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Sample records for nitrogen dioxide no2

  1. Highly accurate nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in nitrogen standards based on permeation.

    PubMed

    Flores, Edgar; Viallon, Joële; Moussay, Philippe; Idrees, Faraz; Wielgosz, Robert Ian

    2012-12-04

    The development and operation of a highly accurate primary gas facility for the dynamic production of mixtures of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) in nitrogen (N(2)) based on continuous weighing of a permeation tube and accurate impurity quantification and correction of the gas mixtures using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is described. NO(2) gas mixtures in the range of 5 μmol mol(-1) to 15 μmol mol(-1) with a standard relative uncertainty of 0.4% can be produced with this facility. To achieve an uncertainty at this level, significant efforts were made to reduce, identify and quantify potential impurities present in the gas mixtures, such as nitric acid (HNO(3)). A complete uncertainty budget, based on the analysis of the performance of the facility, including the use of a FT-IR spectrometer and a nondispersive UV analyzer as analytical techniques, is presented in this work. The mixtures produced by this facility were validated and then selected to provide reference values for an international comparison of the Consultative Committee for Amount of Substance (CCQM), number CCQM-K74, (1) which was designed to evaluate the consistency of primary NO(2) gas standards from 17 National Metrology Institutes.

  2. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) uptake by vegetation controlled by atmospheric concentrations and plant stomatal aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaparro-Suarez, I. G.; Meixner, F. X.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2011-10-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exchange between the atmosphere and five European tree species was investigated in the laboratory using a dynamic branch enclosure system (consisting of two cuvettes) and a highly specific NO2 analyzer. NO2 measurements were performed with a sensitive gas phase chemiluminescence NO detector combined with a NO2 specific (photolytic) converter, both from Eco-Physics (Switzerland). This highly specific detection system excluded bias from other nitrogen compounds. Investigations were performed at two light intensities (Photosynthetic Active Radiation, PAR, 450 and 900 μmol m-2 s-1) and NO2 concentrations between 0 and 5 ppb. Ambient parameters (air temperature and relative humidity) were held constant. The data showed dominant NO2 uptake by the respective tree species under all conditions. The results did not confirm the existence of a compensation point within a 95% confidence level, though we cannot completely exclude emission of NO2 under very low atmospheric concentrations. Induced stomatal stricture, or total closure, by changing light conditions, as well as by application of the plant hormone ABA (Abscisic Acid) caused a corresponding decrease of NO2 uptake. No loss of NO2 to plant surfaces was observed under stomatal closure and species dependent differences in uptake rates could be clearly related to stomatal behavior.

  3. Spatiotemporal inhomogeneity in nitrogen dioxide (NO2) over Fukuoka observed by Car MAX-DOAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takashima, H.; Yamaguchi, H.; Maruyama, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) observations have been made using car Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) in Fukuoka, an urban area in Japan, to clarify the spatiotemporal inhomogeneity in NO2. We developed instruments for Car MAX-DOAS, and NO2 measurements were conducted on 15 August 2015 and 30 November 2015 on the Fukuoka Urban Expressway, along the closed circular route. For both days, in the morning, the maxima were observed around the city center (in the northeast part of the circular route), whereas in the afternoon, the maxima were observed in the south/southeast part of the circular route (to the south/southeast of the city center). Analysis of the surface wind field indicates that NO2 inhomogeneity is strongly related to the inhomogeneity of NOx sources and to horizontal transport of high concentrations from the city center and low concentrations from the ocean via a land-sea breeze.

  4. Fact Sheets and Additional Information Regarding the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find tools for primary standards for Nitrogen Dioxide, maps of monitoring areas, an overview of the proposal, monitor requirements, design values for counties, and a presentation on the 2010 NO2 primary NAAQS revision.

  5. On the Hydrophobicity of Nitrogen Dioxide: Could there be a “lens” effect for NO2 reaction kinetics?

    PubMed Central

    Squadrito, Giuseppe L.; Postlethwait, Edward M.

    2009-01-01

    Solvent “lens” effects for the reaction kinetics of NO2 can be evaluated on the basis of published Henry’s law constants for nitrogen dioxide in various solvents. Water-to-organic solvent partition coefficients were derived from Henry’s law constants and used to assess the tendencies of NO2 toward fleeing the aqueous environments and concentrating in biological hydrophobic media. It is concluded, based only on the estimated aqueous medium-to-cell membrane partition coefficient for NO2, that such tendencies will be relatively small, and that they may account for an acceleration of chemical reactions in biological hydrophobic media with reaction kinetics that are first order on NO2 by a factor of approximately 3 ± 1. Thus, kinetic effects due to mass action will be relatively small but it is also important to recognize that because NO2 will tend to dissolve in cell membranes, reactions with cell membrane components will not be hindered by lack of physical solubility at these loci. In comparison to other gases, nitrogen dioxide is less hydrophobic than NO, O2 and N2. PMID:19540354

  6. Critical review of the human data on short-term nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposures: evidence for NO2 no-effect levels.

    PubMed

    Hesterberg, Thomas W; Bunn, William B; McClellan, Roger O; Hamade, Ali K; Long, Christopher M; Valberg, Peter A

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a ubiquitous atmospheric pollutant due to the widespread prevalence of both natural and anthropogenic sources, and it can be a respiratory irritant when inhaled at elevated concentrations. Evidence for health effects of ambient NO2 derives from three types of studies: observational epidemiology, human clinical exposures, and animal toxicology. Our review focuses on the human clinical studies of adverse health effects of short-term NO2 exposures, given the substantial uncertainties and limitations in interpretation of the other lines of evidence. We examined more than 50 experimental studies of humans inhaling NO2, finding notably that the reporting of statistically significant changes in lung function and bronchial sensitivity did not show a consistent trend with increasing NO2 concentrations. Functional changes were generally mild and transient, the reported effects were not uniformly adverse, and they were not usually accompanied by NO2-dependent increases in symptoms. The available human clinical results do not establish a mechanistic pathway leading to adverse health impacts for short-term NO2 exposures at levels typical of maximum 1-h concentrations in the present-day ambient environment (i.e., below 0.2 ppm). Our review of these data indicates that a health-protective, short-term NO2 guideline level for susceptible (and healthy) populations would reflect a policy choice between 0.2 and 0.6 ppm. EXTENDED ABSTRACT: Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a ubiquitous atmospheric pollutant due to the widespread prevalence of both natural and anthropogenic sources, and it can be a respiratory irritant when inhaled at elevated concentrations. Natural NO2 sources include volcanic action, forest fires, lightning, and the stratosphere; man-made NO2 emissions derive from fossil fuel combustion and incineration. The current National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for NO2, initially established in 1971, is 0.053 ppm (annual average). Ambient

  7. Fact Sheets and Additional Information Regarding the 2010 Revision to the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find tools for primary standards for Nitrogen Dioxide, maps of monitoring areas, an overview of the proposal, monitor requirements, design values for counties, and a presentation on the 2010 NO2 primary NAAQS revision.

  8. Estimation of surface nitrogen dioxide mixing ratio using the OMI NO2 tropospheric column data measured in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Daewon; Lee, Hanlim; Hong, Hyunkee; Park, Junsung

    2017-04-01

    We, for the first time, estimated daily and monthly surface nitrogen dioxide (NO2) volume mixing ratio (VMR) using three empirical models (Model-1, Model-2, and Model-3) with NO2 tropospheric vertical column density (OMI-Trop NO2 VCD) data obtained from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) in four metropolitan cities: Daejeon, Gwangju, Gyeonggi, and Seoul in South Korea for the period between 2006 and 2014. The performance of those empirical linear models was evaluated via comparison with the surface NO2 VMR data obtained from in-situ measurements(in-situ NO2 VMR) for the two years validation period. Model-1 is a linear regression equation between OMI-Trop NO2 VCD and in-situ NO2 VMR, whereas Model-2 is a linear regression equation which incorporate boundary layer height (BLH) obtained from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). Model-3 is a multiple linear regression equation. The monthly mean surface NO2 VMRs estimated by Model-2 showed good agreements with those of in-situ measurements. We found that correlation coefficients (R) between the estimated monthly mean surface NO2 VMRs from Model-2 and in-situ NO2 VMRs range from 0.70 to 0.82. The best correlation (R = 0.82) was found in Gwangju, while the poorest correlation (R = 0.70) was found in the western part of Seoul. In terms of the daily NO2 estimation, the highest correlations were found between the daily surface NO2 VMRs estimated by Model-3 and in-situ NO2 VMRs (0.62 < R < 0.90). The best correlation (R = 0.90) was found in the western part of Seoul, while the poorest correlation (R = 0.62) was found in Gwangju. We also discussed the performance of these empirical models for surface NO2 VMR estimation with respect to other statistical data such as root mean square error, mean bias, mean absolute error, and percent difference. This present study shows a possibility of estimating surface NO2 VMR using the satellite measurement.

  9. The economic benefits of reducing the levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) near primary schools: The case of London.

    PubMed

    Guerriero, Carla; Chatzidiakou, Lia; Cairns, John; Mumovic, Dejan

    2016-10-01

    Providing a healthy school environment is a priority for child health. The aim of this study is to develop a methodology that allows quantification of the potential economic benefit of reducing indoor exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in children attending primary schools. Using environmental and health data collected in primary schools in London, this study estimates that, on average, 82 asthma exacerbations per school can be averted each year by reducing outdoor NO2 concentrations. The study expands upon previous analyses in two ways: first it assesses the health benefits of reducing children's exposure to indoor NO2 while at school, second it considers the children's perspective in the economic evaluation. Using a willingness to pay approach, the study quantifies that the monetary benefits of reducing children's indoor NO2 exposure while at school would range between £2.5 k per school if a child's perspective based on child's budget is adopted up to £60 k if a parent's perspective is considered. This study highlights that designers, engineers, policymakers and stakeholders need to consider the reduction of outdoor pollution, and particularly NO2 levels, near primary schools as there may be substantial health and monetary benefits. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Environmental nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure influences development and progression of ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Na; Li, Hongyan; Han, Ming; Guo, Lin; Chen, Liqun; Yun, Yang; Guo, Zhen; Li, Guangke; Sang, Nan

    2012-10-17

    Here the correlativity between NO(2), a representative pollutant of vehicle exhaust, and ischemic stroke was first determined under experimental conditions following some epidemiological reports. First, we found that blood viscosity, red blood cell (RBC) aggregation-, electrophoresis- and rigidity-index in healthy rats were increased after exposure to 5mg/m(3) NO(2) for one- and three-month. Based on this, we set up stroke rat model and exposed them to NO(2) at the same concentration for one week, and found that NO(2) exposure time-dependently delayed neurological structure and function recovery of MCAO (middle cerebral artery occlusion) rat, and worsened pathological injuries and apoptosis induced by MCAO operation. Endothelial and inflammatory responses, two common cellular pathomechanisms involved in ischemic brain damage, were induced in cortex by MCAO treatment and exacerbated by followed NO(2) inhalation. Expression of the endothelial and inflammatory biomarkers in stroke displayed the same tendency in healthy rats after sub-acute and sub-chronic NO(2) exposure as in MCAO model in a concentration-dependent manner. Our data provide evidence that environmental NO(2) is an important inducer, and also a promoter of ischemic stroke, with endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) being potential indicators of this effect. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Leaf Uptake of Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Under Different Environmental Conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaparro-Suarez, I.; Thielmann, A.; Meixner, F. X.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2005-12-01

    The chemical budget of Ozone in the troposphere is largely determined by the concentration of NOx (NO, NO2) within a photostationary equilibrium. It is well known that atmospheric concentration is strongly influenced by the bi-directional exchange of NO2. However, there is some debate about the magnitude of the compensation point. Therefore, we investigated the uptake of atmospheric NO2 by trees in relation to atmospheric NO2 concentrations. Using the dynamic chamber technique and a sensitive and specific NO-analysator (CLD 780, Eco Physics) we measured the uptake of NO2 by four different tree species (Betula pendula, Fagus sylvatica, Quercus ilex und Pinus sylvestris) under field and laboratory conditions. Simultaneous measurements of CO2 exchange and transpiration were performed to track photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. Depending on tree species we found the exchange to be controlled by very low NO2 compensation points sometimes reaching zero values (no emission) under laboratory conditions. In the field a high compensation point for European beech (Fagus sylvatica) was observed, which is understood as a result of complex atmospheric conditions.

  12. Social factors associated with nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure during pregnancy: the INMA-Valencia project in Spain.

    PubMed

    Llop, Sabrina; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Iñiguez, Carmen; Ramón, Rosa; Gonzalez, Ma Carmen; Murcia, Mario; Esplugues, Ana; Rebagliato, Marisa

    2011-03-01

    Numerous studies have focused on the effects of exposure to air pollution on health; however, certain subsets of the population tend to be more exposed to such pollutants depending on their social or demographic characteristics. In addition, exposure to toxicants during pregnancy may play a deleterious role in fetal development as fetuses are especially vulnerable to external insults. The present study was carried out within the framework of the INMA (Infancia y Medio Ambiente or Childhood and the Environment) multicenter cohort study with the objective of identifying the social, demographic, and life-style factors associated with nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) exposure in the subjects in the cohort. The study comprised 785 pregnant women who formed part of the INMA cohort in Valencia, Spain. Outdoor levels of NO(2) were measured at 93 sampling sites spread over the study area during four different sampling periods lasting 7 days each. Multiple regression models were used for mapping outdoor NO(2) throughout the area. Individual exposure was assigned as: 1) the estimated outdoor NO(2) levels at home, and 2) the average of estimated outdoor NO(2) levels at home and work, weighted according to the time spent in each environment. The subjects' socio-demographic and life-style information was obtained through a questionnaire. In the multiple linear analyses, the outdoor NO(2) levels assigned to each home were taken to be the dependent variable. Other variables included in the model were: age, country of origin, smoking during pregnancy, parity, season of the year, and social class. These same variables remained in the model when the dependent variable was changed to the NO(2) levels adjusted for the subjects' time-activity patterns. We found that younger women, those coming from Latin American countries, and those belonging to the lower social strata were exposed to higher NO(2) levels, both as measured outside their homes as well as when time-activity patterns were taken

  13. Nitrogen dioxide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nitrogen dioxide ; CASRN 10102 - 44 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  14. Simultaneous measurement of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in simulated automobile exhaust using medium pressure ionization-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Short, Luke Chandler; Frey, Rüdiger; Benter, Thorsten

    2006-02-01

    In previous papers we have demonstrated two different, two-color resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) schemes for the simultaneous measurement of trace amounts (ppbV to pptV) of nitrogen monoxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)). The goal of this study is to provide a laser ionization-mass spectrometric scheme capable of measuring ppmV to ppthV concentrations of NO and NO(2) within vehicle exhaust containing up to ppthV of aromatic hydrocarbons and a time frame of seconds. Two ionization schemes are used here to measure NO and NO(2) in simulated automobile exhaust with three different sources. REMPI Scheme 1 uses broad-bandwidth light and an effusive source to measure NO (limit of detection (LOD) 300 ppmV), NO(2) (LOD 100 ppmV), and aromatic hydrocarbons (via photoionization) along with fragments (via electron impact). REMPI Scheme 2 uses narrow-bandwidth light and a medium pressure laser ionization (MPLI) source to measure NO (LOD 60 ppmV), NO(2) (LOD 3 ppmV), and fragments (via electron impact). The LOD is determined using 10-second sampling times. A newly developed delayed-ion extraction technique for MPLI is then applied to REMPI Scheme 2, dramatically reducing the electron impact signal, so that only NO and NO(2) are observed. We conclude that Scheme 2 with delayed-electron extraction is best suited for measuring in situ NO and NO(2) within engine exhaust.

  15. Assessment on ground-level nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ammonia (NH3) at secondary forest of Mata Ayer and Kangar, Perlis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Nadiah Syafiqah; Kamarudin, Latifah Munirah; Hamidin, Nasrul; Zakaria, Ammar; Gunasagaran, Rajeshkumar; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md.

    2017-03-01

    The current ground-level concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ammonia (NH3) within forests in Perlis are unknown and hardly investigated. The continual infrastructure development of Perlis and human activities may have played a major role in contributing to the decline of air quality in Perlis. Nitrogen-based trace gases may cause environmental effects while they are airborne or deposited on the ground. Due to the uncertainty of nitrogen trace gases level, this study was conducted to investigate the NO2 and NH3 concentrations within Mata Ayer secondary forest and Kangar. A portable gas monitor-sensor (Aeroqual Series 500) was used to assess the ground-level NO2 and NH3 concentrations, ambient air temperature, and relative humidity. The measurements were conducted in June 2015 between 9:30 am to 4:30 pm. The average NO2 and NH3 concentrations were 0.062 ppm and 0.040 ppm at the secondary forest of Mata Ayer and were found lower than Kangar (0.069 ppm and 0.125 ppm). The ambient air temperature and relative humidity in Kangar were found associated with NO2 (r = -0.420 and r = 0.315) and NH3 (r = -0.423 and r = 0.496). However, this was not the case at Mata Ayer secondary forest. The results indicated that human activities may have influenced the quality of ambient air in Perlis.

  16. Ambient air levels of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in a medium size city in Northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Parra, M A; Elustondo, D; Bermejo, R; Santamaría, J M

    2009-01-15

    Ambient concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were measured by means of passive sampling at 40 sampling points in a medium-size city in Northern Spain, from June 2006 to June 2007. VOC and NO2 samplers were analysed by thermal desorption followed by gas chromatography/mass-selective detector and by visible spectrophotometry, respectively. Mean concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, propylbenzene, trimethylbenzenes, and NO(2) were 2.84, 13.26, 2.15, 6.01, 0.59, 1.32 and 23.17 microg m(-3) respectively, and found to be highly correlated. Their spatial distribution showed high differences in small distances and pointed to traffic as the main emission source of these compounds. The lowest levels of VOC and NO2 occurred during summer, owing to the increase in solar radiation and to lower traffic densities. Mean concentrations of benzene and NO2 exceeded the European limits at some of the monitored points.

  17. Sources of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in New Zealand homes: findings from a community randomized controlled trial of heater substitutions.

    PubMed

    Gillespie-Bennett, J; Pierse, N; Wickens, K; Crane, J; Nicholls, S; Shields, D; Boulic, M; Viggers, H; Baker, M; Woodward, A; Howden-Chapman, P

    2008-12-01

    Houses in New Zealand have inadequate space heating and a third of households use unflued gas heaters. As part of a large community intervention trial to improve space heating, we replaced ineffective heaters with more effective, non-polluting heaters. This paper assesses the contribution of heating and household factors to indoor NO2 in almost 350 homes and reports on the reduction in NO2 levels due to heater replacement. Homes using unflued gas heaters had more than three times the level of NO2 in living rooms [geometric mean ratio (GMR) = 3.35, 95% CI: 2.83-3.96, P < 0.001] than homes without unflued gas heaters, whereas homes using gas stove-tops had significantly elevated living room NO2 levels (GMR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.05-1.93, P = 0.02). Homes with heat pumps, flued gas heating, or enclosed wood burners had significantly lower levels of NO2 in living areas and bedrooms. In homes that used unflued gas heaters as their main form of heating at baseline, the intervention was associated with a two-third (67%) reduction in NO2 levels in living rooms, when compared with homes that continued to use unflued gas heaters. Reducing the use of unflued gas heating would substantially lower NO2 exposure in New Zealand homes. Understanding the factors influencing indoor NO2 levels is critical for the assessment and control of indoor air pollution. This study found that homes that used unflued gas combustion appliances for heating and cooking had higher NO2 levels compared with homes where other fuels were used. These findings require institutional incentives to increase the use of more effective, less polluting fuels, particularly in the home environment.

  18. Fast response of sprayed vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) nanorods towards nitrogen dioxide (NO2) gas detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mane, A. A.; Suryawanshi, M. P.; Kim, J. H.; Moholkar, A. V.

    2017-05-01

    The V2O5 nanorods have been successfully spray deposited at optimized substrate temperature of 400 °C onto the glass substrates using vanadium trichloride (VCl3) solution of different concentrations. The effect of solution concentration on the physicochemical and NO2 gas sensing properties of sprayed V2O5 nanorods is studied at different operating temperatures and gas concentrations. The XRD study reveals the formation of V2O5 having an orthorhombic symmetry. The FE-SEM micrographs show the nanorods-like morphology of V2O5. The AFM micrographs exhibit a well covered granular surface topography. For direct allowed transition, the band gap energy values are found to be decreased from 2.45 eV to 2.42 eV. The nanorods deposited with 30 mM solution concentration shows the maximum response of 24.2% for 100 ppm NO2 gas concentration at an operating temperature of 200 °C with response and recovery times of 13 s and 140 s, respectively. Finally, the chemisorption mechanism of NO2 gas on the V2O5 nanorods is discussed.

  19. Volatile organic compounds (VOC), formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia: Associations with rhinitis, ocular, throat and dermal symptoms, headache and fatigue.

    PubMed

    Norbäck, Dan; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Hashim, Zailina; Ali, Faridah

    2017-08-15

    This paper studied associations between volatile organic compounds (VOC), formaldehyde, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) in schools in Malaysia and rhinitis, ocular, nasal and dermal symptoms, headache and fatigue among students. Pupils from eight randomly selected junior high schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia (N=462), participated (96%). VOC, formaldehyde and NO2 were measured by diffusion sampling (one week) and VOC also by pumped air sampling during class. Associations were calculated by multi-level logistic regression adjusting for personal factors, the home environment and microbial compounds in the school dust. The prevalence of weekly rhinitis, ocular, throat and dermal symptoms were 18.8%, 11.6%, 15.6%, and 11.1%, respectively. Totally 20.6% had weekly headache and 22.1% fatigue. Indoor CO2 were low (range 380-690 ppm). Indoor median NO2 and formaldehyde concentrations over one week were 23μg/m(3) and 2.0μg/m(3), respectively. Median indoor concentration of toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, and limonene over one week were 12.3, 1.6, 78.4 and 3.4μg/m(3), respectively. For benzaldehyde, the mean indoor concentration was 2.0μg/m(3) (median<1μg/m(3)). Median indoor levels during class of benzene and cyclohexane were 4.6 and 3.7μg/m(3), respectively. NO2 was associated with ocular symptoms (p<0.001) and fatigue (p=0.01). Formaldehyde was associated with ocular (p=0.004), throat symptoms (p=0.006) and fatigue (p=0.001). Xylene was associated with fatigue (p<0.001) and benzaldehyde was associated with headache (p=0.03). In conclusion, xylene, benzaldehyde, formaldehyde and NO2 in schools can be risk factors for ocular and throat symptoms and fatigue among students in Malaysia. The indoor and outdoor levels of benzene were often higher than the EU standard of 5μg/m(3). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Nitrogen Dioxide's Impact on Indoor Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The two most prevalent oxides of nitrogen are nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitric oxide (NO). Both are toxic gases with NO2 being a highly reactive oxidant and corrosive. The primary sources indoors are combustion processes.

  1. Nitrogen dioxide detection

    DOEpatents

    Sinha, Dipen N.; Agnew, Stephen F.; Christensen, William H.

    1993-01-01

    Method and apparatus for detecting the presence of gaseous nitrogen dioxide and determining the amount of gas which is present. Though polystyrene is normally an insulator, it becomes electrically conductive in the presence of nitrogen dioxide. Conductance or resistance of a polystyrene sensing element is related to the concentration of nitrogen dioxide at the sensing element.

  2. Accurate Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitric acid (HNO3) calibrated with synthetic spectra.

    PubMed

    Flores, Edgar; Viallon, Joële; Moussay, Philippe; Wielgosz, Robert Ian

    2013-10-01

    A novel method for determining the accuracy of laboratory-based measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitric acid (HNO3) mole fractions using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy 1 cm(-1) resolution instruments calibrated with synthetic spectra has been developed. The traceability of these measurement results is to the reference line strength data contained within the high-resolution transmission molecular absorption (HITRAN) database. Incorporating a proper estimate of the uncertainty of this data into the measurement results will ensure that the SI traceable values are encompassed within the uncertainty of the measurement results. The major contributors to the uncertainties of the results are, in descending order of importance, the uncertainty in the line strength values (HITRAN 2004), the uncertainty attributed to the generation of reference spectra (including knowledge of the optical path length of the FT-IR gas cell), and temperature measurements of the gas. The stability of the FT-IR instrument itself is only a minor contributor to the overall uncertainty of the measurements. FT-IR measurements of NO2 mole fractions at nominal values of 10 μmol mol(-1) calibrated with synthetic spectra lead to standard uncertainties of 0.34 μmol mol(-1) (3.4% relative). In contrast, calibration of the FT-IR instrument with SI traceable gas standards generated by a dynamic weighing system resulted in measurements results with standard uncertainties of 0.04 μmol mol(-1) (0.4% relative). When comparing the consistency of measurement results based on the synthetic calibration method against those obtained by calibrations with SI traceable gas standards, the existence of a potential bias of ~5% was observed, although this was within the stated uncertainties of the results. The FT-IR measurements of HNO3 mole fractions at nominal values of 200 nmol mol(-1) calibrated with synthetic spectra resulted in values with standard uncertainties of 23 nmol mol(-1) (11

  3. Final report of the pilot study CCQM-P110-B1: A comparison of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in nitrogen standards at 10 µmol/mol by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Edgar; Idrees, Faraz; Moussay, Philippe; Viallon, Joële; Wielgosz, Robert; Fernández, Teresa; Aoki, Nobuyuki; Kato, Kenji; Jeongsoon, Lee; Moon, Dongmin; Kim, Jin-Seog; Harling, A.; Milton, M.; Smeulders, Damian; Guenther, Franklin R.; Gameson, Lyn; Botha, Angelique; Tshilongo, James; Godwill Ntsasa, Napo; Valková, Miroslava; Konopelko, Leonid A.; Kustikov, Yury A.; Ballandovich, Vladimir S.; Gromova, Elena V.; Tuma, Dirk; Kohl, Anka; Schulz, Gert

    2012-01-01

    This pilot study compares the performance of participants in analyzing gas mixtures of nitrogen dioxide in nitrogen by comparison with in-house gravimetric standards using Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). In this study the same gas mixtures were used as in the key comparison CCQM-K74, which was designed to evaluate the level of comparability of National Metrology Institutes' measurement capabilities for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) at a nominal mole fraction of 10 µmol/mol. In the comparison CCQM-K74 most of the participants used chemiluminescence, with a small number using UV absorption or FT-IR spectroscopy, and thus it is of interest to improve understanding of the comparative performance of these techniques because they do not exhibit any cross-sensitivity to nitric acid (HNO3), which was known to be present in the mixtures used for the comparison. The results of this pilot study indicate good consistency and a level of agreement similar to that reported in the comparison CCQM-K74, demonstrating that FT-IR can be operated as a comparison method when calibrated with appropriate gas standards and can achieve similar measurement uncertainties to chemiluminescence and UV absorption techniques. An additional pilot study, CCQM-P110-B2, was conducted on the same gas mixtures in parallel with this pilot study. The second study addressed FT-IR spectroscopy when used to measure the gas mixtures with respect to reference spectra. The results of this second study will be reported elsewhere. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM-GAWG.

  4. Highly selective and sensitive response of 30.5 % of sprayed molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) nanobelts for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) gas detection.

    PubMed

    Mane, A A; Suryawanshi, M P; Kim, J H; Moholkar, A V

    2016-12-01

    The molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) thin films have been successfully deposited onto the glass substrates using chemical spray pyrolysis (CSP) deposition technique at various substrate temperatures ranging from 300°C to 450°C with an interval of 50°C. The effect of substrate temperature on the structural, morphological, optical and gas sensing properties of MoO3 thin films has been thoroughly investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that all the films have an orthorhombic crystal structure and are polycrystalline in nature. FE-SEM micrographs depict the formation of nanobelts-like morphology. AFM study reveals that the RMS surface roughness of MoO3 thin films increases from 8.6nm to 12nm with increase in substrate temperature from 300°C to 400°C and then decreases to 11.5nm for substrate temperature of 450°C. Optical results show that the band gap of MoO3 thin films decreases from 3.92eV to 3.44eV. The selectivity studies show that the gas response of various gases varies as NH3NO2. Moreover, typical MoO3 film deposited at substrate temperature of 400°C is highly selective and sensitive for detection of NO2 gas in comparison with other gases. The maximum response of 30.5 % is obtained towards 100ppm NO2 gas concentration at an operating temperature of 200°C with response and recovery times of 20s and 160s, respectively. Finally, NO2 gas sensing mechanism model based on the chemisorption process is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Estimated global nitrogen deposition using NO2 column density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Xuehe; Jiang, Hong; Zhang, Xiuying; Liu, Jinxun; Zhang, Zhen; Jin, Jiaxin; Wang, Ying; Xu, Jianhui; Cheng, Miaomiao

    2013-01-01

    Global nitrogen deposition has increased over the past 100 years. Monitoring and simulation studies of nitrogen deposition have evaluated nitrogen deposition at both the global and regional scale. With the development of remote-sensing instruments, tropospheric NO2 column density retrieved from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) and Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) sensors now provides us with a new opportunity to understand changes in reactive nitrogen in the atmosphere. The concentration of NO2 in the atmosphere has a significant effect on atmospheric nitrogen deposition. According to the general nitrogen deposition calculation method, we use the principal component regression method to evaluate global nitrogen deposition based on global NO2 column density and meteorological data. From the accuracy of the simulation, about 70% of the land area of the Earth passed a significance test of regression. In addition, NO2 column density has a significant influence on regression results over 44% of global land. The simulated results show that global average nitrogen deposition was 0.34 g m−2 yr−1 from 1996 to 2009 and is increasing at about 1% per year. Our simulated results show that China, Europe, and the USA are the three hotspots of nitrogen deposition according to previous research findings. In this study, Southern Asia was found to be another hotspot of nitrogen deposition (about 1.58 g m−2 yr−1 and maintaining a high growth rate). As nitrogen deposition increases, the number of regions threatened by high nitrogen deposits is also increasing. With N emissions continuing to increase in the future, areas whose ecosystem is affected by high level nitrogen deposition will increase.

  6. Hydrazine/nitrogen dioxide fiber optic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrawis, Alfred A.; Santiago, Josephine; Young, Rebecca C.; Baum, J. Clayton

    2004-06-01

    This paper outlines the development of a dual hydrazine/nitrogen dioxide (HZ/NO2) prototype fiber optic sensor utilizing an acid-base indicator that undergoes color changes depending on which gas is present. Bromothymol blue bromocresol green mixture (1/1) in hydrogel (1/1), produces a blue-green indicator for HZ and/or NO2. The sensor was tested several times over a period of eight weeks and the response was cconsistent and proved the feasibility of dual HZ/NO2 leak detection. Prototype sensor construction, the hardware, and the software of the electronic interrogator circuitry are briefly explained. The paper presents a summary of sensor response when exposed to 52 ppm and 18 ppm hydrazine and 400 ppm and 200 ppm nitrogen dioxide.

  7. 77 FR 64244 - Revision to Ambient Nitrogen Dioxide Monitoring Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 58 RIN 2060-AR59 Revision to Ambient Nitrogen Dioxide Monitoring Requirements AGENCY... deadlines established in the national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) for nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) for...

  8. The development of a nitrogen dioxide sonde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sluis, W. W.; Allaart, M. A. F.; Piters, A. J. M.; Gast, L. F. L.

    2010-12-01

    A growing number of space-borne instruments measures nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations in the troposphere, but validation of these instruments is hampered by the lack of ground-based and in situ profile measurements. The Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) has developed a working NO2 sonde. The sonde is attached to a small meteorological balloon and measures a tropospheric NO2 profile. The NO2 sonde has a vertical resolution of 5 m and a measurement range between 1 and 100 ppbv. The instrument is light in weight (0.7 kg), cheap (disposable), energy efficient and not harmful to the environment or the person who finds the package after use. The sonde uses the chemiluminescent reaction of NO2 in an aqueous luminol solution. The NO2-luminol reaction produces faint blue/purple light (at about 425 nm), which is detected by an array of silicon photodiodes. The luminol solution is optimised to be specific to NO2. An on-ground comparison with measurements from a Photolytic Analyser of The National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) shows that both instruments measure similar NO2 variations in ambient air. During the Cabauw Intercomparison campaign of Nitrogen Dioxide measuring instruments (CINDI) in June/July 2009, six vertical profiles of NO2 from the ground to a 5 km altitude were measured, which clearly show that the largest amount of NO2 is measured in the boundary layer. The measured boundary layer heights of the NO2 sonde are in good agreement with boundary layer heights determined by a LD40 Ceilometer at Cabauw.

  9. The development of a nitrogen dioxide sonde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sluis, W. W.; Allaart, M. A. F.; Piters, A. J. M.; Gast, L. F. L.

    2010-07-01

    A growing number of space-borne instruments measures nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations in the troposphere, but validation of these instruments is hampered by lack of ground-based and in-situ profile measurements. The Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) has developed a working NO2 sonde. The sonde is attached to a small meteorological balloon and measures a tropospheric NO2 profile. The NO2 sonde has a vertical resolution of 5 m, and a measurement range between 1 and 100 ppbv. The instrument is light in weight (±700 g), cheap (disposable), energy efficient and not harmful to the environment or the person who finds the package after use. The sonde uses the chemiluminescent reaction of NO2 in an aqueous luminol solution. The NO2-luminol reaction produces faint blue/purple light (at about 425 nm), which is detected by an array of silicon photodiodes. The luminol solution is optimised to be specific to NO2. An on-ground comparison with measurements from a Photolytic Analyzer of RIVM shows that both instruments measure similar NO2 variations in ambient air. During the Cabauw Intercomparison campaign of Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI) in June/July 2009 six vertical profiles of NO2 from the ground to 5 km altitude were measured, which clearly show that the largest amount of NO2 is measured in the boundary layer. The measured boundary layer heights of the NO2 sonde are in good agreement with boundary layer heights determined by a LD40 Ceilometer at Cabauw.

  10. Fact Sheets and Additional Information Regarding the 2012 Decision to Retain the Secondary NAAQS for Nitrogen Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    On April 3, 2012, EPA sdecided to retain the current secondary national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2).This page contains a fact sheet describing that action.

  11. Testing of Colorimetric Tubes for Nitrogen Dioxide and Monomethylhydrazine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Philip

    Colorimetric tubes for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and monomethylhydrazine (MMH) were tested for accuracy and results indicate that at the levels checked the tubes' average deviation was plus or minus 20 percent. Tube NO2 concentrations all read lower than the analyzed concentrations. MMH tubes read much higher than the analyzed concentration of 0.28…

  12. The Development of a Nitrogen Dioxide Sonde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sluis, Wesley; Allaart, Marc; Piters, Ankie; Gast, Lou

    2010-05-01

    Nitrogen dioxide is an important pollutant in the atmosphere, it is toxic for living species, it forms photochemical tropospheric ozone, and acid rain. There is a growing number of space-borne instruments to measure nitrogen dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere, but validation of these instruments is hampered by lack of ground-based and in-situ profile measurements. The Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) has developed a working NO2 sonde. The sonde is attached to a small meteorological balloon and measures a tropospheric NO2 profile. The NO2 sonde has a vertical resolution of 5 meter, and a measurement range between 1 and 100 ppbv. The instrument is light in weight (±300 gram), cheap (disposable), energy efficient and not harmful to the environment or the person who finds the package after use. Therefore the popular molybdenum catalytic converter or a photomultiplier tube can not be used. Instead the sonde uses the chemiluminescent reaction of NO2 in an aqueous luminol solution. The NO2- luminol reaction produces a faint blue/purple light (± 425 nm), which is detected by an array of silicon photodiodes. The instrument is equipped with a reservoir filled with luminol solution. A small piezoelectric diaphragm pump, pumps the luminol solution into a reaction vessel. A Teflon air pump forces the ambient air into the reaction vessel. The NO2 in the ambient air reacts with the luminol solution, and the emitted light is detected by an array of silicon photodiodes which are mounted on the reaction vessel. The generated current in the photodiodes is amplified and relayed to the ground by a Vaisala (RS92) radiosonde. The reaction vessel and the amplifiers are mounted in a tin can, to shield against electrostatic and radio interference, and stray light. All the air tubes used for the instrument are made of Teflon. The luminol solution is optimised to be specific to NO2. Sodium sulphate, sodium EDTA and Triton X-100 are added to the luminol solution to

  13. Nitrogen dioxide and respiratory illnesses in infants

    SciTech Connect

    Samet, J.M.; Lambert, W.E.; Skipper, B.J.; Cushing, A.H.; Hunt, W.C.; Young, S.A.; McLaren, L.C.; Schwab, M.; Spengler, J.D. )

    1993-11-01

    Nitrogen dioxide is an oxidant gas that contaminates outdoor air and indoor air in homes with unvented gas appliances. A prospective cohort study was carried out to test the hypothesis that residential exposure to NO2 increases incidence and severity of respiratory illnesses during the first 18 months of life. A cohort of 1,205 healthy infants from homes without smokers was enrolled. The daily occurrence of respiratory symptoms and illnesses was reported by the mothers every 2 wk. Illnesses with wheezing or wet cough were classified as lower respiratory tract. Indoor NO2 concentrations were serially measured with passive samplers place in the subjects' bedrooms. In stratified analyses, illness incidence rates did not consistently increase with exposure to NO2 or stove type. In multivariate analyses that adjusted for potential confounding factors, odds ratios were not significantly elevated for current or lagged NO2 exposures, or stove type. Illness duration, a measure of illness severity, was not associated with NO2 exposure. The findings can be extended to homes with gas stoves in regions of the United States where the outdoor air is not heavily polluted by NO2.

  14. Effect of nitrogen dioxide on Swiss albino mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Machado, A. M.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC50 values were determined for male Swiss albino mice exposed to different concentrations of nitrogen dioxide in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. The LC50 for a 10 minute exposure was about 1000 ppm NO2.

  15. SAGE observations of stratospheric nitrogen dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, W. P.; Mccormick, M. P.

    1986-01-01

    The global distribution of nitrogen dioxide in the middle to upper stratosphere (25-45 km altitude) for the period February 1979 to November 1981 has been determined from observations of attenuated solar radiation in the visible region 0.385-0.45 micron by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) satellite instrument. The SAGE-derived NO2 vertical profiles compare well with observations by balloon- and aircraft-borne sensors. The global SAGE NO2 distributions generally show a maximum in mixing ratio of 8 parts per billion by volume at about 35 km altitude near the equatorial latitudes at local sunset. The location of the mixing ratio peak moves synchronously with the overhead sun for the four different seasons. High-latitude NO2 column content shows strong seasonal variation, with a maximum in local summer and a minimum in local winter. Selected data at high-latitude winter seasons are presented, suggesting that the large variation shown could be explained by the coupling of both dynamics and photochemistry of the NO(x) species. Finally, profiles of the ratio of sunset to sunrise NO2 mixing ratios, peaking at about a factor of two at 30 km, are shown.

  16. A land use regression application into assessing spatial variation of intra-urban fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations in City of Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Henderson, Barron H; Wang, Dongfang; Yang, Xinyuan; Peng, Zhong-Ren

    2016-09-15

    Intra-urban assessment of air pollution exposure has become a priority study while international attention was attracted to PM2.5 pollution in China in recent years. Land Use Regression (LUR), which has previously been proved to be a feasible way to describe the relationship between land use and air pollution level in European and American cities, was employed in this paper to explain the correlations and spatial variations in Shanghai, China. PM2.5 and NO2 concentrations at 35-45 monitoring locations were selected as dependent variables, and a total of 44 built environmental factors were extracted as independent variables. Only five factors showed significant explanatory value for both PM2.5 and NO2 models: longitude, distance from monitors to the ocean, highway intensity, waterbody area, and industrial land area for PM2.5 model; residential area, distance to the coast, industrial area, urban district, and highway intensity for NO2 model. Respectively, both PM2.5 and NO2 showed anti-correlation with coastal proximity (an indicator of clean air dilution) and correlation with highway and industrial intensity (source indicators). NO2 also showed significant correlation with local indicators of population density (residential intensity and urban classification), while PM2.5 showed significant correlation with regional dilution (longitude as a indicator of distance from polluted neighbors and local water features). Both adjusted R squared values were strong with PM2.5 (0.88) being higher than NO2 (0.62). The LUR was then used to produce continuous concentration fields for NO2 and PM2.5 to illustrate the features and, potentially, for use by future studies. Comparison to PM2.5 studies in New York and Beijing show that Shanghai PM2.5 pollutant distribution was more sensitive to geographic location and proximity to neighboring regions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Antipollution system to remove nitrogen dioxide gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzler, A. J.; Slough, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    Gas phase reaction system using anhydrous ammonia removes nitrogen dioxide. System consists of ammonia injection and mixing section, reaction section /reactor/, and scrubber section. All sections are contained in system ducting.

  18. Table of Historical Nitrogen Dioxide National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    See the history of limits to the level of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in ambient air, set through the NAAQS review and rulemaking process under the Clean Air Act. This includes both primary and secondary standards.

  19. Isolation of a radical dianion of nitrogen oxide (NO)(2-).

    PubMed

    Evans, William J; Fang, Ming; Bates, Jefferson E; Furche, Filipp; Ziller, Joseph W; Kiesz, Matthew D; Zink, Jeffrey I

    2010-08-01

    Nitric oxide, NO, the diatomic hybrid of dinitrogen and dioxygen, has extensive biochemical, industrial and atmospheric chemistry. The unpaired electron on NO makes it highly reactive and its facile oxidation and reduction to make (NO)(1+) and (NO)(1-), respectively, have been heavily studied. Now the (NO)(2-) dianion has been isolated for the first time from the two-electron reduction of NO by the recently discovered (N(2))(3-) yttrium complex {[(Me(3)Si)(2)N](2)(THF)Y}(2)(micro(3)-eta(2):eta(2):eta(2)-N(2))K. NO reacts with this complex to form {[(Me(3)Si)(2)N](2)(THF)Y}(2)(micro-eta(2):eta(2)-NO), a paramagnetic complex that has an electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum definitive for the (NO)(2-) radical. Density functional theory reveals that a metal d(pi) to ligand pi* interaction is crucial for the stability of this complex, which reacts with additional NO to generate the diamagnetic (ON=NO)(2-) product, {[(Me(3)Si)(2)N](2)Y}(4)(micro(3)-ON=NO)(2)(THF)(2).

  20. High resolution nitrogen dioxide observations: retrieval, evaluation, and interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamsal, L. N.; Janz, S. J.; Krotkov, N. A.; Pickering, K. E.; Kowalewski, M. G.; Loughner, C.; Spurr, R. J. D.; Crawford, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    The Airborne Compact Atmospheric Mapper (ACAM) deployed during the DISCOVER-AQ Maryland field campaign made hyperspectral remote sensing measurements in the 304-910 nm range allowing observations of several tropospheric pollutants including nitrogen dioxide (NO2) at an unprecedented spatial resolution of 1.5x0.75 km2. We apply the DOAS method, include high resolution information for surface reflectivity and vertical distributions of NO2 and aerosols, and account for temporal variation in atmospheric NO2 to retrieve lower tropospheric NO2 column. We compare NO2 from ACAM with observations from in-situ aircraft, ground-based PANDORA, and space-based OMI, and NO2 simulation from air quality models. The high resolution ACAM measurements offer not only new insights into our understanding of atmospheric composition and chemistry through observation of sub-sampling variability in typical satellite and model resolutions, but also opportunities for algorithm improvements for upcoming geostationary air quality missions.

  1. Global Land Use Regression Model for Nitrogen Dioxide Air Pollution.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Andrew; Geddes, Jeffrey A; Martin, Randall V; Xiao, Qingyang; Liu, Yang; Marshall, Julian D; Brauer, Michael; Hystad, Perry

    2017-06-20

    Nitrogen dioxide is a common air pollutant with growing evidence of health impacts independent of other common pollutants such as ozone and particulate matter. However, the worldwide distribution of NO2 exposure and associated impacts on health is still largely uncertain. To advance global exposure estimates we created a global nitrogen dioxide (NO2) land use regression model for 2011 using annual measurements from 5,220 air monitors in 58 countries. The model captured 54% of global NO2 variation, with a mean absolute error of 3.7 ppb. Regional performance varied from R(2) = 0.42 (Africa) to 0.67 (South America). Repeated 10% cross-validation using bootstrap sampling (n = 10,000) demonstrated a robust performance with respect to air monitor sampling in North America, Europe, and Asia (adjusted R(2) within 2%) but not for Africa and Oceania (adjusted R(2) within 11%) where NO2 monitoring data are sparse. The final model included 10 variables that captured both between and within-city spatial gradients in NO2 concentrations. Variable contributions differed between continental regions, but major roads within 100 m and satellite-derived NO2 were consistently the strongest predictors. The resulting model can be used for global risk assessments and health studies, particularly in countries without existing NO2 monitoring data or models.

  2. Basic Information about NO2

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) and other nitrogen oxides (NOx) damage the human respiratory system and contribute to acid rain. These air pollutants are regulated as part of EPA's National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS).

  3. Nitrogen dioxide exposures inside ice skating rinks.

    PubMed Central

    Brauer, M; Spengler, J D

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The common operation of fuel-powered resurfacing equipment in enclosed ice skating rinks has the potential for producing high concentrations of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. Exposures to these gaseous combustion products may adversely affect the health of those inside the rink. Little information is available on pollutant concentrations under normal operating conditions. METHODS. One-week average nitrogen dioxide concentrations in 70 northeastern US rinks were measured with passive samplers during normal winter season conditions. RESULTS. The median nitrogen dioxide level inside rinks was 180 ppb, more than 10 times higher than the median outdoor concentration. One-week average nitrogen dioxide concentrations above 1000 ppb were measured in 10% of the rinks. CONCLUSIONS. Considering that short-term peak concentrations were likely to have reached two to five times the measured 1-week averages, our results suggest that nitrogen dioxide levels were well above short-term air quality guidelines and constitute a public health concern of considerable magnitude. PMID:8129060

  4. Guidance on Implementing the Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) PSD Increments

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  5. 21 CFR 868.2385 - Nitrogen dioxide analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nitrogen dioxide analyzer. 868.2385 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2385 Nitrogen dioxide analyzer. (a) Identification. The nitrogen dioxide analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of nitrogen...

  6. 21 CFR 868.2385 - Nitrogen dioxide analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nitrogen dioxide analyzer. 868.2385 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2385 Nitrogen dioxide analyzer. (a) Identification. The nitrogen dioxide analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of nitrogen...

  7. 21 CFR 868.2385 - Nitrogen dioxide analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nitrogen dioxide analyzer. 868.2385 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2385 Nitrogen dioxide analyzer. (a) Identification. The nitrogen dioxide analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of nitrogen...

  8. 21 CFR 868.2385 - Nitrogen dioxide analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nitrogen dioxide analyzer. 868.2385 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2385 Nitrogen dioxide analyzer. (a) Identification. The nitrogen dioxide analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of nitrogen...

  9. 21 CFR 868.2385 - Nitrogen dioxide analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nitrogen dioxide analyzer. 868.2385 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2385 Nitrogen dioxide analyzer. (a) Identification. The nitrogen dioxide analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of nitrogen...

  10. Ozone and nitrogen dioxide above the northern Tien Shan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arefev, Vladimir N.; Volkovitsky, Oleg A.; Kamenogradsky, Nikita E.; Semyonov, Vladimir K.; Sinyakov, Valery P.

    1994-01-01

    The results of systematic perennial measurements of the total ozone (since 1979) and nitrogen dioxide column (since 1983) in the atmosphere in the European-Asian continent center above the mountainmass of the Tien Shan are given. This region is distinguished by a great number of sunny days during a year. The observation station is at the Northern shore of Issyk Kul Lake (42.56 N 77.04 E 1650 m above the sea level). The measurement results are presented as the monthly averaged atmospheric total ozone and NO2 stratospheric column abundances (morning and evening). The peculiarities of seasonal variations of ozone and nitrogen dioxide atmospheric contents, their regular variances with a quasi-biennial cycles and trends have been noticed. Irregular variances of ozone and nitrogen dioxide atmospheric contents, i.e. their positive and negative anomalies in the monthly averaged contents relative to the perennial averaged monthly means, have been analyzed. The synchronous and opposite in phase anomalies in variations of ozone and nitrogen dioxide atmospheric contents were explained by the transport and zonal circulation in the stratosphere (Kamenogradsky et al., 1990).

  11. 75 FR 6473 - Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Nitrogen Dioxide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ...Based on its review of the air quality criteria for oxides of nitrogen and the primary national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) for oxides of nitrogen as measured by nitrogen dioxide (NO2), EPA is making revisions to the primary NO2 NAAQS in order to provide requisite protection of public health. Specifically, EPA is establishing a new 1-hour standard at a level of......

  12. Photoassisted Deposition of Silicon Dioxide from Silane and Nitrogen Dioxide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-30

    Photoassisted Deposition of Silicon Dioxide N from Silane and Nitrogfen Diotde, J. MARKS, R. C. BO\\VMAN, Jr., and R.. E. ROBIERTSON Chemisty and...WCO OL-AB I UINCLASSIFIED uv ~E~ CAS(TXI WF MTHISPA REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE ItRPg EUM "IICTO 1b. RE STRICTIVE MARKINGS Unclassified...IDeposition of Silicon Dioxide from e and Nitrogen Dio2x 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) 0Marks, Jeffrey Bowa Robert C., Jr.: anWRobertson. Rubv E. 13.TYPE OF

  13. Effects of elevated nitrogen dioxide and carbon dioxide on the growth of Sugar Maple and Hemlock seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eller, A. S.; McGuire, K. L.; Sparks, J. P.

    2005-12-01

    The partial pressure of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in the earth's atmosphere has been rising since the industrial revolution and is likely to continue rising due to the burning of fossil fuels. When NO2 enters plant leaves, it can undergo reactions that produce nitrate, which can be a source of nutrient nitrogen for the plant. However, NO2 is also an oxidant with the potential to damage cell membranes and decrease growth. The goals of this study were to examine the effect of NO2 on plant productivity alone and in combination with elevated CO2 under both nitrogen- and non-nitrogen-limiting conditions. To assess these effects, we conducted CO2, NO2, and CO2 + NO2 fumigations of sugar maple and eastern hemlock seedlings in open-topped chambers and measured relative growth rate, specific leaf area, root:shoot, and C:N of the leaves, stems, and roots. Sugar maple growth was reduced by 7% under elevated NO2 when nitrogen was limiting. When nitrogen was not limiting and CO2 was ambient, elevated NO2 caused a 4% decrease in growth and when CO2 was elevated there was no growth effect. Hemlock growth was increased by elevated NO2 regardless of nitrogen status and under both partial pressures of CO2; 3 and 8% increase in growth under ambient and elevated CO2, respectively. These data suggest gaseous reactive nitrogen may augment or decrease the future growth effects of elevated CO2 depending on plant species identity. In addition, perhaps because of differences in nitrogen metabolism and physiology, deciduous and evergreen tree species appear to have different responses to reactive nitrogen fumigation. These results underscore the need for examining the responses of vegetation to mixtures of gases representative of the future atmosphere rather than examining the influence of carbon dioxide alone.

  14. 40 CFR 52.1876 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52...: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The condition to EPA's approval of the oxides of nitrogen State Implementation Plan... change to the flow control date in the oxides of nitrogen budget trading SIP. (b) ...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1876 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52...: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The condition to EPA's approval of the oxides of nitrogen State Implementation Plan... change to the flow control date in the oxides of nitrogen budget trading SIP. (b) ...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1876 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52...: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The condition to EPA's approval of the oxides of nitrogen State Implementation Plan... change to the flow control date in the oxides of nitrogen budget trading SIP. (b) ...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1876 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52...: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The condition to EPA's approval of the oxides of nitrogen State Implementation Plan... change to the flow control date in the oxides of nitrogen budget trading SIP. (b) ...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1876 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52...: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The condition to EPA's approval of the oxides of nitrogen State Implementation Plan... change to the flow control date in the oxides of nitrogen budget trading SIP. (b) ...

  19. Ambient intercomparison of direct and indirect methods for ambient nitrogen dioxide

    EPA Science Inventory

    AbstractRecent advances in measurement techniques for nitrogen dioxide (NO2), along with known interferences in the current Federal Reference Method (FRM) have created the need for NO2 measurement method research within EPA’s Office of Research and Development. Current meth...

  20. Ambient intercomparison of direct and indirect methods for ambient nitrogen dioxide

    EPA Science Inventory

    AbstractRecent advances in measurement techniques for nitrogen dioxide (NO2), along with known interferences in the current Federal Reference Method (FRM) have created the need for NO2 measurement method research within EPA’s Office of Research and Development. Current meth...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix F to Part 50 - Measurement Principle and Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Nitrogen Dioxide in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Procedure for the Measurement of Nitrogen Dioxide in the Atmosphere (Gas Phase Chemiluminescence) F Appendix...—Measurement Principle and Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Nitrogen Dioxide in the Atmosphere (Gas... concentration standard. NO2 concentration standard. 2.1 Principle. Atmospheres containing accurately...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix F to Part 50 - Measurement Principle and Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Nitrogen Dioxide in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Procedure for the Measurement of Nitrogen Dioxide in the Atmosphere (Gas Phase Chemiluminescence) F Appendix...—Measurement Principle and Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Nitrogen Dioxide in the Atmosphere (Gas... concentration standard. NO2 concentration standard. 2.1 Principle. Atmospheres containing accurately...

  3. Nickel(II) Dithiocarbamate Complexes Containing Sulforhodamine B as Fluorescent Probes for Selective Detection of Nitrogen Dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yan; Krishnakumar, Saarangan; Yu, Huan; Ramishetti, Srinivas; Deng, Lih Wen; Wang, Suhua; Huang, Leaf; Huang, Dejian

    2013-01-01

    We synthesized the Ni(II) complexes with dithiocarbamate ligand derived from ortho and para isomers sulforhodamine B fluorophores and demonstrated they are highly selective in reaction with nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Comparing to the para isomer, the ortho isomer showed much greater fluorescence increase upon reaction with nitrogen dioxide, which led to oxidation and de-complexation of dithiocarbamate ligand from Ni(II). We applied this probe for visual detection of 1 ppm nitrogen dioxide in gas phase and fluorescence imaging of NO2 in macrophage cells treated with nitrogen oxide donor. PMID:23530626

  4. Analysis of Nitrogen Dioxide and Sulphur Dioxide in Lima, Peru: Trends and Seasonal Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacsi, S.; Rappenglueck, B.

    2007-12-01

    This research was carried out to show a general analysis of the monthly and yearly variation (1996-2002) and the tendency of the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) for the 5 stations of the air quality network of Lima. The SO2 and NO2 concentrations were measured by the Dirección General de Salud Ambiental (DIGESA), using the active sampling method and the chemical analysis has been determined by Turbidimetry and Colorimetry for the SO2 and NO2 respectively. The monthly average variation (1996-2001) of SO2 in the Lima Center station has a small annual range (32,4 mikrograms/m3) with maximum values in autumn (April) and minimum in winter (June). The NO2 presents a higher annual range (128,2 mikrograms/m3) and its minimum values occur in the summer and the maximum in spring. The annual averages analysis (2000-2002) of the air quality monitoring network of Lima shows that the SO2 and NO2 values are maximum in the Lima Center station and exceed the Peruvian air quality standard (ECAs) in 30% and 75% respectively. The yearly variation (1996-2001) in the Lima Center station show an increasing tendency in the SO2 (significant) and NO2 (not significant) values, which indicates the critical level of the air quality in Lima, therefore the implementation of the air pollution control programs is urgent.

  5. Collisional energy transfer from excited nitrogen dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, K.O.

    1991-05-01

    The radiative lifetimes of gaseous nitrogen dioxide excited by pulsed, tunable dye laser radiation are determined for excitation wavelengths ranging from 400 to 750 nm. When the data are expressed in the form of zero-pressure radiative rate constants (k{sub 0}/s{sup {minus}1}), they fit a linear equation with respect to excitation energy. This fit predicts a radiative lifetime of 64 {mu}s for 400 nm excitation and 102 {mu}s at 750 nm. The effects of pressure, observation delay time, and wavelength range of the fluorescence detection apparatus are determined for both radiative lifetime and quenching constant. Dispersed fluorescence spectra from excited nitrogen dioxide are analyzed into three-parameter functions that approximate the corresponding excited state population distributions. Energy transfer from nitrogen dioxide excited at 532 nm and colliding with thirteen buffer gases is studied by this population deconvolution method. The energy removal rate constants increase in the order Ne < Ar < Kr < Xe < He < CO < N{sub 2} < O{sub 2} < NO < NO{sub 2} < CO{sub 2} < SF{sub 6} < SO{sub 2}. The energy transfer rate constant is strongly correlated with the number of degrees of freedom of the buffer molecule and with low vibrational frequencies of the buffer molecule. Population deconvolution from excited nitrogen dioxide fluorescence spectra is again employed to find energy removal rate constants for the NO {sub 2}{sup *}-NO{sub 2} collisions, excited by dye laser at 475.34, 435.04, and 400.00 nm. The energy transfer rate constant increases with decreasing excitation wavelength. The energy removal rate constant between 400 and 532 nm excitation increases as the (3.6 {plus minus} 0.4) power of the excitation photon energy. 76 refs., 67 figs., 16 tabs.

  6. Comparison of Satellite Observations of Nitrogen Dioxide to Surface Monitor Nitrogen Dioxide Concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleb, Mary M.; Pippin, Margaret R.; Pierce, R. Bradley; Neil, Doreen O.; Lingenfelser, Gretchen; Szykman, James J.

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen dioxide is one of the U. S. EPA s criteria pollutants, and one of the main ingredients needed for the production of ground-level ozone. Both ozone and nitrogen dioxide cause severe public health problems. Existing satellites have begun to produce observational data sets for nitrogen dioxide. Under NASAs Earth Science Applications Program, we examined the relationship between satellite observations and surface monitor observations of this air pollutant to examine if the satellite data can be used to facilitate a more capable and integrated observing network. This report provides a comparison of satellite tropospheric column nitrogen dioxide to surface monitor nitrogen dioxide concentration for the period from September 1996 through August 1997 at more than 300 individual locations in the continental US. We found that the spatial resolution and observation time of the satellite did not capture the variability of this pollutant as measured at ground level. The tools and processes developed to conduct this study will be applied to the analysis of advanced satellite observations. One advanced instrument has significantly better spatial resolution than the measurements studied here and operates with an afternoon overpass time, providing a more representative distribution for once-per-day sampling of this photochemically active atmospheric constituent.

  7. Home interventions are effective at decreasing indoor nitrogen dioxide concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Paulin, L. M.; Diette, G. B.; Scott, M.; McCormack, M. C.; Matsui, E. C.; Curtin-Brosnan, J.; Williams, D. L.; Kidd-Taylor, A.; Shea, M.; Breysse, P. N.; Hansel, N. N.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a by-product of combustion produced by indoor gas appliances such as cooking stoves, is associated with respiratory symptoms in those with obstructive airways disease. We conducted a three-armed randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of interventions aimed at reducing indoor NO2 concentrations in homes with unvented gas stoves: (i) replacement of existing gas stove with electric stove; (ii) installation of ventilation hood over existing gas stove; and (iii) placement of air purifiers with high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) and carbon filters. Home inspection and NO2 monitoring were conducted at 1 week pre-intervention and at 1 week and 3 months post-intervention. Stove replacement resulted in a 51% and 42% decrease in median NO2 concentration at 3 months of follow-up in the kitchen and bedroom, respectively (P = 0.01, P = 0.01); air purifier placement resulted in an immediate decrease in median NO2 concentration in the kitchen (27%, P < 0.01) and bedroom (22%, P = 0.02), but at 3 months, a significant reduction was seen only in the kitchen (20%, P = 0.05). NO2 concentrations in the kitchen and bedroom did not significantly change following ventilation hood installation. Replacing unvented gas stoves with electric stoves or placement of air purifiers with HEPA and carbon filters can decrease indoor NO2 concentrations in urban homes. PMID:24329966

  8. Nitrogen dioxide exposure and airway responsiveness in individuals with asthma.

    PubMed

    Brown, James S

    2015-01-01

    Controlled human exposure studies evaluating the effect of inhaled nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on the inherent responsiveness of the airways to challenge by broncho-constricting agents have had mixed results. In general, existing meta-analyses show statistically significant effects of NO2 on the airway responsiveness of individuals with asthma. However, no meta-analysis has provided a comprehensive assessment of the clinical relevance of changes in airway responsiveness, the potential for methodological biases in the original papers, and the distribution of responses. This paper provides analyses showing that a statistically significant fraction (i.e. 70% of individuals with asthma exposed to NO2 at rest) experience increases in airway responsiveness following 30-min exposures to NO2 in the range of 200 to 300 ppb and following 60-min exposures to 100 ppb. The distribution of changes in airway responsiveness is log-normally distributed with a median change of 0.75 (provocative dose following NO2 divided by provocative dose following filtered air exposure) and geometric standard deviation of 1.88. About a quarter of the exposed individuals experience a clinically relevant reduction in their provocative dose due to NO2 relative to air exposure. The fraction experiencing an increase in responsiveness was statistically significant and robust to exclusion of individual studies. Results showed minimal change in airway responsiveness for individuals exposed to NO2 during exercise.

  9. Nitrogen dioxide compromises defence functions of the airway epithelium.

    PubMed

    Kakinoki, Y; Ohashi, Y; Tanaka, A; Washio, Y; Yamada, K; Nakai, Y; Morimoto, K

    1998-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure on airway epithelial defence functions, such as ciliary activity, mucociliary transport velocity and junctional barrier function, remains to be elucidated. Our study investigates the effect of 24-h exposure to 3.0 ppm of NO2 on the airway epithelial defence functions in the healthy rabbit. Fifty-two healthy rabbits were exposed to 3.0 ppm of NO2 (NO2 group) or pure air (control group) for 24 successive hours in exposure chambers. After completion of the exposure sequence, the ciliary activity in the trachea was examined by a photoelectric method, the mucociliary transport velocity in the trachea by an endoscopic method and epithelial permeability of the trachea to fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextrans (FD-70s; molecular weight: 70,000 daltons) by an in vitro tracheal sac method. In the NO2 group, all epithelial defence functions, including ciliary activity, mucociliary transport velocity and epithelial permeability were significantly inferior to those in the control group. Although there was considerable overlap in the parameters examined between the two groups, approximately two-thirds of the animals were susceptible to 24-h exposure to 3 ppm of NO2. Dysfunction of both the junctional barrier and the mucociliary system could allow easier entry of allergen molecules to the airway parenchyma, where immunocomponent cells exist. NO2 might be involved to some extent in the clinical manifestation of airway allergic disorders through epithelial dysfunction.

  10. Effect of nitrogen dioxide on human nasal epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, J.L.; Collier, A.M.; Hu, S.C.; Delvin, R.B. )

    1993-09-01

    The nasal epithelium of young adult white men in good health was evaluated by electron microscopy in a condition blind fashion relative to exposures of 2 ppm nitrogen dioxide (NO2) or clean air for 4 h. The exposure protocol involved two separate exposures of the same individuals to NO2 or clean air approximately 3 wk apart. We found qualitative and quantitative evidence that luminal border membranes of ciliated cells were ultrastructurally altered in six of seven samples of nasal epithelium obtained following NO2 exposures, although subsequent morphometric statistical analyses were not significant. This alteration was characterized by cilia containing excess matrix in which individual or, more commonly, multiple ciliary axonemes were embedded, and by vesiculations of luminal border ciliary membranes, a pattern less common in clean air-exposed control specimens. Although these patterns were not widespread, their morphology was consistent with findings of previous animal studies involving acute and chronic exposure to NO2. Our findings suggest that adverse effects on mucociliary function in normal humans due to acute exposure to low levels of NO2 are most likely minimal. However, in view of other reports of NO2 exposure in laboratory animals documenting ciliary injury, our observations support a view that similar patterns might appear more prominently with higher NO2 levels and/or more extended exposure intervals.

  11. 40 CFR 52.1676 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52...: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The requirements of § 52.14(c)(3) of this chapter as of May 8, 1974 (39 FR 16347), are not met since the plans do not provide for the degree of nitrogen oxides emission reduction...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1676 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52...: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The requirements of § 52.14(c)(3) of this chapter as of May 8, 1974 (39 FR 16347), are not met since the plans do not provide for the degree of nitrogen oxides emission reduction...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1676 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52...: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The requirements of § 52.14(c)(3) of this chapter as of May 8, 1974 (39 FR 16347), are not met since the plans do not provide for the degree of nitrogen oxides emission reduction...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1676 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52...: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The requirements of § 52.14(c)(3) of this chapter as of May 8, 1974 (39 FR 16347), are not met since the plans do not provide for the degree of nitrogen oxides emission reduction...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1576 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52... strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The requirements of § 52.14(c)(3) of this chapter as of May 8, 1974 (39 FR 16346), are not met since the plan does not provide for the degree of nitrogen oxides emission reduction...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1676 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52...: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The requirements of § 52.14(c)(3) of this chapter as of May 8, 1974 (39 FR 16347), are not met since the plans do not provide for the degree of nitrogen oxides emission reduction...

  17. Evaluation of land use regression models (LURs) for nitrogen dioxide and benzene in four U.S. Cities.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spatial analysis studies have included application of land use regression models (LURs) for health and air quality assessments. Recent LUR studies have collected nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using passive samplers at urban air monitoring networks ...

  18. Evaluation of land use regression models (LURs) for nitrogen dioxide and benzene in four U.S. Cities.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spatial analysis studies have included application of land use regression models (LURs) for health and air quality assessments. Recent LUR studies have collected nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using passive samplers at urban air monitoring networks ...

  19. Determination of nitrogen dioxide in ambient air employing diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Santosh Kumar; Deb, Manas Kanti; Verma, Devsharan

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents the development of a simple and precise analytical method for the determination of nitrogen dioxide in ambient air. In this method nitrogen dioxide is determined in the form of nitrite. The determination of nitrogen dioxide needs no reagents except for a solution of sodium hydroxide mixed with sodium arsenite (NaOH-Na 2As 2O 3) which is used as an absorbing reagent for trapping the nitrogen dioxide from the atmosphere in the form of nitrite, i.e., a prior analysis step. The determination of submicrogram levels of nitrogen dioxide is based on the selection of a strong and sharp quantitative analytical peak at 1380 cm - 1 using diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRS-FTIR). The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification of the method are found to be 0.008 μg g - 1 NO 2- and 0.05 μg g - 1 NO 2-, respectively. The precision in terms of standard deviation and relative standard deviation value at a level of 2 μg NO 2- / 0.1 g KBr for n = 10 is found to be 0.036 μg NO 2- and 1.8%, respectively. The relative standard deviation ( n = 10) for the determination of nitrogen dioxide in ambient air was observed to be in the range 2.6-3.8%. The method proposed is time-saving and eliminates the slow and cumbersome steps of pH maintenance of the reaction mixture and color formation of the EPA recommended spectrophotometric and other methods for quantitative determination of nitrogen dioxide.

  20. Nitrogen dioxide and respiratory illness in children. Part IV: Effects of housing and meteorologic factors on indoor nitrogen dioxide concentrations.

    PubMed

    Spengler, J D; Schwab, M; McDermott, A; Lambert, W E; Samet, J M

    1996-12-01

    In a prospective study of infants' exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2)* and respiratory illness, NO2 concentrations were measured in more than 1,400 homes in Albequerque, NM, From January 1988 through June 1991 (Health Effects Institute Research Report Number 58, Parts I, II and III). This report characterizes the variability in indoor NO2 concentrations across seasons and years, and identifies factors associated with variation in concentrations between homes and across seasons. In regression analyses of winter data, NO2 levels in the infants' bedrooms were predominately determined by the presence of gas cooking ranges with continuously burning pilot lights, the presence of wall or floor furnaces, the use of the stove for space heating, and the square footage of the living space. These findings are consistent with previously published analysis of data from homes in other U.S. cities. Relatively small differences in seasonal NO2 levels were observed across years. The correlation coefficient (r) of bedroom NO2 levels obtained in the same homes was 0.66 over two winters and 0.48 over two summers. For homes that had gas cooking ranges with continuously burning pilot lights, the NO2 bedroom concentrations differed, on average, less than 5 parts per billion (ppb) across winters. These differences were hypothesized to be caused by differences in the use of indoor NO2 sources, ventilation, and ambient (outdoor) NO2 levels. We were, however, unable to demonstrate an association between year-to-year differences in seasonal indoor NO2 concentrations and reported use of cooking range, furnace, or heater, or ambient NO2 levels, or temperature.

  1. Nitrogen Dioxide Promotes Allergic Sensitization to Inhaled Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Bevelander, Mieke; Mayette, Jana; Whittaker, Laurie A.; Paveglio, Sara A.; Jones, Christine C.; Robbins, Justin; Hemenway, David; Akira, Shizuo; Uematsu, Satoshi; Poynter, Matthew E.

    2015-01-01

    Allergen sensitization and allergic airway disease are likely to come about through the inhalation of Ag with immunostimulatory molecules. However, environmental pollutants, including nitrogen dioxide (NO2), may promote adaptive immune responses to innocuous Ags that are not by themselves immunostimulatory. We tested in C57BL/6 mice whether exposure to NO2, followed by inhalation of the innocuous protein Ag, OVA, would result in allergen sensitization and the subsequent development of allergic airway disease. Following challenge with aerosolized OVA alone, mice previously exposed via inhalation to NO2 and OVA developed eosinophilic inflammation and mucus cell metaplasia in the lungs, as well as OVA-specific IgE and IgG1, and Th2-type cytokine responses. One hour of exposure to 10 parts per million NO2 increased bronchoalveolar lavage fluid levels of total protein, lactate dehydrogenase activity, and heat shock protein 70; promoted the activation of NF-κB by airway epithelial cells; and stimulated the subsequent allergic response to Ag challenge. Furthermore, features of allergic airway disease were not induced in allergen-challenged TLR2−/− and MyD88−/− mice exposed to NO2 and aerosolized OVA during sensitization. These findings offer a mechanism whereby allergen sensitization and asthma may result under conditions of high ambient or endogenous NO2 levels. PMID:17785804

  2. The creation of pollution mapping and measurement of ambient concentration of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide with passive sampler.

    PubMed

    Akdemir, Andaç

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of nitrogen and sulfur dioxide using passive sampler over 12 months in Samsun, Turkey, are compared with SO2 and NO2 concentrations obtained from a co-located chemiluminescence analyzer. The concentrations of Sulfur and nitrogen dioxide in the ambient air during the period from November 2009 to September 2010 are analyzed. The highest value for annual NO2 and SO2 averages of passive sampler was 29.65 μg/m(3) and 21.01 μg/m(3) for exposures of 2-weeks at an industrial site. The maximum monthly concentration for SO2 was observed at the 10(th) measurement station with 44.19 μg/m(3) for August. The maximum monthly concentration for NO2 was observed on the 3(rd) measurement station with 42.83 μg/m(3) for November. A negative correlation between nitrogen dioxide concentrations and temperature (R(2) = -0.5489) was estimated. A positive correlation between nitrogen dioxide measurement with passive sampler and continuous measurement (R(2) = 0.6571) was estimated.

  3. The creation of pollution mapping and measurement of ambient concentration of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide with passive sampler

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Measurements of nitrogen and sulfur dioxide using passive sampler over 12 months in Samsun, Turkey, are compared with SO2 and NO2 concentrations obtained from a co-located chemiluminescence analyzer. The concentrations of Sulfur and nitrogen dioxide in the ambient air during the period from November 2009 to September 2010 are analyzed. Results The highest value for annual NO2 and SO2 averages of passive sampler was 29.65 μg/m3 and 21.01 μg/m3 for exposures of 2-weeks at an industrial site. The maximum monthly concentration for SO2 was observed at the 10th measurement station with 44.19 μg/m3 for August. The maximum monthly concentration for NO2 was observed on the 3rd measurement station with 42.83 μg/m3 for November. A negative correlation between nitrogen dioxide concentrations and temperature (R2 = −0.5489) was estimated. A positive correlation between nitrogen dioxide measurement with passive sampler and continuous measurement (R2 = 0.6571) was estimated. PMID:25136451

  4. A Continuous Flow System for the Measurement of Ambient Nitrogen Oxides [NO + NO2] Using Rhodamine B Hydrazide as a Chemosensor.

    PubMed

    Malingappa, Pandurangappa; Yarradoddappa, Venkataramanappa

    2014-01-01

    A new chemosensor has been used to monitor atmospheric nitrogen oxides [NO + NO2] at parts per billion (ppb) level. It is based on the catalytic reaction of nitrogen oxides with rhodamine B hydrazide (RBH) to produce a colored compound through the hydrolysis of the amide bond of the molecule. A simple colorimeter has been used to monitor atmospheric nitrogen dioxide at ppb level. The air samples were purged through a sampling cuvette containing RBH solution using peristaltic pump. The proposed method has been successfully applied to monitor the ambient nitrogen dioxide levels at traffic junction points within the city limits and the results obtained are compared with the standard Griess-Ilosvay method.

  5. A Continuous Flow System for the Measurement of Ambient Nitrogen Oxides [NO + NO2] Using Rhodamine B Hydrazide as a Chemosensor

    PubMed Central

    Malingappa, Pandurangappa; Yarradoddappa, Venkataramanappa

    2014-01-01

    A new chemosensor has been used to monitor atmospheric nitrogen oxides [NO + NO2] at parts per billion (ppb) level. It is based on the catalytic reaction of nitrogen oxides with rhodamine B hydrazide (RBH) to produce a colored compound through the hydrolysis of the amide bond of the molecule. A simple colorimeter has been used to monitor atmospheric nitrogen dioxide at ppb level. The air samples were purged through a sampling cuvette containing RBH solution using peristaltic pump. The proposed method has been successfully applied to monitor the ambient nitrogen dioxide levels at traffic junction points within the city limits and the results obtained are compared with the standard Griess-Ilosvay method. PMID:25210422

  6. In-vehicle nitrogen dioxide concentrations in road tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Ashley N.; Boulter, Paul G.; Roddis, Damon; McDonough, Liza; Patterson, Michael; Rodriguez del Barco, Marina; Mattes, Andrew; Knibbs, Luke D.

    2016-11-01

    There is a lack of knowledge regarding in-vehicle concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) during transit through road tunnels in urban environments. Furthermore, previous studies have tended to involve a single vehicle and the range of in-vehicle NO2 concentrations that vehicle occupants may be exposed to is not well defined. This study describes simultaneous measurements of in-vehicle and outside-vehicle NO2 concentrations on a route through Sydney, Australia that included several major tunnels, minor tunnels and busy surface roads. Tests were conducted on nine passenger vehicles to assess how vehicle characteristics and ventilation settings affected in-vehicle NO2 concentrations and the in-vehicle-to-outside vehicle (I/O) concentration ratio. NO2 was measured directly using a cavity attenuated phase shift (CAPS) technique that gave a high temporal and spatial resolution. In the major tunnels, transit-average in-vehicle NO2 concentrations were lower than outside-vehicle concentrations for all vehicles with cabin air recirculation either on or off. However, markedly lower I/O ratios were obtained with recirculation on (0.08-0.36), suggesting that vehicle occupants can significantly lower their exposure to NO2 in tunnels by switching recirculation on. The highest mean I/O ratios for NO2 were measured in older vehicles (0.35-0.36), which is attributed to older vehicles having higher air exchange rates. The results from this study can be used to inform the design and operation of future road tunnels and modelling of personal exposure to NO2.

  7. Capillary gas chromatographic analysis of nitrogen dioxide and pans with luminol chemiluminescent detection.

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffney, J. S.; Bornick, R. M.; Chen, Y.-H.; Marley, N. A.; Environmental Research

    1998-01-01

    Peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs) and nitrogen dioxide are important atmospheric air pollutants in the troposphere. These atmospheric nitrogen species are strongly coupled chemically by a clearly temperature-dependent equilibrium in the troposphere. A chemical method that can measure both nitrogen dioxide and PANs rapidly and with sub-part-per-billion detection is described that is based upon a modified luminol detection system coupled to a capillary gas chromatographic column by using helium as a carrier. The system can readily separate and detect nitrogen dioxide, peroxyacetyl nitrate, peroxyproprionyl nitrate, and peroxybutyrl nitrate with detection limits in the low tens of parts per trillion with total analysis time of less than 1 min. Calibration of PAN by thermal decomposition to nitrogen dioxide is demonstrated with PAN detection sensitivities approximately 75% of the sensitivities observed for NO2 luminol detection by using helium as a carrier gas. The advantages of this method for simultaneous measurement of nitrogen dioxide and PANs over ozone chemiluminescent detection and electron capture detection are discussed, as well as potential applications of this method for heterogeneous surface chemistry studies of PANs and nitrogen dioxide and for tropospheric measurements.

  8. Responses of Tree Seedlings to a Changing Atmosphere: Effects of Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen Dioxide, and Ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eller, A. S.; Sparks, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    Human activities have caused changes in the chemical composition of the atmosphere: the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) have increased and are expected to continue increasing in the future. These gases have the potential to alter plant physiological processes, change growth rates, C:N, and carbon storage potential. The responses of tree seedlings to these changes will have a profound impact on the species composition and carbon storage potential of forests in the future. Others have found CO2 tends to increase plant growth and O3 to decrease it. NO2, if assimilated by plants, can be a source of nutrient nitrogen, but is also an oxidant with the potential to damage cell membranes and decrease growth. The objectives of this study were to determine the single and combined effects of CO2, NO2, and O3 on sugar maple, eastern hemlock, and two clones of trembling aspen. The trees were fumigated for two growing seasons with elevated (40ppb) or ambient NO2, elevated (560ppm) or ambient CO2, elevated (100 ppb 5 days/week) or ambient O3, and with or without additional soil nitrate (30 kg ha-1 yr-1) to simulate ecosystems with and without nitrogen limitation. We found that elevated CO2 increased total biomass of both maples and hemlocks. Further, the CO2 growth effect was most striking when combined with elevated O2; elevated CO2 eliminated the growth decrease induced by O3 especially when nitrogen was limited. Elevated NO2 had no effect on maple seedlings, but, similar to CO2, eliminated the decrease in growth under O3 on hemlock seedlings. The two aspen clones differed in their resistance to ozone. The non-resistant clone exhibited growth responses similar to maple. However, the resistant clone did not exhibit a growth response under any gas treatment regardless of soil nitrogen status. The variation in responses among species, within clones of the same species, and between fumigations was large in this study and suggests

  9. Measurements of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, nitrous and nitric acids, and sulphur dioxide in the Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecera, V.; Mikuska, M.; Smolik, S.; Eleftheriadis, E.; Bryant, B.; Colbeck, C.; Lazaridis, L.

    2003-04-01

    Measurements of reactive nitrogen gases (NO_2, HONO, HNO_3), as well as ozone and sulfur dioxide were made over the Aegean Sea (the R/V Agaeon) within an air mass later reaching the Finokalia (Crete) sampling site. These measurements were carried out with unique gas trace instrumentation (wet effluent and "dry" diffusion denuder techniques, a chemiluminescent detection and chemiluminescent analyzers) during special conditions. There are significant differences in pollutant concentrations between results from Finokalia and from the R/V Agaeon. While at Finokalia concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, ozone and nitric and nitrous acids changed relatively slowly, the boat data showed a number of episodes with rapid changes in reactive nitrogen compounds and ozone concentrations. These episodes were correlated with the presence of boats up wind a short distance from the R/V Agaeon. Ozone concentrations at Finokalia and on the boat typically ranged between 40--80 ppb (v/v). Ozone concentrations reached up to 88 ppb (v/v) in the open sea. Nitrogen dioxide concentrations at Finokalia were in the range 0.5--3 ppb (v/v). Typical NO_2 concentrations observed aboard the boat were 4--6 ppb (v/v) with maxima of 20--30 ppb (v/v). During "spiked" episodes, up to 200 ppb (v/v) of nitrogen dioxide was observed while ozone concurrently was dramatically depleted down to 20 ppb (v/v). Concentrations of HONO and HNO_3 at Finokalia, in general, were low, typically in the order of 0.1--0.2 ppb (v/v) for HONO and 0.05--0.1 ppb (v/v) for HNO_3. On average, concentrations of both nitric and nitrous acids in the ambient air of the Aegean Sea were typically small, below 0.05 ppt (v/v). Within the "spiked" episodes up to 33 ppb (v/v) nitric acid and up to 2.5 ppb (v/v) nitrous acid were formed. The nitric acid "dry" denuder data were on average higher than the measurements by the wet efluent diffusion denuder. The concentration of SO_2 reached up to 9.2 ppb (v/v). The work was conducted within

  10. Nitrogen dioxide-induced acute lung injury in sheep.

    PubMed

    Januszkiewicz, A J; Mayorga, M A

    1994-05-20

    Lung mechanics, hemodynamics and blood chemistries were assessed in sheep (Ovis aries) before, and up to 24 h following, a 15-20 min exposure to either air (control) or approximately 500 ppm nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Histopathologic examinations of lung tissues were performed 24 h after exposure. Nose-only and lung-only routes of exposure were compared for effects on NO2 pathogenesis. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from air- and NO2-exposed sheep were analyzed for biochemical and cellular signs of NO2 insult. The influence of breathing pattern on NO2 dose was also assessed. Five hundred ppm NO2 exposure of intubated sheep (lung-only exposure) was marked by a statistically significant, albeit small, blood methemoglobin increase. The exposure induced an immediate tidal volume decrease, and an increase in both breathing rate and inspired minute ventilation. Pulmonary function, indexed by lung resistance and dynamic lung compliance, progressively deteriorated after exposure. Maximal lung resistance and dynamic lung compliance changes occurred at 24 h post exposure, concomitant with arterial hypoxemia. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid epithelial cell number and total protein were significantly increased while macrophage number was significantly decreased within the 24 h post-exposure period. Histopathologic examination of lung tissue 24 h after NO2 revealed patchy edema, mild hemorrhage and polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocyte infiltration. The NO2 toxicologic profile was significantly attenuated when sheep were exposed to the gas through a face mask (nose-only exposure). Respiratory pattern was not significantly altered, lung mechanics changes were minimal, hypoxemia did not occur, and pathologic evidence of exudation was not apparent in nose-only, NO2-exposed sheep. The qualitative responses of this large animal species to high-level NO2 supports the concept of size dependent species sensitivity to NO2. In addition, when inspired minute ventilation was used as a dose

  11. Study of solar variability impact on nitrogen dioxide: 2004-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin, Daniel-Eduard; Voiculescu, Mirela; Merlaud, Alexis; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) locally plays an important role in the radiation budget by absorbing solar radiation at ultraviolet (UV) and visible wavelengths. The influence of solar variability on the inter-annual variability and trends in nitrogen dioxide is evaluated for a period of 10 years (2004-2013) using monthly mean tropospheric NO2 measurements of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) version 2.0. Possible signatures of solar variability on nitrogen dioxide time series of NO2 over several cities were analyzed using various statistical methods. Various solar proxies were selected, in order to separate between possible links to solar irradiance and to solar wind. Several locations with different levels of pollution, located in different places of the world (Athens, Jungfraujoch, Lauder, Lisbon, Moscow, and Uccle), were selected. Observations show a clear 27 day period of the NO2 tropospheric Vertical Column Density (VCD) or total Slant Column Density (SCD). NO2 content decreases with increasing activity above polluted areas (e.g. Athens, Moscow) while for unpolluted areas there is no evident correlation (e.g. Lauder, Jungfraujoch). Possible effects of solar wind on NO2 content are observed as well, but the relationship is less clear, since polluted areas seem to respond differently to solar wind variations. The mechanism by which NO2 content can be affected by solar variations relate mainly to ozone production but other paths by which solar energy may be transferred to the lower atmosphere are investigated.

  12. Determinants of nitrogen dioxide concentrations in indoor ice skating rinks.

    PubMed Central

    Levy, J I; Lee, K; Yanagisawa, Y; Hutchinson, P; Spengler, J D

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The combination of poor ventilation and fuel-powered ice resurfacers has resulted in elevated nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations in many indoor ice skating rinks. This study examined the factors influencing concentrations and the effects of various engineering controls in ice rinks with different resurfacer fuels. METHODS: Indoor NO2 concentrations were measured in 19 enclosed ice skating rinks over 3 winters by means of passive samplers, with 1-week average measurements during the first winter pilot study and single-day working-hour measurements in the final 2 winters. Personal exposures to drivers also were assessed during the last winter. RESULTS: Rinks in which propane-fueled resurfacers were used had a daily mean indoor NO2 concentration of 206 ppb, compared with 132 ppb for gasoline-fueled and 37 ppb for electric-powered resurfacers. Engineering controls, such as increased ventilation and resurfacer tuning, reduced NO2 concentrations by 65% on average, but outcomes varied widely, and concentrations increased in subsequent months. CONCLUSIONS: Electric ice resurfacers, increased ventilation, or emission control systems are recommended to protect the health of workers and patrons, with surveillance programs proposed to track implementation and maintain an observer effect. PMID:9842374

  13. An Improved Retrieval of Tropospheric Nitrogen Dioxide from GOME

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Randall V.; Chance, Kelly; Jacob, Daniel J.; Kurosu, Thomas P.; Spurr, Robert J. D.; Bucsela, Eric; Gleason, James F.; Palmer, Paul I.; Bey, Isabelle; Fiore, Arlene M.

    2002-01-01

    We present a retrieval of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) satellite instrument that improves in several ways over previous retrievals, especially in the accounting of Rayleigh and cloud scattering. Slant columns, which are directly fitted without low-pass filtering or spectral smoothing, are corrected for an artificial offset likely induced by spectral structure on the diffuser plate of the GOME instrument. The stratospheric column is determined from NO2 columns over the remote Pacific Ocean to minimize contamination from tropospheric NO2. The air mass factor (AMF) used to convert slant columns to vertical columns is calculated from the integral of the relative vertical NO2 distribution from a global 3-D model of tropospheric chemistry driven by assimilated meteorological data (Global Earth Observing System (GEOS)-CHEM), weighted by altitude dependent scattering weights computed with a radiative transfer model (Linearized Discrete Ordinate Radiative Transfer), using local surface albedos determined from GOME observations at NO2 wavelengths. The AMF calculation accounts for cloud scattering using cloud fraction, cloud top pressure, and cloud optical thickness from a cloud retrieval algorithm (GOME Cloud Retrieval Algorithm). Over continental regions with high surface emissions, clouds decrease the AMT by 20- 30% relative to clear sky. GOME is almost twice as sensitive to tropospheric NO2 columns over ocean than over land. Comparison of the retrieved tropospheric NO2 columns for July 1996 with GEOS-CHEM values tests both the retrieval and the nitrogen oxide radical (NOx) emissions inventories used in GEOS-CHEM. Retrieved tropospheric NO2 columns over the United States, where NOx emissions are particularly well known, are within 18% of GEOS-CHEM columns and are strongly spatially correlated (r = 0.78, n = 288, p less than 0.005). Retrieved columns show more NO2 than GEOS-CHEM columns over the Transvaal

  14. An Improved Retrieval of Tropospheric Nitrogen Dioxide from GOME

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Randall V.; Chance, Kelly; Jacob, Daniel J.; Kurosu, Thomas P.; Spurr, Robert J. D.; Bucsela, Eric; Gleason, James F.; Palmer, Paul I.; Bey, Isabelle; Fiore, Arlene M.

    2002-01-01

    We present a retrieval of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) satellite instrument that improves in several ways over previous retrievals, especially in the accounting of Rayleigh and cloud scattering. Slant columns, which are directly fitted without low-pass filtering or spectral smoothing, are corrected for an artificial offset likely induced by spectral structure on the diffuser plate of the GOME instrument. The stratospheric column is determined from NO2 columns over the remote Pacific Ocean to minimize contamination from tropospheric NO2. The air mass factor (AMF) used to convert slant columns to vertical columns is calculated from the integral of the relative vertical NO2 distribution from a global 3-D model of tropospheric chemistry driven by assimilated meteorological data (Global Earth Observing System (GEOS)-CHEM), weighted by altitude dependent scattering weights computed with a radiative transfer model (Linearized Discrete Ordinate Radiative Transfer), using local surface albedos determined from GOME observations at NO2 wavelengths. The AMF calculation accounts for cloud scattering using cloud fraction, cloud top pressure, and cloud optical thickness from a cloud retrieval algorithm (GOME Cloud Retrieval Algorithm). Over continental regions with high surface emissions, clouds decrease the AMT by 20- 30% relative to clear sky. GOME is almost twice as sensitive to tropospheric NO2 columns over ocean than over land. Comparison of the retrieved tropospheric NO2 columns for July 1996 with GEOS-CHEM values tests both the retrieval and the nitrogen oxide radical (NOx) emissions inventories used in GEOS-CHEM. Retrieved tropospheric NO2 columns over the United States, where NOx emissions are particularly well known, are within 18% of GEOS-CHEM columns and are strongly spatially correlated (r = 0.78, n = 288, p less than 0.005). Retrieved columns show more NO2 than GEOS-CHEM columns over the Transvaal

  15. Pretreatment with nitrogen dioxide modifies plant response to ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runeckles, V. C.; Palmer, K.

    Plant growth inhibition by ozone is significantly affected by previous exposure to nitrogen dioxide. Experiments on the early growth of four crop species showed that daily pretreatment with NO 2 (0.08-0.10 ppm for 3 h) immediately prior to exposure to O 3 (0.08-0.10 ppm for 6 h) increased the inhibition of radish and wheat growth, decreased the inhibition of bush bean growth, but had no effect on the growth of mint. The magnitudes of the interactive effects indicate that in regions where relatively high concentrations of O 3 are produced by photochemical processes, for example, downwind from urban centres, assessments of the impact of O 3 on vegetation based on knowledge of response to O 3 alone may be seriously flawed.

  16. Statistical summary of air quality data for metropolitian Cleveland, Ohio, 1967 - 1972: Total suspended particulates, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. B.; Neustadter, H. E.; Fordyce, J. S.; Burr, J. C., Jr.; Cornett, C. L.

    1974-01-01

    Air-quality data for metropolitan Cleveland, Ohio, from 1967 through 1972 were collated and statistically analyzed. Total suspended particulates (TSP) departed from lognormal distribution in 1972. Nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide, departed significantly from lognormal distributions in 1972. In Cleveland the Ohio standards were not met. However, the data indicate a general improvement in air quality. Unusually high precipitation (43% above the average in 1972) may be responsible in lowering these values from the 1971 levels. The mean values of TSP, NO2, and SO2 are 104, 191, and 83 microgram/cu m respectively.

  17. Increasing concentrations of nitrogen dioxide pollution in rural Wales.

    PubMed

    Ashenden, T W; Edge, C P

    1995-01-01

    Monitoring of nitrogen dioxide pollution was carried out in rural environments throughout Wales during a 1-year survey to quantify any changes in background concentrations and distribution of the pollutant since an earlier survey in 1986. There were 23 sites in the present survey of which 16 had been monitored during the 1986 survey. The remaining 7 sites were based on moorland in mid-Wales within map squares for which critical loads for soil acidification are expected to be exceeded by the year 2005. All sites were chosen so as to be remote from major local sources of NO(2) and the values obtained were deemed to be minimum concentrations for the different regions. Measurements were made using diffusion tubes which aimed to provide mean concentrations of NO(2) for 2-week exposure periods. Concentrations of NO(2) were found to be higher in the winter months for most sites and this is probably related to a greater use of fossil fuels for heating buildings at this time of year. The exception was the high concentrations of NO(2) in May and June for several sites in North Wales, and in July and August for a site on Mount Snowdon. These high summer concentrations in North Wales are thought to be related to increased traffic associated with tourism. It is apparent that there has been a substantial increase in rural concentrations of NO(2) throughout Wales since the earlier survey of 1986. As an average of all 16 sites used in both surveys, there was a 53% increase in the annual mean concentration of NO(2). Also, it is evident that, since 1986, there has been a substantial increase in the area of south-eastern Wales which has a background level in excess of 10 ppb NO(2) and a notable reduction in land area with concentrations below 6 ppb NO(2) as an annual mean concentration. The possible future impact of increasing rural concentrations of NO(2) on Welsh vegetation is discussed with references to estimates of critical levels of NO(2) for adverse effects on plants.

  18. Catalytic Activation of Nitrogen Dioxide for Selective Synthesis of Nitroorganics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-15

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0035 Catalytic activation of nitrogen dioxide for selective synthesis SETH BROWN UNIVERSITY OF NOTRE DAME DU LAC Final Report 01...8-98) v Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 12-01-2015 Final 15 Aug 2011 - 14 Aug 2014 Catalytic activation of nitrogen dioxide for selective synthesis...reductive elimination of the nitroarene has not. Nitrogen dioxide can be used as a source of the nitro group in reactions with arylboronic acids or their

  19. Detection of nitrogen dioxide by CW cavity-enhanced spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jie, Guo; Han, Ye-Xing; Yu, Zhi-Wei; Tang, Huai-Wu

    2016-11-01

    In the paper, an accurate and sensitive system was used to monitor the ambient atmospheric NO2 concentrations. This system utilizes cavity attenuated phase shift spectroscopy(CAPS), a technology related to cavity ring down spectroscopy(CRDS). Advantages of the CAPS system include such as: (1) cheap and easy to control the light source, (2) high accuracy, and (3) low detection limit. The performance of the CAPS system was evaluated by measuring of the stability and response of the system. The minima ( 0.08 ppb NO2) in the Allan plots show the optimum average time( 100s) for optimum detection performance of the CAPS system. Over a 20-day-long period of the ambient atmospheric NO2 concentrations monitoring, a comparison of the CAPS system with an extremely accurate and precise chemiluminescence-based NOx analyzer showed that the CAPS system was able to reliably and quantitatively measure both large and small fluctuations in the ambient nitrogen dioxide concentration. The experimental results show that the measuring instrument results correlation is 0.95.

  20. Effect of nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide on viability and morphology of oak pollen.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Yuhui; Xu, Zhaojun; Fan, Erzhong; Li, Ying; Zhang, Luo

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) generated by excessive coal combustion and motor vehicle emissions are major air pollutants in the large cities of China. The objective of our study was to determine the effects of the exposure of oak pollens (Quercusmongolica) to several concentrations of NO2 or SO2. Pollen grains were exposed to 0.5 ppm to 5.0 ppm NO2 or SO2 for 4 hours and assessed for morphological damage by field emission scanning electron microscopy and for viability using the trypan blue stain. Morphological changes in pollen grains were also examined after contact with acid solutions at pH 4.0 to pH 7.0. Exposure to NO2 or SO2 significantly damaged pollen grains at all concentrations investigated, compared to exposure to air; with exposure to concentrations of 0.5 ppm to 2 ppm resulting in fissures or complete breaks in the exine and a concentration of 5 ppm resulting in complete breakdown and release of pollen cytoplasmic granules. Significantly greater amounts of pollen grain were damaged after exposure to SO2 (15.5-20.4%) than after exposure to NO2 (7.1-14.7%). Similarly, exposure to NO2 or SO2 significantly decreased the viability of pollen grains, compared with exposure to air; with SO2 being slightly more detrimental than NO2. Exposure to acid solutions also induced pollen damage, which appeared to be pH-dependent (from 24.6% at pH 6.0 to 55.8% at pH 4.0; compared to 3.8% at pH 7.0). Short-term exposure of oak pollen to high concentrations of SO2 or NO2 significantly increases their fragility and disruption, leading to subsequent release of pollen cytoplasmic granules into the atmosphere. These results suggest that heightened air pollution during the oak pollen season may possibly increase the incidence of allergic airway disease in sensitized individuals by facilitating the bioavailability of airborne pollen allergens. © 2015 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF A SPATIAL GRADIENT OF NITROGEN DIOXIDE ACROSS A UNITED STATES-MEXICO BORDER CITY DURING WINTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A gradient of ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentration is demonstrated across metropolitan El Paso, Texas (USA), a city located on the international border between the United States and Mexico. Integrated measurements of NO2 were collected over seven days at 20 elementary sc...

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF A SPATIAL GRADIENT OF NITROGEN DIOXIDE ACROSS A UNITED STATES-MEXICO BORDER CITY DURING WINTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A gradient of ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentration is demonstrated across metropolitan El Paso, Texas (USA), a city located on the international border between the United States and Mexico. Integrated measurements of NO2 were collected over seven days at 20 elementary sc...

  3. On the role of nitrogen dioxide in the absorption of solar radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, S.; Portmann, R. W.; Sanders, R. W.; Daniel, J. S.; Madsen, W.; Bartram, B.; Dutton, E. G.

    1999-05-01

    Direct measurements of the absorption of downwelling visible radiation by nitrogen dioxide are presented. The data show that this gas can contribute significantly to local radiative forcing under certain conditions. The observed enhancements in nitrogen dioxide absorption are likely to be due both to pollution and to production by lightning in convective clouds. Case studies of several days of observations in Colorado reveal peak absorption of downwelling radiation by NO2 of up to 5-12%, corresponding to an estimated local radiative forcing that is likely to be in the range of 5-30 W/m2. The amount of local forcing associated with thunderstorm activity depends strongly upon the cloud optical depth and on where the NO2 resides within the clouds. These case studies suggest that NO2 can play a significant role in the absorption of radiation (including but not limited to anomalous cloud absorption) either under polluted conditions or when electrically active storms are considered.

  4. 49 CFR 173.336 - Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen tetroxide, liquefied.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen....336 Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen tetroxide, liquefied. (a) Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied... with nitrogen dioxide. Each valve opening must be closed by a solid metal plug with tapered thread...

  5. 49 CFR 173.336 - Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen tetroxide, liquefied.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen....336 Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen tetroxide, liquefied. (a) Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied... with nitrogen dioxide. Each valve opening must be closed by a solid metal plug with tapered...

  6. 49 CFR 173.336 - Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen tetroxide, liquefied.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen....336 Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen tetroxide, liquefied. (a) Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied... with nitrogen dioxide. Each valve opening must be closed by a solid metal plug with tapered...

  7. 49 CFR 173.336 - Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen tetroxide, liquefied.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen....336 Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen tetroxide, liquefied. (a) Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied... with nitrogen dioxide. Each valve opening must be closed by a solid metal plug with tapered...

  8. 49 CFR 173.336 - Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen tetroxide, liquefied.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen....336 Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen tetroxide, liquefied. (a) Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied... with nitrogen dioxide. Each valve opening must be closed by a solid metal plug with tapered...

  9. Determination of nitrogen dioxide with a chemiluminescent aerosol detector

    SciTech Connect

    Mikuska, P.; Vecera, Z.

    1992-09-15

    A modified detector is described for use in the determination of nitrogen dioxide via reaction with luminol. Chemiluminescence of the aerosol particles formed by crossed streams of the analyte and an alkaline luminol solution was observed by a photomultiplier.

  10. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Nitrogen Dioxide (Health Criteria)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information, history and background on the development and maintenance of nitrogen dioxide (health criteria) assessments. There is a separate site that has combined NOx/SOx ecological criteria assessment.

  11. Novel nighttime free radical chemistry in severe nitrogen dioxide pollution episodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Roy M.; Shi, Ji Ping; Grenfell, J. Lee.

    During winter air pollution episodes, nitrogen dioxide concentrations can far exceed health based guidelines, but to date, there has been no wholly adequate explanation of the atmospheric chemical production of very high concentrations of nitrogen dioxide during such episodes, despite inclusion of the thermal oxidation of nitric oxide with dioxygen, as well as the well known reaction with ozone. In laboratory studies we have shown that both petrol engine exhaust and petrol vapour catalyse the thermal oxidation of nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide and have identified certain dialkenes as the chemical agent responsible ( Shi and Harrison, 1997). It is postulated that addition of nitrogen dioxide to the dialkene forms a reactive free radical species which initiates a chain reaction during which peroxy species are formed which convert NO to NO 2. A numerical box model including explicit hydrocarbon chemistry and incorporating this mechanism, shows that rates of nitrogen dioxide production observed in London in December 1991 and hitherto unexplained, are explicable by the presence of conjugate dialkenes at concentrations comparable with those which have been observed in polluted urban atmospheres.

  12. Inventory of nitrogen oxide emissions derived from space-based observations of NO2 columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, R. V.; Jacob, D. J.; Chance, K. V.; Kurosu, T. P.; Palmer, P. I.; Evans, M. J.

    2003-04-01

    Nitrogen oxide radicals (NO_x = NO + NO_2) largely control tropospheric ozone production. We construct a global inventory of nitrogen oxide emissions using top-down information from our retrieval of tropospheric NO_2 columns (1996--97) from the European Space Agency's Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) satellite instrument. We combine the top-down information with an a priori bottom-up inventory (based on the Global Emission Inventory Activity (GEIA) and scaled to 1996--97) weighted by relative errors in the top-down and bottom-up sources. We calculate the local relationship between NO_2 columns and NO_x emissions with a global 3-D model of tropospheric chemistry (GEOS-CHEM) that uses the a priori inventory. Monthly mean top-down errors in NO_x emissions of 50% at 2^ox2.5^o resolution are comparable to bottom-up errors over industrial regions and much better elsewhere. A posteriori errors are about half of a priori errors. Global annual land surface NO_x emissions for the a priori, an independent inventory (EDGAR 3.0), and the a posteriori are 36.4, 36.6, and 37.7 Tg N yr-1 respectively. Local a posteriori NO_x emissions suggest underestimates of up to a factor of 2 near Johannesburg, Tehran, and Riyadh, up to 50% for Spain, Tokyo, and the Po Valley of Italy, and 25% for the eastern United States, as well as local overestimates of up to 50% for India and the biomass burning regions of central Africa and Brazil. A posteriori NO_x emissions provide evidence that soil NO_x emissions are underestimated for the western United States, Spain, the Sahel, and the Mediterranean coastal region.

  13. Liquid crystal-based sensors for selective and quantitative detection of nitrogen dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Avijit; Kupcho, Kurt A.; Grinwald, Bart A.; VanTreeck, Heidi J.; Acharya, Bharat R.

    2013-01-01

    A highly sensitive nitrogen dioxide (NO2) sensor based on orientational transition of a thin film of liquid crystal (LC) supported on a gold surface is reported. Transport of NO2 molecules through the LC film to the LC-gold interface induces an orientation transition in the LC film. The dynamic behavior of the sensor response exhibits a concentration-dependent response rate that is employed to generate an algorithm for quantitative determination of unknown concentrations. Sensitive, selective and reversible detection with minimal effects of environmental fluctuations suggest that these sensors can be used for quantitative NO2 detection for a number of applications. PMID:23526230

  14. Nitrogen dioxide absorption in aqueous sodium sulfite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chen Hua

    The Clean Air Act of 1990 requires additional reduction of acid gases, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides released into the atmosphere from coal-fired electric power plants. In the case of older existing power plants, a possible retrofit strategy is to oxidize nitric oxide (NO, the major constituent of NOsbX in flue gas) to nitrogen dioxide (NOsb2) by the addition of methanol or other hydrocarbons into the duct at an optimum temperature regime. NOsb2 can then be removed by either modifying existing SOsb2 control equipment or by adding a limestone (CaCOsb3) slurry scrubbing process. Limestone reacts with SOsb2 to from CaSOsb3, and the free sulfite (SO{sb3sp{=}}) in the solution is reactive toward NOsb2. The focus of this research is to study the reaction between NOsb2 and aqueous sulfite at elevated temperature and in the presence of gas phase Osb2. The removal of NOsb2 by limestone slurry scrubbing involves the reaction between NOsb2 and SO{sb3sp{=}}, bisulfite (HSO{sb3sp{-}}) and water. The reactions between NOsb2 and SO{sb3sp{=}}/HSO{sb3sp{-}} are first order in both reactants, while the NOsb2-water reaction is second order in NOsb2 concentration. The rate constants of the above reactions and the NOsb2-thiosulfate (Ssb2O{sb3sp{=}}) reaction were determined at 55sp°C. SO{sb3sp{=}} was found to be the most reactive toward NOsb2, while the contribution of chemical reaction still dominated in the absorption of NOsb2 into water. The effect of gas phase SOsb2 and Osb2, and liquid phase additives such as Ssb2O{sb3sp{=}}, Casp{++}, Mgsp{++}, and Clsp{-} on NOsb2 absorption was also investigated. The absorption of NOsb2 catalyzes free radical reactions that lead to sulfite oxidation. A semi-empirical model was proposed to relate the rate of sulfite oxidation to the rate of NOsb2 absorption. Thiosulfate inhibits sulfite oxidation by providing an alternative route for the termination of the free radical reactions, and a fundamental model was derived to quantify the effect

  15. 40 CFR 52.728 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52.728 Section 52.728 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.728 Control strategy: Nitrogen...

  16. 40 CFR 52.728 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52.728 Section 52.728 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.728 Control strategy: Nitrogen...

  17. 40 CFR 52.728 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52.728 Section 52.728 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.728 Control strategy: Nitrogen...

  18. 40 CFR 52.728 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52.728 Section 52.728 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.728 Control strategy: Nitrogen...

  19. 40 CFR 52.728 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52.728 Section 52.728 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.728 Control strategy: Nitrogen...

  20. Estimating 40 years of nitrogen deposition in global biomes using the SCIAMACHY NO2 column

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Xuehe; Zhang, Xiuying; Liu, Jinxun; Jin, Jiaxin

    2016-01-01

    Owing to human activity, global nitrogen (N) cycles have been altered. In the past 100 years, global N deposition has increased. Currently, the monitoring and estimating of N deposition and the evaluation of its effects on global carbon budgets are the focus of many researchers. NO2 columns retrieved by space-borne sensors provide us with a new way of exploring global N cycles and these have the ability to estimate N deposition. However, the time range limitation of NO2 columns makes the estimation of long timescale N deposition difficult. In this study we used ground-based NOx emission data to expand the density of NO2columns, and 40 years of N deposition (1970–2009) was inverted using the multivariate linear model with expanded NO2 columns. The dynamic of N deposition was examined in both global and biome scales. The results show that the average N deposition was 0.34 g N m–2 year–1 in the 2000s, which was an increase of 38.4% compared with the 1970s’. The total N deposition in different biomes is unbalanced. N deposition is only 38.0% of the global total in forest biomes; this is made up of 25.9%, 11.3, and 0.7% in tropical, temperate, and boreal forests, respectively. As N-limited biomes, there was little increase of N deposition in boreal forests. However, N deposition has increased by a total of 59.6% in tropical forests and croplands, which are N-rich biomes. Such characteristics may influence the effects on global carbon budgets.

  1. Global inventory of nitrogen oxide emissions constrained by space-based observations of NO2 columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Randall V.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Chance, Kelly; Kurosu, Thomas P.; Palmer, Paul I.; Evans, Mathew J.

    2003-09-01

    We use tropospheric NO2 columns from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) satellite instrument to derive top-down constraints on emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx ≡ NO + NO2), and combine these with a priori information from a bottom-up emission inventory (with error weighting) to achieve an optimized a posteriori estimate of the global distribution of surface NOx emissions. Our GOME NO2 retrieval improves on previous work by accounting for scattering and absorption of radiation by aerosols; the effect on the air mass factor (AMF) ranges from +10 to -40% depending on the region. Our AMF also includes local information on relative vertical profiles (shape factors) of NO2 from a global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-CHEM); assumption of a globally uniform shape factor, as in most previous retrievals, would introduce regional biases of up to 40% over industrial regions and a factor of 2 over remote regions. We derive a top-down NOx emission inventory from the GOME data by using the local GEOS-CHEM relationship between NO2 columns and NOx emissions. The resulting NOx emissions for industrial regions are aseasonal, despite large seasonal variation in NO2 columns, providing confidence in the method. Top-down errors in monthly NOx emissions are comparable with bottom-up errors over source regions. Annual global a posteriori errors are half of a priori errors. Our global a posteriori estimate for annual land surface NOx emissions (37.7 Tg N yr-1) agrees closely with the GEIA-based a priori (36.4) and with the EDGAR 3.0 bottom-up inventory (36.6), but there are significant regional differences. A posteriori NOx emissions are higher by 50-100% in the Po Valley, Tehran, and Riyadh urban areas, and by 25-35% in Japan and South Africa. Biomass burning emissions from India, central Africa, and Brazil are lower by up to 50%; soil NOx emissions are appreciably higher in the western United States, the Sahel, and southern Europe.

  2. Indoor concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide from burning solid fuels for cooking and heating in Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Seow, W J; Downward, G S; Wei, H; Rothman, N; Reiss, B; Xu, J; Bassig, B A; Li, J; He, J; Hosgood, H D; Wu, G; Chapman, R S; Tian, L; Wei, F; Caporaso, N E; Vermeulen, R; Lan, Q

    2016-10-01

    The Chinese national pollution census has indicated that the domestic burning of solid fuels is an important contributor to nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) and sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) emissions in China. To characterize indoor NO2 and SO2 air concentrations in relation to solid fuel use and stove ventilation in the rural counties of Xuanwei and Fuyuan, in Yunnan Province, China, which have among the highest lung cancer rates in the nation, a total of 163 participants in 30 selected villages were enrolled. Indoor 24-h NO2 and SO2 samples were collected in each household over two consecutive days. Compared to smoky coal, smokeless coal use was associated with higher NO2 concentrations [geometric mean (GM) = 132 μg/m(3) for smokeless coal and 111 μg/m(3) for smoky coal, P = 0.065] and SO2 [limit of detection = 24 μg/m(3) ; percentage detected (%Detect) = 86% for smokeless coal and 40% for smoky coal, P < 0.001]. Among smoky coal users, significant variation of NO2 and SO2 air concentrations was observed across different stove designs and smoky coal sources in both counties. Model construction indicated that the measurements of both pollutants were influenced by stove design. This exposure assessment study has identified high levels of NO2 and SO2 as a result of burning solid fuels for cooking and heating.

  3. Low Energy, Low Emissions: Sulfur Dioxide; Nitrogen Oxides, and Carbon Dioxide in Western Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcamo, Joseph; De Vries, Bert

    1992-01-01

    Links proposed low-energy scenarios for different Western European countries with the amount of pollutants that may result from these scenarios. Sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and carbon dioxide emissions are calculated for the 10 countries for which low-energy scenarios are available, resulting in reductions of 54%, 37%, and 40%, respectively.…

  4. Low Energy, Low Emissions: Sulfur Dioxide; Nitrogen Oxides, and Carbon Dioxide in Western Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcamo, Joseph; De Vries, Bert

    1992-01-01

    Links proposed low-energy scenarios for different Western European countries with the amount of pollutants that may result from these scenarios. Sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and carbon dioxide emissions are calculated for the 10 countries for which low-energy scenarios are available, resulting in reductions of 54%, 37%, and 40%, respectively.…

  5. Nitrogen Dioxide Trend over the United States: the View from the Ground, the View from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamsal, Lok N.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Yoshida, Yasuko; Krotkov, Nickolay A.

    2014-01-01

    Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) are decreasing over the US due to environmental policies and technological change. We use observations of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite instrument and surface NO2 in-situ measurements from the air quality system (AQS) to quantify the trends, and to establish the relationship between the trends in tropospheric column and surface concentration. Both observations show substantial downward trends from 2005 to 2013, with an average reduction of 35 percent according to OMI and 38 percent according to AQS. The annual reduction rates are largest in 2005-2009: -6.2 percent per year and -7 percent per year observed by OMI and AQS, respectively. We examine various factors affecting the estimated trend in OMI NO2 columns and in-situ NO2 observations. An improved understanding of trend offers valuable insights about effectiveness of emission reduction regulations on state and federal level.

  6. Monitoring of nitrogen dioxide, ozone and halogens radicals in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortoli, Daniele; Ravegnani, Fabrizio; Costa, Maria J.; Genco, Silvia; Kulkarni, Pavan K.; Mendes, Rui; Domingues, Ana Filipa; Anton, Manuel; Giovanelli, Giorgio; Silva, Ana Maria

    2013-10-01

    Monitoring of atmospheric compounds at high latitudes is a key factor for a better understanding of the processes driving the chemical cycles of ozone and related chemical species. In this frame, the GASCOD (Gas Analizer Spectrometer Correlating Optical Differences) equipment is installed at the Mario Zucchelli Station (MZS - 74.69S, 164.12E) since December 1995, carrying out observations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3). The recent advances in sensor technologies and processor capabilities, suggested the setup of a new equipment, based on the same optical layout of the 'old' GASCOD , with enhanced performances and improved capabilities for the measurements of solar radiation in the UV-visible spectral range (300-700nm). The efforts accomplished, allowed for the increase of the investigated tracers. Actually, mainly due to the enlargement of the covered spectral range and to the adoption of a CCD sensor, in addition to the NO2 and O3 compounds, others species can be monitored with the new instrumental setup such as bromine, chlorine and iodine oxides (BrO, OClO and IO). The innovative equipment called GASCODNG (GASCOD New Generation) was installed at MZS during the 2012/2013 Italian Antarctic expedition, in the framework of the research projects SAMOA (Automatic Station Monitoring Antarctic Ozonosphere) and MATAGRO (Monitoring Atmospheric Tracers in Antarctica with Ground Based Observations) funded by the Italian and Portuguese Antarctic programs respectively. In this paper a brief description of the new equipment is provided, highlighting the main improvements with regard to the 'old' one. Furthermore the full dataset (1996 - 2012) of NO2 total columns, obtained with the GASCOD installed at MZS, is compared with the data obtained with satellite borne equipments (GOME, SCIAMACHY, OMI and GOME2) and the main statistical parameters are analyzed and discussed in detail.

  7. Atmospheric nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2) at Dome C, East Antarctica, during the OPALE campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, M. M.; Roscoe, H. K.; Kukui, A.; Savarino, J.; France, J. L.; King, M. D.; Legrand, M.; Preunkert, S.

    2015-07-01

    Mixing ratios of the atmospheric nitrogen oxides NO and NO2 were measured as part of the OPALE (Oxidant Production in Antarctic Lands & Export) campaign at Dome C, East Antarctica (75.1° S, 123.3° E, 3233 m), during December 2011 to January 2012. Profiles of NOx mixing ratios of the lower 100 m of the atmosphere confirm that, in contrast to the South Pole, air chemistry at Dome C is strongly influenced by large diurnal cycles in solar irradiance and a sudden collapse of the atmospheric boundary layer in the early evening. Depth profiles of mixing ratios in firn air suggest that the upper snowpack at Dome C holds a significant reservoir of photolytically produced NO2 and is a sink of gas-phase ozone (O3). First-time observations of bromine oxide (BrO) at Dome C show that mixing ratios of BrO near the ground are low, certainly less than 5 pptv, with higher levels in the free troposphere. Assuming steady state, observed mixing ratios of BrO and RO2 radicals are too low to explain the large NO2 : NO ratios found in ambient air, possibly indicating the existence of an unknown process contributing to the atmospheric chemistry of reactive nitrogen above the Antarctic Plateau. During 2011-2012, NOx mixing ratios and flux were larger than in 2009-2010, consistent with also larger surface O3 mixing ratios resulting from increased net O3 production. Large NOx mixing ratios at Dome C arise from a combination of continuous sunlight, shallow mixing height and significant NOx emissions by surface snow (FNOx). During 23 December 2011-12 January 2012, median FNOx was twice that during the same period in 2009-2010 due to significantly larger atmospheric turbulence and a slightly stronger snowpack source. A tripling of FNOx in December 2011 was largely due to changes in snowpack source strength caused primarily by changes in NO3- concentrations in the snow skin layer, and only to a secondary order by decrease of total column O3 and associated increase in NO3- photolysis rates. A

  8. Nitrogen isotope exchange between NO and NO2 and its implications for δ15N variations in tropospheric NOx and atmospheric nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, Wendell W.; Simonini, Damian S.; Michalski, Greg

    2016-01-01

    The nitrogen (N) isotope exchange between nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) has been previously suggested to influence N stable isotope compositions (δ15N) of these molecules. However, there is disagreement in the magnitude of the N isotopic fractionation (αNO2>/NO) resulting from this exchange process between previous experimental and theoretical studies. To this end, we measured αNO2>/NO associated with this exchange reaction at various temperatures. Our results indicate αNO2>/NO to be 1.0403 ± 0.0015, 1.0356 ± 0.0015, and 1.0336 ± 0.0014 at 278 K, 297 K, and 310 K, respectively. These measured values are within experimental error of the values we calculated using a modified version of the Bigeleisen-Mayer equation corrected for accurate zero-point energies, indicating an agreement between experiment and theory. Modeling of this exchange reaction demonstrates that δ15N-NO2 may exhibit a diurnal and seasonal profile if N isotopic equilibrium is achieved.

  9. Nitrogen dioxide exposure and urinary excretion of hydroxyproline and desmosine.

    PubMed

    Adgate, J L; Reid, H F; Morris, R; Helms, R W; Berg, R A; Hu, P C; Cheng, P W; Wang, O L; Muelenaer, P A; Collier, A M

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between average and peak personal exposure to nitrogen dioxide and urinary excretion of hydroxyproline and desmosine was investigated in a population of preschool children and their mothers. Weekly average personal nitrogen dioxide exposures for subjects who resided in homes with one or more potential nitrogen dioxide source (e.g., a kerosene space heater, gas stove, or tobacco smoke) ranged between 16.3 and 50.6 ppb (30.6 and 95.1 micrograms/m3) for children and between 16.9 and 44.1 ppb (12.8 and 82.9 micrograms/m3) for mothers. In these individuals, the hydroxyproline-to-creatinine and desmosine-to-creatinine ratios were unrelated to personal nitrogen dioxide exposure--even though continuous monitoring documented home nitrogen dioxide concentration peaks of 100-475 ppb lasting up to 100 h in duration. Significantly higher hydroxyproline-to-creatinine and desmosine-to-creatinine ratios were observed in children, compared with mothers (p < .001 and .003, respectively).

  10. Nitrogen dioxide exposure and urinary excretion of hydroxyproline and desmosine

    SciTech Connect

    Adgate, J.L.; Reid, H.F.; Morris, R.; Helms, R.W.; Berg, R.A.; Hu, P.C.; Cheng, P.W.; Wang, O.L.; Muelenaer, P.A.; Collier, A.M. )

    1992-09-01

    The relationship between average and peak personal exposure to nitrogen dioxide and urinary excretion of hydroxyproline and desmosine was investigated in a population of preschool children and their mothers. Weekly average personal nitrogen dioxide exposures for subjects who resided in homes with one or more potential nitrogen dioxide source (e.g., a kerosene space heater, gas stove, or tobacco smoke) ranged between 16.3 and 50.6 ppb (30.6 and 95.1 micrograms/m3) for children and between 16.9 and 44.1 ppb (12.8 and 82.9 micrograms/m3) for mothers. In these individuals, the hydroxyproline-to-creatinine and desmosine-to-creatinine ratios were unrelated to personal nitrogen dioxide exposure--even though continuous monitoring documented home nitrogen dioxide concentration peaks of 100-475 ppb lasting up to 100 h in duration. Significantly higher hydroxyproline-to-creatinine and desmosine-to-creatinine ratios were observed in children, compared with mothers (p < .001 and .003, respectively).

  11. High-resolution measurements from the airborne Atmospheric Nitrogen Dioxide Imager (ANDI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, J. P.; Anand, J. S.; Vande Hey, J. D.; White, J.; Leigh, R. R.; Monks, P. S.; Leigh, R. J.

    2015-11-01

    Nitrogen dioxide is both a primary pollutant with direct health effects and a key precursor of the secondary pollutant ozone. This paper reports on the development, characterisation and test flight of the Atmospheric Nitrogen Dioxide Imager (ANDI) remote sensing system. The ANDI system includes an imaging UV/Vis grating spectrometer able to capture scattered sunlight spectra for the determination of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations by way of DOAS slant column density and vertical column density measurements. Results are shown for an ANDI test flight over Leicester City in the UK on a cloud-free winter day in February 2013. Retrieved NO2 columns gridded to a surface resolution of 80 m × 20 m revealed hotspots in a series of locations around Leicester City, including road junctions, the train station, major car parks, areas of heavy industry, a nearby airport (East Midlands) and a power station (Ratcliffe-on-Soar). In the city centre the dominant source of NO2 emissions was identified as road traffic, contributing to a background concentration as well as producing localised hotspots. Quantitative analysis revealed a significant urban increment over the city centre which increased throughout the flight.

  12. High-resolution measurements from the airborne Atmospheric Nitrogen Dioxide Imager (ANDI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, J. P.; Anand, J. S.; Vande Hey, J. D.; Leigh, R. R.; Monks, P. S.; Leigh, R. J.

    2015-06-01

    Nitrogen Dioxide is both a primary pollutant with direct health effects and a key precursor of the secondary pollutant ozone. This paper reports on the development, characterisation and test flight of the Atmospheric Nitrogen Dioxide Imager (ANDI) remote sensing system. The ANDI system includes an imaging (UV)-vis grating spectrometer able to capture scattered sunlight spectra for the determination of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations by way of DOAS slant column density and vertical column density measurements. Results are shown for an ANDI test flight over Leicester City in the UK. Retrieved NO2 columns at a surface resolution of 80 m x 20 m revealed hot spots in a series of locations around Leicester City, including road junctions, the train station, major car parks, areas of heavy industry, a nearby airport (East Midlands) and a power station (Ratcliffe-on-Soar). In the city centre the dominant source of NO2 emissions was identified as road traffic, contributing to a background concentration as well as producing localised hot spots. Quantitative analysis revealed a significant urban increment over the city centre which increased throughout the flight.

  13. Differential responses of Arabidopsis thaliana accessions to atmospheric nitrogen dioxide at ambient concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Misa; Morikawa, Hiromichi

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the response of plants to atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2), we investigated biomass accumulation in 3 accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana: C24, Columbia (Col-0), and Landsberg erecta (Ler). Plants were grown in NO2-free air for 1 week after sowing, followed by 3 (Col-0 and Ler) to 4 (C24) weeks in air with or without NO2 (10 or 50 ppb). NO2 treatment increased the biomass of all 3 accessions to varying extents. Treatment with 10 ppb NO2 increased shoot biomass in C24, Col-0, and Ler by 3.2-, 1.4-, and 2.3-fold, respectively, compared with control. Treatment with 50 ppb gave similar increases, except in C24 (2.7-fold). The physiological, evolutionary, and genetic significance of these results are discussed below. PMID:24675109

  14. Effects of nitrogen dioxide on allergic airway responses in subjects with asthma.

    PubMed

    Witten, Allyson; Solomon, Colin; Abbritti, Emilio; Arjomandi, Mehrdad; Zhai, Wenwu; Kleinman, Michael; Balmes, John

    2005-12-01

    We sought to determine whether nitrogen dioxide (NO2) can enhance airway inflammation after allergen challenge in asthmatic subjects. Fifteen house-dust-mite (HDM)-sensitive asthmatic subjects were exposed for 3 hours to filtered air or 0.4 ppm NO2, followed by inhalational challenge with HDM allergen. Markers of inflammation were measured in sputum at 6 hours and 26 hours after allergen challenge. After exposure to NO2, eosinophil concentration decreased significantly in the 6-hour postallergen sputum. No significant NO2-related difference was observed for other variables. Our results suggest that, in most asthmatic individuals, multi-hour exposure to a high ambient concentration of NO2 does not enhance the inflammatory response to subsequent inhaled allergen as assessed by cell distribution in induced sputum. Because the decrease in airway eosinophils has been reported in previous animal studies, future research should be directed toward the mechanism of this effect.

  15. Dual photon effects in nitrogen dioxide photolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakala, D.; Harteck, P.; Reeves, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    A previous study demonstrated two-photon consecutive absorption as being the most probable mechanism for the photodissociation of NO2 using a pulsed ruby laser at 6943 A. Additional data discussed here confirmed this and also examined an associated phenomenon, that of multiphoton induced fluorescence. The dissociation of NO2 by ON-O bond cleavage requires 3.4 eV, while the laser energy corresponds to 1.785 eV. The pooling of the energy of two photons would give more than enough energy to dissociate the NO2 into NO + O. Several mechanisms including (1) simultaneous absorption of two photons; (2) reaction of two singly excited NO2; (3) reaction of a singly excited NO2 with a ground state NO2; and (4) consecutive absorption of two photons were examined.

  16. Differential abilities of nitrogen dioxide and nitrite to nitrate proteins in thylakoid membranes isolated from Arabidopsis leaves.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Misa; Shigeto, Jun; Shibata, Tatsuo; Sakamoto, Atsushi; Morikawa, Hiromichi

    2016-10-02

    Exposure of Arabidopsis leaves to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) results in nitration of specific chloroplast proteins. To determine whether NO2 itself and/or nitrite derived from NO2 can nitrate proteins, Arabidopsis thylakoid membranes were isolated and treated with NO2-bubbled or potassium nitrite (KNO2) buffer, followed by protein extraction, electrophoresis, and immunoblotting using an anti-3-nitrotyrosine (NT) antibody. NO2 concentrations in the NO2-bubbled buffer were calculated by numerically solving NO2 dissociation kinetic equations. The two buffers were adjusted to have identical nitrite concentrations. Both treatments yielded an NT-immunopositive band that LC/MS identified as PSBO1. The difference in the band intensity between the 2 treatments was designated nitration by NO2. Both NO2 and nitrite mediated nitration of proteins, and the nitration ability per unit NO2 concentration was ∼100-fold greater than that of nitrite.

  17. Ozone and nitrogen dioxide changes in the stratosphere during 1979-84

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, Linwood B.; Natarajan, Murali

    1986-01-01

    Analyses of stratospheric nitrogen dioxide distributions as measured by four different satellite experiments indicate midlatitude increases of up to 75 percent during the 1979-84 period. These increases are attributed to enhanced upper atmospheric formation of odd nitrogen during solar cycle 21 with downward transport to the stratosphere. The increases in NO2 provide an explanation for the recently observed dramatic springtime minima in the Antarctic ozone and suggest the reason for the reported midlatitude stratospheric ozone decreases observed by satellite and ground-based stations since the mid 1970s.

  18. Control of Nitrogen Dioxide in Stack Emission by Reaction with Ammonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzler, A. J.; Stevenson, E. F.

    1970-01-01

    The development of an acid base gas-phase reaction system which utilizes anhydrous ammonia as the reactant to remove nitrogen dioxide from hydrazine-nitrogen tetroxide rocket combustion exhaust is reported. This reaction reduced NO2 levels in exhaust emissions so that the resulting stack emission is completely white instead of the earlier observed typical reddish-brown coloration. Preliminary analyses indicate the importance of reaction time and ammonia concentration on removal efficiency and elimination of the health hazard to individuals with respiratory problems.

  19. Abrupt recent trend changes in atmospheric nitrogen dioxide over the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Lelieveld, Jos; Beirle, Steffen; Hörmann, Christoph; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Wagner, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides, released from fossil fuel use and other combustion processes, affect air quality and climate. From the mid-1990s onward, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) has been monitored from space, and since 2004 with relatively high spatial resolution by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument. Strong upward NO2 trends have been observed over South and East Asia and the Middle East, in particular over major cities. We show, however, that a combination of air quality control and political factors, including economical crisis and armed conflict, has drastically altered the emission landscape of nitrogen oxides in the Middle East. Large changes, including trend reversals, have occurred since about 2010 that could not have been predicted and therefore are at odds with emission scenarios used in projections of air pollution and climate change in the early 21st century. PMID:26601240

  20. Nitrogen Dioxide Exposure and Airway Responsiveness in ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Controlled human exposure studies evaluating the effect of inhaled NO2 on the inherent responsiveness of the airways to challenge by bronchoconstricting agents have had mixed results. In general, existing meta-analyses show statistically significant effects of NO2 on the airway responsiveness of individuals with asthma. However, no meta-analysis has provided a comprehensive assessment of clinical relevance of changes in airway responsiveness, the potential for methodological biases in the original papers, and the distribution of responses. This paper provides analyses showing that a statistically significant fraction, 70% of individuals with asthma exposed to NO2 at rest, experience increases in airway responsiveness following 30-minute exposures to NO2 in the range of 200 to 300 ppb and following 60-minute exposures to 100 ppb. The distribution of changes in airway responsiveness is log-normally distributed with a median change of 0.75 (provocative dose following NO2 divided by provocative dose following filtered air exposure) and geometric standard deviation of 1.88. About a quarter of the exposed individuals experience a clinically relevant reduction in their provocative dose due to NO2 relative to air exposure. The fraction experiencing an increase in responsiveness was statistically significant and robust to exclusion of individual studies. Results showed minimal change in airway responsiveness for individuals exposed to NO2 during exercise. A variety of fa

  1. Review of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Nitrogen Dioxide: Risk and Exposure Assessment Planning Document

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is conducting a review of the air quality criteria and the primary (health-based) national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The major phases of the process for reviewing NAAQS include the following: (...

  2. Applying or Implementing Nitrogen Dioxide Standards

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Along with developing the NO2 standards themselves (part of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards, or NAAQS), EPA also develops requirements for how to apply or implement them, and work toward about attaining and maintaining those standards.

  3. An intercomparison of airborne nitrogen dioxide instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, G. L.; Hoell, J. M., Jr.; Carroll, M. A.; Ridley, B. A.; Davis, D. D.; Bradshaw, J.; Rodgers, M. O.; Sandholm, S. T.; Schiff, H. I.; Torres, A. L.

    1990-01-01

    Results on NO2 instruments are reported from the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation 2 (CITE 2) program in summer 1986. The instruments tested were (1) a two-photon LIF system using a laser for NO2-NO photolysis, (2) a chemiluminescence (CL) detector using FeSO4 for NO2-NO conversion, (3) a CL detector using an arc lamp for NO2-NO photolysis, and (4) a tunable-laser-diode multipath-absorption system. The procedures for the CITE 2 ground-based and flight tests are described in detail, and the results are presented in extensive graphs. Instrument (2) was eliminated because the FeSO4 converted atmospheric PAN to NO, resulting in spuriously high NO2 values. The remaining instruments gave readings in 30-40-percent agreement at NO2 mixing ratios of 100-200 parts per trillion by volume (pptv). At ratios below 50 pptv, the correlation among the measurements was very poor, with a tendency for system (4) to give higher values than (1) or (3).

  4. Modeling the intraurban variation in nitrogen dioxide in urban areas in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Gurung, Anobha; Levy, Jonathan I; Bell, Michelle L

    2017-05-01

    With growing urbanization, traffic has become one of the main sources of air pollution in Nepal. Understanding the impact of air pollution on health requires estimation of exposure. Land use regression (LUR) modeling is widely used to investigate intraurban variation in air pollution for Western cities, but LUR models are relatively scarce in developing countries. In this study, we developed LUR models to characterize intraurban variation of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in urban areas of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, one of the fastest urbanizing areas in South Asia. Over the study area, 135 monitoring sites were selected using stratified random sampling based on building density and road density along with purposeful sampling. In 2014, four sampling campaigns were performed, one per season, for two weeks each. NO2 was measured using duplicate Palmes tubes at 135 sites, with additional information on nitric oxide (NO), NO2, and nitrogen oxide (NOx) concentrations derived from Ogawa badges at 28 sites. Geographical variables (e.g., road network, land use, built area) were used as predictor variables in LUR modeling, considering buffers 25-400m around each monitoring site. Annual average NO2 by site ranged from 5.7 to 120ppb for the study area, with higher concentrations in the Village Development Committees (VDCs) of Kathmandu and Lalitpur than in Kirtipur, Thimi, and Bhaktapur, and with variability present within each VDC. In the final LUR model, length of major road, built area, and industrial area were positively associated with NO2 concentration while normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was negatively associated with NO2 concentration (R(2)=0.51). Cross-validation of the results confirmed the reliability of the model. The combination of passive NO2 sampling and LUR modeling techniques allowed for characterization of nitrogen dioxide patterns in a developing country setting, demonstrating spatial variability and high pollution levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  5. Continuous analysis of nitrogen dioxide in gas streams of plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durkin, W. T.; Kispert, R. C.

    1969-01-01

    Analyzer and sampling system continuously monitors nitrogen dioxide concentrations in the feed and tail gas streams of a facility recovering nitric acid. The system, using a direct calorimetric approach, makes use of readily available equipment and is flexible and reliable in operation.

  6. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section 77.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions of sulfur dioxide occur at the affected... under paragraph (a)(1) of this section for any increase in excess emissions of sulfur dioxide...

  7. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section 77.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions of sulfur dioxide occur at the affected... under paragraph (a)(1) of this section for any increase in excess emissions of sulfur dioxide...

  8. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section 77.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions of sulfur dioxide occur at the affected... under paragraph (a)(1) of this section for any increase in excess emissions of sulfur dioxide...

  9. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section 77.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions of sulfur dioxide occur at the affected... under paragraph (a)(1) of this section for any increase in excess emissions of sulfur dioxide...

  10. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section 77.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions of sulfur dioxide occur at the affected... under paragraph (a)(1) of this section for any increase in excess emissions of sulfur dioxide...

  11. Nitrogen dioxide observations from the Geostationary Trace ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Geostationary Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GeoTASO) airborne instrument is a test bed for upcoming air quality satellite instruments that will measure backscattered ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared light from geostationary orbit. GeoTASO flew on the NASA Falcon aircraft in its first intensive field measurement campaign during the Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) Earth Venture Mission over Houston, Texas, in September 2013. Measurements of backscattered solar radiation between 420 and 465 nm collected on 4 days during the campaign are used to determine slant column amounts of NO2 at 250 m  ×  250 m spatial resolution with a fitting precision of 2.2 × 1015 moleculescm−2. These slant columns are converted to tropospheric NO2 vertical columns using a radiative transfer model and trace gas profiles from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Total column NO2 from GeoTASO is well correlated with ground-based Pandora observations (r = 0.90 on the most polluted and cloud-free day of measurements and r = 0.74 overall), with GeoTASO NO2 slightly higher for the most polluted observations. Surface NO2 mixing ratios inferred from GeoTASO using the CMAQ model show good correlation with NO2 measured in situ at the surface during the campaign (r = 0.85). NO2 slant columns from GeoTASO also agree well with prelim

  12. Internal energy distributions from nitrogen dioxide fluorescence. 2. Collisional energy transfer from excited nitrogen dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, K.O. Jr.; Johnston, H.S. Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA )

    1993-09-30

    We follow the collisional deactivation of laser-excited nitrogen dioxide through its dispersed fluorescence. The energy acceptor gases are NO[sub 2] at four excitation energies ranging from 18828 to 24989 cm[sup [minus]1] and five monatomic gases, four diatomic gases, and three polyatomic gases with 18828-cm[sup [minus]1] excitation energy. The nominal products are the shapes of the internal energy distributions, which are obtained and plotted for several representative cases. From these distributions, the first three moments of the internal energy distributions are derived as a function of molecular collisions and tabulated as (i) the average internal energy, (ii) energy spread, and (iii) skewness. These quantities are plotted against c(M)t, the product of buffer gas concentration c(M) and delay time after laser excitation t(0.5-2 [mu]s), which is a quantity proportional to number of collisions. The negative slope of average energy vs c(M)t is the macroscopic energy-transfer rate constant, k[sub [epsilon

  13. Direct measurements of ozone and nitrogen dioxide photolysis rates in the troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickerson, R. R.; Stedman, D. H.; Delany, A. C.

    1982-01-01

    The photolysis frequencies of ozone and nitrogen dioxide were measured under a variety of conditions commonly found in the troposphere. Ozone photolysis frequencies show a strong dependence on solar zenith angle, overhead ozone column, and temperature, but only a weak dependence on altitude (when only downward radiation is detected). Nitrogen dioxide photolysis frequencies also show strong dependence on solar zenith angle, but show little dependence on temperature, pressure, or altitude. Both j values are strongly affected by cloud cover, but aerosol loading has much less effect. The disagreement of measured j(O3) and j(NO2) with many modeled values, especially disagreement over altitude dependence, shows that atmospheric UV radioactive processes are complicated and poorly understood, although experimental conditions may not always be applicable to conditions modeled.

  14. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide adsorption on zinc oxide and zirconium hydroxide nanoparticles and the effect on photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Jagdeep; Mukherjee, Anupama; Sengupta, Sandip K.; Im, Jisun; Peterson, Gregory W.; Whitten, James E.

    2012-05-01

    Nanoparticulate zinc oxide and micron-size zirconium hydroxide powders have been exposed to sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide by flowing the gases, diluted with nitrogen, over powder samples. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicate strongly bound, chemisorbed SO3 and NO3 surface species. Two pre-treatments of the nanoparticulate ZnO samples prior to gas exposure have been investigated: (1) drying overnight in a vacuum oven and (2) hydrating the samples by placing them overnight in water-saturated air. A dramatic difference in reactivity of ZnO is observed, with approximately two-fold and ten-fold greater uptake of NO2 and SO2, respectively, measured by XPS for the hydrated samples relative to the dried ones. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrates that the greater uptake arises from a morphology change in the case of the hydrated samples. For zirconium hydroxide, no morphology change is observed for hydrated samples, and SO4 (ads), in addition to SO3 (ads), is indicated by XPS. ZnO and Zr(OH)4 both exhibit photoluminescence (PL) spectra, with peak intensities that change dramatically due to hydration and subsequent exposure to SO2 and NO2 gases. Dosing of the powders with these gases effectively reverts the PL spectra to those corresponding to less hydration.

  15. Relationship between lightning activity and tropospheric nitrogen dioxide and the estimation of lightning-produced nitrogen oxides over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fengxia; Ju, Xiaoyu; Bao, Min; Lu, Ganyi; Liu, Zupei; Li, Yawen; Mu, Yijun

    2017-02-01

    To better understand the relationship between lightning activity and nitrogen oxides (NO X ) in the troposphere and to estimate lightning-produced NO X (LNO X ) production in China more precisely, spatial and temporal distributions of vertical column densities of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2 VCDs) and lightning activity were analyzed using satellite measurements. The results showed that the spatial distribution of lightning activity is greater in the east than in the west of China, as with NO2 VCDs. However, the seasonal and annual variation between lightning and NO2 density show different trends in the east and west. The central Tibetan Plateau is sparsely populated without modern industry, and NO2 VCDs across the plateau are barely affected by anthropogenic sources. The plateau is an ideal area to study LNO X . By analyzing 15 years of satellite data from that region, it was found that lightning density is in strong agreement with annual, spatial and seasonal variations of NO2 VCDs, with a correlation coefficient of 0.79 from the linear fit. Combining Beirle's method and the linear fit equation, LNO X production in the Chinese interior was determined to be 0.07 (0.02-0.27) TgN yr-1 for 1997-2012, within the range of 0.016-0.384 TgN yr-1 from previous estimates.

  16. Validation of nitrogen dioxide measurements from the Improved Stratospheric and Mesospheric Sounder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reburn, W. J.; Remedios, J. J.; Morris, P. E.; Rodgers, C. D.; Taylor, F. W.; Kerridge, B. J.; Knight, R. J.; Ballard, J.; Kumer, J. B.; Massie, S. T.

    1996-04-01

    Measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from the Improved Stratospheric and Mesospheric Sounder (ISAMS) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) are assessed. Channel 5 of the instrument was dedicated to observations of nitrogen dioxide and employed pressure-modulation and wideband radiometry to make measurements at 6.2 μm. This dual technique allows simultaneous determination of nitrogen dioxide mixing ratio and the aerosol extinction coefficient at this wavelength and therefore provides nitrogen dioxide data even in the presence of heavy aerosol loading. Approximately 180 days of data, in the period from September 1991 to July 1992, were obtained with, typically, over 2600 profiles per day for each retrieved species, covering an altitude range of 100-0.01 mbar. In this paper the version 10 data are assessed and a full error analysis is described. Comparisons with the Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) on UARS and the Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) on Nimbus 7 are also presented. It is concluded that the morphology of the retrieved ISAMS fields is robust and consistent with concurrent as well as previous infrared satellite measurements. Random errors are estimated to be of the order of 10% for nighttime and 15% for daytime NO2 near the maxima of the distributions, and systematic errors are estimated to be of a similar size. However, there remains an unresolved systematic difference of about a factor of 2 between ISAMS and CLAES. Both random and systematic errors are likely to be reduced in future versions of the processing.

  17. Passive monitoring of nitrogen dioxide in urban air: a case study of Durban metropolis, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Moodley, Kandasamy G; Singh, Shalini; Govender, Suendran

    2011-09-01

    To devise and implement strategies to manage the quality of urban air, a metropolis needs air pollution data on which an air quality management plan can be formulated. Although air pollutants can come from several sources, many reports suggest that nitrogen dioxide from motor vehicle emissions is the major contributor to air pollution in cities. Since vehicles stop or move slowly through traffic intersections, concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) are expected to be relatively high at these sites. Inexpensive Ogawa passive samplers were placed at selected traffic intersections in the Durban Metropolis to trap the NO(2) which was then analysed by a sensitive laboratory-based method. The data obtained by this method was compared with data from sophisticated system comprising an active sampler cum on-line chemiluminescence detector. The sampling was done over a twelve month period to cover all seasons. Statistical analysis of the data showed that there was no significant difference between the means for the two methods. This study has established that an Ogawa passive sampler may be used as an economical and reliable collector for NO(2) in ambient air under varying climatic conditions. Further, the analysis method using a UV-Visible spectrophotometer was sensitive enough to detect NO(2) at the 10-20 ppb level. The cost of the method should be well within the budgets of most municipalities and it would motivate them to develop policies to alleviate traffic congestion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nitrogen oxides in the global upper troposphere interpreted with cloud-sliced NO2 from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marais, Eloise A.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Choi, Sungyeon; Joiner, Joanna; Belmonte-Rivas, Maria; Cohen, Ronald C.; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Volz-Thomas, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx ≡ NO + NO2) are long lived in the upper troposphere (UT), and so have a large impact on ozone formation where ozone is a powerful greenhouse gas. Measurements of UT NOx are limited to summertime aircraft campaigns predominantly in North America. There are year-round NOx measurements from instruments onboard commercial aircraft, but NO2 measurements are susceptible to large interferences. Satellites provide global coverage, but traditional space-based NO2 observations only provide one piece of vertical information in the troposphere. New cloud-sliced satellite NO2 products offer additional vertical information by retrieving partial NO2 columns above clouds and further exploit differences in cloud heights to calculate UT NO2 mixing ratios. Two new cloud-sliced NO2 products from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI; 2004 launch) provide seasonal UT NO2 data centered at 350 hPa for 2005-2007 (NASA product) and 380 hPa for 2006 only (KNMI). Differences between the products include spectral fitting to obtain NO2 along the viewing path (slant column), the air mass factor calculation to convert slant columns to true vertical columns, treatment of the stratospheric NO2 component, and the choice of cloud products. The resultant NASA NO2 mixing ratios are 30% higher than KNMI NO2 and are consistent with summertime aircraft NO2 observations over North America. Comparison between NASA NO2 and the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model exposes glaring inadequacies in the model. In summer in the eastern US lightning NOx emissions are overestimated by at least a factor of 2, corroborated by comparison of GEOS-Chem and MOZAIC aircraft observations of reactive nitrogen (NOy). Too fast heterogeneous hydrolysis of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) leads to an underestimate in UT NO2 in winter across the northern hemisphere. Absence of interannual variability in lightning flashes in the lightning NOx parameterization induces biases in UT NO2 in the tropics due to anomalous

  19. Increase in tropospheric nitrogen dioxide over China observed from space.

    PubMed

    Richter, Andreas; Burrows, John P; Nüss, Hendrik; Granier, Claire; Niemeier, Ulrike

    2005-09-01

    Emissions from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning reduce local air quality and affect global tropospheric chemistry. Nitrogen oxides are emitted by all combustion processes and play a key part in the photochemically induced catalytic production of ozone, which results in summer smog and has increased levels of tropospheric ozone globally. Release of nitrogen oxide also results in nitric acid deposition, and--at least locally--increases radiative forcing effects due to the absorption of downward propagating visible light. Nitrogen oxide concentrations in many industrialized countries are expected to decrease, but rapid economic development has the potential to increase significantly the emissions of nitrogen oxides in parts of Asia. Here we present the tropospheric column amounts of nitrogen dioxide retrieved from two satellite instruments GOME and SCIAMACHY over the years 1996-2004. We find substantial reductions in nitrogen dioxide concentrations over some areas of Europe and the USA, but a highly significant increase of about 50 per cent-with an accelerating trend in annual growth rate-over the industrial areas of China, more than recent bottom-up inventories suggest.

  20. Toxicity of Nitrogen Dioxide: An Introduction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    Lehnert, 1989,1990; Januszkiewicz et al., 1992), the effects on humans, is still fragmentary. Moreover, the long-term effects of exposure to such very high...mals (rats) to study the effects of brief exposure to high level NO2 . This will be followed by Januszkiewicz and Mayorga’s account of in vivo studies...and 03 on lung tissue enzyme activities in rats. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 29, 293. Januszkiewicz , A.J., Snapper, J.R., Sturgis, J.W., Rayburn, D.B

  1. Nitrogen Dioxide pollution and hazardous household environment: what impacts more congenital malformations.

    PubMed

    Landau, D; Novack, L; Yitshak-Sade, M; Sarov, B; Kloog, I; Hershkovitz, R; Grotto, I; Karakis, I

    2015-11-01

    Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) is a product of fuel combustion originating mainly from industry and transportation. Studies suggest an association between NO2 and congenital malformations (CM). We investigated an independent effect of NO2 on CM by adjusting to individual factors and household environment in 1024 Bedouin-Arab pregnant women in southern Israel. This population is characterised by high rates of CMs, frequent consanguineous marriages, paternal smoking, temporary housing and usage of open fire for heat cooking. Information on household risk factors was collected during an interview. Ambient measurements of 24-h average NO2 and meteorological conditions were obtained from 13 local monitors. Median value of daily NO2 measured in the area was 6.78ppb. CM was diagnosed in 8.0% (82) of offspring. Maternal NO2 exposure during the 1st trimester >8.6ppb was significantly associated with minor CM (RR=2.68, p=0.029). Major CM were independently associated with maternal juvenile diabetes (RR=9.97, p-value=0.002) and heating by open fire (RR=2.00, p-value=0.049), but not NO2 exposure. We found that NO2 emissions had an independent impact only on minor malformations, whereas major malformations depended mostly on the household environment. Antepartum deaths were associated by maternal morbidity.

  2. Improving spatial nitrogen dioxide prediction using diffusion tubes: A case study in West Central Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pannullo, Francesca; Lee, Duncan; Waclawski, Eugene; Leyland, Alastair H.

    2015-10-01

    It has been well documented that air pollution adversely affects health, and epidemiological pollution-health studies utilise pollution data from automatic monitors. However, these automatic monitors are small in number and hence spatially sparse, which does not allow an accurate representation of the spatial variation in pollution concentrations required for these epidemiological health studies. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) diffusion tubes are also used to measure concentrations, and due to their lower cost compared to automatic monitors are much more prevalent. However, even combining both data sets still does not provide sufficient spatial coverage of NO2 for epidemiological studies, and modelled concentrations on a regular grid from atmospheric dispersion models are also available. This paper proposes the first modelling approach to using all three sources of NO2 data to make fine scale spatial predictions for use in epidemiological health studies. We propose a geostatistical fusion model that regresses combined NO2 concentrations from both automatic monitors and diffusion tubes against modelled NO2 concentrations from an atmospheric dispersion model in order to predict fine scale NO2 concentrations across our West Central Scotland study region. Our model exhibits a 47% improvement in fine scale spatial prediction of NO2 compared to using the automatic monitors alone, and we use it to predict NO2 concentrations across West Central Scotland in 2006.

  3. Effect of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide on ICR mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC(50) values were determined for male ICR mice exposed to different concentration of carbon monoxide for 30 min and of nitrogen dioxide for 10 min in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. The data indicate that ICR mice are more resistant to these two toxicants than Swiss albino mice. The carbon monoxide LC(50) for a 30-min exposure was about 8,000 ppm for ICR mice compared to 3,570 ppm for Swiss albino mice. The nitrogen dioxide LC(50) for a 10-min exposure was above 2,000 ppm for ICR mice compared to about 1,000 ppm for Swiss albino mice.

  4. Effect of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide on ICR mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC(50) values were determined for male ICR mice exposed to different concentration of carbon monoxide for 30 min and of nitrogen dioxide for 10 min in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. The data indicate that ICR mice are more resistant to these two toxicants than Swiss albino mice. The carbon monoxide LC(50) for a 30-min exposure was about 8,000 ppm for ICR mice compared to 3,570 ppm for Swiss albino mice. The nitrogen dioxide LC(50) for a 10-min exposure was above 2,000 ppm for ICR mice compared to about 1,000 ppm for Swiss albino mice.

  5. Foliage plants for indoor removal of the primary combustion gases carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.; Mesick, H. H.

    1985-01-01

    Foliage plants were evaluated for their ability to sorb carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, the two primary gases produced during the combustion of fossil fuels and tobacco. The spider plant (Chlorophytum elatum var. vittatum) could sorb 2.86 micrograms CO/sq cm leaf surface in a 6 h photoperiod. The golden pothos (Scindapsus aureus) sorbed 0.98 micrograms CO/sq cm leaf surface in the same time period. In a system with the spider plant, greater than or equal to 99 percent of an initial concentration of 47 ppm NO2 could be removed in 6 h from a void volume of approximately 0.35 cu m. One spider plant potted in a 3.8 liter container can sorb 3300 micrograms CO and effect the removal of 8500 micrograms NO2/hour, recognizing the fact that a significant fraction of NO2 at high concentrations will be lost by surface sorption, dissolving in moisture, etc.

  6. Foliage plants for indoor removal of the primary combustion gases carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.; Mesick, H. H.

    1985-01-01

    Foliage plants were evaluated for their ability to sorb carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, the two primary gases produced during the combustion of fossil fuels and tobacco. The spider plant (Chlorophytum elatum var. vittatum) could sorb 2.86 micrograms CO/sq cm leaf surface in a 6 h photoperiod. The golden pothos (Scindapsus aureus) sorbed 0.98 micrograms CO/sq cm leaf surface in the same time period. In a system with the spider plant, greater than or equal to 99 percent of an initial concentration of 47 ppm NO2 could be removed in 6 h from a void volume of approximately 0.35 cu m. One spider plant potted in a 3.8 liter container can sorb 3300 micrograms CO and effect the removal of 8500 micrograms NO2/hour, recognizing the fact that a significant fraction of NO2 at high concentrations will be lost by surface sorption, dissolving in moisture, etc.

  7. Spin coated unsubstituted copper phthalocyanine thin films for nitrogen dioxide sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakane, Sanjay; Datir, Ashok; Koinkar, Pankaj

    2015-03-01

    Copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) is synthesized chemically and used for making CuPc thin films using spin coating technique. Films were prepared from trifluroacetic acid (TFA) and chlorobenzene mixed solution on the glass substrate. Spin coated films of unsubstituted CuPc films were heat annealed at 150°C for 2 h duration and were used to study NO2 gas sensing characteristics. α-phase of CuPc is noted by UV-visible absorption spectra. IR spectra of undoped CuPc films and doped CuPc films with NO2 revealed that, doping of nitrogen dioxide modifies and deletes some of the bands. The effect of NO2 at various concentrations from 50 ppm to 500 ppm in atmospheric air at room temperature on the electrical conductivity of CuPc films was studied. Sensitivity, response time and repeatability of the CuPc sensor were discussed in this paper.

  8. Influence of photolysis on multispectral photoacoustic measurement of nitrogen dioxide concentration.

    PubMed

    Tian, Guoxun; Moosmüller, Hans; Arnott, W Patrick

    2013-09-01

    Multispectral photoacoustic instruments are commonly used to measure aerosol and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) light absorption coefficients to determine the radiation budget of the atmosphere. Here a new photoacoustic system is developed to explore the effect of photolysis on the measured signal in a multispectral photoacoustic spectrometer In this system, a 405-nm laser is used primarily as light source for photolysis. Additionally, a well-overlapped 532-nm laser, modulated at the resonant frequency of the photoacoustic instrument, is used to probe the NO2 concentration. As a result, the photolysis effect at 405 nm can be observed by the photoacoustic instrument through the 532-nm laser. This work determines an 11% reduction of the photoacoustic signal caused by the photolysis effect for typical conditions, which needs to be taken into account when calibrating multispectral photoacoustic spectrometers with NO2.

  9. Ice hockey lung – a case of mass nitrogen dioxide poisoning in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Brat, Kristian; Merta, Zdenek; Plutinsky, Marek; Skrickova, Jana; Ing, Miroslav Stanek

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a toxic gas, a product of combustion in malfunctioning ice-resurfacing machines. NO2 poisoning is rare but potentially lethal. The authors report a case of mass NO2 poisoning involving 15 amateur ice hockey players in the Czech Republic. All players were treated in the Department of Respiratory Diseases at Brno University Hospital in November 2010 – three as inpatients because they developed pneumonitis. All patients were followed-up until November 2011. Complete recovery in all but one patient was achieved by December 2010. None of the 15 patients developed asthma-like disease or chronic cough. Corticosteroids appeared to be useful in treatment. Electric-powered ice-resurfacing machines are preferable in indoor ice skating arenas. PMID:24032121

  10. Concurrent multiaxis differential optical absorption spectroscopy system for the measurement of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leigh, Roland J.; Corlett, Gary K.; Friess, Udo; Monks, Paul S.

    2006-10-01

    The development of a new concurrent multiaxis (CMAX) sky viewing spectrometer to monitor rapidly changing urban concentrations of nitrogen dioxide is detailed. The CMAX differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technique involves simultaneous spectral imaging of the zenith and off-axis measurements of spatially resolved scattered sunlight. Trace-gas amounts are retrieved from the measured spectra using the established DOAS technique. The potential of the CMAX DOAS technique to derive information on rapidly changing concentrations and the spatial distribution of NO2 in an urban environment is demonstrated. Three example data sets are presented from measurements during 2004 of tropospheric NO2 over Leicester, UK (52.62°N, 1.12°W). The data demonstrate the current capabilities and future potential of the CMAX DOAS method in terms of the ability to measure real-time spatially disaggregated urban NO2.

  11. Curing preceramic polymers by exposure to nitrogen dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabe, James A. (Inventor); Lipowitz, Jonathan (Inventor); Lu, Paul P. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A rapid method of infusibilizing (curing) preceramic polymers comprising treatment said polymers with gaseous nitrogen dioxide. The infusibilized polymers may be pyrolyzed to temperatures in excess of about 800.degree. C. to yield ceramic materials with low oxygen content and, thus, good thermal stability. The methods are especially useful for the production of ceramic fibers and, more specifically, to the on-line production of ceramic fibers.

  12. Nitrogen dioxide radicals mediated mineralization of perfluorooctanoic acid in aqueous nitrate solution with UV irradiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Aimin; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Peifeng; Cai, Lejuan; Zhang, Lizhi; Gong, Jingming

    2017-09-03

    Effective decomposition of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) has received increasing attention in recent years because of its global occurrence and resistance to most conventional treatment processes. In this study, the complete mineralization of PFOA was achieved by the UV-photolysis of nitrate aqueous solution (UV/Nitrate), where the in-situ generated nitrogen dioxide radicals (NO2) efficiently mediated the degradation of PFOA. In particular, when the twinborn hydroxyl radicals were scavenged, the production of more NO2 radicals realized the complete mineralization of PFOA. DFT calculations further confirm the feasibility of PFOA removal with NO2. Near-stoichiometric equivalents of fluoride released rather than the related intermediates were detected in solution after decomposition of PEOA, further demonstrating the complete degradation of PFOA. Possible PFOA degradation pathways were proposed on the basis of experimental results. This work offers an efficient strategy for the complete mineralization of perfluorinated chemicals, and also sheds light on the indispensable roles of nitrogen dioxide radicals for environmental pollutants removal. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Passive dosimeters for nitrogen dioxide in personal/indoor air sampling: A review

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chang Ho; Morandi, Maria T.; Weisel, Clifford P.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate measurement of nitrogen dioxide concentrations in both outdoor and indoor environments, including personal exposures, is a fundamental step for linking atmospheric nitrogen dioxide levels to potential health and ecological effects. The measurement has been conducted generally in two ways: active (pumped) sampling and passive (diffusive) sampling. Diffusion samplers, initially developed and used for workplace air monitoring, have been found to be useful and cost-effective alternatives to conventional pumped samplers for monitoring ambient, indoor and personal exposures at the lower concentrations found in environmental settings. Since the 1970s, passive samplers have been deployed for ambient air monitoring in urban and rural sites, and to determine personal and indoor exposure to NO2. This article reviews the development of NO2 passive samplers, the sampling characteristics of passive samplers currently available, and their application in ambient and indoor air monitoring and personal exposure studies. The limitations and advantages of the various passive sampler geometries (i.e., tube, badge, and radial type) are also discussed. This review provides researchers and risk assessors with practical information about NO2 passive samplers, especially useful when designing field sampling strategies for exposure and indoor/outdoor air sampling. PMID:18446185

  14. Exposure to carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide in enclosed ice arenas.

    PubMed

    Pelham, T W; Holt, L E; Moss, M A

    2002-04-01

    This article summarises the latest information on the adverse cardiorespiratory effects of exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) in enclosed ice rinks. Sources of CO and NO(2) emissions are identified, current standards for these agents, as well as methods of controlling the emissions, dispersion, and evacuation of these toxic gases are presented. A detailed literature search involving 72 references in English and French from research conducted in North America and Europe was used. Material was from peer reviewed journals and other appropriate sources. Air pollutants such as carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) which are present in enclosed skating facilities, may exacerbate a pre-existing pathogenic condition in those people who spend considerable time in these environments. Considering the popularity of ice hockey, short track speed skating, and figure skating, and the hundreds of hours that a sensitive person may spend each year in these environments, it would seem appropriate to seek more definitive answers to this important health problem. From the findings and conclusions of the research reviewed in this paper, 10 recommendations are listed.

  15. Ambient nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide concentrations over a region of natural gas production, Northeastern British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, S. M. Nazrul; Jackson, Peter L.; Aherne, Julian

    2016-10-01

    The Peace River district of Northeastern British Columbia, Canada is a region of natural gas production that has undergone rapid expansion since 2005. In order to assess air quality implications, Willems badge passive diffusive samplers were deployed for six two-week exposure periods between August and November 2013, at 24 sites across the region to assess the ambient concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The highest concentrations of both species (NO2: 9.1 ppb, SO2: 1.91 ppb) during the whole study period (except the 1st exposure period), were observed in Taylor (Site 14), which is consistent with its location near major industrial sources. Emissions from industrial activities, and their interaction with meteorology and topography, result in variations in atmospheric dispersion that can increase air pollution concentrations in Taylor. However, relatively high concentrations of NO2 were also observed near the center of Chetwynd (site F20), indicating the importance of urban emissions sources in the region as well. Observations of both species from the other study sites document the spatial variability and show relatively high concentrations near Fort St. John and Dawson Creek, where unconventional oil and gas development activities are quite high. Although a few sites in Northeastern British Columbia recorded elevated concentrations of NO2 and SO2 during this investigation, the concentrations over the three-month period were well below provincial annual ambient air quality objectives. Nonetheless, given the limited observations in the region, and the accelerated importance of unconventional oil and gas extraction in meeting energy demands, it is imperative that monitoring networks are established to further assess the potential for elevated ambient concentrations associated with industrial emissions sources in the Peace River region.

  16. [Methodology of the description of atmospheric air pollution by nitrogen dioxide by land use regression method in Ekaterinburg].

    PubMed

    Antropov, K M; Varaksin, A N

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides the description of Land Use Regression (LUR) modeling and the result of its application in the study of nitrogen dioxide air pollution in Ekaterinburg. The paper describes the difficulties of the modeling for air pollution caused by motor vehicles exhaust, and the ways to address these challenges. To create LUR model of the NO2 air pollution in Ekaterinburg, concentrations of NO2 were measured, data on factors affecting air pollution were collected, a statistical analysis of the data were held. A statistical model of NO2 air pollution (coefficient of determination R2 = 0.70) and a map of pollution were created.

  17. 40 CFR 52.230 - Control strategy and regulations: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: Nitrogen dioxide. 52.230 Section 52.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Control strategy and regulations: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The requirements of § 52.14(c)(3) of this chapter... nitrogen oxides emission reduction attainable through application of reasonably available control...

  18. 40 CFR 52.230 - Control strategy and regulations: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: Nitrogen dioxide. 52.230 Section 52.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Control strategy and regulations: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The requirements of § 52.14(c)(3) of this chapter... nitrogen oxides emission reduction attainable through application of reasonably available control...

  19. 40 CFR 52.230 - Control strategy and regulations: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: Nitrogen dioxide. 52.230 Section 52.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Control strategy and regulations: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The requirements of § 52.14(c)(3) of this chapter... nitrogen oxides emission reduction attainable through application of reasonably available control...

  20. 40 CFR 52.230 - Control strategy and regulations: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: Nitrogen dioxide. 52.230 Section 52.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Control strategy and regulations: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The requirements of § 52.14(c)(3) of this chapter... nitrogen oxides emission reduction attainable through application of reasonably available control...

  1. 40 CFR 52.230 - Control strategy and regulations: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: Nitrogen dioxide. 52.230 Section 52.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Control strategy and regulations: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The requirements of § 52.14(c)(3) of this chapter... nitrogen oxides emission reduction attainable through application of reasonably available control...

  2. Improved spectral fitting of nitrogen dioxide from OMI in the 405-465 nm window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Geffen, J. H. G. M.; Boersma, K. F.; Van Roozendael, M.; Hendrick, F.; Mahieu, E.; De Smedt, I.; Sneep, M.; Veefkind, J. P.

    2015-04-01

    An improved nitrogen dioxide (NO2) slant column density retrieval for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) in the 405-465 nm spectral region is presented. Since the launch of OMI on board NASA's EOS-Aura satellite in 2004, differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) retrievals of NO2 slant column densities have been the starting point for the KNMI DOMINO and NASA SP NO2 vertical column data as well as the OMI NO2 data of some other institutes. However, recent intercomparisons between NO2 retrievals from OMI and other UV/Vis and limb spectrometers, as well as ground-based measurements, suggest that OMI stratospheric NO2 is biased high. This study revises and, for the first time, fully documents the OMI NO2 retrieval in detail. The representation of the OMI slit function to convolve high-resolution reference spectra onto the relevant spectral grid is improved. The window used for the wavelength calibration is optimised, leading to much-reduced fitting errors. Ozone and water vapour spectra used in the fit are updated, reflecting the recently improved knowledge of their absorption cross section in the literature. The improved spectral fit also accounts for absorption by the O2-O2 collision complex and by liquid water over clear-water areas. The main changes in the improved spectral fitting result from the updates related to the wavelength calibration: the RMS error of the fit is reduced by 23% and the NO2 slant column by 0.85 × 1015 molec cm-2, independent of latitude, solar zenith angle and NO2 value. Including O2-O2 and liquid water absorption and updating the O3 and water vapour cross-section spectra further reduces NO2 slant columns on average by 0.35 × 1015 molec cm-2, accompanied by a further 9% reduction in the RMS error of the fit. The improved OMI NO2 slant columns are consistent with independent NO2 retrievals from other instruments to within a range that can be explained by photochemically driven diurnal increases in stratospheric NO2 and by

  3. Nitrogen dioxide exposure in vivo and human alveolar macrophage inactivation of influenza virus in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Frampton, M.W.; Smeglin, A.M.; Roberts, N.J. Jr.; Finkelstein, J.N.; Morrow, P.E.; Utell, M.J.

    1989-04-01

    Epidemiologic studies have reported an increased incidence of respiratory infections and illness in association with elevated indoor levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Animal exposure studies have found that brief exposures to peak levels of NO2 produce greater morbidity than continuous lower level exposure. In order to examine the effect of NO2 inhalation on human alveolar macrophages, normal volunteers were exposed sequentially to air or NO2, by double-blind randomization, in an environmental chamber. Two exposure protocols with comparable concentration x time products were used: (a) continuous 0.60 ppm NO2 (n = 9), and (b) background 0.05 ppm NO2 with three 15-min peaks of 2.0 ppm (n = 15). Inhalation of NO2 caused no significant changes in pulmonary function or airway reactivity in either exposure protocol. Alveolar macrophages obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage 3 1/2 hr after exposure to continuous 0.60 ppm NO2 tended to inactivate influenza virus in vitro less effectively than cells collected after air exposure (1.96 vs 1.25 log10 plaque-forming units on Day 2 of incubation, P less than 0.07). Four of nine subjects accounted for the observed impairment in virus inactivation; cells from these four subjects demonstrated an increase in interleukin-1 (IL-1) production after NO2 vs air, whereas the five remaining subjects decreased IL-1 production after NO2. In contrast, intermittent peak exposure did not alter the rate of viral inactivation or IL-1 production. This methodology has the potential to identify pollutant effects on mechanisms of respiratory defense in humans.

  4. Pro-inflammatory responses of human bronchial epithelial cells to acute nitrogen dioxide exposure.

    PubMed

    Ayyagari, Vijayalakshmi N; Januszkiewicz, Adolph; Nath, Jayasree

    2004-04-15

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an environmental oxidant, known to be associated with lung epithelial injury. In the present study, cellular pro-inflammatory responses following exposure to a brief high concentration of NO2 (45 ppm) were assessed, using normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells as an in vitro model of inhalation injury. Generation and release of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), IL-8, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma and IL-1beta were assessed at different time intervals following NO2 exposure. Effects of a pre-existing inflammatory condition was tested by treating the NHBE cells with different inflammatory cytokines such as IFN-gamma, IL-8, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, either alone or in combination, before exposing them to NO2. Immunofluorescence studies confirmed oxidant-induced formation of 3-nitrotyrosine in the NO2-exposed cells. A marked increase in the levels of nitrite (as an index of NO) and IL-8 were observed in the NO2-exposed cells, which were further enhanced in the presence of the cytokines. Effects of various NO inhibitors combined, with immunofluorescence and Western blotting data, indicated partial contribution of the nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) toward the observed increase in nitrite levels. Furthermore, a significant increase in IL-1beta and TNF-alpha generation was observed in the NO2-exposed cells. Although NO2 exposure alone did induce slight cytotoxicity (<12%), but presence of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma resulted in an increased cell death (28-36%). These results suggest a synergistic role of inflammatory mediators, particularly of NO and IL-8, in NO2-mediated early cellular changes. Our results also demonstrate an increased sensitivity of the cytokine-treated NHBE cells toward NO2, which may have significant functional implications in vivo.

  5. Evaluation of nitrogen dioxide scavengers during delivery of inhaled nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, L; Rydgren, G

    1998-09-01

    We have analysed the ability of three nitrogen dioxide absorbing materials (soda lime, noXon and zeolite) to act as nitrogen dioxide scavengers during delivery of inhaled nitric oxide. Different mixtures of gas were produced in a ventilator (Servo Ventilator 300) and passed through an inspiratory tube. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide were measured in the distal part of the tube, with and without the gas having passed through a canister containing the different filter materials. Our findings indicated that nitrogen dioxide was absorbed effectively by all filter materials but that there was re-formation of nitrogen dioxide from nitric oxide and oxygen in or immediately after the canister. This initial production of nitrogen dioxide was very rapid and could not be prevented by the use of scavengers. Thus soda lime and zeolite had no practical effect as scavengers in this delivery system, and the effect of noXon was very slight.

  6. [Exposure to nitrogen dioxide and respiratory health at 2 years in the INMA-Valencia cohort].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Oyarce, Alejandra; Ferrero, Amparo; Estarlich, Marisa; Esplugues, Ana; Iñiguez, Carmen; Ballester, Ferran

    2017-07-25

    To analyze the association between exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) during pregnancy and the postnatal period up to the age of 2 years old and the incidence of respiratory problems in children from the INMA-Valencia cohort. The study population included 624 children from the INMA-Valencia cohort. Individual exposure to NO2 was estimated in different environments outside the home during pregnancy and up to the age of 2 using empirical measurement and data from geo-statistical methods. Respiratory symptoms were obtained from a questionnaire applied at the age of two. The association between NO2 exposure and respiratory symptoms was performed using multivariate logistic regression. The cumulative incidence was 16.3% for persistent cough, 34.9% for wheezing and 27.6% for lower respiratory tract infections. No association was found between respiratory symptoms and exposure to NO2 in any of the children. However an association between NO2 exposure and persistent cough was found at two years of life in the children with a parental history of allergy. NO2 exposure would lead to persistent cough in children with a parental history of allergies. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Investigation of the Nitrogen Dioxide Pollution in Urban Areas using a New Portable ICAD Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horbanski, Martin; Pöhler, Denis; Adler, Tim; Lampel, Johannes; Kanatschnig, Florian; Oesterle, Tobias; Reh, Miriam; Platt, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) and especially nitrogen dioxide (NO2), are still among of the most problematic pollutants in urban areas not only in developing, but also in industrialized countries. Despite the measures taken to reduce their emissions, NO2 concentrations in many urban areas exceed the WHO recommended limits of 40 μg/m3 for annual mean and 200 μg/m3 for 1 hour mean. Additionally it is known that the NO2 concentration in urban areas has a strong spatial and temporal variability, due to the large number of NOx emitting point sources (mainly traffic) found in densely populated areas. However, the layout of air monitoring networks in most urban areas, installed to continuously monitor the officially prescribed NO2 limits, does not reflect the high spatial variability because they only conduct measurements at a single or few selected sampling points, mainly on major roads, which are often not representative for the whole urban area. At present these uncertainties about the spatial NO2 distribution constitute severe limitations for the assessment of health risks, for the quality of chemical model calculations, and for developing effective measures to reduce NOx emissions. We developed a new light-weight and portable ICAD (Iterative Cavity Enhanced DOAS) instrument which detects NO2 at a detection limit as low as 0.2 μg/m3 with a high time resolution of seconds. The instrument is based on the Cavity Enhanced (CE-) DOAS technique, which directly identifies and quantifies NO2 by its differential optical absorption. Therefore, it does not suffer from interferences by other trace gas species like O3 or NOy. This is a great advantage over other NO2 instruments (e.g. solid state detectors or chemiluminescence instruments). We present the result of ICAD NO2 measurements, which we recently performed in more than 10 German cities. The ICAD instrument was mounted on mobile platforms like cars and bicycles, measuring the NO2 concentrations along carefully selected tracks

  8. Hydraulic studies of drilling microbores with supercritical steam, nitrogen and carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Oglesby

    2010-01-01

    Hydraulic studies of drilling microbores at various depths and with various hole sizes, tubing, fluids and rates showed theoretical feasibility. WELLFLO SIMULATIONS REPORT STEP 4: DRILLING 10,000 FT WELLS WITH SUPERCRITICAL STEAM, NITROGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE STEP 5: DRILLING 20,000 FT WELLS WITH SUPERCRITICAL STEAM, NITROGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE STEP 6: DRILLING 30,000 FT WELLS WITH SUPERCRITICAL STEAM, NITROGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE Mehmet Karaaslan, MSI

  9. Spatially resolved measurements of nitrogen dioxide in an urban environment using concurrent multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leigh, R. J.; Corlett, G. K.; Frieß, U.; Monks, P. S.

    2006-12-01

    A novel system using the technique of concurrent multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy system has been developed and applied to the measurement of nitrogen dioxide in an urban environment. Using five fixed telescopes, slant columns of nitrogen dioxide, ozone, water vapour, and the oxygen dimer, O4, are simultaneously retrieved in five vertically separated viewing directions. The application of this remote sensing technique in the urban environment is explored. Through, the application of several simplifying assumptions a tropospheric concentration of NO2 is derived and compared with an urban background in-situ chemiluminescence detector. The remote sensing and in-situ techniques show good agreement. Owing to the high time resolution of the measurements, the ability to image and quantify plumes within the urban environment is demonstrated. The CMAX-DOAS measurements provide a useful measure of overall NO2 concentrations on a city-wide scale.

  10. Spatially resolved measurements of nitrogen dioxide in an urban environment using concurrent multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leigh, R. J.; Corlett, G. K.; Frieß, U.; Monks, P. S.

    2007-09-01

    A novel system using the technique of concurrent multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy system has been developed and applied to the measurement of nitrogen dioxide in an urban environment. Using five fixed telescopes, slant columns of nitrogen dioxide, ozone, water vapour, and the oxygen dimer, O4, are simultaneously retrieved in five vertically separated viewing directions. The application of this remote sensing technique in the urban environment is explored. Through the application of several simplifying assumptions a tropospheric concentration of NO2 is derived and compared with an urban background in-situ chemiluminescence detector. Trends derived from remote sensing and in-situ techniques show agreement to within 15 to 40% depending on conditions. Owing to the high time resolution of the measurements, the ability to image and quantify plumes within the urban environment is demonstrated. The CMAX-DOAS measurements provide a useful measure of overall NO2 concentrations on a city-wide scale.

  11. Nitrogen uptake by wheat seedlings, interactive effects of four nitrogen sources: NO3-, NO2-, NH4+, and urea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criddle, R. S.; Ward, M. R.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1988-01-01

    The net influx (uptake) rates of NO3-, NH4+, NO2-, and urea into roots of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv Yecora Rojo) seedlings from complete nutrient solutions containing all four compounds were monitored simultaneously. Although urea uptake was too slow to monitor, its presence had major inhibitory effects on the uptake of each of the other compounds. Rates of NO3-, NH4+, and NO2- uptake depended in a complex fashion on the concentration of all four N compounds. Equations were developed which describe the uptake rates of each of the compounds, and of total N, as functions of concentrations of all N sources. Contour plots of the results show the interactions over the range of concentrations employed. The coefficients of these equations provide quantitative values for evaluating primary and interactive effects of each compound on N uptake.

  12. Nitrogen uptake by wheat seedlings, interactive effects of four nitrogen sources: NO3-, NO2-, NH4+, and urea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criddle, R. S.; Ward, M. R.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1988-01-01

    The net influx (uptake) rates of NO3-, NH4+, NO2-, and urea into roots of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv Yecora Rojo) seedlings from complete nutrient solutions containing all four compounds were monitored simultaneously. Although urea uptake was too slow to monitor, its presence had major inhibitory effects on the uptake of each of the other compounds. Rates of NO3-, NH4+, and NO2- uptake depended in a complex fashion on the concentration of all four N compounds. Equations were developed which describe the uptake rates of each of the compounds, and of total N, as functions of concentrations of all N sources. Contour plots of the results show the interactions over the range of concentrations employed. The coefficients of these equations provide quantitative values for evaluating primary and interactive effects of each compound on N uptake.

  13. Developmental and hematological responses to low level continuous exposure of nitrogen dioxide in mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J.

    1977-01-01

    Young healthy mice were continuously exposed to 0ppm, 0.5ppm, 1.0ppm and 5ppm nitrogen dioxide gas for eight weeks. Nitrogen dioxide exposure for eight weeks decreased the average weight of mice, increased the average weight of lungs, heart, and brain and decreased the average weight of liver. Nitrogen dioxide exposure did not have any effects on the WBC and RBC in mice blood but it increased the HCT and HGB in mice blood. Nitrogen dioxide exposure increased the MCV and decreased the MCH and MCHC in mice blood.

  14. Transformation of nitrogen dioxide into ozone and prediction of ozone concentrations using multiple linear regression techniques.

    PubMed

    Ghazali, Nurul Adyani; Ramli, Nor Azam; Yahaya, Ahmad Shukri; Yusof, Noor Faizah Fitri M D; Sansuddin, Nurulilyana; Al Madhoun, Wesam Ahmed

    2010-06-01

    Analysis and forecasting of air quality parameters are important topics of atmospheric and environmental research today due to the health impact caused by air pollution. This study examines transformation of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) into ozone (O(3)) at urban environment using time series plot. Data on the concentration of environmental pollutants and meteorological variables were employed to predict the concentration of O(3) in the atmosphere. Possibility of employing multiple linear regression models as a tool for prediction of O(3) concentration was tested. Results indicated that the presence of NO(2) and sunshine influence the concentration of O(3) in Malaysia. The influence of the previous hour ozone on the next hour concentrations was also demonstrated.

  15. 77 FR 9532 - Air Quality Designations for the 2010 Primary Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ..., Region IV--Steve Scofield (404) 562-9034, Region V--John Summerhays (312) 886-6067, Region VI--Joe Kordzi... Street SW., 12th Floor, Tennessee. Atlanta, GA 30303, (404) 562-9127. John Mooney, Chief, Air Programs...

  16. Staggering reductions in atmospheric nitrogen dioxide across Canada in response to legislated transportation emissions reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Holly; Aherne, Julian

    2016-12-01

    It is well established that atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2), associated mainly with emissions from transportation and industry, can have adverse effects on both human and ecosystem health. Specifically, atmospheric NO2 plays a role in the formation of ozone, and in acidic and nutrient deposition. As such, international agreements and national legislation, such as the On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations (SOR/2003-2), and the Federal Agenda on Cleaner Vehicles, Engines and Fuel have been put into place to regulate and limit oxidized nitrogen emissions. The objective of this study was to assess the response of ambient air concentrations of NO2 across Canada to emissions regulations. Current NO2 levels across Canada were examined at 137 monitoring sites, and long-term annual and quarterly trends were evaluated for 63 continuous monitoring stations that had at least 10 years of data during the period 1988-2013. A non-parametric Mann-Kendall test (Z values) and Sen's slope estimate were used to determine monotonic trends; further changepoint analysis was used to determine periods with significant changes in NO2 air concentration and emissions time-series data. Current annual average NO2 levels in Canada range between 1.16 and 14.96 ppb, with the national average being 8.43 ppb. Provincially, average NO2 ranges between 3.77 and 9.25 ppb, with Ontario and British Columbia having the highest ambient levels of NO2. Long-term tend analysis indicated that the annual average NO2 air concentration decreased significantly at 87% of the stations (55 of 63), and decreased non-significantly at 10% (5 of 63) during the period 1998-2013. Concentrations increased (non-significantly) at only 3% (2 of 63) of the sites. Quarterly long-term trends showed similar results; significant decreases occurred at 84% (January-March), 88% (April-June), 83% (July-September), and 81% (October-December) of the sites. Declines in transportation emissions had the most influence on NO2 air

  17. Tropospheric nitrogen dioxide column retrieval based on ground-based zenith-sky DOAS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tack, Frederik; Hendrick, Francois; Goutail, Florence; Fayt, Caroline; Merlaud, Alexis; Pinardi, Gaia; Pommereau, Jean-Pierre; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2014-05-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is one of the most important chemically active trace gases in the troposphere. Listed as primary pollutant, it is also a key precursor in the formation of tropospheric ozone, aerosols, and acid rain, and can contribute locally to radiative forcing. The long-term monitoring of this species is therefore of great relevance. Here we present a new method to retrieve tropospheric NO2 vertical column amounts from ground-based zenith-sky measurements of scattered sunlight. It is based on a four-step approach consisting of (1) the DOAS analysis of zenith radiance spectra using a fixed reference spectrum corresponding to low tropospheric NO2 content, (2) the determination of the residual amount in the reference spectrum using a Langley-plot-type method, (3) the removal of the stratospheric content from the daytime total slant column using stratospheric vertical columns measured at twilight and simulated stratospheric NO2 diurnal variation, (4) estimation of the tropospheric vertical columns by dividing the resulting tropospheric slant columns by appropriate air mass factors. The retrieval algorithm is tested on a 2 month dataset acquired from June to July 2009 by the BIRA MAX-DOAS instrument in the framework of the Cabauw (51.97° N, 4.93° E) Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI). The tropospheric vertical column amounts derived from zenith-sky observations are compared to the vertical columns retrieved from the off-axis and direct-sun measurements of the same MAX-DOAS instrument as well as to data of a co-located SAOZ (Système d'Analyse par Observations Zénithales) spectrometer operated by LATMOS. First results show a good agreement between the different data sets with correlation coefficients and slopes close to or larger than 0.85. We observe that the main error sources arise from the uncertainties in the determination of the residual NO2 amount in the reference spectrum, the stratospheric NO2 abundance and

  18. Evaluation of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide at nine sites in Saudi Arabia during 2007.

    PubMed

    Butenhoff, Christopher L; Khalil, M Aslam K; Porter, William C; Al-Sahafi, Mohammed Saleh; Almazroui, Mansour; Al-Khalaf, Abdulrahman

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a one-year record of in situ air-quality data from nine sites throughout Saudi Arabia. The data set is composed of hourly measurements of ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and carbon monoxide (CO) at six of the largest cities in Saudi Arabia (Riyadh, Jeddah, Makkah, Yanbu, Dammam, Hafouf) and two remote locations in the mountainous southwestern region of Alsodah for the year 2007. The authors found that international O3 and CO standards were routinely exceeded throughout the year at many sites, and that exceedances increased during Ramadan (Sep. 12-Oct. 13), the Islamic month of fasting when much of normal daily activity is shifted to nighttime hours. In general NO2 and CO levels were higher in Saudi cities compared to U.S. cities of comparable population, while O3 levels were lower. There was a general trend for O3 and NO2 to be negatively correlated in Saudi cities in contrast to U.S. cities where the correlation is positive, suggesting that ozone chemistry in Saudi Arabia is limited by volatile organic compound emissions. This may be caused by low biogenic emissions from vegetation. Pollutant levels were lower at most Saudi sites during the four day Hajj period (Dec. 18-21) but higher in Makkah which receives millions of visitors during Hajj. The authors also found that ozone levels were elevated during the weekend (Thursday & Friday) relative to weekday levels despite lower NO2, a phenomenon known as the "weekend effect." As little air quality data is available from Saudi Arabia in the English-language literature, this data set fills a knowledge gap and improves understanding of air quality in an important but under-reported region of the world. Air quality measurements at nine sites in Saudi Arabia provide a detailed look at spatial and temporal patterns of ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and carbon monoxide (CO). NO2 and CO levels increased in most cities during the fasting month of Ramadan, whereas O3 levels decreased. This led to

  19. Effects of ozone and nitrogen dioxide on drinking and eating behaviors in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Umezu, T.; Suzuki, A.K.; Miura, T.; Koizumi, A. )

    1993-04-01

    Male ICR mice were exposed continuously to ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) for 7 days to examine the effects on drinking and eating behaviors. Ozone at 0.1 ppm did not affect drinking and eating activities, whereas drinking activity decreased in a concentration-dependent manner to 47.7, 12.8, and 3.0% of the control value with 2-day exposures to 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 ppm O3, respectively, and eating activity decreased to 35.2 and 8.7% of the control value at 0.4 and 0.8 ppm O3, respectively. Body weight also decreased markedly by 2.0, 4.6, and 7.5 g at 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 ppm O3, respectively. These decrements reached a maximum on the second day of exposure. However, alterations in drinking and eating activities and body weight were transient, leading to recovery during the continuous O3 exposures. The recovery processes were dependent on the concentrations of O3. Nitrogen dioxide at 4 ppm did not affect drinking and eating activities, whereas drinking activity decreased in a concentration-dependent manner to 56.8, 8.3, and 18.7% of the control value with 2-day exposures to 6, 8, and 12 ppm NO2, respectively, and eating activity decreased markedly to 21.8 and 16.4% at 8 and 12 ppm NO2, respectively. Body weight also decreased by 2.5, 5.5, and 6.1 g at 6, 8, and 12 ppm NO2, respectively. These decrements reached a maximum on the second day of exposure. As in the O3 exposures, the decrements in drinking and eating activities and body weight were transient and recovered during the continuous exposures to NO2 depending on the concentrations of NO2. Drinking and eating activities and body weights of mice that had been previously exposed to 12 ppm NO2 for 7 days did not show changes when the mice were exposed to 0.4 ppm O3 9 days after NO2 exposure. The present study demonstrates that photochemical oxidants suppress drinking and eating behaviors in mice and that they recover thereafter under the continuous exposure conditions.

  20. A practical alternative to chemiluminescence-based detection of nitrogen dioxide: cavity attenuated phase shift spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kebabian, Paul L; Wood, Ezra C; Herndon, Scott C; Freedman, Andrew

    2008-08-15

    We present results obtained from a greatly improved version of a previously reported nitrogen dioxide monitor (Anal Chem. 2005, 77, 724-728) that utilizes cavity attenuated phase shift spectroscopy (CAPS). The sensor, which detects the optical absorption of nitrogen dioxide within a 20 nm bandpass centered at 440 nm, comprises a blue light emitting diode, an enclosed stainless steel measurement cell (26 cm length) incorporating a resonant optical cavity of near-confocal design and a vacuum photodiode detector. An analog heterodyne detection scheme is used to measure the phase shift in the waveform of the modulated light transmitted through the cell induced by the presence of nitrogen dioxide within the cell. The sensor, which operates at atmospheric pressure, fits into a 19 in.-rack-mounted instrumentation box, weighs 10 kg, and utilizes 70 W of electrical power with pump included. The sensor response to nitrogen dioxide (calculated as the cotangent of the phase shift) is demonstrated to be linear (r2 > 0.9999) within +/- 1 ppb over a range of 0-320 ppb (by volume). The device exhibits a detection limit (3sigma precision) of less than 60 parts per trillion (0.060 ppb) with 10 s integration, a value derived from measurements at NO2 concentration levels of both 0 and 20 ppb; the detection limit improves as the integration time is increased to several hundred seconds. The observed baseline drift is less than +/- 0.5 ppb overthe course of a month. An intercomparison of measurements of ambient NO2 concentrations over several days using this sensor with a quantum cascade laser-based infrared absorption spectrometer and a standard chemiluminescence-based NOx analyzer is presented. The data from the CAPS sensor are highly correlated (r2 > 0.99) with the other two instruments. The absolute agreement between the CAPS and each of the two other instruments is within the expected statistical noise associated with the infrared laser-based absorption spectrometer (+/- 0.3 ppb

  1. Pulse radiolysis study of the reactions of catechins with nitrogen dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebicki, Jerzy L.; Meisner, Piotr; Stawowska, Katarzyna; Gebicka, Lidia

    2012-12-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (•NO2), one of the oxidizing radicals formed in vivo is suspected to play a role in various pathophysiological processes. The reactions of •NO2 with dietary catechins, the group of flavonoids present in high amounts in green tea and red wine, have been investigated by pulse radiolysis method. The kinetics of the reaction of •NO2 with gallic acid have been also studied for comparison. The spectra of transient intermediates are presented. The rate constants of the reaction of •NO2 with catechin, epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate and gallic acid determined by the competition method with 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) at pH 7.0 and room temperature have been found to be 0.9, 1.0, 2.3 and 0.5×108 M-1 s-1, respectively. The values for catechins are among the highest reported for the reactions of •NO2 with non-radical compounds.

  2. International comparison CCQM-K76: Sulfur dioxide in nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, Franklin R.; Kelley, Michael E.; Mitchell, Gerald D.; de Jesús Avila Salas, Manuel; Koelliker Delgado, Jorge; Rangel Murillo, Francisco; Serrano Caballero, Victor M.; Pérez Castorena, Alejandro; Shinji, Uehara; Ciecior, Dariusz; Smarçaro da Cunha, Valnei; Rodrigues Augusto, Cristiane; Cipriano Ribeiro, Claudia; de Lima Fioravante, Andreia; Dias, Florbela; Sang-Hyub, Oh; Macé, Tatiana; Sutour, Christophe; Büki, Tamás; Qiao, Han; Botha, Angelique; Mogale, David M.; Tshilongo, James; Ntsasa, Napo; Mphamo, Tshepiso; Uprichard, Ian; Milton, Martin; Vargha, Gergely; Brookes, Chris; Johri, Prabha; Valkova, Miroslava; Konopelko, Leonid; Kustikov, Yury; Pankratov, V. V.; Rumyantsev, D. V.; Pavlov, M. V.; Gromova, E. V.; van der Veen, Adriaan; van Otterloo, Peter; Wessel, Rob M.

    2011-01-01

    The key comparison CCQM-K76 was designed to test the capabilities of the participants to measure and certify sulfur dioxide in nitrogen, and to provide supporting evidence for the CMCs of these institutes for sulfur dioxide. Also, as sulfur dioxide is designated a core compound, and the 100 µmol/mol concentration is within the designated core compound concentration range, this comparison was also designed to demonstrate core capabilities of institutes which qualify under the rules of the Gas Analysis Working Group. The results of all 16 participants in this key comparison, except for three, are consistent with their key comparisons reference values. The three participants which are outside the KCRV interval are NIM, SMU and NPLI. This comparison may be used to demonstrate core analytical capabilities in accordance with the rules and procedures of the CCQM Gas Analysis Working group. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  3. Oxidation of diclofenac with chlorine dioxide in aquatic environments: influences of different nitrogenous species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingling; Liu, Haijin; Liu, Guoguang; Xie, Youhai; Ni, Tianjun

    2015-06-01

    The oxidation of diclofenac (DCF), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug and emerging water pollutant, with chlorine dioxide was investigated under simulated water disinfection conditions. The reaction kinetics as functions of the initial concentrations of DCF, different nitrogenous species, and different pE values were experimentally determined. The results demonstrated that DCF reacted rapidly with ClO2, where more than 75 % of DCF (≤3.00 μM) was removed by 18.94 μM ClO2 within 60 s. All of the reactions followed pseudo first-order kinetics with respect to DCF, and the rate constant, k obs, exhibited a significant decrease from 4.21 × 10(-2) to 8.09 × 10(-3) s(-1), as the initial DCF concentration was increased from 1.00 to 5.00 μM. Furthermore, the degradation kinetics of DCF was clearly dependent on nitrogen-containing ion concentrations in the reaction solution. Ammonium and nitrite ions inhibited the DCF degradation by ClO2, whereas nitrate ion clearly initiated its promotion. In contrast, the inhibitory effect of NO2 (-) was more robust than that of NH4 (+). When the values of pE were gradually increased, the transformation of NH4 (+) to NO2 (-), and subsequently to NO3 (-), would occur, the rate constants were initially decreased, and then increased. When NH4 (+) and NO2 (-) coexisted, the inhibitory effect on the DCF degradation was less than the sum of the partial inhibitory effect. However, when NO2 (-) and NO3 (-) coexisted, the actual inhibition rate was greater than the theoretical estimate. These results indicated that the interaction of NH4 (+) and NO2 (-) was antagonistic, while the coexistence of NO2 (-) and NO3 (-) was observed to have a synergistic effect in aqueous environments.

  4. Measurements of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide in British homes using unflued heating or cooking appliances.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, K J

    1985-08-01

    Measurements of Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) were made in three kitchens, two with gas cookers and one all electric, and two living rooms, one heated by a portable butane heater and the other by a paraffin stove. The measurements were taken whilst the homes were in normal use and the occupants kept a diary of when specific appliances were used. Measurements of NO2 were made simultaneously by chemiluminescence and by diffusion tubes. The accuracy of the diffusion tube measurements relative to the chemiluminescent standard was estimated as +/- 10% and the precision less than or equal to 300 ppb. hr. Results from diffusion tubes were used to indicate the distribution of NO2 throughout other rooms in the house. At the all electric house the CO and NO2 concentrations were very similar to the expected outdoor levels. In all the other houses NO2 levels exceeded typical outdoor concentrations measured in Central London and in the paraffin heated house and one gas cooking house median CO concentrations exceeded these measured at the curbside of a very busy road in Central London. The living room concentrations of NO2 where the paraffin heater was in use were elevated for long periods. Analysis of the decay of pollutant concentration in one kitchen yielded an effective deposition velocity for NO2 of 3 X 10(-5) m s-1. The magnitude of the CO and NO2 concentrations measured in this survey confirms that indoor air pollution should be taken into account when assessing overall public exposure to air pollution.

  5. Recent satellite-based trends of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide over large urban agglomerations worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, P.; Lahoz, W. A.; van der A, R.

    2015-02-01

    Trends in tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns over 66 large urban agglomerations worldwide have been computed using data from the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) instrument onboard the Envisat platform for the period August 2002 to March 2012. A seasonal model including a~linear trend was fitted to the satellite-based time series over each site. The results indicate distinct spatial patterns in trends. While agglomerations in Europe, North America, and some locations in East Asia/Oceania show decreasing tropospheric NO2 levels on the order of -5% yr-1, rapidly increasing levels of tropospheric NO2 are found for agglomerations in large parts of Asia, Africa, and South America. The site with the most rapidly increasing absolute levels of tropospheric NO2 was found to be Tianjin in China with a trend of 3.04 (±0.47) × 1015 molecules cm-2yr-1, whereas the site with the most rapidly increasing relative trend was Kabul in Afghanistan with 14.3 (±2.2) % yr-1. In total, 34 sites exhibited increasing trends of tropospheric NO2 throughout the study period, 24 of which were found to be statistically significant. A total of 32 sites showed decreasing levels of tropospheric NO2 during the study period, of which 20 sites did so at statistically significant magnitudes. Overall, going beyond the relatively small set of megacities investigated previously, this study provides the first consistent analysis of recent changes in tropospheric NO2 levels over most large urban agglomerations worldwide, and indicates that changes in urban NO2 levels are subject to substantial regional differences as well as influenced by economic and demographic factors.

  6. Nitrogen dioxide vapor penetration of chlorobutyl rubber SCAPE under operational conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schehl, T. A.; Beall, T. W.

    1980-01-01

    Operational self contained atmospheric protective ensembles (SCAPE suits) and fabric from the suits were subjected to a series of tests designed to determine the amount of exposure a wearer of the suit would receive if a spill of the hypergolic oxidizer nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) should occur nearby. The results of these tests show that a wearer of a "stock" SCAPE suit equipped with a standard liquid air pack, if exposed to a spill resulting in a 26 percent increase of oxidizer in the surrounding atmosphere, will experiment no detectable concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) inside the suit for 15 minutes. Thereafter, the NO2 concentration within the suit will increase for 35 minutes at a rate of 0.07 ppm per minute and then at a gradually decreasing rate until an equilibrium concentration of 3.4 ppm is attained after 100 minutes. Momentary increases of as much as 1.6 ppm can be expected if the wearer were to rise quickly from a squatting position, but the additional NO2 would be dissipated within three minutes. The effect of liquid and vapor N2O4 and of liquid monomethylhydrazine on permeation rates and tensile strength of the SCAPE suit fabric was also investigated.

  7. Ambient concentrations of atmospheric ammonia, nitrogen dioxide and nitric acid in an intensive agricultural region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zbieranowski, Antoni L.; Aherne, Julian

    2013-05-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of ambient atmospheric gaseous reactive nitrogen (Nr) species concentrations (ammonia [NH3], nitrogen dioxide [NO2] and nitric acid [HNO3]) were measured at the field scale in an intensive agricultural region in southern Ontario, Canada. Atmospheric concentrations were measured with the Willems badge diffusive passive sampler (18 sites for NH3, 9 sites for NO2 and HNO3) for one year (April 2010-March 2011; under a two week measurement frequency) within a 15 km × 15 km area. Dry deposition was calculated using the inferential method and estimated across the entire study area. The spatial distribution of emission sources associated with agricultural activity resulted in high spatial variability in annual average ambient NH3 concentrations (<3->8 μg m-3 within a 2 km distance, coefficient of variation ˜50%) and estimated dry deposition (4-13 kg N ha-1 yr-1) between sample sites. In contrast, ambient concentrations and deposition of both NO2 (˜5.2->6.5 μg m-3; 1.0-1.5 kg N ha-1 yr-1) and HNO3 (0.6-0.7 μg m-3; 0.5-1 kg N ha-1 yr-1) had low variability (coefficient of variation <10%). The observed NH3 concentrations accounted for ˜70% of gaseous Nr dry deposition. High NH3 concentrations suggest that reduced nitrogen species (NHx) will continue to make up an increasing fraction of Nr deposition within intensive agricultural regions in southern Ontario under legislated nitrogen oxide emission reductions. Further, estimated total inorganic Nr deposition (15-28 kg N ha-1 yr-1) may lead to potential changes in soil processes, nutrient imbalance and altered composition of mycorrhiza and ground vegetation within adjacent semi-natural ecosystems (estimated at ˜10% of the study area).

  8. Effects of acute exposure to nitrogen dioxide on primary antibody response

    SciTech Connect

    Hidekazu, F.; Fujio, S.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of acute exposure to nitrogen dioxide on primary humoral antibody response to sheep red blood cells in mice were studied. Mice were exposed to 5 ppm, 20 ppm, and 40 ppm nitrogen dioxide for 12 hr. An exposure of 20 ppm or 40 ppm resulted in a significant suppression of antibody responses, but 5 ppm did not affect antibody response. This immunosuppression resulting from nitrogen dioxide exposure was more apparent in males than females. Exposures to 20 ppm nitrogen dioxide for various time intervals revealed that the strongest suppression effect was observed in the group exposed 2 days after antigen injection. A decreased total cell number in the spleen, and more strikingly, in the thymus, was also caused by acute exposure to nitrogen dioxide.

  9. Effects of acute exposure to nitrogen dioxide on primary antibody response

    SciTech Connect

    Hidekazu, F.; Fujio, S.

    1981-05-01

    The effects of acute exposure to nitrogen dioxide on primary humoral antibody response to sheep red blood cells in mice were studied. Mice were exposed to 5 ppM, 20 ppM, and 40 ppM nitrogen dioxide for 12 h. An exposure of 20 ppM or 40 ppM resulted in a significant suppression of antibody responses, but 5 ppM did not affect antibody response. This immunosuppression resulting from nitrogen dioxide exposure was more apparent in males than females. Exposures to 20 ppM nitrogen dioxide for various time intervals revealed that the strongest suppression effect was observed in the group exposed 2 days after antigen injection. A decreased total cell number in the spleen, and more strikingly, in the thymus, was also caused by acute exposure to nitrogen dioxide.

  10. Recent satellite-based trends of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide over large urban agglomerations worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, P.; Lahoz, W. A.; van der A, R.

    2014-09-01

    Trends in tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations over 66 large urban agglomerations worldwide have been computed using data from the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) instrument onboard the Envisat platform for the period August 2002 to March 2012. A seasonal model including a linear trend was fitted to the satellite-based time series over each site. The results indicate distinct spatial patterns in trends. While agglomerations in Europe, North America, and some locations in East Asia/Oceania show decreasing tropospheric NO2 levels on the order of -5 % yr-1, rapidly increasing levels of tropospheric NO2 are found for agglomerations in large parts of Asia, Africa, and South America. The site with the most rapidly increasing absolute levels of tropospheric NO2 was found to be Tianjin in China with a trend value of 3.04 (±0.47) × 1015 molecules cm-2 yr-1, whereas the site with the most rapidly increasing relative trend was Kabul in Afghanistan with 14.3 (±2.2) % yr-1. In total, 34 sites exhibited increasing trends of tropospheric NO2 throughout the study period, 24 of which were found to be statistically significant. A total of 32 sites showed decreasing levels of tropospheric NO2 during the study period, of which 20 sites did so at statistically significant magnitudes. Overall, going beyond the relatively small set of megacities investigated previously, this study provides the first consistent analysis of recent changes in tropospheric NO2 levels over most large urban agglomerations worldwide.

  11. Measurement of nitrogen dioxide in cigarette smoke using quantum cascade tunable infrared laser differential absorption spectroscopy (TILDAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shorter, Joanne H.; Nelson, David D.; Zahniser, Mark S.; Parrish, Milton E.; Crawford, Danielle R.; Gee, Diane L.

    2006-04-01

    Although nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) has been previously reported to be present in cigarette smoke, the concentration estimates were derived from kinetic calculations or from measurements of aged smoke, where NO 2 was formed some time after the puff was taken. The objective of this work was to use tunable infrared laser differential absorption spectroscopy (TILDAS) equipped with a quantum cascade (QC) laser to determine if NO 2 could be detected and quantified in a fresh puff of cigarette smoke. A temporal resolution of ˜0.16 s allowed measurements to be taken directly as the NO 2 was formed during the puff. Sidestream cigarette smoke was sampled to determine if NO 2 could be detected using TILDAS. Experiments were conducted using 2R4F Kentucky Reference cigarettes with and without a Cambridge filter pad. NO 2 was detected only in the lighting puff of whole mainstream smoke (without a Cambridge filter pad), with no NO 2 detected in the subsequent puffs. The measurement precision was ˜1.0 ppbV Hz -1/2, which allows a detection limit of ˜0.2 ng in a 35 ml puff volume. More NO 2 was generated in the lighting puff using a match or blue flame lighter (29 ± 21 ng) than when using an electric lighter (9 ± 3 ng). In the presence of a Cambridge filter pad, NO 2 was observed in the gas phase mainstream smoke for every puff (total of 200 ± 30 ng/cigarette) and is most likely due to smoke chemistry taking place on the Cambridge filter pad during the smoke collection process. Nitrogen dioxide was observed continuously in the sidestream smoke starting with the lighting puff.

  12. The Cabauw Intercomparison Campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide Measuring Instruments (CINDI): Design, Execution, and Early Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piters, Ankie; Boersma, K.F.; Kroon, M.; Hains, J. C.; Roozendael, M. Van; Wittrock, F.; Abuhassan, N.; Adams, C.; Akrami, M.; Allaart, M. A. F.; Apituley, A.; Beirle, S.; Bergwerff, J. B.; Berkhout, A. J. C.; Brunner, D.; Cede, A.; Chong, J.; Clemer, K.; Fayt, C.; FrieB, U.; Gast, L. F. L.; Gil-Ojeda, M.; Goutail, F.; Graves, R.; Griesfeller, A.

    2012-01-01

    From June to July 2009 more than thirty different in-situ and remote sensing instruments from all over the world participated in the Cabauw Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI). The campaign took place at KNMI's Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR) in the Netherlands. Its main objectives were to determine the accuracy of state-ofthe- art ground-based measurement techniques for the detection of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (both in-situ and remote sensing), and to investigate their usability in satellite data validation. The expected outcomes are recommendations regarding the operation and calibration of such instruments, retrieval settings, and observation strategies for the use in ground-based networks for air quality monitoring and satellite data validation. Twenty-four optical spectrometers participated in the campaign, of which twenty-one had the capability to scan different elevation angles consecutively, the so-called Multi-axis DOAS systems, thereby collecting vertical profile information, in particular for nitrogen dioxide and aerosol. Various in-situ samplers and lidar instruments simultaneously characterized the variability of atmospheric trace gases and the physical properties of aerosol particles. A large data set of continuous measurements of these atmospheric constituents has been collected under various meteorological conditions and air pollution levels. Together with the permanent measurement capability at the CESAR site characterizing the meteorological state of the atmosphere, the CINDI campaign provided a comprehensive observational data set of atmospheric constituents in a highly polluted region of the world during summertime. First detailed comparisons performed with the CINDI data show that slant column measurements of NO2, O4 and HCHO with MAX-DOAS agree within 5 to 15%, vertical profiles of NO2 derived from several independent instruments agree within 25% of one another, and MAX

  13. The Cabauw Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI): design, execution, and early results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piters, A. J. M.; Boersma, K. F.; Kroon, M.; Hains, J. C.; van Roozendael, M.; Wittrock, F.; Abuhassan, N.; Adams, C.; Akrami, M.; Allaart, M. A. F.; Apituley, A.; Beirle, S.; Bergwerff, J. B.; Berkhout, A. J. C.; Brunner, D.; Cede, A.; Chong, J.; Clémer, K.; Fayt, C.; Frieß, U.; Gast, L. F. L.; Gil-Ojeda, M.; Goutail, F.; Graves, R.; Griesfeller, A.; Großmann, K.; Hemerijckx, G.; Hendrick, F.; Henzing, B.; Herman, J.; Hermans, C.; Hoexum, M.; van der Hoff, G. R.; Irie, H.; Johnston, P. V.; Kanaya, Y.; Kim, Y. J.; Klein Baltink, H.; Kreher, K.; de Leeuw, G.; Leigh, R.; Merlaud, A.; Moerman, M. M.; Monks, P. S.; Mount, G. H.; Navarro-Comas, M.; Oetjen, H.; Pazmino, A.; Perez-Camacho, M.; Peters, E.; Du Piesanie, A.; Pinardi, G.; Puentedura, O.; Richter, A.; Roscoe, H. K.; Schönhardt, A.; Schwarzenbach, B.; Shaiganfar, R.; Sluis, W.; Spinei, E.; Stolk, A. P.; Strong, K.; Swart, D. P. J.; Takashima, H.; Vlemmix, T.; Vrekoussis, M.; Wagner, T.; Whyte, C.; Wilson, K. M.; Yela, M.; Yilmaz, S.; Zieger, P.; Zhou, Y.

    2012-02-01

    From June to July 2009 more than thirty different in-situ and remote sensing instruments from all over the world participated in the Cabauw Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI). The campaign took place at KNMI's Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR) in the Netherlands. Its main objectives were to determine the accuracy of state-of-the-art ground-based measurement techniques for the detection of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (both in-situ and remote sensing), and to investigate their usability in satellite data validation. The expected outcomes are recommendations regarding the operation and calibration of such instruments, retrieval settings, and observation strategies for the use in ground-based networks for air quality monitoring and satellite data validation. Twenty-four optical spectrometers participated in the campaign, of which twenty-one had the capability to scan different elevation angles consecutively, the so-called Multi-axis DOAS systems, thereby collecting vertical profile information, in particular for nitrogen dioxide and aerosol. Various in-situ samplers and lidar instruments simultaneously characterized the variability of atmospheric trace gases and the physical properties of aerosol particles. A large data set of continuous measurements of these atmospheric constituents has been collected under various meteorological conditions and air pollution levels. Together with the permanent measurement capability at the CESAR site characterizing the meteorological state of the atmosphere, the CINDI campaign provided a comprehensive observational data set of atmospheric constituents in a highly polluted region of the world during summertime. First detailed comparisons performed with the CINDI data show that slant column measurements of NO2, O4 and HCHO with MAX-DOAS agree within 5 to 15%, vertical profiles of NO2 derived from several independent instruments agree within 25% of one another, and MAX

  14. The Cabauw Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI): design, execution, and early results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piters, A. J. M.; Boersma, K. F.; Kroon, M.; Hains, J. C.; van Roozendael, M.; Wittrock, F.; Abuhassan, N.; Adams, C.; Akrami, M.; Allaart, M. A. F.; Apituley, A.; Bergwerff, J. B.; Berkhout, A. J. C.; Brunner, D.; Cede, A.; Chong, J.; Clémer, K.; Fayt, C.; Frieß, U.; Gast, L. F. L.; Gil-Ojeda, M.; Goutail, F.; Graves, R.; Griesfeller, A.; Großmann, K.; Hemerijckx, G.; Hendrick, F.; Henzing, B.; Herman, J.; Hermans, C.; Hoexum, M.; van der Hoff, G. R.; Irie, H.; Johnston, P. V.; Kanaya, Y.; Kim, Y. J.; Klein Baltink, H.; Kreher, K.; de Leeuw, G.; Leigh, R.; Merlaud, A.; Moerman, M. M.; Monks, P. S.; Mount, G. H.; Navarro-Comas, M.; Oetjen, H.; Pazmino, A.; Perez-Camacho, M.; Peters, E.; Du Piesanie, A.; Pinardi, G.; Puentadura, O.; Richter, A.; Roscoe, H. K.; Schönhardt, A.; Schwarzenbach, B.; Shaiganfar, R.; Sluis, W.; Spinei, E.; Stolk, A. P.; Strong, K.; Swart, D. P. J.; Takashima, H.; Vlemmix, T.; Vrekoussis, M.; Wagner, T.; Whyte, C.; Wilson, K. M.; Yela, M.; Yilmaz, S.; Zieger, P.; Zhou, Y.

    2011-09-01

    From June to July 2009 more than thirty different in-situ and remote sensing instruments from all over the world participated in the Cabauw Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI). The campaign took place at KNMI's Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research in the Netherlands. Its main objectives were to determine the accuracy of state-of-the-art ground-based measurement techniques for the detection of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (both in-situ and remote sensing), and to investigate their usability in satellite data validation. The expected outcomes are recommendations regarding the operation and calibration of such instruments, retrieval settings, and observation strategies for the use in ground-based networks for air quality monitoring and satellite data validation. Twenty-four optical spectrometers participated in the campaign, of which twenty-one had the capability to scan different elevation angles consecutively, the so-called Multi-axis DOAS systems, thereby collecting vertical profile information, in particular for nitrogen dioxide and aerosol. Various in-situ samplers simultaneously characterized the variability of atmospheric trace gases and the physical properties of aerosol particles. A large data set of continuous measurements of these atmospheric constituents has been collected under various meteorological conditions and air pollution levels. Together with the permanent measurement capability at the Cabauw site characterizing the meteorological state of the atmosphere, the CINDI campaign provided a comprehensive observational data set of atmospheric constituents in a highly polluted region of the world during summertime. First detailed comparisons performed with the CINDI data show that slant column measurements of NO2, O4 and HCHO with MAX-DOAS agree within 5 to 15%, vertical profiles of NO2 derived from several independent instruments agree within 25%, and MAX-DOAS aerosol optical thickness agrees within 20

  15. Performance Evaluation and Community Application of Low-Cost Sensors for Ozone and Nitrogen Dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Duvall, Rachelle M.; Long, Russell W.; Beaver, Melinda R.; Kronmiller, Keith G.; Wheeler, Michael L.; Szykman, James J.

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the performance of electrochemical-based low-cost sensors and their use in a community application. CairClip sensors were collocated with federal reference and equivalent methods and operated in a network of sites by citizen scientists (community members) in Houston, Texas and Denver, Colorado, under the umbrella of the NASA-led DISCOVER-AQ Earth Venture Mission. Measurements were focused on ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The performance evaluation showed that the CairClip O3/NO2 sensor provided a consistent measurement response to that of reference monitors (r2 = 0.79 in Houston; r2 = 0.72 in Denver) whereas the CairClip NO2 sensor measurements showed no agreement to reference measurements. The CairClip O3/NO2 sensor data from the citizen science sites compared favorably to measurements at nearby reference monitoring sites. This study provides important information on data quality from low-cost sensor technologies and is one of few studies that reports sensor data collected directly by citizen scientists. PMID:27754370

  16. Modeling effects of traffic and landscape characteristics on ambient nitrogen dioxide levels in Connecticut

    PubMed Central

    Skene, Katherine J.; Gent, Janneane F.; McKay, Lisa A.; Belanger, Kathleen; Leaderer, Brian P.; Holford, Theodore R.

    2010-01-01

    An integrated exposure model was developed that estimates nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentration at residences using geographic information systems (GIS) and variables derived within residential buffers representing traffic volume and landscape characteristics including land use, population density and elevation. Multiple measurements of NO2 taken outside of 985 residences in Connecticut were used to develop the model. A second set of 120 outdoor NO2 measurements as well as cross-validation were used to validate the model. The model suggests that approximately 67% of the variation in NO2 levels can be explained by: traffic and land use primarily within 2 km of a residence; population density; elevation; and time of year. Potential benefits of this model for health effects research include improved spatial estimations of traffic-related pollutant exposure and reduced need for extensive pollutant measurements. The model, which could be calibrated and applied in areas other than Connecticut, has importance as a tool for exposure estimation in epidemiological studies of traffic-related air pollution. PMID:21076636

  17. Ozone, but not nitrogen dioxide, fragments elastin and increases its susceptibility to proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Winters, R S; Burnette-Vick, B A; Johnson, D A

    1994-10-01

    The effects of ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on the solubility and proteolytic susceptibility of elastin were examined to better understand how these oxidant air pollutants might damage the lung. In vitro O3 exposures at pH 7.4 resulted in the complete solubilization of elastin, but NO2 had no effect on solubility. The initial solubilization rate was 65 micrograms/mumol of O3, which increased to 150 micrograms/mumol in the midregion of a sigmoidal solubilization curve. Peptide fragments of the O3-solubilized elastin ranged in size from 5 to 20 kD. The conversion of insoluble elastin into soluble fragments by O3 was not due to the destruction of desmosine crosslinks. The effect of O3 on the proteolytic susceptibility of elastin was measured using insoluble elastin recovered from exposures that resulted in 5.3%, 12.8%, and 26.3% solubilization. Human neutrophil elastase (HNE) digested the remaining insoluble elastin samples 4.3, 6.0, and 9.8 times faster than unexposed elastin. In contrast, NO2-exposed elastin was no more susceptible to digestion by HNE. Ascorbate, EDTA, and uric acid reduced the proteolytic susceptibility of O3-exposed elastin, but mannitol afforded no protection. These findings indicate that the inhalation of O3 may contribute to lung disease by directly damaging elastin and by increasing its susceptibility to proteolysis, whereas NO2 probably damages lungs via alternative mechanisms.

  18. Monitoring of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide using Ozone Monitoring Instrument remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Zhongyong; Jiang, Hong; Song, Xiaodong; Zhang, Xiuying

    2013-01-01

    Measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument are used to investigate the temporal and spatial dynamics of global nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The results show that the global tropospheric column NO2 increased by 11.10% during 2005 to 2010 at a 1.76% annual growth rate. The largest tropospheric and total NO2 columns are mainly concentrated in the industrialized regions of North America, Europe, and east Asia. The large values of column NO are also observed and scattered in South America, Africa, and Indonesia due to biomass burning and savannah fires. Average tropospheric column NO increased by 32.62% at a 4.82% annual rate over eastern Asia. On the contrary, the trend decreased by 35.47% at a 7.04% annual rate over eastern America. The trend was not significant over Europe as a whole, where a decrease was observed over western and southern Europe and an increase was observed over eastern and northern Europe. Over the polluted urban areas, the ratios of tropospheric to total column NO2 are larger than 0.6 and the correlation coefficients are larger than 0.8. This can be mainly attributed to the anthropogenic NOx emissions over land, and it is noteworthy that the ratios are higher than 0.8 (correlation coefficients >0.95) over northern China.

  19. Comparison of two manual methods of nitrogen dioxide determination in ambient air.

    PubMed

    Goyal, S K

    2003-12-01

    Sodium arsenite (modified Jacobs and Hochheiser method; hereafter referred as SA), the most widely used manual monitoring method for determination of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in ambient air, particularly in developing countries has been evaluated and compared with US EPA recommended equivalent method of TGS-ANSA (hereafter referred as ANSA). NO2 concentrations generated from laboratory test atmosphere were analyzed by these two methods and were compared statistically. Laboratory evaluations showed that SA method has high sensitivity to different sampling conditions, which normally vary during actual field monitoring. Hence, correction factors for absorption efficiency were estimated for SA and ANSA methods. Absorption efficiency of NO2 in SA method was found to be much lower (64%) as against the reported value of 82% at the method recommended sampling conditions, whereas for ANSA method, it was found 1.0 as against the reported value of 0.93. After applying derived correction factors, both the methods produced almost similar concentration values of NO2.

  20. Front-door concentrations and personal exposures of Danish children to nitrogen dioxide.

    PubMed Central

    Raaschou-Nielsen, O; Skov, H; Lohse, C; Thomsen, B L; Olsen, J H

    1997-01-01

    The aims of the study were to evaluate the front-door concentration of traffic exhaust fumes as a surrogate for the personal exposure of children and to study factors in the behavior and the environment of children that affect their personal exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)). The exposure to NO(2) of 103 children living in Copenhagen and 101 children living in rural areas of Denmark was studied by measuring average concentrations over 1 week with diffusive badge samplers placed outside the front door of the home, inside the child's bedroom, and on each child. Detailed information about the activities of the children involving potential exposure to NO(2) was noted in diaries. The results indicated that the front-door concentration of traffic pollution might be used to classify the personal exposure of urban children, although misclassification would be introduced. Multiple regression analysis showed several factors that affected the personal NO(2) exposure of the children independently, including the front-door concentration, the bedroom concentration, time spent outdoors, gas appliances used at home, passive smoking, and burning candles. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:9300931

  1. Total Column Observation of Nitrogen Dioxide and Ozone in the Four Corners Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butterfield, Z.; Dubey, M.; Lindenmaier, R.; Herman, J. R.; Disterhoft, P.; Minschwaner, K.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) is a pollutant created by the burning of fossil fuels, which is intricately related to levels of ozone (O3), a tropospheric pollutant and greenhouse gas. Observing and understanding the behavior of these two chemicals in the atmosphere is essential to monitoring and verifying power plant emissions. In the Four Corners region, the San Juan and Four Corners power plants produce a total of 0.3 kilotonnes of NOX (combined Nitric Oxide (NO) and NO2) per day from burning fossil fuels. We compare NO2 column measurements from a ground-based solar spectrometer (Pandora) and from the satellite-based Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). We also compare O3 column measurements obtained from Pandora and a Brewer Ozone Spectrophotometer. Using O3 profiles obtained with ozonesondes and by separating long and short time scale changes in total column measurements we isolate tropospheric ozone columns and explore their relationship with the troposphere-dominated total column measurements of NO2.

  2. Comparing mass balance and adjoint methods for inverse modeling of nitrogen dioxide columns for global nitrogen oxide emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Matthew; Martin, Randall V.; Padmanabhan, Akhila; Henze, Daven K.

    2017-04-01

    Satellite observations offer information applicable to top-down constraints on emission inventories through inverse modeling. Here we compare two methods of inverse modeling for emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and its adjoint. We treat the adjoint-based 4D-Var modeling approach for estimating top-down emissions as a benchmark against which to evaluate variations on the mass balance method. We use synthetic NO2 columns generated from known NOx emissions to serve as "truth." We find that error in mass balance inversions can be reduced by up to a factor of 2 with an iterative process that uses finite difference calculations of the local sensitivity of NO2 columns to a change in emissions. In a simplified experiment to recover local emission perturbations, horizontal smearing effects due to NOx transport are better resolved by the adjoint approach than by mass balance. For more complex emission changes, or at finer resolution, the iterative finite difference mass balance and adjoint methods produce similar global top-down inventories when inverting hourly synthetic observations, both reducing the a priori error by factors of 3-4. Inversions of simulated satellite observations from low Earth and geostationary orbits also indicate that both the mass balance and adjoint inversions produce similar results, reducing a priori error by a factor of 3. As the iterative finite difference mass balance method provides similar accuracy as the adjoint method, it offers the prospect of accurately estimating top-down NOx emissions using models that do not have an adjoint.

  3. Response of radish to nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone, alone and in combination

    SciTech Connect

    Reinert, R.A.; Gray, T.N.

    1981-04-01

    Effects on radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cv. Cherry Belle of nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), and ozone (O/sub 3/) alone and in combination at 0.2 and 0.4 ppM of each pollutant were studied. There was no difference in foilage or root weight of radish between exposure durations of 3 to 6 hours, and no significant interaction of hours with air pollutant and concentration. Ozone reduced root dry weight more at 0.4 ppM than at 0.2 ppM. Sulfur dioxide depressed the root/shoot ratio at both 0.2 and 0.4 ppM; however, when NO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 2/ were both present there was synergistic depression of the root/shoot ratio at 0.4 ppM. The average O/sub 3/-induced reduction in root weight of radish (1.75 g fresh and 101 mg dry, per plant) was additive in the presence of NO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 2/. The weight of the root was reduced even though the foilage was the direct receptor of the pollutant stress.

  4. Cryogenic Adsorption of Nitrogen and Carbon Dioxide in Activated Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Fuzhi; Liu, Huiming; Xu, Dong; Zhang, Hengcheng; Lu, Junfeng; Li, Laifeng

    2017-09-01

    Activated carbon have been used for a long time at low temperature for cryogenic applications. The knowledge of adsorption characteristics of activated carbon at cryogenic temperature is essential for some specific applications. However, such experimental data are very scare in the literature. In order to measure the adsorption characteristics of activated carbon under variable cryogenic temperatures, an adsorption measurement device was presented. The experiment system is based on the commercially available PCT-pro adsorption analyzer coupled to a two-stage Gifford McMahon refrigerator, which allows the sample to be cooled to 4.2K. Cryogenic environment can be maintained steadily without the cryogenic liquid through the cryocooler and temperature can be controlled precisely between 5K and 300K by the temperature controller. Adsorption measurements were performed in activated carbon for carbon dioxide and nitrogen and the adsorption isotherm were obtained.

  5. Associations of Cough Prevalence with Ambient Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Nitrogen and Sulphur Dioxide: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Anyenda, Enoch Olando; Higashi, Tomomi; Kambayashi, Yasuhiro; Nguyen, Thao Thi Thu; Michigami, Yoshimasa; Fujimura, Masaki; Hara, Johsuke; Tsujiguchi, Hiromasa; Kitaoka, Masami; Asakura, Hiroki; Hori, Daisuke; Yamada, Yohei; Hayashi, Koichiro; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Information on potential cough triggers including environmental irritants is vital for successful management of chronic cough in patients. We investigated the relationship between ambient levels of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) exposures with cough prevalence. Eighty-three adult patients, who had been physician diagnosed with at least asthma, cough variant asthma and/or atopic cough, were divided into asthma and non-asthma groups. They recorded daily cough symptoms during 4 January–30 June 2011 study period while daily samples of total suspended particles were simultaneously collected by use of glass fiber filters and the particulate PAH content determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a fluorescence detector. Ambient concentrations of NO2 and SO2 were obtained from a local monitoring site. Logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations were used to determine population-averaged estimates of association between cough prevalence and ambient pollutant exposures for the two groups. Fully adjusted odds ratios from single pollutant models were 1.083 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.029, 1.140) and 1.097 (95% CI: 1.016, 1.185) per 0.57 ng/m3 for lag2 PAH exposure, while only for asthma group had significant associations with NO2 and SO2 exposures for both lag2 and lag02. Similar associations were observed in multipollutant models. This finding suggests that ambient PAH, NO2, and SO2 exposure even at low levels is related to cough prevalence in adult chronic cough patients and may be considered as aggravating factor during clinical management of the condition. PMID:27517941

  6. 40 CFR Appendix F to Part 50 - Measurement Principle and Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Nitrogen Dioxide in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Procedure for the Measurement of Nitrogen Dioxide in the Atmosphere (Gas Phase Chemiluminescence) F Appendix...—Measurement Principle and Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Nitrogen Dioxide in the Atmosphere (Gas Phase Chemiluminescence) Principle and Applicability 1. Atmospheric concentrations of nitrogen dioxide...

  7. The Seasonal Variability of Atmospheric Nitrogen Oxide (NO and NO2) Concentrations and Snow Emission Flux in Coastal Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, M. M.; Rohekar, S. S.; Brough, N.; Anderson, P. A.; Jones, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    The first year-round measurements of both nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) in coastal Antarctica were carried out at Halley (75°35'S, 26°25'W, 35 m) from January to December 2007. The NOx mixing ratios show a clear annual cycle; average (±1σ) NO and NO2 mixing ratios during austral spring, summer and autumn were 1±2, 5±5, 2±2 pptv and 1±4, 4±5, 2±4 pptv, respectively. During winter darkness NO and NO2 mixing ratios remained below the limit of detection of 2 and 4.6 pptv, respectively. Average (±1σ) NOx fluxes estimated for selected periods during austral spring (12th - 15th October 2007), summer (16th - 19th December 2007), autumn (21st - 24th February 2007) and winter (11th -13th June 2007) were 1.3±1.6 x1012, 1.1±0.8 x1012, 1.1±2 x1012 and -1.2±0.6 x1012 molecule m-2 s-1, respectively. Emissions of NOx from snow during the sunlit season are expected due to photolysis of nitrate present in surface snow. Surprisingly, the NOx flux in summer was almost comparable to that in spring and fall even though measured nitrate photolysis rate coefficients during summer were 3 times those during the seasons with less available sunlight. Relatively small summer time NOx flux is attributed to reduced upward mixing of snow emissions. Convective mixing during austral spring (February) and fall (October) resulted in a 2 to 4 fold increase in NOx flux when compared to conditions when mixing was dominated by mechanical shear. In contrast, the near absence of convection due to cloudy skies during summer (December) reduces atmospheric turbulence and therefore, the snow to air NOx flux, which is very likely a typical feature of the atmospheric boundary layer in coastal Antarctica.

  8. Global deposition of total reactive nitrogen oxides from 1996 to 2014 constrained with satellite observations of NO2 columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geddes, Jeffrey A.; Martin, Randall V.

    2017-08-01

    Reactive nitrogen oxides (NOy) are a major constituent of the nitrogen deposited from the atmosphere, but observational constraints on their deposition are limited by poor or nonexistent measurement coverage in many parts of the world. Here we apply NO2 observations from multiple satellite instruments (GOME, SCIAMACHY, and GOME-2) to constrain the global deposition of NOy over the last 2 decades. We accomplish this by producing top-down estimates of NOx emissions from inverse modeling of satellite NO2 columns over 1996-2014, and including these emissions in the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to simulate chemistry, transport, and deposition of NOy. Our estimates of long-term mean wet nitrate (NO3-) deposition are highly consistent with available measurements in North America, Europe, and East Asia combined (r = 0.83, normalized mean bias = -7 %, N = 136). Likewise, our calculated trends in wet NO3- deposition are largely consistent with the measurements, with 129 of the 136 gridded model-data pairs sharing overlapping 95 % confidence intervals. We find that global mean NOy deposition over 1996-2014 is 56.0 Tg N yr-1, with a minimum in 2006 of 50.5 Tg N and a maximum in 2012 of 60.8 Tg N. Regional trends are large, with opposing signs in different parts of the world. Over 1996 to 2014, NOy deposition decreased by up to 60 % in eastern North America, doubled in regions of East Asia, and declined by 20 % in parts of western Europe. About 40 % of the global NOy deposition occurs over oceans, with deposition to the North Atlantic Ocean declining and deposition to the northwestern Pacific Ocean increasing. Using the residual between NOx emissions and NOy deposition over specific land regions, we investigate how NOx export via atmospheric transport has changed over the last 2 decades. Net export from the continental United States decreased substantially, from 2.9 Tg N yr-1 in 1996 to 1.5 Tg N yr-1 in 2014. Export from China more than tripled between 1996 and 2011 (from

  9. Tropospheric nitrogen dioxide column retrieval from ground-based zenith-sky DOAS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tack, F.; Hendrick, F.; Goutail, F.; Fayt, C.; Merlaud, A.; Pinardi, G.; Hermans, C.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Van Roozendael, M.

    2015-01-01

    We present an algorithm for retrieving tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) vertical column densities (VCDs) from ground-based zenith-sky (ZS) measurements of scattered sunlight. The method is based on a four-step approach consisting of (1) the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) analysis of ZS radiance spectra using a fixed reference spectrum corresponding to low NO2 absorption, (2) the determination of the residual amount in the reference spectrum using a Langley-plot-type method, (3) the removal of the stratospheric content from the daytime total measured slant column based on stratospheric VCDs measured at sunrise and sunset, and simulation of the rapid NO2 diurnal variation, (4) the retrieval of tropospheric VCDs by dividing the resulting tropospheric slant columns by appropriate air mass factors (AMFs). These steps are fully characterized and recommendations are given for each of them. The retrieval algorithm is applied on a ZS dataset acquired with a Multi-AXis (MAX-) DOAS instrument during the Cabauw (51.97° N, 4.93° E, sea level) Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI) held from the 10 June to the 21 July 2009 in the Netherlands. A median value of 7.9 × 1015 molec cm-2 is found for the retrieved tropospheric NO2 VCDs, with maxima up to 6.0 × 1016 molec cm-2. The error budget assessment indicates that the overall error σTVCD on the column values is less than 28%. In case of low tropospheric contribution, σTVCD is estimated to be around 39% and is dominated by uncertainties in the determination of the residual amount in the reference spectrum. For strong tropospheric pollution events, σTVCD drops to approximately 22% with the largest uncertainties on the determination of the stratospheric NO2 abundance and tropospheric AMFs. The tropospheric VCD amounts derived from ZS observations are compared to VCDs retrieved from off-axis and direct-sun measurements of the same MAX-DOAS instrument as well as to

  10. Tropospheric nitrogen dioxide column retrieval from ground-based zenith-sky DOAS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tack, F.; Hendrick, F.; Goutail, F.; Fayt, C.; Merlaud, A.; Pinardi, G.; Hermans, C.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Van Roozendael, M.

    2015-06-01

    We present an algorithm for retrieving tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) vertical column densities (VCDs) from ground-based zenith-sky (ZS) measurements of scattered sunlight. The method is based on a four-step approach consisting of (1) the differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) analysis of ZS radiance spectra using a fixed reference spectrum corresponding to low NO2 absorption, (2) the determination of the residual amount in the reference spectrum using a Langley-plot-type method, (3) the removal of the stratospheric content from the daytime total measured slant column based on stratospheric VCDs measured at sunrise and sunset, and simulation of the rapid NO2 diurnal variation, (4) the retrieval of tropospheric VCDs by dividing the resulting tropospheric slant columns by appropriate air mass factors (AMFs). These steps are fully characterized and recommendations are given for each of them. The retrieval algorithm is applied on a ZS data set acquired with a multi-axis (MAX-) DOAS instrument during the Cabauw (51.97° N, 4.93° E, sea level) Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI) held from 10 June to 21 July 2009 in the Netherlands. A median value of 7.9 × 1015 molec cm-2 is found for the retrieved tropospheric NO2 VCDs, with maxima up to 6.0 × 1016 molec cm-2. The error budget assessment indicates that the overall error σTVCD on the column values is less than 28%. In the case of low tropospheric contribution, σTVCD is estimated to be around 39% and is dominated by uncertainties in the determination of the residual amount in the reference spectrum. For strong tropospheric pollution events, σTVCD drops to approximately 22% with the largest uncertainties on the determination of the stratospheric NO2 abundance and tropospheric AMFs. The tropospheric VCD amounts derived from ZS observations are compared to VCDs retrieved from off-axis and direct-sun measurements of the same MAX-DOAS instrument as well as to data

  11. Area-level socioeconomic deprivation, nitrogen dioxide exposure, and term birth weight in New York City.

    PubMed

    Shmool, Jessie L C; Bobb, Jennifer F; Ito, Kazuhiko; Elston, Beth; Savitz, David A; Ross, Zev; Matte, Thomas D; Johnson, Sarah; Dominici, Francesca; Clougherty, Jane E

    2015-10-01

    Numerous studies have linked air pollution with adverse birth outcomes, but relatively few have examined differential associations across the socioeconomic gradient. To evaluate interaction effects of gestational nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and area-level socioeconomic deprivation on fetal growth, we used: (1) highly spatially-resolved air pollution data from the New York City Community Air Survey (NYCCAS); and (2) spatially-stratified principle component analysis of census variables previously associated with birth outcomes to define area-level deprivation. New York City (NYC) hospital birth records for years 2008-2010 were restricted to full-term, singleton births to non-smoking mothers (n=243,853). We used generalized additive mixed models to examine the potentially non-linear interaction of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and deprivation categories on birth weight (and estimated linear associations, for comparison), adjusting for individual-level socio-demographic characteristics and sensitivity testing adjustment for co-pollutant exposures. Estimated NO2 exposures were highest, and most varying, among mothers residing in the most-affluent census tracts, and lowest among mothers residing in mid-range deprivation tracts. In non-linear models, we found an inverse association between NO2 and birth weight in the least-deprived and most-deprived areas (p-values<0.001 and 0.05, respectively) but no association in the mid-range of deprivation (p=0.8). Likewise, in linear models, a 10 ppb increase in NO2 was associated with a decrease in birth weight among mothers in the least-deprived and most-deprived areas of -16.2g (95% CI: -21.9 to -10.5) and -11.0 g (95% CI: -22.8 to 0.9), respectively, and a non-significant change in the mid-range areas [β=0.5 g (95% CI: -7.7 to 8.7)]. Linear slopes in the most- and least-deprived quartiles differed from the mid-range (reference group) (p-values<0.001 and 0.09, respectively). The complex patterning in air pollution exposure and deprivation

  12. Association of indoor nitrogen dioxide with respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function in children

    SciTech Connect

    Neas, L.M.; Dockery, D.W.; Ware, J.H.; Spengler, J.D.; Speizer, F.E.; Ferris, B.G. Jr. )

    1991-07-15

    The effect of indoor nitrogen dioxide on the cumulative incidence of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function level was studied in a cohort of 1,567 white children aged 7-11 years examined in six US cities from 1983 through 1988. Week-long measurements of nitrogen dioxide were obtained at three indoor locations over 2 consecutive weeks in both the winter and the summer months. The household annual average nitrogen dioxide concentration was modeled as a continuous variable and as four ordered categories. Multiple logistic regression analysis of symptom reports from a questionnaire administered after indoor monitoring showed that a 15-ppb increase in the household annual nitrogen dioxide mean was associated with an increased cumulative incidence of lower respiratory symptoms (odds ratio (OR) = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (95% Cl) 1.1-1.7). The response variable indicated the report of one or more of the following symptoms: attacks of shortness of breath with wheeze, chronic wheeze, chronic cough, chronic phlegm, or bronchitis. Girls showed a stronger association (OR = 1.7, 95% Cl 1.3-2.2) than did boys (OR = 1.2, 95% Cl 0.9-1.5). An analysis of pulmonary function measurements showed no consistent effect of nitrogen dioxide. These results are consistent with earlier reports based on categorical indicators of household nitrogen dioxide sources and provide a more specific association with nitrogen dioxide as measured in children's homes.

  13. Nitrogen Dioxide Sterilization in Low-Resource Environments: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Avasthi, Trisha; Trilling, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    Access to sterilization is a critical need for global healthcare, as it is one of the prerequisites for safe surgical care. Lack of sterilization capability has driven up healthcare infection rates as well as limited access to healthcare, especially in low-resource environments. Sterilization technology has for the most part been static and none of the established sterilization methods has been so far successfully adapted for use in low-resource environments on a large scale. It is evident that healthcare facilities in low-resource settings require reliable, deployable, durable, affordable, easily operable sterilization equipment that can operate independently of scarce resources. Recently commercialized nitrogen dioxide (NO2) sterilization technology was analyzed and adapted into a form factor suitable for use in low-resource environments. Lab testing was conducted in microbiological testing facilities simulating low-resource environments and in accordance with the requirements of the international sterilization standard ANSI/AAMI/ISO 14937 to assess effectiveness of the device and process. The feasibility of a portable sterilizer based on nitrogen dioxide has been demonstrated, showing that sterilization of medical instruments can occur in a form factor suitable for use in low-resource environments. If developed and deployed, NO2 sterilization technology will have the twin benefits of reducing healthcare acquired infections and limiting a major constraint for access to surgical care on a global scale. Additional benefits are achieved in reducing costs and biohazard waste generated by current health care initiatives that rely primarily on disposable kits, increasing the effectiveness and outreach of these initiatives. PMID:26098905

  14. [Occurrence of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides during the use of gas stoves].

    PubMed

    Prescher, K E

    1982-01-01

    The concentrations of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen dioxide arising from gas burning have been measured under experimental and field conditions. In the test room propane, butane and town-gas have been burned, whereas in the apartments investigated only town-gas has been used. The most important influence on the concentration of the four substances arises from the changes in the burning conditions of the flame. Laboratory experiments have been carried out in the test room with open flames and with an aluminum block or a kettle on the flame. The following results have been obtained: (a) for CO the lowest concentration is obtained with open flames irrespective of the type of gas burned. Higher concentrations have been found with aluminum blocks, whereas the highest concentrations were associated with the use of kettles and pots, (b) the experimental conditions have only a small influence on the CO2 concentration, (c) NO concentrations are influenced by the gas type and by the experimental conditions. They are low with kettles but high with open flames, (d) NO2 concentrations are less influenced by the experimental conditions than are NO concentrations. The results of more than 1000 paired determinations of NO2 in kitchen and other rooms are presented. The concentrations which have been measured using diffusion tubes according to Palmes which were exposed for 48 h, were highest in kitchens of dwellings fully equipped with gas devices (heating, cooking, warming water). The mean value of the concentrations was about 50 micrograms/m3, whereas the mean for dwellings without any gas device has been found to be lower than 20 micrograms/m3.

  15. Nitrogen dioxide and respiratory illness in children. Part I: Health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Samet, J M; Lambert, W E; Skipper, B J; Cushing, A H; Hunt, W C; Young, S A; McLaren, L C; Schwab, M; Spengler, J D

    1993-06-01

    We have carried out a prospective cohort study to test the hypothesis that exposure to nitrogen dioxide increases the incidence and severity of respiratory infections during the first 18 months of life. Between January 1988 and June 1990, 1,315 infants were enrolled into the study at birth and followed with prospective surveillance for the occurrence of respiratory infections and monitoring of nitrogen dioxide concentrations in their homes. The subjects were healthy infants from homes without smokers; they were selected with stratification by type of cooking stove at a ratio of four to one for gas and electric stoves. Illness experience was monitored by a daily diary of symptoms completed by the mother and a telephone interview conducted every two weeks. Illnesses with wheezing or wet cough were classified as involving the lower respiratory tract; all other respiratory illnesses were designated as involving the upper respiratory tract. Exposure to nitrogen dioxide was estimated by two-week average concentrations measured in the subjects' bedrooms with passive samplers. This analysis is limited to the 1,205 subjects completing at least one month of observation; of these, 823 completed the full protocol, contributing 82.8% of the total number of days during which the subjects were under observation. Incidence rates for all respiratory illnesses, all upper respiratory illness, all lower respiratory illnesses, and lower respiratory illness further divided into those with any wheezing, or wet cough without wheezing, were examined within strata of nitrogen dioxide exposure at the time of the illness, nitrogen dioxide exposure during the prior month, and type of cooking stove. Consistent trends of increasing illness incidence rates with increasing exposure to nitrogen dioxide were not evident for either the lagged or unlagged exposure variables. The effect of nitrogen dioxide exposure on illness occurrence during at-risk intervals of two weeks' duration was examined using

  16. Thermo-chemical fuel removal from porous materials by oxygen and nitrogen dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, S.; Alegre, D.; Kreter, A.; Petersson, P.; Esser, H. G.; Samm, U.

    2014-04-01

    Thermo-chemical removal (TCR), or baking in reactive gases, is a candidate method to control the co-deposit related tritium inventory in fusion devices. TCR can be understood as reaction-diffusion processes in a porous material. O2-TCR was applied to 150-550 nm thick a-C:D layers with similar textures. A linear relation between the integral TCR rate and the layer thickness, as predicted by the understanding, was observed in the experiment, i.e. the time to remove the hydrogen inventory is independent of its initial amount. TCR with nitrogen dioxide (NO2) at temperatures of 200-350 °C was conducted with a set of a-C:D and W-C-H layers. At 350 °C NO2 removed ˜ 15% porosity a-C:D within 3 min. The O retention in remaining a-C:D was ≈ 1017 O cm-2. An activation energy of ≈ 0.78 eV for reactions of NO2 with D and C was determined. The results were applied for predictions of the TCR effectivity in ITER. The treatment of W-C-H led to O uptake (O/W ≈ 2-3), while W and C contents remained unchanged.

  17. Fluctuations of inspired concentrations of nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide during mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Kuhlen; Busch; Max; Reyle-Hahn; Falke; Rossaint

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) is a very reactive agent with potentially toxic oxidation products such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Therefore, during NO inhalation a constant inspired concentration and accurate measurement of NO and NO2 concentrations are essential. The objective of this study was to test the NO concentrations at various positions along the inspiratory limb of the breathing circuit using a recently developed system to administer NO in phase with inspiratory flow during mechanical ventilation (Servo 300 NO-A, Siemens, Sweden). Furthermore, we tested whether an active heating system would interfere with inspired NO concentrations. RESULTS: A sharp decline in the NO concentration was found between the respirator's inspiratory outlet and more distal points along the inspiratory limb of the circuit. This finding was most evident when an active heating system was mounted between those points. CONCLUSIONS: The concentrations of NO and NO2 should be measured as near to the patient as possible, as significant fluctuations of these concentrations might be found along the inspiratory limb of the respiratory circuit especially when an active heating system is used.

  18. Fluctuations of inspired concentrations of nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide during mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Kuhlen, Ralf; Busch, Thilo; Max, Martin; Reyle-Hahn, Matthias; Falke, Konrad J; Rossaint, Rolf

    1999-01-01

    Background: Nitric oxide (NO) is a very reactive agent with potentially toxic oxidation products such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Therefore, during NO inhalation a constant inspired concentration and accurate measurement of NO and NO2 concentrations are essential. The objective of this study was to test the NO concentrations at various positions along the inspiratory limb of the breathing circuit using a recently developed system to administer NO in phase with inspiratory flow during mechanical ventilation (Servo 300 NO-A, Siemens, Sweden). Furthermore, we tested whether an active heating system would interfere with inspired NO concentrations. Results: A sharp decline in the NO concentration was found between the respirator's inspiratory outlet and more distal points along the inspiratory limb of the circuit. This finding was most evident when an active heating system was mounted between those points. Conclusions: The concentrations of NO and NO2 should be measured as near to the patient as possible, as significant fluctuations of these concentrations might be found along the inspiratory limb of the respiratory circuit especially when an active heating system is used. PMID:11056715

  19. Gamma-tocopherol detoxification of nitrogen dioxide: superiority to alpha-tocopherol.

    PubMed Central

    Cooney, R V; Franke, A A; Harwood, P J; Hatch-Pigott, V; Custer, L J; Mordan, L J

    1993-01-01

    In the vitamin E group, alpha-tocopherol is generally considered to be the most potent antioxidant with the highest vitamin bioactivity, yet gamma-tocopherol is produced in greater amounts by many plants and is the principal tocopherol in the United States diet. This report describes a fundamental difference in the chemical reactivities of alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol with nitrogen dioxide (NO2), which leads to the formation of a nitrosating agent from alpha-tocopherol, but not from gamma-tocopherol. Nitric oxide (NO) is a major product of the reaction of gamma-tocopherol with NO2, while alpha-tocopherol reacts with NO2 to form an intermediate tocopheroxide analogue. The biological significance of gamma-tocopherol is suggested by limited epidemiological data as well as the observation that it is a more potent inhibitor than alpha-tocopherol of neoplastic transformation during the postinitiation phase in 3-methylcholanthrene-treated C3H/10T1/2 murine fibroblasts. This latter property suggests the superiority of gamma-tocopherol in a mammalian biological assay and a role for endogenous NO production in promotion of neoplastic transformation. PMID:8446589

  20. Revising the slant column density retrieval of nitrogen dioxide observed by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchenko, S.; Krotkov, N. A.; Lamsal, L. N.; Celarier, E. A.; Swartz, W. H.; Bucsela, E. J.

    2015-06-01

    Nitrogen dioxide retrievals from the Aura/Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) have been used extensively over the past decade, particularly in the study of tropospheric air quality. Recent comparisons of OMI NO2 with independent data sets and models suggested that the OMI values of slant column density (SCD) and stratospheric vertical column density (VCD) in both the NASA OMNO2 and Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute DOMINO products are too large, by around 10-40%. We describe a substantially revised spectral fitting algorithm, optimized for the OMI visible light spectrometer channel. The most important changes comprise a flexible adjustment of the instrumental wavelength shifts combined with iterative removal of the ring spectral features; the multistep removal of instrumental noise; iterative, sequential estimates of SCDs of the trace gases in the 402-465 nm range. These changes reduce OMI SCD(NO2) by 10-35%, bringing them much closer to SCDs retrieved from independent measurements and models. The revised SCDs, submitted to the stratosphere-troposphere separation algorithm, give tropospheric VCDs ˜10-15% smaller in polluted regions, and up to ˜30% smaller in unpolluted areas. Although the revised algorithm has been optimized specifically for the OMI NO2 retrieval, our approach could be more broadly applicable.

  1. Growth of radish and marigold following repeated exposure to nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Reinert, R.A.; Sanders, J.S.

    1982-02-01

    Radish and marigold plants were exposed to 0.3 ppM of nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), and /or ozone (O/sub 3/) nine times during a 3-wk period. No interactions among NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, and O/sub 3/ were detected in measurement of radish foliage and root dry weight. Treatments containing O/sub 3/ reduced radish foliage and root (hypocotyl) dry weight 356 and 531 mg/plant, respectively. Interactions among NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/ occurred in shoots and roots of marigold. SO/sub 2/ alone reduced marigold shoot and root dry weight, but this effect was reversed in the presence of O/sub 3/. The suppressive effect of SO/sub 2/ on root weight was also reversed by NO/sub 2/. Treatments containing SO/sub 2/ reduced dry flower weight 0.17 g/plant, but effects of the pollutant interactions observed in shoots and roots were not present. 8 references, 2 tables.

  2. Growth of radish and marigold following repeated exposure to nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Reinert, R.A.; Sanders, J.S.

    1982-02-01

    Radish and marigold plants were exposed to 0.3 ppm of nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), and/or ozone (O/sub 3/) nine times during a 3-wk period. No interactions among NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, and O/sub 3/ were detected in measurement of radish foliage and root dry weight. Treatments containing O/sub 3/ reduced radish foliage and root (hypocotyl) dry weight 356 and 531 mg/plant, respectively. Interactions among NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, and O/sub 3/ occurred in shoots and roots of marigold. SO/sub 2/ alone reduced marigold shoot and root dry weight, but this effect was reversed in the presence of O/sub 3/. The suppressive effect of SO/sub 2/ on root weight was also reversed by NO/sub 3/. Treatments containing SO/sub 2/ reduced dry flower weight 0.17 g/plant, but effects of the pollutant interactions observed in shoots and roots were not present.

  3. XPS study of nitrogen dioxide adsorption on metal oxide particle surfaces under different environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Jayaweera, Pradeep M; Grassian, Vicki H

    2009-10-01

    The adsorption of nitrogen dioxide on gamma aluminium oxide (gamma-Al(2)O(3)) and alpha iron oxide (alpha-Fe(2)O(3)) particle surfaces under various conditions of relative humidity, presence of molecular oxygen and UV light has been investigated. X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to monitor the different surface species that form under these environmental conditions. Adsorption of NO(2) on aluminum oxide particle surfaces results primarily in the formation of surface nitrate, NO(3)(-) with an oxidation state of +5, as indicated by a peak with binding energy of 407.3 eV in the N1s region. An additional minority species, sensitive to the presence of relative humidity and molecular oxygen, is also observed in the N1s region with lower binding energy of 405.9 eV. This peak is assigned to a surface species in the +4 oxidation state. When irradiated with UV light, other species form on the surface. These surface-bound photochemical products all have lower binding energy, between 400 and 402 eV, indicating reduced nitrogen species in the range of N oxidations states spanning +1 to -1. Co-adsorbed water decreases the amount of these reduced surface-bound products while the presence of molecular oxygen completely suppresses the formation of all reduced nitrogen species on aluminum oxide particle surfaces. For NO(2) on iron oxide particle surfaces, photoreduction is enhanced relative to gamma-Al(2)O(3) and surface bound photoreduced species are observed under all environmental conditions. Complementing the experimental data, N1s core electron binding energies (CEBEs) were calculated using DFT for a number of nitrogen-containing species in the gas phase and adsorbed on an Al(8)O(12) cluster. A range of CEBEs is calculated for various nitrogen species in different adsorption modes and oxidation states. These calculated values are discussed in light of the peaks observed in the XPS N1s region and the possible species that form following NO(2) adsorption and

  4. Uricase Inhibits Nitrogen Dioxide-Promoted Allergic Sensitization to Inhaled Ovalbumin Independent of Uric Acid Catabolism

    PubMed Central

    Ather, Jennifer L.; Burgess, Edward J.; Hoyt, Laura R.; Randall, Matthew J.; Mandal, Mridul K.; Matthews, Dwight E.; Boyson, Jonathan E.; Poynter, Matthew E.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an environmental air pollutant and endogenously-generated oxidant that contributes to the exacerbation of respiratory disease and can function as an adjuvant to allergically sensitize to an innocuous inhaled antigen. Since uric acid has been implicated as a mediator of adjuvant activity, we sought to determine whether uric acid was elevated and participated in a mouse model of NO2-promoted allergic sensitization. We found that uric acid was increased in the airways of mice exposed to NO2 and that administration of uricase inhibited the development of ovalbumin (OVA)-driven allergic airway disease subsequent to OVA challenge as well as the generation of OVA-specific antibodies. However, uricase was itself immunogenic, inducing a uricase-specific adaptive immune response that occurred even when the enzymatic activity of uricase had been inactivated. Inhibition of the OVA-specific response was not due to the capacity of uricase to inhibit OVA uptake or processing and presentation by dendritic cells, but at a later step that inhibited OVA-specific CD4+ T cell proliferation and cytokine production. Whereas blocking uric acid formation by allopurinol did not affect outcomes, administration of ultra-clean human serum albumin at protein concentrations equivalent to that of uricase inhibited NO2-promoted allergic airway disease. These results implicate that whereas uric acid levels are elevated in the airways of NO2-exposed mice, the powerful inhibitory effect of uricase administration on allergic sensitization is mediated more through antigen-specific immune deviation than on suppression of allergic sensitization, a mechanism to be considered in the interpretation of results from other experimental systems. PMID:27465529

  5. Maternal Exposure to Nitrogen Dioxide, Intake of Methyl Nutrients, and Congenital Heart Defects in Offspring.

    PubMed

    Stingone, Jeanette A; Luben, Thomas J; Carmichael, Suzan L; Aylsworth, Arthur S; Botto, Lorenzo D; Correa, Adolfo; Gilboa, Suzanne M; Langlois, Peter H; Nembhard, Wendy N; Richmond-Bryant, Jennifer; Shaw, Gary M; Olshan, Andrew F

    2017-09-15

    Nutrients that regulate methylation processes may modify susceptibility to the effects of air pollutants. Data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (United States, 1997-2006) were used to estimate associations between maternal exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2), dietary intake of methyl nutrients, and the odds of congenital heart defects in offspring. NO2 concentrations, a marker of traffic-related air pollution, averaged across postconception weeks 2-8, were assigned to 6,160 nondiabetic mothers of cases and controls using inverse distance-squared weighting of air monitors within 50 km of maternal residences. Intakes of choline, folate, methionine, and vitamins B6 and B12 were assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Hierarchical regression models, which accounted for similarities across defects, were constructed, and relative excess risks due to interaction were calculated. Relative to women with the lowest NO2 exposure and high methionine intake, women with the highest NO2 exposure and lowest methionine intake had the greatest odds of offspring with a perimembranous ventricular septal defect (odds ratio = 3.23, 95% confidence interval: 1.74, 6.01; relative excess risk due to interaction = 2.15, 95% confidence interval: 0.39, 3.92). Considerable departure from additivity was not observed for other defects. These results provide modest evidence of interaction between nutrition and NO2 exposure during pregnancy. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Rapid growth in nitrogen dioxide pollution over Western China, 2005-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Y.-Z.; Lin, J.-T.; Song, C.; Liu, M.-Y.; Yan, Y.-Y.; Xu, Y.; Huang, B.

    2015-12-01

    Western China has experienced rapid industrialization and urbanization since the implementation of the National Western Development Strategies (the "Go West" movement) in 1999. This transition has affected the spatial and temporal characteristics of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) pollution. In this study, we analyze the trends and variability of tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs) from 2005 to 2013 over Western China, based on a wavelet analysis on monthly mean NO2 data derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements. We focus on the anthropogenic NO2 by subtracting region-specific "background" values dominated by natural sources. We find significant NO2 growth over Western China between 2005 and 2013 (8.6 ± 0.9 % yr-1 on average, relative to 2005), with the largest increments (15 % yr-1 or more) over parts of several city clusters. The NO2 pollution in most provincial regions rose rapidly from 2005 to 2011 but stabilized or declined afterwards. The NO2 trends were driven mainly by changes in anthropogenic emissions, as confirmed by a nested GEOS-Chem model simulation and a comparison with Chinese official emission statistics. The rate of NO2 growth during 2005-2013 reaches 11.3 ± 1.0 % yr-1 over Northwestern China, exceeding the rates over Southwestern China (5.9 ± 0.6 % yr-1) and the three well-known polluted regions in the east (5.3 ± 0.8 % yr-1 over Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, 4.0 ± 0.6 % yr-1} over the Yangtze River Delta, and -3.3 ± 0.3 % yr-1 over the Pearl River Delta). Additional socioeconomic analyses suggest that the rapid NO2 growth in Northwestern China is likely related to the fast developing resource- and pollution-intensive industries along with the "Go West" movement as well as relatively weak emission controls. Further efforts should be made to alleviate NOx pollution to achieve sustainable development in Western China.

  7. Rapid growth in nitrogen dioxide pollution over Western China, 2005-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yuanzheng; Lin, Jintai; Song, Chunqiao; Liu, Mengyao; Yan, Yingying; Xu, Yuan; Huang, Bo

    2016-05-01

    Western China has experienced rapid industrialization and urbanization since the implementation of the National Western Development Strategies (the "Go West" movement) in 1999. This transition has affected the spatial and temporal characteristics of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) pollution. In this study, we analyze the trends and variability of tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs) from 2005 to 2013 over Western China, based on a wavelet analysis on monthly mean NO2 data derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements. We focus on the anthropogenic NO2 by subtracting region-specific "background" values dominated by natural sources. After removing the background influences, we find significant anthropogenic NO2 growth over Western China between 2005 and 2013 (8.6 ± 0.9 % yr-1 on average, relative to 2005), with the largest increments (15 % yr-1 or more) over parts of several city clusters. The NO2 pollution in most provincial-level regions rose rapidly from 2005 to 2011 but stabilized or declined afterwards. The NO2 trends were driven mainly by changes in anthropogenic emissions, as confirmed by a nested GEOS-Chem model simulation and a comparison with Chinese official emission statistics. The rate of NO2 growth during 2005-2013 reaches 11.3 ± 1.0 % yr-1 over Northwestern China, exceeding the rates over Southwestern China (5.9 ± 0.6 % yr-1) and the three well-known polluted regions in the east (5.3 ± 0.8 % yr-1 over Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, 4.0 ± 0.6 % yr-1 over the Yangtze River Delta, and -3.3 ± 0.3 % yr-1 over the Pearl River Delta). Subsequent socioeconomic analyses suggest that the rapid NO2 growth over Northwestern China is likely related to the fast developing resource- and pollution-intensive industries along with the "Go West" movement as well as relatively weak emission controls. Further efforts should be made to alleviate NOx pollution to achieve sustainable development in Western China.

  8. Effect of nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and peroxyacetyl nitrate on metabolic and pulmonary function

    SciTech Connect

    Drechsler-Parks, D.M. )

    1987-04-01

    The metabolic and pulmonary function responses were investigated in 32 non-smoking men and women (8 men and 8 women 18-26 years of age, and 8 men and 8 women 51-76 years of age) who were exposed for 2 hours to each of 8 conditions: (1) filtered air (FA), (2) 0.13 ppm peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), (3) 0.45 ppm ozone (O3), (4) 0.60 ppm nitrogen dioxide (NO2), (5) 0.13 ppm PAN + 0.45 ppm O3 (PAN/O3), (6) 0.13 ppm PAN + 0.60 ppm NO2 (PAN/NO2), (7) 0.60 ppm NO2 + 0.45 ppm O3 (NO2/O3), and (8) 0.13 ppm PAN + 0.60 ppm NO2 + 0.45 ppm O3 (PAN/NO2/O3). The subjects alternated 20-min periods of rest (n = 3) and cycle ergometer exercise (n = 3) at a work load predetermined to elicit a ventilatory minute volume (VE) of approximately 25 L/min (BTPS). Functional residual capacity (FRC) was determined pre- and post-exposure. Forced vital capacity (FVC) was determined before and after exposure, and 5 min after each exercise period. Heart rate was monitored throughout each exposure, and VE was measured during the last 2 min of each exercise period. Exposure to FA, PAN, NO2, and PAN/NO2 had no effect on any measure of pulmonary or metabolic function. Ozone was primarily responsible for the pulmonary function effects observed. There was no significant difference between the responses to O3 exposure and the responses to the three O3 mixtures, indicating no interactions between the pollutants. The results suggest that women may be somewhat more responsive to O3 exposure than men, and that older people (51-76 years of age) may be less responsive to O3 than younger people (18-26 years of age).

  9. Independent Validation of National Satellite-Based Land-Use Regression Models for Nitrogen Dioxide Using Passive Samplers.

    PubMed

    Knibbs, Luke D; Coorey, Craig P; Bechle, Matthew J; Cowie, Christine T; Dirgawati, Mila; Heyworth, Jane S; Marks, Guy B; Marshall, Julian D; Morawska, Lidia; Pereira, Gavin; Hewson, Michael G

    2016-11-15

    Including satellite observations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in land-use regression (LUR) models can improve their predictive ability, but requires rigorous evaluation. We used 123 passive NO2 samplers sited to capture within-city and near-road variability in two Australian cities (Sydney and Perth) to assess the validity of annual mean NO2 estimates from existing national satellite-based LUR models (developed with 68 regulatory monitors). The samplers spanned roadside, urban near traffic (≤100 m to a major road), and urban background (>100 m to a major road) locations. We evaluated model performance using R(2) (predicted NO2 regressed on independent measurements of NO2), mean-square-error R(2) (MSE-R(2)), RMSE, and bias. Our models captured up to 69% of spatial variability in NO2 at urban near-traffic and urban background locations, and up to 58% of variability at all validation sites, including roadside locations. The absolute agreement of measurements and predictions (measured by MSE-R(2)) was similar to their correlation (measured by R(2)). Few previous studies have performed independent evaluations of national satellite-based LUR models, and there is little information on the performance of models developed with a small number of NO2 monitors. We have demonstrated that such models are a valid approach for estimating NO2 exposures in Australian cities.

  10. Ambient Fine Particulate Matter, Nitrogen Dioxide, and Preterm Birth in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sarah; Bobb, Jennifer F.; Ito, Kazuhiko; Savitz, David A.; Elston, Beth; Shmool, Jessie L.C.; Dominici, Francesca; Ross, Zev; Clougherty, Jane E.; Matte, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have suggested associations between air pollution and various birth outcomes, but the evidence for preterm birth is mixed. Objective: We aimed to assess the relationship between air pollution and preterm birth using 2008–2010 New York City (NYC) birth certificates linked to hospital records. Methods: We analyzed 258,294 singleton births with 22–42 completed weeks gestation to nonsmoking mothers. Exposures to ambient fine particles (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) during the first, second, and cumulative third trimesters within 300 m of maternal address were estimated using data from the NYC Community Air Survey and regulatory monitors. We estimated the odds ratio (OR) of spontaneous preterm (gestation < 37 weeks) births for the first- and second-trimester exposures in a logistic mixed model, and the third-trimester cumulative exposures in a discrete time survival model, adjusting for maternal characteristics and delivery hospital. Spatial and temporal components of estimated exposures were also separately analyzed. Results: PM2.5 was not significantly associated with spontaneous preterm birth. NO2 in the second trimester was negatively associated with spontaneous preterm birth in the adjusted model (OR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.83, 0.97 per 20 ppb). Neither pollutant was significantly associated with spontaneous preterm birth based on adjusted models of temporal exposures, whereas the spatial exposures showed significantly reduced odds ratios (OR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.96 per 10 μg/m3 PM2.5 and 0.88; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.98 per 20 ppb NO2). Without adjustment for hospital, these negative associations were stronger. Conclusion: Neither PM2.5 nor NO2 was positively associated with spontaneous preterm delivery in NYC. Delivery hospital was an important spatial confounder. Citation: Johnson S, Bobb JF, Ito K, Savitz DA, Elston B, Shmool JL, Dominici F, Ross Z, Clougherty JE, Matte T. 2016. Ambient fine particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and

  11. Ambient Fine Particulate Matter, Nitrogen Dioxide, and Preterm Birth in New York City.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sarah; Bobb, Jennifer F; Ito, Kazuhiko; Savitz, David A; Elston, Beth; Shmool, Jessie L C; Dominici, Francesca; Ross, Zev; Clougherty, Jane E; Matte, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies have suggested associations between air pollution and various birth outcomes, but the evidence for preterm birth is mixed. We aimed to assess the relationship between air pollution and preterm birth using 2008-2010 New York City (NYC) birth certificates linked to hospital records. We analyzed 258,294 singleton births with 22-42 completed weeks gestation to nonsmoking mothers. Exposures to ambient fine particles (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) during the first, second, and cumulative third trimesters within 300 m of maternal address were estimated using data from the NYC Community Air Survey and regulatory monitors. We estimated the odds ratio (OR) of spontaneous preterm (gestation < 37 weeks) births for the first- and second-trimester exposures in a logistic mixed model, and the third-trimester cumulative exposures in a discrete time survival model, adjusting for maternal characteristics and delivery hospital. Spatial and temporal components of estimated exposures were also separately analyzed. PM2.5 was not significantly associated with spontaneous preterm birth. NO2 in the second trimester was negatively associated with spontaneous preterm birth in the adjusted model (OR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.83, 0.97 per 20 ppb). Neither pollutant was significantly associated with spontaneous preterm birth based on adjusted models of temporal exposures, whereas the spatial exposures showed significantly reduced odds ratios (OR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.96 per 10 μg/m3 PM2.5 and 0.88; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.98 per 20 ppb NO2). Without adjustment for hospital, these negative associations were stronger. Neither PM2.5 nor NO2 was positively associated with spontaneous preterm delivery in NYC. Delivery hospital was an important spatial confounder. Johnson S, Bobb JF, Ito K, Savitz DA, Elston B, Shmool JL, Dominici F, Ross Z, Clougherty JE, Matte T. 2016. Ambient fine particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and preterm birth in New York City. Environ Health Perspect 124

  12. Nitrogen-assisted Three-phase Equilibrium in Hydrate Systems Composed of Water, Methane, Carbon Dioxide, and Nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darnell, K.; Flemings, P. B.; DiCarlo, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    Guest molecule exchange is a new and promising methane hydrate production technique in which methane gas is produced by injection of another gas without requiring depressurization or thermal stimulation. The technique is generally associated with injection of carbon dioxide, but injection of nitrogen and carbon dioxide mixtures are the most efficient and economical. However, thermodynamic behavior of injection mixtures is poorly understood, and it is unclear how nitrogen affects the exchange process. Here, we describe thermodynamic stability of hydrate systems that contain water, methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen. We present a series of ternary and quaternary phase diagrams and show the impact nitrogen has on hydrate stability. Our results demonstrate that nitrogen can either stabilize hydrate, de-stabilize hydrate, or produce three-phase equilibrium (gas, water, and hydrate) depending on its relative abundance. At low abundance nitrogen forms hydrate and directly contributes to the exchange process. At high abundance nitrogen de-stabilizes hydrate akin to traditional hydrate inhibitors, such as salt, alcohol, or mono-ethylene glycol. We show how the dual properties of nitrogen lead to three-phase equilibrium and how three-phase equilibrium may explain much of the behavior observed in methane production from nitrogen-rich injections. We apply our analysis to laboratory experiments and the methane hydrate field test on the northern Alaskan slope at Ignik Sikumi. These results can be extended to analyze dynamic evolution of mixed hydrate systems.

  13. Nitrogen dioxide induced changes in level of free fatty acids, triglyceride, esterified fatty acid, ganglioside and lipase activity in the guinea pig brain

    SciTech Connect

    Farahani, H.; Hasan, M. )

    1992-02-01

    The biochemical response to controlled inhalation of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was studied in 18 male guinea pigs. Animals were exposed to 2.5, 5.0, and 10 ppm NO2 for 2h daily for 35 consecutive days, and the results compared with six control animals exposed to filtered air for 2h daily for same period. Five biochemical parameters, including triglyceride, free fatty acids, esterified fatty acid, ganglioside and lipase activity were measured immediately after the last day of exposure. At 2.5 ppm NO2 inhalation no significant changes occurred in any region of the central nervous system (CNS). While as the dose concentration was increased to 5 and 10 ppm nitrogen dioxide, significant dose-related alteration were observed in the levels of triglyceride, free fatty acid, esterified fatty acid, ganglioside and lipase activity in the different regions of the guinea pig CNS.

  14. The scavenging reactions of nitrogen dioxide radical and carbonate radical by tea polyphenol derivatives: a pulse radiolysis study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Jin-Ling; Wang, Wen-Feng; Pan, Jing-Xi; Lu, Chang-Yuan; Li, Rong-Qun; Yao, Si-De

    2001-02-01

    The reactions of tea polyphenol derivatives, including epicatechin (EC) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), with nitrogen dioxide radical (NO 2rad ) and carbonate radical (CO 3rad - ) have been studied in detail using time-resolved pulse radiolysis technique. In all the cases, the corresponding phenoxyl radical was formed through electron transfer reaction. From the build-up kinetics of the phenoxyl radicals and the decay kinetics of CO 3rad - radical, the reaction rate constants of EC, EGCG with NO 2rad and CO 3rad - were determined to be 9.0×10 7, 1.2×10 8 and 5.6×10 8, 6.6×10 8 dm 3 mol -1 s -1, respectively. Therefore, tea polyphenol derivatives proved to be efficient scavengers of NO 2rad and CO 3rad - radicals.

  15. Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II measurements of the quasi-biennial oscillations in ozone and nitrogen dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zawodny, Joseph M.; Mccormick, M. P.

    1991-01-01

    The first measurements ever to show a quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in NO2 have been made by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II) (SAGE II) and are presented in this work along with observations of the well-known QBO in stratospheric ozone. The SAGE II instrument was launched aboard the Earth Radiation Budget satellite near the end of 1984. Measurements of ozone and nitrogen dioxide through early 1990 are analyzed for the presence of a quasi-biennial oscillation. The measurements show the global extent of both the O3 and NO2 QBO in the 25- to 40-km region of the stratosphere. The SAGE II QBO results for ozone compare favorably to theory and previous measurements. The QBO in NO2 is found to be consistent with the vertical and horizontal transport of NOy. Both species exhibit a QBO at extratropical latitudes consistent with strong meridional transport into the winter hemisphere.

  16. Detection of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide using a miniaturised fibre-optic spectroscopy system and the ambient sunlight.

    PubMed

    Morales, J A; Walsh, J E

    2005-07-01

    A miniaturised fibre-optic spectrometer based system is presented for direct detection of one of the major atmospheric pollutants, nitrogen dioxide, by absorption spectroscopy using the ambient sunlight as light source. The detection system consists of a 10 cm collimator assembly, a fibre-optic cable and a portable diode-array spectrometer. The absorbance spectrum of the open-path is calculated using a reference spectrum recorded when the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentration in the atmosphere is low. The relative concentration of the pollutant is calculated normalising the detected spectra and subtracting the background broadband spectrum from the specific NO2 absorbance features, since the broadband spectrum changes according to atmospheric conditions and solar intensity. Wavelengths between 400 and 500 nm are used in order to maximise sensitivity and to avoid interference from other species. Calibration is carried out using Tedlar sample bags of known concentration of the pollutant. A commercial differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) system is used as a reference standard detection system to compare the results with the new system. Results show that detection of NO2 at typical urban atmospheric levels has been achieved using an inexpensive field based fibre-optic spectrometer and a readily available, easy to align, light source. In addition the new system can be used to get a semi-quantitative estimation of the nitrogen dioxide concentration within errors of 20%. While keeping the typical benefits of open-path techniques, the new system has important advantages over them such as cost, simplicity and portability.

  17. Infrared spectrum of the complex of formaldehyde with carbon dioxide in argon and nitrogen matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Der Zwet, G. P.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Baas, F.; Greenberg, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    The complex of formaldehyde with carbon dioxide has been studied by infrared spectroscopy in argon and nitrogen matrices. The shifts relative to the free species show that the complex is weak and similar in argon and nitrogen. The results give evidence for T-shaped complexes, which are isolated in several configurations. Some evidence is also presented which indicates that, in addition to the two well-known sites in argon, carbon dioxide can be trapped in a third site.

  18. Quenching of nitrogen dioxide fluorescence excited by a He-Cd laser

    SciTech Connect

    Kireev, S.V.; Shnyrev, S.L.

    1994-06-01

    The effect of some buffer gases on nitrogen dioxide fluorescence excited by a 0.44-{mu}m He-Cd laser is investigated. The rate constants of fluorescence self-quenching by buffer gases are measured. The cross sections of collision quenching of fluorescence are determined. The obtained results can be used for nitrogen dioxide monitoring in the atmosphere. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Infrared spectrum of the complex of formaldehyde with carbon dioxide in argon and nitrogen matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Der Zwet, G. P.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Baas, F.; Greenberg, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    The complex of formaldehyde with carbon dioxide has been studied by infrared spectroscopy in argon and nitrogen matrices. The shifts relative to the free species show that the complex is weak and similar in argon and nitrogen. The results give evidence for T-shaped complexes, which are isolated in several configurations. Some evidence is also presented which indicates that, in addition to the two well-known sites in argon, carbon dioxide can be trapped in a third site.

  20. The reaction of hydrogen peroxide with nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, D.; Lissi, E.; Heicklen, J.

    1972-01-01

    The reactions were studied with the aid of a mass spectrometer. A pinhole bleed system provided continuous sampling of the gas mixture in the cell during the reaction. It was found that the homogeneous reactions of nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide with hydrogen peroxide are too slow to be of any significance in the upper atmosphere. However, the heterogeneous reactions may be important in the conversion of nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide in the case of polluted urban atmospheres.

  1. Characterization of a spatial gradient of nitrogen dioxide across a United States-Mexico border city during winter.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Melissa; Qualls, Clifford; Hudgens, Edward; Neas, Lucas

    2005-01-20

    A gradient of ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) concentration is demonstrated across metropolitan El Paso, Texas (USA), a city located on the international border between the United States and Mexico. Integrated measurements of NO(2) were collected over 7 days at 20 elementary schools and 4 air quality monitoring stations located throughout the city during typical winter atmospheric conditions. Replicate passive monitors were co-located with chemiluminescence analyzers at the monitoring stations for two consecutive 7-day periods. The passive measurements correlated with the analyzer measurements (R(2)=0.74) with precision of 2.5+/-2.2 ppb. Nitrogen dioxide concentrations ranged from 11.0 to 37.5 ppb (mean 20.6+/-7.1 ppb). In a multivariate regression model, the site elevation and distances to a main highway and to an international port of entry from Mexico explained 81% of the variance in the passive measurements. The results of this pilot study indicate that proximity to vehicle-related sources of NO(2) and site elevation are key predictors for future, more detailed assessments of vehicle-related air pollution exposure in the El Paso region.

  2. A Passive Sampler for Determination of Nitrogen Dioxide in Ambient Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Dan; Lin, Lianzhi; Yuan, Hongyan; Choi, Martin M. F.; Chan, Winghong

    2005-01-01

    A passive sampler that provides a convenient, simple, and fast method for nitrogen dioxide determination is proposed. The experiment can be modified for determinations of other air pollutants like formaldehyde and sulfur dioxide for hands-on experience for students studying environmental pollution problems.

  3. A Passive Sampler for Determination of Nitrogen Dioxide in Ambient Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Dan; Lin, Lianzhi; Yuan, Hongyan; Choi, Martin M. F.; Chan, Winghong

    2005-01-01

    A passive sampler that provides a convenient, simple, and fast method for nitrogen dioxide determination is proposed. The experiment can be modified for determinations of other air pollutants like formaldehyde and sulfur dioxide for hands-on experience for students studying environmental pollution problems.

  4. Performance of Multi-City Land Use Regression Models for Nitrogen Dioxide and Fine Particles

    PubMed Central

    Beelen, Rob; Bellander, Tom; Birk, Matthias; Cesaroni, Giulia; Cirach, Marta; Cyrys, Josef; de Hoogh, Kees; Declercq, Christophe; Dimakopoulou, Konstantina; Eeftens, Marloes; Eriksen, Kirsten T.; Forastiere, Francesco; Galassi, Claudia; Grivas, Georgios; Heinrich, Joachim; Hoffmann, Barbara; Ineichen, Alex; Korek, Michal; Lanki, Timo; Lindley, Sarah; Modig, Lars; Mölter, Anna; Nafstad, Per; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Nystad, Wenche; Olsson, David; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Ragettli, Martina; Ranzi, Andrea; Stempfelet, Morgane; Sugiri, Dorothea; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Udvardy, Orsolya; Varró, Mihaly J.; Vienneau, Danielle; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Wolf, Kathrin; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Hoek, Gerard; Brunekreef, Bert

    2014-01-01

    Background: Land use regression (LUR) models have been developed mostly to explain intraurban variations in air pollution based on often small local monitoring campaigns. Transferability of LUR models from city to city has been investigated, but little is known about the performance of models based on large numbers of monitoring sites covering a large area. Objectives: We aimed to develop European and regional LUR models and to examine their transferability to areas not used for model development. Methods: We evaluated LUR models for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM; PM2.5, PM2.5 absorbance) by combining standardized measurement data from 17 (PM) and 23 (NO2) ESCAPE (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects) study areas across 14 European countries for PM and NO2. Models were evaluated with cross-validation (CV) and hold-out validation (HV). We investigated the transferability of the models by successively excluding each study area from model building. Results: The European model explained 56% of the concentration variability across all sites for NO2, 86% for PM2.5, and 70% for PM2.5 absorbance. The HV R2s were only slightly lower than the model R2 (NO2, 54%; PM2.5, 80%; PM2.5 absorbance, 70%). The European NO2, PM2.5, and PM2.5 absorbance models explained a median of 59%, 48%, and 70% of within-area variability in individual areas. The transferred models predicted a modest-to-large fraction of variability in areas that were excluded from model building (median R2: NO2, 59%; PM2.5, 42%; PM2.5 absorbance, 67%). Conclusions: Using a large data set from 23 European study areas, we were able to develop LUR models for NO2 and PM metrics that predicted measurements made at independent sites and areas reasonably well. This finding is useful for assessing exposure in health studies conducted in areas where no measurements were conducted. Citation: Wang M, Beelen R, Bellander T, Birk M, Cesaroni G, Cirach M, Cyrys J, de Hoogh K, Declercq C

  5. Spatial variance and assessment of nitrogen dioxide pollution in major cities of Pakistan along N5-Highway.

    PubMed

    Shabbir, Yasir; Khokhar, Muhammad Fahim; Shaiganfar, Reza; Wagner, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    This paper discusses the findings of the first car MAX-DOAS (multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy) field campaign (300km long) along the National Highway-05 (N5-Highway) of Pakistan conducted on 13 and 14 November, 2012. The main objective of the field campaign was to assess the spatial distribution of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns and corresponding concentrations along the N5-Highway from Islamabad to Lahore. Source identification of NO2 revealed that the concentrations were higher within major cities along the highway. The highest NO2 vertical column densities (NO2 VCDs) were found around two major cities of Rawalpindi and Lahore. This study also presents a comparison of NO2 VCDs measured by the ozone monitoring instrument (OMI) and car MAX-DOAS observations. The comparison revealed similar spatial distribution of the NO2 columns with both car MAX-DOAS and satellite observations, but the car MAX-DOAS observations show much more spatial details. Maximum NO2 VCD retrieved from car MAX-DOAS observations was up to an order of magnitude larger than the OMI observations in urban areas.

  6. Nitrogen Dioxide and Allergic Sensitization in the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Charles H.; Yeatts, Karin B.; Sarnat, Jeremy A.; Vizuete, William; Salo, Päivi M.; Jaramillo, Renee; Cohn, Richard D.; Chu, Haitao; Zeldin, Darryl C.; London, Stephanie J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Allergic sensitization is a risk factor for asthma and allergic diseases. The relationship between ambient air pollution and allergic sensitization is unclear. Objective To investigate the relationship between ambient air pollution and allergic sensitization in a nationally representative sample of the US population. Methods We linked annual average concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter ≤ 10 µm (PM10), particulate matter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM25), and summer concentrations of ozone (O3), to allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) data for participants in the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). In addition to the monitor-based air pollution estimates, we used the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to increase the representation of rural participants in our sample. Logistic regression with population-based sampling weights was used to calculate adjusted prevalence odds ratios per 10 ppb increase in O3 and NO2, per 10 µg/m3 increase in PM10, and per 5 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 adjusting for race, gender, age, socioeconomic status, smoking, and urban/rural status. Results Using CMAQ data, increased levels of NO2 were associated with positive IgE to any (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.04, 1.27), inhalant (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.02, 1.33), and outdoor (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.03, 1.31) allergens. Higher PM2.5 levels were associated with positivity to indoor allergen-specific IgE (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.13, 1.36). Effect estimates were similar using monitored data. Conclusions Increased ambient NO2 was consistently associated with increased prevalence of allergic sensitization. PMID:24045117

  7. Nitrogen dioxide concentrations in neighborhoods adjacent to a commercial airport: a land use regression modeling study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is growing concern in communities surrounding airports regarding the contribution of various emission sources (such as aircraft and ground support equipment) to nearby ambient concentrations. We used extensive monitoring of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in neighborhoods surrounding T.F. Green Airport in Warwick, RI, and land-use regression (LUR) modeling techniques to determine the impact of proximity to the airport and local traffic on these concentrations. Methods Palmes diffusion tube samplers were deployed along the airport's fence line and within surrounding neighborhoods for one to two weeks. In total, 644 measurements were collected over three sampling campaigns (October 2007, March 2008 and June 2008) and each sampling location was geocoded. GIS-based variables were created as proxies for local traffic and airport activity. A forward stepwise regression methodology was employed to create general linear models (GLMs) of NO2 variability near the airport. The effect of local meteorology on associations with GIS-based variables was also explored. Results Higher concentrations of NO2 were seen near the airport terminal, entrance roads to the terminal, and near major roads, with qualitatively consistent spatial patterns between seasons. In our final multivariate model (R2 = 0.32), the local influences of highways and arterial/collector roads were statistically significant, as were local traffic density and distance to the airport terminal (all p < 0.001). Local meteorology did not significantly affect associations with principal GIS variables, and the regression model structure was robust to various model-building approaches. Conclusion Our study has shown that there are clear local variations in NO2 in the neighborhoods that surround an urban airport, which are spatially consistent across seasons. LUR modeling demonstrated a strong influence of local traffic, except the smallest roads that predominate in residential areas, as well as proximity to the

  8. Nitrogen dioxide concentrations in neighborhoods adjacent to a commercial airport: a land use regression modeling study.

    PubMed

    Adamkiewicz, Gary; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien; Vallarino, Jose; Melly, Steven J; Spengler, John D; Levy, Jonathan I

    2010-11-17

    There is growing concern in communities surrounding airports regarding the contribution of various emission sources (such as aircraft and ground support equipment) to nearby ambient concentrations. We used extensive monitoring of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in neighborhoods surrounding T.F. Green Airport in Warwick, RI, and land-use regression (LUR) modeling techniques to determine the impact of proximity to the airport and local traffic on these concentrations. Palmes diffusion tube samplers were deployed along the airport's fence line and within surrounding neighborhoods for one to two weeks. In total, 644 measurements were collected over three sampling campaigns (October 2007, March 2008 and June 2008) and each sampling location was geocoded. GIS-based variables were created as proxies for local traffic and airport activity. A forward stepwise regression methodology was employed to create general linear models (GLMs) of NO2 variability near the airport. The effect of local meteorology on associations with GIS-based variables was also explored. Higher concentrations of NO2 were seen near the airport terminal, entrance roads to the terminal, and near major roads, with qualitatively consistent spatial patterns between seasons. In our final multivariate model (R2 = 0.32), the local influences of highways and arterial/collector roads were statistically significant, as were local traffic density and distance to the airport terminal (all p < 0.001). Local meteorology did not significantly affect associations with principal GIS variables, and the regression model structure was robust to various model-building approaches. Our study has shown that there are clear local variations in NO2 in the neighborhoods that surround an urban airport, which are spatially consistent across seasons. LUR modeling demonstrated a strong influence of local traffic, except the smallest roads that predominate in residential areas, as well as proximity to the airport terminal.

  9. The Dose–Response Association between Nitrogen Dioxide Exposure and Serum Interleukin-6 Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Perret, Jennifer L.; Bowatte, Gayan; Lodge, Caroline J.; Knibbs, Luke D.; Gurrin, Lyle C.; Kandane-Rathnayake, Rangi; Johns, David P.; Lowe, Adrian J.; Burgess, John A.; Thompson, Bruce R.; Thomas, Paul S.; Wood-Baker, Richard; Morrison, Stephen; Giles, Graham G.; Marks, Guy; Markos, James; Tang, Mimi L. K.; Abramson, Michael J.; Walters, E. Haydn; Matheson, Melanie C.; Dharmage, Shyamali C.

    2017-01-01

    Systemic inflammation is an integral part of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and air pollution is associated with cardiorespiratory mortality, yet the interrelationships are not fully defined. We examined associations between nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure (as a marker of traffic-related air pollution) and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and investigated effect modification and mediation by post-bronchodilator airflow obstruction (post-BD-AO) and cardiovascular risk. Data from middle-aged participants in the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study (TAHS, n = 1389) were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression, using serum interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) as the outcome. Mean annual NO2 exposure was estimated at residential addresses using a validated satellite-based land-use regression model. Post-BD-AO was defined by post-BD forced expiratory ratio (FEV1/FVC) < lower limit of normal, and cardiovascular risk by a history of either cerebrovascular or ischaemic heart disease. We found a positive association with increasing serum IL-6 concentration (geometric mean 1.20 (95% CI: 1.1 to 1.3, p = 0.001) per quartile increase in NO2). This was predominantly a direct relationship, with little evidence for either effect modification or mediation via post-BD-AO, or for the small subgroup who reported cardiovascular events. However, there was some evidence consistent with serum IL-6 being on the causal pathway between NO2 and cardiovascular risk. These findings raise the possibility that the interplay between air pollution and systemic inflammation may differ between post-BD airflow obstruction and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:28481326

  10. Heterogeneous reactions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in presence of ozone and nitrogen dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubatova, A.; Jeong, H.; Fisseha, R.; Smith, A.; Hadadi, S.; Dongari, N.; Cochran, R.; Beranek, J.

    2011-12-01

    Currently, the mutagenic character of diesel exhaust particulate matter (PM) is mainly attributed to nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs). However, several toxicological studies have ascribed a significant genotoxicity of PM to higher polarity species, suggesting the occurrence of dinitro-, hydroxy- and oxy-PAH derivatives. Unfortunately, only limited knowledge is available in the literature on the products of heterogeneous reactions of PAHs adsorbed on PM. Therefore in this work, we report a study on heterogeneous reactions of four semivolatile 3- and 4-ring PAHs with ozone and nitrogen dioxide. These PAHs (i.e., phenanthrene, anthracene, pyrene, and fluoranthene) were selected based on their significant partitioning into the particle phase in real-world PM. We have focused on the detailed identification of the reaction products using a series of derivatization techniques (i.e. N,O-bis (trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide and pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine hydrochloride), and commercially available and synthesized standards to ensure accurate identification. A number of oxidation products, mainly those of pyrene and anthracene, with multiple functionalities forming carboxaldehydes, carboxylic acids, and/or hydroxylated species were observed upon reaction with ozone. As reported previously, only single isomers of 1-nitropyrene and 9-nitroanthracene were found for the reaction with nitrogen dioxide. In contrast, the combination of a primary oxidant (ozone) and NO2 lead to the observation of a broader distribution of nitration products, apparently due to the in-situ formation of NO3, a more powerful oxidant. The identified reaction products will enable further evaluation of product accumulation kinetics and determine their significance in atmospheric processes.

  11. Ozone and nitrogen dioxide ground based monitoring by zenith sky visible spectrometry in Arctic and Antarctic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pommereau, J. P.; Goutail, F.

    1988-01-01

    Unattended diode array spectrometers have been designed for ground based stratospheric trace species monitoring by zenith sky visible spectrometry. Measurements are performed with a 1.0 nm resolution between 290 nm and 590 nm in order to allow simultaneous evaluations of column densities of ozone, nitrogen dioxide. Field tests have shown that the species can be monitored with a precision of + or - 2 Dobson for the first and + or - 2.10 to the 15th mol/sq cm for the second, although the absolute accuracy of the method is limited by the error of the estimation of the atmospheric optical path of the scattered light. Two identical instruments were set up in January 1988, one in Antarctica at Dumont d'Urville (66 S, 140 E) to be operated all year and another one in the Arctic at ESRANGE at Kiruna (68 N; 22 E) which will operate to the final warming of spring 1988. The data are processed in real time at both stations. O3 and NO2 columns are transmitted together with surface and stratospheric temperature and winds. They are also recorded for further treatment and search for OClO and BrO. Only one month of data from Antarctica is available at the moment. Obtained during polar summer, they cannot show more than stable columns of O3 and NO2 and for the last species, the buildup of its diurnal variation.

  12. NDSD-1000: High-resolution, high-temperature Nitrogen Dioxide Spectroscopic Databank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukashevskaya, A. A.; Lavrentieva, N. N.; Dudaryonok, A. C.; Perevalov, V. I.

    2016-11-01

    We present a high-resolution, high-temperature version of the Nitrogen Dioxide Spectroscopic Databank called NDSD-1000. The databank contains the line parameters (positions, intensities, self- and air-broadening coefficients, exponents of the temperature dependence of self- and air-broadening coefficients) of the principal isotopologue of NO2. The reference temperature for line intensity is 296 K and the intensity cutoff is 10-25 cm-1/molecule cm-2 at 1000 K. The broadening parameters are presented for two reference temperatures 296 K and 1000 K. The databank has 1,046,808 entries, covers five spectral regions in the 466-4776 cm-1 spectral range and is designed for temperatures up to 1000 K. The databank is based on the global modeling of the line positions and intensities performed within the framework of the method of effective operators. The parameters of the effective Hamiltonian and the effective dipole moment operator have been fitted to the observed values of the line positions and intensities collected from the literature. The broadening coefficients as well as the temperature exponents are calculated using the semi-empirical approach. The databank is useful for studying high-temperature radiative properties of NO2. NDSD-1000 is freely accessible via the internet site of V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics SB RAS ftp://ftp.iao.ru/pub/NDSD/.

  13. Spatiotemporal patterns of correlation between atmospheric nitrogen dioxide and aerosols over South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ul-Haq, Zia; Tariq, Salman; Ali, Muhammad

    2016-10-01

    An accurate knowledge is needed on the complex relation between atmospheric trace gasses and aerosol variability and their sources to explain trace gases-aerosols-climate interaction and next-generation modeling of climate change and air quality. In this regard, we have used tropospheric Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and Angstrom Exponent (AE) obtained from satellite-based Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)/Aura and Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)/Aqua over South Asia. NO2-AOD correlation with coefficient r = 0.49 is determined over the landmass of South Asia during 2005-2015. Yearly mean NO2-AOD correlation over South Asia shows large variations ranging from r = 0.32 to 0.86 in 2008 and 2009, respectively. The highest correlation (r = 0.66) is seen over eastern regions of Bangladesh and India, as well as adjoining areas of western Myanmar mostly linked to anthropogenic activities. A significant correlation (r = 0.59) associated with natural causes is found over some parts of Sistan region, located at the borders of Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan, and adjoining territory. We find significant positive correlations for monsoon and post-monsoon seasons with r = 0.50 and r = 0.61, respectively. A linear regression on the annual correlation coefficients data suggests that NO2-AOD correlation is strengthening with an increase of 12.9% over South Asia during the study period. The spatial distribution of data slopes reveals positive trends in NO2-AOD correlation over megacities Lahore, Dhaka, Mumbai and Kolkata linked to growing anthropogenic activities. Singrauli city (India) has the highest correlation (r = 0.62) and 35% increase in correlation coefficient value per year. A negative correlation is observed for megacity Karachi (r = -0.37) suggesting the non-commonality of NO2 and aerosols emission sources. AE has also been used to discuss its correlation with NO2 over the areas with dominance of fine-mode aerosols.

  14. Nitrogen dioxide exposure and development of pulmonary emphysema

    SciTech Connect

    Stavert, D.M.; Archuleta, D.C.; Holland, L.M.; Lehnert, B.E.

    1986-01-01

    Lungs of adult Fischer-344 rats were evaluated for emphysematous changes after (1) a single intratracheal instillation of elastase (E), (2) a 25-d exposure to 35 ppm nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), and (3) elastase instillation followed by 25-d exposure to 35 ppm NO/sub 2/ (E + NO/sub 2/). Residual volumes (RV) of the NO/sub 2/ and NS groups were virtually identical, whereas the RV of the E and E + NO/sub 2/ lungs were significantly greater than those of the NS and NO/sub 2/ lungs. Directionally similar changes in the excised lung volumes and total lung capacities were obtained with the E and E + NO/sub 2/ groups; NO/sub 2/ alone, however, did not alter these volumetric parameters. No differences in arterial blood gases and pH values, minute ventilation, or breathing frequencies were found among the experimental groups. The mean linear intercept values (MLI) obtained with the NS and NO/sub 2/ exposed lungs were essentially identical with average values of approx. 62 ..mu..m. This morphometric parameter was substantially increased in the E- and E + NO/sub 2/-exposed lungs; no significant differences, however, were found between the MLI values obtained with the E and E + NO/sub 2/ lungs. From these data as well as histologic examinations of lung sections for evidence of emphysema, it was concluded that (1) a subchronic, moderately high level of NO/sub 2/ exposure does not produce an irreversible emphysematous lesion in the rat model and (2) exposure of rats to 35 ppm for 25 d after elastase instillation into the lungs does not potentiate protease-induced emphysema or bring about a progression in preexisting emphysema.

  15. 40 CFR Appendix F to Part 50 - Measurement Principle and Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Nitrogen Dioxide in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Procedure for the Measurement of Nitrogen Dioxide in the Atmosphere (Gas Phase Chemiluminescence) F Appendix...—Measurement Principle and Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Nitrogen Dioxide in the Atmosphere (Gas Phase Chemiluminescence) Principle and Applicability 1. Atmospheric concentrations of nitrogen...

  16. Detection of pollution transport events southeast of Mexico City using ground-based visible spectroscopy measurements of nitrogen dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melamed, M. L.; Basaldud, R.; Steinbrecher, R.; Emeis, S.; Ruíz-Suárez, L. G.; Grutter, M.

    2009-07-01

    This work presents ground based differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) during the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006 at the Tenango del Aire research site located to the southeast of Mexico City. The DOAS NO2 column density measurements are used in conjunction with ceilometer, meteorological and surface nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and total reactive nitrogen (NOy) measurements to analyze pollution transport events to the southeast of Mexico City during the MILARGO field campaign. The study divides the data set into three case study pollution transport events that occurred at the Tenango del Aire research site. The unique data set is then used to provide an in depth analysis of example days of each of the pollution transport events. An in depth analysis of 13 March 2006, a Case One day, shows the transport of several air pollution plumes during the morning through the Tenango del Aire research site when southerly winds are present and demonstrates how DOAS tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities (VCD), surface NO2 mixing ratios and ceilometer data are used to determine the vertical homogeneity of the pollution layer. The analysis of 18 March 2006, a Case Two day, shows that when northerly winds are present for the entire day, the air at the Tenango del Aire research site is relatively clean and no major pollution plumes are detected. Case 3 days are characterized by relatively clean air throughout the morning with large DOAS NO2 enhancements detected in the afternoon. The analysis of 28 March 2006 show the DOAS NO2 enhancements are likely due to lightning activity and demonstrate how suitable ground-based DOAS measruements are for monitoring anthropogenic and natural pollution sources that reside above the mixing layer.

  17. Sub-ambient carbon dioxide adsorption properties of nitrogen doped graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Tamilarasan, P.; Ramaprabhu, Sundara

    2015-04-14

    Carbon dioxide adsorption on carbon surface can be enhanced by doping the surface with heterogeneous atoms, which can increase local surface affinity. This study presents the carbon dioxide adsorption properties of nitrogen doped graphene at low pressures (<100 kPa). Graphene was exposed to nitrogen plasma, which dopes nitrogen atoms into carbon hexagonal lattice, mainly in pyridinic and pyrrolic forms. It is found that nitrogen doping significantly improves the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity at all temperatures, due to the enrichment of local Lewis basic sites. In general, isotherm and thermodynamic parameters suggest that doped nitrogen sites have nearly same adsorption energy of surface defects and residual functional groups. The isosteric heat of adsorption remains in physisorption range, which falls with surface coverage, suggesting the distribution of magnitude of adsorption energy. The absolute values of isosteric heat and entropy of adsorption are slightly increased upon nitrogen doping.

  18. [Effects of the ratio of NO3(-) -N to NO2(-) -N on the removal of sulfide and nitrogen by mixed culture and pure culture].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zi-Ai; Chen, Hui-Juan; Wei, Ben-Ping; Liu, Gang-Jin; Deng, Liang-Wei; Wu, Li-Bin

    2014-02-01

    Effects of the ratio of NO3(-) -N to NO2(-) -N on removal of sulfide and nitrogen by Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and mixed culture were investigated at the pH value of 7.0, temperature of 30 degrees C, ratio of sulfide to nitrate of 5/3 and anaerobic condition. Along with the decrease of ratio of NO3(-) -N to NO2(-) -N, NO(x)(-) -N, the removal rate by Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa increased gradually, while S(2-) removal rate reduced. The NO(x)(-) -N removal rate by mixed culture increased first and became steady along with the decrease of ratio of NO3(-) -N to NO2(-) -N. The ratio of NO3(-) -N to NO2(-) -N had hardly influence on S(2-) removal by mixed culture. Accumulation of NO2(-) -N occurred due to a faster rate of NO3(-) -N reduction over NO2(-) -N reduction in the liquid culture of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Accumulation of NO2(-) -N did not occur in the liquid culture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa because it has a stronger ability to convent NO2(-) -N than Pseudomonas fluorescens. The behavior of NO(x)(-) -N by mixed culture in located between Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The optimum ratio of NO3(-) -N to NO2(-) -N to achieve high removals of sulfide and nitrogen for Pseudomonas fluorescens and mixed culture were 5/5, 10/0 for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The performance of sulfide and nitrogen removal by the mixed culture was higher than that by Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  19. Nitrogen dioxide, peroxynitrates, and the chemistry of tropospheric ozone production: New insights from in situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, Joel Andrew

    Nitrogen dioxide and its higher oxides (HNO4, HNO3) play a central role in tropospheric chemistry, regulating the production rates of ozone and controlling the chain length of the OH/HO2 catalytic cycle. Conversion of NO2 to long lived reservoirs such as peroxy(acyl)nitrates (RC(O)OONO2) allows for the transport of NOx (NO x ≡ NO + NO2) from source regions to the global atmosphere. This dissertation describes the design, development, and deployment of a time-gated laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) instrument capable of accurate (5%), precise (<5%), high time resolution (<1 Hz) measurements of ambient NO2 at parts per trillion mixing ratios from the ground and from aircraft based platforms. The deployment of a two-channel version of this NO2 LIF instrument fitted with heated inlets (TD-LIF) to measure ambient NO2 together with the sum total concentration of peroxynitrates is also described. Instrument performance is demonstrated with in-situ measurements from three field campaigns: (1) Blodgett Forest Reasearch Station (August--October 1998), (2) 1999 Southern Oxidants Study (June 15--July 15, 1999), (3) Tropospheric Ozone Production about the Spring Equinox (January--May, 2000). Results from comparisons of the LIF NO2 and total peroxynitrate measurements with independent techniques during these campaigns are presented, and suggest that the LIF and TD-LIF instruments provide substantial improvements to the accuracy, precision, and time resolution over existing nitrogen oxide measurement techniques. These measurements are used together with models to investigate the chemical and physical processes controlling O3 concentrations in the urban, rural, and remote troposphere. In urban and rural areas, the observations illustrate, for the first time, the transition of instantaneous O3 production rates in an urban environment from NOx-limited to NO x-saturated regimes, and the dependence of O3 production rates on both NOx abundances and HOx (HOx ≡ OH + HO2 + RO2) radical

  20. Monitoring of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide by long-path pulsed differential optical absorption spectroscopy using two different light paths.

    PubMed

    Kambe, Yasuaki; Yoshii, Yotsumi; Takahashi, Kenshi; Tonokura, Kenichi

    2012-03-01

    Measurements of the local distribution of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) by long-path pulsed differential optical absorption spectroscopy (LP-PDOAS) in Tokyo during August 2008 are presented. Two LP-PDOAS systems simultaneously measured average NO(2) temporal mixing ratios along two different paths from a single observation point. Two flashing aviation obstruction lights, located 7.0 km north and 6.3 km east from the observation point, were used as light sources, allowing spatiotemporal variations of NO(2) in Tokyo to be inferred. The LP-PDOAS data were compared with ground-based data measured using chemiluminescence. Surface wind data indicated that large inhomogeneities were present in the spatial NO(2) distributions under southerly wind conditions, while northerly wind conditions displayed greater homogeneity between the two systems. The higher correlation in the NO(2) mixing ratio between the two LP-PDOAS systems was observed under northerly wind conditions with a correlation factor R(2) = 0.88. We demonstrated that the combined deployment of two LP-PDOAS systems oriented in different directions provides detailed information on the spatial distribution of NO(2).

  1. Analysis of Mexico City urban air pollution using nitrogen dioxide column density measurements from UV/Visible spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Payne, D. G.; Grutter, M.; Melamed, M. L.

    2010-12-01

    The differential optical absorption spectroscopy method (DOAS) was used to get column densities of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from the analysis of zenith sky UV/visible spectra. Since the optical path length provides critical information in interpreting NO2 column densities, in conjunction with NO2 column densities, the oxygen dimer (O4) column density was retrieved to give insight into the optical path length. We report observations of year round NO2 and O4 column densities (from august 2009 to september 2010) from which the mean seasonal levels and the daily evolution, as well as the occurrence of elevated pollution episodes are examined. Surface nitric oxide (NO) and NO2 from the local monitoring network, as well as wind data and the vertical aerosol density from continuous Lidar measurements are used in the analysis to investigate specific events in the context of local emissions from vehicular traffic, photochemical production and transport from industrial emissions. The NO2 column density measurements will enhance the understanding Mexico City urban air pollution. Recent research has begun to unravel the complexity of the air pollution problem in Mexico City and its effects not only locally but on a regional and global scale as well.

  2. The sensitivity of OMI-derived nitrogen dioxide to boundary layer temperature inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Julie; Kanaroglou, Pavlos

    We assess the sensitivity of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), to episodes of temperature inversion in the lower boundary layer. Vertical temperature data were obtained from a 91-m meteorological tower located in the study area, which is centered on the Hamilton Census Metropolitan Area, Ontario, Canada. Hamilton is an industrial city with high traffic volumes, and is therefore subjected to high levels of pollution. Pollution buildup is amplified by frequent temperature inversions which are commonly radiative, but are also induced by local physiography, proximity to Lake Ontario, and regional meteorology. The four-year period from January 2005 to December 2008 was investigated. Ground-level data for validation were obtained from in situ air quality monitors located in the study area. The results indicate that OMI is sensitive to changes in the NO 2 levels during temperature inversions, and exhibits changes which roughly parallel those of in situ monitors. Overall, an 11% increase in NO 2 was identified by OMI on inversion days, compared to a 44% increase measured by in situ monitors. The weekend effect was clearly exhibited under both normal and inversion scenarios with OMI. Seasonal and wind direction patterns also correlated fairly well with ground-level data. Temperature inversions have resulted in poor air quality episodes which have severely compromised the health of susceptible populations, sometime leading to premature death. The rationale for this study is to further assess the usefulness of OMI for population exposure studies in areas with sparse resources for ground-level monitoring.

  3. Stratospheric nitrogen dioxide in Antarctic regions from ground based and satellite observations during 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortoli, Daniele; Giovanelli, Giorgio; Ravegnani, Fabrizio; Kostadinov, Ivan K.; Petritoli, Andrea; Calzolari, Francescopiero; Costa, Maria J.; Silva, Ana M.

    2003-04-01

    The application of Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) methodology to the zenith scattered light data collected with the GASCOD spectrometer developed at the ISAC Institute allow for the detection of stratospheric trace gases involved in the ozone cycle such as NO2, OClO, BrO. The instrument was installed in December 1995 in the Italian Antarctic station at Terra Nova Bay (74°26'S, 164°03E', Ross Sea), after several tests both in laboratory and in Antarctic region, for unattended and continuous measurement in extreme high-latitude environment. The GASCOD is still working and producing very interesting data for the study of the denitrification processes during the formation of the so-called ozone hole over the Antarctic region. For the continuous NO2 monitoring for whole the year, also during winter when the station is unmanned, the [407 - 460] nm spectral region is investigated. The results for Nitrogen Dioxide, obtained by application of DOAS algorithms to the data recorded during the year 2001, are presented. ERS-2 was launched in April 1995 into a near-polar sun-synchronous orbit at a mean altitude of 795 km. The descending node crosses the equator at 10:30 local time. GOME is a nadir-scanning double monochromator covering the 237 nm to 794 nm wavelength range with a spectral resolution of 0.17-0.33 nm. The spectrum is split into four spectral channels, each recorded quasi-simultaneously by a 1024-pixel photodiode array. The global spatial coverage is obtained within 3 days at the equator by a 960 km across-track swath (4.5 s forward scan, 1.5 s back scan). The ground pixel size of the measurements is 320 X 40 km2. A comparison of GASCOD and GOME results for NO2 total column is performed.

  4. Improvements in the profiles and distributions of nitric acid and nitrogen dioxide with the LIMS version 6 dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remsberg, E.; Natarajan, M.; Marshall, B. T.; Gordley, L. L.; Thompson, R. E.; Lingenfelser, G.

    2010-05-01

    The quality of the Nimbus 7 Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) nitric acid (HNO3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) profiles and distributions of 1978/1979 are described after their processing with an updated, Version 6 (V6) algorithm and subsequent archival in 2002. Estimates of the precision and accuracy of both of those species are developed and provided herein. The character of the V6 HNO3 profiles is relatively unchanged from that of the earlier LIMS Version 5 (V5) profiles, except in the upper stratosphere where the interfering effects of CO2 are accounted for better with V6. The accuracy of the retrieved V6 NO2 is also significantly better in the middle and upper stratosphere, due to improvements in its spectral line parameters and in the reduced biases for the accompanying V6 temperature and water vapor profiles. As a result of these important updates, there is better agreement with theoretical calculations for profiles of the HNO3/NO2 ratio, day-to-night NO2 ratio, and with estimates of the production of NO2 in the mesosphere and its descent to the upper stratosphere during polar night. In particular, the findings for middle and upper stratospheric NO2 should also be more compatible with those obtained from more recent satellite sensors because the effects of the spin-splitting of the NO2 lines are accounted for now with the LIMS V6 algorithm. The improved precisions and more frequent retrievals of the LIMS profiles along their orbit tracks provide for better continuity and detail in map analyses of these two species on pressure surfaces. It is judged that the chemical effects of the oxides of nitrogen on ozone can be studied quantitatively throughout the stratosphere with the LIMS V6 data.

  5. Effects of carbon sources, COD/NO2(-)-N ratios and temperature on the nitrogen removal performance of the simultaneous partial nitrification, anammox and denitrification (SNAD) biofilm.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhaoming; Li, Yun; Li, Jun; Zhang, Yanzhuo; Bian, Wei; Wei, Jia; Zhao, Baihang; Yang, Jingyue

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effects of carbon sources and chemical oxygen demand (COD)/NO2(-)-N ratios on the anammox-denitrification coupling process of the simultaneous partial nitrification, anammox and denitrification (SNAD) biofilm. Also, the anammox activities of the SNAD biofilm were investigated under different temperature. Kaldnes rings taken from the SNAD biofilm reactor were operated in batch tests to determine the nitrogen removal rates. As a result, with the carbon source of sodium acetate, the appropriate COD/NO2(-)-N ratios for the anammox-denitrification coupling process were 1 and 2. With the COD/NO2(-)-N ratios of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, the corresponding NO2(-)-N consumption via anammox was 87.1%, 52.2%, 29.3%, 23.7% and 16.3%, respectively. However, with the carbon source of sodium propionate and glucose, the anammox bacteria was found to perform higher nitrite competitive ability than denitrifiers at the COD/NO2(-)-N ratio of 5. Also, the SNAD biofilm could perform anammox activity at 15 °C with the nitrogen removal rate of 0.071 kg total inorganic nitrogen per kg volatile suspended solids per day. These results indicated that the SNAD biofilm process might be feasible for the treatment of municipal wastewater at normal temperature.

  6. Formation of strong airway irritants in mixtures of isoprene/ozone and isoprene/ozone/nitrogen dioxide.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, C K; Clausen, P A; Wolkoff, P; Larsen, S T; Hammer, M; Larsen, K; Hansen, V; Nielsen, G D

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the airway irritation of isoprene, isoprene/ozone, and isoprene/ozone/nitrogen dioxide mixtures using a mouse bioassay, from which we calculated sensory irritation, bronchial constriction, and pulmonary irritation. We observed significant sensory irritation (approximately 50% reduction of mean respiratory rate) by dynamically exposing the mice, over 30 min, to mixtures of isoprene and O3 or isoprene, O3, and NO2. The starting concentrations were approximately 4 ppm O3 and 500 ppm isoprene (+ approximately 4 ppm NO2. The reaction mixtures after approximately 30 sec contained < 0.2 ppm O3. Addition of the effects of the residual reactants and the identified stable irritant products (formaldehyde, formic acid, acetic acid, methacrolein, and methylvinyl ketone) could explain only partially the observed sensory irritation. This suggests that one or more strong airway irritants were formed. It is thus possible that oxidation reactions of common unsaturated compounds may be relevant for indoor air quality. PMID:11673123

  7. A broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer for aircraft measurements of glyoxal, methylglyoxal, nitrous acid, nitrogen dioxide, and water vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, K.-E.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Dubé, W. P.; Langford, A. O.; Edwards, P. M.; Zarzana, K. J.; Stutz, J.; Lu, K.; Rohrer, F.; Zhang, Y.; Brown, S. S.

    2016-02-01

    We describe a two-channel broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer (BBCEAS) for aircraft measurements of glyoxal (CHOCHO), methylglyoxal (CH3COCHO), nitrous acid (HONO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and water (H2O). The instrument spans 361-389 and 438-468 nm, using two light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and a single grating spectrometer with a charge-coupled device (CCD) detector. Robust performance is achieved using a custom optical mounting system, high-power LEDs with electronic on/off modulation, high-reflectivity cavity mirrors, and materials that minimize analyte surface losses. We have successfully deployed this instrument during two aircraft and two ground-based field campaigns to date. The demonstrated precision (2σ) for retrievals of CHOCHO, HONO and NO2 are 34, 350, and 80 parts per trillion (pptv) in 5 s. The accuracy is 5.8, 9.0, and 5.0 %, limited mainly by the available absorption cross sections.

  8. A broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer for aircraft measurements of glyoxal, methylglyoxal, nitrous acid, nitrogen dioxide, and water vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, K.-E.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Dubé, W. P.; Langford, A. O.; Edwards, P. M.; Zarzana, K. J.; Stutz, J.; Lu, K.; Rohrer, F.; Zhang, Y.; Brown, S. S.

    2015-10-01

    We describe a two-channel broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer (BBCEAS) for aircraft measurements of glyoxal (CHOCHO), methylglyoxal (CH3COCHO), nitrous acid (HONO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and water (H2O). The instrument spans 361-389 and 438-468 nm, using two light emitting diodes (LEDs) and a grating spectrometer with a charge-coupled device (CCD) detector. Robust performance is achieved using a custom optical mounting system, high power LEDs with electronic on/off modulation, state-of-the-art cavity mirrors, and materials that minimize analyte surface losses. We have successfully deployed this instrument during two aircraft and two ground-based field campaigns to date. The demonstrated precision (2σ) for retrievals of CHOCHO, HONO and NO2 are 34, 350 and 80 pptv in 5 s. The accuracy is 5.8, 9.0 and 5.0 % limited mainly by the available absorption cross sections.

  9. OMI Total and Tropospheric Column Nitrogen Dioxide: Version 2 Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleason, James

    2007-01-01

    The at-launch version of the OM1 NO2 total and tropospheric NO2 algorithm made a number of assumptions about instrument performance. Our knowledge of tropospheric NO2 has increased in the 3 years since the inital version was delivered. The results of the post-launch validation campaigns and improved atmospheric modelling has lead to changes in the NO2 retrieval algorithm. The algorithm changes and the impacts on the data products will be presented.

  10. OMI Total and Tropospheric Column Nitrogen Dioxide: Version 2 Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleason, James

    2007-01-01

    The at-launch version of the OM1 NO2 total and tropospheric NO2 algorithm made a number of assumptions about instrument performance. Our knowledge of tropospheric NO2 has increased in the 3 years since the inital version was delivered. The results of the post-launch validation campaigns and improved atmospheric modelling has lead to changes in the NO2 retrieval algorithm. The algorithm changes and the impacts on the data products will be presented.

  11. Effect of nitrogen dioxide and other combustion products on asthmatic subjects in a home-like environment.

    PubMed

    Salome, C M; Brown, N J; Marks, G B; Woolcock, A J; Johnson, G M; Nancarrow, P C; Quigley, S; Tiong, J

    1996-05-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is one of a number of nitrogen compounds that are by-products of combustion and occur in domestic environments following the use of gas or other fuels for heating and cooking. In this study, we examined the effect of two levels of NO2 on symptoms, lung function and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in asthmatic adults and children. In addition, in the same subjects, we examined the effects of the same levels of NO2 mixed with combustion by-products from a gas space heater. The subjects were nine adults, aged 19-65 yrs, and 11 children, aged 7-15 yrs, with diagnosed asthma which was severe enough to require daily medication. All subjects had demonstrable AHR to histamine. Exposures were for 1 h on five separate occasions, 1 week apart, to: 1) ambient air, drawn from outside the building; 2) 0.3 parts per million (ppm) NO2 in ambient air; 3) 0.6 ppm NO2 in ambient air; 4) ambient air+combustion by-products+NO2 to give a total of 0.3 ppm; and 5) ambient air+combustion by-products+NO2 to give a total of 0.6 ppm. Effects were measured as changes in lung function and symptoms during and 1 h after exposure, in AHR 1 h and 1 week after exposure, and in lung function and symptoms during the week following exposure. Exposure to NO2 either in ambient air or mixed with combustion by-products from a gas heater, had no significant effect on symptoms or lung function in adults or in children. There was a small, but statistically significant, increase in AHR after exposure to 0.6 ppm NO2 in ambient air. However, there was no effect of 0.6 ppm NO2 on AHR when the combustion by-products were included in the test atmosphere nor of 0.3 ppm NO2 under either exposure condition. We conclude that a 1 h exposure to 0.3 or 0.6 ppm NO2 has no clinically important effect on the airways of asthmatic adults or children, but that 0.6 ppm may cause a slight increase in airway hyperresponsiveness.

  12. 78 FR 16184 - Revision to Ambient Nitrogen Dioxide Monitoring Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... occur over multiple years, to allow the implementation of the required near-road NO 2 network. However... the near-road component of the NO 2 monitoring network in order to implement a phased deployment approach. This approach will create a series of deadlines that will make the near-road NO 2...

  13. An MCM modeling study of nitryl chloride (ClNO2) impacts on oxidation, ozone production and nitrogen oxide partitioning in polluted continental outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedel, T. P.; Wolfe, G. M.; Danas, K. T.; Gilman, J. B.; Kuster, W. C.; Bon, D. M.; Vlasenko, A.; Li, S.-M.; Williams, E. J.; Lerner, B. M.; Veres, P. R.; Roberts, J. M.; Holloway, J. S.; Lefer, B.; Brown, S. S.; Thornton, J. A.

    2014-04-01

    Nitryl chloride (ClNO2) is produced at night by reactions of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) on chloride containing surfaces. ClNO2 is photolyzed during the morning hours after sunrise to liberate highly reactive chlorine atoms (Cl·). This chemistry takes place primarily in polluted environments where the concentrations of N2O5 precursors (nitrogen oxide radicals and ozone) are high, though it likely occurs in remote regions at lower intensities. Recent field measurements have illustrated the potential importance of ClNO2 as a daytime Cl· source and a nighttime NOx reservoir. However, the fate of the Cl· and the overall impact of ClNO2 on regional photochemistry remain poorly constrained by measurements and models. To this end, we have incorporated ClNO2 production, photolysis, and subsequent Cl· reactions into an existing master chemical mechanism (MCM version 3.2) box model framework using observational constraints from the CalNex 2010 field study. Cl· reactions with a set of alkenes and alcohols, and the simplified multiphase chemistry of N2O5, ClNO2, HOCl, ClONO2, and Cl2, none of which are currently part of the MCM, have been added to the mechanism. The presence of ClNO2 produces significant changes to oxidants, ozone, and nitrogen oxide partitioning, relative to model runs excluding ClNO2 formation. From a nighttime maximum of 1.5 ppbv ClNO2, the daytime maximum Cl· concentration reaches 1 × 105 atoms cm-3 at 07:00 model time, reacting mostly with a large suite of volatile organic compounds (VOC) to produce 2.2 times more organic peroxy radicals in the morning than in the absence of ClNO2. In the presence of several ppbv of nitrogen oxide radicals (NOx = NO + NO2), these perturbations lead to similar enhancements in hydrogen oxide radicals (HOx = OH + HO2). Neglecting contributions from HONO, the total integrated daytime radical source is 17% larger when including ClNO2, which leads to a similar enhancement in integrated ozone production of 15%. Detectable

  14. An MCM modeling study of nitryl chloride (ClNO2) impacts on oxidation, ozone production and nitrogen oxide partitioning in polluted continental outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedel, T. P.; Wolfe, G. M.; Danas, K. T.; Gilman, J. B.; Kuster, W. C.; Bon, D. M.; Vlasenko, A.; Li, S.-M.; Williams, E. J.; Lerner, B. M.; Veres, P. R.; Roberts, J. M.; Holloway, J. S.; Lefer, B.; Brown, S. S.; Thornton, J. A.

    2013-11-01

    Nitryl chloride (ClNO2) is produced at night by reactions of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) on chloride containing surfaces. ClNO2 is photolyzed during the morning hours after sunrise to liberate highly reactive chlorine atoms (Cl·). This chemistry takes place primarily in polluted environments where the concentrations of N2O5 precursors (nitrogen oxide radicals and ozone) are high, though it likely occurs in remote regions at lower intensities. Recent field measurements have illustrated the potential importance of ClNO2 as a daytime Cl· source and a nighttime NOx reservoir. However, the fate of the Cl· and the overall impact of ClNO2 on regional photochemistry remain unclear. To this end, we have incorporated ClNO2 production, photolysis, and subsequent Cl· reactions into an existing Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM version 3.2) box model framework using observational constraints from the CalNex 2010 field study. Cl· reactions with a set of alkenes and alcohols, and the simplified multiphase chemistry of N2O5, ClNO2, HOCl, ClONO2, and Cl2, none of which are currently part of the MCM, have been added to the mechanism. The presence of ClNO2 produces significant changes to oxidants, ozone, and nitrogen oxide partitioning, relative to model runs excluding ClNO2 formation. From a nighttime maximum of 1.5 ppbv ClNO2, the daytime maximum Cl· concentration reaches 1 × 105 atoms cm-3 at 7 a.m., reacting mostly with a large suite of volatile organic compounds (VOC) to produce 2.2 times more organic peroxy radicals in the morning than in the absence of ClNO2. In the presence of several ppbv of nitrogen oxide radicals (NOx = NO + NO2), these perturbations lead to similar enhancements in hydrogen oxide radicals (HOx = OH + HO2). Neglecting contributions from HONO, the total integrated daytime radical source is 17% larger when including ClNO2, which leads to a similar enhancement in integrated ozone production of 15%. Detectable levels (tens of pptv) of chlorine containing

  15. Product selectivity of visible-light photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide using titanium dioxide doped by different nitrogen-sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaoguo; Huang, Zhengfeng; Cheng, Xudong; Wang, Qingli; Chen, Yi; Dong, Peimei; Zhang, Xiwen

    2015-11-01

    The influence of nitrogen-source on the photocatalytic properties of nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide is herein first investigated from the perspective of the chemical bond form of the nitrogen element in the nitrogen-source. The definitive role of groups such as Nsbnd N from the nitrogen-source on the surface of as-prepared samples in the selectivity of the dominant product of photocatalytic reduction is demonstrated. Well-crystallized one-dimensional Nsbnd TiO2 nanorod arrays with a preferred orientation of the rutile (3 1 0) facet are manufactured via a hydrothermal treatment using hydrazine and ammonia variously as the source of nitrogen. Significant selectivity of the dominant reduced products has been exhibited for Nsbnd TiO2 prepared from different nitrogen-sources in carbon dioxide photocatalytic reduction under visible light illumination. CH4 is the main product with N2H4-doped Nsbnd TiO2, while CO is the main product with NH3-doped Nsbnd TiO2, which can be attributed to the existence of the reducing Nsbnd N groups in the N2H4-doped Nsbnd TiO2 surfaces after the hydrothermal treatment. Compared with the approaches previously reported, the facile one-step route utilized here accomplishes the fabrication of Nsbnd TiO2 possessing visible-light activity and attainment of selectivity of dominant photocatalytic reduction product simultaneously by choosing a nitrogen-source with appropriate chemical bond form, which provides a completely new approach to understanding the effects of doping treatment on photocatalytic properties.

  16. Relating indoor NO 2 levels to infant personal exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlos, David P.; Marbury, Marian; Samet, Jonathan; Spengler, John D.

    We report here the results of a field survey of personal nitrogen dioxide exposure (PNO 2) of infants and simultaneous indoor NO 2 levels from various points throughout the infants' homes. Personal nitrogen dioxide levels can be predicted by average room NO 2 concentrations when appropriately weighted by infant presence in the room. Bedroom NO 2 concentration alone presents an alternative predictor which is more suitable for use in large scale surveys. Because of the typical infant's peculiar time-location patterns, they receive most of their NO 2 exposures in bedrooms (65 %)and living rooms (32 %), while the kitchen (5 %) and outdoor environments (> 2%)contribute only a small fraction of daily exposure. Average NO 2 exposure during cooking periods can be predicted using passive samplers placed directly over stoves and hours of stove use time.

  17. MAX-DOAS measurements of nitrogen dioxide at the high altitude sites Zugspitze (2964 m) and Pico Espejo (4765 m)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreier, Stefan F.; Richter, Andreas; Wittrock, Folkard; Burrows, John P.

    2015-04-01

    Spectral measurements at two mountain sites were performed with a MAX-DOAS (Multi AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) instrument from February to July 2003 (Zugspitze, Germany) and from March 2004 to November 2008 (Pico Espejo, Venezuela). Here, these measurements are used for the retrieval of slant column densities (SCDs) of nitrogen dioxide (NO2). While at the altitude of observations the NO2 levels are usually small, uplifting of anthropogenic emissions from the valley and in Venezuela also transport of emissions from biomass burning can lead to significant enhancements. Daily, weekly, and seasonal cycles of NO2 SCDs are shown for the two stations, linked to different meteorological conditions and compared between the two sites. In a next step, a preliminary approach to derive vertical column densities (VCDs) is presented. VCDs of NO2 from ground-based MAX-DOAS instruments provide useful information for the validation of satellite instruments such as SCIAMACHY, OMI, and GOME-2. Comparisons between ground-based and satellite-based NO2 VCDs are shown for selected periods.

  18. Nitrogen dioxide and respiratory illness in children. Part I: Health outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Samet, J.M.; Lambert, W.E.; Skipper, B.J.; Cushing, A.H.; Hunt, W.C.; Young, S.A.; McLaren, L.C.; Schwab, M.; Spengler, J.D. )

    1993-06-01

    We have carried out a prospective cohort study to test the hypothesis that exposure to nitrogen dioxide increases the incidence and severity of respiratory infections during the first 18 months of life. Between January 1988 and June 1990, 1,315 infants were enrolled into the study at birth and followed with prospective surveillance for the occurrence of respiratory infections and monitoring of nitrogen dioxide concentrations in their homes. The subjects were healthy infants from homes without smokers; they were selected with stratification by type of cooking stove at a ratio of four to one for gas and electric stoves. Illness experience was monitored by a daily diary of symptoms completed by the mother and a telephone interview conducted every two weeks. Illnesses with wheezing or wet cough were classified as involving the lower respiratory tract; all other respiratory illnesses were designated as involving the upper respiratory tract. Exposure to nitrogen dioxide was estimated by two-week average concentrations measured in the subjects' bedrooms with passive samplers. This analysis is limited to the 1,205 subjects completing at least one month of observation; of these, 823 completed the full protocol, contributing 82.8% of the total number of days during which the subjects were under observation. Incidence rates for all respiratory illnesses, all upper respiratory illness, all lower respiratory illnesses, and lower respiratory illness further divided into those with any wheezing, or wet cough without wheezing, were examined within strata of nitrogen dioxide exposure at the time of the illness, nitrogen dioxide exposure during the prior month, and type of cooking stove. Consistent trends of increasing illness incidence rates with increasing exposure to nitrogen dioxide were not evident for either the lagged or unlagged exposure variables.

  19. Transfer of oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide through normal adult human skin.

    PubMed

    Hansen, T N; Sonoda, Y; McIlroy, M B

    1980-09-01

    The resistance to the flow of oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide through the skin ws measured in three normal adult human subjects. A sampling chamber 2.5 cm in diameter, heated to 43-44 degrees C, was applied to the skin of the forearm and gas sampled with a mass spectrometer at a rate of about 10(-5) ml . s-1 through membranes of different resistance. Skin resistance was calculated from the results of sequential studies with different membranes of known resistance on the sampling chamber. The resistance to oxygen flow (1.79 +/- 0.92 X 10(3) atm . ml-1 . min . cm2) was 1/5 of that for nitrogen and 28.5 times that for carbon dioxide. The response time of the skin to a sudden change in arterial gas tension was investigated by having the subjects rebreathe 5% carbon dioxide in oxygen and then breathe air. The mean transit times though the skin for oxygen and carbon dioxide were similar (approx 30 s) and about twice those for nitrogen. The finding of similar response times for oxygen and carbon dioxide transfer in the face of large differences in resistance suggests that there is a high capacitance for carbon dioxide in the skin, presumably due to its high solubility and the effects of buffering.

  20. Personal exposure to nitrogen dioxide and its association with respiratory illness in Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Koo, L.C.; Ho, J.H.; Ho, C.Y.; Matsuki, H.; Shimizu, H.; Mori, T.; Tominaga, S. )

    1990-05-01

    In 1985, 362 primary schoolchildren and their 319 mothers were surveyed in Hong Kong to study the possible relationship of air pollution to respiratory illnesses. Using nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) measured by personal samplers as a measure of air pollution, the study aimed to identify the major sources of NO{sub 2} in the indoor environment and see whether its increased presence was associated with respiratory symptoms. The levels of NO{sub 2} among the mothers was found to increase by 21% if dust exposure was reported from the workplace, 18% if they used such cooking fuels as liquid petroleum gas or kerosene, 11% when kitchens did not have ventilating fans, and 10% when incense was burned at home. In terms of respiratory symptoms, an increase in NO{sub 2} levels of 19% was reported among those with allergic rhinitis and 18% among those with chronic cough. The levels of NO2 among children were correlated with levels measured in classrooms, all of which had opened windows so that the NO{sub 2} came from outdoors. No association was found between children's NO{sub 2} levels and respiratory symptoms. With the exception of smoking by the father and the children's NO{sub 2} levels, no association was found between smoking at home and NO{sub 2} levels.

  1. Validation of the Willems badge diffusive sampler for nitrogen dioxide determinations in occupational environments.

    PubMed

    Hagenbjörk-Gustafsson, Annika; Lindahl, Roger; Levin, Jan-Olof; Karlsson, Doris

    2002-01-01

    The Willems badge, a diffusive sampler for nitrogen dioxide, has previously been validated for ambient air measurements. This paper describes the laboratory and field validation of the Willems badge for personal sampling under working environment conditions. The mean sampling rate in the laboratory tests was 46 ml min(-1), with an RSD of 12%. No statistically significant effects on sampling rate of the sampling time, concentration of NO2 or relative humidity were found. A slightly decreased sampling rate was observed at low wind velocity. This was also confirmed during static sampling, which makes the sampler less appropriate for static sampling indoors. No back diffusion was observed. Storage of the samplers for two weeks before or after exposure did not affect the sampling rate. Our analysis is based on a modified colorimetric method, performed by FIA (flow injection analysis). This technique was compared to ion chromatography analysis. The use of ion chromatography lowered the detection limit from 11 to 2 microg m(-3) for an 8 h sample, and furthermore enabled the detection of other anions. In conclusion, the diffusive sampler was found to perform well for personal measurements in industrial environments.

  2. The effects of rapid urbanization on the levels in tropospheric nitrogen dioxide and ozone over East China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jianping; Zhou, Chenhong; Lee, Xuhui; Bao, Yunxuan; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Fung, Jimmy; Richter, Andreas; Liu, Xiong; Zheng, Yiqi

    2013-10-01

    Over the past few decades, China has experienced a rapid increase in urbanization. The urban built-up areas (population) in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou increased by 197% (87%), 148% (65%), and 273% (25%), respectively, from 1996 to 2011. We use satellite retrieval data to quantify the effects of rapid urbanization on the yearly and seasonal changes in tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) over East China. The results show that rapid urbanization has a profound effect on tropospheric columns of NO2. During 1996-2011, the tropospheric columns of NO2 over the surrounding areas of Guangzhou, Shanghai, and Beijing increased by 82%, 292%, and 307%, respectively. The tropospheric columns of NO2 reach their maximum in winter and minimum in spring. The anthropogenic emissions related to urbanization are a dominant factor in the long-term changes in the yearly and seasonal mean tropospheric columns of NO2, whereas meteorological conditions such as the prevailing winds and precipitation account for the unique spatial patterns. Around the time of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, the tropospheric columns of NO2 over Beijing urban area significantly reduced by 48% in July, 35% in August, and 49% in September, relative to the same monthly averages over 2005-2007. However, this trend was reversed after the Games, and the increased rate was even larger than before. Our results show that the tropospheric NO2 above the three regions increased at rates 1.3-8 times faster than the rates in a recent inventory estimate of NOx emissions for 2000-2010. We also discuss the influence of urbanization on tropospheric ozone and find that the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) retrieval tropospheric column shows that ozone levels are relatively insensitive to urbanization and changes in tropospheric NO2.

  3. Exposures of older adults with chronic respiratory illness to nitrogen dioxide. A combined laboratory and field study

    SciTech Connect

    Hackney, J.D.; Linn, W.S.; Avol, E.L.; Shamoo, D.A.; Anderson, K.R.; Solomon, J.C.; Little, D.E.; Peng, R.C. )

    1992-12-01

    We combined field and laboratory experimentation to evaluate the effects of nitrogen dioxide in a panel of Los Angeles area residents with chronic respiratory illness, 15 men and 11 women aged 47 to 69. All had heavy smoking history, chronic symptoms, and low FEV1; some also had low FVC. During the fall-winter high-NO2 season, they monitored themselves for 2-wk periods using spirometers in the home, passive NO2 sampling badges, and diaries to record time and activity patterns and clinical status. In the middle of each self-monitoring week they were exposed in a chamber, once to clean air and once to 0.3 ppm NO2. Chamber exposures were double blind, lasted 4 h, and included four 7-min exercise sessions with average ventilation rates near 25 L/min. Symptom reports and hourly forced expiratory function tests showed no statistically significant differences between clean air and NO2 chamber exposures, although peak flow showed a approximately 3% loss with NO2 relative to clean air during the first 2 h of exposure only (p = 0.056). No significant overall differences were found between field self-measurements and measurements of lung function in the chamber or between field measurements in clean air and NO2 exposure weeks. Field data showed that group average lung function and symptom levels were worse in the morning than later in the day (p < 0.005) but otherwise were stable over 2 wk. Even though most subjects smoked and stayed indoors 80 to 90% of the time, personal NO2 exposures correlated significantly with outdoor NO2 concentrations as reported by local monitoring stations.

  4. The relationship between inhalation of nitrogen dioxide, the immune system, and progression of a spontaneously occurring lymphoma in AKR mice

    SciTech Connect

    Richters, A.; Damji, K.S. )

    1990-07-01

    The effects of exposure to an ambient level of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on the development and progression of the spontaneous T-cell lymphoma in AKR/cum mice are evaluated. The animals were exposed to 0.25 ppm +/- 0.05 ppm NO2 for 7 hr/day, 5 days/week for up to 181 days. Following exposure periods of 37, 71, 111, 141, and 181 days, the extent of lymphoma was determined microscopically in histologic sections of the thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, lung, and liver. In addition, T-lymphocyte subpopulations were quantitated by flow cytometry. The results indicate that the development and progression of lymphoma in mice was influenced by intermittent inhalation of NO2. The lymphoma was detectable earlier in control animals and the survival of the NO2-exposed group was significantly higher. The T-lymphocyte subpopulations were significantly lower in NO2-exposed animals following 37 and 181 days of NO2 exposure. The T-helper/inducer (CD4+) lymphocytes were adversely affected to the greatest extent, explaining in part the more aggressive behavior of the lymphoma in the control animals. Most importantly, these studies provide additional evidence that in vivo exposure to a level of NO2 commonly encountered in polluted metropolitan areas adversely affects cells of the immune system. In the case of the AKR mouse, the adverse effect of NO2 on CD4+ cells manifested itself by retarding development and progression of the spontaneous lymphoma. Our data suggest that this neoplasm may be dependent on growth factors such as interleukin 2, produced by CD4+ lymphocytes in the early stages.

  5. Induction of SOS functions in Escherichia coli and biosynthesis of nitrosamine in rabbits by nitrogen dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Kosaka, H.; Uozumi, M.; Nakajima, T.

    1987-08-01

    Nitrogen dioxide induced SOS functions in Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli K-12 and was mutagenic in Escherichia coli WP2. When a rabbit was administered aminopyrine intravenously and administered nitrogen dioxide by inhalation, N-nitrosodimethylamine was detected in its blood. Analysis was conducted with /sup 15/N-nitrosodimethylamine as an internal standard by a combination of capillary gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Accompanying administration of cystamine increased the blood concentration of N-nitrosodimethylamine in the rabbit, suggesting inhibition of its metabolism. Concurrent sulfur trioxide inhalation increased N-nitrosodimethylamine formation in the rabbit.

  6. Signature of tropospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide from space: A case study for Athens, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varotsos, C.; Christodoulakis, J.; Tzanis, C.; Cracknell, A. P.

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the variability of the tropospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns over mainland Greece, by using observations carried out by satellite-borne instrumentation and Multi Sensor Reanalysis. The results obtained show that the tropospheric ozone residual (TOR) dispersed farther away than the tropospheric NO2 column (TNO), due to the longer TOR's lifetime in respect to that of TNO. This results in the influence of the air quality of the nearby southern islands from the air pollution of the greater Athens basin. Furthermore, the TOR and TNO columns over Athens, for the period October 2004 to December 2011 were found to be negatively correlated with a correlation coefficient -0.85, in contrast to recent findings which suggested strong positive correlation. Interestingly, this strong negative correlation into a slight positive correlation when the TNO concentration becomes higher than around 4 × 1015 molec cm-2, thus being best fitted by a quadratic relationship. In addition, the temporal evolution of TOR during 1979-1993 showed a decline of 0.2% per decade and just after 1993 it seems to obey a positive trend of 0.1% per decade, thus recovering during the period 1993-2011 almost 63% of the lost TOR amounts through the years 1979-1993. Finally, the association between TOR, the total ozone column (TOZ), the tropopause height and the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) is presented by analysing observations during 1979-2011. An unexpected positive correlation between OLR and TOR was found, which may probably be attributed to the fact that enhanced abundance in tropospheric water vapor reduces the summertime TOR maximum by destructing ozone in the lower and middle troposphere through uptake mechanisms, thus emitting higher amounts of longwave radiation upwards.

  7. Nitrogen Dioxide Exposure and Airway Responsiveness in Individuals with Asthma

    EPA Science Inventory

    Controlled human exposure studies evaluating the effect of inhaled NO2 on the inherent responsiveness of the airways to challenge by bronchoconstricting agents have had mixed results. In general, existing meta-analyses show statistically significant effects of NO2 on the airway r...

  8. Nitrogen Dioxide Exposure and Airway Responsiveness in Individuals with Asthma

    EPA Science Inventory

    Controlled human exposure studies evaluating the effect of inhaled NO2 on the inherent responsiveness of the airways to challenge by bronchoconstricting agents have had mixed results. In general, existing meta-analyses show statistically significant effects of NO2 on the airway r...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix F to Part 50 - Measurement Principle and Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Nitrogen Dioxide in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurement Principle and Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Nitrogen Dioxide in the Atmosphere (Gas Phase Chemiluminescence) F Appendix...—Measurement Principle and Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Nitrogen Dioxide in the Atmosphere...

  10. Broadband cavity enhanced spectroscopy in the ultraviolet spectral region for measurements of nitrogen dioxide and formaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washenfelder, R. A.; Attwood, A. R.; Flores, J. M.; Rudich, Y.; Brown, S. S.

    2015-09-01

    Formaldehyde (CH2O) is the most abundant aldehyde in the atmosphere, and strongly affects photochemistry through its photolysis. We describe simultaneous measurements of CH2O and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) using broadband cavity enhanced spectroscopy in the ultraviolet spectral region. The light source consists of a continuous-wave diode laser focused into a Xenon bulb to produce a plasma that emits high-intensity, broadband light. The plasma discharge is optically filtered and coupled into a 1 m optical cavity. The reflectivity of the cavity mirrors is 0.99933 ± 0.00003 (670 ppm loss) at 338 nm, as determined from the known Rayleigh scattering of He and zero air. This mirror reflectivity corresponds to an effective path length of 1.49 km within the 1 m cell. We measure the cavity output over the 315-350 nm spectral region using a grating monochromator and charge-coupled device (CCD) array detector. We use published reference spectra with spectral fitting software to simultaneously retrieve CH2O and NO2 concentrations. Independent measurements of NO2 standard additions by broadband cavity enhanced spectroscopy and cavity ringdown spectroscopy agree within 2 % (slope for linear fit = 0.98 ± 0.03 with r2 = 0.998). Standard additions of CH2O measured by broadband cavity enhanced spectroscopy and calculated based on flow dilution are also well-correlated, with r2 = 0.9998. During constant, mixed additions of NO2 and CH2O, the 30 s measurement precisions (1σ) of the current configuration were 140 and 210 pptv, respectively. The current 1-min detection limit for extinction measurements at 315-350 nm provides sufficient sensitivity for measurement of trace gases in laboratory experiments and ground-based field experiments. Additionally, the instrument provides highly accurate, spectroscopically-based trace gas detection that may complement higher precision techniques based on non-absolute detection methods. In addition to trace gases, this approach will be appropriate for

  11. Indoor-outdoor relationships of airborne particles and nitrogen dioxide inside Parisian buses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molle, Romain; Mazoué, Sophie; Géhin, Évelyne; Ionescu, Anda

    2013-04-01

    This study evaluated passengers' exposure to traffic air pollution inside the articulated buses of the line 91 in Paris during 10 working days in May, 2010. Twenty articulated buses were studied on 32 routes in order to determine the influence of the sampling position on the pollutant concentrations. This parameter is still poorly known for the rigid buses and is even less known for the articulated ones. However this parameter must be studied for articulated buses because the greater length may cause a pollutant concentration gradient in the cabin. Portable devices were used to measure pollutants in the presence of passengers from 8 a.m. to 9 a.m. and from 4 p.m. to 5 p.m., time periods corresponding to the peak traffic and travellers. PM2.5 mass concentration, particle number concentration between 0.3 and 20 μm and nitrogen dioxide concentration were simultaneously measured on three positions inside the buses (front, middle and rear) in order to study the spatial distribution of these compounds. These measurements inside the buses were compared to the outdoor concentrations at the same moment of the day provided by the Parisian air quality monitoring network; they were also compared to the results of a previous monitoring campaign performed in 2008. The results obtained during the 2010 campaign revealed that in-cabin NO2 mean concentrations were 1.5-3.5 times higher than the outside concentration levels; a maximum concentration of 234 ± 40 μg m-3 was found in the rear position (location of the engine and exhaust gas). Mean in-cabin PM2.5 mass concentrations varied from one week to another one, but they were globally the same at the three positions inside the instrumented buses. In order to determine the impact of outdoor levels, correlations have been calculated between the results measured inside the buses and those measured by the outdoor air monitoring stations. The highest Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.29 for NO2 data whereas the highest Pearson

  12. Nitrogen dioxide in exhaust emissions from motor vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenner, Magnus

    NO 2/NO x (v/v) fractions and NO 2 exhaust emission rates were determined for diesel- and gasoline-powered passenger cars and a diesel truck, at several conditions of constant engine load and speed. Vehicles with various kinds of emission control equipment were investigated. Also, integrations of NO 2/NO x percentages during Federal Test Procedure driving cycles were made for six types of passenger car. High (> 30 %) NO 2 fractions were measured for gasoline cars with air injection, and for diesel vehicles. A gasoline car with a 3-way catalyst had low NO x totals with small (< 1 %) NO 2 fractions. A passenger diesel with particle trap yielded surprisingly small (0-2%) NO 2 fractions at moderate speeds. The results have implications for NO 2 concentration in the atmosphere of northern cities during wintertime inversions, in view of the increasing use of air injection systems for passenger cars to meet legal restrictions on vehicle emissions of hydrocarbons and CO.

  13. Anion-catalyzed Disprotionation of Nitrogen Dioxide on Microdroplets Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, M. R.; Enami, S.; Colussi, A. J.

    2009-04-01

    The reactive dissolution of NO2(g) on cloud and fog droplets and the conversion to HONO(g) : 2 NO2(g) + H2O(l) = HONO(g) + NO3-(aq) + H+(aq), is a viable transformation process. Recently, unexpectedly large HONO concentrations were observed that may account for ~ 50 % of OH radical production at noon and entail a diurnal source ~ 64 times stronger than the reaction above at night (Kleffmann, Chem. Phys. Chem. 2007, 8, 1137). Reported NO2(g) uptake coefficients in water are at odds in the range from γg 10-7 up to 10-3. Here we show that the probability of NO2 uptake on aqueous microdroplets depends on their ionic composition at the air/water interface, reaching peak values at ion concentrations in the low mM range, using a novel application of electrospray mass spectrometry. We found that the uptake rates under these conditions are three orders of magnitude larger than in pure water. Uptake appears to be controlled by the capture of NO2 into radical anion intermediates on droplet surfaces, and is modulated by overall anion concentration. These results would resolve the outstanding discrepancies between previous NO2 uptake measurements in water vs. NaCl-seeded clouds, and lead to half-lives for the reactive dissolution of NO2 in typical clouds and fogs that are sufficiently short to impact diurnal ×OH/HO2× budgets.

  14. Improvements in the profiles and distributions of nitric acid and nitrogen dioxide with the LIMS version 6 dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remsberg, E.; Natarajan, M.; Marshall, T.; Gordley, L. L.; Thompson, R. E.; Lingenfelser, G.

    2010-02-01

    The quality of the Nimbus 7 Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) nitric acid (HNO3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) profiles and distributions of 1978/1979 is described after their processing with an updated, Version 6 (V6) algorithm and subsequent archival in 2002. Estimates of the precision and accuracy of both of those species are developed and provided herein. The character of the V6 HNO3 profiles is relatively unchanged from that of the earlier LIMS Version 5 (V5) profiles, except in the upper stratosphere where the interfering effects of CO2 are accounted for better with V6. The accuracy of the retrieved V6 NO2 is also significantly better in the middle and upper stratosphere, due to improvements in its spectral line parameters and in the reduced biases for the accompanying V6 temperature and water vapor profiles. As a result of these important updates, there is better agreement with theoretical calculations for profiles of the HNO3/NO2 ratio, day-to-night NO2 ratio, and with estimates of the production of NO2 in the mesosphere and its descent to the upper stratosphere during polar night. The improved precisions and more frequent retrievals of the profiles along the LIMS orbit tracks provide for better continuity and detail in map analyses of these two species on pressure surfaces. It is judged that the chemical effects of the oxides of nitrogen on ozone can be examined quantitatively throughout the stratosphere with the LIMS V6 data, and that the findings will be more compatible with those obtained from measurements of the same species from subsequent satellite sensors.

  15. Development and transferability of a nitrogen dioxide land use regression model within the Veneto region of Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcon, Alessandro; de Hoogh, Kees; Gulliver, John; Beelen, Rob; Hansell, Anna L.

    2015-12-01

    When measurements or other exposure models are unavailable, air pollution concentrations could be estimated by transferring land-use regression (LUR) models from other areas. No studies have looked at transferability of LUR models from regions to cities. We investigated model transferability issues. We developed a LUR model for 2010 using annual average nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations retrieved from 47 regulatory stations of the Veneto region, Northern Italy. We applied this model to 40 independent sites in Verona, a city inside the region, where NO2 had been monitored in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) during 2010. We also used this model to estimate average NO2 concentrations at the regulatory network in 2008, 2009 and 2011. Of 33 predictor variables offered, five were retained in the LUR model (R2 = 0.75). The number of buildings in 5000 m buffers, industry surface area in 1000 m buffers and altitude, mainly representing large-scale air pollution dispersion patterns, explained most of the spatial variability in NO2 concentrations (R2 = 0.68), while two local traffic proxy indicators explained little of the variability (R2 = 0.07). The performance of this model transferred to urban sites was poor overall (R2 = 0.18), but it improved when only predicting inner-city background concentrations (R2 = 0.52). Recalibration of LUR coefficients improved model performance when predicting NO2 concentrations at the regulatory sites in 2008, 2009 and 2011 (R2 between 0.67 and 0.80). Models developed for a region using NO2 regulatory data are unable to capture small-scale variability in NO2 concentrations in urban traffic areas. Our study documents limitations in transferring a regional model to a city, even if it is nested within that region.

  16. A longitudinal study of indoor nitrogen dioxide levels and respiratory symptoms in inner-city children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Hansel, Nadia N; Breysse, Patrick N; McCormack, Meredith C; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Curtin-Brosnan, Jean; Williams, D'Ann L; Moore, Jennifer L; Cuhran, Jennifer L; Diette, Gregory B

    2008-10-01

    The effect of indoor nitrogen dioxide concentrations on asthma morbidity among inner-city preschool children is uncertain. Our goal was to estimate the effect of indoor NO2 concentrations on asthma morbidity in an inner-city population while adjusting for other indoor pollutants. We recruited 150 children (2-6 years of age) with physician-diagnosed asthma from inner-city Baltimore, Maryland. Indoor air was monitored over a 72-hr period in the children's bedrooms at baseline and 3 and 6 months. At each visit, the child's caregiver completed a questionnaire assessing asthma symptoms over the previous 2 weeks and recent health care utilization. Children were 58% male, 91% African American, and 42% from households with annual income < $25,000; 63% had persistent asthma symptoms. The mean (+/- SD) in-home NO2 concentration was 30.0 +/- 33.7 (range, 2.9-394.0) ppb. The presence of a gas stove and the use of a space heater or oven/stove for heat were independently associated with higher NO2 concentrations. Each 20-ppb increase in NO2 exposure was associated significantly with an increase in the number of days with limited speech [incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.15; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-1.25], cough (IRR = 1.10; 95% CI, 1.02-1.18), and nocturnal symptoms (IRR = 1.09; 95% CI, 1.02-1.16), after adjustment for potential confounders. NO2 concentrations were not associated with increased health care utilization. Higher indoor NO2 concentrations were associated with increased asthma symptoms in preschool inner-city children. Interventions aimed at lowering NO2 concentrations in inner-city homes may reduce asthma morbidity in this vulnerable population.

  17. A Longitudinal Study of Indoor Nitrogen Dioxide Levels and Respiratory Symptoms in Inner-City Children with Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Hansel, Nadia N.; Breysse, Patrick N.; McCormack, Meredith C.; Matsui, Elizabeth C.; Curtin-Brosnan, Jean; Williams, D’Ann L.; Moore, Jennifer L.; Cuhran, Jennifer L.; Diette, Gregory B.

    2008-01-01

    Background The effect of indoor nitrogen dioxide concentrations on asthma morbidity among inner-city preschool children is uncertain. Objectives Our goal was to estimate the effect of indoor NO2 concentrations on asthma morbidity in an inner-city population while adjusting for other indoor pollutants. Methods We recruited 150 children (2–6 years of age) with physician-diagnosed asthma from inner-city Baltimore, Maryland. Indoor air was monitored over a 72-hr period in the children’s bedrooms at baseline and 3 and 6 months. At each visit, the child’s caregiver completed a questionnaire assessing asthma symptoms over the previous 2 weeks and recent health care utilization. Results Children were 58% male, 91% African American, and 42% from households with annual income < $25,000; 63% had persistent asthma symptoms. The mean (± SD) in-home NO2 concentration was 30.0 ± 33.7 (range, 2.9–394.0) ppb. The presence of a gas stove and the use of a space heater or oven/stove for heat were independently associated with higher NO2 concentrations. Each 20-ppb increase in NO2 exposure was associated significantly with an increase in the number of days with limited speech [incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.15; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05–1.25], cough (IRR = 1.10; 95% CI, 1.02–1.18), and nocturnal symptoms (IRR = 1.09; 95% CI, 1.02–1.16), after adjustment for potential confounders. NO2 concentrations were not associated with increased health care utilization. Conclusions Higher indoor NO2 concentrations were associated with increased asthma symptoms in preschool inner-city children. Interventions aimed at lowering NO2 concentrations in inner-city homes may reduce asthma morbidity in this vulnerable population. PMID:18941590

  18. Toxicity of ozone and nitrogen dioxide to alveolar macrophages: comparative study revealing differences in their mechanism of toxic action

    SciTech Connect

    Rietjens, I.M.; Poelen, M.C.; Hempenius, R.A.; Gijbels, M.J.; Alink, G.M.

    1986-01-01

    In this study the toxic mechanisms of action of ozone and nitrogen dioxide were compared using an intact cell model. Rat alveolar macrophages were exposed by means of gas diffusion through a Teflon film. In this in vitro system, ozone appeared to be 10 times more toxic than nitrogen dioxide. alpha-Tocopherol protected equally well against ozone and nitrogen dioxide. It was demonstrated that alpha-tocopherol provided its protection by its action as a radical scavenger and not by its stabilizing structural membrane effect, as (1) concentrations of alpha-tocopherol that already provided optimal protection against ozone and nitrogen dioxide did not influence the membrane fluidity of alveolar macrophages and (2) neither one of the structural alpha-tocopherol analogs tested (phytol and the methyl ether of alpha-tocopherol) could provide a protection against ozone or nitrogen dioxide comparable to the one provided by alpha-tocopherol. It was concluded that reactive intermediates scavenged by alpha-tocopherol are important in the toxic mechanism of both ozone and nitrogen dioxide induced cell damage. However, further results presented strongly confirmed that the kind of radicals and/or reactive intermediates, and thus the toxic reaction mechanism involved, must be different in ozone- and nitrogen dioxide-induced cell damage. This was concluded from the observations that showed that (1) vitamin C provided significantly better protection against nitrogen dioxide than against an equally toxic dose of ozone, (2) glutathione depletion affected the cellular sensitivity toward ozone to a significantly greater extent than the sensitivity towards nitrogen dioxide, and (3) the scavenging action of alpha-tocopherol was accompanied by a significantly greater reduction in its cellular level during nitrogen dioxide exposure than during exposure to ozone.

  19. Use of ultra pure nitric oxide generated by the reduction of nitrogen dioxide to reverse pulmonary hypertension in hypoxemic swine.

    PubMed

    Lovich, Mark A; Bruno, Natalie K; Plant, Charles P; Wei, Abraham E; Vasquez, Gregory B; Johnson, Bryan J; Fine, David H; Gilbert, Richard J

    2011-05-31

    Inhaled nitric oxide (NO) has the capacity to selectively dilate pulmonary blood vessels, and thus enhance the matching of ventilation and perfusion, improve oxygenation and decrease pulmonary hypertension. However, existing approaches for the administration of inhaled NO are associated with the co-delivery of potentially toxic concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) due to the oxidation of NO in oxygen rich environments. We tested the ability of a novel methodology for generating highly purified NO through the reduction of NO2 by ascorbic acid to reverse pulmonary hypertension. In vitro testing demonstrated that the NO output of the novel device is ultrapure and free of NO2. An in vivo hypoxemic swine model of pulmonary hypertension was used to examine the dose response to NO in terms of pulmonary pressures and pulmonary vascular resistance. Pulmonary hypertension was induced by lowering inspired oxygen to 15% prior to treatment with inhaled ultra purified NO (1, 5, 20, and 80PPM). Hypoxemia increased mean pulmonary artery pressures and pulmonary vascular resistance. Inhaled ultra purified NO doses (down to 1PPM) show a marked reduction of hypoxemia-induced pulmonary vascular resistance. These experiments demonstrate a simple and robust method to generate purified inhaled NO that is devoid of NO2 and capable of reversing hypoxemia induced pulmonary hypertension.

  20. Tropospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide measurements in urban and rural regions as seen by IASI and GOME-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safieddine, S.; Clerbaux, C.; George, M.; Hadji-Lazaro, J.; Hurtmans, D.; Coheur, P.-F.; Wespes, C.; Loyola, D.; Valks, P.; Hao, N.

    2013-09-01

    ozone (O3) columns in urban and rural regions as seen by the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) are analyzed along with the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2) tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns. Results over nine cities of the Northern Hemisphere for the period 2008-2011 show a typical seasonal behavior of tropospheric O3, with a first maximum reached in late spring because of stratospheric intrusion mainly and a continuous rise till the summer because of the anthropogenic-based ozone production. Over the East Asian cities, a decrease in the O3 tropospheric column is detected during the monsoon period. Seasonal cycling of tropospheric NO2 shows consistent higher values during winter because of the higher anthropogenic sources and longer lifetime. In rural regions, a complex relation between the O3 and NO2 columns is found, with good correlation in summer and winter. O3 concentrations in rural sites are found to be comparable to those closest to the anthropogenic emission sources, with peak values in spring and summer. Furthermore, the effect of the reduction of pollutant emissions in the Beijing region during the Olympic Games of 2008 compared to the same summer period in the following 3 years is studied. GOME-2 NO2 measurements show a reduction up to 54% above Beijing during this period compared to the following 3 years. IASI O3 measurements show an increase of 12% during July 2008 followed by a decrease of 5-6% during the months of August and September.

  1. Comparing Mass Balance and Adjoint-Based 4D-VAR Methods for Inverse Modeling of Nitrogen Dioxide Columns for Nitrogen Oxide Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, M.; Martin, R.; Henze, D. K.

    2016-12-01

    Nitrogen oxide (NOx ≡ NO + NO2) emission inventories can be improved through top-down constraints provided by inverse modeling of observed nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns. Here we compare two methods of inverse modeling for emissions of NOx from synthetic NO2 columns generated from known emissions using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and its adjoint. We treat the adjoint-based 4D-VAR approach for estimating top-down emissions as a benchmark against which to evaluate variations on the mass balance method. We find that the standard mass balance algorithm can be improved by using an iterative process and using finite difference to calculate the local sensitivity of a change in NO2 columns to a change in emissions, resulting in a factor of two reduction in inversion error. In a simplified case study to recover local emission perturbations, horizontal smearing effects due to NOx transport were better resolved by the adjoint-based approach than by mass balance. For more complex emission changes that reflect real world scenarios, the iterative finite difference mass balance and adjoint methods produce similar top-down inventories when inverting hourly synthetic observations, both reducing the a priori error by factors of 3-4. Inversions of data sets that simulate satellite observations from low Earth and geostationary orbits also indicate that both the mass balance and adjoint inversions produce similar results, reducing a priori error by a factor of 3. As the iterative finite difference mass balance method provides similar accuracy as the adjoint-based 4D-VAR method, it offers the ability to efficiently estimate top-down emissions using models that do not have an adjoint.

  2. Acute nitrogen dioxide inhalation induces mitochondrial dysfunction in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wei; Ji, Xiaotong; Shi, Jing; Li, Guangke; Sang, Nan

    2015-04-01

    Recent epidemiological literatures imply that NO2 is a potential risk factor of neurological disorders. Whereas, the pathogenesis of various neurological diseases has been confirmed correlate to mitochondrial dysfunction, and mitochondria play the crucial roles in energy metabolism, free radicals production and apoptosis triggering in response to neuronal injury. Therefore, to clarify the possible mechanisms for NO2-induced neurotoxicity, in the present study, we investigated the possible effects of acute NO2 inhalation (5, 10 and 20mg/m(3) with 5h/day for 7 days) on energy metabolism and biogenesis in rat cortex, mainly including mitochondrial ultrastructure, mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c oxidase activity, cytochrome c oxidase (CO) and ATP synthase subunits, ATP content, and transcription factors. The results showed that NO2 exposure induced mitochondrial morphological changes in rat cortex, and the alteration was coupled with the abnormality of mitochondrial energy metabolism, including decreased respiratory complexes, reduced ATP production and increased production of ROS. Also, increased ROS in turn caused mitochondrial membrane damage, energy production defect and mitochondrial biogenesis inhibition. It suggests the significantly damaged mitochondrial energy metabolism and impaired biogenesis in rat brain after NO2 exposure, and provides a new understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of NO2-induced neurological disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Nitrogen dioxide produced by self-sustained pyrolysis of nitrous oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabol, A. P.

    1965-01-01

    Apparatus is developed for achieving continuous self-sustaining pyrolysis reaction in the production of nitrogen dioxide from nitrous oxide. The process becomes self-sustaining because of the exothermic reaction and the regenerative heating of the gases in the pyrolysis chamber.

  4. Synergistic effects of exposure to concentrated ambient fine pollution particles and nitrogen dioxide in humans

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to single pollutants such as ambient particulate matter (PM) is associated with adverse health effects. It is unclear, however, if simultaneous exposure to multiple air pollutants (e.g. PM and ozone or nitrogen dioxide), a more real world scenario, results in non-additiv...

  5. Near-road measurements for nitrogen dioxide and its association with traffic exposure zones

    EPA Science Inventory

    Near-road measurements for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) using passive air samplers were collected weekly in traffic exposure zones (TEZs) in the Research Triangle area of North Carolina (USA) during Fall 2014. Land use regression (LUR) analysis and pairwise comparisons of T...

  6. Near-road measurements for nitrogen dioxide and its association with traffic exposure zones

    EPA Science Inventory

    Near-road measurements for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) using passive air samplers were collected weekly in traffic exposure zones (TEZs) in the Research Triangle area of North Carolina (USA) during Fall 2014. Land use regression (LUR) analysis and pairwise comparisons of T...

  7. Recharge processes of paramagnetic centers during illumination in nitrogen-doped nanocrystalline titanium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, N. T.; Konstantinova, E. A.; Kokorin, A. I.; Kodom, T.; Alonso-Vante, N.

    2015-08-01

    Nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide (N-TiO2) has been investigated by the EPR-technique. Two types of paramagnetic centers - N• and NO•-radicals - were detected in the samples. Both N• and NO•-related centers are recharged during illumination. Band diagrams of TiO2 with N• and NO• radicals energy level position are proposed.

  8. Synergistic effects of exposure to concentrated ambient fine pollution particles and nitrogen dioxide in humans

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to single pollutants such as ambient particulate matter (PM) is associated with adverse health effects. It is unclear, however, if simultaneous exposure to multiple air pollutants (e.g. PM and ozone or nitrogen dioxide), a more real world scenario, results in non-additiv...

  9. The Second Cabauw Intercomparison Campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide Measuring Instruments — CINDI-2 — Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apituley, Arnoud; van Roozendael, Michel; Hendrick, Francois; Kreher, Karin; Richter, Andreas; Wagner, Thomas; Friess, Udo; Participants, Cindi-2

    2017-04-01

    For the validation of space borne observations of NO2 and other trace gases from hyperspectral imagers, ground based instruments based on the MAXDOAS technique are an excellent choice, since they rely on similar retrieval techniques as the observations from orbit. In both cases, retrievals take into account the light path of scattered sunlight though the entire atmosphere. Since MAXDOAS instruments are relatively low cost and can be operated autonomously almost anywhere, they are credible candidates to form a world-wide ground based reference network for satellite observations. To ensure proper traceability of the MAXDOAS observations, a thorough intercomparison is mandatory. The Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR) site in centre of The Netherlands was the stage of the Cabauw Intercomparison of Nitrogen Dioxide Measuring Instruments (CINDI) in June-July 2009 and again for the second campaign, CINDI-2, in 2016. Cabauw was chosen because the flat terrain offered a free view of large parts of the horizon, needed to accommodate the viewing geometry of the MAXDOAS observations. The location is under influence of both clean as well as polluted airmasses. This gives a wide range of possible trace gas concentrations and mixtures. Furthermore, at CESAR a wide range of observations are routinely carried out that fulfil the requirement to provide the background necessary for unraveling the differences between the observations from different MAXDOAS instruments that can be quite diverse in design and data treatment. These observations include parameters needed to understand the light paths, i.e. in-situ aerosol observations of optical and microphysical properties, as well as vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties by (Raman) lidar. In addition, vertical profiles of NO2 could be measured during CINDI-2 using the unique NO2 sonde, and a NO2 lidar system. With the imminent launch of Sentinel-5 Precursor/TROPOMI, with a nadir pixelsize of 3.5 × 3

  10. Effects of nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide on bacterial growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mancinelli, R. L.; Mckay, C. P.

    1983-01-01

    While it is generally thought that the bactericidal effects of NO and NO2 derive from their reaction with water to form nitrous and nitric acids (Shank et al., 1962), this appears to be true only at high concentrations. The data presented here suggest that at low NO and NO2 concentrations, acids are not present in high enough concentrations to act as toxic agents. Reference is made to a study by Grant et al. (1979), which found that exposing acid forest soil to 1 ppm of NO2 did not cause the soil pH to drop. The results presented here show that at low concentrations of NO and NO2, the NO is bacteriostatic for some organisms and not for others, whereas NO2 may protect some bacteria from the inhibitory effects of NO. Since it has been shown that bacteria can divide while airborne (Dimmick et al., 1979), the present results suggest that NO at the low concentrations found in the atmosphere can select for resistant bacteria in the air and affect the viable airborne bacterial population.

  11. Effects of nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide on bacterial growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mancinelli, R. L.; Mckay, C. P.

    1983-01-01

    While it is generally thought that the bactericidal effects of NO and NO2 derive from their reaction with water to form nitrous and nitric acids (Shank et al., 1962), this appears to be true only at high concentrations. The data presented here suggest that at low NO and NO2 concentrations, acids are not present in high enough concentrations to act as toxic agents. Reference is made to a study by Grant et al. (1979), which found that exposing acid forest soil to 1 ppm of NO2 did not cause the soil pH to drop. The results presented here show that at low concentrations of NO and NO2, the NO is bacteriostatic for some organisms and not for others, whereas NO2 may protect some bacteria from the inhibitory effects of NO. Since it has been shown that bacteria can divide while airborne (Dimmick et al., 1979), the present results suggest that NO at the low concentrations found in the atmosphere can select for resistant bacteria in the air and affect the viable airborne bacterial population.

  12. Nitrogen dioxide assimilation as affected by light level

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, H. ); Ormond, D.; Marie, B. )

    1989-04-01

    The air pollutant NO{sub 2} is absorbed and assimilated by plants to serve as a source of nitrogen but only to a limited extent. The objective of this research was to identify the constraints on NO{sub 2} assimilation. Differential light levels were used to manipulate carbohydrate metabolites available for nitrogen assimilation. Bean plants were grown at four light levels with or without nutrient nitrate and exposed to 0.25 ppm NO{sub 2} for 6h each day. Growth of roots and shoots was inhibited by NO{sub 2} in both the presence and absence of nutrient nitrate. The inhibition was most pronounced at the lowest light level. Light level similarly influenced the effect of nitrate and of NO{sub 2} on soluble protein, nitrate nitrogen and Kjeldahl nitrogen in the root and shoot tissues. Two experiments demonstrated that the injurious effects of NO{sub 2} are more pronounced at low light than at high light and that more NO{sub 2} is assimilated into soluble shoot protein at higher light levels.

  13. The impact of the 2005 Gulf hurricanes on pollution emissions as inferred from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) nitrogen dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Yasuko; Duncan, Bryan N.; Retscher, Christian; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Celarier, Edward A.; Joiner, Joanna; Boersma, K. Folkert; Veefkind, J. Pepijn

    2010-04-01

    The impact of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005 on pollution emissions in the Gulf of Mexico region was investigated using tropospheric column amounts of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the NASA Aura satellite. Around New Orleans and coastal Mississippi, we estimate that Katrina caused a 35% reduction in NO x emissions on average in the three weeks after landfall. Hurricane Rita caused a significant reduction (20%) in NO x emissions associated with power generation and intensive oil refining activities near the Texas/Louisiana border. We also found a 43% decrease by these two storms over the eastern Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf mainly due to the evacuation of and damage to platforms, rigs, and ports associated with oil and natural gas production.

  14. Sources of Variability in the Stratospheric Column of Nitrogen Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglass, Anne; Gleason, James; Chin, Mian; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Instruments such as the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME, on the European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-2), launched 1995), the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY, on ENVISAT, to be launched July 2001) and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI on EOS Aura, to be launched 2003) make measurements of the total column of NO2. There is interest in separating the stratospheric and tropospheric contributions to the column, as the tropospheric column provides a measure of pollution. We are using a 3D chemistry and transport model driven by winds from the Goddard Space Flight Center Data Assimilation System to examine variability in the stratospheric NO2 column. Model results for NOx = NO + NO2 + 2N2O5 will be shown to compare well with sunset observations from the Halogen Occultation Experiment on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite, and to exhibit similar temporal and spatial dependence. Partitioning between NO, NO2, and N2O5 is also shown to compare well with observations. This good agreement supports the use of simulated fields in the stratosphere to derive the tropospheric column from the total column. Preliminary comparisons of the tropospheric column with model simulations for the troposphere will also be shown.

  15. Diesel Exhaust Exposure Assessment Among Tunnel Construction Workers-Correlations Between Nitrogen Dioxide, Respirable Elemental Carbon, and Particle Number.

    PubMed

    Hedmer, Maria; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Li, Huiqi; Albin, Maria; Tinnerberg, Håkan; Broberg, Karin

    2017-06-01

    Occupational exposure to diesel exhaust is common due the widespread use of diesel-powered combustion engines. Diesel exhaust is chemically complex and consists of thousands of compounds present as gases and particulate matter. Both nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and elemental carbon (EC) have been used as markers for diesel exhaust exposure. Currently EC is regarded as the best surrogate of diesel exhaust. The objective was to quantify the occupational exposure to diesel exhaust in underground tunnel construction work using a multi-metric approach, and to investigate the correlations between NO2, respirable EC, respirable organic carbon (OC), respirable total carbon (TC), respirable dust (RD), and particle number. Also, the use of NO2 as a proxy for diesel exhaust was evaluated, how much of the variability in the diesel exhaust exposure was attributed to within and between individual factors and if there was a difference between expert and self-administered measurements of NO2. The personal exposure to diesel exhaust was assessed by expert supervised measurements of NO2, EC, OC, TC, RD and particle number in the breathing zones of underground tunnel workers. Stationary sampling of NO2, EC, OC, TC, RD, size-fractioned mass concentration, and particle number were conducted. The personal and stationary measurements were conducted on three occasions simultaneously. The workers measured their exposure by repeated self-administered measurements of NO2. The self-administered measurements were performed twice for each worker with at least one month lag between the samplings. In the simultaneous sampling of diesel exhaust, the geometric mean (GM) concentration of NO2 and respirable EC were 72 µg m-3 (10th-90th percentile 34-140 µg m-3) and 2.6 µg m-3 (10th-90th percentile 1.6-7.3 µg m-3), respectively. The GM for OC and TC was 28 µg m-3 (10th-90th percentile 20-42 µg m-3) and 31 µg m-3 (10th-90th percentile 20-50 µg m-3), respectively. The GM for RD and particle number was

  16. Theoretical prediction of the mechanisms for defect healing or oxygen doping in a hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) sheet with nitrogen vacancies by NO2 molecules.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jing-wen; Liu, Yue-Jie; Zhao, Jing-xiang

    2014-06-01

    Healing defects in hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN sheet) or doping it with oxygen can modify or restore its physical properties, which would increase its range of potential applications. Thus, it is very important to find an efficient method of healing or a BN sheet or doping it with oxygen. In this work, using density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we identified a mechanism for healing h-BN sheets with nitrogen vacancies (VN) or doping BN sheets with oxygen using NO2 molecules. The results indicate that such reactions involve three steps: (1) the chemisorption of NO2, (2) the incorporation of the N or O atom of NO2 into the defective h-BN sheet, and (3) the removal of the adsorbed O atom or NO molecule. We found that the proposed mechanism is theoretically possible and has the following advantages. First, the barrier is about 0.60 eV for the formation of the O-doped h-BN sheet. For the healing process, because the energy released during NO2 chemisorption (-4.94 eV) completely offsets the subsequent barrier (1.17 eV), a perfect h-BN sheet can easily be achieved by using NO2 and an h-BN sheet with VB defects as reactants. Second, no catalyst is needed, and thus there is no need for a purification step to remove the catalyst. Third, NO2, a toxic gas, can be used as a reactant and will then be reduced to O2 or NO. Fourth, NO2 shows high selectivity for vacancy defect sites. Our findings show that this is an effective theoretical method of synthesizing O-doped h-BN sheets or of healing defective h-BN sheets, which should prove useful in the design of h-BN sheet-based devices.

  17. Biofilm Removal Using Carbon Dioxide Aerosols without Nitrogen Purge.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seongkyeol; Jang, Jaesung

    2016-11-06

    Biofilms can cause serious concerns in many applications. Not only can they cause economic losses, but they can also present a public health hazard. Therefore, it is highly desirable to remove biofilms from surfaces. Many studies on CO2 aerosol cleaning have employed nitrogen purges to increase biofilm removal efficiency by reducing the moisture condensation generated during the cleaning. However, in this study, periodic jets of CO2 aerosols without nitrogen purges were used to remove Pseudomonas putida biofilms from polished stainless steel surfaces. CO2 aerosols are mixtures of solid and gaseous CO2 and are generated when high-pressure CO2 gas is adiabatically expanded through a nozzle. These high-speed aerosols were applied to a biofilm that had been grown for 24 hr. The removal efficiency ranged from 90.36% to 98.29% and was evaluated by measuring the fluorescence intensity of the biofilm as the treatment time was varied from 16 sec to 88 sec. We also performed experiments to compare the removal efficiencies with and without nitrogen purges; the measured biofilm removal efficiencies were not significantly different from each other (t-test, p > 0.55). Therefore, this technique can be used to clean various bio-contaminated surfaces within one minute.

  18. Revealing the Origin of Activity in Nitrogen-Doped Nanocarbons towards Electrocatalytic Reduction of Carbon Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Xu, Junyuan; Kan, Yuhe; Huang, Rui; Zhang, Bingsen; Wang, Bolun; Wu, Kuang-Hsu; Lin, Yangming; Sun, Xiaoyan; Li, Qingfeng; Centi, Gabriele; Su, Dangsheng

    2016-05-23

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are functionalized with nitrogen atoms for reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2 ). The investigation explores the origin of the catalyst's activity and the role of nitrogen chemical states therein. The catalysts show excellent performances, with about 90 % current efficiency for CO formation and stability over 60 hours. The Tafel analyses and density functional theory calculations suggest that the reduction of CO2 proceeds through an initial rate-determining transfer of one electron to CO2 , which leads to the formation of carbon dioxide radical anion (CO2 (.-) ). The initial reduction barrier is too high on pristine CNTs, resulting in a very high overpotentials at which the hydrogen evolution reaction dominates over CO2 reduction. The doped nitrogen atoms stabilize the radical anion, thereby lowering the initial reduction barrier and improving the intrinsic activity. The most efficient nitrogen chemical state for this reaction is quaternary nitrogen, followed by pyridinic and pyrrolic nitrogen. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Nitrogen Dioxide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Sheep

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    subsequent to inhalation expo- sure. Non- cardiogenic pulmonary edema is produced by brief exposure and unlike hyperoxia (Newman et al., 1983; Fukushima...macrophage number significantly decreased within the 24-h post-exposure period. Examination of lung tissue 24 after NO2 revealed patchy edema , mild hemorrhage...examination of lung tissue 24 h after NO, revealed patchy edema , mild hemorrhage and polymorphonuclear c, and mononuclear leukocyte infiltration. The NO

  20. Statistical summary and trend evaluation of air quality data for Cleveland, Ohio in 1967 to 1971: Total suspended particulate, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neustadter, H. E.; Sidik, S. M.; Burr, J. C., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Air quality data for Cleveland, Ohio, for the period of 1967 to 1971 were collated and subjected to statistical analysis. The total suspended particulate component is lognormally distributed; while sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide are reasonably approximated by lognormal distributions. Only sulfur dioxide, in some residential neighborhoods, meets Ohio air quality standards. Air quality has definitely improved in the industrial valley, while in the rest of the city, only sulfur dioxide has shown consistent improvement. A pollution index is introduced which displays directly the degree to which the environmental air conforms to mandated standards.

  1. Tropospheric Nitrogen Dioxide Column Density Trends Seen from the 10-year Record of OMI Measurements over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irie, H.; Muto, T.; Itahashi, S.; Kurokawa, J. I.

    2015-12-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aboard the Aura satellite recorded the 10-year (2005-2014) of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) vertical column density (VCD) data. The data set taken over East Asia was analyzed to estimate linear trends on national and grid bases for two periods of 2005-2011 and 2011-2014. The most striking features are leveling-off or decreasing trends seen in NO2 VCDs over China for 2011-2014 after continuous increases for 2005-2011. In particular, a significant reduction by ~14% occurred from 2013 through 2014, attaining to the level of 2009. The grid-basis trend analysis implies that the turnaround seen in the trends occurred on a province or larger spatial scale and was likely due mainly to the technical improvement such as the widespread use of de-NOx units. Another prominent features are seen in Japan, where NO2 VCDs decreased at a rate of ~4% per year from 2005 to 2011. The rate was almost unchanged between the two periods 2005-2011 and 2011-2014, while the significant power substitution of thermal power generation for the nuclear power generation took place in Japan after 2011, when a massive earthquake occurred off the Pacific coast of northern Japan. This reflects a less contribution of NOx emissions from the power plant sector than that from the transport sector in the Pacific Belt Zone lying over metropolitan areas.

  2. Use of GIS and ancillary variables to predict volatile organic compound and nitrogen dioxide levels at unmonitored locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Luther; Mukerjee, Shaibal; Gonzales, Melissa; Stallings, Casson; Neas, Lucas; Norris, Gary; Özkaynak, Halûk

    In late 1999, passive air sampling of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and volatile organic compounds was conducted at 22 school locations and two intensive sites in El Paso, Texas. Our goal was to predict concentrations of NO 2 and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, and m, p-xylene at a total of 55 schools. The predictive equations were developed by regressing the passive monitor measurements at the 22 monitored schools on land-use variables derived from a geographic information system (GIS). These GIS-based ancillary variables included distance to the nearest border crossing, elevation, population density, distance to roads with specified traffic volumes, traffic intensity around the schools, and distance to the nearest petroleum facility. The reliability of the predictive equations was assessed at the two intensive monitoring sites. For all pollutants, the most useful predictive ancillary variables were elevation, population density, distance to a border crossing, and distance to a petroleum facility. For estimating NO 2, traffic intensity was also important.

  3. Silica-induced pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in mice is altered by acute exposure to nitrogen dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Vetrano, K.M.; Morris, J.B.; Hubbard, A.K. )

    1992-11-01

    The biologic impact of consecutive exposures to two environmental pollutants was examined in mice exposed to silica crystals (SI) by intratracheal (IT) injection followed by an inhalation exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2). C57Bl/6 mice received an IT injection of 2 mg SI or sterile saline (SAL) followed by a 2-h inhalation exposure to NO2 at 20 ppm either within 2 h of or 24 h after SI instillation. During acute inflammation (d 3 postsilica), mice exposed to NO2 at either time showed a dramatic and significant reduction in the number of lavaged alveolar neutrophils (PMN) when compared to silica/air-exposed mice. Animals exposed to NO[sub 2] 24 h after silica also evidenced significant decreases in levels of lavage albumin and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) 3 d after silica, as well as significant decreases in hydroxyproline content of the lung 30 and 60 d postsilica injection when compared to silica/air-exposed animals. NO[sub 2] administration 24 h after silica appeared to shift the appearance of PMN in the lung from d 3 to d 14, but did not otherwise alter chronic cellular inflammation. These data suggest that the marked neutrophil response and collagen deposition induced by SI can be modulated by NO[sub 2] exposure and that the time of oxidant gas exposure after silica administration is critical to this modulation.

  4. Superior selectivity and enhanced response characteristics of palladium sensitized vanadium pentoxide nanorods for detection of nitrogen dioxide gas.

    PubMed

    Mane, A A; Suryawanshi, M P; Kim, J H; Moholkar, A V

    2017-06-01

    Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) nanorods have been deposited onto the glass substrates by spraying 75ml of 30mM vanadium trichloride (VCl3) solution at optimized substrate temperature of 400°C. The XRD study confirms the formation of orthorhombic crystal structure of V2O5 nanorods. The FE-SEM micrograph shows the nanorods-like morphology of V2O5. The presence of palladium (Pd) in the Pd-sensitized V2O5 nanorods is confirmed using EDAX study. The gas sensing measurements show that the Pd-sensitized V2O5 sensing material is an outstanding candidate for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) gas detection. Obtained results demonstrate that the Pd-sensitized V2O5 nanorods show the superior selectivity for NO2 gas in comparison with other gases such as NH3, H2S, CO, CO2 and SO2 at an operating temperature of 200°C. It shows the 75% response for 100ppm NO2 gas concentration with response and recovery times of 22s and 126s, respectively. Finally, the gas sensing mechanism based on chemisorption process is proposed to illustrate how Pd nanoparticles affect the gas sensing characteristics (response and response-recovery times). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The spatial and seasonal variation of nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide in Cape Breton Highlands National Park, Canada, and the association with lichen abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Mark D.; Heal, Mathew R.; Li, Zhengyan; Kuchta, James; King, Gavin H.; Hayes, Alex; Lambert, Sheldon

    2013-01-01

    Over 200,000 tourists per year visit Cape Breton Highlands National Park, Nova Scotia, Canada. The forests within the park are home to many rare epiphytic lichens, the species diversity of which has declined in some areas. The primary motivation for this study was to gain insight into the concentrations and potential local and long-range sources of air pollution, but its association with lichen species diversity was also examined. Ogawa passive diffusion samplers were used to measure nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the park at 19 sites in the winter and 20 sites in the summer of 2011. An improvement in the sensitivity of the sampler analytical protocol was developed. The mean concentrations in the park of winter and summer NO2 (0.81 and 0.16 ppb) and SO2 (0.24 and 0.21 ppb) are not at levels known to be phytotoxic to lichen. The NO2 concentrations in winter were significantly (p = 0.001) higher than those in summer whilst the SO2 concentrations did not differ significantly between winter and summer (p = 0.429). Highest NO2 concentrations in both seasons were observed in the Grand Anse Valley, presumably due to the steep road, emissions from the Pleasant Bay community at the foot of the valley and the enclosed topography of this area reducing dispersion of primary emissions. The SO2 concentrations in the park tended to be greater at elevated sites than valley sites, consistent with dispersion from long-range, rather than local, sources for this pollutant. Significant predictors in a multilinear regression for an index of air purity (lichen based measure of air quality) were lichen species number (p = 0.009), forest old growth index (p = 0.001) and distance from roads (p < 0.001) (model R2 = 0.8, model p = 0.004). The study suggests that local sources of pollution (roads emissions) are adversely associated with lichen species diversity in this National Park, compared with long-range transport, and that monitoring programs such as a lichen

  6. The interaction of ozone and nitrogen dioxide in the stratosphere of East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruchkouski, Ilya; Krasouski, Aliaksandr; Dziomin, Victar; Svetashev, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    At the Russian Antarctic station "Progress" (S69°23´, E76°23´) simultaneous measurements of trace gases using the MARS-B (Multi-Axis Recorder of Spectra) instrument and PION-UV spectro-radiometer for the time period from 05.01.2014 to 28.02.2014 have been performed. Both instruments were located outdoors. The aim of the measurements was to retrieve the vertical distribution of ozone and nitrogen dioxide in the atmosphere and to study their variability during the period of measurements. The MARS-B instrument, developed at the National Ozone Monitoring Research and Education Centre of the Belarusian State University (NOMREC BSU), successfully passed the procedure of international inter-comparison campaign MAD-CAT 2013 in Mainz, Germany. The instrument is able to record the spectra of scattered sunlight at different elevation angles within a maximum aperture of 1.3°. 12 elevation angles have been used in this study, including the zenith direction. Approximately 7000 spectra per day were registered in the range of 403-486 nm, which were then processed by DOAS technique aiming to retrieve differential slant columns of ozone, nitrogen dioxide and oxygen dimer. Furthermore, total nitrogen dioxide column values have been retrieved employing the Libradtran radiative transfer model. The PION-UV spectro-radiometer, also developed at NOMREC BSU, is able to record the spectra of scattered sunlight from the hemisphere in the range of 280-430 nm. The registered spectra have been used to retrieve the total ozone column values employing the Stamnes method. In this study observational data from both instruments is presented and analyzed. Furthermore, by combining analysis of this data with model simulations it is shown that decreases in nitrogen dioxide content in the upper atmosphere can be associated with increases in total ozone column values and rising of the ozone layer upper boundary. Finally, the time delay between changes in nitrogen dioxide and ozone values is

  7. Estimated Acute Effects of Ambient Ozone and Nitrogen Dioxide on Mortality in the Pearl River Delta of Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Yebin; Zhong, Liuju; Lu, Shou-En; Li, Yi; Dai, Lingzhen; Zhang, Yuanhang; Zhu, Tong

    2011-01-01

    Background and objectives: Epidemiologic studies have attributed adverse health effects to air pollution; however, controversy remains regarding the relationship between ambient oxidants [ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)] and mortality, especially in Asia. We conducted a four-city time-series study to investigate acute effects of O3 and NO2 in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) of southern China, using data from 2006 through 2008. Methods: We used generalized linear models with Poisson regression incorporating natural spline functions to analyze acute mortality in association with O3 and NO2, with PM10 (particulate matter ≤ 10 μm in diameter) included as a major confounder. Effect estimates were determined for individual cities and for the four cities as a whole. We stratified the analysis according to high- and low- exposure periods for O3. Results: We found consistent positive associations between ambient oxidants and daily mortality across the PRD cities. Overall, 10-μg/m3 increases in average O3 and NO2 concentrations over the previous 2 days were associated with 0.81% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.63%, 1.00%] and 1.95% (95% CI: 1.62%, 2.29%) increases in total mortality, respectively, with stronger estimated effects for cardiovascular and respiratory mortality. After adjusting for PM10, estimated effects of O3 on total and cardiovascular mortality were stronger for exposure during high-exposure months (September through November), whereas respiratory mortality was associated with O3 exposure during nonpeak exposure months only. Conclusions: Our findings suggest significant acute mortality effects of O3 and NO2 in the PRD and strengthen the rationale for further limiting the ambient pollution levels in the area. PMID:22157208

  8. Acute Effects of Nitrogen Dioxide on Cardiovascular Mortality in Beijing: An Exploration of Spatial Heterogeneity and the District-specific Predictors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Kai; Li, Runkui; Li, Wenjing; Wang, Zongshuang; Ma, Xinming; Zhang, Ruiming; Fang, Xin; Wu, Zhenglai; Cao, Yang; Xu, Qun

    2016-12-01

    The exploration of spatial variation and predictors of the effects of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on fatal health outcomes is still sparse. In a multilevel case-crossover study in Beijing, China, we used mixed Cox proportional hazard model to examine the citywide effects and conditional logistic regression to evaluate the district-specific effects of NO2 on cardiovascular mortality. District-specific predictors that could be related to the spatial pattern of NO2 effects were examined by robust regression models. We found that a 10 μg/m3 increase in daily mean NO2 concentration was associated with a 1.89% [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33–2.45%], 2.07% (95% CI: 1.23–2.91%) and 1.95% (95% CI: 1.16–2.72%) increase in daily total cardiovascular (lag03), cerebrovascular (lag03) and ischemic heart disease (lag02) mortality, respectively. For spatial variation of NO2 effects across 16 districts, significant effects were only observed in 5, 4 and 2 districts for the above three outcomes, respectively. Generally, NO2 was likely having greater adverse effects on districts with larger population, higher consumption of coal and more civilian vehicles. Our results suggested independent and spatially varied effects of NO2 on total and subcategory cardiovascular mortalities. The identification of districts with higher risk can provide important insights for reducing NO2 related health hazards.

  9. Acute Effects of Nitrogen Dioxide on Cardiovascular Mortality in Beijing: An Exploration of Spatial Heterogeneity and the District-specific Predictors

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Kai; Li, Runkui; Li, Wenjing; Wang, Zongshuang; Ma, Xinming; Zhang, Ruiming; Fang, Xin; Wu, Zhenglai; Cao, Yang; Xu, Qun

    2016-01-01

    The exploration of spatial variation and predictors of the effects of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on fatal health outcomes is still sparse. In a multilevel case-crossover study in Beijing, China, we used mixed Cox proportional hazard model to examine the citywide effects and conditional logistic regression to evaluate the district-specific effects of NO2 on cardiovascular mortality. District-specific predictors that could be related to the spatial pattern of NO2 effects were examined by robust regression models. We found that a 10 μg/m3 increase in daily mean NO2 concentration was associated with a 1.89% [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33–2.45%], 2.07% (95% CI: 1.23–2.91%) and 1.95% (95% CI: 1.16–2.72%) increase in daily total cardiovascular (lag03), cerebrovascular (lag03) and ischemic heart disease (lag02) mortality, respectively. For spatial variation of NO2 effects across 16 districts, significant effects were only observed in 5, 4 and 2 districts for the above three outcomes, respectively. Generally, NO2 was likely having greater adverse effects on districts with larger population, higher consumption of coal and more civilian vehicles. Our results suggested independent and spatially varied effects of NO2 on total and subcategory cardiovascular mortalities. The identification of districts with higher risk can provide important insights for reducing NO2 related health hazards. PMID:27910959

  10. Development of a Hydrazine/Nitrogen Dioxide Fiber Optic Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrawis, Alfred S.; Santiago, Josephine

    2003-01-01

    Bromothymol Blue (BT)/Bromocresol Green (BG) mixture (1/1) in hydrogel (l/l), produces a blue-green indicator for HZ and/or NO2. The stability over a two months period of this BT/BG (1/1) indicator solution was tested and no evidence of performance deterioration was detected. A dual HZ/NO2 prototype sensor utilizing an acid-base indicator was previously constructed. A monitor and control circuit are also designed, built d tested during the course of this project. The circuit is controlled with Motorola MC68HC II microcontroller evaluation board to monitor the voltage level out of the photodetector. Low-pass filter and amplifier are used to interface the sensor's small voltage with the microcontroller's AD input. The sensor, interface circuit and the microcontroller board are then all placed in one unit and powered with a single power supply. The unit is then tested several times and the response was consistent and proved the feasibility of dual "J@ leak detection. Other sensor types, suitable for silica glass fiber, smaller in size, more rugged and suitable for use on board of the Space Shuttle and missile canisters, are then proposed.

  11. MAX-DOAS Measurements of Nitrogen Dioxide and Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendolia, Deanna

    Multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) was applied to retrieve tropospheric NO2 and aerosol vertical profiles from downtown Toronto, and King City, Ontario during select periods in 2006 - 2010. Linear regression of MAX-DOAS NO2 vertical column density (VCD) versus OMI (satellite) VCD yielded a good correlation (R = 0.88) and MAX-DOAS negative bias of 20%, which was within the reported uncertainty of the MAX-DOAS and OMI VCD. The average regional Toronto VCD (remotely-sensed via MAX-DOAS and OMI) was half of the near-road VCD obtained in-situ (2.4 x 1016 ± 1.2 x 1016 molec/cm2 ). MAX-DOAS measurements of O4 were coupled with radiative transfer modeling to obtain vertical aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical depth (AOD). A strong linear agreement was observed between PM 2.5 concentration and aerosol extinction coefficient (R = 0.92), and MAX-DOAS versus sun photometer AOD (slope = 0.94; R= 0.90).

  12. Modelling of indoor exposure to nitrogen dioxide in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitroulopoulou, C.; Ashmore, M. R.; Byrne, M. A.; Kinnersley, R. P.

    A dynamic multi-compartment computer model has been developed to describe the physical processes determining indoor pollutant concentrations as a function of outdoor concentrations, indoor emission rates and building characteristics. The model has been parameterised for typical UK homes and workplaces and linked to a time-activity model to calculate exposures for a representative homemaker, schoolchild and office worker, with respect to NO 2. The estimates of population exposures, for selected urban and rural sites, are expressed in terms of annual means and frequency of hours in which air quality standards are exceeded. The annual mean exposures are estimated to fall within the range of 5-21 ppb for homes with no source, and 21-27 ppb for homes with gas cooking, varying across sites and population groups. The contribution of outdoor exposure to annual mean NO 2 exposure varied from 5 to 24%, that of indoor penetration of outdoor air from 17 to 86% and that of gas cooking from 0 to 78%. The frequency of exposure to 1 h mean concentrations above 150 ppb was very low, except for people cooking with gas.

  13. Surface area of montmorillonite from the dynamic sorption of nitrogen and carbon dioxide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, J.; Bohor, B.F.

    1968-01-01

    Surface area determinations were made on a montmorillonite with various cations emplaced on the exchangeable sites, utilizing nitrogen and carbon dioxide as adsorbates at 77 ??K and 195 ??K, respectively, in a dynamic system. From the fraction of a Mississippi montmorillonite less than about 1 ?? in size, samples were prepared by replacing the original exchangeable cations with Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cs+, Mg++, Ca++, Ba++, and NH4+, forming a series of homoionic montmorillonite species. Surface areas from 3-point B.E.T. plots (half-hour adsorption points), with nitrogen as the adsorbate, ranged from 61 m2/g for Li-montmorillonite to 138 m2/g for Cs-montmorillonite, thus reflecting a certain degree of nitrogen penetration between layers. Complete penetration should theoretically result in a surface area of over 300 m2/g for this clay with a nitrogen monolayer between each pair of platelets. The experimental data indicate that the extent of penetration is time-dependent and is also a function of the interlayer forces as governed by the size and charge of the replaceable cation. This finding negates the generally accepted concept that nitrogen at 77 ??K does not penetrate the layers and provides a measure only of the external surface of expandable clay minerals. A further measure of the variation of interlayer forces is provided by the adsorption of carbon dioxide at 195 ??K. Surface area values ranged from 99 m2/g for Li-montmorillonite to 315 m2/g for Csmontmorillonite. Although the carbon dioxide molecule is larger than the nitrogen molecule, its greater penetration apparently is a result of its being kinetically more energetic (with a larger diffusion coefficient) at its higher adsorption temperature. Similar differences have been found with both adsorbates in the study of microporous substances, such as coal, where activated diffusion is of considerable significance. ?? 1968.

  14. Associations between short-term exposure to nitrogen dioxide and mortality in 17 Chinese cities: the China Air Pollution and Health Effects Study (CAPES).

    PubMed

    Chen, Renjie; Samoli, Evangelia; Wong, Chit-Ming; Huang, Wei; Wang, Zongshuang; Chen, Bingheng; Kan, Haidong

    2012-09-15

    Few multi-city studies in Asian developing countries have examined the acute health effects of ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)). In the China Air Pollution and Health Effects Study (CAPES), we investigated the short-term association between NO(2) and mortality in 17 Chinese cities. We applied two-stage Bayesian hierarchical models to obtain city-specific and national average estimates for NO(2). In each city, we used Poisson regression models incorporating natural spline smoothing functions to adjust for long-term and seasonal trend of mortality, as well as other time-varying covariates. We examined the associations by age, gender and education status. We combined the individual-city estimates of the concentration-response curves to get an overall NO(2)-mortality association in China. The averaged daily concentrations of NO(2) in the 17 Chinese cities ranged from 26 μg/m(3) to 67 μg/m(3). In the combined analysis, a 10-μg/m(3) increase in two-day moving averaged NO(2) was associated with a 1.63% [95% posterior interval (PI), 1.09 to 2.17], 1.80% (95% PI, 1.00 to 2.59) and 2.52% (95% PI, 1.44 to 3.59) increase of total, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality, respectively. These associations remained significant after adjustment for ambient particles or sulfur dioxide (SO(2)). Older people appeared to be more vulnerable to NO(2) exposure. The combined concentration-response curves indicated a linear association. Conclusively, this largest epidemiologic study of NO(2) in Asian developing countries to date suggests that short-term exposure to NO(2) is associated with increased mortality risk.

  15. The use of nanocarbons as chemical filters for the selective detection of nitrogen dioxide and ozone.

    PubMed

    Spinelle, Laurent; Dubois, Marc; Brunet, Jérôme; Guérin, Katia; Parra, Vicente; Varenne, Christelle; Lauron, Bernard; Bouvet, Marcel; Hamwi, André; Pauly, Alain

    2010-09-01

    The gas filtering abilities of different nanocarbon materials such as nanocones/nanodiscs, and nanofibres, either as-prepared or modified by physical (annealing, grinding) or chemical (fluorination) treatment are reported. The aptitude to filter nitrogen dioxide and ozone, two of the most significant gaseous pollutants of the atmosphere, have been correlated to both the BET specific surface area studied by N2 adsorption at 77 K, and the presence of chemical functional groups at the surface. Valuable information regarding the mechanisms of gas-nanocarbon interaction has been obtained, in terms of chemisorption and physisorption. A prototype microsystem is proposed for the selective measurement of nitrogen dioxide and ozone concentration by means of organic semiconductor gas sensors.

  16. Experimental study on the nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter emissions from diesel engine retrofitted with particulate oxidation catalyst.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiangyu; Ge, Yunshan; Ma, Chaochen; Tan, Jianwei; Yu, Linxiao; Li, Jiaqiang; Wang, Xin

    2014-02-15

    A particulate oxidation catalyst (POC) was employed to perform experiments on the engine test bench to evaluate the effects on the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM) emissions from diesel engine. The engine exhaust was sampled from both upstream and downstream of the POC. The results showed that the POC increased the ratios of NO2/NOx significantly in the middle and high loads, the ratio of NO2/nitrogen oxides (NOx) increased 4.5 times on average under all experiment modes with the POC. An engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS) was used to study the particle number-weighted size distributions and the abnormal particle emissions with the POC. The results indicated that the average reduction rate of particle number (PN) was 61% in the operating range of the diesel engine. At the engine speed of 1,400 r/min, the reduction rates of PN tended to decrease with the larger particle size. In the long time run under the steady mode (520 Nm, 1,200 r/min), abnormal particle emissions after the POC happened seven times in the first hour, and the average PN concentration of these abnormal emission peaks was much higher than that in normal state. The particle emissions of peaks 1-5 equaled the particles emitted downstream of the POC in normal state for 1.9h in number concentration, and for 3.6h in mass concentration. The PN concentrations tended to increase over time in 5h under the steady engine mode and the increase of the PN in the size range of 6.04-14.3 nm was more evident. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Fast gas chromotography with luminol detection for measurement of nitrogen dioxide and PANs.

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Drayton, P. J.

    1999-09-30

    Fast capillary gas chromatography has been coupled to a luminol-based chemiluminescence detection system for the rapid monitoring of nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacyl nitrates. A first-generation instrument was described recently (Gaffney et al., 1998). This system is capable of monitoring nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs; to and including the C4 species) with 1-min time resolution. This is an improvement by a factor of five over gas chromatography methods with electron capture detection. In addition, the luminol method is substantially less expensive than laser fluorescent detection or mass spectroscopic methods. Applications in aircraft-based research have been published electronically and will appear shortly in Environmental Science and Technology (Gaffney et al., 1999a). An improved version of the instrument that has been designed and built makes use of a Hammamatsu photon-counting system. Detection limits of this instrumentation are at the low tens of ppt. The range of the instrument can be adjusted by modifying sampling volumes and detection counting times. A review of past work and of recent application of the instrumentation to field measurements of nitrogen dioxide and PANs is presented. The data clearly indicate that the luminol approach can determine the target species with time resolution of less than 1 min. Examples of applications for estimation of peroxyacetyl radical concentrations and nitrate radical formation rates are also presented. This instrumentation can further be used for evaluation of surfaces for loss of nitrogen dioxide and PANs, phenomena of possible importance for sampling interfaces and chamber wall design. Our high-frequency field data clearly indicate that the ''real world'' is not well mixed and that turbulent mixing and plume-edge chemistries might play an important role in urban- and regional-scale interactions. Dynamic flow systems might be required to evaluate such effects in new-generation chamber studies.

  18. Intercomparison among tropospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide data obtained by satellite- and ground-based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, K.; Urita, N.; Ohta, E.; Hayashida, S.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J. P.; Liu, X.; Chance, K.; Ziemke, J. R.

    2005-12-01

    Rapid economical growth and industrial development in East Asian regions are causing serious air pollution. The influence of such air pollution is not limited to a local scale but reaches an intercontinental or hemispheric scale. Satellite-borne observations can monitor the behaviors of air pollutants in a global scale for long periods with a single instrument. In particular, ozone and nitrogen dioxide in the troposphere have a crucial role in air pollution, and many studies have tried to derive those species. Recently, instrumentations and retrieval techniques have made a lot of progress in measurements of tropospheric constituents. However, tropospheric observations from space need careful validation because of difficulties in detecting signals from the lower atmosphere through the middle atmosphere. In the present study, we intercompare the tropospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide data obtained by satellite- and ground-based measurements in order to validate the satellite measurements. For the validation of tropospheric ozone, we utilize ozonesonde data provided by WOUDC, and three satellite-borne data (Tropospheric Ozone Residual (TOR), Cloud Slicing, and GOME) are intercompared. For nitrogen dioxide, we compare GOME observations with ground-based air monitoring measurements in Japan which are operationally conducted by the Ministry of the Environment Japan. This study demonstrates the validity and potential of those satellite datasets to apply for quantitative analysis of dispersion of air pollutants and their chemical lifetime. Acknowledgments. TOR data is provided by J. Fishman via http://asd-www.larc.nasa.gov/TOR/data.html. The ground observation data of nitrogen dioxide over Japan is provided by National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) under the collaboration study with NIES and Nara Women's University.

  19. Failure of ozone and nitrogen dioxide to enhance lung tumor development in hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Witschi, H.; Breider, M.A.; Schuller, H.M. )

    1993-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the two common oxidant air pollutants, ozone and nitrogen dioxide, modulate the development of respiratory tract tumors in Syrian golden hamsters. The animals received subcutaneous injections of the carcinogen diethylnitrosamine (20 mg/kg) twice a week while being exposed continuously to an atmosphere of 0.8 parts per million (ppm)* of ozone or 15 ppm of nitrogen dioxide. Animals were killed 16 weeks or 24 to 32 weeks after the beginning of the treatment. Ozone delayed the appearance of tracheal tumors and reduced the incidence of tumors in the lung periphery. A suspected neuroendocrine differentiation of those lung tumors could not be established by immunocytochemistry due to overfixation of tissues. On the other hand, ozone seemed to mitigate development of hepatotoxic lesions mediated by diethylnitrosamine. In animals treated with diethylnitrosamine and exposed to nitrogen dioxide, fewer tracheal tumors and no lung tumors were found. Only a few lung tumors were produced in animals treated with diethylnitrosamine and kept in an atmosphere of 65% oxygen. The previously observed neuroendocrine nature of tumors induced by simultaneous exposure to diethylnitrosamine and hyperoxia could not be established because the long fixation of tissues precluded immunocytochemical stains. Animals treated with diethylnitrosamine and kept in filtered air while being housed in wire-mesh cages developed fewer lung tumors than animals given the same treatment and kept on conventional bedding in shoebox cages. Although all inhalants tested are known to produce substantial cell proliferation in the respiratory tract, it was not possible to document whether this would enhance lung tumor development. The role of the two common air pollutants, ozone and nitrogen dioxide, as possible additional risks in the pathogenesis of lung cancer in animals continues to remain uncertain.

  20. Traffic-related pollution and asthma prevalence in children. Quantification of associations with nitrogen dioxide.

    PubMed

    Favarato, Graziella; Anderson, H Ross; Atkinson, Richard; Fuller, Gary; Mills, Inga; Walton, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Ambient nitrogen dioxide is a widely available measure of traffic-related air pollution and is inconsistently associated with the prevalence of asthma symptoms in children. The use of this relationship to evaluate the health impact of policies affecting traffic management and traffic emissions is limited by the lack of a concentration-response function based on systematic review and meta-analysis of relevant studies. Using systematic methods, we identified papers containing quantitative estimates for nitrogen dioxide and the 12 month period prevalence of asthma symptoms in children in which the exposure contrast was within-community and dominated by traffic pollution. One estimate was selected from each study according to an a priori algorithm. Odds ratios were standardised to 10 μg/m(3) and summary estimates were obtained using random- and fixed-effects estimates. Eighteen studies were identified. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide were estimated for the home address (12) and/or school (8) using a range of methods; land use regression (6), study monitors (6), dispersion modelling (4) and interpolation (2). Fourteen studies showed positive associations but only two associations were statistically significant at the 5 % level. There was moderate heterogeneity (I(2) = 32.8 %) and the random-effects estimate for the odds ratio was 1.06 (95 % CI 1.00 to 1.11). There was no evidence of small study bias. Individual studies tended to have only weak positive associations between nitrogen dioxide and asthma prevalence but the summary estimate bordered on statistical significance at the 5 % level. Although small, the potential impact on asthma prevalence could be considerable because of the high level of baseline prevalence in many cities. Whether the association is causal or indicates the effects of a correlated pollutant or other confounders, the estimate obtained by the meta-analysis would be appropriate for estimating impacts of traffic pollution on asthma

  1. Breadboard gas filter correlation spectrometer for atmospheric measurement of hydrazines and nitrogen dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, R.

    1981-10-01

    This report describes the efforts to build a breadboard Gas Filter Correlation Spectrometer (GFSC) for the atmospheric measurement of hydrazines and nitrogen dioxide. The instrument was configured for use as an ambient monitor, with the possibility of conversion to a remote sensor by addition of a telescope. The final detection limits for the gases were: N2H4 = .3 ppm, UDHM = .23 ppm, MMH = .22 ppm, and N02 = 9 ppm.

  2. Photodissociation of nitrogen dioxide by pulsed laser light at 6943 A.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerstmayr, J. W.; Harteck, P.; Reeves, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    Nitrogen dioxide was photodissociated using a pulsed ruby laser at 6943 A. The energy of a single photon at this wavelength was equivalent to only 57% of the dissociation energy. The mechanism proposed to account for the results was the consecutive absorption of two photons, the first resulting in a short-lived excited state. The second photon is then absorbed by the excited species resulting in dissociation.

  3. Nitrogen dioxide fluorescence from N/sub 2/O/sub 5/ photolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, D.; Sisk, W.; Young, A.; Johnston, H.

    1986-12-15

    The products of ultraviolet photolysis of N/sub 2/O/sub 5/ are NO/sub 3/ and awavelength dependent mixture of NO/sub 2/, NO/sup *//sub 2/, and NO+O, where NO/sup *//sub 2/ represents one or more excited electronic states of nitrogen dioxide. This NO/sup *//sub 2/ emits the visible fluorescence spectrum of nitrogen dioxide (photolysis induced fluorescence, PIF), and this spectrum was compared with monochromatically excited NO/sub 2/ fluorescence spectra (laser induced fluorescence, LIF). In a series of experiments, dispersed PIF and LIF spectra were measured where reactant pressure was 200 mTorr, delay time was 30 ns, and observation time was 600 ns. According to results obtained by Sugimoto and co-workers, under these conditions the continuous spectrum, which reflects the overall internal energy of NO/sup *//sub 2/, had been little modified by collision, although there was degradation of fine structure. The continuous LIF spectra were fit to an empirical function, and the PIF spectra were shown to be well represented by a linear combination of these mono-energetic excitation spectra. The coefficients of this linear combination plus other considerations were interpreted to give the almost nascent internal energy distribution of the electronically excited nitrogen dioxide molecules produced by N/sub 2/O/sub 5/ photolysis. This non-Boltzmann internal energy distribution indicates that electronically excited nitrogen dioxide is produced in the /sup 2/B/sub 1/ state when N/sub 2/O/sub 5/ is photolyzed.

  4. Personal exposure monitoring of particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide, including susceptible groups.

    PubMed

    Harrison, R M; Thornton, C A; Lawrence, R G; Mark, D; Kinnersley, R P; Ayres, J G

    2002-10-01

    To investigate the relation between personal exposures to nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and PM(10), and exposures estimated from static concentrations of these pollutants measured within the same microenvironments, for healthy individuals and members of susceptible groups. Eleven healthy adult subjects and 18 members of groups more susceptible to adverse health changes in response to a given level of exposure to nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and/or PM(10) than the general population (six schoolchildren, six elderly subjects, and six with pre-existing disease-two with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), two with left ventricular failure (LVF), and two with severe asthma) were recruited. Daytime personal exposures were determined either directly or through shadowing. Relations between personal exposures and simultaneously measured microenvironment concentrations were examined. Correlations between personal exposures and microenvironment concentration were frequently weak for individual subjects because of the small range in measured concentrations. However, when all subjects were pooled, excellent relations between measured personal exposure and microenvironment concentration were found for both carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, with slopes of close to one and near zero intercepts. For PM(10), a good correlation was also found with an intercept of personal exposure (personal cloud) of 16.7 (SD 10.4) micro g/m(3). Modelled and measured personal exposures were generally in reasonably good agreement, but modelling with generic mean microenvironment data was unable to represent the full range of measured concentrations. Microenvironment measurements of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide can well represent the personal exposures of individuals within that microenvironment. The same is true for PM(10) with the addition of a personal cloud increment. Elderly subjects and those with pre-existing disease received generally lower PM(10) exposures than

  5. NO2 measurement by chemiluminescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, E. J.; Rogowski, R. S.; Richards, R. R.

    1979-01-01

    Compact device monitors specific chemiluminescent reaction of heated solid material such as 3,5 diaminobezoic or polyvinyl alcohol after contact with gas sample to detect and quantify nitrogen dioxide concentration.

  6. The Carbon-Nitrogen Balance of the Nodule and Its Regulation under Elevated Carbon Dioxide Concentration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Legumes have developed a unique way to interact with bacteria: in addition to preventing infection from pathogenic bacteria like any other plant, legumes also developed a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with one gender of soil bacteria: rhizobium. This interaction leads to the development of a new root organ, the nodule, where the differentiated bacteria fix for the plant the atmospheric dinitrogen (atmN2). In exchange, the symbiont will benefit from a permanent source of carbon compounds, products of the photosynthesis. The substantial amounts of fixed carbon dioxide dedicated to the symbiont imposed to the plant a tight regulation of the nodulation process to balance carbon and nitrogen incomes and outcomes. Climate change including the increase of the concentration of the atmospheric carbon dioxide is going to modify the rates of plant photosynthesis, the balance between nitrogen and carbon, and, as a consequence, the regulatory mechanisms of the nodulation process. This review focuses on the regulatory mechanisms controlling carbon/nitrogen balances in the context of legume nodulation and discusses how the change in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration could affect nodulation efficiency. PMID:24987690

  7. The carbon-nitrogen balance of the nodule and its regulation under elevated carbon dioxide concentration.

    PubMed

    Libault, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Legumes have developed a unique way to interact with bacteria: in addition to preventing infection from pathogenic bacteria like any other plant, legumes also developed a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with one gender of soil bacteria: rhizobium. This interaction leads to the development of a new root organ, the nodule, where the differentiated bacteria fix for the plant the atmospheric dinitrogen (atmN2). In exchange, the symbiont will benefit from a permanent source of carbon compounds, products of the photosynthesis. The substantial amounts of fixed carbon dioxide dedicated to the symbiont imposed to the plant a tight regulation of the nodulation process to balance carbon and nitrogen incomes and outcomes. Climate change including the increase of the concentration of the atmospheric carbon dioxide is going to modify the rates of plant photosynthesis, the balance between nitrogen and carbon, and, as a consequence, the regulatory mechanisms of the nodulation process. This review focuses on the regulatory mechanisms controlling carbon/nitrogen balances in the context of legume nodulation and discusses how the change in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration could affect nodulation efficiency.

  8. Acute respiratory illness in families exposed to nitrogen dioxide ambient air pollution in Chattanooga, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Love, G.J.; Lan, S.P.; Shy, C.M.; Riggan, W.B.

    1982-03-01

    The incidence of acute respiratory illness in families in Chattanooga, Tennessee was studied in 1972 and 1973 to determine if residents of a formerly high nitrogen dioxide exposure community continued to experience a high incidence of illness after ambient air concentrations of the pollutant had been reduced substantially. Illness data were collected by telephone at 2-wk intervals and illness rates per 100 person weeks of observation were contrasted with air pollution concentrations measured no more than 3.2 km from the home. Data were contrasted by communities designated as high, intermediate, or low pollution exposure. In 1972, higher rates of respiratory illness continued to occur in the designated high pollution area. These were associated with current higher short-term concentrations of nitrogen dioxide even though the long-term mean concentrations of the pollutant were little higher than those in the low pollution area. It was not possible to attribute the excesses in illness to specific pollutants or to specific exposure periods. However, reduction of the illness rate in 1973 associated with a strike at the primary source industry that curtailed nitrogen dioxide pollution in the high exposure community suggested that the short-term exposure may be more important than long-term exposure.

  9. A survey of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide in indoor ice arenas in Vermont

    SciTech Connect

    Paulozzi, L.J. ); Spengler, R.F.; Vogt, R.L.; Carney, J.K.

    1993-12-01

    Because of the history of health problems traceable to the exhaust of ice resurfacing machines, state sanitarians used detector tubes to measure carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO[sub 2]) levels in enclosed ice arenas in Vermont during high school hockey games. Five of eight arenas had average game CO measurements of 30 ppm carbon monoxide or more. Two of the three periods of play had average CO readings in excess of 100 ppm in one arena. Only six arenas had the complete series of nitrogen dioxide measurements. One had an average game NO[sub 2] level of 1.2 ppm. Two had one or more periods of play that averaged in excess of 0.5 ppm. Despite the ample documentation of the hazards of operating combustion-powered resurfacing machines inside enclosed ice arenas, a significant portion of the arenas had undesirable levels of carbon monoxide or nitrogen dioxide. Ice arenas should be routinely monitored for air contaminants. Considerations should be given to the purchase of electric ice resurfacing machines for new arenas and arenas that have air contamination that cannot be resolved with ventilation.

  10. Effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide on soil nitrogen cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmockel, Kirsten S.

    elevated atmospheric CO2 on soil nitrogen cycling at the ecosystem scale, despite an increase in N demand of 0.86 g m-2 y -1 under elevated CO2. My results suggest that elevated CO2 does not alter soil nitrogen cycling at the decadal time scale. Retranslocation within trees and slowly cycling soil organic pools are likely supporting the increased N demand under elevated CO2. Longer-term studies may reveal differences in soil organic matter and carbon sequestration dynamics under ambient and elevated CO2.

  11. Effects of carbon dioxide enrichment and nitrogen supply on growth of boreal tree seedlings.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kevin; Higginbotham, K. O.

    1986-12-01

    The effects of two levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (350 microl l(-1), 750 microl l(-1)) and three levels of nitrogen (15.5 mM, 1.55 mM, 0.155 mM N) on biomass accumulation and partitioning were examined in aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) and white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) seedlings grown in controlled environment rooms for 100 days after germination. Nitrogen supply had pronounced effects on biomass accumulation, height, and leaf area of both species. Root weight ratio (RWR) of white spruce was significantly increased at the lowest level of nitrogen, whereas RWR of aspen did not change much with increasing levels of nitrogen. Carbon dioxide enrichment significantly increased (1) the leaf and total biomass of spruce seedlings grown in the high-N regime, (2) the RWR of seedlings in the medium-N regime, and (3) the root biomass of seedlings in the low-N regime after 100 days. Carbon dioxide enrichment of aspen temporarily increased biomass and height in all three nitrogen regimes. Root, stem, and leaf mass, height, and leaf area of aspen were increased only at the 30-day harvest in the high-N treatment and at 50 and 60 days in the low-N treatment. Height, stem biomass, and leaf biomass of aspen seedlings were significantly increased by CO(2) enrichment after 40 days in the medium-N treatment. These effects did not persist, possibly because of the onset of mineral nutrient supply limitations with increasing plant size.

  12. Nitrogen dioxide reactions with 46 atomic main-group and transition metal cations in the gas phase: room temperature kinetics and periodicities in reactivity.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Michael J Y; Blagojevic, Voislav; Koyanagi, Gregory K; Bohme, Diethard K

    2013-02-14

    Experimental results are reported for the gas-phase room-temperature kinetics of chemical reactions between nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and 46 atomic main-group and transition metal cations (M(+)). Measurements were taken with an inductively-coupled plasma/selected-ion flow tube (ICP/SIFT) tandem mass spectrometer in helium buffer gas at a pressure of 0.35 ± 0.01 Torr and at 295 ± 2 K. The atomic cations were produced at ca. 5500 K in an ICP source and allowed to decay radiatively and to thermalize to room temperature by collisions with Ar and He atoms prior to reaction with NO(2). Measured apparent bimolecular rate coefficients and primary reaction product distributions are reported for all 46 atomic metal cations and these provide an overview of trends across and down the periodic table. Three main types of reactions were observed: O-atom transfer to form either MO(+) or NO(+), electron transfer to form NO(2)(+), and addition to form MNO(2)(+). Bimolecular O-atom transfer was observed to predominate. Correlations are presented between reaction efficiency and the O-atom affinity of the metal cation and between the prevalence of NO(+) product formation and the electron recombination energy of the product metal oxide cation. Some second-order reactions are evident with metal cations that react inefficiently. Most interesting of these is the formation of the MNO(+) cation with Rh(+) and Pd(+). The higher-order chemistry with NO(2) is very diverse and includes the formation of numerous NO(2) ion clusters and a number of tri- and tetraoxide metal cations. Group 2 metal dioxide cations (CaO(2)(+), SrO(2)(+), BaO(2)(+)) exhibit a unique reaction with NO(2) to form MO(NO)(+) ions perhaps by NO transfer from NO(2) concurrent with O(2) formation by recombination of a NO(2) and an oxide oxygen.

  13. Atmospheric protein chemistry influenced by anthropogenic air pollutants: nitration and oligomerization upon exposure to ozone and nitrogen dioxide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fobang; Lakey, Pascale S J; Berkemeier, Thomas; Tong, Haijie; Kunert, Anna Theresa; Meusel, Hannah; Cheng, Yafang; Su, Hang; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Lai, Senchao; Weller, Michael G; Shiraiwa, Manabu; Pöschl, Ulrich; Kampf, Christopher J

    2017-08-24

    The allergenic potential of airborne proteins may be enhanced via post-translational modification induced by air pollutants like ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The molecular mechanisms and kinetics of the chemical modifications that enhance the allergenicity of proteins, however, are still not fully understood. Here, protein tyrosine nitration and oligomerization upon simultaneous exposure of O3 and NO2 were studied in coated-wall flow-tube and bulk solution experiments under varying atmospherically relevant conditions (5-200 ppb O3, 5-200 ppb NO2, 45-96% RH), using bovine serum albumin as a model protein. Generally, more tyrosine residues were found to react via the nitration pathway than via the oligomerization pathway. Depending on reaction conditions, oligomer mass fractions and nitration degrees were in the ranges of 2.5-25% and 0.5-7%, respectively. The experimental results were well reproduced by the kinetic multilayer model of aerosol surface and bulk chemistry (KM-SUB). The extent of nitration and oligomerization strongly depends on relative humidity (RH) due to moisture-induced phase transition of proteins, highlighting the importance of cloud processing conditions for accelerated protein chemistry. Dimeric and nitrated species were major products in the liquid phase, while protein oligomerization was observed to a greater extent for the solid and semi-solid phase states of proteins. Our results show that the rate of both processes was sensitive towards ambient ozone concentration, but rather insensitive towards different NO2 levels. An increase of tropospheric ozone concentrations in the Anthropocene may thus promote pro-allergic protein modifications and contribute to the observed increase of allergies over the past decades.

  14. Tropospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide measurements in urban and rural regions as seen by IASI and GOME-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safieddine, S.; Clerbaux, C.; George, M.; Hadji-Lazaro, J.; Hurtmans, D.; Coheur, P.; Wespes, C.; Layola, D.; Valks, P.; Hao, N.

    2013-05-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) columns in urban and rural regions as seen by the infrared sounder IASI are analyzed along with GOME-2 tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns. Results over nine cities of the Northern Hemisphere for the period 2008-2011 show a typical seasonal behavior of tropospheric O3, with a first maximum reached in late spring because of stratospheric intrusion mainly, and a continuous rise till the summer because of the anthropogenic based ozone production. Over the East Asian cities, a decrease in the O3 tropospheric column is detected during monsoon period. Seasonal cycling of tropospheric NO2 shows consistent higher values during winter because of the higher anthropogenic sources and longer lifetime. In rural regions, a complex relation between the O3 and NO2 column is found, with higher linearity in summer. O3 concentrations in rural sites are found to be comparable to those found closest to the anthropogenic emission sources, with peak values in spring and summer. Furthermore, the effect of the reduction of pollutant emissions in China during the Olympic games of 2008 is studied. GOME-2 NO2 measurements show a reduction up to 54% above Beijing during this period compared to the following three years. IASI O3 measurements show an increase of 12% during July 2008 followed by a decrease of 5-6% during the months of August and September. A significant reduction in O3 tropospheric column values is also detected in the area downwind, few hundreds of kilometers to the south of Beijing.

  15. Nitration of benzo[a]pyrene adsorbed on coal fly ash particles by nitrogen dioxide: role of thermal activation.

    PubMed

    Kristovich, Robert L; Dutta, Prabir K

    2005-09-15

    Nitration of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) by nitrogen dioxide (NO2) adsorbed on the surface of thermally activated coal fly ash and model aluminosilicate particles led to the formation of nitrobenzo[a]pyrenes as verified by extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). In situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was utilized to follow the nitration reaction on the surface of zeolite Y. Nitrobenzo[a]pyrene formation was observed along with the formation of nitrous acid and nitrate species. The formation of the BaP radical cation was also observed on thermally activated aluminosilicate particles by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. On the basis of GC/MS, DRIFTS, and ESR spectroscopy results, a mechanism of nitration involving intermediate BaP radical cations generated on thermally activated aluminosilicate particles is proposed. These observations have led to the hypothesis that nitration of adsorbed polyaromatic hydrocarbons on coal fly ash by reaction with nitrogen oxides can occur in the smokestack, but with the aging of the fly ash particles, the extent of the nitration reaction will be diminished.

  16. Assessing traffic and industrial contributions to ambient nitrogen dioxide and volatile organic compounds in a low pollution urban environment.

    PubMed

    Oiamo, Tor H; Johnson, Markey; Tang, Kathy; Luginaah, Isaac N

    2015-10-01

    Land use regression (LUR) modeling is an effective method for estimating fine-scale distributions of ambient air pollutants. The objectives of this study are to advance the methodology for use in urban environments with relatively low levels of industrial activity and provide exposure assessments for research on health effects of air pollution. Intraurban distributions of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) benzene, toluene and m- and p-xylene were characterized based on spatial monitoring and LUR modeling in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Passive samplers were deployed at 50 locations throughout Ottawa for two consecutive weeks in October 2008 and May 2009. Land use variables representing point, area and line sources were tested as predictors of pooled pollutant distributions. LUR models explained 96% of the spatial variability in NO2 and 75-79% of the variability in the VOC species. Proximity to highways, green space, industrial and residential land uses were significant in the final models. More notably, proximity to industrial point sources and road network intersections were significant predictors for all pollutants. The strong contribution of industrial point sources to VOC distributions in Ottawa suggests that facility emission data should be considered whenever possible. The study also suggests that proximity to road network intersections may be an effective proxy in areas where reliable traffic data are not available.

  17. Impact of personal and ambient-level exposures to nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter on cardiovascular function

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Ron; Brook, Rob; Bard, Rob; Conner, Teri; Shin, Hwashin; Burnett, Rick

    2011-01-01

    This work explored the association between nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and PM2.5 components with changes in cardiovascular function in an adult non-smoking cohort. The cohort consisted of 65 volunteers participating in the US EPA’s Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) and a University of Michigan cardiovascular sub-study. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), heart rate (HR), brachial artery diameter (BAD), brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and nitroglycerin-mediated arterial dilatation (NMD) were collected by in-home examinations. A maximum of 336 daily environmental and health effect observations were obtained. Daily potassium air concentrations were associated with significant decreases in DBP (−0.0447 mmHg/ng/m3 ± 0.0132, p = 0.0016, lag day 0) among participants compliant with the personal monitoring protocol. Personal NO2 exposures resulted in significant changes in BAD (e.g., 0.0041 mm/ppb ± 0.0019, p = 0.0353, lag day 1) and FMD (0.0612 ±0.0235, p = 0.0103, lag day 0) among other findings. PMID:21711166

  18. A study on modeling nitrogen dioxide concentrations using land-use regression and conventionally used exposure assessment methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Giehae; Bell, Michelle L.; Lee, Jong-Tae

    2017-04-01

    The land-use regression (LUR) approach to estimate the levels of ambient air pollutants is becoming popular due to its high validity in predicting small-area variations. However, only a few studies have been conducted in Asian countries, and much less research has been conducted on comparing the performances and applied estimates of different exposure assessments including LUR. The main objectives of the current study were to conduct nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure assessment with four methods including LUR in the Republic of Korea, to compare the model performances, and to estimate the empirical NO2 exposures of a cohort. The study population was defined as the year 2010 participants of a government-supported cohort established for bio-monitoring in Ulsan, Republic of Korea. The annual ambient NO2 exposures of the 969 study participants were estimated with LUR, nearest station, inverse distance weighting, and ordinary kriging. Modeling was based on the annual NO2 average, traffic-related data, land-use data, and altitude of the 13 regularly monitored stations. The final LUR model indicated that area of transportation, distance to residential area, and area of wetland were important predictors of NO2. The LUR model explained 85.8% of the variation observed in the 13 monitoring stations of the year 2009. The LUR model outperformed the others based on leave-one out cross-validation comparing the correlations and root-mean square error. All NO2 estimates ranged from 11.3-18.0 ppb, with that of LUR having the widest range. The NO2 exposure levels of the residents differed by demographics. However, the average was below the national annual guidelines of the Republic of Korea (30 ppb). The LUR models showed high performances in an industrial city in the Republic of Korea, despite the small sample size and limited data. Our findings suggest that the LUR method may be useful in similar settings in Asian countries where the target region is small and availability of data is

  19. Impact of greenhouse gas emissions reduction in Indonesia: NO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susandi, A.

    2004-12-01

    In this study, we develop scenarios of total air pollution from fossil fuel consumption and its impacts for the 21st century, using an inter-temporal general equilibrium model MERGE. The Model for Evaluating the Regional and Global Effects of greenhouse gas reduction policies (MERGE) is used to project energy consumption and production. We use the base scenarios from IPCC (2000). These scenarios assume that no measures are undertaken to control greenhouse gas emissions. We extend the IPCC scenarios with mitigation scenarios, estimating the air pollution impacts of greenhouse gas emission reduction. The MERGE model was extended to analyze emissions of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), their concentrations, impacts on human health, and economic valuation. To estimate of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) impacts on respiratory symptoms, we calculated the NO2 concentration as derived from nitrogen oxide (NOx). In the baseline scenario, the concentrations of NO2 are rising to 2,263 μg/m3 in 2100. If the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries reduce their emissions, respiratory symptoms among adult's associated with NO2 case would reach the highest to 65,741% of adult population cases by the end of century. If all countries reduce their emission in the future, the total health problem cost associated with NO2 will lower 35% of GDP than in the baseline scenario during the century.

  20. Final report on international comparison CCQM-K74: Nitrogen dioxide, 10 µmol/mol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Edgar; Idrees, Faraz; Moussay, Philippe; Viallon, Joële; Wielgosz, Robert; Fernández, Teresa; Ramírez, Sergio; Rojo, Andrés; Shinji, Uehara; Waldén, Jari; Sega, Michela; Sang-Hyub, Oh; Macé, Tatiana; Couret, Cedric; Qiao, Han; Smeulders, Damian; Guenther, Franklin R.; Thorn, William J., III; Tshilongo, James; Godwill Ntsasa, Napo; Štovcík, Viliam; Valková, Miroslava; Konopelko, Leonid; Gromova, Elena; Nieuwenkamp, Gerard; Wessel, Rob M.; Milton, Martin; Harling, Alice; Vargha, Gergely; Tuma, Dirk; Kohl, Anka; Schulz, Gert

    2012-01-01

    There is a high international priority attached to activities which reduce NOx in the atmosphere. The current level of permitted emissions is typically between 50 µmol/mol and 100 µmol/mol, but lower values are expected in the future. Currently, ambient air quality monitoring regulations also require the measurement of NOx mole fractions as low as 0.2 µmol/mol. The production of accurate standards at these levels of mole fractions requires either dilution of a stable higher concentration gas standard or production by a dynamic technique, for example one based on permeation tubes. The CCQM-K74 key comparison was designed to evaluate the level of comparability of National Metrology Institutes' measurement capabilities and standards for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) at a nominal mole fraction of 10 µmol/mol. The measurements of this key comparison took place from June 2009 to May 2010. Seventeen laboratories took part in this comparison coordinated by the BIPM and VSL. The key comparison reference value was based on BIPM measurement results, and the standard measurement uncertainty of the reference value was 0.042 µmol/mol. This key comparison demonstrated that the results of the majority of the participants agreed within limits of ±3% relative to the reference value. The results of only one laboratory lay significantly outside these limits. Likewise this comparison made clear that a full interpretation of the results of the comparison needed to take into account the presence of nitric acid (in the range 100 nmol/mol to 350 nmol/mol) in the cylinders circulated as part of the comparison, as well as the possible presence of nitric acid in the primary standards used by participating laboratories. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the

  1. Surface area of vermiculite with nitrogen and carbon dioxide as adsorbates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, J.; Bohor, B.F.

    1969-01-01

    Surface-area studies were made on several homoionic vermiculites with both nitrogen and carbon dioxide as adsorbates. These studies show that only very slight penetration occurs between individual vermiculite platelets. This is in contrast to an earlier investigation of montmorillonite where it was found that the degree of penetration between layers is quite high, particularly for carbon dioxide, and is governed by the size and charge of the interlayer cation. The inability of these adsorbates to penetrate substantially between vermiculite platelets is due primarily to this mineral's high surface-charge density. The extent of penetration of nitrogen and carbon dioxide at the edges of vermiculite platelets, though slight, is influenced by the coordinated water retained within the sample at a given degassing temperature. Forces between layers are weakened with increasing water content, which permits slightly greater penetration by adsorbate gases. Thus, the surface area of vermiculite, as determined by gas adsorption, is larger than the calculated external surface area based upon particle size and shape considerations. In addition, "extra" surface is provided by the lifting and scrolling of terminal platelets. These morphological features are shown in scanning electron micrographs of a naturally occuring vermiculite. ?? 1969.

  2. Thermal and photochemical oxidation of self-assembled monolayers on alumina particles exposed to nitrogen dioxide.

    PubMed

    Raff, Jonathan D; Szanyi, János; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2011-01-14

    Alumina is an important component of airborne dust particles as well as of building materials and soils found in the tropospheric boundary layer. While the uptake and reactions of oxides of nitrogen and their photochemistry on alumina have been reported in the past, little is known about the chemistry when organics are also present. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy at ∼23 °C was used to study reactions of NO(2) on γ-Al(2)O(3) particles that had been derivatized using 7-octenyltrichlorosilane to form a self-assembled monolayer (SAM). For comparison, the reactions with untreated γ-Al(2)O(3) were also studied. In both cases, the particles were exposed to water vapor prior to NO(2) to provide adsorbed water for reaction. As expected, surface-bound HONO, NO(2)(-), and NO(3)(-) were formed. Surprisingly, oxidation of the organic by surface-bound nitrogen oxides was observed in the dark, forming organo-nitrogen products identified as nitronates (R(2)C[double bond, length as m-dash]NO(2)(-)). Oxidation was more rapid under irradiation (λ > 290 nm) and formed organic nitrates and carbonyl compounds and/or peroxy nitrates in addition to the products observed in the dark. Mass spectrometry of the gas phase during irradiation revealed the production of NO, CO(2), and CO. These studies provide evidence for oxidation of organic compounds on particles and boundary layer surfaces that are exposed to air containing oxides of nitrogen, as well as new pathways for the formation of nitrogen-containing compounds on these surfaces.

  3. Thermal and Photochemical Oxidation of Organic Compounds on Model Mineral Dust Particles Exposed to Nitrogen Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raff, J.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.; Szanyi, J.

    2010-12-01

    Alumina is an important component of airborne dust particles as well as of building materials and soils found in the tropospheric boundary layer. While the uptake and reactions of oxides of nitrogen and their photochemistry on alumina have been reported in the past, little is known about the chemistry when organics are also present. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to study at ~23 °C reactions of NO2 on γ-Al2O3 particles that had been derivatized using 7-octenyltrichlorosilane to form a self-assembled monolayer (SAM). For comparison, the reactions with untreated γ-Al2O3 were also studied. In both cases, the particles were exposed to water vapor prior to NO2 to provide adsorbed water for reaction. As expected, surface-bound HONO, NO2-, and NO3- were formed. Surprisingly, oxidation of the organic by surface-bound nitrogen oxides was observed in the dark, forming organo-nitrogen products identified as nitronates (R2C=NO2-). Oxidation was more rapid under irradiation (λ > 290 nm) and formed organic nitrates and carbonyl compounds and/or peroxy nitrates in addition to the products observed in the dark. Mass spectrometry of the gas phase during irradiation revealed the production of NO, CO2, and CO. These studies provide evidence for oxidation of organic compounds on particles and boundary layer surfaces that are exposed to air containing oxides of nitrogen, as well as new pathways for the formation of nitrogen-containing compounds on these surfaces.

  4. Spatio-Temporal Variation and Futuristic Emission Scenario of Ambient Nitrogen Dioxide over an Urban Area of Eastern India Using GIS and Coupled AERMOD-WRF Model.

    PubMed

    Dey, Sharadia; Gupta, Srimanta; Sibanda, Precious; Chakraborty, Arun

    2017-01-01

    The present study focuses on the spatio-temporal variation of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) during June 2013 to May 2015 and its futuristic emission scenario over an urban area (Durgapur) of eastern India. The concentration of ambient NO2 shows seasonal as well as site specific characteristics. The site with high vehicular density (Muchipara) shows highest NO2 concentration followed by industrial site (DVC- DTPS Colony) and the residential site (B Zone), respectively. The seasonal variation of ambient NO2 over the study area is portrayed by means of Geographical Information System based Digital Elevation Model. Out of the total urban area under consideration (114.982 km2), the concentration of NO2 exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) permissible limit over an area of 5.000 km2, 0.786 km2 and 0.653 km2 in post monsoon, winter and pre monsoon, respectively. Wind rose diagrams, correlation and regression analyses show that meteorology plays a crucial role in dilution and dispersion of NO2 near the earth's surface. Principal component analysis identifies vehicular source as the major source of NO2 in all the seasons over the urban region. Coupled AMS/EPA Regulatory Model (AERMOD)-Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used for predicting the concentration of NO2. Comparison of the observed and simulated data shows that the model overestimates the concentration of NO2 in all the seasons (except winter). The results show that coupled AERMOD-WRF model can overcome the unavailability of hourly surface as well as upper air meteorological data required for predicting the pollutant concentration, but improvement of emission inventory along with better understanding of the sinks and sources of ambient NO2 is essential for capturing the more realistic scenario.

  5. Spatio-Temporal Variation and Futuristic Emission Scenario of Ambient Nitrogen Dioxide over an Urban Area of Eastern India Using GIS and Coupled AERMOD–WRF Model

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Sharadia; Gupta, Srimanta; Sibanda, Precious; Chakraborty, Arun

    2017-01-01

    The present study focuses on the spatio-temporal variation of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) during June 2013 to May 2015 and its futuristic emission scenario over an urban area (Durgapur) of eastern India. The concentration of ambient NO2 shows seasonal as well as site specific characteristics. The site with high vehicular density (Muchipara) shows highest NO2 concentration followed by industrial site (DVC- DTPS Colony) and the residential site (B Zone), respectively. The seasonal variation of ambient NO2 over the study area is portrayed by means of Geographical Information System based Digital Elevation Model. Out of the total urban area under consideration (114.982 km2), the concentration of NO2 exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) permissible limit over an area of 5.000 km2, 0.786 km2 and 0.653 km2 in post monsoon, winter and pre monsoon, respectively. Wind rose diagrams, correlation and regression analyses show that meteorology plays a crucial role in dilution and dispersion of NO2 near the earth’s surface. Principal component analysis identifies vehicular source as the major source of NO2 in all the seasons over the urban region. Coupled AMS/EPA Regulatory Model (AERMOD)–Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used for predicting the concentration of NO2. Comparison of the observed and simulated data shows that the model overestimates the concentration of NO2 in all the seasons (except winter). The results show that coupled AERMOD–WRF model can overcome the unavailability of hourly surface as well as upper air meteorological data required for predicting the pollutant concentration, but improvement of emission inventory along with better understanding of the sinks and sources of ambient NO2 is essential for capturing the more realistic scenario. PMID:28141866

  6. A satellite-based analysis of temporal dynamics in tropospheric nitrogen dioxide levels over large urban agglomerations worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Philipp; van der A, Ronald; Valdebenito, Alvaro

    2014-05-01

    Satellite observations allow for a consistent perspective on tropospheric nitrogen dioxide at a global scale and their operational status facilitates studies on multi-annual to decadal temporal dynamics. Utilizing close to a decade of data from the SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) sensors, we present in this contribution a global analysis of the temporal dynamics in tropospheric nitrogen dioxide over the worlds' major urban agglomerations during the last 10 years. The results indicate that while levels of nitrogen dioxide have been slowly declining in most areas of the United States and Europe over the last decade, very rapid increases in tropospheric nitrogen dioxide can be observed over many megacities and other large urban agglomerations throughout most of Asia, often with highly significant trends. Particularly in Eastern China, increases of 10 to 20 percent per year are quite widespread. Some of the large urban agglomerations with the most rapid increase in nitrogen dioxide pollution are Dhaka in Bangladesh, Kabul in Afghanistan, and Tianjin in China, and these are investigated in more detail. An inter-comparison of trends derived separately from SCIAMACHY and OMI shows that in terms of spatial patterns the resulting trends agree quite well between the two instruments, particularly in the more polluted areas. However, at the individual grid cell level substantial differences can be found. In addition, the satellite-based trends in tropospheric nitrogen dioxide levels were compared to those obtained from the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) chemical transport model over the same time period, and furthermore sampling the model at the same time of day as the satellite overpass, thus eliminating the impact of the distinct diurnal cycle of nitrogen dioxide. While generally a good correspondence in the trends has been found between the two data sources

  7. Revisiting satellite derived tropospheric NO2 trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Andreas; Hilboll, Andreas; Burrows, John P.

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen dioxide levels can be used as tracer of anthropogenic pollution as NOx, the sum of NO and NO2, is released during fossil fuel combustion. With its short atmospheric lifetime, atmospheric NO2 can be easily linked to its sources. Using its structured absorption cross section in the blue spectral region, NO2 amounts can be derived from measurements of backscattered solar radiation with the help of Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy measurements. Satellite retrievals of tropospheric NO2 became possible with the launch of the GOME instrument in 1995, and since then a series of instruments including SCIAMACHY, GOME-2 and OMI provide spectral data which can be used to quantify NO2 columns in the troposphere. Using these observations, spatial distributions of NO2, its sources and transport pathways as well as temporal changes have been investigated over the last years. In particular the latter have shown remarkable atmospheric developments with large reductions of NO2 levels in many industrialised countries and dramatic increases in regions with growing economies, most notably in China but also in many other countries. In this study, recent trends of satellite derived NO2 columns are evaluated using data from all available instruments with a focus on the last years. Combination of data taken from the two GOME-2 instruments and OMI improves coverage and sensitivity, and also provides important constraints on the reliability of the satellite data set. As in previous studies, large changes in NO2 columns are found in many regions, in particular over China where after two years of stagnating NO2 levels an unexpected substantial reduction is observed for 2014.

  8. Inter-comparison of nitrogen dioxide column densities retrieved by ground-based MAX-DOAS and Pandora, and space borne OMI measurements over Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, S.; Lee, H.; Kim, J.; Jeong, U.; Herman, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    It is important to understand spatial and temporal characteristics of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) which affects atmospheric chemistry with respect to aerosol and ozone formation. In this present study, we used Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) and Pandora to investigate vertical information of NO2. The measurements took place from August to October in 2013 in Seoul, one of the largest megacities in Northeast Asia. Slant column densities (SCDs) of NO2 at each elevation angle (EA) were derived using the MAX-DOAS technique that utilizes scattered sunlight at multiple EAs as a light source. Vertical distributions of tropospheric NO2 were retrieved utilizing measured SCDs and those simulated with Trace gas RAdiative Transfer Monte Carlo Y(I)mplementation (TRACY) with inputs of aerosol optical properties from sunphotometer and Micro Pulse LIDAR (MPL) measurements. On the other hand, Pandora, which uses direct sunlight as a light source, was used to obtain total NO2 column densities for the same measurement period. Tropospheric and total NO2 column densities retrieved using those two ground based instruments were compared with those obtained from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) data.

  9. Carbon dioxide level and form of soil nitrogen regulate assimilation of atmospheric ammonia in young trees.

    PubMed

    Silva, Lucas C R; Salamanca-Jimenez, Alveiro; Doane, Timothy A; Horwath, William R

    2015-08-21

    The influence of carbon dioxide (CO2) and soil fertility on the physiological performance of plants has been extensively studied, but their combined effect is notoriously difficult to predict. Using Coffea arabica as a model tree species, we observed an additive effect on growth, by which aboveground productivity was highest under elevated CO2 and ammonium fertilization, while nitrate fertilization favored greater belowground biomass allocation regardless of CO2 concentration. A pulse of labelled gases ((13)CO2 and (15)NH3) was administered to these trees as a means to determine the legacy effect of CO2 level and soil nitrogen form on foliar gas uptake and translocation. Surprisingly, trees with the largest aboveground biomass assimilated significantly less NH3 than the smaller trees. This was partly explained by declines in stomatal conductance in plants grown under elevated CO2. However, unlike the (13)CO2 pulse, assimilation and transport of the (15)NH3 pulse to shoots and roots varied as a function of interactions between stomatal conductance and direct plant response to the form of soil nitrogen, observed as differences in tissue nitrogen content and biomass allocation. Nitrogen form is therefore an intrinsic component of physiological responses to atmospheric change, including assimilation of gaseous nitrogen as influenced by plant growth history.

  10. Carbon dioxide level and form of soil nitrogen regulate assimilation of atmospheric ammonia in young trees

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Lucas C. R.; Salamanca-Jimenez, Alveiro; Doane, Timothy A.; Horwath, William R.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of carbon dioxide (CO2) and soil fertility on the physiological performance of plants has been extensively studied, but their combined effect is notoriously difficult to predict. Using Coffea arabica as a model tree species, we observed an additive effect on growth, by which aboveground productivity was highest under elevated CO2 and ammonium fertilization, while nitrate fertilization favored greater belowground biomass allocation regardless of CO2 concentration. A pulse of labelled gases (13CO2 and 15NH3) was administered to these trees as a means to determine the legacy effect of CO2 level and soil nitrogen form on foliar gas uptake and translocation. Surprisingly, trees with the largest aboveground biomass assimilated significantly less NH3 than the smaller trees. This was partly explained by declines in stomatal conductance in plants grown under elevated CO2. However, unlike the 13CO2 pulse, assimilation and transport of the 15NH3 pulse to shoots and roots varied as a function of interactions between stomatal conductance and direct plant response to the form of soil nitrogen, observed as differences in tissue nitrogen content and biomass allocation. Nitrogen form is therefore an intrinsic component of physiological responses to atmospheric change, including assimilation of gaseous nitrogen as influenced by plant growth history. PMID:26294035

  11. Predictors of concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, fine particulate matter, and particle constituents inside of lower socioeconomic status urban homes.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Lisa K; Clougherty, Jane E; Laden, Francine; Levy, Jonathan I

    2007-08-01

    Air pollution exposure patterns may contribute to known spatial patterning of asthma morbidity within urban areas. While studies have evaluated the relationship between traffic and outdoor concentrations, few have considered indoor exposure patterns within low socioeconomic status (SES) urban communities. In this study, part of a prospective birth cohort study assessing asthma etiology in urban Boston, we collected indoor and outdoor 3-4 day samples of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in 43 residences across multiple seasons from 2003 to 2005. Homes were chosen to represent low SES households, including both cohort and non-cohort residences in similar neighborhoods, and consisted almost entirely of multiunit residences. Reflectance analysis and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy were performed on the particle filters to determine elemental carbon (EC) and trace element concentrations, respectively. Additionally, information on home characteristics (e.g. type, age, stove fuel) and occupant behaviors (e.g. smoking, cooking, cleaning) were collected via a standardized questionnaire. The contributions of outdoor and indoor sources to indoor concentrations were quantified with regression analyses using mass balance principles. For NO2 and most particle constituents (except outdoor-dominated constituents like sulfur and vanadium), the addition of selected indoor source terms improved the model's predictive power. Cooking time, gas stove usage, occupant density, and humidifiers were identified as important contributors to indoor levels of various pollutants. A comparison between cohort and non-cohort participants provided another means to determine the influence of occupant activity patterns on indoor-outdoor ratios. Although the groups had similar housing characteristics and were located in similar neighborhoods, cohort members had significantly higher indoor concentrations of PM2.5 and NO2, associated with indoor activities. We conclude that the

  12. Slant column MAX-DOAS measurements of nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, glyoxal and oxygen dimer in the urban environment of Athens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratsea, Myrto; Vrekoussis, Mihalis; Richter, Andreas; Wittrock, Folkard; Schönhardt, Anja; Burrows, John; Kazadzis, Stelios; Mihalopoulos, Nikos; Gerasopoulos, Evangelos

    2016-06-01

    Slant column (SC) densities of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde (HCHO), glyoxal (CHOCHO) and oxygen dimer (O4) were successfully retrieved for the first time in Athens, by using spectral measurements from a ground-based multi-azimuth Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) system. The data span the period from October 2012 to March 2014 and measurements were conducted at NOA's (National Observatory of Athens) station in Penteli (38.0°N, 23.9°E, 527 m a.s.l.) at eight azimuth angles and eight off-axis elevation angles. The SCNO2, SCHCHO and SCCHOCHO measurements at +1ο elevation angle, pointing towards the urban area, range from 0.6 to 24·1016, 0.8-9.6·1016 and 0.3-5.2·1015 molec cm-2 (mean daily values throughout the whole period), respectively. Seasonal modulation characterised by summertime maximum and wintertime minimum was observed for HCHO and CHOCHO, while for NO2 the maximum values were recorded during winter. Changes in the diurnal variability of all trace gases with season and day of the week are investigated suggesting a strong link to primary anthropogenic sources for NO2 and a weaker one, compared to photochemistry, for HCHO and CHOCHO. In addition, the impact of the reduced anthropogenic emissions during weekends on the measured SC values was quantified and 30%-50% lower SCNO2 values were found during weekends. The contribution of local urban emissions to the overall recorded amounts of the selected species was assessed. Using meteorological data from NOA's station in Penteli, the impact of the local circulation patterns on the SC levels was estimated, and a strong relation between western wind direction, which is related to the industrial area, and enhanced SC measurements was found.

  13. Radiative lifetimes of nitrogen dioxide for excitation wavelengths from 400 to 750 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, K.O. Jr.; Burley, J.D.; Johnston, H.S. )

    1990-10-04

    At room temperature, the radiative lifetimes of nitrogen dioxide excited by pulsed, tunable, dye laser radiation are measured in a 50-L flask, for excitation wavelengths ranging from 400 to 750 nm, at total pressures between 0.25 and 2.0 mTorr, and for times between 0.7 and 60 {mu}s. The data are analyzed in terms of the Stern-Volmer mechanism to give zero-pressure radiative constants (k{sub 0} = 1/{tau}{sub 0}) and empirical collisional quenching rate constants k{sub q} by ground-state nitrogen dioxide. (a) The observed radiative coefficients generally increase linearly with increasing excitation energy (cm{sup {minus}1}): k{sub 0}/s{sup {minus}1} = 0.504(E-E{sub 0}) + 7.96 {times} 10{sup 3}, where E is the excitation energy and E{sub 0} is the energy of the origin of the {sup 2}B{sub 2} excited state. At wavelengths above about 540 nm there are strong state-to-state variations of radiative lifetime, producing large apparent scatter in the data. The zero-pressure radiative lifetimes {tau}{sub 0} are compared to previous measurements and are in rough agreement with a number of earlier studies. (b) On the other hand, different investigators typically obtain different numerical values for the Stern-Volmer collisional quenching rate constants. As observed here, the quenching rate constants k{sub q} are found to vary by almost a factor of 6 as filters are changed in front of the photomultiplier tube with all other experimental conditions held constant. Some of the difficulties of observing meaningful quenching rate constants for nitrogen dioxide are discussed.

  14. Spectrophotometric determination of nitrogen dioxide in air and nitrite in water and soil samples

    SciTech Connect

    Pandurangappa, M.; Balasubramanian, N.

    1995-02-01

    A sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of nitrogen dioxide in air and nitrite in water and soil samples is described. Nitrogen dioxide in air is fixed as nitrite ion in alkaline sodium arsenite or in triethanolamine absorber solutions. The method is based on the diazo coupling reaction between p-nitro aniline and 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid. The azo dye formed under aqueous condition has an absorption maximum at 585nm and obeys Beer`s law over the range 0-25{mu}g of nitrite. The colour system is stable for 72h. The relative standard deviation is 2.7% for ten determinations at 15{mu}g of nitrite. The dye is extracted with 1:1 isoamyl alcohol-IBMK mixture and stabilisation with methanolic potassium hydroxide showed {lambda}{sub max} at 610nm. It obeys Beer`s law over the range 0-4{mu}g of nitrite. The colour system is stable for 40h in organic phase and the relative standard deviation is 2.5% for ten determinations at 3{mu}g of nitrite. The molar absorptivity of the colour system is 3.68 x 10{sup 4} Lmol{sup {minus}1} cm{sup {minus}1}. The effect of interfering gases and other ions on the determination of nitrite is described. The developed method has been applied for the determination of residual nitrogen dioxide gas present in the laboratory fume cupboard and automobile exhaust gases. In addition, the method has been applied for the determination of nitrite and nitrate in samples like water, soil and radiator coolants.

  15. Review of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission's health effects and exposure assessment documents on nitrogen dioxide. Report of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-09

    At the request of the Consumer Product Safety Commission, the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee conducted a review on the potential health hazards associated with exposure to 0.1 to 1.0 ppm nitrogen dioxide generated by unvented indoor combustion sources. The committee concluded that: (1) repeated peak exposures at concentrations of 0.3 ppm of nitrogen dioxide may cause health effects in some individuals; (2) the population groups that appear most sensitive to nitrogen dioxide exposure include children, chronic bronchitics, asthmatics, and individuals with emphysema; and (3) the most direct evidence regarding lung damage associated with nitrogen dioxide is obtained from animal studies.

  16. Suppression of antibody response in mice by acute exposure to nitrogen dioxide: in vitro study

    SciTech Connect

    Hidekazu, F.; Shimizu, F.; Kubota, K.

    1981-12-01

    The effect of acute exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) on in vitro primary and secondary antibody responses to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) was studied in BALB/c mice. After the in vivo exposure to 20 ppm NO/sub 2/ for 12 hr, spleen cells were separated and then cultured with SRBC. Cell reconstitution experiments indicated that in the primary antibody response B cells were more strongly suppressed than T cells, while in the secondary response suppression of primed T cells was greater than that of prime B cells.

  17. Description of data on the Nimbus 7 LIMS map archive tape: Water vapor and nitrogen dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggard, Kenneth V.; Marshall, B. T.; Kurzeja, Robert J.; Remsberg, Ellis E.; Russell, James M., III

    1988-01-01

    Described is the process by which the analysis of the Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) experiment data were used to produce estimates of synoptic maps of water vapor and nitrogen dioxide. In addition to a detailed description of the analysis procedure, also discussed are several interesting features in the data which are used to demonstrate how the analysis procedure produced the final maps and how one can estimate the uncertainties in the maps. In addition, features in the analysis are noted that would influence how one might use, or interpret, the results. These include subjects such as smoothing and the interpretation of wave components.

  18. Comparison of ambient airborne PM₂.₅, PM₂.₅ absorbance and nitrogen dioxide ratios measured in 1999 and 2009 in three areas in Europe.

    PubMed

    Durant, John L; Beelen, Rob; Eeftens, Marloes; Meliefste, Kees; Cyrys, Josef; Heinrich, Joachim; Bellander, Tom; Lewné, Marie; Brunekreef, Bert; Hoek, Gerard

    2014-07-15

    Epidemiological studies often use nitrogen dioxide (NO2) or proximity to roads to characterize exposure to more health-relevant pollutants (e.g., fine particles or black carbon aerosol) in vehicle exhaust. Due to the introduction of diesel-soot filters, particle-to-NO2 ratios may have decreased, but little information is available about these ratios over time. Our study aim was to evaluate the change in particle-to-NO2 ratios between 1999 and 2009. We compared data collected during measurement campaigns in 1999 and 2009 from Munich, the Netherlands, and Stockholm. Traffic-impacted and urban and regional background sites were studied during each campaign. The same pollutants were measured in each campaign (mass concentration of particles ≤ 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5), PM2.5 absorbance (a marker for black carbon), and NO2) using the same methods except for NO2: Palmes tubes were used in 1999 and Ogawa badges in 2009. Both NO2 methods were validated against side-by-side chemiluminescence measurements. The levels of PM2.5 absorbance and PM2.5 were significantly lower (p<0.05) in 2009 at traffic and urban background sites in Stockholm, but only slightly lower in Munich and the Netherlands. In contrast, NO2 levels were not significantly different in the three areas in 2009 compared to 1999. Statistically-significant decreases between 1999 and 2009 pollutant ratios in the Netherlands (PM2.5 absorbance/NO2 and PM2.5/NO2) and in Stockholm (PM2.5 absorbance/NO2 and PM2.5 absorbance/PM2.5) were observed. Smaller decreases in these ratios were observed in Munich. The contrast between traffic and urban background locations was larger in 2009 than 1999 for NO2, whereas it was smaller for PM2.5 absorbance and PM2.5. The lower PM2.5 absorbance/NO2 and PM2.5/NO2 ratios in 2009 is likely explained by the introduction of oxidative particle filters for diesel vehicles that reduce particles but produce NO2. The changed contrasts may affect estimates of health effects related to

  19. Significant pulmonary response to a brief high-level, nose-only nitrogen dioxide exposure: an interspecies dosimetry perspective.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, Nabil M; Gorbunov, Nikolai V; Mayorga, Maria A; Kagan, Valerian E; Januszkiewicz, Adolph J

    2002-10-01

    Brief, high-level nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) exposures are major hazards during fires and heat-generating explosions. To characterize the lung response to a brief high-level NO(2) exposure, we exposed two groups (n = 5) of 325-375 g, male, Sprague-Dawley rats to either 200 +/- 5 ppm (376 +/- 9 mg/m(3)) NO(2) or room air for 15 min. The rats were nose-only exposed in a multiport exposure chamber fitted with pressure transducers to monitor their respiration during exposure. One hour after exposure, we euthanized the rats, collected blood samples, lavaged the lungs with warm saline, and then excised them. One lung lobe was cooled to -196 degrees C and used for low-temperature electron paramagentic resonance (EPR) analysis. The remainder was homogenized and used for biochemical analyses. Inspired minute ventilation (V(i)) during exposure decreased 59% (p < 0.05). Calculated total inspired dose was 0.880 mg NO(2). In lung lavage, both total and alveolar macrophage cell counts declined (approximately 75%, p < 0.05), but epithelial cell count increased 8.5-fold. Lung weight increased 40% (p < 0.05) after exposure. In the blood, potassium and methemoglobin increased 45 and 18% (p < 0.05), respectively; glucose, lactate, and total hemoglobin were not altered significantly. EPR analysis of lung tissue revealed hemoglobin oxidation and carbon-centered radical formation. Vitamins E and C and uric acid were depleted, and lipid peroxidation measured by three different methods (TBARS, conjugated dienes, and fluorescent peroxidation end products) was elevated, but total protein, DNA, and lipid contents were unchanged. These observations combined demonstrate that a brief (15 min) high-level (200 ppm) NO(2) exposure of rats was sufficient to cause significant damage. However, comparison of the exposure dose normalized to rat body weight with previously reported sheep and estimated human values revealed significant differences. This raises a question about interspecies dosimetry and

  20. A case-control study of medium-term exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide pollution and hospitalization for stroke

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There are several plausible mechanisms whereby either short or long term exposure to pollution can increase the risk of stroke. Over the last decade, several studies have reported associations between short-term (day-to-day) increases in ambient air pollution and stroke. The findings from a smaller number of studies that have looked at long-term exposure to air pollution and stroke have been mixed. Most of these epidemiological studies have assigned exposure to air pollution based on place of residence, but these assignments are typically based on relatively coarse spatial resolutions. To date, few studies have evaluated medium-term exposures (i.e, exposures over the past season or year). To address this research gap, we evaluated associations between highly spatially resolved estimates of ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a marker of traffic pollution, and emergency department visits for stroke in Edmonton, Canada. Methods This was a case-control study with cases defined as those who presented to an Edmonton area hospital emergency department between 2007 and 2009 with an acute ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, or transient ischemic attack. Controls were patients who presented to the same emergency departments for lacerations, sprains, or strains. A land-use regression model provided estimates of NO2 that were assigned to the place of residence. Logistic regression methods were used to estimate odds ratios for stroke in relation to an increase in the interquartile range of NO2 (5 ppb), adjusted for age, sex, meteorological variables, and neighborhood effects. Results The study included 4,696 stroke (cases) and 37,723 injury patients (controls). For all strokes combined, there was no association with NO2. Namely, the odds ratio associated with an interquartile increase in NO2 was 1.01 (95% confidence interval {CI}: 0.94-1.08). No associations were evident for any of the stroke subtypes examined. Conclusion When combined with our earlier work in

  1. Interference of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor on the analysis for oxides of nitrogen by chemiluminescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maahs, H. G.

    1975-01-01

    The interference of small concentrations (less than 4 percent by volume) of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor on the analysis for oxides of nitrogen by chemiluminescence was measured. The sample gas consisted primarily of nitrogen, with less than 100 parts per million concentration of nitric oxide, and with small concentrations of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor added. Results obtained under these conditions indicate that although oxygen does not measurably affect the analysis for nitric oxide, the presence of carbon dioxide and water vapor causes the indicated nitric oxide concentration to be too low. An interference factor - defined as the percentage change in indicated nitric oxide concentration (relative to the true nitric oxide concentration) divided by the percent interfering gas present - was determined for carbon dioxide to be -0.60 + or - 0.04 and for water vapor to be -2.1 + or - 0.3.

  2. EVALUATION AND USE OF STAND-ALONE COMMERCIAL PHOTOLYTIC CONVERTERS FOR CONVERSION OF NO2 AND NO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two types of stand-alone photolytic converters of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) to nitric oxide (NO) are now commercially available for use with NO, ozone (O3) chemiluminescence detector (CLD) monitors for the measurement of NO2. Both units have been tested for interferences resulting...

  3. EVALUATION AND USE OF STAND-ALONE COMMERCIAL PHOTOLYTIC CONVERTERS FOR CONVERSION OF NO2 AND NO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two types of stand-alone photolytic converters of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) to nitric oxide (NO) are now commercially available for use with NO, ozone (O3) chemiluminescence detector (CLD) monitors for the measurement of NO2. Both units have been tested for interferences resulting...

  4. Products of the reaction of hydroxyl radicals with trans-2-butene in the presence of oxygen and nitrogen dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Richard I.; Huie, Robert E.; Herron, John T.

    1980-06-01

    The reactions of hydroxy-substituted alkyl radicals, formed as secondary products in the reaction of ozone with trans-2-butene, have been identified in photoionization mass spectrometry studies, using acetaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide as free-radical scavengers. Products derived from 2-hydroxy-1-methylpropl in the absence of scavengers include 2,3-butanedione (diacetyl), 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (acetoin),and 2,3-butanediol. In the presence of added acetaldehyde or nitrogen dioxide, the formation of these products is suppressed. In addition, with added nitrogen dioxide, new products are formed which have been identified as a series of oxoalkyl and hydroxy-substituted-alkyl nitrates and peroxynitrates. These observations may have an important bearing on the chemistry of photochemical smog.

  5. [Change in genotoxicity of wastewater during chlorine dioxide and ahlorine disinfections and the influence of ammonia nitrogen].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Sha; Hu, Hong-Ying; Ta, Chun-Hong; Tian, Jie; Wang, Chao; Koichi, Fujie

    2007-03-01

    The effects of chlorine dioxide and chlorine disinfections on genotoxicity of different biologically treated sewage wastewater samples were studied by umu-test. The experiment results showed that when chlorine dioxide dosage increased from 0 mg/L to 30 mg/L, the genotoxicity of wastewater first decreased rapidly and then tended to be stable, while when the chlorine dosage increased from 0 mg/L to 30 mg/L, the genotoxicity of wastewater changed diversely for different samples. It was then found that ammonia nitrogen did not affect the change of genotoxicity during chlorine dioxide disinfection of wastewater, while it greatly affected the change of genotoxicity during chlorine disinfection of wastewater. When the concentration of ammonia nitrogen was low (< 10 - 20 mg/L), the genotoxicity of wastewater decreased after chlorine disinfection, and when the concentration of ammonia nitrogen was high (> 10 - 20 mg/L), the genotoxicity of wastewater increased after chlorine disinfection.

  6. Failure of ozone and nitrogen dioxide to enhance lung tumor development in hamsters. Research report, January 1989-March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Witschi, H.; Breider, M.A.; Schuller, H.M.

    1993-09-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that ozone and nitrogen dioxide modulate the development of respiratory tract tumors, in particular neuroendocrine cell tumors, in Syrian golden hamsters. The animals received subcutaneous injections of the carcinogen N-diethylnitrosamine (20 mg/kg) twice a week while being exposed continuously to an atmosphere of 0.8 parts per million (ppm) of ozone or 15 ppm nitrogen dioxide. Animals were killed 16 weeks or 24 to 32 weeks after the beginning of the treatment. For positive controls, animals were treated with N-diethylnitrosamine and exposed to 65% oxygen. Ozone delayed the incidence of tumors in the lung periphery. Ozone also seemed to mitigate development of hepatoxic lesions mediated by N-diethylnitrosamine. The role of ozone and nitrogen dioxide as possible additional risks in the pathogenesis of lung cancer in animals continues to remain uncertain.

  7. Ambient fine particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and term birth weight in New York, New York.

    PubMed

    Savitz, David A; Bobb, Jennifer F; Carr, Jessie L; Clougherty, Jane E; Dominici, Francesca; Elston, Beth; Ito, Kazuhiko; Ross, Zev; Yee, Michelle; Matte, Thomas D

    2014-02-15

    Building on a unique exposure assessment project in New York, New York, we examined the relationship of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm and nitrogen dioxide with birth weight, restricting the population to term births to nonsmokers, along with other restrictions, to isolate the potential impact of air pollution on growth. We included 252,967 births in 2008-2010 identified in vital records, and we assigned exposure at the residential location by using validated models that accounted for spatial and temporal factors. Estimates of association were adjusted for individual and contextual sociodemographic characteristics and season, using linear mixed models to quantify the predicted change in birth weight in grams related to increasing pollution levels. Adjusted estimates for particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm indicated that for each 10-µg/m(3) increase in exposure, birth weights declined by 18.4, 10.5, 29.7, and 48.4 g for exposures in the first, second, and third trimesters and for the total pregnancy, respectively. Adjusted estimates for nitrogen dioxide indicated that for each 10-ppb increase in exposure, birth weights declined by 14.2, 15.9, 18.0, and 18.0 g for exposures in the first, second, and third trimesters and for the total pregnancy, respectively. These results strongly support the association of urban air pollution exposure with reduced fetal growth.

  8. Sorption of methane, ethane, propane, butane, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen on kerogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pribylov, A. A.; Skibitskaya, N. A.; Zekel', L. A.

    2014-06-01

    Sorption isotherms of nitrogen, methane (in the pressure range of 0.1-40 MPa), ethane (0.1-3.7MPa), propane (0.01-1 MPa), butane (0.01-0.2 MPa), and carbon dioxide (0.1-6 MPa) are measured on two adsorbents with kerogen contents of 16 and 75% at temperatures of 303, 323, 343 K. Adsorption volumes are calculated for all adsorption systems using two independent methods. The BET technique is used to determine the surface area values of the two adsorbents on the basis of sorption data for ethane, propane, butane, and carbon dioxide. The initial and isosteric adheat of sorption values are calculated on the basis of sorption isotherms of ethane, propane, butane, carbon dioxide measured at three temperatures. It is found from comparing the dependences of isosteric heat of sorption on the two adsorbents that molecules of the above gases diffuse into its bulk (adsorbent 2) in addition to sorbing on the outside surface formed by kerogen molecules, while sorption of the same gases on the rock (adsorbent 1) is similar to sorption on a smooth hard adsorbent surface.

  9. Field testing of a new flow-through directional passive air sampler applied to monitoring ambient nitrogen dioxide.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chun; McKenna, Paul; Timmis, Roger; Jones, Kevin C

    2010-07-08

    This paper reports the first field deployment and testing of a directional passive air sampler (DPAS) which can be used to cost-effectively identify and quantify air pollutants and their sources. The sampler was used for ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) over ten weeks from twelve directional sectors in an urban setting, and tested alongside an automatic chemiluminescent monitor. The time-integrated passive directional results were compared with the directional analysis of the active monitoring results using wind data recorded at a weather station. The DPAS discriminated air pollutant signals directionally. The attempts to derive quantitative data yielded reasonable results--usually within a factor of two of those obtained by the chemiluminescent analyser. Ultimately, whether DPAS approaches are adopted will depend on their reliability, added value and cost. It is argued that added value was obtained here from the DPAS approach applied in a routine monitoring situation, by identifying source sectors. Both the capital and running costs of DPAS were <5% of those for the automatic monitor. It is envisaged that different sorbents or sampling media will enable this rotatable DPAS design to be used for other airborne pollutants. In summary, there are reasons to be optimistic that directional passive air sampling, together with careful interpretation of results, will be of added value to air quality practitioners in future.

  10. Modeling the scavenging activity of ellagic acid and its methyl derivatives towards hydroxyl, methoxy, and nitrogen dioxide radicals.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Manish Kumar; Mishra, Phool Chand

    2013-12-01

    The reaction mechanisms involved in the scavenging of hydroxyl (OH(·)), methoxy (OCH₃(·)), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 (·)) radicals by ellagic acid and its monomethyl and dimethyl derivatives were investigated using the transition state theory and density functional theory. The calculated Gibbs barrier energies associated with the abstraction of hydrogen from the hydroxyl groups of ellagic acid and its monomethyl and dimethyl derivatives by an OH· radical in aqueous media were all found to be negative. When NO₂(·) was the radical involved in hydrogen abstraction, the Gibbs barrier energies were much larger than those calculated when the OH(·) radical was involved. When OCH₃(·) was the hydrogen-abstracting radical, the Gibbs barrier energies lay between those obtained with OH(·) and NO₂(·) radicals. Therefore, the scavenging efficiencies of ellagic acid and its monomethyl and dimethyl derivatives towards the three radicals decrease in the order OH(·) > OCH₃(·) > NO₂(·). Our calculated rate constants are broadly in agreement with those obtained experimentally for hydrogen abstraction reactions of ellagic acid with OH· and NO₂· radicals.

  11. An Atmospheric Constraint on the NO2 Dependence of Daytime Near-Surface Nitrous Acid (HONO).

    PubMed

    Pusede, Sally E; VandenBoer, Trevor C; Murphy, Jennifer G; Markovic, Milos Z; Young, Cora J; Veres, Patrick R; Roberts, James M; Washenfelder, Rebecca A; Brown, Steven S; Ren, Xinrong; Tsai, Catalina; Stutz, Jochen; Brune, William H; Browne, Eleanor C; Wooldridge, Paul J; Graham, Ashley R; Weber, Robin; Goldstein, Allen H; Dusanter, Sebastien; Griffith, Stephen M; Stevens, Philip S; Lefer, Barry L; Cohen, Ronald C

    2015-11-03

    Recent observations suggest a large and unknown daytime source of nitrous acid (HONO) to the atmosphere. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed, many of which involve chemistry that reduces nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on some time scale. To examine the NO2 dependence of the daytime HONO source, we compare weekday and weekend measurements of NO2 and HONO in two U.S. cities. We find that daytime HONO does not increase proportionally to increases in same-day NO2, i.e., the local NO2 concentration at that time and several hours earlier. We discuss various published HONO formation pathways in the context of this constraint.

  12. Enhanced sulfate formation by nitrogen dioxide: Implications from in situ observations at the SORPES station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yuning; Ding, Aijun; Nie, Wei; Mao, Huiting; Qi, Ximeng; Huang, Xin; Xu, Zheng; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Petäjä, Tuukka; Chi, Xuguang; Virkkula, Aki; Boy, Michael; Xue, Likun; Guo, Jia; Sun, Jianning; Yang, Xiuqun; Kulmala, Markku; Fu, Congbin

    2015-12-01

    Investigating sulfate formation processes is important not only for air pollution control but also for understanding the climate system. Although the mechanisms of secondary sulfate production have been widely studied, in situ observational evidence implicating an important role of NO2 in SO2 oxidation in the real atmosphere has been rare. In this study, we report two unique cases, from an intensive campaign conducted at the Station for Observing Regional Processes of the Earth System (SORPES) in East China, showing distinctly different mechanisms of sulfate formation by NO2 and related nitrogen chemistry. The first case occurred in an episode of mineral dust mixed with anthropogenic pollutants and especially high concentrations of NOx. It reveals that NO2 played an important role, not only in surface catalytic reactions of SO2 but also in dust-induced photochemical heterogeneous reactions of NO2, which produced additional sources of OH radicals to promote new particle formation and growth. The second case was caused by aqueous oxidation of S(IV) by NO2 under foggy/cloudy conditions with high NH3 concentration. As a by-product, the formed nitrite enhanced HONO formation and further promoted the gas-phase formation of sulfate in the downwind area. This study highlights the effect of NOx in enhancing the atmospheric oxidizing capacity and indicates a potentially very important impact of increasing NOx on particulate pollution formation and regional climate change in East Asia.

  13. A novel NO2 gas sensor based on Hall effect operating at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J. Y.; Xie, W. M.; He, X. L.; Wang, H. C.

    2016-09-01

    Tungsten trioxide nanoparticles were obtained by a simple thermal oxidation approach. The structural and morphological properties of these nanoparticles are investigated using XRD, SEM and TEM. A WO3 thick film was deposited on the four Au electrodes to be a WO3 Hall effect sensor. The sensor was tested between magnetic field in a plastic test chamber. Room-temperature nitrogen dioxide sensing characteristics of Hall effect sensor were studied for various concentration levels of nitrogen dioxide at dry air and humidity conditions. A typical room-temperature response of 3.27 was achieved at 40 ppm of NO2 with a response and recovery times of 36 and 45 s, respectively. NO2 gas sensing mechanism of Hall effect sensor was also studied. The room-temperature operation, with the low deposition cost of the sensor, suggests suitability for developing a low-power cost-effective nitrogen dioxide sensor.

  14. Solid-state potentiometric sensors for nitrogen monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Briggs Mckenney

    There is currently a large need for the development of solid-state potentiometric sensors for monitoring the NOX emanating from combustion processes. In an effort to better understand the phenomena behind the sensor response, sensors of the form: La2CuO4|YSZ|Pt were investigated. These sensors showed promising results. The effect of electrode microstructure on sensor response time and sensitivity was investigated. Electrodes that have high surface/bulk ratios respond faster and are more sensitive than electrodes with low surface/bulk ratios. They are also stable at lower operating temperatures where signals are inherently larger. The resistance of La2CuO4, a p-type semiconductor, was measured as a function of various pollutants to verify that the possibility that Fermi level changes are responsible for the potentiometric response of the sensor. The resistance of La2CuO4 and the potential of La2CuO4|YSZ|Pt sensors have similar dependencies on temperature and NOX/CO concentration. This correspondence along with temperature-programmed desorption results suggest that the adsorption/desorption of NOX/CO on/from La2CuO4 shifts the Fermi level and is measured by the electrometer as the electrode potential. The electrochemistry at Pt and La2CuO4 electrodes in NOX environments was investigated with D.C. polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The polarization resistance values for both electrodes decreased with increasing concentrations of NO and NO 2. Theoretical considerations and experimental approaches were refined concerning three-electrode polarization measurements in the solid-state. Using an independent reference electrode, the sensor response was shown to be a composite of the individual electrode responses. In the case of O 2, the potentials of both electrodes change significantly; however, they do so in identical fashion and the net sensor signal is insignificant to O2. The sensor responds to NO, NO2, and CO because the Fermi level of the La2CuO4

  15. Enhancement in the photocatalytic nature of nitrogen-doped PVD-grown titanium dioxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavares, C. J.; Marques, S. M.; Viseu, T.; Teixeira, V.; Carneiro, J. O.; Alves, E.; Barradas, N. P.; Munnik, F.; Girardeau, T.; Rivière, J.-P.

    2009-12-01

    Nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide semiconductor photocatalytic thin films have been deposited by unbalanced reactive magnetron physical vapor deposition on glass substrates for self-cleaning applications. In order to increase the photocatalytic efficiency of the titania coatings, it is important to enhance the catalysts absorption of light from the solar spectra. Bearing this fact in mind, a reduction in the titania semiconductor band-gap has been attempted by using nitrogen doping from a coreactive gas mixture of N2:O2 during the titanium sputtering process. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy was used in order to assess the composition of the titania thin films, whereas heavy-ion elastic recoil detection analysis granted the evaluation of the doping level of nitrogen. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy provided valuable information about the cation-anion binding within the semiconductor lattice. The as-deposited thin films were mostly amorphous, however, after a thermal annealing in vacuum at 500 °C the crystalline polymorph anatase and rutile phases have been developed, yielding an enhancement in the crystallinity. Spectroscopic ellipsometry experiments enabled the determination the refractive index of the thin films as a function of the wavelength, while from the optical transmittance it was possible to estimate the semiconductor indirect band-gap of these coatings, which has been proven to decrease as the N-doping increases. The photocatalytic performance of the titania films has been characterized by the degradation rate of an organic reactive dye under UV/visible irradiation. It has been found that for a certain critical limit of 1.19 at. % of nitrogen doping in the titania anatase crystalline lattice enhances the photocatalytic behavior of the thin films and it is in accordance with the observed semiconductor band-gap narrowing to 3.18 eV. By doping the titania lattice with nitrogen, the photocatalytic activity is enhanced under both UV and visible light.

  16. Enhancement in the photocatalytic nature of nitrogen-doped PVD-grown titanium dioxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Tavares, C. J.; Marques, S. M.; Viseu, T.; Teixeira, V.; Carneiro, J. O.; Alves, E.; Barradas, N. P.; Munnik, F.; Girardeau, T.; Riviere, J.-P.

    2009-12-01

    Nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide semiconductor photocatalytic thin films have been deposited by unbalanced reactive magnetron physical vapor deposition on glass substrates for self-cleaning applications. In order to increase the photocatalytic efficiency of the titania coatings, it is important to enhance the catalysts absorption of light from the solar spectra. Bearing this fact in mind, a reduction in the titania semiconductor band-gap has been attempted by using nitrogen doping from a coreactive gas mixture of N{sub 2}:O{sub 2} during the titanium sputtering process. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy was used in order to assess the composition of the titania thin films, whereas heavy-ion elastic recoil detection analysis granted the evaluation of the doping level of nitrogen. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy provided valuable information about the cation-anion binding within the semiconductor lattice. The as-deposited thin films were mostly amorphous, however, after a thermal annealing in vacuum at 500 deg. C the crystalline polymorph anatase and rutile phases have been developed, yielding an enhancement in the crystallinity. Spectroscopic ellipsometry experiments enabled the determination the refractive index of the thin films as a function of the wavelength, while from the optical transmittance it was possible to estimate the semiconductor indirect band-gap of these coatings, which has been proven to decrease as the N-doping increases. The photocatalytic performance of the titania films has been characterized by the degradation rate of an organic reactive dye under UV/visible irradiation. It has been found that for a certain critical limit of 1.19 at. % of nitrogen doping in the titania anatase crystalline lattice enhances the photocatalytic behavior of the thin films and it is in accordance with the observed semiconductor band-gap narrowing to 3.18 eV. By doping the titania lattice with nitrogen, the photocatalytic activity is enhanced under both UV and

  17. Analysis of the effect of evergreen and deciduous trees on urban nitrogen dioxide levels in the U.S. using land-use regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, M.; George, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), an atmospheric pollutant generated primarily by anthropogenic combustion processes, is typically found at higher concentrations in urban areas compared to non-urbanized environments. Elevated NO2 levels have multiple ecosystem effects at different spatial scales. At the local scale, elevated levels affect human health directly and through the formation of secondary pollutants such as ozone and aerosols; at the regional scale secondary pollutants such as nitric acid and organic nitrates have deleterious effects on non-urbanized areas; and, at the global scale, nitrogen oxide emissions significantly alter the natural biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. As cities globally become larger and larger sources of nitrogen oxide emissions, it is important to assess possible mitigation strategies to reduce the impact of emissions locally, regionally and globally. In this study, we build a national land-use regression (LUR) model to compare the impacts of deciduous and evergreen trees on urban NO2 levels in the United States. We use the EPA monitoring network values of NO2 levels for 2006, the 2006 NLCD tree canopy data for deciduous and evergreen canopies, and the US Census Bureau's TIGER shapefiles for roads, railroads, impervious area & population density as proxies for NO2 sources on-road traffic, railroad traffic, off-road and area sources respectively. Our preliminary LUR model corroborates previous LUR studies showing that the presence of trees is associated with reduced urban NO2 levels. Additionally, our model indicates that deciduous and evergreen trees reduce NO2 to different extents, and that the amount of NO2 reduced varies seasonally. The model indicates that every square kilometer of deciduous canopy within a 2km buffer is associated with a reduction in ambient NO2 levels of 0.64 ppb in summer and 0.46ppb in winter. Similarly, every square kilometer of evergreen tree canopy within a 2 km buffer is associated with a reduction in ambient NO2 by

  18. Chemical vapour deposition of nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide thin films.

    PubMed

    Alexandrov, S E; Baryshnikova, M V; Filatov, L A; Shahmin, A L; Andreeva, V D

    2011-09-01

    Nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide is often considered as a promising nanomaterial for photocatalytic applications. Here we report the first results of a study of APCVD of N-doped TiO2 thin films prepared with the use of ammonia as a source of nitrogen and titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) as a source of Ti and O atoms. The obtained films were analyzed with X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and ellipsometry. It was found that the film growth rate in the TTIP-NH3-Ar reaction system varied insignificantly with substrate temperature in the range of 450,..., 750 degrees C and did not exceed 4.4 nm/min. Yellow and orange layers with nitrogen content of about 7.6% were formed at the deposition temperature higher than 600 degrees C. The results of the structure analysis of the deposited films showed that addition of ammonia led to stabilization of the amorphous phase in the films. The effect of ammonia on optical and photocatalytic properties was also considered.

  19. Irreversibly increased nitrogen fixation in Trichodesmium experimentally adapted to elevated carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, David A; Walworth, Nathan G; Webb, Eric A; Saito, Mak A; Moran, Dawn; McIlvin, Matthew R; Gale, Jasmine; Fu, Fei-Xue

    2015-09-01

    Nitrogen fixation rates of the globally distributed, biogeochemically important marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium increase under high carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in short-term studies due to physiological plasticity. However, its long-term adaptive responses to ongoing anthropogenic CO2 increases are unknown. Here we show that experimental evolution under extended selection at projected future elevated CO2 levels results in irreversible, large increases in nitrogen fixation and growth rates, even after being moved back to lower present day CO2 levels for hundreds of generations. This represents an unprecedented microbial evolutionary response, as reproductive fitness increases acquired in the selection environment are maintained after returning to the ancestral environment. Constitutive rate increases are accompanied by irreversible shifts in diel nitrogen fixation patterns, and increased activity of a potentially regulatory DNA methyltransferase enzyme. High CO2-selected cell lines also exhibit increased phosphorus-limited growth rates, suggesting a potential advantage for this keystone organism in a more nutrient-limited, acidified future ocean.

  20. Irreversibly increased nitrogen fixation in Trichodesmium experimentally adapted to elevated carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchins, David A.; Walworth, Nathan G.; Webb, Eric A.; Saito, Mak A.; Moran, Dawn; McIlvin, Matthew R.; Gale, Jasmine; Fu, Fei-Xue

    2015-09-01

    Nitrogen fixation rates of the globally distributed, biogeochemically important marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium increase under high carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in short-term studies due to physiological plasticity. However, its long-term adaptive responses to ongoing anthropogenic CO2 increases are unknown. Here we show that experimental evolution under extended selection at projected future elevated CO2 levels results in irreversible, large increases in nitrogen fixation and growth rates, even after being moved back to lower present day CO2 levels for hundreds of generations. This represents an unprecedented microbial evolutionary response, as reproductive fitness increases acquired in the selection environment are maintained after returning to the ancestral environment. Constitutive rate increases are accompanied by irreversible shifts in diel nitrogen fixation patterns, and increased activity of a potentially regulatory DNA methyltransferase enzyme. High CO2-selected cell lines also exhibit increased phosphorus-limited growth rates, suggesting a potential advantage for this keystone organism in a more nutrient-limited, acidified future ocean.

  1. Irreversibly increased nitrogen fixation in Trichodesmium experimentally adapted to elevated carbon dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Hutchins, David A.; Walworth, Nathan G.; Webb, Eric A.; Saito, Mak A.; Moran, Dawn; McIlvin, Matthew R.; Gale, Jasmine; Fu, Fei-Xue

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen fixation rates of the globally distributed, biogeochemically important marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium increase under high carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in short-term studies due to physiological plasticity. However, its long-term adaptive responses to ongoing anthropogenic CO2 increases are unknown. Here we show that experimental evolution under extended selection at projected future elevated CO2 levels results in irreversible, large increases in nitrogen fixation and growth rates, even after being moved back to lower present day CO2 levels for hundreds of generations. This represents an unprecedented microbial evolutionary response, as reproductive fitness increases acquired in the selection environment are maintained after returning to the ancestral environment. Constitutive rate increases are accompanied by irreversible shifts in diel nitrogen fixation patterns, and increased activity of a potentially regulatory DNA methyltransferase enzyme. High CO2-selected cell lines also exhibit increased phosphorus-limited growth rates, suggesting a potential advantage for this keystone organism in a more nutrient-limited, acidified future ocean. PMID:26327191

  2. Comparison of spatiotemporal prediction models of daily exposure of individuals to ambient nitrogen dioxide and ozone in Montreal, Canada.

    PubMed

    Buteau, Stephane; Hatzopoulou, Marianne; Crouse, Dan L; Smargiassi, Audrey; Burnett, Richard T; Logan, Travis; Cavellin, Laure Deville; Goldberg, Mark S

    2017-07-01

    In previous studies investigating the short-term health effects of ambient air pollution the exposure metric that is often used is the daily average across monitors, thus assuming that all individuals have the same daily exposure. Studies that incorporate space-time exposures of individuals are essential to further our understanding of the short-term health effects of ambient air pollution. As part of a longitudinal cohort study of the acute effects of air pollution that incorporated subject-specific information and medical histories of subjects throughout the follow-up, the purpose of this study was to develop and compare different prediction models using data from fixed-site monitors and other monitoring campaigns to estimate daily, spatially-resolved concentrations of ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) of participants' residences in Montreal, 1991-2002. We used the following methods to predict spatially-resolved daily concentrations of O3 and NO2 for each geographic region in Montreal (defined by three-character postal code areas): (1) assigning concentrations from the nearest monitor; (2) spatial interpolation using inverse-distance weighting; (3) back-extrapolation from a land-use regression model from a dense monitoring survey, and; (4) a combination of a land-use and Bayesian maximum entropy model. We used a variety of indices of agreement to compare estimates of exposure assigned from the different methods, notably scatterplots of pairwise predictions, distribution of differences and computation of the absolute agreement intraclass correlation (ICC). For each pairwise prediction, we also produced maps of the ICCs by these regions indicating the spatial variability in the degree of agreement. We found some substantial differences in agreement across pairs of methods in daily mean predicted concentrations of O3 and NO2. On a given day and postal code area the difference in the concentration assigned could be as high as 131ppb for O3 and 108ppb for NO2. For

  3. The application of artificial neural networks for discrete wavelength retrievals of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, J.; Singh Anand, J.; Leigh, R.; Chang, M.; Monks, P. S.

    2012-12-01

    Despite emission reductions in Europe, air quality continues to be a major health and policy issue. Significant areas of uncertainty persist in relating emissions, atmospheric composition and human exposure within the urban atmosphere. Furthermore, air quality continues to worsen in some highly populated parts of the world. The current air quality monitoring framework is based upon bottom-up emission estimates coupled with sparse in situ monitoring. Research at the University of Leicester in the UK is being conducted to investigate the feasibility of using a technique of discrete wavelength sunlight spectroscopy to derive concentrations of the pollutant nitrogen dioxide from a satellite platform. This technique has the potential to enable very light and compact instrumentation and may subsequently provide abundant air quality data of significant value to users and policy makers. A back propagation multi-layered perceptron artificial neural network (ANN) has been developed to retrieve atmospheric slant columns of nitrogen dioxide from simulated measurements. The ANN approach enables retrievals to be performed much faster than other retrieval methods once the network has been appropriately trained, which is a particularly useful feature in instances where a large quantity of retrievals is required in near real time. To generate the required training data for the ANN to understand the necessary relationships a radiative transfer model SCIATRAN was run to provide millions of spectral intensities and slant column concentrations. To enable the radiative transfer simulations to realistically portray urban air quality the SCIATRAN model was fed atmospheric profile and aerosol data from modelled air quality forecasts over London to enable assimilation of the atmospheric composition of a typical urban environment. The training data produced by SCIATRAN was configured to span a range of solar azimuth and zenith angles to provide results which are applicable to all low earth

  4. Improved OSIRIS NO2 retrieval algorithm: description and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sioris, Christopher E.; Rieger, Landon A.; Lloyd, Nicholas D.; Bourassa, Adam E.; Roth, Chris Z.; Degenstein, Douglas A.; Camy-Peyret, Claude; Pfeilsticker, Klaus; Berthet, Gwenaël; Catoire, Valéry; Goutail, Florence; Pommereau, Jean-Pierre; McLinden, Chris A.

    2017-03-01

    A new retrieval algorithm for OSIRIS (Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imager System) nitrogen dioxide (NO2) profiles is described and validated. The algorithm relies on spectral fitting to obtain slant column densities of NO2, followed by inversion using an algebraic reconstruction technique and the SaskTran spherical radiative transfer model (RTM) to obtain vertical profiles of local number density. The validation covers different latitudes (tropical to polar), years (2002-2012), all seasons (winter, spring, summer, and autumn), different concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (from denoxified polar vortex to polar summer), a range of solar zenith angles (68.6-90.5°), and altitudes between 10.5 and 39 km, thereby covering the full retrieval range of a typical OSIRIS NO2 profile. The use of a larger spectral fitting window than used in previous retrievals reduces retrieval uncertainties and the scatter in the retrieved profiles due to noisy radiances. Improvements are also demonstrated through the validation in terms of bias reduction at 15-17 km relative to the OSIRIS operational v3.0 algorithm. The diurnal variation of NO2 along the line of sight is included in a fully spherical multiple scattering RTM for the first time. Using this forward model with built-in photochemistry, the scatter of the differences relative to the correlative balloon NO2 profile data is reduced.

  5. Short-Term Effects of Nitrogen Dioxide on Mortality and Susceptibility Factors in 10 Italian Cities: The EpiAir Study.

    PubMed

    Chiusolo, Monica; Cadum, Ennio; Stafoggia, Massimo; Galassi, Claudia; Berti, Giovanna; Faustini, Annunziata; Bisanti, Luigi; Vigotti, Maria Angela; Dessì, Maria Patrizia; Cernigliaro, Achille; Mallone, Sandra; Pacelli, Barbara; Minerba, Sante; Simonato, Lorenzo; Forastiere, Francesco

    2011-09-01

    Several studies have shown an association between nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and mortality. In Italy, the EpiAir multicentric study, "Air Pollution and Health: Epidemiological Surveillance and Primary Prevention," investigated short-term health effects of air pollution, including NO2. To study the individual susceptibility, we evaluated the association between NO2 and cause-specific mortality, investigating individual sociodemographic features and chronic/acute medical conditions as potential effect modifiers. We considered 276,205 natural deaths of persons > 35 years of age, resident in 10 Italian cities, and deceased between 2001 and 2005. We chose a time-stratified case-crossover analysis to evaluate the short-term effects of NO2 on natural, cardiac, cerebrovascular, and respiratory mortality. For each subject, we collected information on sociodemographic features and hospital admissions in the previous 2 years. Fixed monitors provided daily concentrations of NO2, particulate matter ≤ 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) and ozone (O3). We found statistically significant associations with a 10-μg/m3 increase of NO2 for natural mortality [2.09% for lag 0-5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.96-3.24], for cardiac mortality (2.63% for lag 0-5; 95% CI, 1.53-3.75), and for respiratory mortality (3.48% for lag 1-5; 95% CI, 0.75-6.29). These associations were independent from those of PM10 and O3. Stronger associations were estimated for subjects with at least one hospital admission in the 2 previous years and for subjects with three or more specific chronic conditions. Some cardiovascular conditions (i.e., ischemic heart disease, pulmonary circulation impairment, heart conduction disorders, heart failure) and diabetes appeared to confer a strong susceptibility to air pollution. Our results suggest significant and likely independent effects of NO2 on natural, cardiac, and respiratory mortality, particularly among subjects with specific cardiovascular preexisting chronic

  6. Gaseous NO2 effects on stomatal behavior, photosynthesis and respiration of hybrid poplar leaves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study, we used poplar as a model plant and investigated the effects of gaseous nitrogen dioxide (NO2, 4 microliter per liter) on stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, dark- and photorespiration of Populus alba x Populus berolinensis hybrid leaves using the photosynthesis system and scanning...

  7. The statistical evaluation and comparison of ADMS-Urban model for the prediction of nitrogen dioxide with air quality monitoring network.

    PubMed

    Dėdelė, Audrius; Miškinytė, Auksė

    2015-09-01

    In many countries, road traffic is one of the main sources of air pollution associated with adverse effects on human health and environment. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is considered to be a measure of traffic-related air pollution, with concentrations tending to be higher near highways, along busy roads, and in the city centers, and the exceedances are mainly observed at measurement stations located close to traffic. In order to assess the air quality in the city and the air pollution impact on public health, air quality models are used. However, firstly, before the model can be used for these purposes, it is important to evaluate the accuracy of the dispersion modelling as one of the most widely used method. The monitoring and dispersion modelling are two components of air quality monitoring system (AQMS), in which statistical comparison was made in this research. The evaluation of the Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling System (ADMS-Urban) was made by comparing monthly modelled NO2 concentrations with the data of continuous air quality monitoring stations in Kaunas city. The statistical measures of model performance were calculated for annual and monthly concentrations of NO2 for each monitoring station site. The spatial analysis was made using geographic information systems (GIS). The calculation of statistical parameters indicated a good ADMS-Urban model performance for the prediction of NO2. The results of this study showed that the agreement of modelled values and observations was better for traffic monitoring stations compared to the background and residential stations.

  8. Investigating the nitrogen dioxide concentrations in the boundary layer by using multi-axis spectroscopic measurements and comparison with satellite observations.

    PubMed

    Khokhar, Muhammad Fahim; Nisar, Munazza; Noreen, Asma; Khan, Waseem Razzaq; Hakeem, Khalid Rehman

    2017-01-01

    This study emphasizes on near surface observation of chemically active trace gases such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) over Islamabad on a regular basis. Absorption spectroscopy using backscattered extraterrestrial light source technique was used to retrieve NO2 differential slant column densities (dSCDs). Mini multi-axis-differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) instrument was used to perform ground-based measurements at Institute of Environmental Sciences and Engineering (IESE), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST) Islamabad, Pakistan. Tropospheric vertical column densities (VCDs) of NO2 were derived from measured dSCDs by using geometric air mass factor approach. A case study was conducted to identify the impact of different materials (glass, tinted glass, and acrylic sheet of various thicknesses used to cover the instrument) on the retrieval of dSCDs. Acrylic sheet of thickness 5 mm was found most viable option for casing material as it exhibited negligible impact in the visible wavelength range. Tropospheric NO2 VCD derived from ground-based mini MAX-DOAS measurements exceeded two times the Pak-NEQS levels and showed a reasonable comparison (r (2) = 0.65, r = 0.81) with satellite observations (root mean square bias of 39 %) over Islamabad, Pakistan.

  9. Preliminary Validations of the OMI NO2 Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celarier, E. A.; Brinksma, E.; Bucsela, E. J.; Veefkind, J. P.; Gleason, J. F.; Boersma, F. K.; Cede, A.; Ionov, D.; Goutail, F.; Bojkov, B.; Lambert, J.; Wenig, M. O.

    2006-12-01

    The OMI nitrogen dioxide (NO2) product is derived from the hyperspectral measurement of the Earth's spectral albedo in the range 415 - 465 nm. Processing data collected over a 24 hour period allows the construction of an"unpolluted" NO2 field, which approximates well the stratospheric and upper tropospheric components of NO2, which in turn allows both the identification of significant enhancements of tropospheric NO2 and a more accurate retrieval where they exist. The processed data are available from the NASA Goddard DAAC. A small number of field campaigns have been undertaken in which ground- and aircraft-based measurements of atmospheric NO2 have been made, coincident with OMI measurements. These include the INTEX-B campaign, the Dandelions campaigns, and some ongoing measurements made using a Brewer spectrophotometer, SAOZ, and a network of DOAS instruments deployed in various locations, from pole to pole, around the world. Some instruments are more sensitive to the tropospheric NO2, some to the stratospheric NO2, and some give accurate measurements of the total column NO2. This should allow the validation of the stratospheric/tropospheric separation process used in the retrieval algorithm. In addition, the retrieval algorithm rests on a set of climatological NO2 profiles. In-situ NOx measurements made during the INTEX-B campaign have been used to validate the assumed climatological profiles. In this poster we review the state of OMI NO2 validation efforts to date.

  10. Role of photoexcited nitrogen dioxide chemistry on ozone formation and emission control strategy over the Pearl River Delta, China

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new hydroxyl radical formation pathway via photo-excited nitrogen dioxide chemistry is incorporated into a chemistry-only box model as well as a 3D air quality model to examine its potential role on ozone formation and emission control strategy over the Pearl River Delta region...

  11. Role of photoexcited nitrogen dioxide chemistry on ozone formation and emission control strategy over the Pearl River Delta, China

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new hydroxyl radical formation pathway via photo-excited nitrogen dioxide chemistry is incorporated into a chemistry-only box model as well as a 3D air quality model to examine its potential role on ozone formation and emission control strategy over the Pearl River Delta region...

  12. ASSOCIATION OF INDOOR NITROGEN DIOXIDE WITH RESPIRATORY SYSMPTOMS IN CHILDREN: THE EFFECT OF MEASUREMENT ERROR CORRECTION WITH MULTIPLE SURROGATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1991, Neas et al. reported that indoor nitrogen dioxide (N02), a by-product of high-temperature combustion, was significantly associated with lower respiratory symptoms among a cohort of 1159 white children ages 7-11 years in six US cities studied from 1983-1988. For each 15 p...

  13. Effect of Same-day Sequential Exposure to Nitrogen Dioxide and Ozone on Cardiac and Ventilatory Function in Mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examines the cardiac and ventilatory effects of sequential exposure to nitrogen dioxide and then ozone. The data show that mice exposed to both gases have increased arrhythmia and breathing changes not observed in the other groups. Although the mechanisms underlying ai...

  14. ASSOCIATION OF INDOOR NITROGEN DIOXIDE WITH RESPIRATORY SYSMPTOMS IN CHILDREN: THE EFFECT OF MEASUREMENT ERROR CORRECTION WITH MULTIPLE SURROGATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1991, Neas et al. reported that indoor nitrogen dioxide (N02), a by-product of high-temperature combustion, was significantly associated with lower respiratory symptoms among a cohort of 1159 white children ages 7-11 years in six US cities studied from 1983-1988. For each 15 p...

  15. Nitrogen dioxide and kerosene-flame soot calibration of photoacoustic instruments for measurement of light absorption by aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Arnott, W. Patrick; Moosmu''ller, Hans; Walker, John W.

    2000-12-01

    A nitrogen dioxide calibration method is developed to evaluate the theoretical calibration for a photoacoustic instrument used to measure light absorption by atmospheric aerosols at a laser wavelength of 532.0 nm. This method uses high concentrations of nitrogen dioxide so that both a simple extinction and the photoacoustically obtained absorption measurement may be performed simultaneously. Since Rayleigh scattering is much less than absorption for the gas, the agreement between the extinction and absorption coefficients can be used to evaluate the theoretical calibration, so that the laser gas spectra are not needed. Photoacoustic theory is developed to account for strong absorption of the laser beam power in passage through the resonator. Findings are that the photoacoustic absorption based on heat-balance theory for the instrument compares well with absorption inferred from the extinction measurement, and that both are well within values represented by published spectra of nitrogen dioxide. Photodissociation of nitrogen dioxide limits the calibration method to wavelengths longer than 398 nm. Extinction and absorption at 532 and 1047 nm were measured for kerosene-flame soot to evaluate the calibration method, and the single scattering albedo was found to be 0.31 and 0.20 at these wavelengths, respectively.

  16. Effect of Same-day Sequential Exposure to Nitrogen Dioxide and Ozone on Cardiac and Ventilatory Function in Mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examines the cardiac and ventilatory effects of sequential exposure to nitrogen dioxide and then ozone. The data show that mice exposed to both gases have increased arrhythmia and breathing changes not observed in the other groups. Although the mechanisms underlying ai...

  17. Evaluation of a Colorimetric Personal Dosimeter for Nitrogen Oxide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Philip

    A personal colorimetric dosimeter for nitrogen dioxide was developed. Tests were performed to determine the response of these strips to various concentrations of NO2. The dosimeter strips were satisfactory for approximate determinations of total exposure (concentration + time) of nitrogen dioxide. The total exposure was calculated in terms of time…

  18. Evaluation of a Colorimetric Personal Dosimeter for Nitrogen Oxide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Philip

    A personal colorimetric dosimeter for nitrogen dioxide was developed. Tests were performed to determine the response of these strips to various concentrations of NO2. The dosimeter strips were satisfactory for approximate determinations of total exposure (concentration + time) of nitrogen dioxide. The total exposure was calculated in terms of time…

  19. The Chemical and Dynamical Responses of Ozone and Nitrogen Dioxide to the Eruption of Mt. Pinatubo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aquila, V.; Oman, L. D.; Stolarski, R.; Douglass, A. R.

    2012-01-01

    Observations have shown that the concentration of nitrogen dioxide decreased in both hemispheres in the years following the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo. In contrast, the observed ozone response was largely asymmetrical with respect to the equator, with a decrease in the northern hemisphere and little or no change in the southern hemisphere. Simulations including enhanced heterogeneous chemistry due to the presence of the volcanic aerosol reproduce a decrease of ozone in the northern hemisphere, but also produce a comparable ozone decrease in the southern hemisphere contrary to observations. Our simulations show that the heating due to the volcanic aerosol enhanced both the tropical upwelling and the extratropical downwelling. The enhanced extratropical downwelling, combined with the time of the eruption relative to the seasonal phase of the Brewer-Dobson circulation, increased the ozone in the southern hemisphere and counteracted the ozone depletion due to heterogeneous chemistry on volcanic aerosol.

  20. The Response of Ozone and Nitrogen Dioxide to the Eruption of Mount Pinatubo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aquila. Valentina; Oman, Luke D.; Stolarsk, Richard S.; Douglass, Anne R.; Newman, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Observations have shown that the global mass of nitrogen dioxide decreased in both hemispheres in the year following the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo, indicating an enhanced heterogeneous chemistry. In contrast, the observed ozone response was largely asymmetrical with respect to the equator, with a decrease in the northern hemisphere and little change in the southern hemisphere. Simulations including enhanced heterogeneous chemistry due to the presence of the volcanic aerosol reproduce a decrease of ozone in the northern hemisphere, but also produce a comparable ozone decrease in the southern hemisphere, contrary to observations. Our simulations show that the heating due to the volcanic aerosol enhanced both the tropical upwelling and the extratropical downwelling. The enhanced extratropical downwelling, combined with the time of the eruption relative to the phase of the Brewer-Dobson circulation, increased the ozone in the southern hemisphere and counteracted the ozone depletion due to heterogeneous chemistry on volcanic aerosol.

  1. The Response of Ozone and Nitrogen Dioxide to the Eruption of Mt. Pinatubo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aquila, Valentina; Oman, Luke D.; Stolarski, R.; Douglass, A. R.; Newman, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Observations have shown that the global mass of nitrogen dioxide decreased in both hemispheres in the year following the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo. In contrast, the observed ozone response was largely asymmetrical with respect to the equator, with a decrease in the northern hemisphere and little change and even a small increase in the southern hemisphere. Simulations including enhanced heterogeneous chemistry due to the presence of the volcanic aerosol reproduce a decrease of ozone in the northern hemisphere, but also produce a comparable ozone decrease in the southern hemisphere, contrary to observations. Our simulations show that the heating due to the volcanic aerosol enhanced both the tropical upwelling and the extratropical downwelling. The enhanced extratropical downwelling, combined with the time of the eruption relative to the phase of the Brewer-Dobson circulation, increased the ozone in the southern hemisphere and counteracted the ozone depletion due to heterogeneous chemistry on volcanic aerosol.

  2. LPG ammonia and nitrogen dioxide gas sensing properties of nanostructured polypyrrole thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagul, Sagar B.; Upadhye, Deepak S.; Sharma, Ramphal

    2016-05-01

    Nanostructured Polypyrrole thin film was synthesized by easy and economic chemical oxidative polymerization technique on glass at room temperature. The prepared thin film of Polypyrrole was characterized by optical absorbance study by UV-visible spectroscopy and electrical study by I-V measurement system. The optical absorbance spectrum of Polypyrrole shows two fundamental peaks in region of 420 and 890 nm, which confirms the formation of Polypyrrole on glass substrate. The I-V graph of nanostructured Polypyrrole represents the Ohmic nature. Furthermore, the thin film of Polypyrrole was investigated by Scanning electron microscopy for surface morphology study. The SEM micrograph represents spherical nanostructured morphology of Polypyrrole on glass substrate. In order to investigate gas sensing properties, 100 ppm of LPG, Ammonia and Nitrogen Dioxide were injected in the gas chamber and magnitude of resistance has been recorded as a function of time in second. It was observed that nanostructured Polypyrrole thin film shows good sensing behavior at room temperature.

  3. Susceptibility to virus infection with exposure to nitrogen dioxide. Research report, January 1984-July 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Kulle, T.J.; Clements, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    The interaction between nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) exposure and human susceptibility to respiratory virus infection was investigated in a placebo-controlled, randomized, blinded trial conducted in an environmentally controlled research chamber. Healthy, nonsmoking volunteers, 18 to 35 years old, who were seronegative to influenza A/Korea/82 (H/sub 3/N/sub 2/) virus, breathed either filtered air or NO/sub 2/ for two hours a day for three consecutive days. Live, attenuated cold-adapted influenza A/Korea/82 reassortant virus was administered intranasally to all subjects after the second day of exposure. No adverse changes in pulmonary function or nonspecific airway reaction to methacholine were observed after NO/sub 2/ exposure, virus infection, or both. Although the differences were not statistically significant, the groups exposed to NO/sub 2/ in year 3 became infected more often (91%) than those exposed only to air (71%).

  4. Responses of susceptible subpopulations to nitrogen dioxide. Research report, June 1983-January 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, P.E.; Utell, M.J.

    1989-02-01

    Symptom responses and changes in pulmonary function were investigated in people with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exposed to 0.3 ppm nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) for four hours. Nonrespiratory-impaired (normal) subjects of comparable ages constituted the control groups. All exposures included periods of exercise and pulmonary function measurements. No significant symptomatic or physiological responses to NO{sub 2} could be detected in either the young or elderly control group. The asthmatic group did not manifest significant reductions in lung function after exposure to 0.3 ppm NO{sub 2}, compared to their preexposure baseline data or to their responses after a comparable four-hour exposure to air. During light exercise, subjects with COPD were progressively responsive to 0.3 ppm NO{sub 2}. Subgroup analyses within the asthmatic, COPD, and elderly normal subject groups and intergroup comparisons yielded significant findings and associations.

  5. Effect of nitrogen dioxide and ozone on the risk of dying in patients with severe asthma

    PubMed Central

    Sunyer, J; Basagana, X; Belmonte, J; Anto, J

    2002-01-01

    Background: A study was performed to assess the acute association between air pollution, pollen and spores, and mortality in a population based cohort of subjects with asthma recruited from emergency room admissions for an asthma exacerbation using a case crossover design. Methods: Patients in Barcelona aged over 14 years who died during the period 1985–95 who had visited the emergency department of one of the four largest hospitals in the city for asthma during 1985–9 were included in the study (a total of 467 men and 611 women). Deaths were identified by record linkage of the cohort individuals with the Catalonia mortality registry. Causes of death were based on the underlying cause on the death certificate. Air pollution, pollen and spore levels were measured at the city monitoring stations which provide an average for the entire city. Results: Nitrogen dioxide was associated with mortality for all causes of death (adjusted odds ratio (OR) for an increase of the interquartile range = 1.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09 to 2.64) in asthmatic patients with more than one emergency room admission for asthma. The association was particularly strong for respiratory causes (OR 1.63, 95% CI 0.93 to 2.86). Ozone also increased the risk of death in asthmatic patients (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.09 to 3.30) during spring and summer. The association with particles, pollen, and spores was not significant, and no interactions between air pollutants and pollen and spores were found. Conclusion: Nitrogen dioxide and ozone may exacerbate severe asthma and even cause death among asthmatic subjects. PMID:12149528

  6. Influence of experimental pulmonary emphysema on the toxicological effects from inhaled nitrogen dioxide and diesel exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Mauderly, J.L.; Bice, D.E.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gillett, N.A.; Henderson, R.F.; Pickrell, J.A.; Wolff, R.K. )

    1989-10-01

    This project examined the influence of preexisting, experimentally induced pulmonary emphysema on the adverse health effects in rats of chronic inhalation exposure to either nitrogen dioxide or automotive diesel-engine exhaust. Previous reports indicated that humans with chronic lung disease were among those most severely affected by episodic exposures to high concentrations of airborne toxicants. There were no previous reports comparing the effects of chronic inhalation exposure to components of automotive emissions in emphysematous and normal animals. The hypothesis tested in this project was that rats with preexisting pulmonary emphysema were more susceptible than rats with normal lungs to the adverse effects of the toxicant exposures. Young adult rats were housed continuously in inhalation exposure chambers and exposed seven hours per day, five days per week, for 24 months to nitrogen dioxide at 9.5 parts per million (ppm)2, or to diesel exhaust at 3.5 mg soot/m3, or to clean air as control animals. These concentrations were selected to produce mild, but distinct, effects in rats with normal lungs. Pulmonary emphysema was induced in one-half of the rats by intratracheal instillation of the proteolytic enzyme elastase six weeks before the toxicant exposures began. Health effects were evaluated after 12, 18, and 24 months of exposure. The measurements included respiratory function, clearance of inhaled radiolabeled particles, pulmonary immune responses to instilled antigen, biochemistry and cytology of airway fluid, total lung collagen, histopathology, lung morphometry, and lung burdens of diesel soot. The significance of influences of emphysema and toxicant exposure, and interactions between influences of the two treatments, were evaluated by analysis of variance.

  7. Evaluation of OMI operational standard NO2 column retrievals using in situ and surface-based NO2 observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamsal, L. N.; Krotkov, N. A.; Celarier, E. A.; Swartz, W. H.; Pickering, K. E.; Bucsela, E. J.; Martin, R. V.; Philip, S.; Irie, H.; Cede, A.; Herman, J.; Weinheimer, A.; Szykman, J. J.; Knepp, T. N.

    2014-06-01

    We assess the standard operational nitrogen dioxide (NO2) data product (OMNO2, version 2.1) retrieved from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard NASA's Aura satellite using a combination of aircraft and surface in situ measurements as well as ground-based column measurements at several locations and a bottom-up NOx emission inventory over the continental US. Despite considerable sampling differences, NO2 vertical column densities from OMI are modestly correlated (r = 0.3-0.8) with in situ measurements of tropospheric NO2 from aircraft, ground-based observations of NO2 columns from MAX-DOAS and Pandora instruments, in situ surface NO2 measurements from photolytic converter instruments, and a bottom-up NOx emission inventory. Overall, OMI retrievals tend to be lower in urban regions and higher in remote areas, but generally agree with other measurements to within ± 20%. No consistent seasonal bias is evident. Contrasting results between different data sets reveal complexities behind NO2 validation. Monthly mean vertical NO2 profile shapes from the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemistry-transport model (CTM) used in the OMI retrievals are highly consistent with in situ aircraft measurements, but these measured profiles exhibit considerable day-to-day variation, affecting the retrieved daily NO2 columns by up to 40%. This assessment of OMI tropospheric NO2 columns, together with the comparison of OMI-retrieved and model-simulated NO2 columns, could offer diagnostic evaluation of the model.

  8. Association of indoor nitrogen dioxide with respiratory symptoms in children: application of measurement error correction techniques to utilize data from multiple surrogates.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruifeng; Weller, Edie; Dockery, Douglas W; Neas, Lucas M; Spiegelman, Donna

    2006-07-01

    In 1991, Neas et al. reported that indoor nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), a byproduct of high-temperature combustion, was significantly associated with lower respiratory symptoms among a cohort of 1,159 white children aged 7-11 years in six US cities studied from 1983 to 1988. For each 15 p.p.b. increment of NO(2), the multivariate adjusted odds ratio (OR) was 1.4 (95% confidence interval (CI)=[1.1, 1.7]). Although indoor NO(2) concentration in the ambient air was assessed only in a subset of the children, the prevalence of lower respiratory symptoms and surrogate exposure variables were available in all of the children at the time of the indoor monitoring program. This paper evaluates the effect of indoor NO(2) exposure on the annual risk of lower respiratory symptoms by applying a regression calibration method to the 2,891 children in the overall study with complete covariate and outcome data, 1,137 of whom had NO(2) directly measured and 1,754 of whom only surrogate exposure data were available. An estimate of the indoor annual NO(2) exposure effect (p.p.b.) is obtained, which is adjusted for measurement error induced by the use of surrogate NO(2) sources among the 1,754. These sources include the presence of a gas stove with or without a pilot light, the presence of a kerosene space heater, the presence of a wood stove, and the usage of a stove for heating, and residential characteristics, including fan usage for kitchen ventilation and the total number of rooms in the home. After adjusting for age, gender, city, parental history of respiratory diseases, and smoking inside the children's home (packs/day), a 15-p.p.b. increment in NO(2) exposure was found to be associated with a significant 50% increased annual risk of lower respiratory symptoms (OR=1.5, 95% CI=[1.2, 1.8]). Simulation results indicated that, under conditions similar to those observed in these data, the estimator is unbiased and has a coverage probability close to the nominal value. Using the

  9. Biocompatibility and antibacterial activity of nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles for use in dental resin formulations.

    PubMed

    Zane, Andrew; Zuo, Ranfang; Villamena, Frederick A; Rockenbauer, Antal; Digeorge Foushee, Ann Marie; Flores, Kristin; Dutta, Prabir K; Nagy, Amber

    The addition of antibacterial functionality to dental resins presents an opportunity to extend their useful lifetime by reducing secondary caries caused by bacterial recolonization. In this study, the potential efficacy of nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles for this purpose was determined. Nitrogen doping was carried out to extend the ultraviolet absorbance into longer wavelength blue light for increased biocompatibility. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (approximately 20-30 nm) were synthesized with and without nitrogen doping using a sol-gel method. Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy indicated a band of trap states, with increasing blue light absorbance as the concentration of the nitrogen dopant increased. Electron paramagnetic resonance measurements indicated the formation of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals upon particle exposure to visible light and oxygen. The particles were significantly toxic to Escherichia coli in a dose-dependent manner after a 1-hour exposure to a blue light source (480 nm). Intracellular reactive oxygen species assay demonstrated that the particles caused a stress response in human gingival epithelial cells when exposed to 1 hour of blue light, though this did not result in detectable release of cytokines. No decrease in cell viability was observed by water-soluble tetrazolium dye assay. The results show that nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles have antibacterial activity when exposed to blue light, and are biocompatible at these concentrations.

  10. Biocompatibility and antibacterial activity of nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles for use in dental resin formulations

    PubMed Central

    Zane, Andrew; Zuo, Ranfang; Villamena, Frederick A; Rockenbauer, Antal; Digeorge Foushee, Ann Marie; Flores, Kristin; Dutta, Prabir K; Nagy, Amber

    2016-01-01

    The addition of antibacterial functionality to dental resins presents an opportunity to extend their useful lifetime by reducing secondary caries caused by bacterial recolonization. In this study, the potential efficacy of nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles for this purpose was determined. Nitrogen doping was carried out to extend the ultraviolet absorbance into longer wavelength blue light for increased biocompatibility. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (approximately 20–30 nm) were synthesized with and without nitrogen doping using a sol–gel method. Ultraviolet–Visible spectroscopy indicated a band of trap states, with increasing blue light absorbance as the concentration of the nitrogen dopant increased. Electron paramagnetic resonance measurements indicated the formation of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals upon particle exposure to visible light and oxygen. The particles were significantly toxic to Escherichia coli in a dose-dependent manner after a 1-hour exposure to a blue light source (480 nm). Intracellular reactive oxygen species assay demonstrated that the particles caused a stress response in human gingival epithelial cells when exposed to 1 hour of blue light, though this did not result in detectable release of cytokines. No decrease in cell viability was observed by water-soluble tetrazolium dye assay. The results show that nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles have antibacterial activity when exposed to blue light, and are biocompatible at these concentrations. PMID:27980404

  11. Monitoring of atmospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide over the south of Portugal by ground-based and satellite observations.

    PubMed

    Bortoli, Daniele; Silva, Ana Maria; Costa, Maria João; Domingues, Ana Filipa; Giovanelli, Giorgio

    2009-07-20

    The SPATRAM (Spectrometer for Atmospheric TRAcers Monitoring) instrument has been developed as a result of the collaboration between CGE-UE, ISAC-CNR and Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment (ENEA). SPATRAM is a multi-purpose UV-Vis-scanning spectrometer (250 - 950 nm) and it is installed at the Observatory of the CGE, in Evora, since April 2004. A brief description of the instrument is given, highlighting the technological innovations with respect to the previous version of similar equipment. The need for such measurements automatically taken on a routine basis in south-western European regions, specifically in Portugal, has encouraged the development and installation of the equipment and constitutes a major driving force for the present work. The main features and some improvements introduced in the DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) algorithms are discussed. The results obtained applying DOAS methodology to the SPATRAM spectrometer measurements of diffused spectral sky radiation are presented in terms of diurnal and seasonal variations of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and ozone (O(3)). NO(2) confirms the typical seasonal cycle reaching the maximum of (6.5 +/- 0.3) x 10(+15) molecules cm(-2) for the sunset values (PM), during the summer season, and the minimum of (1.55 +/- 0.07) x 10(+15) molecules cm(-2) for the sunrise values (AM) in winter. O(3) presents the maximum total column of (433 +/- 5) Dobson Unit (DU) in the spring season and the minimum of (284 +/- 3) DU during the fall period. The huge daily variations of the O(3) total column during the spring season are analyzed and discussed. The ground-based results obtained for NO(2) and O(3) column contents are compared with data from satellite-borne equipment (GOME - Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment; SCIAMACHY - Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric CHartographY; TOMS - Total Ozone Monitoring Spectrometer) and it is shown that the two data

  12. Undoped and doped poly(tetraphenylbenzidine) as sensitive material for an impedimetric nitrogen dioxide gas dosimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Marr, I.; Moos, R.; Neumann, K.; Thelakkat, M.

    2014-09-29

    This article presents a nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) detecting gas dosimeter based on poly(tetraphenylbenzidine) poly(TPD) as nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) sensitive layer. Gas dosimeters are suitable devices to determine reliably low levels of analytes over a long period of time. During NO{sub x} exposure, the analyte molecules are accumulated irreversibly in the sensing layer of the dosimeter enhancing the conductivity of the hole conducting poly(TPD), which can be measured by impedance spectroscopy. Due to their possibility for low cost production by simple printing techniques and very good physical, photochemical, and electrochemical properties, poly(TPD)s are suitable for application in gas dosimeters operated at room temperature. We studied the effect of doping with a Co(III)-complex in combination with a conducting salt on the dosimeter behavior. Compared to the undoped material, a strong influence of the doping can be observed: the conductivity of the sensing material increases significantly, the noise of the signal decreases and an unwanted recovery of the sensor signal can be prevented, leading to a NO{sub x} detection limit <10 ppm.

  13. Interleukin-1 receptor and caspase-1 are required for the Th17 response in nitrogen dioxide-promoted allergic airway disease.

    PubMed

    Martin, Rebecca A; Ather, Jennifer L; Lundblad, Lennart K A; Suratt, Benjamin T; Boyson, Jonathan E; Budd, Ralph C; Alcorn, John F; Flavell, Richard A; Eisenbarth, Stephanie C; Poynter, Matthew E

    2013-05-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an environmental pollutant and endogenously generated oxidant associated with the development, severity, and exacerbation of asthma. NO2 exposure is capable of allergically sensitizing mice to the innocuous inhaled antigen ovalbumin (OVA), promoting neutrophil and eosinophil recruitment, and a mixed Th2/Th17 response upon antigen challenge that is reminiscent of severe asthma. However, the identity of IL-17A-producing cells and the mechanisms governing their ontogeny in NO2-promoted allergic airway disease remain unstudied. We measured the kinetics of lung inflammation after antigen challenge in NO2-promoted allergic airway disease, including inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage and antigen-specific IL-17A production from the lung. We determined that IL-17A(+) cells were predominately CD4(+)T cell receptor (TCR)β(+) Th17 cells, and that a functional IL-1 receptor was required for Th17, but not Th2, cytokine production after in vitro antigen restimulation of lung cells. The absence of natural killer T cells, γδ T cells, or the inflammasome scaffold nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain, leucine rich repeat and pyrin domain (Nlrp)3 did not affect the development of NO2-promoted allergic inflammation or IL-17A production. Similarly, neutrophil depletion or the neutralization of IL-1α during sensitization exerted no effect on these parameters. However, the absence of caspase-1 significantly reduced IL-17A production from lung cells without affecting Th2 cytokines or lung inflammation. Finally, the intranasal administration of IL-1β and the inhalation of antigen promoted allergic sensitization that was reflected by neutrophilic airway inflammation and IL-17A production from CD4(+)TCRβ(+) Th17 cells subsequent to antigen challenge. These data implicate a role for caspase-1 and IL-1β in the IL-1 receptor-dependent Th17 response manifest in NO2-promoted allergic airway disease.

  14. Vertical nitrogen dioxide and ozone concentrations measured from a tethered balloon in the Lower Fraser Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisano, J. T.; McKendry, I.; Steyn, D. G.; Hastie, D. R.

    A series of vertical profiles of temperature, relative humidity, NO 2 and O 3 were determined in the Lower Fraser Valley, British Columbia, as part of the PACIFIC '93 field study. Data from one day show very structured vertical distributions of all parameters in the morning, as expected from the limited vertical mixing under the nocturnal inversion. NO 2 concentrations of 20 ppbv were observed 300m above the surface, while the surface concentrations were ˜ 2 ppbv. Ozone and nitrogen oxide chemistry were observed at all altitudes throughout the PBL. Titration of O 3 by NO to produce NO 2 was observed in layers above the ground, under the influence of the NBL. An increase in odd oxygen throughout the PBL, during the morning and early afternoon, shows "smog chemistry" is occurring even though the ground-based O 3 measurements suggest this day was not particularly chemically active. However, once the NBL has dissipated, the ground-based measurements seem representative of the entire PBL.

  15. Responses of beech and spruce foliage to elevated carbon dioxide, increased nitrogen deposition and soil type

    PubMed Central

    Günthardt-Goerg, Madeleine Silvia; Vollenweider, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Although enhanced carbon fixation by forest trees may contribute significantly to mitigating an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), capacities for this vary greatly among different tree species and locations. This study compared reactions in the foliage of a deciduous and a coniferous tree species (important central European trees, beech and spruce) to an elevated supply of CO2 and evaluated the importance of the soil type and increased nitrogen deposition on foliar nutrient concentrations and cellular stress reactions. During a period of 4 years, beech (represented by trees from four different regions) and spruce saplings (eight regions), planted together on either acidic or calcareous forest soil in the experimental model ecosystem chambers, were exposed to single and combined treatments consisting of elevated carbon dioxide (+CO2, 590 versus 374 μL L−1) and elevated wet nitrogen deposition (+ND, 50 versus 5 kg ha−1 a−1). Leaf size and foliage mass of spruce were increased by +CO2 on both soil types, but those of beech by +ND on the calcareous soil only. The magnitude of the effects varied among the tree origins in both species. Moreover, the concentration of secondary compounds (proanthocyanidins) and the leaf mass per area, as a consequence of cell wall thickening, were also increased and formed important carbon sinks within the foliage. Although the species elemental concentrations differed in their response to CO2 fertilization, the +CO2 treatment effect was weakened by an acceleration of cell senescence in both species, as shown by a decrease in photosynthetic pigment and nitrogen concentration, discolouration and stress symptoms at the cell level; the latter were stronger in beech than spruce. Hence, young trees belonging to a species with different ecological niches can show contrasting responses in their foliage size, but similar responses at the cell level, upon exposure to elevated levels of CO2. The soil type and its nutrient supply

  16. Observations of the loss of stratospheric NO2 following volcanic eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, M. T.; Mankin, William G.

    1993-01-01

    Observations of stratospheric column amounts of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitric oxide (NO) and nitric acid (HNO3) have been made following major eruptions of the El Chichon and Mt. Pintatubo volcanoes. Midlatitude abundances of NO2 and NO were reduced by as much as 70% in the months following the appearance of the volcanic aerosols as compared to volcanically quite periods. There are heterogeneous reactions which could occur on the volcanic aerosols to convert NO2 into HNO3 but no commensurate increase in HNO3 column amounts was observed at the times of NO2 decrease.

  17. A case study of the relative effects of power plant nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide emission reductions on atmospheric nitrogen deposition.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, Krish; Seigneur, Christian; Bronson, Rochelle; Chen, Shu-Yun; Karamchandani, Prakash; Walters, Justin T; Jansen, John J; Brandmeyer, Jo Ellen; Knipping, Eladio M

    2010-03-01

    The contrasting effects of point source nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) air emission reductions on regional atmospheric nitrogen deposition are analyzed for the case study of a coal-fired power plant in the southeastern United States. The effect of potential emission reductions at the plant on nitrogen deposition to Escambia Bay and its watershed on the Florida-Alabama border is simulated using the three-dimensional Eulerian Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. A method to quantify the relative and individual effects of NOx versus SO2 controls on nitrogen deposition using air quality modeling results obtained from the simultaneous application of NOx and SO2 emission controls is presented and discussed using the results from CMAQ simulations conducted with NOx-only and SO2-only emission reductions; the method applies only to cases in which ambient inorganic nitrate is present mostly in the gas phase; that is, in the form of gaseous nitric acid (HNO3). In such instances, the individual effects of NOx and SO2 controls on nitrogen deposition can be approximated by the effects of combined NOx + SO2 controls on the deposition of NOy, (the sum of oxidized nitrogen species) and reduced nitrogen species (NHx), respectively. The benefit of controls at the plant in terms of the decrease in nitrogen deposition to Escambia Bay and watershed is less than 6% of the overall benefit due to regional Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) controls.

  18. Changes in Transportation-Related Air Pollution Exposures by Race-Ethnicity and Socioeconomic Status: Outdoor Nitrogen Dioxide in the United States in 2000 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Clark, Lara P; Millet, Dylan B; Marshall, Julian D

    2017-09-14

    Disparities in exposure to air pollution by race-ethnicity and by socioeconomic status have been documented in the United States, but the impacts of declining transportatio