 45 times that of Jupiter, the largest planet in the Solar System, and a surface temperature of only 1000 °C. It belongs to the so-called 'T dwarf' category of objects which straddle the domain between stars and giant planets. Epsilon Indi B is the nearest and brightest T dwarf known. Future studies of the new object promise to provide astronomers with important new clues as to the formation and evolution of these exotic celestial bodies, at the same time yielding interesting insights into the border zone between planets and stars. TINY MOVING NEEDLES IN GIANT HAYSTACKS ESO PR Photo 03a/03 ESO PR Photo 03a/03 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 605 pix - 92k [Normal - JPEG: 1200 x 1815 pix - 1.0M] Caption: PR Photo 03a/03 shows Epsilon Indi A (the bright star at far right) and its newly discovered brown dwarf companion Epsilon Indi B (circled). The upper image comes from one of the SuperCOSMOS Sky

  20. The onset of planet formation in brown dwarf disks.

    PubMed

    Apai, Dániel; Pascucci, Ilaria; Bouwman, Jeroen; Natta, Antonella; Henning, Thomas; Dullemond, Cornelis P

    2005-11-04

    The onset of planet formation in protoplanetary disks is marked by the growth and crystallization of sub-micrometer-sized dust grains accompanied by dust settling toward the disk mid-plane. Here, we present infrared spectra of disks around brown dwarfs and brown dwarf candidates. We show that all three processes occur in such cool disks in a way similar or identical to that in disks around low- and intermediate-mass stars. These results indicate that the onset of planet formation extends to disks around brown dwarfs, suggesting that planet formation is a robust process occurring in most young circumstellar disks.

  1. The Viewing Geometry of Brown Dwarfs Influences Their Observed Colors and Variability Amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vos, Johanna M.; Allers, Katelyn N.; Biller, Beth A.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper we study the full sample of known Spitzer [3.6 μm] and J-band variable brown dwarfs. We calculate the rotational velocities, v\\sin i, of 16 variable brown dwarfs using archival Keck NIRSPEC data and compute the inclination angles of 19 variable brown dwarfs. The results obtained show that all objects in the sample with mid-IR variability detections are inclined at an angle > 20^\\circ , while all objects in the sample displaying J-band variability have an inclination angle > 35^\\circ . J-band variability appears to be more affected by inclination than Spitzer [3.6 μm] variability, and is strongly attenuated at lower inclinations. Since J-band observations probe deeper into the atmosphere than mid-IR observations, this effect may be due to the increased atmospheric path length of J-band flux at lower inclinations. We find a statistically significant correlation between the color anomaly and inclination of our sample, where field objects viewed equator-on appear redder than objects viewed at lower inclinations. Considering the full sample of known variable L, T, and Y spectral type objects in the literature, we find that the variability properties of the two bands display notably different trends that are due to both intrinsic differences between bands and the sensitivity of ground-based versus space-based searches. However, in both bands we find that variability amplitude may reach a maximum at ˜7-9 hr periods. Finally, we find a strong correlation between color anomaly and variability amplitude for both the J-band and mid-IR variability detections, where redder objects display higher variability amplitudes.

  2. Cold and Quick: a Fast-Moving Brown Dwarf

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-25

    This frame from an animation shows the coldest brown dwarf yet seen, and the fourth closest system to our sun. Called WISE J085510.83-071442.5, this dim object was discovered through its rapid motion across the sky.

  3. The distribution of ejected brown dwarfs in clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, S. P.; Hubber, D. A.; Moraux, E.; Whitworth, A. P.

    2005-12-01

    We examine the spatial distribution of brown dwarfs produced by the decay of small-N stellar systems as expected from the embryo ejection scenario. We model a cluster of several hundred stars grouped into 'cores' of a few stars/brown dwarfs. These cores decay, preferentially ejecting their lowest-mass members. Brown dwarfs are found to have a wider spatial distribution than stars, however once the effects of limited survey areas and unresolved binaries are taken into account it can be difficult to distinguish between clusters with many or no ejections. A large difference between the distributions probably indicates that ejections have occurred, however similar distributions sometimes arise even with ejections. Thus the spatial distribution of brown dwarfs is not necessarily a good discriminator between ejection and non-ejection scenarios.

  4. BROWN DWARF DISKS AT AGES OF 5-10 Myr

    SciTech Connect

    Riaz, Basmah; Lodieu, Nicolas; Gizis, John E.

    2009-11-01

    We present Spitzer/IRAC and MIPS 24 mum observations for 28 brown dwarfs in the Upper Scorpius (UppSco) region. We find a disk fraction of 10.7%{sup +8.7%} {sub -3.3%}. One object shows a small excess at 24 mum but none at shorter wavelengths, and may be a candidate transition disk. Three objects show emission in the 10 mum silicate feature and we present compositional fits for these sources. Flat structures are observed for all disk sources in UppSco. Also presented are the MIPS/70 mum observations for the TW Hydrae Association brown dwarf 2MASS J1139511-315921. We discuss the structure and chemistry of brown dwarf disks at ages of approx5-10 Myr, and consider the possible effects of the brown dwarf densities in these clusters on the disk lifetimes.

  5. Births and infancy of brown dwarfs: an introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palla, F.

    Brown dwarfs cover the interesting mass range between stars and planets. As such, they share part of the properties of either groups of objects, particularly those related to their origins. At the high mass end of the distribution, it is quite likely that the majority of brown dwarfs form in the same way as normal stars from the gravitational collapse of dense molecular cores of substellar mass. The border between brown dwarfs and planets does not present major discontinuities, indicating that the former can be born both from direct collapse of individual cores and from gravitational instabilities in circumstellar disks. After an overview of some of the most significant events that have marked the first eighteen years of studies of brown dwarfs, I will concentrate on current issues related to both their formation and early evolution, highlighting some of the current problems faced by the theory of the formation of BDs as normal stars.

  6. Detecting magnetic fields on brown dwarfs and exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdyugina, Svetlana

    2017-05-01

    There is growing evidence that brown dwarfs may possess rather strong magnetic fields, similar to active, early M-type red dwarf stars. Strong clues come from extremely energetic flares detected in UV, X-ray and optical line emission as well as quiescent and transient radio emission and bursts. Our recent spectropolarimetric study of one such active brown dwarf has revealed a 5 kG magnetic spot on its surface. The emitting region topology recovered using spectral line profile inversions indicates the presence of a hot plasma large-scale loop of at least 7000 K with a vertical stratification of the sources producing both optical and radio emission. This loop rotates with the dwarf in and out of view causing the emission bursts. The 5 kG magnetic field is detected at the base of the loop. This result provides the first direct observational constraint for a magnetically driven non-thermal emission mechanism and for generation of magnetic fields in fully convective brown dwarfs. It also paves a path towards magnetic studies of hot Jupiters of similar temperatures. We model relevant atomic lines and molecular bands in order to predict spectropolarimetric signals due to magnetic fields on brown dwarfs, hot Jupiters and other types of exoplanets. This exercise helps to determine instrumental requirements for magnetic surveys of brown dwarfs and exoplanets.

  7. The detectability of brown dwarfs - Predictions and uncertainties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, L. A.; Rappaport, S.; Joss, P. C.

    1993-01-01

    In order to determine the likelihood for the detection of isolated brown dwarfs in ground-based observations as well as in future spaced-based astronomy missions, and in order to evaluate the significance of any detections that might be made, we must first know the expected surface density of brown dwarfs on the celestial sphere as a function of limiting magnitude, wavelength band, and Galactic latitude. It is the purpose of this paper to provide theoretical estimates of this surface density, as well as the range of uncertainty in these estimates resulting from various theoretical uncertainties. We first present theoretical cooling curves for low-mass stars that we have computed with the latest version of our stellar evolution code. We use our evolutionary results to compute theoretical brown-dwarf luminosity functions for a wide range of assumed initial mass functions and stellar birth rate functions. The luminosity functions, in turn, are utilized to compute theoretical surface density functions for brown dwarfs on the celestial sphere. We find, in particular, that for reasonable theoretical assumptions, the currently available upper bounds on the brown-dwarf surface density are consistent with the possibility that brown dwarfs contribute a substantial fraction of the mass of the Galactic disk.

  8. The detectability of brown dwarfs - Predictions and uncertainties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, L. A.; Rappaport, S.; Joss, P. C.

    1993-01-01

    In order to determine the likelihood for the detection of isolated brown dwarfs in ground-based observations as well as in future spaced-based astronomy missions, and in order to evaluate the significance of any detections that might be made, we must first know the expected surface density of brown dwarfs on the celestial sphere as a function of limiting magnitude, wavelength band, and Galactic latitude. It is the purpose of this paper to provide theoretical estimates of this surface density, as well as the range of uncertainty in these estimates resulting from various theoretical uncertainties. We first present theoretical cooling curves for low-mass stars that we have computed with the latest version of our stellar evolution code. We use our evolutionary results to compute theoretical brown-dwarf luminosity functions for a wide range of assumed initial mass functions and stellar birth rate functions. The luminosity functions, in turn, are utilized to compute theoretical surface density functions for brown dwarfs on the celestial sphere. We find, in particular, that for reasonable theoretical assumptions, the currently available upper bounds on the brown-dwarf surface density are consistent with the possibility that brown dwarfs contribute a substantial fraction of the mass of the Galactic disk.

  9. Cold Brown Dwarfs with WISE: Y Dwarfs and the Field Mass Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. Davy

    2012-01-01

    Why study Brown Dwarf stars? They re the lowest mass byproducts of star formation.. They provide time capsules across the age of the Galaxy.. They show what low-T(sub eff) atmospheres look like.. They may be some of our closest neighbors in space..WISE is a 40cm Earth-orbiting telescope. There are 211 stars and only 33 brown dwarfs in this volume.. This means that stars outnumber brown dwarfs by a factor of 6:1 currently.. The number of brown dwarfs will continue to increase if:: (a) more nearby Y dwarf candidates are confirmed, or (b) our distances to known Y s are overestimated, or (c) there are colder BDs invisible to WISE..

  10. Cold Brown Dwarfs with WISE: Y Dwarfs and the Field Mass Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. Davy

    2012-01-01

    Why study Brown Dwarf stars? They re the lowest mass byproducts of star formation.. They provide time capsules across the age of the Galaxy.. They show what low-T(sub eff) atmospheres look like.. They may be some of our closest neighbors in space..WISE is a 40cm Earth-orbiting telescope. There are 211 stars and only 33 brown dwarfs in this volume.. This means that stars outnumber brown dwarfs by a factor of 6:1 currently.. The number of brown dwarfs will continue to increase if:: (a) more nearby Y dwarf candidates are confirmed, or (b) our distances to known Y s are overestimated, or (c) there are colder BDs invisible to WISE..

  11. Searching for chemical signatures of brown dwarf formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, J.; Villaver, E.

    2017-06-01

    Context. Recent studies have shown that close-in brown dwarfs in the mass range 35-55 MJup are almost depleted as companions to stars, suggesting that objects with masses above and below this gap might have different formation mechanisms. Aims: We aim to test whether stars harbouring massive brown dwarfs and stars with low-mass brown dwarfs show any chemical peculiarity that could be related to different formation processes. Methods: Our methodology is based on the analysis of high-resolution échelle spectra (R 57 000) from 2-3 m class telescopes. We determine the fundamental stellar parameters, as well as individual abundances of C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, and Zn for a large sample of stars known to have a substellar companion in the brown dwarf regime. The sample is divided into stars hosting massive and low-mass brown dwarfs. Following previous works, a threshold of 42.5 MJup was considered. The metallicity and abundance trends of the two subsamples are compared and set in the context of current models of planetary and brown dwarf formation. Results: Our results confirm that stars with brown dwarf companions do not follow the well-established gas-giant planet metallicity correlation seen in main-sequence planet hosts. Stars harbouring massive brown dwarfs show similar metallicity and abundance distribution as stars without known planets or with low-mass planets. We find a tendency of stars harbouring less-massive brown dwarfs of having slightly higher metallicity, [XFe/Fe] values, and abundances of Sc ii, Mn i, and Ni i than the stars having the massive brown dwarfs. The data suggest, as previously reported, that massive and low-mass brown dwarfs might present differences in period and eccentricity. Conclusions: We find evidence of a non-metallicity dependent mechanism for the formation of massive brown dwarfs. Our results agree with a scenario in which massive brown dwarfs are formed as stars. At high metallicities, the core

  12. MEASURING TINY MASS ACCRETION RATES ONTO YOUNG BROWN DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Herczeg, Gregory J.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.

    2009-05-10

    We present low-resolution Keck I/LRIS spectra spanning from 3200 to 9000 A of nine young brown dwarfs and three low-mass stars in the TW Hya Association and in Upper Sco. The optical spectral types of the brown dwarfs range from M5.5 to M8.75, though two have near-IR spectral types of early L dwarfs. We report new accretion rates derived from excess Balmer continuum emission for the low-mass stars TW Hya and Hen 3-600A and the brown dwarfs 2MASS J12073347-3932540, UScoCTIO 128, SSSPM J1102-3431, USco J160606.29-233513.3, DENIS-P J160603.9-205644, and Oph J162225-240515B, and upper limits on accretion for the low-mass star Hen 3-600B and the brown dwarfs UScoCTIO 112, Oph J162225-240515A, and USco J160723.82-221102.0. For the six brown dwarfs in our sample that are faintest at short wavelengths, the accretion luminosity or upper limit is measurable only when the image is binned over large wavelength intervals. This method extends our sensitivity to accretion rate down to {approx}10{sup -13} M{sub sun}yr{sup -1} for brown dwarfs. Since the ability to measure an accretion rate from excess Balmer continuum emission depends on the contrast between excess continuum emission and the underlying photosphere, for objects with earlier spectral types the upper limit on accretion rate is much higher. Absolute uncertainties in our accretion rate measurements of {approx}3-5 include uncertainty in accretion models, brown dwarf masses, and distance. The accretion rate of 2 x 10{sup -12} M {sub sun} yr{sup -1} onto 2MASS J12073347-3932540 is within 15% of two previous measurements, despite large changes in the H{alpha} flux.

  13. Search for brown-dwarf companions of stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahlmann, J.; Ségransan, D.; Queloz, D.; Udry, S.; Santos, N. C.; Marmier, M.; Mayor, M.; Naef, D.; Pepe, F.; Zucker, S.

    2011-01-01

    Context. The frequency of brown-dwarf companions in close orbit around Sun-like stars is low compared to the frequency of planetary and stellar companions. There is presently no comprehensive explanation of this lack of brown-dwarf companions. Aims: By combining the orbital solutions obtained from stellar radial-velocity curves and Hipparcos astrometric measurements, we attempt to determine the orbit inclinations and therefore the masses of the orbiting companions. By determining the masses of potential brown-dwarf companions, we improve our knowledge of the companion mass-function. Methods: The radial-velocity solutions revealing potential brown-dwarf companions are obtained for stars from the CORALIE and HARPS planet-search surveys or from the literature. The best Keplerian fit to our radial-velocity measurements is found using the Levenberg-Marquardt method. The spectroscopic elements of the radial-velocity solution constrain the fit to the intermediate astrometric data of the new Hipparcos reduction. The astrometric solution and the orbit inclination are found using non-linear χ2-minimisation on a two-parameter search grid. The statistical confidence of the adopted orbital solution is evaluated based on the distribution-free permutation test. Results: The discovery of nine new brown-dwarf candidates orbiting stars in the CORALIE and HARPS radial-velocity surveys is reported. New CORALIE radial velocities yielding accurate orbits of six previously-known hosts of potential brown-dwarf companions are presented. Including the literature targets, 33 hosts of potential brown-dwarf companions are examined. Employing innovative methods, we use the new reduction of the Hipparcos data to fully characterise the astrometric orbits of six objects, revealing M-dwarf companions of masses between 90 MJ and 0.52 M_⊙. In addition, the masses of two companions can be restricted to the stellar domain. The companion to HD 137510 is found to be a brown dwarf. At 95% confidence

  14. Direct detection of brown dwarf companions of nearby stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheimer, Ben R.

    This thesis presents the first direct detection of a substellar companion of a star other than the Sun. This object, a brown dwarf called Gliese 229B, presented a unique opportunity to characterize low-temperature brown dwarfs for the first time. The discovery and initial spectrum of Gliese 229B show that the object must be substellar based on its intrinsic luminosity of 6.4×10-6Lsolar and its cool surface temperature, 900 K. Detailed study of Gliese 229B includes extensive photometric measurements from 0.5 to 12 μm, high signal-to-noise ratio spectroscopy from 0.84 to 5.0 μm and the detection of 0'' t; yr-1 of orbital motion. These results are presented in Chapters 2 and 3. A detailed review of brown dwarf science leads to a complete and scientifically meaningful definition of the classes ``planet'' and ``brown dwarf''' in Chapter 1. After the discovery of Gliese 229B, which was found in a survey for companions of young stars, we began an extensive search for brown dwarf companions in orbit about all known stars within 8 pc of the Sun and with δ > -35°. The search includes optical coronagraphic and infrared direct imaging of these stars, conducted on the Palomar 60' and 200' telescopes respectively. The search was designed to find companions of each star without color bias. While the search revealed no other brown dwarf companions of these stars, it did uncover 6 new stellar companions. The sensitivity limits of the survey permit the detection of brown dwarfs up to four magnitudes fainter than Gliese 229B around 90% of the stars. The sensitivity is, however, not uniform spatially or from star to star. This limits our ability to make strong statements about the prevalence of brown dwarf companions of nearby stars. The survey does have sensitivity to all stellar companions between 3 and 30' from the survey stars, however. Chapter 5 describes related work on very low-mass stars in the Pleiades star cluster. This optical spectroscopy involved trying to find a

  15. HD 202206: A Circumbinary Brown Dwarf System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedict, G. Fritz; Harrison, Thomas E.

    2017-06-01

    Using Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensor astrometry and previously published radial velocity measures, we explore the exoplanetary system HD 202206. Our modeling results in a parallax, {π }{abs}=21.96+/- 0.12 milliseconds of arc, a mass for HD 202206 B of {{ M }}B={0.089}-0.006+0.007 {{ M }}⊙ , and a mass for HD 202206 c of {{ M }}c={17.9}-1.8+2.9 {{ M }}{Jup}. HD 202206 is a nearly face-on G + M binary orbited by a brown dwarf. The system architecture that we determine supports past assertions that stability requires a 5:1 mean motion resonance (we find a period ratio, {P}c/{P}B=4.92+/- 0.04) and coplanarity (we find a mutual inclination, {{Φ }}=6^\\circ +/- 2^\\circ ). Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  16. JVLA Observations of Young Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Luis F.; Zapata, Luis A.; Palau, Aina

    2017-05-01

    We present sensitive 3.0 cm JVLA radio continuum observations of six regions of low-mass star formation that include twelve young brown dwarfs (BDs) and four young BD candidates. We detect a total of 49 compact radio sources in the fields observed, of which 24 have no reported counterparts and are considered new detections. Twelve of the radio sources show variability in timescales of weeks to months, suggesting gyrosynchrotron emission produced in active magnetospheres. Only one of the target BDs, FU Tau A, was detected. However, we detected radio emission associated with two of the BD candidates, WL 20S and CHLT 2. The radio flux densities of the sources associated with these BD candidates are more than an order of magnitude larger than expected for a BD and suggest a revision of their classification. In contrast, FU Tau A falls on the well-known correlation between radio luminosity and bolometric luminosity, suggesting that the emission comes from a thermal jet and that this BD seems to be forming as a scaled-down version of low-mass stars.

  17. Relation Between Brown Dwarfs and Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flor Torres, Lauren Melissa; Coziol, Roger; Schröeder, Klauss-Peter; Caretta, César A.; Jack, Dennis

    2016-07-01

    One of the most debated subjects in Astronomy since the discovery of exoplanets is how can we distinguish the most massive of such objects from very-low mass stars like Brown Dwarfs (BDs)? We have been looking for evidences of a difference in physical characteristics that could be related to different formation processes. Using a new diagnostic diagram that compares the baryonic gravitational potential (BGP) with the distances from their host stars, we have classified a sample of 355 well-studied exoplanets according to their possible structures. We have then compared the exoplanets to a sample of 87 confirmed BDs, identifying a range in BGP that could be common to both objects. By analyzing the mass-radius relations (MRR) of the exoplanets and BDs in those different BGP ranges, we were able to distinguish different characteristic behaviors. By comparing with models in the literature, our results suggest that BDs and massive exoplanets might have similar structures dominated by liquid metallic hydrogen (LMH).

  18. The search for brown dwarfs with infrared surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chester, T. J.

    1994-01-01

    Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS), ISO, Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), WIRE, Deep Near-Infrared Survey (DENIS), and Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) observations were used to compute the maximum number of observable brown dwarfs for various infrared surveys by combining the maximum possible Oort limit (0.1 'missing' solar mass p/cu c) with all possible brown dwarf mass and age distributions. This approach shows what limits will be placed on the contribution of brown dwarfs to any possible 'missing mass' if no brown dwarfs are observed. I consider brown dwarfs with masses of 0.01-0.08 solar mass and ages of 10(exp 9)-10(exp 10) years. The full range of predicted numbers of brown dwarfs above approx. 6 times the noise of each of the below surveys is: IRAS Point Source Catalog, 0.02-6; IRAS Faint Source Catalog absolute value of b greater than 10 deg, 0.05-16; ISO (2 week 12 micrometer survey), 0.15-80; SIRTF (2 week 12 micrometer survey), 2.50-1600; WIRE (4 month 12 micrometer survey), 21.80-6000; DENIS(half sky) absolute value of b greater than 10 deg, 0.00-2000; and 2MASS(full sky) absolute value of b greater than 10 deg, 0.00-8800. A failure to find brown dwarfs in the IRAS FSC would just barely rule out about half of the mass-age range for Oort limit total masses. A failure to find brown dwarfs in 2MASS/DENIS would rule out roughly the same mass-age range, but would set a limit of 0.1-0.01 times the Oort mass in that mass-age region. No limits would be set for the other half of the mass-age range since both IRAS and 2MASS/DENIS have insufficient sensitivity for brown dwarfs with T less than 750 K. A failure to find brown dwarfs with ISO would rule out almost all of the mass-age range for Oort limit total masses, but would not set a significantly lower limit to the brown dwarf mass limit. A failure to find brown dwarfs with SIRTF or WIRE would rule out the entire mass-age range for Oort limit total masses and set an upper limit of 0.1-0.001 times

  19. New Brown Dwarf Discs in Upper Scorpius Observed with WISE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, P.; Scholz, A.; Ray, T. P.; Natta, A.; Marsh, K. A.; Padgett, D.; Ressler, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    We present a census of the disc population for UKIDSS selected brown dwarfs in the 5-10 Myr old Upper Scorpius OB association. For 116 objects originally identified in UKIDSS, the majority of them not studied in previous publications, we obtain photometry from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer data base. The resulting colour magnitude and colour colour plots clearly show two separate populations of objects, interpreted as brown dwarfs with discs (class II) and without discs (class III). We identify 27 class II brown dwarfs, 14 of them not previously known. This disc fraction (27 out of 116, or 23%) among brown dwarfs was found to be similar to results for K/M stars in Upper Scorpius, suggesting that the lifetimes of discs are independent of the mass of the central object for low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. 5 out of 27 discs (19 per cent) lack excess at 3.4 and 4.6 microns and are potential transition discs (i.e. are in transition from class II to class III). The transition disc fraction is comparable to low-mass stars.We estimate that the time-scale for a typical transition from class II to class III is less than 0.4 Myr for brown dwarfs. These results suggest that the evolution of brown dwarf discs mirrors the behaviour of discs around low-mass stars, with disc lifetimes of the order of 5 10 Myr and a disc clearing time-scale significantly shorter than 1 Myr.

  20. Confirmation and Characterization of Young Disk-Bearing Brown Dwarfs and sub-Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gully-Santiago, M. A.; Allers, K. N.; Jaffe, D. T.

    2011-12-01

    The lowest mass objects in nearby star forming regions now accessible to spectroscopy are in the sub-brown dwarf regime, with estimated masses comparable to the masses of extrasolar planets and bordering the threshold of opacity limited fragmentation. We confirm and characterize, using R˜ 1500 near-infrared spectroscopy, 17 candidate young substellar objects in the Ophiuchus, Lupus I, and Chamaeleon II star forming regions from the Allers et al. (2006) sample. The spectral types range from M2-L2.5, with extinctions of 0 < AV < 10. We assign youth based on the presence of mid-IR excess and gravity sensitive spectral indices, like the triangular H-band continuum shape and the Na I equivalent width. All but one source from the photometrically selected sample of 19 are confirmed as bona fide young late type objects, an exceptional confirmation rate for this type of study. Two of the sources are known wide-separation binaries. We explore the advantage of increased resolution over existing low resolution spectroscopy for six objects. The objects' derived luminosities are in the range -3.3< log L/L⊙<-0.6, placing the lowest luminosity candidates comfortably in the substellar or even sub brown-dwarf mass regime.

  1. Herschel survey of brown dwarf disks in ρ Ophiuchi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves de Oliveira, C.; Ábrahám, P.; Marton, G.; Pinte, C.; Kiss, Cs.; Kun, M.; Kóspál, Á.; André, P.; Könyves, V.

    2013-11-01

    Context. Young brown dwarfs are known to possess circumstellar disks, a characteristic that is fundamental to the understanding of their formation process, and raises the possibility that these objects harbour planets. Aims: We want to characterise the far-IR emission of disks around the young brown dwarf population of the ρ Ophiuchi cluster in LDN 1688. Methods: Recent observations of the ρ Ophiuchi cluster with the Herschel Space Observatory allow us to probe the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the brown dwarf population in the far-IR, where the disk emission peaks. We performed aperture photometry at 70, 100, and 160 μm, and constructed SEDs for all previously known brown dwarfs detected. These were complemented with ancillary photometry at shorter wavelengths. We compared the observed SEDs to a grid of synthetic disks produced with the radiative transfer code MCFOST, and used the relative figure of merit estimated from the Bayesian inference of each disk parameter to analyse the structural properties. Results: We detected 12 Class II brown dwarfs with Herschel, which corresponds to one-third of all currently known brown dwarf members of ρ Ophiuchi. We did not detect any of the known Class III brown dwarfs. Comparison to models reveals that the disks are best described by an inner radius between 0.01 and 0.07 AU, and a flared disk geometry with a flaring index between 1.05 and 1.2. Furthermore, we can exclude values of the disk scale-height lower than 10 AU (measured at a fiducial radius of 100 AU). We combined the Herschel data with recent ALMA observations of the brown dwarf GY92 204 (ISO-Oph 102), and by comparing its SED to the same grid of disk models, we derived an inner disk radius of 0.035 AU, a scale height of 15 AU with a flaring index of β ~ 1.15, an exponent for dust settling of -1.5, and a disk mass of 0.001 M⊙. This corresponds to a disk-to-central object mass ratio of ~1%. Conclusions: The structural parameters constrained by the

  2. Tidal evolution of planets around brown dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolmont, E.; Raymond, S. N.; Leconte, J.

    2011-11-01

    Context. The tidal evolution of planets orbiting brown dwarfs (BDs) presents an interesting case study because BDs' terrestrial planet forming region is located extremely close-in. In fact, the habitable zones of BDs range from roughly 0.001 to 0.03 AU and for the lowest-mass BDs are located interior to the Roche limit. Aims: In contrast with stars, BDs spin up as they age. Thus, the corotation distance moves inward. This has important implications for the tidal evolution of planets around BDs. Methods: We used a standard equilibrium tidal model to compute the orbital evolution of a large ensemble of planet-BD systems. We tested the effect of numerous parameters such as the initial semi-major axis and eccentricity, the rotation period of the BD, the masses of both the BD and planet, and the tidal dissipation factors. Results: We find that all planets that form at or beyond the corotation distance and with initial eccentricities smaller than ~0.1 are repelled from the BD. Some planets initially interior to corotation can survive if their inward tidal evolution is slower than the BD's spin evolution, but most initially close-in planets fall onto the BD. Conclusions: We find that the most important parameter for the tidal evolution is the initial orbital distance with respect to the corotation distance. Some planets can survive in the habitable zone for Gyr timescales, although in many cases the habitable zone moves inward past the planet's orbit in just tens to hundreds of Myr. Surviving planets can have orbital periods of less than 10 days (as small as 10 h), so they could be observable by transit.

  3. RESOLVED SPECTROSCOPY OF A BROWN DWARF BINARY AT THE T DWARF/Y DWARF TRANSITION

    SciTech Connect

    Burgasser, Adam J.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Cushing, Michael C.

    2012-01-20

    We report resolved near-infrared imaging and spectroscopic observations of the T8.5 binary WISEP J045853.90+643452.6AB obtained with Keck/NIRC2, Keck/OSIRIS, and the Keck Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics system. These data confirm common proper and radial motion for the two components, and we see the first indications of orbital motion (mostly radial) for this system. H-band spectroscopy identifies both components as very late type brown dwarfs with strong H{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} absorption. The spectrum of WISE J0458+6434B also exhibits a compelling signature of NH{sub 3} absorption over 1.52-1.54 {mu}m when compared to the T9 dwarf UGPS J072227.51-054031.2. Comparison to T8-Y0 spectral standards and H-band spectral indices indicate classifications of T8.5 and T9.5 for these two components, approaching the boundary between the T dwarf and Y dwarf spectral classes.

  4. Can brown dwarfs survive on close orbits around convective stars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiani, C.; Díaz, R. F.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The mass range of brown dwarfs extends across the planetary domain to stellar objects. There is a relative paucity of brown dwarfs companions around FGKM-type stars compared to exoplanets for orbital periods of less than a few years, but most of the short-period brown dwarf companions that are fully characterised by transits and radial velocities are found around F-type stars. Aims: We examine the hypothesis that brown dwarf companions could not survive on close orbit around stars with important convective envelopes because the tides and angular momentum loss, the result of magnetic braking, would lead to a rapid orbital decay with the companion being quickly engulfed. Methods: We use a classical Skumanich-type braking law and constant time-lag tidal theory to assess the characteristic timescale for orbital decay for the brown dwarf mass range as a function of the host properties. Results: We find that F-type stars may host massive companions for a significantly longer time than G-type stars for a given orbital period, which may explain the paucity of G-type hosts for brown dwarfs with an orbital period less than five days. On the other hand, we show that the small radius of early M-type stars contributes to orbital decay timescales that are only half those of F-type stars, despite their more efficient tidal dissipation and magnetic braking. For fully convective later type M-dwarfs, orbital decay timescales could be orders of magnitude greater than for F-type stars. Moreover, we find that, for a wide range of values of tidal dissipation efficiency and magnetic braking, it is safe to assume that orbital decay for massive companions can be neglected for orbital periods greater than ten days. Conclusions: For orbital periods greater than ten days, brown dwarf occurrence should largely be unaffected by tidal decay, whatever the mass of the host. On closer orbital periods, the rapid engulfment of massive companions could explain the lack of G and K-type hosts

  5. A resolved outflow of matter from a brown dwarf.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Emma T; Ray, Thomas P; Bacciotti, Francesca; Natta, Antonella; Testi, Leonardo; Randich, Sofia

    2005-06-02

    The birth of stars involves not only accretion but also, counter-intuitively, the expulsion of matter in the form of highly supersonic outflows. Although this phenomenon has been seen in young stars, a fundamental question is whether it also occurs among newborn brown dwarfs: these are the so-called 'failed stars', with masses between stars and planets, that never manage to reach temperatures high enough for normal hydrogen fusion to occur. Recently, evidence for accretion in young brown dwarfs has mounted, and their spectra show lines that are suggestive of outflows. Here we report spectro-astrometric data that spatially resolve an outflow from a brown dwarf. The outflow's characteristics appear similar to, but on a smaller scale than, outflows from normal young stars. This result suggests that the outflow mechanism is universal, and perhaps relevant even to the formation of planets.

  6. X-Shooter Medium Resolution Brown Dwarfs Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjavacas, E.; Goldman, B.; Alcala, J. M.; Bonnefoy, Mickael; Allard, F.; Smart, R. L.; Bejar, V. J. S.; Zapatero-Osorio, M. R.; Henning, T.; Bouy, H.

    2015-01-01

    } We obtain medium-resolution spectra in the optical (550-1000 nm, R˜5400) and the near-infrared (1000-2500 nm, R˜3300) using the Wideband ultraviolet-infrared single target spectrograph (X-Shooter) at the Very Large Telescope (VLT). Our sample is compound of 22 brown dwarfs binary candidates with spectral types between L1 and T7. We aim to empirically confirm or refute the binarity of our candidates, comparing them to spectral templates and to other brown dwarfs in a color-magnitude diagram, for targets that have published parallaxes. } We use X-shooter at the VLT to obtain medium resolution spectra of the targets. We develop a slightly different analysis depending of the type of binaries we search for. To find L plus T brown dwarf binaries candidates, we comput spectral indices to select L-brown dwarfs plus T-brown dwarf binaries, and then we compare them to single and composite template spectra. To find potential L plus L or T plus T brown dwarf binaries, we first simulate their spectra creating synthetic binaries using combination of single template spectra. Then we compare them to our set of spectral libraries and composite of them to test if our method is able to find these binaries. } Using spectral indices, we select four possible candidates to be combination of L plus T brown dwarfs: SIMP 0136 662+0933473, 2MASSI J0423485-041403 (T0, known binary), DENIS-P J0255.0-4700 and 2MASS J13411160-3052505 We compare these candidates to single brown dwarf template spectra and combinations of them, and we select the best matches. All candidates beside SIMP 0136 662+0933473 have decent matches to composite of two single template spectra. DENIS-P J0255.0-4700 have also good agreements to several late L and early T single template spectra. To find L plus L or T plus T brown dwarfs candidates, test the comparison to templates method use before to find L plus T brown dwarf binaries. The test consist on finding synthetic L plus L and T plus T binaries by comparing with

  7. A coronagraphic search for brown dwarfs around nearby stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakajima, T.; Durrance, S. T.; Golimowski, D. A.; Kulkarni, S. R.

    1994-01-01

    Brown dwarf companions have been searched for around stars within 10 pc of the Sun using the Johns-Hopkins University Adaptive Optics Coronagraph (AOC), a stellar coronagraph with an image stabilizer. The AOC covers the field around the target star with a minimum search radius of 1 sec .5 and a field of view of 1 arcmin sq. We have reached an unprecedented dynamic range of Delta m = 13 in our search for faint companions at I band. Comparison of our survey with other brown dwarf searches shows that the AOC technique is unique in its dynamic range while at the same time just as sensitive to brown dwarfs as the recent brown dwarf surveys. The present survey covered 24 target stars selected from the Gliese catalog. A total of 94 stars were detected in 16 fields. The low-latitude fields are completely dominated by background star contamination. Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were carried out for a sample restricted to high latitudes and a sample with small angular separations. The high-latitude sample (b greater than or equal to 44 deg) appears to show spatial concentration toward target stars. The small separation sample (Delta Theta less than 20 sec) shows weaker dependence on Galactic coordinates than field stars. These statistical tests suggest that both the high-latitude sample and the small separation sample can include a substantial fraction of true companions. However, the nature of these putative companions is mysterious. They are too faint to be white dwarfs and too blue for brown dwarfs. Ignoring the signif icance of the statistical tests, we can reconcile most of the detections with distant main-sequence stars or white dwarfs except for a candidate next to GL 475. Given the small size of our sample, we conclude that considerably more targets need to be surveyed before a firm conclusion on the possibility of a new class of companions can be made.

  8. A coronagraphic search for brown dwarfs around nearby stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, T.; Durrance, S. T.; Golimowski, D. A.; Kulkarni, S. R.

    1994-06-01

    Brown dwarf companions have been searched for around stars within 10 pc of the Sun using the Johns-Hopkins University Adaptive Optics Coronagraph (AOC), a stellar coronagraph with an image stabilizer. The AOC covers the field around the target star with a minimum search radius of 1 sec .5 and a field of view of 1 arcmin sq. We have reached an unprecedented dynamic range of Delta m = 13 in our search for faint companions at I band. Comparison of our survey with other brown dwarf searches shows that the AOC technique is unique in its dynamic range while at the same time just as sensitive to brown dwarfs as the recent brown dwarf surveys. The present survey covered 24 target stars selected from the Gliese catalog. A total of 94 stars were detected in 16 fields. The low-latitude fields are completely dominated by background star contamination. Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were carried out for a sample restricted to high latitudes and a sample with small angular separations. The high-latitude sample (b greater than or equal to 44 deg) appears to show spatial concentration toward target stars. The small separation sample (Delta Theta less than 20 sec) shows weaker dependence on Galactic coordinates than field stars. These statistical tests suggest that both the high-latitude sample and the small separation sample can include a substantial fraction of true companions. However, the nature of these putative companions is mysterious. They are too faint to be white dwarfs and too blue for brown dwarfs. Ignoring the significance of the statistical tests, we can reconcile most of the detections with distant main-sequence stars or white dwarfs except for a candidate next to GL 475. Given the small size of our sample, we conclude that considerably more targets need to be surveyed before a firm conclusion on the possibility of a new class of companions can be made.

  9. A coronagraphic search for brown dwarfs around nearby stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakajima, T.; Durrance, S. T.; Golimowski, D. A.; Kulkarni, S. R.

    1994-01-01

    Brown dwarf companions have been searched for around stars within 10 pc of the Sun using the Johns-Hopkins University Adaptive Optics Coronagraph (AOC), a stellar coronagraph with an image stabilizer. The AOC covers the field around the target star with a minimum search radius of 1 sec .5 and a field of view of 1 arcmin sq. We have reached an unprecedented dynamic range of Delta m = 13 in our search for faint companions at I band. Comparison of our survey with other brown dwarf searches shows that the AOC technique is unique in its dynamic range while at the same time just as sensitive to brown dwarfs as the recent brown dwarf surveys. The present survey covered 24 target stars selected from the Gliese catalog. A total of 94 stars were detected in 16 fields. The low-latitude fields are completely dominated by background star contamination. Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were carried out for a sample restricted to high latitudes and a sample with small angular separations. The high-latitude sample (b greater than or equal to 44 deg) appears to show spatial concentration toward target stars. The small separation sample (Delta Theta less than 20 sec) shows weaker dependence on Galactic coordinates than field stars. These statistical tests suggest that both the high-latitude sample and the small separation sample can include a substantial fraction of true companions. However, the nature of these putative companions is mysterious. They are too faint to be white dwarfs and too blue for brown dwarfs. Ignoring the signif icance of the statistical tests, we can reconcile most of the detections with distant main-sequence stars or white dwarfs except for a candidate next to GL 475. Given the small size of our sample, we conclude that considerably more targets need to be surveyed before a firm conclusion on the possibility of a new class of companions can be made.

  10. A non-uniform distribution of the nearest brown dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bihain, G.; Scholz, R.-D.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The census of solar neighbours is still complemented by new discoveries, mainly of very low-mass, faint dwarfs, close to or within the substellar domain. These discoveries contribute to a better understanding of the field population; its origin in terms of Galactic dynamics and (sub)stellar formation and evolution. Also, the nearest stars and brown dwarfs at any given age allow the most precise direct characterization, including the search for planetary companions. Aims: We aim to further assess the substellar census on the Galactic plane. Methods: We projected the 136 stars and 26 brown dwarfs known at <6.5 pc on the Galactic plane and evaluated their distributions. Results: Stars present a uniform- and brown dwarfs a non-uniform distribution, with 21 objects behind the Sun and only five ahead relative to the direction of rotation of the Galaxy. This substellar configuration has a probability of 0.098+10.878-0.098% relative to uniformity. The helio- and geocentric nature of the distribution suggests it might result in part from an observational bias, which if compensated for by future discoveries, might increase the brown-dwarf-to-star ratio, shifting it closer to values found in some star forming regions.

  11. Using Clustering Algorithms to Identify Brown Dwarf Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choban, Caleb

    2016-06-01

    Brown dwarfs are stars that are not massive enough to sustain core hydrogen fusion, and thus fade and cool over time. The molecular composition of brown dwarf atmospheres can be determined by observing absorption features in their infrared spectrum, which can be quantified using spectral indices. Comparing these indices to one another, we can determine what kind of brown dwarf it is, and if it is young or metal-poor. We explored a new method for identifying these subgroups through the expectation-maximization machine learning clustering algorithm, which provides a quantitative and statistical way of identifying index pairs which separate rare populations. We specifically quantified two statistics, completeness and concentration, to identify the best index pairs. Starting with a training set, we defined selection regions for young, metal-poor and binary brown dwarfs, and tested these on a large sample of L dwarfs. We present the results of this analysis, and demonstrate that new objects in these classes can be found through these methods.

  12. Brown Dwarfs: A New Class of Stellar Lighthouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-04-01

    Brown dwarfs, thought just a few years ago to be incapable of emitting any significant amounts of radio waves, have been discovered putting out extremely bright "lighthouse beams" of radio waves, much like pulsars. A team of astronomers made the discovery using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope. Artist's Conception of Brown Dwarf Artist's conception of "mini-aurorae" at poles of brown dwarf, producing beams of strong radio emission. CREDIT: Hallinan et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for page of graphics and full information "These beams rotate with the brown dwarf, and we see them when the beam passes over the Earth. This is the same way we see pulses from pulsars," said Gregg Hallinan of the National University of Ireland Galway. "We now think brown dwarfs may be a missing link between pulsars and planets in our own Solar System, which also emit, but more weakly," he added. Brown dwarfs are enigmatic objects that are too small to be stars but too large to be planets. They are sometimes called "failed stars" because they have too little mass to trigger hydrogen fusion reactions at their cores, the source of the energy output in larger stars. With roughly 15 to 80 times the mass of Jupiter, the largest planet in our Solar System, brown dwarfs were long thought to exist. However, it was not until 1995 that astronomers were able to actually find one. A few dozen now are known. In 2001, a group of summer students at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory used the VLA to observe a brown dwarf, even though they had been told by seasoned astronomers that brown dwarfs are not observable at radio wavelengths. Their discovery of a strong flare of radio emission from the object surprised astronomers and the students' scientific paper on the discovery was published in the prestigous scientific journal Nature. Hallinan and his team observed a set of brown dwarfs with the VLA last year, and found that three of the objects emit extremely

  13. Possible Observational Criteria for Distinguishing Brown Dwarfs From Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, David C.

    1997-01-01

    The difference in formation process between binary stars and planetary systems is reflected in their composition, as well as orbital architecture, particularly in their orbital eccentricity as a function of orbital period. It is suggested here that this difference can be used as an observational criterion to distinguish between brown dwarfs and planets. Application of the orbital criterion suggests that, with three possible exceptions, all of the recently discovered substellar companions may be brown dwarfs and not planets. These criterion may be used as a guide for interpretation of the nature of substellar-mass companions to stars in the future.

  14. HUBBLE SPIES BROWN DWARFS IN NEARBY STELLAR NURSERY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Probing deep within a neighborhood stellar nursery, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope uncovered a swarm of newborn brown dwarfs. The orbiting observatory's near-infrared camera revealed about 50 of these objects throughout the Orion Nebula's Trapezium cluster [image at right], about 1,500 light-years from Earth. Appearing like glistening precious stones surrounding a setting of sparkling diamonds, more than 300 fledgling stars and brown dwarfs surround the brightest, most massive stars [center of picture] in Hubble's view of the Trapezium cluster's central region. All of the celestial objects in the Trapezium were born together in this hotbed of star formation. The cluster is named for the trapezoidal alignment of those central massive stars. Brown dwarfs are gaseous objects with masses so low that their cores never become hot enough to fuse hydrogen, the thermonuclear fuel stars like the Sun need to shine steadily. Instead, these gaseous objects fade and cool as they grow older. Brown dwarfs around the age of the Sun (5 billion years old) are very cool and dim, and therefore are difficult for telescopes to find. The brown dwarfs discovered in the Trapezium, however, are youngsters (1 million years old). So they're still hot and bright, and easier to see. This finding, along with observations from ground-based telescopes, is further evidence that brown dwarfs, once considered exotic objects, are nearly as abundant as stars. The image and results appear in the Sept. 20 issue of the Astrophysical Journal. The brown dwarfs are too dim to be seen in a visible-light image taken by the Hubble telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 [picture at left]. This view also doesn't show the assemblage of infant stars seen in the near-infrared image. That's because the young stars are embedded in dense clouds of dust and gas. The Hubble telescope's near-infrared camera, the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer, penetrated those clouds to capture a view of those

  15. HUBBLE SPIES BROWN DWARFS IN NEARBY STELLAR NURSERY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Probing deep within a neighborhood stellar nursery, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope uncovered a swarm of newborn brown dwarfs. The orbiting observatory's near-infrared camera revealed about 50 of these objects throughout the Orion Nebula's Trapezium cluster [image at right], about 1,500 light-years from Earth. Appearing like glistening precious stones surrounding a setting of sparkling diamonds, more than 300 fledgling stars and brown dwarfs surround the brightest, most massive stars [center of picture] in Hubble's view of the Trapezium cluster's central region. All of the celestial objects in the Trapezium were born together in this hotbed of star formation. The cluster is named for the trapezoidal alignment of those central massive stars. Brown dwarfs are gaseous objects with masses so low that their cores never become hot enough to fuse hydrogen, the thermonuclear fuel stars like the Sun need to shine steadily. Instead, these gaseous objects fade and cool as they grow older. Brown dwarfs around the age of the Sun (5 billion years old) are very cool and dim, and therefore are difficult for telescopes to find. The brown dwarfs discovered in the Trapezium, however, are youngsters (1 million years old). So they're still hot and bright, and easier to see. This finding, along with observations from ground-based telescopes, is further evidence that brown dwarfs, once considered exotic objects, are nearly as abundant as stars. The image and results appear in the Sept. 20 issue of the Astrophysical Journal. The brown dwarfs are too dim to be seen in a visible-light image taken by the Hubble telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 [picture at left]. This view also doesn't show the assemblage of infant stars seen in the near-infrared image. That's because the young stars are embedded in dense clouds of dust and gas. The Hubble telescope's near-infrared camera, the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer, penetrated those clouds to capture a view of those

  16. Gaia limits for brown dwarf studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarro, L. M.; Barrado, D.; Carrión, C.; Caballero, J. A.

    In this work we present a study of the expected properties of the Gaia sample of ultracool dwarfs (UCDs). This is defined preliminary (at a stage where we do not have real Gaia data yet) by analysing the detectability by Gaia of known UCDs in the Dwarf Archive. We complement the observations listed in the Dwarf Archive (J-, H-, and K- band magnitudes) with SDSS magnitudes and compare them with the BT-Settl model library in order to assess detectability. We also discuss the fraction of UCDs that will have accompanying RVS spectra in the Calcium triplet wavelength region.

  17. DISCOVERY OF AN UNUSUALLY RED L-TYPE BROWN DWARF

    SciTech Connect

    Gizis, John E.; Castro, Philip J.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Liu, Michael C.; Aller, Kimberly M.; Shaw, John D.; Vrba, Frederick J.; Harris, Hugh C.; Deacon, Niall R.

    2012-10-01

    We report the discovery of an unusually red brown dwarf found in a search for high proper motion objects using WISE and 2MASS data. WISEP J004701.06+680352.1 is moving at 0.''44 yr{sup -1} and lies relatively close to the Galactic plane (b = 5.{sup 0}2). Near-infrared photometry and spectroscopy reveals that this is one of the reddest (2MASS J - K{sub s} 2.55 {+-} 0.08 mag) field L dwarfs yet detected, making this object an important member of the class of unusually red L dwarfs. We discuss evidence for thick condensate clouds and speculate on the age of the object. Although models by different research groups agree that thick clouds can explain the red spectrum, they predict dramatically different effective temperatures, ranging from 1100 K to 1600 K. This brown dwarf is well suited for additional studies of extremely dusty substellar atmospheres because it is relatively bright (K{sub s} = 13.05 {+-} 0.03 mag), which should also contribute to an improved understanding of young gas-giant planets and the transition between L and T brown dwarfs.

  18. Determining the Locations of Brown Dwarfs in Young Star Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, Lauren A.

    2005-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are stellar objects with masses less than 0.08 times that of the Sun that are unable to sustain nuclear fusion. Because of the lack of fusion, they are relatively cold, allowing the formation of methane and water molecules in their atmospheres. Brown dwarfs can be detected by examining stars' absorption spectra in the near-infrared to see whether methane and water are present. The objective of this research is to determine the locations of brown dwarfs in Rho Ophiuchus, a star cluster that is only 1 million years old. The cluster was observed in four filters in the near-infrared range using the Wide-Field Infra-Red Camera (WIRC) on the 100" DuPont Telescope and Persson's Auxiliary Nasymith Infrared Camera (PANIC) on the 6.5-m Magellan Telescope. By comparing the magnitude of a star in each of the four filters, an absorption spectrum can be formed. This project uses standard astronomical techniques to reduce raw frames into final images and perform photometry on them to obtain publishable data. Once this is done, it will be possible to determine the locations and magnitudes of brown dwarfs within the cluster.

  19. Determining the Locations of Brown Dwarfs in Young Star Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, Lauren A.

    2005-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are stellar objects with masses less than 0.08 times that of the Sun that are unable to sustain nuclear fusion. Because of the lack of fusion, they are relatively cold, allowing the formation of methane and water molecules in their atmospheres. Brown dwarfs can be detected by examining stars' absorption spectra in the near-infrared to see whether methane and water are present. The objective of this research is to determine the locations of brown dwarfs in Rho Ophiuchus, a star cluster that is only 1 million years old. The cluster was observed in four filters in the near-infrared range using the Wide-Field Infra-Red Camera (WIRC) on the 100" DuPont Telescope and Persson's Auxiliary Nasymith Infrared Camera (PANIC) on the 6.5-m Magellan Telescope. By comparing the magnitude of a star in each of the four filters, an absorption spectrum can be formed. This project uses standard astronomical techniques to reduce raw frames into final images and perform photometry on them to obtain publishable data. Once this is done, it will be possible to determine the locations and magnitudes of brown dwarfs within the cluster.

  20. Reigning Title-Holder for Coldest Brown Dwarf

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-23

    NASA Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer has uncovered the coldest brown dwarf known so far green dot in very center of this infrared image. WISE 1828+2650 is located in the constellation Lyra. The blue dots are a mix of stars and galaxies.

  1. The Drieset Part in the Brown Dwarf Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Bo; Ge, J.

    2013-01-01

    In brown dwarf (BD) research, there is lack of a homogeneous sample of BDs in close orbits, partly because of the existence of the brown dwarf desert (BDD). One of the primary scientific questions about BD companions is how is their formation related to both planetary and stellar companions. Do they represent the high mass end of planetary formation being created by core accretion in a protoplanetary disk? Or do they more often form like stellar companions, via initial fragmentation of a molecular cloud followed by gravitational collapse? This issue is compounded by the existence of the BDD between the two mass regimes. We report a statistically significant gap around Msini ~ 40 Jupiter masses in the period-mass distribution diagram for brown dwarfs. We refer this gap as `Desert in the Brown Dwarf Desert'. The eccentricity of BDs below this gap is generally smaller than BDs above this gap. It appears that BDs below this gap likely form like planets through core accretion while those above this gap may form like low-mass stars through gravitational collapse. The details are reported in a paper (Ma & Ge, 2012, ApJ submitted). More homogeneous data is needed to confirm this discovery and test BD formation theories.

  2. Follow-up of MARVELS Brown Dwarf Candidates using EXPERT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Bo; Ge, Jian; Li, Rui; Sithajan, Sirinrat; Thomas, Neil; Wang, Ji; De Lee, Nathan

    2013-02-01

    The SDSS-III MARVELS survey is a comprehensive radial velocity survey of 3,300 nearby F-K stars, between 7.6 < V < 12.0 in 2008-2012. All of the survey data for 2580 FGK stars from the first two and half years have been processed with the latest data pipeline. A total of 26 new brown dwarfs (BD) candidates have been identified in the processed RV data. We expect to have 8 more BD candidates from the ~800 stars currently under processing, which will make a total of 34 BD candidates. This proposal requests KPNO 2.1m telescope time with the EXPERT instrument, to follow up all of these BD candidates to confirm the detections and characterize the orbits. The results will be used to (1) reveal the overall distribution of the new BDs in the parameter space; (2) measure the occurrence rate of BD around FGK type stars; (3) measure dryness of the brown dwarf desert around stars with different mass and metallicity; (4) constrain theoretical models regarding the formation of brown dwarfs; (5) confirm the discovery of `desert in the brown dwarf desert'; (6) identify additional companions associated with the detected systems.

  3. Brown Dwarf Binaries from Disintegrating Triple Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reipurth, Bo; Mikkola, Seppo

    2015-04-01

    Binaries in which both components are brown dwarfs (BDs) are being discovered at an increasing rate, and their properties may hold clues to their origin. We have carried out 200,000 N-body simulations of three identical stellar embryos with masses drawn from a Chabrier IMF and embedded in a molecular core. The bodies are initially non-hierarchical and undergo chaotic motions within the cloud core, while accreting using Bondi-Hoyle accretion. The coupling of dynamics and accretion often leads to one or two dominant bodies controlling the center of the cloud core, while banishing the other(s) to the lower-density outskirts, leading to stunted growth. Eventually each system transforms either to a bound hierarchical configuration or breaks apart into separate single and binary components. The orbital motion is followed for 100 Myr. In order to illustrate 200,000 end-states of such dynamical evolution with accretion, we introduce the “triple diagnostic diagram,” which plots two dimensionless numbers against each other, representing the binary mass ratio and the mass ratio of the third body to the total system mass. Numerous freefloating BD binaries are formed in these simulations, and statistical properties are derived. The separation distribution function is in good correspondence with observations, showing a steep rise at close separations, peaking around 13 AU and declining more gently, reaching zero at separations greater than 200 AU. Unresolved BD triple systems may appear as wider BD binaries. Mass ratios are strongly peaked toward unity, as observed, but this is partially due to the initial assumptions. Eccentricities gradually increase toward higher values, due to the lack of viscous interactions in the simulations, which would both shrink the orbits and decrease their eccentricities. Most newborn triple systems are unstable and while there are 9209 ejected BD binaries at 1 Myr, corresponding to about 4% of the 200,000 simulations, this number has grown to

  4. BROWN DWARF BINARIES FROM DISINTEGRATING TRIPLE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Reipurth, Bo; Mikkola, Seppo E-mail: Seppo.Mikkola@utu.fi

    2015-04-15

    Binaries in which both components are brown dwarfs (BDs) are being discovered at an increasing rate, and their properties may hold clues to their origin. We have carried out 200,000 N-body simulations of three identical stellar embryos with masses drawn from a Chabrier IMF and embedded in a molecular core. The bodies are initially non-hierarchical and undergo chaotic motions within the cloud core, while accreting using Bondi–Hoyle accretion. The coupling of dynamics and accretion often leads to one or two dominant bodies controlling the center of the cloud core, while banishing the other(s) to the lower-density outskirts, leading to stunted growth. Eventually each system transforms either to a bound hierarchical configuration or breaks apart into separate single and binary components. The orbital motion is followed for 100 Myr. In order to illustrate 200,000 end-states of such dynamical evolution with accretion, we introduce the “triple diagnostic diagram,” which plots two dimensionless numbers against each other, representing the binary mass ratio and the mass ratio of the third body to the total system mass. Numerous freefloating BD binaries are formed in these simulations, and statistical properties are derived. The separation distribution function is in good correspondence with observations, showing a steep rise at close separations, peaking around 13 AU and declining more gently, reaching zero at separations greater than 200 AU. Unresolved BD triple systems may appear as wider BD binaries. Mass ratios are strongly peaked toward unity, as observed, but this is partially due to the initial assumptions. Eccentricities gradually increase toward higher values, due to the lack of viscous interactions in the simulations, which would both shrink the orbits and decrease their eccentricities. Most newborn triple systems are unstable and while there are 9209 ejected BD binaries at 1 Myr, corresponding to about 4% of the 200,000 simulations, this number has grown to

  5. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF YOUNG BROWN DWARFS AND VERY LOW MASS STARS INFERRED FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION MODEL SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, Emily L.; Mclean, Ian S.; Barman, T.; Prato, L.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy

    2010-01-01

    By comparing near-infrared spectra with atmospheric models, we infer the effective temperature, surface gravity, projected rotational velocity, and radial velocity for 21 very low mass stars and brown dwarfs. The unique sample consists of two sequences in spectral type from M6-M9, one of 5-10 Myr objects and one of >1 Gyr field objects. A third sequence is comprised of only {approx}M6 objects with ages ranging from <1 Myr to >1 Gyr. Spectra were obtained in the J band at medium (R {approx} 2000) and high (R {approx} 20,000) resolutions with NIRSPEC on the Keck II telescope. Synthetic spectra were generated from atmospheric structures calculated with the PHOENIX model atmosphere code. Using multi-dimensional least-squares fitting and Monte Carlo routines we determine the best-fit model parameters for each observed spectrum and note which spectral regions provide consistent results. We identify successes in the reproduction of observed features by atmospheric models, including pressure-broadened K I lines, and investigate deficiencies in the models, particularly missing FeH opacity, that will need to be addressed in order to extend our analysis to cooler objects. The precision that can be obtained for each parameter using medium- and high-resolution near-infrared spectra is estimated and the implications for future studies of very low mass stars and brown dwarfs are discussed.

  6. A brown dwarf mass donor in an accreting binary.

    PubMed

    Littlefair, S P; Dhillon, V S; Marsh, T R; Gänsicke, Boris T; Southworth, John; Watson, C A

    2006-12-08

    A long-standing and unverified prediction of binary star evolution theory is the existence of a population of white dwarfs accreting from substellar donor stars. Such systems ought to be common, but the difficulty of finding them, combined with the challenge of detecting the donor against the light from accretion, means that no donor star to date has a measured mass below the hydrogen burning limit. We applied a technique that allowed us to reliably measure the mass of the unseen donor star in eclipsing systems. We were able to identify a brown dwarf donor star, with a mass of 0.052 +/- 0.002 solar mass. The relatively high mass of the donor star for its orbital period suggests that current evolutionary models may underestimate the radii of brown dwarfs.

  7. Radio observations of the brown dwarf- exoplanet boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Route, Matthew Philip

    Although exoplanets and brown dwarfs have been hypothesized to exist for many years, it was only in the last two decades that their existence has been directly verified. Since then, a large number of both types of substellar objects have been discovered; they have been studied, characterized, and classified. Yet knowledge of their magnetic properties remains difficult to obtain. Only radio emission provides a plausible means to study the magnetism of these cool objects. At the initiation of this research project, not a single exoplanet had been detected in the radio, and only a handful of radio emitting brown dwarfs were known. This project was launched to attempt to detect emission from brown dwarfs cooler than spectral type L3.5, the coolest brown dwarf detected prior to this project, and also to attempt to discover radio emission from nearby exoplanets. These objects are known to emit radio waves via the gyrosynchrotron and electron cyclotron maser instability mechanisms. By analyzing flaring radio emission from these objects, we would therefore gain insight into their magnetic field properties and the characteristics of the surrounding plasma environment. This dissertation presents the results from surveys of 33 brown dwarfs, 18 exoplanetary systems, and one additional M dwarf for flaring radio emission, conducted with the 305-m Arecibo radio telescope at a center frequency of 4.75 GHz using the broadband, fast-sampled Mock spectrometer. During the course of these surveys, we failed to detect flaring radio emission from any exoplanets, including the young exoplanetary system HR 8799, which theoretical work indicated may have strong magnetic fields capable of generating radio emission at gigahertz frequencies due to their relatively hot temperatures and high masses. Such a detection would provide an exciting alternative to the previous unsuccessful low radio frequency searches for the emission from exoplanets orbiting middle-aged, solar type stars. Among the

  8. Cloud structure of brown dwarfs from spectroscopic variability observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buenzli, E.; Marley, M. S.; Apai, D.; Lupu, R. E.

    Recent discoveries of variable brown dwarfs have provided us with a new window into their three-dimensional cloud structure. The highest variables are found at the L/T transition, where the cloud cover is thought to break up, but variability has been found to occur also for both cloudy L dwarfs and (mostly) cloud-free mid T dwarfs. We summarize results from recent HST programs measuring the spectral variability of brown dwarfs in the near-infrared and compare to results from ground-based programs. We discuss the patchy cloud structure of L/T transition objects, for which it is becoming increasingly certain that the variability does not arise from cloud holes into the deep hot regions but from varying cloud thickness. We present a new patchy cloud model to explain the spectral variability of 2MASSJ21392676+0220226. We also discuss the curious multi-wavelength variability behavior of the recently discovered very nearby early T dwarf WISE J104915.57-531906.1B (Luhman 16B) and the mid T dwarf 2MASS J22282889-431026. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program # 12314 and 13280

  9. NTT Observations Indicate that Brown Dwarfs Form Like Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-06-01

    Dusty Disks Detected around Very Young Substellar Objects in the Orion Nebula Summary An international team of astronomers [2] is announcing today the discovery of dusty disks surrounding numerous very faint objects that are believed to be recently formed Brown Dwarfs in the Orion Nebula [3]. This finding is based on detailed observations with SOFI, a specialised infrared-sensitive instrument at the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope at the La Silla Observatory. It is of special interest because it sheds light on the origin and nature of substellar objects, known as "Brown Dwarfs" . In particular, these results suggest that Brown Dwarfs share a common origin with stars and that Brown Dwarfs are more similar in nature to stars than to planets and, like stars, have the potential to form with accompanying systems of planets. Moreover, the presence of dusty protoplanetary disks around the faintest objects in the Orion Nebula cluster confirms both the membership of these faint stars in the cluster and their nature as bona-fide substellar objects, making this the largest population of Brown Dwarf objects yet known . These important results are being reported today to the American Astronomical Society Meeting in Pasadena (California, USA). PR Photo 22a/01 : Infrared picture of the Orion Nebula (NTT + SOFI). PR Photo 22b/01 : "Finding Chart" for Very Young Brown Dwarfs in the Orion Nebula. PR Photo 22c/01 : Animated GIF presentation of PR Photos 22a+b/01. Faint substellar objects in the Milky Way Over the past 5 years, several groups of astronomers have identified a type of very faint, substellar objects within our Milky Way galaxy. These gaseous objects have very low masses and will never shine like normal stars because they cannot achieve central temperatures high enough for sustained thermal nuclear reactions to occur in their cores. Such objects weigh less than about 7% of our Sun and have been variously called "Brown Dwarfs" , "Failed Stars" or "Super Planets

  10. SHAPING THE BROWN DWARF DESERT: PREDICTING THE PRIMORDIAL BROWN DWARF BINARY DISTRIBUTIONS FROM TURBULENT FRAGMENTATION

    SciTech Connect

    Jumper, Peter H.; Fisher, Robert T.

    2013-05-20

    The formation of brown dwarfs (BDs) poses a key challenge to star formation theory. The observed dearth of nearby ({<=}5 AU) BD companions to solar mass stars, known as the BD desert, as well as the tendency for low-mass binary systems to be more tightly bound than stellar binaries, has been cited as evidence for distinct formation mechanisms for BDs and stars. In this paper, we explore the implications of the minimal hypothesis that BDs in binary systems originate via the same fundamental fragmentation mechanism as stars, within isolated, turbulent giant molecular cloud cores. We demonstrate analytically that the scaling of specific angular momentum with turbulent core mass naturally gives rise to the BD desert, as well as wide BD binary systems. Further, we show that the turbulent core fragmentation model also naturally predicts that very low mass binary and BD/BD systems are more tightly bound than stellar systems. In addition, in order to capture the stochastic variation intrinsic to turbulence, we generate 10{sup 4} model turbulent cores with synthetic turbulent velocity fields to show that the turbulent fragmentation model accommodates a small fraction of binary BDs with wide separations, similar to observations. Indeed, the picture which emerges from the turbulent fragmentation model is that a single fragmentation mechanism may largely shape both stellar and BD binary distributions during formation.

  11. Temperature fluctuations as a source of brown dwarf variability

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Tyler D.; Marley, Mark S.

    2014-04-20

    A number of brown dwarfs are now known to be variable with observed amplitudes as large as 10%-30% at some wavelengths. While spatial inhomogeneities in cloud coverage and thickness are likely responsible for much of the observed variability, it is possible that some of the variations arise from atmospheric temperature fluctuations instead of, or in addition to, clouds. To better understand the role that thermal variability might play we present a case study of brown dwarf variability using a newly developed one-dimensional, time-stepping model of atmospheric thermal structure. We focus on the effects of thermal perturbations, intentionally simplifying the problem through omission of clouds and atmospheric circulation. Model results demonstrate that thermal perturbations occurring deep in the atmosphere (at pressures greater than 10 bar) of a model T-dwarf can be communicated to the upper atmosphere through radiative heating via the windows in near-infrared water opacity. The response time depends on where in the atmosphere a thermal perturbation is introduced. We show that, for certain periodic perturbations, the emission spectrum can have complex time- and wavelength-dependent behaviors, including phase shifts in times of maximum flux observed at different wavelengths. Since different wavelengths probe different levels in the atmosphere, these variations track a wavelength-dependent set of radiative exchanges happening between different atmospheric levels as a perturbation evolves in time. We conclude that thermal—as well as cloud—fluctuations must be considered as possible contributors to the observed brown dwarf variability.

  12. Preliminary Results of the Spitzer SWIRE Brown Dwarf Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padgett, D. L.; Lonsdale, C.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; O'Linger-Luscusk, J.; SWIRE Legacy Team

    2005-12-01

    SWIRE (The Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic survey) is a Spitzer Legacy project which has mapped nearly 50 square degrees in 5 optical (U, g, r, i, z - not yet complete) and 7 infrared bands (3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, 24, 70, and 160 microns). The survey observed low background sky to a depth of a few microJy at 3.6 and 4.5 microns. While this observing program was designed for extragalactic science, its phenominal depth at the T dwarf SED peak near 4.5 microns makes it ideal for discovering previously unknown field brown dwarfs. Using the current team source catalogs covering about 25 square degrees in three fields, we have identified about 100 sources which fulfill the [4.5] - [3.6] > 0.75 color criteria for brown dwarfs later than T5 (Patten et al. 2005) and are optically invisible down to mr = 26. Careful examination of individual sources to eliminate cosmic rays and extended sources reveal that about 10 are reliable, pointlike, and worthy of spectroscopic followup. Among the false alarms is a class of pointlike optically invisible, but mid-IR bright extragalactic sources which are excluded from the list of brown dwarf candidates by their brightness at 8 and 24 microns. By the time of the January meeting, we will report brown dwarf candidate statistics from nearly the entire SWIRE survey. Further sources may be identified in the already analyzed fields by searching for objects only detected at 4.5 microns.

  13. Atmospheric Circulation of Brown Dwarfs: Jets, Vortices, and Time Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xi; Showman, Adam

    Under the conditions of fast rotation, strong radiative dissipation and no external stellar flux, brown dwarfs occupy a unique corner of the parameter space of atmospheric dynamics theories. Here we ask: do the atmospheres of the brown dwarfs exhibit east-west jets pattern as exist on both the gas giants in our solar system and the close-in extra-solar giant planets, or are they dominated by isotropic turbulence and vortices instead? The answer is crucial for the interpretation of observed time variability of L/T dwarfs as well as being of fundamental theoretical interest. We used a global two-dimensional (2D) shallow-water model to investigate the dominant atmospheric features during the continuous transition from gas giants to brown dwarfs. We show that the existence and properties of the jets crucially depend on several key parameters including the energy injection rate and radiative damping timescale. Under conditions of strong internal heat flux and weak radiative dissipation, east-west jets spontaneously emerge from the interaction of atmospheric turbulence with the planetary rotation. When the internal heat flux is weak and/or radiative dissipation is strong, turbulence injected into the atmosphere damps before it can self-organize into jets, leading to a flow dominated by isotropic turbulence and vortices instead. We present a scaling law as a quantitative criterion for the emergence of jets versus vortices on gas giants and brown dwarfs. The long-time integration of the shallow water system provides a new tool to understand the effect of atmospheric dynamics on the observed light curve variations in both short and long timescales. Our simulated light curves capture the important features in recent infrared observations, such as an amplitude variation of a few percent and multi-peak shapes. This work is supported by the NSF and by a Bisgrove Scholar Program in the University of Arizona.

  14. DISCOVERY OF A CANDIDATE FOR THE COOLEST KNOWN BROWN DWARF

    SciTech Connect

    Luhman, K. L.; Bochanski, J. J.; Burgasser, A. J.

    2011-03-20

    We have used multi-epoch images from the Infrared Array Camera on board the Spitzer Space Telescope to search for substellar companions to stars in the solar neighborhood based on common proper motions. Through this work, we have discovered a faint companion to the white dwarf WD 0806-661. The comoving source has a projected separation of 130'', corresponding to 2500 AU at the distance of the primary (19.2 pc). If it is physically associated, then its absolute magnitude at 4.5 {mu}m is {approx}1 mag fainter than the faintest known T dwarfs, making it a strong candidate for the coolest known brown dwarf. The combination of M{sub 4.5} and the age of the primary (1.5 Gyr) implies an effective temperature of {approx}300 K and a mass of {approx}7 M{sub Jup} according to theoretical evolutionary models. The white dwarf's progenitor likely had a mass of {approx}2 M{sub sun}, and thus could have been born with a circumstellar disk that was sufficiently massive to produce a companion with this mass. Therefore, the companion could be either a brown dwarf that formed like a binary star or a giant planet that was born within a disk and has been dynamically scattered to a larger orbit.

  15. Students Use VLA to Make Startling Brown-Dwarf Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-03-01

    A group of summer students making a long-shot astronomical gamble with the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Very Large Array (VLA) have found the first radio emission ever detected from a brown dwarf, an enigmatic object that is neither a star nor a planet, but something in between. Their surprising discovery is forcing experts to re-think their theories about how brown dwarfs work. The Very Large Array "Many astronomers are surprised at this discovery, because they didn't expect such strong radio emission from this object," said Shri Kulkarni, a Caltech professor who was on the team that first discovered a brown dwarf in 1995, and advisor to one of the students. "What is so cool is that this is research that probably nobody else would have tried to do because of its low chance of success. That made it ideal for summer students -- we had almost nothing to lose," said Kate Becker, a student at Oberlin College in Ohio. "The radio emission these students discovered coming from this brown dwarf is 10,000 times stronger than anyone expected," said Dale Frail, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. "This student project is going to open up a whole new area of research for the VLA," Frail added. The students, in addition to Becker, are: Edo Berger from Caltech; Steven Ball from New Mexico Tech in Socorro, NM; Melanie Clarke from Carleton College in Northfield, MN; Therese Fukuda from the University of Denver; Ian Hoffman from the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque; Richard Mellon from The Pennsylvania State University; Emmanuel Momjian from the University of Kentucky; Nathanial Murphy from Amherst College in Amherst, MA; Stacey Teng from the University of Maryland; Timothy Woodruff from Southwestern University in Georgetown, TX; Ashley Zauderer from Agnes Scott College in Decatur, GA; and Robert Zavala from New Mexico State University in Las Cruces, NM. Frail also is an author of the research paper, published in the March

  16. Beyond the T Dwarfs: Theoretical Spectra, Colors, and Detectability of the Coolest Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrows, Adam; Sudarsky, David; Lunine, Jonathan I.

    2003-10-01

    We explore the spectral and atmospheric properties of brown dwarfs cooler than the latest known T dwarfs. Our focus is on the yet-to-be-discovered free-floating brown dwarfs in the Teff range from ~800 to ~130 K and with masses from 25 to 1 MJ. This study is in anticipation of the new characterization capabilities enabled by the launch of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) and the eventual launch of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). In addition, it is in support of the continuing ground-based searches for the coolest substellar objects. We provide spectra from ~0.4 to 30 μm, highlight the evolution and mass dependence of the dominant H2O, CH4, and NH3 molecular bands, consider the formation and effects of water ice clouds, and compare our theoretical flux densities with the putative sensitivities of the instruments on board SIRTF and JWST. The latter can be used to determine the detection ranges from space of cool brown dwarfs. In the process, we determine the reversal point of the blueward trend in the near-infrared colors with decreasing Teff (a prominent feature of the hotter T dwarf family), the Teff's at which water and ammonia clouds appear, the strengths of gas-phase ammonia and methane bands, the masses and ages of the objects for which the neutral alkali metal lines (signatures of L and T dwarfs) are muted, and the increasing role as Teff decreases of the mid-infrared fluxes longward of 4 μm. These changes suggest physical reasons to expect the emergence of at least one new stellar class beyond the T dwarfs. Furthermore, studies in the mid-infrared could assume a new, perhaps transformational, importance in the understanding of the coolest brown dwarfs. Our spectral models populate, with cooler brown dwarfs having progressively more planet-like features, the theoretical gap between the known T dwarfs and the known giant planets. Such objects likely inhabit the Galaxy, but their numbers are as yet unknown.

  17. a Faint and Lonely Brown Dwarf in the Solar Vicinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-04-01

    Discovery of KELU-1 Promises New Insights into Strange Objects Brown Dwarfs are star-like objects which are too small to become real stars, yet too large to be real planets. Their mass is too small to ignite those nuclear processes which are responsible for the large energies and high temperatures of stars, but it is much larger than that of the planets we know in our solar system. Until now, very few Brown Dwarfs have been securely identified as such. Two are members of double-star systems, and a few more are located deep within the Pleiades star cluster. Now, however, Maria Teresa Ruiz of the Astronomy Department at Universidad de Chile (Santiago de Chile), using telescopes at the ESO La Silla observatory, has just discovered one that is all alone and apparently quite near to us. Contrary to the others which are influenced by other objects in their immediate surroundings, this new Brown Dwarf is unaffected and will thus be a perfect object for further investigations that may finally allow us to better understand these very interesting celestial bodies. It has been suggested that Brown Dwarfs may constitute a substantial part of the unseen dark matter in our Galaxy. This discovery may therefore also have important implications for this highly relevant research area. Searching for nearby faint stars The story of this discovery goes back to 1987 when Maria Teresa Ruiz decided to embark upon a long-term search (known as the Calan-ESO proper-motion survey ) for another type of unusual object, the so-called White Dwarfs , i.e. highly evolved, small and rather faint stars. Although they have masses similar to that of the Sun, such stars are no larger than the Earth and are therefore extremely compact. They are particularly interesting, because they most probably represent the future end point of evolution of our Sun, some billions of years from now. For this project, the Chilean astronomer obtained large-field photographic exposures with the 1-m ESO Schmidt telescope at

  18. A Brown Dwarf Census from the SIMP Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, Jasmin; Gagné, Jonathan; Artigau, Étienne; Lafrenière, David; Nadeau, Daniel; Doyon, René; Malo, Lison; Albert, Loïc; Simard, Corinne; Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella C.; Burgasser, Adam J.

    2016-10-01

    We have conducted a near-infrared (NIR) proper motion survey, the Sondage Infrarouge de Mouvement Propre, in order to discover field ultracool dwarfs (UCD) in the solar neighborhood. The survey was conducted by imaging ˜28% of the sky with the Caméra PAnoramique Proche-InfraRouge both in the southern hemisphere at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory 1.5 m telescope, and in the northern hemisphere at the Observatoire du Mont-Mégantic 1.6 m telescope and comparing the source positions from these observations with the Two Micron All-Sky Survey Point Source Catalog (2MASS PSC). Additional color criteria were used to further discriminate unwanted astrophysical sources. We present the results of an NIR spectroscopic follow-up of 169 M, L, and T dwarfs. Among the sources discovered are 2 young field brown dwarfs, 6 unusually red M and L dwarfs, 25 unusually blue M and L dwarfs, 2 candidate unresolved L+T binaries, and 24 peculiar UCDs. Additionally, we add 9 L/T transition dwarfs (L6-T4.5) to the already known objects.

  19. The brown dwarf atmosphere monitoring (BAM) project - II. Multi-epoch monitoring of extremely cool brown dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajan, A.; Patience, J.; Wilson, P. A.; Bulger, J.; De Rosa, R. J.; Ward-Duong, K.; Morley, C.; Pont, F.; Windhorst, R.

    2015-04-01

    With the discovery of Y dwarfs by the WISE mission, the population of field brown dwarfs now extends to objects with temperatures comparable to those of Solar system planets. To investigate the atmospheres of these newly identified brown dwarfs, we have conducted a pilot study monitoring an initial sample of three late-T dwarfs (T6.5, T8 and T8.5) and one Y dwarf (Y0) for infrared photometric variability at multiple epochs. With J-band imaging, each target was observed for a period of 1.0-4.5 h per epoch, which covers a significant fraction of the expected rotational period. These measurements represent the first photometric monitoring for these targets. For three of the four targets (2M1047, Ross 458C and WISE0458), multi-epoch monitoring was performed, with the time span between epochs ranging from a few hours to ˜2 years. During the first epoch, the T8.5 target WISE0458 exhibited variations with a remarkable min-to-max amplitude of 13 per cent, while the second epoch light curve taken ˜2 years later did not note any variability to a 3 per cent upper limit. With an effective temperature of ˜600 K, WISE0458 is the coldest variable brown dwarf published to date, and combined with its high and variable amplitude makes it a fascinating target for detailed follow-up. The three remaining targets showed no significant variations, with a photometric precision between 0.8 and 20.0 per cent, depending on the target brightness. Combining the new results with previous multi-epoch observations of brown dwarfs with spectral types of T5 or later, the currently identified variables have locations on the colour-colour diagram better matched by theoretical models incorporating cloud opacities rather than cloud-free atmospheres. This preliminary result requires further study to determine if there is a definitive link between variability among late-T dwarfs and their location on the colour-colour diagram.

  20. Eclipse Observations of a Temperate Transiting Brown Dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beatty, Thomas; Curtis, Jason; Montet, Benjamin; Vanderberg, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    We wish to use 15.7 hours of Spitzer time to observe two eclipses, one each at 3.6 um and 4.5 um of a newly discovered transiting brown dwarf, which we refer to as R147-BD. R147-BD is a 36 MJ object on a 5.3 day orbit about a K=10.666, 5800K solar analog. Uniquely, R147-BD and its host star are both members of the 3.0 Gyr old open cluster Ruprecht 147. R147-BD is thus one of the only transiting brown dwarfs for which we have a robust isochronal age that is not dependent upon brown dwarf evolutionary models. These models predict that a field object with the mass and age of R147-BD should have an effective temperature of about 800K due to internal heat. The zero-albedo blackbody equilibrium temperature for R147-BD, based only on its host star's insolation, is 1125K. This makes R147-BD the first observationally accessible sub-stellar object for which the internal and external energy fluxes are approximately equal, and it can serve as a unique laboratory to test the effect of stellar irradiation on the vertical pressure-temperature structure and clouds of giant planets. Specifically, we wish to investigate three different questions with these observations. First, how does the measured mass, radius, age and emission of R147-BD compare to brown dwarf evolution models, and how have these been altered by stellar irradiation? Second, does R147-BD's dayside atmosphere resemble its isolated field equivalent, or is it closer to hot Jupiters at similar temperatures? Third, can we constrain the cloud properties of R147-BD's dayside? Besides these particular science questions, observations of R147-BD allow us to scout-out future JWST observations of temperate giant planets, which also will have roughly equal amounts of stellar irradiation and internal heat.

  1. ATMOSPHERIC DYNAMICS OF BROWN DWARFS AND DIRECTLY IMAGED GIANT PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Showman, Adam P.; Kaspi, Yohai

    2013-10-20

    A variety of observations provide evidence for vigorous motion in the atmospheres of brown dwarfs and directly imaged giant planets. Motivated by these observations, we examine the dynamical regime of the circulation in the atmospheres and interiors of these objects. Brown dwarfs rotate rapidly, and for plausible wind speeds, the flow at large scales will be rotationally dominated. We present three-dimensional, global, numerical simulations of convection in the interior, which demonstrate that at large scales, the convection aligns in the direction parallel to the rotation axis. Convection occurs more efficiently at high latitudes than low latitudes, leading to systematic equator-to-pole temperature differences that may reach ∼1 K near the top of the convection zone. The interaction of convection with the overlying, stably stratified atmosphere will generate a wealth of atmospheric waves, and we argue that, as in the stratospheres of planets in the solar system, the interaction of these waves with the mean flow will cause a significant atmospheric circulation at regional to global scales. At large scales, this should consist of stratified turbulence (possibly organizing into coherent structures such as vortices and jets) and an accompanying overturning circulation. We present an approximate analytic theory of this circulation, which predicts characteristic horizontal temperature variations of several to ∼50 K, horizontal wind speeds of ∼10-300 m s{sup –1}, and vertical velocities that advect air over a scale height in ∼10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} s. This vertical mixing may help to explain the chemical disequilibrium observed on some brown dwarfs. Moreover, the implied large-scale organization of temperature perturbations and vertical velocities suggests that near the L/T transition, patchy clouds can form near the photosphere, helping to explain recent observations of brown-dwarf variability in the near-IR.

  2. Exoplanet exploration for brown dwarfs with infrared astrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Masaki

    The astrometry is one of the oldest method for the exoplanet exploration. However, only one exoplanet has been found with the method. This is because the planet mass is sufficiently smaller than the mass of the central star, so that it is hard to observe the fluctuation of the central star by the planet. Therefore, we investigate the orbital period and mass of planets which we can discover by the future astrometric satellites for brown dwarfs, with the mass less than a tenth of the solar mass. So far five planetary systems of brown dwarfs have been found, whose mass ratios are larger than a tenth. For example, for the system whose distance, orbital period and mass ratio are 10 pc, 1 year and a tenth, respectively, the apparent semi-major axis reaches 3 milli-arcsecond, which can be well detected with the future astrometric satellites such as Small-JASMINE and Gaia. With these satellite, we can discover even super-Earth for the above system. We further investigate where in the period-mass plane we can explore the planet for individual brown dwarf with Small-JASMINE and Gaia. As a result, we find that we can explore a wide region where period and mass are within 5 years and larger than 3 earth mass. In addition, we can explore the region around 0.1 day and 10 Jovian mass, where planets have never found for any central star, and where we can explore only with Small-JASMINE for most target brown dwarfs.

  3. DISCOVERY OF A WIDE BINARY BROWN DWARF BORN IN ISOLATION

    SciTech Connect

    Luhman, K. L.; Allen, P. R.; Mamajek, E. E.; Muench, A. A.; Finkbeiner, D. P.

    2009-02-01

    During a survey for stars with disks in the Taurus star-forming region using the Spitzer Space Telescope, we have discovered a pair of young brown dwarfs, FU Tau A and B, in the Barnard 215 dark cloud. They have a projected angular separation of 5.''7, corresponding to 800 AU at the distance of Taurus. To assess the nature of these two objects, we have obtained spectra of them and constructed spectral energy distributions. Both sources are young ({approx}1 Myr) according to their H{alpha} emission, gravity-sensitive spectral features, and mid-infrared excess emission. The proper motion of FU Tau A provides additional evidence of its membership in Taurus. We measure spectral types of M7.25 and M9.25 for FU Tau A and B, respectively, which correspond to masses of {approx}0.05 and {approx}0.015 M{sub sun} according to the evolutionary models of Chabrier and Baraffe. FU Tau A is significantly overluminous relative to an isochrone passing through FU Tau B and relative to other members of Taurus near its spectral type, which may indicate that it is an unresolved binary. FU Tau A and B are likely to be components of a binary system based on the low probability ({approx}3 x 10{sup -4}) that Taurus would produce two unrelated brown dwarfs with a projected separation of a {<=} 6''. Barnard 215 contains only one other young star and is in a remote area of Taurus, making FU Tau A and B the first spectroscopically confirmed brown dwarfs discovered forming in isolation rather than in a stellar cluster or aggregate. Because they were born in isolation and comprise a weakly bound binary, dynamical interactions with stars could not have played a role in their formation, and thus are not essential for the birth of brown dwarfs.

  4. Physical Studies of Brown Dwarfs and Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyce, Joseph (Technical Monitor); Noll, Keith

    2003-01-01

    The primary activities supported under this grant included research into the mid-infrared spectral properties of brown dwarfs, with particular emphasis on the 3-4 micron region, the L band. Several observing trips were made to use facilities on Mauna Kea. The primary discovery was the detection of absorption due to CH4 in several L dwarfs, including one classified as an L5. This is significant since CH4 is usually considered to be the defining characteristic of T dwarfs. The stronger fundamental band at 3.3um, however, makes it possible to observe the emergence of CH4 at hotter temperatures. A secondary result of this work is the surprising weakness of the CH4 nu3 band. This can be interpreted as either an indication that derived effective temperatures are too low, or perhaps, that the equilibrium abundance of CH4 is suppressed due to non-equilibrium processes at work in the atmosphere.

  5. Physical Studies of Brown Dwarfs and Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyce, Joseph (Technical Monitor); Noll, Keith

    2003-01-01

    The primary activities supported under this grant included research into the mid-infrared spectral properties of brown dwarfs, with particular emphasis on the 3-4 micron region, the L band. Several observing trips were made to use facilities on Mauna Kea. The primary discovery was the detection of absorption due to CH4 in several L dwarfs, including one classified as an L5. This is significant since CH4 is usually considered to be the defining characteristic of T dwarfs. The stronger fundamental band at 3.3um, however, makes it possible to observe the emergence of CH4 at hotter temperatures. A secondary result of this work is the surprising weakness of the CH4 nu3 band. This can be interpreted as either an indication that derived effective temperatures are too low, or perhaps, that the equilibrium abundance of CH4 is suppressed due to non-equilibrium processes at work in the atmosphere.

  6. Polarimetric Detection of Exoplanets Transiting T and L Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Sujan

    2016-10-01

    While scattering of light by atoms and molecules yields large amounts of polarization at the B-band of both T and L dwarfs, scattering by dust grains in the cloudy atmosphere of L dwarfs gives rise to significant polarization at the far-optical and infrared wavelengths where these objects are much brighter. However, the observable disk-averaged polarization should be zero if the clouds are uniformly distributed and the object is spherically symmetric. Therefore, in order to explain the observed large polarization of several L dwarfs, rotation-induced oblateness or horizontally inhomogeneous cloud distribution in the atmosphere is invoked. On the other hand, when an extra-solar planet of Earth-size or larger transits the brown dwarf along the line of sight, the asymmetry induced during the transit gives rise to a net non-zero, time-dependent polarization. Employing atmospheric models for a range of effective temperature and surface gravity appropriate for T and L dwarfs, I derive the time-dependent polarization profiles of these objects during the transit phase and estimate the peak amplitude of polarization that occurs during the inner contact points of the transit ingress/egress phase. It is found that peak polarization in the range of 0.2%-1.0% at I and J band may arise of cloudy L dwarfs occulted by Earth-size or larger exoplanets. Such an amount of polarization is higher than what can be produced by rotation-induced oblateness of even rapidly rotating L dwarfs. Hence, I suggest that time-resolved imaging polarization could be a potential technique for detecting transiting exoplanets around L dwarfs.

  7. The disk around the brown dwarf KPNO Tau 3

    SciTech Connect

    Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Matthews, Brenda; Di Francesco, James; Duchêne, Gaspard; Scholz, Aleks; Chrysostomou, Antonio; Jayawardhana, Ray

    2014-07-10

    We present submillimeter observations of the young brown dwarfs KPNO Tau 1, KPNO Tau 3, and KPNO Tau 6 at 450 μm and 850 μm taken with the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. KPNO Tau 3 and KPNO Tau 6 have been previously identified as Class II objects hosting accretion disks, whereas KPNO Tau 1 has been identified as a Class III object and shows no evidence of circumsubstellar material. Our 3σ detection of cold dust around KPNO Tau 3 implies a total disk mass of (4.0 ± 1.1) × 10{sup –4} M{sub ☉} (assuming a gas to dust ratio of 100:1). We place tight constraints on any disks around KPNO Tau 1 or KPNO Tau 6 of <2.1 × 10{sup –4} M{sub ☉} and <2.7 × 10{sup –4} M{sub ☉}, respectively. Modeling the spectral energy distribution of KPNO Tau 3 and its disk suggests the disk properties (geometry, dust mass, and grain size distribution) are consistent with observations of other brown dwarf disks and low-mass T-Tauri stars. In particular, the disk-to-host mass ratio for KPNO Tau 3 is congruent with the scenario that at least some brown dwarfs form via the same mechanism as low-mass stars.

  8. A global cloud map of the nearest known brown dwarf.

    PubMed

    Crossfield, I J M; Biller, B; Schlieder, J E; Deacon, N R; Bonnefoy, M; Homeier, D; Allard, F; Buenzli, E; Henning, Th; Brandner, W; Goldman, B; Kopytova, T

    2014-01-30

    Brown dwarfs--substellar bodies more massive than planets but not massive enough to initiate the sustained hydrogen fusion that powers self-luminous stars--are born hot and slowly cool as they age. As they cool below about 2,300 kelvin, liquid or crystalline particles composed of calcium aluminates, silicates and iron condense into atmospheric 'dust', which disappears at still cooler temperatures (around 1,300 kelvin). Models to explain this dust dispersal include both an abrupt sinking of the entire cloud deck into the deep, unobservable atmosphere and breakup of the cloud into scattered patches (as seen on Jupiter and Saturn). However, hitherto observations of brown dwarfs have been limited to globally integrated measurements, which can reveal surface inhomogeneities but cannot unambiguously resolve surface features. Here we report a two-dimensional map of a brown dwarf's surface that allows identification of large-scale bright and dark features, indicative of patchy clouds. Monitoring suggests that the characteristic timescale for the evolution of global weather patterns is approximately one day.

  9. Luminosity functions for very low mass stars and brown dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughlin, Gregory; Bodenheimer, Peter

    1993-01-01

    A theoretical investigation of the luminosity function for low-mass objects to constrain the stellar initial mass function at the low-mass end is reported. The ways in which luminosity functions for low-mass stars are affected by star formation histories, brown dwarf and premain-sequence cooling rates and main-sequence mass luminosity relations, and the IMF are examined. Cooling rates and the mass-luminosity relation are determined through a new series of evolutionary calculations for very low mass stars and brown dwarfs in the range 0.05-0.50 solar mass. Model luminosity functions are constructed for specific comparison with the results of four recent observational surveys. The likelihood that the stellar mass function in the solar neighborhood is increasing at masses near the bottom of the main sequence and perhaps at lower masses is confirmed. In the most optimistic case, brown dwarfs contribute half of the local missing disk mass. The actual contribution is likely to be considerably less.

  10. On the Li and Be tests for brown dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, L. A.; Rappaport, S.; Chiang, E.

    1993-01-01

    We present the results of stellar evolution calculations which show quantitatively how the measured abundances of Li and Be in low-mass stellar objects can be used to discriminate between brown dwarfs and low-mass main-sequence stars. The evolution of B, although less useful, is also studied. We define a transition mass range, below which at least 50 percent of the light element remains at the end of nuclear burning, and above which no more than 10 percent remains. We find that the transition mass range for Li burning is 0.059-0.062 solar mass, while for Be the range is 0.075-0.077 solar mass. Using these results, we then examine the factors (e.g., age and luminosity) that affect our ability to identify low-luminosity objects as brown dwarfs. In particular, we show that the Li test would be well suited for brown dwarf candidates located in nearby open clusters with ages in the range of 2 x 10 exp 8 to 5 x 10 exp 8 yr.

  11. Unraveling the Cloud Structure in the Brightest Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metchev, Stanimir; Heinze, Aren; Kurtev, Radostin; Kellogg, Kendra

    2014-02-01

    The binary brown dwarf Luhman 16AB is one of the most exciting astronomical discoveries of 2013, and offers a unique opportunity to understand a pair of ultra-cool atmospheres in great detail. The binary components are bright (I 15 mag) and almost uniquely well separated. In addition, Luhman 16 is also the only binary brown dwarf that is both known to be variable, and the components of which can be monitored separately even in seeing-limited observations. This is a very powerful combination of circumstances, since the binary can be aligned on a spectroscopic slit, and then monitored simultaneously and continuously at high SNR for unprecedentedly accurate and detailed spectropscopy on a brown dwarf. We propose to take advantage of this opportunity and reveal the longitudinal and vertical cloud structure of each of the binary components through continuous optical spectroscopic monitoring over three days. The changes in the strengths of various chemical species will reveal the altitudes of the dominant cloud absrobers, and hence, by comparison to pressure-tempertature equlibrium models, for the first time the actual composition of the clouds.

  12. Exploring Substellar Evolution with the Coldest Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuy, Trent J.

    2017-01-01

    The coldest brown dwarfs are our best analogs to extrasolar gas-giant planets, representing the lowest mass products of star formation. Our view of such objects has been transformed over the last few years as new observations have revealed that the solar neighborhood is populated by much colder objects than previously recognized. At the center of efforts to discover and characterize these coldest substellar objects have been observations from NASA missions (WISE, Spitzer, HST) and the Keck Telescopes. I will review the tremendous progress made in this field over just the last few years thanks to major community efforts to overcome observational challenges in obtaining spectroscopy, photometry, and astrometry of these infrared-faint, optically invisible objects. Spectra from HST and Keck were key in establishing the much anticipated "Y" spectral type, extending the classic stellar classification scheme to atmospheres as cool as 300-400 K. Parallaxes and photometry from Spitzer and Keck have provided absolute fluxes, enabling robust temperature determinations and critical tests of model atmopheres. High-resolution imaging with Keck laser guide star adaptive optics (LGS AO) has been the most prolific resource for revealing tight companions among the coldest brown dwarfs. In fact, with continued orbit monitoring with Keck LGS AO and HST, these binary systems will ultimately provide dynamical masses that will allow the strongest tests of models and reveal if the coldest brown dwarfs are indeed "planetary mass" (less than about 13 Jupiter masses) as is currently thought.

  13. CONFIRMATION OF ONE OF THE COLDEST KNOWN BROWN DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Luhman, K. L.; Bochanski, J. J.; Burgasser, A. J.; Labbe, I.; Monson, A. J.; Persson, S. E.; Saumon, D.; Marley, M. S.

    2012-01-10

    Using two epochs of 4.5 {mu}m images from the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on board the Spitzer Space Telescope, we recently identified a common proper motion companion to the white dwarf WD 0806-661 that is a candidate for the coldest known brown dwarf. To verify its cool nature, we have obtained images of this object at 3.6 {mu}m with IRAC, at J with the High Acuity Wide-field K-band Imager (HAWK-I) on the Very Large Telescope, and in a filter covering the red half of J with FourStar on Magellan. WD 0806-661 B is detected by IRAC but not HAWK-I or FourStar. From these data we measure colors of [3.6] - [4.5] = 2.77 {+-} 0.16 and J - [4.5] > 7.0 (S/N < 3). Based on these colors and its absolute magnitudes, WD 0806-661 B is the coldest companion directly imaged outside of the solar system and is a contender for the coldest known brown dwarf with the Y dwarf WISEP J1828+2650. It is unclear which of these two objects is colder given the available data. A comparison of its absolute magnitude at 4.5 {mu}m to the predictions of theoretical spectra and evolutionary models suggests that WD 0806-661 B has T{sub eff} = 300-345 K.

  14. NIRSpec Pre-Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubeda, Leonardo; Beck, Tracy L.

    2016-06-01

    Most future observations that will propose to obtain NIRSpec spectroscopy (such as all MSA observations, as well as crowded-field observations using the IFU and FS) will requiere high spatial resolution images of the science field previous to performing the spectroscopy. This is due to the fact that the standard NIRSpec target acquisition (TA) procedure needs to acquiere reference starswith a position RMS of less than 20mas. NIRSpec TA uses 8-20 reference stars with accurate astromerty (<5mas), calculates centroids of the individual stars on the detector, transforms their pixel coordinate positions into positions on the sky, and iterates on the telescope pointing and slew until the position RMS of the reference stars is less than 20mas.For some planned observations, very high spatial resolution HST images (either ACS/WFC or WFC3/UVIS/IR) might be already available and, in other cases, NIRCam observations will be performed.In this study we describe in detail the proposed method to generate a high resolution mosaic of the NIRSpec field of view for any given observation. We show several examples of a variety of science cases. We also describe the creation of catalogs of sources.These two data products will be crucial for the success of any NIRSpec observation.

  15. Companions of Stars: From Other Stars to Brown Dwarfs to Planets and the Discovery of the First Methane Brown Dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheimer, Ben R.

    The discovery of the first methane brown dwarf provides a framework for describing the important advances in both fundamental physics and astrophysics that are due to the study of companions of stars. I present a few highlights of the history of this subject along with details of the discovery of the brown dwarf Gliese 229B. The nature of companions of stars is discussed with an attempt to avoid biases induced by anthropocentric nomenclature. With the newer types of remote reconnaissance of nearby stars and their systems of companions, an exciting and perhaps even more profound set of contributions to science is within reach in the near future. This includes an exploration of the diversity of planets in the universe and perhaps soon the first solid evidence for biological activity outside our Solar System.

  16. Clouds and hazes in exoplanets and brown dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morley, Caroline Victoria

    The formation of clouds significantly alters the spectra of cool substellar atmospheres from terrestrial planets to brown dwarfs. In cool planets like Earth and Jupiter, volatile species like water and ammonia condense to form ice clouds. In hot planets and brown dwarfs, iron and silicates instead condense, forming dusty clouds. Irradiated methane-rich planets may have substantial hydrocarbon hazes. During my dissertation, I have studied the impact of clouds and hazes in a variety of substellar objects. First, I present results for cool brown dwarfs including clouds previously neglected in model atmospheres. Model spectra that include sulfide and salt clouds can match the spectra of T dwarf atmospheres; water ice clouds will alter the spectra of the newest and coldest brown dwarfs, the Y dwarfs. These sulfide/salt and ice clouds potentially drive spectroscopic variability in these cool objects, and this variability should be distinguishable from variability caused by hot spots. Next, I present results for small, cool exoplanets between the size of Earth and Neptune. They likely have sulfide and salt clouds and also have photochemical hazes caused by stellar irradiation. Vast resources have been dedicated to characterizing the handful of super Earths and Neptunes accessible to current telescopes, yet of the planets smaller than Neptune studied to date, all have radii in the near-infrared consistent with being constant in wavelength, likely showing that these small planets are consistently enshrouded in thick hazes and clouds. For the super Earth GJ 1214b, very thick, lofted clouds of salts or sulfides in high metallicity (1000x solar) atmospheres create featureless transmission spectra in the near-infrared. Photochemical hazes also create featureless transmission spectra at lower metallicities. For the Neptune-sized GJ 436b, its thermal emission and transmission spectra combine indicate a high metallicity atmosphere, potentially heated by tides and affected by

  17. NASA Space Telescopes See Weather Patterns in Brown Dwarf

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    JANUARY 8, 2013: Astronomers using NASA's Hubble and Spitzer space telescopes have probed the stormy atmosphere of a brown dwarf named 2MASSJ22282889-431026, creating the most detailed "weather map" yet for this class of cool, star-like orbs. The forecast shows wind-driven, planet-sized clouds enshrouding these strange worlds. Brown dwarfs form out of condensing gas, as stars do, but lack the mass to fuse atoms and produce energy. Instead, these objects, which some call failed stars, are more similar to gas planets with their complex, varied atmospheres. The new research is a stepping stone toward a better understanding not only brown dwarfs, but also of the atmospheres of planets beyond our solar system. Hubble and Spitzer simultaneously watched the brown dwarf as its light varied in time, brightening and dimming about every 90 minutes as the body rotated. Astronomers found the timing of this change in brightness depended on whether they looked using different wavelengths of infrared light. The variations are the result of different layers or patches of material swirling around in the brown dwarf in windy storms as large as Earth itself. Spitzer and Hubble see different atmospheric layers because certain infrared wavelengths are blocked by vapors of water and methane high up, while other infrared wavelengths emerge from much deeper layers. Daniel Apai, the principal investigator of the research from the University of Arizona, Tucson, presented the results at the American Astronomical Society meeting on January 8 in Long Beach, Calif. A study describing the results, led by Esther Buenzli, also of the University of Arizona, is published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters. For more information about this study, visit www.nasa.gov/spitzer . NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA

  18. Atmospheric Circulation of Brown Dwarfs and Directly Imaged Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showman, A. P.; Kaspi, Y.

    2013-12-01

    A variety of observations now provide evidence for vigorous motion in the atmospheres of brown dwarfs and directly imaged giant planets. Motivated by these observations, we examine the dynamical regime of the circulation in the atmospheres and interiors of these objects. Brown dwarfs rotate rapidly, and for plausible wind speeds, the flow at large scales will be rotationally dominated, exhibiting geostrophic balance between pressure gradient and Coriolis forces. We present three-dimensional, global, anelastic numerical simulations of convection in the interior. Fundamental theory, scaling arguments, and our anelastic simulations all demonstrate that, at large scales, the convection aligns in the direction parallel to the rotation axis. Convection occurs more efficiently at high latitudes than low latitudes, leading to systematic equator-to-pole temperature differences that may reach ~1 K near the top of the convection zone. The rotation significantly modifies the convective properties. The interaction of convection with the overlying, stably stratified atmosphere will generate a wealth of atmospheric waves, and we argue that, just as in the stratospheres of planets in the solar system, the interaction of these waves with the mean flow will lead to a significant atmospheric circulation at regional to global scales. At scales exceeding thousands of km, this should consist of geostrophically balanced, stratified turbulence (possibly organizing into coherent structures such as vortices and jets) and an accompanying overturning circulation. We present a semi-quantitative, analytic theory of this circulation as a function of the wave-driving efficiency. When applied to Jupiter, the theory predicts horizontal temperature perturbations of ~3K and wind speeds of ~50 m/sec, similar to those observed in Jupiter's stratosphere. For brown dwarfs, we predict characteristic horizontal temperature variations of several to ~50 K, horizontal wind speeds of ~10-300 m/sec, and

  19. An historical perspective - Brown is not a color. [astrophysics of infrared dwarf stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarter, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    Major shifts in theoretical understanding of the star formation process and the possible components of the local mass density are reviewed. Those aspects of brown dwarf structure and evolution that are still not well enough understood are outlined, and the types of observations that might force the modification of current theories to accommodate the existence of brown dwarfs are suggested. The appropriateness of the name 'brown dwarf' is defended.

  20. The periodicities in the infrared excess of G29-38 - An oscillating brown dwarf?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mark S.; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Hubbard, William B.

    1990-01-01

    The oscillatory behavior of brown dwarfs has been investigated. The observed periodicities in the infrared excess of the white dwarf Giclas 29-38 are consistent with low-degree, intermediate radial order p-mode oscillations of a brown dwarf companion to the white dwarf. These oscillation modes have the correct frequencies, act on observable layers of the atmosphere, and may be excited to sufficient amplitudes to explain the observations.

  1. A Brown Dwarf Joins the Jet-Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-05-01

    Jets of matter have been discovered around a very low mass 'failed star', mimicking a process seen in young stars. This suggests that these 'brown dwarfs' form in a similar manner to normal stars but also that outflows are driven out by objects as massive as hundreds of millions of solar masses down to Jupiter-sized objects. The brown dwarf with the name 2MASS1207-3932 is full of surprises [1]. Its companion, a 5 Jupiter-mass giant, was the first confirmed exoplanet for which astronomers could obtain an image (see ESO 23/04 and 12/05), thereby opening a new field of research - the direct detection of alien worlds. It was then later found (see ESO 19/06) that the brown dwarf has a disc surrounding it, not unlike very young stars. ESO PR Photo 24/07 ESO PR Photo 24/07 Jets from a Brown Dwarf (Artist's Impression) Now, astronomers using ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) have found that the young brown dwarf is also spewing jets, a behaviour again quite similar to young stars. The mass of the brown dwarf is only 24 Jupiter-masses. Hence, it is by far the smallest object known to drive an outflow. "This leads us to the tantalizing prospect that young giant planets could also be associated with outflows," says Emma Whelan, the lead-author of the paper reporting the results. The outflows were discovered using an amazing technique known as spectro-astrometry, based on high resolution spectra taken with UVES on the VLT. Such a technique was required due to the difficulty of the task. While in normal young stars - known as T-Tauri stars for the prototype of their class - the jets are large and bright enough to be seen directly, this is not the case around brown dwarfs: the length scale of the jets, recovered with spectro-astrometry is only about 0.1 arcsecond long, that is, the size of a two Euro coin seen from 40 km away. The jets stretch about 1 billion kilometres and the material is rushing away from the brown dwarf with a speed of a few kilometres per second. The

  2. Atmospheric, evolutionary, and spectral models of the brown dwarf Gliese 229 B.

    PubMed

    Marley, M S; Saumon, D; Guillot, T; Freedman, R S; Hubbard, W B; Burrows, A; Lunine, J I

    1996-06-28

    Theoretical spectra and evolutionary models that span the giant planet-brown dwarf continuum have been computed based on the recent discovery of the brown dwarf Gliese 229 B. A flux enhancement in the 4- to 5-micrometer wavelength window is a universal feature from jovian planets to brown dwarfs. Model results confirm the existence of methane and water in the spectrum of Gliese 229 B and indicate that its mass is 30 to 55 jovian masses. Although these calculations focus on Gliese 229 B, they are also meant to guide future searches for extrasolar giant planets and brown dwarfs.

  3. Discovery of two young brown dwarfs in an eclipsing binary system.

    PubMed

    Stassun, Keivan G; Mathieu, Robert D; Valenti, Jeff A

    2006-03-16

    Brown dwarfs are considered to be 'failed stars' in the sense that they are born with masses between the least massive stars (0.072 solar masses, M(o)) and the most massive planets (approximately 0.013M(o)); they therefore serve as a critical link in our understanding of the formation of both stars and planets. Even the most fundamental physical properties of brown dwarfs remain, however, largely unconstrained by direct measurement. Here we report the discovery of a brown-dwarf eclipsing binary system, in the Orion Nebula star-forming region, from which we obtain direct measurements of mass and radius for these newly formed brown dwarfs. Our mass measurements establish both objects as brown dwarfs, with masses of 0.054 +/- 0.005M(o) and 0.034 +/- 0.003M(o). At the same time, with radii relative to the Sun's of 0.669 +/- 0.034R(o) and 0.511 +/- 0.026R(o), these brown dwarfs are more akin to low-mass stars in size. Such large radii are generally consistent with theoretical predictions for young brown dwarfs in the earliest stages of gravitational contraction. Surprisingly, however, we find that the less-massive brown dwarf is the hotter of the pair; this result is contrary to the predictions of all current theoretical models of coeval brown dwarfs.

  4. Molecules, Dust and Ices in Brown Dwarf Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leggett, Sandy; Marley, Mark; Morley, Caroline; Saumon, Didier

    2015-08-01

    In the 21st century astronomers have a much better understanding than before of what lies below the bottom of the stellar Main Sequence. In the Solar neighborhood, cooler and fainter Jupiter-sized objects continue to be found, with each drop in temperature presenting new challenges. Models which include turbulent mixing, condensation of various species, and improved molecular opacities have been required in order to reproduce observations. In the last five years brown dwarfs with effective temperatures as low as 300-400K have been discovered. We explore existing discrepancies between state-of-the-art models and observations of these cold brown dwarfs. We demonstrate that water ice clouds are not responsible for the observed red near-infrared colors, instead the abundance of ammonia is much lower than expected. The colors of the coldest object currently known, with T_eff~250K, suggest that water clouds may form suddenly, strongly absorbing at 5um. New laboratory studies of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen gasses and solids at temperatures and pressures greater than those found in the solar system planets may be required to explain the near- and mid-infrared observations of the so-called Y dwarfs.

  5. Detection of H alpha emission in a methane (T type) brown dwarf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgasser, A.; Kirkpatrick, J.; Reid, I.; Liebert, J.; Gizis, J.; Brown, M.

    2000-01-01

    We report the detection of H alpha emission in the T dwarf (methane brown dwarf) 2MASSW J1237392 + 652615 over three days using the Keek Low esolution Imaging Spectrograph. The measured line flux, log (L-H alpha/L-bol) = -4.3, is roughly consistent with early M dwarf activity levels and inconsistent with decreasing activity trends in late M and L dwarfs. Similar emission is not seen in two other T dwarfs.

  6. Detection of H alpha emission in a methane (T type) brown dwarf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgasser, A.; Kirkpatrick, J.; Reid, I.; Liebert, J.; Gizis, J.; Brown, M.

    2000-01-01

    We report the detection of H alpha emission in the T dwarf (methane brown dwarf) 2MASSW J1237392 + 652615 over three days using the Keek Low esolution Imaging Spectrograph. The measured line flux, log (L-H alpha/L-bol) = -4.3, is roughly consistent with early M dwarf activity levels and inconsistent with decreasing activity trends in late M and L dwarfs. Similar emission is not seen in two other T dwarfs.

  7. FINGERING CONVECTION AND CLOUDLESS MODELS FOR COOL BROWN DWARF ATMOSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Tremblin, P.; Amundsen, D. S.; Mourier, P.; Baraffe, I.; Chabrier, G.; Drummond, B.; Homeier, D.; Venot, O. E-mail: pascal.tremblin@cea.fr

    2015-05-01

    This work aims to improve the current understanding of the atmospheres of brown dwarfs, especially cold ones with spectral types T and Y, whose modeling is a current challenge. Silicate and iron clouds are believed to disappear at the photosphere at the L/T transition, but cloudless models fail to reproduce correctly the spectra of T dwarfs, advocating for the addition of more physics, e.g., other types of clouds or internal energy transport mechanisms. We use a one-dimensional radiative/convective equilibrium code ATMO to investigate this issue. This code includes both equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium chemistry and solves consistently the PT structure. Included opacity sources are H{sub 2}-H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}-He, H{sub 2}O, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, NH{sub 3}, K, Na, and TiO, VO if they are present in the atmosphere. We show that the spectra of Y dwarfs can be accurately reproduced with a cloudless model if vertical mixing and NH{sub 3} quenching are taken into account. T dwarf spectra still have some reddening in, e.g., J–H, compared to cloudless models. This reddening can be reproduced by slightly reducing the temperature gradient in the atmosphere. We propose that this reduction of the stabilizing temperature gradient in these layers, leading to cooler structures, is due to the onset of fingering convection, triggered by the destabilizing impact of condensation of very thin dust.

  8. MOA-2007-BLG-197: Exploring the brown dwarf desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranc, C.; Cassan, A.; Albrow, M. D.; Kubas, D.; Bond, I. A.; Batista, V.; Beaulieu, J.-P.; Bennett, D. P.; Dominik, M.; Dong, Subo; Fouqué, P.; Gould, A.; Greenhill, J.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Kains, N.; Menzies, J.; Sumi, T.; Bachelet, E.; Coutures, C.; Dieters, S.; Dominis Prester, D.; Donatowicz, J.; Gaudi, B. S.; Han, C.; Hundertmark, M.; Horne, K.; Kane, S. R.; Lee, C.-U.; Marquette, J.-B.; Park, B.-G.; Pollard, K. R.; Sahu, K. C.; Street, R.; Tsapras, Y.; Wambsganss, J.; Williams, A.; Zub, M.; Abe, F.; Fukui, A.; Itow, Y.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Muraki, Y.; Ohnishi, K.; Rattenbury, N.; Saito, To.; Sullivan, D. J.; Sweatman, W. L.; Tristram, P. J.; Yock, P. C. M.; Yonehara, A.

    2015-08-01

    We present the analysis of MOA-2007-BLG-197Lb, the first brown dwarf companion to a Sun-like star detected through gravitational microlensing. The event was alerted and followed-up photometrically by a network of telescopes from the PLANET, MOA, and μFUN collaborations, and observed at high angular resolution using the NaCo instrument at the VLT. From the modelling of the microlensing light curve, we derived basic parameters such as, the binary lens separation in Einstein radius units (s ≃ 1.13), the mass ratio q = (4.732 ± 0.020) × 10-2 and the Einstein radius crossing time (tE ≃ 82 d). Because of this long time scale, we took annual parallax and orbital motion of the lens in the models into account, as well as finite source effects that were clearly detected during the source caustic exit. To recover the lens system's physical parameters, we combined the resulting light curve best-fit parameters with (J,H,Ks) magnitudes obtained with VLT NaCo and calibrated using IRSF and 2MASS data. From this analysis, we derived a lens total mass of 0.86 ± 0.04 M⊙ and a lens distance of DL = 4.2 ± 0.3 kpc. We find that the companion of MOA-2007-BLG-197L is a brown dwarf of 41 ± 2 MJ observed at a projected separation of a⊥ = 4.3 ± 0.1 AU, and orbits a 0.82 ± 0.04 M⊙ G-K dwarf star. We then placed the companion of MOA-2007-BLG-197L in a mass-period diagram consisting of all brown dwarf companions detected so far through different techniques, including microlensing, transit, radial velocity, and direct imaging (most of these objects orbit solar-type stars). To study the statistical properties of this population, we performed a two-dimensional, non-parametric probability density distribution fit to the data, which draws a structured brown dwarf landscape. We confirm the existence of a region that is strongly depleted in objects at short periods and intermediate masses (P ≲ 30 d, M ~ 30-60 MJ), but also find an accumulation of objects around P ~ 500 d and M ~ 20

  9. X-ray emission from the young brown dwarfs of the Taurus molecular cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosso, N.; Briggs, K. R.; Güdel, M.; Guieu, S.; Franciosini, E.; Palla, F.; Dougados, C.; Monin, J.-L.; Ménard, F.; Bouvier, J.; Audard, M.; Telleschi, A.

    2007-06-01

    Aims:We report the X-ray properties of young (~3 Myr) bona fide brown dwarfs of the Taurus Molecular Cloud (TMC). Methods: The XMM-Newton Extended Survey of the TMC (XEST) is a large program designed to systematically investigate the X-ray properties of young stellar/substellar objects in the TMC. In particular, the area surveyed by 15 XMM-Newton pointings (of which three are archival observations), supplemented with one archival Chandra observation, allows us to study 17 brown dwarfs with M spectral types. Results: Half of this sample (9 out of 17 brown dwarfs) is detected; 7 brown dwarfs are detected here for the first time in X-rays. We observed a flare from one brown dwarf. We confirm several previous findings on brown dwarf X-ray activity: a log-log relation between X-ray and bolometric luminosity for stars (with L* ≤ 10 L_⊙) and brown dwarfs detected in X-rays, which is consistent with a mean X-ray fractional luminosity < log(L_X/L_*)> =-3.5 ± 0.4; for the XEST brown dwarfs, the median of log(L_X/L_*) (including upper limits) is -4.0; a shallow log-log relation between X-ray fractional luminosity and mass; a log-log relation between X-ray fractional luminosity and effective temperature; a log-log relation between X-ray surface flux and effective temperature. We find no significant log-log correlation between the X-ray fractional luminosity and EW(Hα). Accreting and nonaccreting brown dwarfs have a similar X-ray fractional luminosity. The median X-ray fractional luminosity of nonaccreting brown dwarfs is about 4 times lower than the mean saturation value for rapidly rotating low-mass field stars. Our TMC brown dwarfs have higher X-ray fractional luminosity than brown dwarfs in the Chandra Orion Ultradeep Project. Conclusions: The X-ray fractional luminosity declines from low-mass stars to M-type brown dwarfs, and as a sample, the brown dwarfs are less efficient X-ray emitters than low-mass stars. We thus conclude that while the brown dwarf atmospheres

  10. Physical Studies of Brown Dwarfs and Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, Keith

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this grant proposal was to fund the ongoing work on brown dwarfs by Denise Stephens during her tenure at STScI as a postdoctoral researcher. We have completed approximately half of the three-year grant period. Dr. Stephens has now assumed to role of senior research associate at Johns Hopkins University and in this position is eligible to be PI of grants. Because the bulk of the work and funds under this grant have been and will continue to be for the purposes of supporting Dr. Stephens, we are transferring control of the grant to her at JHU. This closeout is a formality to allow that transfer. The largest project was the completion of a major work on the infrared photometry of L and T dwarfs. The paper was published in January 2004.

  11. Physical Studies of Brown Dwarfs and Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, Keith

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this grant proposal was to fund the ongoing work on brown dwarfs by Denise Stephens during her tenure at STScI as a postdoctoral researcher. We have completed approximately half of the three-year grant period. Dr. Stephens has now assumed to role of senior research associate at Johns Hopkins University and in this position is eligible to be PI of grants. Because the bulk of the work and funds under this grant have been and will continue to be for the purposes of supporting Dr. Stephens, we are transferring control of the grant to her at JHU. This closeout is a formality to allow that transfer. The largest project was the completion of a major work on the infrared photometry of L and T dwarfs. The paper was published in January 2004.

  12. WISE Y dwarfs as probes of the brown dwarf-exoplanet connection

    SciTech Connect

    Beichman, C.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Cushing, Michael C.; Dodson-Robinson, Sally; Marley, Mark S.; Morley, Caroline V.; Wright, E. L.

    2014-03-10

    We have determined astrometric positions for 15 WISE-discovered late-type brown dwarfs (six T8-9 and nine Y dwarfs) using the Keck-II telescope, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the Hubble Space Telescope. Combining data from 8 to 20 epochs we derive parallactic and proper motions for these objects, which puts the majority within 15 pc. For ages greater than a few Gyr, as suggested from kinematic considerations, we find masses of 10-30 M {sub Jup} based on standard models for the evolution of low-mass objects with a range of mass estimates for individual objects, depending on the model in question. Three of the coolest objects have effective temperatures ∼350 K and inferred masses of 10-15 M {sub Jup}. Our parallactic distances confirm earlier photometric estimates and direct measurements and suggest that the number of objects with masses below about 15 M {sub Jup} must be flat or declining, relative to higher mass objects. The masses of the coldest Y dwarfs may be similar to those inferred for recently imaged planet-mass companions to nearby young stars. Objects in this mass range, which appear to be rare in both the interstellar and protoplanetary environments, may both have formed via gravitational fragmentation—the brown dwarfs in interstellar clouds and companion objects in a protoplanetary disk. In both cases, however, the fact that objects in this mass range are relatively infrequent suggests that this mechanism must be inefficient in both environments.

  13. ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION OF BROWN DWARFS: JETS, VORTICES, AND TIME VARIABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xi; Showman, Adam P.

    2014-06-10

    A variety of observational evidence demonstrates that brown dwarfs exhibit active atmospheric circulations. In this study we use a shallow-water model to investigate the global atmospheric dynamics in the stratified layer overlying the convective zone on these rapidly rotating objects. We show that the existence and properties of the atmospheric circulation crucially depend on key parameters including the energy injection rate and radiative timescale. Under conditions of strong internal heat flux and weak radiative dissipation, a banded flow pattern comprised of east-west jet streams spontaneously emerges from the interaction of atmospheric turbulence with the planetary rotation. In contrast, when the internal heat flux is weak and/or radiative dissipation is strong, turbulence injected into the atmosphere damps before it can self-organize into jets, leading to a flow dominated by transient eddies and isotropic turbulence instead. The simulation results are not very sensitive to the form of the forcing. Based on the location of the transition between jet-dominated and eddy-dominated regimes, we suggest that many brown dwarfs may exhibit atmospheric circulations dominated by eddies and turbulence (rather than jets) due to the strong radiative damping on these worlds, but a jet structure is also possible under some realistic conditions. Our simulated light curves capture important features from observed infrared light curves of brown dwarfs, including amplitude variations of a few percent and shapes that fluctuate between single-peak and multi-peak structures. More broadly, our work shows that the shallow-water system provides a useful tool to illuminate fundamental aspects of the dynamics on these worlds.

  14. Confirmation of One of the Coldest Known Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhman, K. L.; Burgasser, A. J.; Labbé, I.; Saumon, D.; Marley, M. S.; Bochanski, J. J.; Monson, A. J.; Persson, S. E.

    2012-01-01

    Using two epochs of 4.5 μm images from the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on board the Spitzer Space Telescope, we recently identified a common proper motion companion to the white dwarf WD 0806-661 that is a candidate for the coldest known brown dwarf. To verify its cool nature, we have obtained images of this object at 3.6 μm with IRAC, at J with the High Acuity Wide-field K-band Imager (HAWK-I) on the Very Large Telescope, and in a filter covering the red half of J with FourStar on Magellan. WD 0806-661 B is detected by IRAC but not HAWK-I or FourStar. From these data we measure colors of [3.6] - [4.5] = 2.77 ± 0.16 and J - [4.5] > 7.0 (S/N < 3). Based on these colors and its absolute magnitudes, WD 0806-661 B is the coldest companion directly imaged outside of the solar system and is a contender for the coldest known brown dwarf with the Y dwarf WISEP J1828+2650. It is unclear which of these two objects is colder given the available data. A comparison of its absolute magnitude at 4.5 μm to the predictions of theoretical spectra and evolutionary models suggests that WD 0806-661 B has T eff = 300-345 K. Based on observations made with the following facilities: the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA; the ESO Telescopes at Paranal Observatory under program ID 286.C-5042; the 6.5 meter Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  15. Population Properties of Brown Dwarf Analogs to Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Riedel, Adric R.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Gagne, Jonathan; Filippazzo, Joseph C.; Lambrides, Erini; Fica, Haley; Weinberger, Alycia; Thorstensen, John R.; Tinney, C. G.; Baldassare, Vivienne; Lemonier, Emily; Rice, Emily L.

    2016-07-01

    We present a kinematic analysis of 152 low surface gravity M7-L8 dwarfs by adding 18 new parallaxes (including 10 for comparative field objects), 38 new radial velocities, and 19 new proper motions. We also add low- or moderate-resolution near-infrared spectra for 43 sources confirming their low surface gravity features. Among the full sample, we find 39 objects to be high-likelihood or new bona fide members of nearby moving groups, 92 objects to be ambiguous members and 21 objects that are non-members. Using this age-calibrated sample, we investigate trends in gravity classification, photometric color, absolute magnitude, color-magnitude, luminosity, and effective temperature. We find that gravity classification and photometric color clearly separate 5-130 Myr sources from >3 Gyr field objects, but they do not correlate one to one with the narrower 5-130 Myr age range. Sources with the same spectral subtype in the same group have systematically redder colors, but they are distributed between 1 and 4σ from the field sequences and the most extreme outlier switches between intermediate- and low-gravity sources either confirmed in a group or not. The absolute magnitudes of low-gravity sources from the J band through W3 show a flux redistribution when compared to equivalently typed field brown dwarfs that is correlated with spectral subtype. Low-gravity, late-type L dwarfs are fainter at J than the field sequence but brighter by W3. Low-gravity M dwarfs are >1 mag brighter than field dwarfs in all bands from J through W3. Clouds, which are a far more dominant opacity source for L dwarfs, are the likely cause. On color-magnitude diagrams, the latest-type, low-gravity L dwarfs drive the elbow of the L/T transition up to 1 mag redder and 1 mag fainter than field dwarfs at M J but are consistent with or brighter than the elbow at M W1 and M W2. We conclude that low-gravity dwarfs carry an extreme version of the cloud conditions of field objects to lower temperatures

  16. Youngest Brown Dwarf Yet in a Multiple Stellar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-07-01

    ... and the Sharpest Optical Image (0.18 arcsec) from the VLT so far...! Astronomers are eager to better understand the formation of stars and planets - with an eye on the complex processes that lead to the emergence of our own solar system some 4600 million years ago. Brown Dwarfs (BDs) play a special role in this context. Within the cosmic zoo, they represent a class of "intermediate" objects. While they are smaller than normal stars, they shine by their own energy for a limited time, in contrast to planets. Recent observations with the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) of a "young" Brown Dwarf in a multiple stellar system are taking on a particular importance in this connection. An evaluation of the new data by an international team of astronomers [1] shows that it is by far the youngest of only four such objects found in a stellar system so far. The results are now providing new insights into the stellar formation process. This small object is known as TWA-5 B and with a mass of only 15 - 40 times that of Jupiter, it is near the borderline between planets and Brown Dwarfs, cf. the explanatory Appendix to this Press Release. However, visible and infrared VLT spectra unambiguously classify it in the latter category. Accurate positional measurements with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the VLT hint that it is orbiting the central, much heavier and brighter star in this system, TWA-5 A (itself a close double star of which each component presumably has a mass of 0.75 solar masses), with a period that may be as long as 900 years. And, by the way, an (I-band) image of the TWA-5 system is the sharpest delivered by the VLT so far, with an image size of only 0.18 arcsec [2]! Brown Dwarfs: a cool subject In current astronomical terminology, Brown Dwarfs (BDs) are objects whose masses are below those of normal stars - the borderline is believed to be about 8% of the mass of our Sun - but larger than those of planets, cf. [3]. Unlike normal stars, Brown Dwarfs are unable

  17. The First Spectrum of the Coldest Brown Dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skemer, Andrew J.; Morley, Caroline V.; Allers, Katelyn N.; Geballe, Thomas R.; Marley, Mark S.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Bjoraker, Gordon L.; Lupu, Roxana

    2016-08-01

    The recently discovered brown dwarf WISE 0855 presents the first opportunity to directly study an object outside the solar system that is nearly as cold as our own gas giant planets. However, the traditional methodology for characterizing brown dwarfs—near-infrared spectroscopy—is not currently feasible, as WISE 0855 is too cold and faint. To characterize this frozen extrasolar world we obtained a 4.5-5.2 μm spectrum, the same bandpass long used to study Jupiter’s deep thermal emission. Our spectrum reveals the presence of atmospheric water vapor and clouds, with an absorption profile that is strikingly similar to Jupiter’s. The spectrum quality is high enough to allow for the investigation of dynamical and chemical processes that have long been studied in Jupiter’s atmosphere, but now on an extrasolar world.

  18. The Brown Dwarf Kinematics Project (BDKP). III. Parallaxes for 70 Ultracool Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Walter, Frederick M.; Van der Bliek, Nicole; Shara, Michael M.; Cruz, Kelle L.; West, Andrew A.; Vrba, Frederick J.; Anglada-Escudé, Guillem

    2012-06-01

    We report parallax measurements for 70 ultracool dwarfs (UCDs) including 11 late-M, 32 L, and 27 T dwarfs. In this sample, 14 M and L dwarfs exhibit low surface gravity features, 6 are close binary systems, and 2 are metal-poor subdwarfs. We combined our new measurements with 114 previously published UCD parallaxes and optical-mid-IR photometry to examine trends in spectral-type/absolute magnitude, and color-color diagrams. We report new polynomial relations between spectral type and MJHK . Including resolved L/T transition binaries in the relations, we find no reason to differentiate between a "bright" (unresolved binary) and a "faint" (single source) sample across the L/T boundary. Isolating early T dwarfs, we find that the brightening of T0-T4 sources is prominent in MJ where there is a [1.2-1.4] mag difference. A similar yet dampened brightening of [0.3-0.5] mag happens at MH and a plateau or dimming of [-0.2 to -0.3] mag is seen in MK . Comparison with evolutionary models that vary gravity, metallicity, and cloud thickness verifies that for L into T dwarfs, decreasing cloud thickness reproduces brown dwarf near-IR color-magnitude diagrams. However we find that a near constant temperature of 1200 ±100 K along a narrow spectral subtype of T0-T4 is required to account for the brightening and color-magnitude diagram of the L-dwarf/T-dwarf transition. There is a significant population of both L and T dwarfs which are red or potentially "ultra-cloudy" compared to the models, many of which are known to be young indicating a correlation between enhanced photospheric dust and youth. For the low surface gravity or young companion L dwarfs we find that 8 out of 10 are at least [0.2-1.0] mag underluminous in MJH and/or MK compared to equivalent spectral type objects. We speculate that this is a consequence of increased dust opacity and conclude that low surface gravity L dwarfs require a completely new spectral-type/absolute magnitude polynomial for analysis.

  19. THE BROWN DWARF KINEMATICS PROJECT (BDKP). III. PARALLAXES FOR 70 ULTRACOOL DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Shara, Michael M.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Walter, Frederick M.; Van der Bliek, Nicole; Vrba, Frederick J.; Anglada-Escude, Guillem

    2012-06-10

    We report parallax measurements for 70 ultracool dwarfs (UCDs) including 11 late-M, 32 L, and 27 T dwarfs. In this sample, 14 M and L dwarfs exhibit low surface gravity features, 6 are close binary systems, and 2 are metal-poor subdwarfs. We combined our new measurements with 114 previously published UCD parallaxes and optical-mid-IR photometry to examine trends in spectral-type/absolute magnitude, and color-color diagrams. We report new polynomial relations between spectral type and M{sub JHK}. Including resolved L/T transition binaries in the relations, we find no reason to differentiate between a 'bright' (unresolved binary) and a 'faint' (single source) sample across the L/T boundary. Isolating early T dwarfs, we find that the brightening of T0-T4 sources is prominent in M{sub J} where there is a [1.2-1.4] mag difference. A similar yet dampened brightening of [0.3-0.5] mag happens at M{sub H} and a plateau or dimming of [-0.2 to -0.3] mag is seen in M{sub K} . Comparison with evolutionary models that vary gravity, metallicity, and cloud thickness verifies that for L into T dwarfs, decreasing cloud thickness reproduces brown dwarf near-IR color-magnitude diagrams. However we find that a near constant temperature of 1200 {+-}100 K along a narrow spectral subtype of T0-T4 is required to account for the brightening and color-magnitude diagram of the L-dwarf/T-dwarf transition. There is a significant population of both L and T dwarfs which are red or potentially 'ultra-cloudy' compared to the models, many of which are known to be young indicating a correlation between enhanced photospheric dust and youth. For the low surface gravity or young companion L dwarfs we find that 8 out of 10 are at least [0.2-1.0] mag underluminous in M{sub JH} and/or M{sub K} compared to equivalent spectral type objects. We speculate that this is a consequence of increased dust opacity and conclude that low surface gravity L dwarfs require a completely new spectral-type/absolute magnitude

  20. Photometric brown-dwarf classification. I. A method to identify and accurately classify large samples of brown dwarfs without spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrzypek, N.; Warren, S. J.; Faherty, J. K.; Mortlock, D. J.; Burgasser, A. J.; Hewett, P. C.

    2015-02-01

    Aims: We present a method, named photo-type, to identify and accurately classify L and T dwarfs onto the standard spectral classification system using photometry alone. This enables the creation of large and deep homogeneous samples of these objects efficiently, without the need for spectroscopy. Methods: We created a catalogue of point sources with photometry in 8 bands, ranging from 0.75 to 4.6 μm, selected from an area of 3344 deg2, by combining SDSS, UKIDSS LAS, and WISE data. Sources with 13.0 0.8, were then classified by comparison against template colours of quasars, stars, and brown dwarfs. The L and T templates, spectral types L0 to T8, were created by identifying previously known sources with spectroscopic classifications, and fitting polynomial relations between colour and spectral type. Results: Of the 192 known L and T dwarfs with reliable photometry in the surveyed area and magnitude range, 189 are recovered by our selection and classification method. We have quantified the accuracy of the classification method both externally, with spectroscopy, and internally, by creating synthetic catalogues and accounting for the uncertainties. We find that, brighter than J = 17.5, photo-type classifications are accurate to one spectral sub-type, and are therefore competitive with spectroscopic classifications. The resultant catalogue of 1157 L and T dwarfs will be presented in a companion paper.

  1. Brown dwarfs: at last filling the gap between stars and planets.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, B

    2000-02-01

    Until the mid-1990s a person could not point to any celestial object and say with assurance that "here is a brown dwarf." Now dozens are known, and the study of brown dwarfs has come of age, touching upon major issues in astrophysics, including the nature of dark matter, the properties of substellar objects, and the origin of binary stars and planetary systems.

  2. HD 91669B: A NEW BROWN DWARF CANDIDATE FROM THE MCDONALD OBSERVATORY PLANET SEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Endl, Michael; Cochran, William D.; Ramirez, Ivan; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Shetrone, Matthew; Reffert, Sabine

    2009-03-15

    We report the detection of a brown dwarf candidate orbiting the metal-rich K dwarf HD 91669, based on radial-velocity data from the McDonald Observatory Planet Search. HD 91669b is a substellar object in an eccentric orbit (e = 0.45) at a separation of 1.2 AU. The minimum mass of 30.6M {sub Jup} places this object firmly within the brown dwarf desert for inclinations i {approx}> 23{sup 0}. This is the second rare close-in brown dwarf candidate discovered by the McDonald planet search program.

  3. Measuring the ages of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochanski, J. J.; Hawley, S. L.; Covey, K. R.; Agüeros, M. A.; Baraffe, I.; Catalán, S.; Mohanty, S.; Rice, E. L.; West, A. A.

    2013-02-01

    Age is among the most elusive, yet important, fundamental properties of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. M dwarfs have main-sequence lifetimes that are estimated to be trillions of years, with little change in luminosity. In contrast, brown dwarfs cool and dim with time, resulting in a significant degeneracy between mass, age, and luminosity. Despite these inherent challenges, there have been recent efforts on both observational and theoretical fronts that may yield precise ages for low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. We feature some current observational efforts focused on estimating ages of these objects as presented in our Cool Stars 17 splinter session.

  4. M-dwarf binaries as tracers of star and brown dwarf formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, Michael; Janson, Markus; Kroupa, Pavel; Leigh, Nathan; Thies, Ingo

    2015-09-01

    The separation distribution for M-dwarf binaries in the AstraLux survey is narrower and peaking at smaller separations than the distribution for solar-type binaries. This is often interpreted to mean that M-dwarfs constitute a continuous transition from brown dwarfs (BDs) to stars. Here, a prediction for the M-dwarf separation distribution is presented, using a dynamical population synthesis (DPS) model in which `star-like' binaries with late-type primaries (≲1.5 M⊙) follow universal initial distribution functions and are dynamically processed in their birth embedded clusters. A separate `BD-like' population has both its own distribution functions for binaries and initial mass function (IMF), which overlaps in mass with the IMF for stars. Combining these two formation modes results in a peak on top of a wider separation distribution for late M-dwarfs consistent with the late AstraLux sample. The DPS separation distribution for early M-dwarfs shows no such peak and is in agreement with the M-dwarfs in Multiples (MinMS) data. We note that the latter survey is potentially in tension with the early AstraLux data. Concluding, the AstraLux and MinMS data are unable to unambiguously distinguish whether or not BDs are a continuous extension of the stellar IMF. Future observational efforts are needed to fully answer this interesting question. The DPS model predicts that binaries outside the sensitivity range of the AstraLux survey remain to be detected. For application to future data, we present a means to observationally measure the overlap of the putative BD-like branch and the stellar branch. We discuss the meaning of universal star formation and distribution functions.

  5. An irradiated brown-dwarf companion to an accreting white dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández Santisteban, Juan V.; Knigge, Christian; Littlefair, Stuart P.; Breton, Rene P.; Dhillon, Vikram S.; Gänsicke, Boris T.; Marsh, Thomas R.; Pretorius, Magaretha L.; Southworth, John; Hauschildt, Peter H.

    2016-05-01

    Interacting compact binary systems provide a natural laboratory in which to study irradiated substellar objects. As the mass-losing secondary (donor) in these systems makes a transition from the stellar to the substellar regime, it is also irradiated by the primary (compact accretor). The internal and external energy fluxes are both expected to be comparable in these objects, providing access to an unexplored irradiation regime. The atmospheric properties of donors are largely unknown, but could be modified by the irradiation. To constrain models of donor atmospheres, it is necessary to obtain accurate observational estimates of their physical properties (masses, radii, temperatures and albedos). Here we report the spectroscopic detection and characterization of an irradiated substellar donor in an accreting white-dwarf binary system. Our near-infrared observations allow us to determine a model-independent mass estimate for the donor of 0.055 ± 0.008 solar masses and an average spectral type of L1 ± 1, supporting both theoretical predictions and model-dependent observational constraints that suggest that the donor is a brown dwarf. Our time-resolved data also allow us to estimate the average irradiation-induced temperature difference between the dayside and nightside of the substellar donor (57 kelvin) and the maximum difference between the hottest and coolest parts of its surface (200 kelvin). The observations are well described by a simple geometric reprocessing model with a bolometric (Bond) albedo of less than 0.54 at the 2σ confidence level, consistent with high reprocessing efficiency, but poor lateral heat redistribution in the atmosphere of the brown-dwarf donor. These results add to our knowledge of binary evolution, in that the donor has survived the transition from the stellar to the substellar regime, and of substellar atmospheres, in that we have been able to test a regime in which the irradiation and the internal energy of a brown dwarf are

  6. An irradiated brown-dwarf companion to an accreting white dwarf.

    PubMed

    Santisteban, Juan V Hernández; Knigge, Christian; Littlefair, Stuart P; Breton, Rene P; Dhillon, Vikram S; Gänsicke, Boris T; Marsh, Thomas R; Pretorius, Magaretha L; Southworth, John; Hauschildt, Peter H

    2016-05-19

    Interacting compact binary systems provide a natural laboratory in which to study irradiated substellar objects. As the mass-losing secondary (donor) in these systems makes a transition from the stellar to the substellar regime, it is also irradiated by the primary (compact accretor). The internal and external energy fluxes are both expected to be comparable in these objects, providing access to an unexplored irradiation regime. The atmospheric properties of donors are largely unknown, but could be modified by the irradiation. To constrain models of donor atmospheres, it is necessary to obtain accurate observational estimates of their physical properties (masses, radii, temperatures and albedos). Here we report the spectroscopic detection and characterization of an irradiated substellar donor in an accreting white-dwarf binary system. Our near-infrared observations allow us to determine a model-independent mass estimate for the donor of 0.055 ± 0.008 solar masses and an average spectral type of L1 ± 1, supporting both theoretical predictions and model-dependent observational constraints that suggest that the donor is a brown dwarf. Our time-resolved data also allow us to estimate the average irradiation-induced temperature difference between the dayside and nightside of the substellar donor (57 kelvin) and the maximum difference between the hottest and coolest parts of its surface (200 kelvin). The observations are well described by a simple geometric reprocessing model with a bolometric (Bond) albedo of less than 0.54 at the 2σ confidence level, consistent with high reprocessing efficiency, but poor lateral heat redistribution in the atmosphere of the brown-dwarf donor. These results add to our knowledge of binary evolution, in that the donor has survived the transition from the stellar to the substellar regime, and of substellar atmospheres, in that we have been able to test a regime in which the irradiation and the internal energy of a brown dwarf are

  7. THE COOLEST ISOLATED BROWN DWARF CANDIDATE MEMBER OF TWA

    SciTech Connect

    Gagné, Jonathan; Lafrenière, David; Doyon, René; Malo, Lison; Artigau, Étienne; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Cruz, Kelle E-mail: jfaherty17@gmail.com

    2014-04-10

    We present two new late-type brown dwarf candidate members of the TW Hydrae association (TWA): 2MASS J12074836-3900043 and 2MASS J12474428-3816464, which were found as part of the BANYAN all-sky survey (BASS) for brown dwarf members of nearby young associations. We obtained near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for both objects (NIR spectral types are respectively L1 and M9), as well as optical spectroscopy for J1207-3900 (optical spectral type is L0γ), and show that both display clear signs of low gravity, and thus youth. We use the BANYAN II Bayesian inference tool to show that both objects are candidate members to TWA with a very low probability of being field contaminants, although the kinematics of J1247-3816 seem slightly at odds with that of other TWA members. J1207-3900 is currently the latest-type and the only isolated L-type candidate member of TWA. Measuring the distance and radial velocity of both objects is still required to claim them as bona fide members. Such late-type objects are predicted to have masses down to 11-15 M {sub Jup} at the age of TWA, which makes them compelling targets to study atmospheric properties in a regime similar to that of currently known imaged extrasolar planets.

  8. INDICATIONS OF WATER CLOUDS IN THE COLDEST KNOWN BROWN DWARF

    SciTech Connect

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Tinney, C. G.; Skemer, Andrew; Monson, Andrew J.

    2014-09-20

    We present a deep near-infrared image of the newly discovered brown dwarf WISE J085510.83-071442.5 (W0855) using the FourStar imager at Las Campanas Observatory. Our detection of J3 = 24.8{sub −0.35}{sup +0.53} (J {sub MKO} = 25.0{sub −0.35}{sup +0.53}) at 2.6σ—or equivalently an upper limit of J3 > 23.8 (J {sub MKO} > 24.0) at 5σ makes W0855 the reddest brown dwarf ever categorized (J {sub MKO} – W2 = 10.984{sub −0.35}{sup +0.53} at 2.6σ—or equivalently an upper limit of J {sub MKO} – W2 > 9.984 at 5σ) and refines its position on color-magnitude diagrams. Comparing the new photometry with chemical equilibrium model atmosphere predictions, we demonstrate that W0855 is 2.7σ from models using a cloudless atmosphere and well reproduced by partly cloudy models (50%) containing sulfide and water ice clouds. Non-equilibrium chemistry or non-solar metallicity may change predictions, however using currently available model approaches, this is the first candidate outside our own solar system to have direct evidence for water clouds.

  9. NEOWISE-R observation of the coolest known brown dwarf

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Edward L.; Mainzer, Amy; Bauer, James; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Davy Kirkpatrick, J.; Masci, Frank; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio; Gelino, Christopher R.; Beichman, Charles A.; Cutri, Roc; Cushing, Michael C.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Grav, T.

    2014-11-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) spacecraft has been reactivated as NEOWISE-R to characterize and search for near-Earth objects. The brown dwarf WISE J085510.83–071442.5 has now been re-observed by NEOWISE-R, and we confirm the results of Luhman, who found a very low effective temperature (≈250 K), a very high proper motion (8.''1 ± 0.''1 yr{sup –1}), and a large parallax (454 ± 45 mas). The large proper motion has separated the brown dwarf from the background sources that influenced the 2010 WISE data, allowing a measurement of a very red WISE color of W1 – W2 >3.9 mag. A re-analysis of the 2010 WISE astrometry using only the W2 band, combined with the new NEOWISE-R 2014 position, gives an improved parallax of 448 ± 33 mas and a proper motion of 8.''08 ± 0.''05 yr{sup –1}. These are all consistent with values from Luhman.

  10. Chemically reacting fluid flow in exoplanet and brown dwarf atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordwell, Baylee; Brown, Benjamin P.; Oishi, Jeffrey S.

    2016-11-01

    In the past few decades, spectral observations of planets and brown dwarfs have demonstrated significant deviations from predictions in certain chemical abundances. Starting with Jupiter, these deviations were successfully explained to be the effect of fast dynamics on comparatively slow chemical reactions. These dynamical effects are treated using mixing length theory in what is known as the "quench" approximation. In these objects, however, both radiative and convective zones are present, and it is not clear that this approximation applies. To resolve this issue, we solve the fully compressible equations of fluid dynamics in a matched polytropic atmosphere using the state-of-the-art pseudospectral simulation framework Dedalus. Through the inclusion of passive tracers, we explore the transport properties of convective and radiative zones, and verify the classical eddy diffusion parameterization. With the addition of active tracers, we examine the interactions between dynamical and chemical processes using abstract chemical reactions. By locating the quench point (the point at which the dynamical and chemical timescales are the same) in different dynamical regimes, we test the quench approximation, and generate prescriptions for the exoplanet and brown dwarf communities.

  11. Search for exoplanets and brown dwarfs with VLBI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katarzyński, K.; Gawroński, M.; Goździewski, K.

    2016-09-01

    The main aim of this work is to estimate possible radio GHz emission of extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs and to check if such radiation can be detected by Very Large Baseline Interferometers (VLBI). In the estimation we assume that the emission may originate in processes similar to those observed in the Jupiter system. The frequency of the radio emission that is produced in this system depends mostly on the magnetic field strength. Jupiter's magnetic field (˜9 G on average) allows for radiation from kHz frequencies up to 40 MHz. This is well below the frequency range of VLBI. However, it was demonstrated that the magnetic field strength in massive and young object may be up to two orders of magnitude higher than for Jupiter, which is especially relevant for planets around short-lived A type stars. This should extend the range of the emission up to GHz frequencies. We calculated expected flux densities of radio emission for a variety of hypothetical young planetary systems. We analysed two different emission scenarios, and found that the radiation induced by moons (process similar to Jupiter-Io interactions) appears to be less efficient than the emission generated by a stellar wind on a planetary magnetosphere. We also estimated hypothetical emission of planets and brown dwarfs located around relatively young and massive main-sequence A-type stars. Our results show that the emission produced by stellar winds could be detected by currently operating VLBI networks.

  12. NEOWISE-R Observation of the Coolest Known Brown Dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Edward L.; Mainzer, Amy; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Masci, Frank; Cushing, Michael C.; Bauer, James; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio; Gelino, Christopher R.; Beichman, Charles A.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Grav, T.; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Cutri, Roc

    2014-11-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) spacecraft has been reactivated as NEOWISE-R to characterize and search for near-Earth objects. The brown dwarf WISE J085510.83-071442.5 has now been re-observed by NEOWISE-R, and we confirm the results of Luhman, who found a very low effective temperature (≈250 K), a very high proper motion (8.''1 ± 0.''1 yr-1), and a large parallax (454 ± 45 mas). The large proper motion has separated the brown dwarf from the background sources that influenced the 2010 WISE data, allowing a measurement of a very red WISE color of W1 - W2 >3.9 mag. A re-analysis of the 2010 WISE astrometry using only the W2 band, combined with the new NEOWISE-R 2014 position, gives an improved parallax of 448 ± 33 mas and a proper motion of 8.''08 ± 0.''05 yr-1. These are all consistent with values from Luhman.

  13. Brown dwarf disks with ALMA: Evidence for truncated dust disks in Ophiuchus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testi, L.; Natta, A.; Scholz, A.; Tazzari, M.; Ricci, L.; de Gregorio Monsalvo, I.

    2016-10-01

    Context. The study of the properties of disks around young brown dwarfs can provide important clues on the formation of these very low-mass objects and on the possibility of forming planetary systems around them. The presence of warm dusty disks around brown dwarfs is well known, based on near- and mid-infrared studies. Aims: High angular resolution observations of the cold outer disk are limited; we used ALMA to attempt a first survey of young brown dwarfs in the ρ Oph star-forming region. Methods: All 17 young brown dwarfs in our sample were observed at 890 μm in the continuum at 0.̋5 angular resolution. The sensitivity of our observations was chosen to detect ~0.5 M⊕ of dust. Results: We detect continuum emission in 11 disks (~65% of the total), and the estimated mass of dust in the detected disks ranges from ~0.5 to ~6 M⊕. These disk masses imply that planet formation around brown dwarfs may be relatively rare and that the supra-Jupiter mass companions found around some brown dwarfs are probably the result of a binary system formation. We find evidence that the two brightest disks in ρ Oph have sharp outer edges at R ≲ 25 AU, in contrast to disks around Taurus brown dwarfs. This difference may suggest that the different environment in ρ Oph may lead to significant differences in disk properties. A comparison of the Mdisk/M∗ ratio for brown dwarf and solar-mass systems also shows a possible deficit of mass in brown dwarfs, which could support the evidence for dynamical truncation of disks in the substellar regime. These findings are still tentative and need to be put on firmer grounds by studying the gaseous disks around brown dwarfs and by performing a more systematic and unbiased survey of the disk population around the more massive stars.

  14. The Spectral Energy Distribution of the Coldest Known Brown Dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhman, K. L.; Esplin, T. L.

    2016-09-01

    WISE J085510.83-071442.5 (hereafter WISE 0855-0714) is the coldest known brown dwarf (˜250 K) and the fourth-closest known system to the Sun (2.2 pc). It has been previously detected only in the J band and two mid-IR bands. To better measure its spectral energy distribution (SED), we have performed deep imaging of WISE 0855-0714 in six optical and near-IR bands with Gemini Observatory, the Very Large Telescope, and the Hubble Space Telescope. Five of the bands show detections, although one detection is marginal (S/N ˜ 3). We also have obtained two epochs of images with the Spitzer Space Telescope for use in refining the parallax of the brown dwarf. By combining astrometry from this work and previous studies, we have derived a parallax of 0.449 ± 0.008″ (2.23 ± 0.04 pc). We have compared our photometry for WISE 0855-0714 to data for known Y dwarfs and to the predictions of three suites of models by Saumon et al. and Morley et al. that are defined by the presence or absence of clouds and nonequilibrium chemistry. Our estimates of Y - J and J - H for WISE 0855-0714 are redder than colors of other Y dwarfs, confirming a predicted reversal of near-IR colors to redder values at temperatures below 300-400 K. In color-magnitude diagrams, no single suite of models provides a clearly superior match to the sequence formed by WISE 0855-0714 and other Y dwarfs. Instead, the best-fitting model changes from one diagram to the next. Similarly, all of the models have substantial differences from the SED of WISE 0855-0714. As a result, we are currently unable to constrain the presence of clouds or nonequilibrium chemistry in its atmosphere. Based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, Gemini Observatory, and the ESO Telescopes at Paranal Observatory.

  15. K2 Ultracool Dwarfs Survey. II. The White Light Flare Rate of Young Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gizis, John E.; Paudel, Rishi R.; Mullan, Dermott; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Williams, Peter K. G.

    2017-08-01

    We use Kepler K2 Campaign 4 short-cadence (one-minute) photometry to measure white light flares in the young, moving group brown dwarfs 2MASS J03350208+2342356 (2M0335+23) and 2MASS J03552337+1133437 (2M0355+11), and report on long-cadence (thirty-minute) photometry of a superflare in the Pleiades M8 brown dwarf CFHT-PL-17. The rotation period (5.24 hr) and projected rotational velocity (45 km s-1) confirm 2M0335+23 is inflated (R≥slant 0.20 {R}⊙ ) as predicted for a 0.06 {M}⊙ , 24 Myr old brown dwarf βPic moving group member. We detect 22 white light flares on 2M0335+23. The flare frequency distribution follows a power-law distribution with slope -α =-1.8+/- 0.2 over the range 1031 to 1033 erg. This slope is similar to that observed in the Sun and warmer flare stars, and is consistent with lower-energy flares in previous work on M6-M8 very-low-mass stars; taking the two data sets together, the flare frequency distribution for ultracool dwarfs is a power law over 4.3 orders of magnitude. The superflare (2.6× {10}34 erg) on CFHT-PL-17 shows higher-energy flares are possible. We detect no flares down to a limit of 2× {10}30 erg in the nearby L5γ AB Dor moving group brown dwarf 2M0355+11, consistent with the view that fast magnetic reconnection is suppressed in cool atmospheres. We discuss two multi-peaked flares observed in 2M0335+23, and argue that these complex flares can be understood as sympathetic flares, in which fast-mode magnetohydrodynamic waves similar to extreme-ultraviolet waves in the Sun trigger magnetic reconnection in different active regions.

  16. Emission lines in the atmosphere of the irradiated brown dwarf WD0137-349B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longstaff, E. S.; Casewell, S. L.; Wynn, G. A.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Helling, Ch.

    2017-10-01

    We present new optical and near-infrared spectra of WD0137-349; a close white dwarf-brown dwarf non-interacting binary system with a period of ≈114 min. We have confirmed the presence of H α emission and discovered He, Na, Mg, Si, K, Ca, Ti and Fe emission lines originating from the brown-dwarf atmosphere. This is the first brown-dwarf atmosphere to have been observed to exhibit metal emission lines as a direct result of intense irradiation. The equivalent widths of many of these lines show a significant difference between the day-side and night-side of the brown dwarf. This is likely an indication that efficient heat redistribution may not be happening on this object, in agreement with models of hot Jupiter atmospheres. The H α line strength variation shows a strong phase dependency as does the width. We have simulated the Ca II emission lines using a model that includes the brown-dwarf Roche geometry and limb darkening, and we estimate the mass ratio of the system to be 0.135 ± 0.004. We also apply a gas-phase equilibrium code using a prescribed drift-phoenix model to examine how the chemical composition of the brown-dwarf upper atmosphere would change given an outward temperature increase, and discuss the possibility that this would induce a chromosphere above the brown-dwarf atmosphere.

  17. Extending the Canada-France brown dwarfs survey to the near-infrared: first ultracool brown dwarfs from CFBDSIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delorme, P.; Albert, L.; Forveille, T.; Artigau, E.; Delfosse, X.; Reylé, C.; Willott, C. J.; Bertin, E.; Wilkins, S. M.; Allard, F.; Arzoumanian, D.

    2010-07-01

    Aims: We present the first results of the ongoing Canada-France Brown Dwarfs Survey-InfraRed, hereafter CFBDSIR, a near infrared extension to the optical wide-field survey CFBDS. Our final objectives are to constrain ultracool atmosphere physics by finding a statistically significant sample of objects cooler than 650 K and to explore the ultracool brown dwarf mass function building on a well-defined sample of such objects. Methods: We identify candidates in CFHT/WIRCam J and CFHT/MegaCam z' images using optimised psf-fitting, and follow them up with pointed, near-infrared imaging with SOFI at the NTT. We finally obtain low-resolution spectroscopy of the coolest candidates to characterise their atmospheric physics. Results: We have so far analysed and followed up all candidates on the first 66 square degrees of the 335 square degree survey. We identified 55 T-dwarfs candidates with z'-J>3.5 and have confirmed six of them as T-dwarfs, including 3 that are strong later-than-T8 candidates, based on their far-red and NIR colours. We also present here the NIR spectra of one of these ultracool dwarfs, CFBDSIR1458+1013, which confirms it as one of the coolest brown dwarf known, possibly in the 550-600 K temperature range. Conclusions: From the completed survey we expect to discover 10 to 15 dwarfs later than T8, more than doubling the known number of such objects. This will enable detailed studies of their extreme atmospheric properties and provide a stronger statistical basis for studies of their luminosity function. Based on observations obtained with WIRCam, a joint project of CFHT, Taiwan, Korea, Canada, France, and the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institute National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the

  18. The First Hundred Brown Dwarfs Discovered by the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Cushing, Michael C.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Griffith, Roger L.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Marsh, Kenneth A.; Wright, Edward L.; Mainzer, Amanda K.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; McLean, Ian S.; Bauer, James M.; Benford, Dominic J.; Lake, Sean E.; Petty, Sara M.; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Beichman, Charles; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Stern, Daniel; Vacca, William D.

    2011-01-01

    We present ground-based spectroscopic verification of six Y dwarfs also Cushing et al.), eighty-nine T dwarfs, eight L dwarfs, and one M dwarf identified by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Eighty of these are cold brown dwarfs with spectral types > or =T6, six of which have been announced earlier in Mainzer et al. and I3urgasser et al. We present color-color and colortype diagrams showing the locus of M, L, T, and Y dwarfs in WISE color space. "

  19. THE COLDEST BROWN DWARF (OR FREE-FLOATING PLANET)?: THE Y DWARF WISE 1828+2650

    SciTech Connect

    Beichman, C.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Marsh, Kenneth A.; Barman, Travis S.; Cushing, Michael C.; Wright, E. L.

    2013-02-10

    We have monitored the position of the cool Y dwarf WISEPA J182831.08+265037.8 using a combination of ground- and space-based telescopes and have determined its distance to be 11.2{sup +1.3} {sub -1.0} pc. Its absolute H magnitude, M{sub H} = 22.21{sup +0.25} {sub -0.22} mag, suggests a mass in the range 0.5-20 M {sub Jup} for ages of 0.1-10 Gyr with an effective temperature in the range 250-400 K. The broad range in mass is due primarily to the unknown age of the object. Since the high tangential velocity of the object, 51 {+-} 5 km s{sup -1}, is characteristic of an old disk population, a plausible age range of 2-4 Gyr leads to a mass range of 3-6 M {sub Jup} based on fits to the (highly uncertain) COND evolutionary models. The range in temperature is due to the fact that no single model adequately represents the 1-5 {mu}m spectral energy distribution (SED) of the source, failing by factors of up to five at either the short or long wavelength portions of the SED. The appearance of this very cold object may be affected by non-equilibrium chemistry or low temperature condensates forming clouds, two atmospheric processes that are known to be important in brown dwarf atmospheres but have proven difficult to model. Finally, we argue that there would have to be a very steep upturn in the number density of late-type Y-dwarfs to account for the putative population of objects suggested by recent microlensing observations. Whether WISE 1828+2650 sits at the low-mass end of the brown dwarf population or is the first example of a large number of 'free-floating' planets is not yet known.

  20. The Coldest Brown Dwarf (or Free-floating Planet)?: The Y Dwarf WISE 1828+2650

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beichman, C.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Barman, Travis S.; Marsh, Kenneth A.; Cushing, Michael C.; Wright, E. L.

    2013-02-01

    We have monitored the position of the cool Y dwarf WISEPA J182831.08+265037.8 using a combination of ground- and space-based telescopes and have determined its distance to be 11.2+1.3 -1.0 pc. Its absolute H magnitude, MH = 22.21+0.25 -0.22 mag, suggests a mass in the range 0.5-20 M Jup for ages of 0.1-10 Gyr with an effective temperature in the range 250-400 K. The broad range in mass is due primarily to the unknown age of the object. Since the high tangential velocity of the object, 51 ± 5 km s-1, is characteristic of an old disk population, a plausible age range of 2-4 Gyr leads to a mass range of 3-6 M Jup based on fits to the (highly uncertain) COND evolutionary models. The range in temperature is due to the fact that no single model adequately represents the 1-5 μm spectral energy distribution (SED) of the source, failing by factors of up to five at either the short or long wavelength portions of the SED. The appearance of this very cold object may be affected by non-equilibrium chemistry or low temperature condensates forming clouds, two atmospheric processes that are known to be important in brown dwarf atmospheres but have proven difficult to model. Finally, we argue that there would have to be a very steep upturn in the number density of late-type Y-dwarfs to account for the putative population of objects suggested by recent microlensing observations. Whether WISE 1828+2650 sits at the low-mass end of the brown dwarf population or is the first example of a large number of "free-floating" planets is not yet known.

  1. THE ARECIBO DETECTION OF THE COOLEST RADIO-FLARING BROWN DWARF

    SciTech Connect

    Route, M.; Wolszczan, A. E-mail: alex@astro.psu.edu

    2012-03-10

    Radio detection provides unique means to measure and study magnetic fields of the coolest brown dwarfs. Previous radio surveys have observed quiescent and flaring emission from brown dwarfs down to spectral type L3.5, but only upper limits have been established for even cooler objects. We report the detection of sporadic, circularly polarized flares from the T6.5 dwarf, 2MASS J1047+21, with the Arecibo radio telescope at 4.75 GHz. This is by far the coolest brown dwarf yet detected at radio frequencies. The fact that such an object is capable of generating observable, coherent radio emission, despite its very low, {approx}900 K temperature, demonstrates the feasibility of studies of brown dwarfs of the meagerly explored L, T, and Y spectral types, using radio detection as a tool.

  2. Survival of a brown dwarf after engulfment by a red giant star.

    PubMed

    Maxted, P F L; Napiwotzki, R; Dobbie, P D; Burleigh, M R

    2006-08-03

    Many sub-stellar companions (usually planets but also some brown dwarfs) orbit solar-type stars. These stars can engulf their sub-stellar companions when they become red giants. This interaction may explain several outstanding problems in astrophysics but it is unclear under what conditions a low mass companion will evaporate, survive the interaction unchanged or gain mass. Observational tests of models for this interaction have been hampered by a lack of positively identified remnants-that is, white dwarf stars with close, sub-stellar companions. The companion to the pre-white dwarf AA Doradus may be a brown dwarf, but the uncertain history of this star and the extreme luminosity difference between the components make it difficult to interpret the observations or to put strong constraints on the models. The magnetic white dwarf SDSS J121209.31 + 013627.7 may have a close brown dwarf companion but little is known about this binary at present. Here we report the discovery of a brown dwarf in a short period orbit around a white dwarf. The properties of both stars in this binary can be directly observed and show that the brown dwarf was engulfed by a red giant but that this had little effect on it.

  3. The dusty atmosphere of the brown dwarf Gliese 229B.

    PubMed

    Griffith, C A; Yelle, R V; Marley, M S

    1998-12-11

    The brown dwarf Gliese 229B has an observable atmosphere too warm to contain ice clouds like those on Jupiter and too cool to contain silicate clouds like those on low-mass stars. These unique conditions permit visibility to higher pressures than possible in cool stars or planets. Gliese 229B's 0.85- to 1.0-micrometer spectrum indicates particulates deep in the atmosphere (10 to 50 bars) having optical properties of neither ice nor silicates. Their reddish color suggests an organic composition characteristic of aerosols in planetary stratospheres. The particles' mass fraction (10(-7)) agrees with a photochemical origin caused by incident radiation from the primary star and suggests the occurrence of processes native to planetary stratospheres.

  4. A possible brown dwarf companion to Gliese 569

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forrest, W. J.; Shure, Mark; Skrutskie, M. F.

    1988-01-01

    A faint cool companion to Gliese 569, discovered during an IR imaging survey of nearby stars, may be the lowest-mass stellar object yet found. The companion is somewhat cooler in its 1.65-3.75-micron energy distribution than the coolest known main-sequence stars, indicating a low mass. Despite its lower temperature, it is more luminous than similar extremely low-mass stars, suggesting that it is either a young low-mass star evolving toward the main sequence or a cooling substellar brown dwarf. The primary star has emission lines and a low space velocity and exhibits flaring, all of which imply youth for this system. Observations of Gliese 569 and its companion over a period of 2 yr confirm the common proper motion expected of a true binary. The 5-arcsec apparent separation (50 AU) implies an orbital period of roughly 500 yr, which will permit an eventual direct determination of the mass of the companion.

  5. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING AND SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF TWO BROWN DWARF BINARIES AT THE L DWARF/T DWARF TRANSITION

    SciTech Connect

    Burgasser, Adam J.; Bardalez-Gagliuffi, Daniella C.; Gizis, John E.

    2011-03-15

    We present a detailed examination of the brown dwarf multiples 2MASS J08503593+1057156 and 2MASS J17281150+3948593, both suspected of harboring components that straddle the L dwarf/T dwarf transition. Resolved photometry from Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS shows opposite trends in the relative colors of the components, with the secondary of 2MASS J0850+1057 being redder than its primary, while that of 2MASS J1728+3948 is bluer. We determine near-infrared component types by matching combined-light, near-infrared spectral data to binary templates, with component spectra scaled to resolved NICMOS and K{sub p} photometry. Combinations of L7 + L6 for 2MASS J0850+1057 and L5 + L6.5 for 2MASS J1728+3948 are inferred. Remarkably, the primary of 2MASS J0850+1057 appears to have a later-type classification compared to its secondary, despite being 0.8-1.2 mag brighter in the near-infrared, while the primary of 2MASS J1728+3948 is unusually early for its combined-light optical classification. Comparison to absolute magnitude/spectral type trends also distinguishes these components, with 2MASS J0850+1057A being {approx}1 mag brighter and 2MASS J1728+3948A {approx} 0.5 mag fainter than equivalently classified field counterparts. We deduce that thick condensate clouds are likely responsible for the unusual properties of 2MASS J1728+3948A, while 2MASS J0850+1057A is either an inflated young brown dwarf or a tight unresolved binary, making it potentially part of a wide, low-mass, hierarchical quintuple system.

  6. Model Atmospheres From Very Low Mass Stars to Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allard, F.; Homeier, D.; Freytag, B.

    2011-12-01

    Since the discovery of brown dwarfs in 1994, and the discovery of dust cloud formation in the latest Very Low Mass Stars (VLMs) and Brown Dwarfs (BDs) in 1996, the most important challenge in modeling their atmospheres as become the understanding of cloud formation and advective mixing. For this purpose, we have developed radiation hydrodynamic 2D model atmosphere simulations to study the formation of forsterite dust in presence of advection, condensation, and sedimentation across the M-L-T VLMs to BDs sequence (Teff = 2800 K to 900 K, Freytag et al. 2010). We discovered the formation of gravity waves as a driving mechanism for the formation of clouds in these atmospheres, and derived a rule for the velocity field versus atmospheric depth and Teff, which is relatively insensitive to gravity. This rule has been used in the construction of the new model atmosphere grid, BT-Settl, to determine the micro-turbulence velocity, the diffusion coefficient, and the advective mixing of molecules as a function of depth. This new model grid of atmospheres and synthetic spectra has been computed for 100,000 K > Teff > 400 K, 5.5 > logg > -0.5, and [M/H]= +0.5 to -1.5, and the reference solar abundances of Asplund et al. (2009). We found that the new solar abundances allow an improved (close to perfect) reproduction of the photometric and spectroscopic VLMs properties, and, for the first time, a smooth transition between stellar and substellar regimes -- unlike the transition between the NextGen models from Hauschildt et al. 1999a,b, and the AMES-Dusty models from Allard et al. 2001. In the BDs regime, the BT-Settl models propose an improved explanation for the M-L-T spectral transition. In this paper, we therefore present the new BT-Settl model atmosphere grid, which explains the entire transition from the stellar to planetary mass regimes.

  7. Multiplicity among Young Brown Dwarfs and Very Low Mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmic, Mirza; Jayawardhana, Ray; Brandeker, Alexis; Scholz, Alexander; van Kerkwijk, Marten H.; Delgado-Donate, Eduardo; Froebrich, Dirk

    2007-12-01

    We report on a near-infrared adaptive optics imaging survey of 31 young brown dwarfs and very low mass (VLM) stars, 28 of which are in the Chamaeleon I star-forming region, using the ESO Very Large Telescope. We resolve the suspected 0.16'' (~26 AU) binary Cha Hα 2 and present two new binaries, Hn 13 and CHXR 15, with separations of 0.13'' (~20 AU) and 0.30'' (~50 AU), respectively; the latter is one of the widest VLM systems known. We find a binary frequency of 11+9-6%, thus confirming the trend for a lower binary frequency with decreasing mass. By combining our work with previous surveys, we arrive at the largest sample of young VLM objects (72) with high angular resolution imaging to date. Its multiplicity fraction is in statistical agreement with that for VLM objects in the field. Furthermore, we note that many field stellar binaries with lower binding energies and/or wider cross sections have survived dynamical evolution and that statistical models suggest tidal disruption by passing stars is unlikely to affect the binary properties of our systems. Thus, we argue that there is no significant evolution of multiplicity with age among brown dwarfs and VLM stars in OB and T associations between a few megayears to several gigayears. Instead, the observations so far suggest that VLM objects are either less likely to be born in fragile multiple systems than solar-mass stars or such systems are disrupted very early. We dedicate this paper to the memory of our coauthor, Eduardo Delgado-Donate, who died in a hiking accident in Tenerife earlier this year.

  8. Bayesian fitting of Taurus brown dwarf spectral energy distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayne, N. J.; Harries, Tim J.; Rowe, John; Acreman, David M.

    2012-06-01

    We present derived stellar and disc parameters for a sample of Taurus brown dwarfs both with and without evidence of an associated disc. These parameters have been derived using an online fitting tool (), which includes a statistically robust derivation of uncertainties, an indication of parameter degeneracies and a complete treatment of the input photometric and spectroscopic observations. The observations of the Taurus members with indications of disc presence have been fitted using a grid of theoretical models including detailed treatments of physical processes accepted for higher mass stars, such as dust sublimation, and a simple treatment of the accretion flux. This grid of models has been designed to test the validity of the adopted physical mechanisms, but we have also constructed models using parametrization, for example semi-empirical dust sublimation radii, for users solely interested in parameter derivation and the quality of the fit. The parameters derived for the naked and disc brown dwarf systems are largely consistent with literature observations. However, our inner disc edge locations are consistently closer to the star than previous results and we also derive elevated accretion rates over non-spectral energy distribution based accretion rate derivations. For inner edge locations, we attribute these differences to the detailed modelling we have performed of the disc structure, particularly at the crucial inner edge where departures in geometry from the often adopted vertical wall due to dust sublimation (and therefore accretion flux) can compensate for temperature (and therefore distance) changes to the inner edge of the dust disc. In the case of the elevated derived accretion rates, in some cases, this may be caused by the intrinsic stellar luminosities of the targets exceeding that predicted by the isochrones we have adopted.

  9. On the Radii of Brown Dwarfs Measured with AKARI Near-infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorahana, S.; Yamamura, I.; Murakami, H.

    2013-04-01

    We derive the radii of 16 brown dwarfs observed by AKARI using their parallaxes and the ratios of observed to model fluxes. We find that the brown dwarf radius ranges between 0.64-1.13 RJ with an average radius of 0.83 RJ . We find a trend in the relation between radii and T eff; the radius is at a minimum at T eff ~ 1600 K, which corresponds to the spectral types of mid- to late-L. The result is interpreted by a combination of radius-mass and radius-age relations that are theoretically expected for brown dwarfs older than 108 yr.

  10. The BASS survey for brown dwarfs in young moving groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagne, Jonathan; Lafreniere, David; Doyon, Rene; Malo, Lison; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Artigau, Etienne; Cruz, Kelle L.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Filippazzo, Joe; Naud, Marie-Eve; Albert, Loic; Bouchard, Sandie; Gizis, John; Robert, Jasmin; Nadeau, Daniel; Bowsher, Emily C.; Nicholls, Christine

    2016-01-01

    I will present in this dissertation talk the construction and follow-up of the BANYAN All-Sky Survey (BASS) that we led to identify dozens of new isolated young brown dwarfs in the Solar neighborhood, several of which have physical properties such as mass, age and temperature that make them similar to exoplanets that were recently discovered using the method of direct imaging.Such isolated analogs of the giant, gaseous exoplanets are precious benchmarks that will allow a deep characterization of their atmospheres using high-resolution and high signal-to-noise spectroscopy, which is made possible due to the absence of a nearby and bright host star.I will end by describing BASS-Ultracool, an extension of BASS that focuses on the identification of extremely cool isolated exoplanet analogs that display methane in their atmospheres. This survey has already uncovered the first bonafide T dwarf member of a moving group, the ~150 Myr AB Doradus T5, SDSS1110+0116.

  11. Variability of Two Young L/T Transition Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allers, Katelyn; Biller, Beth; Gallimore, Jack; Crossfield, Ian

    2015-10-01

    We propose for photometric monitoring observations of WISEP J004701.06+680352 (hereinafter W0047) and 2MASSWJ2244316+204343 (hereinafter 2M2244) using Spitzer/IRAC. Both objects are kinematically confirmed L7 members of the 150 Myr old AB Doradus moving group and show remarkable spectral similarity in both the near-IR and optical. The WoW survey found that L/T transition brown dwarfs having detected mid-IR variability are redder than the typical J - K color for their spectral type. A Cycle 11 exploration program (P.I. Metchev) is investigating the geometrical dependence of color and variability by expanding the original WoW sample. If inclination and J - K color are correlated (as predicted by Metchev et al.), then the spectral and photometric diversity seen across the L/T transition could be explained by geometry rather than diversity in atmospheric chemistry and dynamics. This would have wide ranging implications for the way we model cloud dissipation for brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets. Our proposed observations will provide an important test of the Metchev et al. prediction complementary to their Cycle 11 program. W0047 and 2M2244 are the same age, and have remarkably similar colors (J - K = 2.55 and 2.46 mags, respectively) and underlying spectra. Thus, if Metchev's prediction about the correlation of inclination and spectral morphology holds true, we would expect that W0047 and 2M2244 should have similar inclinations. However, the measured v sin(i) values for W0047 and 2M2244 are quite different. This difference in v sin(i) could be due to spin-axis inclination (with W0047 having a smaller i) or orbital period (with W0047 having a longer period), both of which we will determine from our proposed observations. This test is a unique opportunity, as there are no other free-floating L/T transition dwarfs known to be both coeval and spectrally similar. Our proposed observations will also extend the spectral type range for young objects surveyed for variability

  12. Faintest Methane Brown Dwarf Discovered with the NTT and VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-08-01

    A team of European astronomers [1] has found a cold and extremely faint object in interstellar space, high above the galactic plane. It is a Methane Brown Dwarf of which only a few are known. This is by far the most distant one identified to date. Brown Dwarfs are star-like objects which are heavier than planets but not massive enough to trigger the nuclear burning of hydrogen and other elements which powers normal stars. They are, nevertheless, heated during their formation by gravitational contraction but then continuously cool as this energy is radiated away. The so-called Methane Brown Dwarfs are the coolest members of the class detected so far, with temperatures around 700 °C, i.e. around 1000 degrees cooler than the coldest stars. The new object, provisionally known as NTTDF J1205-0744 , was found during a deep survey of a small sky region in the constellation Virgo (The Virgin), just south of the celestial equator. The chances of identifying a rare object like this in such a restricted area are very small and the astronomers readily admit that they must have been very lucky. This is the story of an (unexpected) astronomical discovery that may prove to be very important for galactic studies. It also demonstrates the power of modern observational techniques. The NTT Deep Field A long series of exposures of a small sky field in Virgo were made in 1997 and 1998 with the ESO 3.58-m New Technology Telescope (NTT) at La Silla. They were carried out with the aim of measuring and demonstrating the limiting performance of two astronomical instruments at this telescope, the SUperb-Seeing Imager (SUSI) in the visible part of the spectrum (0.35 - 1.00 µm), and the multi-mode Son of ISAAC (SOFI) in the near-infrared region (1.0 - 2.5 µm). The observed sky area measures only 2.3 x 2.3 arcmin 2 and is referred to as the NTT Deep Field. It has been studied in great detail, in particular to identify very distant galaxies for spectroscopic follow-up observations with the

  13. THE SEARCH FOR PLANETARY MASS COMPANIONS TO FIELD BROWN DWARFS WITH HST/NICMOS

    SciTech Connect

    Stumpf, M. B.; Brandner, W.; Joergens, V.; Henning, Th.; Bouy, H.; Koehler, R.; Kasper, M.

    2010-11-20

    We present the results of a high-resolution spectral differential imaging survey of 12 nearby, relatively young field L dwarfs ({<=}1 Gyr) carried out with the Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS to search for planetary mass companions at small physical separations from their host. The survey resolved two brown dwarf binaries: the L dwarf system Kelu-1 AB and the newly discovered L/T transition system 2MASS 031059+164815 AB. For both systems, common proper motion has already been confirmed in follow-up observations which have been published elsewhere. The derived separations of the binaries are smaller than 6 AU and consistent with previous brown dwarf binary statistics. Their mass ratios of q {>=} 0.8 confirm the preference for equal-mass systems similar to a large number of other surveys. Furthermore, we found tentative evidence for a companion to the L4 dwarf 2MASSW 033703-175807, straddling the brown dwarf/planetary mass boundary and revealing an uncommonly low-mass ratio system (q {approx} 0.2) compared to the vast majority of previously found brown dwarf binaries. With a derived minimum mass of 10-15 M{sub Jup} a planetary nature of the secondary cannot be ruled out yet. However, it seems more likely to be a very low mass brown dwarf secondary at the border of the spectral T/Y transition regime, primarily due to its similarities to recently found very cool T dwarfs. This would make it one of the closest resolved brown dwarf binaries (0.''087 {+-} 0.''015, corresponding to 2.52 {+-} 0.44 AU at a distance of 29 pc) with the coolest (T{sub eff} {approx} 600-630 K) and least massive companion to any L or T dwarf.

  14. EVIDENCE OF A BROWN DWARF IN THE ECLIPSING DWARF NOVA Z CHAMAELEONIS

    SciTech Connect

    Dai Zhibin; Qian Shengbang

    2009-09-20

    We presented three new CCD observations of light minima of Z Chamaeleonis. All 187 available times of light minimum including 37 photographic data are compiled, and a new orbital period analysis is made by means of the standard O - C technique. The O - C diagram of Z Chamaeleonis presents a cyclical periodic change of {approx} 32.57 yr with a high significance level. We attempted to apply two plausible mechanisms (i.e., Applegate's mechanism and light travel-time effect) to explain the cyclical variations of orbital period shown in the O-C diagram. Although the previous works suggested that solar-type magnetic cycles in the red dwarf are the best explanation, the analysis of Applegate's mechanism in this paper presents a negative result. Accordingly, a light travel-time effect is proposed, and a brown dwarf as a tertiary component orbiting around dwarf nova Z Chamaeleonis is derived with a significance level of {approx}>81.6%, which may be a plausible explanation of the periodic variation in the systemic velocity of Z Chamaeleonis in superoutburst.

  15. Tuning Into Brown Dwarfs: Long-Term Radio Monitoring of Two Very Low Mass Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Linge, Russell; Burgasser, Adam J.; Melis, Carl; Williams, Peter K. G.

    2017-01-01

    The very lowest-mass (VLM) stars and brown dwarfs, with effective temperatures T < 3000 K, exhibit mixed magnetic activity trends, with H-alpha and X-ray emission that declines rapidly beyond type M7/M8, but persistent radio emission in roughly 10-20% of sources. The dozen or so VLM radio emitters known show a broad range of emission characteristics and time-dependent behavior, including steady persistent emission, periodic oscillations, periodic polarized bursts, and aperiodic flares. Understanding the evolution of these variability patterns, and in particular whether they undergo solar-like cycles, requires long-term monitoring. We report the results of a long-term JVLA monitoring program of two magnetically-active VLM dwarf binaries, the young M7 2MASS 1314+1320AB and older L5 2MASS 1315-2649AB. On the bi-weekly cadence, 2MASS 1314 continues to show variability by revealing regular flaring while 2MASS 1315 continues to be a quiescent emitter. On the daily time scale, both sources show a mean flux density that can vary significantly just over a few days. These results suggest long-term radio behavior in radio-emitting VLM dwarfs is just as diverse and complex as short-term behavior.

  16. OGLE-2014-BLG-0257L: A Microlensing Brown Dwarf Orbiting a Low-mass M Dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, C.; Jung, Y. K.; Udalski, A.; Gould, A.; Bozza, V.; Szymański, M. K.; Soszyński, I.; Poleski, R.; Kozłowski, S.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Skowron, J.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; OGLE Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we report the discovery of a binary composed of a brown dwarf (BD) and a low-mass M dwarf from observation of the microlensing event OGLE-2014-BLG-0257. The resolution of the very brief caustic crossing combined with the detection of subtle continuous deviation in the lensing light curve induced by the Earth’s orbital motion enable us to precisely measure both the Einstein radius {θ }{{E}} and the lens parallax {π }{{E}}, which are the two quantities needed to unambiguously determine the mass and distance to the lens. It is found that the companion is a substellar BD with a mass of 0.036+/- 0.005 {M}⊙ (37.7+/- 5.2 {M}{{J}}) and it is orbiting an M dwarf with a mass of 0.19+/- 0.02 {M}⊙ . The binary is located at a distance of 1.25 ± 0.13 kpc toward the Galactic bulge and the projected separation between the binary components is 0.61 ± 0.07 au. The separation scaled by the mass of the host is 3.2 {{au}}/{M}⊙ . Based on the assumption that separations scale with masses, the discovered BD is located in the BD desert. With the growing sample of BDs in various environments, microlensing will provide a powerful probe of BDs in the Galaxy.

  17. The Near-Infrared and Optical Spectra of Methane Dwarfs and Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrows, Adam; Marley, M. S.; Sharp, C. M.

    2000-03-01

    We identify the pressure-broadened red wings of the saturated potassium resonance lines at 7700 Å as the source of anomalous absorption seen in the near-infrared spectra of Gliese 229B and, by extension, of methane dwarfs in general. In broad outline, this conclusion is supported by the 1999 work of Tsuji et al. The WFPC2 I-band measurement of Gliese 229B is also consistent with this hypothesis. Furthermore, a combination of the blue wings of this K I resonance doublet, the red wings of the Na D lines at 5890 Å, and, perhaps, the Li I line at 6708 Å can explain in a natural way the observed WFPC2 R-band flux of Gliese 229B. Hence, we conclude that the neutral alkali metals play a central role in the near-infrared and optical spectra of methane dwarfs and that their lines have the potential to provide crucial diagnostics of brown dwarf properties. We speculate on the systematics of the near-infrared and optical spectra of methane dwarfs, for a given mass and composition, that stems from the progressive burial with decreasing Teff of the alkali metal atoms to larger pressures and depths. Moreover, we surmise that those extrasolar giant planets (EGPs) that achieve Teffvalues in the 800-1300 K range because of stellar insolation will show signatures of the neutral alkali metals in their albedo and reflection spectra. We estimate that, predominantly because of absorption by Na D lines, the geometric albedo of the EGP τ Boo b at λ=0.48 μm is less than 0.1, which is consistent with the new (and low) upper limit of 0.3 recently obtained by Charbonneau et al. in 1999.

  18. Laboratory measurements of resistivity in warm dense plasmas relevant to the microphysics of brown dwarfs

    PubMed Central

    Booth, N.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Hakel, P.; Clarke, R. J.; Dance, R. J.; Doria, D.; Gizzi, L. A.; Gregori, G.; Koester, P.; Labate, L.; Levato, T.; Li, B.; Makita, M.; Mancini, R. C.; Pasley, J.; Rajeev, P. P.; Riley, D.; Wagenaars, E.; Waugh, J. N.; Woolsey, N. C.

    2015-01-01

    Since the observation of the first brown dwarf in 1995, numerous studies have led to a better understanding of the structures of these objects. Here we present a method for studying material resistivity in warm dense plasmas in the laboratory, which we relate to the microphysics of brown dwarfs through viscosity and electron collisions. Here we use X-ray polarimetry to determine the resistivity of a sulphur-doped plastic target heated to Brown Dwarf conditions by an ultra-intense laser. The resistivity is determined by matching the plasma physics model to the atomic physics calculations of the measured large, positive, polarization. The inferred resistivity is larger than predicted using standard resistivity models, suggesting that these commonly used models will not adequately describe the resistivity of warm dense plasma related to the viscosity of brown dwarfs. PMID:26541650

  19. Laboratory measurements of resistivity in warm dense plasmas relevant to the microphysics of brown dwarfs.

    PubMed

    Booth, N; Robinson, A P L; Hakel, P; Clarke, R J; Dance, R J; Doria, D; Gizzi, L A; Gregori, G; Koester, P; Labate, L; Levato, T; Li, B; Makita, M; Mancini, R C; Pasley, J; Rajeev, P P; Riley, D; Wagenaars, E; Waugh, J N; Woolsey, N C

    2015-11-06

    Since the observation of the first brown dwarf in 1995, numerous studies have led to a better understanding of the structures of these objects. Here we present a method for studying material resistivity in warm dense plasmas in the laboratory, which we relate to the microphysics of brown dwarfs through viscosity and electron collisions. Here we use X-ray polarimetry to determine the resistivity of a sulphur-doped plastic target heated to Brown Dwarf conditions by an ultra-intense laser. The resistivity is determined by matching the plasma physics model to the atomic physics calculations of the measured large, positive, polarization. The inferred resistivity is larger than predicted using standard resistivity models, suggesting that these commonly used models will not adequately describe the resistivity of warm dense plasma related to the viscosity of brown dwarfs.

  20. Laboratory measurements of resistivity in warm dense plasmas relevant to the microphysics of brown dwarfs

    DOE PAGES

    Booth, N.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Hakel, P.; ...

    2015-11-06

    Since the observation of the first brown dwarf in 1995, numerous studies have led to a better understanding of the structures of these objects. Here we present a method for studying material resistivity in warm dense plasmas in the laboratory, which we relate to the microphysics of brown dwarfs through viscosity and electron collisions. Here we use X-ray polarimetry to determine the resistivity of a sulphur-doped plastic target heated to Brown Dwarf conditions by an ultra-intense laser. The resistivity is determined by matching the plasma physics model to the atomic physics calculations of the measured large, positive, polarization. Furthermore, themore » inferred resistivity is larger than predicted using standard resistivity models, suggesting that these commonly used models will not adequately describe the resistivity of warm dense plasma related to the viscosity of brown dwarfs.« less

  1. Zones, spots, and planetary-scale waves beating in brown dwarf atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Apai, D; Karalidi, T; Marley, M S; Yang, H; Flateau, D; Metchev, S; Cowan, N B; Buenzli, E; Burgasser, A J; Radigan, J; Artigau, E; Lowrance, P

    2017-08-18

    Brown dwarfs are massive analogs of extrasolar giant planets and may host types of atmospheric circulation not seen in the solar system. We analyzed a long-term Spitzer Space Telescope infrared monitoring campaign of brown dwarfs to constrain cloud cover variations over a total of 192 rotations. The infrared brightness evolution is dominated by beat patterns caused by planetary-scale wave pairs and by a small number of bright spots. The beating waves have similar amplitudes but slightly different apparent periods because of differing velocities or directions. The power spectrum of intermediate-temperature brown dwarfs resembles that of Neptune, indicating the presence of zonal temperature and wind speed variations. Our findings explain three previously puzzling behaviors seen in brown dwarf brightness variations. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  2. Zones, spots, and planetary-scale waves beating in brown dwarf atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apai, D.; Karalidi, T.; Marley, M. S.; Yang, H.; Flateau, D.; Metchev, S.; Cowan, N. B.; Buenzli, E.; Burgasser, A. J.; Radigan, J.; Artigau, E.; Lowrance, P.

    2017-08-01

    Brown dwarfs are massive analogs of extrasolar giant planets and may host types of atmospheric circulation not seen in the solar system. We analyzed a long-term Spitzer Space Telescope infrared monitoring campaign of brown dwarfs to constrain cloud cover variations over a total of 192 rotations. The infrared brightness evolution is dominated by beat patterns caused by planetary-scale wave pairs and by a small number of bright spots. The beating waves have similar amplitudes but slightly different apparent periods because of differing velocities or directions. The power spectrum of intermediate-temperature brown dwarfs resembles that of Neptune, indicating the presence of zonal temperature and wind speed variations. Our findings explain three previously puzzling behaviors seen in brown dwarf brightness variations.

  3. Laboratory measurements of resistivity in warm dense plasmas relevant to the microphysics of brown dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, N.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Hakel, P.; Clarke, R. J.; Dance, R. J.; Doria, D.; Gizzi, L. A.; Gregori, G.; Koester, P.; Labate, L.; Levato, T.; Li, B.; Makita, M.; Mancini, R. C.; Pasley, J.; Rajeev, P. P.; Riley, D.; Wagenaars, E.; Waugh, J. N.; Woolsey, N. C.

    2015-11-01

    Since the observation of the first brown dwarf in 1995, numerous studies have led to a better understanding of the structures of these objects. Here we present a method for studying material resistivity in warm dense plasmas in the laboratory, which we relate to the microphysics of brown dwarfs through viscosity and electron collisions. Here we use X-ray polarimetry to determine the resistivity of a sulphur-doped plastic target heated to Brown Dwarf conditions by an ultra-intense laser. The resistivity is determined by matching the plasma physics model to the atomic physics calculations of the measured large, positive, polarization. The inferred resistivity is larger than predicted using standard resistivity models, suggesting that these commonly used models will not adequately describe the resistivity of warm dense plasma related to the viscosity of brown dwarfs.

  4. The Theory of the Formation of Brown Dwarfs and Low-Mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamatellos, Dimitris

    2017-06-01

    More than half of all stars (including brown dwarfs) have masses below 0.2 Msun. The formation mechanism of these objects is uncertain. I will review the four main theories for the formation of low-mass objects: turbulent fragmentation, ejection of protostellar embryos, disc fragmentation, and photo-erosion of prestellar cores. I will discuss the observational predictions of these models regarding the low-mass initial mass function, the brown dwarf desert, and the binary statistics of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. I will further discuss whether observations may be used to distinguish between different formation mechanisms, and give a few examples of systems that strongly favour a specific formation scenario. Finally, I will argue that it is likely that all mechanisms may play a role in the formation of brown dwarfs and low-mass stars.

  5. Laboratory measurements of resistivity in warm dense plasmas relevant to the microphysics of brown dwarfs

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, N.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Hakel, P.; Clarke, R. J.; Dance, R. J.; Doria, D.; Gizzi, L. A.; Gregori, G.; Koester, P.; Labate, L.; Levato, T.; Li, B.; Makita, M.; Mancini, R. C.; Pasley, J.; Rajeev, P. P.; Riley, D.; Wagenaars, E.; Waugh, J. N.; Woolsey, N. C.

    2015-11-06

    Since the observation of the first brown dwarf in 1995, numerous studies have led to a better understanding of the structures of these objects. Here we present a method for studying material resistivity in warm dense plasmas in the laboratory, which we relate to the microphysics of brown dwarfs through viscosity and electron collisions. Here we use X-ray polarimetry to determine the resistivity of a sulphur-doped plastic target heated to Brown Dwarf conditions by an ultra-intense laser. The resistivity is determined by matching the plasma physics model to the atomic physics calculations of the measured large, positive, polarization. Furthermore, the inferred resistivity is larger than predicted using standard resistivity models, suggesting that these commonly used models will not adequately describe the resistivity of warm dense plasma related to the viscosity of brown dwarfs.

  6. NLTT 41135: A FIELD M DWARF + BROWN DWARF ECLIPSING BINARY IN A TRIPLE SYSTEM, DISCOVERED BY THE MEARTH OBSERVATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Irwin, Jonathan; Buchhave, Lars; Berta, Zachory K.; Charbonneau, David; Latham, David W.; Burke, Christopher J.; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.; Everett, Mark E.; Holman, Matthew J.; Nutzman, Philip; Berlind, Perry; Calkins, Michael L.; Falco, Emilio E.; Winn, Joshua N.; Johnson, John A.; Gazak, J. Zachary

    2010-08-01

    We report the discovery of an eclipsing companion to NLTT 41135, a nearby M5 dwarf that was already known to have a wider, slightly more massive common proper motion companion, NLTT 41136, at 2.''4 separation. Analysis of combined-light and RV curves of the system indicates that NLTT 41135B is a (31-34) {+-} 3M{sub Jup} brown dwarf (where the range depends on the unknown metallicity of the host star) on a circular orbit. The visual M dwarf pair appears to be physically bound, so the system forms a hierarchical triple, with masses approximately in the ratio 8:6:1. The eclipses are grazing, preventing an unambiguous measurement of the secondary radius, but follow-up observations of the secondary eclipse (e.g., with the James Webb Space Telescope) could permit measurements of the surface brightness ratio between the two objects, and thus place constraints on models of brown dwarfs.

  7. NLTT 41135: A Field M Dwarf + Brown Dwarf Eclipsing Binary in a Triple System, Discovered by the MEarth Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, Jonathan; Buchhave, Lars; Berta, Zachory K.; Charbonneau, David; Latham, David W.; Burke, Christopher J.; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.; Everett, Mark E.; Holman, Matthew J.; Nutzman, Philip; Berlind, Perry; Calkins, Michael L.; Falco, Emilio E.; Winn, Joshua N.; Johnson, John A.; Gazak, J. Zachary

    2010-08-01

    We report the discovery of an eclipsing companion to NLTT 41135, a nearby M5 dwarf that was already known to have a wider, slightly more massive common proper motion companion, NLTT 41136, at 2farcs4 separation. Analysis of combined-light and RV curves of the system indicates that NLTT 41135B is a (31-34) ± 3M Jup brown dwarf (where the range depends on the unknown metallicity of the host star) on a circular orbit. The visual M dwarf pair appears to be physically bound, so the system forms a hierarchical triple, with masses approximately in the ratio 8:6:1. The eclipses are grazing, preventing an unambiguous measurement of the secondary radius, but follow-up observations of the secondary eclipse (e.g., with the James Webb Space Telescope) could permit measurements of the surface brightness ratio between the two objects, and thus place constraints on models of brown dwarfs.

  8. Brown dwarfs: At last filling the gap between stars and planets

    PubMed Central

    Zuckerman, Ben

    2000-01-01

    Until the mid-1990s a person could not point to any celestial object and say with assurance that “here is a brown dwarf.” Now dozens are known, and the study of brown dwarfs has come of age, touching upon major issues in astrophysics, including the nature of dark matter, the properties of substellar objects, and the origin of binary stars and planetary systems. PMID:10655468

  9. Searching for Brown Dwarfs in the Spitzer/IRAC Shallow Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marengo, Massimo; Allen, L. E.; Ashby, M. L.; Patten, B. M.; Sanchez, M. C.; IRAC Shallow Survey Collaboration

    2006-12-01

    The IRAC Shallow Survey in Bootes, augmented by J and Ks photometry obtained as part of the FLAMINGOS Extragalactic Survey (FLAMEX), provides an ideal dataset for the search of brown dwarfs and other cool objects, as demonstrated by the recent detection of a T4.5 spectral type brown dwarf by Stern et al. (astro-ph/0608603). More brown dwarfs of L and early T type are expected to be found in the Bootes survey area, but an efficient and thorough method is required to complete the search. We present here a statistical technique for the automatic photometric classification of astronomical sources, that aims to satisfy these requirements. Based on the k-Nearest Neighbor method, this technique provides an unbiased tool for selecting brown dwarf candidates by comparing their colors with a set of templates derived from IRAC Guaranteed Time Observations (Patten et al. 2006, astro-ph/0606432), and it has already proved its effectiveness by identifying brown dwarf companions around nearby stars (Luhman et al. 2006, astro-ph/0609464). We describe its application to the search for field brown dwarfs in the Shallow Survey/FLAMEX database. This work is based in part on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech.

  10. The Decay of Accreting Triple Systems as Brown Dwarf Formation Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umbreit, Stefan; Burkert, Andreas; Henning, Thomas; Mikkola, Seppo; Spurzem, Rainer

    2005-04-01

    We investigate the dynamical decay of nonhierarchical accreting triple systems and its implications on the ejection model as a brown dwarf formation scenario. A modified chain-regularization scheme is used to integrate the equations of motion that also allows for mass changes over time as well as for momentum transfer from the accreted gas mass onto the bodies. We integrate an ensemble of triple systems within a certain volume with different accretion rates, assuming several prescriptions of how momentum is transferred onto the bodies. We follow their evolution until the systems have decayed. We analyze the end states and decay times of these systems and determine the fraction of brown dwarfs formed and their escape speeds, as well as the semimajor axis distribution of the formed brown dwarf binaries. We find that the formation probability of brown dwarfs depends strongly on the assumed momentum transfer, which is related to the motion of the gas. Because of ongoing accretion and consequent shrinkage of the systems, the median escape velocity is increased by a factor of 2, and the binary separations are decreased by a factor of 5 compared with nonaccreting systems. Furthermore, the obtained semimajor axis distribution drops off sharply to either side of the median, which is also supported by observations. We conclude that accretion and momentum transfer of accreted gas during the dynamical decay of triple systems is able to produce the observed distribution of close binary brown dwarfs, making the ejection model a viable option as brown dwarf formation scenario.

  11. Exoplanet and brown dwarf atmosphere characterization with NIRISS SOSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafreniere, David; JWST NIRISS GTO Team

    2017-06-01

    The SOSS mode of NIRISS offers a unique combination of wide wavelength coverage (0.6-2.8 μm), medium resolving power (R=500-2000), and slit-less operation that makes it powerful for time series observations aimed at characterizing the atmosphere of exoplanets and brown dwarfs. In this talk I will present the NIRISS GTO team plan to obtain NIRISS SOSS transit and eclipse observations of a sample of 14 exoplanets that span the full available range of equilibrium temperatures (300-3000 K) and masses (1 MEarth - 10 MJup) for planets amenable to atmospheric characterization. Our observations will measure the abundance of the molecules and aerosols present in the exoplanets’ atmosphere and determine the vertical temperature structure of the hottest targets. These results will allow us to address fundamental issues such as the formation process and formation location of these close-in planets, the presence and characteristics of particulate clouds, and non-equilibrium chemistry effects that might be at play in their atmosphere. Four of our targets are rocky and for these we intend to place some of the first constraints on the mean molecular weight, and hence bulk composition, of their atmospheres. For one target, we will acquire observations continuously throughout a full orbital period to constrain its temperature-pressure profile as a function of longitude and study how heat is absorbed and redistributed in its atmosphere. Finally, we will also observe a variable early-T dwarf continuously for a complete rotation period, to study the vertical extent of its dust clouds and the upwelling processes happening in its atmosphere. I will present how we developed our plan, highlighting some important considerations specific to SOSS observations, as well as some tools that are publicly available to help potential users plan their own SOSS observations.

  12. DISCOVERY OF THREE DISTANT, COLD BROWN DWARFS IN THE WFC3 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC PARALLELS SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Masters, D.; Siana, B.; McCarthy, P.; Hathi, N. P.; Dressler, A.; Burgasser, A. J.; Malkan, M.; Ross, N. R.; Scarlata, C.; Henry, A.; Colbert, J.; Atek, H.; Rafelski, M.; Teplitz, H.; Bunker, A.

    2012-06-10

    We present the discovery of three late-type ({>=}T4.5) brown dwarfs, including a probable Y dwarf, in the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels (WISP) survey. We use the G141 grism spectra to determine the spectral types of the dwarfs and derive distance estimates based on a comparison with nearby T dwarfs with known parallaxes. These are the most distant spectroscopically confirmed T/Y dwarfs, with the farthest at an estimated distance of {approx}400 pc. We compare the number of cold dwarfs found in the WISP survey with simulations of the brown dwarf mass function. The number found is generally consistent with an initial stellar mass function dN/dM{proportional_to}M{sup -{alpha}} with {alpha} = 0.0-0.5, although the identification of a Y dwarf is somewhat surprising and may be indicative of either a flatter absolute magnitude/spectral-type relation than previously reported or an upturn in the number of very-late-type brown dwarfs in the observed volume.

  13. Effect of condensate cycles in driving atmospheric circulation on brown dwarfs and directly imaged giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xianyu; Showman, Adam

    2014-11-01

    Growing observations of brown dwarfs and directly imaged giant planets, including properties of the L/T transition, chemical disequilibrium, brightness variability, and surface maps have provided evidence for strong atmospheric circulation on these worlds. Previous studies that serve to understand the atmospheric circulation of brown dwarfs include modeling of convection from the interior both in a two-dimensional and global fashion, a two-layer shallow water model and a global circulation model with dry thermal perturbation at the bottom of atmosphere. These models show that interactions between the stably stratified layer and the convective interior can drive an atmospheric circulation, including zonal jets and/or vortices. However, these models are dry models, not including the condensation cycles such as silicate and iron in hot dwarfs. Condensation of water has previously been shown to play an important role on driving the zonal jets on four giant planets in our solar system. As such, condensation cycles of various species is believed to be an important source in driving the atmospheric circulation of brown dwarfs and directly imaged planets as well. Here we present results from three-dimensional simulations for the stably stratified atmospheres of brown dwarfs based on a general circulation model that includes the effect of a condensate cycle. Large-scale latent heating and molecular weight effect due to condensation of a single species are treated explicitly in our model. We examine the atmospheric circulation patterns of brown dwarfs caused by large-scale latent heating that results from condensation of silicates in hot dwarfs and water in the cold dwarfs. By varying the parameters such as abundances of condensates, effective temperature and rotational period, we explore possible configurations of the circulation, and determine implications for the observed cloud patchiness and brightness variability for brown dwarfs.

  14. HABITABLE PLANETS ECLIPSING BROWN DWARFS: STRATEGIES FOR DETECTION AND CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Belu, Adrian R.; Selsis, Franck; Raymond, Sean N.; Bolmont, Emeline; Palle, Enric; Street, Rachel; Sahu, D. K.; Anupama, G. C.; Von Braun, Kaspar; Figueira, Pedro; Ribas, Ignasi

    2013-05-10

    Given the very close proximity of their habitable zones, brown dwarfs (BDs) represent high-value targets in the search for nearby transiting habitable planets that may be suitable for follow-up occultation spectroscopy. In this paper, we develop search strategies to find habitable planets transiting BDs depending on their maximum habitable orbital period (P{sub HZ{sub out}}). Habitable planets with P{sub HZ{sub out}} shorter than the useful duration of a night (e.g., 8-10 hr) can be screened with 100% completeness from a single location and in a single night (near-IR). More luminous BDs require continuous monitoring for longer duration, e.g., from space or from a longitude-distributed network (one test scheduling achieved three telescopes, 13.5 contiguous hours). Using a simulated survey of the 21 closest known BDs (within 7 pc) we find that the probability of detecting at least one transiting habitable planet is between 4.5{sup +5.6}{sub -1.4}% and 56{sup +31}{sub -13}%, depending on our assumptions. We calculate that BDs within 5-10 pc are characterizable for potential biosignatures with a 6.5 m space telescope using {approx}1% of a five-year mission's lifetime spread over a contiguous segment only one-fifth to one-tenth of this duration.

  15. A new parallax measurement for the coldest known brown dwarf

    SciTech Connect

    Luhman, K. L.; Esplin, T. L.

    2014-11-20

    WISE J085510.83–071442.5 was recently discovered as the coldest known brown dwarf based on four epochs of images from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer and the Spitzer Space Telescope. We have improved the accuracy of its parallax measurement by obtaining two additional epochs of Spitzer astrometry. We derive a parallactic distance of 2.31 ± 0.08 pc, which continues to support its rank as the fourth closest known system to the Sun when compared to WISE J104915.57–531906.1 AB (2.02 ± 0.02 pc) and Wolf 359 (2.386 ± 0.012 pc). The new constraint on the absolute magnitude at 4.5 μm indicates an effective temperature of 235-260 K based on four sets of theoretical models. We also show the updated positions of WISE J085510.83–071442.5 in two color-magnitude diagrams. Whereas Faherty and coworkers cited its location in M {sub W2} versus J – W2 as evidence of water clouds, we find that those data can be explained instead by cloudless models that employ non-equilibrium chemistry.

  16. Habitable Planets Eclipsing Brown Dwarfs: Strategies for Detection and Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belu, Adrian R.; Selsis, Franck; Raymond, Sean N.; Pallé, Enric; Street, Rachel; Sahu, D. K.; von Braun, Kaspar; Bolmont, Emeline; Figueira, Pedro; Anupama, G. C.; Ribas, Ignasi

    2013-05-01

    Given the very close proximity of their habitable zones, brown dwarfs (BDs) represent high-value targets in the search for nearby transiting habitable planets that may be suitable for follow-up occultation spectroscopy. In this paper, we develop search strategies to find habitable planets transiting BDs depending on their maximum habitable orbital period (P HZ out). Habitable planets with P HZ out shorter than the useful duration of a night (e.g., 8-10 hr) can be screened with 100% completeness from a single location and in a single night (near-IR). More luminous BDs require continuous monitoring for longer duration, e.g., from space or from a longitude-distributed network (one test scheduling achieved three telescopes, 13.5 contiguous hours). Using a simulated survey of the 21 closest known BDs (within 7 pc) we find that the probability of detecting at least one transiting habitable planet is between 4.5^{+5.6}_{-1.4}% and 56^{+31}_{-13}%, depending on our assumptions. We calculate that BDs within 5-10 pc are characterizable for potential biosignatures with a 6.5 m space telescope using ~1% of a five-year mission's lifetime spread over a contiguous segment only one-fifth to one-tenth of this duration.

  17. A Young Brown Dwarf Companion to DH Tauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Yoichi; Hayashi, Masahiko; Tamura, Motohide; Tsuji, Takashi; Oasa, Yumiko; Fukagawa, Misato; Hayashi, Saeko S.; Naoi, Takahiro; Ishii, Miki; Mayama, Satoshi; Morino, Jun-ichi; Yamashita, Takuya; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Nishikawa, Takayuki; Usuda, Tomonori; Murakawa, Koji; Suto, Hiroshi; Oya, Shin; Takato, Naruhisa; Ando, Hiroyasu; Miyama, Shoken M.; Kobayashi, Naoto; Kaifu, Norio

    2005-02-01

    We present the detection of a young brown dwarf companion, DH Tau B, associated with the classical T Tauri star DH Tau. Near-infrared coronagraphic observations with CIAO on the Subaru Telescope have revealed DH Tau B with H=15 mag located 2.3" (330 AU) away from the primary, DH Tau A. Comparing its position with a Hubble Space Telescope archive image, we confirmed that DH Tau A and B share a common proper motion, suggesting that they are physically associated with each other. The near-infrared color of DH Tau B is consistent with those of young stellar objects. The near-infrared spectra of DH Tau B show deep water absorption bands, a strong K I absorption line, and a moderate Na I absorption line. We derived its effective temperature and surface gravity of Teff=2700-2800 K and logg=4.0-4.5, respectively, by comparing the observed spectra with synthesized spectra of low-mass objects. The location of DH Tau B on the H-R diagram gives its mass of 30MJ-50MJ. Based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  18. Globular Clusters: Low Mass Stars, Still No Brown Dwarfs!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Marchi, Guido

    2003-06-01

    In spite of all the attempts to find them, no one has yet detected any brown dwarf in a globular cluster. Although powerful instruments such as the VLT and Advanced Camera could further push the frontiers of this search, globular clusters will probably hold tight to their secrets for a while longer. Nonetheless, the search for very low mass stars in globular clusters has taught us a lot about their original mass distribution (IMF) and its evolution in time. I shall review the results of an investigation carried out over what is presently the largest, most homogeneous sample, and discuss the reasons suggesting that: 1. dynamical evolution (internal and external) has reshaped the cluster mass function over time, but the imprint of the IMF is still visible; 2. the IMF appears to vary very little from cluster to cluster; 3. the most likely functional form of the IMF is that of a power law that rises to a peak at ˜0.3 M⊙ and tapers off at smaller masses.

  19. The Discovery of the First Lithium Brown Dwarf: PPl 15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basri, Gibor

    The search for brown dwarfs (BDs) covered decades between the time they were first proposed theoretically and the time that a public announcement of the discovery of a BD was made which did not have to be recanted later (as was the case for a number of previous announcements). In a convergence of scientific progress, 1995 saw 3 real discoveries of BDs, as well as the first exoplanets. The substellar realm had suddenly opened up. This chapter describes the process that led to the first of these announcements: the identification of PPl 15 as a BD. It lay just below the substellar limit in the Pleiades cluster. To distinguish it from very similar-looking stars, the first successful application of the "lithium test" was applied by my group at UC Berkeley using the new Keck 10 m telescope and HIRES spectrograph. As part of the analysis, the new technique of "lithium dating" was developed. I place this discovery in the context of the broader search for BDs, and of the subsequent discoveries and progress in the field.

  20. Mapping the Shores of the Brown Dwarf Desert. IV. Ophiuchus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheetham, Anthony C.; Kraus, Adam L.; Ireland, Michael J.; Cieza, Lucas; Rizzuto, Aaron C.; Tuthill, Peter G.

    2015-11-01

    We conduct a multiplicity survey of members of the ρ Ophiuchus cloud complex with high-resolution imaging to characterize the multiple-star population of this nearby star-forming region and investigate the relation between stellar multiplicity and star and planet formation. Our aperture masking survey reveals the presence of five new stellar companions beyond the reach of previous studies, but does not result in the detection of any new substellar companions. We find that 43 ± 6% of the 114 stars in our survey have stellar-mass companions between 1.3 and 780 AU, while {7}-5+8% host brown dwarf companions in the same interval. By combining this information with knowledge of disk-hosting stars, we show that the presence of a close binary companion (separation <40 AU) significantly influences the lifetime of protoplanetary disks, a phenomenon previously seen in older star-forming regions. At the ˜1-2 Myr age of our Ophiuchus members ˜2/3 of close binary systems have lost their disks, compared to only ˜30% of single stars and wide binaries. This has a significant impact on the formation of giant planets, which are expected to require much longer than 1 Myr to form via core accretion and thus planets formed via this pathway should be rare in close binary systems.

  1. HOT METHANE LINE LISTS FOR EXOPLANET AND BROWN DWARF ATMOSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Hargreaves, Robert J.; Bernath, Peter F.; Beale, Christopher A.; Michaux, Laurent; Irfan, Melis E-mail: cbeale@odu.edu E-mail: melis.irfan@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk

    2012-09-20

    We present comprehensive experimental line lists of methane (CH{sub 4}) at high temperatures obtained by recording Fourier transform infrared emission spectra. Calibrated line lists are presented for the temperatures 300-1400 Degree-Sign C at twelve 100 Degree-Sign C intervals spanning the 960-5000 cm{sup -1} (2.0-10.4 {mu}m) region of the infrared. This range encompasses the dyad, pentad, and octad regions, i.e., all fundamental vibrational modes along with a number of combination, overtone and hot bands. Using our CH{sub 4} spectra, we have estimated empirical lower state energies (E{sub low} in cm{sup -1}) and our values have been incorporated into the line lists along with line positions ({nu}-bar in cm{sup -1}) and calibrated line intensities (S' in cm molecule{sup -1}). We expect our hot CH{sub 4} line lists to find direct application in the modeling of planetary atmospheres and brown dwarfs.

  2. Formation of free-floating and companion brown dwarfs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobyov, E. I.; Basu, S.

    The formation of brown dwarfs (BDs) is usually attributed to either of two distinct mechanisms: the direct collapse of a cloud core whose mass straddles the substellar mass limit and gravitational fragmentation in dense filaments and/or circumstellar disks, often followed by ejection of sub-stellar objects from their birth sites. It is likely that both mechanisms coexist and complement each other. However, an important argument usually in favor of the direct collapse scenario is the observation of some very-low-mass isolated proto-BD clumps, which, until recently, were difficult to explain by gravitational fragmentation. In this article, we will review the latest developments in the gravitational fragmentation scenario of BD formation. Disk fragmentation models that allow ejection of gaseous proto-BDs (and not only fully formed objects) account naturally for the formation of BD disks, avoid the problem of high ejection speeds implied in the standard ejection models of point-sized objects, and are also consistent with the observation of isolated low-mass clumps. In the ejection scenario, proto-BDs of larger masses have a higher likelihood for survival, thus providing a possible explanation for the IMF turnover at the lowmass end. Formation of wide-orbit BD companions to stars can also be explained in the disk fragmentation scenario. However, the likelihood of survival of the fragments is low, particularly at small orbital distances, which naturally accounts for the existence of the so-called BD desert.

  3. A New Parallax Measurement for the Coldest Known Brown Dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhman, K. L.; Esplin, T. L.

    2014-11-01

    WISE J085510.83-071442.5 was recently discovered as the coldest known brown dwarf based on four epochs of images from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer and the Spitzer Space Telescope. We have improved the accuracy of its parallax measurement by obtaining two additional epochs of Spitzer astrometry. We derive a parallactic distance of 2.31 ± 0.08 pc, which continues to support its rank as the fourth closest known system to the Sun when compared to WISE J104915.57-531906.1 AB (2.02 ± 0.02 pc) and Wolf 359 (2.386 ± 0.012 pc). The new constraint on the absolute magnitude at 4.5 μm indicates an effective temperature of 235-260 K based on four sets of theoretical models. We also show the updated positions of WISE J085510.83-071442.5 in two color-magnitude diagrams. Whereas Faherty and coworkers cited its location in M W2 versus J - W2 as evidence of water clouds, we find that those data can be explained instead by cloudless models that employ non-equilibrium chemistry. Based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA.

  4. Fundamental Properties of Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Michael C.; Dupuy, Trent J.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Allard, France; Blake, Cullen H.; Bonnefoy, M.; Cody, Ann Marie; Kraus, Adam; Day-Jones, A. C.; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes

    2009-02-16

    Precise measurements of the fundamental properties of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs are key to understanding the physics underlying their formation and evolution. While there has been great progress over the last decade in studying the bulk spectrophotometric properties of low-mass objects, direct determination of their masses, radii, and temperatures have been very sparse. Thus, theoretical predictions of low-mass evolution and ultracool atmospheres remain to be rigorously tested. The situation is alarming given that such models are widely used, from the determination of the low-mass end of the initial mass function to the characterization of exoplanets.An increasing number of mass, radius, and age determinations are placing critical constraints on the physics of low-mass objects. A wide variety of approaches are being pursued, including eclipsing binary studies, astrometric-spectroscopic orbital solutions, interferometry, and characterization of benchmark systems. In parallel, many more systems suitable for concerted study are now being found, thanks to new capabilities spanning both the very widest (all-sky surveys) and very narrowest (diffraction-limited adaptive optics) areas of the sky. This Cool Stars 15 splinter session highlighted the current successes and limitations of this rapidly growing area of precision astrophysics.

  5. A Population Study of Wide-Separation Brown Dwarf Companions to Main Sequence Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeffrey J.

    2005-01-01

    Increased interest in infrared astronomy has opened the frontier to study cooler objects that shed significant light on the formation of planetary systems. Brown dwarf research provides a wealth of information useful for sorting through a myriad of proposed formation theories. Our study combines observational data from 2MASS with rigorous computer simulations to estimate the true population of long-range (greater than 1000 AU) brown dwarf companions in the solar neighborhood (less than 25 pc from Earth). Expanding on Gizis et al. (2001), we have found the margin of error in previous estimates to be significantly underestimated after we included orbit eccentricity, longitude of pericenter, angle of inclination, field star density, and primary and secondary luminosities as parameters influencing the companion systems in observational studies. We apply our simulation results to current L- and T-dwarf catalogs to provide updated estimates on the frequency of wide-separation brown dwarf companions to main sequence stars.

  6. A Population Study of Wide-Separation Brown Dwarf Companions to Main Sequence Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeffrey J.

    2005-01-01

    Increased interest in infrared astronomy has opened the frontier to study cooler objects that shed significant light on the formation of planetary systems. Brown dwarf research provides a wealth of information useful for sorting through a myriad of proposed formation theories. Our study combines observational data from 2MASS with rigorous computer simulations to estimate the true population of long-range (greater than 1000 AU) brown dwarf companions in the solar neighborhood (less than 25 pc from Earth). Expanding on Gizis et al. (2001), we have found the margin of error in previous estimates to be significantly underestimated after we included orbit eccentricity, longitude of pericenter, angle of inclination, field star density, and primary and secondary luminosities as parameters influencing the companion systems in observational studies. We apply our simulation results to current L- and T-dwarf catalogs to provide updated estimates on the frequency of wide-separation brown dwarf companions to main sequence stars.

  7. Is this a Brown Dwarf or an Exoplanet?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-04-01

    Since the discovery in 1995 of the first planet orbiting a normal star other than the Sun, there are now more than 150 candidates of these so-called exoplanets known. Most of them are detected by indirect methods, based either on variations of the radial velocity or the dimming of the star as the planet passes in front of it (see ESO PR 06/03, ESO PR 11/04 and ESO PR 22/04). Astronomers would, however, prefer to obtain a direct image of an exoplanet, allowing them to better characterize the object's physical nature. This is an exceedingly difficult task, as the planet is generally hidden in the "glare" of its host star. To partly overcome this problem, astronomers study very young objects. Indeed, sub-stellar objects are much hotter and brighter when young and therefore can be more easily detected than older objects of similar mass. Based on this approach, it might well be that last year's detection of a feeble speck of light next to the young brown dwarf 2M1207 by an international team of astronomers using the ESO Very Large Telescope (ESO PR 23/04) is the long-sought bona-fide image of an exoplanet. A recent report based on data from the Hubble Space Telescope seems to confirm this result. The even more recent observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope of the warm infrared glows of two previously detected "hot Jupiter" planets is another interesting result in this context. This wealth of new results, obtained in the time span of a few months, illustrates perfectly the dynamic of this field of research. Tiny Companion ESO PR Photo 10a/05 ESO PR Photo 10a/05 The Sub-Stellar Companion to GQ Lupi (NACO/VLT) [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 429 pix - 22k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 875 pix - 132k] [Full Res - JPEG: 1042 x 1116 pix - 241k] Caption: ESO PR Photo 10a/05 shows the VLT NACO image, taken in the Ks-band, of GQ Lupi. The feeble point of light to the right of the star is the newly found cold companion. It is 250 times fainter than the star itself and it located 0

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: New brown dwarf discs in Upper Scorpius (Dawson+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, P.; Scholz, A.; Ray, T. P.; Marsh, K. A.; Wood, K.; Natta, A.; Padgett, D.; Ressler, M. E.

    2014-03-01

    We present a census of the disc population for UKIDSS selected brown dwarfs in the 5-10Myr old Upper Scorpius OB association. For 116 objects originally identified in UKIDSS, the majority of them not studied in previous publications, we obtain photometry from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer data base. The resulting colour-magnitude and colour-colour plots clearly show two separate populations of objects, interpreted as brown dwarfs with discs (class II) and without discs (class III). We identify 27 class II brown dwarfs, 14 of them not previously known. This disc fraction (27 out of 116, or 23%) among brown dwarfs was found to be similar to results for K/M stars in Upper Scorpius, suggesting that the lifetimes of discs are independent of the mass of the central object for low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. 5 out of 27 discs (19%) lack excess at 3.4 and 4.6μm and are potential transition discs (i.e. are in transition from class II to class III). The transition disc fraction is comparable to low-mass stars. We estimate that the time-scale for a typical transition from class II to class III is less than 0.4Myr for brown dwarfs. These results suggest that the evolution of brown dwarf discs mirrors the behaviour of discs around low-mass stars, with disc lifetimes of the order of 5-10Myr and a disc clearing time-scale significantly shorter than 1Myr. (2 data files).

  9. ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY IN GIANT PLANETS, BROWN DWARFS, AND LOW-MASS DWARF STARS. III. IRON, MAGNESIUM, AND SILICON

    SciTech Connect

    Visscher, Channon; Lodders, Katharina; Fegley, Bruce E-mail: lodders@wustl.ed

    2010-06-20

    We use thermochemical equilibrium calculations to model iron, magnesium, and silicon chemistry in the atmospheres of giant planets, brown dwarfs, extrasolar giant planets (EGPs), and low-mass stars. The behavior of individual Fe-, Mg-, and Si-bearing gases and condensates is determined as a function of temperature, pressure, and metallicity. Our equilibrium results are thus independent of any particular model atmosphere. The condensation of Fe metal strongly affects iron chemistry by efficiently removing Fe-bearing species from the gas phase. Monatomic Fe is the most abundant Fe-bearing gas throughout the atmospheres of EGPs and L dwarfs, and in the deep atmospheres of giant planets and T dwarfs. Mg- and Si-bearing gases are effectively removed from the atmosphere by forsterite (Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) and enstatite (MgSiO{sub 3}) cloud formation. Monatomic Mg is the dominant magnesium gas throughout the atmospheres of EGPs and L dwarfs and in the deep atmospheres of giant planets and T dwarfs. Silicon monoxide (SiO) is the most abundant Si-bearing gas in the deep atmospheres of brown dwarfs and EGPs, whereas SiH{sub 4} is dominant in the deep atmosphere of Jupiter and other gas giant planets. Several other Fe-, Mg-, and Si-bearing gases become increasingly important with decreasing effective temperature. In principle, a number of Fe, Mg, and Si gases are potential tracers of weather or diagnostic of temperature in substellar atmospheres.

  10. The Nature of the Close Magnetic White Dwarf + Probable Brown Dwarf SDSS J121209.31+013627.7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burleigh, M. R.; Marsh, T. R.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Goad, M. R.; Dhillon, V. S.; Littlefair, S. P.; Wells, M.; Dobbie, P. D.; Farihi, J.; Bannister, N. P.; Casewell, S. L.; Hurkett, C. P.; Martindale, A.; Roche, P.; Lewis, F.

    2007-09-01

    Optical time series photometry of the short period magnetic white dwarf + probable brown dwarf binary SDSS J121209.31+013627.7 reveals pulse-like variability in all bands from i' to u', increasing towards bluer wavelengths and peaking at u'. These modulations are most likely due to a self-eclipsing accretion hot spot on the white dwarf, rotating into view every 88.43 min. This period is commensurate with the Hα radial velocity period of ≈90 min, and consistent with the rotation period of the accretor being equal to the binary orbital period. We combine our observations with other recently reported results to provide an accurate ephemeris. We also detect the system in X-rays with Swift, and estimate the accretion rate at ≈10-13M_⊙ yr-1. We suggest that the binary is most likely a magnetic cataclysmic variable in an extended state of very low accretion, similar to the well-studied polar EF Eri. Alternatively, the putative brown dwarf is not filling its Roche Lobe and the system is a detached binary in which the white dwarf is efficiently accreting from the wind of the secondary. However, it is unclear whether an L dwarf wind is strong enough to provide the measured accretion rate.

  11. New Brown Dwarfs and an Updated Initial Mass Function in Taurus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhman, K. L.

    2004-12-01

    By combining infrared photometry from the Two Micron All Sky Survey with new optical imaging and spectroscopy, I have performed a search for young low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in two regions encompassing a total area of 4 deg2 in the Taurus star-forming region (τ~1 Myr). From this work I have discovered 15 new members of Taurus. In addition, I present seven new members outside of these areas from the initial stage of a survey of all of Taurus. These 22 objects exhibit spectral types of M4.5-M9.25 and masses of 0.3-0.015 Msolar according to the theoretical evolutionary models of Baraffe & Chabrier, seven of which are likely to be brown dwarfs. Emission in Hα, He I, Ca II, [O I], and [S II] and excess emission in optical and near-infrared bands among some of these objects suggest the presence of accretion, outflows, and circumstellar disks. These results add to the body of work-initiated by the first detections of brown dwarf disks by Comerón and coworkers in 1998 and Luhman in 1999-indicating that disks around young brown dwarfs are relatively common. The results from the 4 deg2 survey have been combined with previous studies of Taurus to arrive at an initial mass function (IMF) for a total area of 12.4 deg2. As in the previous IMFs for Taurus, the updated IMF peaks at a higher mass (0.8 Msolar) than the mass functions in IC 348 and Orion (0.1-0.2 Msolar). Meanwhile, the deficit of brown dwarfs in Taurus appears to be less significant (×1.4-1.8) than that found in earlier studies (×2) because of a slightly higher brown dwarf fraction in the new IMF for Taurus and a lower brown dwarf fraction in the new spectroscopic IMF for the Trapezium from Slesnick and coworkers. The spatial distribution of the low-mass stars and brown dwarfs discovered in the two new survey areas closely matches that of the more massive members. Thus, on the degree size scales (~3 pc) probed to date, there is no indication that brown dwarfs form through ejection. Based on observations

  12. TIDALLY INDUCED BROWN DWARF AND PLANET FORMATION IN CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Thies, Ingo; Kroupa, Pavel; Goodwin, Simon P.; Stamatellos, Dimitrios; Whitworth, Anthony P.

    2010-07-01

    Most stars are born in clusters and the resulting gravitational interactions between cluster members may significantly affect the evolution of circumstellar disks and therefore the formation of planets and brown dwarfs (BDs). Recent findings suggest that tidal perturbations of typical circumstellar disks due to close encounters may inhibit rather than trigger disk fragmentation and so would seem to rule out planet formation by external tidal stimuli. However, the disk models in these calculations were restricted to disk radii of 40 AU and disk masses below 0.1 M{sub sun}. Here, we show that even modest encounters can trigger fragmentation around 100 AU in the sorts of massive ({approx}0.5 M{sub sun}), extended ({>=}100 AU) disks that are observed around young stars. Tidal perturbation alone can do this; no disk-disk collision is required. We also show that very low mass binary systems can form through the interaction of objects in the disk. In our computations, otherwise non-fragmenting massive disks, once perturbed, fragment into several objects between about 0.01 and 0.1 M{sub sun}, i.e., over the whole BD mass range. Typically, these orbit on highly eccentric orbits or are even ejected. While probably not suitable for the formation of Jupiter- or Neptune-type planets, our scenario provides a possible formation mechanism for BDs and very massive planets which, interestingly, leads to a mass distribution consistent with the canonical substellar initial mass function. As a minor outcome, a possible explanation for the origin of misaligned extrasolar planetary systems is discussed.

  13. Tidal Evolution of Multiple Planet Systems Around Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolmont, Emeline; Raymond, S. N.; Leconte, J.

    2012-10-01

    The tidal evolution of planets orbiting brown dwarfs (BDs) presents an interesting case study because BDs' terrestrial planet forming region is located extremely close-in. In fact, the habitable zones of BDs range from roughly 0.001 to 0.03 AU and for the lowest-mass BDs are located interior to the Roche limit. In contrast with stars, BDs spin up as they age. Thus, the corotation distance moves inward. We study the tidal evolution of planets around BDs using a standard tidal model and test the effect of numerous parameters such as the initial semi-major axis and eccentricity, the rotation period of the BD, the masses of both star and planet, and their tidal dissipation factor. We find that the most important parameter is the initial orbital distance with respect to the corotation distance. We find that all planets that form at or beyond the corotation distance and with initial eccentricities smaller than about 0.1 and are repelled from the star. Some planets initially interior to corotation can survive if their inward tidal evolution is slower than the BD's spin evolution, although most initially close-in planets fall onto the BD. Next we studied multiple planet systems with a N-body code altered to include tidal forces. We present a few interesting case studies for systems of planets orbiting BDs. In one example, a close-in planet pushes a more distant planet outward while locked in resonance. In another example, rapid outward tidal migration destabilizes a system of three planets. In another case, the combination of eccentricity forcing from an outer planet and dissipation within the inner planet drives the inner planet into the BD despite being exterior to the corotation radius. We thank the CNRS’s PNP program for funding.

  14. Flash ionization signature in coherent cyclotron emission from brown dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorgul, I.; Helling, Ch.

    2016-05-01

    Brown dwarfs (BDs) form mineral clouds in their atmospheres, where charged particles can produce large-scale discharges in the form of lightning resulting in substantial sudden increase of local ionization. BDs are observed to emit cyclotron radio emission. We show that signatures of strong transient atmospheric ionization events (flash ionization) can be imprinted on a pre-existing radiation. Detection of such flash ionization events will open investigations into the ionization state and atmospheric dynamics. Such events can also result from explosion shock waves, material outbursts or (volcanic) eruptions. We present an analytical model that describes the modulation of a pre-existing electromagnetic radiation by a time-dependent (flash) conductivity that is characteristic for flash ionization events like lightning. Our conductivity model reproduces the conductivity function derived from observations of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes, and is applicable to astrophysical objects with strong temporal variations in the local ionization, as in planetary atmospheres and protoplanetary discs. We show that the field responds with a characteristic flash-shaped pulse to a conductivity flash of intermediate intensity. More powerful ionization events result in smaller variations of the initial radiation, or in its damping. We show that the characteristic damping of the response field for high-power initial radiation carries information about the ionization flash magnitude and duration. The duration of the pulse amplification or the damping is consistently shorter for larger conductivity variations and can be used to evaluate the intensity of the flash ionization. Our work suggests that cyclotron emission could be probe signals for electrification processes inside BD atmosphere.

  15. Spitzer Trigonometric Parallaxes of the Solar Neighborhood's Coldest Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher; Beichman, Charles; Tinney, Christopher; Smart, Richard; Faherty, Jacqueline; Cushing, Michael; Wright, Edward; Lowrance, Patrick

    2012-09-01

    There are rare times in astronomy when - by fortuitous circumstances, careful planning, or both - giant leaps forward in our understanding can be made within a very short time. The combination of WISE, Spitzer, and HST is now capable of fast forwarding our knowledge of the immediate Solar Neighborhood. With just six months of survey operations, WISE was able to give us an unprecedented view of the entire sky that revealed the positions of the coldest brown dwarfs with effective temperatures as cold as ~300K (i.e., room temperature). With the investment of two years of Spitzer follow-up, we are capable of having distances measured for all of them. In this proposal, we consider a volume-limited (d < 20 pc) sample of the coldest known spectral types, T6 through early Y. These are the objects that give us the most leverage in discerning the shape of the low-mass end of the field mass function as well as defining the low-mass cutoff itself. Although on-going ground-based programs will provide astrometric monitoring of about half of the sample, Spitzer Cycle 9+10 is needed to measure trigonometric parallaxes for the other half (79 objects), which include the faintest and coldest objects and hence those most difficult to monitor. A combination of current ground-based and HST Cycle 20 spectroscopy will complete the picture by providing the spectral classfications needed for temperature determination on this sample. Having distances and temperature determinations for all of the coldest objects in the the Sun's environs allows us an unprecedented look at the modern-day products of past star formation and our most comprehensive, three-dimensional view to date of the Solar Neighborhood.

  16. Spitzer Trigonometric Parallaxes of the Solar Neighborhood's Coldest Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, J.

    2012-10-01

    There are rare times in astronomy when - by fortuitous circumstances, careful planning, or both - giant leaps forward in our understanding can be made within a very short time. The combination of WISE, Spitzer, and HST is now capable of fast forwarding our knowledge of the immediate Solar Neighborhood. With just six months of survey operations, WISE was able to give us an unprecedented view of the entire sky that revealed the positions of the coldest brown dwarfs with effective temperatures as cold as 300K {i.e., room temperature}. With the investment of two years of Spitzer follow-up, we are capable of having distances measured for all of them. In this proposal, we consider a volume-limited {d < 20 pc} sample of the coldest known spectral types, T6 through early Y. These are the objects that give us the most leverage in discerning the shape of the low-mass end of the field mass function as well as defining the low-mass cutoff itself. Although ongoing ground-based programs will provide astrometric monitoring of about half of the sample, Spitzer Cycle 9+10 is needed to measure trigonometric parallaxes for the other half {79 objects}, which include the faintest and coldest objects and hence those most difficult to monitor. A combination of current ground-based and HST Cycle 20 spectroscopy will complete the picture by providing the spectral classfications needed for temperature determination on this sample. Having distances and temperature determinations for all of the coldest objects in the the Sun's environs allows us an unprecedented look at the modern-day products of past star formation and our most comprehensive, three-dimensional view to date of the Solar Neighborhood.

  17. Multiwavelength Characterization of the Brown Dwarf Auroral Phenomenon - Establishing the Nature of the Electrodynamic Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineda, John Sebastian

    Stellar coronal activity has been shown to persist into the low-mass star regime, down to late M-dwarf spectral types. However, there is now an accumulation of evidence suggesting that at the end of the main sequence there is a transition in the nature of the magnetic activity from chromospheric and coronal to planet-like and auroral, from local impulsive heating via flares and MHD wave dissipation to energy dissipation from strong large-scale magnetospheric current systems. In this dissertation, I examine the effects of these processes on the atmospheres of brown dwarfs across multiple different wavebands and investigate the underlying mechanisms powering the electrodynamic engine responsible for auroral emission in brown dwarfs. I conduct observational surveys looking for the emission features of H-alpha and as indicative of auroral systems across the ultracool dwarf regime. I further provide a comprehensive view of brown dwarf magnetic activity and auroral phenomena, detailing the various emission processes, and expectations for auroral brown dwarfs. I also initiate a preliminary analysis of the detailed emission features and discuss the constraints imposed on the electrodynamic engine of these objects.

  18. Exploring the brown dwarf desert: new substellar companions from the SDSS-III MARVELS survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grieves, Nolan; Ge, Jian; Thomas, Neil; Ma, Bo; Sithajan, Sirinrat; Ghezzi, Luan; Kimock, Ben; Willis, Kevin; De Lee, Nathan; Lee, Brian; Fleming, Scott W.; Agol, Eric; Troup, Nicholas; Paegert, Martin; Schneider, Donald P.; Stassun, Keivan; Varosi, Frank; Zhao, Bo; Jian, Liu; Li, Rui; Porto de Mello, Gustavo F.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Pan, Kaike; Dutra-Ferreira, Letícia; Lorenzo-Oliveira, Diego; Santiago, Basílio X.; da Costa, Luiz N.; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; del Peloso, E. F.

    2017-06-01

    Planet searches using the radial velocity technique show a paucity of companions to solar-type stars within ˜5 au in the mass range of ˜10-80 MJup. This deficit, known as the brown dwarf desert, currently has no conclusive explanation. New substellar companions in this region help assess the reality of the desert and provide insight to the formation and evolution of these objects. Here, we present 10 new brown dwarf and 2 low-mass stellar companion candidates around solar-type stars from the Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-Area Survey (MARVELS) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III. These companions were selected from processed MARVELS data using the latest University of Florida Two Dimensional pipeline, which shows significant improvement and reduction of systematic errors over previous pipelines. The 10 brown dwarf companions range in mass from ˜13 to 76 MJup and have orbital radii of less than 1 au. The two stellar companions have minimum masses of ˜98 and 100 MJup. The host stars of the MARVELS brown dwarf sample have a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = 0.03 ± 0.08 dex. Given our stellar sample we estimate the brown dwarf occurrence rate around solar-type stars with periods less than ˜300 d to be ˜0.56 per cent.

  19. Outflows Driven by a Potential Proto-Brown Dwarf Binary System IRAS 16253-2429

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Tien-Hao; Lai, Shih-Ping; Belloche, Arnaud; Wyrowski, Friedrich

    2015-08-01

    We have studied the molecular outflows driven by a potential proto-brown dwarf candidate IRAS 16253-2429 (hereafter IRAS 16253) with CO (2—1) using SMA and IRAM 30m telescope and CO (6—5) using APEX. Our SMA observations suggest that IRAS 16253 is hosting a binary system. The low mass of its envelope suggests that the central objects may eventually accrete only ~0.14 Msun of material (assuming the star formation efficiency is at most 0.3), which makes IRAS 16253 a potential proto brown dwarf binary system since the maximum mass of a brown dwarf is 0.08 Msun; one or two brown dwarfs may form depending on the current mass of the protostars and the future accretion process. The Position-Velocity diagrams of the outflows show sinusoidal structures which may be related to the outflow wiggling from the binary rotation. This allowed us to estimate the orbital period of the binary system. On the basis of Kepler's third law, we suggest that IRAS 16253 is very likely to contain at least one proto brown dwarf if the binary separation is less than ~0.5 arcsec. The large-scale outflows are further mapped with IRAM 30m telescope and APEX Champ+. We found that CO (6—5) traces high-excited gas around the precessing H2 jets and CO (2—1) likely probes the cold swept-up gas or entrained gas with cone-like structure.

  20. The Decay of Accreting Triple Systems as Brown Dwarf Formation Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umbreit, S.; Spurzem, R.; Burkert, A.; Henning, T.

    2004-05-01

    We investigate the dynamical decay of non-hierarchical accreting triple systems and its implications on the ejection model as Brown Dwarf formation scenario. A modified chain-regularisation scheme is used to integrate the equations of motion, that also allows for mass changes over time as well as for momentum transfer from the accreted gas mass onto the bodies. We integrate an ensemble of triple systems within a certain volume with different accretion rates, assuming several prescriptions of how momentum is transfered onto the bodies. We follow their evolution until the systems have decayed and are outside an assumed cloud region. We analyse the end states and decay times of these systems and determine the fraction of Brown Dwarfs formed, their escape speeds as well as the semi-major axis distribution of the formed Brown Dwarf binaries. We find, depending on the assumed momentum transfer model, a formation probability of Brown Dwarfs of up to 86% in our simulations which is almost 3 times higher than predicted by a previous analytical estimate in the literature. Furthermore, our obtained semi-major axis distribution is in remarkable agreement to observations. The difference seen in our results from previous analytical estimates is related to the shrinking of and momentum transfer in the systems. We conclude that accretion and momentum transfer of accreted gas during the dynamical decay of triple systems is able to produce a high fraction of substellar objects, making the ejection model a viable option as Brown Dwarf formation scenario.

  1. A data-driven approach for retrieving temperatures and abundances in brown dwarf atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Line, Michael R.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Marley, Mark S.; Sorahana, Satoko

    2014-09-20

    Brown dwarf spectra contain a wealth of information about their molecular abundances, temperature structure, and gravity. We present a new data driven retrieval approach, previously used in planetary atmosphere studies, to extract the molecular abundances and temperature structure from brown dwarf spectra. The approach makes few a priori physical assumptions about the state of the atmosphere. The feasibility of the approach is first demonstrated on a synthetic brown dwarf spectrum. Given typical spectral resolutions, wavelength coverage, and noise, property precisions of tens of percent can be obtained for the molecular abundances and tens to hundreds of K on the temperature profile. The technique is then applied to the well-studied brown dwarf, Gl 570D. From this spectral retrieval, the spectroscopic radius is constrained to be 0.75-0.83 R {sub J}, log (g) to be 5.13-5.46, and T {sub eff} to be between 804 and 849 K. Estimates for the range of abundances and allowed temperature profiles are also derived. The results from our retrieval approach are in agreement with the self-consistent grid modeling results of Saumon et al. This new approach will allow us to address issues of compositional differences between brown dwarfs and possibly their formation environments, disequilibrium chemistry, and missing physics in current grid modeling approaches as well as a many other issues.

  2. A new benchmark T8-9 brown dwarf and a couple of new mid-T dwarfs from the UKIDSS DR5+ LAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, B.; Marsat, S.; Henning, T.; Clemens, C.; Greiner, J.

    2010-06-01

    Benchmark brown dwarfs are those objects for which fiducial constraints are available, including effective temperature, parallax, age and metallicity. We searched for new cool brown dwarfs in 186deg2 of the new area covered by the data release DR5+ of the UKIRT Deep Infrared Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Large Area Survey. Follow-up optical and near-infrared broad-band photometry, and methane imaging of four promising candidates, revealed three objects with distinct methane absorption, typical of mid- to late-T dwarfs and one possibly T4 dwarf. The latest-type object, classified as T8-9, shares its large proper motion with Ross 458 (BD+13o2618), an active M0.5 binary which is 102arcsec away, forming a hierarchical low-mass star+brown dwarf system. Ross 458C has an absolute J-band magnitude of 16.4, and seems overluminous, particularly in the K band, compared to similar field brown dwarfs. We estimate the age of the system to be less than 1Gyr, and its mass to be as low as 14 Jupiter masses for the age of 1Gyr. At 11.4pc, this new late-T benchmark dwarf is a promising target to constrain the evolutionary and atmospheric models of very low-mass brown dwarfs. We present proper motion measurements for our targets and for 13 known brown dwarfs. Two brown dwarfs have velocities typical of the thick disc and may be old brown dwarfs. Based on observations collected at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center, Calar Alto, jointly operated by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie Heidelberg and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andaluc'a (CSIC), and on observations made with ESO/MPG Telescope at the La Silla Observatory under programme ID 081.A-9012 and 081.A-9014. E-mail: goldman@mpia.de

  3. A Very Cool, Very Nearby Brown Dwarf Hiding in the Galactic Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, P. W.; Tinney, C. G.; Burningham, B.; Leggett, S. K.; Pinfield, D. J.; Smart, R.; Jones, H. R. A.; Marocco, F.; Barber, R. J.; Yurchenko, S. N.; Tennyson, J.; Ishii, M.; Tamura, M.; Day-Jones, A. C.; Adamson, A.; Allard, F.; Homeier, D.

    2011-12-01

    The UKIDSS Galactic Plane Survey (GPS) has provided near infrared data on several hundred million sources, most of which is now world public. We report the discovery of a very cool, isolated brown dwarf, UGPS 0722-05, which was identified as the sole candidate late T dwarf in the 6th Data Release via a simple SQL query, followed by inspection of a handful of images. The near-infrared spectrum UGPS 0722-05 displays deeper H2O and CH4 troughs than the coolest T dwarfs previously known, so we provisionally classify it as a T10 dwarf. The distance is measured by trigonometric parallax as d=4.1-0.5+0.6 pc, making it the closest known isolated brown dwarf. With the aid of Spitzer/IRAC we measure H-[4.5] = 4.71, which is redder than all previously known T dwarfs except the peculiar T7.5 dwarf SDSS J1416+13B, which is thought to be warmer and more luminous than UGPS 0722-05. We estimate that UGPS 0722-05 has Teff=520±40 K. We place this discovery in the context of other recent discoveries from the UKIDSS Large Area Survey and note that there appears to be a deficit of late T dwarfs in the local field relative to predictions based on the IMF measured in young clusters. We comment on possible explanations for this.

  4. The ultracool-field dwarf luminosity-function and space density from the Canada-France Brown Dwarf Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reylé, C.; Delorme, P.; Willott, C. J.; Albert, L.; Delfosse, X.; Forveille, T.; Artigau, E.; Malo, L.; Hill, G. J.; Doyon, R.

    2010-11-01

    Context. Thanks to recent and ongoing large scale surveys, hundreds of brown dwarfs have been discovered in the last decade. The Canada-France Brown Dwarf Survey is a wide-field survey for cool brown dwarfs conducted with the MegaCam camera on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Aims: Our objectives are to find ultracool brown dwarfs and to constrain the field brown-dwarf luminosity function and the mass function from a large and homogeneous sample of L and T dwarfs. Methods: We identify candidates in CFHT/MegaCam i' and z' images and follow them up with pointed near infrared (NIR) imaging on several telescopes. Halfway through our survey we found ~50 T dwarfs and ~170 L or ultra cool M dwarfs drawn from a larger sample of 1400 candidates with typical ultracool dwarfs i'-z' colours, found in 780 square degrees. Results: We have currently completed the NIR follow-up on a large part of the survey for all candidates from mid-L dwarfs down to the latest T dwarfs known with utracool dwarfs' colours. This allows us to draw on a complete and well defined sample of 102 ultracool dwarfs to investigate the luminosity function and space density of field dwarfs. Conclusions: We found the density of late L5 to T0 dwarfs to be 2.0+0.8-0.7 × 10-3 objects pc-3, the density of T0.5 to T5.5 dwarfs to be 1.4+0.3-0.2 × 10-3 objects pc-3, and the density of T6 to T8 dwarfs to be 5.3+3.1-2.2 × 10-3 objects pc-3. We found that these results agree better with a flat substellar mass function. Three latest dwarfs at the boundary between T and Y dwarfs give the high density 8.3+9.0-5.1 × 10-3 objects pc-3. Although the uncertainties are very large this suggests that many brown dwarfs should be found in this late spectral type range, as expected from the cooling of brown dwarfs, whatever their mass, down to very low temperature. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by

  5. Atmosphere Models for the Brown Dwarf Gliese 229 B and the Extrasolar Giant Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mark S.

    1996-01-01

    Brown dwarfs inhabit a realm intermediate between the more massive stars and the less massive planets. Their thermal infrared emission is powered by the release of gravitational potential energy as regulated by their atmospheres. Long known only as theoretical constructs. the discovery of the first unimpeachable brown dwarf. Gliese 229 has opened up a new field: the study of brown dwarf atmospheres. The subsequent discoverv of numerous extrasolar giant planets circling nearby stars, further demonstrated the need for a comprehensive modeling effort to understand this new class of jovian atmospheres. Although no spectra are yet available of the new planets, the next generation of groundbased and spacebased telescopes will return such data. Here author report on the effort with Ames collaborator Dr. Christopher McKay to better understand these new atmospheres.

  6. ON THE RADII OF BROWN DWARFS MEASURED WITH AKARI NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Sorahana, S.; Yamamura, I.; Murakami, H.

    2013-04-10

    We derive the radii of 16 brown dwarfs observed by AKARI using their parallaxes and the ratios of observed to model fluxes. We find that the brown dwarf radius ranges between 0.64-1.13 R{sub J} with an average radius of 0.83 R{sub J} . We find a trend in the relation between radii and T{sub eff}; the radius is at a minimum at T{sub eff} {approx} 1600 K, which corresponds to the spectral types of mid- to late-L. The result is interpreted by a combination of radius-mass and radius-age relations that are theoretically expected for brown dwarfs older than 10{sup 8} yr.

  7. Atmosphere Models for the Brown Dwarf Gliese 229 B and the Extrasolar Giant Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mark S.

    1996-01-01

    Brown dwarfs inhabit a realm intermediate between the more massive stars and the less massive planets. Their thermal infrared emission is powered by the release of gravitational potential energy as regulated by their atmospheres. Long known only as theoretical constructs. the discovery of the first unimpeachable brown dwarf. Gliese 229 has opened up a new field: the study of brown dwarf atmospheres. The subsequent discoverv of numerous extrasolar giant planets circling nearby stars, further demonstrated the need for a comprehensive modeling effort to understand this new class of jovian atmospheres. Although no spectra are yet available of the new planets, the next generation of groundbased and spacebased telescopes will return such data. Here author report on the effort with Ames collaborator Dr. Christopher McKay to better understand these new atmospheres.

  8. OGLE-2016-BLG-1469L: Microlensing Binary Composed of Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, C.; Udalski, A.; Sumi, T.; Gould, A.; Albrow, M. D.; Chung, S.-J.; Jung, Y. K.; Ryu, Y.-H.; Shin, I.-G.; Yee, J. C.; Zhu, W.; Cha, S.-M.; Kim, S.-L.; Kim, D.-J.; Lee, C.-U.; Lee, Y.; Park, B.-G.; KMTNet Collaboration; Soszyński, I.; Mróz, P.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Szymański, M. K.; Skowron, J.; Poleski, R.; Kozłowski, S.; Ulaczyk, K.; Pawlak, M.; OGLE Collaboration; Abe, F.; Asakura, Y.; Bennett, D. P.; Bond, I. A.; Bhattacharya, A.; Donachie, M.; Freeman, M.; Fukui, A.; Hirao, Y.; Itow, Y.; Koshimoto, N.; Li, M. C. A.; Ling, C. H.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Muraki, Y.; Nagakane, M.; Ohnishi, K.; Oyokawa, H.; Rattenbury, N. J.; Saito, To.; Sharan, A.; Sullivan, D. J.; Suzuki, D.; Tristram, P. J.; Yamada, T.; Yamada, T.; Yonehara, A.; Barry, R.; The MOA Collaboration

    2017-07-01

    We report the discovery of a binary composed of two brown dwarfs, based on the analysis of the microlensing event OGLE-2016-BLG-1469. Thanks to the detection of both finite-source and microlens-parallax effects, we are able to measure both the masses {M}1˜ 0.05 {M}⊙ and {M}2˜ 0.01 {M}⊙ , and the distance {D}{{L}}˜ 4.5 {kpc}, as well as the projected separation {a}\\perp ˜ 0.33 au. This is the third brown-dwarf binary detected using the microlensing method, demonstrating the usefulness of microlensing in detecting field brown-dwarf binaries with separations of less than 1 au.

  9. Chemical tracers of pre-brown dwarf cores formed through turbulent fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holdship, Jonathan; Viti, Serena

    2016-01-01

    A gas-grain time-dependent chemical code, UCL_CHEM, has been used to investigate the possibility of using chemical tracers to differentiate between the possible formation mechanisms of brown dwarfs. In this work, we model the formation of a pre-brown dwarf core through turbulent fragmentation by following the depth-dependent chemistry in a molecular cloud through the step change in density associated with an isothermal shock and the subsequent freefall collapse once a bound core is produced. Trends in the fractional abundance of molecules commonly observed in star-forming cores are then explored to find a diagnostic for identifying brown dwarf mass cores formed through turbulence. We find that the cores produced by our models would be bright in CO and NH3 but not in HCO+. This differentiates them from models using purely freefall collapse as such models produce cores that would have detectable transitions from all three molecules.

  10. The IMF of Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs in Taurus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhman, K.

    2001-05-01

    By combining deep optical imaging and infrared spectroscopy with data from the Two-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) and from previous studies, I have measured the Initial Mass Function (IMF) for a reddening-limited sample in four fields in the Taurus star forming region. This IMF is representative of the young populations within these fields for masses above 0.02 Msun. Relative to the similarly derived IMF for the Trapezium Cluster (Luhman et al.), the IMF for Taurus exhibits a modest deficit of stars above one solar mass (i.e., steeper slope), the same turnover mass (0.8 Msun), and a significant deficit of brown dwarfs. If the IMF in Taurus were the same as that in the Trapezium, 12.8+/-1.8 brown dwarfs (>0.02 Msun) are expected in these Taurus fields where only one brown dwarf candidate is found. These results are used to test theories of the IMF.

  11. The brown dwarf atmosphere monitoring (BAM) project. I. The largest near-IR monitoring survey of L and T dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, P. A.; Rajan, A.; Patience, J.

    2014-06-01

    Using the SofI instrument on the 3.5 m New Technology Telescope, we have conducted an extensive near-infrared monitoring survey of an unbiased sample of 69 brown dwarfs spanning the L0 to T8 spectral range, with at least one example of each spectral type. Each target was observed for a 2-4 h period in the Js-band, and the median photometric precision of the data is ~0.7%. A total of 14 brown dwarfs were identified as variables with min-to-max amplitudes ranging from 1.7% to 10.8% over the observed duration. All variables satisfy a statistical significance threshold with a p-value ≤5% based on comparison with a median reference star light curve. Approximately half of the variables show pure sinusoidal amplitude variations similar to 2MASSJ2139+0220, and the remainder show multi-component variability in their light curves similar to SIMPJ0136+0933. It has been suggested that the L-T transition should be a region of a higher degree of variability if patchy clouds are present, and this survey was designed to test the patchy cloud model with photometric monitoring of both the L-T transition and non-transition brown dwarfs. The measured frequency of variables is 13+10-4% across the L7-T4 spectral range, indistinguishable from the frequency of variables of the earlier spectral types (30+11-8%), the later spectral types (13+10-4%), or the combination of all non-transition region brown dwarfs (22+7-5%). The variables are not concentrated in the transition, in a specific colour, or in binary systems. Of the brown dwarfs previously monitored for variability, only ~60% maintained the state of variability (variable or constant), with the remaining switching states. The 14 variables include 9 newly identified variables that will provide important systems for follow-up multi-wavelength monitoring to further investigate brown dwarf atmosphere physics. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at La Silla Observatory under programme ID 188.C-0493.Tables 1, 2, and 4 are

  12. Plasma processes in cloud-forming exoplanet and brown dwarf atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helling, Christiane

    2015-12-01

    The increasing number of observations of cyclotron emission, possible chromospheric emission, and potential aurorae suggests that high energy processes occur also in, or are associated with ultra-cool, cloud-forming atmospheres like in extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs. While a magnetic field is primordial to brown dwarfs and most planets, free charges in form of electrons need to be continuously produced to allow the necessary magnetic coupling for cyclotron emission to occur or for the formation of a chromosphere and possible magnetically driven winds to emerge. This is particularly critical for free floating objects not bathed in the wind of a host or companion star.We perform a reference study for late M-dwarfs, brown dwarfs and giant gas planets to identify which ultra-cool objects are most susceptible to plasma and magnetic processes. We utilise the Drift-Phoenix model grid where the local atmospheric structure is determined by the global parameters Teff , log(g) and metalicity [M/H]. For this reference study, thermal ionisation is considered only.Our results show that it is not unreasonable to expect Halfa or radio emission to origin from ultra-cool atmospheres as in particular the rarefied upper parts of the atmospheres can be magnetically coupleddespite having low degrees of thermal gas ionisation. The minimum threshold for the magnetic flux density required for electrons and ions to be magnetised is well above typical values of the global magnetic field of brown dwarfs and giant gas planets. Such atmospheres could therefore drive, e.g., auroral emission without the need for a companion's wind or an outgassing moon. The reference study is based on thermal emission and provides therefore a lower limit for plasma effects in late M-dwarfs, brown dwarfs and giant gas planets. We have shown that non-equilibrium processes like cloud discharges in form of lightning and coronal discharges, high wind speeds and cosmic rays increase the local electron budget

  13. HST SPECTRAL MAPPING OF L/T TRANSITION BROWN DWARFS REVEALS CLOUD THICKNESS VARIATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Apai, Daniel; Radigan, Jacqueline; Jayawardhana, Ray; Buenzli, Esther; Burrows, Adam; Reid, Iain Neill

    2013-05-10

    Most directly imaged giant exoplanets are fainter than brown dwarfs with similar spectra. To explain their relative underluminosity, unusually cloudy atmospheres have been proposed. However, with multiple parameters varying between any two objects, it remained difficult to observationally test this idea. We present a new method, sensitive time-resolved Hubble Space Telescope near-infrared spectroscopy, to study two rotating L/T transition brown dwarfs (2M2139 and SIMP0136). The observations provide spatially and spectrally resolved mapping of the cloud decks of the brown dwarfs. The data allow the study of cloud structure variations while other parameters are unchanged. We find that both brown dwarfs display variations of identical nature: J- and H-band brightness variations with minimal color and spectral changes. Our light curve models show that even the simplest surface brightness distributions require at least three elliptical spots. We show that for each source the spectral changes can be reproduced with a linear combination of only two different spectra, i.e., the entire surface is covered by two distinct types of regions. Modeling the color changes and spectral variations together reveal patchy cloud covers consisting of a spatially heterogeneous mix of low-brightness, low-temperature thick clouds and brighter, thin, and warm clouds. We show that the same thick cloud patches seen in our varying brown dwarf targets, if extended to the entire photosphere, predict near-infrared colors/magnitudes matching the range occupied by the directly imaged exoplanets that are cooler and less luminous than brown dwarfs with similar spectral types. This supports the models in which thick clouds are responsible for the near-infrared properties of these ''underluminous'' exoplanets.

  14. EPIC 201702477b: A Transiting Brown Dwarf from K2 in a 41 day Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayliss, D.; Hojjatpanah, S.; Santerne, A.; Dragomir, D.; Zhou, G.; Shporer, A.; Colón, K. D.; Almenara, J.; Armstrong, D. J.; Barrado, D.; Barros, S. C. C.; Bento, J.; Boisse, I.; Bouchy, F.; Brown, D. J. A.; Brown, T.; Cameron, A.; Cochran, W. D.; Demangeon, O.; Deleuil, M.; Díaz, R. F.; Fulton, B.; Horne, K.; Hébrard, G.; Lillo-Box, J.; Lovis, C.; Mawet, D.; Ngo, H.; Osborn, H.; Palle, E.; Petigura, E.; Pollacco, D.; Santos, N.; Sefako, R.; Siverd, R.; Sousa, S. G.; Tsantaki, M.

    2017-01-01

    We report the discovery of EPIC 201702477b, a transiting brown dwarf in a long period (40.73691 ± 0.00037 day) and eccentric (e = 0.2281 ± 0.0026) orbit. This system was initially reported as a planetary candidate based on two transit events seen in K2 Campaign 1 photometry and later validated as an exoplanet candidate. We confirm the transit and refine the ephemeris with two subsequent ground-based detections of the transit using the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope 1 m telescope network. We rule out any transit timing variations above the level of ∼30 s. Using high precision radial velocity measurements from HARPS and SOPHIE we identify the transiting companion as a brown dwarf with a mass, radius, and bulk density of 66.9 ± 1.7 MJ, 0.757 ± 0.065 RJ, and 191 ± 51 g cm‑3 respectively. EPIC 201702477b is the smallest radius brown dwarf yet discovered, with a mass just below the H-burning limit. It has the highest density of any planet, substellar mass object, or main-sequence star discovered so far. We find evidence in the set of known transiting brown dwarfs for two populations of objects—high mass brown dwarfs and low mass brown dwarfs. The higher-mass population have radii in very close agreement to theoretical models, and show a lower-mass limit around 60 MJ. This may be the signature of mass-dependent ejection of systems during the formation process.

  15. The radial distribution of dust species in young brown dwarf discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riaz, B.; Honda, M.; Campins, H.; Micela, G.; Guarcello, M. G.; Gledhill, T.; Hough, J.; Martín, E. L.

    2012-03-01

    We present a study of the radial distribution of dust species in young brown dwarf discs. Our work is based on a compositional analysis of the 10 and 20 μm silicate emission features for brown dwarfs in the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region. A fundamental finding of our work is that brown dwarfs exhibit stronger signs of dust processing in the cold component of the disc, compared to the higher mass T Tauri stars in Taurus. For nearly all of our targets, we find a flat disc structure, which is consistent with the stronger signs of dust processing observed in these discs. For the case of one brown dwarf, 2M04230607, we find the forsterite mass fraction to be a factor of ˜3 higher in the outer disc compared to the inner disc region. Simple large-scale radial mixing cannot account for this gradient in the dust chemical composition, and some local crystalline formation mechanism may be effective in this disc. The relatively high abundance of crystalline silicates in the outer cold regions of brown dwarf discs provides an interesting analogy to comets. In this context, we have discussed the applicability of the various mechanisms that have been proposed for comets on the formation and the outward transport of high-temperature material. We also present Chandra X-ray observations for two Taurus brown dwarfs, 2M04414825 and CFHT-BD-Tau 9. We find 2M04414825, which has an ˜12 per cent crystalline mass fraction, to be more than an order of magnitude brighter in X-ray than CFHT-BD-Tau 9, which has an ˜35 per cent crystalline mass fraction. Combining with previous X-ray data, we find the inner disc crystalline mass fractions to be anti-correlated with the X-ray strength.

  16. An ISOCAM based search for brown dwarfs in the Hyades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, B.; Forrest, W.; Leggett, S.; Stauffer, J.

    2000-01-01

    Brwon dwarfs in open cluster in general and in Hyades in particular are valuable as the age, distance and chemical composition of these dwarfs are well-constrained. The cooled environment of ISO allowed us to survey the low-mass component of the Hyades cluster with flux sensitivity unavailable from ground-based telescopes.

  17. An ISOCAM based search for brown dwarfs in the Hyades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, B.; Forrest, W.; Leggett, S.; Stauffer, J.

    2000-01-01

    Brwon dwarfs in open cluster in general and in Hyades in particular are valuable as the age, distance and chemical composition of these dwarfs are well-constrained. The cooled environment of ISO allowed us to survey the low-mass component of the Hyades cluster with flux sensitivity unavailable from ground-based telescopes.

  18. The BANYAN All-Sky Survey for Brown Dwarf Members of Young Moving Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagné, Jonathan; Lafrenière, David; Doyon, René; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Malo, Lison; Cruz, Kelle L.; Artigau, Étienne; Burgasser, Adam J.; Naud, Marie-Eve; Bouchard, Sandie; Gizis, John E.; Albert, Loïc

    2016-01-01

    We describe in this work the BASS survey for brown dwarfs in young moving groups of the solar neighborhood, and summarize the results that it generated. These include the discovery of the 2MASS J01033563-5515561 (AB)b and 2MASS J02192210-3925225 B young companions near the deuterium-burning limit as well as 44 new low-mass stars and 69 new brown dwarfs with a spectroscopically confirmed low gravity. Among those, ~20 have estimated masses within the planetary regime, one is a new L4 γ bona fide member of AB Doradus, three are TW Hydrae candidates with later spectral types (L1-L4) than all of its previously known members and six are among the first contenders for low-gravity >= L5 β/γ brown dwarfs, reminiscent of WISEP J004701.06+680352.1, PSO J318.5338-22.8603 and VHS J125601.92-125723.9 b. Finally, we describe a future version of this survey, BASS-Ultracool, that will specifically target >= L5 candidate members of young moving groups. First experimentations in designing the survey have already led to the discovery of a new T dwarf bona fide member of AB Doradus, as well as the serendipitous discoveries of an L9 subdwarf and an L5 + T5 brown dwarf binary.

  19. Rotational Periods of Very Young Brown Dwarfs and Very Low Mass Stars in Chamaeleon I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joergens, V.; Fernández, M.; Carpenter, J. M.; Neuhäuser, R.

    2003-09-01

    We have studied the photometric variability of very young brown dwarfs and very low mass stars (masses well below 0.2 Msolar) in the Cha I star-forming region. We have determined photometric periods in the Gunn i and R bands for the three M6.5-M7 type brown dwarf candidates Cha Hα 2, Cha Hα 3, and Cha Hα 6 of 2.2-3.4 days. These are the longest photometric periods found for any brown dwarf so far. If interpreted as rotationally induced, they correspond to moderately fast rotational velocities, which is fully consistent with their vsini values and their relatively large radii. We have also determined periods for the two M5-M5.5 type very low mass stars B34 and CHXR 78C. In addition to the Gunn i- and R-band data, we have analyzed JHKS monitoring data of the targets, which have been taken a few weeks earlier and confirm the periods found in the optical data. Upper limits for the errors in the period determination are between 2 and 9 hr. The observed periodic variations of the brown dwarf candidates as well as of the T Tauri stars are interpreted as modulation of the flux at the rotation period by magnetically driven surface features, on the basis of a consistency with vsini values as well as R-i color variations typical for spots. Furthermore, the temperatures even for the brown dwarfs in the sample are relatively high (>2800 K) because the objects are very young. Therefore, the atmospheric gas should be sufficiently ionized for the formation of spots on one hand, and the temperatures are too high for significant dust condensation and hence variabilities due to clouds on the other hand. A comparison with rotational properties of older brown dwarfs shows that most of the acceleration of brown dwarfs takes place within the first 30 Myr or less. If magnetic braking plays a role, this suggests that the disk dissipation for brown dwarfs occurs between a few and 36 Myr. Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory at La Silla in program 65.L-0629.

  20. Extreme Planet-Like Systems: Brown Dwarfs at the Exoplanet Mass Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faherty, Jacqueline Kelly

    2015-12-01

    Brown dwarfs have long been the observational anchors for our theoretical understanding of giant gas planets. Recent studies have uncovered a population of nearby young sources that rival the age and mass of many planetary mass companions. From detailed observations, we postulate that objects in this young population have dynamic atmospheres ripe with exotic, thick condensate cloud species that drive extreme photometric and spectroscopic characteristics. In this talk I will review how we are using these so-called exoplanet analogs to establish luminosity, temperature, age, and mass relations for brown dwarf into planetary mass objects.

  1. The contribution of brown dwarfs to the local mass budget of the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, B.; Jahreiss, H.; Flynn, C.

    1998-11-01

    Based on the recent discoveries of free floating brown dwarfs we derive estimates of the local mass density of this population of objects. Mass density estimates from various surveys span the range 0.03 to 0.005 M_sun pc() -3. These estimates are compared with the local mass densities of the other constituents of the galactic disk and, in particular, with the dynamically determined total local mass density. We argue that brown dwarfs might indeed contribute significantly to the local mass budget, but that a local mass density as high as 0.03 M_sun pc() -3 as suggested by Ruiz et al. (1997) is rather unlikely.

  2. On the Origin of Intense Radio Emission from the Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitsev, V. V.; Stepanov, A. V.

    2017-04-01

    Observations of quasi-periodic intense radio emission at 2-8 GHz from the brown dwarfs with a brightness temperature of up to Tb ˜ 1013 K and with a fairly narrow radiation pattern initiated a series of studies in which the radiation was interpreted in terms of the electron cyclotron maser emission generated by energetic electrons with the "loss cone." The plasma mechanism of the radio emission was excluded from consideration because it requires that the electron plasma frequency should exceed the electron gyrofrequency in the source of the radio emission, i. e., νp > νc. In this paper, we propose a coherent plasma radiation mechanism for intense radio emission from the brown dwarfs. The possibility of the formation of hot extended coronae in the magnetic loops that occur in the atmospheres of the brown dwarfs as a result of the photospheric convection is shown. The electric currents generated in the magnetic loops by photospheric convection lead to the plasma heating and elevation of the "squeezed" atmosphere. This ensures that the condition νp > νce required for the plasma mechanism of radio emission is fulfilled at the coronal levels. In addition, the pumping mechanism supplying energetic particles into the coronae of the brown dwarfs, which maintain the long-term generation of intense radio emission from these stars, is studied. The parameters of the Langmuir turbulence explaining the observed properties of the radio emission from the brown stars are determined.

  3. Brown Adipose Tissue Function Is Enhanced in Long-Lived, Male Ames Dwarf Mice.

    PubMed

    Darcy, Justin; McFadden, Samuel; Fang, Yimin; Huber, Joshua A; Zhang, Chi; Sun, Liou Y; Bartke, Andrzej

    2016-12-01

    Ames dwarf mice (Prop1(df/df)) are long-lived due to a loss of function mutation, resulting in deficiency of GH, TSH, and prolactin. Along with a marked extension of longevity, Ames dwarf mice have improved energy metabolism as measured by an increase in their oxygen consumption and heat production, as well as a decrease in their respiratory quotient. Along with alterations in energy metabolism, Ames dwarf mice have a lower core body temperature. Moreover, Ames dwarf mice have functionally altered epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT) that improves, rather than impairs, their insulin sensitivity due to a shift from pro- to anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion. Given the unique phenotype of Ames dwarf epididymal WAT, their improved energy metabolism, and lower core body temperature, we hypothesized that Ames dwarf brown adipose tissue (BAT) may function differently from that of their normal littermates. Here we use histology and RT-PCR to demonstrate that Ames dwarf mice have enhanced BAT function. We also use interscapular BAT removal to demonstrate that BAT is necessary for Ames dwarf energy metabolism and thermogenesis, whereas it is less important for their normal littermates. Furthermore, we show that Ames dwarf mice are able to compensate for loss of interscapular BAT by using their WAT depots as an energy source. These findings demonstrate enhanced BAT function in animals with GH and thyroid hormone deficiencies, chronic reduction of body temperature, and remarkably extended longevity.

  4. Deriving the true mass of an unresolved Brown Dwarf companion to an M-Dwarf with AO aided astrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, E.; Kürster, M.

    2011-07-01

    From radial velocity (RV) detections alone one does not get all orbital parameters needed to derive the true mass of a non-transiting, unresolved substellar companion to a star. Additional astrometric measurements are needed to calculate the inclination and the longitude of the ascending node. Until today only few true substellar companion masses have been determined by this method with the HST fine guidance sensor [1, 2]. We aim to derive the true mass of a brown dwarf candidate companion to an early M 2.5V dwarf with groundbased high-resolution astrometry aided by adaptive optics. We found this unique brown dwarf desert object, whose distance to the host star is only 0.42 AU, in our UVES precision RV survey of M dwarfs, inferring a minimum companion mass of 27 Jupiter masses [3]. Combining the data with HIPPARCOS astrometry, we found a probability of only 2.9% that the companion is stellar. We therefore observed the host star together with a reference star within a monitoring program with VLT/NACO to derive the true mass of the companion and establish its nature (brown dwarf vs. star). Simultaneous observations of a reference field in a globular cluster are performed to determine the stability of the adaptive optics (AO) plus detector system and check its suitability for such high-precision astrometric measurements over several epochs which are needed to find and analyse extrasolar planet systems. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile, programmes 381.C-0235, 281.C-5057 and 383.C-0248.

  5. Finding ultracool brown dwarfs with MegaCam on CFHT: method and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delorme, P.; Willott, C. J.; Forveille, T.; Delfosse, X.; Reylé, C.; Bertin, E.; Albert, L.; Artigau, E.; Robin, A. C.; Allard, F.; Doyon, R.; Hill, G. J.

    2008-06-01

    Aims: We present the first results of a wide field survey for cool brown dwarfs with the MegaCam camera on the CFHT telescope, the Canada-France Brown Dwarf Survey, hereafter CFBDS. Our objectives are to find ultracool brown dwarfs and to constrain the field-brown dwarf mass function thanks to a larger sample of L and T dwarfs. Methods: We identify candidates in CFHT/MegaCam i' and z' images using optimised psf-fitting within Source Extractor, and follow them up with pointed near-infrared imaging on several telescopes. Results: We have so far analysed over 350 square degrees and found 770 brown dwarf candidates brighter than z'_AB=22.5. We currently have J-band photometry for 220 of these candidates, which confirms 37% as potential L or T dwarfs. Some are among the reddest and farthest brown dwarfs currently known, including an independent identification of the recently published ULAS J003402.77-005206.7 and the discovery of a second brown dwarf later than T8, CFBDS J005910.83-011401.3. Infrared spectra of three T dwarf candidates confirm their nature, and validate the selection process. Conclusions: The completed survey will discover ~100 T dwarfs and ~500 L dwarfs or M dwarfs later than M8, approximately doubling the number of currently known brown dwarfs. The resulting sample will have a very well-defined selection function, and will therefore produce a very clean luminosity function. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at TERAPIX and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. Based on observations made

  6. Hunting For Wild Brown Dwarf Companions To White Dwarfs In UKIDSS And SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day-Jones, Avril; Pinfield, D. J.; Jones, H. R. A.; Napiwotzki, R.; Burningham, B.; Jenkins, J. S.; UKIDSS Cool Dwarf Science Working Group

    2008-03-01

    We present findings from our search of the latest releases of SDSS and UKIDSS LAS for very widely separated white dwarf - ultracool dwarf binaries. Ultracool dwarfs found in such binary systems could be used as benchmark objects, whose properties, such as age and distance can be inferred indirectly from the white dwarf primary (with no need to refer to atmospheric models) and can provide a test bed for theoretical models, they can therefore be used observationally pin down how physical properties affect ultracool dwarf spectra.

  7. First Detection of a Strong Magnetic Field on a Bursty Brown Dwarf: Puzzle Solved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdyugina, S. V.; Harrington, D. M.; Kuzmychov, O.; Kuhn, J. R.; Hallinan, G.; Kowalski, A. F.; Hawley, S. L.

    2017-09-01

    We report the first direct detection of a strong, 5 kG magnetic field on the surface of an active brown dwarf. LSR J1835+3259 is an M8.5 dwarf exhibiting transient radio and optical emission bursts modulated by fast rotation. We have detected the surface magnetic field as circularly polarized signatures in the 819 nm sodium lines when an active emission region faced the Earth. Modeling Stokes profiles of these lines reveals the effective temperature of 2800 K and log gravity acceleration of 4.5. These parameters place LSR J1835+3259 on evolutionary tracks as a young brown dwarf with the mass of 55+/- 4{M}{{J}} and age of 22 ± 4 Myr. Its magnetic field is at least 5.1 kG and covers at least 11% of the visible hemisphere. The active region topology recovered using line profile inversions comprises hot plasma loops with a vertical stratification of optical and radio emission sources. These loops rotate with the dwarf in and out of view causing periodic emission bursts. The magnetic field is detected at the base of the loops. This is the first time that we can quantitatively associate brown dwarf non-thermal bursts with a strong, 5 kG surface magnetic field and solve the puzzle of their driving mechanism. This is also the coolest known dwarf with such a strong surface magnetic field. The young age of LSR J1835+3259 implies that it may still maintain a disk, which may facilitate bursts via magnetospheric accretion, like in higher-mass T Tau-type stars. Our results pave a path toward magnetic studies of brown dwarfs and hot Jupiters.

  8. Fundmental Parameters of Low-Mass Stars, Brown Dwarfs, and Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montet, Benjamin; Johnson, John A.; Bowler, Brendan; Shkolnik, Evgenya

    2016-01-01

    Despite advances in evolutionary models of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs, these models remain poorly constrained by observations. In order to test these predictions directly, masses of individual stars must be measured and combined with broadband photometry and medium-resolution spectroscopy to probe stellar atmospheres. I will present results from an astrometric and spectroscopic survey of low-mass pre-main sequence binary stars to measure individual dynamical masses and compare to model predictions. This is the first systematic test of a large number of stellar systems of intermediate age between young star-forming regions and old field stars. Stars in our sample are members of the Tuc-Hor, AB Doradus, and beta Pictoris moving groups, the last of which includes GJ 3305 AB, the wide binary companion to the imaged exoplanet host 51 Eri. I will also present results of Spitzer observations of secondary eclipses of LHS 6343 C, a T dwarf transiting one member of an M+M binary in the Kepler field. By combining these data with Kepler photometry and radial velocity observations, we can measure the luminosity, mass, and radius of the brown dwarf. This is the first non-inflated brown dwarf for which all three of these parameters have been measured, providing the first benchmark to test model predictions of the masses and radii of field T dwarfs. I will discuss these results in the context of K2 and TESS, which will find additional benchmark transiting brown dwarfs over the course of their missions, including a description of the first planet catalog developed from K2 data and a program to search for transiting planets around mid-M dwarfs.

  9. Habitable planets around white and brown dwarfs: the perils of a cooling primary.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Rory; Heller, René

    2013-03-01

    White and brown dwarfs are astrophysical objects that are bright enough to support an insolation habitable zone (IHZ). Unlike hydrogen-burning stars, they cool and become less luminous with time; hence their IHZ moves in with time. The inner edge of the IHZ is defined as the orbital radius at which a planet may enter a moist or runaway greenhouse, phenomena that can remove a planet's surface water forever. Thus, as the IHZ moves in, planets that enter it may no longer have any water and are still uninhabitable. Additionally, the close proximity of the IHZ to the primary leads to concern that tidal heating may also be strong enough to trigger a runaway greenhouse, even for orbital eccentricities as small as 10(-6). Water loss occurs due to photolyzation by UV photons in the planetary stratosphere, followed by hydrogen escape. Young white dwarfs emit a large amount of these photons, as their surface temperatures are over 10(4) K. The situation is less clear for brown dwarfs, as observational data do not constrain their early activity and UV emission very well. Nonetheless, both types of planets are at risk of never achieving habitable conditions, but planets orbiting white dwarfs may be less likely to sustain life than those orbiting brown dwarfs. We consider the future habitability of the planet candidates KOI 55.01 and 55.02 in these terms and find they are unlikely to become habitable.

  10. Direct Observations of Clouds on Brown Dwarfs: A Spitzer Study of Extreme Cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgasser, Adam; Cruz, Kelle; Cushing, Michael; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Looper, Dagny; Lowrance, Patrick; Marley, Mark; Saumon, Didier

    2008-03-01

    Clouds play a fundamental role in the emergent spectral energy distributions and observed variability of very low mass stars and brown dwarfs, yet hey have only been studied indirectly thus far. Recent indications of a broad silicate grain absorption feature in the 8-11 micron spectra of mid-type L dwarfs, and evidence that the strength of this absorption varies according to broad-band near-infrared color, may finally allow the first direct studies of clouds and condensate grain properties in brown dwarf atmospheres. We propose to observe a sample of 18 ``extreme'' L dwarfs - objects with unusually blue and red near-infrared colors - with IRAC and IRS to study the 8-11 micron feature in detail (including grain size distributions and bulk compositions), and to constrain advanced condensate cloud atmosphere models currently in development. Our program provides a unique examination of the general processes of cloud formation by focusing on the relatively warm photospheres of late-type brown dwarfs.

  11. VLA Observations of the Disk around the Young Brown Dwarf 2MASS J044427+2512

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, L.; Rome, H.; Pinilla, P.; Facchini, S.; Birnstiel, T.; Testi, L.

    2017-09-01

    We present multi-wavelength radio observations obtained with the VLA of the protoplanetary disk surrounding the young brown dwarf 2MASS J04442713+2512164 (2M0444) in the Taurus star-forming region. 2M0444 is the brightest known brown dwarf disk at millimeter wavelengths, making this an ideal target to probe radio emission from a young brown dwarf. Thermal emission from dust in the disk is detected at 6.8 and 9.1 mm, whereas the 1.36 cm measured flux is dominated by ionized gas emission. We combine these data with previous observations at shorter sub-mm and mm wavelengths to test the predictions of dust evolution models in gas-rich disks after adapting their parameters to the case of 2M0444. These models show that the radial drift mechanism affecting solids in a gaseous environment has to be either completely made inefficient, or significantly slowed down by very strong gas pressure bumps in order to explain the presence of mm/cm-sized grains in the outer regions of the 2M0444 disk. We also discuss the possible mechanisms for the origin of the ionized gas emission detected at 1.36 cm. The inferred radio luminosity for this emission is in line with the relation between radio and bolometric luminosity valid for for more massive and luminous young stellar objects, and extrapolated down to the very low luminosity of the 2M0444 brown dwarf.

  12. Orbital motion of the binary brown dwarf companions HD 130948 BC around their host star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginski, C.; Neuhäuser, R.; Mugrauer, M.; Schmidt, T. O. B.; Adam, C.

    2013-09-01

    Evolutionary models and mass estimates for brown dwarfs remain uncertain, hence determining the masses of brown dwarfs by model-independent methods is important to test and constrain such theories. Following the orbital motion of brown dwarf companions around their primaries gives us the opportunity to dynamically calculate the masses of these systems. In addition, detecting curvature (acceleration or deceleration) in the orbit would confirm that the companion is physically associated with its primary, thus eliminating the possibility of a by-chance alignment of the primary's and the companion's proper motions and positions. Furthermore, the orbit parameters can be important indicators for the formation process of such wide, massive substellar companions. The binary brown dwarf companions to HD 130948 were discovered by Potter et al. We present various observations of this triple system over the course of 7 yr. With these data points we can show that HD 130948 BC are indeed comoving with HD 130948 A with higher significance than before (˜32.4σ), and also for the first time that the BC pair shows differential motion relative to A (˜2.2σ). We introduce an orbit fitting approach and constrain the orbit parameters for the orbit of the BC binary around their host star.

  13. A search for lithium in Pleiades brown dwarf candidates using the Keck hires echelle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Basri, Gibor; Graham, James R.

    1994-01-01

    We report Keck Observatory high-resolution echelle spectra of lithium at 670.8 nm in two of the lowest luminosity brown dwarf candidates in the Pleiades. These objects have estimated masses of 0.055 to 0.059 solar mass from their location on a color-magnitude diagram relative to theoretical isochrones. Stellar interior models predict that Li has not burned in them. However, we find no evidence of the Li line, at limits 100 to 1000 times below the initial abundance. This indicates that Li has in fact been depleted, presumably by nuclear processing as occurs in Pleiades stars. Interior models suggest that such large Li depletion occurs only for objects with M greater than 0.09 solar mass at the age of the Pleiades. Thus, it is unlikely that the candidates are brown dwarfs. The brown dwarf candidates present a conflict: either they have masses greater than suggested from their placement on the H-R diagram, or they do have the very low suggested masses but are nonetheless capable of destroying Li, in only 70 Myr. Until this dilemma is resolved, the photometric identification of brown dwarfs will remain difficult. Resolution may reside in higher T(sub eff) derived from optical and IR colors or in lower T(sub eff) in the interior models.

  14. DISCOVERY OF A PLANETARY-MASS COMPANION TO A BROWN DWARF IN TAURUS

    SciTech Connect

    Todorov, K.; Luhman, K. L.; McLeod, K. K.

    2010-05-01

    We have performed a survey for substellar companions to young brown dwarfs in the Taurus star-forming region using the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope. In these data, we have discovered a candidate companion at a projected separation of 0.''105 from one of the brown dwarfs, corresponding to 15 AU at the distance of Taurus. To determine if this object is a companion, we have obtained images of the pair at a second epoch with the adaptive optics system at Gemini Observatory. The astrometry from the Hubble and Gemini data indicates that the two objects share similar proper motions and thus are likely companions. We estimate a mass of 5-10 M {sub Jup} for the secondary based on a comparison of its bolometric luminosity to the predictions of theoretical evolutionary models. This object demonstrates that planetary-mass companions to brown dwarfs can form on a timescale of {tau} {approx}< 1 Myr. Companion formation on such a rapid timescale is more likely to occur via gravitational instability in a disk or fragmentation of a cloud core than through core accretion. The Gemini images also reveal a possible substellar companion ({rho} = 0.''23) to a young low-mass star that is 12.''4 from the brown dwarf targeted by Hubble. If these four objects comprise a quadruple system, then its hierarchical configuration would suggest that the fragmentation of molecular cloud cores can produce companions below 10 M {sub Jup}.

  15. FIRE Spectroscopy Of The Ultracool Brown Dwarf, UGPS 0722-05

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochanski, John J.; Burgasser, A. J.; Simcoe, R. A.

    2011-05-01

    We present FIRE spectroscopic observations of the ultracool (T ˜ 520 K) brown dwarf, UGPS 0722-05, obtained during instrument commissioning on the 6.5m Baade Magellan Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. At a distance of 4.1 pc, this cool brown dwarf is well-suited for detailed followup, and represents a keystone at the transition between the lowest-mass brown dwarfs and exoplanets. Our spectrum of UGPS 0722-05 covers the 0.8-2.5 micron bandpasses at a resolution of R ˜ 6,000, and is measured to high signal-to-noise, peaking at 80 near 1.27 microns. We derive radial and rotational velocities for the isolated brown dwarf, and examine its space motion and Galactic orbit. The spectrum of UGPS 0722-05 is also compared to theoretical spectral models to constrain its atmospheric parameters. Finally, we comment on the presence of unidentified absorption features reported in the discovery spectrum of Lucas et al. (2010). We thank Mauricio Martinez and the entire Magellan staff for assistance during FIRE commissioning and observations. JJB acknowledges the support of Kevin Luhman.

  16. The Next Generation Sky Survey and the Quest for Cooler Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. Davy

    2003-06-01

    The Next Generation Sky Survey (NGSS) is a proposed NASA MIDEX mission to map the entire sky in four infrared bandpasses -- 3.5, 4.7, 12, and 23 μm. The seven-month mission will use a 50-cm telescope and four-channel imager to survey the sky from a circular orbit above the Earth. Expected sensitivities will be half a million times that of COBE/DIRBE at 3.5 and 4.7 μm and a thousand times that of IRAS at 12 and 23 μm. NGSS will be particularly sensitive to brown dwarfs cooler than those presently known. Deep absorption in the methane fundamental band at 3.3 μm and a predicted 5-μm overluminosity will produce uniquely red 3.5-to-4.7 μm colors for such objects. For a limiting volume of 25 pc, NGSS will completely inventory the Solar Neighborhood for brown dwarfs as cool as Gl 229B. At 10 pc, the census will be complete to 500 K. Assuming a field mass function with α = 1, there could be one or more brown dwarfs warmer than 150 K lying closer to the Sun than Proxima Centauri and detectable primarily at NGSS wavelengths. NGSS will enable estimates of the brown dwarf mass and luminosity functions to very cool temperatures and will provide both astrometric references and science targets for NGST.

  17. The First Brown Dwarf Discovered by the Backyard Worlds: Planet 9 Citizen Science Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuchner, Marc J.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Schneider, Adam C.; Meisner, Aaron M.; Filippazzo, Joseph C.; Gagne, Jonathan; Trouille, Laura; Silverberg, Steven M.; Castro, Rosa; Fletcher, Bob; hide

    2017-01-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) is a powerful tool for finding nearby brown dwarfs and searching for new planets in the outer solar system, especially with the incorporation of NEOWISE and NEOWISE Reactivation data. However, so far, searches for brown dwarfs in WISE data have yet to take advantage of the full depth of the WISE images. To efficiently search this unexplored space via visual inspection, we have launched anew citizen science project, called "Backyard Worlds: Planet 9," which asks volunteers to examine short animations composed of difference images constructed from time-resolved WISE co adds. We report the first new substellar object discovered by this project, WISEA J110125.95+540052.8, a T5.5 brown dwarf located approximately 34 pc from the Sun with a total proper motion of approx.0. "7/ yr. WISEA J110125.95+540052.8 has a WISE W2 magnitude of W2 = 15.37+/- 0.09; our sensitivity to this source demonstrates the ability of citizen scientists to identify moving objects via visual inspection that are 0.9 mag fainter than the W2 single-exposure sensitivity, a threshold that has limited prior motion-based brown dwarf searches with WISE.

  18. The First Brown Dwarf Discovered by the Backyard Worlds: Planet 9 Citizen Science Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchner, Marc J.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Schneider, Adam C.; Meisner, Aaron M.; Filippazzo, Joseph C.; Gagné, Jonathan; Trouille, Laura; Silverberg, Steven M.; Castro, Rosa; Fletcher, Bob; Mokaev, Khasan; Stajic, Tamara

    2017-06-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) is a powerful tool for finding nearby brown dwarfs and searching for new planets in the outer solar system, especially with the incorporation of NEOWISE and NEOWISE-Reactivation data. However, so far, searches for brown dwarfs in WISE data have yet to take advantage of the full depth of the WISE images. To efficiently search this unexplored space via visual inspection, we have launched a new citizen science project, called “Backyard Worlds: Planet 9,” which asks volunteers to examine short animations composed of difference images constructed from time-resolved WISE coadds. We report the first new substellar object discovered by this project, WISEA J110125.95+540052.8, a T5.5 brown dwarf located approximately 34 pc from the Sun with a total proper motion of ˜0.″7 {{yr}}-1. WISEA J110125.95+540052.8 has a WISE W2 magnitude of W2=15.37+/- 0.09; our sensitivity to this source demonstrates the ability of citizen scientists to identify moving objects via visual inspection that are 0.9 mag fainter than the W2 single-exposure sensitivity, a threshold that has limited prior motion-based brown dwarf searches with WISE.

  19. PROTOPLANETARY DISK MASSES FROM STARS TO BROWN DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanty, Subhanjoy; Mortlock, Daniel; Greaves, Jane; Pascucci, Ilaria; Apai, Daniel; Scholz, Aleks; Thompson, Mark; Lodato, Giuseppe; Looper, Dagny

    2013-08-20

    We present SCUBA-2 850 {mu}m observations of seven very low mass stars (VLMS) and brown dwarfs (BDs). Three are in Taurus and four in the TW Hydrae Association (TWA), and all are classical T Tauri (cTT) analogs. We detect two of the three Taurus disks (one only marginally), but none of the TWA ones. For standard grains in cTT disks, our 3{sigma} limits correspond to a dust mass of 1.2 M{sub Circled-Plus} in Taurus and a mere 0.2 M{sub Circled-Plus} in the TWA (3-10 Multiplication-Sign deeper than previous work). We combine our data with other submillimeter/millimeter (sub-mm/mm) surveys of Taurus, {rho} Oph, and the TWA to investigate the trends in disk mass and grain growth during the cTT phase. Assuming a gas-to-dust mass ratio of 100:1 and fiducial surface density and temperature profiles guided by current data, we find the following. (1) The minimum disk outer radius required to explain the upper envelope of sub-mm/mm fluxes is {approx}100 AU for intermediate-mass stars, solar types, and VLMS, and {approx}20 AU for BDs. (2) While the upper envelope of apparent disk masses increases with M{sub *} from BDs to VLMS to solar-type stars, no such increase is observed from solar-type to intermediate-mass stars. We propose this is due to enhanced photoevaporation around intermediate stellar masses. (3) Many of the disks around Taurus and {rho} Oph intermediate-mass and solar-type stars evince an opacity index of {beta} {approx} 0-1, indicating significant grain growth. Of the only four VLMS/BDs in these regions with multi-wavelength measurements, three are consistent with considerable grain growth, though optically thick disks are not ruled out. (4) For the TWA VLMS (TWA 30A and B), combining our 850 {mu}m fluxes with the known accretion rates and ages suggests substantial grain growth by 10 Myr, comparable to that in the previously studied TWA cTTs Hen 3-600A and TW Hya. The degree of grain growth in the TWA BDs (2M1207A and SSPM1102) remains largely unknown. (5) A

  20. Protoplanetary Disk Masses from Stars to Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, Subhanjoy; Greaves, Jane; Mortlock, Daniel; Pascucci, Ilaria; Scholz, Aleks; Thompson, Mark; Apai, Daniel; Lodato, Giuseppe; Looper, Dagny

    2013-08-01

    We present SCUBA-2 850 μm observations of seven very low mass stars (VLMS) and brown dwarfs (BDs). Three are in Taurus and four in the TW Hydrae Association (TWA), and all are classical T Tauri (cTT) analogs. We detect two of the three Taurus disks (one only marginally), but none of the TWA ones. For standard grains in cTT disks, our 3σ limits correspond to a dust mass of 1.2 M ⊕ in Taurus and a mere 0.2 M ⊕ in the TWA (3-10× deeper than previous work). We combine our data with other submillimeter/millimeter (sub-mm/mm) surveys of Taurus, ρ Oph, and the TWA to investigate the trends in disk mass and grain growth during the cTT phase. Assuming a gas-to-dust mass ratio of 100:1 and fiducial surface density and temperature profiles guided by current data, we find the following. (1) The minimum disk outer radius required to explain the upper envelope of sub-mm/mm fluxes is ~100 AU for intermediate-mass stars, solar types, and VLMS, and ~20 AU for BDs. (2) While the upper envelope of apparent disk masses increases with M * from BDs to VLMS to solar-type stars, no such increase is observed from solar-type to intermediate-mass stars. We propose this is due to enhanced photoevaporation around intermediate stellar masses. (3) Many of the disks around Taurus and ρ Oph intermediate-mass and solar-type stars evince an opacity index of β ~ 0-1, indicating significant grain growth. Of the only four VLMS/BDs in these regions with multi-wavelength measurements, three are consistent with considerable grain growth, though optically thick disks are not ruled out. (4) For the TWA VLMS (TWA 30A and B), combining our 850 μm fluxes with the known accretion rates and ages suggests substantial grain growth by 10 Myr, comparable to that in the previously studied TWA cTTs Hen 3-600A and TW Hya. The degree of grain growth in the TWA BDs (2M1207A and SSPM1102) remains largely unknown. (5) A Bayesian analysis shows that the apparent disk-to-stellar mass ratio has a roughly constant

  1. Spitzer and z' secondary eclipse observations of the highly irradiated transiting brown dwarf KELT-1b

    SciTech Connect

    Beatty, Thomas G.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Collins, Karen A.; Kielkopf, John F.; Fortney, Jonathan; Knutson, Heather; Bruns, Jacob M.; Showman, Adam P.; Eastman, Jason; Pepper, Joshua; Siverd, Robert J.; Stassun, Keivan G.

    2014-03-10

    We present secondary eclipse observations of the highly irradiated transiting brown dwarf KELT-1b. These observations represent the first constraints on the atmospheric dynamics of a highly irradiated brown dwarf, the atmospheres of irradiated giant planets at high surface gravity, and the atmospheres of brown dwarfs that are dominated by external, rather than internal, energy. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope, we measure secondary eclipse depths of 0.195% ± 0.010% at 3.6 μm and 0.200% ± 0.012% at 4.5 μm. We also find tentative evidence for the secondary eclipse in the z' band with a depth of 0.049% ± 0.023%. These measured eclipse depths are most consistent with an atmosphere model in which there is a strong substellar hotspot, implying that heat redistribution in the atmosphere of KELT-1b is low. While models with a more mild hotspot or even with dayside heat redistribution are only marginally disfavored, models with complete heat redistribution are strongly ruled out. The eclipse depths also prefer an atmosphere with no TiO inversion layer, although a model with TiO inversion is permitted in the dayside heat redistribution case, and we consider the possibility of a day-night TiO cold trap in this object. For the first time, we compare the IRAC colors of brown dwarfs and hot Jupiters as a function of effective temperature. Importantly, our measurements reveal that KELT-1b has a [3.6] – [4.5] color of 0.07 ± 0.11, identical to that of isolated brown dwarfs of similarly high temperature. In contrast, hot Jupiters generally show redder [3.6] – [4.5] colors of ∼0.4, with a very large range from ∼0 to ∼1. Evidently, despite being more similar to hot Jupiters than to isolated brown dwarfs in terms of external forcing of the atmosphere by stellar insolation, KELT-1b appears to have an atmosphere most like that of other brown dwarfs. This suggests that surface gravity is very important in controlling the atmospheric systems of substellar mass bodies.

  2. An expanded set of brown dwarf and very low mass star models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrows, A.; Hubbard, W. B.; Saumon, D.; Lunine, J. I.

    1993-01-01

    We present in this paper updated and improved theoretical models of brown dwarfs and late M dwarfs. The evolution and characteristics of objects between 0.01 and 0.2 solar mass are exhaustively investigated and special emphasis is placed on their properties at early ages. The dependence on the helium fraction, deuterium fraction, and metallicity of the masses, effective temperature and luminosities at the edge of the hydrogen main sequence are calculated. We derive luminosity functions for representative mass functions and compare our predictions to recent cluster data. We show that there are distinctive features in the theoretical luminosity functions that can serve as diagnostics of brown dwarf physics. A zero-metallicity model is presented as a bound to or approximation of a putative extreme halo population.

  3. Towards precise ages and masses of free floating planetary mass brown dwarfs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canty, J. I.; Lucas, P. W.; Roche, P. F.; Pinfield, D. J.

    We use medium-resolution spectroscopy (R˜5000 Gemini/NIFS) to measure the pseudo-equivalent widths (pEWs) of the K band Na I lines of a set of brown dwarfs, ranging in age from ˜1 Myr to field dwarfs. We find a correlation between the pEWs and the surface gravities of these objects. We also find a correlation between surface gravity and the slope of the K band, and describe a simple, empirically-derived spectral index which can be used to make a statistical determination of the ages of brown dwarfs in very young clusters. The index verifies the low gravity of the planetary mass objects in the Orion Nebula Cluster, supporting their ˜1 Myr ages and planetary masses.

  4. Mid-infrared followup of cold brown dwarfs: diversity in age, mass and metallicity

    SciTech Connect

    Saumon, Didier; Leggett, Sandy K; Burningham, Ben; Marley, Mark S; Waren, S J; Jones, H R A; Pinfield, D J; Smart, R L

    2009-01-01

    We present new Spitzer IRAC [3.6], [4.5], [5.8] and [8.0] photometry of nine very late-type T dwarfs. Combining this with previously published photometry, we investigate trends with type and color that are useful for both the planning and interpretation of infrared surveys designed to discover the coldest T or Y dwarfs. Brown dwarfs with effective temperature (T{sub eff}) below 700 K emit more than half their flux at wavelengths longer than 3 {micro}m, and the ratio of the mid-infrared flux to the near-infrared flux becomes very sensitive to T{sub eff} at these low temperatures. We confirm that the color H (1.6 {micro}m) - [4.5] is a good indicator of T{sub eff} with a relatively weak dependence on metallicity and gravity. Conversely, the colors H - K (2.2 {micro}m) and [4.5] - [5.8] are sensitive to metallicity and gravity. Thus near- and mid-infrared photometry provide useful indicators of the fundamental properties of brown dwarfs, and if temperature and gravity are known, then mass and age can be reliably determined from evolutionary models. There are twelve dwarfs currently known with H - [4.5] > 3.0, and {approx} 500 < T{sub eff} K {approx}< 800, which we examine in detail. The ages of the dwarfs in the sample range from very young (0.1 - 1.0 Gyr) to relatively old (3 - 12 Gyr). The mass range is possibly as low as 5 Jupiter masses to up to 70 Jupiter masses, i.e. near the hydrogen burning limit. The metallicities also span a large range, from [m/H]= -0.3 to [m/H]= +0.2. The small number of T8 - T9 dwarfs found in the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey to date appear to be predominantly young low-mass dwarfs. Accurate mid-infrared photometry of cold brown dwarfs is essentially impossible from the ground, and extensions to the mid-infrared space missions warm-Spitzer and WISE are desirable in order to obtain the vital mid-infrared data for cold brown dwarfs, and to discover more of these rare objects.

  5. Desert Dwellers and Dynamic Duos: Short-Period Brown Dwarf Companions and Binary Science with Exoplanet Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, Scott W.; Ge, J.

    2011-01-01

    Exoplanet transit and Doppler surveys detect many binary stars and brown dwarf companions with relative ease because the observational signatures are 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than planets. These objects allow for studies of several ancillary science topics, such as the two brown dwarf deserts and the mass-radius relationship of stars. In this dissertation talk, I will present my thesis work on conducting these studies using data from the MARVELS survey and several transit survey databases. I will present the discovery of two short-period (P < 10 days) brown dwarf companions to main sequence stars discovered during the MARVELS survey and its Pilot Project. Although I will focus on these two brown dwarfs, the MARVELS survey has already discovered a dozen brown dwarf companions that will serve to characterize the dryness of the brown dwarf deserts. These discoveries are needed to better understand brown dwarf formation and dynamical evolution histories. I will then present results from my work on cross-referencing spectroscopic binaries found in the MARVELS survey with archival photometry to conduct studies of the mass-radius relationship. Finally, I will present spectroscopic observations of known eclipsing binaries from transit surveys using the EXPERT instrument at the KPNO 2.1m telescope.

  6. A submillimetre search for pre- and proto-brown dwarfs in Chamaeleon II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.; Barrado, D.; Bouy, H.; Bayo, A.; Palau, A.; Morales-Calderón, M.; Huélamo, N.; Morata, O.; Merín, B.; Eiroa, C.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The Chamaeleon II molecular cloud is an active star-forming region that offers an excellent opportunity to study the formation of brown dwarfs in the southern hemisphere. Aims: Our aims are to identify a population of pre- and proto-brown dwarfs (5σ mass limit threshold of ~0.015 M⊙) and provide information on the formation mechanisms of substellar objects. Methods: We performed high sensitivity observations at 870 μm using the LABOCA bolometer at the APEX telescope towards an active star-forming region in Chamaeleon II. The data are complemented by an extensive multiwavelength catalogue of sources, which covers the optical to the far-infrared, to study the nature of the LABOCA detections. Results: We detect 15 cores at 870 μm, and 11 of them show masses in the substellar regime. The most intense objects in the surveyed field correspond to the submillimetre counterparts of the well-known young stellar objects DK Cha and IRAS 12500-7658. We identify a possible proto-brown dwarf candidate (ChaII-APEX-L) with IRAC emission at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. Conclusions: Our analysis indicates that most of the spatially resolved cores are transient, and that the point-like starless cores in the substellar regime (with masses between 0.016 M⊙ and 0.066 M⊙) could be pre-brown dwarfs cores that are gravitationally unstable if they have radii less than 220 AU to 907 AU (1.2'' to 5'' at 178 pc), respectively, for different masses. ALMA observations will be key to revealing the energetic state of these pre-brown dwarfs candidates.

  7. The atomic and molecular content of disks around very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs

    SciTech Connect

    Pascucci, I.; Herczeg, G.; Carr, J. S.; Bruderer, S.

    2013-12-20

    There is growing observational evidence that disk evolution is stellar-mass-dependent. Here, we show that these dependencies extend to the atomic and molecular content of disk atmospheres. We analyze a unique dataset of high-resolution Spitzer/IRS spectra from eight very low mass star and brown dwarf disks. We report the first detections of Ne{sup +}, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and tentative detections of H{sub 2}O toward these faint and low-mass disks. Two of our [Ne II] 12.81 μm emission lines likely trace the hot (≥5000 K) disk surface irradiated by X-ray photons from the central stellar/sub-stellar object. The H{sub 2} S(2) and S(1) fluxes are consistent with arising below the fully or partially ionized surface traced by the [Ne II] emission in gas at ∼600 K. We confirm the higher C{sub 2}H{sub 2}/HCN flux and column density ratio in brown dwarf disks previously noted from low-resolution IRS spectra. Our high-resolution spectra also show that the HCN/H{sub 2}O fluxes of brown dwarf disks are on average higher than those of T Tauri disks. Our LTE modeling hints that this difference extends to column density ratios if H{sub 2}O lines trace warm ≥600 K disk gas. These trends suggest that the inner regions of brown dwarf disks have a lower O/C ratio than those of T Tauri disks, which may result from a more efficient formation of non-migrating icy planetesimals. An O/C = 1, as inferred from our analysis, would have profound implications on the bulk composition of rocky planets that can form around very low mass stars and brown dwarfs.

  8. CHARACTERIZING THE BROWN DWARF FORMATION CHANNELS FROM THE INITIAL MASS FUNCTION AND BINARY-STAR DYNAMICS

    SciTech Connect

    Thies, Ingo; Pflamm-Altenburg, Jan; Kroupa, Pavel; Marks, Michael

    2015-02-10

    The stellar initial mass function (IMF) is a key property of stellar populations. There is growing evidence that the classical star-formation mechanism by the direct cloud fragmentation process has difficulties reproducing the observed abundance and binary properties of brown dwarfs and very-low-mass stars. In particular, recent analytical derivations of the stellar IMF exhibit a deficit of brown dwarfs compared to observational data. Here we derive the residual mass function of brown dwarfs as an empirical measure of the brown dwarf deficiency in recent star-formation models with respect to observations and show that it is compatible with the substellar part of the Thies-Kroupa IMF and the mass function obtained by numerical simulations. We conclude that the existing models may be further improved by including a substellar correction term that accounts for additional formation channels like disk or filament fragmentation. The term ''peripheral fragmentation'' is introduced here for such additional formation channels. In addition, we present an updated analytical model of stellar and substellar binarity. The resulting binary fraction and the dynamically evolved companion mass-ratio distribution are in good agreement with observational data on stellar and very-low-mass binaries in the Galactic field, in clusters, and in dynamically unprocessed groups of stars if all stars form as binaries with stellar companions. Cautionary notes are given on the proper analysis of mass functions and the companion mass-ratio distribution and the interpretation of the results. The existence of accretion disks around young brown dwarfs does not imply that these form just like stars in direct fragmentation.

  9. Infrared spectrum and proper motion of the brown dwarf companion of HR 7329 in Tucanae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, E. W.; Neuhäuser, R.; Huélamo, N.; Brandner, W.; Alves, J.

    2001-01-01

    Up to now only four brown dwarf companions to normal stars have been found and confirmed by both spectroscopy and proper motion (namely Gl 229 B, G 196-3 B, Gl 570 D, and CoD-33 deg 7795 B). On the basis of an optical spectrum taken with HST/STIS Lowrance et al. (2000) recently pointed out another possible candidate companion. The companion candidate is located at a distance of 4{' '} from the A0-star HR 7329, which is considered as a member of a moving group of young stars in Tucanae located at a distance of only ~ 48 pc. In order to confirm or disregard the companion nature of the candidate, we have determined the proper motion of the brown dwarf candidate with an epoch difference of 1.8 years, and found that it is consistent with a co-moving companion of HR 7329. Additional to the proper motion measurement, we have also taken an H-band spectrum using ISAAC on the ESO-VLT. From this spectrum, we conclude that the companion candidate has spectral type M 7 to M 8, which is in agreement with the optical spectrum. We thus conclude that HR 7329 B is most likely a brown dwarf companion. The mass ratio of this pair (A0 to M 7-8, i.e. ~ 100:1) is the largest known among brown dwarf companions, which is relevant for studying the formation of brown dwarfs as companions. Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory on Cerro Paranal and La Silla in program\\break 65.L-0144.

  10. A High-Resolution Survey of the Very Youngest Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allers, Katelyn

    2012-10-01

    We propose to image the youngest { 0.5 Myr} brown dwarfs in the nearby Ophiuchus star-forming region {d=125 pc}. These observations will complete our high resolution imaging survey of a well-defined sample of young brown dwarfs and very low mass stars spanning the age range of 0.5-100 Myr {Allers et al. 2009, Allers et al. 2010, Biller et al. 2011}. Our proposed survey will be the culmination of the most extensive high resolution search for companions to young substellar objects conducted to date. We have established a novel, reddening-insensitive approach, which uses imaging in three WFC3 UVIS and IR filters to discern candidate companions from contaminant background stars. Our proposed survey is sensitive enough to discover planetary-mass companions. As only two planetary-mass companions to brown dwarfs are known {Chauvin et al. 2005, Todorov et al. 2010}, such discoveries will provide valuable new benchmark objects for testing atmospheric and evolutionary models of planetary-mass objects. Our survey will put the strongest constraints to date on the primordial binary fraction for brown dwarfs. By comparing results in Ophiuchus with our completed survey of the Upper Sco region {Biller et al. 2011}, we can directly measure how the binary characteristics change with age {i.e. as a cluster dynamically evolves}, providing key inputs for refining models of brown dwarf formation. The proposed observations are only possible with HST WFC3. Because of the high extinction of the Ophiuchus cloud, suitable tip-tilt stars are not available to allow for ground-based LGS AO imaging of our sample.

  11. Hunting for brown dwarf binaries and testing atmospheric models with X-Shooter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjavacas, E.; Goldman, B.; Alcalá, J. M.; Zapatero-Osorio, M. R.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Homeier, D.; Bonnefoy, M.; Smart, R. L.; Henning, T.; Allard, F.

    2016-01-01

    The determination of the brown dwarf binary fraction may contribute to the understanding of the substellar formation mechanisms. Unresolved brown dwarf binaries may be revealed through their peculiar spectra or the discrepancy between optical and near-infrared spectral-type classification. We obtained medium-resolution spectra of 22 brown dwarfs with these characteristics using the X-Shooter spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope. We aimed to identify brown dwarf binary candidates, and to test if the BT-Settl 2014 atmospheric models reproduce their observed spectra. To find binaries spanning the L-T boundary, we used spectral indices and compared the spectra of the selected candidates to single spectra and synthetic binary spectra. We used synthetic binary spectra with components of same spectral type to determine as well the sensitivity of the method to this class of binaries. We identified three candidates to be combination of L plus T brown dwarfs. We are not able to identify binaries with components of similar spectral type. In our sample, we measured minimum binary fraction of 9.1^{+9.9}_{-3.0} per cent. From the best fit of the BT-Settl models 2014 to the observed spectra, we derived the atmospheric parameters for the single objects. The BT-Settl models were able to reproduce the majority of the spectral energy distributions from our objects, and the variation of the equivalent width of the Rb I (794.8 nm) and Cs I (852.0 nm) lines with the spectral type. None the less, these models did not reproduce the evolution of the equivalent widths of the Na I (818.3 and 819.5 nm) and K I (1253 nm) lines with the spectral type.

  12. LHS 6343: Precise Constraints on the Mass and Radius of a Transiting Brown Dwarf Discovered by Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montet, Benjamin; Johnson, J. A.; Muirhead, P. S.; Shporer, A.; Howard, A.; Baranec, C.; Albert, L.; Robo-AO Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Despite the discovery of more than 1200 brown dwarfs, only a dozen have both a measured mass and radius. Such systems are fundamental for our understanding of brown dwarf evolution. To this end, we report an updated analysis of the mass and radius of LHS 6343C, a brown dwarf orbiting one member of an M+M binary system in the Kepler field. With visible light adaptive optics data from Robo-AO, we are able to determine the third light contribution in the Kepler bandpass from the B component directly from observations in visible wavelengths. We combine 16 quarters of transit photometry from Kepler with 33 Keck HIRES radial velocity observations to measure the brown dwarf’s mass and radius with 2 percent precision. Tight constraints such as these will be critical for future brown dwarf atmospheric studies as the next generation of theoretical evolutionary models are developed.

  13. Brown Dwarfs in Young Moving Groups from Pan-STARRS1. I. AB Doradus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aller, Kimberly M.; Liu, Michael C.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Best, William M. J.; Kotson, Michael C.; Burgett, William S.; Chambers, Kenneth C.; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Flewelling, Heather; Kaiser, Nick; Metcalf, Nigel; Tonry, John L.; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Waters, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Substellar members of young (≲150 Myr) moving groups are valuable benchmarks to empirically define brown dwarf evolution with age and to study the low-mass end of the initial mass function. We have combined Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) proper motions with optical-IR photometry from PS1, Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), and WISE to search for substellar members of the AB Dor Moving Group within ≈50 pc and with spectral types of late M to early L, corresponding to masses down to ≈30 MJup at the age of the group (≈125 Myr). Including both photometry and proper motions allows us to better select candidates by excluding field dwarfs whose colors are similar to young AB Dor Moving Group members. Our near-IR spectroscopy has identified six ultracool dwarfs (M6-L4 ≈30-100 MJup) with intermediate surface gravities (int-g) as candidate members of the AB Dor Moving Group. We find another two candidate members with spectra showing hints of youth but consistent with field gravities. We also find four field brown dwarfs unassociated with the AB Dor Moving Group, three of which have int-g gravity classification. While signatures of youth are present in the spectra of our ≈125 Myr objects, neither their J - K nor W1 - W2 colors are significantly redder than field dwarfs with the same spectral types, unlike younger ultracool dwarfs. We also determined PS1 parallaxes for eight of our candidates and one previously identified AB Dor Moving Group candidate. Although radial velocities (and parallaxes, for some) are still needed to fully assess membership, these new objects provide valuable insight into the spectral characteristics and evolution of young brown dwarfs.

  14. Investigating Low-Mass Binary Stars And Brown Dwarfs with Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mace, Gregory Nathan

    The mass of a star at formation determines its subsequent evolution and demise. Low-mass stars are the most common products of star formation and their long main-sequence lifetimes cause them to accumulate over time. Star formation also produces many substellar-mass objects known as brown dwarfs, which emerge from their natal molecular clouds and continually cool as they age, pervading the Milky Way. Low-mass stars and brown dwarfs exhibit a wide range of physical characteristics and their abundance make them ideal subjects for testing formation and evolution models. I have examined a pair of pre-main sequence spectroscopic binaries and used radial velocity variations to determine orbital solutions and mass ratios. Additionally, I have employed synthetic spectra to estimate their effective temperatures and place them on theoretical Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams. From this analysis I discuss the formation and evolution of young binary systems and place bounds on absolute masses and radii. I have also studied the late-type T dwarfs revealed by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). This includes the exemplar T8 subdwarf Wolf 1130C, which has the lowest inferred metallicity in the literature and spectroscopic traits consistent with old age. Comparison to synthetic spectra implies that the dispersion in near-infrared colors of late-type T dwarfs is a result of age and/or thin sulfide clouds. With the updated census of the L, T, and Y dwarfs we can now study specific brown dwarf subpopulations. Finally, I present a number of future studies that would develop our understanding of the physical qualities of T dwarf color outliers and disentangle the tracers of age and atmospheric properties.

  15. Constraining Fully Convective Magnetic Dynamos using Brown Dwarf Auroral Radio Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Melodie; Hallinan, Gregg; Pineda, J. Sebastian; Escala, Ivanna; Burgasser, Adam; Bourke, Stephen; Stevenson, David

    2017-05-01

    An important outstanding problem in dynamo theory is understanding how magnetic fields are generated and sustained in fully convective objects, spanning stars through planets. For fully convective dynamo models to accurately predict exoplanet magnetic fields, pushing measurements to include the coolest T and Y dwarfs at the substellar-planetary boundary is critical. A number of models for possible dynamo mechanisms in this regime have been proposed but constraining data on magnetic field strengths and topologies across a wide range of mass, age, rotation rate, and temperature are sorely lacking, particularly in the brown dwarf regime.Detections of highly circularly polarized pulsed radio emission provide our only window into magnetic field measurements for objects in the ultracool brown dwarf regime. However, these detections are very rare; previous radio surveys encompassing ∼60 L6 or later targets have yielded only one detection. We have developed a selection strategy for biasing survey targets by leveraging the emergence of magnetic activity that is driven by planet-like auroral processes in the coolest brown dwarfs. Using our selection strategy, we previously observed six late L and T dwarfs with the Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) at 4-8 GHz and detected the presence of highly circularly polarized radio emission for five targets. Our initial detections provided the most robust constraints on dynamo theory in this regime, confirming magnetic fields >2.5 kG. To further probe the mechanisms driving fully convective dynamos at the substellar-planetary boundary, we present magnetic field constraints for two Y-dwarfs and 8-12 GHz radio observations of late L and T dwarfs corresponding to >3.6 kG surface fields. We additionally present initial results for a comprehensive L and T dwarf survey spanning a wide range of rotation periods to test rotation-dominated dynamo models. Finally, we present a method for comparing magnetic field measurements derived from

  16. Connecting Young Brown Dwarfs and Directly Imaged Gas-Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Michael; Dupuy, Trent; Allers, Katelyn; Aller, Kimberly; Best, William; Magnier, Eugene

    2015-12-01

    Direct detections of gas-giant exoplanets and discoveries of young (~10-100 Myr) field brown dwarfs from all-sky surveys are strengthening the link between the exoplanet and brown dwarf populations, given the overlapping ages, masses, temperatures, and surface gravities. In light of the relatively small number of directly imaged planets and the modest associated datasets, the large census of young field brown dwarfsprovides a compelling laboratory for enriching our understanding of both classes of objects. However, work to date on young field objects has typically focused on individual discoveries.We present a large comprehensive study of the youngest field brown dwarfs, comprising both previously known objects and our new discoveries from the latest wide-field surveys (Pan-STARRS-1 and WISE). With masses now extending down to ~5 Jupiter masses, these objects have physical properties that largely overlap young gas-giant planets and thus are promising analogs for studying exoplanet atmospheres at unparalleled S/N, spectral resolution, and wavelength coverage. We combine high-quality spectra and parallaxes to determine spectral energy distributions, luminosities, temperatures, and ages for young field objects. We demonstrate that this population spans a continuum in the color-magnitude diagram, thereby forming a bridge between the hot and cool extremes of directly imaged planets. We find that the extremely dusty properties of the planets around 2MASS J1207-39 and HR 8799 do occur in some young brown dwarfs, but these properties do not have a simple correspondence with age, perhaps contrary to expectations. We find young field brown dwarfs can have unusually low temperatures and suggest a new spectral type-temperature scale appropriate for directly imaged planets.To help provide a reference for extreme-contrast imaging surveys, we establish a grid of spectral standards and benchmarks, based on membership in nearby young moving groups, in order to calibrate gravity

  17. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE SPECTROSCOPY OF BROWN DWARFS DISCOVERED WITH THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Adam C.; Cushing, Michael C.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Mace, Gregory N.; Wright, Edward L.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Griffith, Roger L.; Marsh, Kenneth A.

    2015-05-10

    We present a sample of brown dwarfs identified with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for which we have obtained Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) near-infrared grism spectroscopy. The sample (22 in total) was observed with the G141 grism covering 1.10–1.70 μm, while 15 were also observed with the G102 grism, which covers 0.90–1.10 μm. The additional wavelength coverage provided by the G102 grism allows us to (1) search for spectroscopic features predicted to emerge at low effective temperatures (e.g.,ammonia bands) and (2) construct a smooth spectral sequence across the T/Y boundary. We find no evidence of absorption due to ammonia in the G102 spectra. Six of these brown dwarfs are new discoveries, three of which are found to have spectral types of T8 or T9. The remaining three, WISE J082507.35+280548.5 (Y0.5), WISE J120604.38+840110.6 (Y0), and WISE J235402.77+024015.0 (Y1), are the 19th, 20th, and 21st spectroscopically confirmed Y dwarfs to date. We also present HST grism spectroscopy and reevaluate the spectral types of five brown dwarfs for which spectral types have been determined previously using other instruments.

  18. Discovery of radio emission from the brown dwarf LP944-20.

    PubMed

    Berger, E; Ball, S; Becker, K M; Clarke, M; Frail, D A; Fukuda, T A; Hoffman, I M; Mellon, R; Momjian, E; Murphy, N W; Teng, S H; Woodruff, T; Zauderer, B A; Zavala, R T

    2001-03-15

    Brown dwarfs are not massive enough to sustain thermonuclear fusion of hydrogen at their centres, but are distinguished from gas-giant planets by their ability to burn deuterium. Brown dwarfs older than approximately 10 Myr are expected to possess short-lived magnetic fields and to emit radio and X-rays only very weakly from their coronae. An X-ray flare was recently detected on the brown dwarf LP944-20, whereas previous searches for optical activity (and one X-ray search) yielded negative results. Here we report the discovery of quiescent and flaring radio emission from LP944-20, with luminosities several orders of magnitude larger than predicted by the empirical relation between the X-ray and radio luminosities that has been found for many types of stars. Interpreting the radio data within the context of synchrotron emission, we show that LP944-20 has an unusually weak magnetic field in comparison to active M-dwarf stars, which might explain the previous null optical and X-ray results, as well as the strength of the radio emissions compared to those at X-ray wavelengths.

  19. Go Long! Identifying Distant Brown Dwarfs in HST/WFC3 Parallel Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aganze, Christian; Burgasser, Adam J.; Malkan, Matthew Arnold; Masters, Daniel C.; Mercado, Gretel; Suarez, Adrian; Tamiya, Tomoki

    2016-01-01

    The spatial distribution of brown dwarfs beyond the local Solar Neighborhood is crucial for understanding their Galactic formation, dynamical and evolutionary history. Wide-field red optical and infrared surveys (e.g., 2MASS, SDSS, WISE) have enabled measures of the local density of brown dwarfs, but probe a relatively shallow (˜100 parsecs) volume; few constraints exist for the scale height or radial distributions of these low mass and low luminosity objects. We have searched ~1400 square arcminutes of WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallel Survey (WISPS) data to identify distant brown dwarfs (d > 300 pc) with near-infrared grism spectra from the the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3). Using spectral indices to identify candidates, measure spectral types and estimate distances, and comparing the WFC3 spectra to spectral templates in the SpeX Prism Library, we report our first results from this work, the discovery of ~50 late-M, L and T dwarfs with distances of 30 - 1000+ pc. We compare the distance and spectral type distribution to population simulations, and discuss current selection biases.The material presented here is based on work supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. NNX15AI75G

  20. Benchmark Transiting Brown Dwarf LHS 6343 C: Spitzer Secondary Eclipse Observations Yield Brightness Temperature and Mid-T Spectral Class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montet, Benjamin T.; Johnson, John Asher; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Desert, Jean-Michel

    2016-05-01

    There are no field brown dwarf analogs with measured masses, radii, and luminosities, precluding our ability to connect the population of transiting brown dwarfs with measurable masses and radii and field brown dwarfs with measurable luminosities and atmospheric properties. LHS 6343 C, a weakly irradiated brown dwarf transiting one member of an M+M binary in the Kepler field, provides the first opportunity to probe the atmosphere of a non-inflated brown dwarf with a measured mass and radius. Here, we analyze four Spitzer observations of secondary eclipses of LHS 6343 C behind LHS 6343 A. Jointly fitting the eclipses with a Gaussian process noise model of the instrumental systematics, we measure eclipse depths of 1.06 ± 0.21 ppt at 3.6 μm and 2.09 ± 0.08 ppt at 4.5 μm, corresponding to brightness temperatures of 1026 ± 57 K and 1249 ± 36 K, respectively. We then apply brown dwarf evolutionary models to infer a bolometric luminosity {log}({L}\\star /{L}⊙ )=-5.16+/- 0.04. Given the known physical properties of the brown dwarf and the two M dwarfs in the LHS 6343 system, these depths are consistent with models of a 1100 K T dwarf at an age of 5 Gyr and empirical observations of field T5-6 dwarfs with temperatures of 1070 ± 130 K. We investigate the possibility that the orbit of LHS 6343 C has been altered by the Kozai-Lidov mechanism and propose additional astrometric or Rossiter-McLaughlin measurements of the system to probe the dynamical history of the system.

  1. Planning Efficient NIRSpec MSA Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakla, Diane M.; Beck, Tracy L.; Gilbert, Karoline; Shyrokov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    It is projected that JWST's NIRSpec Microshutter Array (MSA), which will provide simultaneous multi-object spectroscopy capability for 100+ sources, will be the most heavily used mode of the NIRSpec instrument. Efficient observational plans for the NIRSpec MSA mode are difficult to make manually for several reasons - target positions must be computed with a high degree of accuracy (including optical distortions of the telescope and instrument fore-optics, and correction for observatory motion relative to the target) to avoid the fixed grid of MSA bars and place targets into shutters. Dithering is also highly recommended to mitigate the effects of detector artifacts and areas of poorer detector response. Given these considerations, designing and managing observations of a large number of targets through a set of dithers is made easier and more efficient for the general observer through the use of the MSA Planning Tool (MPT) in APT. We will discuss the recent developments in MPT and introduce a custom MSA observation planner which we call the "interactive planner". The effect of specific parameter choices on multiplexing efficiency in certain science cases is demonstrated. Finally, we describe how members of the community may provide input to the development process.

  2. Identification and characterization of low mass stars and brown dwarfs using Virtual Observatory tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aberasturi, Miriam

    2015-11-01

    Context: Two thirds of the stars in our galactic neighborhood (d < 10 pc) are M-dwarfs which also constitute the most common stellar objects in the Milky Way. This property, combined with their small stellar masses and radii, increases the likelihood of detecting terrestrial planets through radial velocity and transit techniques, making them very adequate targets for the exoplanet hunting projects. Nevertheless, M dwarfs have associated different observational difficulties. They are cool objects whose emission radiation peaks at infrared wavelengths and, thus, with a low surface brightness in the optical range. Also, the photometric variability as well as the significant chromospheric activity hinder the radial velocity and transit determinations. It is necessary, therefore, to carry out a detailed characterization of M-dwarfs before building a shortlist with the best possible candidates for exoplanet searches. Brown dwarfs (BDs) are self-gravitating objects that do not get enough mass to maintain a sufficiently high temperature in their core for stable hydrogen fusion. They represent the link between low-mass stars and giant planets. Due to their low temperatures, BDs emit significant flux at mid-infrared wavelength which makes this range very adequate to look for this type of objects. The Virtual Observatory (VO) is an international initiative designed to help the astronomical community in the exploitation of the multi-wavelength information that resides in data archives. In the last years the Spanish Virtual Observatory is conducting a number of projects focused on the study of substellar objects taking advantage of Virtual Observatory tools for an easy data access and analysis of large area surveys. This is the framework where this thesis has been carried out. This dissertation addresses three problems in the framework of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs, namely, the search for brown dwarf candidates crossmatching catalogues (Chapter 4), the search for nearby

  3. A SEARCH FOR PHOTOMETRIC VARIABILITY IN L- AND T-TYPE BROWN DWARF ATMOSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Khandrika, Harish; Burgasser, Adam J.; Melis, Carl; Luk, Christopher; Bowsher, Emily

    2013-03-15

    Using the Gemini infrared camera on the 3 m Shane telescope at Lick Observatory, we have searched for broadband J and K' photometric variability for a sample of 15 L- and T-type brown dwarfs, including 7 suspected spectral binaries. Four of the dwarfs-2MASS J0939-2448, 2MASS J1416+1348A, 2MASS J1711+2232, and 2MASS J2139+0220-exhibit statistically significant variations over timescales ranging from {approx}0.5 hr to 6 days. Our detection of variability in 2MASS J2139+0220 confirms that reported by Radigan et al., and periodogram and phase dispersion minimization analysis also confirms a variability period of approximately 7.6 {+-} 0.2 hr. Remarkably, two of the four variables are known or candidate binary systems, including 2MASS J2139+0220, for which we find only marginal evidence of radial velocity variation over the course of a year. This result suggests that some spectral binary candidates may appear as such due to the blending of cloudy and non-cloudy regions in a single ''patchy'' atmosphere. Our results are consistent with an overall variability fraction of 35% {+-} 5%, with no clear evidence of greater variability among brown dwarfs at the L dwarf/T dwarf transition.

  4. OGLE-2013-BLG-0578L: A Microlensing Binary Composed of a Brown Dwarf and an M Dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, H.; Udalski, A.; Han, C.; Poleski, R.; Skowron, J.; Kozłowski, S.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Szymański, M. K.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Pietrzyński, G.; Soszyński, I.; Ulaczyk, K.; OGLE Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    Determining the physical parameters of binary microlenses is hampered by the lack of information about the angular Einstein radius due to the difficulty involved in resolving caustic crossings. In this paper, we present an analysis of the binary microlensing event OGLE-2013-BLG-0578, for which the caustic exit was precisely predicted in advance from real-time analysis, enabling us to densely resolve the caustic crossing and to measure the Einstein radius. From the mass measurement of the lens system based on the Einstein radius, combined with additional information about the lens parallax, we determine that the lens is a binary composed of a late-type M dwarf primary and a substellar brown dwarf companion. This event demonstrates the capability of current real-time microlensing modeling and the usefulness of microlensing for detecting and characterizing faint or dark objects in the Galaxy.

  5. Spitzer Photometry of WISE-Selected Brown Dwarf and Hyper-Lumninous Infrared Galaxy Candidates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffith, Roger L.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Cushing, Michael C.; Benford, Dominic; Blain, Andrew; Bridge, Carrie R.; Cohen, Martin; Cutri, Roc M.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 micrometer photometry and positions for a sample of 1510 brown dwarf candidates identified by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) all-sky survey. Of these, 166 have been spectroscopically classified as objects with spectral types M(1), L(7), T(146), and Y(12). Sixteen other objects are non-(sub)stellar in nature. The remainder are most likely distant L and T dwarfs lacking spectroscopic verification, other Y dwarf candidates still awaiting follow-up, and assorted other objects whose Spitzer photometry reveals them to be background sources. We present a catalog of Spitzer photometry for all astrophysical sources identified in these fields and use this catalog to identify seven fainter (4.5 m to approximately 17.0 mag) brown dwarf candidates, which are possibly wide-field companions to the original WISE sources. To test this hypothesis, we use a sample of 919 Spitzer observations around WISE-selected high-redshift hyper-luminous infrared galaxy candidates. For this control sample, we find another six brown dwarf candidates, suggesting that the seven companion candidates are not physically associated. In fact, only one of these seven Spitzer brown dwarf candidates has a photometric distance estimate consistent with being a companion to the WISE brown dwarf candidate. Other than this, there is no evidence for any widely separated (greater than 20 AU) ultra-cool binaries. As an adjunct to this paper, we make available a source catalog of 7.33 x 10(exp 5) objects detected in all of these Spitzer follow-up fields for use by the astronomical community. The complete catalog includes the Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 m photometry, along with positionally matched B and R photometry from USNO-B; J, H, and Ks photometry from Two Micron All-Sky Survey; and W1, W2, W3, and W4 photometry from the WISE all-sky catalog.

  6. A new L5 brown dwarf member of the Hyades cluster with chromospheric activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Garrido, A.; Lodieu, N.; Rebolo, R.

    2017-03-01

    Aims: Our aim is to identify brown dwarf members of the nearby Hyades open star cluster to determine the photometric and spectroscopic properties of brown dwarfs at moderately old ages and extend the knowledge of the substellar mass function of the cluster. Methods: We cross-matched the 2MASS and AllWISE public catalogues and measured proper motions to identify low-mass stars and brown dwarf candidates in an area of radius eight degrees around the central region of the Hyades cluster. We identified objects with photometry and proper motions consistent with cluster membership. For the faintest (J = 17.2 mag) most promising astrometric and photometric low-mass candidate 2MASS J04183483+2131275, with a membership probability of 94.5%, we obtained low-resolution (R = 300-1000) and intermediate-resolution (R = 2500) spectroscopy with the 10.4m Gran Telescopio Canarias. Results: From the low-resolution spectra we determined a L5.0 ± 0.5 spectral type, consistent with the available photometry. In the intermediate dispersion spectrum we detected Hα in emission (marginally resolved with a full width half maximum of 2.8 Å) and determined a log (LHα/Lbol) = -6.0 dex. From Hα we obtained a radial velocity of 38.0 ± 2.9 km s-1, which combined with the proper motion leads to space velocities which are fully consistent with membership in the Hyades cluster. We also report a detection in the H2 band by the UKIDSS Galactic Plane Survey. Using evolutionary models we determine from the available photometry of the object a mass in the range 0.039-0.055 M⊙. Brown dwarfs with masses below 0.055 M⊙ should fully preserve its initial lithium content, and indeed the spectrum at 6708 Å may show a feature consistent with lithium preservation; however, a higher S/N is needed to confirm this point. Conclusions: We have identified a new high-probability L5 brown dwarf member of the Hyades cluster. This is the first relatively old L5 brown dwarf with a well-determined age (500-700 Myr

  7. A Sample of Very Young Field L Dwarfs and Implications for the Brown Dwarf "Lithium Test" at Early Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Cruz, Kelle L.; Barman, Travis S.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Looper, Dagny L.; Tinney, C. G.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Lowrance, Patrick J.; Liebert, James; Carpenter, John M.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Stauffer, John R.

    2008-12-01

    Using a large sample of optical spectra of late-type dwarfs, we identify a subset of late-M through L field dwarfs that, because of the presence of low-gravity features in their spectra, are believed to be unusually young. From a combined sample of 303 field L dwarfs, we find observationally that 7.6% +/- 1.6% are younger than 100 Myr. This percentage is in agreement with theoretical predictions once observing biases are taken into account. We find that these young L dwarfs tend to fall in the southern hemisphere (decl . < 0°) and may be previously unrecognized, low-mass members of nearby, young associations like Tucana-Horologium, TW Hydrae, β Pictoris, and AB Doradus. We use a homogeneously observed sample of ~150 optical spectra to examine lithium strength as a function of L/T spectral type and further corroborate the trends noted by Kirkpatrick and coworkers. We use our low-gravity spectra to investigate lithium strength as a function of age. The data weakly suggest that for early- to mid-L dwarfs the line strength reaches a maximum for a few × 100 Myr, whereas for much older (few Gyr) and much younger (<100 Myr) L dwarfs the line is weaker or undetectable. We show that a weakening of lithium at lower gravities is predicted by model atmosphere calculations, an effect partially corroborated by existing observational data. Larger samples containing L dwarfs of well-determined ages are needed to further test this empirically. If verified, this result would reinforce the caveat first cited by Kirkpatrick and coworkers that the lithium test should be used with caution when attempting to confirm the substellar nature of the youngest brown dwarfs. Most of the spectroscopic data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous

  8. Fracture Control for NIRSpec Kinematic Mounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorel, M.; Novo, F.; Jollet, D.; Sinnema, G.; Jentsch, M.

    2014-06-01

    An ESA contribution to the JWST is the Near Infra-Red Spectrograph (NIRSpec) capable of high-resolution spectroscopy. The development of the NIRSpec was commissioned to Astrium. This contribution deals with the fracture control for the optical bench kinematic (OBK) mounts which are critical structural elements of the NIRSpec platform. A summary of the main activities is given as well as difficulties encountered throughout the process and solutions adopted.

  9. Brown dwarf photospheres are patchy: A Hubble space telescope near-infrared spectroscopic survey finds frequent low-level variability

    SciTech Connect

    Buenzli, Esther; Apai, Dániel; Radigan, Jacqueline; Reid, I. Neill; Flateau, Davin

    2014-02-20

    Condensate clouds strongly impact the spectra of brown dwarfs and exoplanets. Recent discoveries of variable L/T transition dwarfs argued for patchy clouds in at least some ultracool atmospheres. This study aims to measure the frequency and level of spectral variability in brown dwarfs and to search for correlations with spectral type. We used Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 to obtain spectroscopic time series for 22 brown dwarfs of spectral types ranging from L5 to T6 at 1.1-1.7 μm for ≈40 minutes per object. Using Bayesian analysis, we find six brown dwarfs with confident (p > 95%) variability in the relative flux in at least one wavelength region at sub-percent precision, and five brown dwarfs with tentative (p > 68%) variability. We derive a minimum variability fraction f{sub min}=27{sub −7}{sup +11}% over all covered spectral types. The fraction of variables is equal within errors for mid-L, late-L, and mid-T spectral types; for early-T dwarfs we do not find any confident variable but the sample is too small to derive meaningful limits. For some objects, the variability occurs primarily in the flux peak in the J or H band, others are variable throughout the spectrum or only in specific absorption regions. Four sources may have broadband peak-to-peak amplitudes exceeding 1%. Our measurements are not sensitive to very long periods, inclinations near pole-on and rotationally symmetric heterogeneity. The detection statistics are consistent with most brown dwarf photospheres being patchy. While multiple-percent near-infrared variability may be rare and confined to the L/T transition, low-level heterogeneities are a frequent characteristic of brown dwarf atmospheres.

  10. PARALLAXES AND PROPER MOTIONS OF ULTRACOOL BROWN DWARFS OF SPECTRAL TYPES Y AND LATE T

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, Kenneth A.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Griffith, Roger L.; Wright, Edward L.; Cushing, Michael C.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.

    2013-01-10

    We present astrometric measurements of 11 nearby ultracool brown dwarfs of spectral types Y and late-T, based on imaging observations from a variety of space-based and ground-based telescopes. These measurements have been used to estimate relative parallaxes and proper motions via maximum likelihood fitting of geometric model curves. To compensate for the modest statistical significance ({approx}< 7) of our parallax measurements we have employed a novel Bayesian procedure for distance estimation which makes use of an a priori distribution of tangential velocities, V {sub tan}, assumed similar to that implied by previous observations of T dwarfs. Our estimated distances are therefore somewhat dependent on that assumption. Nevertheless, the results have yielded distances for five of our eight Y dwarfs and all three T dwarfs. Estimated distances in all cases are {approx}> 3 pc. In addition, we have obtained significant estimates of V {sub tan} for two of the Y dwarfs; both are <100 km s{sup -1}, consistent with membership in the thin disk population. Comparison of absolute magnitudes with model predictions as a function of color shows that the Y dwarfs are significantly redder in J - H than predicted by a cloud-free model.

  11. IONIZATION IN ATMOSPHERES OF BROWN DWARFS AND EXTRASOLAR PLANETS. I. THE ROLE OF ELECTRON AVALANCHE

    SciTech Connect

    Helling, Ch.; Jardine, M.; Witte, S.; Diver, D. A.

    2011-01-20

    Brown dwarf and extrasolar planet atmospheres form clouds which strongly influence the local chemistry and physics. These clouds are globally neutral obeying dust-gas charge equilibrium which is, on short timescales, inconsistent with the observation of stochastic ionization events of the solar system planets. We argue that a significant volume of the clouds in brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets is susceptible to local discharge events. These are electron avalanches triggered by charged dust grains. Such intra-cloud discharges occur on timescales shorter than the time needed to neutralize the dust grains by collisional processes. An ensemble of discharges is likely to produce enough free charges to suggest a partial and stochastic coupling of the atmosphere to a large-scale magnetic field.

  12. A T8.5 BROWN DWARF MEMBER OF THE {xi} URSAE MAJORIS SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Edward L.; Mace, Gregory; McLean, Ian S.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Nelson, M. J.; Borish, H. J.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Griffith, Roger L.; Jarrett, Tom; Marsh, Kenneth A.; Mainzer, Amanda K.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Tobin, John J.; Cushing, Michael C.

    2013-03-15

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer has revealed a T8.5 brown dwarf (WISE J111838.70+312537.9) that exhibits common proper motion with a solar-neighborhood (8 pc) quadruple star system-{xi} Ursae Majoris. The angular separation is 8.'5, and the projected physical separation is Almost-Equal-To 4000 AU. The sub-solar metallicity and low chromospheric activity of {xi} UMa A argue that the system has an age of at least 2 Gyr. The infrared luminosity and color of the brown dwarf suggests the mass of this companion ranges between 14 and 38 M{sub J} for system ages of 2 and 8 Gyr, respectively.

  13. Habitable Planets Around White and Brown Dwarfs: The Perils of a Cooling Primary

    PubMed Central

    Heller, René

    2013-01-01

    Abstract White and brown dwarfs are astrophysical objects that are bright enough to support an insolation habitable zone (IHZ). Unlike hydrogen-burning stars, they cool and become less luminous with time; hence their IHZ moves in with time. The inner edge of the IHZ is defined as the orbital radius at which a planet may enter a moist or runaway greenhouse, phenomena that can remove a planet's surface water forever. Thus, as the IHZ moves in, planets that enter it may no longer have any water and are still uninhabitable. Additionally, the close proximity of the IHZ to the primary leads to concern that tidal heating may also be strong enough to trigger a runaway greenhouse, even for orbital eccentricities as small as 10−6. Water loss occurs due to photolyzation by UV photons in the planetary stratosphere, followed by hydrogen escape. Young white dwarfs emit a large amount of these photons, as their surface temperatures are over 104 K. The situation is less clear for brown dwarfs, as observational data do not constrain their early activity and UV emission very well. Nonetheless, both types of planets are at risk of never achieving habitable conditions, but planets orbiting white dwarfs may be less likely to sustain life than those orbiting brown dwarfs. We consider the future habitability of the planet candidates KOI 55.01 and 55.02 in these terms and find they are unlikely to become habitable. Key Words: Extrasolar terrestrial planets—Habitability—Habitable zone—Tides—Exoplanets. Astrobiology 13, 279–291. PMID:23537137

  14. Methane, carbon monoxide, and ammonia in brown dwarfs and self-luminous giant planets

    SciTech Connect

    Zahnle, Kevin J.; Marley, Mark S. E-mail: Mark.S.Marley@NASA.gov

    2014-12-10

    We address disequilibrium abundances of some simple molecules in the atmospheres of solar composition brown dwarfs and self-luminous extrasolar giant planets using a kinetics-based one-dimensional atmospheric chemistry model. Our approach is to use the full kinetics model to survey the parameter space with effective temperatures between 500 K and 1100 K. In all of these worlds, equilibrium chemistry favors CH{sub 4} over CO in the parts of the atmosphere that can be seen from Earth, but in most disequilibrium favors CO. The small surface gravity of a planet strongly discriminates against CH{sub 4} when compared to an otherwise comparable brown dwarf. If vertical mixing is like Jupiter's, the transition from methane to CO occurs at 500 K in a planet. Sluggish vertical mixing can raise this to 600 K, but clouds or more vigorous vertical mixing could lower this to 400 K. The comparable thresholds in brown dwarfs are 1100 ± 100 K. Ammonia is also sensitive to gravity, but, unlike CH{sub 4}/CO, the NH{sub 3}/N{sub 2} ratio is insensitive to mixing, which makes NH{sub 3} a potential proxy for gravity. HCN may become interesting in high-gravity brown dwarfs with very strong vertical mixing. Detailed analysis of the CO-CH{sub 4} reaction network reveals that the bottleneck to CO hydrogenation goes through methanol, in partial agreement with previous work. Simple, easy to use quenching relations are derived by fitting to the complete chemistry of the full ensemble of models. These relations are valid for determining CO, CH{sub 4}, NH{sub 3}, HCN, and CO{sub 2} abundances in the range of self-luminous worlds we have studied, but may not apply if atmospheres are strongly heated at high altitudes by processes not considered here (e.g., wave breaking).

  15. THE DEPENDENCE OF BROWN DWARF RADII ON ATMOSPHERIC METALLICITY AND CLOUDS: THEORY AND COMPARISON WITH OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, Adam; Nampaisarn, Thane; Heng, Kevin E-mail: tnampais@astro.princeton.edu

    2011-07-20

    Employing realistic and consistent atmosphere boundary conditions, we have generated evolutionary models for brown dwarfs and very low mass stars (VLMs) for different atmospheric metallicities ([Fe/H]), with and without clouds. We find that the spread in radius at a given mass and age can be as large as {approx}10% to {approx}25%, with higher-metallicity, higher-cloud-thickness atmospheres resulting quite naturally in larger radii. For each 0.1 dex increase in [Fe/H], radii increase by {approx}1% to {approx}2.5%, depending upon the age and mass. We also find that, while for smaller masses and older ages brown dwarf radii decrease with increasing helium fraction (Y, as expected), for more massive brown dwarfs and a wide range of ages they increase with helium fraction. The increase in radius in going from Y = 0.25 to Y = 0.28 can be as large as {approx}0.025 R{sub J} ({approx}2.5%). Furthermore, we find that for VLMs an increase in atmospheric metallicity from 0.0 to 0.5 dex, increases radii by {approx}4%, and from -0.5 to 0.5 dex by {approx}10%. Therefore, we suggest that opacity due to higher metallicity might naturally account for the apparent radius anomalies in some eclipsing VLM systems. Ten to twenty-five percent variations in radius exceed errors stemming from uncertainties in the equation of state alone. This serves to emphasize that transit and eclipse measurements of brown dwarf radii constrain numerous effects collectively, importantly including the atmosphere and condensate cloud models, and not just the equation of state. At all times, one is testing a multi-parameter theory, and not a universal radius-mass relation.

  16. Sonora: A New Generation Model Atmosphere Grid for Brown Dwarfs and Young Extrasolar Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marley, Mark S.; Saumon, Didier; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Morley, Caroline; Lupu, Roxana E.; Freedman, Richard; Visscher, Channon

    2017-06-01

    Brown dwarf and giant planet atmospheric structure and composition has been studied both by forward models and, increasingly so, by retrieval methods. While indisputably informative, retrieval methods are of greatest value when judged in the context of grid model predictions. Meanwhile retrieval models can test the assumptions inherent in the forward modeling procedure.In order to provide a new, systematic survey of brown dwarf atmospheric structure, emergent spectra, and evolution, we have constructed a new grid of brown dwarf model atmospheres. We ultimately aim for our grid to span substantial ranges of atmospheric metallilcity, C/O ratios, cloud properties, atmospheric mixing, and other parameters. Spectra predicted by our modeling grid can be compared to both observations and retrieval results to aid in the interpretation and planning of future telescopic observations.We thus present Sonora, a new generation of substellar atmosphere models, appropriate for application to studies of L, T, and Y-type brown dwarfs and young extrasolar giant planets. The models describe the expected temperature-pressure profile and emergent spectra of an atmosphere in radiative-convective equilibrium for ranges of effective temperatures and gravities encompassing 200 ≤ Teff ≤ 2400 K and 2.5 ≤ log g ≤ 5.5. In our poster we briefly describe our modeling methodology, enumerate various updates since our group's previous models, and present our initial tranche of models for cloudless, solar metallicity, and solar carbon-to-oxygen ratio, chemical equilibrium atmospheres. These models will be available online and will be updated as opacities and cloud modeling methods continue to improve.

  17. Prof. Hayashi's work on the pre-main sequence evolution and brown dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Takenori

    2012-09-01

    Prof. Hayashi's work on the evolution of stars in the pre-main sequence stage is reviewed. The historical background and the process of finding the Hayashi phase are mentioned. The work on the evolution of low-mass stars is also reviewed including the determination of the bottom of the main sequence and evolution of brown dwarfs, and comparison is made with the other works in the same period.

  18. SUBSTELLAR OBJECTS IN NEARBY YOUNG CLUSTERS (SONYC). V. NEW BROWN DWARFS IN {rho} OPHIUCHI

    SciTech Connect

    Muzic, Koraljka; Jayawardhana, Ray; Scholz, Alexander; Geers, Vincent; Tamura, Motohide

    2012-01-10

    SONYC-Substellar Objects in Nearby Young Clusters-is a survey program to investigate the frequency and properties of substellar objects with masses down to a few times that of Jupiter in nearby star-forming regions. For the {approx}1 Myr old {rho} Ophiuchi cluster, in our earlier paper we reported deep, wide-field optical and near-infrared imaging using Subaru, combined with Two Micron All Sky Survey and Spitzer photometry, as well as follow-up spectroscopy confirming three likely cluster members, including a new brown dwarf with a mass close to the deuterium-burning limit. Here we present the results of extensive new spectroscopy targeting a total of {approx}100 candidates in {rho} Oph, with Fiber Multi Object Spectrograph at the Subaru Telescope and SINFONI at the ESO's Very Large Telescope. We identify 19 objects with effective temperatures at or below 3200 K, eight of which are newly identified very low mass probable members of {rho} Oph. Among these eight, six objects have T{sub eff} {<=} 3000 K, confirming their likely substellar nature. These six new brown dwarfs comprise one-fifth of the known substellar population in {rho} Oph. We estimate that the number of missing substellar objects in our survey area is {approx}15, down to 0.003-0.03 M{sub Sun} and for A{sub V} = 0-15. The upper limit on the low-mass star to brown dwarf ratio in {rho} Oph is 5.1 {+-} 1.4, while the disk fractions are {approx}40% and {approx}60% for stars and brown dwarfs, respectively. Both results are in line with those for other nearby star-forming regions.

  19. Brown dwarf disks with Herschel: Linking far-infrared and (sub)-mm fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daemgen, Sebastian; Natta, Antonella; Scholz, Alexander; Testi, Leonardo; Jayawardhana, Ray; Greaves, Jane; Eastwood, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Brown dwarf disks are excellent laboratories to test our understanding of disk physics in an extreme parameter regime. In this paper we investigate a sample of 29 well-characterized brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars, for which Herschel far-infrared fluxes and (sub)-mm fluxes are available. We measured new Herschel/PACS fluxes for 11 objects and complement these with (sub)-mm data and Herschel fluxes from the literature. We analyze their spectral energy distributions in comparison with results from radiative transfer modeling. Fluxes in the far-infrared are strongly affected by the shape and temperature of the disk (and hence stellar luminosity), whereas the (sub)-mm fluxes mostly depend on disk mass. Nevertheless, there is a clear correlation between far-infrared and (sub)-mm fluxes. We argue that the link results from the combination of the stellar mass-luminosity relation and a scaling between disk mass and stellar mass. We find strong evidence of dust settling to the disk midplane. The spectral slopes between near- and far-infrared are mostly between -0.5 and -1.2 in our sample, which is comparable to more massive T Tauri stars; this may imply that the disk shapes are similar as well, although highly flared disks are rare among brown dwarfs. We find that dust temperatures in the range of 7-15 K, calculated with T ≈ 25 (L/L⊙)0.25 K, are appropriate for deriving disk masses from (sub)-mm fluxes for these low luminosity objects. About half of our sample hosts disks with at least one Jupiter mass, confirming that many brown dwarfs harbor sufficient material for the formation of Earth-mass planets in their midst. Herschel is a ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  20. Inhomgeneous Dust Formation due to Turbulent Motion in Brown Dwarf Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helling, Ch.; Oevermann, M.; Lüttke, M.; Klein, R.; Sedlmayr, E.

    2001-05-01

    Brown Dwarfs are very faint, low mass star-like objects possibly bridging the gap between stars and planets. Their interior is dominated by convective energy transport which deposits energy, momentum, and matter into the atmosphere. Brown Dwarf atmospheres furthermore provide favorable conditions for the gas--solid phase transition due to their low temperatures and high densities since they are cool and compact objects. Brown Dwarfs are therefore an excellent test bed to study dust formation under turbulent conditions. In Brown Dwarfs, dust-free convective cells originating from the interior convective zone travel radially outward and decay into smaller and smaller eddies. Following Kolmogoroff's assumption, energy is transfered from the largest scales into smaller and smaller scales until the energy is finally dissipated on the Kolmogoroff scale (η ≈ 10-2cm for lref≈104cm) by the viscosity of the gas. Considering that the large scale turbulent motions have a characteristic Mach number M≈ 1, resulting acoustic waves create a turbulent temperature and density field in the atmosphere which influences the dust complex due to its high temperature and density sensitivity. Combining asymptotic techniques and time-dependent, multi-dimensional numerical simulations, we show that on microscopic scales acoustic waves can initiate dust nucleation in otherwise dust-hostile environments. An instable feedback loop occurs which is started by small temperature disturbances which allow the first dust particles to form. These particles grow to macroscopic sizes and thereby intensify the temperature decrease due to the radiative cooling which in turn re-initiates and henceforth intensifies dust formation. This runaway effect is stopped if all condensible material is consumed or the radiative equilibrium is reached.

  1. Brown Dwarfs from the Pan-STARRS 1 3pi Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnier, Eugene A.; Liu, Michael C.; Aller, Kimberly; Best, William; Deacon, Niall

    2015-08-01

    The Pan-STARRS 1 3pi survey is an excellent resource for searches for the lowest mass objects in the local solar neighborhood. The high sensitivity in the red bands, the repeated observations, and the precise astrometry enable searches for ultracool dwarfs across the spectral types from late M to late T. Our team has used a range of techniques to search for ultracool dwarfs: PS1 proper motions, PS1 parallaxes, PS1 combined with 2MASS and WISE, etc. One of our goals is to discover the brown dwarf exotica: the extremely young or old objects; those with low-metallicity or extremely dusty atmospheres. These exotica will provide the most leverage to constrain the stellar atmosphere and evolutionary models.

  2. The First Proto-Brown Dwarf Binary Candidate Identified through Dynamics of Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Tien-Hao; Lai, Shih-Ping; Belloche, Arnaud; Wyrowski, Friedrich

    The formation mechanism of brown dwarfs (BDs) is one of the long-standing problems in star formation because the typical Jeans mass in molecular clouds is too large to form these substellar objects. To answer this question, it is crucial to study a BD at the embedded phase (proto-brown dwarf). IRAS16253 is classified as a Very Low Luminosity Object (VeLLO, L int < 0.1L ⊙), which is considered as a proto-brown dwarf candidate. We use the IRAM 30m, APEX telescopes and the SMA to probe the molecular jet/outflow driven by IRAS 16253 in CO (2-1), (6-5), and (7-6) and study its dynamical features and physical properties. We detect a wiggling pattern in the position-velocity diagrams of the jets. Assuming that this pattern is due to the orbital motion of a binary system, we obtain the current mass of the binary is ~0.026 M ⊙. Together with the low parent core mass, IRAS16253 will likely form one or two proto-BD in the future. This is the first time that the current mass of a proto-BD binary system is identified through the dynamics of the jets. Since IRAS16253 is located in an isolated environment, we suggest that BDs can form through fragmentation and collapse like low mass stars.

  3. A similarity approach to the atmospheric dynamics of giant extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Lavega, A.

    2001-10-01

    We present an assessment of the most plausible dynamical regimes operating in the atmospheres of giant extrasolar planets (EGP) and cold (``methane'') brown dwarfs from the available data on a selected group of objects. The most important parameters controlling the atmospheric circulation are the rotation angular velocity and the energy balance between the internal heat source and the star's insolation. The first parameter can be reasonably constrained for some of these objects by theoretical arguments. The second is constrained by the observations. Assuming a hydrogen composition, we discuss possible scenarios for the first order atmospheric motions in terms of characteristic geophysical fluid dynamic numbers and representative time constants. The analysis is applied to the family of extrasolar giant planets classified recently by Sudarsky et al. (\\cite {sudarsky}) according to their effective temperature and Bond albedo. For completeness we extend this study to cold (``methane'') brown dwarfs. Three main dynamical regimes emerge from this analysis: (A) Close EGP (``hot jupiters'') with spin-orbit locked (slowly rotating) planets, have their atmospheres mainly under the star's radiative control. Super-rotating atmospheric motions between the heated and cooled hemispheres can be expected. (B) Atmospheres with their dynamics controlled by both the internal and external energy sources, with Coriolis forces producing zonal motions (Jupiter like objects). (C) Cold brown dwarfs, with motions controlled by the internal heat source (thermally driven turbulent convection) producing intense vertical velocities that dominate the motion field.

  4. Extended Baseline Photometry of Rapidly Changing Weather Patterns on the Brown Dwarf Binary Luhman-16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Street, R. A.; Fulton, B. J.; Scholz, A.; Horne, Keith; Helling, C.; Juncher, D.; Lee, G.; Valenti, S.

    2015-10-01

    Luhman-16 (WISE J1049-5319) was recently discovered to be a nearby (∼2 pc) brown dwarf binary that exhibits a high degree of photometric variability (Δm ∼ 0.1 mag). This is thought to be due to the evolution of “cloud” features on the photosphere, but Luhman-16 has been found to show unusually rapid changes, possibly resulting from fast-evolving “weather.” This target is of particular interest because it consists of a co-evolutionary pair of brown dwarfs spanning the transition between L and T spectral types (L7.5 and T0.5), which are expected to be associated with changes in cloud surface coverage. Being comparatively bright (I ∼ 15.5 mag), the target is well suited for observation with the new Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGT) of 1 m telescopes. We present long-time baseline photometric observations from two of LCOGT's southern hemisphere sites, which were used in tandem to monitor Luhman-16 for up to 13.25 hr at a time (more than twice the rotation period), for a total of 41.2 days in the SDSS-i‧ and Pan-STARRS-Z filters. We use this data set to characterize the changing rotational modulation, which may be explained by the evolution of cloud features at varying latitudes on the surfaces of the two brown dwarfs.

  5. The Discovery of a Second Field Methane Brown Dwarf from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Commissioning Data.

    PubMed

    Tsvetanov; Golimowski; Zheng; Geballe; Leggett; Ford; Davidsen; Uomoto; Fan; Knapp; Strauss; Brinkmann; Lamb; Newberg; Rechenmacher; Schneider; York; Lupton; Pier; Annis; Csabai; Hindsley; Ivesic; Munn; Thakar; Waddell

    2000-03-01

    We report the discovery of a second field methane brown dwarf from the commissioning data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The object, SDSS J134646.45-003150.4 (hereafter SDSS 1346-00), was selected because of its very red color and stellar appearance. Its spectrum between 0.8 and 2.5 µm is dominated by strong absorption bands of H2O and CH4 and closely mimics those of Gliese 229B and SDSS 162414.37+002915.6 (hereafter SDSS 1624+00), two other known methane brown dwarfs. SDSS 1346-00 is approximately 1.5 mag fainter than Gliese 229B, suggesting that it lies about 11 pc from the Sun. The ratio of flux at 2.1 µm to that at 1.27 µm is larger for SDSS 1346-00 than for Gliese 229B and SDSS 1624+00, which suggests that SDSS 1346-00 has a slightly higher effective temperature than the others. Based on a search area of 130 deg2 and a detection limit of z*=19.8, we estimate a space density of 0.05 pc-3 for methane brown dwarfs with Teff approximately 1000 K in the 40 pc3 volume of our search. This estimate is based on small-sample statistics and should be treated with appropriate caution.

  6. Rotation Periods of Young Brown Dwarfs: K2 Survey in Upper Scorpius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, Alexander; Kostov, Veselin; Jayawardhana, Ray; Mužić, Koraljka

    2015-08-01

    We report rotational periods for 16 young brown dwarfs in the nearby Upper Scorpius association, based on 72 days of high-cadence, high-precision photometry from the Keplerspace telescope’s K2 mission. The periods range from a few hours to two days (plus one outlier at five days), with a median just above one day, confirming that brown dwarfs, except at the very youngest ages, are fast rotators. Interestingly, four of the slowest rotators in our sample exhibit mid-infrared excess emission from disks; at least two also show signs of disk eclipses and accretion in the light curves. Comparing these new periods with those for two other young clusters and simple angular momentum evolution tracks, we find little or no rotational braking in brown dwarfs between 1-10 Myr, in contrast to low-mass stars. Our findings show that disk braking, while still at work, is inefficient in the substellar regime, thus providing an important constraint on the mass dependence of the braking mechanism.

  7. ROSAT X-ray detection of a young brown dwarf in the chamaeleon I dark cloud

    PubMed

    Neuhauser; Comeron

    1998-10-02

    Photometry and spectroscopy of the object Cha Halpha 1, located in the Chamaeleon I star-forming cloud, show that it is a approximately 10(6)-year-old brown dwarf with spectral type M7.5 to M8 and 0.04 +/- 0.01 solar masses. Quiescent x-ray emission was detected in a 36-kilosecond observation with 31.4 +/- 7.7 x-ray photons, obtained with the Rontgen Satellite (ROSAT), with 9final sigma detection significance. This corresponds to an x-ray luminosity of 2.57 x 10(28) ergs per second and an x-ray to bolometric luminosity ratio of 10(-3.44). These are typical values for late M-type stars. Because the interior of brown dwarfs may be similar to that of convective late-type stars, which are well-known x-ray sources, x-ray emission from brown dwarfs may indicate magnetic activity.

  8. Spitzer Verification of the Coldest WISE-selected Brown Dwarfs. II.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher; Griffith, Roger; Cushing, Michael; Skrutskie, Michael; Mainzer, Amanda; Marsh, Kenneth; Wright, Edward; Eisenhardt, Peter

    2011-05-01

    We will use data from WISE to search for brown dwarfs colder than those currently known. The discovery and subsequent study of low-temperature brown dwarfs will expand our knowledge of the low-mass end of the 'stellar' mass function and of the physics of low-Teff, high-pressure atmospheres, the latter of which is important in characterizing exoplanets. Spitzer is an important component in the WISE discovery process because it is the only observatory capable of providing deeper imaging in the same wavelength range used by WISE to select candidates (3 to 5 um). Our WISE selection process uses the W1 (3.4 um) and W2 (4.6 um) color to identify brown dwarf candidates; the resulting, red W1-W2 colors are indicative of deep methane absorption at 3.3 um. For our coldest sources, which are the most important for deciphering the low-mass cutoff of star formation, these will be color limits because the candidate is undetected in W1. Spitzer can easily provide much deeper imaging and measure robust ch1-ch2 colors, which are complementary to W1-W2. The reddest of these sources will also be the faintest since they are expected to be the coldest ones in the list.

  9. The Initial Mass Function of Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs in Taurus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhman, K. L.

    2000-12-01

    By combining deep optical imaging and infrared spectroscopy with data from the Two-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) and from previous studies (e.g., Briceño et al.), I have measured the initial mass function (IMF) for a reddening-limited sample in four fields in the Taurus star-forming region. This IMF is representative of the young populations within these fields for masses above 0.02 Msolar. Relative to the similarly derived IMF for the Trapezium Cluster (Luhman et al.), the IMF for Taurus exhibits a modest deficit of stars above 1 solar mass (i.e., steeper slope), the same turnover mass (~0.8 Msolar), and a significant deficit of brown dwarfs. If the IMF in Taurus were the same as that in the Trapezium, 12.8+/-1.8 brown dwarfs (>0.02 Msolar) are expected in these Taurus fields where only one brown dwarf candidate is found. These results are used to test theories of the IMF. Visiting Astronomer, Kitt Peak National Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatories, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA), under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  10. Extended Baseline Photometry of Rapidly Changing Weather Patterns on the Brown Dwarf Binary, Luhman-16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Street, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Luhman-16 (WISE~J1049-0053) was recently discovered to be a nearby (~2pc) brown dwarf binary whichexhibits an high degree of photometric variability (delta m~0.1 mag). This is thought to be due to the evolution of ``cloud'' features on the photosphere, but Luhman-16 was found to show unusually rapid changes, possibly resulting from fast-evolving ``weather''. This target is of particular interest because it consists of a co evolutionary pair of brown dwarfs spanning the transition between L and T types (L7.5 and T0.5), which are expected to be associated with changes in cloud surface coverage. Being comparatively bright (I~15.5mag), the target is well suited for observation with the new LCOGT network of 1m telescopes. We present long-time baseline photometric observations from two of LCOGT's southern hemisphere sites, which were used in tandem to monitor Luhman-16 for up to 13.25hrs at a time (more than twice the rotation period), for a total of 42 days in SDSS-i' and Pan-STARRS-Z filters. We use this dataset to characterize the changing rotational modulation, which may be explained by the evolution of cloud features at varying latitudes on the surfaces of the two brown dwarfs.

  11. Empirical Mass Determination for Transiting Brown Dwarfs and Very Low Mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebb, Leslie; Aigrain, Suzanne; Hodgkin, Simon; Moraux, Estelle; Irwin, Jonothan; Irwin, Mike

    2005-08-01

    We are undertaking a large systematic time-resolved photometric study of a dozen nearby, young (pre-main sequence) and rich open clusters (the Monitor Project). We are using this study to search for young transiting planets and very low-mass eclipsing binary systems and browndwarfs. The goals are 1) to detect the first planets orbiting stars younger than 200 Myr, and measure their periods, mass (with RV follow-up observations) and number densities, and 2) to enable empirical mass determinations for very-low-mass pre-main sequence stars and brown dwarfs. We are targeting a large sample of young and rich open clusters of known age, distance and metallicity. In this proposal, we will use the CTIO-4m telescope with MosaicII to take high cadence photometry of the young open clusters M50 and NGC 2362. In these 2 clusters we will measure over 700 very low mass stars and brown dwarfs at the precisions needed to detect planetary and stellar/sub-stellar eclipses. We will take follow-up spectroscopy to confirm planet candidates and directly measure the component masses of the binaries. This will enable us to place constraints on planet formation and evolution scenarios for close- in planets, and to calibrate the mass-luminosity-radius relation at the bottom of the main sequence and into the brown dwarf regime.

  12. ROTATION PERIODS OF YOUNG BROWN DWARFS: K2 SURVEY IN UPPER SCORPIUS

    SciTech Connect

    Scholz, Alexander; Kostov, Veselin; Jayawardhana, Ray; Mužić, Koraljka

    2015-08-20

    We report rotational periods for 16 young brown dwarfs in the nearby Upper Scorpius association, based on 72 days of high-cadence, high-precision photometry from the Keplerspace telescope’s K2 mission. The periods range from a few hours to two days (plus one outlier at five days), with a median just above one day, confirming that brown dwarfs, except at the very youngest ages, are fast rotators. Interestingly, four of the slowest rotators in our sample exhibit mid-infrared excess emission from disks; at least two also show signs of disk eclipses and accretion in the light curves. Comparing these new periods with those for two other young clusters and simple angular momentum evolution tracks, we find little or no rotational braking in brown dwarfs between 1–10 Myr, in contrast to low-mass stars. Our findings show that disk braking, while still at work, is inefficient in the substellar regime, thus providing an important constraint on the mass dependence of the braking mechanism.

  13. Planet Detection, Magnetic Field of Protostars and Brown Dwarfs Meteorology with SPIRou

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artigau, É.; Donati, J.-F.; Delfosse, X.

    2011-12-01

    SPIRou is a near-infrared spectro-polarimeter proposed as a next-generation CFHT instrument that should see first light in 2014. The instrument will consist of a single-object bench-mounted cross-dispersed spectrograph with a complete 0.98-2.40 μm coverage, 1 m/s radial-velocity accuracy and polarimetric capability. The instrument builds largely on the ESPaDOnS (current CFHT spectro-polarimeter) and HARPS (high-resolution spectrograph at La Silla 3.6m) designs and experience. We present here a brief overview of the instrument characteristics and various aspects of its science case. Low-mass stars and brown dwarfs will be prime targets for SPIRou; it is mostly aimed at detecting Earth-like planets in the habitable zone of low-mass stars and at investigating how magnetic fields impact star and planet formation. Other envisioned SPIRou science projects include the Doppler imaging of L and T dwarf weather patterns, the search for Jupiter-mass companions to BDs, spectroscopic binarity of L and T dwarfs and dynamo processes in red and brown dwarfs.

  14. Combing the Brown Dwarf Desert with the APOGEE Catalog of Stellar and Substellar Companion Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troup, Nicholas William; De Lee, Nathan M.; Carlberg, Joleen K.; Nidever, David L.; Majewski, Steven R.; Stassun, Keivan; Covey, Kevin R.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Allende-Prieto, Carlos; Hearty, Fred R.; APOGEE Substellar Companions Working Group

    2016-01-01

    While both exoplanets and stellar-mass companions have been found in extremely short-period orbits, there has been a paucity of brown dwarf (BD) companions orbiting Sun-like stars, a phenomenon known as the "Brown Dwarf Desert." However, more recent work has shown that this Desert might be limited in extent, only existing for small separation (a < 5-10 AU) companions, and may not be as "dry" as initially thought. It has been previously suggested that there may be an "F Dwarf Oasis," where the BD Desert observed for Solar-like stars ceases to exist for F dwarf stars. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-III) Apache Point Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) has compiled a catalog of ~400 of its most compelling stellar and substellar companion candidates orbiting host stars of various spectral types and evolutionary states. Among these candidates, approximately 100 had a derived companion mass in the BD regime (13-80 MJup), which is a significant increase compared to the number of known small separation (a < 1 AU) BD companions. Our sample appears to manifest the BD desert, but only for seperations < 0.2 AU rather than the previously held 5 AU. This is explained by one of the unique qualities of our sample when compared to previous companions surveys: Two-thirds of the BD candidates in our sample are orbiting evolved stars, most of which were F dwarfs during their main sequence lifetime, consistent with the notion of an F Dwarf Oasis. Using this sample, we further test this hypothesis by constraining the formation mechanisms of BD companions, and exploring their orbital evolution as their host evolves off the main sequence.

  15. First limits on the occurrence rate of short-period planets orbiting brown dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Matthias Y.; Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.; Gillon, Michaël

    2017-01-01

    Planet formation theories predict a large but still undetected population of short-period terrestrial planets orbiting brown dwarfs. Should specimens of this population be discovered transiting relatively bright and nearby brown dwarfs, the Jupiter-size and the low luminosity of their hosts would make them exquisite targets for detailed atmospheric characterization with JWST and future ground-based facilities. The eventual discovery and detailed study of a significant sample of transiting terrestrial planets orbiting nearby brown dwarfs could prove to be useful not only for comparative exoplanetology but also for astrobiology, by bringing us key information on the physical requirements and time-scale for the emergence of life. In this context, we present a search for transit-signals in archival time series photometry acquired by the Spitzer Space Telescope for a sample of 44 nearby brown dwarfs. While these 44 targets were not particularly selected for their brightness, the high precision of their Spitzer light curves allows us to reach sensitivities below Earth-sized planets for 75 per cent of the sample and down to Europa-sized planets on the brighter targets. We could not identify any unambiguous planetary signal. Instead, we could compute the first limits on the presence of planets on close-in orbits. We find that within a 1.28 d orbit, the occurrence rate of planets with a radius between 0.75 and 3.25 R⊕ is η < 67 ± 1 per cent. For planets with radii between 0.75 and 1.25 R⊕, we place a 95 per cent confident upper limit of η < 87 ± 3 per cent. If we assume an occurrence rate of η = 27 per cent for these planets with radii between 0.75 and 1.25 R⊕, as the discoveries of the Kepler-42b and TRAPPIST-1b systems would suggest, we estimate that 175 brown dwarfs need to be monitored in order to guarantee (95 per cent) at least one detection.

  16. WD0837+185: THE FORMATION AND EVOLUTION OF AN EXTREME MASS-RATIO WHITE-DWARF-BROWN-DWARF BINARY IN PRAESEPE

    SciTech Connect

    Casewell, S. L.; Burleigh, M. R.; Wynn, G. A.; Alexander, R. D.; Lawrie, K. A.; Jameson, R. F.; Napiwotzki, R.; Dobbie, P. D.; Hodgkin, S. T.

    2012-11-10

    There is a striking and unexplained dearth of brown dwarf companions in close orbits (<3 AU) around stars more massive than the Sun, in stark contrast to the frequency of stellar and planetary companions. Although rare and relatively short-lived, these systems leave detectable evolutionary end points in the form of white-dwarf-brown-dwarf binaries and these remnants can offer unique insights into the births and deaths of their parent systems. We present the discovery of a close (orbital separation {approx}0.006 AU) substellar companion to a massive white dwarf member of the Praesepe star cluster. Using the cluster age and the mass of the white dwarf, we constrain the mass of the white dwarf progenitor star to lie in the range 3.5-3.7 M{sub Sun} (B9). The high mass of the white dwarf means the substellar companion must have been engulfed by the B star's envelope while it was on the late asymptotic giant branch (AGB). Hence, the initial separation of the system was {approx}2 AU, with common envelope evolution reducing the separation to its current value. The initial and final orbital separations allow us to constrain the combination of the common envelope efficiency ({alpha}) and binding energy parameters ({lambda}) for the AGB star to {alpha}{lambda} {approx} 3. We examine the various formation scenarios and conclude that the substellar object was most likely captured by the white dwarf progenitor early in the life of the cluster, rather than forming in situ.

  17. The Puzzling Atmospheres of Low-mass Stars, Brown Dwarfs and Exoplanets Revealed by the Discovery Channel Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muirhead, Philip Steven; Croll, Bryce; Dalba, Paul A.; Veyette, Mark; Han, Eunkyu; Kesseli, Aurora; Healy, Brian

    2017-01-01

    The Large Monolithic Imager (LMI) on the Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) enables high-precision photometry with a scriptable interface and rapid cycling between photometric bands, all while guiding off-axis. Using LMI, scientists at Boston University have undertaken a number of investigations into low-mass stars, brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets. We will report on recent results from these investigations, including (1) measurements of transiting asteroids orbiting a white dwarf, (2) refined ephemerides for long-period transiting exoplanets, (3) investigations revealing biases in space-based exoplanet light curves, (4) investigations of the nature of activity in low-mass stars and brown dwarfs and (5) investigations of low-mass eclipsing binary stars. We will also propose future studies of low-mass stars, brown dwarfs and exoplanets using current and future DCT instrumentation.

  18. Comparison of BT Settl Model Spectra in NIR to Brown Dwarfs and Massive Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popinchalk, Mark; Buzard, Cam; Alam, Munazza; Camnasio, Sara; Cruz, Kelle L.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Rice, Emily L.

    2017-01-01

    Brown dwarfs and giant exoplanets are difficult to observe, which hampers our understanding of their properties. Model spectra, such as the BT Settl model grid, can provide an opportunity to augment and validate our understanding of these faint objects by serving to contrast and complement our analysis of their observed spectra. We present work from an upcoming paper that leverages this opportunity. The near infrared (NIR) wavelength region is favorable for analysis of low mass brown dwarfs and high mass gaseous companions, in particular the K band (1.97 - 2.40 µm) due to its relatively high resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio wavelength range for spectra of planetary companions. We present a method to analyze two regions of the K band spectral structure (2.03 - 2.10 µm and 2.215 - 2.290 µm), and apply it to a sample of objects with field gravity, low gravity, and planetary mass as well as the BT Settl model grid for a similar range of effective temperatures and surface gravities. A correlation between spectral structure and effective temperature is found for the shorter wavelength region and there is evidence of gravity dependence for the longer wavelength range. This work suggests that the K band has the potential to be an indicator for brown dwarf and exoplanet surface gravity and effective temperature. We also present preliminary analysis from another upcoming paper. We examine equivalent widths of K I absorption lines at 1.1693 µm, 1.1773 µm, 1.2436 µm and 1.2525 µm in a selection of L dwarfs to explore their physical properties by comparing them to equivalent measurements in the BT Settl model grid.

  19. A Brown Dwarf Companion for the Accreting Millisecond Pulsar SAX J1808.4-3658

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bildsten, Lars; Chakrabarty, Deepto

    2001-08-01

    The BeppoSAX Wide Field Cameras have revealed a population of faint neutron star X-ray transients in the Galactic bulge. King conjectured that these neutron stars are accreting from brown dwarfs with a time-averaged mass transfer rate ~10-11 Msolar yr-1 that is low enough for accretion disk instabilities. We show that the measured orbital parameters of the 401 Hz accreting millisecond pulsar SAX J1808.4-3658 support this hypothesis. A main-sequence mass donor requires a nearly face-on inclination and a higher than observed, and can thus be excluded. However, the range of allowed inclinations is substantially relaxed, and the predicted is consistent with that observed if a hot 0.05 Msolar dwarf is the donor. The remaining puzzle is explaining the brown dwarf radius required (0.13 Rsolar) to fill the Roche lobe. Recent observational and theoretical work has shown that all transiently accreting neutron stars have a minimum luminosity in quiescence set by the time-averaged mass transfer rate onto the neutron star. We show here that the constant heating of the brown dwarf by this quiescent neutron star emission appears adequate to maintain the higher entropy implied by a 0.13 Rsolar radius. All of our considerations very strongly bolster the case that SAX J1808.4-3658 is a progenitor to compact millisecond radio pulsar binaries (e.g., like those found by Camilo and collaborators in 47 Tuc). The very low of SAX J1808.4-3658 implies that the progenitors to these radio pulsars are long-lived (~Gyr) transient systems, rather than short-lived (~Myr) Eddington-limited accretors. Hence, the accreting progenitor population to millisecond radio pulsars in 47 Tuc could still be present and found in quiescence with Chandra.

  20. The Brown Dwarf Kinematics Project (BDKP. III. Parallaxes for 70 Ultracool Dwarfs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-10

    National Science Foundation. 10 Hellman Fellow. Distances provide a direct means for calculating the luminos- ity and (if there is a reliable radius ...automatically removed. These were usually spurious sources caused by unfiltered detector artifacts or cosmic rays. The typical centroiding...to its final radius . Indeed, two of the three overluminous M dwarfs are suspected members of the TW Hydrae association. However, eight out of the ten

  1. THE FIRST HUNDRED BROWN DWARFS DISCOVERED BY THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER (WISE)

    SciTech Connect

    Davy Kirkpatrick, J.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Griffith, Roger L.; Marsh, Kenneth A.; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Beichman, Charles A.; Cushing, Michael C.; Mainzer, A.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Bauer, James M.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Wright, Edward L.; McLean, Ian S.; Lake, Sean E.; Petty, Sara M.; Thompson, Maggie A.; Benford, Dominic J.; Bridge, Carrie R.; Stanford, S. A.; Bailey, Vanessa; and others

    2011-12-01

    We present ground-based spectroscopic verification of 6 Y dwarfs (see also Cushing et al.), 89 T dwarfs, 8 L dwarfs, and 1 M dwarf identified by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Eighty of these are cold brown dwarfs with spectral types {>=}T6, six of which have been announced earlier by Mainzer et al. and Burgasser et al. We present color-color and color-type diagrams showing the locus of M, L, T, and Y dwarfs in WISE color space. Near-infrared and, in a few cases, optical spectra are presented for these discoveries. Near-infrared classifications as late as early Y are presented and objects with peculiar spectra are discussed. Using these new discoveries, we are also able to extend the optical T dwarf classification scheme from T8 to T9. After deriving an absolute WISE 4.6 {mu}m (W2) magnitude versus spectral type relation, we estimate spectrophotometric distances to our discoveries. We also use available astrometric measurements to provide preliminary trigonometric parallaxes to four of our discoveries, which have types of L9 pec (red), T8, T9, and Y0; all of these lie within 10 pc of the Sun. The Y0 dwarf, WISE 1541-2250, is the closest at 2.8{sup +1.3}{sub -0.6} pc; if this 2.8 pc value persists after continued monitoring, WISE 1541-2250 will become the seventh closest stellar system to the Sun. Another 10 objects, with types between T6 and >Y0, have spectrophotometric distance estimates also placing them within 10 pc. The closest of these, the T6 dwarf WISE 1506+7027, is believed to fall at a distance of {approx}4.9 pc. WISE multi-epoch positions supplemented with positional info primarily from the Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera allow us to calculate proper motions and tangential velocities for roughly one-half of the new discoveries. This work represents the first step by WISE to complete a full-sky, volume-limited census of late-T and Y dwarfs. Using early results from this census, we present preliminary, lower limits to the space density of

  2. Towards precise ages and masses of Free Floating Planetary Mass Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canty, J. I.; Lucas, P. W.; Roche, P. F.; Pinfield, D. J.

    2013-11-01

    Measurement of the substellar initial mass function (IMF) in very young clusters is hampered by the possibility of the age spread of cluster members. This is particularly serious for candidate planetary mass objects (PMOs), which have a very similar location to older and more massive brown dwarfs on the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram (HRD). This degeneracy can be lifted by the measurement of gravity-sensitive spectral features. To this end we have obtained medium-resolution (R ≈ 5000) Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrometer (NIFS) K-band spectra of a sample of late M-/early L-type dwarfs. The sample comprises old field dwarfs and very young brown dwarfs in the Taurus association and in the σ Orionis cluster. We demonstrate a positive correlation between the strengths of the 2.21 μm Na I doublet and the objects' ages. We demonstrate a further correlation between these objects' ages and the shape of their K-band spectra. We have quantified this correlation in the form of a new index, the H2(K) index. This index appears to be more gravity-sensitive than the Na I doublet and has the advantage that it can be computed for spectra where gravity-sensitive spectral lines are unresolved, while it is also more sensitive to surface gravity at very young ages (<10 Myr) than the triangular H-band peak. Both correlations differentiate young objects from field dwarfs, while the H2(K) index can distinguish, at least statistically, populations of ˜1 Myr objects from populations of ˜10 Myr objects. We applied the H2(K) index to NIFS data for one Orion nebula cluster (ONC) PMO and to previously published low-resolution spectra for several other ONC PMOs where the 2.21 μm Na I doublet was unresolved and concluded that the average age of the PMOs is ˜1 Myr.

  3. Elucidating the True Binary Fraction of VLM Stars and Brown Dwarfs with Spectral Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella; Burgasser, Adam J.; Gelino, Christopher R.; SAHLMANN, JOHANNES; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Gagne, Jonathan; Skrzypek, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    The very lowest-mass (VLM) stars and brown dwarfs are found in abundance in nearly all Galactic environments, yet their formation mechanism(s) remain an open question. One means of testing current formation theories is to use multiplicity statistics. The majority of VLM binaries have been discovered through direct imaging, and current angular resolution limits (0.05”-0.1") are coincident with the 1-4 AU peak in the projected separation distribution of known systems, suggesting an observational bias. I have developed a separation-independent method to detect T dwarf companions to late-M/early-L dwarfs by identifying methane absorption in their unresolved, low-resolution, near-infrared spectra using spectral indices and template fitting. Over 60 spectral binary candidates have been identified with this and comparable methods. I discuss follow-up observations, including laser-guide star adaptive optics imaging with Keck/NIRC2, which have confirmed 9 systems; and radial velocity and astrometric monitoring observations that have confirmed 7 others. The direct imaging results indicate a resolved binary fraction of 18%, coincident with current estimates of the VLM binary fraction; however, our sample contained 5 previously confirmed binaries, raising its true binary fraction to 47%. To more accurately measure the true VLM binary fraction, I describe the construction of an unbiased, volume-limited, near-infrared spectral sample of M7-L5 dwarfs within 25 pc, of which 4 (1%) are found to be spectral binary candidates. I model the complex selection biases of this method through a population simulation, set constraints on the true binary fraction as traced by these systems, and compare to the predictions of current formation theories. I also describe how this method may be applied to conduct a separation-unbiased search for giant exoplanets orbiting young VLM stars and brown dwarfs.

  4. UKIDSS detections of cool brown dwarfs. Proper motions of 14 known >T5 dwarfs and discovery of three new T5.5-T6 dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, R.-D.; Bihain, G.; Schnurr, O.; Storm, J.

    2012-05-01

    Aims: We contribute to improving the census of cool brown dwarfs (late-T and Y dwarfs) in the immediate solar neighbourhood. Methods: By combining near-infrared (NIR) data of UKIDSS with mid-infrared WISE and other available NIR (2MASS) and red optical (SDSS z-band) multi-epoch data we detected high proper motion (HPM) objects with colours typical of late spectral types (>T5). We used NIR low-resolution spectroscopy for the classification of new candidates. Results: We determined new proper motions for 14 known T5.5-Y0 dwarfs, many of which are significantly (>2-10 times) more accurate than previous ones. We detected three new candidates, ULAS J0954+0623, ULAS J1152+0359, and ULAS J1204-0150, by their HPMs and colours. Using previously published and new UKIDSS positions of the known nearby T8 dwarf WISE J0254+0223 we improved its trigonometric parallax to 165 ± 20 mas. For the three new objects we obtained NIR spectroscopic follow-up with LBT/LUCIFER classifying them as T5.5 and T6 dwarfs. With their estimated spectroscopic distances of about 25-30 pc, their proper motions of about 430-650 mas/yr lead to tangential velocities of about 50-80 km s-1, typical of the Galactic thin-disk population. Based on observations with the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT)Tables 1-5 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  5. Characterizing Cool Brown Dwarfs and Low-Mass Companions with Low-Resolution Near-Infrared Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godfrey, Paige A.

    Exoplanet direct detections are reaching the temperature regime of cool brown dwarfs, motivating further understanding of the coolest substellar atmospheres. These objects, T and Y dwarfs, are numerous and isolated in the field, thus making them easier to study in detail than objects in companion systems. Brown dwarf spectral types are derived from spectral morphology and generally appear to correspond with decreasing mass and effective temperature (Teff). However, spectral subclasses of the colder objects do not share this monotonic temperature correlation, indicating that secondary parameters (gravity, metallicity, dust) significantly influence spectral morphology. These secondary atmospheric parameters can provide insight into age and formation mechanisms. We seek to disentangle the fundamental parameters that underlie the spectral morphology of T dwarfs, the coolest fully populated spectral class of brown dwarfs, using comparisons to atmospheric models. We investigate the relationship between spectral type and Teff from the best fit model parameters for a sample of 151 T dwarfs with low resolution (R˜75-100) near-infrared SpeX Prism spectra. We use synthetic spectra from three model grids (Morley+ 2012, Saumon+ 2012, and BT Settl 2013) and a Markov-Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) analysis to determine robust best fit parameters with uncertainties. We perform our analysis on the full spectrum and on narrower wavelength ranges, for the BT-Settl 2013 model grid, where directly detected exoplanets are typically characterized. We provide foundational assessments of the factors that affect T dwarf spectral morphology to prescribe the best approach to interpreting spectra of cool substellar objects. Using T dwarfs as exoplanet analogs, we create spectral templates from observed spectra for comparison to cool companion spectra of high contrast imaged objects. Our analysis of these proof-of-concept cases provides the backbone for interpreting spectra for some of the benchmark

  6. K-H2 line shapes for the spectra of cool brown dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allard, N. F.; Spiegelman, F.; Kielkopf, J. F.

    2016-05-01

    Observations of cooler and cooler brown dwarfs show that the contribution from broadening at many bars pressure is becoming important. The opacity in the red optical to near-IR region under these conditions is dominated by the extremely pressure-broadened wings of the alkali resonance lines, in particular, the K I resonance doublet at 0.77 μm. Collisions with H2 are preponderant in brown dwarf atmospheres at an effective temperature of about 1000 K; the H2 perturber densities reach several 1019 even in Jupiter-mass planets and exceed 1020 for super-Jupiters and older Y dwarfs. As a consequence, it appears that when the far wing absorption due to alkali atoms in a dense H2 atmosphere is significant, accurate pressure broadened profiles that are valid at high densities of H2 should be incorporated into spectral models. The opacity tables are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/589/A21

  7. Variable and Polarized Radio Emission from a T6 Brown Dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Peter K. G.; Gizis, John; Berger, Edo

    2017-01-01

    Route & Wolszczan (2016) recently detected five radio bursts from the T6 brown dwarf WISEP J112254.7+255021.5 and used the timing of these events to propose that this object rotates with an ultra-short period of ~17.3 minutes. We conducted follow-up observations with the Very Large Array and Gemini-North but found no evidence for this periodicity. We do, however, observe variable, highly circularly polarized radio emission possibly with a period of 116 minutes, although our observation lasted only 162 minutes and so more data are needed to confirm it. Our proposed periodicity is typical of other radio-active ultracool dwarfs. The handedness of the circular polarization alternates with time and there is no evidence for any unpolarized emission component, the first time such a phenomenology has been observed in radio studies of very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. We suggest that the object’s magnetic dipole axis may be highly misaligned relative to its rotation axis.

  8. Southern Very Low Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs in Wide Binary and Multiple Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, José Antonio

    2007-09-01

    The results of the Königstuhl survey in the Southern Hemisphere are presented. I have searched for common proper motion companions to 173 field very low mass stars and brown dwarfs with spectral types >M5.0 V and magnitudes J<~14.5 mag. I have measured for the first time the common proper motion of two new wide systems containing very low mass components, Königstuhl 2 AB and 3 A-BC. Together with Königstuhl 1 AB and 2M 0126-50 AB, they are among the widest systems in their respective classes (r=450-11,900 AU). I have determined the minimum frequency of field wide multiples (r>100 AU) with late-type components at 5.0%+/-1.8% and the frequency of field wide late-type binaries with mass ratios q>0.5 at 1.2%+/-0.9%. These values represent a key diagnostic of evolution history and low-mass star and brown dwarf formation scenarios. In addition, the proper motions of 62 field very low mass dwarfs are measured here for the first time.

  9. LHS 6343 C: A TRANSITING FIELD BROWN DWARF DISCOVERED BY THE KEPLER MISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, John Asher; Crepp, Justin R.; Morton, Timothy D.; Apps, Kevin; Gazak, J. Zachary; Crossfield, Ian J.; Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoff W.; Chubak, Carly; Isaacson, Howard

    2011-04-01

    We report the discovery of a brown dwarf that transits one member of the M+M binary system LHS 6343 AB every 12.71 days. The transits were discovered using photometric data from the Kepler public data release. The LHS 6343 stellar system was previously identified as a single high proper motion M dwarf. We use adaptive optics imaging to resolve the system into two low-mass stars with masses 0.370 {+-} 0.009 M{sub sun} and 0.30 {+-} 0.01 M{sub sun}, respectively, and a projected separation of 0.''55. High-resolution spectroscopy shows that the more massive component undergoes Doppler variations consistent with Keplerian motion, with a period equal to the transit period and an amplitude consistent with a companion mass of M{sub C} = 62.7 {+-} 2.4 M{sub Jup}. Based on our analysis of the transit light curve, we estimate the radius of the companion to be R{sub C} = 0.833 {+-} 0.021 R{sub Jup}, which is consistent with theoretical predictions of the radius of a >1 Gyr brown dwarf.

  10. FURTHER DEFINING SPECTRAL TYPE 'Y' AND EXPLORING THE LOW-MASS END OF THE FIELD BROWN DWARF MASS FUNCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Davy Kirkpatrick, J.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Griffith, Roger L.; Marsh, Kenneth A.; Cushing, Michael C.; Mace, Gregory N.; Wright, Edward L.; McLean, Ian S.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Mainzer, Amanda K.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Tinney, C. G.; Parker, Stephen; Salter, Graeme

    2012-07-10

    We present the discovery of another seven Y dwarfs from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using these objects, as well as the first six WISE Y dwarf discoveries from Cushing et al., we further explore the transition between spectral types T and Y. We find that the T/Y boundary roughly coincides with the spot where the J - H colors of brown dwarfs, as predicted by models, turn back to the red. Moreover, we use preliminary trigonometric parallax measurements to show that the T/Y boundary may also correspond to the point at which the absolute H (1.6 {mu}m) and W2 (4.6 {mu}m) magnitudes plummet. We use these discoveries and their preliminary distances to place them in the larger context of the solar neighborhood. We present a table that updates the entire stellar and substellar constituency within 8 pc of the Sun, and we show that the current census has hydrogen-burning stars outnumbering brown dwarfs by roughly a factor of six. This factor will decrease with time as more brown dwarfs are identified within this volume, but unless there is a vast reservoir of cold brown dwarfs invisible to WISE, the final space density of brown dwarfs is still expected to fall well below that of stars. We also use these new Y dwarf discoveries, along with newly discovered T dwarfs from WISE, to investigate the field substellar mass function. We find that the overall space density of late-T and early-Y dwarfs matches that from simulations describing the mass function as a power law with slope -0.5 < {alpha} < 0.0; however, a power law may provide a poor fit to the observed object counts as a function of spectral type because there are tantalizing hints that the number of brown dwarfs continues to rise from late-T to early-Y. More detailed monitoring and characterization of these Y dwarfs, along with dedicated searches aimed at identifying more examples, are certainly required.

  11. THE ULTRA COOL BROWN DWARF COMPANION OF WD 0806-661B: AGE, MASS, AND FORMATION MECHANISM

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, David R.; Zuckerman, B.; Melis, Carl; Song, Inseok

    2011-05-10

    We have combined multi-epoch images from the Infrared Side Port Imager on the CTIO 4 m telescope to derive a 3{sigma} limit of J = 21.7 for the ultra cool brown dwarf companion to WD 0806-661 (GJ 3483). We find that J - [4.5] > 4.95, redder than any other brown dwarf known to date. With theoretical evolutionary models and ages 1.5-2.7 Gyr, we estimate the brown dwarf companion to have mass <10-13 M{sub Jup} and temperature {approx}< 400 K, providing evidence that this is among the coolest brown dwarfs currently known. The range of masses for this object is consistent with that anticipated from Jeans-mass fragmentation and we present this as the likely formation mechanism. However, we find that substellar companions of similar mass ({approx}7-17 M{sub Jup}) are distributed over a wide range of semimajor axes, which suggests that giant planet and low-mass brown dwarf formation overlap in this mass range.

  12. Atmospheric Chemistry in Giant Planets, Brown Dwarfs, and Low-Mass Dwarf Stars. II. Sulfur and Phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visscher, Channon; Lodders, Katharina; Fegley, Bruce, Jr.

    2006-09-01

    Thermochemical equilibrium and kinetic calculations are used to model sulfur and phosphorus chemistry in giant planets, brown dwarfs, and extrasolar giant planets (EGPs). The chemical behavior of individual S- and P-bearing gases and condensates is determined as a function of pressure, temperature, and metallicity. The results are independent of particular model atmospheres, and in principle, the equilibrium composition along the pressure-temperature profile of any object can be determined. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is the dominant S-bearing gas throughout substellar atmospheres and approximately represents the atmospheric sulfur inventory. Silicon sulfide (SiS) is a potential tracer of weather in substellar atmospheres. Disequilibrium abundances of phosphine (PH3) approximately representative of the total atmospheric phosphorus inventory are expected to be mixed upward into the observable atmospheres of giant planets and T dwarfs. In hotter objects, several P-bearing gases (e.g., P2, PH3, PH 2, PH, and HCP) become increasingly important at high temperatures.

  13. Models of very-low-mass stars, brown dwarfs and exoplanets.

    PubMed

    Allard, F; Homeier, D; Freytag, B

    2012-06-13

    Within the next few years, GAIA and several instruments aiming to image extrasolar planets will be ready. In parallel, low-mass planets are being sought around red dwarfs, which offer more favourable conditions, for both radial velocity detection and transit studies, than solar-type stars. In this paper, the authors of a model atmosphere code that has allowed the detection of water vapour in the atmosphere of hot Jupiters review recent advances in modelling the stellar to substellar transition. The revised solar oxygen abundances and cloud model allow the photometric and spectroscopic properties of this transition to be reproduced for the first time. Also presented are highlight results of a model atmosphere grid for stars, brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets.

  14. Hubble Space Telescope astrometry of the closest brown dwarf binary system - I. Overview and improved orbit★

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedin, L. R.; Pourbaix, D.; Apai, D.; Burgasser, A. J.; Buenzli, E.; Boffin, H. M. J.; Libralato, M.

    2017-09-01

    Located at 2 pc, the L7.5+T0.5 dwarfs system WISE J104915.57-531906.1 (Luhman 16 AB) is the third closest system known to Earth, making it a key benchmark for detailed investigation of brown dwarf atmospheric properties, thermal evolution, multiplicity, and planet-hosting frequency. In the first study of this series - based on a multicycle Hubble Space Telescope (HST) program - we provide an overview of the project and present improved estimates of positions, proper motions, annual parallax, mass ratio, and the current best assessment of the orbital parameters of the A-B pair. Our HST observations encompass the apparent periastron of the binary at 220.5 ± 0.2 mas at epoch 2016.402. Although our data seem to be inconsistent with recent ground-based astrometric measurements, we also exclude the presence of third bodies down to Neptune masses and periods longer than a year.

  15. Models of very-low-mass stars, brown dwarfs and exoplanets

    PubMed Central

    Allard, F.; Homeier, D.; Freytag, B.

    2012-01-01

    Within the next few years, GAIA and several instruments aiming to image extrasolar planets will be ready. In parallel, low-mass planets are being sought around red dwarfs, which offer more favourable conditions, for both radial velocity detection and transit studies, than solar-type stars. In this paper, the authors of a model atmosphere code that has allowed the detection of water vapour in the atmosphere of hot Jupiters review recent advances in modelling the stellar to substellar transition. The revised solar oxygen abundances and cloud model allow the photometric and spectroscopic properties of this transition to be reproduced for the first time. Also presented are highlight results of a model atmosphere grid for stars, brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets. PMID:22547243

  16. Studies of the Coldest Brown Dwarfs With The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roellig, Thomas L.; Greene, Thomas P.; Beichman, Charles; Meyer, Michael; Rieke, Marcia

    2016-07-01

    The coolest T and Y-class Brown Dwarf objects are very faint and are therefore very poorly understood, since they are barely detectable with the current astronomical instrumentation. The upcoming James Webb Space Telescope now in development for a launch in the Fall of 2018 will have vastly increased sensitivity in the near and mid-infrared compared to any current facilities and will not be affected by telluric absorption over its entire wavelength range of operations. As a result it will be an ideal tool to obtain information about the composition and temperature-pressure structure in these objects' atmospheres. This presentation outlines the JWST guaranteed time observing plans for these studies. These plans comprise both spectro-photometric and spectroscopic observations of a selection of late T and Y-dwarf targets.

  17. First Results: A Custom Near-IR Filter For Finding Young Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allers, Katelyn N.; Liu, M. C.

    2007-12-01

    We present the first results from our custom near-IR filter designed for use with ULBCAM on UH 88" telescope. Our 6% wide filter is centered on the 1.45 micron steam absorption feature seen prominently in the spectra of M and L type objects, and is designed to determine spectral type, independent of gravity and reddening, to within one subtype. For identifying young brown dwarfs in star-forming regions, our filter is designed to reduce the number of contaminant field dwarfs, giants, and extragalactic objects, thereby increasing the efficiency of spectroscopic followup over existing broad-band-only photometric selected samples. We discuss our data reduction and calibration procedures, and present observations of the Ophiuchus Star-Forming Region. This work is supported by NSF grant AST-0407441 and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation

  18. The Sodium Hydride Line Opacity for Brown Dwarf and Extra-solar Giant Planet Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, A.; Stancil, P. C.; Taylor, B. K.; Leininger, T.; Gadéa, F. X.

    2003-12-01

    Atomic sodium is an important opacity in the spectra of brown dwarfs and is the only atmospheric constituent to date that has been detected in an extrasolar giant planet (EGP). For temperatures between ˜1000 and 2000 K, NaH and NaCl are the next most abundant sodium species (Lodders, 1999, ApJ, 519, 793). Due to the lack of opacity data for these molecules, they have not been considered in brown dwarf and EGP synthetic spectra models. In this work, we consider NaH and present comprehensive theoretical molecular line lists for rovibrational transitions in the ground X state and for the electronic transition between the A and X states. The list contains the transition energies and oscillator strengths for all allowed rotational and vibrational transitions. The calculations use hybrid potential curves based on experimental data, the theoretical X state potential and dipole moment function of Taylor & Newman (2003, J. Chem. Phys., 118, 8770), and the theoretical A state potential and X-A transition moment function of Leininger et al. (2000, J. Phys. B, 33, 1805). Using the Numerov-Cooley method, we find that there are 860 and 1824 rovibrational levels in the X and A states, respectively, which give rise to a large number of rotational transitions. Pure rotational, rovibrational, and A<-X electronic LTE spectra are presented for temperatures typical of brown dwarfs and EGPs. The bandheads occur at 8.8 μ and 3990 Å for the fundamental vibrational and A<-X electronic transitions, respectively. This work was supported in part by the NSF REU Program at UGA and NASA grant NAG5-10551.

  19. A Survey for Planetary-mass Brown Dwarfs in the Chamaeleon I Star-forming Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esplin, T. L.; Luhman, K. L.; Faherty, J. K.; Mamajek, E. E.; Bochanski, J. J.

    2017-08-01

    We have performed a search for planetary-mass brown dwarfs in the Chamaeleon I star-forming region using proper motions and photometry measured from optical and infrared images from the Spitzer Space Telescope, the Hubble Space Telescope, and ground-based facilities. Through near-IR spectroscopy at Gemini Observatory, we have confirmed six of the candidates as new late-type members of Chamaeleon I (≥M8). One of these objects, Cha J11110675-7636030, has the faintest extinction-corrected M K among known members, which corresponds to a mass of 3-6 {M}{Jup} according to evolutionary models. That object and two other new members have redder mid-IR colors than young photospheres at ≤M9.5, which may indicate the presence of disks. However, since those objects may be later than M9.5 and the mid-IR colors of young photospheres are ill-defined at those types, we cannot determine conclusively whether color excesses from disks are present. If Cha J11110675-7636030 does have a disk, it would be a contender for the least-massive known brown dwarf with a disk. Since the new brown dwarfs that we have found extend below our completeness limit of 6-10 M {}{Jup}, deeper observations are needed to measure the minimum mass of the initial mass function in Chamaeleon I. Based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, Gemini Observatory, the ESO Telescopes at Paranal Observatory, Magellan Observatory, the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, and the ESA Gaia mission.

  20. 2MASS J09393548-2448279: the coolest and least luminous brown dwarf binary known?

    SciTech Connect

    Saumon, Didier; Burgasser, Adam J; Tinney, Chris G; Cushing, Michael C; Marley, Mark S; Bennett, Clara; Kirkpatrick, J Davy

    2008-01-01

    Measurement of the luminosity and atmospheric properties of the T8 brown dwarf 2MASS J09393548-2448279 are presented, based on Spitzer IRAC and IRS mid-infrared observations and IRIS2 ground-based astrometry. We determine log{sub 10} L{sub bol}/L{sub {circle_dot}} = -5.69 {+-} 0.03 for this nearby source (d = 5.34 {+-} 0.13 pc), similar to the current low luminosity record-holder 2MASS J04151954-0935066. However, modeling of near-infrared and mid-infrared spectral data indicate a low effective temperature of 600 {+-} 25 K, roughtly 100 K cooler than 2M0415. We also determine a normal surface gravity (log g = 4.8 {+-} 0.5 cgs), a slightly sub-solar metallicity ([M/H] {approx}< 0) and clear evidence for vertical upwelling in the photosphere of 2M0939. The luminosity and atmospheric properties of this source cannot be reconciled with brown dwarf evolutionary models, and surface fluxes require a highly inflated radius of R {approx} 0.13 R{sub {circle_dot}}. However, if 2M0939 is an as-yet unresolved, equal-mass binary, then the reduced luminosity of each component (log {sub 10} L{sub bol}/L{sub {circle_dot}} {approx} -6) can be brought into full agreement with the atmospheric parameters for an age of {approx}5 Gyr and component masses of {approx}0.03 M{sub {circle_dot}}. As such, 2M0939 may be the coldest and least luminous brown dwarf pair currently known.

  1. Ionisation and discharge in cloud-forming atmospheres of brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helling, Ch; Rimmer, P. B.; Rodriguez-Barrera, I. M.; Wood, Kenneth; Robertson, G. B.; Stark, C. R.

    2016-07-01

    Brown dwarfs and giant gas extrasolar planets have cold atmospheres with rich chemical compositions from which mineral cloud particles form. Their properties, like particle sizes and material composition, vary with height, and the mineral cloud particles are charged due to triboelectric processes in such dynamic atmospheres. The dynamics of the atmospheric gas is driven by the irradiating host star and/or by the rotation of the objects that changes during its lifetime. Thermal gas ionisation in these ultra-cool but dense atmospheres allows electrostatic interactions and magnetic coupling of a substantial atmosphere volume. Combined with a strong magnetic field \\gg {{B}\\text{Earth}} , a chromosphere and aurorae might form as suggested by radio and x-ray observations of brown dwarfs. Non-equilibrium processes like cosmic ray ionisation and discharge processes in clouds will increase the local pool of free electrons in the gas. Cosmic rays and lighting discharges also alter the composition of the local atmospheric gas such that tracer molecules might be identified. Cosmic rays affect the atmosphere through air showers in a certain volume which was modelled with a 3D Monte Carlo radiative transfer code to be able to visualise their spacial extent. Given a certain degree of thermal ionisation of the atmospheric gas, we suggest that electron attachment to charge mineral cloud particles is too inefficient to cause an electrostatic disruption of the cloud particles. Cloud particles will therefore not be destroyed by Coulomb explosion for the local temperature in the collisional dominated brown dwarf and giant gas planet atmospheres. However, the cloud particles are destroyed electrostatically in regions with strong gas ionisation. The potential size of such cloud holes would, however, be too small and might occur too far inside the cloud to mimic the effect of, e.g. magnetic field induced star spots.

  2. The Effect of Atmospheric Cooling on Vertical Velocity Dispersion and Density Distribution of Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Russell E., Jr.; Thorman, Paul A.; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Cohen, Seth H.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Holwerda, Benne W.; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Pirzkal, Nor; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Young, Erick

    2017-09-01

    We present a Monte Carlo simulation designed to predict the vertical velocity dispersion of brown dwarfs in the Milky Way. We show that since these stars are constantly cooling, the velocity dispersion has a noticeable trend with the spectral type. With realistic assumptions for the initial mass function, star formation history, and the cooling models, we show that the velocity dispersion is roughly consistent with what is observed for M dwarfs, decreases to cooler spectral types, and increases again for the coolest types in our study (∼T9). We predict a minimum in the velocity dispersions for L/T transition objects, however, the detailed properties of the minimum predominately depend on the star formation history. Since this trend is due to brown dwarf cooling, we expect that the velocity dispersion as a function of spectral type should deviate from the constancy around the hydrogen-burning limit. We convert from velocity dispersion to vertical scale height using standard disk models and present similar trends in disk thickness as a function of spectral type. We suggest that future, wide-field photometric and/or spectroscopic missions may collect sizable samples of distant (∼ 1 kpc) dwarfs that span the hydrogen-burning limit. As such, we speculate that such observations may provide a unique way of constraining the average spectral type of hydrogen burning. Support for program #13266 was provided by NASA through a grant from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under the NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  3. Deriving the True Mass of an Unresolved Brown Dwarf Companion with AO Aided Astrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Eva; Kürster, M.

    2010-01-01

    From radial velocity detections alone one does not get all orbital parameters needed to derive the true mass of a non-transiting, unresolved substellar companion to a star. Additional astrometric measurements are needed to calculate the inclination and the longitude of the ascending node. Until today only few true companion masses have been determined by this method with the HST fine guidance sensor (Benedict 2006, Benedict 2002). We aim to derive the true mass of a brown dwarf candidate companion to an early M 2.5V dwarf with groundbased high-resolution astrometry aided by adaptive optics. We found this unique brown dwarf desert object, which distance to the host star is only 0.42 AU, in our UVES precision radial velocity survey of M dwarfs, inferring a minimum companion mass of 27 Jupiter masses (Kuerster 2008). Combining the data with HIPPARCOS astrometry, we found a probability of only 2.9% that the companion is stellar. We are therefore observing the host star and a reference star within a monitoring program with VLT/NACO to derive the true mass of the companion and establish its nature (BD vs. star). Simultaneous observations of a reference field in a globular cluster are performed to determine the stability of the AO plus detector system and check its suitability for such high-precision astrometric measurements over several epochs which are needed to find and analyse extrasolar planet systems. We present preliminary results of the analysis of the astrometric displacements of the host star due to the unseen companion after correcting for differential refraction and differential aberration, as well as a first orbit fit and mass estimation.

  4. Update on ONC's Substellar IMF: A Second Peak in the Brown Dwarf Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drass, Holger; Bayo, A.; Chini, R.; Haas, M.

    2017-06-01

    The Orion Nebular Cluster (ONC) has become the prototype cluster for studying the Initial Mass Function (IMF). In a deep JHK survey of the ONC with HAWK-I we detected a large population of 900 Brown Dwarfs and Planetary Mass Object candidates presenting a pronounced second peak in the substellar IMF. One of the most obvious issues of this result is the verification of cluster membership. The analysis so far was mainly based on statistical consideration. In this presentation I will show the results from using different high-resolution extinction map to determine the ONC membership.

  5. Multi-band Emission Light Curves of Jupiter: Insights on Brown Dwarfs and Directly Imaged Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xi; Ge, Huazhi; Orton, Glenn S.; Fletcher, Leigh N.; Sinclair, James; Fernandes, Joshua; Momary, Thomas W.; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Sato, Takao M.; Fujiyoshi, Takuya

    2016-10-01

    Many brown dwarfs exhibit significant infrared flux variability (e.g., Artigau et al. 2009, ApJ, 701, 1534; Radigan et al. 2012, ApJ, 750, 105), ranging from several to twenty percent of the brightness. Current hypotheses include temperature variations, cloud holes and patchiness, and cloud height and thickness variations (e.g., Apai et al. 2013, ApJ, 768, 121; Robinson and Marley 2014, ApJ, 785, 158; Zhang and Showman 2014, ApJ, 788, L6). Some brown dwarfs show phase shifts in the light curves among different wavelengths (e.g., Buenzli et al. 2012, ApJ, 760, L31; Yang et al. 2016, arXiv:1605.02708), indicating vertical variations of the cloud distribution. The current observational technique can barely detect the brightness changes on the surfaces of nearby brown dwarfs (Crossfield et al. 2014, Nature, 505, 654) let alone resolve detailed weather patterns that cause the flux variability. The infrared emission maps of Jupiter might shed light on this problem. Using COMICS at Subaru Telescope, VISIR at Very Large Telescope (VLT) and NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF), we obtained infrared images of Jupiter over several nights at multiple wavelengths that are sensitive to several pressure levels from the stratosphere to the deep troposphere below the ammonia clouds. The rotational maps and emission light curves are constructed. The individual pixel brightness varies up to a hundred percent level and the variation of the full-disk brightness is around several percent. Both the shape and amplitude of the light curves are significantly distinct at different wavelengths. Variation of light curves at different epochs and phase shift among different wavelengths are observed. We will present principle component analysis to identify dominant emission features such as stable vortices, cloud holes and eddies in the belts and zones and strong emissions in the aurora region. A radiative transfer model is used to simulate those features to get a more quantitative

  6. Optical and NIR Polarimetry of a Core L328 with Proto-Brown Dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soam, A.; Kwon, J.; Maheswar, G.; Tamura, M.; Lee, C. W.

    2015-12-01

    LDN 328 is cited as an example of a fairly isolated clump contracting to form multiple sub-cores possibly through gravitational fragmentation. In one of these sub-cores, a proto-brown dwarf (L328-IRS) candidate is in the process of formation through the self-gravitating contraction. We present results of our optical and near infrared polarisation observations of regions towards LDN 328. Results from the present study suggest that the magnetic field may be playing a vital role even in the cores that are forming sub-stellar sources.

  7. New Young Brown Dwarfs in the Orion Molecular Cloud 2/3 Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Dawn E.; Megeath, S. T.; Luhman, K. L.; Pipher, J. L.; Stauffer, J. R.; Barrado y Navascués, D.; Wilson, J. C.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Nelson, M. J.; Smith, J. D.

    2008-09-01

    Forty new low-mass members with spectral types ranging from M4 to M9 have been confirmed in the Orion Molecular Cloud (OMC) 2/3 region. Through deep, I-, z'-, J-, H-, and K-band photometry of a 20' × 20' field in OMC 2/3, we selected brown dwarf candidates for follow-up spectroscopy. Low-resolution far-red and near-infrared spectra were obtained for the candidates, and 19 young brown dwarfs in the OMC 2/3 region are confirmed. They exhibit spectral types of M6.5-M9, corresponding to approximate masses of 0.075-0.015 M⊙ using the evolutionary models of Baraffe et al. At least one of these bona fide young brown dwarfs has strong Hα emission, indicating that it is actively accreting. In addition, we confirm 21 new low-mass members with spectral types of M4-M6, corresponding to approximate masses of 0.35-0.10 M⊙ in OMC 2/3. By comparing pre-main-sequence tracks to the positions of the members in the H-R diagram, we find that most of the brown dwarfs are less than 1 Myr, but find a number of low-mass stars with inferred ages greater than 3 Myr. The discrepancy in the stellar and substellar ages is due to our selection of only low-luminosity sources; however, the presence of such objects implies the presence of an age spread in the OMC 2/3 region. We discuss possible reasons for this apparent age spread. Some of the observations presented here were obtained at the MMT Observatory, Whipple Observatory, W. M. Keck Observatory, Las Campanas Observatory, Mount Graham International Observatory, and Apache Point Observatory. The MMT Observatory is a joint facility of the Smithsonian Institution and the University of Arizona. The W. M. Keck Observatory is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The W. M. Keck Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. The Apache Point Observatory 3.5 m telescope

  8. CLOUDS IN THE COLDEST BROWN DWARFS: FIRE SPECTROSCOPY OF ROSS 458C

    SciTech Connect

    Burgasser, Adam J.; Simcoe, Robert A.; Bochanski, John J.; Saumon, Didier; Mamajek, Eric E.; McMurtry, Craig; Pipher, Judith L.; Forrest, William J.; Cushing, Michael C.; Marley, Mark S.

    2010-12-20

    Condensate clouds are a salient feature of L dwarf atmospheres, but have been assumed to play little role in shaping the spectra of the coldest T-type brown dwarfs. Here we report evidence of condensate opacity in the near-infrared spectrum of the brown dwarf candidate Ross 458C, obtained with the Folded-Port Infrared Echellette (FIRE) spectrograph at the Magellan Telescopes. These data verify the low-temperature nature of this source, indicating a T8 spectral classification, log{sub 10} L{sub bol}/L{sub sun} = -5.62 {+-} 0.03, T{sub eff} = 650 {+-} 25 K, and a mass at or below the deuterium burning limit. The data also reveal enhanced emission at the K band associated with youth (low surface gravity) and supersolar metallicity, reflecting the properties of the Ross 458 system (age = 150-800 Myr, [Fe/H] = +0.2 to +0.3). We present fits of FIRE data for Ross 458C, the T9 dwarf ULAS J133553.45+113005.2, and the blue T7.5 dwarf SDSS J141624.08+134826.7B, to cloudless and cloudy spectral models from Saumon and Marley. For Ross 458C, we confirm a low surface gravity and supersolar metallicity, while the temperature differs depending on the presence (635{sup +25}{sub -35} K) or absence (760{sup +70}{sub -45} K) of cloud extinction. ULAS J1335+1130 and SDSS J1416+1348B have similar temperatures (595{sup +25}{sub -45} K), but distinct surface gravities (log g = 4.0-4.5 cgs versus 5.0-5.5 cgs) and metallicities ([M/H] {approx} +0.2 versus -0.2). In all three cases, cloudy models provide better fits to the spectral data, significantly so for Ross 458C. These results indicate that clouds are an important opacity source in the spectra of young cold T dwarfs and should be considered when characterizing planetary-mass objects in young clusters and directly imaged exoplanets. The characteristics of Ross 458C suggest that it could itself be regarded as a planet, albeit one whose cosmogony does not conform with current planet formation theories.

  9. Microshutter Arrays for the JWST NIRSpec

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moseley, Samuel H.

    2010-01-01

    A primary goal of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is to characterize the birth and evolution of galaxies by imaging and spectroscopic observations. The telescope will use a Near Infrared Camera and a Near Infrared Spectrometer (NIRSpec) to carry out this program. The 3.6' x 3.6' field of NIRSpec will contain thousands of candidate high redshift galaxies. With such a high candidate object density, simultaneous multi-object capability is essential. This capability requires a programmable object selection mask to eliminate sky background and to reduce source confusion caused. We are developing a two-dimensional programmable field mask for NIRSpec. These masks employ micromechanical (MEMS) techniques to provide source selection over the NIRSpec field of view. The first flight format arrays (171x365 shutters) have been fabricated and full functionality of these arrays has been demonstrated in lab tests.

  10. Microshutter Arrays for the JWST NIRSpec

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moseley, Samuel H.

    2010-01-01

    A primary goal of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is to characterize the birth and evolution of galaxies by imaging and spectroscopic observations. The telescope will use a Near Infrared Camera and a Near Infrared Spectrometer (NIRSpec) to carry out this program. The 3.6' x 3.6' field of NIRSpec will contain thousands of candidate high redshift galaxies. With such a high candidate object density, simultaneous multi-object capability is essential. This capability requires a programmable object selection mask to eliminate sky background and to reduce source confusion caused. We are developing a two-dimensional programmable field mask for NIRSpec. These masks employ micromechanical (MEMS) techniques to provide source selection over the NIRSpec field of view. The first flight format arrays (171x365 shutters) have been fabricated and full functionality of these arrays has been demonstrated in lab tests.

  11. A study of circumstellar disk properties in low-mass stars and brown dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riaz, Basmah

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope IRAC and MIPS observations for a sample of eight M dwarfs: six dMe, one dM, and one sdMe star. All of our targets are found to have Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) which are fitted within the error bars by a purely photospheric spectrum out to 24m m . The estimated ages for all are >10 Myr, suggesting that enough disk dissipation has occurred within the inner several AU of the star. Scaling from Houdebine's model of the AU Mic chromosphere, we have computed the free-free infrared excesses for a range of densities. Our Spitzer 24m m data shows that the chromospheres in two of our targets are less dense than in AU Mic by a factor of 10 or more. Our models also indicate that the chromospheric contribution to the observed AU Mic emission at submillimeter wavelengths is only about 2%. We present Spitzer IRAC, MIPS and IRS observations for three sub-stellar members of the TW Hydrae Association (TWA): 2MASSW J1207334-393254 (2M1207), SSSPM J1102-3431 (SSSPM 1102), and 2MASS J1139511-315921 (2M1139). The near- to mid-infrared SEDs indicate the presence of flat optically thick disks around 2M1207 and SSSPM 1102, and a transition disk around 2M1139. 2M1207 shows absorption in the 10 m m silicate feature, with a peak near 11.3 m m due to crystalline forsterite. The absorption can be attributed to a close to edge-on disk. No silicate absorption/emission is observed towards SSSPM 1102. We have performed detailed modeling of these two brown dwarf disks. The best-fits have been obtained using a flat disk of mass 10 -4 [Special characters omitted.] , M of 10 -10 [Special characters omitted.] /yr, and an inclination angle of 75=B0 for 2M1207, whereas a disk mass of 10 -5 [Special characters omitted.] , M of 10 -11 [Special characters omitted.] /yr, and an inclination angle of 63° provides a good fit to SSSPM 1102. Modeling of the 10 m m silicate feature requires the presence of large (>50 m m ) grains in the disk midplane, which indicates

  12. Infrared parallaxes of young field brown dwarfs and connections to directly imaged gas-giant exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, M. C.; Dupuy, T. J.; Allers, K. N.

    2013-02-01

    We have measured high-precision infrared parallaxes with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope for a large sample of candidate young (≈ 10-100 Myr) and intermediate-age (≈ 100-600 Myr) ultracool dwarfs, with spectral types ranging from M8 to T2.5. These objects are compelling benchmarks for substellar evolution and ultracool atmospheres at lower surface gravities (i.e., masses) than most of the field population. We find that the absolute magnitudes of our young sample can be systematically offset from ordinary (older) field dwarfs, with the young late-M objects being brighter and the young/dusty mid-L (L3-L6.5) objects being fainter, especially at J band. Thus, we conclude the ``underluminosity'' of the young planetary-mass companions HR 8799b and 2MASS J1207-39b compared to field dwarfs is also manifested in young free-floating brown dwarfs, though the effect is not as extreme. At the same time, some young objects over the full spectral type range of our sample are similar to field objects, and thus a simple correspondence between youth and magnitude offset relative to the field population appears to be lacking. Comparing the kinematics of our sample to nearby stellar associations and moving groups, we identify several new moving group members, including the first free-floating L dwarf in the AB Dor moving group, 2MASS J0355+11. Altogether, the effects of surface gravity (age) and dust content on the magnitudes and colors of substellar objects appear to be degenerate.

  13. The role of the molecular-metallic transition of hydrogen in the evolution of Jupiter, Saturn, and brown dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saumon, Didier; Hubbard, William B.; Chabrier, Gilles; Van Horn, Hugh M.

    1992-01-01

    An equation of state for hydrogen which predicts a molecular-metallic phase transition at finite temperatures has become available recently. The effect of this phase transition on the cooling histories of these two giant planets and of substellar brown dwarfs is studied. The phase transition alters the present age of Jupiter and of Saturn by a few percent. Interestingly, the cooling of brown dwarfs is most strongly affected at the time when the interior adiabat crosses the critical point of the phase transition.

  14. The role of the molecular-metallic transition of hydrogen in the evolution of Jupiter, Saturn, and brown dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saumon, Didier; Hubbard, William B.; Chabrier, Gilles; Van Horn, Hugh M.

    1992-01-01

    An equation of state for hydrogen which predicts a molecular-metallic phase transition at finite temperatures has become available recently. The effect of this phase transition on the cooling histories of these two giant planets and of substellar brown dwarfs is studied. The phase transition alters the present age of Jupiter and of Saturn by a few percent. Interestingly, the cooling of brown dwarfs is most strongly affected at the time when the interior adiabat crosses the critical point of the phase transition.

  15. Star formation in the lagoon nebula & low-mass stars and brown dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Philip J.

    Topic I of this thesis reports on star formation in the Lagoon Nebula. We report on deep Chandra X-Ray Observatory observations of the Lagoon Nebula (NGC 6530 and the Hourglass Nebula) totaling 233 ks. We find 1482 X-ray sources, 1130 associated with catalogued near-infrared or optical stars. These X-ray sources are mainly concentrated in the young Hourglass Nebula Cluster (HNC), the older NGC 6530 cluster, and the young M8E cluster in the southern rim. The clustering of X-ray sources near 850mum emission along the central ridge of NGC 6530, M8E, the southern ridge, and coincident with the Hourglass Nebula, provides evidence of triggered star formation. Chandra point-source density contours show a ridge of increased density between NGC 6530 and the HNC, 9 Sgr and the HNC, and class III/II contours stretching from 9 Sgr to the HNC, respectively, provide support for a proposed sequence of star formation in the Lagoon Nebula. Topic II of this thesis reports on low-mass stars and brown dwarfs (BDs). We report on Chandra X-Ray Observatory observations of the TW Hydrae BD 2MASSW J1139511-315921 (2M1139). In the combined 31 ks ACIS-S exposure, 2M1139 is detected at the 3sigma confidence level. This object is similar to another TW Hydrae BD member, CD-33 7795B (TWA 5B), previously detected in X-rays an order of magnitude more luminous than 2M1139. We find the discrepancy between their X-ray luminosities is consistent with BDs of similar spectral type in the Orion Nebula Cluster. Though rotation may play a role in the X-ray activity of ultracool dwarfs like 2M1139 and TWA 5B, the discrepancy cannot be explained by rotation alone. We discover five high proper motion spectroscopically confirmed L dwarfs by comparing WISE to 2MASS. Two of these are L dwarfs at the L/T transition within 10 pc, and three are early L dwarfs within 25 pc. Of the early L dwarfs, one is a member of the class of unusually red L dwarfs whose red spectra can not be easily attributed to youth.

  16. A HERSCHEL SEARCH FOR COLD DUST IN BROWN DWARF DISKS: FIRST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, Paul M.; Evans, Neal J. II; Henning, Thomas; Menard, Francois; Pinte, Christophe; Cieza, Lucas A.; Pascucci, Ilaria; Merin, Bruno E-mail: nje@astro.as.utexas.edu E-mail: menard@obs.ujf-grenoble.fr E-mail: wolf@astrophysik.uni-kiel.de E-mail: lcieza@ifa.hawaii.edu E-mail: Bruno.Merin@sciops.esa.int

    2012-01-15

    We report initial results from a Herschel program to search for far-infrared emission from cold dust around a statistically significant sample of young brown dwarfs. The first three objects in our survey are all detected at 70 {mu}m, and we report the first detection of a brown dwarf at 160 {mu}m. The flux densities are consistent with the presence of substantial amounts of cold dust in the outer disks around these objects. We modeled the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) with two different radiative transfer codes. We find that a broad range of model parameters provide a reasonable fit to the SEDs, but that the addition of our 70 {mu}m, and especially the 160 {mu}m, detection enables strong lower limits to be placed on the disk masses since most of the mass is in the outer disk. We find likely disk masses in the range of a few Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -4} M{sub Sun }. Our models provide a good fit to the SEDs and do not require dust settling.

  17. Heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic correlations of egg quality traits in brown-egg dwarf layers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L C; Ning, Z H; Xu, G Y; Hou, Z C; Yang, N

    2005-08-01

    Albumen height, albumen weight (AW), eggshell color (ESC), eggshell index, eggshell strength, eggshell thickness, eggshell weight (ESW), egg weight (EW), Haugh units, and yolk weight (YW) were measured in 2,272 eggs collected 3 d sequentially from 920 brown-egg dwarf layers caged individually. The restricted maximum likelihood procedure was applied to estimate heritabilities and genotypic and phenotypic correlations for these egg quality traits. Heritabilities of albumen height, AW, ESC, eggshell index, eggshell strength, eggshell thickness, ESW, EW, Haugh units, and YW were 0.51, 0.59, 0.46, 0.40, 0.24, 0.34, 0.64, 0.63, 0.41, and 0.45, respectively. The genetic correlations between EW and AW, YW, and ESW were high ranging from 0.67 to 0.97, whereas those for ESC with external and internal egg quality traits were low ranging from -0.23 to 0.13. Thus although heritabilities for these traits were moderate to high, genetic correlations with ESC were low, suggesting a minor relationship between shell color and physical attributes of the shell as well as internal egg quality in brown-egg dwarf layers.

  18. Characterization of a brown rot fungus isolated from dwarf flowering almond in Korea.

    PubMed

    Shim, Myoung Yong; Jeon, Young Jae; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2007-03-01

    The fruits showing brown rot symptom on dwarf flowering almond were found in Gongju, Chungchungnam-Do in Korea in July 2005. Small water-soaked lesions on the fruits were initiated, and gradually developed to soft rot covered with gray conidia. Then the diseased fruits were shrunk and became grayish-black mummies. A fungus was isolated from the diseased fruit and its morphological, cultural and molecular genetic characteristics were investigated. Typical blastospores of Monilinia spp. were observed under a light microscope both from tissues of the diseased fruits and from PDA-grown cultures. The fungus grew well at 25℃ and on PDA. The ITS ribosomal DNA region (650 bp) of the fungus was amplified by PCR and analyzed. Comparative data on ITS sequence homology among Monilinia spp., ITS sequence-based phylogram and morphological characteristics showed that the fungus is Monilinia fructicola. This is the first report on Monilinia fructicola causing brown rot on fruits of dwarf flowering almond in Korea.

  19. New circumstellar disk candidates around young low mass stars and brown dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, Anne; Lafrenière, David; Gagné, Jonathan; Malo, Lison; Doyon, Rene

    2015-12-01

    It is now common knowledge that circumstellar disks are signposts of past or ongoing planetary system formation. Their presence and their properties, in relation to those of their host star, also bear valuable information about the process of star formation itself. To address these questions, we started a project to uncover new circumstellar disks around newly identified low mass star and brown dwarf candidates in nearby young kinematic associations. Being near the stellar/substellar mass boundary, these hosts - and their potential disks - are particularly interesting to study both star and planet formation. We used a least squares approach to fit synthetic spectra to the observed photometric data of each star, covering from 0.8 µm up to 22 µm, and then identified candidates showing a significant excess compared to the best fits. We then carefully looked at the data for these candidates to filter out those biased by contaminants or other artefacts. We ended up with a list of 4 young stars and brown dwarfs strongly suspected of being surrounded by a disk. Here we will present our search method and some properties of our newly identified disk-bearing candidates.

  20. THE DEUTERIUM-BURNING MASS LIMIT FOR BROWN DWARFS AND GIANT PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegel, David S.; Burrows, Adam; Milsom, John A. E-mail: burrows@astro.princeton.edu

    2011-01-20

    There is no universally acknowledged criterion to distinguish brown dwarfs from planets. Numerous studies have used or suggested a definition based on an object's mass, taking the {approx}13 Jupiter mass (M{sub J} ) limit for the ignition of deuterium. Here, we investigate various deuterium-burning masses for a range of models. We find that, while 13 M{sub J} is generally a reasonable rule of thumb, the deuterium fusion mass depends on the helium abundance, the initial deuterium abundance, the metallicity of the model, and on what fraction of an object's initial deuterium abundance must combust in order for the object to qualify as having burned deuterium. Even though, for most proto-brown dwarf conditions, 50% of the initial deuterium will burn if the object's mass is {approx}(13.0 {+-} 0.8) M{sub J} , the full range of possibilities is significantly broader. For models ranging from zero-metallicity to more than three times solar metallicity, the deuterium-burning mass ranges from {approx}11.0 M{sub J} (for three times solar metallicity, 10% of initial deuterium burned) to {approx}16.3 M{sub J} ( for zero metallicity, 90% of initial deuterium burned).

  1. Temperature constraints on the coldest brown dwarf known: WISE 0855-0714

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beamín, J. C.; Ivanov, V. D.; Bayo, A.; Mužić, K.; Boffin, H. M. J.; Allard, F.; Homeier, D.; Minniti, D.; Gromadzki, M.; Kurtev, R.; Lodieu, N.; Martin, E. L.; Mendez, R. A.

    2014-10-01

    Context. Nearby isolated planetary mass objects are beginning to be discovered, but their individual properties are poorly constrained because their low surface temperatures and strong molecular self-absorption make them extremely faint. Aims: We aimed to detect the near-infrared emission of the coldest brown dwarf (BD) found so far, WISE0855-0714, located ~2.2 pc away, and to improve its temperature estimate (Teff = 225-260 K) from a comparison with state-of-the-art models of BD atmospheres. Methods: We observed the field containing WISE0855-0714 with HAWK-I at the VLT in the Y band. For BDs with Teff< 500 K theoretical models predict strong signal (or rather less molecular absorption) in this band. Results: WISE0855-0714 was not detected in our Y-band images, thus placing an upper limit on its brightness to Y> 24.4 mag at 3σ level, leading to Y - [ 4.5 ] > 10.5. Combining this limit with previous detections and upper limits at other wavelengths, WISE0855-0714 is confirmed as the reddest BD detected, further supporting its status as the coldest known brown dwarf. We applied spectral energy distribution fitting with collections of models from two independent groups for extremely cool BD atmospheres leading to an effective temperature of Teff< 250 K,

  2. A Novel Method for Finding Young Brown Dwarfs: New Discoveries in Ophiuchus and Perseus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allers, Katelyn N.; Liu, M. C.

    2010-01-01

    We have designed a custom near-IR filter for use with ULBCAM on the UH 88" telescope with the purpose of finding young brown dwarfs. Our 6% wide filter is centered on the prominent 1.45 micron H2O absorption band in the spectra of M and L-type objects. By combining imaging from our [1.45] filter with broad band J and H photometry, we can create a reddening-insensitive Q-parameter, which can be used to estimate spectral types. Because [1.45] is sensitive to H2O absorption, our method of photometric selection greatly reduces contamination by reddened background stars which plague broad-band only surveys. To date, we have acheived a 90% spectroscopic confirmation rate for candidates selected with our filter, which is a factor of 3-4 improvement over surveys using broad-band only photometric selection. We present spectroscopic confirmation of new young brown dwarfs and planetary-mass objects in Ophiuchus and Perseus, which proves the efficacy of our filter and selection method.

  3. A Statistical Study of Brown Dwarf Companions from the SDSS-III MARVELS Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grieves, Nolan; Ge, Jian; Thomas, Neil; Ma, Bo; De Lee, Nathan M.; Lee, Brian L.; Fleming, Scott W.; Sithajan, Sirinrat; Varosi, Frank; Liu, Jian; Zhao, Bo; Li, Rui; Agol, Eric; MARVELS Team

    2016-01-01

    We present 23 new Brown Dwarf (BD) candidates from the Multi-object APO Radial-Velocity Exoplanet Large-Area Survey (MARVELS) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III). The BD candidates were selected from the processed MARVELS data using the latest University of Florida 2D pipeline, which shows significant improvement and reduction of systematic errors over the 1D pipeline results included in the SDSS Data Release 12. This sample is the largest BD yield from a single radial velocity survey. Of the 23 candidates, 18 are around main sequence stars and 5 are around giant stars. Given a giant contamination rate of ~24% for the MARVELS survey, we find a BD occurrence rate around main sequence stars of ~0.7%, which agrees with previous studies and confirms the BD desert, while the BD occurrence rate around the MARVELS giant stars is ~0.6%. Preliminary results show that our new candidates around solar type stars support a two population hypothesis, where BDs are divided at a mass of ~42.5 MJup. BDs less massive than 42.5 MJup have eccentricity distributions consistent with planet-planet scattering models, where BDs more massive than 42.5 MJup have both period and eccentricity distributions similar to that of stellar binaries. Special Brown Dwarf systems such as multiple BD systems and highly eccentric BDs will also be presented.

  4. Exoplanets and brown dwarfs detections through gravitational microlensing. Study of interferometric observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranc, Clément

    2015-09-01

    Gravitational microlensing effect has become a unique tool to detect and characterise exoplanets. A microlensing effect occurs when a foreground star (the microlens) and a background star (the source) are aligned with the Earth on the same line of sight. The light from the furthest star, usually in the Galactic bulge, is deflected by the microlens located on the disk. During this phenomenon, multiple images of the source are created by the lens, bigger than the source that consequently seems amplified. When one of these images are located in the vicinity of an exoplanet, a short amplification jump occurs revealing its presence. After a quick overview of the exoplanets field of research, I highlight the specificities of microlensing comparing to the other planets detection techniques. Then, I describe in details the modelling of microlensing effects, from a theoretical to a numerical point of view. In a third part, I describe the detection of the first brown dwarf orbiting a solar-type star using microlensing, strengthening the recent idea that microlensing will lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the brown dwarfs formation, still not fully understood. Finally, I investigate the potential of interferometric observations of microlensing events that will give, in the future, new original constraints on the microlens physical properties. First, we introduce a new formalism that closely combines interferometric and microlensing observable quantities. Secondly, we determine an average number of events that are at reach of long baseline interferometers every year.

  5. A Venus-mass Planet Orbiting a Brown Dwarf: A Missing Link between Planets and Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udalski, A.; Jung, Y. K.; Han, C.; Gould, A.; Kozłowski, S.; Skowron, J.; Poleski, R.; Soszyński, I.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Mróz, P.; Szymański, M. K.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Ulaczyk, K.; Pietrzyński, G.; Shvartzvald, Y.; Maoz, D.; Kaspi, S.; Gaudi, B. S.; Hwang, K.-H.; Choi, J.-Y.; Shin, I.-G.; Park, H.; Bozza, V.

    2015-10-01

    The co-planarity of solar system planets led Kant to suggest that they formed from an accretion disk, and the discovery of hundreds of such disks around young stars as well as hundreds of co-planar planetary systems by the Kepler satellite demonstrate that this formation mechanism is extremely widespread. Many moons in the solar system, such as the Galilean moons of Jupiter, also formed out of the accretion disks that coalesced into the giant planets. Here we report the discovery of an intermediate system, OGLE-2013-BLG-0723LB/Bb, composed of a Venus-mass planet orbiting a brown dwarf, which may be viewed either as a scaled-down version of a planet plus a star or as a scaled-up version of a moon plus a planet orbiting a star. The latter analogy can be further extended since they orbit in the potential of a larger, stellar body. For ice-rock companions formed in the outer parts of accretion disks, like Uranus and Callisto, the scaled masses and separations of the three types of systems are similar, leading us to suggest that the formation processes of companions within accretion disks around stars, brown dwarfs, and planets are similar.

  6. DISCOVERY OF A ∼250 K BROWN DWARF AT 2 pc FROM THE SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Luhman, K. L.

    2014-05-10

    Through a previous analysis of multi-epoch astrometry from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), I identified WISE J085510.83–071442.5 as a new high proper motion object. By combining astrometry from WISE and the Spitzer Space Telescope, I have measured a proper motion of 8.1 ± 0.1'' yr{sup –1} and a parallax of 0.454 ± 0.045'' (2.20{sub −0.20}{sup +0.24} pc) for WISE J085510.83–071442.5, giving it the third highest proper motion and the fourth largest parallax of any known star or brown dwarf. It is also the coldest known brown dwarf based on its absolute magnitude at 4.5 μm and its color in [3.6]-[4.5]. By comparing M {sub 4.5} with the values predicted by theoretical evolutionary models, I estimate an effective temperature of 225-260 K and a mass of 3-10 M {sub Jup} for the age range of 1-10 Gyr that encompasses most nearby stars.

  7. Modelling the formation of atmospheric dust in brown dwarfs and planetary atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Helling, Christiane; Fomins, Aleksejs

    2013-07-13

    Atmospheric dust from volcanoes, sand storms and biogenic products provides condensation seeds for water cloud formation on the Earth. Extrasolar planetary objects such as brown dwarfs and extrasolar giant planets have no comparable sources of condensation seeds. Hence, understanding cloud formation and further its implications for the climate requires a modelling effort that includes the treatment of seed formation (nucleation), growth and evaporation, in addition to rain-out, mixing and gas-phase depletion. This paper discusses nucleation in the ultra-cool atmospheres of brown dwarfs and extrasolar giant planets whose chemical gas-phase composition differs largely from the terrestrial atmosphere. A kinetic model for atmospheric dust formation is described, which, in recent work, has become part of a cloud-formation model. For the first time, diffusive replenishment of the upper atmosphere is introduced as a source term into our model equations. This paper further aims to show how experimental and computational chemistry work links into our dust-formation model, which is driven by applications in extraterrestrial environments.

  8. THE BROWN DWARF KINEMATICS PROJECT (BDKP). IV. RADIAL VELOCITIES OF 85 LATE-M AND L DWARFS WITH MagE

    SciTech Connect

    Burgasser, Adam J.; Logsdon, Sarah E.; Gagné, Jonathan; Bochanski, John J.; Faherty, Jaqueline K.; West, Andrew A.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Cruz, Kelle L.

    2015-09-15

    Radial velocity measurements are presented for 85 late M- and L-type very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs obtained with the Magellan Echellette spectrograph. Targets primarily have distances within 20 pc of the Sun, with more distant sources selected for their unusual spectral energy distributions. We achieved precisions of 2–3 km s{sup −1}, and combined these with astrometric and spectrophotometric data to calculate UVW velocities. Most are members of the thin disk of the Galaxy, and velocity dispersions indicate a mean age of 5.2 ± 0.2 Gyr for sources within 20 pc. We find signficantly different kinematic ages between late-M dwarfs (4.0 ± 0.2 Gyr) and L dwarfs (6.5 ± 0.4 Gyr) in our sample that are contrary to predictions from prior simulations. This difference appears to be driven by a dispersed population of unusually blue L dwarfs which may be more prevalent in our local volume-limited sample than in deeper magnitude-limited surveys. The L dwarfs exhibit an asymmetric U velocity distribution with a net inward flow, similar to gradients recently detected in local stellar samples. Simulations incorporating brown dwarf evolution and Galactic orbital dynamics are unable to reproduce the velocity asymmetry, suggesting non-axisymmetric perturbations or two distinct L dwarf populations. We also find the L dwarfs to have a kinematic age-activity correlation similar to more massive stars. We identify several sources with low surface gravities, and two new substellar candidate members of nearby young moving groups: the astrometric binary DENIS J08230313–4912012AB, a low-probability member of the β Pictoris Moving Group; and 2MASS J15104786–2818174, a moderate-probability member of the 30–50 Myr Argus Association.

  9. The Brown Dwarf Eclipsing Binary 2M0535-05: A Case Study for Activity Effects on Physical Properties of Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stassun, K. G.

    2013-02-01

    2M0535-05 is a one-of-a-kind eclipsing binary (EB) comprising two brown dwarfs (BDs), and is an important benchmark for understanding the fundamental properties of BDs and low-mass stars. Because 2M0535-05 presents a peculiar reversal of temperatures with mass (the higher mass, magnetically active BD in the system is cooler than the lower mass companion BD), 2M0535-05 is particularly important as a case study for the effects of magnetic activity on the properties of low-mass objects. Using a large number of low-mass M-dwarfs and EBs in the field, we have developed empirical relations for determining the amount by which the temperatures and radii-and therefore the estimated masses-of low-mass stars and BDs are altered due to chromospheric activity. The relations link the amount by which an active object's temperature is suppressed, and its radius inflated, to the strength of its Hα emission. These relations are found to approximately preserve bolometric luminosity. Applying these relations to 2M0535-05 brings the activity-corrected radii and temperatures of 2M0535-05 into precise agreement with theoretical isochrones for inactive stars. The relations that we present are applicable to BDs and low-mass stars with masses below 0.8 M⊙ and for which the activity, as measured by Hα, is in the range - 4.6 < log LHα/Lbol < -3.3. We discuss implications of this work for determinations of young cluster IMFs, and discuss competing ideas for the physical mechanism by which magnetic fields alter the temperatures and radii of low-mass stars.

  10. Astrometric discovery of GJ 802b : in the Brown Dwarf Oasis?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pravdo, Steven H.; Shaklan, Stuart B.; Lloyd, James

    2005-01-01

    The Stellar Planet Survey is an ongoing astrometric search for giant planets and brown dwarfs around a sample of 30 M dwarfs. We have discovered several low-mass companions by measuring the motion of our target stars relative to their reference frames. The lowest mass discovery thus far is GJ 802b, a companion to the M5 dwarf GJ 802A. The orbital period is 3.14 +/-0:03 yr, the system mass is 0:214 +/- 0:045 M(circled dot operator), and the semimajor axis is 1:28+/- 0:10 AU or 81 + 6 mas. Imaging observations indicate that GJ 802b is likely to be a brow with the astrometrically determined mass 0:058 +/- 0:021 M(circled dot operator) (1 (sigma) limits). The remaining uncertainty in the orbit is the eccentricity that is now loosely constrained. We dis the system age limits the mass and the prospects of further narrowing the mass range when e is more precisely determined.

  11. Astrometric discovery of GJ 802b : in the Brown Dwarf Oasis?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pravdo, Steven H.; Shaklan, Stuart B.; Lloyd, James

    2005-01-01

    The Stellar Planet Survey is an ongoing astrometric search for giant planets and brown dwarfs around a sample of 30 M dwarfs. We have discovered several low-mass companions by measuring the motion of our target stars relative to their reference frames. The lowest mass discovery thus far is GJ 802b, a companion to the M5 dwarf GJ 802A. The orbital period is 3.14 +/-0:03 yr, the system mass is 0:214 +/- 0:045 M(circled dot operator), and the semimajor axis is 1:28+/- 0:10 AU or 81 + 6 mas. Imaging observations indicate that GJ 802b is likely to be a brow with the astrometrically determined mass 0:058 +/- 0:021 M(circled dot operator) (1 (sigma) limits). The remaining uncertainty in the orbit is the eccentricity that is now loosely constrained. We dis the system age limits the mass and the prospects of further narrowing the mass range when e is more precisely determined.

  12. Spitzer IRAC mid-infrared photometry of 500-750 brown dwarf

    SciTech Connect

    Saumon, Didier; Leggett, Sandy K; Albert, Loic; Artigau, Etienne; Burningham, Ben; Delfosse, Xavier; Delorme, Philippe; Forveille, Thierry; Lucas, Philip W; Marley, Mark S; Pinfield, David J; Reyle, Celine; Smart, Richard L; Warren, Stephen J

    2010-10-26

    Mid-infrared data, including Spitzer warm-IRAC [3.6] and [4.5] photometry, is critical for understanding the cold population of brown dwarfs now being found, objects which have more in common with planets than stars. As effective temperature (T{sub eff}) drops from 800K to 400K, the fraction of flux emitted beyond 3 {mu}m increases rapidly, from about 40% to > 75%. This rapid increase makes a color like H-[4.5] a very sensitive temperature indicator, and it can be combined with a gravity- and metallicity-sensitive color like H-K to constrain all three of these fundamental properties, which in turn gives us mass and age for these slowly cooling objects. Determination of mid-infrared color trends also allows better exploitation of the WISE mission by the community. We use new Spitzer Cycle 6 IRAC photometry, together with published data, to present trends of color with type for L0 to T10 dwarfs. We also use the atmospheric and evolutionary models of Saumon and Marley to investigate the masses and ages of 13 very late-type T dwarfs, which have H-[4.5] > 3.2 and T{sub eff} {approx} 500K to 750K.

  13. Testing the existence of optical linear polarization in young brown dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjavacas, E.; Miles-Páez, P. A.; Zapatero-Osorio, M. R.; Goldman, B.; Buenzli, E.; Henning, T.; Pallé, E.; Fang, M.

    2017-07-01

    Linear polarization can be used as a probe of the existence of atmospheric condensates in ultracool dwarfs. Models predict that the observed linear polarization increases with the degree of oblateness, which is inversely proportional to the surface gravity. We aimed to test the existence of optical linear polarization in a sample of bright young brown dwarfs, with spectral types between M6 and L2, observable from the Calar Alto Observatory, and cataloged previously as low gravity objects using spectroscopy. Linear polarimetric images were collected in I and R band using CAFOS at the 2.2-m telescope in Calar Alto Observatory (Spain). The flux ratio method was employed to determine the linear polarization degrees. With a confidence of 3σ, our data indicate that all targets have a linear polarimetry degree in average below 0.69 per cent in the I band, and below 1.0 per cent in the R band, at the time they were observed. We detected significant (i.e. P/σ ≥ 3) linear polarization for the young M6 dwarf 2MASS J04221413+1530525 in the R band, with a degree of p* = 0.81 ± 0.17 per cent.

  14. The First Brown Dwarf/Planetary-mass Object in the 32 Orionis Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgasser, Adam J.; Lopez, Mike A.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Gagné, Jonathan; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Tallis, Melisa; Choban, Caleb; Tamiya, Tomoki; Escala, Ivanna; Aganze, Christian

    2016-03-01

    The 32 Orionis group is a co-moving group of roughly 20 young (24 Myr) M3-B5 stars 100 pc from the Sun. Here we report the discovery of its first substellar member, WISE J052857.69+090104.2. This source was previously reported to be an M giant star based on its unusual near-infrared spectrum and lack of measureable proper motion. We re-analyze previous data and new moderate-resolution spectroscopy from Magellan/Folded-port InfraRed Echellette to demonstrate that this source is a young near-infrared L1 brown dwarf with very low surface gravity features. Spectral model fits indicate Teff = 1880{}-70+150 K and {log}g = 3.8{}-0.2+0.2, consistent with a 15-22 Myr object with a mass near the deuterium-burning limit. Its sky position, estimated distance, kinematics (both proper motion and radial velocity), and spectral characteristics are all consistent with membership in 32 Orionis, and its temperature and age imply a mass (M = {14}-3+4 MJ) that straddles the brown dwarf/planetary-mass object boundary. The source has a somewhat red J-W2 color compared to other L1 dwarfs, but this is likely a low-gravity-related temperature offset; we find no evidence of significant excess reddening from a disk or cool companion in the 3-5 μm waveband. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  15. Astrometric search for Planets in the closest Brown Dwarf Binary system Luhman 16AB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedin, Luigi

    2014-10-01

    Located at 2.0 pc, the L8+T1 dwarfs system Luhman16AB is the third closest system known to Earth, making it a key benchmark for detailed investigation of brown dwarf atmospheric properties, thermal evolution, multiplicity and planet-hosting frequency. Indeed, a recent ground-based astrometric campaign suggested this system to host a 5-30 Jupiter masses exoplanet.We propose to use HST in spatial-scanning mode to obtain the most accurate annual parallax of any brown dwarf to date, achieving an unprecedented accuracy of 1 part in 10000 (50 micro-arcsecond) for each of the two components of Luh16, and to constrain their absolute space motions with similar accuracy. Most importantly, we will be able to confirm the giant planet candidate and to search for faint companions co-moving with the targets, either resolved or through astrometric perturbations of the A-B orbital motion, the latter probing down to few Earth-masses.Present-day ground-based direct imaging and AO facilities have fundamental limitations (field of view, PSF stability, differential chromatic effects, visibility) which introduce systematic and seasonal errors that are hard to quantify, and which have already resulted many times in clamorous false alarm in the recent past. This is particularly true for faint and red objects.Luhman 16A and B will be problematic for GAIA (faint, color, crowding, visibility), and the here proposed HST spatial-scanning mode observations will actually be an important complementary validation of the final GAIA catalog itself (expected 2020). Similarly, JWST is not expected to provide any better astrometry than HST because of its broader and irregular PSFs.

  16. DE0823-49 is a juvenile binary brown dwarf at 20.7 pc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahlmann, J.; Burgasser, A. J.; Martín, E. L.; Lazorenko, P. F.; Bardalez Gagliuffi, D. C.; Mayor, M.; Ségransan, D.; Queloz, D.; Udry, S.

    2015-07-01

    Astrometric monitoring of the nearby early-L dwarf DE0823-49 has revealed a low-mass companion in a 248-day orbit that was announced in an earlier work. Here, we present new astrometric and spectroscopic observations that allow us to characterise the system in detail. The optical spectrum shows Li i-absorption indicative of a young age and/or substellar mass for the primary component. The near-infrared spectrum is best reproduced by a binary system of brown dwarfs with spectral types of L1.5 + L5.5 and effective temperatures of 2150 ± 100 K and 1670 ± 140 K. To conform with the photocentric orbit size measured with astrometry and the current understanding of substellar evolution, the system must have an age in the 80-500 Myr range. Evolutionary models predict component masses in the ranges of M1 ≃ 0.028-0.063 M⊙ and M2 ≃ 0.018-0.045 M⊙ with a mass ratio of q ≃ 0.64-0.74. Multi-epoch radial velocity measurements unambiguously establish the three-dimensional orbit of the system and allow us to investigate its kinematic properties. DE0823-49 emerges as a rare example of a nearby brown dwarf binary with orbit, component properties, and age that are characterised well. It is a juvenile resident of the solar neighbourhood, but does not appear to belong to a known young association or moving group. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme IDs 086.C-0680, 088.C-0679, 090.C-0786, and 092.C-0202.

  17. AKARI OBSERVATIONS OF BROWN DWARFS. I. CO AND CO{sub 2} BANDS IN THE NEAR-INFRARED SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamura, Issei; Tsuji, Takashi; Tanabe, Toshihiko E-mail: ttsuji@ioa.s.u-tokyo.ac.j

    2010-10-10

    Near-infrared medium-resolution spectra of seven bright brown dwarfs are presented. The spectra were obtained with the Infrared Camera on board the infrared astronomical satellite AKARI, covering 2.5-5.0 {mu}m with a spectral resolution of approximately 120. The spectral types of the objects range from L5 to T8 and enable us to study the spectral evolution of brown dwarfs. The observed spectra are in general consistent with predictions from previous observations and photospheric models; spectra of L-type dwarfs are characterized by continuum opacity from dust clouds in the photosphere, while very strong molecular absorption bands dominate the spectra in T-type dwarfs. We find that the CO fundamental band around 4.6 {mu}m is clearly seen even in the T8 dwarf 2MASS J041519 - 0935, confirming the presence of a non-equilibrium chemical state in the atmosphere. We also identify the CO{sub 2} fundamental stretching-mode band at 4.2 {mu}m for the first time in the spectra of late-L- and T-type brown dwarfs. As a preliminary step towards interpretation of the data obtained by AKARI, we analyze the observed spectra by comparing with those predicted by the unified cloudy model (UCM). Although overall spectral energy distributions can be reasonably fitted with the UCM, observed CO and CO{sub 2} bands in late-L and T dwarfs are unexpectedly stronger than the model predictions assuming local thermodynamical equilibrium. We examine the vertical mixing model and find that this model explains the CO band at least partly in the T dwarfs 2MASS J041519 - 0935 and 2MASS J055919 - 1404. The CO fundamental band also shows excess absorption against the predicted one in the L9 dwarf SDSS J083008+4828. Since CO is already highly abundant in the upper photospheres of late-L dwarfs, the extra CO due to vertical mixing has little effect on the CO band strengths, and the vertical mixing model cannot be applied to this L dwarf. A more serious problem is that the significant enhancement of the

  18. ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF {rho}-Oph 102: GRAIN GROWTH AND MOLECULAR GAS IN THE DISK AROUND A YOUNG BROWN DWARF

    SciTech Connect

    Ricci, L.; Testi, L.; Natta, A.; Scholz, A.; De Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.

    2012-12-20

    We present ALMA continuum and spectral line observations of the young brown dwarf {rho}-Oph 102 at about 0.89 mm and 3.2 mm. We detect dust emission from the disk at these wavelengths and derive an upper limit on the radius of the dusty disk of {approx}40 AU. The derived variation of the dust opacity with frequency in the millimeter (mm) provides evidence for the presence of mm-sized grains in the disk's outer regions. This result demonstrates that mm-sized grains are found even in the low-density environments of brown dwarf disks and challenges our current understanding of dust evolution in disks. The CO map at 345 GHz clearly reveals molecular gas emission at the location of the brown dwarf, indicating a gas-rich disk as typically found for disks surrounding young pre-main-sequence stars. We derive a disk mass of {approx}0.3%-1% of the mass of the central brown dwarf, similar to the typical values found for disks around more massive young stars.

  19. A Search for Companions to Nearby Brown Dwarfs: The Binary DENIS-P J1228.2-1547

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, E.; Brandner, W.; Basri, G.

    1999-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope near infrared camera and multiobject spectrometer (NICMOS) imaging observations of two nearby young brown dwarfs, DENIS-P J1228.2-1547 and Kelu 1, show that the DENIS object is resolved into two components of nearly equal brightness with a projected separation of 0.275 arcsec.

  20. Characterizing Cool Brown Dwarfs And Low-Mass Companions With Low-Resolution Near-Infrared Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godfrey, Paige

    2017-05-01

    My doctoral dissertation on modeling cool substellar atmospheres. This work was completed while I was a graduate student affiliated with the City University of New York Graduate Center, City University of New York College of Staten Island, the Brown Dwarfs of NYC (BDNYC) research group, and the American Museum of Natural History.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Near-IR spectroscopy of low-mass binaries and brown dwarfs (Mace, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mace, G. N.

    2014-05-01

    The mass of a star at formation determines its subsequent evolution and demise. Low-mass stars are the most common products of star formation and their long main-sequence lifetimes cause them to accumulate over time. Star formation also produces many substellar-mass objects known as brown dwarfs, which emerge from their natal molecular clouds and continually cool as they age, pervading the Milky Way. Low-mass stars and brown dwarfs exhibit a wide range of physical characteristics and their abundance make them ideal subjects for testing formation and evolution models. I have examined a pair of pre-main sequence spectroscopic binaries and used radial velocity variations to determine orbital solutions and mass ratios. Additionally, I have employed synthetic spectra to estimate their effective temperatures and place them on theoretical Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams. From this analysis I discuss the formation and evolution of young binary systems and place bounds on absolute masses and radii. I have also studied the late-type T dwarfs revealed by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). This includes the exemplar T8 subdwarf Wolf 1130C, which has the lowest inferred metallicity in the literature and spectroscopic traits consistent with old age. Comparison to synthetic spectra implies that the dispersion in near-infrared colors of late-type T dwarfs is a result of age and/or thin sul de clouds. With the updated census of the L, T, and Y dwarfs we can now study specific brown dwarf subpopulations. Finally, I present a number of future studies that would develop our understanding of the physical qualities of T dwarf color outliers and disentangle the tracers of age and atmospheric properties. The thesis is available at: http://www.astro.ucla.edu/~gmace/thesis.html (7 data files).

  2. Strong brightness variations signal cloudy-to-clear transition of brown dwarfs

    SciTech Connect

    Radigan, Jacqueline; Lafrenière, David; Artigau, Etienne; Jayawardhana, Ray

    2014-10-01

    We report the results of a J-band search for cloud-related variability in the atmospheres of 62 L4-T9 dwarfs using the Du Pont 2.5 m telescope at Las Campanas Observatory and the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope on Mauna Kea. We find 9 of 57 objects included in our final analysis to be significantly variable with >99% confidence, 5 of which are new discoveries. In our study, strong signals (peak-to-peak amplitudes >2%) are confined to the L/T transition (4/16 objects with L9-T3.5 spectral types and 0/41 objects for all other spectral types). The probability that the observed occurrence rates for strong variability inside and outside the L/T transition originate from the same underlying true occurrence rate is excluded at >99.7% confidence. Based on a careful assessment of our sensitivity to astrophysical signals, we infer that 39{sub −14}{sup +16}% of L9-T3.5 dwarfs are strong variables on rotational timescales. If we consider only L9-T3.5 dwarfs with 0.8 < J – K {sub s} < 1.5, and assume an isotropic distribution of spin axes for our targets, we find that 80{sub −19}{sup +18}% would be strong variables if viewed edge-on; azimuthal symmetry and/or binarity may account for non-variable objects in this group. These observations suggest that the settling of condensate clouds below the photosphere in brown dwarf (BD) atmospheres does not occur in a spatially uniform manner. Rather, the formation and sedimentation of dust grains at the L/T transition is coupled to atmospheric dynamics, resulting in highly contrasting regions of thick and thin clouds and/or clearings. Outside the L/T transition we identify five weak variables (peak-to-peak amplitudes of 0.6%-1.6%). Excluding L9-T3.5 spectral types, we infer that 60{sub −18}{sup +22}% of targets vary with amplitudes of 0.5%-1.6%, suggesting that surface heterogeneities are common among L and T dwarfs. Our survey establishes a significant link between strong variability and L/T transition spectral types, providing

  3. Strong Brightness Variations Signal Cloudy-to-clear Transition of Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radigan, Jacqueline; Lafrenière, David; Jayawardhana, Ray; Artigau, Etienne

    2014-10-01

    We report the results of a J-band search for cloud-related variability in the atmospheres of 62 L4-T9 dwarfs using the Du Pont 2.5 m telescope at Las Campanas Observatory and the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope on Mauna Kea. We find 9 of 57 objects included in our final analysis to be significantly variable with >99% confidence, 5 of which are new discoveries. In our study, strong signals (peak-to-peak amplitudes >2%) are confined to the L/T transition (4/16 objects with L9-T3.5 spectral types and 0/41 objects for all other spectral types). The probability that the observed occurrence rates for strong variability inside and outside the L/T transition originate from the same underlying true occurrence rate is excluded at >99.7% confidence. Based on a careful assessment of our sensitivity to astrophysical signals, we infer that 39^{+16}_{-14}% of L9-T3.5 dwarfs are strong variables on rotational timescales. If we consider only L9-T3.5 dwarfs with 0.8 < J - K s < 1.5, and assume an isotropic distribution of spin axes for our targets, we find that 80^{+18}_{-19}% would be strong variables if viewed edge-on; azimuthal symmetry and/or binarity may account for non-variable objects in this group. These observations suggest that the settling of condensate clouds below the photosphere in brown dwarf (BD) atmospheres does not occur in a spatially uniform manner. Rather, the formation and sedimentation of dust grains at the L/T transition is coupled to atmospheric dynamics, resulting in highly contrasting regions of thick and thin clouds and/or clearings. Outside the L/T transition we identify five weak variables (peak-to-peak amplitudes of 0.6%-1.6%). Excluding L9-T3.5 spectral types, we infer that 60^{+22}_{-18}% of targets vary with amplitudes of 0.5%-1.6%, suggesting that surface heterogeneities are common among L and T dwarfs. Our survey establishes a significant link between strong variability and L/T transition spectral types, providing evidence in support of the

  4. Studies of the Coldest Brown Dwarfs with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roellig, Thomas L.

    2016-01-01

    The coolest T and Y-class Brown Dwarf objects are very faint and are therefore very poorly understood, since they are barely detectable with the current astronomical instrumentation. The upcoming James Webb Space Telescope now in development for a launch in the Fall of 2018 will have vastly increased sensitivity in the near and mid-infrared compared to any current facilities and will not be affected by telluric absorption over its entire wavelength range of operations. As a result it will be an ideal tool to obtain information about the composition and temperature-pressure structure in these objects' atmospheres. This presentation will outline the JWST guaranteed time observing plans for these studies.

  5. Analysis of the Hipparcos Measurements of HD 10697: A Mass Determination of a Brown Dwarf Secondary.

    PubMed

    Zucker; Mazeh

    2000-03-01

    HD 10697 is a nearby main-sequence star around which a planet candidate has recently been discovered by means of radial velocity measurements (Vogt et al.). The stellar orbit has a period of about 3 yr, the secondary minimum mass is 6.35 Jupiter masses (MJ), and the minimum semimajor axis is 0.36 mas. Using the Hipparcos data of HD 10697 together with the spectroscopic elements of Vogt et al., we found a semimajor axis of 2.1+/-0.7 mas, implying a mass of 38+/-13 MJ for the unseen companion. We therefore suggest that the secondary of HD 10697 is probably a brown dwarf, orbiting around its parent star at a distance of 2 AU.

  6. A LOFAR mini-survey for low-frequency radio emission from the nearest brown dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burningham, Ben; Hardcastle, M.; Nichols, J. D.; Casewell, S. L.; Littlefair, S. P.; Stark, C.; Burleigh, M. R.; Metchev, S.; Tannock, M. E.; van Weeren, R. J.; Williams, W. L.; Wynn, G. A.

    2016-12-01

    We have conducted a mini-survey for low-frequency radio emission from some of the closest brown dwarfs to the Sun with rapid rotation rates: SIMP J013656.5+093347, WISEPC J150649.97+702736.0 and WISEPA J174124.26+255319.5. We have placed robust 3σ upper limits on the flux density in the 111-169 MHz frequency range for these targets: WISE 1506: <0.72 mJy; WISE 1741: <0.87 mJy; SIMP 0136: <0.66 mJy. At 8 h of integration per target to achieve these limits, we find that systematic and detailed study of this class of object at LOFAR frequencies will require a substantial dedication of resources.

  7. Why brown dwarfs are special . Arguments from IMF theory vs. observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thies, I.; Pflamm-Altenburg, J.; Kroupa, P.

    The lower end of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) is the topic of an ongoing debate. Among the most popular myths is the assumption of a continuous fall off from stars to brown dwarfs in both the IMF itself and the binary statistics of stars and BDs. However, recent analytical star-formation models by Hennebelle & Chabrier (2008) or Padoan & Nordlund (2002) could model the stellar part quite well while failing to reproduce the substellar region satisfactorily. We show that the deviation of these model IMFs to the observed ones is essentially just the IMF of the separate substellar population introduced in Thies & Kroupa (2007) and later confirmed numerically in Thies et al. (2010). In addition, new estimates to the binarity and companion mass-ratio distribution resulting directly from the two-population model are presented.

  8. IONIZATION IN ATMOSPHERES OF BROWN DWARFS AND EXTRASOLAR PLANETS. III. BREAKDOWN CONDITIONS FOR MINERAL CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Helling, Ch.; Jardine, M.; Stark, C.; Diver, D.

    2013-04-20

    Electric discharges were detected directly in the cloudy atmospheres of Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn, are debatable for Venus, and indirectly inferred for Neptune and Uranus in our solar system. Sprites (and other types of transient luminous events) have been detected only on Earth, and are theoretically predicted for Jupiter, Saturn, and Venus. Cloud formation is a common phenomenon in ultra-cool atmospheres such as in brown dwarf and extrasolar planetary atmospheres. Cloud particles can be expected to carry considerable charges which may trigger discharge events via small-scale processes between individual cloud particles (intra-cloud discharges) or large-scale processes between clouds (inter-cloud discharges). We investigate electrostatic breakdown characteristics, like critical field strengths and critical charge densities per surface, to demonstrate under which conditions mineral clouds undergo electric discharge events which may trigger or be responsible for sporadic X-ray emission. We apply results from our kinetic dust cloud formation model that is part of the DRIFT-PHOENIX model atmosphere simulations. We present a first investigation of the dependence of the breakdown conditions in brown dwarf and giant gas exoplanets on the local gas-phase chemistry, the effective temperature, and primordial gas-phase metallicity. Our results suggest that different intra-cloud discharge processes dominate at different heights inside mineral clouds: local coronal (point discharges) and small-scale sparks at the bottom region of the cloud where the gas density is high, and flow discharges and large-scale sparks near, and maybe above, the cloud top. The comparison of the thermal degree of ionization and the number density of cloud particles allows us to suggest the efficiency with which discharges will occur in planetary atmospheres.

  9. Lightning on exoplanets and brown dwarfs: modelling lightning energies and radio powers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodosán, Gabriella; Helling, Christiane; Vorgul, Irena

    2017-04-01

    Lightning is a well studied though not fully understood phenomenon occurring not just on Earth but on other Solar System planets, such as Jupiter and Saturn, as well. Both observations and theoretical work suggest that the conditions in extrasolar planetary and brown dwarf atmospheres are good for lightning to occur. However, due to the lack of exo-lightning observations, we do not know how lightning in extrasolar atmospheres is similar or different from what is known from the Solar System. The aim of this study is to apply our knowledge of lightning production, derived mostly from Earth lightning, to the potential lightning discharge characteristics on extrasolar objects. In terms of observations, the power spectrum of lightning carries information regarding radiated power densities. From the total radiated power it is also possible to determine the energy dissipated from lightning discharges. However, modelling the power spectrum involves several steps and various parameters, including a characterization of the electric field. As such, we built a model and conducted a parameter study in order to explore the possible lightning powers and energies in different types of extrasolar atmospheres, such as giant planetary and brown dwarf atmospheres. We tested our model on Solar System cases based on previously published parameters in the literature, such as the duration of the discharge or the frequency at which the peak power is released. Our tests reproduce these published values for Earth, Jupiter and Saturn, and validate our model. When applying the model to extrasolar lightning discharges, we found that in giant gas planet atmospheres of 1500 K < Teff < 2000 K and log(g) = 3.0 the dissipation energy of lightning can reach as high as 1019 J, which is ten orders of magnitude larger than the average total energy of Earth lightning.

  10. Brown dwarfs in the Pleiades cluster: Clues to the substellar mass function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraux, E.; Bouvier, J.; Stauffer, J. R.; Cuillandre, J.-C.

    2003-03-01

    We present the results of a 6.4 square degrees imaging survey of the Pleiades cluster in the I and Z-bands. The survey extends up to 3 degrees from the cluster center and is 90% complete down to I =~ 22. It covers a mass range from 0.03 Msun to 0.48 Msun and yields 40 brown dwarf candidates (BDCs) of which 29 are new. The spatial distribution of BDCs is fitted by a King profile in order to estimate the cluster substellar core radius. The Pleiades mass function is then derived accross the stellar-substellar boundary and we find that, between 0.03 Msun and 0.48 Msun, it is well represented by a single power-law, dN/dM~ M-alpha , with an index alpha =0.60+/- 0.11. Over a larger mass domain, however, from 0.03 Msun to 10 Msun, the mass function is better fitted by a log-normal function. We estimate that brown dwarfs represent about 25% of the cluster population which nevertheless makes up less than 1.5% of the cluster mass. The early dynamical evolution of the cluster appears to have had little effect on its present mass distribution at an age of 120 Myr. Comparison between the Pleiades mass function and the Galactic field mass function suggests that apparent differences may be mostly due to unresolved binary systems. Based on observations obtained at Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Full Table 3 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/400/891

  11. Spitzer: Accretion in Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs in the λ Orionis Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrado y Navascués, David; Stauffer, John R.; Morales-Calderón, María; Bayo, Amelia; Fazzio, Giovanni; Megeath, Tom; Allen, Lori; Hartmann, Lee W.; Calvet, Nuria

    2007-07-01

    We present multiwavelength optical and IR photometry of 170 previously known low-mass stars and brown dwarfs of the 5 Myr Collinder 69 cluster (λ Orionis). The new photometry supports cluster membership for most of them, with less than 15% of the previous candidates identified as probable nonmembers. The near-IR photometry allows us to identify stars with IR excesses, and we find that the Class II population is very large, around 25% for stars (in the spectral range M0-M6.5) and 40% for brown dwarfs, down to 0.04 Msolar, despite the fact that the Hα equivalent width is low for a significant fraction of them. In addition, there are a number of substellar objects, classified as Class III, that have optically thin disks. The Class II members are distributed in an inhomogeneous way, lying preferentially in a filament running toward the southeast. The IR excesses for the Collinder 69 members range from pure Class II (flat or nearly flat spectra longward of 1 μm), to transition disks with no near-IR excess but excesses beginning within the IRAC wavelength range, to two stars with excess only detected at 24 μm. Collinder 69 thus appears to be at an age where it provides a natural laboratory for the study of primordial disks and their dissipation. Based on observations collected by the Spitzer Space Telescope, at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center of Calar Alto jointly operated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie Heidelberg and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), and at the WHT operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias.

  12. IONIZATION IN ATMOSPHERES OF BROWN DWARFS AND EXTRASOLAR PLANETS. IV. THE EFFECT OF COSMIC RAYS

    SciTech Connect

    Rimmer, P. B.; Helling, Ch.

    2013-09-10

    Cosmic rays provide an important source for free electrons in Earth's atmosphere and also in dense interstellar regions where they produce a prevailing background ionization. We utilize a Monte Carlo cosmic ray transport model for particle energies of 10{sup 6} eV brown dwarf with effective temperature T{sub eff} = 1500 K, and two example giant gas planets (T{sub eff} = 1000 K, 1500 K). For the model brown dwarf atmosphere, the electron fraction is enhanced significantly by cosmic rays when the pressure p{sub gas} < 10{sup -2} bar. Our example giant gas planet atmosphere suggests that the cosmic ray enhancement extends to 10{sup -4}-10{sup -2} bar, depending on the effective temperature. For the model atmosphere of the example giant gas planet considered here (T{sub eff} = 1000 K), cosmic rays bring the degree of ionization to f{sub e} {approx}> 10{sup -8} when p{sub gas} < 10{sup -8} bar, suggesting that this part of the atmosphere may behave as a weakly ionized plasma. Although cosmic rays enhance the degree of ionization by over three orders of magnitude in the upper atmosphere, the effect is not likely to be significant enough for sustained coupling of the magnetic field to the gas.

  13. Lightning climatology of exoplanets and brown dwarfs guided by Solar system data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodosán, G.; Helling, Ch.; Asensio-Torres, R.; Vorgul, I.; Rimmer, P. B.

    2016-10-01

    Clouds form on extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs where lightning could occur. Lightning is a tracer of atmospheric convection, cloud formation and ionization processes as known from the Solar system, and may be significant for the formation of prebiotic molecules. We study lightning climatology for the different atmospheric environments of Earth, Venus, Jupiter and Saturn. We present lightning distribution maps for Earth, Jupiter and Saturn, and flash densities for these planets and Venus, based on optical and/or radio measurements from the World Wide Lightning Location Network and Sferics Timing and Ranging Network radio networks, the Lightning Imaging Sensor/Optical Transient Detector satellite instruments, the Galileo, Cassini, New Horizons and Venus Express spacecraft. We also present flash densities calculated for several phases of two volcano eruptions, Eyjafjallajökull's (2010) and Mt Redoubt's (2009). We estimate lightning rates for sample, transiting and directly imaged extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs. Based on the large variety of exoplanets, six categories are suggested for which we use the lightning occurrence information from the Solar system. We examine lightning energy distributions for Earth, Jupiter and Saturn. We discuss how strong stellar activity may support lightning activity. We provide a lower limit of the total number of flashes that might occur on transiting planets during their full transit as input for future studies. We find that volcanically very active planets might show the largest lightning flash densities. When applying flash densities of the large Saturnian storm from 2010/11, we find that the exoplanet HD 189733b would produce high lightning occurrence even during its short transit.

  14. Young stars and brown dwarfs surrounding Alnilam (ɛ Orionis) and Mintaka (δ Orionis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, J. A.; Solano, E.

    2008-07-01

    Aims: We look for new regions to search for substellar objects. Methods: Two circular areas, 45 arcmin-radius each, centred on the young massive star systems Alnilam and Mintaka in the Orion Belt, were explored. The regions are very young (less than 10 Ma), have low extinction, and are neighbours to σ Orionis (~3 Ma), a young open cluster very rich in brown dwarfs and planetary-mass objects. We used Virtual Observatory tools, the astro-photometric Tycho-2, DENIS and 2MASS catalogues, 10 control fields at similar galactic latitudes, as well as X-ray, mid-infrared, and spectroscopic data from the literature. Results: We compiled exhaustive lists of known young stars and new candidate members in the Ori OB1b association and of fore- and background sources. A total of 136 stars display features of extreme youth, like early spectral types, lithium in absorption, or mid-infrared flux excess. Other two young brown dwarf and 289 star candidates have been identified from an optical/near-infrared colour-magnitude diagram. We list another 74 known objects that might belong to the association. This catalogue can serve as input for characterising the stellar and high-mass substellar populations in the Orion Belt. Finally, we investigated the surface densities and radial distributions of young objects surrounding Alnilam and Mintaka and compared them with those in the σ Orionis cluster. We report on a new open cluster centred on Mintaka. Conclusions: Both regions can be analogues to the σ Orionis cluster, but more massive, more extended, slightly older, and less radially concentrated. Tables A.1 to A.18 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/485/931

  15. Three new cool brown dwarfs discovered with the wide-field infrared survey explorer (WISE) and an improved spectrum of the Y0 dwarf wise J041022.71+150248.4

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, Michael C.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Mace, Gregory N.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Gould, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    As part of a larger search of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) data for cool brown dwarfs with effective temperatures less than 1000 K, we present the discovery of three new cool brown dwarfs with spectral types later than T7. Using low-resolution, near-infrared spectra obtained with the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility and the Hubble Space Telescope, we derive spectral types of T9.5 for WISE J094305.98+360723.5, T8 for WISE J200050.19+362950.1, and Y0: for WISE J220905.73+271143.9. The identification of WISE J220905.73+271143.9 as a Y dwarf brings the total number of spectroscopically confirmed Y dwarfs to 17. In addition, we present an improved spectrum (i.e., higher signal-to-noise ratio) of the Y0 dwarf WISE J041022.71+150248.4 that confirms the Cushing et al. classification of Y0. Spectrophotometric distance estimates place all three new brown dwarfs at distances less than 12 pc, with WISE J200050.19+362950.1 lying at a distance of only 3.9-8.0 pc. Finally, we note that brown dwarfs like WISE J200050.19+362950.1 that lie in or near the Galactic plane offer an exciting opportunity to directly measure the mass of a brown dwarf via astrometric microlensing.

  16. Physical properties and astrometry of radio-emitting brown dwarf TVLM 513-46546 revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawroński, Marcin P.; Goździewski, Krzysztof; Katarzyński, Krzysztof

    2016-12-01

    We present multi-epoch astrometric observations of the M9 ultra-cool dwarf TVLM 513-46546 that is placed at the brown dwarf boundary. The new observations have been performed with the European VLBI Network (EVN) at 6 cm band. The target has been detected at 7 epochs spanning three years, with measured quiescent emission flux in the range 180 - 300 μJy. We identified four short-duration flaring events (0.5 - 2 mJy) with very high circular polarization (˜75% - 100%). Properties of the observed radio flares support the physical model of the source that is characterized by the electron cyclotron maser instability responsible for outbursts of radio emission. Combined with Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) earlier data, our detections make it possible to refine the absolute parallax π =93.27^{+0.18}_{-0.17} mas. Our measurements rule out TVLM 513-46546 companions more massive than Jupiter in orbits with periods longer than ˜1 yr.

  17. All in the Family: What Brown Dwarfs Teach Us About Extrasolar Giant Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, M.

    2003-01-01

    As we await the first direct image of an extrasolar giant planet, we can turn to theory and the experience gained in the campaign to detect and understand brown dwarfs for guidance on what to expect. As with any new arrival to a family, there should be a strong family resemblance (one hopes) along with notable unique features and interesting peculiarities. The 300 or so known L and T dwarfs, combined with our own giant planets, already span much of the effective temperature range within which extrasolar planets will be found. Only objects with thick, easily detectable, water clouds have yet to be seen. Thus we already know much of the family. I will describe what we have learned from studying these objects, focusing on the important roles clouds and atmospheric chemistry play in affecting their atmospheres and emergent spectra. Relying on these findings and theoretical models, I'll sketch out what we can expect from extrasolar giant planets, focusing on easily detectable features. Some wild cards, of course, are to be expected. Photochemical hazes, in particular, may obscure the family traits on the faces of Jupiter's distant cousins and may make one wonder, at least momentarily, about the milkman.

  18. The First Ultra-cool Brown Dwarf Discovered by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainzer, A.; Cushing, Michael C.; Skrutskie, M.; Gelino, C. R.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Jarrett, T.; Masci, F.; Marley, Mark S.; Saumon, D.; Wright, E.; Beaton, R.; Dietrich, M.; Eisenhardt, P.; Garnavich, P.; Kuhn, O.; Leisawitz, D.; Marsh, K.; McLean, I.; Padgett, D.; Rueff, K.

    2011-01-01

    We report the discovery of the first new ultra-cool brown dwarf (BDs) found with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). The object's preliminary designation is WISEPC J045853.90+643451.9. Follow-up spectroscopy with the LUCIFER instrument on the Large Binocular Telescope indicates that it is a very late-type T dwarf with a spectral type approximately equal to T9. Fits to an IRTF/SpeX 0.8-2.5 μm spectrum to the model atmospheres of Marley and Saumon indicate an effective temperature of approximately 600 K as well as the presence of vertical mixing in its atmosphere. The new BD is easily detected by WISE, with a signal-to-noise ratio of ~36 at 4.6 μm. Current estimates place it at a distance of 6-10 pc. This object represents the first in what will likely be hundreds of nearby BDs found by WISE that will be suitable for follow-up observations, including those with the James Webb Space Telescope. One of the two primary scientific goals of the WISE mission is to find the coolest, closest stars to our Sun; the discovery of this new BD proves that WISE is capable of fulfilling this objective.

  19. Effects of Latent Heating on Atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs and Directly Imaged Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xianyu; Showman, Adam P.

    2017-02-01

    The growing number of observations of brown dwarfs (BDs) has provided evidence for strong atmospheric circulation on these objects. Directly imaged planets share similar observations and can be viewed as low-gravity versions of BDs. Vigorous condensate cycles of chemical species in their atmospheres are inferred by observations and theoretical studies, and latent heating associated with condensation is expected to be important in shaping atmospheric circulation and influencing cloud patchiness. We present a qualitative description of the mechanisms by which condensational latent heating influences circulation, and then illustrate them using an idealized general circulation model that includes a condensation cycle of silicates with latent heating and molecular weight effect due to the rainout of the condensate. Simulations with conditions appropriate for typical T dwarfs exhibit the development of localized storms and east–west jets. The storms are spatially inhomogeneous, evolving on a timescale of hours to days and extending vertically from the condensation level to the tropopause. The fractional area of the BD covered by active storms is small. Based on a simple analytic model, we quantitatively explain the area fraction of moist plumes and show its dependence on the radiative timescale and convective available potential energy (CAPE). We predict that if latent heating dominates cloud formation processes, the fractional coverage area of clouds decreases as the spectral type goes through the L/T transition from high to lower effective temperature. This is a natural consequence of the variation of the radiative timescale and CAPE with the spectral type.

  20. All in the Family: What Brown Dwarfs Teach Us About Extrasolar Giant Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, M.

    2003-01-01

    As we await the first direct image of an extrasolar giant planet, we can turn to theory and the experience gained in the campaign to detect and understand brown dwarfs for guidance on what to expect. As with any new arrival to a family, there should be a strong family resemblance (one hopes) along with notable unique features and interesting peculiarities. The 300 or so known L and T dwarfs, combined with our own giant planets, already span much of the effective temperature range within which extrasolar planets will be found. Only objects with thick, easily detectable, water clouds have yet to be seen. Thus we already know much of the family. I will describe what we have learned from studying these objects, focusing on the important roles clouds and atmospheric chemistry play in affecting their atmospheres and emergent spectra. Relying on these findings and theoretical models, I'll sketch out what we can expect from extrasolar giant planets, focusing on easily detectable features. Some wild cards, of course, are to be expected. Photochemical hazes, in particular, may obscure the family traits on the faces of Jupiter's distant cousins and may make one wonder, at least momentarily, about the milkman.

  1. PROPERTIES OF THE NEARBY BROWN DWARF WISEP J180026.60+013453.1

    SciTech Connect

    Gizis, John E.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Vrba, Frederick J.

    2015-12-15

    We present new spectroscopy and astrometry to characterize the nearby brown dwarf WISEP J180026.60+013453.1. The optical spectral type, L7.5, is in agreement with the previously reported near-infrared spectral type. The preliminary trigonometric parallax places it at a distance of 8.01 ± 0.21 pc, confirming that it is the fourth closest known late-L (L7–L9) dwarf. The measured luminosity, our detection of lithium, and the lack of low surface gravity indicators indicates that WISEP J180026.60+013453.1 has a mass 0.03 < M < 0.06 M{sub ⊙} and an age between 300 million and 1.5 billion years according to theoretical substellar evolution models. The low space motion is consistent with this young age. We have measured the rotational broadening (v sin i = 13.5 ± 0.5 km s{sup −1}), and use it to estimate a maximum rotation period of 9.3 hr.

  2. Spitzer Trigonometric Parallaxes of the Solar Neighborhood's Coldest Brown Dwarfs, Part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher; Beichman, Charles; Martin, Emily; Smart, Richard; Faherty, Jacqueline; Tinney, Christopher; Cushing, Michael; Schneider, Adam; Wright, Edward; Lowrance, Patrick

    2016-08-01

    Objects in the immediate solar neighborhood serve as touchstones of stellar populations throughout the rest of the Milky Way and the Universe in general. A detailed accounting and characterization of these objects is therefore of fundamental importance to many fields of astrophysics. One of the most fundamental properties is distance, which directly determines absolute luminosity and space density and aids in the decipherment of radius, kinematics, age, the mass function, etc. The Gaia mission is soon poised to revolutionize our understanding of the solar neighborhood through micro-arcsecond astrometric monitoring. Its sensitivity, however, is limited to objects that emit strongly at wavelengths shorter than 1 micron; Gaia will be unable to detect any objects as cool as late-T and Y dwarfs (250-1100K). Nevertheless, these very cold objects are critically important not only to our understanding of the star formation process at the lowest masses, but also in our comprehension of the physical mechanisms present in cold, exoplanet-like atmospheres. In this proposal, we extend our distance determinations to objects colder than those Gaia can probe by continuing to measure parallaxes, as begun in our Cycle 9-10 program 90007, for all T6 and later brown dwarfs within 20 pc of the Sun.

  3. THE FIRST ULTRA-COOL BROWN DWARF DISCOVERED BY THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    SciTech Connect

    Mainzer, A.; Cushing, Michael C.; Eisenhardt, P.; Skrutskie, M.; Beaton, R.; Gelino, C. R.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Jarrett, T.; Masci, F.; Marsh, K.; Padgett, D.; Marley, Mark S.; Saumon, D.; Wright, E.; McLean, I.; Dietrich, M.; Garnavich, P.; Rueff, K.; Kuhn, O.; Leisawitz, D.

    2011-01-01

    We report the discovery of the first new ultra-cool brown dwarf (BDs) found with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). The object's preliminary designation is WISEPC J045853.90+643451.9. Follow-up spectroscopy with the LUCIFER instrument on the Large Binocular Telescope indicates that it is a very late-type T dwarf with a spectral type approximately equal to T9. Fits to an IRTF/SpeX 0.8-2.5 {mu}m spectrum to the model atmospheres of Marley and Saumon indicate an effective temperature of approximately 600 K as well as the presence of vertical mixing in its atmosphere. The new BD is easily detected by WISE, with a signal-to-noise ratio of {approx}36 at 4.6 {mu}m. Current estimates place it at a distance of 6-10 pc. This object represents the first in what will likely be hundreds of nearby BDs found by WISE that will be suitable for follow-up observations, including those with the James Webb Space Telescope. One of the two primary scientific goals of the WISE mission is to find the coolest, closest stars to our Sun; the discovery of this new BD proves that WISE is capable of fulfilling this objective.

  4. All in the Family: What Brown Dwarfs Teach Us About Extrasolar Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marley, M.

    2003-05-01

    As we await the first direct image of an extrasolar giant planet, we can turn to theory and the experience gained in the campaign to detect and understand brown dwarfs for guidance on what to expect. As with any new arrival to a family, there should be a strong family resemblance (one hopes) along with notable unique features and interesting peculiarities. The 300 or so known L and T dwarfs, combined with our own giant planets, already span much of the effective temperature range within which extrasolar planets will be found. Only objects with thick, easily detectable, water clouds have yet to be seen. Thus we already know much of the family. I will describe what we have learned from studying these objects, focusing on the important roles clouds and atmospheric chemistry play in affecting their atmospheres and emergent spectra. Relying on these findings and theoretical models, I'll sketch out what we can expect from extrasolar giant planets, focusing on easily detectable features. Some wild cards, of course, are to be expected. Photochemical hazes, in particular, may obscure the family traits on the faces of Jupiter's distant cousins and may make one wonder, at least momentarily, about the milkman.

  5. Optical Spectroscopy of Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs in Orion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddick, F. C.; Roche, P. F.; Lucas, P. W.

    2006-06-01

    Using multi-object optical spectroscopy from the AAT and Gemini-North, 35 low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in the Trapezium Cluster in Orion have been classified both by comparison with other previously classified young, low-mass sources in the Chamaeleon I star-forming region and by the use of spectral indices: narrowband indices which measure the strength of various highly temperature-sensitive molecular lines. The objects are all very likely cluster members, by analysis of the strength of the gravity-sensitive Na doublet, which is much weaker than in dwarfs for these very young objects. The spectral types obtained have been converted to effective temperatures using the temperature scale of Luhman et al. (2003b), which is intermediate between dwarf and giant scales and hence suitable for young pre-main sequence objects. In combination with the dereddened H band luminosities obtained from the photometry of Lucas & Roche (2000), the objects have been placed on an H-R diagram overlaid with the theoretical isochrones of Baraffe et al. (1998). The low-mass stars and the higher mass substellar objects are found to be clustered around the 1 Myr isochrone, while the lower mass substellar objects are located well above this isochrone, probably due to selection effects. The average age of 1 Myr for the majority of the objects is in agreement with other age estimates for the region, but the lack of any objects older than 5 Myr is in contrast to the results of Slesnick et al. (2004) which show in addition an older population at 10 Myr. Assuming coevality of the sources and an average age of 1 Myr, the masses of the objects have been estimated and 18 of the objects are found to have substellar masses.

  6. Individual, Model-independent Masses of the Closest Known Brown Dwarf Binary to the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, E. Victor; Ammons, S. Mark; Salama, Maissa; Crossfield, Ian; Bendek, Eduardo; Chilcote, Jeffrey; Garrel, Vincent; Graham, James R.; Kalas, Paul; Konopacky, Quinn; Lu, Jessica R.; Macintosh, Bruce; Marin, Eduardo; Marois, Christian; Nielsen, Eric; Neichel, Benoît; Pham, Don; De Rosa, Robert J.; Ryan, Dominic M.; Service, Maxwell; Sivo, Gaetano

    2017-09-01

    At a distance of ∼2 pc, our nearest brown dwarf neighbor, Luhman 16 AB, has been extensively studied since its discovery 3 years ago, yet its most fundamental parameter—the masses of the individual dwarfs—has not been constrained with precision. In this work, we present the full astrometric orbit and barycentric motion of Luhman 16 AB and the first precision measurements of the individual component masses. We draw upon archival observations spanning 31 years from the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Schmidt Telescope, the Deep Near-Infrared Survey of the Southern Sky (DENIS), public FORS2 data on the Very Large Telescope (VLT), and new astrometry from the Gemini South Multiconjugate Adaptive Optics System (GeMS). Finally, we include three radial velocity measurements of the two components from VLT/CRIRES, spanning one year. With this new data sampling a full period of the orbit, we use a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm to fit a 16-parameter model incorporating mutual orbit and barycentric motion parameters and constrain the individual masses to be {27.9}-1.0+1.1 {M}J for the T dwarf and {34.2}-1.1+1.3 {M}J for the L dwarf. Our measurements of Luhman 16 AB’s mass ratio and barycentric motion parameters are consistent with previous estimates in the literature utilizing recent astrometry only. The GeMS-derived measurements of the Luhman 16 AB separation in 2014–2015 agree closely with Hubble Space Telescope (HST) measurements made during the same epoch, and the derived mutual orbit agrees with those measurements to within the HST uncertainties of 0.3–0.4 mas.

  7. Signatures of cloud, temperature, and gravity from spectra of the closest brown dwarfs

    SciTech Connect

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Beletsky, Yuri; Osip, David J.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Tinney, Chris; Filippazzo, Joseph C.; Simcoe, Robert A.

    2014-08-01

    We present medium-resolution optical (λ/Δλ ∼ 4000) and near-infrared (λ/Δλ ∼ 8000) spectral data for components of the newly discovered WISE J104915.57-531906.1AB (Luhman 16AB) brown dwarf binary. The optical spectra reveal strong 6708 Å Li I absorption in both Luhman 16A (8.0 ± 0.4 Å) and Luhman 16B (3.8 ± 0.4 Å) confirming their substellar mass. Interestingly, this is the first detection of Li I absorption in a T dwarf. In the near-infrared data, we find strong K I absorption at 1.168, 1.177, 1.243, and 1.254 μm in both components. Neither the optical nor the near-infrared alkali lines show low surface gravity signatures. Along with the Li I absorption detection, we can broadly constrain the system age to 0.1-3 Gyr or the mass to 20-65 M{sub Jup} for each component. Compared to the strength of K I line absorption in equivalent spectral subtype brown dwarfs, Luhman 16A is weaker while Luhman 16B is stronger. Analyzing the spectral region around each doublet in distance scaled flux units and comparing the two sources, we confirm the J-band flux reversal and find that Luhman 16B has a brighter continuum in the 1.17 μm and 1.25 μm regions than Luhman 16A. Converting flux units to a brightness temperature we interpret this to mean that the secondary is ∼50 K warmer than the primary in regions dominated by condensate grain scattering. One plausible explanation for this difference is that Luhman 16B has thinner clouds or patchy holes in its atmosphere allowing us to see to deeper, hotter regions. We also detect comparably strong FeH in the 0.9896 μm Wing-Ford band for both components. Traditionally, a signpost of changing atmosphere conditions from late-type L to early T, the persistence and similarity of FeH at 0.9896 μm in both Luhman 16A and Luhman 16B is an indication of homogenous atmosphere conditions. We calculate bolometric luminosities from observed data supplemented with best fit models for longer wavelengths and find the components are

  8. Signatures of Cloud, Temperature, and Gravity from Spectra of the Closest Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Beletsky, Yuri; Burgasser, Adam J.; Tinney, Chris; Osip, David J.; Filippazzo, Joseph C.; Simcoe, Robert A.

    2014-08-01

    We present medium-resolution optical (λ/Δλ ~ 4000) and near-infrared (λ/Δλ ~ 8000) spectral data for components of the newly discovered WISE J104915.57-531906.1AB (Luhman 16AB) brown dwarf binary. The optical spectra reveal strong 6708 Å Li I absorption in both Luhman 16A (8.0 ± 0.4 Å) and Luhman 16B (3.8 ± 0.4 Å) confirming their substellar mass. Interestingly, this is the first detection of Li I absorption in a T dwarf. In the near-infrared data, we find strong K I absorption at 1.168, 1.177, 1.243, and 1.254 μm in both components. Neither the optical nor the near-infrared alkali lines show low surface gravity signatures. Along with the Li I absorption detection, we can broadly constrain the system age to 0.1-3 Gyr or the mass to 20-65 M Jup for each component. Compared to the strength of K I line absorption in equivalent spectral subtype brown dwarfs, Luhman 16A is weaker while Luhman 16B is stronger. Analyzing the spectral region around each doublet in distance scaled flux units and comparing the two sources, we confirm the J-band flux reversal and find that Luhman 16B has a brighter continuum in the 1.17 μm and 1.25 μm regions than Luhman 16A. Converting flux units to a brightness temperature we interpret this to mean that the secondary is ~50 K warmer than the primary in regions dominated by condensate grain scattering. One plausible explanation for this difference is that Luhman 16B has thinner clouds or patchy holes in its atmosphere allowing us to see to deeper, hotter regions. We also detect comparably strong FeH in the 0.9896 μm Wing-Ford band for both components. Traditionally, a signpost of changing atmosphere conditions from late-type L to early T, the persistence and similarity of FeH at 0.9896 μm in both Luhman 16A and Luhman 16B is an indication of homogenous atmosphere conditions. We calculate bolometric luminosities from observed data supplemented with best fit models for longer wavelengths and find the components are consistent

  9. Atmospheric circulation of brown dwarfs and directly imaged extrasolar giant planets with active clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xianyu; Showman, Adam

    2016-10-01

    Observational evidence have suggested active meteorology in the atmospheres of brown dwarfs (BDs) and directly imaged extrasolar giant planets (EGPs). In particular, a number of surveys for brown dwarfs showed that near-IR brightness variability is common for L and T dwarfs. Directly imaged EGPs share similar observations, and can be viewed as low-gravity versions of BDs. Clouds are believed to play the major role in shaping the thermal structure, dynamics and near-IR flux of these atmospheres. So far, only a few studies have been devoted to atmospheric circulation and the implications for observations of BDs and directly EGPs, and yet no global model includes a self-consistent active cloud formation. Here we present preliminary results from the first global circulation model applied to BDs and directly imaged EGPs that can properly treat absorption and scattering of radiation by cloud particles. Our results suggest that horizontal temperature differences on isobars can reach up to a few hundred Kelvins, with typical horizontal length scale of the temperature and cloud patterns much smaller than the radius of the object. The combination of temperature anomaly and cloud pattern can result in moderate disk-integrated near-IR flux variability. Wind speeds can reach several hundred meters per second in cloud forming layers. Unlike Jupiter and Saturn, we do not observe stable zonal jet/banded patterns in our simulations. Instead, our simulated atmospheres are typically turbulent and dominated by transient vortices. The circulation is sensitive to the parameterized cloud microphysics. Under some parameter combinations, global-scale atmospheric waves can be triggered and maintained. These waves induce global-scale temperature anomalies and cloud patterns, causing large (up to several percent) disk-integrated near-IR flux variability. Our results demonstrate that the commonly observed near-IR brightness variability for BDs and directly imaged EGPs can be explained by the

  10. New frontiers of high-resolution spectroscopy: Probing the atmospheres of brown dwarfs and reflected light from exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkby, Jayne; Alonso, Roi; Brogi, Matteo; Charbonneau, David; Fortney, Jonathan; Hoyer, Sergio; Johnson, John Asher; de Kok, Remco; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; Montet, Ben; Snellen, Ignas

    2015-12-01

    High-resolution spectroscopy (R>25,000) is a robust and powerful tool in the near-infrared characterization of exoplanet atmospheres. It has unambiguously revealed the presence of carbon monoxide and water in several hot Jupiters, measured the rotation rate of beta Pic b, and suggested the presence of fast day-to-night winds in one atmosphere. The method is applicable to transiting, non-transiting, and directly-imaged planets. It works by resolving broad molecular bands in the planetary spectrum into a dense, unique forest of individual lines and tracing them directly by their Doppler shift, while the star and tellurics remain essentially stationary. I will focus on two ongoing efforts to expand this technique. First, I will present new results on 51 Peg b revealing its infrared atmospheric compositional properties, then I will discuss an ongoing optical HARPS-N/TNG campaign (due mid October 2015) to obtain a detailed albedo spectrum of 51 Peg b at 387-691 nm in bins of 50nm. This spectrum would provide strong constraints on the previously claimed high albedo and potentially cloudy nature of this planet. Second, I will discuss preliminary results from Keck/NIRSPAO observations (due late September 2015) of LHS 6343 C, a 1000 K transiting brown dwarf with an M-dwarf host star. The high-resolution method converts this system into an eclipsing, double-lined spectroscopic binary, thus allowing dynamical mass and radius estimates of the components, free from astrophysical assumptions. Alongside probing the atmospheric composition of the brown dwarf, these data would provide the first model-independent study of the bulk properties of an old brown dwarf, with masses accurate to <5%, placing a crucial constraint on brown dwarf evolution models.

  11. 2MASS J035523.37+113343.7: A YOUNG, DUSTY, NEARBY, ISOLATED BROWN DWARF RESEMBLING A GIANT EXOPLANET

    SciTech Connect

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Rice, Emily L.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Nunez, Alejandro; Mamajek, Eric E. E-mail: jfaherty@amnh.org

    2013-01-01

    We present parallax and proper motion measurements, near-infrared spectra, and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer photometry for the low surface gravity L5{gamma} dwarf 2MASS J035523.37+113343.7 (2M0355). We use these data to evaluate photometric, spectral, and kinematic signatures of youth as 2M0355 is the reddest isolated L dwarf yet classified. We confirm its low-gravity spectral morphology and find a strong resemblance to the sharp triangular shaped H-band spectrum of the {approx}10 Myr planetary-mass object 2M1207b. We find that 2M0355 is underluminous compared to a normal field L5 dwarf in the optical and Mauna Kea Observatory J, H, and K bands and transitions to being overluminous from 3 to 12 {mu}m, indicating that enhanced photospheric dust shifts flux to longer wavelengths for young, low-gravity objects, creating a red spectral energy distribution. Investigating the near-infrared color-magnitude diagram for brown dwarfs confirms that 2M0355 is redder and underluminous compared to the known brown dwarf population, similar to the peculiarities of directly imaged exoplanets 2M1207b and HR8799bcd. We calculate UVW space velocities and find that the motion of 2M0355 is consistent with young disk objects (<2-3 Gyr) and it shows a high likelihood of membership in the AB Doradus association.

  12. 2MASS J035523.37+113343.7: A Young, Dusty, Nearby, Isolated Brown Dwarf Resembling a Giant Exoplanet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Rice, Emily L.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Núñez, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    We present parallax and proper motion measurements, near-infrared spectra, and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer photometry for the low surface gravity L5γ dwarf 2MASS J035523.37+113343.7 (2M0355). We use these data to evaluate photometric, spectral, and kinematic signatures of youth as 2M0355 is the reddest isolated L dwarf yet classified. We confirm its low-gravity spectral morphology and find a strong resemblance to the sharp triangular shaped H-band spectrum of the ~10 Myr planetary-mass object 2M1207b. We find that 2M0355 is underluminous compared to a normal field L5 dwarf in the optical and Mauna Kea Observatory J, H, and K bands and transitions to being overluminous from 3 to 12 μm, indicating that enhanced photospheric dust shifts flux to longer wavelengths for young, low-gravity objects, creating a red spectral energy distribution. Investigating the near-infrared color-magnitude diagram for brown dwarfs confirms that 2M0355 is redder and underluminous compared to the known brown dwarf population, similar to the peculiarities of directly imaged exoplanets 2M1207b and HR8799bcd. We calculate UVW space velocities and find that the motion of 2M0355 is consistent with young disk objects (<2-3 Gyr) and it shows a high likelihood of membership in the AB Doradus association.

  13. THE SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD. XXVIII. THE MULTIPLICITY FRACTION OF NEARBY STARS FROM 5 TO 70 AU AND THE BROWN DWARF DESERT AROUND M DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Dieterich, Sergio B.; Henry, Todd J.; Golimowski, David A.; Krist, John E.; Tanner, Angelle M.

    2012-08-15

    We report on our analysis of Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS snapshot high-resolution images of 255 stars in 201 systems within {approx}10 pc of the Sun. Photometry was obtained through filters F110W, F180M, F207M, and F222M using NICMOS Camera 2. These filters were selected to permit clear identification of cool brown dwarfs through methane contrast imaging. With a plate scale of 76 mas pixel{sup -1}, NICMOS can easily resolve binaries with subarcsecond separations in the 19.''5 Multiplication-Sign 19.''5 field of view. We previously reported five companions to nearby M and L dwarfs from this search. No new companions were discovered during the second phase of data analysis presented here, confirming that stellar/substellar binaries are rare. We establish magnitude and separation limits for which companions can be ruled out for each star in the sample, and then perform a comprehensive sensitivity and completeness analysis for the subsample of 138 M dwarfs in 126 systems. We calculate a multiplicity fraction of 0.0{sup +3.5}{sub -0.0}% for L companions to M dwarfs in the separation range of 5-70 AU, and 2.3{sup +5.0}{sub -0.7}% for L and T companions to M dwarfs in the separation range of 10-70 AU. We also discuss trends in the color-magnitude diagrams using various color combinations and present astrometry for 19 multiple systems in our sample. Considering these results and results from several other studies, we argue that the so-called brown dwarf desert extends to binary systems with low-mass primaries and is largely independent of primary mass, mass ratio, and separations. While focusing on companion properties, we discuss how the qualitative agreement between observed companion mass functions and initial mass functions suggests that the paucity of brown dwarfs in either population may be due to a common cause and not due to binary formation mechanisms.

  14. VLT X-Shooter spectroscopy of the nearest brown dwarf binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodieu, N.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Rebolo, R.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Pavlenko, Y.; Pérez-Garrido, A.

    2015-09-01

    Aims: The aim of the project is to characterise the two components of the brown dwarf system nearest to the Sun, WISE J104915.57-531906.1 (also called Luhman 16AB) at optical and near-infrared wavelengths. Methods: We obtained high signal-to-noise intermediate-resolution (R ~ 6000-11 000) optical (600-1000 nm) and near-infrared (1000-2480 nm) spectra of each component of Luhman 16AB with the X-Shooter instrument on the Very Large Telescope. Results: We classify the primary and secondary of the Luhman 16 system as L6-L7.5 and T0±1, respectively, in agreement with previous measurements published in the literature. We present measurements of the lithium pseudo-equivalent widths, which appear of similar strength in both components (8.2 ± 1.0 Å for the L and 8.4 ± 1.5 Å for the T component). The presence of lithium (7Li) in both components implies masses lower than 0.06 M⊙, while the comparison with models suggests lower limits of 0.04 M⊙. The detection of lithium in the T component is the first of its kind. Similarly, we assess the strength of other alkali lines (e.g. pseudo-equivalent widths of 6-7 Å for RbI and 4-7 Å for CsI) present in the optical and near-infrared regions and compare with estimates for L and T dwarfs. We also derive effective temperatures and luminosities of each component of the binary: -4.66 ± 0.08 dex a