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Sample records for nitrogen ion recoil

  1. Heavy ion recoil spectrometry of barium strontium titanate films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stannard, W. B.; Johnston, P. N.; Walker, S. R.; Bubb, I. F.; Scott, J. F.; Cohen, D. D.; Dytlewski, N.; Martin, J. W.

    1995-05-01

    Thin films of barium strontium titanate have been analysed using heavy ion recoil spectrometry with 77 and 98 MeV 127I ions at the new heavy ion recoil facility at ANSTO, Lucas Heights. New calibration procedures have been developed for quantitative analysis. Energy spectra for each of the elements present reveal interdiffusion that was not previously known.

  2. Electron-recoil ion and recoil ion-projectile coincidence techniques applied to obtain absolute partial collision cross sections.

    PubMed

    Wolff, W; de Souza, Ihani J; Tavares, André C; de Oliveira, G F S; Luna, H

    2012-12-01

    We present in detail an alternative experimental set-up and data analysis, based on the electron-recoil ion and recoil ion-projectile coincidence techniques, that enable the measurement of partial pure ionization and partial charge exchange cross sections for an effusive gas jet set-up, where the absolute target density and recoil ion efficiency cannot be measured directly. The method is applied to the ionization of helium atoms due to collision with partially stripped C(3 +) projectiles. In order to check the method, the results are compared to data available in the literature where the target density and recoil ion detection efficiency were measured directly. The pure ionization channel is compared to the electron capture channel.

  3. Time-of-flight direct recoil ion scattering spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Krauss, Alan R.; Gruen, Dieter M.; Lamich, George J.

    1994-01-01

    A time of flight direct recoil and ion scattering spectrometer beam line (10). The beam line (10) includes an ion source (12) which injects ions into pulse deflection regions (14) and (16) separated by a drift space (18). A final optics stage includes an ion lens and deflection plate assembly (22). The ion pulse length and pulse interval are determined by computerized adjustment of the timing between the voltage pulses applied to the pulsed deflection regions (14) and (16).

  4. Time-of-flight direct recoil ion scattering spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Krauss, A.R.; Gruen, D.M.; Lamich, G.J.

    1994-09-13

    A time-of-flight direct recoil and ion scattering spectrometer beam line is disclosed. The beam line includes an ion source which injects ions into pulse deflection regions and separated by a drift space. A final optics stage includes an ion lens and deflection plate assembly. The ion pulse length and pulse interval are determined by computerized adjustment of the timing between the voltage pulses applied to the pulsed deflection regions. 23 figs.

  5. Elastic recoil detection (ERD) with extremely heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forster, J. S.; Currie, P. J.; Davies, J. A.; Siegele, R.; Wallace, S. G.; Zelenitsky, D.

    1996-06-01

    Extremely heavy-ion beams such as 209Bi in elastic recoil detection (ERD) make ERD a uniquely valuable technique for thin-film analysis of elements with mass ≤ 100. We report ERD measurements of compositional analysis of dinosaur eggshells and bones. We also show the capability of the ERD technique on studies of thin-film, high-temperature superconductors.

  6. Direct recoil oxygen ion fractions resulting from Ar + collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jie-Nan; Rabalais, J. Wayne

    1986-03-01

    Direct recoil of oxygen from oxidized and hydroxylated magnesium surfaces as a result of 6 keV Ar + collisions produces O -, O +, and O species. The total ion fraction at a recoil angle of 22° is ~33.5%, of which O - is 23.7% and O + is 9.8% for the oxidized surface. The O -/O + intensity ratio is extremely sensitive to the amount of hydrogen present, with the O + yield dropping to ~1% on the hydroxylated surface. These results are considered within a model for electronic transitions in ion/surface collisions which considers Auger and resonant transitions along the ion trajectory and electron promotions in the quasi-diatomic molecule of the close encounter.

  7. Elastic recoil detection analysis on the ANSTO heavy ion microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegele, R.; Orlic, I.; Cohen, David D.

    2002-05-01

    The heavy ion microprobe at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation is capable of focussing heavy ions with an ME/ q2 of up to 100 amu MeV. This makes the microprobe ideally suited for heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA). However, beam currents on a microprobe are usually very small, which requires a detection system with a large solid angle. We apply microbeam heavy ion ERDA using a large solid angle ΔE- E telescope with a gas ΔE detector to layered structures. We demonstrate the capability to measure oxygen and carbon with a lateral resolution of 20 μm, together with determination of the depth of the contamination in thin deposited layers.

  8. Delayed autoionization of recoil ions by the decay of high-spin isomeric states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maidikov, V. Z.

    1985-12-01

    The time dependence of the ionization for isotopically different heavy ion fusion recoil ions has been observed. Delayed nuclear-induced autoionization of recoil ions caused by the decay of high-spin nuclear isomeric states by internal conversion was established. Internal conversion in isolated recoil atoms results in a drastic rearrangement in the atomic cloud with a loss of a great number of orbital electrons. Possibilities for the use of the observed phenomena in atomic and nuclear physics are discussed.

  9. Primary ion dependence of LiF direct recoil intensities and ion fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. N.; Shi, M.; Rabalais, J. W.

    1987-02-01

    Time-of-flight (TOF) spectra of the scattered and recoiled particles resulting from 1-10 keV He+, Ne+, Ar+, Kr+, and Xe+ ions impingent on surfaces of LiF thin films have been obtained. Measurements of directly recoiled (DR) neutrals plus ions and neutrals alone are used to calculate positive and negative ion fractions Y+,- from DR events. The oppositely charged ion fractions have a distinctly different behavior as a function of kinetic energy. The Y+ values exhibit a threshold at low energy followed by a plateau region at higher energy while the Y- values are maximum in the low energy region followed by a decreasing yield as energy increases. The energy dependence of Y+,- is interpreted in terms of the recently developed model [J. Chem. Phys. 85, 3615 (1986)] for electronic charge exchange in keV ion/surface collisions which considers electron promotions in the close atomic encounter and resonant and Auger transitions along the outgoing trajectory. The ionization potential of the primary ion relative to the energy levels of the target atom is shown to have a large influence on charge exchange in the close encounter. The ratio of direct recoil to scattering particle flux increases by a factor of >102 from He to Xe; scattering and recoil cross sections are used to model this process.

  10. Recoil ion charge state distribution following the beta(sup +) decay of {sup 21}Na

    SciTech Connect

    Scielzo, Nicholas D.; Freedman, Stuart J.; Fujikawa, Brian K.; Vetter, Paul A.

    2003-01-03

    The charge state distribution following the positron decay of 21Na has been measured, with a larger than expected fraction of the daughter 21Ne in positive charge states. No dependence on either the positron or recoil nucleus energy is observed. The data is compared to a simple model based on the sudden approximation. Calculations suggest a small but important contribution from recoil ionization has important consequences for precision beta decay correlation experiments detecting recoil ions.

  11. Production of soft X-ray emitting slow multiply charged ions - Recoil ion spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellin, I. A.; Elston, S. B.; Forester, J. P.; Griffin, P. M.; Pegg, D. J.; Peterson, R. S.; Thoe, R. S.; Vane, C. R.; Wright, J. J.; Groeneveld, K.-O.

    1977-01-01

    S ions with a mean charge state of about 14+ and Cl ions with a mean charge state of 12+ were used to study Ne L-shell vacancy production. The ions caused copious production of NeII-NeVIII excited states with approximately 10 to the minus 18 sq cm cross sections. The induced recoil velocities might have application to a significantly higher resolution spectroscopy than is possible with beam-foil methods.

  12. Heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis set up for electronic sputtering studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, S.; Avasthi, D. K.; Tripathi, A.; Kabiraj, D.; Sugathan, P.; Chaudhary, G. K.; Barua, P.

    2006-04-01

    Heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) set up with a large solid angle (greater than or similar to 4.8 msr) Delta E - E position-sensitive telescope detector is developed at Inter University Accelerator Centre as a dedicated facility for the study of electronic sputtering of thin films under swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation. The detector consists of a gas ionization chamber (Delta E ) and a solid-state surface barrier detector ( E ) housed in a same assembly. The electronic sputtering yield (atoms/ion) is determined by analyzing on-line fluence-dependent ERDA data obtained from a variety of thin films. Large erosion (> 10 5 atoms/ion) of carbon from a-C:H by 150 MeV Ag 13+ ions, evolution of nitrogen (greater than or similar to 880 atoms/ion) from copper nitride and depletion of oxygen (greater than or similar to 1000 atoms/ion) from copper oxide film under 200 MeV Au 15+ ion impact are studied and reported in this work. The electronic sputtering of these materials is discussed on the basis of the thermal spike model of SHI and solid interaction.

  13. Complex decay patterns in atomic core photoionization disentangled by ion-recoil measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Guillemin, Renaud; Bomme, Cedric; Marin, Thierry; Journel, Loic; Marchenko, Tatiana; Kushawaha, Rajesh K.; Piancastelli, Maria Novella; Simon, Marc; Trcera, Nicolas

    2011-12-15

    Following core 1s ionization and resonant excitation of argon atoms, we measure the recoil energy of the ions due to momentum conservation during the emission of Auger electrons. We show that such ion momentum spectroscopy can be used to disentangle to some degree complex decay patterns, involving both radiative and nonradiative decays.

  14. A recoil ion momentum spectrometer for molecular and atomic fragmentation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Arnab; Tribedi, Lokesh C.; Misra, Deepankar

    2015-04-15

    We report the development and performance studies of a newly built recoil ion momentum spectrometer for the study of atomic and molecular fragmentation dynamics in gas phase upon the impact of charged particles and photons. The present design is a two-stage Wiley-McLaren type spectrometer which satisfies both time and velocity focusing conditions and is capable of measuring singly charged ionic fragments up-to 13 eV in all directions. An electrostatic lens has been introduced in order to achieve velocity imaging. Effects of the lens on time-of-flight as well as on the position have been investigated in detail, both, by simulation and in experiment. We have used 120 keV proton beam on molecular nitrogen gas target. Complete momentum distributions and kinetic energy release distributions have been derived from the measured position and time-of-flight spectra. Along with this, the kinetic energy release spectra of fragmentation of doubly ionized nitrogen molecule upon various projectile impacts are presented.

  15. A recoil ion momentum spectrometer for molecular and atomic fragmentation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Arnab; Tribedi, Lokesh C.; Misra, Deepankar

    2015-04-01

    We report the development and performance studies of a newly built recoil ion momentum spectrometer for the study of atomic and molecular fragmentation dynamics in gas phase upon the impact of charged particles and photons. The present design is a two-stage Wiley-McLaren type spectrometer which satisfies both time and velocity focusing conditions and is capable of measuring singly charged ionic fragments up-to 13 eV in all directions. An electrostatic lens has been introduced in order to achieve velocity imaging. Effects of the lens on time-of-flight as well as on the position have been investigated in detail, both, by simulation and in experiment. We have used 120 keV proton beam on molecular nitrogen gas target. Complete momentum distributions and kinetic energy release distributions have been derived from the measured position and time-of-flight spectra. Along with this, the kinetic energy release spectra of fragmentation of doubly ionized nitrogen molecule upon various projectile impacts are presented.

  16. Nitrogen depth profiling using recoil-nucleus time-of-flight spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Welsh, J.F. Jr.; Schweikert, E.A.

    1994-12-31

    Neutron depth profiling (NDP) has been shown to be an effective research tool for the profiling of light elements. Significant increases in sensitivity like those realized at the cold neutron NDP facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) reactor continue to advance the technique. Previous work has also shown that the depth resolution of NDP could be improved by measuring (via time of flight) the kinetic energies of recoil nuclei emitted during (n,p) and (n, {alpha}) reactions. The purpose of this work was to extend the technique of recoil-nucleus time-of-flight (TOF) NDP (RN-TOF-NDP) to the profiling of nitrogen in silicon nitride using the {sup 14}N(n,p) {sup 14}C reaction.

  17. What Can We Learn From Proton Recoils about Heavy-Ion SEE Sensitivity?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladbury, Raymond L.

    2016-01-01

    The fact that protons cause single-event effects (SEE) in most devices through production of light-ion recoils has led to attempts to bound heavy-ion SEE susceptibility through use of proton data. Although this may be a viable strategy for some devices and technologies, the data must be analyzed carefully and conservatively to avoid over-optimistic estimates of SEE performance. We examine the constraints that proton test data can impose on heavy-ion SEE susceptibility.

  18. Recoil implantation of boron into silicon by high energy silicon ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, L.; Lu, X. M.; Wang, X. M.; Rusakova, I.; Mount, G.; Zhang, L. H.; Liu, J. R.; Chu, Wei-Kan

    2001-07-01

    A recoil implantation technique for shallow junction formation was investigated. After e-gun deposition of a B layer onto Si, 10, 50, or 500 keV Si ion beams were used to introduce surface deposited B atoms into Si by knock-on. It has been shown that recoil implantation with high energy incident ions like 500 keV produces a shallower B profile than lower energy implantation such as 10 keV and 50 keV. This is due to the fact that recoil probability at a given angle is a strong function of the energy of the primary projectile. Boron diffusion was showed to be suppressed in high energy recoil implantation and such suppression became more obvious at higher Si doses. It was suggested that vacancy rich region due to defect imbalance plays the role to suppress B diffusion. Sub-100 nm junction can be formed by this technique with the advantage of high throughput of high energy implanters.

  19. Study of ion-crystal interaction using the blocking technique for scattered recoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamyan, S. A.

    1990-10-01

    Experimental data are presented on orientation effects observed in swift heavy-ion exposures of diamond. Si and Ge crystals by recording recoil nuclei. The volume capture of medium-weight nuclei to channeling has been revealed and studied. The ion damaging power is systematized and the anomalously low damaging power of Xe ions is established. The crystal-media response to the passage of highly ionizing particles is discussed. On the basis of the crystal-blocking technique, a variant of the experimental estimate of the de-excitation time for inelastic nuclear collision products is described.

  20. Production of recoil Nei+ ions accompanied by electron loss and capture of 1.05-MeV/amu Neq+ (q=2, 4, 6, 8, and 10) ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawara, H.; Tonuma, T.; Kumagai, H.; Matsuo, T.

    1990-01-01

    The charge distributions and production cross sections of recoil ions accompanied by projectile electron loss and capture have been compared in 1.05-MeV/amu Neq+ (q=2, 4, 6, 8, and 10) +Ne collisions. While singly charged recoil ions are dominant in pure ionization processes, the production of highly charged recoil ions is strongly enhanced in collisions involving simultaneous charge change (by both electron loss and capture) of projectiles, and the charge distributions of recoil ions are found to be similar for both projectile loss and capture processes. These results have been analyzed with an independent-electron model and indicate that the dominant contribution to the production of higher-charge recoil ions comes from L-shell ionization, with some contribution from K-shell ionization of targets, accompanied by violent multiple ionization of projectiles.

  1. Exploring relativistic many-body recoil effects in highly charged ions.

    PubMed

    Orts, R Soria; Harman, Z; López-Urrutia, J R Crespo; Artemyev, A N; Bruhns, H; Martínez, A J González; Jentschura, U D; Keitel, C H; Lapierre, A; Mironov, V; Shabaev, V M; Tawara, H; Tupitsyn, I I; Ullrich, J; Volotka, A V

    2006-09-08

    The relativistic recoil effect has been the object of experimental investigations using highly charged ions at the Heidelberg electron beam ion trap. Its scaling with the nuclear charge Z boosts its contribution to a measurable level in the magnetic-dipole (M1) transitions of B- and Be-like Ar ions. The isotope shifts of 36Ar versus 40Ar have been detected with sub-ppm accuracy, and the recoil effect contribution was extracted from the 1s(2)2s(2)2p 2P(1/2) - 2P(3/2) transition in Ar13+ and the 1s(2)2s2p 3P1-3P2 transition in Ar14+. The experimental isotope shifts of 0.00123(6) nm (Ar13+) and 0.00120(10) nm (Ar14+) are in agreement with our present predictions of 0.00123(5) nm (Ar13+) and 0.00122(5) nm (Ar14+) based on the total relativistic recoil operator, confirming that a thorough understanding of correlated relativistic electron dynamics is necessary even in a region of intermediate nuclear charges.

  2. A new setup for elastic recoil analysis using ion induced electron emission for particle identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbauer, E.; Benka, O.; Steinbatz, M.

    1998-03-01

    We describe a new setup for elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) using our recently developed particle identification method. Before the ions and elastic recoil atoms from the target reach a silicon surface barrier detector for energy analysis, they penetrate a set of thin foils (e.g. carbon). The ion induced electron emission yield from the foils depends on the nuclear charge of the penetrating ion and it is roughly proportional to the energy loss in the foil. The emitted electrons are accelerated towards a microchannel plate (MCP), which gives a signal amplitude proportional to the number of emitted electrons. This signal is measured in coincidence with the energy signal from the surface barrier detector using our dual-parameter multichannel analyzer system M2D. Since the energy resolution is not measurably deteriorated by the particle identification our setup offers optimum depth resolution for light elements. Due to the compact design large solid angles for high sensitivity can be achieved. A new measuring chamber has been built which offers considerable improvements. The ERDA scattering angle (30° or 45°) and the target orientation can be selected for optimum depth resolution or sensitivity. Element separation for light elements has been enhanced by several improvements: A new geometry of the foil setup improves the collection efficiency for ion induced electrons onto the MCP, coating of the carbon foils with insulators enhances the electron emission yield. Finally, a new data evaluation procedure has been developed in which the pulse height spectrum of the MCP is considered to be a linear combination of individual spectra from the incident ion and of the recoil atoms. The normalized shapes of these spectra are taken from calibration measurements, the intensities are then calculated using a linear fitting algorithm and finally give the depth profiles of the elements in the target. For hydrogen in near surface layers even isotopic separation is possible

  3. Inelastic processes in ion/surface collisions: Direct recoil ion fractions as a function of kinetic energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabalais, J. Wayne; Chen, Jie-Nan

    1986-09-01

    Time-of-flight (TOF) spectra of the scattered and recoiled particles resulting from 1-10 keV Ar+ ions impingent on surfaces of MgO, Mg(OH)2, graphite, Si, and SiO2 have been obtained. Measurements of directly recoiled (DR) neutrals plus ions and neutrals only are used to calculate positive and negative ion fractions Y+,- from DR events. These positive and negative ion yields observed for DR of H, C, O, and Si have distinctly different behavior as a function of ion kinetic energy. The Y+ values exhibit a ``threshold-type'' behavior with a steep rise followed by a slowly rising or plateau region at higher energy. The Y- values exhibit a maximum in the low energy region followed by a decreasing yield as energy increases. The Y-/Y+ ratio for C and O is very sensitive to the amount of hydrogen present, with the Y+ yields dropping as hydrogen concentration increases. The recently developed model for electronic transitions in keV ion/surface collisions which considers Auger and resonant transitions along the ion trajectory and electron promotions in the quasidiatomic molecule of the close atomic encounter is extended to include DR events. Analytical expressions for Y+,- are derived for the case of surface atoms in positive, neutral, and negative bonding environments. These model expressions are fitted to the experimental data, allowing determination of the probabilities of ionization in the close atomic encounter and of electron capture along the outgoing trajectory.

  4. Warm target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy for fragmentation of molecular hydrogen by ultrashort laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Wu, Jian; Czasch, Achim; Zeng, Heping

    2009-07-20

    We demonstrate warm target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy for the fragmentation dynamics of the warm hydrogen molecules at room temperature. The thermal movement effect of the warm molecule is removed by using a correction algorithm in the momentum space. Based on the reconstructed three-dimensional momentum vectors as well as the kinetic energy release spectra, different vibrational states of the H(2)(+) ground state are clearly visible and the internuclear separation for charge resonance enhanced ionization of the second electron is identified. The results show adequate accordance with the former experiments using other techniques.

  5. A combined segmented anode gas ionization chamber and time-of-flight detector for heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ström, Petter; Petersson, Per; Rubel, Marek; Possnert, Göran

    2016-10-01

    A dedicated detector system for heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis at the Tandem Laboratory of Uppsala University is presented. Benefits of combining a time-of-flight measurement with a segmented anode gas ionization chamber are demonstrated. The capability of ion species identification is improved with the present system, compared to that obtained when using a single solid state silicon detector for the full ion energy signal. The system enables separation of light elements, up to Neon, based on atomic number while signals from heavy elements such as molybdenum and tungsten are separated based on mass, to a sample depth on the order of 1 μm. The performance of the system is discussed and a selection of material analysis applications is given. Plasma-facing materials from fusion experiments, in particular metal mirrors, are used as a main example for the discussion. Marker experiments using nitrogen-15 or oxygen-18 are specific cases for which the described improved species separation and sensitivity are required. Resilience to radiation damage and significantly improved energy resolution for heavy elements at low energies are additional benefits of the gas ionization chamber over a solid state detector based system.

  6. A velocity map ion imaging study of difluorobenzene-water complexes: binding energies and recoil distributions.

    PubMed

    Bellm, Susan M; Moulds, Rebecca J; van Leeuwen, Matthew P; Lawrance, Warren D

    2008-03-21

    The binding energies of the p-, m-, and o-difluorobenzene-H(2)O complexes have been measured by velocity map ion imaging to be 922+/-10, 945+/-10, and 891+/-4 cm(-1), respectively. The lack of variation provides circumstantial evidence for water binding to the three isomers via the same interaction, viz. an in-plane O-H...F hydrogen bond to one of the fluorine atoms on the ring, with a second, weaker interaction of the water O atom with an ortho hydrogen, as determined previously for the p-difluorobenzene-H(2)O complex [Kang et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 109, 767 (2005)]. The ground state binding energies for the difluorobenzene-H(2)O complexes are approximately 5%-11% larger than that for benzene-H(2)O, where binding occurs to the pi electrons out-of-plane. However, in the S(1) state the binding energies of the o- and p-difluorobenzene-H(2)O complexes are smaller than the benzene-H(2)O value, raising an interesting question about whether the geometry at the global energy minimum remains in-plane in the excited electronic states of these two complexes. Recoil energy distributions for dissociation of p-difluorobenzene-H(2)O have been measured from the 3(1), 5(2), and 3(1)5(1) levels of the excited electronic state. These levels are 490, 880, and 1304 cm(-1), respectively, above the dissociation threshold. Within the experimental uncertainty, the recoil energy distributions are the same for dissociation from these three states, with average recoil energies of approximately 100 cm(-1). These recoil energies are 60% larger than was observed for the dissociation of p-difluorobenzene-Ar, which is a substantially smaller increase than the 400% seen in a comparable study of dissociation within the triplet state for pyrazine-Ar, -H(2)O complexes. The majority of the available energy is partitioned into vibration and rotation of the fragments.

  7. In-situ, real-time, studies of film growth processes using ion scattering and direct recoil spectroscopy techniques.

    SciTech Connect

    Smentkowski, V. S.

    1999-04-22

    Time-of-flight ion scattering and recoil spectroscopy (TOF-ISARS) enables the characterization of the composition and structure of surfaces with 1-2 monolayer specificity. It will be shown that surface analysis is possible at ambient pressures greater than 3 mTorr using TOF-ISARS techniques; allowing for real-time, in situ studies of film growth processes. TOF-ISARS comprises three analytical techniques: ion scattering spectroscopy (ISS), which detects the backscattered primary ion beam; direct recoil spectroscopy (DRS), which detects the surface species recoiled into the forward scattering direction; and mass spectroscopy of recoiled ions (MSRI), which is 3 variant of DRS capable of isotopic resolution for all surface species--including H and He. The advantages and limitations of each of these techniques will be discussed. The use of the three TOF-ISARS methods for real-time, in situ film growth studies at high ambient pressures will be illustrated. It will be shown that MSRI analysis is possible during sputter deposition. It will be also be demonstrated that the analyzer used for MSRI can also be used for time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS) under high vacuum conditions. The use of a single analyzer to perform the complimentary surface analytical techniques of MSRI and SIMS is unique. The dwd functionality of the MSRI analyzer provides surface information not obtained when either MSRI or SIMS is used independently.

  8. Elastic recoil detection analysis using ion-induced electron emission for particle identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benka, O.; Brandstötter, A.; Steinbauer, E.

    1994-03-01

    We propose a new method to identify particles in ERD analysis, using their electron emission yield from a thin carbon foil. Before the particles reach a silicon surface barrier detector (SB) they penetrate a set of thin foils (typically 6 foils) with a thickness of 3 {μg}/{cm 2} each). The emission yield depends on the nuclear charge of the penetrating ion and it is roughly proportional to the energy loss in the foil. The emitted electrons are accelerated to a muchannel plate (MCP) by a voltage of 300 V. The electron signal from the MCP is proportional to the number of emitted electrons and it occurs in coincidence with the energy signal from the energy detector. For data acquisition we developed a dual parameter multichannel analyzer (M2D) as an add on board for an industry standard personal computer. The two-dimensional spectrum of coincidences and the one-dimensional spectra from both detectors are recorded simultaneously. The M2D has 256K channels which can be freely configured as a two-dimensional matrix. For example a resolution of 1024 × 256 channels is possible. For optimum suppression of random coincidences the coincidence time window can be set from 0.125 μs up to 32 μs. For this new setup the ability for particle identification is discussed for different projectiles (He, C, O, Cl) and targets. H recoil ions can be well separated from He projectiles so that for H analysis the H recoil spectrum and the He forward energy spectrum can be measured simultaneously. An example for depth-profiling of 100 keV H implantations in silicon is given.

  9. Detection Efficiency of a ToF Spectrometer from Heavy-Ion Elastic Recoil Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Barbara, E. de; Marti, G. V.; Capurro, O. A.; Fimiani, L.; Mingolla, M. G.; Negri, A. E.; Arazi, A.; Figueira, J. M.; Pacheco, A. J.; Martinez Heimann, D.; Carnelli, P. F. F.; Fernandez Niello, J. O.

    2010-08-04

    The detection efficiency of a time-of-flight system based on two micro-channel plates (MCP) time zero detectors plus a conventional silicon surface barrier detector was obtained from heavy ion elastic recoil measurements (this ToF spectrometer is mainly devoted to measurements of total fusion cross section of weakly bound projectiles on different mass-targets systems). In this work we have used beams of {sup 7}Li, {sup 16}O, {sup 32}S and {sup 35}Cl to study the mass region of interest for its application to measurements fusion cross sections in the {sup 6,7}Li+{sup 27}Al systems at energies around and above the Coulomb barrier (0.8V{sub B{<=}}E{<=}2.0V{sub B}). As the efficiency of a ToF spectrometer is strongly dependent on the energy and mass of the detected particles, we have covered a wide range of the scattered particle energies with a high degree of accuracy at the lowest energies. The different experimental efficiency curves obtained in that way were compared with theoretical electronic stopping power curves on carbon foils and were applied.

  10. Role of the recoil ion in single-electron capture and single-ionization processes for collisions of protons with He and Ar atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Focke, P.; Olson, R. E.; Cariatore, N. D.; Alessi, M.; Otranto, S.

    2017-05-01

    In this work the single-electron capture and single-ionization processes are studied for proton collisions with He and Ar atoms at impact energies in the range 25-100 keV. Classical trajectory Monte Carlo simulations are benchmarked against experimental data obtained at the reaction microscope in Bariloche, Argentina, which employs the cold target recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy technique. Special emphasis is placed on describing the momentum transfer to the recoil ion for these collision systems.

  11. Nitrogen ion clusters in Triton's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delitsky, Mona L.; Turco, Richard P.; Jacobson, Mark Z.

    1990-01-01

    The nitrogen ion chemistry that controls Triton's ionospheric composition and may be responsible for the hazes detected by the Voyager spacecraft are discussed. In particular, it is shown that nitrogen cluster ion formation should readily occur in Triton's thin cold atmosphere. The very low temperatures of Triton's atmosphere imply that these clustered ions can nucleate into solid nitrogen particles, creating the extended visible hazes. A model based on the chemical kinetics of nitrogen ions predicts a dense ionosphere at 200-400 km, as detected by Voyager radio occultation measurements.

  12. Nuclear recoil corrections to the Lamb shift of hydrogen and light hydrogenlike ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yerokhin, V. A.; Shabaev, V. M.

    2016-06-01

    Accurate calculations of the nuclear recoil effect on the Lamb shift of hydrogenlike atoms are presented. Numerical results are reported for the n s states with n ≤5 and for the 2 p1 /2 and 2 p3 /2 states. The calculations are performed to the first order in the electron-nucleus mass ratio and to all orders in the nuclear binding strength parameter Z α (where Z is the nuclear charge number and α is the fine structure constant). The obtained results provide accurate predictions for the higher-order remainder beyond the known Z α -expansion terms. In the case of hydrogen, the remainder was found to be much larger than anticipated. This result resolves the previously reported disagreement between the numerical all-order and the analytical Z α -expansion approaches for the nuclear recoil effect on the hydrogen Lamb shift.

  13. Detector Calibration to Spontaneous Fission for the Study of Superheavy Elements Using Gas-Filled Recoil Ion Separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeyama, Mirei; Kaji, Daiya; Morimoto, Kouji; Wakabayashi, Yasuo; Tokanai, Fuyuki; Morita, Kosuke

    Detector response to spontaneous fission (SF) of heavy nuclides produced in the 206Pb(48Ca,2n)252No reaction was investigated using a gas-filled recoil ion separator (GARIS). Kinetic energy distributions of the SF originating from 252No were observed by tuning implantation depth of evaporation residue (ER) to the detector. The focal plane detector used in the GARIS experiments was well calibrated by comparing with the known total kinetic energy (TKE) of SF due to 252No. The correction value for the TKE calculation was deduced as a function of the implantation depth of 252No to the detector. Furthermore, we have investigated the results by comparing with those obtained by a computer simulation using the particle and heavy ion transport code system (PHITS).

  14. Recoiled ions from polyatomic cluster impacts on organic and inorganic targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diehnelt, C. W.; Van Stipdonk, M. J.; Schweikert, E. A.

    1998-08-01

    We report the observation of a polyatomic cluster constituent, fluorine in this case, recoiling from the projectile upon impact with a surface. The clusters (NaF) nNa + ( n=1, 2, and 4), PF 6-, BF 4-, and SiF 5-, with incident kinetic energies of 12-28 keV, were impacted on Au, SiO 2, and α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid targets. The Au surface gave the highest F - yield when compared to the "light" SiO 2 surface, for the same incident cluster. This supports previous MD predications of polyatomic cluster constituents "splashing" upon impact with a surface.

  15. Low energy electron and nuclear recoil thresholds in the DRIFT-II negative ion TPC for dark matter searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgos, S.; Daw, E.; Forbes, J.; Ghag, C.; Gold, M.; Hagemann, C.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Lawson, T. B.; Loomba, D.; Majewski, P.; Muna, D.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Paling, S. M.; Petkov, A.; Plank, S. J. S.; Robinson, M.; Sanghi, N.; Snowden-Ifft, D. P.; Spooner, N. J. C.; Turk, J.; Tziaferi, E.

    2009-04-01

    Understanding the ability to measure and discriminate particle events at the lowest possible energy is an essential requirement in developing new experiments to search for weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter. In this paper we detail an assessment of the potential sensitivity below 10 keV in the 1 m3 DRIFT-II directionally sensitive, low pressure, negative ion time projection chamber (NITPC), based on event-by-event track reconstruction and calorimetry in the multiwire proportional chamber (MWPC) readout. By application of a digital smoothing polynomial it is shown that the detector is sensitive to sulfur and carbon recoils down to 2.9 and 1.9 keV respectively, and 1.2 keV for electron induced events. The energy sensitivity is demonstrated through the 5.9 keV gamma spectrum of 55Fe, where the energy resolution is sufficient to identify the escape peak. The effect of a lower energy sensitivity on the WIMP exclusion limit is demonstrated. In addition to recoil direction reconstruction for WIMP searches this sensitivity suggests new prospects for applications also in KK axion searches.

  16. Nitrogen incorporation in carbon nitride films produced by direct and dual ion-beam sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Abrasonis, G.; Gago, R.; Jimenez, I.; Kreissig, U.; Kolitsch, A.; Moeller, W.

    2005-10-01

    Carbon (C) and carbon nitride (CN{sub x}) films were grown on Si(100) substrates by direct ion-beam sputtering (IBS) of a carbon target at different substrate temperatures (room temperature-450 deg. C) and Ar/N{sub 2} sputtering gas mixtures. Additionally, the effect of concurrent nitrogen-ion assistance during the growth of CN{sub x} films by IBS was also investigated. The samples were analyzed by elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) and x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES). The ERDA results showed that significant nitrogen amount (up to 20 at. %) was incorporated in the films, without any other nitrogen source but the N{sub 2}-containing sputtering gas. The nitrogen concentration is proportional to the N{sub 2} content in the sputtering beam and no saturation limit is reached under the present working conditions. The film areal density derived from ERDA revealed a decrease in the amount of deposited material at increasing growth temperature, with a correlation between the C and N losses. The XANES results indicate that N atoms are efficiently incorporated into the carbon network and can be found in different bonding environments, such as pyridinelike, nitrilelike, graphitelike, and embedded N{sub 2} molecules. The contribution of molecular and pyridinelike nitrogen decreases when the temperature increases while the contribution of the nitrilelike nitrogen increases. The concurrent nitrogen ion assistance resulted in the significant increase of the nitrogen content in the film but it induced a further reduction of the deposited material. Additionally, the assisting ions inhibited the formation of the nitrilelike configurations while promoting nitrogen environments in graphitelike positions. The nitrogen incorporation and release mechanisms are discussed in terms of film growth precursors, ion bombardment effects, and chemical sputtering.

  17. Time of flight assisted ΔE - E method for enhanced isotope separation capabilities in heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eschbaumer, S.; Bergmaier, A.; Seiler, D.; Dollinger, G.

    2017-09-01

    The time of flight energy (TOF-E) setup installed at the scattering chamber of the Q3D magnetic spectrograph to perform heavy ion elastic recoil detection (ERD) analysis at the 14 MV Munich Tandem Accelerator has recently been upgraded. Now, the energy detector of the TOF-E setup is additionally capable of performing ΔE - E measurements for high energy recoil ions obtained from e.g. a 170 MeV 127 I projectile beam. Time of flight information is simultaneously acquired with the ΔE - E data for each detected ion. The combination of the TOF-E and the ΔE - E data gives the opportunity to set effective filter conditions to select for both, the elemental and the mass of the detected ion. As an example a boron doped carbon layer is analyzed and 10B and 11B is separated with the help of the combination of both methods.

  18. Potku - New analysis software for heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arstila, K.; Julin, J.; Laitinen, M. I.; Aalto, J.; Konu, T.; Kärkkäinen, S.; Rahkonen, S.; Raunio, M.; Itkonen, J.; Santanen, J.-P.; Tuovinen, T.; Sajavaara, T.

    2014-07-01

    Time-of-flight elastic recoil detection (ToF-ERD) analysis software has been developed. The software combines a Python-language graphical front-end with a C code computing back-end in a user-friendly way. The software uses a list of coincident time-of-flight-energy (ToF-E) events as an input. The ToF calibration can be determined with a simple graphical procedure. The graphical interface allows the user to select different elements and isotopes from a ToF-E histogram and to convert the selections to individual elemental energy and depth profiles. The resulting sample composition can be presented as relative or absolute concentrations by integrating the depth profiles over user-defined ranges. Beam induced composition changes can be studied by displaying the event-based data in fractions relative to the substrate reference data. Optional angular input data allows for kinematic correction of the depth profiles. This open source software is distributed under the GPL license for Linux, Mac, and Windows environments.

  19. Corrosion resistance and microstructure of nitrogen plasma source ion implanted bearing steel

    SciTech Connect

    Mente, K.; Baum, C.; Wang, W.; Zhang, L.; Booske, J.; Shohet, J.L.; Jacobs, J.; Freeman, D.; Perez-Albuerne, E.A.

    1996-12-31

    Feasibility of plasma source ion implantation (PSII) treatments for metal corrosion protection of bearing steel in humid environments has been investigated, following successful results with aluminum alloy. The bearing steel coupons have been treated by nitrogen PSII with a statistically designed range of processing conditions, including stage bias implant voltage, and dose. Corrosion properties of the implanted samples were tested using aerated distilled water (72, 168, and 720 hours), 90 F, 90% RH air (24, 120, 816, and 1,464 hours), and a nitric acid soak. The results are compared favorably with 400 C stainless steel, and 52100 steel with nitrogen and argon recoil-implanted chromium. Evidence is seen for an optimal process contour (low voltage-high dose; high voltage-low dose). Results from microstructure analysis will also be presented.

  20. Electron and recoil ion momentum imaging with a magneto-optically trapped target

    SciTech Connect

    Hubele, R.; Schuricke, M.; Goullon, J.; Lindenblatt, H.; Ferreira, N.; Laforge, A.; Brühl, E.; Globig, D.; Misra, D.; Sell, M.; Song, Z.; Wang, X.; Zhang, S.; Jesus, V. L. B. de; Kelkar, A.; Schneider, K.; Schulz, M.; Fischer, D.

    2015-03-15

    A reaction microscope (ReMi) has been combined with a magneto-optical trap (MOT) for the kinematically complete investigation of atomic break-up processes. With the novel MOTReMi apparatus, the momentum vectors of the fragments of laser-cooled and state-prepared lithium atoms are measured in coincidence and over the full solid angle. The first successful implementation of a MOTReMi could be realized due to an optimized design of the present setup, a nonstandard operation of the MOT, and by employing a switching cycle with alternating measuring and trapping periods. The very low target temperature in the MOT (∼2 mK) allows for an excellent momentum resolution. Optical preparation of the target atoms in the excited Li 2{sup 2}P{sub 3/2} state was demonstrated providing an atomic polarization of close to 100%. While first experimental results were reported earlier, in this work, we focus on the technical description of the setup and its performance in commissioning experiments involving target ionization in 266 nm laser pulses and in collisions with projectile ions.

  1. Calculation of recoil implantation profiles using known range statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, C. D.; Avila, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    A method has been developed to calculate the depth distribution of recoil atoms that result from ion implantation onto a substrate covered with a thin surface layer. The calculation includes first order recoils considering projected range straggles, and lateral straggles of recoils but neglecting lateral straggles of projectiles. Projectile range distributions at intermediate energies in the surface layer are deduced from look-up tables of known range statistics. A great saving of computing time and human effort is thus attained in comparison with existing procedures. The method is used to calculate recoil profiles of oxygen from implantation of arsenic through SiO2 and of nitrogen from implantation of phosphorus through Si3N4 films on silicon. The calculated recoil profiles are in good agreement with results obtained by other investigators using the Boltzmann transport equation and they also compare very well with available experimental results in the literature. The deviation between calculated and experimental results is discussed in relation to lateral straggles. From this discussion, a range of surface layer thickness for which the method applies is recommended.

  2. Calculation of recoil implantation profiles using known range statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, C. D.; Avila, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    A method has been developed to calculate the depth distribution of recoil atoms that result from ion implantation onto a substrate covered with a thin surface layer. The calculation includes first order recoils considering projected range straggles, and lateral straggles of recoils but neglecting lateral straggles of projectiles. Projectile range distributions at intermediate energies in the surface layer are deduced from look-up tables of known range statistics. A great saving of computing time and human effort is thus attained in comparison with existing procedures. The method is used to calculate recoil profiles of oxygen from implantation of arsenic through SiO2 and of nitrogen from implantation of phosphorus through Si3N4 films on silicon. The calculated recoil profiles are in good agreement with results obtained by other investigators using the Boltzmann transport equation and they also compare very well with available experimental results in the literature. The deviation between calculated and experimental results is discussed in relation to lateral straggles. From this discussion, a range of surface layer thickness for which the method applies is recommended.

  3. Trajectory dependence of scattered Ne+ and recoiled S- ion fractions from the Cd- and S-terminated CdS{0001} surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houssiau, L.; Rabalais, J. W.; Wolfgang, J.; Nordlander, P.

    1999-04-01

    Scattered Ne+ and recoiled S- ion fractions resulting from 4 keV Ne+ and 4 keV Kr+ impingement, respectively, on both the Cd- and S-terminated surfaces of CdS{0001} have been measured. The absolute values of these ion fractions as well as their dependence on surface structure and electron density have been determined. Using a density functional approach, a clear correlation has been demonstrated between these Ne+ and S- ion fractions and the lateral variation of the electrostatic potential along the outgoing trajectories of the scattered and recoiled atoms. The observed anisotropy in the ion fractions is a result of the variations in surface to atom electron transfer rates due to tunneling barriers introduced by the electrostatic potentials. Both the Ne+ and S- ion fractions are higher on the Cd-terminated surface than on the S-terminated surface and their azimuthal patterns are different due to the spatial modulation of the electron tunneling rates on the surface caused by the electrostatic barriers. The azimuthal anisotropies of electrons ejected during the collision indicate that they are emitted only from collisions whose impact parameters are less than a threshold value, consistent with a kinetic electron emission mechanism.

  4. A Double Scattering Analytical Model For Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Barradas, N. P.; Lorenz, K.; Alves, E.; Darakchieva, V.

    2011-06-01

    We present an analytical model for calculation of double scattering in elastic recoil detection measurements. Only events involving the beam particle and the recoil are considered, i.e. 1) an ion scatters off a target element and then produces a recoil, and 2) an ion produces a recoil which then scatters off a target element. Events involving intermediate recoils are not considered, i.e. when the primary ion produces a recoil which then produces a second recoil. If the recoil element is also present in the stopping foil, recoil events in the stopping foil are also calculated. We included the model in the standard code for IBA data analysis NDF, and applied it to the measurement of hydrogen in Si.

  5. Precompound emission in low-energy heavy-ion interactions from recoil range and spin distributions of heavy residues: A new experimental method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Sharma, Vijay Raj; Shuaib, Mohd.; Singh, Devendra P.; Yadav, Abhishek; Unnati, Kumar, R.; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.

    2016-10-01

    Recent investigations of heavy-ion reactions at low incident energies have indicated the presence of precompound emission component in considerable strength. In most cases the strength of the precompound component is estimated from the difference in forward-backward distributions of emitted light fast particles and also from the analysis of the measured excitation functions. This paper reports a new method of deciphering the relative contributions of compound and precompound components associated with fusion of 16O with 159Tb,169Tm, and 181Ta targets by measuring the recoil ranges of heavy residues in an absorbing medium along with the online measurement of the spin distributions in reaction residues produced in the fusion 16O beam with 159Tb and 169Tm targets. Analysis of recoil range and spin distributions of the residues shows two distinct linear momentum-transfer components corresponding to precompound and compound nucleus processes. The input angular momentum associated with precompound products is found to be relatively lower than that associated with compound nucleus process. The precompound components obtained from the present analysis are consistent with those obtained from the analysis of excitation functions.

  6. Recoil Redsfhit with Coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, C. F.

    2009-05-01

    ``Recoil Redshift'' is due to the elastic interaction of photons/light with any individual electron, proton, ion, atom or molecule. This generalized Compton effect describes an individual photon-particle interaction where Energy, Linear Momentum and Angular Momentum are conserved, with NO change in the internal energy of the particle. Per Compton, the lost photon energy is zero in the forward photon propagation direction, and the energy loss increases with scattering angle. This is an INDIVIDUAL INcoherent process. To describe collective coherent effects, add/include Huygens forward reconstruction from multiple photon/particle redshifted scatterings. A coherent redshift will occur if the scattered photons' energies are WITHIN the initial linewidth. This yields an asymmetrically broadened redshifted line in the forward coherent direction with clear imaging properties. This is a coherent redshifted version of Rayleigh scattering which assumes identical non-redshifted photons. BUT the Compton Conservation energy-loss process must occur. The search for this small Recoil redshift is a good research project for ultra- precise ``frequency combs'' in gases (atomic and molecular), plasmas and combinations.

  7. Nuclear recoil measurements with the ARIS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Alden; ARIS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    As direct dark matter searches become increasingly sensitive, it is important to fully characterize the target of the search. The goal of the Argon Recoil Ionization and Scintillation (ARIS) experiment is to quantify information related to the scintillation and ionization energy scale, quenching factor, ion recombination probability, and scintillation time response of nuclear recoils, as expected from WIMPs, in liquid argon. A time projection chamber with an active mass of 0.5 kg of liquid argon and capable of full 3D position reconstruction was exposed to an inverse kinematic neutron beam at the Institut de Physique Nucleaire d'Orsay in France. A scan of nuclear recoil energies was performed through coincidence with a set of neutron detectors to quantify properties of nuclear recoils in liquid argon at various electric fields. The difference in ionization and scintillation response with differing recoil track angle to the electric field was also studied. The preliminary results of the experiment will be presented.

  8. Energetic Nitrogen Ions within the Inner Magnetosphere of Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sittler, E. C.; Johnson, R. E.; Richardson, J. D.; Jurac, S.; Moore, M.; Cooper, J. F.; Mauk, B. H.; Smith, H. T.; Michael, M.; Paranicus, C.; Armstrong, T. P.; Tsurutani, B.; Connerney, J. E. P.

    2003-05-01

    Titan's interaction with Saturn's magnetosphere will result in the energetic ejection of atomic nitrogen atoms into Saturn's magnetosphere due to dissociation of N2 by electrons, ions, and UV photons. The ejection of N atoms into Saturn's magnetosphere will form a nitrogen torus around Saturn with mean density of about 4 atoms/cm3 with source strength of 4.5x1025 atoms/sec. These nitrogen atoms are ionized by photoionization, electron impact ionization and charge exchange reactions producing an N+ torus of 1-4 keV suprathermal ions centered on Titan's orbital position. We will show Voyager plasma observations that demonstrate presence of a suprathermal ion component within Saturn's outer magnetosphere. The Voyager LECP data also reported the presence of inward diffusing energetic ions from the outer magnetosphere of Saturn, which could have an N+ contribution. If so, when one conserves the first and second adiabatic invariant the N+ ions will have energies in excess of 100 keV at Dione's L shell and greater than 400 keV at Enceladus' L shell. Energetic charged particle radial diffusion coefficients are also used to constrain the model results. But, one must also consider the solar wind as another important source of keV ions, in the form of protons and alpha particles, for Saturn's outer magnetosphere. Initial estimates indicate that a solar wind source could dominate in the outer magnetosphere, but various required parameters for this estimate are highly uncertain and will have to await Cassini results for confirmation. We show that satellite sweeping and charged particle precipitation within the middle and outer magnetosphere will tend to enrich N+ ions relative to protons within Saturn's inner magnetosphere as they diffuse radially inward for radial diffusion coefficients that do not violate observations. Charge exchange reactions within the inner magnetosphere can be an important loss mechanism for O+ ions, but to a lesser degree for N+ ions. Initial LECP

  9. Angular distribution and recoil effect for 1 MeV Au+ ions through a Si3N4 thin foil

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Ke; Zhu, Zihua; Manandhar, Sandeep; Liu, Jia; Chen, Chien-Hung; Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Weber, William J; Zhang, Yanwen

    2014-01-01

    The Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) code has been widely used to predict nuclear stopping power and angular distribution of ion-solid collisions. However, experimental validation of the predictions is insufficient for slow heavy ions in nonmetallic compounds. In this work, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is applied to determine the angular distribution of 1 MeV Au ions after penetrating a Si3N4 foil with a thickness of ~100 nm. The exiting Au ions are collected by a Si wafer located ~14 mm behind the Si3N4 foil, and the resulting 2-dimensional distribution of Au ions on the Si wafer is measured by ToF-SIMS. The SRIM-predicted angular distribution of Au ions through the Si3N4 thin foil is compared with the measured results, indicating that SRIM slightly overestimates the nuclear stopping power by up to 10%. In addition, thickness reduction of the suspended Si3N4 foils induced by 1 MeV Au ion irradiation is observed with an average loss rate of ~107 atom/ion.

  10. Reactions of recoil nitrogen-13 atoms in the ethanol-water system. Formation of [{sup 13}N]NH{sub 3} upon irradiation of water and dilute aqueous solutions of ethanol under a pressure of various gases

    SciTech Connect

    Korsakov, M.V.; Krasikova, R.N.; Fedorova, O.S.

    1995-07-01

    The influence of the nature and pressure of a gas (helium, hydrogen) contacting with a solution on radiochemical yield of the {sup 13}N-labeled products of nuclear-chemical and radiolytic reactions occurring upon irradiation of water and dilute aqueous solution of ethanol by 17-MeV protons was examined. It was shown that irradiation of water under hydrogen pressure, about 50% of recoil nitrogen-13 atoms are stabilized in the gas phase in the form of [{sup 13}N]N{sub 2}, and the main product in the liquid phase is ammonia-{sup 13}N.

  11. Single and double electron capture from He by Ar{sup 16+} studied using cold-target recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Abdallah, M.A.; Wolff, W.; Wolf, H.E.; Kamber, E.Y.; Stoeckli, M.; Cocke, C.L.

    1998-10-01

    Single and double electron capture from He targets by Ar{sup 16+} ions have been studied at projectile velocities from 0.3 to 1.5 a.u. Cold-target recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy was used to record the energy gain and scattering angle simultaneously. For single capture, the reaction window is found to spread in width approximately as the square root of the projectile velocity and to shift slightly toward smaller energy-gain values as the velocity increases. The angular distributions center at the half Coulomb angle over most of the velocity range covered, but differ in shape from multichannel Landau-Zener model results. For double capture, transfer ionization dominates and feeds primarily n-symmetric states, where {ital n} is the principal quantum number. True double capture feeds mainly n-asymmetric states. The angular distributions for double capture lie outside the half Coulomb angle, indicating the importance of two-step processes in populating doubly excited states. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  12. Hydrogen ion-implantation induced low resistive layer in KNbO3 bulk single crystal: Evaluation by elastic recoil detection analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinkawa, A.; Shibasaki, Y.; Nishimura, T.; Tanuma, C.; Kuriyama, K.

    2016-03-01

    Origins of low resistivity in H-ion implanted KNbO3 bulk single crystals are studied by elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) and Van der Pauw methods. The H-ion implantation (peak ion fluence: 5.0 × 1015 cm-2) into KNbO3 is performed using a 500 keV implanter. The sheet resistance decreases from ∼108 Ω/□ for an un-implanted KNbO3 sample to 2.33 × 105 Ω/□ for as-implanted, 2.29 × 105 Ω/□ for 100 °C annealed, and 4.25 × 105 Ω/□ for 150 °C annealed samples, respectively. The ERDA experiment using the 1.5 MeV-4He+ beam can evaluate hydrogen from the surface to around 60 nm. The hydrogen concentration near the surface estimated using the 1.5 MeV helium beam is 5.1 × 1014 cm-2 for un-implanted KNbO3 sample, 5.6 × 1014 cm-2 for as-implanted, 3.4 × 1014 cm-2 for 150 °C annealed samples, respectively, indicating that a part of hydrogen is diffused out by annealing. The low resistive layer induced in H-ion implanted KNbO3 suggests the existence of a shallow energy level related to the complex defect consisting of hydrogen interstitial and the proton induced defect such as oxygen vacancy.

  13. Surface microanalytical studies of nitrogen ion-implanted steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, Charles G.; Meeker, G. P.; Baumann, Scott M.; Norberg, James C.; Legg, Keith O.

    1985-03-01

    Five types of industrial steels, 1018, 52100, M-2, 440C, and 304 were ion implanted with nitrogen and subjected to surface microanalysis by three independent surface techniques: AES, RBS, and SIMS. The results provided understanding for earlier observations of the properties of various types of steel after nitrogen implantation. The steels that retained the most nitrogen and that have been reported to benefit the most in improved tribological properties from ion implantation were ferritic carbon and austenitic stainless steels, such as soft 1018 and 304, respectively. Heat-treated martensitic carbon steels such as 52100 and M-2 tool steel were found to retain the least nitrogen, and they have been reported to benefit less from nitrogen implantation; however, the interaction of transition metal carbides in M-2 with nitrogen has not been clarified. The data showed that 440C steel retained as much nitrogen as 1018 and 304, but treatment benefits may be limited to improvements in properties related to toughness and impact resistance.

  14. Estimation of nitrogen ion energy calculated using distribution for nitrogen in Si implanted by PBII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, T.; Watanabe, S.; Takagi, T.

    2006-01-01

    Plasma-based ion implantation (PBII) using N2 gas is examined as a sterilization technique for three-dimensional targets. The application of a pulsed negative voltage (5 μs pulse width, 300 pulses/s, -800 V to -13 kV) at an N2 gas pressure of 2.4 Pa is shown to reduce the number of Bacillus pumilus survivors by up to 105 times after just 5 min of exposure. The energy of nitrogen ions is calculated based on the depth profile of nitrogen concentration in Si implanted by PBII, and it is revealed that the actual nitrogen ion energy is much lower than that calculated based on the voltage applied during processing.

  15. Implantation of nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus ions into metals

    SciTech Connect

    Guseva, M.I.; Gordeeva, G.V.

    1987-01-01

    The application of ion implantation for alloying offers a unique opportunity to modify the chemical composition, phase constitution, and microstructure of the surface layers of metals. The authors studied ion implantation of nitrogen and carbon into the surface layers of metallic targets. The phase composition of the implanted layers obtained on the Kh18N10T stainless steel, the refractory molybdenum alloy TsM-6, niobium, and nickel was determined according to the conventional method of recording the x-ray diffraction pattern of the specimens using monochromatic FeK/sub alpha/-radiation on a DRON-2,0 diffractometer. The targets were bombarded at room temperature in an ILU-3 ion accelerator. The implantation of metalloid ions was also conducted with the targets being bombarded with 100-keV phosphorus ions and 40-keV carbon ions.

  16. L-shell ionization of gold by nitrogen ion impact

    SciTech Connect

    Palinkas, J.; Bauer, C.; Brankoff, K.; Grambole, D.; Kalman, Gy.; Sarkadi, L.; Schlenk, B.; Torok, I.

    1983-04-01

    Measuring the angular distributions and the absolute intensities of the L x-ray lines of gold at 2.4-18.2 MeV nitrogen ion impact, the absolute subshell ionization cross-sections and the alignment parameter of the L/sub 3/-subshell have been determined and compared to the theoretical results.

  17. Characterization of nitrogen species incorporated into graphite using low energy nitrogen ion sputtering.

    PubMed

    Kiuchi, Hisao; Kondo, Takahiro; Sakurai, Masataka; Guo, Donghui; Nakamura, Junji; Niwa, Hideharu; Miyawaki, Jun; Kawai, Maki; Oshima, Masaharu; Harada, Yoshihisa

    2016-01-07

    The electronic structures of nitrogen species incorporated into highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), prepared by low energy (200 eV) nitrogen ion sputtering and subsequent annealing at 1000 K, were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), angle-dependent X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and Raman spectroscopy. An additional peak was observed at higher binding energy of 401.9 eV than 400.9 eV for graphitic1 N (graphitic N in the basal plane) in N 1s XPS, where graphitic2 N (graphitic N in the zigzag edge and/or vacancy sites) has been theoretically expected to appear. N 1s XPS showed that graphitic1 N and graphitic2 N were preferably incorporated under low nitrogen content doping conditions (8 × 10(13) ions cm(-2)), while pyridinic N and graphitic1 N were dominantly observed under high nitrogen content doping conditions. In addition, angle-dependent N 1s XAS showed that the graphitic N and pyridinic N atoms were incorporated into the basal plane of HOPG and thus were highly oriented. Furthermore, Raman spectroscopy revealed that low energy sputtering resulted in almost no fraction of the disturbed graphite surface layers under the lowest nitrogen doping condition. The suitable nitrogen doping condition was discovered for realizing the well-controlled nitrogen doped HOPG. The electrochemical properties for the oxygen reduction reaction of these samples in acidic solution were examined and discussed.

  18. In situ real-time studies of oxygen incorporation in complex oxide thin films using spectroscopic ellipsometry and ion scattering and recoil spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, A. H.; Gao, Y.; Irene, E. A.; Auciello, O.; Krauss, A. R.; Achultz, J. A.

    2000-05-25

    The surface termination of c-axis oriented YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} (YBCO) and the oxygen incorporation mechanism has been investigated using a unique combination of spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and time of flight ion scattering and recoil spectrometry (ToF-ISARS). The high surface sensitivity of the ToF-ISARS technique combined with the bulk oxygen sensitivity of SE are shown to yield complimentary information. The SE provided the film orientation and quality, while ToF-ISARS supplied surface compositional and structural information and enabled isotopic {sup 18}O tracer studies. It was determined that the O content of the film had little effect on the surface termination of the film, indicating a lack of labile Cu(1) sites at the c-axis oriented YBCO surface. Also, strong evidence for a Ba or BaO terminated structure is shown. The data related to the {sup 18}O tracer studies indicate that O from the reaction ambient incorporates only into the labile Cu(1) sites during both deposition and annealing, while stable O sites were populated with O from the sputtered target, indicating either the need for sputtered atomic O or sputtered YCuO complexes to occupy the stable Cu(2) sites.

  19. Hydrogen interstitial in H-ion implanted ZnO bulk single crystals: Evaluation by elastic recoil detection analysis and electron paramagnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaida, T.; Kamioka, K.; Nishimura, T.; Kuriyama, K.; Kushida, K.; Kinomura, A.

    2015-12-01

    The origins of low resistivity in H ion-implanted ZnO bulk single crystals are evaluated by elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and Van der Pauw methods. The H-ion implantation (peak concentration: 5.0 × 1015 cm-2) into ZnO is performed using a 500 keV implanter. The maximum of the concentration of the implanted H estimated by a TRIM simulation is at 3600 nm in depth. The resistivity decreases from ∼103 Ω cm for un implanted ZnO to 6.5 Ω cm for as-implanted, 2.3 × 10-1 Ω cm for 200 °C annealed, and 3.2 × 10-1 Ω cm for 400 °C annealed samples. The ERDA measurements can evaluate the concentration of hydrogens which move to the vicinity of the surface (surface to 300 nm or 100 nm) because of the diffusion by the annealing at 200 °C and 400 °C. The hydrogen concentration near the surface estimated using the 2.0 MeV helium beam is ∼3.8 × 1013 cm-2 for annealed samples. From EPR measurements, the oxygen vacancy of +charge state (Vo+) is observed in as-implanted samples. The Vo+ related signal (g = 1.96) observed under no illumination disappears after successive illumination with a red LED and appears again with a blue light illumination. The activation energy of as-implanted, 200 °C annealed, and 400 °C annealed samples estimated from the temperature dependence of carrier concentration lies between 29 meV and 23 meV, suggesting the existence of H interstitial as a shallow donor level.

  20. Improvement of nitrogen retained dose using ammonia as a precursor in nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation of silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, G.J.; Yang, P.; Fu, Ricky K.Y.; Yao, Zh.Q.; Huang, N.; Chu, Paul K.

    2005-09-15

    The low nitrogen retained dose due to competition from oxygen coimplantation diminishes the efficacy of nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation in silicon. In this work, we aim at improving the nitrogen retained dose by using ammonia as a precursor. Ammonia is introduced into the nitrogen plasma during plasma immersion ion implantation of silicon to improve the nitrogen reactivity and reduce the competition from oxygen in the residual vacuum. Our x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy results indicate that the ammonia precursor can indeed improve the N retained dose effectively, and the hydrophilic properties of the surface change with different ammonia to nitrogen ratios.

  1. FeN foils by nitrogen ion-implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Yanfeng; Wang, Jian-Ping; Al Mehedi, Md; Fu, Engang; Wang, Yongqiang

    2014-05-07

    Iron nitride samples in foil shape (free standing, 500 nm in thickness) were prepared by a nitrogen ion-implantation method. To facilitate phase transformation, the samples were bonded on the substrate followed by a post-annealing step. By using two different substrates, single crystal Si and GaAs, structural and magnetic properties of iron nitride foil samples prepared with different nitrogen ion fluences were characterized. α″-Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2} phase in iron nitride foil samples was obtained and confirmed by the proposed approach. A hard magnetic property with coercivity up to 780 Oe was achieved for the FeN foil samples bonded on Si substrate. The feasibility of using nitrogen ion implantation techniques to prepare FeN foil samples up to 500 nm thickness with a stable martensitic phase under high ion fluences has been demonstrated. A possible mechanism was proposed to explain this result. This proposed method could potentially be an alternative route to prepare rare-earth-free FeN bulk magnets by stacking and pressing multiple free-standing thick α″-Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2} foils together.

  2. Improvement in Adhesive Strength of PTFE using Nitrogen Ion Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Iwao, Toru; Yumoto, Motoshige

    The adhesive strength doesn't improve so much even if the surface is activated. It is known that PTFE (polytetra fluoroethylene) is one of the collapse type polymer since the binding energy of main chain is smaller than that of side chain. Accordingly, it is assumed that adhesive strength may improve by suppressing the collapse of structure. It is also expected that introduction of cross-linking structure may suppress the collapse of structure. It was confirmed that a lot of polar radicals were introduced at the surface by nitrogen ion irradiation around 30 eV. Thus, to introduce the cross-linking structure several 100 eV nitrogen ions were irradiated after irradiation of nitrogen with 30 eV ion. As a result, adhesive strength irradiated by 300 eV improved more than that of 1000 eV. From the result of XPS (X-ray-Photoelectron-Spectroscopy) analysis, many C-N-C bonds contributing cross-linking structure was detected at a shallow layer by irradiation of ions with 300 eV. From these results, it is concluded that the depth of cross-link formation is important to improve the adhesive strength.

  3. A novel double-focusing time-of-flight mass spectrometer for absolute recoil ion cross sections measurements.

    PubMed

    Sigaud, L; de Jesus, V L B; Ferreira, Natalia; Montenegro, E C

    2016-08-01

    In this work, the inclusion of an Einzel-like lens inside the time-of-flight drift tube of a standard mass spectrometer coupled to a gas cell-to study ionization of atoms and molecules by electron impact-is described. Both this lens and a conical collimator are responsible for further focalization of the ions and charged molecular fragments inside the spectrometer, allowing a much better resolution at the time-of-flight spectra, leading to a separation of a single mass-to-charge unit up to 100 a.m.u. The procedure to obtain the overall absolute efficiency of the spectrometer and micro-channel plate detector is also discussed.

  4. A novel double-focusing time-of-flight mass spectrometer for absolute recoil ion cross sections measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Sigaud, L.; Jesus, V. L. B. de; Ferreira, Natalia

    2016-08-15

    In this work, the inclusion of an Einzel-like lens inside the time-of-flight drift tube of a standard mass spectrometer coupled to a gas cell—to study ionization of atoms and molecules by electron impact—is described. Both this lens and a conical collimator are responsible for further focalization of the ions and charged molecular fragments inside the spectrometer, allowing a much better resolution at the time-of-flight spectra, leading to a separation of a single mass-to-charge unit up to 100 a.m.u. The procedure to obtain the overall absolute efficiency of the spectrometer and micro-channel plate detector is also discussed.

  5. Dependence of Ion Energy on PTFE Surface Modification Effect by Nitrogen Ion Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Akihiko; Iwao, Toru; Yumoto, Motoshige

    PTFE (Poly-tetra-fluoro-ethylene) has superior characteristic. But, it has low adhesion force. In order to improve adhesion force, we have studied on surface modification of PTFE by using discharge under high E/n (E:electric field, n:particle density) condition in nitrogen. From the results, it was deduced that ion energy around 40 eV is effective for polar groups introduction. In addition, treated surface unevenness did not increase compared with the untreated one. Then, we performed nitrogen ion irradiation by changing ion energy. From the results, it is shown that low ion energy is effective for polar groups introduction. It is also shown that high energy ion suppresses surface roughness. Thus, we measured surface energy and composition of samples irradiated by high and low energy ions. When ion with 30 eV was irradiated for 5 minute and following it ion with 1060 eV was irradiated for 10 second, many polar groups were introduced and surface unevenness was kept at the untreatment level. From the results by XPS (X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy) analysis and FT-IR (Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy) analysis by using the ATR (Attenuated Total Reflection) method, it was confirmed that polar groups of oxygen component and cross-linked structure via nitrogen or carbon was introduced at the surface.

  6. A new value for the half-life of 10Be by Heavy-Ion Elastic Recoil Detection and liquid scintillation counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korschinek, G.; Bergmaier, A.; Faestermann, T.; Gerstmann, U. C.; Knie, K.; Rugel, G.; Wallner, A.; Dillmann, I.; Dollinger, G.; von Gostomski, Ch. Lierse; Kossert, K.; Maiti, M.; Poutivtsev, M.; Remmert, A.

    2010-01-01

    The importance of 10Be in different applications of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is well-known. In this context the half-life of 10Be has a crucial impact, and an accurate and precise determination of the half-life is a prerequisite for many of the applications of 10Be in cosmic-ray and earth science research. Recently, the value of the 10Be half-life has been the centre of much debate. In order to overcome uncertainties inherent in previous determinations, we introduced a new method of high accuracy and precision. An aliquot of our highly enriched 10Be master solution was serially diluted with increasing well-known masses of 9Be. We then determined the initial 10Be concentration by least square fit to the series of measurements of the resultant 10Be/ 9Be ratio. In order to minimize uncertainties because of mass bias which plague other low-energy mass spectrometric methods, we used for the first time Heavy-Ion Elastic Recoil Detection (HI-ERD) for the determination of the 10Be/ 9Be isotopic ratios, a technique which does not suffer from difficult to control mass fractionation. The specific activity of the master solution was measured by means of accurate liquid scintillation counting (LSC). The resultant combination of the 10Be concentration and activity yields a 10Be half-life of T1/2 = 1.388 ± 0.018 (1 s, 1.30%) Ma. In a parallel but independent study (Chmeleff et al. [11]), found a value of 1.386 ± 0.016 (1.15%) Ma. Our recommended weighted mean and mean standard error for the new value for 10Be half-life based on these two independent measurements is 1.387 ± 0.012 (0.87%) Ma.

  7. Protein Nitrogen Determination by Kjeldahl Digestion and Ion Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsiaoling; Pampati, Nagarani; McCormick, William M; Bhattacharyya, Lokesh

    2016-06-01

    We report development and validation of a simple, rapid, and accurate method for the quantitation of protein nitrogen, which combines Kjeldahl digestion and ion chromatography with suppressed conductivity detection and requires nanomolar amount of nitrogen in samples (≥10 μg protein). The mechanism of suppressed conductivity detection does not permit analysis of samples containing copper (present in Kjeldahl digestion solution) and aluminum (present in many vaccines as adjuvants) due to precipitation of their hydroxides within the suppressor. We overcame this problem by including 10 μM oxalic acid in Kjeldahl digests and in the eluent (30 mM methanesulfonic acid). The chromatography is performed using an IonPac CS-16 cation exchange column by isocratic elution. The method reduces the digestion time to less than 1 h and eliminates the distillation and titration steps of the Kjeldahl method, thereby reducing the analysis time significantly and improving precision and accuracy. To determine protein nitrogen in samples containing non-protein nitrogen, proteins are precipitated by a mixture of deoxycholate and trichloroacetic acid and the precipitates are analyzed after dissolving in KOH. The method is particularly useful for biological samples that are limited and can also be applied to food, environmental, and other materials.

  8. Investigation of cerium and yttrium ions effects on microbial nitrogen fixation and determination of inhibition.

    PubMed

    Bahadur, K; Tripathi, P

    1978-01-01

    Critical investigation of the effect of yttrium and cerium ions in culture media for nitrogen-fixing bacteria showed strong inhibition. There was a decrease in the amount of nitrogen fixed; simultaneously, in the samples containing cerium ions, carbon consumption values increased as the molarity of metal ion was enhanced. Inhibition rate was invariably maximum at the highest concentration of metal ions.

  9. Nitrogen ion implantation into various materials using 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Chang Seouk; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Choi, Seyong; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Kim, Hyun Gyu; Ok, Jung-Woo; Park, Jin Yong; Kim, Seong Jun; Bahng, Jungbae; Hong, Jonggi; Won, Mi-Sook; Lee, Seung Wook

    2016-02-15

    The installation of the 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) ion implantation beamline was recently completed at the Korea Basic Science Institute. The apparatus contains a beam monitoring system and a sample holder for the ion implantation process. The new implantation system can function as a multipurpose tool since it can implant a variety of ions, ranging hydrogen to uranium, into different materials with precise control and with implantation areas as large as 1–10 mm{sup 2}. The implantation chamber was designed to measure the beam properties with a diagnostic system as well as to perform ion implantation with an in situ system including a mass spectrometer. This advanced implantation system can be employed in novel applications, including the production of a variety of new materials such as metals, polymers, and ceramics and the irradiation testing and fabrication of structural and functional materials to be used in future nuclear fusion reactors. In this investigation, the first nitrogen ion implantation experiments were conducted using the new system. The 28 GHz ECRIS implanted low-energy, multi-charged nitrogen ions into copper, zinc, and cobalt substrates, and the ion implantation depth profiles were obtained. SRIM 2013 code was used to calculate the profiles under identical conditions, and the experimental and simulation results are presented and compared in this report. The depths and ranges of the ion distributions in the experimental and simulation results agree closely and demonstrate that the new system will enable the treatment of various substrates for advanced materials research.

  10. Nitrogen ion implantation into various materials using 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Shin, Chang Seouk; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Choi, Seyong; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Kim, Hyun Gyu; Ok, Jung-Woo; Park, Jin Yong; Kim, Seong Jun; Bahng, Jungbae; Hong, Jonggi; Lee, Seung Wook; Won, Mi-Sook

    2016-02-01

    The installation of the 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) ion implantation beamline was recently completed at the Korea Basic Science Institute. The apparatus contains a beam monitoring system and a sample holder for the ion implantation process. The new implantation system can function as a multipurpose tool since it can implant a variety of ions, ranging hydrogen to uranium, into different materials with precise control and with implantation areas as large as 1-10 mm(2). The implantation chamber was designed to measure the beam properties with a diagnostic system as well as to perform ion implantation with an in situ system including a mass spectrometer. This advanced implantation system can be employed in novel applications, including the production of a variety of new materials such as metals, polymers, and ceramics and the irradiation testing and fabrication of structural and functional materials to be used in future nuclear fusion reactors. In this investigation, the first nitrogen ion implantation experiments were conducted using the new system. The 28 GHz ECRIS implanted low-energy, multi-charged nitrogen ions into copper, zinc, and cobalt substrates, and the ion implantation depth profiles were obtained. SRIM 2013 code was used to calculate the profiles under identical conditions, and the experimental and simulation results are presented and compared in this report. The depths and ranges of the ion distributions in the experimental and simulation results agree closely and demonstrate that the new system will enable the treatment of various substrates for advanced materials research.

  11. Nitrogen ion implantation into various materials using 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Chang Seouk; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Choi, Seyong; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Kim, Hyun Gyu; Ok, Jung-Woo; Park, Jin Yong; Kim, Seong Jun; Bahng, Jungbae; Hong, Jonggi; Lee, Seung Wook; Won, Mi-Sook

    2016-02-01

    The installation of the 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) ion implantation beamline was recently completed at the Korea Basic Science Institute. The apparatus contains a beam monitoring system and a sample holder for the ion implantation process. The new implantation system can function as a multipurpose tool since it can implant a variety of ions, ranging hydrogen to uranium, into different materials with precise control and with implantation areas as large as 1-10 mm2. The implantation chamber was designed to measure the beam properties with a diagnostic system as well as to perform ion implantation with an in situ system including a mass spectrometer. This advanced implantation system can be employed in novel applications, including the production of a variety of new materials such as metals, polymers, and ceramics and the irradiation testing and fabrication of structural and functional materials to be used in future nuclear fusion reactors. In this investigation, the first nitrogen ion implantation experiments were conducted using the new system. The 28 GHz ECRIS implanted low-energy, multi-charged nitrogen ions into copper, zinc, and cobalt substrates, and the ion implantation depth profiles were obtained. SRIM 2013 code was used to calculate the profiles under identical conditions, and the experimental and simulation results are presented and compared in this report. The depths and ranges of the ion distributions in the experimental and simulation results agree closely and demonstrate that the new system will enable the treatment of various substrates for advanced materials research.

  12. Estimation of Nitrogen Ion Energy in Sterilization Technology by Plasma Based Ion Implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondou, Youhei; Nakashima, Takeru; Tanaka, Takeshi; Takagi, Toshinori; Watanabe, Satoshi; Ohkura, Kensaku; Shibahara, Kentaro; Yokoyama, Shin

    Plasma based ion implantation (PBII) with negative voltage pulses to the test specimen has been applied to the sterilization process as a technique suitable for three-dimensional work pieces. Pulsed high negative voltage (5 μs pulse width, 300 pulses/s, -800 V to -15 kV) was applied to the electrode in this process at a gas pressure of 2.4 Pa of N2. We found that the PBII process, in which N2 gas self-ignitted plasma generated by only pulsed voltages is used, reduces the number of active Bacillus pumilus cell. The number of bacteria survivors was reduced by 10-5 x with 5 min exposure. Since the ion energy is the most important processing parameter, a simple method to estimate the nitrogen ion energy from distribution of nitrogen atoms in Si implanted by PBII was developed. The implanted ion energy is discussed from the SIMS in depth profiles.

  13. The Discovery of Rhea as a Source of Nitrogen Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisenfeld, Daniel; Janzen, Paul; Johnson, Robert; Powell, Ronald; Smith, H. Todd; Wilson, Robert

    The Cassini plasma spectrometer (CAPS) instrument made measurements of the plasma envi-ronment near Rhea when Cassini passed through the moon's wake on November 26, 2005 at a distance of 500 km, and again on August 30, 2007, at a distance of 5000 km. During both en-counters, the CAPS ion mass spectrometer (CAPS/IMS) detected an enhancement of nitrogen ions (N+ ) by a factor of two relative to the ambient environment. Compared to water group ions (O+ , OH+ , H2 O+ , H3 O+ ), this amounted to a fractional increase from 10% to 20% of the water group content. There has already been a suggestion that Rhea possesses a dust halo (Jones, et al., Science 2008) and that it is a source of O2 + (Martens et al., GRL, 2008). Our results provide further evidence that Rhea is a source of plasma for Saturn's magnetosphere. To explore the degree to which Rhea may have an active surface, modeling of the nitrogen source rate is currently under way. We will present our current results as well as composition results from the upcoming Rhea encounter on March 2, 2010, when Cassini passes within 100 km of the moon.

  14. Mg2+ ions: do they bind to nucleobase nitrogens?

    PubMed Central

    Leonarski, Filip; D'Ascenzo, Luigi; Auffinger, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Given the many roles proposed for Mg2+ in nucleic acids, it is essential to accurately determine their binding modes. Here, we surveyed the PDB to classify Mg2+ inner-sphere binding patterns to nucleobase imine N1/N3/N7 atoms. Among those, purine N7 atoms are considered to be the best nucleobase binding sites for divalent metals. Further, Mg2+ coordination to N7 has been implied in several ribozyme catalytic mechanisms. We report that Mg2+ assigned near imine nitrogens derive mostly from poor interpretations of electron density patterns and are most often misidentified Na+, K+, NH4+ ions, water molecules or spurious density peaks. Consequently, apart from few documented exceptions, Mg2+ ions do not bind to N7 atoms. Without much of a surprise, Mn2+, Zn2+ and Cd2+, which have a higher affinity for nitrogens, may contact N7 atoms when present in crystallization buffers. In this respect, we describe for the first time a potential Zn2+ ribosomal binding site involving two purine N7 atoms. Further, we provide a set of guidelines to help in the assignment of Mg2+ in crystallographic, cryo-EM, NMR and model building practices and discuss implications of our findings related to ion substitution experiments. PMID:27923930

  15. Precision Spectroscopy on Single Cold Trapped Molecular Nitrogen Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegi, Gregor; Najafian, Kaveh; Germann, Matthias; Sergachev, Ilia; Willitsch, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    The ability to precisely control and manipulate single cold trapped particles has enabled spectroscopic studies on narrow transitions of ions at unprecedented levels of precision. This has opened up a wide range of applications, from tests of fundamental physical concepts, e.g., possible time-variations of fundamental constants, to new and improved frequency standards. So far most of these experiments have concentrated on atomic ions. Recently, however, attention has also been focused on molecular species, and molecular nitrogen ions have been identified as promising candidates for testing a possible time-variation of the proton/electron mass ratio. Here, we report progress towards precision-spectroscopic studies on dipole-forbidden vibrational transitions in single trapped N2+ ions. Our approach relies on the state-selective generation of single N2+ ions, subsequent infrared excitation using high intensity, narrow-band quantum-cascade lasers and a quantum-logic scheme for non-destructive state readout. We also characterize processes limiting the state lifetimes in our experiment, which impair the measurement fidelity. P. O. Schmidt et. al., Science 309 (2005), 749. M. Kajita et. al., Phys. Rev. A 89 (2014), 032509 M. Germann , X. Tong, S. Willitsch, Nature Physics 10 (2014), 820. X. Tong, A. Winney, S. Willitsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 (2010), 143001

  16. High acceptance recoil polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    The HARP Collaboration

    1992-12-05

    In order to detect neutrons and protons in the 50 to 600 MeV energy range and measure their polarization, an efficient, low-noise, self-calibrating device is being designed. This detector, known as the High Acceptance Recoil Polarimeter (HARP), is based on the recoil principle of proton detection from np[r arrow]n[prime]p[prime] or pp[r arrow]p[prime]p[prime] scattering (detected particles are underlined) which intrinsically yields polarization information on the incoming particle. HARP will be commissioned to carry out experiments in 1994.

  17. Coupled, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Carbon and Ion Chemistry on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yelle, Roger; Vuitton, Veronique; Lavvas, Panayotis; Klippenstein, Stephen; Horst, Sarah

    2016-06-01

    We present simulations of the coupled nitrogen, oxygen, and ion chemistry on Titan using a state-of-the-art photochemical model. The model is one dimensional and extends from the surface to the exobase. The chemistry linking 160 neutral species and 172 ion species is described through networks including 1139 neutral reactions and 4361 ion reactions. UV photolysis of 59 species is included as well as dissociation and ionization of 16 species due to suprathermal electrons. Reaction rate coefficients are obtained from a thorough review of the literature supplemented by calculations of rates of important reactions when laboratory values are not available. Comparison of the model with available observational constraints helps to determine the fundamental chemical pathways in the atmosphere. We will discuss in particular the importance of recent measurements of HNC, HC15N, CO2, and H2O and the role of ion chemistry in the synthesis of neutral species. Key reactions that require further laboratory of theoretical study will be identified.

  18. Resonant charge exchange involving electronically excited states of nitrogen atoms and ions

    SciTech Connect

    Kosarim, A. V.; Smirnov, B. M.; Laricchiuta, A.

    2006-12-15

    Within the framework of the asymptotic theory the matrices for the exchange interaction potentials of the nitrogen ion, with electron shell p{sup 2}, and nitrogen atom, with electron shell p{sup 3}, are constructed. The hierarchy of interactions in the nitrogen molecular ion at large internuclear distances is constructed for different electronic states. On the basis of these interaction potentials, the cross sections of resonant charge exchange in slow collisions are evaluated for different values of electron momentum projections and then averaged over these momentum projections. The mobilities of nitrogen ions in atomic nitrogen are also derived.

  19. Neutrino-recoil induced desorption

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, L.; Avci, R.; Lapeyre, G.J. ); Hindi, M.M.; Kozub, R.L.; Robinson, S.J. )

    1994-07-01

    Nuclear decay induced [sup 37]Cl ion desorption from the electron capture decay [sup 37]Ar[r arrow][sup 37]Cl+[nu] is reported for the first time. A mixture of one part [sup 36]Ar and [similar to]5[times]10[sup [minus]5] parts [sup 37]Ar ([sup 36/37]Ar) is physisorbed on a gold-plated Si wafer kept at 16 K under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. The time of flight (TOF) of recoiled [sup 37]Cl ions is measured using coincidence techniques. The observed kinetic energy distribution of the [sup 37]Cl ions is approximately Gaussian in shape, with a maximum at [approx]9.0 eV and a full width at half-maximum of [similar to]3 eV. Considering the binding energy of physisorbed [sup 37]Ar is [similar to]80 meV, the 9-eV peak energy compares well with that of the gas-phase value, where conservation of the energy and momentum fixes the kinetic energy of [sup 37]Cl ions at 9.54 eV. Using a combination of TOF and retarding field energy analysis, the charge states of detected ions for 1 ML (monolayer) of [sup 36/37]Ar are determined as 53%+1[ital e], 21%+2[ital e], and 26%+[ital ne], where [ital n][ge]3. The fraction of decaying [sup 37]Ar atoms which emerge from the surface as positive [sup 37]Cl ions is found to be 10%. Finally, a strong charge exchange reaction between a [sup 37]Cl ion and near-neighbor atoms causes a Coulomb explosion within the multilayers, increasing the kinetic energy of desorbing ions by as much as [similar to]7 eV.

  20. Recoil polarization measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkmann, Kai-Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Polarization observables in photon-induced meson production off nucleons have long been recognized to hold the promise of a detailed understanding of the excited states in the excitation spectrum of the nucleon. Photon beam and proton target polarization are routinely used at the ELSA facility in the Crystal Barrel/TAPS experiment and have yielded a wealth of data on contributing partial waves and nucleon resonances. A detector study on how to complement these ongoing studies by recoil polarization measurements that offer an orthogonal approach with otherwise unmeasurable observables in the field of non-strange meson photoproduction has been performed. Building on experience with silicon detectors operated in the photon beamline environment, first possible layouts of Si detector telescopes for recoil protons were developed. Various geometries, e.g. Archimedean spiral design of annular sensors, sector shapes and rectangular sensors were studied and have been used during test measurements. A prototype for the recoil polarimeter was built and subjected to performance tests in protonproton scattering at the COSY-accelerator in Jülich.

  1. Stopping Power of Au for Ti Using Elastic Recoil Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Linares, R.; Freire, J. A.; Ribas, R. V.; Medina, N. H.; Oliveira, J. R. B.; Seale, W. A.; Cybulska, E. W.; Wiedemann, K. T.; Allegro, P. R.; Toufen, D. L.

    2009-06-03

    The slowing down of heavy ions in matter is still not well understood especially at low energies (<0.5 MeV/u). In this contribution we present new experimental data for the stopping power of Au for Ti ions using an elastic recoil technique where a heavy-ion beam at low energies is produced by elastic scattering of an energetic primary beam imping on a thin target. Atoms from the target recoil at low energies. We compare our experimental data with previous data and with semi-empirical and theoretical models.

  2. Doping silicon with erbium by recoil implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feklistov, K. V.; Abramkin, D. S.; Obodnikov, V. I.; Popov, V. P.

    2015-08-01

    In attempt to achieve strong surface doping of silicon with erbium, silicon was implanted with 250-keV argon ions through a thin erbium film deposited on the target surface. As a result, erbium recoil atoms were knocked out of the film and incorporated into the silicon substrate. In this way, silicon was doped with erbium atoms to a concentration of 5 × 1020 cm-3 within a depth slightly above 10 nm. For the formation of stable optically active ErO n complexes, oxygen recoil atoms were also incorporated into silicon. During the subsequent heat treatment, about half of the implanted erbium atoms segregated in the surface SiO2 layer. The main fraction of erbium retained in silicon after heat treatments is optically inactive.

  3. Interpreting Recoil for Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsayed, Tarek A.

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of recoil is usually explained to students in the context of Newton's third law. Typically, when a projectile is fired, the recoil of the launch mechanism is interpreted as a reaction to the ejection of the smaller projectile. The same phenomenon is also interpreted in the context of the conservation of linear momentum, which is…

  4. Interpreting Recoil for Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsayed, Tarek A.

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of recoil is usually explained to students in the context of Newton's third law. Typically, when a projectile is fired, the recoil of the launch mechanism is interpreted as a reaction to the ejection of the smaller projectile. The same phenomenon is also interpreted in the context of the conservation of linear momentum, which is…

  5. Interpreting Recoil for Undergraduate Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsayed, Tarek A.

    2012-04-01

    The phenomenon of recoil is usually explained to students in the context of Newton's third law. Typically, when a projectile is fired, the recoil of the launch mechanism is interpreted as a reaction to the ejection of the smaller projectile. The same phenomenon is also interpreted in the context of the conservation of linear momentum, which is closely related to Newton's third law. Since the actual microscopic causes of recoil differ from one problem to another, some students (and teachers) may not be satisfied with understanding recoil through the principles of conservation of linear momentum and Newton's third law. For these students, the origin of the recoil motion should be presented in more depth.

  6. Computing at the Dubna gas-filled recoil separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsyganov, Yuri S.; Polyakov, Alexandr N.

    2006-03-01

    Simulation codes for the spectra of heavy implanted nuclei, applications for online data visualization and real time PC-based algorithms are considered. Special attention is paid to the application of real time techniques for radical suppression of background products in heavy-ion-induced nuclear reactions at the U-400 cyclotron of the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions. The detection system of the Dubna gas-filled recoil separator (DGFRS) is also briefly described. Calculated heavy recoil spectra are compared with those measured in heavy-ion-induced nuclear reactions.

  7. Cubic boron nitride thin film growth by boron and nitrogen ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Eyhusen, S.; Ronning, C.; Hofsaess, H.

    2005-08-01

    Cubic boron nitride (c-BN) thin films were deposited on silicon substrates using mass separated ion beam deposition (MSIBD). In order to investigate the influence of the ion energy on the growth of c-BN films, {sup 11}B{sup +} and {sup 14}N{sup +} ions were implanted into c-BN with ion energies ranging from 5 keV to 43 keV and substrate temperatures (T{sub S}) from room temperature (RT) to 250 deg. C. A systematic study on the interplay of E{sub ion} and T{sub S} has revealed a characteristic energy-dependent temperature threshold for c-BN growth. This behavior is explained by dynamic annealing of defects caused by a penetrating ion in a collision cascade. In this picture, the suppression of defect accumulation that is crucial for maintaining cubic phase formation is attributed to temperature-driven back diffusion and subsequent annihilation of B and N interstitial recoils. The model is confirmed by analyzing the depth profile of implanted, isotopically pure {sup 10}B, and its application for both c-BN nucleation and growth is discussed.

  8. Nitrogen ion utilization by tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L. ) seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, L.K.

    1982-01-01

    Growth responses of one-year-old tulip poplar seedlings were determined for different nitrogen sources (HN/sub 4/NO/sub 3/, NH+/sub 4/, NO-/sub 3/, no nitrogen) at 336 ppm N in nutrient culture. At the end of three months, there were no significant differences in growth observed among treatments in terms of stem elongation, leaf area, and leaf size. After four months, however, seedlings of the NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/ treatment exhibited significantly (P<0.05) greater growth (final weight gain and stem elongation) than all other nitrogen sorces. Growth was slightly less for the NO-/sub 3/ treatment plants, but compared with NH+/sub 4/ and no nitrogen treatment, both NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/ and NO-/sub 3/ treatments exhibited significantly greater growth responses. NO-/sub 3/ is recommended as the sole nitrogen source, especially for small seedlings of tulip poplar.

  9. The damaging effects of nitrogen ion beam implantation on upland cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) pollen grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yanjie; Wu, Lijun; Wu, Yuejin; Wang, Qingya; Tang, Canming

    2008-09-01

    With the aim to study the effects of an ion beam on plant cells, upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivar "Sumian 22" pollen grains were irradiated in vacuum (7.8 × 10-3 Pa) by low-energy nitrogen ions with an energy of 20 keV at various fluences ranging from 0.26 × 1016 to 0.78 × 1016 N+/cm2. The irradiation effects on pollen grains were tested, considering the ultrastructural changes in the exine and interior walls of pollen grains, their germination rate, the growth speed of the pollen tubes in the style, fertilization and boll development after the pistils were pollinated by the pollen grains which had been implanted with nitrogen ions. Nitrogen ions entered the pollen grains by etching and penetrating the exine and interior walls and destroying cell structures. A greater percentage of the pollen grains were destroyed as the fluence of N+ ions increased. Obviously, the nitrogen ion beam penetrated the exine and interior walls of the pollen grains and produced holes of different sizes. As the ion fluence increased, the amount and the density of pollen grain inclusions decreased and the size of the lacuna and starch granules increased. Pollen grain germination rates decreased with increasing ion fluence. The number of pollen tubes in the style declined with increased ion implantation into pollen grains, but the growth speed of the tubes did not change. All of the pollen tubes reached the end of the style at 13 h after pollination. This result was consistent with that of the control. Also, the weight and the diameter of the ovary decreased and shortened with increased ion beam implantation fluence. No evident change in the fecundation time of the ovule was observed. These results indicate that nitrogen ions can enter pollen grains and cause a series of biological changes in pollen grains of upland cotton.

  10. Assessment of CpTi Surface Properties after Nitrogen Ion Implantation with Various Doses and Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulazzaky, Mohamad Ali; Ali, Nurdin; Samekto, Haryanti; Ghazali, Mohd Imran

    2012-11-01

    Nitrogen ion implantation is one of the surface modification techniques used for increasing corrosion resistance of commercially pure titanium (CpTi). The nitrogen ion implanted CpTi in various doses markedly changes the corrosion resistance. Still the effect of nitrogen ion implantation on the CpTi at different energies needs to be verified. This study uses different methods to assess the CpTi surface properties after nitrogen ion implantation in various doses and energy. Surface hardness of the CpTi increases with an increase of the dose and decreases with an increase of the energy. The precipitation of the TiN increases with an increase of the nitrogen dose, and no formation of the Ti2N phase clearly appears. Corrosion resistance of the CpTi specimens can be upgraded to some extent after their surfaces are modified, implanting nitrogen ions at 100 keV by increasing dose. The optimum surface properties of the implanted CpTi are analyzed to contribute to materials science technology.

  11. Ionization yield from nuclear recoils in liquid-xenon dark matter detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Wei; Ji, Xiangdong

    2015-03-01

    The ionization yield in a two-phase liquid xenon dark-matter detector has been studied in keV nuclear recoil energy region. The newly obtained nuclear quenching as well as the average energy required to produce an electron-ion pair from the measurement in Seguinot (1992) are used to calculate the total electric charges produced. To estimate the fraction of the electron charges collected, the Thomas-Imel model is generalized to describe the field dependence for nuclear recoils in liquid xenon. With free parameters fitted to experimentally measured 56.5 keV nuclear recoils, the energy dependence of ionization yield for nuclear recoils is predicted, which increases as recoil energy decreases and reaches the maximum value at 2∼3 keV. This prediction agrees well with existing data and may help to lower the energy detection threshold for nuclear recoils to ∼1 keV.

  12. Long-range effect in nitrogen ion-implanted AISI 316L stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budzynski, P.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen ion implantation on AISI 316L stainless steel was investigated. The microstructure and composition of an N implanted layer were studied by RBS, GIXRD, SEM, and EDX measurements. Friction and wear tests were also performed. The discrepancy between the measured and calculated stopped ion maximum range does not exceed 0.03 μm. After nitrogen implantation with a fluence of 5 × 1017 ion/cm2, additional phases of expanded austenite were detected. At a 5-fold larger depth than the maximum ion range, improvement in the coefficient of friction and wear was detected. We have shown, for the first time, the long-range effect in tribological investigations. The long-range effect is caused by movement of not only defects along the depth of the sample, as assumed so far, but also nitrogen atoms.

  13. Four pi-recoil proportional counter used as neutron spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, E. F.

    1968-01-01

    Study considers problems encountered in using 4 pi-recoil counters for neutron spectra measurement. Emphasis is placed on calibration, shape discrimination, variation of W, the average energy loss per ion pair, and the effects of differentiation on the intrinsic counter resolution.

  14. In situ mass spectroscopy of recoiled ion studies of degradation processes in SrBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9} thin films during hydrogen gas annealing.

    SciTech Connect

    Auciello, O.; Chang, R. P. H.; Gruen, D. M.; Im, J.; Kim, S. H.; Kingon, A. I.; Krauss, A. R.

    1999-03-10

    It is known that the forming gas (N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} mixture) annealing process required for microcircuit fabrication results in an unacceptable electrical degradation of SrBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9} (SBT) ferroelectric capacitors due mainly to the interaction of H{sub 2} with the ferroelectronic layer of the capacitor. We have found a strong relationship between changes in the surface composition of the ferroelectric layer and the electrical properties of SBT capacitors as a result of hydrogen annealing. Mass spectroscopy of recoiled ions (MSRI) analysis revealed a strong reduction in the Bi signal as a function of exposure to hydrogen at high temperatures ({approximately}500 C). The Bi signal reduction correlates with Bi depletion in the SBT surface region. Subsequent annealing in oxygen at temperatures in the range of 700-800 C resulted in the recovery of the MSRI Bi signal, corresponding to the replenishment of Bi in the previously Bi-depleted surface region. XRD analysis (probing the whole SBT film thickness) showed little difference in the XRD spectra of the SBT fti before and after hydrogen and oxygen-recovery annealing. The combined results of the MSRI and XRD analyses can be interpreted as an indication that the degradation of the electrical properties of the SBT capacitors, after hydrogen annealing, is mainly due to the degradation of the near surface region of the SBT layer.

  15. Effect of nitrogen ion implantation on the structural and optical properties of indium oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Sethi, Riti; Aziz, Anver; Siddiqui, Azher M.; Kumar, Pravin; Khan, Sameen Ahmed

    2016-06-10

    : We report here synthesis and subsequent nitrogen ion implantation of indium oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) thin films. The films were implanted with 25 keV N{sup +} beam for different ion doses between 3E15 to 1E16 ions/cm{sup 2}. The resulting changes in structural and optical properties were investigated using XRD, SEM-EDAX and UV-Vis Spectrometry. XRD studies reveal decrease in crystallite size from 20.06 to 12.42 nm with increase in ion dose. SEM micrographs show an increase in the grain size from 0.8 to 1.35 µm with increase in ion dose because of the agglomeration of the grains. Also, from EDAX data on pristine and N-implanted thin films the presence of indium and oxygen without any traces of impurity elements could be seen. However, at lower ion doses such as 3E15 and 5E15 ions/cm{sup 2}, no evidence of the presence of nitrogen ion was seen. However, for the ion dose of 1E16 ions/cm{sup 2}, evidence of presence of nitrogen can be seen in the EDAX data. Band gap calculations reveal a decrease in band gap from 3.54 to 3.38 eV with increasing ion dose. However, the band gap was found to again show an increase to 3.58 eV at the highest ion dose owing to quantum confinement effect.

  16. Carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen ion implantation of stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Rej, D.J.; Gavrilov, N.V.; Emlin, D.

    1995-12-31

    Ion implantation experiments of C, N, and O into stainless steel have been performed, with beam-line and plasma source ion implantation methods. Acceleration voltages were varied between 27 and 50 kV, with pulsed ion current densities between 1 and 10 mA/cm{sup 2}. Implanted doses ranged from 0.5 to 3 {times} 10{sup 18}cm{sup -2}, while workpiece temperatures were maintained between 25 and 800 C. Implant concentration profiles, microstructure, and surface mechanical properties of the implanted materials are reported.

  17. An Auger Sputter Profiling Study of Nitrogen and Oxygen Ion Implantations in Two Titanium Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, B. D., Pope, L. E., Wittberg, T. N.

    1989-07-31

    Samples of two titanium alloys, Ti-6A1-4V and Ti-15V-3Cr-3Sn-3A1, were ion implanted with a combination of nitrogen (N+) and oxygen (O+). For each alloy, implantation parameters were chosen to give implanted nitrogen concentrations of approximately 10 or 50 atomic percent, from a depth of 100 nanometers to a depth of 400 nanometers. In all but one case, dual energy (200 keV and 90 keV) implantations of nitrogen were used to give a relatively uniform nitrogen concentration to a depth of 300 nanometers. In each case, oxygen was implanted at 35 keV, following the nitrogen implantation, to give an oxygen-enriched region near the surface. The implanted samples were then examined by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) combined with argon ion sputtering. In order to determine the stoichiometry of the nitrogen implanted regions, it was necessary to determine the N (KVV) contribution to the overlapping N (KVV) and Ti (LMM) Auger transitions. It was also necessary to correct for the ion-bombardment-induced compositional changes which have been described in an earlier study of titanium nitride thin films. The corrected AES depth profiles were in good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  18. Nitrogen Ion TRacing Observatory (NITRO) concept: a possible mission for next ESA's M-class call

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Dandouras, Iannis; Paschalidis, Nikolaos

    2014-05-01

    Nitrogen is a key element for life as an inevitable part of the amino acid and protein, and its oxidation state (NH3 or N2 or NOX) in the ancient atmosphere is one of the key factors that determine the difficulty in forming amino acid without biological processes. Considering the fact that nitrogen molecule with triple chemical binding is much more difficult to be desolved/ionized than oxygen molecule with double chemical binding, and that dependence of the ion outflow from the ionosphere on the geomagnetic activity is more drastic for cold nitrogen ion than cold oxygen ions, it is important to understand the dynamic of N+ and N2+ at different solar conditions as compared to oxygen dynamics or proton dynamics. However, nearly no such observation exists at low energy less than keV, except very little observations for thermal nitrogen. One reason for lack of such measurement is difficulty in separating hot N+ from hot O+ even with the modern instruments, causing past instruments on board magnetospheric missions not targeting such separation but rather targeting higher temporal and spatial resolutions. However, with recent improvement of mass-separating ion analyser, it is now most likely possible to separate O+ and N+ by masking H+ and He++ and by limiting the angular coverage to minimize the contamination. In this sense, the nitrogen study in the magnetosphere requires a dedicated space mission. At moment there are two options: (1) pioneering single spacecraft mission with minimum instrumentation to detect hot nitrogen ions of missing energy range from 50 eV to 10 keV in the past missions; and (2) multi-spacecraft mission to make a comprehensive understanding of the dynamics of nitrogen ions in the magnetosphere. Here we present necessary spacecraft and instrumentation for the second option because that will be fitted into the M-class mission (450 MEUR) that European Space Agency most likely announces soon this year. The mission consists of three spacecraft, two mid

  19. Optical absorption enhancement of CdTe nanostructures by low-energy nitrogen ion bombardment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbarnejad, E.; Ghoranneviss, M.; Mohajerzadeh, S.; Hantehzadeh, M. R.; Asl Soleimani, E.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we present the fabrication of cadmium telluride (CdTe) nanostructures by means of RF magnetron sputtering followed by low-energy ion implantation and post-thermal treatment. We have thoroughly studied the structural, optical, and morphological properties of these nanostructures. The effects of nitrogen ion bombardment on the structural parameters of CdTe nanostructures such as crystal size, microstrain, and dislocation density have been examined. From x-ray diffractometer (XRD) analysis it could be deduced that N+ ion fluence and annealing treatment helps to form (3 0 0) orientation in the crystalline structure of cadmium-telluride films. Fluctuations in optical properties like the optical band gap and absorption coefficient as a function of N+ ion fluences have been observed. The annealing of the sample irradiated by a dose of 1018 ions cm-2 has led to great enhancement in the optical absorption over a wide range of wavelengths with a thickness of 250 nm. The enhanced absorption is significantly higher than the observed value in the original CdTe layer with a thickness of 3 μm. Surface properties such as structure, grain size and roughness are noticeably affected by varying the nitrogen fluences. It is speculated that nitrogen bombardment and post-annealing treatment results in a smaller optical band gap, which in turn leads to higher absorption. Nitrogen bombardment is found to be a promising method to increase efficiency of thin film solar cells.

  20. Recoil proton, alpha particle, and heavy ion impacts on microdosimetry and RBE of fast neutrons: analysis of kerma spectra calculated by Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Pignol, J P; Slabbert, J

    2001-02-01

    Fast neutrons (FN) have a higher radio-biological effectiveness (RBE) compared with photons, however the mechanism of this increase remains a controversial issue. RBE variations are seen among various FN facilities and at the same facility when different tissue depths or thicknesses of hardening filters are used. These variations lead to uncertainties in dose reporting as well as in the comparisons of clinical results. Besides radiobiology and microdosimetry, another powerful method for the characterization of FN beams is the calculation of total proton and heavy ion kerma spectra. FLUKA and MCNP Monte Carlo code were used to simulate these kerma spectra following a set of microdosimetry measurements performed at the National Accelerator Centre. The calculated spectra confirmed major classical statements: RBE increase is linked to both slow energy protons and alpha particles yielded by (n,alpha) reactions on carbon and oxygen nuclei. The slow energy protons are produced by neutrons having an energy between 10 keV and 10 MeV, while the alpha particles are produced by neutrons having an energy between 10 keV and 15 MeV. Looking at the heavy ion kerma from <15 MeV and the proton kerma from neutrons <10 MeV, it is possible to anticipate y* and RBE trends.

  1. Nitrogen mass transfer models for plasma-based low-energy ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Bocong; Wang, Kesheng; Zhang, Zhipeng; Che, Honglong; Lei, Mingkai

    2015-03-15

    The nitrogen mass transfer process in plasma-based low-energy ion implantation (PBLEII) is theoretically and experimentally studied in order to explore the process mechanism of PBLEII and therefore to optimize the apparatus design and the process conditions. An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) microwave discharge generates the nitrogen plasma with a high density of 10{sup 11}–10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 3}, which diffuses downstream to the process chamber along the divergent magnetic field. The nitrogen ions in the plasma implant into the surface and transport to the matrix of an austenitic stainless steel under the low negative pulsed bias of −2 kV at a process temperature of 400 °C. A global plasma model is used to simulate the ECR microwave plasma discharge for a range of working pressures and microwave powers. The fluid models are adopted to calculate the plasma downstream diffusion, the sheath expansion and the low-energy ion implantation on the surface. A nonlinear kinetic discrete model is established to describe the nitrogen transport in the austenitic stainless steel and the results are compared with the experimental measurements. Under an average implantation current density of 0.3–0.6 mA/cm{sup 2}, the surface nitrogen concentration in the range from 18.5 to 29 at. % is a critical factor for the nitrogen transport in the AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel by PBLEII, which accelerates the implanted nitrogen diffusion inward up to 6–12 μm during a nitriding time of 4 h.

  2. Effect of medium recoil and pT broadening on single inclusive jet suppression in high-energy heavy-ion collisions in the high-twist approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin-Nian; Wei, Shu-Yi; Zhang, Han-Zhong

    2017-09-01

    Jet energy loss and single inclusive jet suppression in high-energy heavy-ion collisions are studied within a pQCD parton model that includes both elastic and radiative interactions between jet shower and medium partons as they propagate through the quark-gluon plasma. The collisional energy loss of jets with a given cone size is found to be relatively small comparing with the radiative energy loss. However, the effect of transverse momentum broadening due to elastic scattering is significant in the calculation of radiative energy loss within the high-twist formalism. The nuclear modification factors for single inclusive jets with different cone sizes are calculated and compared to experimental data as measured by ALICE and ATLAS experiments in Pb+Pb collisions at √{sNN}=2.76 TeV. Results on jet suppression in Pb+Pb collisions at √{sNN}=5.02 TeV are also presented.

  3. Force optimized recoil control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, P. E.; Radkiewicz, R. J.; Gartner, R. F.

    1982-05-01

    Reduction of the recoil force of high rate of fire automatic guns was proven effective. This system will allow consideration of more powerful guns for use in both helicopter and armored personnel carrier applications. By substituting the large shock loads of firing guns with a nearly constant force, both vibration and fatigue problems that prevent mounting of powerful automatic guns is eliminated.

  4. Sulfur and nitrogen reactions for cometary comae ion chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, A. D.; Anicich, V. G.

    1992-01-01

    The low pressure reactions of sulfur dioxide, carbon disulfide, and hydrazine with H2O+ and H3O+ were studied by the ion cyclotron resonance technique. These reactions are potentially important for sulphur chemistry in cometary comae. Rate coefficients and branching ratios of product channels are presented.

  5. Sulfur and nitrogen reactions for cometary comae ion chemistry.

    PubMed

    Sen, A D; Anicich, V G

    1992-01-01

    The low pressure reactions of sulfur dioxide, carbon disulfide, and hydrazine with H2O+ and H3O+ were studied by the ion cyclotron resonance technique. These reactions are potentially important for sulphur chemistry in cometary comae. Rate coefficients and branching ratios of product channels are presented.

  6. Sulfur and nitrogen reactions for cometary comae ion chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, A. D.; Anicich, V. G.

    1992-01-01

    The low pressure reactions of sulfur dioxide, carbon disulfide, and hydrazine with H2O+ and H3O+ were studied by the ion cyclotron resonance technique. These reactions are potentially important for sulphur chemistry in cometary comae. Rate coefficients and branching ratios of product channels are presented.

  7. Isolation and stable nitrogen isotope analysis of ammonium ions in ammonium nitrate prills using sodium tetraphenylborate.

    PubMed

    Howa, John D; Lott, Michael J; Ehleringer, James R

    2014-07-15

    Because of the threat of bombings using improvised explosives containing ammonium nitrate (AN), law enforcement and intelligence communities have been interested in stable isotope techniques for tracking and discriminating AN sources. Separate analysis of the AN component ions ammonium and nitrate would add discriminatory power to these techniques. Ammonium ions in dissolved AN solution were isolated from samples by precipitation using sodium tetraphenylborate solution. We tested the isolation of ammonium from nitrates using solutions of ammonium and nitrate salts with different (15)N/(14)N isotope ratios. Ammonium tetraphenylborate and AN were separately analyzed for their (15)N/(14)N isotope ratios using EA-ConFlo-IRMS, and the (15)N/(14)N isotope ratios of the nitrate ions were calculated using mass balance. Ammonium and nitrate nitrogen isotope ratios were plotted as two separate variables. Isolation of ammonium precipitate from solutions containing dissolved nitrates did not influence the nitrogen isotope ratios of test ammonium salts. A survey set of 42 AN samples showed that the ammonium and nitrate (15)N/(14)N isotope ratios were not significantly correlated, and the paired mean differences were not statistically significant. Both ammonium and nitrate were depleted in (15)N relative to their theoretical atmospheric sources. Isolation of the ammonium ion from AN adds another dimension for the discrimination of forensic AN samples. This technique using sodium tetraphenylborate is robust and does not require specialized equipment. Our observations indicated that ammonium nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen have independent sources of isotopic variation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Escape of Nitrogen from Titan's atmosphere driven by magnetospheric and pick-up ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, M.; Liu, M.; Johnson, R. E.; Luhmann, J. G.; Shematovich, V. I.

    2003-05-01

    The nitrogen rich atmosphere of Titan is a significant source of the neutrals in Saturn's magnetosphere. As Titan does not posses an intrinsic magnetic field, energetic Kronian magnetospheric ions penetrate Titan's atmospheric exobase as can local pick-up ions (e.g. Shematovich et al. 2003). Penetration by energetic ions is described here using a 3-D Monte Carlo model. The incident ions can lead directly or indirectly to the production of fast neutrals that collide with other atmospheric neutrals. This leads to dissociation and the ejection of both atomic and molecular nitrogen. The recently calculated dissociation cross sections of N2 are used in the present model (Tully and Johnson 2002). The incident flux of slowed magentospheric N+ ions and pick-up C2H_5+ ions is estimated from the work of Brecht et al. (2000). These ions of energy less than 1.2 keV are shown to be more efficient in ejecting material from Titan's atmosphere than the higher energy corotating ions described in early estimates (Lammer et al. 1998). This incident flux of ions are used in the model and the results are used as a source of nitrogen for the Saturnian plasma torus. Acknowledgment: This work is supported by NASA:s Planetary Atmospheres Program. References Brecht, S.H., J.G. Luhmann, and D.J. Larson, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 13119, 2000. Lammer, H. W. Stumptner, and S.J. Bauer, Planet. Space Sci., 46, 1207, 1998. Shematovich, V.I., R.E. Johnson, M. Michael and J.G. Luhmann, J. Geophys. Res., in press, 2003. Tully, C., R.E. Johnson, J. Chem. Phys. 117, 6556-6561, 2002.

  9. Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate

    DOEpatents

    Liu, D. Kwok-Keung; Chang, Shih-Ger

    1987-08-25

    The present invention relates to a method of removing of nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas which method comprises contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate complex. The NO absorption efficiency of ferrous urea-dithiocarbamate and ferrous diethanolamine-xanthate as a function of time, oxygen content and solution ph is presented. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Shallow nitrogen ion implantation: Evolution of chemical state and defect structure in titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manojkumar, P. A.; Chirayath, V. A.; Balamurugan, A. K.; Krishna, Nanda Gopala; Ilango, S.; Kamruddin, M.; Amarendra, G.; Tyagi, A. K.; Raj, Baldev

    2016-09-01

    Evolution of chemical states and defect structure in titanium during low energy nitrogen ion implantation by Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation (PIII) process is studied. The underlying process of chemical state evolution is investigated using secondary ion mass spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The implantation induced defect structure evolution as a function of dose is elucidated using variable energy positron annihilation Doppler broadening spectroscopy (PAS) and the results were corroborated with chemical state. Formation of 3 layers of defect state was modeled to fit PAS results.

  11. Helium ion microscope generated nitrogen-vacancy centres in type Ib diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCloskey, D.; Fox, D.; O'Hara, N.; Usov, V.; Scanlan, D.; McEvoy, N.; Duesberg, G. S.; Cross, G. L. W.; Zhang, H. Z.; Donegan, J. F.

    2014-01-01

    We report on position and density control of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centres created in type Ib diamond using localised exposure from a helium ion microscope and subsequent annealing. Spatial control to <380 nm has been achieved. We show that the fluorescence lifetime of the created centres decreases with increasing ion dose. Furthermore, we show that for doses >1 × 1017 ion/cm2, significant damage of the diamond lattice occurs resulting in fluorescence quenching and amorphization. This places an upper limit on the density of NV centres that can be created using this method.

  12. Particle reflection and ion-induced desorption from tungsten surfaces with chemisorbed nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamura, Y.; Kimura, H.

    1987-06-01

    Using the Monte Carlo simulation program ACAT, ion-induced desorption yields of nitrogen chemisorbed on tungsten surfaces and the associated particle reflection coefficients have been calculated for low-energy helium-ions. It is found that both the particle reflection coefficients and the energy distributions of the reflected particles depend strongly on the thickness of the adsorbate layer on the surface if the ion energy is in the threshold regime and that the collision sequence of the near-threshold mechanism includes at least two adsorbate atoms. The ACAT desorption yields are found to be in good agreement with experimental yields.

  13. Particle reflection and ion-induced desorption from tungsten surfaces with chemisorbed nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamura, Y.; Kimura, H.

    Using the Monte Carlo simulation program ACAT, ion-induced desorption yields of nitrogen chemisorbed on tungsten surfaces and the associated particle reflection coefficients have been calculated for low-energy helium-ions. It is found that both the particle reflection coefficients and the energy distributions of the reflected particles depend strongly on the thickness of the adsorbate layer on the surface if the ion energy is in the threshold regime and that the collision sequence of the near-threshold mechanism includes at least two adsorbate atoms. The ACAT desorption yields are found to be in good agreement with experimental yields.

  14. COSY Simulations to Guide Commissioning of the St. George Recoil Mass Separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Jaclyn; Moran, Michael; Seymour, Christopher; Gilardy, Gwenaelle; Meisel, Zach; Couder, Manoel

    2015-10-01

    The goal of St. George (STrong Gradient Electromagnetic Online Recoil separator for capture Gamma ray Experiments) is to measure (α, γ) cross sections relevant to stellar helium burning. Recoil separators such as St. George are able to more closely approach the low astrophysical energies of interest because they collect reaction recoils rather than γ-rays, and thus are not limited by room background. In order to obtain an accurate cross section measurement, a recoil separator must be able to collect all recoils over their full range of expected energy and angular spread. The energy acceptance of St. George is currently being measured, and the angular acceptance will be measured soon. Here we present the results of COSY ion optics simulations and magnetic field analyses which were performed to help guide the commissioning measurements and diagnostic upgrades required to complete those measurements. National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates program.

  15. Electron recombination in low-energy nuclear recoils tracks in liquid argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcik, M.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents an analysis of electron-ion recombination processes in ionization tracks of recoiled atoms in liquid argon (LAr) detectors. The analysis is based on the results of computer simulations which use realistic models of electron transport and reactions. The calculations reproduce the recent experimental results of the ionization yield from 6.7 keV nuclear recoils in LAr. The statistical distribution of the number of electrons that escape recombination is found to deviate from the binomial distribution, and estimates of recombination fluctuations for nuclear recoils tracks are obtained. A study of the recombination kinetics shows that a significant part of electrons undergo very fast static recombination, an effect that may be responsible for the weak drift-field dependence of the ionization yield from nuclear recoils in some noble liquids. The obtained results can be useful in the search for hypothetical dark matter particles and in other studies that involve detection of recoiled nuclei.

  16. Evidence for mirror dark matter from the CDMS low energy electron recoil spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Foot, R.

    2009-11-01

    We point out that mirror dark matter predicts low-energy (E{sub R} < or approx. 2 keV) electron recoils from mirror electron scattering as well as nuclear recoils from mirror ion scattering. The former effect is examined and applied to the recently released low-energy electron recoil data from the CDMS Collaboration. We speculate that the sharp rise in electron recoils seen in CDMS below 2 keV might be due to mirror electron scattering and show that the parameters suggested by the data are roughly consistent with the mirror dark matter explanation of the annual modulation signal observed in the DAMA/Libra and DAMA/NaI experiments. Thus, the CDMS data offer tentative evidence supporting the mirror dark matter explanation of the DAMA experiments, which can be more rigorously checked by future low-energy electron recoil measurements.

  17. [Study on effect of seed vigor and agronomic characters of Cassia seeds implanted with low energy nitrogen ion beans].

    PubMed

    Song, Mei; Wang, Xiang-Yang

    2012-07-01

    To study the effect of low energy nitrogen ion implantation on seed germination and agronomic characters. Different doses of low energy nitrogen ion implantation were implanted into fresh Cassia seed embryos. Seed germination, seedling growth and field agronomic characters were observed. The seeds after ion implantation showed significant reduction in germination energy, germination percentage and germination index, besides the significant decreasement in root length, fresh weight and vigor index of seedling. Plant height decreased despite the increase in grain size and grain weight. The low energy nitrogen ion implantation have significant effect on Cassia seeds, and being of great significance on Cassia artificial cultivation.

  18. Improving low-energy boron/nitrogen ion implantation in graphene by ion bombardment at oblique angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Zhitong; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Ling

    2016-04-01

    Ion implantation is a widely adopted approach to structurally modify graphene and tune its electrical properties for a variety of applications. Further development of the approach requires a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that govern the ion bombardment process as well as establishment of key relationships between the controlling parameters and the dominant physics. Here, using molecular dynamics simulations with adaptive bond order calculations, we demonstrate that boron and nitrogen ion bombardment at oblique angles (particularly at 70°) can improve both the productivity and quality of perfect substitution by over 25%. We accomplished this by systematically analyzing the effects of the incident angle and ion energy in determining the probabilities of six distinct types of physics that may occur in an ion bombardment event, including reflection, absorption, substitution, single vacancy, double vacancy, and transmission. By analyzing the atomic trajectories from 576 000 simulations, we identified three single vacancy creation mechanisms and four double vacancy creation mechanisms, and quantified their probability distributions in the angle-energy space. These findings further open the door for improved control of ion implantation towards a wide range of applications of graphene.Ion implantation is a widely adopted approach to structurally modify graphene and tune its electrical properties for a variety of applications. Further development of the approach requires a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that govern the ion bombardment process as well as establishment of key relationships between the controlling parameters and the dominant physics. Here, using molecular dynamics simulations with adaptive bond order calculations, we demonstrate that boron and nitrogen ion bombardment at oblique angles (particularly at 70°) can improve both the productivity and quality of perfect substitution by over 25%. We accomplished this by systematically

  19. Corrosion behaviors of Mo coating on stainless steel 316 substrates implanted by different nitrogen ion fluences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojtahedzadeh Larijani, Madjid; Bafandeh, Nastaran

    2014-03-01

    The molybdenum nitride coating was produced by nitrogen ion implantation of the molybdenum layer deposited on the stainless steel 316 (SS) substrates. At first, molybdenum layers were deposited on the substrates by ion beam sputtering method, then nitrogen ions with an energy of 30 keV and a fluence between 1×1017 and 12×1017 N+ cm-2 were implanted in Mo/SS system. Crystal structure and topography of the surface are investigated by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) image respectively. XRD patterns showed the formation of molybdenum nitride phases in all implanted samples. Corrosion tests showed that the corrosion resistance of the samples strongly depends on the nitrogen applied fluences. A considerable improvement of corrosion performance by increasing ions fluences was observed. The lowest corrosion current density with amount of 0.1 μA/cm2 was obtained at 12×1017 ions/cm2 fluence in our case.

  20. Microstructural investigation of alumina implanted with 30 keV nitrogen ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikha, Deep; Jha, Usha; Sinha, S. K.; Barhai, P. K.; Sarkhel, G.; Nair, K. G. M.; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A. K.; Kothari, D. C.

    2007-11-01

    Among ceramics, alumina is being widely used as biomaterials now these days. It is being used as hip joints, tooth roots etc. Ion implantation has been employed to modify its surface without changing it bulk properties. 30 keV nitrogen with varying ion dose ranging from 5 × 10 15 ions/cm 2 to 5 × 10 17 ions/cm 2 is implanted in alumina. Surface morphology has been studied with optical microscope and atomic force microscope (AFM). Improvement in brittleness has been observed with the increase in ion dose. Compound formation and changes in grain size have been studied using X-Ray diffraction (XRD). AlN compound formation is also observed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The change in the grain size is related with the nanohardness and Hall-Petch relationship is verified.

  1. Anaerobic-ion exchange (AN-IX) process for local-scale nitrogen recovery from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Smith, Daniel P; Smith, Nathaniel T

    2015-11-01

    An anaerobic-ion exchange (AN-IX) process was developed for point-of-origin recovery of nitrogen from household wastewater. The process features upflow solids-blanket anaerobic treatment (ammonification) followed by ammonium ion exchange onto natural zeolite. The AN-IX system is configured as a series of linked upflow chambers that operate passively without energy input, and is amenable to intermittent and seasonal operation. A 57L prototype was operated for over 1.8 years treating actual wastewater under field conditions. Total nitrogen removal exceeded 96% through the first 160 days of operation and effluent ammonium nitrogen remained below detection for 300 days. Ion exchange chambers exhibited sequential NH4(+)-N breakthrough over extended operation and complete media exhaustion was approached at Day 355. The ammonium capacity of zeolite was estimated as 13.5mg NH4(+)-N per gram dry weight. AN-IX is a resilient and cost effective process for local-scale nitrogen recovery and reuse, suitable for small scale and larger systems.

  2. Making AlN(x) Tunnel Barriers Using a Low-Energy Nitrogen-Ion Beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Anupama; Kleinsasser, Alan; Bumble, Bruce; LeDuc, Henry; Lee, Karen

    2005-01-01

    A technique based on accelerating positive nitrogen ions onto an aluminum layer has been demonstrated to be effective in forming thin (<2 nm thick) layers of aluminum nitride (AlN(x)) for use as tunnel barriers in Nb/Al-AlN(x)/Nb superconductor/insulator/ superconductor (SIS) Josephson junctions. AlN(x) is the present material of choice for tunnel barriers because, to a degree greater than that of any other suitable material, it offers the required combination of low leakage current at high current density and greater thermal stability. While ultra-thin AlN films with good thickness and stoichiometry control are easily formed using techniques such as reactive molecular beam epitaxy and chemical vapor deposition, growth temperatures of 900 C are necessary for the dissociative adsorption of nitrogen from either nitrogen (N2) or ammonia (NH3). These growth temperatures are prohibitively high for the formation of tunnel barriers on Nb films because interfacial reactions at temperatures as low as 200 to 300 C degrade device properties. Heretofore, deposition by reactive sputtering and nitridation of thin Al layers with DC and RF nitrogen plasmas have been successfully used to form AlN barriers in SIS junctions. However, precise control over critical current density Jc has proven to be a challenge, as is attaining adequate process reproducibility from system to system. The present ion-beam technique is an alternative to the plasma or reactive sputtering techniques as it provides a highly controlled arrival of reactive species, independent of the electrical conditions of the substrate or vacuum chamber. Independent and accurate control of parameters such as ion energy, flux, species, and direction promises more precise control of film characteristics such as stoichiometry and thickness than is the case with typical plasma processes. In particular, the background pressure during ion-beam nitride growth is 2 or 3 orders of magnitude lower, minimizing the formation of

  3. Local formation of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond by swift heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, J.; Aloni, S.; Ogletree, D. F.; Tomut, M.; Bender, M.; Severin, D.; Trautmann, C.; Rangelow, I. W.; Schenkel, T.

    2014-12-01

    We exposed nitrogen-implanted diamonds to beams of swift heavy ions (˜1 GeV, ˜4 MeV/u) and find that these irradiations lead directly to the formation of nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers, without thermal annealing. We compare the photoluminescence intensities of swift heavy ion activated NV- centers to those formed by irradiation with low-energy electrons and by thermal annealing. NV- yields from irradiations with swift heavy ions are 0.1 of yields from low energy electrons and 0.02 of yields from thermal annealing. We discuss possible mechanisms of NV center formation by swift heavy ions such as electronic excitations and thermal spikes. While forming NV centers with low efficiency, swift heavy ions could enable the formation of three dimensional NV- assemblies over relatively large distances of tens of micrometers. Further, our results show that NV center formation is a local probe of (partial) lattice damage relaxation induced by electronic excitations from swift heavy ions in diamond.

  4. Local formation of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond by swift heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, J.; Aloni, S.; Ogletree, D. F.; Tomut, M.; Bender, M.; Severin, D.; Trautmann, C.; Rangelow, I. W.; Schenkel, T.

    2014-12-07

    We exposed nitrogen-implanted diamonds to beams of swift heavy ions (∼1 GeV, ∼4 MeV/u) and find that these irradiations lead directly to the formation of nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers, without thermal annealing. We compare the photoluminescence intensities of swift heavy ion activated NV{sup −} centers to those formed by irradiation with low-energy electrons and by thermal annealing. NV{sup −} yields from irradiations with swift heavy ions are 0.1 of yields from low energy electrons and 0.02 of yields from thermal annealing. We discuss possible mechanisms of NV center formation by swift heavy ions such as electronic excitations and thermal spikes. While forming NV centers with low efficiency, swift heavy ions could enable the formation of three dimensional NV{sup −} assemblies over relatively large distances of tens of micrometers. Further, our results show that NV center formation is a local probe of (partial) lattice damage relaxation induced by electronic excitations from swift heavy ions in diamond.

  5. Role of Nitrogen Doped Graphene for Improved High Capacity Potassium Ion Battery Anodes.

    PubMed

    Share, Keith; Cohn, Adam P; Carter, Rachel; Rogers, Bridget; Pint, Cary L

    2016-10-09

    Potassium is an earth abundant alternative to lithium for rechargeable batteries, but a critical limitation in potassium ion battery anodes is the low capacity of KC8 graphite intercalation compounds in comparison to conventional LiC6. Here we demonstrate that nitrogen doping of few-layered graphene can increase the storage capacity of potassium from a theoretical maximum of 278 mAh/g in graphite to over 350 mAh/g, competitive with anode capacity in commercial lithium-ion batteries and the highest reported anode capacity so far for potassium ion batteries. Control studies distinguish the importance of nitrogen dopant sites as opposed to sp3 carbon defect sites to achieve the improved performance, which also enables > 6X increase in rate performance of doped versus undoped materials. Finally, in-situ Raman spectroscopy studies elucidate the staging sequence for doped and undoped materials and demonstrate the mechanism of the observed capacity enhancement to be correlated with distributed storage at local nitrogen sites in a staged KC8 compound. This study demonstrates a pathway to overcome the limitations of graphitic carbons for anodes in potassium ion batteries by atomically precise engineering of nanomaterials.

  6. Effect of nitrogen ion implantation on the flexibility of rotary nickel-titanium instruments.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Marcelo; Gavini, Giulio; Siqueira, Evandro Luiz; da Costa, Cristiane

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of nitrogen ion implantation on the flexibility of rotary nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments as measured by the load required to bend implanted and nonimplanted instruments at a 30° angle. Thirty K3 files, size #40, 0.02 taper and 25-mm length, were allocated into 2 groups as follows: group A, 15 files exposed to nitrogen ion implantation at a dose of 2.5 × 10(17) ions/cm(2), voltage 200 KeV, current density 1 μA/cm(2), temperature 130°C, and vacuum conditions of 10 × 10(-6) mm Hg for 6 hours; and group B, 15 nonimplanted files. One extra file was used for process control. All instruments were subjected to bend testing on a modified troptometer, with measurement of the load required for flexure to an angle of 30°. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for statistical analysis. Findings with P <.05 were considered significant. The mean load required to bend instruments at a 30° angle was 376.26 g for implanted instruments and 383.78 g for nonimplanted instruments. The difference was not statistically significant. Our findings show that nitrogen ion implantation has no appreciable effect on the flexibility of NiTi instruments. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of nitrogen ion implantation on the corrosion resistance and microstructure of tantalum-coated stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshghi, S.; Hanteh Zadeh, M.; Yari, M.; Jafari-Khamse, E.

    2014-06-01

    In this work, the effects of nitrogen ion implantation on the corrosion resistance and microstructure of DC magnetron sputtered tantalum-coated stainless steel were investigated. The nitrogen fluence was varied between 3-10 × 1017 ions/cm2 while the beam energy was kept constant at 30 keV. The effects of ion implantation were characterized by X-ray diffraction pattern, atomic force microscopy, and potentiodynamic corrosion test in a 0.5 MH2SO4 solution. The atomic force microscopy micrographs were quantitatively and statistically analyzed by computing the multifractal spectrum of the atomic force microscopy images. The results showed that the fluence variation strongly affected the surface roughness and formation of TaN and Ta2N phases. Increasing the nitrogen fluence up to 10 × 1017 ions/cm2 increased surface roughness. The highest corrosion resistance was obtained at 7 × 1017 ions/cm2 nitrogen fluence.

  8. Recoil-decay tagging spectroscopy of 74162W88

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H. J.; Cederwall, B.; Bäck, T.; Qi, C.; Doncel, M.; Jakobsson, U.; Auranen, K.; Bönig, S.; Drummond, M. C.; Grahn, T.; Greenlees, P.; HerzáÅ, A.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Konki, J.; Kröll, T.; Leino, M.; McPeake, C.; O'Donnell, D.; Page, R. D.; Pakarinen, J.; Partanen, J.; Peura, P.; Rahkila, P.; Ruotsalainen, P.; Sandzelius, M.; Sarén, J.; Sayǧı, B.; Scholey, C.; Sorri, J.; Stolze, S.; Taylor, M. J.; Thornthwaite, A.; Uusitalo, J.; Xiao, Z. G.

    2015-07-01

    Excited states in the highly neutron-deficient nucleus 162W have been investigated via the 92Mo (78Kr,2α ) 162W reaction. Prompt γ rays were detected by the JUROGAM II high-purity germanium detector array and the recoiling fusion-evaporation products were separated by the recoil ion transport unit (RITU) gas-filled recoil separator and identified with the gamma recoil electron alpha tagging (GREAT) spectrometer at the focal plane of RITU. γ rays from 162W were identified uniquely using mother-daughter and mother-daughter-granddaughter α -decay correlations. The observation of a rotational-like ground-state band is interpreted within the framework of total Routhian surface (TRS) calculations, which suggest an axially symmetric ground-state shape with a γ -soft minimum at β2≈0.15 . Quasiparticle alignment effects are discussed based on cranked shell model calculations. New measurements of the 162W ground-state α -decay energy and half-life were also performed. The observed α -decay energy agrees with previous measurements. The half-life of 162W was determined to be t1 /2=990 (30 ) ms. This value deviates significantly from the currently adopted value of t1 /2=1360 (70 ) ms. In addition, the α -decay energy and half-life of 166Os were measured and found to agree with the adopted values.

  9. The Effect of Carbon Dioxide and Nitrogen ion implantation of AISI 52100 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sari, Amir H.; Ghoranneviss, M.; Mardanian, M.; Hantehzadeh, M. R.; Hora, H.

    2003-06-01

    Ion implantation has been used to modify the mechanical properties of a wide range of metals and alloys using plasma techniques for ion sources and plasma surface treatment [1]. In this study AISI 52100 steel disks, containing 1.5 wt% Cr as the major alloying element, were implanted with nitrogen and carbon dioxide ions at the energy of 90 KeV, with dose in the range 1 × 1018 to 1 × 1019 N2+ ions cm-2, and 3 × 1018 to 1 × 1019 for co2+ ions cm-2. Ion beam current densities and sample temperature, during implantation were 3-6 μA/cm2 and 170°C, respectively. Experiments show, hardness of sample, increases 30-49% using N2+ ions, and 5-17% using co2+ ions. In order to explain the results, formation of beta-CrN and carbide pahses have been carried out using X-ray diffraction technique.

  10. Adsorption of aqueous metal ions on oxygen and nitrogen functionalized nanoporous activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Xiao, B; Thomas, K M

    2005-04-26

    In this study, the adsorption characteristics of two series of oxygen and nitrogen functionalized activated carbons were investigated. These series were a low nitrogen content (approximately 1 wt % daf) carbon series derived from coconut shell and a high nitrogen content (approximately 8 wt % daf) carbon series derived from polyacrylonitrile. In both series, the oxygen contents were varied over the range approximately 2-22 wt % daf. The porous structures of the functionalized activated carbons were characterized using N(2) (77 K) and CO(2) (273 K) adsorption. Only minor changes in the porous structure were observed in both series. This allowed the effect of changes in functional group concentrations on metal ion adsorption to be studied without major influences due to differences in porous structure characteristics. The surface group characteristics were examined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, acid/base titrations, and measurement of the point of zero charge (pH(PZC)). The adsorption of aqueous metal ion species, M(2+)(aq), on acidic oxygen functional group sites mainly involves an ion exchange mechanism. The ratios of protons displaced to the amount of M(2+)(aq) metal species adsorbed have a linear relationship for the carbons with pH(PZC) < or = 4.15. Hydrolysis of metal species in solution may affect the adsorption of metal ion species and displacement of protons. In the case of basic carbons, both protons and metal ions are adsorbed on the carbons. The complex nature of competitive adsorption between the proton and metal ion species and the amphoteric character of carbon surfaces are discussed in relation to the mechanism of adsorption.

  11. Selective nitrogen capture by porous hybrid materials containing accessible transition metal ion sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Ji Woong; Chang, Hyunju; Lee, Seung-Joon; Hwang, Young Kyu; Hong, Do-Young; Lee, Su-Kyung; Lee, Ji Sun; Jang, Seunghun; Yoon, Tae-Ung; Kwac, Kijeong; Jung, Yousung; Pillai, Renjith S.; Faucher, Florian; Vimont, Alexandre; Daturi, Marco; Férey, Gérard; Serre, Christian; Maurin, Guillaume; Bae, Youn-Sang; Chang, Jong-San

    2017-05-01

    Selective dinitrogen binding to transition metal ions mainly covers two strategic domains: biological nitrogen fixation catalysed by metalloenzyme nitrogenases, and adsorptive purification of natural gas and air. Many transition metal-dinitrogen complexes have been envisaged for biomimetic nitrogen fixation to produce ammonia. Inspired by this concept, here we report mesoporous metal-organic framework materials containing accessible Cr(III) sites, able to thermodynamically capture N2 over CH4 and O2. This fundamental study integrating advanced experimental and computational tools confirmed that the separation mechanism for both N2/CH4 and N2/O2 gas mixtures is driven by the presence of these unsaturated Cr(III) sites that allows a much stronger binding of N2 over the two other gases. Besides the potential breakthrough in adsorption-based technologies, this proof of concept could open new horizons to address several challenges in chemistry, including the design of heterogeneous biomimetic catalysts through nitrogen fixation.

  12. Superior Cathode Performance of Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Frameworks for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Dongbin; Li, Xifei; Bai, Zhimin; Shan, Hui; Fan, Linlin; Wu, Chunxia; Li, Dejun; Lu, Shigang

    2017-03-14

    Development of alternative cathode materials is of highly desirable for sustainable and cost-efficient lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in energy storage fields. In this study, for the first time, we report tunable nitrogen-doped graphene with active functional groups for cathode utilization of LIBs. When employed as cathode materials, the functionalized graphene frameworks with a nitrogen content of 9.26 at% retain a reversible capacity of 344 mAh g(-1) after 200 cycles at a current density of 50 mA g(-1). More surprisingly, when conducted at a high current density of 1 A g(-1), this cathode delivers a high reversible capacity of 146 mAh g(-1) after 1000 cycles. Our current research demonstrates the effective significance of nitrogen doping on enhancing cathode performance of functionalized graphene for LIBs.

  13. The impossibility of recording emission lines of nitrogen ions in filament plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyin, A. A.

    2016-10-01

    It is shown that the emission lines of N II nitrogen ions cannot contribute to the emission of other lines and be observed in the emission spectrum of plasma filaments, which are generated by femtosecond laser pulses with a peak intensity of 50 TW/cm2 in air. A simple procedure is described that allows evaluation of the ratio of the line intensities for the filamentation in air.

  14. Chemistry induced by energetic ions in water ice mixed with molecular nitrogen and oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boduch, Ph.; Domaracka, A.; Fulvio, D.; Langlinay, T.; Lv, X. Y.; Palumbo, M. E.; Rothard, H.; Strazzulla, G.

    2012-08-01

    Context. Several molecular species have been observed as frozen gases in cold environments such as grains in the interstellar/circumstellar medium or icy objects in the outer solar system. Because N2 and O2 are homonuclear, symmetric molecules are not easily observed. It is therefore relevant to find indirect methods to prove their presence from astronomical observations. Aims: Here we investigate one of the possible indirect methods, namely the formation of specific molecules by cosmic ion bombardment of ices in astrophysical environments that contain O2 and N2. The observation of these molecules in astronomical environments could act as a trojan horse to detect the presence of frozen molecular oxygen and/or nitrogen. Methods: We have conducted ion bombardment experiments of frozen O2, H2O and their mixtures with N2 at the laboratories of CIMAP-GANIL at Caen (France) and LASp at Catania (Italy). Different ions (13C2+, Ar2+ and H+) and energies (30-200 keV) have been used. Results: We have found that 13CO2 is formed when carbon ions are implanted in ices containing H2O and/or O2. Ozone and nitrogen oxides (NO, N2O, NO2) are formed in the studied ices containing O2 and N2 with different relative abundances. Conclusions: We suggest that ozone and nitrogen oxides are present and have to be searched for in some specific environments such as dense clouds in the interstellar medium and the surfaces of Pluto, Charon and Triton. Their observation could demonstrate the presence of molecular oxygen and/or nitrogen. A possible interest for the observations of atmospheres in exo-planetary objects is also discussed.

  15. Comparing Ion Exchange Adsorbents for Nitrogen Recovery from Source-Separated Urine.

    PubMed

    Tarpeh, William A; Udert, Kai M; Nelson, Kara L

    2017-02-21

    Separate collection of urine, which is only 1% of wastewater volume but contains the majority of nitrogen humans excrete, can potentially reduce the costs and energy input of wastewater treatment and facilitate recovery of nitrogen for beneficial use. Ion exchange was investigated for recovery of nitrogen as ammonium from urine for use as a fertilizer or disinfectant. Cation adsorption curves for four adsorbents (clinoptilolite, biochar, Dowex 50, and Dowex Mac 3) were compared in pure salt solutions, synthetic urine, and real stored urine. Competition from sodium and potassium present in synthetic and real urine did not significantly decrease ammonium adsorption for any of the adsorbents. Dowex 50 and Dowex Mac 3 showed nearly 100% regeneration efficiencies. Estimated ion exchange reactor volumes to capture the nitrogen for 1 week from a four-person household were lowest for Dowex Mac 3 (5 L) and highest for biochar (19 L). Although Dowex Mac 3 had the highest adsorption capacity, material costs ($/g N removed) were lower for clinoptilolite and biochar because of their substantially lower unit cost.

  16. Nitrogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apodaca, Lori E.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents an overview of the nitrogen chemical market as of July 2013, including the production of ammonia compounds. Industrial uses for ammonia include fertilizers, explosives, and plastics. Other topics include industrial capacity of U.S. ammonia producers CF Industries Holdings Inc., Koch Nitrogen Co., PCS Nitrogen, Inc., and Agrium Inc., the impact of natural gas prices on the nitrogen industry, and demand for corn crops for ethanol production.

  17. Short-range ordering of ion-implanted nitrogen atoms in SiC-graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Willke, P.; Druga, T.; Wenderoth, M.; Amani, J. A.; Weikert, S.; Hofsäss, H.; Thakur, S.; Maiti, K.

    2014-09-15

    We perform a structural analysis of nitrogen-doped graphene on SiC(0001) prepared by ultra low-energy ion bombardment. Using scanning tunneling microscopy, we show that nitrogen atoms are incorporated almost exclusively as graphitic substitution in the graphene honeycomb lattice. With an irradiation energy of 25 eV and a fluence of approximately 5 × 10{sup 14 }cm{sup −2}, we achieve a nitrogen content of around 1%. By quantitatively comparing the position of the N-atoms in the topography measurements with simulated random distributions, we find statistically significant short-range correlations. Consequently, we are able to show that the dopants arrange preferably at lattice sites given by the 6 × 6-reconstruction of the underlying substrate. This selective incorporation is most likely triggered by adsorbate layers present during the ion bombardment. This study identifies low-energy ion irradiation as a promising method for controlled doping in epitaxial graphene.

  18. Effects Of Ion Energy On Nitrogen Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation In UHMWPE Polymer Through A Metal Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, M.; Oliveira, R. M.; Rossi, J. O.; Lepienski, C. M.; Vilela, W. A.

    2006-11-13

    Herein, we consider the potential application of plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) for treatment of polymer surfaces. This paper presents some experimental data for ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) implanted with nitrogen using PIII process. This polymer is widely used in medical prosthesis and PIII treatment has revealed to be an ease and cheap way to improve the lifetime of prosthesis made with UHMWPE. Here we show the latest results for UHMWPE surface treatment obtained with the use of a high voltage pulser of 100kV/200A based on coaxial Blumlein technology.

  19. Effects Of Ion Energy On Nitrogen Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation In UHMWPE Polymer Through A Metal Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, M.; Oliveira, R. M.; Rossi, J. O.; Lepienski, C. M.; Vilela, W. A.

    2006-11-01

    Herein, we consider the potential application of plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) for treatment of polymer surfaces. This paper presents some experimental data for ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) implanted with nitrogen using PIII process. This polymer is widely used in medical prosthesis and PIII treatment has revealed to be an ease and cheap way to improve the lifetime of prosthesis made with UHMWPE. Here we show the latest results for UHMWPE surface treatment obtained with the use of a high voltage pulser of 100kV/200A based on coaxial Blumlein technology.

  20. The influence of nitrogen ion implantation on microhardness of the Stellite 6 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budzyński, P.; Kamiński, M.; Pałka, K.; Droździel, A.; Wiertel, M.

    2016-09-01

    Cobalt alloys known as Stellite used to produce or surfacing machine elements subjected to combustion gases and heat. They are used a currently in the manufacture of valves and valve seats in internal combustion engines. Because of the small thermal conductivity, stellite may not be subjected heat treatment. In order to improve the mechanical properties of cobalt alloys, samples were implanted with nitrogen ions with 65 keV energy and ion dose of 1·1016, 5·1016, 1·1017 N+/cm2. The influence of ion implantation on properties of strength was determined by measuring microhardness using a Vickers hardness test. The measurement results allowed to determine the increase in the microhardness of 20% with dose 5·1016 N+/cm2 compared to the sample not implanted. Implantation of nitrogen ions can increase the strength of the valves and the valve seats having Stellite without changing the external dimensions of the final element, and without interfering with its inner structure by low-temperature of modification the surface layer.

  1. Nitrogen Plasma Ion Implantation of Al and Ti alloys in the High Voltage Glow Discharge Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, R. M.; Ueda, M.; Rossi, J. O.; Reuther, H.; Lepienski, C. M.; Beloto, A. F.

    2006-11-01

    Enhanced surface properties can be attained for aluminum and its alloys (mechanical and tribological) and Ti6Al4V (mainly tribological) by Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation (PIII) technique. The main problem here, more severe for Al case, is the rapid oxygen contamination even in low O partial pressure. High energy nitrogen ions during PIII are demanded for this situation, in order to enable the ions to pass through the formed oxide layer. We have developed a PIII system that can operate at energies in excess of 50keV, using a Stacked Blumlein (SB) pulser which can nominally provide up to 100 kV pulses. Initially, we are using this system in the High Voltage Glow Discharge (HVGD) mode, to implant nitrogen ions into Al5052 alloy with energies in the range of 30 to 50keV, with 1.5μs duration pulses at a repetition rate of 100Hz. AES, pin-on-disc, nanoindentation measurements are under way but x-ray diffraction results already indicated abundant formation of AlN in the surface for Al5052 treated with this HVGD mode. Our major aim in this PIII experiment is to achieve this difficult to produce stable and highly reliable AlN rich surface layer with high hardness, high corrosion resistance and very low wear rate.

  2. Nitrogen Plasma Ion Implantation of Al and Ti alloys in the High Voltage Glow Discharge Mode

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, R. M.; Ueda, M.; Rossi, J. O.; Reuther, H.; Lepienski, C. M.; Beloto, A. F.

    2006-11-13

    Enhanced surface properties can be attained for aluminum and its alloys (mechanical and tribological) and Ti6Al4V (mainly tribological) by Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation (PIII) technique. The main problem here, more severe for Al case, is the rapid oxygen contamination even in low O partial pressure. High energy nitrogen ions during PIII are demanded for this situation, in order to enable the ions to pass through the formed oxide layer. We have developed a PIII system that can operate at energies in excess of 50keV, using a Stacked Blumlein (SB) pulser which can nominally provide up to 100 kV pulses. Initially, we are using this system in the High Voltage Glow Discharge (HVGD) mode, to implant nitrogen ions into Al5052 alloy with energies in the range of 30 to 50keV, with 1.5{mu}s duration pulses at a repetition rate of 100Hz. AES, pin-on-disc, nanoindentation measurements are under way but x-ray diffraction results already indicated abundant formation of AlN in the surface for Al5052 treated with this HVGD mode. Our major aim in this PIII experiment is to achieve this difficult to produce stable and highly reliable AlN rich surface layer with high hardness, high corrosion resistance and very low wear rate.

  3. Increasing the durability of Li-ion batteries by means of manganese ion trapping materials with nitrogen functionalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Anjan; Ziv, Baruch; Luski, Shalom; Aurbach, Doron; Halalay, Ion C.

    2017-02-01

    Manganese dissolution from positive electrodes seriously reduces the useful life of Li-ion batteries, especially with positive electrode materials having spinel phases. We show herein that Mn ion trapping separators containing inexpensive mass-produced materials may dramatically increase the life of Li-ion batteries. LiMn2O4-graphite cells containing these materials and a LiPF6 based electrolyte solution display excellent capacity retention during cycling at both room and elevated temperatures, over baseline cells with plain separators. After 30 days of cycling at 55 °C and C/5 rate, LiMn2O4-graphite cells containing three different Mn-trapping materials with nitrogen functionalities retain between 75% and 125% more of the initial capacity than the baseline cells. Mn amounts in graphite negative electrodes from cells with the functional separators are 13-21 times lower than in baseline cells. LiMn2O4 lattice shrinkage in cells with functionalized separators is negligible compared to baseline cells, indicating major reductions in the loss of electrochemically active Li+ ions and increased stability of the LiMn2O4 crystal lattice.

  4. Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate

    DOEpatents

    Liu, David K.; Chang, Shih-Ger

    1989-01-01

    A method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas, which method comprises: (a) contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate of the formula: ##STR1## wherein the water-soluble organic compound is selected from compounds of the formula: ##STR2## wherein: R is selected from hydrogen or an organic moiety having at least one polar functional group; Z is selected from oxygen, sulfur, or --N--A wherein N is nitrogen and A is hydrogen or lower alkyl having from one to four carbon atoms; and M is selected from hydrogen, sodium or potassium; and n is 1 or 2, in a contacting zone for a time and at a temperature effective to reduce the nitrogen monoxide. These mixtures are useful to provide an unexpensive method of removing NO from gases, thus reducing atmospheric pollution from flue gases.

  5. Highly tunable formation of nitrogen-vacancy centers via ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Sangtawesin, S.; Brundage, T. O.; Atkins, Z. J.; Petta, J. R.

    2014-08-11

    We demonstrate highly tunable formation of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers using 20 keV {sup 15}N{sup +} ion implantation through arrays of high-resolution apertures fabricated with electron beam lithography. By varying the aperture diameters from 80 to 240 nm, as well as the average ion fluences from 5×10{sup 10} to 2 × 10{sup 11} ions/cm{sup 2}, we can control the number of ions per aperture. We analyze the photoluminescence on multiple sites with different implantation parameters and obtain ion-to-NV conversion yields of 6%–7%, consistent across all ion fluences. The implanted NV centers have spin dephasing times T{sub 2}{sup *} ∼ 3 μs, comparable to naturally occurring NV centers in high purity diamond with natural abundance {sup 13}C. With this technique, we can deterministically control the population distribution of NV centers in each aperture, allowing for the study of single or coupled NV centers and their integration into photonic structures.

  6. The new vacuum-mode recoil separator MARA at JYFL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarén, J.; Uusitalo, J.; Leino, M.; Greenlees, P. T.; Jakobsson, U.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Ketelhut, S.; Nyman, M.; Peura, P.; Rahkila, P.; Scholey, C.; Sorri, J.

    2008-10-01

    A new vacuum-mode recoil separator MARA (Mass Analysing Recoil Apparatus) is under design and construction at the Department of Physics in the University of Jyväskylä. The separator is intended to separate reaction products from the primary beam in mass region below A = 150 . The ion-optical configuration of the separator will be QQQDEDM, where a magnetic quadrupole (Q) triplet is followed by an electrostatic deflector (DE) and a magnetic dipole (DM). The total length of MARA will be less than 7.0 m and the first order resolving power more than 250 for a beam spot size of 2 mm. In this contribution the main properties of MARA are given and results from simulations are shown.

  7. Laboratory experiments for Titan's ionosphere : the chemistry of N2+, N+, and N2++ nitrogen ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thissen, R.; Alcaraz, C.; Dutuit, O.; Nicolas, C.; Soldi-Lose, H.; Zabka, J.; Franceschi, P.

    Laboratory experiments for Titan's ionosphere : the chemistry of N+ , N+ , and N2+ nitrogen ions 2 2 R. Thissen (1), C. Alcaraz (1), O. Dutuit (1), C. Nicolas (2), H. Soldi-Lose (3), J. Zabka (4), P. Franceschi (5) (1) LCP, Bât. 350, Centre Universitaire Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay Cedex, France, (2) Synchrotron SOLEIL, L'Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette, France, (3) Institut für Chemie, Fachgruppe Organische Chemie, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 135, D-10623 Berlin, (4) J. Heyrovsky Institute of Physical Chemistry, Dolejskova 3, CZ 18223 Praha 8 - Kobylisy, Czech Republik, (5) Dept. of Physics, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo (TN), Italy (christian.alcaraz@lcp.u-psud.fr) N2 is the major neutral componant of Titan's atmosphere, its ionisation by solar radiation and by magnetospheric electron impact is the most important production of ions in Titan's ionosphere. These primary processes not only lead to N+ molecular 2 monocations but also to N+ atomic ions and to N2+ molecular dications, which can 2 pertain some internal or translational excitation. This contribution will summarize our efforts to caracterize in gaz phase laboratory experiments the reactivity of the nitrogen ions with the most important neutral targets of the Titan's atmosphere [1-3]: • N+ + CH4 , C2 H2 , and C2 H6 2 • N+ (3 P, 1 D) + CH4 , and C2 H4 • N2+ + N2 , CH4 , and C2 H4 2 In this work, particular attention has been paid on the effect of internal and/or translational excitation of the primary nitrogen ions on the rate constant and branching ratio of these ion-molecule reactions. The results from these studies have been compared to the literature values when available and some significant differences have been found. These new values have been used as input data in 1D models of the Titan's ionosphere to show the effect on the final density profiles of the main ions [4] and to demonstrate the existence of a N2+2 dication

  8. Microstructural and mechanical characterization of nitrogen ion implanted layer on 316L stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öztürk, O.

    2009-05-01

    Nitrogen ion implantation can be used to improve surface mechanical properties (hardness, wear, friction) of stainless steels by modifying the near-surface layers of these materials. In this study, a medical grade FeCrNi alloy (316L stainless steel plate) was implanted with 85 keV nitrogen ions to a high fluence of 1 × 1018N2+ /cm2 at a substrate temperature <200 °C in an industrial implantation facility. The N implanted layer microstructures, thicknesses and strengths were studied by a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD), conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and nanohardness measurements. AFM was also used for the surface roughness analysis of the implanted as well as polished materials. The CEMS analysis indicate that the N implanted layer is ∼200 nm thick and is composed of ε-(Fe,Cr,Ni)2+xN-like nitride phase with mainly paramagnetic characteristics. The nanohardness measurements clearly indicate an enhanced hardness behaviour for the N implanted layer. It is found that the implanted layer hardness is increased by a factor of 1.5 in comparison to that of the substrate material. The increased hardness resulting from nitrogen implantation is attributed to the formation of ε nitride phase.

  9. Gas powered fluid gun with recoil mitigation

    DOEpatents

    Grubelich, Mark C.; Yonas, Gerold

    2017-01-03

    A gas powered fluid gun for propelling a stream or slug of a fluid at high velocity toward a target. Recoil mitigation is provided by a cavitating venturi that reduces or eliminates the associated recoil forces, with minimal or no backwash. By launching a quantity of water in the opposite direction, net momentum forces are reduced or eliminated.

  10. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry studies of 100 keV nitrogen ion implanted polypropylene polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chawla, Mahak; Aggarwal, Sanjeev; Sharma, Annu

    2017-09-01

    The effect of nitrogen ion implantation on the structure and composition in polypropylene (PP) polymer has been studied. Implantation was carried out using 100 keV N+ ions at different fluences of 1 × 1015, 1 × 1016 and 1 × 1017 ions cm-2 with beam current density of ∼0.65 μA cm-2. Surface morphological changes in the pre- and post-implanted PP specimens have been studied using Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and UV-Visible Spectroscopy. The spatial distribution of implantation induced modification in the form of carbonization and dehydrogenation in the near surface region of PP matrix, the projected range, retained dose of implanted nitrogen, the various elements present in the implanted layers and their differential cross-sections have been analyzed using RBS spectra. RUMP simulation yielded an increase in the concentration of carbon near the surface from 33 at.% (virgin) to 42 at.% at fluence of 1 × 1017 N+ cm-2. Further, optical absorption has been found to increase with a shift in the absorption edge from UV towards visible region with increasing fluence. UV-Vis absorption spectra also indicate a drastic decrease in optical energy gap from 4.12 eV (virgin) to 0.25 eV (1 × 1017 N+ cm-2) indicating towards the formation of carbonaceous network in the implanted region. All these changes observed using UV-Visible have been further correlated with the outcomes of the RBS characterization.

  11. Constructing hierarchical sulfur-doped nitrogenous carbon nanosheets for sodium-ion storage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kejun; Hou, Hongshuai; Huang, Caijin; Ji, Xiaobo; Qiu, Xiaoqing

    2017-09-04

    Hierarchical sulfur-doped nitrogenous carbon (S/NC) and nitrogenous carbon (NC) nanosheets are successfully fabricated by carbonization of their corresponding precursor polymers which are synthesized through the polymerization reaction of dianhydride and multi-amine compounds. The hierarchical S/NC nanosheets deliver much enhanced reversible capacity, compared with the hierarchical NC nanosheets, of 280 mAh g-1 at a current density of 100 mA g-1after 300 cycles. It is found that the introduction of sulfur species in carbon skeleton results in increasing the turbostratic structures, rather than enlarging the interlayer distances, for boosting the specific capacity of sodium-ion storage. The turbostratic structures and sulfur dopant existed in the carbon can offer more active sites for the sodium-ion storage. Carbon-based materials doped with sulfur are capable of improving the sodium-ion storage property, which can broaden the horizon of designing a string of outstanding carbon materials for the future energy storage technologies. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  12. Microstructure and oxidation behavior of high strength steel AISI 410 implanted with nitrogen ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandriyana, Ismoyo, Agus Hadi; Sujitno, Tjipto; Dimyati, A.

    2016-04-01

    Surface treatment by implantation with nitrogen-ion was performed on the commercial feritic high strength steel AISI 410 which is termed for high temperature applications. The aim of this research was focused on the surface modification to improve its high temperature oxidation property in the early stages. Ion implantation was carried out at acceleration energy of 100 KeV and ion current 10 mA for 30, 60 and 90 minutes. The samples were subjected to the high temperature oxidation test by means of thermogravimetry in a magnetic suspension balance (MSB) at 500 °C for 5 hours. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction spectrometry (XRD) and Vickers Hardness measurement were used for sample characterization. The formation of ferro-nitride phase after implantation did not occur, however a thin layer considered to contain nitrogen interstitials was detected. The oxidation of both samples before and after implantation followed parabolic kinetics indicating inward growth of oxide scale characteristically due to diffusion of oxygen anions towards matrix surface. After oxidation test relativelly stable oxide scales were observed. Oxidation rates decreased proportionally with the increasing of implantation time due to the formation of oxide layer which is considered to be effectiv inhibitor for the oxygen diffusion.

  13. Microstructure and oxidation behavior of high strength steel AISI 410 implanted with nitrogen ion

    SciTech Connect

    Bandriyana, Ismoyo, Agus Hadi; Dimyati, A.; Sujitno, Tjipto

    2016-04-19

    Surface treatment by implantation with nitrogen-ion was performed on the commercial feritic high strength steel AISI 410 which is termed for high temperature applications. The aim of this research was focused on the surface modification to improve its high temperature oxidation property in the early stages. Ion implantation was carried out at acceleration energy of 100 KeV and ion current 10 mA for 30, 60 and 90 minutes. The samples were subjected to the high temperature oxidation test by means of thermogravimetry in a magnetic suspension balance (MSB) at 500 °C for 5 hours. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction spectrometry (XRD) and Vickers Hardness measurement were used for sample characterization. The formation of ferro-nitride phase after implantation did not occur, however a thin layer considered to contain nitrogen interstitials was detected. The oxidation of both samples before and after implantation followed parabolic kinetics indicating inward growth of oxide scale characteristically due to diffusion of oxygen anions towards matrix surface. After oxidation test relativelly stable oxide scales were observed. Oxidation rates decreased proportionally with the increasing of implantation time due to the formation of oxide layer which is considered to be effectiv inhibitor for the oxygen diffusion.

  14. Nitrogen- Doped Graphene Quantum Dots: "Turn-off" Fluorescent Probe for Detection of Ag(+) Ions.

    PubMed

    Tabaraki, Reza; Nateghi, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Highly luminescent nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs) were prepared from glucose and ammonia as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. The N-GQDs showed a strong emission at 458 nm with excitation at 360 nm. The N-GQDs exhibited analytical potential as sensing probes for silver ions determination. Factors affecting the fluorescence sensing of Ag(+) ions such as pH, N-GQDs concentration and incubation time were studied using Box-Behnken experimental design. The optimum conditions were determined as pH 7, N-GQDs concentration 1 mg/mL and time 60 min. It suggested that N-GQDs exhibited high sensitivity and selectivity toward Ag(+). The linear range of N-GQDs and the limit of detection (LOD) were 0.2-40 μM and 168 nM, respectively. The N-GQDs-based Ag(+) ions sensor was successfully applied to the determination of Ag(+) in tap water and real river water samples.

  15. Friction wear and auger analysis of iron implanted with 1.5-MeV nitrogen ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, J.; Jones, W. R., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of implantation of 1.5-MeV nitrogen ions on the friction and wear characteristics of pure iron sliding against steel was studied in a pin-on disk apparatus. An implantation dose of 5 x 10 to the 17th power ions/sq cm was used. Small reductions in initial and steady-state wear rates were observed for nitrogen-implanted iron riders as compared with unimplanted controls. Auger electron spectroscopy revealed a subsurface Gaussian nitrogen distribution with a maximum concentration of 15 at. % at a depth of 8 x 10 to the -7th m. A similar analysis within the wear scar of an implanted rider after 20 microns of wear yielded only background nitrogen concentration, thus giving no evidence for diffusion of nitrogen beyond the implanted range.

  16. Influence of crystal orientation and ion bombardment on the nitrogen diffusivity in single-crystalline austenitic stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Martinavicius, A.; Abrasonis, G.; Moeller, W.

    2011-10-01

    The nitrogen diffusivity in single-crystalline AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel (ASS) during ion nitriding has been investigated at different crystal orientations ((001), (110), (111)) under variations of ion flux (0.3-0.7 mA cm{sup -2}), ion energy (0.5-1.2 keV), and temperature (370-430 deg. C). The nitrogen depth profiles obtained from nuclear reaction analysis are in excellent agreement with fits using the model of diffusion under the influence of traps, from which diffusion coefficients were extracted. At fixed ion energy and flux, the diffusivity varies by a factor up to 2.5 at different crystal orientations. At (100) orientation, it increases linearly with increasing ion flux or energy. The findings are discussed on the basis of atomistic mechanisms of interstitial diffusion, potential lattice distortions, local decomposition, and ion-induced lattice vibrational excitations.

  17. RADIOLYSIS OF NITROGEN AND WATER-ICE MIXTURE BY FAST IONS: IMPLICATIONS FOR KUIPER BELT OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Barros, A. L. F. de; Silveira, E. F da; Bergantini, A.; Rothard, H.; Boduch, P.

    2015-09-10

    The participation of condensed nitrogen in the surface chemistry of some objects in the outer solar system, such as Pluto and Triton, is very important. The remote observation of this species using absorption spectroscopy is a difficult task because N{sub 2} is not IR active in the gas phase. Water is also among the most abundant molecules in the surface of these objects; chemical reactions between N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O induced by cosmic rays are therefore expected. Although pure N{sub 2} ice is hardly identified by IR spectroscopy, the species produced through the processing of the surface ice by cosmic rays may give relevant clues indicating how abundant the N{sub 2} is in the outside layers of the surface of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs). The objective of this work is to investigate the formation of nitrogenated species induced by cosmic-ray analogs in an ice mixture containing nitrogen and water. Experiments were performed in the GANIL Laboratory by bombarding N{sub 2}:H{sub 2}O (10:1) ice at 15 K with 40 MeV {sup 58}Ni{sup 11+} ions. Evolution of precursor and daughter species was monitored by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The main produced species are the nitrogen oxides NO{sub k} (k = 1–3), N{sub 2}O{sub j} (j = 1–5), N{sub 3}, and O{sub 3}. Among them, the N{sub 2}O and N{sub 3} are the most abundant, representing ∼61% of the total column density of the daughter molecules at 10{sup 13} ions cm{sup −2} fluence; the current results indicate that the yield of daughter species from this mixture is low, and this may be one of the reasons why N{sub i}O{sub j} molecules are not usually observed in TNOs.

  18. Radiolysis of Nitrogen and Water-ice Mixture by Fast Ions: Implications for Kuiper Belt Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Barros, A. L. F.; da Silveira, E. F.; Bergantini, A.; Rothard, H.; Boduch, P.

    2015-09-01

    The participation of condensed nitrogen in the surface chemistry of some objects in the outer solar system, such as Pluto and Triton, is very important. The remote observation of this species using absorption spectroscopy is a difficult task because N2 is not IR active in the gas phase. Water is also among the most abundant molecules in the surface of these objects; chemical reactions between N2 and H2O induced by cosmic rays are therefore expected. Although pure N2 ice is hardly identified by IR spectroscopy, the species produced through the processing of the surface ice by cosmic rays may give relevant clues indicating how abundant the N2 is in the outside layers of the surface of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs). The objective of this work is to investigate the formation of nitrogenated species induced by cosmic-ray analogs in an ice mixture containing nitrogen and water. Experiments were performed in the GANIL Laboratory by bombarding N2:H2O (10:1) ice at 15 K with 40 MeV 58Ni11+ ions. Evolution of precursor and daughter species was monitored by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The main produced species are the nitrogen oxides NOk (k = 1-3), N2Oj (j = 1-5), N3, and O3. Among them, the N2O and N3 are the most abundant, representing ˜61% of the total column density of the daughter molecules at 1013 ions cm-2 fluence; the current results indicate that the yield of daughter species from this mixture is low, and this may be one of the reasons why NiOj molecules are not usually observed in TNOs.

  19. Structural disorder in hard amorphous carbon films implanted with nitrogen ions

    SciTech Connect

    Freire, F.L. Jr.; Franceschini, D.F.; Achete, C.A.; Brusa, R.S.; Mariotto, G.; Karwasz, G.P.; Canteri, R.

    1996-12-31

    Hard amorphous hydrogenated carbon films deposited by self-bias glow discharge were implanted at room temperature with 70 keV-nitrogen ions at fluences between 2.0 and 9.0 {times} 10{sup 16} N/cm{sup 2}. The implanted samples were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy, SIMS and positron annihilation spectroscopy (Doppler broadening technique with the determination of the parameter S). For samples implanted with 2.0 {times} 10{sup 16} N/cm{sup 2} the S parameter follows the vacancies depth profile predicted by Monte Carlo simulation. For higher fluences the authors observed a reduction in the measured value of S. This result is discussed in terms of both hydrogen loss and structural modifications (increase of disorder at local scale and of the number of graphitic domains) induced in the carbon film by ion implantation.

  20. Nitrogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, ammonia was produced by 15 companies at 26 plants in 16 states in the United States. Of the total ammonia production capacity, 55% was centered in Louisiana, Oklahoma and Texas because of their large reserves of natural gas. US producers operated at 66% of their rated capacity. In descending order, Koch Nitrogen, Terra Industries, CF Industries, Agrium and PCS Nitrogen accounted for 81% of the US ammonia production capacity.

  1. Biological effects of low energy nitrogen ion implantation on Jatropha curcas L. seed germination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Gang; Wang, Xiao-teng; Gan, Cai-ling; Fang, Yan-qiong; Zhang, Meng

    2012-09-01

    To explore the biological effects of nitrogen ion beam implantation on dry Jatropha curcas seed, a beam of N+ with energy of 25 keV was applied to treat the dry seed at six different doses. N+ beam implantation greatly decreased germination rate and seedling survival rate. The doses within the range of 12 × 1016 to 15 × 1016 ions cm-2 severely damaged the seeds: total antioxidant capacity (TAC), germination rate, seedling survival rate, reduced ascorbate acid (HAsA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents, and most of the tested antioxidases activity (i.e. catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) reached their lowest levels. At a dose of 18 × 1016 ion cm-2, biological repair took place: moderate increases were found in TAC, germination rate, seedling survival rate, HAsA and GSH contents, and some antioxidant enzyme activities (i.e. CAT, APX, SOD and GPX). The dose of 18 × 1016 ions cm-2 may be the optimum dose for use in dry J. curcas seed mutation breeding. CAT, HAsA and GSH contributed to the increase of TAC, but CAT was the most important. POD performed its important role as seed was severely damaged. The main role of the HAsA-GSH cycle appeared to be for regeneration of HAsA.

  2. Gas powered fluid gun with recoil mitigation

    DOEpatents

    Grubelich, Mark C.; Yonas, Gerold

    2016-03-01

    A gas powered fluid gun for propelling a stream or slug of a fluid at high velocity toward a target. Recoil mitigation is provided that reduces or eliminates the associated recoil forces, with minimal or no backwash. By launching a quantity of water in the opposite direction, net momentum forces are reduced or eliminated. Examples of recoil mitigation devices include a cone for making a conical fluid sheet, a device forming multiple impinging streams of fluid, a cavitating venturi, one or more spinning vanes, or an annular tangential entry/exit.

  3. Gas powered fluid gun with recoil mitigation

    DOEpatents

    Grubelich, Mark C; Yonas, Gerold

    2013-11-12

    A gas powered fluid gun for propelling a stream or slug of a fluid at high velocity toward a target. Recoil mitigation is provided that reduces or eliminates the associated recoil forces, with minimal or no backwash. By launching a quantity of water in the opposite direction, net momentum forces are reduced or eliminated. Examples of recoil mitigation devices include a cone for making a conical fluid sheet, a device forming multiple impinging streams of fluid, a cavitating venturi, one or more spinning vanes, or an annular tangential entry/exit.

  4. Etch-stop behavior of buried layers formed by substoichiometric nitrogen ion implantation into silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Rodriguez, A.; Romano-Rodriguez, A.; Morante, J.R.; Acero, M.C. Esteve, J.; Montserrat, J.; El-Hassani, A.

    1996-03-01

    In this work the etch-stop behavior of buried layers formed by substoichiometric nitrogen ion implantation into silicon is studied as a function of the processing parameters, the implantation dose and temperature, and the presence of capping layers during implantation. Etching characteristics have been probed using tetramethylammonium hydroxide or KOH solutions for different times up to 6 h. Results show that, after annealing, the minimum dose required for the formation of an efficient etch-stop layer is about 4 {times} 10{sup 17} cm{sup {minus}2}, for an implantation energy of 75 keV. This is defined as a layer with an efficient etch selectivity in relation to Si of s {ge} 100. For larger implantation doses efficient etch selectivities larger than 100 are obtained. However, for these doses a considerable density of pits is observed in the etch-stop layer. These are related to the presence of nitrogen poor Si regions in the buried layer after annealing, due to a partial separation of silicon and silicon nitride phases during the annealing process. The influence of this separation of phases as well as nitrogen gettering in the buried layer on the etch-stop behavior is discussed as a function of the processing parameters.

  5. Effects of nitrogen sources and metal ions on ethanol fermentation with cadmium-containing medium.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingyun; Wu, Mengnan; Hu, Jiajun; Gao, Min-Tian

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated ethanol fermentation and its correlation with glutathione (GSH) synthesis under various cadmium-conditions with different metal ions and nitrogen sources. We found that corn steep liquor (CSL) and yeast extract have differential roles to play in GSH accumulation in cell even though both of them could alleviate the inhibition by cadmium. The different GSH accumulation in cell resulted from the different contents of metal ions in CSL and yeast extract. Intracellular GSH decreased with increasing calcium concentrations, and high calcium concentrations rendered the yeast more tolerant to cadmium stress than the nitrogen sources did. When the mole ratio of calcium to cadmium was 100:1, yeast tolerated 1000 µmol/L cadmium with no decrease in efficiency in ethanol production. As a result, the use of calcium allowed a significant saving of high-cost nutrient yeast extract with an efficient ethanol production, making the bioconversion of cadmium-containing biomass into ethanol possible. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Freestanding highly defect nitrogen-enriched carbon nanofibers for lithium ion battery thin-film anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Guoqiang; Bao, Wurigumula; Yuan, Yifei; Liu, Zhun; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza; Wu, Feng; Amine, Khalil; Wang, Jing; Lu, Jun

    2017-01-01

    To spread lithium ion batteries into large-scale energy storage technologies, high ener-gy/power densities and long cycling life of carbon-based anodes must be achieved. This re-quires revolutionary design of the anode’s architectures that can facilitate the fast electronic and ionic transport, as well as accommodate the electrode structural instability. Here we re-port a thin-film electrode design and demonstrate its use in flexible, and large-area carbon-based anode assemblies. The fabrication of electrodes is realized by sputtering a graphite tar-get in the high-purity nitrogen atmosphere, then highly-defect nitrogen-doped carbon nano-fibers are deposited vertically onto copper substrates with a thin film configuration. The high-ly-defect nitrogen-doping enhances the lithium storage and transport, the orientation grown mechanism improves the charge transfer, and the compact configuration makes the high tap density possible. As a result, the thin films exhibit high specific capacities of ~ 500 mAh g−1, namely a volume capacity of ~ 100 mAh cm−3. They also exhibit stable cycle performance (400 mAh g−1 after 200 cycles) and good rate capability (450 mAh g−1 at 1 A g−1 rate). This work opens up a new carbon-based anode design by using sputtering technology for effec-tively incorporating high content nitrogen into carbon matrices. Such electrode architecture significantly improves the electrochemical performance of carbon-based materials.

  7. Nuclear Recoil Identification in CDMS Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gensheng; Akerib, Dan

    2004-05-01

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment achieves high sensitivity for WIMP dark matter particles recoiling from nuclei because of the rejection of predominant electromagnetic backgrounds. The measured charge energy and phonon energy ratio, or ionization yield, is a powerful tool for discrimination between nuclear recoil and electron recoil in CDMS experiment. However, since events occurring within a thin surface layer, notably low-energy background beta particles, suffer a loss in ionization charge collection, other method of surface--event rejection becomes important. I will describe the CDMS detector ionization measurement and ballistic phonon readout, with an emphasis on detector phenomenology. In particular, I will describe the primary CDMS detector quantities--ionization yield, phonon risetime, event location information and phonon energy partition distribution. The application of these parameters in nuclear recoil identification and in surface event rejection in CDMS experiment will be summarized.

  8. Nitrogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apodaca, L.E.

    2012-01-01

    Ammonia was produced by 12 companies at 27 plants in 15 states in the United States during 2011. Sixty-one percent of total U.S. ammonia production capacity was centered in Louisiana, Oklahoma and Texas because of those states' large reserves of natural gas, the dominant domestic feedstock. In 2011, U.S. producers operated at about 84 percent of their rated capacity (excluding plants that were idle for the entire year). Four companies — CF Industries Holdings Inc.; Koch Nitrogen Co.; PCS Nitrogen Inc. and Agrium Inc., in descending order — accounted for 77 percent of the total U.S. ammonia production capacity.

  9. Detection Efficiency of the Clover Array for Recoil Decay Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, John; Al-Shudifat, Mahammad; Paulauskas, S. V.; Madurga, Miguel; Grzywacz, Robert

    2011-10-01

    The Clover Array for Recoil Decay Spectroscopy (CARDS) has been implemented in the newly commissioned facility Low-energy Radioactive Ion Beam Spectroscopy Station at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Challenging experiments with very neutron rich isotopes near doubly magic 78Ni has been performed. Quantitative analysis of the new data required a thorough measurement of the detection efficiency of the CARDS array using variety of the standard calibration sources. Of particular importance is observed high detection efficiency for gamma rays with energies in the range of 50-200 keV which has been achieved due to implementation of digital electronics. Examples of data from on-line experiments will be presented.

  10. Measurement of Scintillation and Ionization Yield and Scintillation Pulse Shape from Nuclear Recoils in Liquid Argon

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, H.

    2015-05-26

    We have measured the scintillation and ionization yield of recoiling nuclei in liquid argon as a function of applied electric field by exposing a dual-phase liquid argon time projection chamber (LAr-TPC) to a low energy pulsed narrow band neutron beam produced at the Notre Dame Institute for Structure and Nuclear Astrophysics. Liquid scintillation counters were arranged to detect and identify neutrons scattered in the TPC and to select the energy of the recoiling nuclei. We also report measurements of the scintillation yields for nuclear recoils with energies from 10.3 to 57.3 keV and for median applied electric fields from 0 to 970 V/cm. For the ionization yields, we report measurements from 16.9 to 57.3 keV and for electric fields from 96.4 to 486 V/cm. Furthermore, we report the observation of an anticorrelation between scintillation and ionization from nuclear recoils, which is similar to the anticorrelation between scintillation and ionization from electron recoils. Assuming that the energy loss partitions into excitons and ion pairs from 83mKr internal conversion electrons is comparable to that from 207Bi conversion electrons, we obtained the numbers of excitons (Nex) and ion pairs (Ni) and their ratio (Nex/Ni) produced by nuclear recoils from 16.9 to 57.3 keV. Motivated by arguments suggesting direction sensitivity in LAr-TPC signals due to columnar recombination, a comparison of the light and charge yield of recoils parallel and perpendicular to the applied electric field is presented for the first time.

  11. Measurement of scintillation and ionization yield and scintillation pulse shape from nuclear recoils in liquid argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, H.; Alexander, T.; Aprahamian, A.; Avetisyan, R.; Back, H. O.; Cocco, A. G.; Dejongh, F.; Fiorillo, G.; Galbiati, C.; Grandi, L.; Guardincerri, Y.; Kendziora, C.; Lippincott, W. H.; Love, C.; Lyons, S.; Manenti, L.; Martoff, C. J.; Meng, Y.; Montanari, D.; Mosteiro, P.; Olvitt, D.; Pordes, S.; Qian, H.; Rossi, B.; Saldanha, R.; Sangiorgio, S.; Siegl, K.; Strauss, S. Y.; Tan, W.; Tatarowicz, J.; Walker, S.; Wang, H.; Watson, A. W.; Westerdale, S.; Yoo, J.; Scene Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    We have measured the scintillation and ionization yield of recoiling nuclei in liquid argon as a function of applied electric field by exposing a dual-phase liquid argon time projection chamber (LAr-TPC) to a low energy pulsed narrow band neutron beam produced at the Notre Dame Institute for Structure and Nuclear Astrophysics. Liquid scintillation counters were arranged to detect and identify neutrons scattered in the TPC and to select the energy of the recoiling nuclei. We report measurements of the scintillation yields for nuclear recoils with energies from 10.3 to 57.3 keV and for median applied electric fields from 0 to 970 V /cm . For the ionization yields, we report measurements from 16.9 to 57.3 keV and for electric fields from 96.4 to 486 V /cm . We also report the observation of an anticorrelation between scintillation and ionization from nuclear recoils, which is similar to the anticorrelation between scintillation and ionization from electron recoils. Assuming that the energy loss partitions into excitons and ion pairs from Krm83 internal conversion electrons is comparable to that from 207Bi conversion electrons, we obtained the numbers of excitons (Nex) and ion pairs (Ni) and their ratio (Nex/Ni ) produced by nuclear recoils from 16.9 to 57.3 keV. Motivated by arguments suggesting direction sensitivity in LAr-TPC signals due to columnar recombination, a comparison of the light and charge yield of recoils parallel and perpendicular to the applied electric field is presented for the first time.

  12. Measurement of Scintillation and Ionization Yield and Scintillation Pulse Shape from Nuclear Recoils in Liquid Argon

    DOE PAGES

    Cao, H.

    2015-05-26

    We have measured the scintillation and ionization yield of recoiling nuclei in liquid argon as a function of applied electric field by exposing a dual-phase liquid argon time projection chamber (LAr-TPC) to a low energy pulsed narrow band neutron beam produced at the Notre Dame Institute for Structure and Nuclear Astrophysics. Liquid scintillation counters were arranged to detect and identify neutrons scattered in the TPC and to select the energy of the recoiling nuclei. We also report measurements of the scintillation yields for nuclear recoils with energies from 10.3 to 57.3 keV and for median applied electric fields from 0more » to 970 V/cm. For the ionization yields, we report measurements from 16.9 to 57.3 keV and for electric fields from 96.4 to 486 V/cm. Furthermore, we report the observation of an anticorrelation between scintillation and ionization from nuclear recoils, which is similar to the anticorrelation between scintillation and ionization from electron recoils. Assuming that the energy loss partitions into excitons and ion pairs from 83mKr internal conversion electrons is comparable to that from 207Bi conversion electrons, we obtained the numbers of excitons (Nex) and ion pairs (Ni) and their ratio (Nex/Ni) produced by nuclear recoils from 16.9 to 57.3 keV. Motivated by arguments suggesting direction sensitivity in LAr-TPC signals due to columnar recombination, a comparison of the light and charge yield of recoils parallel and perpendicular to the applied electric field is presented for the first time.« less

  13. Measurement of scintillation and ionization yield and scintillation pulse shape from nuclear recoils in liquid argon

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, H.; Alexander, T.; Aprahamian, A.; Avetisyan, R.; Back, H. O.; Cocco, A. G.; DeJongh, F.; Fiorillo, G.; Galbiati, C.; Grandi, L.; Guardincerri, Y.; Kendziora, C.; Lippincott, W. H.; Love, C.; Lyons, S.; Manenti, L.; Martoff, C. J.; Meng, Y.; Montanari, D.; Mosteiro, P.; Olvitt, D.; Pordes, S.; Qian, H.; Rossi, B.; Saldanha, R.; Sangiorgio, S.; Siegl, K.; Strauss, S. Y.; Tan, W.; Tatarowicz, J.; Walker, S.; Wang, H.; Watson, A. W.; Westerdale, S.; Yoo, J.

    2015-05-01

    We have measured the scintillation and ionization yield of recoiling nuclei in liquid argon as a function of applied electric field by exposing a dual-phase liquid argon time projection chamber (LAr-TPC) to a low energy pulsed narrow band neutron beam produced at the Notre Dame Institute for Structure and Nuclear Astrophysics. Liquid scintillation counters were arranged to detect and identify neutrons scattered in the TPC and to select the energy of the recoiling nuclei. We report measurements of the scintillation yields for nuclear recoils with energies from 10.3 to 57.3 keV and for median applied electric fields from 0 to 970 V / cm . For the ionization yields, we report measurements from 16.9 to 57.3 keV and for electric fields from 96.4 to 486 V / cm . We also report the observation of an anticorrelation between scintillation and ionization from nuclear recoils, which is similar to the anticorrelation between scintillation and ionization from electron recoils. Assuming that the energy loss partitions into excitons and ion pairs from 83 m Kr internal conversion electrons is comparable to that from 207 Bi conversion electrons, we obtained the numbers of excitons ( N ex ) and ion pairs ( N i ) and their ratio ( N ex / N i ) produced by nuclear recoils from 16.9 to 57.3 keV. Motivated by arguments suggesting direction sensitivity in LAr-TPC signals due to columnar recombination, a comparison of the light and charge yield of recoils parallel and perpendicular to the applied electric field is presented for the first time.

  14. Nitrogen oxides as dopants for the detection of aromatic compounds with ion mobility spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gaik, Urszula; Sillanpää, Mika; Witkiewicz, Zygfryd; Puton, Jarosław

    2017-03-03

    Limits of detection (LODs) in ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) strictly depend on ionization of the analyte. Especially challenging is ionization of compounds with relatively low proton affinity (PA) such as aromatic compounds. To change the course of ion-molecule reactions and enhance the performance of the IMS spectrometer, substances called dopants are introduced into the carrier gas. In this work, we present the results of studies of detection using nitrogen oxides (NOx) dopants. Three aromatic compounds, benzene, toluene, toluene diisocyanate and, for comparison, two compounds with high PA, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) and triethyl phosphate (TEP), were selected as analytes. The influence of water vapour on these analyses was also studied. Experiments were carried out with a generator of gas mixtures that allowed for the simultaneous introduction of three substances into the carrier gas. The experiments showed that the use of NOx dopants significantly decreases LODs for aromatic compounds and does not affect the detection of compounds with high PA. The water vapour significantly disturbs the detection of aromatic compounds; however, doping with NOx allows to reduce the effect of humidity. Graphical Abstract Two possible ionization mechanisms of aromatic compounds in ion mobility spectrometry: proton transfer reaction and adduct formation.

  15. Influence of exciting frequency on gas and ion rotational temperatures of nitrogen capacitively coupled plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, X. J.; Xin, Y.; Yuan, Q. H.; Ning, Z. Y.

    2008-07-15

    By using optical emission spectroscopy, the nitrogen gas and ion rotational temperatures in capacitively coupled plasma discharges with different exciting frequencies are investigated. The rotational temperatures are acquired by comparing the measured and calculated spectra of selected transitions with a least-square procedure. It is found that N{sub 2} gas rotational temperature minimum around 13 MHz is the combined effect of ion-dominated heating and electron-dominated heating in the plasma. The influence of exciting frequency on N{sub 2}{sup +} rotational temperature is much more than that of the N{sub 2} molecule, the lower frequency, the higher N{sub 2}{sup +} rotational temperature. Also, N{sub 2}{sup +} rotational temperature is much higher than the corresponding N{sub 2} gas rotational temperature in the plasma driven by low frequencies. These experimental phenomena may be attributed to the effective ion heating and/or possible resonant heating in the bulk plasma under the low-frequency field.

  16. Nitrogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Ammonia is the principal source of fixed nitrogen. It was produced by 17 companies at 34 plants in the United States during 2003. Fifty-three percent of U.S. ammonia production capacity was centered in Louisiana, Oklahoma and Texas because of their large reserves of natural gas, the dominant domestic feedstock.

  17. Influence of nitrogen admixture to argon on the ion energy distribution in reactive high power pulsed magnetron sputtering of chromium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breilmann, W.; Maszl, C.; Hecimovic, A.; von Keudell, A.

    2017-04-01

    Reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) of metals is of paramount importance for the deposition of various oxides, nitrides and carbides. The addition of a reactive gas such as nitrogen to an argon HiPIMS plasma with a metal target allows the formation of the corresponding metal nitride on the substrate. The addition of a reactive gas introduces new dynamics into the plasma process, such as hysteresis, target poisoning and the rarefaction of two different plasma gases. We investigate the dynamics for the deposition of chromium nitride by a reactive HiPIMS plasma using energy- and time-resolved ion mass spectrometry, fast camera measurements and temporal and spatially resolved optical emission spectroscopy. It is shown that the addition of nitrogen to the argon plasma gas significantly changes the appearance of the localized ionization zones, the so-called spokes, in HiPIMS plasmas. In addition, a very strong modulation of the metal ion flux within each HiPIMS pulse is observed, with the metal ion flux being strongly suppressed and the nitrogen molecular ion flux being strongly enhanced in the high current phase of the pulse. This behavior is explained by a stronger return effect of the sputtered metal ions in the dense plasma above the racetrack. This is best observed in a pure nitrogen plasma, because the ionization zones are mostly confined, implying a very high local plasma density and consequently also an efficient scattering process.

  18. Formation of nitrate and ammonium ions in titanium dioxide mediated photocatalytic degradation of organic compounds containing nitrogen atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Low, G.K.-C.; McEvoy, S.R.; Matthews, R.W. )

    1991-03-01

    The photocatalytic oxidation of a related series of primary, secondary, and tertiary amines and other nitrogen- and sulfur-containing organic compounds over a UV-illuminated film of TiO{sub 2} has been studied. The compounds were as follows: n-pentylamine, piperidine, pyridine, phenylalanine, desipramine, thioridazine, penicillamine, isosorbide dinitrate, 4-nitrocatechol, 2,4-dinitrophenol, cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, atrazine, ethylenediaminetetracetic acid, and tetrabutylammonium phosphate. Both ammonium and nitrate ions were formed. The relative concentration of the two ions depended on the nature of the nitrogen in a compound, but was also influenced by the illumination time and concentration of the solute. It was found that for n-pentylamine, piperidine and pyridine, the rate of formation of ammonium ions was n-pentylamine {much gt} pyridine > piperidine. The order of rates of nitrate formation was pyridine = piperidine {much gt} pentylamine. For n-pentylamine the rate of formation of ammonium ions was {approximately}100 times that of nitrate.

  19. Understanding the Photoluminescence Mechanism of Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Dots by Selective Interaction with Copper Ions.

    PubMed

    Ganiga, Manjunatha; Cyriac, Jobin

    2016-08-04

    Doped fluorescent carbon dots (CDs) have drawn widespread attention because of their diverse applications and attractive properties. The present report focusses on the origin of photoluminescence in nitrogen-doped CDs (NCDs), which is unraveled by the interaction with Cu(2+) ions. Detailed spectroscopic and microscopic studies reveal that the broad steady-state photoluminescence emission of the NCDs originates from the direct recombination of excitons (high energy) and the involvement of defect states (low energy). In addition, highly selective detection of Cu(2+) is achieved, with a detection limit of 10 μm and a dynamic range of 10 μm-0.4 mm. The feasibility of the present sensor for the detection of Cu(2+) in real water samples is also presented. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Low-energy nitrogen-ion implantation: relevance to reactive compound sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, R.W.; Hosford, C.D.; Rachocki, K.D.

    1982-01-01

    Reactive sputtering is a tool widely used to produce compound coatings. The details of the target physics and compound formation are not well understood. Among several factors, the low-energy ion-implant range in a target could well affect the stoichiometry of the resultant film. Thin films of aluminum, chromium, and tantalum were bombarded with low-energy nitrogen (approx. .5 - approx. .5 keV) and the subsequent implant profiles analyzed. Low-energy-argon depth profiling combined with Auger Electron Spectroscopy was employed to obtain the profiles. The profiles are compared with the computed range distribution obtained from low-energy LSS theory. The agreement between the computed and measured distributions is very good. Comparisons between sputtered-film stoichiometry and range profiles are made.

  1. Nitrogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Ammonia was produced by 15 companies at 25 plants in 16 states in the United States during 2006. Fifty-seven percent of U.S. ammonia production capacity was centered in Louisiana, Oklahoma and Texas because of their large reserves of natural gas, the dominant domestic feedstock. In 2006, U.S. producers operated at about 72 percent of their rated capacity (excluding plants that were idle for the entire year). Five companies, Koch Nitrogen, Terra Industries, CF Industries, PCS Nitro-gen, and Agrium, in descending order, accounted for 79 percent U.S. ammonia production capacity. The United States was the world's fourth-ranked ammonia producer and consumer following China, India and Russia. Urea, ammonium nitrate, ammonium phosphates, nitric acid and ammonium sulfate were the major derivatives of ammonia in the United States, in descending order of importance.

  2. Nitrogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apodaca, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    Ammonia was produced by 13 companies at 23 plants in 16 states during 2009. Sixty percent of all U.S. ammonia production capacity was centered in Louisiana. Oklahoma and Texas because of those states' large reserves of natural gas, the dominant domestic feedstock. In 2009, U.S. producers operated at about 83 percent of their rated capacity (excluding plants that were idle for the entire year). Five companies — Koch Nitrogen Co.; Terra Industries Inc.; CF Industries Inc.; PCS Nitrogen Inc. and Agrium Inc., in descending order — accounted for 80 percent of the total U.S. ammonia production capacity. U.S. production was estimated to be 7.7 Mt (8.5 million st) of nitrogen (N) content in 2009 compared with 7.85 Mt (8.65 million st) of N content in 2008. Apparent consumption was estimated to have decreased to 12.1 Mt (13.3 million st) of N, a 10-percent decrease from 2008. The United States was the world's fourth-ranked ammonia producer and consumer following China, India and Russia. Urea, ammonium nitrate, ammonium phosphates, nitric acid and ammonium sulfate were the major derivatives of ammonia in the United States, in descending order of importance.

  3. Enhanced nitrogen and phosphorus removal from eutrophic lake water by Ipomoea aquatica with low-energy ion implantation.

    PubMed

    Li, Miao; Wu, Yue-Jin; Yu, Zeng-Liang; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Yu, Han-Qing

    2009-03-01

    Ipomoea aquatica with low-energy N+ ion implantation was used for the removal of both nitrogen and phosphorus from the eutrophic Chaohu Lake, China. The biomass growth, nitrate reductase and peroxidase activities of the implanted I. aquatica were found to be higher than those of I. aquatica without ion implantation. Higher NO3-N and PO4-P removal efficiencies were obtained for the I. aquatica irradiation at 25 keV, 3.9 x 10(16) N+ ions/cm(2) and 20 keV 5.2 x 10(16) N+ ions/cm(2), respectively (p < 0.05). Moreover, the nitrogen and phosphorus contents in the plant biomass with ion implantation were also greater than those of the controls. I. aquatica with ion implantation was directly responsible for 51-68% N removal and 54-71% P removal in the three experiments. The results further confirm that the ion implantation could enhance the growth potential of I. aquatica in real eutrophic water and increase its nutrient removal efficiency. Thus, the low-energy ion implantation for aquatic plants could be considered as an approach for in situ phytoremediation and bioremediation of eutrophic waters.

  4. Atmospheric deposition of inorganic nitrogen in Spanish forests of Quercus ilex measured with ion-exchange resins and conventional collectors

    Treesearch

    Héctor García-Gomez; Sheila Izquieta-Rojano; Laura Aguillaume; Ignacio González-Fernández; Fernando Valiño; David Elustondo; Jesús M. Santamaría; Anna Àvila; Mark E. Fenn; Rocío Alonso

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen deposition is one of the main threats for biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Measurement techniques like ion-exchange resin collectors (IECs), which are less expensive and time-consuming than conventional methods, are gaining relevance in the study of atmospheric deposition and are recommended to expand monitoring networks. In the present work...

  5. The influence of nitrogen ion implantation on the tribological properties of piston rings made of Hardox and Raex steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budzyński, P.; Kamiński, M.; Pyszniak, K.

    2016-09-01

    The implantation of nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen can be used for enhancing the tribological properties of critical components for internal combustion engines. Hardox and Raex steels have very similar strength parameters as for steel used for piston rings in internal combustion engines. An essential criterion when selecting material for the production of piston rings is a low friction factor and a low wear index. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which these parameters can be enhanced by nitrogen ion implantation. Samples were implanted with nitrogen ions with 65 keV energy and the fluence of implanted ions set to 1.1017 N + /cm2. Friction and wear measurements were performed on a pin-on disc stand. The results demonstrate that implantation with nitrogen ions significantly reduces the friction factor and wear of Hardox 450 and Raex 400 steels. Implantation can and should be used for enhancing the tribological properties of steel used for friction elements in internal combustion engines, particularly when heat treatment is excluded. Final elements can be subjected to implantation, as the process does not change their dimensions.

  6. Sensitivity of Nematode Life-History Groups to Ions and Osmotic Tensions of Nitrogenous Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Tenuta, Mario; Ferris, Howard

    2004-01-01

    Guild designation of nematodes of similar trophic function and life-history strategy provides a basis for using nematode faunal analyses in an integrative assessment of soil food web condition. Omnivorous and predaceous nematodes, categorized at the upper end of a colonizer-persister (c-p) continuum of nematode functional guilds are generally not abundant in cropped soil. These nematodes are more sensitive to heavy metal concentrations than those in other c-p groups, but whether sensitivity to agrochemicals contributes to the observed low abundance of high c-p groups in cropped soils is less well understood. An exposure assay in solution was used to compare the sensitivity of nematodes representing various guilds obtained from field soils and from laboratory culture to several nitrogen sources. Nematodes in c-p groups 4 and 5 were more sensitive to nitrogen solutions than nematodes representing lower c-p groups. There were both osmotic and specific ion effects—the latter most evident in exposure of nematodes to NaNO₂ and (NH₄)₂SO₄. The RC₅₀ (concentration resulting in nematode recovery of one half of that of distilled water) for (NH₄)₂SO₄ was < 0.052 M-N for c-p groups 4 and 5 compared to much greater values (0.34 to 0.81 M-N) for c-p groups 1 to 3. In non-ionic polyethylene glycol (PEG) solutions, osmotic tensions of 0.40 to 0.43 MPa reduced the recovery of exposed nematodes by half (RT₅₀; water potential of solution resulting in nematode recovery of one half of that of distilled water) for c-p groups 4 and 5 compared to > 1.93 MPa for c-p groups 1 to 3. RT₅₀ values for urea solutions, also non-ionic, were greater than for PEG. Caenorhabditis elegans N2 (c-p 1) and Meloidogyne javanica (c-p 3) reared on solid medium and in hydroponic culture, respectively, were slightly more sensitive to specific ion and osmotic effects than nematodes of similar c-p groups obtained from soil. The greater sensitivity of c-p 4 and 5 nematodes to nitrogen

  7. Distribution of species and Ga–N bonds in silicon co-implanted with gallium and nitrogen ions

    SciTech Connect

    Surodin, S. I. Nikolitchev, D. E.; Kryukov, R. N.; Belov, A. I.; Korolev, D. S.; Mikhaylov, A. N.; Tetelbaum, D. I.

    2016-06-17

    The concentration profiles of species in silicon subjected to gallium and nitrogen co-implantation and subsequent annealing have been investigated by the method of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy combined with the layer-by-layer ion etching of the implanted layer. It is shown that practically entire implanted gallium undergoes out-diffusion, but the preliminary implantation of nitrogen for the synthesis of a barrier SiN{sub x} layer makes it possible to avoid the essential loss of gallium. In this case, about 14 % of implanted gallium bond to nitrogen. The obtained data are discussed from the viewpoint of the possibility of ion synthesis of GaN inclusions in silicon matrix.

  8. Nitrogen-doped carbon/graphene hybrid anode material for sodium-ion batteries with excellent rate capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huan; Jia, Mengqiu; Cao, Bin; Chen, Renjie; Lv, Xinying; Tang, Renjie; Wu, Feng; Xu, Bin

    2016-07-01

    Nitrogen-doped carbon/graphene (NCG) hybrid materials were prepared by an in-situ polymerization and followed pyrolysis for sodium-ion batteries. The NCG has a large interlayer distance (0.360 nm) and a high nitrogen content of 7.54 at%, resulting in a high reversible sodium storage capacity of 336 mAh g-1 at 30 mA g-1. The NCG shows a sandwich-like structure, i.e. nitrogen-doped carbon nanosheets closely coated on both sides of graphene. The carbon nanosheets shorten the ion diffusion distance, while the sandwiched graphene with high electronic conductivity guarantees fast electron transport, making the NCG exhibit excellent rate capability (94 mAh g-1 at 5 A g-1). It also exhibits good cycle stability with a capacity retention of 89% after 200 cycles at 50 mA g-1.

  9. Doubly excited states of molecular nitrogen by scattered electron-ion coincidence measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Karin; Hasegawa, Toru; Sakai, Yasuhiro

    2017-03-01

    Scattered electron-ion coincidence measurements were performed on molecular nitrogen (N2) to study the relaxation dynamics of doubly excited states. Doubly excited states are typically so unstable that they result in either auto-ionization or a neutral dissociation. In auto-ionization, ionization and dissociation typically occur. Using a mixed-gas method, we determined the absolute values of the generalized oscillator strength (GOS) distributions using an incident electron energy of 200 eV and a scattering angle of 6°. The GOS distributions of N2+ and N+ were determined by combining the coincidence ion signals, which revealed some doubly excited states of N2. Since electron impact experiments can provide information on optically forbidden transitions, the contribution of optically forbidden states appears in the GOS distributions of both N2+ and N+. We observed auto-ionization and dissociative auto-ionization induced by excitation to the optically forbidden doubly excited states in the range of 30-40 eV.

  10. Ion beam deposition of DLC and nitrogen doped DLC thin films for enhanced haemocompatibility on PTFE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, S.; Tang, Y.; Li, Y. S.; Yang, Q.; Hirose, A.

    2012-08-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) and N-doped DLC (DLC:N) thin films have been synthesized on polytetrafluroethylene (PTFE) and silicon wafers using ion beam deposition. Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the structural and morphological properties of the coated surface. The results show that the ion beam deposited DLC thin films exhibit high hardness and Young's modulus, low coefficient of friction and high adhesion to the substrate. Low concentration of nitrogen doping in DLC improves the mechanical properties and reduces the surface roughness. DLC coating decreases the surface energy and improves the wettability of PTFE. The platelet adhesion results show that the haemocompatibility of DLC coated PTFE, especially DLC:N coated PTFE, has been significantly enhanced as compared with uncoated PTFE. SEM observations show that the platelet reaction on the DLC and DLC:N coated PTFE was minimized as the platelets were much less aggregated and activated.

  11. Scintillation efficiency for low energy nuclear recoils in liquid xenon dark matter detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Wei; Xiong, Xiaonu; Ji, Xiangdong

    2015-02-01

    We perform a theoretical study of the scintillation efficiency of the low energy region crucial for liquid xenon dark matter detectors. We develop a computer program to simulate the cascading process of the recoiling xenon nucleus in liquid xenon and calculate the nuclear quenching effect due to atomic collisions. We use the electronic stopping power extrapolated from experimental data to the low energy region, and take into account the effects of electron escape from electron-ion pair recombination using the generalized Thomas-Imel model fitted to scintillation data. Our result agrees well with the experiments from neutron scattering and vanishes rapidly as the recoil energy drops below 3 keV.

  12. Reliability, detection limit and depth resolution of the elastic recoil measurement of hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisao, Nagai; Shigeki, Hayashi; Michi, Aratani; Tadashi, Nozaki; Minoru, Yanokura; Isao, Kohno; Osamu, Kuboi; Yoshifumi, Yatsurugi

    1987-08-01

    Reliability, detection limit and depth resolution were studied in the elastic recoil measurement of hydrogen mainly in silicon compounds by bombardment with argon ions accelerated up to 50 MeV. For the quantitative determination of hydrogen, recoil silicon atoms proved to serve satisfactorily as an internal monitor. The detection limit was shown to be about 1 to 2×10 12 (atoms/cm 2 for hydrogen on surface and about 1 wt. ppm for hydrogen in bulk. The depth resolution was found to be about 50 nm in most silicon compounds.

  13. Enhancement of nitrogen and phosphorus removal from eutrophic water by economic plant annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) with ion implantation.

    PubMed

    Li, Miao; Sheng, Guo-ping; Wu, Yue-jin; Yu, Zeng-liang; Bañuelos, Gary S; Yu, Han-qing

    2014-01-01

    Severe eutrophication of surface water has been a major problem of increasing environmental concern worldwide. In the present study, economic plant annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) was grown in floating mats as an economic plant-based treatment system to evaluate its potential after ion implantation for removing nutrients in simulated eutrophic water. The specific weight growth rate of L. multiflorum with ion implantation was significantly greater than that of the control, and the peroxidase, nitrate reductase, and acid phosphatase activities of the irradiated L. multiflorum were found to be greater than those plants without ion implantation. Higher total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiencies were obtained for the L. multiflorum irradiated with 25 keV 5.2 × 10(16) N(+) ions/cm(2) and 30 keV 4.16 × 10(16) N(+) ions/cm(2), respectively (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the nitrogen and phosphorus contents in the plant biomass with ion implantation were also greater than those in the control and were positively correlated with TN and TP supplied. L. multiflorum itself was directly responsible for 39-49 and 47-58 % of the overall N and P removal in the experiment, respectively. The research results suggested that ion implantation could become a promising approach for increasing phytoremediation efficiency of nutrients from eutrophic water by L. multiflorum.

  14. Rutherford forward scattering and elastic recoil detection (RFSERD) as a method for characterizing ultra-thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Lohn, Andrew J.; Doyle, Barney L.; Stein, Gregory J.; Mickel, Patrick R.; Stevens, Jim E.; Marinella, Matthew J.

    2014-04-03

    We present a novel ion beam analysis technique combining Rutherford forward scattering and elastic recoil detection (RFSERD) and demonstrate its ability to increase efficiency in determining stoichiometry in ultrathin (5-50 nm) films as compared to Rutherford backscattering. In the conventional forward geometries, scattering from the substrate overwhelms the signal from light atoms but in RFSERD, scattered ions from the substrate are ranged out while forward scattered ions and recoiled atoms from the thin film are simultaneously detected in a single detector. Lastly, the technique is applied to tantalum oxide memristors but can be extended to a wide range of materials systems.

  15. Rutherford forward scattering and elastic recoil detection (RFSERD) as a method for characterizing ultra-thin films

    DOE PAGES

    Lohn, Andrew J.; Doyle, Barney L.; Stein, Gregory J.; ...

    2014-04-03

    We present a novel ion beam analysis technique combining Rutherford forward scattering and elastic recoil detection (RFSERD) and demonstrate its ability to increase efficiency in determining stoichiometry in ultrathin (5-50 nm) films as compared to Rutherford backscattering. In the conventional forward geometries, scattering from the substrate overwhelms the signal from light atoms but in RFSERD, scattered ions from the substrate are ranged out while forward scattered ions and recoiled atoms from the thin film are simultaneously detected in a single detector. Lastly, the technique is applied to tantalum oxide memristors but can be extended to a wide range of materialsmore » systems.« less

  16. The impact of gas-surface reactions on mass spectrometric measurements of atomic nitrogen. [determination of atmosphere ion sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engebretson, M. J.; Mauersberger, K.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents a simplified model of the ion source chemistry, explains several details of the data reduction method used in obtaining atomic-nitrogen (N) densities from OSS data, and discusses implications of gas-surface reactions for the design of future satellite-borne mass spectrometers. Because of various surface reactions, N appears in three different forms in the ion source, as N, NO, and NO2. Considering the rather small spin modulation of NO and NO2 in the semi-open ionization chamber used in the OSS instrument, it is not surprising that these reaction products have not been previously identified in closed source instruments as a measure of the presence of atomic nitrogen. Warmup and/or outgassing of the ion source are shown to drastically reduce the NO2 concentration, thereby making possible reliable measurement of ambient N densities.

  17. The impact of gas-surface reactions on mass spectrometric measurements of atomic nitrogen. [determination of atmosphere ion sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engebretson, M. J.; Mauersberger, K.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents a simplified model of the ion source chemistry, explains several details of the data reduction method used in obtaining atomic-nitrogen (N) densities from OSS data, and discusses implications of gas-surface reactions for the design of future satellite-borne mass spectrometers. Because of various surface reactions, N appears in three different forms in the ion source, as N, NO, and NO2. Considering the rather small spin modulation of NO and NO2 in the semi-open ionization chamber used in the OSS instrument, it is not surprising that these reaction products have not been previously identified in closed source instruments as a measure of the presence of atomic nitrogen. Warmup and/or outgassing of the ion source are shown to drastically reduce the NO2 concentration, thereby making possible reliable measurement of ambient N densities.

  18. Annealing Behavior of Ion-implanted Nitrogen in D9 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunkumar, J.; David, C.; Nair, K. G. M.; Magudapathy, P.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Kennedy, John

    2011-07-01

    Nitrogen isotope N15 was implanted at the sub-surface of D9 steel. The resonance nuclear reaction analysis was used to probe the implanted nitrogen as a function of depth. The as-implanted D9 sample was isochronally annealed and by observing the broadening of nitrogen depth profile at various annealing junctures, activation energy for nitrogen diffusion in steel was deduced.

  19. Angular Distribution and Recoil Effect for 1 MeV Au+ Ions through a Si3N4 Thin Foil

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Ke; Zhu, Zihua; Manandhar, Sandeep; Liu, Jia; Chen, Chien-Hung; Shutthanandan, V.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Weber, William J.; Zhang, Yanwen

    2014-03-18

    The Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) code has been widely used to predict nuclear stopping power and angular distribution of ion-solid collisions. However, experimental validation of the predictions is insufficient for slow heavy ions in nonmetallic compounds. In this work, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is applied to determine the angular distribution of 1 MeV Au ions after penetrating a Si3N4 foil with a thickness of ~100 nm. The exiting Au ions are collected by a Si wafer located ~14 mm behind the Si3N4 foil, and the resulting 2-dimensional distribution of Au ions on the Si wafer is measured by ToF-SIMS. The SRIM-predicted angular distribution of Au ions through the Si3N4 thin foil is compared with the measured results, indicating that SRIM slightly overestimates the nuclear stopping power by up to 10%. In addition, thickness reduction of the suspended Si3N4 foils induced by 1 MeV Au ion irradiation is observed with an average loss rate of ~107 atom/ion.

  20. Effects of nitrogen ion implantation time on tungsten films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering on AISI 410 martensitic stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Malau, Viktor Ilman, Mochammad Noer Iswanto, Priyo Tri Jatisukamto, Gaguk

    2016-03-29

    Nitrogen ion implantation time on tungsten thin film deposited on surface of AISI 410 steel has been performed. Tungsten thin film produced by dc magnetron sputtering method was deposited on AISI 410 martensitic stainless steel substrates, and then the nitrogen ions were implanted on tungsten thin film. The objective of this research is to investigate the effects of implantation deposition time on surface roughness, microhardness, specific wear and corrosion rate of nitrogen implanted on tungsten film. Magnetron sputtering process was performed by using plasma gas of argon (Ar) to bombardier tungsten target (W) in a vacuum chamber with a pressure of 7.6 x 10{sup −2} torr, a voltage of 300 V, a sputter current of 80 mA for sputtered time of 10 minutes. Nitrogen implantation on tungsten film was done with an initial pressure of 3x10{sup −6} mbar, a fluence of 2 x 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2}, an energy of 100 keV and implantation deposition times of 0, 20, 30 and 40 minutes. The surface roughness, microhardness, specific wear and corrosion rate of the films were evaluated by surfcorder test, Vickers microhardness test, wear test and potentiostat (galvanostat) test respectively. The results show that the nitrogen ions implanted deposition time on tungsten film can modify the surface roughness, microhardness, specific wear and corrosion rate. The minimum surface roughness, specific wear and corrosion rate can be obtained for implantation time of 20 minutes and the maximum microhardness of the film is 329 VHN (Vickers Hardness Number) for implantation time of 30 minutes. The specific wear and corrosion rate of the film depend directly on the surface roughness.

  1. Effects of nitrogen ion implantation time on tungsten films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering on AISI 410 martensitic stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malau, Viktor; Ilman, Mochammad Noer; Iswanto, Priyo Tri; Jatisukamto, Gaguk

    2016-03-01

    Nitrogen ion implantation time on tungsten thin film deposited on surface of AISI 410 steel has been performed. Tungsten thin film produced by dc magnetron sputtering method was deposited on AISI 410 martensitic stainless steel substrates, and then the nitrogen ions were implanted on tungsten thin film. The objective of this research is to investigate the effects of implantation deposition time on surface roughness, microhardness, specific wear and corrosion rate of nitrogen implanted on tungsten film. Magnetron sputtering process was performed by using plasma gas of argon (Ar) to bombardier tungsten target (W) in a vacuum chamber with a pressure of 7.6 x 10-2 torr, a voltage of 300 V, a sputter current of 80 mA for sputtered time of 10 minutes. Nitrogen implantation on tungsten film was done with an initial pressure of 3x10-6 mbar, a fluence of 2 x 1017 ions/cm2, an energy of 100 keV and implantation deposition times of 0, 20, 30 and 40 minutes. The surface roughness, microhardness, specific wear and corrosion rate of the films were evaluated by surfcorder test, Vickers microhardness test, wear test and potentiostat (galvanostat) test respectively. The results show that the nitrogen ions implanted deposition time on tungsten film can modify the surface roughness, microhardness, specific wear and corrosion rate. The minimum surface roughness, specific wear and corrosion rate can be obtained for implantation time of 20 minutes and the maximum microhardness of the film is 329 VHN (Vickers Hardness Number) for implantation time of 30 minutes. The specific wear and corrosion rate of the film depend directly on the surface roughness.

  2. The origin of the enhanced performance of nitrogen-doped MoS2 in lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiuhong; Weijun, Xia; Wu, Zhenjun; Huo, Jia; Liu, Dongdong; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Shuangyin

    2016-04-29

    MoS2 with a similar layered structure to graphene has been widely applied in various areas including lithium ion batteries. However, low conductivity, capacity fading and poor rate performance are still the main challenges for MoS2 anode materials. In this work, for the first time, we prepared nitrogen-doped MoS2 (N-MoS2) nanosheets through a simple two-step method involving the preparation of MoS2 with defects by the hydrothermal method, followed by sintering in a NH3 atmosphere. Our electrochemical characterizations and density functional theory calculations demonstrated that nitrogen doping could enhance the electron conductivity and showed higher specific capacity than pristine MoS2 as anode materials of lithium ion batteries, which can be attributed to the faster transportation of electrons and ions because of nitrogen doping. This work helps us understand the origin of the enhanced performance of N-doped MoS2 in lithium ion batteries.

  3. Improvement in wear performance of surgical Ti-6Al-4V alloy by ion implantation of nitrogen or carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.M.; Buchanan, R.A.; Rigney, E.D. Jr.

    1985-06-01

    The effects of ion implantations of either nitrogen or carbon on the corrosive-wear performance of surgical Ti-6A1-4V alloy were investigated. In vitro tests made use of an apparatus which could produce certain chemical and mechanical aspects of a sliding interface such as that which occurs between alloy and polyethylene components of an artificial hip (or knee) joint. Cylindrical samples of the Ti alloy were rotated between loaded, conforming pads made of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) while these test components were immersed either in a saline solution or a saline solution with bovine serum added. During the tests open-circuit corrosion currents for the alloy were measured by the Tafel extrapolation technique. Profilometry studies were done before and after the tests. Alloy samples implanted with either nitrogen or carbon remained as-new for all test conditions. Unimplanted control samples were severely scored. Corrosion currents as measured under the mechanical action were reduced by a factor of approximately one hundred by the ion implantation treatments. It is concluded that nitrogen or carbon ion implantation produces a marked improvement in the corrosive wear performance of the alloy in these tests. It is inferred that abrasive wear is the dominant mechanism of material removal. In addition, apparently owing to reduction of wear debris in the sliding interface, ion treatment of the alloy greatly improves wear performance of the mating UHMWPE component. 11 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Proton recoil scintillator neutron rem meter

    DOEpatents

    Olsher, Richard H.; Seagraves, David T.

    2003-01-01

    A neutron rem meter utilizing proton recoil and thermal neutron scintillators to provide neutron detection and dose measurement. In using both fast scintillators and a thermal neutron scintillator the meter provides a wide range of sensitivity, uniform directional response, and uniform dose response. The scintillators output light to a photomultiplier tube that produces an electrical signal to an external neutron counter.

  5. Study of the effects of E × B fields as mechanism to carbon-nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation on stainless steel samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillaca, E. J. D. M.; Ueda, M.; Oliveira, R. M.; Pichon, L.

    2014-08-01

    Effects of E × B fields as mechanism to carbon-nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) have been investigated. This magnetic configuration when used in PIII allows obtaining high nitrogen plasma density close to the ion implantation region. Consequently, high ions dose on the target is possible to be achieved compared with standard PIII. In this scenario, nitrogen and carbon ions were implanted simultaneously on stainless steel, as measured by GDOES and detected by X-ray diffraction. Carbon-tape disposed on the sample-holder was sputtered by intense bombardment of nitrogen ions, being the source of carbon atoms in this experiment. The implantation of both N and C caused changes on sample morphology and improvement of the tribological properties of the stainless steel.

  6. Atmospheric deposition of inorganic nitrogen in Spanish forests of Quercus ilex measured with ion-exchange resins and conventional collectors.

    PubMed

    García-Gomez, Héctor; Izquieta-Rojano, Sheila; Aguillaume, Laura; González-Fernández, Ignacio; Valiño, Fernando; Elustondo, David; Santamaría, Jesús M; Àvila, Anna; Fenn, Mark E; Alonso, Rocío

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen deposition is one of the main threats for biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Measurement techniques like ion-exchange resin collectors (IECs), which are less expensive and time-consuming than conventional methods, are gaining relevance in the study of atmospheric deposition and are recommended to expand monitoring networks. In the present work, bulk and throughfall deposition of inorganic nitrogen were monitored in three different holm oak forests in Spain during two years. The results obtained with IECs were contrasted with a conventional technique using bottle collectors and with a literature review of similar studies. The performance of IECs in comparison with the conventional method was good for measuring bulk deposition of nitrate and acceptable for ammonium and total dissolved inorganic nitrogen. Mean annual bulk deposition of inorganic nitrogen ranged 3.09-5.43 kg N ha(-1) according to IEC methodology, and 2.42-6.83 kg N ha(-1) y(-1) using the conventional method. Intra-annual variability of the net throughfall deposition of nitrogen measured with the conventional method revealed the existence of input pulses of nitrogen into the forest soil after dry periods, presumably originated from the washing of dry deposition accumulated in the canopy. Important methodological recommendations on the IEC method and discussed, compiled and summarized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Improvements of the DRAGON recoil separator at ISAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vockenhuber, C.; Buchmann, L.; Caggiano, J.; Chen, A. A.; D'Auria, J. M.; Davis, C. A.; Greife, U.; Hussein, A.; Hutcheon, D. A.; Ottewell, D.; Ouellet, C. O.; Parikh, A.; Pearson, J.; Ruiz, C.; Ruprecht, G.; Trinczek, M.; Zylberberg, J.

    2008-10-01

    The DRAGON (Detector of Recoils And Gammas Of Nuclear reactions) is used to measure radiative proton and alpha capture reaction rates involving both stable and radioactive, heavy-ion reactants at the TRIUMF-ISAC high intensity radioactive beam facility. Completed in 2001 it has been used for several challenging studies for nuclear astrophysics, e.g. 12C(α, γ)16O, 21Na(p, γ)22Mg, 26gAl(p, γ)27Si and 40Ca(α, γ)44Ti. Since initial operation, a number of improvements have been incorporated which are described here. These include a beam centering monitor based on a CCD camera, a mechanical iris to skim of beam halo, a solid state stripper acting as a charge state booster for beams with A ≳ 30, beta and gamma detectors to monitor beam intensity and to determine beam contamination in experiments with radioactive beam and the ionization chamber for both recoil identification and isobar separation.

  8. Optical recoil of asymmetric nano-optical antenna.

    PubMed

    Song, Jung-Hwan; Shin, Jonghwa; Lim, Hee-Jin; Lee, Yong-Hee

    2011-08-01

    We propose nano-optical antennas with asymmetric radiation patterns as light-driven mechanical recoil force generators. Directional antennas are found to generate recoil force efficiently when driven in the spectral proximity of their resonances. It is also shown that the recoil force is equivalent to the Poynting vector integrated over a closed sphere containing the antenna structures.

  9. Physical properties of nitrogenated amorphous carbon films produced by ion-beam-assisted deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Francois; Andre, Bernard; Veen, A. Van; Mijnarends, P. E.; Schut, H.; Labohm, F.; Delplancke, Marie Paule; Dunlop, Hugh; Anger, Eric

    1994-12-01

    Carbon films with up to 32 at.% N (a-C:N) have been prepared using an ion-beam-assisted magnetron, with an N2(+) beam at energies between 50 and 300 eV. The composition and density of the films vary strongly with the deposition parameters. Electron energy loss spectroscopy shows that these a-C:N films are mostly graphitic with up to 20% C Sp3 bonding. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and neutron depth profiling show that the density goes through a maximum as the average deposited energy per unit depth increases. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that nitrogen is mostly combined with carbon in triple (C(triple bond)N and double (C=N) bonds. Positron annihilation spectroscopy shows that the void concentration in the films goes through a minimum with deposited energy. These results are consistent with a densification induced by the collisions at low deposited energy, and damage-induced graphitization at high deposited energy values.

  10. Amorphous Phosphorus/Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Paper for Ultrastable Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Wang, Xi; Liang, Qifeng; Liu, Xizheng; Weng, Qunhong; Liu, Jiangwei; Yang, Yijun; Dai, Zhonghua; Ding, Kejian; Bando, Yoshio; Tang, Jie; Golberg, Dmitri

    2016-03-09

    As the most promising anode material for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs), elemental phosphorus (P) has recently gained a lot of interest due to its extraordinary theoretical capacity of 2596 mAh/g. The main drawback of a P anode is its low conductivity and rapid structural degradation caused by the enormous volume expansion (>490%) during cycling. Here, we redesigned the anode structure by using an innovative methodology to fabricate flexible paper made of nitrogen-doped graphene and amorphous phosphorus that effectively tackles this problem. The restructured anode exhibits an ultrastable cyclic performance and excellent rate capability (809 mAh/g at 1500 mA/g). The excellent structural integrity of the novel anode was further visualized during cycling by using in situ experiments inside a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), and the associated sodiation/desodiation mechanism was also thoroughly investigated. Finally, density functional theory (DFT) calculations confirmed that the N-doped graphene not only contributes to an increase in capacity for sodium storage but also is beneficial in regards to improved rate performance of the anode.

  11. Application of nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation to titanium nasal implants with nanonetwork surface structure

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Ying-Sui; Yang, Wei-En; Zhang, Lan; Zhu, Hongqin; Lan, Ming-Ying; Lee, Sheng-Wei; Huang, Her-Hsiung

    2016-07-15

    In nasal reconstruction, the response of cells to titanium (Ti) implants is mainly determined by surface features of the implant. In a pilot study, the authors applied electrochemical anodization to Ti surfaces in an alkaline solution to create a network of nanoscale surface structures. This nanonetwork was intended to enhance the responses of primary human nasal epithelial cell (HNEpC) to the Ti surface. In this study, the authors then treated the anodized, nanonetwork-structured Ti surface using nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation (NPIII) in order to further improve the HNEpC response to the Ti surface. Subsequently, surface characterization was performed to elucidate morphology, roughness, wettability, and chemistry of specimens. Cytotoxicity, blood, and HNEpC responses were also evaluated. Our results demonstrate that NPIII treatment led to the formation of a noncytotoxic TiN-containing thin film (thickness <100 nm) on the electrochemically anodized Ti surface with a nanonetwork-structure. NPIII treatment was shown to improve blood clotting and the adhesion of platelets to the anodized Ti surface as well as the adhesion and proliferation of hNEpC. This research spreads our understanding of the fact that a TiN-containing thin film, produced using NPIII treatment, could be used to improve blood and HNEpC responses to anodized, nanonetwork-structured Ti surfaces in nasal implant applications.

  12. Annealing Behavior of Ion-implanted Nitrogen in D9 Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Arunkumar, J.; David, C.; Nair, K. G. M.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Magudapathy, P.; Kennedy, John

    2011-07-15

    Nitrogen isotope N{sup 15} was implanted at the sub-surface of D9 steel. The resonance nuclear reaction analysis was used to probe the implanted nitrogen as a function of depth. The as-implanted D9 sample was isochronally annealed and by observing the broadening of nitrogen depth profile at various annealing junctures, activation energy for nitrogen diffusion in steel was deduced.

  13. Nitrogen oxides and carbon chain oxides formed after ion irradiation of CO:N2 ice mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicilia, D.; Ioppolo, S.; Vindigni, T.; Baratta, G. A.; Palumbo, M. E.

    2012-07-01

    Context. High CO depletion as well as depletion of N-bearing species is observed in dense pre-stellar cores. It is generally accepted that depleted species freeze out onto dust grains to form icy mantles and that these ices suffer energetic processing due to cosmic ion irradiation and ion-induced UV photons. Aims: The aim of this work is to study the chemical and structural effects induced by ion irradiation on different CO:N2 mixtures at low temperature (16 K) to simulate the effects of cosmic ion irradiation of icy mantles. Methods: Different CO:N2 mixtures and pure CO and pure N2 were irradiated with 200 keV H+ at 16 K. Infrared transmittance spectra of the samples were obtained in situ before and after irradiation. The samples were warmed up and spectra were taken at different temperatures. The residues left over on the substrate at room temperature were analysed ex situ by micro Raman spectroscopy. Results: Several new absorption features are present in the infrared spectra after irradiation, indicating that new species are formed. The most abundant are nitrogen oxides (such as NO, NO2 and N2O), carbon chain oxides (such as C2O, C3O and C3O2), carbon chains (such as C3 and C6), O3 and N3. A refractory residue is also formed after ion irradiation and is clearly detected by Raman spectroscopy. Conclusions: We suggest that carbon chains and nitrogen oxides observed in the gas phase towards star-forming regions are formed in the solid phase after cosmic ion irradiation of icy grain mantles and are released into the gas phase after desorption of grain mantles. We expect that the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), thanks to its high sensitivity and resolution, will increase the number of nitrogen oxides and carbon chain oxides detected towards star-forming regions.

  14. Reduction of ion transport and turbulence via dilution with nitrogen and neon injection in C-Mod deuterium plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porkolab, M.; Ennever, P.; Baek, S. G.; Creely, A. J.; Edlund, E. M.; Hughes, J.; Rice, J. E.; Rost, J. C.; White, A. E.; Reinke, M. L.; Staebler, G.; Candy, J.; Alcator C-Mod Team

    2016-10-01

    Recent experiments on C-Mod ohmic plasmas and gyrokinetic studies indicated that dilution of deuterium plasmas by injection of nitrogen decreased the ion diffusivity and may also alter the direction of intrinsic toroidal rotation. Simulations with TGLF and GYRO showed that dilution of deuterium ions in low density (LOC) plasmas increased the critical ion temperature gradient, while in high density (SOC) plasmas it decreased the stiffness. The density fluctuation spectrum measured in low q95 plasmas with Phase Contrast Imaging (PCI), and corroborated with spatially localized reflectometer measurements show a reduction of turbulence near r/a = 0.8 with kρs <= 1, in agreement with modeling predictions in this region where the ion turbulence is well above marginal stability. Measurements also indicate that reversal of the toroidal rotation direction near the SOC-LOC transition may depend on ion collisionality rather than that of electrons. New experiments with neon seeding, which may be more relevant to ITER than with nitrogen seeding, show similar results. The impact of dilution on Te turbulence as measured with CECE diagnostic will also be presented. Supported by US DOE Awards DE-FG02-94-ER54235 and DE-FC02-99-ER54512.

  15. High density nitrogen-vacancy sensing surface created via He{sup +} ion implantation of {sup 12}C diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinsasser, Ed E.; Stanfield, Matthew M.; Banks, Jannel K. Q.; Zhu, Zhouyang; Li, Wen-Di; Acosta, Victor M.; Watanabe, Hideyuki; Itoh, Kohei M.; Fu, Kai-Mei C.

    2016-05-16

    We present a promising method for creating high-density ensembles of nitrogen-vacancy centers with narrow spin-resonances for high-sensitivity magnetic imaging. Practically, narrow spin-resonance linewidths substantially reduce the optical and RF power requirements for ensemble-based sensing. The method combines isotope purified diamond growth, in situ nitrogen doping, and helium ion implantation to realize a 100 nm-thick sensing surface. The obtained 10{sup 17 }cm{sup −3} nitrogen-vacancy density is only a factor of 10 less than the highest densities reported to date, with an observed 200 kHz spin resonance linewidth over 10 times narrower.

  16. Hierarchical porous nitrogen doped carbon derived from horn comb as anode for sodium-ion storage with high performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Junke; Yang, Lin; Xi, Xianghui

    2017-01-01

    Horn comb, an abundant biomass waste, has been successfully converted into a hierarchical porous nitrogen doped carbon (HPNDC) via a simple and costeffective approach. Tested as anode for sodium ion batteries (SIBs), horn comb derived carbon shows good rate capability and cycling stability, delivering a high initial charge capacity of 400 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1, retaining a reversible capacity of 112 mAh g-1 at 5 A g-1, and exhibiting a capacity of 241 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1 after 100 cycles. These superior electrochemical performances can be ascribed to its unique hierarchical pore structure combined with appropriate nitrogen doping effects. We believe that our works will be helpful in promoting the development of high-rate and low-cost sodium ion batteries for large-scale energy storage systems. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Changes in the structure and wear resistance of the surface layer of copper under treatment by nitrogen ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Sergeev, Victor P. E-mail: kmp1980@mail.ru; Kalashnikov, Mark P. E-mail: kmp1980@mail.ru; Rybalko, Evgeniya V. E-mail: alfred-1972@mail.ru E-mail: zhastas@mail.ru; Sungatulin, Alfred R. E-mail: alfred-1972@mail.ru E-mail: zhastas@mail.ru; Sergeev, Oleg V. E-mail: alfred-1972@mail.ru E-mail: zhastas@mail.ru; Zharkov, Stanislav Yu. E-mail: alfred-1972@mail.ru E-mail: zhastas@mail.ru

    2014-11-14

    The structural-phase state of the treated sample surface was investigated by TEM. It was shown by the TEM and VIMS method that the improvement of tribological properties of the copper samples can be associated with an increase of relaxation ability due to a significant increase of the nitrogen concentration in it, which is accompanied by the refinement of fcc-Cu main phase grain structure and the formation of nanopores or gas bubbles in the ion-modified surface layer. A high-dose implantation of nitrogen ions and copper samples increases the wear resistance in 1.5-4.5 times together with a counterbody from the same material in the argon environment. The microhardness of the copper samples also increases.

  18. Titanium and zirconium based alloys modified by intensive plastic deformation and nitrogen ion implantation for biocompatible implants.

    PubMed

    Byeli, A V; Kukareko, V A; Kononov, A G

    2012-02-01

    Titanium and zirconium alloys are considered to be promising materials for orthopaedics because of their biocompatibility with tissues. Their main drawbacks for application as implants have generally been considered to be insufficient levels of mechanical and tribological properties. In this research the influence of equal channel angular pressing and nitrogen ion implantation on the structure and properties of Ti and Zr alloys has been investigated to ensure the optimum combination of the bulk material and surface layer properties. The data obtained showed that equal channel angular pressing and nitrogen ion implantation can be efficiently used to improve bulk and surface properties of Ti and Zr based implants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Highly crystalline lithium titanium oxide sheets coated with nitrogen-doped carbon enable high-rate lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Han, Cuiping; He, Yan-Bing; Li, Baohua; Li, Hongfei; Ma, Jun; Du, Hongda; Qin, Xianying; Yang, Quan-Hong; Kang, Feiyu

    2014-09-01

    Sheets of Li4Ti5O12 with high crystallinity are coated with nitrogen-doped carbon (NC-LTO) using a controlled process, comprising hydrothermal reaction followed by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Acetonitrile (CH3 CN) vapor is used as carbon and nitrogen source to obtain a thin coating layer of nitrogen-doped carbon. The layer enables the NC-LTO material to maintain its sheet structure during the high-temperature CVD process and to achieve high crystallinity. Doping with nitrogen introduces defects into the carbon coating layer, and this increased degree of disorder allows fast transportation of lithium ions in the layer. An electrode of NC-LTO synthesized at 700 °C exhibits greatly improved rate and cycling performance due to a markedly decreased total cell resistance and enhanced Li-ion diffusion coefficient (D(Li)). Specific capacities of 159.2 and 145.8 mA h g(-1) are obtained using the NC-LTO sheets, at charge/discharge rates of 1 and 10 C, respectively. These values are much higher than values for LTO particles did not undergo the acetonitrile CVD treatment. A capacity retention value as high as 94.7% is achieved for the NC-LTO sheets after 400 cycles in a half-cell at 5 C discharge rate.

  20. Recoil Based Fuel Breeding Fuel Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Popa-Simil, Liviu

    2008-07-01

    Nuclear transmutation reactions are based on the absorption of a smaller particle as neutron, proton, deuteron, alpha, etc. The resulting compound nucleus gets out of its initial lattice mainly by taking the recoil, also with help from its sudden change in chemical properties. The recoil implantation is used in correlation with thin and ultra thin materials mainly for producing radiopharmaceuticals and ultra-thin layer radioactive tracers. In nuclear reactors, the use of nano-particulate pellets could facilitate the recoil implantation for breeding, transmutation and partitioning purposes. Using enriched {sup 238}U or {sup 232}Th leads to {sup 239}Pu and {sup 233}U production while using other actinides as {sup 240}Pu, {sup 241}Am etc. leads to actinide burning. When such a lattice is immersed into a radiation resistant fluid (water, methanol, etc.), the recoiled product is transferred into the flowing fluid and removed from the hot area using a concentrator/purifier, preventing the occurrence of secondary transmutation reactions. The simulation of nuclear collision and energy transfer shows that the impacted nucleus recoils in the interstitial space creating a defect or lives small lattices. The defect diffuses, and if no recombination occurs it stops at the lattices boundaries. The nano-grains are coated in thin layer to get a hydrophilic shell to be washed by the collection liquid the particle is immersed in. The efficiency of collection depends on particle magnitude and nuclear reaction channel parameters. For {sup 239}Pu the direct recoil extraction rate is about 70% for {sup 238}UO{sub 2} grains of 5 nm diameters and is brought up to 95% by diffusion due to {sup 239}Neptunium incompatibility with Uranium dioxide lattice. Particles of 5 nm are hard to produce so a structure using particles of 100 nm have been tested. The particles were obtained by plasma sputtering in oxygen atmosphere. A novel effect as nano-cluster radiation damage robustness and cluster

  1. Chemical state of nitrogen in a high nitrogen face-centered-cubic phase formed on plasma source ion nitrided austenitic stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, M.K.; Zhu, X.M.

    2004-09-01

    A single high nitrogen face-centered-cubic phase ({gamma}{sub N}) was formed on the plasma source ion nitrided 1Cr18Ni9Ti (18-8 type) austenitic stainless steel. Auger electron spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, in conjunction with ion beam sputtering, were used to determine the chemical composition and bonding of nitrogen in the {gamma}{sub N} phase. The chemical composition of the {gamma}{sub N} phase was shown as a formula with atomic fraction (Fe{sub 0.60},Cr{sub 0.22},Ni{sub 0.18}){sub 2}N. The {gamma}{sub N} phase possessed weaker Cr-N ionic-type bonds and stronger Fe-N ionic-type bonds, compared with the stoichiometric nitrides. The Cr 2p{sub 3sol2} binding energy was 1.1 eV lower than that of CrN and Cr{sub 2}N phases (at 575.5 eV). The chemical shift of the Fe-N bonding compared with the Fe-Fe bonding was nearly 2.1 eV. The N 1s binding energies showed that the nitrogen was in the chemical state with iron (at 396.6 eV) and chromium (at 397.7 eV). All the chromium appeared to be in the Cr-N bond. A part of iron was also observed in the nitride state, and all the nickel was contained in the metallic state.

  2. Mechanical properties of nitrogen-rich surface layers on SS304 treated by plasma immersion ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, B. B.; Mändl, S.; Oliveira, R. M.; Ueda, M.

    2014-08-01

    The formation of hard and wear resistant surface regions for austenitic stainless steel through different nitriding and nitrogen implantation processes at intermediate temperatures is an established technology. As the inserted nitrogen remains in solid solution, an expanded austenite phase is formed, accounting for these surface improvements. However, experiments on long-term behavior and exact wear processes within the expanded austenite layer are still missing. Here, the modified layers were produced using plasma immersion ion implantation with nitrogen gas and had a thickness of up to 4 μm, depending on the processing temperature. Thicker layers or those with higher surface nitrogen contents presented better wear resistance, according to detailed microscopic investigation on abrasion, plastic deformation, cracking and redeposition of material inside the wear tracks. At the same time, cyclic fatigue testing employing a nanoindenter equipped with a diamond ball was carried out at different absolute loads and relative unloadings. As the stress distribution between the modified layer and the substrate changes with increasing load, additional simulations were performed for obtaining these complex stress distributions. While high nitrogen concentration and/or thicker layers improve the wear resistance and hardness, these modifications simultaneously reduce the surface fatigue resistance.

  3. A Recoil Mass Spectrometer for the HHIRF facility

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, J.D. ); Cormier, T.M. ); Hamilton, J.H. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy)

    1989-01-01

    A Recoil Mass Spectrometer (RMS) is to be built that will carry out a broad research program in heavy-ion science. The RMS will make possible the study of otherwise inaccessible exotic nuclei. Careful attention has been given to match the RMS to all the beams available from the HHIRF accelerators, including those beams with the highest energy, as well as massive particles for use in inverse reactions. The RMS is to be a momentum achromat followed by a split electric-dipole mass spectrometer of the type operating at NSRL at the University of Rochester. The RMS is essential for many of the proposed experiments on short-lived and/or low cross-section products. The spectrometer design is discussed, with examples and comparisons with other spectrometers given. Detector arrays to be used with the RMS are also discussed. 21 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Hemocompatibility of nitrogen-doped, hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon prepared by nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation-deposition.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Sunny C H; Yang, Ping; Wang, Jin; Liu, Xuanyong; Chu, Paul K

    2004-07-01

    Amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) has been shown to be a potential material in biomedical devices such as artificial heart valves, bone implants, and so on because of its chemical inertness, low coefficient of friction, high wear resistance, and good biocompatibility. However, the biomedical characteristics such as blood compatibility of doped hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon (DLC) have not been investigated in details. We recently began to investigate the potential use of nitrogen-doped, hydrogen-free DLC in artificial heart valves. In our experiments, a series of hydrogen-free DLC films doped with nitrogen were synthesized by plasma immersion ion implantation-deposition (PIII-D) utilizing a pulsed vacuum arc plasma source and different N to Ar (FN/FAr) gas mixtures in the plasma chamber. The structures and properties of the film were evaluated by Raman spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). To assess the blood compatibility of the films and the impact on the blood compatibility by the presence of nitrogen, platelet adhesion tests were conducted. Our results indicate that the blood compatibility of both hydrogen-free carbon films (a-C) and amorphous carbon nitride films are better than that of low-temperature isotropic pyrolytic carbon (LTIC). The experimental results are consistent with the relative theory of interfacial energy and surface tension including both dispersion and polar components. Our results also indicate that an optimal fraction of sp2 bonding is desirable, but an excessively high nitrogen concentration degrades the properties to an extent that the biocompatibility can be worse than that of LTIC. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Radiative properties of molecular nitrogen ions produced by helium Penning ionization and argon effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, George, III; Song, Kyo-Dong

    1994-01-01

    The development of hypersonic aerospace vehicles requires a better understanding on the thermal and chemical nonequilibrium kinetics of participating species in shock layers. The computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes developed for such flowfields overestimate the radiation in the spectral region of 300 - 600 nm. A speculation for this overestimation is that inclusion of Ar, CO2, and H2O at the upper atmosphere flight region makes a significant impact on radiative kinetics of molecular nitrogen ions. To define the effects of minority species on the radiative kinetics of N2(+), an experimental setup was made by using the helium Penning ionization. The vibrational and rotational temperature were measured by mapping the vibrational and rotational distributions of N2(+) emission with high spectroscopic resolution and absolute intensity measurements. Measured vibrational temperatures were in the range from 18,000 to 36,000 K, and rotational temperatures were in the range from 300 to 370 K. The irradiance of 391.44 nm line and rotational and vibrational temperatures were analyzed to define argon and CO2 effects on the N2(+) emission. When Ar or CO2 is injected with N2, the rotational temperature did not change. The irradiances were reduced by 34 percent and 78 percent for the 50 percent of mixture of Ar and CO2, respectively. The vibrational temperatures were increased by 24.1 percent and 82.9 percent for the 50 percent of mixture of Ar and CO2, respectively. It appears that there are no significant effects from small concentrations of Ar and CO2 at the upper atmosphere flight region.

  6. α -decay chains of recoiled superheavy nuclei: A theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niyti, Sawhney, Gudveen; Sharma, Manoj K.; Gupta, Raj K.

    2015-05-01

    A systematic theoretical study of α -decay half-lives in the superheavy mass region of the periodic table of elements is carried out by extending the quantum-mechanical fragmentation theory based on the preformed cluster model (PCM) to include temperature (T ) dependence in its built-in preformation and penetration probabilities of decay fragments. Earlier, the α -decay chains of the isotopes of Z =115 were investigated by using the standard PCM for spontaneous decays, with"hot-optimum" orientation effects included, which required a constant scaling factor of 104 to approach the available experimental data. In the present approach of the PCM (T ≠0 ), the temperature effects are included via the recoil energy of the residual superheavy nucleus (SHN) left after x -neutron emission from the superheavy compound nucleus. The important result is that the α -decay half-lives calculated by the PCM (T ≠0 ) match the experimental data nearly exactly, without using any scaling factor of the type used in the PCM. Note that the PCM (T ≠0 ) is an equivalent of the dynamical cluster-decay model for heavy-ion collisions at angular momentum ℓ =0 . The only parameter of model is the neck-length parameter Δ R , which for the calculated half-lives of α -decay chains of various isotopes of Z =113 to 118 nuclei formed in "hot-fusion" reactions is found to be nearly constant, i.e., Δ R ≈0.95 ±0.05 fm for all the α -decay chains studied. The use of recoiled residue nucleus as a secondary heavy-ion beam for nuclear reactions has also been suggested in the past.

  7. Cavity cooling below the recoil limit.

    PubMed

    Wolke, Matthias; Klinner, Julian; Keßler, Hans; Hemmerich, Andreas

    2012-07-06

    Conventional laser cooling relies on repeated electronic excitations by near-resonant light, which constrains its area of application to a selected number of atomic species prepared at moderate particle densities. Optical cavities with sufficiently large Purcell factors allow for laser cooling schemes, avoiding these limitations. Here, we report on an atom-cavity system, combining a Purcell factor above 40 with a cavity bandwidth below the recoil frequency associated with the kinetic energy transfer in a single photon scattering event. This lets us access a yet-unexplored regime of atom-cavity interactions, in which the atomic motion can be manipulated by targeted dissipation with sub-recoil resolution. We demonstrate cavity-induced heating of a Bose-Einstein condensate and subsequent cooling at particle densities and temperatures incompatible with conventional laser cooling.

  8. Skyrmion recoil in pion-nucleon scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, J. Physics Department, University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 ); Mathews, G.J. )

    1992-08-01

    We calculate the lowest-order recoil corrections to the pion-nucleon scattering matrix in the SU(2) Skyrme model. The corrections result from a direct semiclassical evaluation of path-integral expressions for relevant finite-time transition amplitudes. The {ital S} matrix for pion-nucleon scattering is extracted from these amplitudes by using a configuration-space representation for the asymptotic nucleons; the quanta are treated just as in the vacuum sector. The recoil corrections result from the Skyrmion freely translating between initial and final positions, and are relevant to a kinematical regime opposite to that where the impulse approximation is valid. The form of the corrections is model independent, unchanged for any chiral model with hedgehog solitary wave solutions. Remarkably, new lowest-lying resonances emerge in the {ital p} channels, whereas the {ital s} and {ital d} waves are not noticeably improved.

  9. Polarization effects in recoil-induced resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazebnyi, D. B.; Brazhnikov, D. V.; Taichenachev, A. V.; Yudin, V. I.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of the field polarization on the amplitude of recoil-induced resonances (RIRs) is considered for laser-cooled free atoms and for atoms in a working magneto-optical trap (MOT). For all closed dipole transitions, explicit analytical expressions are obtained for the polarization dependence of the resonance amplitudes within a perturbation theory. Optimal polarization conditions are found for the observation of resonances.

  10. Studies of metallic species incorporation during growth of SrBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9} films on YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} substrates using mass spectroscopy of recoiled ions.

    SciTech Connect

    Dhote, A. M.

    1999-01-13

    The incorporation of metallic species (Bi, Sr and Ta) during the growth of layered perovskite SrBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9} (SBT) on a-axis oriented YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x} (YBCO) conducting oxide substrates has been investigated using in situ low energy mass spectroscopy of recoiled ions (MSRI). This technique is capable of providing monolayer-specific surface information relevant to the growth of single and multi-component thin films and layered heterostructures. The data show a temperature dependence of metallic species incorporation during co-deposition of Sr, Bi and Ta on YBCO surfaces. At high temperatures (400 < T {le} 700 C), negligible incorporation of Bi is observed as compared to Ta and Sr. At low temperatures ({le} 400 C), there is a substantial incorporation of Bi, Sr and Ta on the surface of YBCO, and the MSRI signal intensities for Sr, Bi and Ta are nearly independent of substrate temperature. According to thermodynamic calculations, the presence of Ba and Y on the YBCO surface inhibit the incorporation of Bi due to competition for oxygen required to establish bonding of metallic species to the surface. This may be the explanation for the observed Bi deficiency in films grown on YBCO surfaces at temperatures >400 C. SBT films grown at temperatures {le} 400 C and annealed in oxygen or air at 800 C exhibit a polycrystalline structure with partial a-axis orientation.

  11. Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotubes Derived from Metal-Organic Frameworks for Potassium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Peixun; Zhao, Xinxin; Xu, Yunhua

    2017-10-10

    To tackle the issue of the poor rate capability of graphite anodes for potassium-ion batteries (KIBs), nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNTs) with an edge-open layer-alignment structure were synthesized using a simple and scalable approach of pyrolyzing cobalt-containing metal-organic frameworks. The unique structure enables a facile and fast intercalation of K ions. As anodes of KIBs, the NCNTs demonstrated a superior rate capability by a high capacity retention of 102 mA h g-1 at a high current density of 2000 mA g-1 and a good stability without obvious capacity loss over 500 cycles at 2000 mA g-1. Our findings would help to develop high performance anode materials for potassium-ion batteries as large-scale and low-cost energy storage systems. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Nitrogen-vacancy centers created by N+ ion implantation through screening SiO2 layers on diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Kazuki; Saito, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Kento; Watanabe, Hideyuki; Teraji, Tokuyuki; Itoh, Kohei M.; Abe, Eisuke

    2017-05-01

    We report on an ion implantation technique utilizing a screening mask made of SiO2 to control both the depth profile and the dose. By appropriately selecting the thickness of the screening layer, this method fully suppresses the ion channeling, brings the location of the highest nitrogen-vacancy (NV) density to the surface, and effectively reduces the dose by more than three orders of magnitude. With a standard ion implantation system operating at the energy of 10 keV and the dose of 1011 cm2 and without an additional etching process, we create single NV centers close to the surface with coherence times of a few tens of μs.

  13. Chemical sputtering of graphite by low temperature nitrogen plasmas at various substrate temperatures and ion flux densities

    SciTech Connect

    Bystrov, K.; Morgan, T. W.; Tanyeli, I.; De Temmerman, G.; Sanden, M. C. M. van de

    2013-10-07

    We report measurements of chemical sputtering yields of graphite exposed to low temperature nitrogen plasmas. The influence of surface temperature and incoming ion energy on the sputtering yields has been investigated in two distinct ion flux density regimes. Sputtering yields grow consistently with increasing temperatures in experiments with low flux density (Γ{sub i}≈10{sup 20} m{sup −2}s{sup −1}−10{sup 21} m{sup −2}s{sup −1}) and high flux density (Γ{sub i}≈10{sup 23} m{sup −2}s{sup −1}). Moreover, empirical fitting of the data suggests that the temperature of 670 °C is optimal for chemical sputtering at high flux density. Negative biasing of the samples was used to vary the ion energy in the low flux density regime. The sputtering yield in this case increases from 0.07 atoms/ion for E{sub i} = 1.5 eV to 0.19 atoms/ion for E{sub i} = 35 eV. After taking into account the dependence of the yields on temperature and ion energy, we evidenced a flux dependence of sputtering, similar to that found for chemical sputtering of carbon by hydrogen.

  14. Time of flight elastic recoil detection analysis with a position sensitive detector

    SciTech Connect

    Siketic, Zdravko; Radovic, Iva Bogdanovic; Jaksic, Milko; Skukan, Natko

    2010-03-15

    A position sensitive detection system based on the microchannel plate detector has been constructed and installed at the existing time of flight (TOF) spectrometer in order to perform a kinematic correction and improve the surface time/depth resolution of elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) system. The position resolution of the detector has been tested for different types of ions and anode voltages. TOF spectra of recoiled O ions from SiO{sub 2} and F from CaF{sub 2} were collected in coincidence with position sensitive detector signal. Kinematic correction of TOF spectra improved surface time/depth resolution by {approx}20% for our system; however even higher improvements could be obtained in larger solid angle TOF-ERDA systems.

  15. Measurement of Low Energy Electronic Recoil Response and Electronic/Nuclear Recoils Discrimination in XENON100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Jingqiang; Xenon Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The XENON100 detector uses liquid xenon time projection chamber to search for nuclear recoils(NR) caused by hypothetical Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). The backgrounds are mostly electronic recoils(ER), thus it's crucial to distinguish NR from ER. Using high statistical calibration data from tritiated methane, AmBe and other sources in XENON100, the ER/NR discrimination under different electric fields are measured. The Photon yield and recombination fluctuation of low energy electronic recoils under different fields will also be presented and compared to results from NEST and other experiments, which is crucial to understanding the response of liquid xenon detectors in the energy regime of searching dark matter.

  16. Determination of trace amounts of nitrogen in uranium based samples by ion chromatography (IC) without Kjeldahl distillation.

    PubMed

    Verma, Poonam; Rastogi, Ramakant K; Ramakumar, Karanam L

    2007-07-23

    A simple, sensitive and fast ion chromatographic (IC) method with suppressed conductivity detection is described for the determination of traces of nitrogen in uranium based fuel materials. Initially a method was developed to determine nitrogen as NH4(+) using cation exchange column after matrix separation by Kjeldahl distillation. The method was then improved by eliminating this distillation. Matrix separation after sample dissolution was done by hydrolyzing and filtering off the polyvalent cations. This had helped in reducing both the sample size and analysis time. Optimization of dissolution conditions for various kinds of uranium based samples was done to keep acid content minimum; a prerequisite chromatographic condition. The calibration plot for nitrogen was linear in the concentration range of 0.02-1 mg L(-1) with regression coefficient of 0.9999. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) obtained in this method (100 microL injected) was 3% and 2% in 9 replicates at nitrogen level of 28 and 55 ng g(-1), respectively. Detection limit based on S/N=3 (100 microL injected) as well as three times of variation in blank value was 4 ng g(-1). The developed method was authenticated by comparison with certified uranium-alloy standard as well as with independent indophenol photometry method. The developed method was applied to uranium-alloy, uranium-metal, sintered UO2 pellets and sintered UO2 microspheres samples.

  17. One-pot hydrothermal synthesis of Nitrogen-doped graphene as high-performance anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Zheng; Ju, Zhicheng; Zhao, Yulong; Wan, Jialu; Zhu, Yabo; Qiang, Yinghuai; Qian, Yitai

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped (N-doped) graphene has been prepared by a simple one-step hydrothermal approach using hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) as single carbon and nitrogen source. In this hydrothermal process, HMTA pyrolyzes at high temperature and the N-doped graphene subsequently self-assembles on the surface of MgO particles (formed by the Mg powder reacting with H2O) during which graphene synthesis and nitrogen doping are simultaneously achieved. The as-synthesized graphene with incorporation of nitrogen groups possesses unique structure including thin layer thickness, high surface area, mesopores and vacancies. These structural features and their synergistic effects could not only improve ions and electrons transportation with nanometer-scale diffusion distances but also promote the penetration of electrolyte. The N-doped graphene exhibits high reversible capacity, superior rate capability as well as long-term cycling stability, which demonstrate that the N-doped graphene with great potential to be an efficient electrode material. The experimental results provide a new hydrothermal route to synthesize N-doped graphene with potential application for advanced energy storage, as well as useful information to design new graphene materials. PMID:27184859

  18. One-pot hydrothermal synthesis of Nitrogen-doped graphene as high-performance anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Zheng; Ju, Zhicheng; Zhao, Yulong; Wan, Jialu; Zhu, Yabo; Qiang, Yinghuai; Qian, Yitai

    2016-05-01

    Nitrogen-doped (N-doped) graphene has been prepared by a simple one-step hydrothermal approach using hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) as single carbon and nitrogen source. In this hydrothermal process, HMTA pyrolyzes at high temperature and the N-doped graphene subsequently self-assembles on the surface of MgO particles (formed by the Mg powder reacting with H2O) during which graphene synthesis and nitrogen doping are simultaneously achieved. The as-synthesized graphene with incorporation of nitrogen groups possesses unique structure including thin layer thickness, high surface area, mesopores and vacancies. These structural features and their synergistic effects could not only improve ions and electrons transportation with nanometer-scale diffusion distances but also promote the penetration of electrolyte. The N-doped graphene exhibits high reversible capacity, superior rate capability as well as long-term cycling stability, which demonstrate that the N-doped graphene with great potential to be an efficient electrode material. The experimental results provide a new hydrothermal route to synthesize N-doped graphene with potential application for advanced energy storage, as well as useful information to design new graphene materials.

  19. Influences of nitrification inhibitor 3,4-dimethyl pyrazole phosphate on nitrogen and soil salt-ion leaching.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qiaogang; Ye, Xuezhu; Chen, Yingxu; Zhang, Zhijian; Tian, Guangming

    2008-01-01

    An undisturbed heavy clay soil column experiment was conducted to examine the influence of the new nitrification inhibitor, 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP), on nitrogen and soil salt-ion leaching. Regular urea was selected as the nitrogen source in the soil. The results showed that the cumulative leaching losses of soil nitrate-N under the treatment of urea with DMPP were from 57.5% to 63.3% lower than those of the treatment of urea without DMPP. The use of nitrification inhibitors as nitrate leaching retardants may be a proposal in regulations to prevent groundwater contaminant. However, there were no great difference between urea and urea with DMPP treatments on ammonium-N leaching. Moreover, the soil salt-ion leaching losses of Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, and Na+ were reduced from 26.6% to 28.8%, 21.3% to 27.8%, 33.3% to 35.5%, and 21.7% to 32.1%, respectively. So, the leaching losses of soil salt-ion were declined for nitrification inhibitor DMPP addition, being beneficial to shallow groundwater protection and growth of crop. These results indicated the possibility of ammonium or ammonium producing compounds using nitrification inhibitor DMPP to control the nitrate and nutrient cation leaching losses, minimizing the risk of nitrate pollution in shallow groundwater.

  20. Nitrogen-doped porous carbon derived from metal-organic gel for electrochemical analysis of heavy-metal ion.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lin; Wu, Jie; Ju, Huangxian

    2014-09-24

    A nitrogen-doped porous carbon material (N@MOG-C) was prepared by simple pyrolysis of polypyrrole-doped Al-based metal-organic gel (PPy@MOG) at 800 °C. The N@MOG-C possessed a uniform three-dimensional (3-D) interconnected mesoporous structure with a high surface area of 1542.6 m(2) g(-1) and a large pore volume of 0.76 cm(3) g(-1). By using an ionic liquid (IL) to immobilize N@MOG-C on electrode surface, the N@MOG-C was further used for sensitive detection of heavy metal ion. The doping of nitrogen-endowed N@MOG-C with faster electron transfer kinetics than other carbon materials such as MOG-C, multiwalled carbon nanotubes, and graphene. The N@MOG-C-modified electrode showed a high effective area, because of the porous structure. Under optimized conditions, the N@MOG-C-based sensor could detect Cd ions present in concentrations of 0.025-5 μM, with a detection limit of 2.2 nM. The mesoporous structure, fast electron transfer ability, and simple and green synthesis of N@MOG-C made it a promising electrode material for practical applications in heavy-metal-ion sensing.

  1. Green synthesis of nitrogen-doped carbon dots from lotus root for Hg(II) ions detection and cell imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Dan; Shang, Shaoming; Yu, Qin; Shen, Jie

    2016-12-01

    Herein, a facile, green, and fast method was developed in the synthesis of fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots (CDs) with nitrogen content of 5.23%, using one-pot microwave treatment of lotus root (LR), without using any other surface passivation agents. The results show that these LR-CDs (with an average diameter of 9.41 nm) possess many outstanding features and have a high quantum yield of 19.0%. We further demonstrated applications of LR-CDs as probes for heavy metal ion detection. The LR-CDs exhibit captivating sensitivity and selectivity toward Hg2+ with a linear range from 0.1 to 60.0 μM and a detection limit of 18.7 nM. Eventually, the LR-CDs were applied for multicolor cell imaging, demonstrating their potential toward diverse applications.

  2. Removal of organic matter and nitrogen in swine wastewater using an integrated ion exchange and bioelectrochemical system.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seung Joo; Kim, Tak-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Swine wastewater was treated using an integrated ion exchange and bioelectrochemical system. This system contains three chambers separated by a cation exchange membrane (CEM) and an anion exchange membrane (AEM). Each chamber acted as a bioanode chamber, an aerated biocathode chamber, and a denitrification chamber. To accelerate the ammonium transportation through CEM, a bioelectrochemical system was installed between bioanode and aerated biocathode. The current was provided by a programmable DC power supply. The average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies at applied voltages of 0, 1 and 3 V were 65.6%, 75.4% and 80.6%, respectively. Unlike the COD removal, the total nitrogen removal was proportional to the ammonium flux through the CEM. The average total nitrogen removal efficiencies at the applied voltages of 0, 1 and 3 V were 37.0%, 63.1% and 70.5%, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Measurement of the Energy of Nitrogen Ions Produced in Filippov Type Plasma Focus Used for the Nitriding of Titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghareshabani, E.; Mohammadi, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper the nitrogen ion properties (maximum energy, current density and the most probable energy) are investigated by using Faraday cup in a time of flight method. These ions are produced in a Filippov type plasma focus (Sahand Facility) device and the Faraday cup was placed in a distance range of 18-24 cm from the top of the anode. Maximum and minimum most probable ion energies are 76 and 8.5 keV for the distance range of 18 and 24 cm, respectively. The displacement from 18 to 24 cm at top of the anode the ion current density varies from 4.5 × 106 to 3.2 × 105 (A m-2). For the investigation of the effect of ions bombardment of materials at different positions, at the optimum working conditions of 14 kV as a working voltage, and 0.25 Torr as a gas pressure, titanium samples are placed in a distance of 21, 22, 23 and 24 cm from the top of the anode (θ = 0) and each sample is put under irradiation for 30 plasma shots. The structure of the nitrided surfaces and their morphologies are characterized by X-ray diffractometry and by scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The average crystallite size deduced for (200) and (222) planes of TiN deposited with 30 shots in different distances are estimate to be from ~13 to ~38 nm.

  4. Surface hardness increasing of iron alloys by nitrogen-deuterium ion implanting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa, C. A.; Alvarez, F.

    2004-12-01

    In situ x-ray photoemission spectroscopy is used to study the deuterium and hydrogen oxygen etching effect in nitrogen-implanted iron alloys. A suitable deuterium-nitrogen mixture can increase the surface original steel hardness up to ˜40%. In similar conditions, hydrogen-nitrogen mixtures improves the hardness by ˜10%. On deuteration, the main change is the reduction of the zero-point energy of the hydrides bond. Due to this, the lower scission energy of hydrogen-metal bonds as compared with deuterium-metal bonds determines the favorable effect of deuterium on the nitriding process.

  5. Nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers derived from polypyrrole coated bacterial cellulose as high-performance electrode materials for supercapacitors and Li-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Lei, Wen; Han, Lili; Xuan, Cuijuan; ...

    2016-05-24

    Here, nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber (NDCN) was synthesized via carbonization of polypyrrole (PPy) coated bacterial cellulose (BC) composites, where BC serves as templates as well as precursor, and PPy serves as the nitrogen source. The synthesized NDCN was employed as electrode for both supercapacitors and Li-ion batteries. The large surface area exposed to electrolyte resulting from the 3D carbon networks leads to sufficient electrode/electrolyte interface and creates shorter transport paths of electrolyte ions and Li+ ion. Besides, the three types of N dopants in NDCN improve the electronic conductivity, as well as superior electrochemical performance.

  6. Nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers derived from polypyrrole coated bacterial cellulose as high-performance electrode materials for supercapacitors and Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Wen; Han, Lili; Xuan, Cuijuan; Lin, Ruoqian; Liu, Hongfang; Xin, Huolin L.; Wang, Deli

    2016-05-24

    Here, nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber (NDCN) was synthesized via carbonization of polypyrrole (PPy) coated bacterial cellulose (BC) composites, where BC serves as templates as well as precursor, and PPy serves as the nitrogen source. The synthesized NDCN was employed as electrode for both supercapacitors and Li-ion batteries. The large surface area exposed to electrolyte resulting from the 3D carbon networks leads to sufficient electrode/electrolyte interface and creates shorter transport paths of electrolyte ions and Li+ ion. Besides, the three types of N dopants in NDCN improve the electronic conductivity, as well as superior electrochemical performance.

  7. Nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers derived from polypyrrole coated bacterial cellulose as high-performance electrode materials for supercapacitors and Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Wen; Han, Lili; Xuan, Cuijuan; Lin, Ruoqian; Liu, Hongfang; Xin, Huolin L.; Wang, Deli

    2016-05-24

    Here, nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber (NDCN) was synthesized via carbonization of polypyrrole (PPy) coated bacterial cellulose (BC) composites, where BC serves as templates as well as precursor, and PPy serves as the nitrogen source. The synthesized NDCN was employed as electrode for both supercapacitors and Li-ion batteries. The large surface area exposed to electrolyte resulting from the 3D carbon networks leads to sufficient electrode/electrolyte interface and creates shorter transport paths of electrolyte ions and Li+ ion. Besides, the three types of N dopants in NDCN improve the electronic conductivity, as well as superior electrochemical performance.

  8. Highly nitrogen-doped carbon capsules: scalable preparation and high-performance applications in fuel cells and lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chuangang; Xiao, Ying; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Nan; Zhang, Zhipan; Cao, Minhua; Qu, Liangti

    2013-03-01

    Highly nitrogen-doped carbon capsules (hN-CCs) have been successfully prepared by using inexpensive melamine and glyoxal as precursors via solvothermal reaction and carbonization. With a great promise for large scale production, the hN-CCs, having large surface area and high-level nitrogen content (N/C atomic ration of ca. 13%), possess superior crossover resistance, selective activity and catalytic stability towards oxygen reduction reaction for fuel cells in alkaline medium. As a new anode material in lithium-ion battery, hN-CCs also exhibit excellent cycle performance and high rate capacity with a reversible capacity of as high as 1046 mA h g-1 at a current density of 50 mA g-1 after 50 cycles. These features make the hN-CCs developed in this study promising as suitable substitutes for the expensive noble metal catalysts in the next generation alkaline fuel cells, and as advanced electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries.Highly nitrogen-doped carbon capsules (hN-CCs) have been successfully prepared by using inexpensive melamine and glyoxal as precursors via solvothermal reaction and carbonization. With a great promise for large scale production, the hN-CCs, having large surface area and high-level nitrogen content (N/C atomic ration of ca. 13%), possess superior crossover resistance, selective activity and catalytic stability towards oxygen reduction reaction for fuel cells in alkaline medium. As a new anode material in lithium-ion battery, hN-CCs also exhibit excellent cycle performance and high rate capacity with a reversible capacity of as high as 1046 mA h g-1 at a current density of 50 mA g-1 after 50 cycles. These features make the hN-CCs developed in this study promising as suitable substitutes for the expensive noble metal catalysts in the next generation alkaline fuel cells, and as advanced electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: More experimental details and characterization. See DOI: 10

  9. Synthesis of highly fluorescent nitrogen and phosphorus doped carbon dots for the detection of Fe(3+) ions in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Soumen; Laha, Dipranjan; Pramanik, Arindam; Ray Chowdhuri, Angshuman; Karmakar, Parimal; Sahu, Sumanta Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Highly fluorescent nitrogen and phosphorus-doped carbon dots with a quantum yield 59% have been successfully synthesized from citric acid and di-ammonium hydrogen phosphate by single step hydrothermal method. The synthesized carbon dots have high solubility as well as stability in aqueous medium. The as-obtained carbon dots are well monodispersed with particle sizes 1.5-4 nm. Owing to a good tunable fluorescence property and biocompatibility, the carbon dots were applied for intercellular sensing of Fe(3+) ions as well as cancer cell imaging. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. High Resolution Rutherford Back Scattering Estimation of the Surface Implanted Nitrogen Ion by Using Plasma-based Ion Implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Takeshi; Takagi, Toshinori

    Plasma-based ion implantation (PBII) with negative voltage pulses to the test specimen has been applied to the sterilization process as a technique suitable for three-dimensional work pieces. Pulsed high negative voltage (5 μs pulse width, 300 pulses/s, -800 V to -15 kV) was applied to the electrode in this process at a gas pressure of 2.4 Pa of N2. We found that the PBII process, in which (N2 gas self-ignitted plasma generated by only pulsed voltages is used) reduces the numbers of active Bacillus pumilus cell. The number of bacteria survivors was reduced by 10-5 x with 5 min exposure. As the ion energy is one of the important processing parameters on sterilization of the surface, the ion energy is discussed from the high resolution RBS depth profile.

  11. Thermal recoil force, telemetry, and the Pioneer anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Toth, Viktor T.; Turyshev, Slava G.

    2009-02-15

    Precision navigation of spacecraft requires accurate knowledge of small forces, including the recoil force due to anisotropies of thermal radiation emitted by spacecraft systems. We develop a formalism to derive the thermal recoil force from the basic principles of radiative heat exchange and energy-momentum conservation. The thermal power emitted by the spacecraft can be computed from engineering data obtained from flight telemetry, which yields a practical approach to incorporate the thermal recoil force into precision spacecraft navigation. Alternatively, orbit determination can be used to estimate the contribution of the thermal recoil force. We apply this approach to the Pioneer anomaly using a simulated Pioneer 10 Doppler data set.

  12. Neutron electric form factor via recoil polarimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Madey, Richard; Semenov, Andrei; Taylor, Simon; Aghalaryan, Aram; Crouse, Erick; MacLachlan, Glen; Plaster, Bradley; Tajima, Shigeyuki; Tireman, William; Yan, Chenyu; Ahmidouch, Abdellah; Anderson, Brian; Asaturyan, Razmik; Baker, O; Baldwin, Alan; Breuer, Herbert; Carlini, Roger; Christy, Michael; Churchwell, Steve; Cole, Leon; Danagoulian, Samuel; Day, Donal; Elaasar, Mostafa; Ent, Rolf; Farkhondeh, Manouchehr; Fenker, Howard; Finn, John; Gan, Liping; Garrow, Kenneth; Gueye, Paul; Howell, Calvin; Hu, Bitao; Jones, Mark; Kelly, James; Keppel, Cynthia; Khandaker, Mahbubul; Kim, Wooyoung; Kowalski, Stanley; Lung, Allison; Mack, David; Manley, D; Markowitz, Pete; Mitchell, Joseph; Mkrtchyan, Hamlet; Opper, Allena; Perdrisat, Charles; Punjabi, Vina; Raue, Brian; Reichelt, Tilmann; Reinhold, Joerg; Roche, Julie; Sato, Yoshinori; Seo, Wonick; Simicevic, Neven; Smith, Gregory; Stepanyan, Samuel; Tadevosyan, Vardan; Tang, Liguang; Ulmer, Paul; Vulcan, William; Watson, John; Wells, Steven; Wesselmann, Frank; Wood, Stephen; Yan, Chen; Yang, Seunghoon; Yuan, Lulin; Zhang, Wei-Ming; Zhu, Hong Guo; Zhu, Xiaofeng

    2003-05-01

    The ratio of the electric to the magnetic form factor of the neutron, G_En/G_Mn, was measured via recoil polarimetry from the quasielastic d({pol-e},e'{pol-n)p reaction at three values of Q^2 [viz., 0.45, 1.15 and 1.47 (GeV/c)^2] in Hall C of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. Preliminary data indicate that G_En follows the Galster parameterization up to Q^2 = 1.15 (GeV/c)^2 and appears to rise above the Galster parameterization at Q^2 = 1.47 (GeV/c)^2.

  13. Recoil Considerations for Shoulder-Fired Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    2012) Steyr 15.2 mm 35 g 1450 m/s 39.6 lb 11.4 Burns (2012) Type 97 (Japanese) 20 mm 162 g 790 m/s 130 lb 28.7 Burns (2012) 12HB00 ( Remington ...shotgun 0.727 in 807 gr (12 × 00) 1225 ft/s 7.0 lb 4.37 Remington (2011) Remington Express 12B0 shotgun 0.727 in 580 gr (12 × 0) 1275 ft/s...7.0 lb 3.28 Remington 5 Table 3. Recoil-related characteristics of selected shoulder-fired weapons cited in table 1. Nomenclature

  14. Optimal Control of Active Recoil Mechanisms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-02-01

    forces from 25 to 2.5% for lower zones and cavitation was avoided for zone 8. Tachometer feedback was shown to be effective for low zones. The...concept of feedback control system coupled with optimization procedure to design recoil mechanisms was demonstrated to be an efficient and very effective ...122o •nl260 .01300 .01340 .01380 • ouzo #01460 •01500 •01540 •01580 •0162" .0166 i 309o,6 504P.6 9964.5 10075,9 39121.5 75397.3

  15. ZIF-8 Derived, Nitrogen-Doped Porous Electrodes of Carbon Polyhedron Particles for High-Performance Electrosorption of Salt Ions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Nei-Ling; Dutta, Saikat; Salunkhe, Rahul R.; Ahamad, Tansir; Alshehri, Saad M.; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Hou, Chia-Hung; Wu, Kevin C.-W.

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) ZIF-8 derived carbon polyhedrons with high nitrogen (N) content, (denoted as NC-800) are synthesized for their application as high-performance electrodes in electrosorption of salt ions. The results showed a high specific capacitance of 160.8 F·g−1 in 1 M NaCl at a scan rate of 5 mV·s−1. Notably, integration of 3-D mesopores and micropores in NC-800 achieves an excellent capacitive deionization (CDI) performance. The electrosorption of salt ions at the electrical double layer is enhanced by N-doping at the edges of a hexagonal lattice of NC-800. As evidenced, when the initial NaCl solution concentration is 1 mM, the resultant NC-800 exhibits a remarkable CDI potential with a promising salt electrosorption capacity of 8.52 mg·g−1. PMID:27404086

  16. ZIF-8 Derived, Nitrogen-Doped Porous Electrodes of Carbon Polyhedron Particles for High-Performance Electrosorption of Salt Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Nei-Ling; Dutta, Saikat; Salunkhe, Rahul R.; Ahamad, Tansir; Alshehri, Saad M.; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Hou, Chia-Hung; Wu, Kevin C.-W.

    2016-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) ZIF-8 derived carbon polyhedrons with high nitrogen (N) content, (denoted as NC-800) are synthesized for their application as high-performance electrodes in electrosorption of salt ions. The results showed a high specific capacitance of 160.8 F·g‑1 in 1 M NaCl at a scan rate of 5 mV·s‑1. Notably, integration of 3-D mesopores and micropores in NC-800 achieves an excellent capacitive deionization (CDI) performance. The electrosorption of salt ions at the electrical double layer is enhanced by N-doping at the edges of a hexagonal lattice of NC-800. As evidenced, when the initial NaCl solution concentration is 1 mM, the resultant NC-800 exhibits a remarkable CDI potential with a promising salt electrosorption capacity of 8.52 mg·g‑1.

  17. Low-Temperature Activation of Ion-Implanted Boron and Nitrogen Ions in Cd x Hg1- x Te Heteroepitaxial Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Talipov, N. Kh.

    2013-12-01

    Processes of electrical activation of ion-implanted boron and nitrogen atoms in Cd x Hg1- x Te (CMT) heteroepitaxial layers grown by methods of molecular-beam epitaxy (HEL CMT MBE) and liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE CMT) have been investigated; likewise in bulk crystals of CMT with low-temperature annealings under anodic oxide. The possibility has been demonstrated of using anodic oxide as an efficient mask for postimplantation annealings of p-type HEL CMT MBE in the temperature interval Т = 200-250°C without disruption of the composition of the variband layer or alteration of the electrophysical properties of the structure. It has been established that in HEL CMT MBE the efficiency of activation of boron as a slowly diffusing donor impurity is lowered with growth of the dose of the B+ ions and is increased by thermal cycling from Т = 77 K to room temperature. Implanted nitrogen, in contrast to boron, is a rapidly diffusing acceptor impurity in CMT, efficiently compensating both radiation donor centers and activated boron. The degree of electrical activation of nitrogen grows substantially upon thermal cycling. It has been shown that the mobility spectrum is an efficient method for monitoring the process of electrical activation of boron in p-type HEL CMT MBE. Mesa photodiodes based on activated boron in p-type HEL CMT MBE with long-wavelength photosensitivity boundary λc = 11 μm, prepared here for the first time, had a high maximum value of the product of the differential resistance by the area of the photodiode R d A = (6 - 8)ṡ102 Ωṡcm2, product R 0 A = 5 - 6 Ωṡcm2 (at zero bias), and a diffusion ledge on the inverse branch of the current-voltage ( I- V) characteristic out to a bias voltage of 1.3 V.

  18. Molecular simulations of ultra-low-energy nitrogen ion bombardment of A-DNA in vacuum.

    PubMed

    Ngaojampa, Chanisorn; Nimmanpipug, Piyarat; Yu, Liangdeng; Anuntalabhochai, Somboon; Lee, Vannajan Sanghiran

    2010-02-26

    For investigating mechanisms involved in low-energy ion beam induced mutation, besides experiments using low-energy and low-fluence ions to bombard naked DNA, molecular simulations were carried out as an effort towards the insight in molecular interactions between ions and DNA. In the current study, Monte Carlo (MC) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were applied. The results of MC simulations provide some clues about the interaction energies and sites of preference of N-ion bombardment on an A-DNA short duplex strand. MD simulations of a single N-ion moving towards the same DNA strand with different linear velocities corresponding to bombardment energies of 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 eV revealed information about changes in bond lengths and visibly distorted structures of bombarded nucleotides. The simulations demonstrated that ion-bombardment-induced DNA change in structure was not a random but preferential effect. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Element- and charge-state-resolved ion energies in the cathodic arc plasma from composite AlCr cathodes in argon, nitrogen and oxygen atmospheres

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Robert; Polcik, Peter; Anders, André

    2015-01-01

    The energy distribution functions of ions in the cathodic arc plasma using composite AlCr cathodes were measured as a function of the background gas pressure in the range 0.5 to 3.5 Pa for different cathode compositions and gas atmospheres. The most abundant aluminium ions were Al+ regardless of the background gas species, whereas Cr2+ ions were dominating in Ar and N2 and Cr+ in O2 atmospheres. The energy distributions of the aluminium and chromium ions typically consisted of a high-energy fraction due to acceleration in the expanding plasma plume from the cathode spot and thermalised ions that were subjected to collisions in the plasma cloud. The fraction of the latter increased with increasing background gas pressure. Atomic nitrogen and oxygen ions showed similar energy distributions as the aluminium and chromium ions, whereas the argon and molecular nitrogen and oxygen ions were formed at greater distance from the cathode spot and thus less subject to accelerating gradients. In addition to the positively charged metal and gas ions, negatively charged oxygen and oxygen-containing ions were observed in O2 atmosphere. The obtained results are intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the ion energies and charge states in the arc plasma of AlCr composite cathodes in different gas atmospheres as such plasmas are frequently used to deposit thin films and coatings. PMID:26120236

  20. Element- and charge-state-resolved ion energies in the cathodic arc plasma from composite AlCr cathodes in argon, nitrogen and oxygen atmospheres

    DOE PAGES

    Franz, Robert; Polcik, Peter; Anders, André

    2015-06-01

    The energy distribution functions of ions in the cathodic arc plasma using composite AlCr cathodes were measured as a function of the background gas pressure in the range 0.5 to 3.5 Pa for different cathode compositions and gas atmospheres. The most abundant aluminium ions were Al+ regardless of the background gas species, whereas Cr2+ ions were dominating in Ar and N2 and Cr+ in O2 atmospheres. The energy distributions of the aluminium and chromium ions typically consisted of a high-energy fraction due to acceleration in the expanding plasma plume from the cathode spot and thermalised ions that were subjected tomore » collisions in the plasma cloud. The fraction of the latter increased with increasing background gas pressure. Atomic nitrogen and oxygen ions showed similar energy distributions as the aluminium and chromium ions, whereas the argon and molecular nitrogen and oxygen ions were formed at greater distance from the cathode spot and thus less subject to accelerating gradients. In addition to the positively charged metal and gas ions, negatively charged oxygen and oxygen-containing ions were observed in O2 atmosphere. The obtained results are intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the ion energies and charge states in the arc plasma of AlCr composite cathodes in different gas atmospheres as such plasmas are frequently used to deposit thin films and coatings.« less

  1. Element- and charge-state-resolved ion energies in the cathodic arc plasma from composite AlCr cathodes in argon, nitrogen and oxygen atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Franz, Robert; Polcik, Peter; Anders, André

    2015-06-25

    The energy distribution functions of ions in the cathodic arc plasma using composite AlCr cathodes were measured as a function of the background gas pressure in the range 0.5 to 3.5 Pa for different cathode compositions and gas atmospheres. The most abundant aluminium ions were Al(+) regardless of the background gas species, whereas Cr(2+) ions were dominating in Ar and N2 and Cr(+) in O2 atmospheres. The energy distributions of the aluminium and chromium ions typically consisted of a high-energy fraction due to acceleration in the expanding plasma plume from the cathode spot and thermalised ions that were subjected to collisions in the plasma cloud. The fraction of the latter increased with increasing background gas pressure. Atomic nitrogen and oxygen ions showed similar energy distributions as the aluminium and chromium ions, whereas the argon and molecular nitrogen and oxygen ions were formed at greater distance from the cathode spot and thus less subject to accelerating gradients. In addition to the positively charged metal and gas ions, negatively charged oxygen and oxygen-containing ions were observed in O2 atmosphere. The obtained results are intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the ion energies and charge states in the arc plasma of AlCr composite cathodes in different gas atmospheres as such plasmas are frequently used to deposit thin films and coatings.

  2. Photoelectrocatalytic properties of nitrogen doped TiO2/Ti photoelectrode prepared by plasma based ion implantation under visible light.

    PubMed

    Han, Lei; Xin, Yanjun; Liu, Huiling; Ma, Xinxin; Tang, Guangze

    2010-03-15

    Nitrogen doped TiO(2)/Ti photoelectrodes were prepared by a sequence of anodization and plasma based ion implantation (PBII). The properties of this photoelectrode were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), Ultra violet/visible light diffuse reflectance spectra (UV/vis/DRS), surface photovoltage (SPV), etc. Photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) performance of N-doped TiO(2)/Ti photoelectrode was tested under visible light irradiation. Their photocatalytic activity was evaluated by degradation of Rhodamine B (Rh.B). The results of XPS showed that nitrogen element was in form of three species, i.e. beta-N, molecular gamma-N and O-Ti-N, which existed in the lattices of TiO(2) and gaps between molecules. The results of UV/vis/DRS spectra and SPV revealed that proper doping of nitrogen could expand the response of photoelectrodes towards visible light and diminish the recombination of photo-generated holes and electrons, respectively. The photoelectrocatalytic activity of N-doped TiO(2)/Ti photoelectrodes was superior to those of undoped one under visible light region irradiation.

  3. Nitrogen-Doped Yolk-Shell-Structured CoSe/C Dodecahedra for High-Performance Sodium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yifang; Pan, Anqiang; Ding, Lin; Zhou, Zilong; Wang, Yaping; Niu, Shaoyu; Liang, Shuquan; Cao, Guozhong

    2017-02-01

    In this work, nitrogen-doped, yolk-shell-structured CoSe/C mesoporous dodecahedra are successfully prepared by using cobalt-based metal-organic frameworks (ZIF-67) as sacrificial templates. The CoSe nanoparticles are in situ produced by reacting the cobalt species in the metal-organic frameworks with selenium (Se) powder, and the organic species are simultaneously converted into nitrogen-doped carbon material in an inert atmosphere at temperatures between 700 and 900 °C for 4 h. For the composite synthesized at 800 °C, the carbon framework has a relatively higher extent of graphitization, with high nitrogen content (17.65%). Furthermore, the CoSe nanoparticles, with a size of around 15 nm, are coherently confined in the mesoporous carbon framework. When evaluated as novel anode materials for sodium ion batteries, the CoSe/C composites exhibit high capacity and superior rate capability. The composite electrode delivers the specific capacities of 597.2 and 361.9 mA h g(-1) at 0.2 and 16 A g(-1), respectively.

  4. Controlled Growth of Nanostructured Biotemplates with Cobalt and Nitrogen Codoping as a Binderless Lithium-Ion Battery Anode.

    PubMed

    Huggins, Tyler M; Whiteley, Justin M; Love, Corey T; Lee, Kwangwon; Lee, Se-Hee; Ren, Zhiyong Jason; Biffinger, Justin C

    2016-10-12

    Biomass can serve as a sustainable template for the synthesis of carbon materials but is limited by the intrinsic properties of the precursor organism. In this study we demonstrate that the properties of a fungal biotemplate can be tuned during cultivation, establishing a new electrode manufacturing process and ultimately improving the electrochemical performance of the biomass-derived electrode. More specifically, the carbon/nitrogen ratio of Neurospora crassa mycelia mats was shifted by 5-fold while generating cobalt nanoparticles into the hyphal structure originating from macroconidia spores. This shift was achieved through nitrate limitation and equal molar concentrations of Mg(2+) and Co(2+) in the growth media. The resulting mycelia mat was converted via a high-temperature pyrolysis process (800 °C) to produce a freestanding cobalt and nitrogen codoped electrode material with no postmodification. Ultimately, nitrogen doping resulted in one of the highest recorded specific reversible capacity for a freestanding biomass-derived lithium-ion anode (400 mAh g(-1) at C/10). We observed an additional improvement in capacity to 425 mAh g(-1) with the incorporation of 3 wt % Co. Our results show how shaping the chemical characteristics of an electrode during the growth of the biotemplate allows for sustainable carbon-based material manufacturing from a living (self-assembled) material.

  5. Increasing of Hardness of Titanium Using Energetic Nitrogen Ions from Sahand as a Filippov Type Plasma Focus Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valipour, M.; Mohammadi, M. A.; Sobhanian, S.; Rawat, R. S.

    2012-02-01

    In this paper a 90 kJ plasma focus facility was used to the bombardment of the titanium substrate using nitrogen ion beams. From x-ray diffraction patterns, we investigated the structure properties of titanium nitride layer has been successfully deposited on the titanium substrate such as grain size microstrain and dislocation density. In this work we observed the growth of in grain size with increasing a number of deposition shots. Decrease in dislocation density and microstrain at higher deposition is the another results we observed in this work. The topography and morphology of TiN samples was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy images. From SEM micrograph, damage of surface and creation of pits and cracks was reported. The goniometric test indicate increasing in contact angle of water drop for irradiated samples in respect to the unirradiated samples. The Knoop microhardness of the samples is increased about 500%. With increasing of nitrogen ion flux, the microhardness increases.

  6. Enhancement of butanol tolerance and butanol yield in Clostridium acetobutylicum mutant NT642 obtained by nitrogen ion beam implantation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Bo; Gu, Qiu-Ya; Yu, Xiao-Bin; Luo, Wei

    2012-12-01

    As a promising alternative biofuel, biobutanol can be produced through acetone/butanol/ethanol (ABE) fermentation. Currently, ABE fermentation is still a small-scale industry due to its low production and high input cost. Moreover, butanol toxicity to the Clostridium fermentation host limits the accumulation of butanol in the fermentation broth. The wild-type Clostridium acetobutylicum D64 can only produce about 13 g butanol/L and tolerates less than 2% (v/v) butanol. To improve the tolerance of C. acetobutylicum D64 for enhancing the production of butanol, nitrogen ion beam implantation was employed and finally five mutants with enhanced butanol tolerance were obtained. Among these, the most butanol tolerant mutant C. acetobutylicum NT642 can tolerate above 3% (v/v) butanol while the wide-type strain can only withstand 2% (v/v). In batch fermentation, the production of butanol and ABE yield of C. acetobutylicum NT642 was 15.4 g/L and 22.3 g/L, respectively, which were both higher than those of its parental strain and the other mutants using corn or cassava as substrate. Enhancing butanol tolerance is a great precondition for obtaining a hyper-yield producer. Nitrogen ion beam implantation could be a promising biotechnology to improve butanol tolerance and production of the host strain C. acetobutylicum.

  7. Nitrogen and sulfur co-doped carbon dots for highly selective and sensitive detection of Hg (II) ions.

    PubMed

    Li, Libo; Yu, Bin; You, Tianyan

    2015-12-15

    Nitrogen and sulfur co-doped carbon dots (N,S/C-dots) with high fluorescence quantum yields (FLQY, 25%) was successfully synthesized by a one-step microwave-assisted method. In comparison with nitrogen doped C-dots (N/C-dots) prepared using the same method, the resulting N,S/C-dots featured small particle size, uniform surface state, insensitive FL properties to excitation wavelengths and environmental conditions, negligible cytotoxicity and excellent biocompatibility. Simultaneous doping of N and S effectively promoted electron-transfer and coordination interaction between N,S/C-dots and Hg(2+). Thus, when used as fluorescence probe for Hg(2+) label-free detection, the resulting N,S/C-dots showed good detection sensitivity and ion selectivity. The limit of detection was 2 μM; among 15 metal ions investigated, only Fe(3+) showed interference to the Hg(2+) detection. Fortunately, this interference could be effectively shielded using a chelating agent sodium hexametaphoshpate. The applicability of N,S/C-dots as fluorescence probe for Hg(2+) detection in lake water and tap water was demonstrated. Finally, based on its favorable features of negligible cytotoxicity and excellent biocompatibility, the N,S/C-dots were successfully applied to probe Hg(2+) in living cells, which broaden its application in biological system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Highly nitrogen-doped carbon capsules: scalable preparation and high-performance applications in fuel cells and lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chuangang; Xiao, Ying; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Nan; Zhang, Zhipan; Cao, Minhua; Qu, Liangti

    2013-04-07

    Highly nitrogen-doped carbon capsules (hN-CCs) have been successfully prepared by using inexpensive melamine and glyoxal as precursors via solvothermal reaction and carbonization. With a great promise for large scale production, the hN-CCs, having large surface area and high-level nitrogen content (N/C atomic ration of ca. 13%), possess superior crossover resistance, selective activity and catalytic stability towards oxygen reduction reaction for fuel cells in alkaline medium. As a new anode material in lithium-ion battery, hN-CCs also exhibit excellent cycle performance and high rate capacity with a reversible capacity of as high as 1046 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 50 mA g(-1) after 50 cycles. These features make the hN-CCs developed in this study promising as suitable substitutes for the expensive noble metal catalysts in the next generation alkaline fuel cells, and as advanced electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries.

  9. Formation of nitrogen-containing polycyclic cations by gas-phase and intracluster reactions of acetylene with the pyridinium and pyrimidinium ions.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Abdel-Rahman; Hamid, Ahmed M; Attah, Isaac; Momoh, Paul; El-Shall, M Samy

    2013-01-09

    Here, we present evidence from laboratory experiments for the formation of nitrogen-containing complex organic ions by sequential reactions of acetylene with the pyridinium and pyrimidinium ions in the gas phase and within ionized pyridine-acetylene binary clusters. Additions of five and two acetylene molecules onto the pyridinium and pyrimidinium ions, respectively, at room temperature are observed. Second-order rate coefficients of the overall reaction of acetylene with the pyridinium and pyrimidinium ions are measured as 9.0 × 10(-11) and 1.4 × 10(-9) cm(3) s(-1), respectively, indicating reaction efficiencies of about 6% and 100%, respectively, at room temperature. At high temperatures, only two acetylene molecules are added to the pyridinium and pyrimidinium ions, suggesting covalent bond formation. A combination of ion dissociation and ion mobility experiments with DFT calculations reveals that the addition of acetylene into the pyridinium ion occurs through the N-atom of the pyridinium ion. The relatively high reaction efficiency is consistent with the absence of a barrier in the exothermic N-C bond forming reaction leading to the formation of the C(7)H(7)N(•+) covalent adduct. An exothermic addition/H-elimination reaction of acetylene with the C(7)H(7)N(•+) adduct is observed leading to the formation of a bicyclic quinolizinium cation (C(9)H(8)N(+)). Similar chemistry is observed in the sequential reactions of acetylene with the pyrimidinium ion. The second acetylene addition onto the pyrimidinium ion involves an exclusive addition/H-elimination reaction at room temperature leading to the formation of a bicyclic pyrimidinium cation (C(8)H(7)N(2)(+)). The high reactivity of the pyridinium and pyrimidinium ions toward acetylene is in sharp contrast to the very low reactivity of the benzene cation, which has a reaction efficiency of 10(-4)-10(-5). This indicates that the presence of a nitrogen atom within the aromatic ring enhances the ring growth

  10. Simulations of the nuclear recoil head-tail signature in gases relevant to directional dark matter searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spooner, N. J. C.; Majewski, P.; Muna, D.; Snowden-Ifft, D. P.

    2010-12-01

    We present the first detailed simulations of the so-called head-tail effect of nuclear recoils in gas, the presence of which is vital to directional WIMP dark matter searches. We include comparison simulations of the range and straggling of carbon, sulphur and fluorine recoils in low pressure gas. However, the prime focus is a detailed investigation of carbon and sulphur recoils in 40 Torr negative ion carbon disulfide, a gas proposed for use in large scale directional detectors. The focus is to determine whether the location of the majority of the ionization charge released and observed from a recoil track in carbon disulfide is at the beginning (tail) of the track, at the end (head) or evenly distributed. We used the SRIM simulation program, together with a purpose-written Monte Carlo generator to model production of ionizing pairs, diffusion and basic readout geometries relevant to potential real detector scenarios, such as under development for the DRIFT experiment. The results indicate the likely existence of a head-tail track asymmetry but with a magnitude critically influenced by several competing factors, notably the W-value assumed, the drift distance and diffusion, and the recoil energy.

  11. General synthesis of transition metal oxides hollow nanospheres/nitrogen-doped graphene hybrids via metal-ammine complex chemistry for high performance lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiayuan; Wu, Xiaofeng; Gong, Yan; Wang, Pengfei; Li, Wenhui; Mo, Shengpeng; Peng, Shengpan; Tan, Qiangqiang; Chen, Yunfa

    2017-08-30

    We present a general and facile synthesis strategy, on the basis of metal-ammine complex chemistry, in synthesizing hollow transition metal oxides (Co3O4, NiO, CuO-Cu2O and ZnO)/nitrogen-doped graphene hybrids, potentially applied in high performance lithium ion batteries. The oxygen-containing functional groups of graphene oxide play a prerequisite role in the formation of hollow transition metal oxides on graphene nanosheets, and a significant hollowing process occurs only when forming metal (Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, or Zn2+)-ammine complex ions. Moreover, the hollowing process is well correlated with complexing capacity between metal ions and NH3 molecules. The significant hollowing process occurs for strong metal-ammine complex ions including Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+ ions, and no hollow structures formed for weak and/or non-complex Mn2+ and Fe3+ ions. Simultaneously, this novel strategy can also achieve the directly doping of nitrogen atoms into graphene framework. When used as anodic materials, the electrochemical performance of two typical hollow Co3O4 or NiO/nitrogen-doped graphene hybrids are evaluated. It is demonstrated that these unique nanostructed hybrids, in contrast with the bare counterparts, solid transition metal oxides/nitrogen-doped graphene hybrids, perform the significantly improved specific capacity, superior rate capability and excellent capacity retention. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. ArII - ArXVI produced in slow recoil collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, H.

    1983-07-01

    An atom in a gaseous target may be highly ionized in a single collision with a (very fast) very highly ionized projectile. A feature of the kinematics of the collision is that very little kinetic energy is imparted to the target atom. The ion is produced as a slow recoil. Typical recoil energies are 1 eV and change little with the degree of ionization produced in the target. This has several very attractive features as a spectroscopic source. First, the spectra are free from Doppler shifts which depend upon the degree of ionization of the atom, and, second, all of the ionization states produced in the target have the same spatial distribution. This allows reference lines from low ionization states to be reliably used to calibrate the spectra from high ionization states.

  13. A predictive theory for elastic scattering and recoil of protons from 4He

    SciTech Connect

    Hupin, Guillaume; Quaglioni, Sofia; Navratil, Petr

    2014-12-08

    Low-energy cross sections for elastic scattering and recoil of protons from 4He nuclei (also known as α particles) are calculated directly by solving the Schrodinger equation for five nucleons interacting through accurate two- and three-nucleon forces derived within the framework of chiral effective field theory. Precise knowledge of these processes at various proton backscattering/recoil angles and energies is needed for the ion-beam analysis of numerous materials, from the surface layers of solids, to thin films, to fusion-reactor materials. Indeed, the same elastic scattering process, in two different kinematic configurations, can be used to probe the concentrations and depth profiles of either hydrogen or helium. Furthermore, we compare our results to available experimental data and show that direct calculations with modern nuclear potentials can help to resolve remaining inconsistencies among data sets and can be used to predict these cross sections when measurements are not available.

  14. A predictive theory for elastic scattering and recoil of protons from 4He

    DOE PAGES

    Hupin, Guillaume; Quaglioni, Sofia; Navratil, Petr

    2014-12-08

    Low-energy cross sections for elastic scattering and recoil of protons from 4He nuclei (also known as α particles) are calculated directly by solving the Schrodinger equation for five nucleons interacting through accurate two- and three-nucleon forces derived within the framework of chiral effective field theory. Precise knowledge of these processes at various proton backscattering/recoil angles and energies is needed for the ion-beam analysis of numerous materials, from the surface layers of solids, to thin films, to fusion-reactor materials. Indeed, the same elastic scattering process, in two different kinematic configurations, can be used to probe the concentrations and depth profiles ofmore » either hydrogen or helium. Furthermore, we compare our results to available experimental data and show that direct calculations with modern nuclear potentials can help to resolve remaining inconsistencies among data sets and can be used to predict these cross sections when measurements are not available.« less

  15. First identification of excited states in Ba117 using the recoil- β -delayed proton tagging technique

    DOE PAGES

    Ding, B.; Liu, Z.; Seweryniak, D.; ...

    2017-02-01

    Excited states have been observed for the first time in the neutron-deficient nucleus 117Ba using the recoil-decay tagging technique following the heavy-ion fusion-evaporation reaction 64Zn(58Ni, 2p3n)117Ba. Prompt γ rays have been assigned to 117Ba through correlations with β-delayed protons following the decay of A = 117 recoils. Through the analysis of the γ–γ coincidence relationships, a high-spin level scheme consisting of two bands has been established in 117Ba. Based on the systematics of the level spacings in the neighboring barium isotopes, the two bands are proposed to have νh11/2[532]5/2– and νd5/2[413]5/2+ configurations, respectively. Lastly, the observed band-crossing properties are interpretedmore » in the framework of cranked shell model.« less

  16. The relationship between depth profiles of nitrogen concentration, hardness, and wear rate in ion-implanted Ti—6Al—4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard, James P.; Chen, An; Qiu, Bogin

    1993-07-01

    The property changes induced by nitrogen ion implantation of Ti sbnd 6Al sbnd 4V alloys are considered, with emphasis on the effects of the nitrogen concentration profiles on hardness and wear rate. The comparison of the measured hardness profile to the profile from a finite element simulation reinforces the assumption that nitride formation, rather than damage, is the primary hardening mechanism. In addition, these techniques allow determination of the increase in the yield stress caused by the ion implantation. In this case, a ten-fold increase in the yield stress is found. Wear rate profiles are compared to the nitrogen concentration profile and are found to be low at depths greater than the nitrogen profile depth. This is assumed to occur because of the geometry of the wear test device.

  17. A comparative investigation on the effects of nitrogen-doping into graphene on enhancing the electrochemical performance of SnO2/graphene for sodium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiuqiang; Su, Dawei; Zhang, Jinqiang; Chen, Shuangqiang; Mondal, Anjon Kumar; Wang, Guoxiu

    2015-02-21

    SnO2/nitrogen-doped graphene nanohybrids have been synthesized by an in situ hydrothermal method, during which the formation of SnO2 nanocrystals and nitrogen doping of graphene occur simultaneously. The as-prepared SnO2/nitrogen-doped graphene nanohybrids exhibit enhanced electrochemical performance for sodium-ion batteries compared to SnO2/graphene nanocomposites. A systematic comparison between SnO2/nitrogen-doped graphene nanohybrids and the SnO2/graphene counterpart as anode materials for sodium-ion batteries has been conducted. The comparison is in a reasonable framework, where SnO2/nitrogen-doped graphene nanohybrids and the SnO2/graphene counterpart have the same SnO2 ratio, similar SnO2 crystallinity and particle size, close surface area and pore size. The results clearly manifest that the improved electron transfer efficiency of SnO2/nitrogen-doped graphene due to nitrogen-doping plays a more important role than the increased electro-active sites within graphene network in enhancing the electro-activity of SnO2/nitrogen-doped graphene nanohybrids compared to the SnO2/graphene counterpart. In contrast to the previous reports which often ascribe the enhanced electro-activity of nitrogen-doped graphene based composites to two nitrogen-doping effects (improving the electron transfer efficiency and increasing electro-active sites within graphene networks) in one single declaration, this work is expected to provide more specific information for understanding the effects of nitrogen-doping into graphene on improving the electrochemical performance of graphene based composites.

  18. Modeling the Observability of Recoiling Black Holes as Offset Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blecha, Laura; Torrey, Paul; Vogelsberger, Mark; Genel, Shy; Springel, Volker; Sijacki, Debora; Snyder, Gregory; Bird, Simeon; Nelson, Dylan; Xu, Dandan; Hernquist, Lars

    The merger of two supermassive black holes (SMBHs) imparts a gravitational-wave (GW) recoil kick to the remnant SMBH, which can even eject the SMBH from its host galaxy. An actively-accreting, recoiling SMBH may be observable as an offset quasar. Prior to the advent of a space-based GW observatory, detections of these offset quasars may offer the best chance for identifying recent SMBH mergers. Indeed, observational searches for recoiling quasars have already identified several promising candidates. However, systematic searches for recoils are currently hampered by large uncertainties regarding how often offset quasars should be observable and where they are most likely to be found. Motivated by this, we have developed a model for recoiling quasars in a cosmological framework, utilizing information about the progenitor galaxies from the Illustris cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. For the first time, we model the effects of BH spin alignment and recoil dynamics based on the gas-richness of host galaxies. We predict that if BH spins are not highly aligned, seeing-limited observations could resolve offset AGN, making them promising targets for all-sky surveys. The rarity of large broad-line offsets among SDSS quasars is likely due in part to selection effects but suggests that spin alignment plays a role in suppressing recoils. Nonetheless, in our most physically motivated model where alignment occurs only in gas-rich mergers, hundreds of offset AGN should be found in all-sky surveys. Our findings strongly motivate a dedicated search for recoiling AGN.

  19. Characteristics of Pickup Ions in Titan's Upper Atmosphere and Escape of Nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, M.; Johnson, R. E.; Ledvina, S. A.

    2004-11-01

    The distribution of 14 amu and 28-29 amu pickup ions with depth into Titan's atmosphere have calculated by Ledvina et al. (2004) and Brecht et al. (2000). Here we study the interaction of these ions with molecules in the upper atmosphere of Titan. As its environment is highly variable, Titan can be within Saturn's magnetosphere or can interact directly with the solar wind. These pickup ions follow the corresponding magnetic field as they penetrate into the atmosphere. The magnetic field strength considered here are 5.1 nT and 0.5 nT when Titan is inside the magnetosphere and in the solar wind respectively. The incident pick up ions collide with atmospheric neutrals. After they charge exchange, they are tracked under the influence of Titan's gravitational field. The energetic ions and neutral impart energy to the molecules in the Titan's atmosphere causing ejection, bond breaking and heating. Predictions will be made for the Cassini Titan flyby. The model described is flexible to incorporate that data as it becomes available. References Brecht, S.H., J.G. Luhmann, and D.J. Larson, Simulation of the Saturnian magnetospheric interaction with Titan, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 13119-13130, 2000. Ledvina, S.A., S.H. Brecht, J.G. Luhmann, Ion distribution of 14 amu pickup ions associated with Titan's plasma interaction, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L17S10, 10.1029/2004GL019861, 2004.

  20. Comparison of Ion Balance and Nitrogen Metabolism in Old and Young Leaves of Alkali-Stressed Rice Plants

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huan; Wu, Zhihai; Han, Jiayu; Zheng, Wei; Yang, Chunwu

    2012-01-01

    Background Alkali stress is an important agricultural contaminant and has complex effects on plant metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the alkali stress has different effects on the growth, ion balance, and nitrogen metabolism in old and young leaves of rice plants, and to compare functions of both organs in alkali tolerance. Methodology/Principal Findings The results showed that alkali stress only produced a small effect on the growth of young leaves, whereas strongly damaged old leaves. Rice protected young leaves from ion harm via the large accumulation of Na+ and Cl− in old leaves. The up-regulation of OsHKT1;1, OsAKT1, OsHAK1, OsHAK7, OsHAK10 and OsHAK16 may contribute to the larger accumulation of Na+ in old leaves under alkali stress. Alkali stress mightily reduced the NO3− contents in both organs. As old leaf cells have larger vacuole, under alkali stress these scarce NO3− was principally stored in old leaves. Accordingly, the expression of OsNRT1;1 and OsNRT1;2 in old leaves was up-regulated by alkali stress, revealing that the two genes might contribute to the accumulation of NO3− in old leaves. NO3− deficiency in young leaves under alkali stress might induce the reduction in OsNR1 expression and the subsequent lacking of NH4+, which might be main reason for the larger down-regulation of OsFd-GOGAT and OsGS2 in young leaves. Conclusions/Significance Our results strongly indicated that, during adaptation of rice to alkali stress, young and old leaves have distinct mechanisms of ion balance and nitrogen metabolism regulation. We propose that the comparative studies of young and old tissues may be important for abiotic stress tolerance research. PMID:22655071

  1. Comparison of ion balance and nitrogen metabolism in old and young leaves of alkali-stressed rice plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan; Wu, Zhihai; Han, Jiayu; Zheng, Wei; Yang, Chunwu

    2012-01-01

    Alkali stress is an important agricultural contaminant and has complex effects on plant metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the alkali stress has different effects on the growth, ion balance, and nitrogen metabolism in old and young leaves of rice plants, and to compare functions of both organs in alkali tolerance. The results showed that alkali stress only produced a small effect on the growth of young leaves, whereas strongly damaged old leaves. Rice protected young leaves from ion harm via the large accumulation of Na(+) and Cl(-) in old leaves. The up-regulation of OsHKT1;1, OsAKT1, OsHAK1, OsHAK7, OsHAK10 and OsHAK16 may contribute to the larger accumulation of Na(+) in old leaves under alkali stress. Alkali stress mightily reduced the NO(3)(-) contents in both organs. As old leaf cells have larger vacuole, under alkali stress these scarce NO(3)(-) was principally stored in old leaves. Accordingly, the expression of OsNRT1;1 and OsNRT1;2 in old leaves was up-regulated by alkali stress, revealing that the two genes might contribute to the accumulation of NO(3)(-) in old leaves. NO(3)(-) deficiency in young leaves under alkali stress might induce the reduction in OsNR1 expression and the subsequent lacking of NH(4)(+), which might be main reason for the larger down-regulation of OsFd-GOGAT and OsGS2 in young leaves. Our results strongly indicated that, during adaptation of rice to alkali stress, young and old leaves have distinct mechanisms of ion balance and nitrogen metabolism regulation. We propose that the comparative studies of young and old tissues may be important for abiotic stress tolerance research.

  2. [Ion-exchange substrate as a source of nitrogen mobile forms in the conveyor method of vegetables cultivation on artificial soil].

    PubMed

    Velichko, V V; Ushakova, S A; Tikhomirov, A A

    2014-01-01

    The investigation had the objective to evaluate the applicability of ion-exchange substrate to maintaining the mobile nitrogen content in irrigation solution and artificial coil during cultivation of a mixed (in term of age) vegetable container. Objects of the investigation were radishes and leaf cabbage crops with the period of vegetation of 28 days. A 120-day experiment showed that single introduction of the ion-exchange substrate promoted nitrogen stabilization in the irrigation solution and, consequently, yielding of higher crops as compared with the control.

  3. Recoil Experiments Using a Compressed Air Cannon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Brett

    2006-12-01

    Ping-Pong vacuum cannons, potato guns, and compressed air cannons are popular and dramatic demonstrations for lecture and lab.1-3 Students enjoy them for the spectacle, but they can also be used effectively to teach physics. Recently we have used a student-built compressed air cannon as a laboratory activity to investigate impulse, conservation of momentum, and kinematics. It is possible to use the cannon, along with the output from an electronic force plate, as the basis for many other experiments in the laboratory. In this paper, we will discuss the recoil experiment done by our students in the lab and also mention a few other possibilities that this apparatus could be used for.

  4. Honeysuckle-derived hierarchical porous nitrogen, sulfur, dual-doped carbon for ultra-high rate lithium ion battery anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Junke; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Zhen; Xi, Xianghui

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays, developing functional carbon materials from cheap natural materials is a highly compelling topic. Different from most explored biomass, honeysuckle is inherently rich in nitrogen and sulfur heteroatoms, and it has many advantages for production on a large scale. Here, hierarchical porous carbon (HPC), derived from waste honeysuckle via an environmentally friendly and economically viable method, has been reported as an anode for rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The as-fabricated HPC exhibits favorable features for electrochemical energy storage performance such as high specific surface area (830 m2 g-1), hierarchical three-dimensional (3D) pore network and heteroatoms (N and S) doping effects. HPC, when evaluated as an anode material for lithium ion batteries, shows superior cycling stability (maintaining a reversible capacity of 1215 mAh g-1 at the current density of 100 mA g-1 after 100 cycles) and excellent rate capability (370 mAh g-1 at the current density of 20 A g-1). Furthermore, owing to the appropriate heteroatoms doping, a high initial coulombic efficiency of 64.7% can be achieved. A widespread comparison with the literature also showed that the honeysuckle derived porous carbon was one of the most promising carbon-based anodes for high-rate lithium ion batteries.

  5. Nitrogen-doped carbon nanoparticles by flame synthesis as anode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjya, Dhrubajyoti; Park, Hyean-Yeol; Kim, Min-Sik; Choi, Hyuck-Soo; Inamdar, Shaukatali N; Yu, Jong-Sung

    2014-01-14

    Nitrogen-doped turbostratic carbon nanoparticles (NPs) are prepared using fast single-step flame synthesis by directly burning acetonitrile in air atmosphere and investigated as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The as-prepared N-doped carbon NPs show excellent Li-ion stoarage properties with initial discharge capacity of 596 mA h g(-1), which is 17% more than that shown by the corresponding undoped carbon NPs synthesized by identical process with acetone as carbon precursor and also much higher than that of commercial graphite anode. Further analysis shows that the charge-discharge process of N-doped carbon is highly stable and reversible not only at high current density but also over 100 cycles, retaining 71% of initial discharge capacity. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy also shows that N-doped carbon has better conductivity for charge and ions than that of undoped carbon. The high specific capacity and very stable cyclic performance are attributed to large number of turbostratic defects and N and associated increased O content in the flame-synthesized N-doped carbon. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report which demonstrates single-step, direct flame synthesis of N-doped turbostratic carbon NPs and their application as a potential anode material with high capacity and superior battery performance. The method is extremely simple, low cost, energy efficient, very effective, and can be easily scaled up for large scale production.

  6. Cascading Boost Effect on the Capacity of Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Sheets for Li- and Na-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lei-Lei; Li, Si-Bai; Zhang, Ming-Jian; Li, Shuan-Kui; Lin, Ling-Piao; Zheng, Jia-Xin; Zhuang, Quan-Chao; Amine, Khalil; Pan, Feng

    2016-10-12

    Specific capacity and cyclic performance are critically important for the electrode materials of rechargeable batteries. Herein, a capacity boost effect of Li- and Na-ion batteries was presented and clarified by nitrogen-doped graphene sheets. The reversible capacities progressively increased from 637.4 to 1050.4 mAh g(-1) (164.8% increase) in Li-ion cell tests from 20 to 185 cycles, and from 187.3 to 247.5 mAh g(-1) (132.1% increase) in Na-ion cell tests from 50 to 500 cycles. The mechanism of the capacity boost is proposed as an electrochemical induced cascading evolution of graphitic N to pyridinic and/or pyrrolic N, during which only these graphitic N adjacent pyridinic or pyrrolic structures can be taken precedence. The original and new generated pyridinic and pyrrolic N have strengthened binding energies to Li/Na atoms, thus increased the Li/Na coverage and delivered a progressive capacity boost with cycles until the entire favorable graphitic N transform into pyridinic and pyrrolic N.

  7. Furfural production from xylose using sulfonic ion-exchange resins (Amberlyst) and simultaneous stripping with nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Agirrezabal-Telleria, I; Larreategui, A; Requies, J; Güemez, M B; Arias, P L

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this work deals with the development of new approaches to the production of furfural from xylose. It combines relatively cheap heterogeneous catalysts (Amberlyst 70) with simultaneous furfural stripping using nitrogen under semi-batch conditions. Nitrogen, compared to steam, does not dilute the vapor phase stream when condensed. This system allowed stripping 65% of the furfural converted from xylose and almost 100% of selectivity in the condensate. Moreover, high initial xylose loadings led to the formation of two water-furfural phases, which could reduce further purification costs. Constant liquid-vapor equilibrium along stripping could be maintained for different xylose loadings. The modeling of the experimental data was carried out in order to obtain a liquid-vapor mass-transfer coefficient. This value could be used for future studies under steady-state continuous conditions in similar reaction-systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Change in Uptake, Transport and Accumulation of Ions in Nerium oleander (Rosebay) as Affected by Different Nitrogen Sources and Salinity

    PubMed Central

    Abdolzadeh, Ahmad; Shima, Kazuto; Lambers, Hans; Chiba, Kyozo

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims The source of nitrogen plays an important role in salt tolerance of plants. In this study, the effects of NaCl on net uptake, accumulation and transport of ions were investigated in Nerium oleander with ammonium or nitrate as the nitrogen source in order to analyse differences in uptake and cycling of ions within plants. Methods Plants were grown in a greenhouse in hydroponics under different salt treatments (control vs. 100 mm NaCl) with ammonium or nitrate as the nitrogen source, and changes in ion concentration in plants, xylem sap exuded from roots and stems, and phloem sap were determined. Key Results Plant weight, leaf area and photosynthetic rate showed a higher salt tolerance of nitrate-fed plants compared with that of ammonium-fed plants. The total amount of Na+ transported in the xylem in roots, accumulated in the shoot and retranslocated in the phloem of ammonium-fed plants under salt treatment was 1·8, 1·9 and 2·7 times more, respectively, than that of nitrate-treated plants. However, the amount of Na+ accumulated in roots in nitrate-fed plants was about 1·5 times higher than that in ammonium-fed plants. Similarly, Cl− transport via the xylem to the shoot and its retranslocation via the phloem (Cl− cycling) were far greater with ammonium treatment than with nitrate treatment under conditions of salinity. The uptake and accumulation of K+ in shoots decreased more due to salinity in ammonium-fed plants compared with nitrate-fed plants. In contrast, K+ cycling in shoots increased due to salinity, with higher rates in the ammonium-treated plants. Conclusions The faster growth of nitrate-fed plants under conditions of salinity was associated with a lower transport and accumulation of Na+ and Cl− in the shoot, whereas in ammonium-fed plants accumulation and cycling of Na+ and Cl− in shoots probably caused harmful effects and reduced growth of plants. PMID:18772147

  9. Structural modifications of diamond like carbon films induced by MeV nitrogen ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, S.; Bhatta, U. M.; Islam, A. K. M. Maidul; Mukherjee, M.; Ray, N. R.; Dev, B. N.

    2009-02-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited on Si(1 0 0) substrates using plasma deposition technique. The deposited films were irradiated using 2 MeV N + ions at fluences of 1×1014, 1×1015 and 5×1015 ions/cm 2. Samples have been characterized by using Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Analysis of Raman spectra shows a gradual shift of both D and G band peaks towards higher frequencies along with an increase of the intensity ratio, I(D)/ I(G), with increasing ion fluence in irradiation. These results are consistent with an increase of sp 2 bonding. XPS results also show a monotonic increase of sp 2/sp 3 hybridization ratio with increasing ion fluence. Plan view TEM images show the formation of clusters in the irradiated DLC films. HRTEM micrographs from the samples irradiated at a fluence of 5×1015 ions/cm 2 show the lattice image with an average interplanar spacing of 0.34 nm, revealing that the clusters are graphite clusters. The crystallographic planes in these clusters are somewhat distorted compared to the perfect graphite structure.

  10. A gun recoil system employing a magnetorheological fluid damper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. C.; Wang, J.

    2012-10-01

    This research aims to design and control a full scale gun recoil buffering system which works under real firing impact loading conditions. A conventional gun recoil absorber is replaced with a controllable magnetorheological (MR) fluid damper. Through dynamic analysis of the gun recoil system, a theoretical model for optimal design and control of the MR fluid damper for impact loadings is derived. The optimal displacement, velocity and optimal design rules are obtained. By applying the optimal design theory to protect against impact loadings, an MR fluid damper for a full scale gun recoil system is designed and manufactured. An experimental study is carried out on a firing test rig which consists of a 30 mm caliber, multi-action automatic gun with an MR damper mounted to the fixed base through a sliding guide. Experimental buffering results under passive control and optimal control are obtained. By comparison, optimal control is better than passive control, because it produces smaller variation in the recoil force while achieving less displacement of the recoil body. The optimal control strategy presented in this paper is open-loop with no feedback system needed. This means that the control process is sensor-free. This is a great benefit for a buffering system under impact loading, especially for a gun recoil system which usually works in a harsh environment.

  11. Novel Ag@Nitrogen-doped Porous Carbon Composite with High Electrochemical Performance as Anode Materials for Lithium-ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuqing; Li, Jintang; Yue, Guanghui; Luo, Xuetao

    2017-07-01

    A novel Ag@nitrogen-doped porous carbon (Ag-NPC) composite was synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method and applied as an anode material in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Using this method, Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were embedded in NPC through thermal decomposition of AgNO3 in the pores of NPC. The reversible capacity of Ag-NPC remained at 852 mAh g-1 after 200 cycles at a current density of 0.1 A g-1, showing its remarkable cycling stability. The enhancement of the electrochemical properties such as cycling performance, reversible capacity and rate performance of Ag-NPC compared to the NPC contributed to the synergistic effects between Ag NPs and NPC.

  12. Channeling effects observed in energy-loss spectra of nitrogen ions scattered off a Pt(110) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, A.; Heiland, W.; Jensen, J.; Juaristi, J. I.; Arnau, A.

    2001-11-01

    We present measured energy-loss spectra of nitrogen ions, which are scattered off a (1×2) missing row reconstructed Pt(110) single-crystal surface. The primary energy is varied from below 1 keV up to above 1 MeV, i.e., 0.04v0

  13. Isolation blocking voltage of nitrogen ion-implanted AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structure

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, C. F.; Kang, Tsung Sheng; Liu, L.; Chang, C. Y.; Pearton, S. J.; Kravchenko, Ivan I; Laboutin, O.; Johnson, Wayne J.; Ren, F.

    2010-01-01

    Nitrogen ion-implanted AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structures showed an isolation blocking voltage of 900 V with a leakage current at 1 A/mm across an implanted isolation-gap of 10 m between two Ohmic pads. The effect of implanted gap distance 1.7, 5, or 10 m between two Ohmic contact pads was evaluated. The isolation current density was determined to be solely dependent on the applied field between the contact pads. A model using a combination of resistive current and Poole Frenkel current is consistent with the experimental data. The resistance of the isolation implantation region significantly decreased after the sample was annealed at temperatures above 600 C.

  14. Coherent transverse-optical phonon generation induced by lattice defects in nitrogen-ion-implanted GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. S.; Ryu, H. C.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, H.; Rho, H.; Kim, Y. J.; Lim, Y. S.; Yee, K. J.

    2013-10-01

    We describe our observation of coherent phonon oscillations of X-point zone-boundary transverse-optical (TO) mode, TO(X), in nitrogen-ion-implanted GaAs that has been annealed at high temperatures. With the TO(X) mode being forbidden from the Raman selection rule in pure zinc-blende GaAs, the lattice defects have provided additional momentum for phonon generation. Annealing-induced structural modifications were demonstrated through X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Raman scattering measurements. The polarization dependence of the TO(X) mode was compared with that of the longitudinal optical mode, and the temperature dependence of the TO(X) phonon dephasing was also investigated.

  15. Scattering of hydrogen, nitrogen and water ions from micro pore optic plates for application in spaceborne plasma instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stude, Joan; Wieser, Martin; Barabash, Stas

    2016-10-01

    Time-of-flight mass spectrometers for upcoming space missions into enhanced radiation environments need to be small, light weight and energy efficient. Time-of-flight systems using surface interactions as start-event generation can be smaller than foil-type instruments. Start surfaces for such applications need to provide narrow angular scattering, high ionization yields and high secondary electron emissions to be effective. We measured the angular scattering, energy distribution and positive ionization yield of micro pore optics for incident hydrogen, nitrogen and water ions at 2 keV. Positive ionization yields of 2% for H+ , 0.5% for N+ and 0.2% for H2O+ were detected.

  16. Moving towards first science with the St. George recoil separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisel, Zachary; Berg, G. P. A.; Gilardy, G.; Moran, M.; Schmitt, J.; Seymour, C.; Stech, E.; Couder, M.

    2015-10-01

    The St. George recoil mass separator has recently been coupled to the 5MV St. Ana accelerator at the University of Notre Dame's Nuclear Science Lab. St. George is a unique tool designed to measure radiative alpha-capture reactions for nuclei up to A = 40 in inverse kinematics in order to directly obtain cross sections required for astrophysical models of stellar and explosive helium burning. Commissioning of St. George is presently taking place with primary beams of hydrogen, helium, and oxygen. In this presentation, results will be shown for the measured energy acceptance of St. George, which compare favorably to COSY results when employing the calculated optimal ion-optical settings. Additionally, future plans will be discussed, such as assessing the angular acceptance of St. George and the re-integration of HiPPO at the separator target position to provide a dense, windowless helium gas-jet target. The material presented in this work is partially supported by the National Science Foundation Grant No. 1419765.

  17. Effect of nitrogen high temperature plasma based ion implantation on the creep behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, A. C.; Oliveira, R. M.; Reis, D. A. P.; Carreri, F. C.

    2014-08-01

    Nitrogen high temperature plasma based ion implantation (HTPBII) performed on Ti-6Al-4V significantly improved the creep behavior of the alloy. Treatments were performed for 1 h at a working pressure of 4 mbar and negative high voltage pulses of 7.5 kV, 30 μs and 500 Hz were applied on the specimens heated at 800 °C and 900 °C, respectively. Microstructural characterization of the treated samples revealed the formation of nitrided layers, with simultaneous formation of TiN and Ti2N. The most intense peaks of these compounds were obtained at higher treatment temperature, probably due to the diffusion of nitrogen into titanium. The presence of nitrides caused surface hardening up to three times higher in comparison with untreated alloy. Constant load creep tests were conducted on a standard creep machine in air atmosphere, at stress level of 319 MPa at 600 °C. Significant reductions of the steady-state creep rates (ɛ) were measured for martensitic Ti-6Al-4V treated by nitrogen HTPBII, reaching minimum creep rates of 0.0318 h-1 in comparison with 0.1938 h-1 for untreated sample. The improvement of the creep resistance seems to be associated with the formation of a thick nitrided layer, which acts as a barrier to oxygen diffusion into the material. In addition, the increase of the grain size generated by the heating of the substrate during the treatment can affect some creep mechanisms, leading to a significant reduction of ɛ.

  18. In situ friction and wear measurements of ion implanted 304 stainless steel in nitrogen and oxygen ambients

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, L.E.; Knapp, J.A.; Follstaedt, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    The dual ion implantation of Ti and C (4.6 x 10/sup 17/ Ticm/sup 2/ at 180 keV followed by 2.0 x 10/sup 17/ Ccm/sup 2/ at 50 keV) into 304 stainless steel has been found to reduce friction and wear in vacuum, oxygen and air environments. This treatment produces an amorphous matrix with embedded TiC precipitates within the implanted layer. Unlubricated friction measurements and wear track analyses were completed in situ in a scanning Auger microprobe using a 440C pin at a Hertzian contact stress three times the bulk yield strength of umimplanted 304. In ultrahigh vacuum the friction coefficient was reduced from 1.2 to 0.6 to 0.8, while the wear track width decreased from 414 to 325 ..mu..m at 5000 cycles. For partial pressure of 2.1 x 10/sup -5/ Pa of oxygen, almost the same reductions in friction and wear were obtained as in air: ion implantation decreased the friction coefficient from 1.10 to .65 and the wear track width from 319 to 198 ..mu..m at 5000 cycles, as compared to decreases of 1.0 to 0.5 and 255 to 190 ..mu..m, respectively, in air. Such decreases were not observed in nitrogen ambients, although the results in nitrogen were similar to those in ultrahigh vacuum. Friction coefficients and the analyses of wear track compostions indicate that oxidation fo the implanted layer during sliding is important for reducing friction. 18 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Analysis of inorganic nitrogen and related anions in high salinity water using ion chromatography with tandem UV and conductivity detectors.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Brian; Gandhi, Jay; Zhang, Chunlong Carl

    2011-09-01

    Over 97% of the Earth's water is high salinity water in the form of gulfs, oceans, and salt lakes. There is an increasing concern for the quality of water in bays, gulfs, oceans, and other natural waters. These waters are affected by many different sources of contamination. The sources are, but not limited to, groundwater run-off of nitrogen containing fertilizer, pesticides, cleaning agents, solid wastes, industrial waters, and many more. The final destinations of these contaminants are rivers, lakes, and bayous that eventually will lead to bays, gulfs, and oceans. Many industries depend on the quality of these waters, such as the fishing industry. In addition to wild marine life, there are large aquariums and fish and shrimp farms that are required to know the quality of the water. However, the ability of these industries to monitor their processes is limited. Most analytical methods do not apply to the analysis of high salinity waters. They are dependent on wet chemistry techniques, spectrophotometers, and flow analyzers. These methods do not have the accuracy, precision, and sensitivity when compared to ion chromatography (IC). Since the inception of IC, it has become a standard practice for determining the content of many different water samples. Many IC methods are limited in the range of analytes that can be detected, as well as the numerous sample sources of which the methods are applicable. The main focus of current IC methods does not include high salinity waters. This research demonstrates an ion chromatographic method that has the ability to determine low level concentrations of inorganic nitrogen and related anions (nitrite-N, nitrate-N, phosphorous-P, sulfate, bromide, chloride, sulfide, fluoride, ammonia, calcium, and magnesium) in a single run using a combination of UV and conductivity detectors. This method is applicable to various waters, and uses both freshwater and high salinity water samples.

  20. Bias in bonding behavior among boron, carbon, and nitrogen atoms in ion implanted a-BN, a-BC, and diamond like carbon films

    SciTech Connect

    Genisel, Mustafa Fatih; Uddin, Md. Nizam; Say, Zafer; Bengu, Erman; Kulakci, Mustafa; Turan, Rasit; Gulseren, Oguz

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we implanted N{sup +} and N{sub 2}{sup +} ions into sputter deposited amorphous boron carbide (a-BC) and diamond like carbon (DLC) thin films in an effort to understand the chemical bonding involved and investigate possible phase separation routes in boron carbon nitride (BCN) films. In addition, we investigated the effect of implanted C{sup +} ions in sputter deposited amorphous boron nitride (a-BN) films. Implanted ion energies for all ion species were set at 40 KeV. Implanted films were then analyzed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The changes in the chemical composition and bonding chemistry due to ion-implantation were examined at different depths of the films using sequential ion-beam etching and high resolution XPS analysis cycles. A comparative analysis has been made with the results from sputter deposited BCN films suggesting that implanted nitrogen and carbon atoms behaved very similar to nitrogen and carbon atoms in sputter deposited BCN films. We found that implanted nitrogen atoms would prefer bonding to carbon atoms in the films only if there is no boron atom in the vicinity or after all available boron atoms have been saturated with nitrogen. Implanted carbon atoms also preferred to either bond with available boron atoms or, more likely bonded with other implanted carbon atoms. These results were also supported by ab-initio density functional theory calculations which indicated that carbon-carbon bonds were energetically preferable to carbon-boron and carbon-nitrogen bonds.

  1. A Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer for Quantitative Analysis of Nitrogen-Purged Compartments within the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottens, Andrew K.; Griffin, Timothy P.; Helms, William R.; Yost, Richard A.; Steinrock, T. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    To enter orbit, the Space Shuttle burns 1.8 million liters of liquid hydrogen combined with 0.8 million liters of liquid oxygen through three rocket engines mounted in the aft. NASA monitors the nitrogen-purged aft compartment for increased levels of hydrogen or oxygen in order to detect and determine the severity of a cryogenic fuel leak. Current monitoring is accomplished with a group of mass spectrometer systems located as much as 400 feet away from the Shuttle. It can take up to 45 seconds for gas to reach the mass spectrometer, which precludes monitoring for leaks in the final moments before liftoff (the orbiter engines are started at T-00:06 seconds). To remedy the situation, NASA is developing a small rugged mass spectrometer to be used as point-sensors around the Space Shuttle. As part of this project, numerous mass analyzer technologies are being investigated. Presented here are the preliminary results for one such technology, quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry (QITMS). A compact QITMS system has been developed in-house at the University of Florida for monitoring trace levels of four primary gases, hydrogen, helium, oxygen, and argon, all in a nitrogen background. Since commercially available QITMS systems are incapable of mass analysis at m/z(exp 2), the home-built system is preferred for the evaluation of QITMS technology.

  2. A Revival of Waste: Atmospheric Pressure Nitrogen Plasma Jet Enhanced Jumbo Silicon/Silicon Carbide Composite in Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bing-Hong; Chuang, Shang-I; Liu, Wei-Ren; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2015-12-30

    In this study, a jumbo silicon/silicon carbide (Si/SiC) composite (JSC), a novel anode material source, was extracted from solar power industry cutting waste and used as a material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), instead of manufacturing the nanolized-Si. Unlike previous methods used for preventing volume expansion and solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), the approach proposed here simply entails applying surface modification to JSC-based electrodes by using nitrogen-atmospheric pressure plasma jet (N-APPJ) treatment process. Surface organic bonds were rearranged and N-doped compounds were formed on the electrodes through applying different plasma treatment durations, and the qualitative examinations of before/after plasma treatment were identified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA). The surface modification resulted in the enhancement of electrochemical performance with stable capacity retention and high Coulombic efficiency. In addition, depth profile and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were executed to determine the existence of Li-N matrix and how the nitrogen compounds change the surface conditions of the electrodes. The N-APPJ-induced rapid surface modification is a major breakthrough for processing recycled waste that can serve as anode materials for next-generation high-performance LIBs.

  3. Mesoporous nitrogen-doped carbon hollow spheres as high-performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Kaifu; An, Weili; Fu, Jijiang; Gao, Biao; Wang, Lei; Peng, Xiang; Cheng, Gary J.; Chu, Paul K.

    2016-08-01

    Nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon hollow spheres (N-MCHSs) were prepared using mesoporous silica hollow spheres as template and dopamine as carbon precursor. The N-MCHSs demonstrate high specific surface area and vegetable sponge-like mesoporous shell with interconnected ;carbon bridges;, facilitating continuous electron transport and Li ion diffusion, and making the whole structure more stable. The influence of N contents and N-bonding configuration on the Li storage of N-MCHSs is discussed. The N-MCHSs carbonized at 800 °C demonstrate high reversible capacity and excellent rate performance, delivering a capacity of 485 mAh g-1 at a current of 0.5 A g-1 after 1,100 cycles. Even up to 4.0 A g-1, a high capacity of 214 mAh g-1 can be remained. The high electrochemical performance of N-MCHSs can be ascribed to mesoporous carbon hollow spheres structure and high level pyridinic nitrogen doping.

  4. Freeze-drying for sustainable synthesis of nitrogen doped porous carbon cryogel with enhanced supercapacitor and lithium ion storage performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Zheng; Yu, Chang; Fan, Xiaoming; Liu, Shaohong; Yang, Juan; Zhang, Mengdi; Wang, Gang; Xiao, Nan; Qiu, Jieshan

    2015-09-01

    A chitosan (CS) based nitrogen doped carbon cryogel with a high specific surface area (SSA) has been directly synthesized via a combined process of freeze-drying and high-temperature carbonization without adding any activation agents. The as-made carbon cryogel demonstrates an SSA up to 1025 m2 g-1 and a high nitrogen content of 5.98 wt%, while its counterpart derived from CS powder only shows an SSA of 26 m2 g-1. Freeze-drying is a determining factor for the formation of carbon cryogel with a high SSA, where the CS powder with a size of ca. 200 μm is transformed into the sheet-shaped cryogel with a thickness of 5-8 μm. The as-made carbon cryogel keeps the sheet-shaped structure and the abundant pores are formed in situ and decorated inside the sheets during carbonization. The carbon cryogel shows significantly enhanced performance as supercapacitor and lithium ion battery electrodes in terms of capacity and rate capability due to its quasi two-dimensional (2D) structure with reduced thickness. The proposed method may provide a simple approach to configure 2D biomass-derived advanced carbon materials for energy storage devices.

  5. The change of atomic distribution and hardness by nitrogen implantation into aluminum alloya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, J. P.; Lee, J. S.; Kim, K. R.; Choi, B. H.

    2008-02-01

    Through many studies of the nitrogen implantation into aluminum alloy, researchers have concluded that AlN (aluminum nitride) formation is the key to hardening the aluminum surface. We implanted nitrogen ions into the Al6061, using an ion implanter which has a modified Bernas ion source. We changed the incident ion energies (25keV, 50keV) and fluences (1×1017-2×1018ions/cm2). To measure the depth hardness of implanted samples, we used nanoindentation test. The test results showed that the hardness of the implanted sample increased as the incident ion fluence increased until 1×1018ions/cm2. However, the hardness did not increase at the fluence of 2×1018ions/cm2. Furthermore, another result showed that the hardness was slightly decreased. To see the depth distribution of elements, we used Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) analysis with depth profiling. Through the AES analysis, we observed that the nitrogen atomic ratio did not increase; since the atomic ratio reached its maximum point (50%), the depth profile formed a flat curve in the AES. It is determined by the AlN structure (1:1 combination), that is, by the stoichiometrical rule. The nitrogen atoms diffused to the inner and outer sides rather than made a narrowly ranged accumulation. We observed that the flat curve was lowered downward a little at the fluence of 2×1018ions/cm2. Observing the atomic distribution of oxygen in AES, we could conclude that the lowered curve was due to the recoil implantation of oxygen which had been originally combined with the aluminum surface in the aluminum oxide (Al2O3) layer. Comparing the AES result and the nanoindention result, we concluded that the recoiled oxygen atoms are not effective on hardening the Al surface. In this study, we observed the tendency to stop increasing the samples' hardness over the ion fluence of 1×1018ions/cm2. We observed the saturation of the atomic ratio by the stoichiometrical rule.

  6. The change of atomic distribution and hardness by nitrogen implantation into aluminum alloy.

    PubMed

    Chung, J P; Lee, J S; Kim, K R; Choi, B H

    2008-02-01

    Through many studies of the nitrogen implantation into aluminum alloy, researchers have concluded that AlN (aluminum nitride) formation is the key to hardening the aluminum surface. We implanted nitrogen ions into the Al6061, using an ion implanter which has a modified Bernas ion source. We changed the incident ion energies (25 keV, 50 keV) and fluences (1x10(17)-2x10(18) ions/cm(2)). To measure the depth hardness of implanted samples, we used nanoindentation test. The test results showed that the hardness of the implanted sample increased as the incident ion fluence increased until 1x10(18) ions/cm(2). However, the hardness did not increase at the fluence of 2x10(18) ions/cm(2). Furthermore, another result showed that the hardness was slightly decreased. To see the depth distribution of elements, we used Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) analysis with depth profiling. Through the AES analysis, we observed that the nitrogen atomic ratio did not increase; since the atomic ratio reached its maximum point (50%), the depth profile formed a flat curve in the AES. It is determined by the AlN structure (1:1 combination), that is, by the stoichiometrical rule. The nitrogen atoms diffused to the inner and outer sides rather than made a narrowly ranged accumulation. We observed that the flat curve was lowered downward a little at the fluence of 2x10(18) ions/cm(2). Observing the atomic distribution of oxygen in AES, we could conclude that the lowered curve was due to the recoil implantation of oxygen which had been originally combined with the aluminum surface in the aluminum oxide (Al(2)O(3)) layer. Comparing the AES result and the nanoindention result, we concluded that the recoiled oxygen atoms are not effective on hardening the Al surface. In this study, we observed the tendency to stop increasing the samples' hardness over the ion fluence of 1x10(18) ions/cm(2). We observed the saturation of the atomic ratio by the stoichiometrical rule.

  7. Isotope shifts in beryllium-, boron-, carbon-, and nitrogen-like ions from relativistic configuration interaction calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Nazé, C.; Verdebout, S.; Godefroid, M.

    2014-09-15

    Energy levels, normal and specific mass shift parameters as well as electronic densities at the nucleus are reported for numerous states along the beryllium, boron, carbon, and nitrogen isoelectronic sequences. Combined with nuclear data, these electronic parameters can be used to determine values of level and transition isotope shifts. The calculation of the electronic parameters is done using first-order perturbation theory with relativistic configuration interaction wavefunctions that account for valence, core–valence, and core–core correlation effects as zero-order functions. Results are compared with experimental and other theoretical values, when available.

  8. Difference between a Photon's Momentum and an Atom's Recoil

    SciTech Connect

    Gibble, Kurt

    2006-08-18

    When an atom absorbs a photon from a laser beam that is not an infinite plane wave, the atom's recoil is less than ({Dirac_h}/2{pi})k in the propagation direction. We show that the recoils in the transverse directions produce a lensing of the atomic wave functions, which leads to a frequency shift that is not discrete but varies linearly with the field amplitude and strongly depends on the atomic state detection. The same lensing effect is also important for microwave atomic clocks. The frequency shifts are of the order of the naive recoil shift for the transverse wave vector of the photons.

  9. Changes in polyamines, inorganic ions and glutamine synthetase activity in response to nitrogen availability and form in red spruce (Picea rubens)

    Treesearch

    Michelle J. Serapiglia; Rakesh Minocha; Subhash C. Minocha

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed effects of nitrogen availability and form on growth rates, concentrations of polyamines and inorganic ions and glutamine synthetase activity in in-vitro-cultured red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) cells. Growth rates, concentrations of polyamines and glutamine synthetase activity declined when either the amount of nitrate or the total amount...

  10. Molecular effect on equilibrium charge-state distributions. [of nitrogen ions injected through carbon foil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickholm, D.; Bickel, W. S.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes an experiment consisting of the acceleration of N(+) and N2(+) ions to energies between 0.25 and 1.75 MeV and their injection through a thin carbon foil, whereupon they were charge-state analyzed with an electrostatic analyzer. A foil-covered electrically suppressed Faraday cup, connected to a stepping motor, moved in the plane of the dispersed beams. The Faraday cup current, which was proportional to the number of incident ions, was sent to a current digitizer and computer programmed as a multiscaler. The energy-dependent charge-state fractions, the mean charge and the distribution width were calculated. It was shown that for incident atoms, the charge state distribution appeared to be spread over more charge states, while for the incident molecules, there was a greater fraction of charge states near the mean charge.

  11. Molecular effect on equilibrium charge-state distributions. [of nitrogen ions injected through carbon foil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickholm, D.; Bickel, W. S.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes an experiment consisting of the acceleration of N(+) and N2(+) ions to energies between 0.25 and 1.75 MeV and their injection through a thin carbon foil, whereupon they were charge-state analyzed with an electrostatic analyzer. A foil-covered electrically suppressed Faraday cup, connected to a stepping motor, moved in the plane of the dispersed beams. The Faraday cup current, which was proportional to the number of incident ions, was sent to a current digitizer and computer programmed as a multiscaler. The energy-dependent charge-state fractions, the mean charge and the distribution width were calculated. It was shown that for incident atoms, the charge state distribution appeared to be spread over more charge states, while for the incident molecules, there was a greater fraction of charge states near the mean charge.

  12. Cornlike Ordered Mesoporous Silicon Particles Modified by Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Layer for the Application of Li-Ion Battery.

    PubMed

    Lu, Bing; Ma, Bingjie; Deng, Xinglan; Li, Wangwu; Wu, Zhenyu; Shu, Hongbo; Wang, Xianyou

    2017-09-15

    The cornlike ordered mesoporous silicon (OM-Si) particles modified by the nitrogen-doped carbon layer (OM-Si@NC) are successfully fabricated and used as the anode of lithium-ion battery (LIBs). The influences of the N-doped carbon layer on the structure and electrochemical properties of the OM-Si@NC composite are detailedly investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectrum, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and charge/discharge tests. The results reveal that the amorphous N-doped carbon layer can offer the abundant conductive pathways for fast lithium ion transportation and electron transfer, which not only leads to a high specific capacity under high ampere density but also serves as a structural barrier maintaining the whole integrity and settling the mechanical breaking due to the huge volume changes of Si host. Therefore, the as-synthesized OM-Si@NC composite exhibits a high original discharge capacity of 2548 mA h g(-1) under 0.2 A g(-1) as well as a large reversible capacity of 1336 mA h g(-1) under 1 A g(-1) after 200 circles. The OM-Si@NC composite prepared by a relatively simple and feasible synthesis method shows excellent electrochemical performances and turns out to be promising for the application of high power LIBs.

  13. Phase formation and mechanical/tribological modification induced by nitrogen high temperature plasma based ion implantation into molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carreri, F. C.; Oliveira, R. M.; Oliveira, A. C.; Silva, M. M. N. F.; Ueda, M.; Silva, M. M.; Pichon, L.

    2014-08-01

    Transition metal nitrides present high hardness, good wear resistance and chemical stability. The formation of a surface layer of these materials on different types of substrates can improve surface properties without changing bulk characteristics. Molybdenum is used in many technological applications and the search for ways to effectively improve its properties is justified. In this work nitrogen ions were implanted into molybdenum by means of high temperature plasma based ion implantation (HTPBII), in order to produce a layer of molybdenum nitride on the surface of the material. The treatment was performed in the temperature range of 800-1200 °C, for 1 h. X-ray diffraction spectra showed the presence of the cubic-Mo2N phase in most of the samples. The tetragonal-Mo2N phase was also observed, depending on treatment conditions. Glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy was used to study the composition and thickness of the nitride layer. A 12 μm thick Mo2N layer was observed for samples treated at 1100 °C, although beyond this temperature threshold, a significant amount of nitride can no longer be produced. In relation to the surface mechanical properties, a ninefold increase in surface hardness was obtained, as well as a decrease in the friction coefficient. Wear against an alumina ball was not observed.

  14. Improvement of Vitamin K2 Production by Escherichia sp. with Nitrogen Ion Beam Implantation Induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan; Wang, Li; Zheng, Zhiming; Wang, Peng; Zhao, Genhai; Liu, Hui; Gong, Guohong; Wu, Hefang; Liu, Hongxia; Tan, Mu; Li, Zhemin

    2015-02-01

    Low-energy ion implantation as a novel mutagen has been increasingly applied in the microbial mutagenesis for its higher mutation frequency and wider mutation spectra. In this work, N+ ion beam implantation was used to enhance Escherichia sp. in vitamin K2 yield. Optimization of process parameters under submerged fermentation was carried out to improve the vitamin K2 yield of mutant FM5-632. The results indicate that an excellent mutant FM5-632 with a yield of 123.2±1.6 μg/L, that is four times that of the original strain, was achieved by eight successive implantations under the conditions of 15 keV and 60×2.6×1013 ions/cm2. A further optimization increased the yield of the mutant by 39.7%, i.e. 172.1±1.2 μg/L which occurred in the mutant cultivated in the optimal fermentation culture medium composed of (per liter): 15.31 g glycerol, 10 g peptone, 2.89 g yeast extract, 5 g K2HPO4, 1 g NaCl, 0.5 g MgSO4·7H2O and 0.04 g cedar wood oil, incubated at 33 °C, pH 7.0 and 180 rpm for 120 h.

  15. Study of near surface layer of graphite produced by nitrogen ion bombardment at high doses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogomolova, L. D.; Borisov, A. M.; Krasil'Nikova, N. A.; Mashkova, E. S.; Nemov, A. S.; Tarasova, V. V.

    To study the modified surface layers of graphites and deposited films of sputtered material, the dependences of sputtering yield Y, and ion-electron emission coefficient gamma on ion incidence angle and target temperature under high dose 30 keV N-2(+) ion irradiation have been measured. In the angular range theta=0-80degrees Y and gamma increase approximately as inverse costheta, Y of POCO-AXF-5Q are 1.5 times larger than of MPG-LT. The dependences of gamma (T) manifests a step-like behaviour typical for the radiation induced phase transitions. EPR analysis shows that at near room temperatures the point electron defects are typical of carbon and the defects due to carbon atoms interacting with N-14 nuclei. At elevated temperatures (greater than or equal to300 degreesC) there are the defects typical of graphite-like structures. The films deposited on glass collectors shows for cold targets only the defects typical of carbon, for the heated graphites - also the defects associated with C-N-14 nuclei interaction.

  16. Amperometric Detection of Aqueous Silver Ions by Inhibition of Glucose Oxidase Immobilized on Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotube Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Rust, Ian M; Goran, Jacob M; Stevenson, Keith J

    2015-07-21

    An amperometric glucose biosensor based on immobilization of glucose oxidase on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs) was successfully developed for the determination of silver ions. Upon exposure to glucose, a steady-state enzymatic turnover rate was detected through amperometric oxidation of the H2O2 byproduct, directly related to the concentration of glucose in solution. Inhibition of the steady-state enzymatic glucose oxidase reaction by heavy metals ions such as Ag(+), produced a quantitative decrease in the steady-state rate, subsequently creating an ultrasensitive metal ion biosensor through enzymatic inhibition. The Ag(+) biosensor displayed a sensitivity of 2.00 × 10(8) ± 0.06 M(-1), a limit of detection (σ = 3) of 0.19 ± 0.04 ppb, a linear range of 20-200 nM, and sample recovery at 101 ± 2%, all acquired at a low-operating potential of 0.05 V (vs Hg/Hg2SO4). Interestingly, the biosensor does not display a loss in sensitivity with continued use due to the % inhibition based detection scheme: loss of enzyme (from continued use) does not influence the % inhibition, only the overall current associated with the activity loss. The heavy metals Cu(2+) and Co(2+) were also detected using the enzyme biosensor but found to be much less inhibitory, with sensitivities of 1.45 × 10(6) ± 0.05 M(-1) and 2.69 × 10(3) ± 0.07 M(-1), respectively. The mode of GOx inhibition was examined for both Ag(+) and Cu(2+) using Dixon and Cornish-Bowden plots, where a strong correlation was observed between the inhibition constants and the biosensor sensitivity.

  17. Exerpts from the history of alpha recoils.

    PubMed

    Samuelsson, Christer

    2011-05-01

    Any confined air volume holding radon ((222)Rn) gas bears a memory of past radon concentrations due to (210)Pb (T(1/2) = 22 y) and its progenies entrapped in all solid objects in the volume. The efforts of quantifying past radon exposures by means of the left-behind long-lived radon progenies started in 1987 with this author's unsuccessful trials of removing (214)Po from radon exposed glass objects. In this contribution the history and different techniques of assessing radon exposure to man in retrospect will be overviewed. The main focus will be on the implantation of alpha recoils into glass surfaces, but also potential traps in radon dwellings will be discussed. It is concluded that for a successful retrospective application, three crucial imperatives must be met, i.e. firstly, the object must persistently store a certain fraction of the created (210)Pb atoms, secondly, be resistant over decades towards disturbances from the outside and thirdly, all (210)Pb atoms analysed must originate from airborne radon only. For large-scale radon epidemiological studies, non-destructive and inexpensive measurement techniques are essential. Large-scale studies cannot be based on objects rarely found in dwellings or not available for measurements. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Proton Recoil Telescope for Neutron Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinausero, M.; Barbui, M.; Prete, G.; Rizzi, V.; Andrighetto, A.; Pesente, S.; Fabris, D.; Lunardon, M.; Nebbia, G.; Viesti, G.; Moretto, S.; Morando, M.; Zenoni, A.; Bocci, F.; Donzella, A.; Bonomi, G.; Fontana, A.

    2006-05-01

    The N2P research program funded by the INFN committee for Experimental Nuclear Physics (CSNIII) has among his goals the construction of a Proton Recoil Telescope (PRT), a detector to measure neutron energy spectra. The interest in such a detector is primarily related to the SPES project for rare beams production at the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro. For the SPES project it is, in fact, of fundamental importance to have reliable information about energy spectra and yield for neutrons produced by d or p projectiles on thick light targets to model the ''conversion target'' in which the p or d are converted in neutrons. These neutrons, in a second stage, will induce the Uranium fission in the ''production target''. The fission products are subsequently extracted, selected and re-accelerated to produce the exotic beam. The neutron spectra and angular distribution are important parameters to define the final production of fission fragments. In addition, this detector can be used to measure neutron spectra in the field of cancer therapy (this topic is nowadays of particular interest to INFN, for the National Centre for Hadron therapy (CNAO) in Pavia) and space applications.

  19. Binary Black Hole Mergers and Recoil Kicks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan; Baker, J.; Choi, D.; Koppitz, M.; vanMeter, J.; Miller, C.

    2006-01-01

    Recent developments in numerical relativity have made it possible to follow reliably the coalescence of two black holes from near the innermost stable circular orbit to final ringdown. This opens up a wide variety of exciting astrophysical applications of these simulations. Chief among these is the net kick received when two unequal mass or spinning black holes merge. The magnitude of this kick has bearing on the production and growth of supermassive black holes during the epoch of structure formation, and on the retention of black holes in stellar clusters. Here we report the first accurate numerical calculation of this kick, for two nonspinning black holes in a 1.5:1 mass ratio, which is expected based on analytic considerations to give a significant fraction of the maximum possible recoil. We have performed multiple runs with different initial separations, orbital angular momenta, resolutions, extraction radii, and gauges. The full range of our kick speeds is 86-116 kilometers per second, and the most reliable runs give kicks between 86 and 97 kilometers per second. This is intermediate between the estimates from two recent post-Newtonian analyses and suggests that at redshifts z greater than 10, halos with masses less than 10(exp 9) M(sub SUN) will have difficulty retaining coalesced black holes after major mergers.

  20. Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy of Polycyclic Aromatic Nitrogen Heterocycles (PANHS) and their Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattioda, Andrew L.; Hudgin, Douglas; Bauschlicher, Charles W.; Alamandola, Louis J.

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, polycyclic aromatic nitrogen heterocycles (PANHs) have attracted a good deal of attention because of their potent carcinogenic and mutagenic properties, and their prevalence in our environment. Such species also play a prominent role in the chemistry of life up to and including the very nucleobases from which our DNA is constructed. Surprisingly, these compounds may even be common outside of our terrestrial environment. To wit, it is now widely accepted that polycyclic aromatic materials are abundant in space and represent a major reservoir of organic carbon in the interstellar medium and developing planetary systems. Given that nitrogen is the fourth most abundant chemically reactive element in space (surpassed only by hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen), it is entirely reasonable to suspect that PANHs may represent an important component of that organic reservoir. Motivated by their intrinsic merit and with special attention toward evaluating their exobiological significance, we have initiated a program to study the spectroscopic and chemical properties of P A " s under conditions relevant to extraterrestrial environments. Here we present the first results of that program-infrared spectroscopic measurements on a series of PANH"s in neutral and cationic forms, isolated in inert matrices at cryogenic temperatures.temperatures. The species studied include: 1 -, and 2-azabenz[a]anthracene, 1-, 2-, and 4- azachrysene, dibenz[a,h]acridine, and dibenz[a,J)acridine. The experimental measurements are also compared with theoretical spectra calculated using density functional theory. General spectroscopic trends observed in this series of compounds are discussed and the implications of these results for Astrophysics and Exobiology are considered.

  1. Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy of Polycyclic Aromatic Nitrogen Heterocycles (PANHS) and their Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattioda, Andrew L.; Hudgin, Douglas; Bauschlicher, Charles W.; Alamandola, Louis J.

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, polycyclic aromatic nitrogen heterocycles (PANHs) have attracted a good deal of attention because of their potent carcinogenic and mutagenic properties, and their prevalence in our environment. Such species also play a prominent role in the chemistry of life up to and including the very nucleobases from which our DNA is constructed. Surprisingly, these compounds may even be common outside of our terrestrial environment. To wit, it is now widely accepted that polycyclic aromatic materials are abundant in space and represent a major reservoir of organic carbon in the interstellar medium and developing planetary systems. Given that nitrogen is the fourth most abundant chemically reactive element in space (surpassed only by hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen), it is entirely reasonable to suspect that PANHs may represent an important component of that organic reservoir. Motivated by their intrinsic merit and with special attention toward evaluating their exobiological significance, we have initiated a program to study the spectroscopic and chemical properties of P A " s under conditions relevant to extraterrestrial environments. Here we present the first results of that program-infrared spectroscopic measurements on a series of PANH"s in neutral and cationic forms, isolated in inert matrices at cryogenic temperatures.temperatures. The species studied include: 1 -, and 2-azabenz[a]anthracene, 1-, 2-, and 4- azachrysene, dibenz[a,h]acridine, and dibenz[a,J)acridine. The experimental measurements are also compared with theoretical spectra calculated using density functional theory. General spectroscopic trends observed in this series of compounds are discussed and the implications of these results for Astrophysics and Exobiology are considered.

  2. An Experimental Study of Electromagnetic Lorentz Force and Rail Recoil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    MOTIVATION For over 200 years, electromagnetic forces have been extensively researched. During 1802 , Gian Domenico Romagnosi noticed that a magnetic...C. Woods, “Comment: Origin, location, magnitude and consequences of recoil in the plasma armature railgun,” Inst. Elect. Eng. Proc. Sci. Meas...22, pp. 849-850, 1989. [26] A. E. Witalis, “Origin, location, magnitude and consequences of recoil in the plasma armature railgun,” Inst. Elect

  3. RECOILING SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN SPIN-FLIP RADIO GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, F. K.; Wang Dong; Chen Xian

    2012-02-20

    Numerical relativity simulations predict that coalescence of supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries leads not only to a spin flip but also to a recoiling of the merger remnant SMBHs. In the literature, X-shaped radio sources are popularly suggested to be candidates for SMBH mergers with spin flip of jet-ejecting SMBHs. Here we investigate the spectral and spatial observational signatures of the recoiling SMBHs in radio sources undergoing black hole spin flip. Our results show that SMBHs in most spin-flip radio sources have mass ratio q {approx}> 0.3 with a minimum possible value q{sub min} {approx_equal} 0.05. For major mergers, the remnant SMBHs can get a kick velocity as high as 2100 km s{sup -1} in the direction within an angle {approx}< 40 Degree-Sign relative to the spin axes of remnant SMBHs, implying that recoiling quasars are biased to be with high Doppler-shifted broad emission lines while recoiling radio galaxies are biased to large apparent spatial off-center displacements. We also calculate the distribution functions of line-of-sight velocity and apparent spatial off-center displacements for spin-flip radio sources with different apparent jet reorientation angles. Our results show that the larger the apparent jet reorientation angle is, the larger the Doppler-shifting recoiling velocity and apparent spatial off-center displacement will be. We investigate the effects of recoiling velocity on the dust torus in spin-flip radio sources and suggest that recoiling of SMBHs would lead to 'dust-poor' active galactic nuclei. Finally, we collect a sample of 19 X-shaped radio objects and for each object give the probability of detecting the predicted signatures of recoiling SMBH.

  4. Calculated yield of isomer depletion due to NEEC for 93 m Mo recoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamian, S. A.; Carroll, J. J.

    2012-11-01

    In the present work, quantitative calculations were carried out for production and depletion of the 93 m Mo isomer in a relatively simple experiment using 91Zr beam ions. Such studies could be arranged at existing and operating accelerator facilities, e.g. at GSI or in JINR. The 93 m Mo nuclei produced in a He gas target due to the 4He(91Zr, 2 n) reaction will recoil into a gas stopper with a high velocity, being then depleted due to NEEC in highly-ionized species.

  5. Recoil-free spectroscopy of neutral Sr atoms in the Lamb-Dicke regime.

    PubMed

    Ido, Tetsuya; Katori, Hidetoshi

    2003-08-01

    Recoil-free as well as Doppler-free spectroscopy was demonstrated on the 1S0-3P1 transition of Sr atoms confined in a one-dimensional optical lattice. By investigating the wavelength and polarization dependence of the ac Stark shift acting on the 1S0 and 3P1(m(J)=0) states, we determined the wavelength where the Stark shifts for both states coincide. This Stark-free optical lattice, allowing the purturbation-free spectroscopy of trapped atoms, may keep neutral-atom based optical standards competitive with single-ion standards.

  6. Calculated yield of isomer depletion due to NEEC for {sup 93m}Mo recoils

    SciTech Connect

    Karamian, S. A.; Carroll, J. J.

    2012-11-15

    In the present work, quantitative calculations were carried out for production and depletion of the {sup 93m}Mo isomer in a relatively simple experiment using {sup 91}Zr beam ions. Such studies could be arranged at existing and operating accelerator facilities, e.g. at GSI or in JINR. The {sup 93m}Mo nuclei produced in a He gas target due to the {sup 4}He({sup 91}Zr, 2n) reaction will recoil into a gas stopper with a high velocity, being then depleted due to NEEC in highly-ionized species.

  7. Nucleophilic substitution by amide nitrogen in the aromatic rings of [zn - H]˙⁺ ions; the structures of the [b₂ - H - 17]˙⁺ and [c1 - 17]⁺ ions.

    PubMed

    Mu, Xiaoyan; Lau, Justin Kai-Chi; Lai, Cheuk-Kuen; Siu, K W Michael; Hopkinson, Alan C; Chu, Ivan K

    2016-04-28

    Peptide radical cations that contain an aromatic amino acid residue cleave to give [zn - H]˙⁺ ions with [b2 - H - 17]˙⁺ and [c1 - 17](+) ions, the dominant products in the dissociation of [zn - H]˙⁺, also present in lower abundance in the CID spectra. Isotopic labeling in the aromatic ring of [Yπ˙GG](+) establishes that in the formation of [b2 - H - 17]˙⁺ ions a hydrogen from the δ-position of the Y residue is lost, indicating that nucleophilic substitution on the aromatic ring has occurred. A preliminary DFT investigation of nine plausible structures for the [c1 - 17](+) ion derived from [Y(π)˙GG](+) shows that two structures resulting from attack on the aromatic ring by oxygen and nitrogen atoms from the peptide backbone have significantly better energies than other isomers. A detailed study of [Y(π)˙GG](+) using two density functionals, B3LYP and M06-2X, with a 6-31++G(d,p) basis set gives a higher barrier for attack on the aromatic ring of the [zn - H]˙⁺ ion by nitrogen than by the carbonyl oxygen. However, subsequent rearrangements involving proton transfers are much higher in energy for the oxygen-substituted isomer leading to the conclusion that the [c1 - 17](+) ions are the products of nucleophilic attack by nitrogen, protonated 2,7-dihydroxyquinoline ions. The [b2 - H - 17]˙⁺ ions are formed by loss of glycine from the same intermediates involved in the formation of the [c1 - 17](+) ions.

  8. Annealing of TiO2 Films Deposited on Si by Irradiating Nitrogen Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Yokota, Katsuhiro; Yano, Yoshinori; Miyashita, Fumiyoshi

    2006-11-13

    Thin TiO2 films were deposited on Si at a temperature of 600 deg. C by an ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) method. The TiO2 films were annealed for 30 min in Ar at temperatures below 700 deg. C. The as-deposited TiO2 films had high permittivities such 200 {epsilon}o and consisted of crystallites that were not preferentially oriented to the c-axis but had an expanded c-axis. On the annealed TiO2 films, permittivities became lower with increasing annealing temperature, and crystallites were oriented preferentially to the (110) plane.

  9. A stretch/compress scheme for a high temporal resolution detector for the magnetic recoil spectrometer time (MRSt).

    PubMed

    Hilsabeck, T J; Frenje, J A; Hares, J D; Wink, C W

    2016-11-01

    A time-resolved detector concept for the magnetic recoil spectrometer for time-resolved measurements of the NIF neutron spectrum is presented. The measurement is challenging due to the time spreading of the recoil protons (or deuterons) as they transit an energy dispersing magnet system. Ions arrive at the focal plane of the magnetic spectrometer over an interval of tens of nanoseconds. We seek to measure the time-resolved neutron spectrum with 20 ps precision by manipulating an electron signal derived from the ions. A stretch-compress scheme is employed to remove transit time skewing while simultaneously reducing the bandwidth requirements for signal recording. Simulation results are presented along with design concepts for structures capable of establishing the required electromagnetic fields.

  10. A stretch/compress scheme for a high temporal resolution detector for the magnetic recoil spectrometer time (MRSt)

    DOE PAGES

    Hilsabeck, T. J.; Frenje, J. A.; Hares, J. D.; ...

    2016-08-02

    Here we present a time-resolved detector concept for the magnetic recoil spectrometer for time-resolved measurements of the NIF neutron spectrum. The measurement is challenging due to the time spreading of the recoil protons (or deuterons) as they transit an energy dispersing magnet system. Ions arrive at the focal plane of the magnetic spectrometer over an interval of tens of nanoseconds. We seek to measure the time-resolved neutron spectrum with 20 ps precision by manipulating an electron signal derived from the ions. A stretch-compress scheme is employed to remove transit time skewing while simultaneously reducing the bandwidth requirements for signal recording.more » Simulation results are presented along with design concepts for structures capable of establishing the required electromagnetic fields.« less

  11. A stretch/compress scheme for a high temporal resolution detector for the magnetic recoil spectrometer time (MRSt)

    SciTech Connect

    Hilsabeck, T. J.; Frenje, J. A.; Hares, J. D.; Wink, C. W.

    2016-08-02

    Here we present a time-resolved detector concept for the magnetic recoil spectrometer for time-resolved measurements of the NIF neutron spectrum. The measurement is challenging due to the time spreading of the recoil protons (or deuterons) as they transit an energy dispersing magnet system. Ions arrive at the focal plane of the magnetic spectrometer over an interval of tens of nanoseconds. We seek to measure the time-resolved neutron spectrum with 20 ps precision by manipulating an electron signal derived from the ions. A stretch-compress scheme is employed to remove transit time skewing while simultaneously reducing the bandwidth requirements for signal recording. Simulation results are presented along with design concepts for structures capable of establishing the required electromagnetic fields.

  12. A stretch/compress scheme for a high temporal resolution detector for the magnetic recoil spectrometer time (MRSt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilsabeck, T. J.; Frenje, J. A.; Hares, J. D.; Wink, C. W.

    2016-11-01

    A time-resolved detector concept for the magnetic recoil spectrometer for time-resolved measurements of the NIF neutron spectrum is presented. The measurement is challenging due to the time spreading of the recoil protons (or deuterons) as they transit an energy dispersing magnet system. Ions arrive at the focal plane of the magnetic spectrometer over an interval of tens of nanoseconds. We seek to measure the time-resolved neutron spectrum with 20 ps precision by manipulating an electron signal derived from the ions. A stretch-compress scheme is employed to remove transit time skewing while simultaneously reducing the bandwidth requirements for signal recording. Simulation results are presented along with design concepts for structures capable of establishing the required electromagnetic fields.

  13. A stretch/compress scheme for a high temporal resolution detector for the magnetic recoil spectrometer time (MRSt)

    SciTech Connect

    Hilsabeck, T. J.; Frenje, J. A.; Hares, J. D.; Wink, C. W.

    2016-08-02

    Here we present a time-resolved detector concept for the magnetic recoil spectrometer for time-resolved measurements of the NIF neutron spectrum. The measurement is challenging due to the time spreading of the recoil protons (or deuterons) as they transit an energy dispersing magnet system. Ions arrive at the focal plane of the magnetic spectrometer over an interval of tens of nanoseconds. We seek to measure the time-resolved neutron spectrum with 20 ps precision by manipulating an electron signal derived from the ions. A stretch-compress scheme is employed to remove transit time skewing while simultaneously reducing the bandwidth requirements for signal recording. Simulation results are presented along with design concepts for structures capable of establishing the required electromagnetic fields.

  14. Synthesis of novel nitrogen-doped carbon dots for highly selective detection of iron ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Pengfei; Yao, Yixin; Zhou, Huimin; Zhang, Jin; Pang, Zengyuan; Ao, Kelong; Cai, Yibing; Wei, Qufu

    2017-04-01

    Herein, we report an eco-friendly and simple fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dot (N-CQD) biosensor which was synthesized via a hydrothermal method using erhanediamine (EDA) and citric acid (CA) as precursors. The surface functionalization of N-CQDs exhibited a bright blue emission under the excitation wavelength of 350 nm. The obtained N-CQDs were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the surface of the CQDs was successfully functionalized. After that, as-prepared N-CQDs were further applied in Fe(III) detection. Spectroscopic data indicated that fluorescent carbon-based nanomaterials displayed a sensitive response to Fe3+ in the range of 0.5-1000 μM as a fluorescence sensor in real environmental samples. Furthermore, the results also showed that a novel N-CQD nanomaterial could be employed as an ideal fluorescent Fe(III) probe.

  15. Synthesis of novel nitrogen-doped carbon dots for highly selective detection of iron ion.

    PubMed

    Lv, Pengfei; Yao, Yixin; Zhou, Huimin; Zhang, Jin; Pang, Zengyuan; Ao, Kelong; Cai, Yibing; Wei, Qufu

    2017-04-21

    Herein, we report an eco-friendly and simple fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dot (N-CQD) biosensor which was synthesized via a hydrothermal method using erhanediamine (EDA) and citric acid (CA) as precursors. The surface functionalization of N-CQDs exhibited a bright blue emission under the excitation wavelength of 350 nm. The obtained N-CQDs were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the surface of the CQDs was successfully functionalized. After that, as-prepared N-CQDs were further applied in Fe(III) detection. Spectroscopic data indicated that fluorescent carbon-based nanomaterials displayed a sensitive response to Fe(3+) in the range of 0.5-1000 μM as a fluorescence sensor in real environmental samples. Furthermore, the results also showed that a novel N-CQD nanomaterial could be employed as an ideal fluorescent Fe(III) probe.

  16. Conformational Ordering of Biomolecules in the Gas Phase: Nitrogen Collision Cross Sections Measured on a Prototype High Resolution Drift Tube Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Ion mobility-mass spectrometry measurements which describe the gas-phase scaling of molecular size and mass are of both fundamental and pragmatic utility. Fundamentally, such measurements expand our understanding of intrinsic intramolecular folding forces in the absence of solvent. Practically, reproducible transport properties, such as gas-phase collision cross-section (CCS), are analytically useful metrics for identification and characterization purposes. Here, we report 594 CCS values obtained in nitrogen drift gas on an electrostatic drift tube ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) instrument. The instrument platform is a newly developed prototype incorporating a uniform-field drift tube bracketed by electrodynamic ion funnels and coupled to a high resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The CCS values reported here are of high experimental precision (±0.5% or better) and represent four chemically distinct classes of molecules (quaternary ammonium salts, lipids, peptides, and carbohydrates), which enables structural comparisons to be made between molecules of different chemical compositions for the rapid “omni-omic” characterization of complex biological samples. Comparisons made between helium and nitrogen-derived CCS measurements demonstrate that nitrogen CCS values are systematically larger than helium values; however, general separation trends between chemical classes are retained regardless of the drift gas. These results underscore that, for the highest CCS accuracy, care must be exercised when utilizing helium-derived CCS values to calibrate measurements obtained in nitrogen, as is the common practice in the field. PMID:24446877

  17. Conformational ordering of biomolecules in the gas phase: nitrogen collision cross sections measured on a prototype high resolution drift tube ion mobility-mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    May, Jody C; Goodwin, Cody R; Lareau, Nichole M; Leaptrot, Katrina L; Morris, Caleb B; Kurulugama, Ruwan T; Mordehai, Alex; Klein, Christian; Barry, William; Darland, Ed; Overney, Gregor; Imatani, Kenneth; Stafford, George C; Fjeldsted, John C; McLean, John A

    2014-02-18

    Ion mobility-mass spectrometry measurements which describe the gas-phase scaling of molecular size and mass are of both fundamental and pragmatic utility. Fundamentally, such measurements expand our understanding of intrinsic intramolecular folding forces in the absence of solvent. Practically, reproducible transport properties, such as gas-phase collision cross-section (CCS), are analytically useful metrics for identification and characterization purposes. Here, we report 594 CCS values obtained in nitrogen drift gas on an electrostatic drift tube ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) instrument. The instrument platform is a newly developed prototype incorporating a uniform-field drift tube bracketed by electrodynamic ion funnels and coupled to a high resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The CCS values reported here are of high experimental precision (±0.5% or better) and represent four chemically distinct classes of molecules (quaternary ammonium salts, lipids, peptides, and carbohydrates), which enables structural comparisons to be made between molecules of different chemical compositions for the rapid "omni-omic" characterization of complex biological samples. Comparisons made between helium and nitrogen-derived CCS measurements demonstrate that nitrogen CCS values are systematically larger than helium values; however, general separation trends between chemical classes are retained regardless of the drift gas. These results underscore that, for the highest CCS accuracy, care must be exercised when utilizing helium-derived CCS values to calibrate measurements obtained in nitrogen, as is the common practice in the field.

  18. Nitrogen-doped graphene-decorated LiVPO4F nanocomposite as high-voltage cathode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Kai; Hu, Shuchun; Li, Yongkui

    2016-09-01

    In this study, nitrogen-doped graphene decorated LiVPO4F cathode material is firstly synthesized via a facile method. Well-dispersed LiVPO4F nanoparticles are embedded in nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets, forming an effective conducting network. The added nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets greatly enhance the electronic conductivity and Li-ion diffusion of LiVPO4F sample. When tested as cathode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, the hybrid electrode exhibits superior high-rate performance and long-term cycling stability between 3.0 and 4.5 V. It delivers a large discharge capacity of 152.7 mAhg-1 at 0.1 C and shows a capacity retention of 97.8% after 60 cycles. Moreover, a reversible capacity of 90.1 mAhg-1 is maintained even after 500 cycles at a high rate of 20 C. The charge-transfer resistance of LiVPO4F electrode is also reduced in the nitrogen-doped graphene, revealing that its electrode-electrolyte complex reactions take place easily and thus improve the electrochemical performance. The above results provide a facile and effective strategy for the synthesis of LiVPO4F cathode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  19. Processing of N2O ice by fast ions: implications on nitrogen chemistry in cold astrophysical environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, G. C.; Pilling, S.; de Barros, A. L. F.; da Costa, C. A. P.; Pereira, R. C.; da Silveira, E. F.

    2017-10-01

    Nitrous oxide, N2O, is found in the interstellar medium associated with dense molecular clouds and its abundance is explained by active chemistry occurring on N2 rich ice surfaces of dust grains. Such regions are being constantly exposed to ionizing radiation that triggers chemical processes which change molecular abundances with time. Due to its non-zero dipole moment, N2O can be used as an important tracer for the abundance of N2 in such regions as well as for characterization of nitrogen content of ices in outer bodies of Solar system. In this work, we experimentally investigate the resistance of frozen N2O molecules against radiation in attempt to estimate their half-life in astrophysical environments. All the radiolysis products, such as NO2 and NO, were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The infrared absorbance as a function of fluence is modified by ice compaction and by radiolysis, the compaction being dominant at the beginning of the ice processing. The N2O destruction cross-section as well the formation cross-sections of the products NxOy (x = 1-2 and y = 1-5) oxides and ozone (O3) by 1.5 MeV 14N+ ion beam are determined. The characterization of radiation resistance of N2O in cold astrophysical environments is relevant since it yields limits for the nitrogen abundance where the N2O molecule is used to indirectly derive its concentration. The half-life of solid N2O molecules dissociated by medium-mass cosmic rays at Pluto's orbit and at the interstellar medium is estimated.

  20. Irradiation of nitrogen-rich ices by swift heavy ions. Clues for the formation of ultracarbonaceous micrometeorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augé, B.; Dartois, E.; Engrand, C.; Duprat, J.; Godard, M.; Delauche, L.; Bardin, N.; Mejía, C.; Martinez, R.; Muniz, G.; Domaracka, A.; Boduch, P.; Rothard, H.

    2016-08-01

    Context. Extraterrestrial materials, such as meteorites and interplanetary dust particles, provide constraints on the formation and evolution of organic matter in the young solar system. Micrometeorites represent the dominant source of extraterrestrial matter at the Earth's surface, some of them originating from large heliocentric distances. Recent analyses of ultracarbonaceous micrometeorites recovered from Antarctica (UCAMMs) reveal an unusually nitrogen-rich organic matter. Such nitrogen-rich carbonaceous material could be formed in a N2-rich environment, at very low temperature, triggered by energetic processes. Aims: Several formation scenarios have been proposed for the formation of the N-rich organic matter observed in UCAMMs. We experimentally evaluate the scenario involving high energy irradiation of icy bodies subsurface orbiting at large heliocentric distances. Methods: The effect of Galactic cosmic ray (GCR) irradiation of ices containing N2 and CH4 was studied in the laboratory. The N2-CH4 (90:10 and 98:2) ice mixtures were irradiated at 14 K by 44 MeV Ni11+ and 160 MeV Ar15+ swift heavy ion beams. The evolution of the samples was monitored using in-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The evolution of the initial ice molecules and new species formed were followed as a function of projectile fluence. After irradiation, the target was annealed to room temperature. The solid residue of the whole process left after ice sublimation was characterized in-situ by infrared spectroscopy, and the elemental composition was measured ex-situ. Results: The infrared bands that appear during irradiation allow us to identify molecules and radicals (HCN, CN-, NH3, ...). The infrared spectra of the solid residues measured at room temperature show similarities with that of UCAMMs. The results point towards the efficient production of a poly-HCN-like residue from the irradiation of N2-CH4 rich surfaces of icy bodies. The room temperature residue provides a viable

  1. Nitrogen ion beam synthesis of InN in InP(100) at elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Dhara, S.; Magudapathy, P.; Kesavamoorthy, R.; Kalavathi, S.; Sastry, V.S.; Nair, K.G.M.; Hsu, G.M.; Chen, L.C.; Chen, K.H.; Santhakumar, K.; Soga, T.

    2006-06-12

    The InN phase is grown in crystalline InP(100) substrates by 50 keV N{sup +} implantation at an elevated temperature of 400 deg. C followed by annealing at 525 deg. C in N{sub 2} ambient. Crystallographic structural and Raman scattering studies are performed for the characterization of grown phases. Temperature- and power-dependent photoluminescence studies show direct band-to-band transition peak {approx}1.06 eV at temperatures {<=}150 K. Implantations at an elevated temperature with a low ion beam current and subsequent low temperature annealing step are found responsible for the growth of high-quality InN phase.

  2. Recoil-α-fission and recoil-α-α-fission events observed in the reaction 48Ca + 243Am

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsberg, U.; Rudolph, D.; Andersson, L.-L.; Di Nitto, A.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Fahlander, C.; Gates, J. M.; Golubev, P.; Gregorich, K. E.; Gross, C. J.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Heßberger, F. P.; Khuyagbaatar, J.; Kratz, J. V.; Rykaczewski, K.; Sarmiento, L. G.; Schädel, M.; Yakushev, A.; Åberg, S.; Ackermann, D.; Block, M.; Brand, H.; Carlsson, B. G.; Cox, D.; Derkx, X.; Dobaczewski, J.; Eberhardt, K.; Even, J.; Gerl, J.; Jäger, E.; Kindler, B.; Krier, J.; Kojouharov, I.; Kurz, N.; Lommel, B.; Mistry, A.; Mokry, C.; Nazarewicz, W.; Nitsche, H.; Omtvedt, J. P.; Papadakis, P.; Ragnarsson, I.; Runke, J.; Schaffner, H.; Schausten, B.; Shi, Yue; Thörle-Pospiech, P.; Torres, T.; Traut, T.; Trautmann, N.; Türler, A.; Ward, A.; Ward, D. E.; Wiehl, N.

    2016-09-01

    Products of the fusion-evaporation reaction 48Ca + 243Am were studied with the TASISpec set-up at the gas-filled separator TASCA at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany. Amongst the detected thirty correlated α-decay chains associated with the production of element Z = 115, two recoil-α-fission and five recoil- α- α-fission events were observed. The latter five chains are similar to four such events reported from experiments performed at the Dubna gas-filled separator, and three such events reported from an experiment at the Berkeley gas-filled separator. The four chains observed at the Dubna gas-filled separator were assigned to start from the 2n-evaporation channel 289115 due to the fact that these recoil- α- α-fission events were observed only at low excitation energies. Contrary to this interpretation, we suggest that some of these recoil- α- α-fission decay chains, as well as some of the recoil- α- α-fission and recoil-α-fission decay chains reported from Berkeley and in this article, start from the 3n-evaporation channel 288115.

  3. Supramolecular complexes obtained from the interaction of violuric acid with manganese ion and nitrogenous ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Humberto C.; Diniz, Renata; Speziali, Nivaldo L.; de Oliveira, Luiz Fernando C.

    2014-07-01

    This work describes the synthesis, spectroscopic characterization (Raman and infrared) and structural arrangement of three new supramolecular complexes named [Mn(H2Vi)2(H2O)4)](bpy)2(1), [Mn(bpa)2(H2O)4](H2Vi)2(2) and [Mn(bpp)2(H2Vi)2]·(bpp)2(H2O)2(3); these compounds have been obtained making use of different building blocks such as 4,4‧-bipyridyne (bpy), 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane (bpa) and 4,4‧-trimethylene-dipyridine (bpp) acting as spacers with violuric acid and manganese ion, presenting behavior related to processes of molecular self-assembling and self-organization, very common in studies of supramolecular systems. In all these compounds the violurate anion appears in the crystalline arrangement as monodentate, anionic and chelate forms for 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The important to note is that monodentate coordination in 1 and chelate in 3 through O2 and O3 oxygen atoms from the oxime group can be considered the first example in literature involving violuric acid, both in coordination or interaction with manganese ion. Moreover, it can be seen a good agreement between the structural results and the spectroscopic data; for instance the presence of an intense band in the Raman spectrum around 1603 and 1012 cm-1 in all obtained compounds, assigned to the ν(CC)/ν(CN) and ν(ring)modes of the pyridyl ligand, respectively. Other important band can be observed in 1031 cm-1 only for compound 3, assigned to the ν(Nsbnd O) mode of the violurate ligand; the band at 1284 cm-1 referring to the ν(Ndbnd O) mode, very characteristic of violurate species is not seen in the spectrum, thus confirming the coordination of this building block by the oxime moiety.

  4. Nitrogen-Doped Hollow Carbon Nanospheres for High-Performance Li-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yufen; Jin, Song; Zhang, Zhen; Du, Zhenzhen; Liu, Huarong; Yang, Jia; Xu, Hangxun; Ji, Hengxing

    2017-04-26

    N-doped carbon materials is of particular attraction for anodes of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) because of their high surface areas, superior electrical conductivity, and excellent mechanical strength, which can store energy by adsorption/desorption of Li(+) at the interfaces between the electrolyte and electrode. By directly carbonization of zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 nanospheres synthesized by an emulsion-based interfacial reaction, we obtained N-doped hollow carbon nanospheres with tunable shell thickness (20 nm to solid sphere) and different N dopant concentrations (3.9 to 21.7 at %). The optimized anode material possessed a shell thickness of 20 nm and contained 16.6 at % N dopants that were predominately pyridinic and pyrrolic. The anode delivered a specific capacity of 2053 mA h g(-1) at 100 mA g(-1) and 879 mA h g(-1) at 5 A g(-1) for 1000 cycles, implying a superior cycling stability. The improved electrochemical performance can be ascribed to (1) the Li(+) adsorption dominated energy storage mechanism prevents the volume change of the electrode materials, (2) the hollow nanostructure assembled by the nanometer-sized primary particles prevents the agglomeration of the nanoparticles and favors for Li(+) diffusion, (3) the optimized N dopant concentration and configuration facilitate the adsorption of Li(+); and (4) the graphitic carbon nanostructure ensures a good electrical conductivity.

  5. Source apportionment of ammonium and nitrate ion using nitrogen stable isotope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, H.

    2013-12-01

    Suspended particulate matter (SPM), defined to particle size as 100 % cut-off aerodynamic diameter at 10 μm, has adverse effects on human health. In these years, stable isotope ratio of small sample volume can be analyzed high precision by isotope ratio mass spectrometry coupling with elemental analyzer. Recently some fields are using stable isotope ratio. For environmental field, it is expected such as powerful tool for source identification and understanding mechanism. But the existed researches intended for stable nitrogen isotope (δ15N) of particulate matter have been limited. We try to analysis δ15N-ammonium (δ15N-NH4+) and nitrate (δ15N-NO3-) of SPM, to estimate source of NH4+ and NO3- of SPM. Average δ15N-NH4+ and δ15N-NO3- of SPM in Akita prefecture, Japan were 15.9 ‰ (1.3‰ to 38.5 ‰) and - 0.7 ‰ (-4.6 ‰ to 4.8 ‰), respectively. Although δ15N-NH4+ do not show seasonal trend, δ15N-NO3- increased in winter markedly and decreasing in summer. In generally, the dominant origin of NO3- of SPM is produced from NOx emitted by combustion of some fuel and NO by agriculture source. Heaton (1990) summarized that δ15N-NOx is very different by temperature of combustion. They insisted that δ15N-NOx values are between -13 ‰ to -2 ‰ over 2000 °C (e.g. vehicle engine) and 6 ‰ to 13 ‰ under 1300 °C (e.g. coal combustion). Therefore, the reason of the winter high trend in this study might be combustion process such as coal combustion source. Moreover, the baseline might be made by vehicle sources. In addition, the reason of decreasing in summer seemed to be affected very low δ15N-NO of fertilizer and urea indicated by Li and Wang (2008). Bacteria were activated in summer, and NO from fertilizer and urea was emitted. This summary seemed to be very reasonable.

  6. Nano- and Micro-Structured UHMWPE Composites Filled With Hydroxyapatite Irradiated by Nitrogen Ion Beams for Bio-Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panin, S. V.; Kornienko, L. A.; Chaikina, M. V.; Sergeev, V. P.; Ivanova, L. R.; Shilko, S. V.

    2014-02-01

    The effect of filling the ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) with nano- and microparticles of hydroxyapatite (HA) on its structure and tribotechnical properties is investigated, aiming at application of the modified UHMWPE in endoprosthetics. An introduction of 0.1-0.5 wt% HA nanoparticles into UHMWPE is shown to result in a threefold increase in its wear resistance. A similar effect is observed in the case where 20 wt% of HA microparticles is used. Treatment of the surface of nano- and microcomposites with a nitrogen ion beam increases the wear resistance by an additional 10-30%. A combined treatment of UHMWPE powder and fillers in a planetary ball mill leads to a uniform distribution of the latter in the polymer matrix and, consequently, to the formation of a more ordered permolecular structure. In the irradiated UHMWPE micro- and nanocomposites reinforced with HA, the tribotechnical properties are shown to improve due to the formation of new chemical bonds (primarily via cross-linking) and ordered permolecular structure.

  7. Analysis of an explosion accident of nitrogen trichloride in a waste liquid containing ammonium ion and platinum black.

    PubMed

    Okada, Ken; Akiyoshi, Miyako; Ishizaki, Keiko; Sato, Hiroyasu; Matsunaga, Takehiro

    2014-08-15

    Five liters of sodium hypochlorite aqueous solution (12 mass%) was poured into 300 L of liquid waste containing ammonium ion of about 1.8 mol/L in a 500 L tank in a plant area; then, two minutes later the solution exploded with a flash on March 30th, 2005. The tank cover, the fluorescent lamp and the air duct were broken by the blast wave. Thus, we have conducted 40 runs of laboratory-scale explosion tests under various conditions (solution concentrations of (NH4)2SO4 and NaClO, temperatures, Pt catalysts, pH, etc.) to investigate the causes for such an explosion. When solutions of ammonium sulfate and sodium hypochlorite are mixed in the presence of platinum black, explosions result. This is ascribable to the formation of explosive nitrogen trichloride (NCl3). In the case where it is necessary to mix these 2 solutions (ammonium sulfate and sodium hypochlorite) in the presence of platinum black, the following conditions would reduce a probability of explosion; the initial concentration of NH4(+) should be less than 3 mol/L and the pH should be higher than 6. The hypochlorite solution (in 1/10 in volume) to be added at room temperature is recommended to be less than 0.6 mol/L.

  8. Ferrous ion-activated persulphate process for landfill leachate treatment: removal of organic load, phenolic micropollutants and nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Kattel, Eneliis; Dulova, Niina

    2017-05-01

    The innovative [Formula: see text] treatment technology based on sulphate radicals induced oxidation was applied for the treatment of landfill leachate. The performance of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal in the Fe(2+)-activated persulphate system was moderate; however, the results of dissolved nitrogen (DN) and total phenols removal showed significant efficacy (≤39% and ≥87%, respectively). [Formula: see text] addition to the [Formula: see text] system enhanced the treatment efficacy and resulted in supplementary 15% of COD and 5% of DN removal. Hydroxyl radical-based H2O2/Fe(2+) treatment of the landfill leachate was performed as well; the results indicated higher removal efficacy of COD and DOC compared to the [Formula: see text] system. However, practical application of the H2O2/Fe(2+) system is considerably influenced by temperature rise and excessive foam formation. Generally, the ferrous ion-activated persulphate treatment could be a promising technology for ex situ as well as in situ landfill leachate treatment applications.

  9. Traditional and ion-pair halogen-bonded complexes between chlorine and bromine derivatives and a nitrogen-heterocyclic carbene.

    PubMed

    Donoso-Tauda, Oscar; Jaque, Pablo; Elguero, José; Alkorta, Ibon

    2014-10-09

    A theoretical study of the halogen-bonded complexes (A-X···C) formed between halogenated derivatives (A-X; A = F, Cl, Br, CN, CCH, CF3, CH3, H; and X = Cl, Br) and a nitrogen heterocyclic carbene, 1,3-dimethylimidazole-2-ylidene (MeIC) has been performed using MP2/aug'-cc-pVDZ level of theory. Two types of A-X:MeIC complexes, called here type-I and -II, were found and characterized. The first group is described by long C-X distances and small binding energies (8-54 kJ·mol(-1)). In general, these complexes show the traditional behavior of systems containing halogen-bonding interactions. The second type is characterized by short C-X distances and large binding energies (148-200 kJ·mol(-1)), and on the basis of the topological analysis of the electron density, they correspond to ion-pair halogen-bonded complexes. These complexes can be seen as the interaction between two charged fragments: A(-) and (+)[X-CIMe] with a high electrostatic contribution in the binding energy. The charge transfer between lone pair A(LP) to the σ* orbital of C-X bond is also identified as a significant stabilizing interaction in type-II complexes.

  10. Chemical bonding between antimony and ionic liquid-derived nitrogen-doped carbon for sodium-ion battery anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xin; Si, Ling; Zhou, Xiaosi; Tu, Fengzhang; Zhu, Xiaoshu; Bao, Jianchun

    2017-05-01

    Antimony has received a great deal of attention as a promising anode material for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) due to its high theoretical capacity of 660 mAh g-1. However, this application is significantly hampered by inherent large volume change and sluggish kinetics. To address these issues, an antimony-cyano-based ionic liquid-derived nitrogen-doped carbon (Sbsbnd CNC) hybrid is proposed and synthesized by ball-milling and subsequent pyrolysis treatment. As an anode material for SIBs, the as-synthesized Sbsbnd CNC hybrid delivers reversible capacities of 475 mAh g-1 at a current density of 100 mA g-1 and 203 mAh g-1 at 5000 mA g-1, and a 92.4% capacity retention based on the first-cycle capacity after 150 cycles at 100 mA g-1. Using ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and elemental mapping techniques, we attribute the good structural integrity to the formation of Sbsbnd Nsbnd C bonds between Sb and the cyano-based ionic liquid-derived N-doped carbon matrix. Moreover, the presence of N-doped carbon network in the hybrid material serves as a robust protective cover and an electrical highway, buffering the substantial volume expansion of Sb nanoparticles and ensuring the fast electron transport for stable cycling operation.

  11. Effects of carbon and nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation on in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of titanium alloy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying; Wong, Sze Man; Wong, Hoi Man; Wu, Shuilin; Hu, Tao; Yeung, Kelvin W K; Chu, Paul K

    2013-02-01

    Growth of bony tissues on titanium biomedical implants can be time-consuming, thereby prolonging recovery and hospitalization after surgery and a method to improve and expedite tissue-implant integration and healing is thus of scientific and clinical interests. In this work, nitrogen and carbon plasma immersion ion implantation (N-PIII and C-PIII) is conducted to modify Ti-6Al-4V to produce a graded surface layer composed of TiN and TiC, respectively. Both PIII processes do not significantly alter the surface hydrophilicity but increase the surface roughness and corrosion resistance. In vitro studies disclose improved cell adhesion and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts and L929 fibroblasts after PIII. Micro-CT evaluation conducted 1 to 12 weeks after surgery reveals larger average bone volumes and less bone resorption on the N-PIII and C-PIII titanium alloy pins than the unimplanted one at every time point. The enhancements observed from both the in vitro and in vivo studies can be attributed to the good cytocompatibility, roughness, and corrosion resistance of the TiN and TiC structures which stimulate the response of preosteoblasts and fibroblasts and induce early bone formation. Comparing the two PIII processes, N-PIII is more effective and our results suggest a simple and practical means to improve the surface biocompatibility of medical-grade titanium alloy implants.

  12. Nitrogen-doped porous carbon/Co3O4 nanocomposites as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Zheng, Yaolin; Wang, Xiaohong; Chen, Shouhui; Xu, Fugang; Zuo, Li; Wu, Jiafeng; Sun, Lanlan; Li, Zhuang; Hou, Haoqing; Song, Yonghai

    2014-05-28

    A simple and industrially scalable approach to prepare porous carbon (PC) with high surface areas as well as abundant nitrogen element as anode supporting materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) was developed. Herein, the N-doped PC was prepared by carbonizing crawfish shell, which is a kind of food waste with abundant marine chitin as well as a naturally porous structure. The porous structure can be kept to form the N-doped PC in the pyrolysis process. The N-doped PC-Co3O4 nanocomposites were synthesized by loading Co3O4 on the N-doped PC as anode materials for LIBs. The resulting N-doped PC-Co3O4 nanocomposites release an initial discharge of 1223 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 100 mA g(-1) and still maintain a high reversible capacity of 1060 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles, which is higher than that of individual N-doped PC or Co3O4. Particularly, the N-doped PC-Co3O4 nanocomposites can be prepared in a large yield with a low cost because the N-doped PC is derived from abundant natural waste resources, which makes it a promising anode material for LIBs.

  13. Hyperthermal (1-100 eV) nitrogen ion scattering damage to D-ribose and 2-deoxy-D-ribose films.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zongwu; Bald, Ilko; Illenberger, Eugen; Huels, Michael A

    2007-10-14

    Highly charged heavy ion traversal of a biological medium can produce energetic secondary fragment ions. These fragment ions can in turn cause collisional and reactive scattering damage to DNA. Here we report hyperthermal (1-100 eV) scattering of one such fragment ion (N(+)) from biologically relevant sugar molecules D-ribose and 2-deoxy-D-ribose condensed on polycrystalline Pt substrate. The results indicate that N(+) ion scattering at kinetic energies down to 10 eV induces effective decomposition of both sugar molecules and leads to the desorption of abundant cation and anion fragments. Use of isotope-labeled molecules (5-(13)C D-ribose and 1-D D-ribose) partly reveals some site specificity of the fragment origin. Several scattering reactions are also observed. Both ionic and neutral nitrogen atoms abstract carbon from the molecules to form CN(-) anion at energies down to approximately 5 eV. N(+) ions also abstract hydrogen from hydroxyl groups of the molecules to form NH(-) and NH(2) (-) anions. A fraction of OO(-) fragments abstract hydrogen to form OH(-). The formation of H(3)O(+) ions also involves hydrogen abstraction as well as intramolecular proton transfer. These findings suggest a variety of severe damaging pathways to DNA molecules which occur on the picosecond time scale following heavy ion irradiation of a cell, and prior to the late diffusion-limited homogeneous chemical processes.

  14. Chemical interaction between nitrogen and iron in silica glasses via sequential ion-implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Isobe, T.; Toriyama, T.; Weeks, R.A.; Zuhr, R.A.

    1998-08-01

    Silica glass plates (Corning 7940 excimer grade) were implanted sequentially with N{sup +} at 52 keV to different doses, ranging from 0 to 1.2{times}10{sup 17}thinspionsthinspcm{sup {minus}2}, and then with Fe{sup +} at 160 keV to 6{times}10{sup 16}thinspionsthinspcm{sup {minus}2} at room temperature and 4 {mu}Athinspcm{sup {minus}2}. The intensity of ferromagnetic magnetic resonance (FMR) absorption and the magnetization calculated by the angular dependence of the FMR field reach maxima at an N/Fe atomic ratio {approximately}0.2. Two peaks due to Fe 2p{sub 3/2} electron are observed at 707.2{plus_minus}0.2 and 710.9{plus_minus}0.2thinspeV in the x-ray photoelectron spectra. The intensity of the former relative to the latter decreases with increasing the N dose. The conversion electron M{umlt o}ssbauer spectrum reveals the formation of superparamagnetic iron nitride as well as the existence of Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} in silica when implanting N{sup +} to 7.5{times}10{sup 15}thinspionsthinspcm{sup {minus}2} and then {sup 57}Fe{sup +} to 6{times}10{sup 16}thinspionsthinspcm{sup {minus}2} at N/Fe=0.125. These results suggest that sequential ion-implantation of N{sup +} and Fe{sup +} produces iron nitride in silica glasses. {copyright} {ital 1998 Materials Research Society.}

  15. Search for the admixture of heavy neutrinos in the recoil spectra of {sup 37}Ar decay

    SciTech Connect

    Hindi, M.M.; Kozub, R.L.; Miocinovic, P.; Avci, R.; Zhu, L.; Hussein, A.H.

    1998-10-01

    Neutrino-induced recoil spectra of {sup 37}Cl ions produced in the electron capture (EC) decay of {sup 37}Ar were measured and searched for the presence of massive neutrinos admixed to the dominant electron neutrino. Fractions of a monolayer of {sup 37}Ar were physisorbed on Au and on several underlayers of {sup 40}Ar adsorbed on both Au and graphite substrates cooled to {le}20 K under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Time-of-flight spectra of the recoiling ions were recorded in coincidence with x rays and Auger electrons emitted following the EC decay. By searching these spectra for peaks with energies between 7.6 eV and 3.6 eV upper limits were placed on the mixing probability of the electron neutrino with heavy neutrinos in the 370{endash}640 keV mass range. These limits vary from 1 to 4{percent}, at the 90{percent} confidence level. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  16. Energy acceptance of the St. George recoil separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisel, Z.; Moran, M. T.; Gilardy, G.; Schmitt, J.; Seymour, C.; Couder, M.

    2017-04-01

    Radiative alpha-capture, (α , γ) , reactions play a critical role in nucleosynthesis and nuclear energy generation in a variety of astrophysical environments. The St. George recoil separator at the University of Notre Dame's Nuclear Science Laboratory was developed to measure (α , γ) reactions in inverse kinematics via recoil detection in order to obtain nuclear reaction cross sections at the low energies of astrophysical interest, while avoiding the γ-background that plagues traditional measurement techniques. Due to the γ ray produced by the nuclear reaction at the target location, recoil nuclei are produced with a variety of energies and angles, all of which must be accepted by St. George in order to accurately determine the reaction cross section. We demonstrate the energy acceptance of the St. George recoil separator using primary beams of helium, hydrogen, neon, and oxygen, spanning the magnetic and electric rigidity phase space populated by recoils of anticipated (α , γ) reaction measurements. We find the performance of St. George meets the design specifications, demonstrating its suitability for (α , γ) reaction measurements of astrophysical interest.

  17. Submillisecond Elastic Recoil Reveals Molecular Origins of Fibrin Fiber Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Nathan E.; Ding, Feng; Bucay, Igal; O’Brien, E. Timothy; Gorkun, Oleg V.; Superfine, Richard; Lord, Susan T.; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.; Falvo, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Fibrin fibers form the structural scaffold of blood clots. Thus, their mechanical properties are of central importance to understanding hemostasis and thrombotic disease. Recent studies have revealed that fibrin fibers are elastomeric despite their high degree of molecular ordering. These results have inspired a variety of molecular models for fibrin’s elasticity, ranging from reversible protein unfolding to rubber-like elasticity. An important property that has not been explored is the timescale of elastic recoil, a parameter that is critical for fibrin’s mechanical function and places a temporal constraint on molecular models of fiber elasticity. Using high-frame-rate imaging and atomic force microscopy-based nanomanipulation, we measured the recoil dynamics of individual fibrin fibers and found that the recoil was orders of magnitude faster than anticipated from models involving protein refolding. We also performed steered discrete molecular-dynamics simulations to investigate the molecular origins of the observed recoil. Our results point to the unstructured αC regions of the otherwise structured fibrin molecule as being responsible for the elastic recoil of the fibers. PMID:23790375

  18. A comparative investigation on the effects of nitrogen-doping into graphene on enhancing the electrochemical performance of SnO2/graphene for sodium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xiuqiang; Su, Dawei; Zhang, Jinqiang; Chen, Shuangqiang; Mondal, Anjon Kumar; Wang, Guoxiu

    2015-02-01

    SnO2/nitrogen-doped graphene nanohybrids have been synthesized by an in situ hydrothermal method, during which the formation of SnO2 nanocrystals and nitrogen doping of graphene occur simultaneously. The as-prepared SnO2/nitrogen-doped graphene nanohybrids exhibit enhanced electrochemical performance for sodium-ion batteries compared to SnO2/graphene nanocomposites. A systematic comparison between SnO2/nitrogen-doped graphene nanohybrids and the SnO2/graphene counterpart as anode materials for sodium-ion batteries has been conducted. The comparison is in a reasonable framework, where SnO2/nitrogen-doped graphene nanohybrids and the SnO2/graphene counterpart have the same SnO2 ratio, similar SnO2 crystallinity and particle size, close surface area and pore size. The results clearly manifest that the improved electron transfer efficiency of SnO2/nitrogen-doped graphene due to nitrogen-doping plays a more important role than the increased electro-active sites within graphene network in enhancing the electro-activity of SnO2/nitrogen-doped graphene nanohybrids compared to the SnO2/graphene counterpart. In contrast to the previous reports which often ascribe the enhanced electro-activity of nitrogen-doped graphene based composites to two nitrogen-doping effects (improving the electron transfer efficiency and increasing electro-active sites within graphene networks) in one single declaration, this work is expected to provide more specific information for understanding the effects of nitrogen-doping into graphene on improving the electrochemical performance of graphene based composites.SnO2/nitrogen-doped graphene nanohybrids have been synthesized by an in situ hydrothermal method, during which the formation of SnO2 nanocrystals and nitrogen doping of graphene occur simultaneously. The as-prepared SnO2/nitrogen-doped graphene nanohybrids exhibit enhanced electrochemical performance for sodium-ion batteries compared to SnO2/graphene nanocomposites. A systematic comparison

  19. Recoil-Sensitive Lithium Interferometer without a Subrecoil Sample.

    PubMed

    Cassella, Kayleigh; Copenhaver, Eric; Estey, Brian; Feng, Yanying; Lai, Chen; Müller, Holger

    2017-06-09

    We report simultaneous conjugate Ramsey-Bordé interferometers with a sample of low-mass (lithium-7) atoms at 50 times the recoil temperature. We optically pump the atoms to a magnetically insensitive state using the 2S_{1/2}-2P_{1/2} line. Fast stimulated Raman beam splitters address a broad velocity class and unavoidably drive two conjugate interferometers that overlap spatially. We show that detecting the summed interference signals of both interferometers, using state labeling, allows recoil measurements and suppression of phase noise from vibrations. The use of "warm" atoms allows for simple, efficient, and high-flux atom sources and broadens the applicability of recoil-sensitive interferometry to particles that remain difficult to trap and cool.

  20. Recoil-Sensitive Lithium Interferometer without a Subrecoil Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassella, Kayleigh; Copenhaver, Eric; Estey, Brian; Feng, Yanying; Lai, Chen; Müller, Holger

    2017-06-01

    We report simultaneous conjugate Ramsey-Bordé interferometers with a sample of low-mass (lithium-7) atoms at 50 times the recoil temperature. We optically pump the atoms to a magnetically insensitive state using the 2 S1 /2-2 P1 /2 line. Fast stimulated Raman beam splitters address a broad velocity class and unavoidably drive two conjugate interferometers that overlap spatially. We show that detecting the summed interference signals of both interferometers, using state labeling, allows recoil measurements and suppression of phase noise from vibrations. The use of "warm" atoms allows for simple, efficient, and high-flux atom sources and broadens the applicability of recoil-sensitive interferometry to particles that remain difficult to trap and cool.

  1. Low momentum recoil detectors in CLAS12 at Jefferson Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, Gabriel; CLAS Collaboration Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Part of the experimental program in Hall B of the Jefferson Lab is dedicated to studying nucleon structure using DIS on nuclei and detecting low-momentum recoil particles in coincidence with the scattered electron. For this purpose, specially designed central detectors are required in place of the inner tracker of CLAS12 to detect particles with momenta below 100 MeV/c. We will present the status of the BONuS12 RTPC detector that will take data within the next 2 years. We will detail the main improvements made from the previous BONuS RTPC. In a second part, we will discuss another recoil experiment, called ALERT, that has been proposed to run in Hall B. The constraints being different, the recoil detector is based on a drift chamber and an array of scintillators. We will present the main differences between the two detectors and summarize the R&D performed to develop the ALERT detector.

  2. Nuclear Recoil Calibration of DarkSide-50

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edkins, Erin; DarkSide Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    DarkSide-50 dark matter experiment is a liquid argon time projection chamber (TPC) surrounded by a liquid scintillator active neutron veto, designed for the direct detection of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). The success of such an experiment is dependent upon a detailed understanding of both the expected signal and backgrounds, achieved using radioactive calibration sources of known energies. Nuclear recoils provide a measurement of both the expected signal and the most dangerous background, as nuclear recoils from neutrons cannot be distinguished from a dark matter signal on an event-by-event basis in the TPC. In this talk, I will present the DS-50 calibration system, and analysis of the results of the calibration of DarkSide-50 to nuclear recoils using radioactive neutron sources. See also the DS-50 presentations by X. Xiang and G. Koh.

  3. Rupture and recoil of bent-core liquid crystal filaments.

    PubMed

    Salili, S M; Ostapenko, T; Kress, O; Bailey, C; Weissflog, W; Harth, K; Eremin, A; Stannarius, R; Jákli, A

    2016-05-25

    The recoil process of free-standing liquid crystal filaments is investigated experimentally and theoretically. We focus on two aspects, the contraction speed of the filament and a spontaneously formed undulation instability. At the moment of rupture, the filaments buckle similarly to the classical Euler buckling of elastic rods. The tip velocity decays with decreasing filament length. The wavelength of buckling affinely decreases with the retracting filament tip. The energy gain related to the decrease of the total length and surface area of the filaments is mainly dissipated by layer rearrangements during thickening of the fibre. A flow back into the meniscus is relevant only in the final stage of the recoil process. We introduce a model for the quantitative description of the filament retraction speed. The dynamics of this recoil behaviour may find relevance as a model for biology-related filaments.

  4. Application of an online ion-chromatography-based instrument for gradient flux measurements of speciated nitrogen and sulfur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumsey, Ian C.; Walker, John T.

    2016-06-01

    The dry component of total nitrogen and sulfur atmospheric deposition remains uncertain. The lack of measurements of sufficient chemical speciation and temporal extent make it difficult to develop accurate mass budgets and sufficient process level detail is not available to improve current air-surface exchange models. Over the past decade, significant advances have been made in the development of continuous air sampling measurement techniques, resulting with instruments of sufficient sensitivity and temporal resolution to directly quantify air-surface exchange of nitrogen and sulfur compounds. However, their applicability is generally restricted to only one or a few of the compounds within the deposition budget. Here, the performance of the Monitor for AeRosols and GAses in ambient air (MARGA 2S), a commercially available online ion-chromatography-based analyzer is characterized for the first time as applied for air-surface exchange measurements of HNO3, NH3, NH4+, NO3-, SO2 and SO42-. Analytical accuracy and precision are assessed under field conditions. Chemical concentrations gradient precision are determined at the same sampling site. Flux uncertainty measured by the aerodynamic gradient method is determined for a representative 3-week period in fall 2012 over a grass field. Analytical precision and chemical concentration gradient precision were found to compare favorably in comparison to previous studies. During the 3-week period, percentages of hourly chemical concentration gradients greater than the corresponding chemical concentration gradient detection limit were 86, 42, 82, 73, 74 and 69 % for NH3, NH4+, HNO3, NO3-, SO2 and SO42-, respectively. As expected, percentages were lowest for aerosol species, owing to their relatively low deposition velocities and correspondingly smaller gradients relative to gas phase species. Relative hourly median flux uncertainties were 31, 121, 42, 43, 67 and 56 % for NH3, NH4+, HNO3, NO3-, SO2 and SO42-, respectively. Flux

  5. Ability of a gridless ion source to functionalize polypropylene surfaces by low-energy (60-100 eV) nitrogen ion bombardment. Effects of ageing in air and in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, Laurent; Scaglione, Salvatore; Flori, Daniele; Riga, Joseph; Caudano, Roland

    2001-12-01

    Polymer surface treatments are of great importance for various industrial applications that can range from food packaging or car bumper painting to biocompatible implants. For such applications, plasma or corona discharges are well known and used "on-line" in polymer plants to incorporate new chemical functions at polymer surfaces. The aim of this work is to investigate the ability of a simple ion source to functionalize polypropylene surfaces in comparison with these intensively used industrial methods. Estimation of the influence of the nitrogen ion dose (from 1×10 15 to 1×10 16 ions/ cm2) and the ion energy (from 60 to 100 eV) on incorporation is attempted in order to be able to use them in a controlled way. The ageing of these polymer surfaces in air and in water was studied by XPS for several months.

  6. Resonant recoil in extreme mass ratio binary black hole mergers

    SciTech Connect

    Hirata, Christopher M.

    2011-05-15

    The inspiral and merger of a binary black hole system generally leads to an asymmetric distribution of emitted radiation, and hence a recoil of the remnant black hole directed opposite to the net linear momentum radiated. The recoil velocity is generally largest for comparable mass black holes and particular spin configurations, and approaches zero in the extreme mass ratio limit. It is generally believed that for extreme mass ratios {eta}<<1, the scaling of the recoil velocity is |V|{proportional_to}{eta}{sup 2}, where the proportionality coefficient depends on the spin of the larger hole and the geometry of the system (e.g. orbital inclination). The small recoil velocity is due to cancellations; while the fraction of the total binary mass radiated away in gravitational waves is O({eta}), most of this energy is emitted during the inspiral phase where the momentum radiated integrates to zero over an orbit. Here, we show that for low but nonzero inclination prograde orbits and very rapidly spinning large holes (spin parameter a{sub *}>0.9678) the inspiralling binary can pass through resonances where the orbit-averaged radiation-reaction force is nonzero. These resonance crossings lead to a new contribution to the kick, |V|{proportional_to}{eta}{sup 3/2}. For these configurations and sufficiently extreme mass ratios, this resonant recoil is dominant. While it seems doubtful that the resonant recoil will be astrophysically significant, its existence suggests caution when extrapolating the results of numerical kick results to extreme mass ratios and near-maximal spins.

  7. Recoil Momentum Spectroscopy Study of Electron Capture from He by 10 MeV Hydrogenlike Fluorine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, L.; Winecki, S.; Stöckli, M.; Cocke, C. L.; Richard, P.; Ullrich, J.; Moshammer, R.

    1996-05-01

    We have used recoil momentum spectroscopy (COLTRIMS (J. Ullrich, et al., Comm. At. Mol. Phys. \\underline30), 285 (1994).) to determine final state momentum distributions in the single electron capture from He by 10 MeV F^8+ ions. A momentum resolution below 0.15 a.u. was obtained. The longitidunal momentum resolution is sufficient to allow the separation of final state populations of the L, M and higher states, and to identify excitation of the residual He^+ ion. This probability of this excitation is large in the capture process. Transverse momentum distributions were used to extract transverse cross sections (angular distributions) for different final states. Comparison of the data to theoretical expectations will be presented.

  8. The recoil transfer chamber—An interface to connect the physical preseparator TASCA with chemistry and counting setups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Even, J.; Ballof, J.; Brüchle, W.; Buda, R. A.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Eberhardt, K.; Gorshkov, A.; Gromm, E.; Hild, D.; Jäger, E.; Khuyagbaatar, J.; Kratz, J. V.; Krier, J.; Liebe, D.; Mendel, M.; Nayak, D.; Opel, K.; Omtvedt, J. P.; Reichert, P.; Runke, J.; Sabelnikov, A.; Samadani, F.; Schädel, M.; Schausten, B.; Scheid, N.; Schimpf, E.; Semchenkov, A.; Thörle-Pospiech, P.; Toyoshima, A.; Türler, A.; Vicente Vilas, V.; Wiehl, N.; Wunderlich, T.; Yakushev, A.

    2011-05-01

    Performing experiments with transactinide elements demands highly sensitive detection methods due to the extremely low production rates (one -atom -at -a -time conditions). Preseparation with a physical recoil separator is a powerful method to significantly reduce the background in experiments with sufficiently long-lived isotopes ( t1/2≥0.5 s). In the last years, the new gas-filled TransActinide Separator and Chemistry Apparatus (TASCA) was installed and successfully commissioned at GSI. Here, we report on the design and performance of a Recoil Transfer Chamber (RTC) for TASCA—an interface to connect various chemistry and counting setups with the separator. Nuclear reaction products recoiling out of the target are separated according to their magnetic rigidity within TASCA, and the wanted products are guided to the focal plane of TASCA. In the focal plane, they pass a thin Mylar window that separates the ˜1 mbar atmosphere in TASCA from the RTC kept at ˜1 bar. The ions are stopped in the RTC and transported by a continuous gas flow from the RTC to the ancillary setup. In this paper, we report on measurements of the transportation yields under various conditions and on the first chemistry experiments at TASCA—an electrochemistry experiment with osmium and an ion exchange experiment with the transactinide element rutherfordium.

  9. Search for massive neutrinos in the recoil spectrum of {sup 37}Cl following electron capture decay of {sup 37}Ar

    SciTech Connect

    Hindi, M.M.; Bardayan, D.W.; Kozub, R.L.; Robinson, S.J.

    1993-10-01

    We are developing an experiment to measure the spectrum of recoil velocities of {sup 37}CI ions following the electron capture (EC) decay of {sup 37}Ar. One of the initial aims of this experiment is to search for massive neutrinos (m{sub v} {approximately} 200-250 keV) which might be emitted in the decay, with a mixing probability of < 0.3%. A 300 mCi {sup 37}Ar source was produced via the {sup 36}Ar(n,{gamma}) reaction at the BNL reactor. The gas was bled into an ultra high vacuum system at MSU and 1-2 monolayers were adsorbed on a Au-coated Si(111) surface cooled to 20 K. The Auger electrons associated with the EC decay of {sup 37}Ar were detected in a Channeltron detector. The recoiling {sup 37}Cl ions were detected in a microchannel-plate detector. We are currently preparing a fresh {sup 37}Ar sample, and plan to measure the time-of-flight spectrum of the recoils by detecting them in delayed coincidence with the Auger electrons.

  10. Effects of salt stress on ion balance and nitrogen metabolism of old and young leaves in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background It is well known that salt stress has different effects on old and young tissues. However, it remains largely unexplored whether old and young tissues have different regulatory mechanism during adaptation of plants to salt stress. The aim of this study was to investigate whether salt stress has different effects on the ion balance and nitrogen metabolism in the old and young leaves of rice, and to compare functions of both organs in rice salt tolerance. Results Rice protected young leaves from ion harm via the large accumulation of Na+ and Cl− in old leaves. The up-regulation of OsHKT1;1, OsHAK10 and OsHAK16 might contribute to accumulation of Na+ in old leaves under salt stress. In addition, lower expression of OsHKT1;5 and OsSOS1 in old leaves may decrease frequency of retrieving Na+ from old leaf cells. Under salt stress, old leaves showed higher concentration of NO3− content than young leaves. Up-regulation of OsNRT1;2, a gene coding nitrate transporter, might contribute to the accumulation of NO3− in the old leaves of salt stressed-rice. Salt stress clearly up-regulated the expression of OsGDH2 and OsGDH3 in old leaves, while strongly down-regulated expression of OsGS2 and OsFd-GOGAT in old leaves. Conclusions The down-regulation of OsGS2 and OsFd-GOGAT in old leaves might be a harmful response to excesses of Na+ and Cl−. Under salt stress, rice might accumulate Na+ and Cl− to toxic levels in old leaves. This might influence photorespiration process, reduce NH4+ production from photorespiration, and immediately down-regulate the expression of OsGS2 and OsFd-GOGAT in old leaves of salt stressed rice. Excesses of Na+ and Cl− also might change the pathway of NH4+ assimilation in old leaves of salt stressed rice plants, weaken GOGAT/GS pathway and elevate GDH pathway. PMID:23082824

  11. Designing nitrogen-enriched echinus-like carbon capsules for highly efficient oxygen reduction reaction and lithium ion storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chuangang; Wang, Lixia; Zhao, Yang; Ye, Minhui; Chen, Qing; Feng, Zhihai; Qu, Liangti

    2014-06-01

    Both structural and compositional modulations are important for high-performance electrode materials in energy conversion/storage devices. Here hierarchical-structure nitrogen-rich hybrid porous carbon capsules with bamboo-like carbon nanotube whiskers (N-CC@CNTs) grown in situ have been specifically designed, which combine the advantageous features of high surface area, abundant active sites, easy access to medium and favorable mass transport. As a result, the newly prepared N-CC@CNTs show highly efficient catalytic activity in oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline media for fuel cells, which not only outperforms commercial Pt-based catalysts in terms of kinetic limiting current, stability and tolerance to methanol crossover effect, but is also better than most of the nanostructured carbon-based catalysts reported previously. On the other hand, as an anode material for lithium ion batteries, the N-CC@CNTs obtained also exhibit an excellent reversible capacity of ca. 1337 mA h g-1 at 0.5 A g-1, outstanding rate capability and long cycling stability, even at a current density of 20 A g-1. The capacity is the highest among all the heteroatom-doped carbon materials reported so far, and is even higher than that of many of the composites of metal, metal oxides or metal sulfides with carbon materials.Both structural and compositional modulations are important for high-performance electrode materials in energy conversion/storage devices. Here hierarchical-structure nitrogen-rich hybrid porous carbon capsules with bamboo-like carbon nanotube whiskers (N-CC@CNTs) grown in situ have been specifically designed, which combine the advantageous features of high surface area, abundant active sites, easy access to medium and favorable mass transport. As a result, the newly prepared N-CC@CNTs show highly efficient catalytic activity in oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline media for fuel cells, which not only outperforms commercial Pt-based catalysts in terms of kinetic limiting

  12. Double and single ionization of He and other targets studied using cold target recoil momentum spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Doerner, R.; Feagin, J. M.; Brauning, H.; Jagutzki, O.; Jung, M.; Kanter, E. P.; Khemliche, H.; Kravis, S.; Mergel, V.; Prior, M. H.; Schmidt-Boeking, H.; Spielberger, L.; Ullrich, J.; Unverzagt, M.; Vogt, T.

    1997-04-01

    Double ionization of an atom by a single photon is the simplest and most fundamental many-electron process. The ejection of two electrons following the absorption of one photon is strictly prohibited in an independent electron approximation. Thus determining the probability of double photoionization alone is already a challenging test of the understanding of electron-electron correlation. Furthermore, in the slow breakup of a bound system into three charged particles, the final state wave function must represent a high degree of few-body Coulomb correlation involving the simultaneous interaction of all three particles. The case of double photoionization is again particularly well suited to study this problem as the energy and the angular momentum delivered to the system can be very well controlled. Helium, as the most basic three body system, has been the target of extensive studies over the past decades. The purpose of this project has been to study double and single ionization using cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy (COLTRIMS). This technique has been widely applied within the area of ion-atom collisions to study the dynamics of energy and momentum transfer in collisions between few-electron systems, and the entire technical machinery has been transferred to photon-atom collisions. The technique uses space- and time-imaging of He{sup +} and He{sup ++} recoil ions created in photon-He collisions to measure the full momentum vector of each ion produced. Event-mode recording is used and a solid angle of nearly 4{pi} is realized, allowing an extremely high data-collection efficiency. In order to reduce the initial momentum spread of the He target a precooled supersonic He jet is used.

  13. First identification of excited states in 117Ba using the recoil-β -delayed proton tagging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, B.; Liu, Z.; Seweryniak, D.; Woods, P. J.; Wang, H. L.; Yang, J.; Liu, H. L.; Davids, C. N.; Carpenter, M. P.; Davinson, T.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Page, R. D.; Robinson, A. P.; Shergur, J.; Sinha, S.; Zhu, S.; Tang, X. D.; Wang, J. G.; Huang, T. H.; Zhang, W. Q.; Sun, M. D.; Liu, X. Y.; Lu, H. Y.

    2017-02-01

    Excited states have been observed for the first time in the neutron-deficient nucleus 117Ba using the recoil-decay tagging technique following the heavy-ion fusion-evaporation reaction 64Zn(58Ni, 2p3n)117Ba. Prompt γ rays have been assigned to 117Ba through correlations with β -delayed protons following the decay of A =117 recoils. Through the analysis of the γ -γ coincidence relationships, a high-spin level scheme consisting of two bands has been established in 117Ba. Based on the systematics of the level spacings in the neighboring barium isotopes, the two bands are proposed to have ν h11 /2[532 ] 5 /2- and ν d5 /2[413 ] 5 /2+ configurations, respectively. The observed band-crossing properties are interpreted in the framework of cranked shell model.

  14. Effect of activated carbon surface oxygen- and/or nitrogen-containing groups on adsorption of copper(II) ions from aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Biniak, S.; Pakula, M.; Szymanski, G.S.; Swiatkowski, A.

    1999-08-31

    The adsorption properties of a modified activated carbon with various oxygen-and/or nitrogen-containing surface groups toward copper ions was studied. Previously de-ashed and chemically modified commercial activated carbon D-43/1 (carbo-Tech, Essen, Germany) was used. The chemical properties of the modified carbon surface were estimated by standard neutralization titration with HCl, NaOH, and HaOC{sub 2}{sub 5}. The adsorption of Cu{sup 2+} ions on three modified activated carbons from aqueous CuSO{sub 4} solution of various pH was measured. The carbon samples with adsorbed Cu{sup 2+} ions were analyzed by spectroscopic methods (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy). In addition, an electrochemical measurement (cyclic voltammetry) was performed using powdered activated carbon electrodes. While the modification procedures employed alter the surface only slightly, they strongly influence the surface chemical structure. Basic groups are predominant in the heat-treated samples; acidic functional groups are predominant in the oxidized sample. Both the copper cation adsorption studies and the spectral and electrochemical measurements show that adsorbed ions interact with the carbon surface in different ways. The number of adsorbed ions depends on the nature and quantity of surface acid-base functionalities and on the pH equilibrium in the aqueous solution. The possible mechanisms of interactions between metal ions and carbon surface functionalities are summarized and discussed.

  15. X-ray spectroscopy of a recoiling SMBH candidate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Predehl, Peter

    2008-09-01

    Recent numerical relativity simulations of coalescencing supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries predict that SMBHs can receive kicks with velocities up to several thousand km/s due to anisotropic emission of gravitational waves. We have recently found the best candidate todate for such a recoiling SMBH (Komossa et al. 2008). We apply for a 25 ks ACIS-S exposure of this exceptional source.

  16. Epitaxial silicide formation on recoil-implanted substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Shin; Egashira, Kyoko; Tanaka, Tomoya; Etoh, Ryuji; Hata, Yoshifumi; Tung, R. T.

    2005-01-15

    An epitaxy-on-recoil-implanted-substrate (ERIS) technique is presented. A disordered surface layer, generated by forward recoil implantation of {approx}0.7-3x10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} of oxygen during Ar plasma etching of surface oxide, is shown to facilitate the subsequent epitaxial growth of {approx}25-35-nm-thick CoSi{sub 2} layers on Si(100). The dependence of the epitaxial fraction of the silicide on the recoil-implantation parameters is studied in detail. A reduction in the silicide reaction rate due to recoil-implanted oxygen is shown to be responsible for the observed epitaxial formation, similar to mechanisms previously observed for interlayer-mediated growth techniques. Oxygen is found to remain inside the fully reacted CoSi{sub 2} layer, likely in the form of oxide precipitates. The presence of these oxide precipitates, with only a minor effect on the sheet resistance of the silicide layer, has a surprisingly beneficial effect on the thermal stability of the silicide layers. The agglomeration of ERIS-grown silicide layers on polycrystalline Si is significantly suppressed, likely from a reduced diffusivity due to oxygen in the grain boundaries. The implications of the present technique for the processing of deep submicron devices are discussed.

  17. Direct Measurement of Photon Recoil from a Levitated Nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Vijay; Gieseler, Jan; Moritz, Clemens; Dellago, Christoph; Quidant, Romain; Novotny, Lukas

    2016-06-01

    The momentum transfer between a photon and an object defines a fundamental limit for the precision with which the object can be measured. If the object oscillates at a frequency Ω0 , this measurement backaction adds quanta ℏΩ0 to the oscillator's energy at a rate Γrecoil, a process called photon recoil heating, and sets bounds to coherence times in cavity optomechanical systems. Here, we use an optically levitated nanoparticle in ultrahigh vacuum to directly measure Γrecoil. By means of a phase-sensitive feedback scheme, we cool the harmonic motion of the nanoparticle from ambient to microkelvin temperatures and measure its reheating rate under the influence of the radiation field. The recoil heating rate is measured for different particle sizes and for different excitation powers, without the need for cavity optics or cryogenic environments. The measurements are in quantitative agreement with theoretical predictions and provide valuable guidance for the realization of quantum ground-state cooling protocols and the measurement of ultrasmall forces.

  18. Nitrogen-atom endohedral fullerene synthesis with high efficiency by controlling plasma-ion irradiation energy and C{sub 60} internal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Soon Cheon; Kaneko, Toshiro Ishida, Hiroyasu; Hatakeyama, Rikizo

    2015-03-28

    The nitrogen-atom endohedral fullerene (N@C{sub 60}) has been synthesized by controlling the plasma ion irradiation energy (E{sub i}) and fullerene (C{sub 60}) behavior in the sublimation phase. We examined the relationship between the synthesis purity of N@C{sub 60} [molar concentration ratio of N@C{sub 60} to pristine fullerene (C{sub 60})] and E{sub i}, which was controlled by changing the substrate bias voltages (V{sub sub}) and gas pressure (P{sub N2}) during the plasma irradiation process. High-density nitrogen-molecular ions (N{sub 2}{sup +}) with a suitable E{sub i} near 80 eV are confirmed to be the optimum condition of the nitrogen plasma for the synthesis of high-purity N@C{sub 60}. In addition, high sublimation of C{sub 60} contributes to a higher yield due to the high internal energy of C{sub 60} and the related cage defects that are present under these conditions. As a result, a purity of 0.83% is realized for the first time, which is almost two orders of magnitude higher than that using other methods.

  19. The mechanics of elastic loading and recoil in anuran jumping.

    PubMed

    Astley, Henry C; Roberts, Thomas J

    2014-12-15

    Many animals use catapult mechanisms to produce extremely rapid movements for escape or prey capture, resulting in power outputs far beyond the limits of muscle. In these catapults, muscle contraction loads elastic structures, which then recoil to release the stored energy extremely rapidly. Many arthropods employ anatomical 'catch mechanisms' to lock the joint in place during the loading period, which can then be released to allow joint motion via elastic recoil. Jumping vertebrates lack a clear anatomical catch, yet face the same requirement to load the elastic structure prior to movement. There are several potential mechanisms to allow loading of vertebrate elastic structures, including the gravitational load of the body, a variable mechanical advantage, and moments generated by the musculature of proximal joints. To test these hypothesized mechanisms, we collected simultaneous 3D kinematics via X-ray Reconstruction of Moving Morphology (XROMM) and single-foot forces during the jumps of three Rana pipiens. We calculated joint mechanical advantage, moment and power using inverse dynamics at the ankle, knee, hip and ilio-sacral joints. We found that the increasing proximal joint moments early in the jump allowed for high ankle muscle forces and elastic pre-loading, and the subsequent reduction in these moments allowed the ankle to extend using elastic recoil. Mechanical advantage also changed throughout the jump, with the muscle contracting against a poor mechanical advantage early in the jump during loading and a higher mechanical advantage late in the jump during recoil. These 'dynamic catch mechanisms' serve to resist joint motion during elastic loading, then allow it during elastic recoil, functioning as a catch mechanism based on the balance and orientation of forces throughout the limb rather than an anatomical catch.

  20. A Monte Carlo C-code for calculating transmission efficiency of recoil separators and viewing residue trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, S.

    2008-10-01

    We present a semimicroscopic Monte Carlo code for calculating absolute transmission efficiency of recoil separators for heavy ion-induced complete fusion reactions. The code generates realistic distributions for energy, charge state and angle of evaporation residues. Residue trajectories are calculated using first order ion optical transfer matrices. Trajectory plots in the dispersive and the non-dispersive planes are generated. Using this code, we have obtained good agreement between calculated and measured transmission efficiencies for the Heavy Ion Reaction Analyzer at IUAC. The code can be adapted easily to any other electromagnetic recoil separator. Program summaryProgram title: TERS Catalogue identifier: AEBD_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEBD_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 6818 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 216 097 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C Computer: The code has been developed and tested on a PC with Intel Pentium IV processor Operating system: Linux RAM: About 8 Mbytes Classification: 17.7 External routines: pgplot graphics subroutine library [1] should be installed in the system for generating residue trajectory plots. Nature of problem: Recoil separators are employed to select and identify nuclei of interest, produced in a nuclear reaction, rejecting unreacted beam and other undesired reaction products. It is important to know what fraction of the selected nuclei, leaving the target, reaches the detection system. This information is crucial for determining absolute cross section of the studied reaction. Solution method:Interaction of projectiles with target nuclei is treated event by event, semimicroscopically. Position and angle (with respect to beam

  1. Nuclear Microprobe using Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD) for Hydrogen Profiling in High Temperature Protonic Conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, Pascal; Sayir, Ali; Berger, Marie-Helene

    2004-01-01

    The interaction between hydrogen and various high temperature protonic conductors (HTPC) has not been clearly understood due to poor densification and unreacted secondary phases. the melt-processing technique is used in producing fully dense simple SrCe(0.9)Y (0.10) O(3-delta) and complex Sr3Ca(1+x)Nb(2+x)O(9-delta) perovskites that can not be achieved by solid-state sintering. the possibilities of ion beam analysis have been investigated to quantify hydrogen distribution in HTPC perovskites subjected to water heat treatment. Nuclear microprobe technique is based on the interactions of a focused ion beam of MeV light ions (H-1, H-2, He-3, He-4,.) with the sample to be analyzed to determine local elemental concentrations at the cubic micrometer scale, the elastic recoil detection analysis technique (ERDA) has been carried out using He-4(+) microbeams and detecting the resulting recoil protons. Mappings of longitudinal sections of water treated SrCeO3 and Sr(Ca(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3 perovskites have been achieved, the water treatment strongly alters the surface of simple SrCe(0.9)Y(0.10)O(3-delta) perovskite. From Rutherford Back Scattering measurements (RBS), both Ce depletion and surface re-deposition is evidenced. the ERDA investigations on water treated Sr3Ca(1+x)Nb(2+x)O(9-delta) perovskite did not exhibit any spatial difference for the hydrogen incorporation from the surface to the centre. the amount of hydrogen incorporation for Sr3Ca(1+x)Nb(2+x)O(9-delta) was low and required further development of two less conventional techniques, ERDA in forward geometry and forward elastic diffusion H-1(p,p) H-1 with coincidence detection.

  2. Nitrogen-Doped Porous Carbon Nanosheets from Eco-Friendly Eucalyptus Leaves as High Performance Electrode Materials for Supercapacitors and Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Anjon Kumar; Kretschmer, Katja; Zhao, Yufei; Liu, Hao; Wang, Chengyin; Sun, Bing; Wang, Guoxiu

    2017-03-13

    Nitrogen-doped porous carbon nanosheets were prepared from eucalyptus tree leaves by simply mixing the leaf powders with KHCO3 and subsequent carbonisation. Porous carbon nanosheets with a high specific surface area of 2133 m(2)  g(-1) were obtained and applied as electrode materials for supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries. For supercapacitor applications, the porous carbon nanosheet electrode exhibited a supercapacitance of 372 F g(-1) at a current density of 500 mA g(-1) in 1 m H2 SO4 aqueous electrolyte and excellent cycling stability over 15 000 cycles. In organic electrolyte, the nanosheet electrode showed a specific capacitance of 71 F g(-1) at a current density of 2 Ag(-1) and stable cycling performance. When applied as the anode material for lithium ion batteries, the as-prepared porous carbon nanosheets also demonstrated a high specific capacity of 819 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 100 mA g(-1) , good rate capability, and stable cycling performance. The outstanding electrochemical performances for both supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries are derived from the large specific surface area, porous nanosheet structure and nitrogen doping effects. The strategy developed in this paper provides a novel route to utilise biomass-derived materials for low-cost energy storage systems. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Improvements of anti-corrosion and mechanical properties of NiTi orthopedic materials by acetylene, nitrogen and oxygen plasma immersion ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Ray W. Y.; Ho, Joan P. Y.; Liu, Xuanyong; Chung, C. Y.; Chu, Paul K.; Yeung, Kelvin W. K.; Lu, William W.; Cheung, Kenneth M. C.

    2005-08-01

    Nickel-titanium shape memory alloys (NiTi) are useful materials in orthopedics and orthodontics due to their unique super-elasticity and shape memory effects. However, the problem associated with the release of harmful Ni ions to human tissues and fluids has been raising safety concern. Hence, it is necessary to produce a surface barrier to impede the out-diffusion of Ni ions from the materials. We have conducted acetylene, nitrogen and oxygen plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) into NiTi alloys in an attempt to improve the surface properties. All the implanted and annealed samples surfaces exhibit outstanding corrosion and Ni out-diffusion resistance. Besides, the implanted layers are mechanically stronger than the substrate underneath. XPS analyses disclose that the layer formed by C2H2 PIII is composed of mainly TiCx with increasing Ti to C concentration ratios towards the bulk. The nitrogen PIII layer is observed to be TiN, whereas the oxygen PIII layer is composed of oxides of Ti4+, Ti3+ and Ti2+.

  4. Xenon-nitrogen chemistry: gas-phase generation and theoretical investigation of the xenon-difluoronitrenium ion F2N-Xe+.

    PubMed

    Operti, Lorenza; Rabezzana, Roberto; Turco, Francesca; Borocci, Stefano; Giordani, Maria; Grandinetti, Felice

    2011-09-12

    The xenon-difluoronitrenium ion F(2)N-Xe(+) , a novel xenon-nitrogen species, was obtained in the gas phase by the nucleophilic displacement of HF from protonated NF(3) by Xe. According to Møller-Plesset (MP2) and CCSD(T) theoretical calculations, the enthalpy and Gibbs energy changes (ΔH and ΔG) of this process are predicted to be -3 kcal mol(-1) . The conceivable alternative formation of the inserted isomers FN-XeF(+) is instead endothermic by approximately 40-60 kcal mol(-1) and is not attainable under the employed ion-trap mass spectrometric conditions. F(2)N-Xe(+) is theoretically characterized as a weak electrostatic complex between NF(2)(+) and Xe, with a Xe-N bond length of 2.4-2.5 Å, and a dissociation enthalpy and free energy into its constituting fragments of 15 and 8 kcal mol(-1), respectively. F(2)N-Xe(+) is more fragile than the xenon-nitrenium ions (FO(2)S)(2)NXe(+), F(5)SN(H)Xe(+), and F(5)TeN(H)Xe(+) observed in the condensed phase, but it is still stable enough to be observed in the gas phase. Other otherwise elusive xenon-nitrogen species could be obtained under these experimental conditions.

  5. Effect of surface modification by nitrogen ion implantation on the electrochemical and cellular behaviors of super-elastic NiTi shape memory alloy.

    PubMed

    Maleki-Ghaleh, H; Khalil-Allafi, J; Sadeghpour-Motlagh, M; Shakeri, M S; Masoudfar, S; Farrokhi, A; Beygi Khosrowshahi, Y; Nadernezhad, A; Siadati, M H; Javidi, M; Shakiba, M; Aghaie, E

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this investigation was to enhance the biological behavior of NiTi shape memory alloy while preserving its super-elastic behavior in order to facilitate its compatibility for application in human body. The surfaces of NiTi samples were bombarded by three different nitrogen doses. Small-angle X-ray diffraction was employed for evaluating the generated phases on the bombarded surfaces. The electrochemical behaviors of the bare and surface-modified NiTi samples were studied in simulated body fluid (SBF) using electrochemical impedance and potentio-dynamic polarization tests. Ni ion release during a 2-month period of service in the SBF environment was evaluated using atomic absorption spectrometry. The cellular behavior of nitrogen-modified samples was studied using fibroblast cells. Furthermore, the effect of surface modification on super-elasticity was investigated by tensile test. The results showed the improvement of both corrosion and biological behaviors of the modified NiTi samples. However, no significant change in the super-elasticity was observed. Samples modified at 1.4E18 ion cm(-2) showed the highest corrosion resistance and the lowest Ni ion release.

  6. Encapsulating micro-nano Si/SiO x into conjugated nitrogen-doped carbon as binder-free monolithic anodes for advanced lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jing; Zhou, Meijuan; Tan, Guoqiang; Chen, Shi; Wu, F; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil

    2015-01-01

    Silicon monoxide, a promising silicon-based anode candidate for lithium-ion batteries, has recently attracted much attention for its high theoretical capacity, good cycle stability, low cost, and environmental benignity. Currently, the most critical challenge is to improve its low initial coulombic efficiency and significant volume changes during the charge–discharge processes. Herein, we report a binder-free monolithic electrode structure based on directly encapsulating micro-nano Si/SiOx particles into conjugated nitrogen-doped carbon frameworks to form monolithic, multi-core, cross-linking composite matrices. We utilize micro-nano Si/SiOx reduced by high-energy ball-milling SiO as active materials, and conjugated nitrogen-doped carbon formed by the pyrolysis of polyacrylonitrile both as binders and conductive agents. Owing to the high electrochemical activity of Si/SiOx and the good mechanical resiliency of conjugated nitrogen-doped carbon backbones, this specific composite structure enhances the utilization efficiency of SiO and accommodates its large volume expansion, as well as its good ionic and electronic conductivity. The annealed Si/SiOx/polyacrylonitrile composite electrode exhibits excellent electrochemical properties, including a high initial reversible capacity (2734 mA h g−1 with 75% coulombic efficiency), stable cycle performance (988 mA h g−1 after 100 cycles), and good rate capability (800 mA h g−1 at 1 A g−1 rate). Because the composite is naturally abundant and shows such excellent electrochemical performance, it is a promising anode candidate material for lithium-ion batteries. The binder-free monolithic architectural design also provides an effective way to prepare other monolithic electrode materials for advanced lithium-ion batteries.

  7. 3D nitrogen-doped graphene foam with encapsulated germanium/nitrogen-doped graphene yolk-shell nanoarchitecture for high-performance flexible Li-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Mo, Runwei; Rooney, David; Sun, Kening; Yang, Hui Ying

    2017-01-04

    Flexible electrochemical energy storage devices have attracted extensive attention as promising power sources for the ever-growing field of flexible and wearable electronic products. However, the rational design of a novel electrode structure with a good flexibility, high capacity, fast charge-discharge rate and long cycling lifetimes remains a long-standing challenge for developing next-generation flexible energy-storage materials. Herein, we develop a facile and general approach to three-dimensional (3D) interconnected porous nitrogen-doped graphene foam with encapsulated Ge quantum dot/nitrogen-doped graphene yolk-shell nano architecture for high specific reversible capacity (1,220 mAh g(-1)), long cycling capability (over 96% reversible capacity retention from the second to 1,000 cycles) and ultra-high rate performance (over 800 mAh g(-1) at 40 C). This work paves a way to develop the 3D interconnected graphene-based high-capacity electrode material systems, particularly those that suffer from huge volume expansion, for the future development of high-performance flexible energy storage systems.

  8. 3D nitrogen-doped graphene foam with encapsulated germanium/nitrogen-doped graphene yolk-shell nanoarchitecture for high-performance flexible Li-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Runwei; Rooney, David; Sun, Kening; Yang, Hui Ying

    2017-01-01

    Flexible electrochemical energy storage devices have attracted extensive attention as promising power sources for the ever-growing field of flexible and wearable electronic products. However, the rational design of a novel electrode structure with a good flexibility, high capacity, fast charge-discharge rate and long cycling lifetimes remains a long-standing challenge for developing next-generation flexible energy-storage materials. Herein, we develop a facile and general approach to three-dimensional (3D) interconnected porous nitrogen-doped graphene foam with encapsulated Ge quantum dot/nitrogen-doped graphene yolk-shell nano architecture for high specific reversible capacity (1,220 mAh g-1), long cycling capability (over 96% reversible capacity retention from the second to 1,000 cycles) and ultra-high rate performance (over 800 mAh g-1 at 40 C). This work paves a way to develop the 3D interconnected graphene-based high-capacity electrode material systems, particularly those that suffer from huge volume expansion, for the future development of high-performance flexible energy storage systems.

  9. 3D nitrogen-doped graphene foam with encapsulated germanium/nitrogen-doped graphene yolk-shell nanoarchitecture for high-performance flexible Li-ion battery

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Runwei; Rooney, David; Sun, Kening; Yang, Hui Ying

    2017-01-01

    Flexible electrochemical energy storage devices have attracted extensive attention as promising power sources for the ever-growing field of flexible and wearable electronic products. However, the rational design of a novel electrode structure with a good flexibility, high capacity, fast charge–discharge rate and long cycling lifetimes remains a long-standing challenge for developing next-generation flexible energy-storage materials. Herein, we develop a facile and general approach to three-dimensional (3D) interconnected porous nitrogen-doped graphene foam with encapsulated Ge quantum dot/nitrogen-doped graphene yolk-shell nano architecture for high specific reversible capacity (1,220 mAh g−1), long cycling capability (over 96% reversible capacity retention from the second to 1,000 cycles) and ultra-high rate performance (over 800 mAh g−1 at 40 C). This work paves a way to develop the 3D interconnected graphene-based high-capacity electrode material systems, particularly those that suffer from huge volume expansion, for the future development of high-performance flexible energy storage systems. PMID:28051065

  10. A recoil resilient lumen support, design, fabrication and mechanical evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdizadeh, Arash; Ali, Mohamed Sultan Mohamed; Takahata, Kenichi; Al-Sarawi, Said; Abbott, Derek

    2013-06-01

    Stents are artificial implants that provide scaffolding to a cavity inside the body. This paper presents a new luminal device for reducing the mechanical failure of stents due to recoil, which is one of the most important issues in stenting. This device, which we call a recoil-resilient ring (RRR), is utilized standalone or potentially integrated with existing stents to address the problem of recoil. The proposed structure aims to minimize the need for high-pressure overexpansion that can induce intra-luminal trauma and excess growth of vascular tissue causing later restenosis. The RRR is an overlapped open ring with asymmetrical sawtooth structures that are intermeshed. These teeth can slide on top of each other, while the ring is radially expanded, but interlock step-by-step so as to keep the final expanded state against compressional forces that normally cause recoil. The RRRs thus deliver balloon expandability and, when integrated with a stent, bring both radial rigidity and longitudinal flexibility to the stent. The design of the RRR is investigated through finite element analysis (FEA), and then the devices are fabricated using micro-electro-discharge machining of 200-µm-thick Nitinol sheet. The standalone RRR is balloon expandable in vitro by 5-7 Atm in pressure, which is well within the recommended in vivo pressure ranges for stenting procedures. FEA compression tests indicate 13× less reduction of the cross-sectional area of the RRR compared with a typical stainless steel stent. These results also show perfect elastic recovery of the RRR after removal of the pressure compared to the remaining plastic deformations of the stainless steel stent. On the other hand, experimental loading tests show that the fabricated RRRs have 2.8× radial stiffness compared to a two-column section of a commercial stent while exhibiting comparable elastic recovery. Furthermore, testing of in vitro expansion in a mock artery tube shows around 2.9% recoil, approximately 5-11

  11. The magnetic recoil spectrometer for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum at OMEGA and the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, D. T.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Séguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Katz, J.; Magoon, J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Shoup, M.; Ulreich, J.; Ashabranner, R. C.; Bionta, R. M.; Carpenter, A. C.; Felker, B.; Khater, H. Y.; LePape, S.; MacKinnon, A.; McKernan, M. A.; Moran, M.; Rygg, J. R.; Yeoman, M. F.; Zacharias, R.; Leeper, R. J.; Fletcher, K.; Farrell, M.; Jasion, D.; Kilkenny, J.; Paguio, R.

    2013-04-01

    The neutron spectrum produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) inertial confinement fusion implosions contains a wealth of information about implosion performance including the DT yield, ion-temperature, and areal-density. The Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been used at both the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the absolute neutron spectrum from 3 to 30 MeV at OMEGA and 3 to 36 MeV at the NIF. These measurements have been used to diagnose the performance of cryogenic target implosions to unprecedented accuracy. Interpretation of MRS data requires a detailed understanding of the MRS response and background. This paper describes ab initio characterization of the system involving Monte Carlo simulations of the MRS response in addition to the commission experiments for in situ calibration of the systems on OMEGA and the NIF.

  12. Lifetime measurement of 2+- state in 74Zn by recoil-distance Doppler-shift method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niikura, M.; Mouginot, B.; Azaiez, F.; Franchoo, S.; Matea, I.; Stefan, I.; Verney, D.; Assie, M.; Bednarczyk, P.; Borcea, C.; Burger, A.; Burgunder, G.; Buta, A.; Cáceres, L.; Cléement, E.; Coquard, L.; de Angelis, G.; de France, G.; de Oliveira Santos, F.; Dewald, A.; Dijon, A.; Dombradi, Z.; Fiori, E.; Fransen, C.; Friessner, G.; Gaudefroy, L.; Georgiev, G.; Grévy, S.; Hackstein, M.; Harakeh, M. N.; Ibrahim, F.; Kamalou, O.; Kmiecik, M.; Lozeva, R.; Maj, A.; Mihai, C.; Möller, O.; Myalski, S.; Negoita, F.; Pantelica, D.; Perrot, L.; Pissulla, Th.; Rotaru, F.; Rother, W.; Scarpaci, J. A.; Stodel, C.; Thomas, J. C.; Ujic, P.

    2013-09-01

    We have performed the first direct lifetime measurement of the 2+- state in 74Zn. The neutron-rich 74Zn beam was produced by in-flight fragmentation of 76Ge at the Grand Accélérateur National d'Ions Lourds and separated with the LISE spectrometer. The lifetime of the 2+- state was measured by the recoil-distance Doppler-shift method with the Cologne plunger device combined with the EXOGAM detectors. The lifetime of the 2+- state in 74Zn was determined to be 27.0(24) ps, which corresponds to a reduced transition probability B(E2; 2+- -> 0+) = 370(33) e2fm4.

  13. Synthesis of superheavy elements at the Dubna gas-filled recoil separator

    SciTech Connect

    Voinov, A. A.; Collaboration: JINR , LLNL , ORNL , University of Tennessee , Vanderbilt University , Research Institute of Atomic Reactors Collaboration

    2016-12-15

    A survey of experiments at the Dubna gas-filled recoil separator (Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, JINR, Dubna) aimed at the detection and study of the “island of stability” of superheavy nuclei produced in complete fusion reactions of {sup 48}Ca ions and {sup 238}U–{sup 249}Cf target nuclei is given. The problems of synthesis of superheavy nuclei, methods for their identification, and investigation of their decay properties, including the results of recent experiments at other separators (SHIP, BGS, TASCA) and chemical setups, are discussed. The studied properties of the new nuclei, the isotopes of elements 112–118, as well as the properties of their decay products, indicate substantial growth of stability of the heaviest nuclei with increasing number of neutrons in the nucleus as the magic number of neutrons N = 184 is approached.

  14. The magnetic recoil spectrometer for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum at OMEGA and the NIF.

    PubMed

    Casey, D T; Frenje, J A; Johnson, M Gatu; Séguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Yu; Katz, J; Magoon, J; Meyerhofer, D D; Sangster, T C; Shoup, M; Ulreich, J; Ashabranner, R C; Bionta, R M; Carpenter, A C; Felker, B; Khater, H Y; LePape, S; MacKinnon, A; McKernan, M A; Moran, M; Rygg, J R; Yeoman, M F; Zacharias, R; Leeper, R J; Fletcher, K; Farrell, M; Jasion, D; Kilkenny, J; Paguio, R

    2013-04-01

    The neutron spectrum produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) inertial confinement fusion implosions contains a wealth of information about implosion performance including the DT yield, ion-temperature, and areal-density. The Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been used at both the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the absolute neutron spectrum from 3 to 30 MeV at OMEGA and 3 to 36 MeV at the NIF. These measurements have been used to diagnose the performance of cryogenic target implosions to unprecedented accuracy. Interpretation of MRS data requires a detailed understanding of the MRS response and background. This paper describes ab initio characterization of the system involving Monte Carlo simulations of the MRS response in addition to the commission experiments for in situ calibration of the systems on OMEGA and the NIF.

  15. The magnetic recoil spectrometer for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum at OMEGA and the NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, D. T.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Katz, J.; Magoon, J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Shoup, M.; Ulreich, J.; Ashabranner, R. C.; Bionta, R. M.; Carpenter, A. C.; Felker, B.; Khater, H. Y.; LePape, S.; MacKinnon, A.; and others

    2013-04-15

    The neutron spectrum produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) inertial confinement fusion implosions contains a wealth of information about implosion performance including the DT yield, ion-temperature, and areal-density. The Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been used at both the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the absolute neutron spectrum from 3 to 30 MeV at OMEGA and 3 to 36 MeV at the NIF. These measurements have been used to diagnose the performance of cryogenic target implosions to unprecedented accuracy. Interpretation of MRS data requires a detailed understanding of the MRS response and background. This paper describes ab initio characterization of the system involving Monte Carlo simulations of the MRS response in addition to the commission experiments for in situ calibration of the systems on OMEGA and the NIF.

  16. Measuring the absolute DT neutron yield using the Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Mackinnon, A; Casey, D; Frenje, J A; Johnson, M G; Seguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Y; Katz, J; Knauer, J; Meyerhofer, D; Sangster, T; Bionta, R; Bleuel, D; Hachett, S P; Hartouni, E; Lepape, S; Mckernan, M; Moran, M; Yeamans, C

    2012-05-03

    A Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been installed and extensively used on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum from inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. From the neutron spectrum measured with the MRS, many critical implosion parameters are determined including the primary DT neutron yield, the ion temperature, and the down-scattered neutron yield. As the MRS detection efficiency is determined from first principles, the absolute DT neutron yield is obtained without cross-calibration to other techniques. The MRS primary DT neutron measurements at OMEGA and the NIF are shown to be in excellent agreement with previously established yield diagnostics on OMEGA, and with the newly commissioned nuclear activation diagnostics on the NIF.

  17. Low-energy recoils and energy scale in liquid xenon detector for direct dark matter searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lu; Mei, Dongming; Cubed Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Liquid xenon has been proven to be a great detector medium for the direct search of dark matter. However, in the energy region of below 10 keV, the light yield and charge production are not fully understood due to the convolution of excitation, recombination and quenching. We have already studied a recombination model to explain the physics processes involved in liquid xenon. Work is continued on the average energy expended per electron-ion pair as a function of energy based on the cross sections for different type of scattering processes. In this paper, the results will be discussed in comparison with available experimental data using Birk's Law to understand how scintillation quenching contributes to the non-linear light yield for electron recoils with energy below 10 keV in liquid xenon. This work is supported by DOE Grant DE-FG02-10ER46709 and the state of South Dakota.

  18. Analysis of hydrogen adsorption and surface binding configuration on tungsten using direct recoil spectrometry

    DOE PAGES

    Kolasinski, R. D.; Hammond, K. D.; Whaley, J. A.; ...

    2014-12-03

    In our work, we apply low energy ion beam analysis to examine directly how the adsorbed hydrogen concentration and binding configuration on W(1 0 0) depend on temperature. We exposed the tungsten surface to fluxes of both atomic and molecular H and D. We then probed the H isotopes adsorbed along different crystal directions using 1–2 keV Ne+ ions. At saturation coverage, H occupies two-fold bridge sites on W(1 0 0) at 25 °C. Moreover, the H coverage dramatically changes the behavior of channeled ions, as does reconstruction of the surface W atoms. For the exposure conditions examined here, wemore » find that surface sites remain populated with H until the surface temperature reaches 200 °C. Then, we observe H rapidly desorbing until only a residual concentration remains at 450 °C. Development of an efficient atomistic model that accurately reproduces the experimental ion energy spectra and azimuthal variation of recoiled H is underway.« less

  19. Recoil detection of the lightest neutralino in MSSM singlet extensions

    SciTech Connect

    Barger, Vernon; Lewis, Ian; McCaskey, Mat; Shaughnessy, Gabe; Yencho, Brian; Langacker, Paul

    2007-06-01

    We investigate the correlated predictions of singlet extended MSSM models for direct detection and the cosmological relic density of the lightest neutralino. To illustrate the general effects of the singlet, we take heavy sleptons and squarks. We apply CERN LEP (g-2){sub {mu}}, and perturbativity constraints. We find that the WMAP upper bound on the cold dark matter density limits much of the parameter space to regions where the lightest neutralino can be discovered in recoil experiments. The results for the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model and U(1){sup '}-extended minimal supersymmetric standard model are typically similar to the MSSM since their light neutralinos have similar compositions and masses. In the nearly minimal supersymmetric standard model the neutralino is often very light and its recoil detection is within the reach of the CDMS II experiment. In general, most points in the parameter spaces of the singlet models we consider are accessible to the WARP experiment.

  20. EMMA, the Proposed Recoil Separator for ISAC-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davids, Barry

    2004-10-01

    Design work has begun on EMMA, an electromagnetic mass analyzer for ISAC-II at TRIUMF. EMMA is a recoil mass spectrometer that will be used to separate the recoils of nuclear reactions from the beam, and to disperse them according to mass/charge. ISAC-II will provide intense, low-emittance beams of unstable nuclei with masses up to 150 u and maximum energies of at least 6.5 MeV/u. EMMA will be used in many different types of experiments with radioactive beams, especially those involving fusion-evaporation and transfer reactions. As such, it must be both efficient and selective, possessing large acceptances in angle, mass, and energy without sacrificing the necessary beam suppression and mass resolution.

  1. First detection of radon progeny recoil tracks by MIMAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riffard, Q.; Santos, D.; Guillaudin, O.; Bosson, G.; Bourrion, O.; Bouvier, J.; Descombes, T.; Fourel, C.; Muraz, J.-F.; Lebreton, L.; Maire, D.; Colas, P.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Giomataris, I.; Busto, J.; Fouchez, D.; Brunner, J.; Tao, C.

    2017-06-01

    The MIMAC experiment is a μ-TPC project for directional dark matter search. Directional detection strategy is based on the measurement of the WIMP flux anisotropy due to the solar system motion with respect to the dark matter halo. The main purpose of MIMAC project is the measurement of nuclear recoil energy and 3D direction from the WIMP elastic scattering on target nuclei. Since June 2012 a bi-chamber prototype is operating at the Modane underground laboratory. In this paper, we report the first ionization energy and 3D track observations of NRs produced by the radon progeny. This measurement shows the capability of the MIMAC detector and opens the possibility to explore the low energy recoil directionality signature.

  2. Recoiling supermassive black holes: a search in the nearby universe

    SciTech Connect

    Lena, D.; Robinson, A.; Axon, D. J.; Merritt, D.; Marconi, A.; Capetti, A.; Batcheldor, D.

    2014-11-10

    The coalescence of a binary black hole can be accompanied by a large gravitational recoil due to anisotropic emission of gravitational waves. A recoiling supermassive black hole (SBH) can subsequently undergo long-lived oscillations in the potential well of its host galaxy, suggesting that offset SBHs may be common in the cores of massive ellipticals. We have analyzed Hubble Space Telescope archival images of 14 nearby core ellipticals, finding evidence for small (≲ 10 pc) displacements between the active galactic nucleus (AGN; the location of the SBH) and the center of the galaxy (the mean photocenter) in 10 of them. Excluding objects that may be affected by large-scale isophotal asymmetries, we consider six galaxies to have detected displacements, including M87, where a displacement was previously reported by Batcheldor et al. In individual objects, these displacements can be attributed to residual gravitational recoil oscillations following a major or minor merger within the last few gigayears. For plausible merger rates, however, there is a high probability of larger displacements than those observed, if SBH coalescence took place in these galaxies. Remarkably, the AGN-photocenter displacements are approximately aligned with the radio source axis in four of the six galaxies with displacements, including three of the four having relatively powerful kiloparsec-scale jets. This suggests intrinsic asymmetries in radio jet power as a possible displacement mechanism, although approximate alignments are also expected for gravitational recoil. Orbital motion in SBH binaries and interactions with massive perturbers can produce the observed displacement amplitudes but do not offer a ready explanation for the alignments.

  3. Recoiling Supermassive Black Holes: a search in the Nearby Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lena, Davide; Robinson, Andrew; Marconi, Alessandro; Axon, David; Capetti, Alessandro; Merritt, David; Batcheldor, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The coalescence of a binary black hole can be accompanied by a large gravitational recoil due to anisotropic emission of gravitational waves. A recoiling supermassive black hole (SBH) can subsequently undergo long-lived oscillations in the potential well of its host galaxy, suggesting that offset SBHs may be common in the cores of massive ellipticals. We have analyzed HST archival images of 14 nearby core ellipticals, finding evidence for small (<=10 pc) displacements between the AGN (locating the SBH) and the center of the galaxy (the mean photocenter) in 10 of them. Excluding objects that may be affected by large-scale isophotal asymmetries, we consider six galaxies to have detected displacements, including M87, where a displacement was previously reported by Batcheldor et al. 2010. In individual objects, these displacements can be attributed to residual gravitational recoil oscillations following a major or minor merger within the last few Gyr. For plausible merger rates, however, there is a high probability of larger displacements than those observed, if SBH coalescence took place in these galaxies. Remarkably, the AGN-photocenter displacements are approximately aligned with the radio source axis in four of the six galaxies with displacements, including three of the four having relatively powerful kpc-scale jets. This suggests intrinsic asymmetries in radio jet power as a possible displacement mechanism, although approximate alignments are also expected for gravitational recoil. Orbital motion in SBH binaries and interactions with massive perturbers can produce the observed displacement amplitudes but do not offer a ready explanation for the alignments.

  4. Recoiling Supermassive Black Holes: A Search in the Nearby Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lena, D.; Robinson, A.; Marconi, A.; Axon, D. J.; Capetti, A.; Merritt, D.; Batcheldor, D.

    2014-11-01

    The coalescence of a binary black hole can be accompanied by a large gravitational recoil due to anisotropic emission of gravitational waves. A recoiling supermassive black hole (SBH) can subsequently undergo long-lived oscillations in the potential well of its host galaxy, suggesting that offset SBHs may be common in the cores of massive ellipticals. We have analyzed Hubble Space Telescope archival images of 14 nearby core ellipticals, finding evidence for small (lsim 10 pc) displacements between the active galactic nucleus (AGN; the location of the SBH) and the center of the galaxy (the mean photocenter) in 10 of them. Excluding objects that may be affected by large-scale isophotal asymmetries, we consider six galaxies to have detected displacements, including M87, where a displacement was previously reported by Batcheldor et al. In individual objects, these displacements can be attributed to residual gravitational recoil oscillations following a major or minor merger within the last few gigayears. For plausible merger rates, however, there is a high probability of larger displacements than those observed, if SBH coalescence took place in these galaxies. Remarkably, the AGN-photocenter displacements are approximately aligned with the radio source axis in four of the six galaxies with displacements, including three of the four having relatively powerful kiloparsec-scale jets. This suggests intrinsic asymmetries in radio jet power as a possible displacement mechanism, although approximate alignments are also expected for gravitational recoil. Orbital motion in SBH binaries and interactions with massive perturbers can produce the observed displacement amplitudes but do not offer a ready explanation for the alignments.

  5. Passive mechanism of pitch recoil in flapping insect wings.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, D; Horie, T

    2016-12-20

    The high torsional flexibility of insect wings allows for elastic recoil after the rotation of the wing during stroke reversal. However, the underlying mechanism of this recoil remains unclear because of the dynamic process of transitioning from the wing rotation during stroke reversal to the maintenance of a high angle of attack during the middle of each half-stroke, when the inertial, elastic, and aerodynamic effects all have a significant impact. Therefore, the interaction between the flapping wing and the surrounding air was directly simulated by simultaneously solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, the equation of motion for an elastic body, and the fluid-structure interface conditions using the three-dimensional finite element method. This direct numerical simulation controlling the aerodynamic effect revealed that the recoil is the residual of the free pitch vibration induced by the flapping acceleration during stroke reversal in the transient response very close to critical damping due to the dynamic pressure resistance of the surrounding air. This understanding will enable the control of the leading-edge vortex and lift generation, the reduction of the work performed by flapping wings, and the interpretation of the underlying necessity for the kinematic characteristics of the flapping motion.

  6. Recoiling from a Kick in the Head-On Case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Dae-Il; Kelly, Bernard J.; Boggs, William D.; Baker, John G.; Centrella, Joan; Van Meter, James

    2007-01-01

    Recoil "kicks" induced by gravitational radiation are expected in the inspiral and merger of black holes. Recently the numerical relativity community has begun to measure the significant kicks found when both unequal masses and spins are considered. Because understanding the cause and magnitude of each component of this kick may be complicated in inspiral simulations, we consider these effects in the context of a simple test problem. We study recoils from collisions of binaries with initially head-on trajectories, starting with the simplest case of equal masses with no spin; adding spin and varying the mass ratio, both separately and jointly. We find spin-induced recoils to be significant even in head-on configurations. Additionally, it appears that the scaling of transverse kicks with spins is consistent with post-Newtonian (PN) theory, even though the kick is generated in the nonlinear merger interaction, where PN theory should not apply. This suggests that a simple heuristic description might be effective in the estimation of spin-kicks.

  7. Anatomy of the Binary Black Hole Recoil: A Multipolar Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnittman, Jeremy; Buonanno, Alessandra; vanMeter, James R.; Baker, John G.; Boggs, William D.; Centrella, Joan; Kelly, Bernard J.; McWilliams, Sean T.

    2007-01-01

    We present a multipolar analysis of the recoil velocity computed in recent numerical simulations of binary black hole coalescence, for both unequal masses and non-zero, non-precessing spins. We show that multipole moments up to and including 1 = 4 are sufficient to accurately reproduce the final recoil velocity (= 98%) and that only a few dominant modes contribute significantly to it (2 95%). We describe how the relative amplitude, and more importantly, the relative phase, of these few modes control the way in which the recoil builds up throughout the inspiral, merger, and ring-down phases. We also find that the numerical results can be reproduced, to a high level of accuracy, by an effective Newtonian formula for the multipole moments obtained by replacing in the Newtonian formula the radial separation with an effective radius computed from the numerical data. Beyond the merger, the numerical results are reproduced by a superposition of three Kerr quasi-normal modes. Analytic formulae, obtained by expressing the multipole moments in terms of the fundamental QNMs of a Kerr BH, are able to explain the onset and amount of '.anti-kick" for each of the simulations. Lastly, we apply this multipolar analysis to understand the remarkable difference between the amplitudes of planar and non-planar kicks for equal-mass spinning black holes.

  8. Recoil-induced Resonances as All-optical Switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narducci, F. A.; Desavage, S. A.; Gordon, K. H.; Duncan, D. L.; Welch, G. R.; Davis, J. P.

    2010-03-01

    We have measured recoil-induced resonances (RIR) [1,2] in our system of laser-cooled 85Rb atoms. Although this technique has been demonstrated to be useful for the purpose of extracting the cloud temperature [3], our aim was to demonstrate an all optical switch based on recoil-induced resonances. In addition to a very narrow ``free-space'' recoil-induced resonance of approximately 15 kHz, we also discovered a much broader resonance (˜30 MHz), caused by standing waves established by our trapping fields. We compare and contrast the switching dynamics of these two resonances and demonstrate optical switching using both resonances. Finally, we consider the applicability of the narrow, free-space resonance to the slowing of a weak probe field. [1] J. Guo, P.R. Berman, B. Dubetsky and G. Grynberg PRA, 46, 1426 (1992). [2] (a) P. Verkerk, B. Loumis, C. Salomon, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J. Courtois PRL, 68, 3861 (1992). (b) G. Grynberg, J-Y Courtois, B. Lounis, P. Verkerk PRL, 72, 3017 (1994). [3] (a) T. Brzozowski, M. Brzozowska, J. Zachorowski, M. Zawada, W. Gawlik PRA, 71, 013401 (2005). (b) M. Brzozowska, T. Brzozowski J. Zachorowski, W. Gawlik PRA, 72, 061401(R), (2005).

  9. The recoil proton polarization in. pi. p elastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Seftor, C.J.

    1988-09-01

    The polarization of the recoil proton for ..pi../sup +/p and ..pi../sup -/p elastic scattering has been measured for various angles at 547 MeV/c and 625 MeV/c by a collaboration involving The George Washington University; the University of California, Los Angeles; and Abilene Christian University. The experiment was performed at the P/sup 3/ East experimental area of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. Beam intensities varied from 0.4 to 1.0 x 10/sup 7/ ..pi../sup -/'s/sec and from 3.0 to 10.0 x 10/sup 7/ ..pi../sup +/'s/sec. The beam spot size at the target was 1 cm in the horizontal direction by 2.5 cm in the vertical direction. A liquid-hydrogen target was used in a flask 5.7 cm in diameter and 10 cm high. The scattered pion and recoil proton were detected in coincidence using the Large Acceptance Spectrometer (LAS) to detect and momentum analyze the pions and the JANUS recoil proton polarimeter to detect and measure the polarization of the protons. Results from this experiment are compared with previous measurements of the polarization, with analyzing power data previously taken by this group, and to partial-wave analysis predictions. 12 refs., 53 figs., 18 tabs.

  10. Development of a nitrate ion-selective electrode based on an Urushi matrix membrane and its application to the direct measurement of nitrate-nitrogen in upland soils.

    PubMed

    Ito, S; Baba, K; Asano, Y; Takesako, H; Wada, H

    1996-11-01

    A solid-state nitrate ion-selective electrode based on an Urushi matrix membrane was developed. Urushi, a natural oriental lacquer, has excellent mechanical strength and binding affinity for metal electrodes. Using the same technique for a dip-coating ion-selective electrode, an electrode was prepared by coating and hardening a sensing membrane on the metal base. The effects of the metal electrode on the electrode potential stability, the liquid-membrane components and the oven temperature for hardening of membrane were studied. The sensing membrane, consisting of 27.5 wt.% of o-nitrophenyl octyl ether. 27.5 wt.% of tri-n-octylmethylammonium nitrate and 45 wt.% of raw Urushi latex, was coated with a thickness of 0.5 mm on a silver disc which was plated with Ag/AgCl, then plated with copper and hardened in the oven at 80 degrees C for 50 h. A semi-logarithmic calibration curve of potential versus nitrate ion concentration was obtained over the range 6-60 000 mg l(-1) NO(3)(poststaggered-). The slope of the linear part of the curve was -56 mV per decade change in NO(3)(poststaggered-) concentration. Compared with a PVC matrix nitrate ion-selective electrode, the Urushi matrix nitrate ion-selective electrode was superior in terms of hardness and mechanical strength of the membrane, short response time and long life. The combination of an Urushi matrix nitrate ion-selective electrode with a porous PTFE junction reference electrode, air-tight structured KCl solution chamber and a temperature sensor was applied to field measurements of nitrate-nitrogen concentrations in upland soils. The values obtained for upland soils containing 30-50% of water were good agreement with those for soil solution.

  11. Hierarchical Carbon with High Nitrogen Doping Level: A Versatile Anode and Cathode Host Material for Long-Life Lithium-Ion and Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Reitz, Christian; Breitung, Ben; Schneider, Artur; Wang, Di; von der Lehr, Martin; Leichtweiss, Thomas; Janek, Jürgen; Hahn, Horst; Brezesinski, Torsten

    2016-04-27

    Nitrogen-rich carbon with both a turbostratic microstructure and meso/macroporosity was prepared by hard templating through pyrolysis of a tricyanomethanide-based ionic liquid in the voids of a silica monolith template. This multifunctional carbon not only is a promising anode candidate for long-life lithium-ion batteries but also shows favorable properties as anode and cathode host material owing to a high nitrogen content (>8% after carbonization at 900 °C). To demonstrate the latter, the hierarchical carbon was melt-infiltrated with sulfur as well as coated by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of anatase TiO2, both of which led to high-quality nanocomposites. TiO2 ALD increased the specific capacity of the carbon while maintaining high Coulombic efficiency and cycle life: the composite exhibited stable performance in lithium half-cells, with excellent recovery of low rate capacities after thousands of cycles at 5C. Lithium-sulfur batteries using the sulfur/carbon composite also showed good cyclability, with reversible capacities of ∼700 mA·h·g(-1) at C/5 and without obvious decay over several hundred cycles. The present results demonstrate that nitrogen-rich carbon with an interconnected multimodal pore structure is very versatile and can be used as both active and inactive electrode material in high-performance lithium-based batteries.

  12. Surface modification by nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation into new steel 460Li-21Cr in a capacitively coupled radio frequency discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuyan, H.; Mändl, S.; Bora, B.; Favre, M.; Wyndham, E.; Maze, J. R.; Walczak, M.; Manova, D.

    2014-10-01

    A novel steel 460Li-21Cr belonging to a new generation of superferritic grade steel has been implanted with nitrogen in a low power 13.56 MHz radio frequency plasma by the plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) technique in order to study its physical and chemical properties under different experimental conditions. We observed improved hardness and wear behavior of 460Li-21Cr steel with a layer thickness between 1.5 and 4.0 μm after 60 min implantation in the temperature range from 350 to 550 °C. The modified surface layer containing nitrogen does not show CrN in X-ray diffraction (XRD). Compared to untreated substrates, the hardness can be increased by a factor of 4, depending on the experimental conditions, and the wear behavior was also improved by two orders of magnitude. The results are very similar to those for austenitic stainless steel with a similar pronounced increase in wear resistance and plateau-like nitrogen depth profiles.

  13. Nitrogen-doped graphene by all-solid-state ball-milling graphite with urea as a high-power lithium ion battery anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chao; Liu, Xingang; Tan, Jiang; Wang, Qingfu; Wen, Hao; Zhang, Chuhong

    2017-02-01

    Nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets (NGNS) are prepared by a novel mechanochemical method via all-solid-state ball-milling graphite with urea. The ball-milling process does not only successfully exfoliate the graphite into multi-layer (<10 layers) graphene nanosheets, but at the same time, enables the N element to be doped onto the graphene. Urea, acting as a new solid doping and assist-grinding agents, has the advantages of low cost and good water solubility that can simplify the fabrication process. The as-prepared NGNS are investigated in detail by XRD, SEM, HRTEM, TGA, XPS and Raman spectroscopy. The doping nitrogens are around 3.15% and dominated (>94%) by pyrindic-N and pyrrolic-N which facilitates the NGNS with enhanced electronic conductivity and Li-ion storage capability. For the first time, we demonstrate that the all-solid-state prepared NGNS exhibits, especially at high currents, enhanced cycling stability and rate capability as Lithium ion battery (LIB) anode active material when compared to pristine graphite and undoped graphene in half-cell configuration. The method presented in this article may provide a simple, clean, economical and scalable strategy for preparation of NGNS as a feasible and promising anode material for LIBs.

  14. Further improvement in ganoderic acid production in static liquid culture of Ganoderma lucidum by integrating nitrogen limitation and calcium ion addition.

    PubMed

    Li, Huan-Jun; Zhang, De-Huai; Han, Li-Liang; Yu, Xuya; Zhao, Peng; Li, Tao; Zhong, Jian-Jiang; Xu, Jun-Wei

    2016-01-01

    To further improve the ganoderic acid (GA) production, a novel integrated strategy by combining nitrogen limitation and calcium ion addition was developed. The effects of the integrated combination on the content of GA-T (one powerful anticancer compound), their intermediates (squalene and lanosterol) and on the transcription levels of GA biosynthetic genes in G. lucidum fermentation were investigated. The maximum GA-T content with the integrated strategy were 1.87 mg/ 100 mg dry cell weight, which was 2.1-4.2 fold higher than that obtained with either calcium ion addition or nitrogen limitation alone, and it is also the highest record as ever reported in submerged fermentation of G. lucidum. The squalene content was increased by 3.9- and 2.2-fold in this case compared with either individual strategy alone. Moreover, the transcription levels of the GA biosynthetic genes encoding 3-hydroxy-3-methyglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and lanosterol synthase were also up-regulated by 3.3-7.5 and 1.3-2.3 fold, respectively.

  15. Differential cross section measurements in ion-molecule collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Song

    1999-06-01

    A 14 m long beam line dedicated to study very small scattering angles in ion-molecule collisions has been set up in the University of Toledo Heavy Ion Accelerator (THIA) Laboratory. Together with position sensitive detectors for both the projectile and the recoil particles' detection, the beam line can be used to measure the projectile forward scattering angles of up to 2.5 milliradians (mrad) with a 0.025 mrad resolution, in coincidence with information on the recoil particles such as recoil charge states, energy, momentum and the molecular orientations.

  16. Inelastic frontier: Discovering dark matter at high recoil energy

    DOE PAGES

    Bramante, Joseph; Fox, Patrick J.; Kribs, Graham D.; ...

    2016-12-27

    There exist well-motivated models of particle dark matter which predominantly scatter inelastically off nuclei in direct detection experiments. This inelastic transition causes the dark matter to upscatter in terrestrial experiments into an excited state up to 550 keV heavier than the dark matter itself. An inelastic transition of this size is highly suppressed by both kinematics and nuclear form factors. In this paper, we extend previous studies of inelastic dark matter to determine the present bounds on the scattering cross section and the prospects for improvements in sensitivity. Three scenarios provide illustrative examples: nearly pure Higgsino supersymmetric dark matter, magnetic inelasticmore » dark matter, and inelastic models with dark photon exchange. We determine the elastic scattering rate (through loop diagrams involving the heavy state) as well as verify that exothermic transitions are negligible (in the parameter space we consider). Presently, the strongest bounds on the cross section are from xenon at LUX-PandaX (when the mass splitting δ≲160 keV), iodine at PICO (when 160≲δ≲300 keV), and tungsten at CRESST (when δ≳300 keV). Amusingly, once δ≳200 keV, weak scale (and larger) dark matter–nucleon scattering cross sections are allowed. The relative competitiveness of these diverse experiments is governed by the upper bound on the recoil energies employed by each experiment, as well as strong sensitivity to the mass of the heaviest element in the detector. Several implications, including sizable recoil energy-dependent annual modulation and improvements for future experiments, are discussed. We show that the xenon experiments can improve on the PICO results, if they were to analyze their existing data over a larger range of recoil energies, i.e., 20–500 keV Intriguingly, CRESST has reported several events in the recoil energy range 45–100 keV that, if interpreted as dark matter scattering, is compatible with δ~200 keV and an

  17. A study of nuclear recoil backgrounds in dark matter detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerdale, Shawn S.

    Despite the great success of the Standard Model of particle physics, a preponderance of astrophysical evidence suggests that it cannot explain most of the matter in the universe. This so-called dark matter has eluded direct detection, though many theoretical extensions to the Standard Model predict the existence of particles with a mass on the 1-1000 GeV scale that interact only via the weak nuclear force. Particles in this class are referred to as Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), and their high masses and low scattering cross sections make them viable dark matter candidates. The rarity of WIMP-nucleus interactions makes them challenging to detect: any background can mask the signal they produce. Background rejection is therefore a major problem in dark matter detection. Many experiments greatly reduce their backgrounds by employing techniques to reject electron recoils. However, nuclear recoil backgrounds, which produce signals similar to what we expect from WIMPs, remain problematic. There are two primary sources of such backgrounds: surface backgrounds and neutron recoils. Surface backgrounds result from radioactivity on the inner surfaces of the detector sending recoiling nuclei into the detector. These backgrounds can be removed with fiducial cuts, at some cost to the experiment's exposure. In this dissertation we briefly discuss a novel technique for rejecting these events based on signals they make in the wavelength shifter coating on the inner surfaces of some detectors. Neutron recoils result from neutrons scattering off of nuclei in the detector. These backgrounds may produce a signal identical to what we expect from WIMPs and are extensively discussed here. We additionally present a new tool for calculating (alpha, n) yields in various materials. We introduce the concept of a neutron veto system designed to shield against, measure, and provide an anti-coincidence veto signal for background neutrons. We discuss the research and development

  18. Inelastic frontier: Discovering dark matter at high recoil energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramante, Joseph; Fox, Patrick J.; Kribs, Graham D.; Martin, Adam

    2016-12-01

    There exist well-motivated models of particle dark matter which predominantly scatter inelastically off nuclei in direct detection experiments. This inelastic transition causes the dark matter to upscatter in terrestrial experiments into an excited state up to 550 keV heavier than the dark matter itself. An inelastic transition of this size is highly suppressed by both kinematics and nuclear form factors. In this paper, we extend previous studies of inelastic dark matter to determine the present bounds on the scattering cross section and the prospects for improvements in sensitivity. Three scenarios provide illustrative examples: nearly pure Higgsino supersymmetric dark matter, magnetic inelastic dark matter, and inelastic models with dark photon exchange. We determine the elastic scattering rate (through loop diagrams involving the heavy state) as well as verify that exothermic transitions are negligible (in the parameter space we consider). Presently, the strongest bounds on the cross section are from xenon at LUX-PandaX (when the mass splitting δ ≲160 keV ), iodine at PICO (when 160 ≲δ ≲300 keV ), and tungsten at CRESST (when δ ≳300 keV ). Amusingly, once δ ≳200 keV , weak scale (and larger) dark matter-nucleon scattering cross sections are allowed. The relative competitiveness of these diverse experiments is governed by the upper bound on the recoil energies employed by each experiment, as well as strong sensitivity to the mass of the heaviest element in the detector. Several implications, including sizable recoil energy-dependent annual modulation and improvements for future experiments, are discussed. We show that the xenon experiments can improve on the PICO results, if they were to analyze their existing data over a larger range of recoil energies, i.e., 20-500 keV Intriguingly, CRESST has reported several events in the recoil energy range 45-100 keV that, if interpreted as dark matter scattering, is compatible with δ ˜200 keV and an

  19. A Study of Nuclear Recoil Backgrounds in Dark Matter Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Westerdale, Shawn S.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the great success of the Standard Model of particle physics, a preponderance of astrophysical evidence suggests that it cannot explain most of the matter in the universe. This so-called dark matter has eluded direct detection, though many theoretical extensions to the Standard Model predict the existence of particles with a mass on the $1-1000$ GeV scale that interact only via the weak nuclear force. Particles in this class are referred to as Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), and their high masses and low scattering cross sections make them viable dark matter candidates. The rarity of WIMP-nucleus interactions makes them challenging to detect: any background can mask the signal they produce. Background rejection is therefore a major problem in dark matter detection. Many experiments greatly reduce their backgrounds by employing techniques to reject electron recoils. However, nuclear recoil backgrounds, which produce signals similar to what we expect from WIMPs, remain problematic. There are two primary sources of such backgrounds: surface backgrounds and neutron recoils. Surface backgrounds result from radioactivity on the inner surfaces of the detector sending recoiling nuclei into the detector. These backgrounds can be removed with fiducial cuts, at some cost to the experiment's exposure. In this dissertation we briefly discuss a novel technique for rejecting these events based on signals they make in the wavelength shifter coating on the inner surfaces of some detectors. Neutron recoils result from neutrons scattering from nuclei in the detector. These backgrounds may produce a signal identical to what we expect from WIMPs and are extensively discussed here. We additionally present a new tool for calculating ($\\alpha$, n)yields in various materials. We introduce the concept of a neutron veto system designed to shield against, measure, and provide an anti-coincidence veto signal for background neutrons. We discuss the research and development

  20. Inelastic frontier: Discovering dark matter at high recoil energy

    SciTech Connect

    Bramante, Joseph; Fox, Patrick J.; Kribs, Graham D.; Martin, Adam

    2016-12-27

    There exist well-motivated models of particle dark matter which predominantly scatter inelastically off nuclei in direct detection experiments. This inelastic transition causes the dark matter to upscatter in terrestrial experiments into an excited state up to 550 keV heavier than the dark matter itself. An inelastic transition of this size is highly suppressed by both kinematics and nuclear form factors. In this paper, we extend previous studies of inelastic dark matter to determine the present bounds on the scattering cross section and the prospects for improvements in sensitivity. Three scenarios provide illustrative examples: nearly pure Higgsino supersymmetric dark matter, magnetic inelastic dark matter, and inelastic models with dark photon exchange. We determine the elastic scattering rate (through loop diagrams involving the heavy state) as well as verify that exothermic transitions are negligible (in the parameter space we consider). Presently, the strongest bounds on the cross section are from xenon at LUX-PandaX (when the mass splitting δ≲160 keV), iodine at PICO (when 160≲δ≲300 keV), and tungsten at CRESST (when δ≳300 keV). Amusingly, once δ≳200 keV, weak scale (and larger) dark matter–nucleon scattering cross sections are allowed. The relative competitiveness of these diverse experiments is governed by the upper bound on the recoil energies employed by each experiment, as well as strong sensitivity to the mass of the heaviest element in the detector. Several implications, including sizable recoil energy-dependent annual modulation and improvements for future experiments, are discussed. We show that the xenon experiments can improve on the PICO results, if they were to analyze their existing data over a larger range of recoil energies, i.e., 20–500 keV Intriguingly, CRESST has reported several events in the recoil energy range 45–100 keV that, if interpreted as dark matter scattering, is compatible with δ~200 keV and an

  1. Sub-recoil laser cooling of metastable helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liang

    2000-08-01

    This work presents the results of several experiments in sub-recoil laser cooling of metastable Helium (He*) on the 23S1 --> 23P0,1,2 transitions at λ = 1.083 μm and on the 23S1 --> 33P0,1,2 transitions at λ = 389 nm in a magnetic field. The idea is to combine the principle of sub-recoil cooling based on VSCPT (Velocity Selective Coherent Population Trapping) with the VSR (Velocity Selective Resonance) produced by an applied magnetic field. We first review the works on Doppler and sub-Doppler cooling, and point out that the sub-recoil cooling is possible when the atom is dark to the laser field. When the kinetic energy term is considered in the Hamiltonian, the dark state has a distribution over detuning and laser intensity. Thus for limited interaction time for blue detuning, the trapped state leads a single sub-recoil peak, and for red detuning, it leads a single sub-recoil dip. W present a semiclassical description of VSCPT in a magnetic field. In this description, two terms are added to the Hamiltonian simultaneously, that is the kinetic energy term and Zeeman shift term. With the kinetic energy term, the dependence of the dark state on laser parameters can be understood, and with the Zeeman term, VSCPT phenomena can be controlled by the applied magnetic field. We present an experiment on the He* J = 1 --> 1 transition driven by σ+ - σ- counter-propagating fields in a magnetic field parallel to the k-vector of the lasers, which produces a standard A system. We first apply a magnetic field parallel to the k-vector of laser beams, and observe the change of VSCPT vs the magnetic field. Then we study VSCPT behaviour in zero magnetic field for different detuning, intensity and interaction time. The configuration is then changed to a σ+ standing wave in a magnetic field perpendicular to the k-vector of the laser beams. For the J = 1 --> 0 transition, besides the dark state similar to 1 --> 1 transition, there is a leak from J = 0, mJ = 0 of the excited state

  2. Shooter-System Performance Variability as a Function of Recoil Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Frank; Neugebauer, Jennifer M; Haynes, Courtney A; Fry, Thomas C; Ortega, Samson V; Struve, Douglas J; LaFiandra, Michael E; Larkin, Gabriella B

    2017-09-01

    The goal of this study was to quantify shooter performance relative to subtle variations in recoil energy. Marksmanship performance remains undefined for subtle distinctions in weapon recoil energy across common small-arms platforms. Weapons were customized using multiple components and ammunition types. Firing scenarios were designed to examine the effect of recoil energy on shooter timing and accuracy. The results suggest that recoil condition does not affect timing during firing sequences designed to elicit differences in timed-fire performance. Recoil condition did, however, influence shot placement, with accuracy decreasing as the energy associated with firing increased. Subjective recoil estimations were quantified according to relative magnitude and spatial distribution of perceived energy transferred at shooter-weapon surface contact locations. The absence of differences in time to engage may be reflective of resistance to recoil-induced point-of-aim deviation based on experience. Distinctions in performance were revealed despite subtle differences in recoil energy between conditions. An instrument that may be sensitive to shooter perception of subtle differences in recoil energy during firing was also developed. The findings inform performance expectations for small-arms systems relative to recoil energy levels transferred to the shooter during dynamic firing events.

  3. Nitrogen loss from Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shematovich, V. I.; Johnson, R. E.; Michael, M.; Luhmann, J. G.

    2003-08-01

    Dissociation and dissociative ionization of molecular nitrogen by solar UV radiation and by photoelectrons and sputtering by the magnetospheric ions and pickup ions are the main sources of translationally excited (hot) nitrogen atoms and molecules in the upper atmosphere of Titan. As Titan does not posses an intrinsic magnetic field, Saturn's magnetospheric ions can penetrate Titan's exobase and sputter atoms and molecules from it. The sputtering of nitrogen from Titan's upper atmosphere by the corotating nitrogen ions and by photodissociation was addressed earlier [Lammer and Bauer, 1993; Shematovich et al., 2001]. Here penetration of slowed and deflected magnetospheric N+ and carbon-containing pickup ions is described using a Monte Carlo model. The interaction of these ions with the atmospheric neutrals leads to the production of fast neutrals that collide with other atmospheric neutrals producing heating and ejection of atoms and molecules. Results from Brecht et al. [2000] are used to estimate the net flux and energy spectra of the magnetospheric and pickup ions onto the exobase. Sputtering is primarily responsible for any ejected molecular nitrogen, and, for the ion fluxes used, we show that the total sputtering contribution is comparable to or larger than the dissociation contribution giving a total loss rate of ~3.6 × 1025 nitrogen neutrals per second.

  4. Measuring the spectrum of mutation induced by nitrogen ions and protons in the human-hamster hybrid cell line A(L)C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraemer, S. M.; Kronenberg, A.; Ueno, A.; Waldren, C. A.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Astronauts can be exposed to charged particles, including protons, alpha particles and heavier ions, during space flights. Therefore, studying the biological effectiveness of these sparsely and densely ionizing radiations is important to understanding the potential health effects for astronauts. We evaluated the mutagenic effectiveness of sparsely ionizing 55 MeV protons and densely ionizing 32 MeV/nucleon nitrogen ions using cells of two human-hamster cell lines, A(L) and A(L)C. We have previously characterized a spectrum of mutations, including megabase deletions, in human chromosome 11, the sole human chromosome in the human-hamster hybrid cell lines A(L)C and A(L). CD59(-) mutants have lost expression of a human cell surface antigen encoded by the CD59 gene located at 11p13. Deletion of genes located on the tip of the short arm of 11 (11p15.5) is lethal to the A(L) hybrid, so that CD59 mutants that lose the entire chromosome 11 die and escape detection. In contrast, deletion of the 11p15.5 region is not lethal in the hybrid A(L)C, allowing for the detection of chromosome loss or other chromosomal mutations involving 11p15.5. The 55 MeV protons and 32 MeV/nucleon nitrogen ions were each about 10 times more mutagenic per unit dose at the CD59 locus in A(L)C cells than in A(L) cells. In the case of nitrogen ions, the mutations observed in A(L)C cells were predominantly due to chromosome loss events or 11p deletions, often containing a breakpoint in the pericentromeric region. The increase in the CD59(-) mutant fraction for A(L)C cells exposed to protons was associated with either translocation of portions of 11q onto a hamster chromosome, or discontinuous or "skipping" mutations. We demonstrate here that A(L)C cells are a powerful tool that will aid in the understanding of the mutagenic effects of different types of ionizing radiation.

  5. Measuring the spectrum of mutation induced by nitrogen ions and protons in the human-hamster hybrid cell line A(L)C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraemer, S. M.; Kronenberg, A.; Ueno, A.; Waldren, C. A.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Astronauts can be exposed to charged particles, including protons, alpha particles and heavier ions, during space flights. Therefore, studying the biological effectiveness of these sparsely and densely ionizing radiations is important to understanding the potential health effects for astronauts. We evaluated the mutagenic effectiveness of sparsely ionizing 55 MeV protons and densely ionizing 32 MeV/nucleon nitrogen ions using cells of two human-hamster cell lines, A(L) and A(L)C. We have previously characterized a spectrum of mutations, including megabase deletions, in human chromosome 11, the sole human chromosome in the human-hamster hybrid cell lines A(L)C and A(L). CD59(-) mutants have lost expression of a human cell surface antigen encoded by the CD59 gene located at 11p13. Deletion of genes located on the tip of the short arm of 11 (11p15.5) is lethal to the A(L) hybrid, so that CD59 mutants that lose the entire chromosome 11 die and escape detection. In contrast, deletion of the 11p15.5 region is not lethal in the hybrid A(L)C, allowing for the detection of chromosome loss or other chromosomal mutations involving 11p15.5. The 55 MeV protons and 32 MeV/nucleon nitrogen ions were each about 10 times more mutagenic per unit dose at the CD59 locus in A(L)C cells than in A(L) cells. In the case of nitrogen ions, the mutations observed in A(L)C cells were predominantly due to chromosome loss events or 11p deletions, often containing a breakpoint in the pericentromeric region. The increase in the CD59(-) mutant fraction for A(L)C cells exposed to protons was associated with either translocation of portions of 11q onto a hamster chromosome, or discontinuous or "skipping" mutations. We demonstrate here that A(L)C cells are a powerful tool that will aid in the understanding of the mutagenic effects of different types of ionizing radiation.

  6. Application of an online ion chromatography-based instrument for gradient flux measurements of speciated nitrogen and sulfur

    EPA Science Inventory

    In North America, the dry component of total nitrogen and sulfur deposition remains uncertain due to a lack of measurements of sufficient chemical speciation and temporal extent to develop complete annual mass budgets or of sufficient process level detail to improve current air-s...

  7. Application of an online ion chromatography-based instrument for gradient flux measurements of speciated nitrogen and sulfur

    EPA Science Inventory

    In North America, the dry component of total nitrogen and sulfur deposition remains uncertain due to a lack of measurements of sufficient chemical speciation and temporal extent to develop complete annual mass budgets or of sufficient process level detail to improve current air-s...

  8. Disruption of metal ion homeostasis in soils is associated with nitrogen deposition-induced species loss in an Inner Mongolia steppe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Q.-Y.; Liu, N.-N.; Bai, W.-M.; Li, L.-H.; Zhang, W.-H.

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced deposition of atmospheric nitrogen (N) resulting from anthropogenic activities has negative impacts on plant diversity in grassland ecosystems globally. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the species loss. Ion toxicity due to N deposition-induced soil acidification has been suggested to be responsible for species loss in acidic grasslands, while few studies have evaluated the role of soil-mediated homeostasis of ions in species loss under elevated N deposition in alkaline grasslands. To determine whether soil-mediated processes are involved in changes in species composition by N deposition, the effects of 9 yr N addition on soil properties, aboveground biomass (AGB) and species composition were investigated in an Inner Mongolia steppe. Low to moderate N addition rate (2, 4, 8 g N m-2 yr-1) significantly enhanced AGB of grasses, while high N addition rate (> 16 g N m-2 yr-1) reduced AGB of forbs, leading to an overall increase in AGB of the community under low to moderate N addition rates. Forb richness was significantly reduced by N addition at rates greater than 8 g N m-2 yr-1, while no effect of N addition on grass richness was observed, resulting in decline in total species richness. N addition depleted base cations (Ca2+, Mg2+ and K+) in soils, reduced soil pH and mobilized Mn2+, Fe3+ and Cu2+ ions in soils. Soil inorganic-N concentration was negatively correlated with forb richness, explaining 27.2% variation of forb richness. The concentrations of base cations (Ca2+ and Mg2+) and metal ions (Mn2+ and Cu2+) showed positively and negatively linear correlation with forb richness, accounting for 25.9 and 41.4% variation of forb richness, respectively. These results reveal that disruption of metal ion homeostasis in soils by N addition, particularly enhanced release of soil Mn2+ and Cu2+ may be associated with reduction in forb richness in temperate steppe of Inner Mongolia.

  9. Infrared and Raman spectroscopies of refractory residues left over after ion irradiation of nitrogen-bearing icy mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, M. E.; Ferini, G.; Baratta, G. A.

    Using infrared and Raman spectroscopies, we have studied the effects induced by ion irradiation on icy mixtures at low temperature (T=12 K) and after warm up to room temperature. In particular, we have considered mixtures made of H2O, CO, CH4, and N2. These mixtures have been irradiated with 30 keV He+ and 60 keV Ar2+ ions. After ion irradiation at low temperature, several new absorption features appear in the infrared spectra, some of which may be due to N-bearing molecular species. A refractory organic residue is left over after warm-up to room temperature. After further irradiation of the residue at room temperature, the intensity of all infrared absorption features decreases. Raman spectroscopy of similar mixtures has shown that ion irradiation causes a modification of the structure of the samples which evolve towards an amorphous carbon.

  10. The Electron Recoil Response of the XENON1T Dark Matter Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shockley, Evan; Xenon1T Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    XENON1T employs a two-phase xenon TPC to search for dark matter by detecting scintillation light produced by nuclear recoils in a 2 ton active volume of liquid xenon. However, nuclear recoils are not the only recoils that can occur since radiogenic electronic recoils are possible. Our only way of differentiating nuclear and electronic recoils is by comparing the relative fraction of scintillation (S1) and ionization (S2) signals. For the first Science Run of XENON1T, we must understand the response of our detector to S1 and S2 signals at the low keV energies where dark matter will present itself. Therefore, I will be discussing the current understanding of our signal and detection mechanisms at these energies. This work includes work using sources such as the Rn220 technique developed by XENON collaborators for understanding our rejection of electronic recoils.

  11. Synthesis of Fe16N2 compound Free-Standing Foils with 20 MGOe Magnetic Energy Product by Nitrogen Ion-Implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yanfeng; Mehedi, Md Al; Fu, Engang; Wang, Yongqiang; Allard, Lawrence F.; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2016-05-01

    Rare-earth-free magnets are highly demanded by clean and renewable energy industries because of the supply constraints and environmental issues. A promising permanent magnet should possess high remanent magnetic flux density (Br), large coercivity (Hc) and hence large maximum magnetic energy product ((BH)max). Fe16N2 has been emerging as one of promising candidates because of the redundancy of Fe and N on the earth, its large magnetocrystalline anisotropy (Ku > 1.0 × 107 erg/cc), and large saturation magnetization (4πMs > 2.4 T). However, there is no report on the formation of Fe16N2 magnet with high Br and large Hc in bulk format before. In this paper, we successfully synthesize free-standing Fe16N2 foils with a coercivity of up to 1910 Oe and a magnetic energy product of up to 20 MGOe at room temperature. Nitrogen ion implantation is used as an alternative nitriding approach with the benefit of tunable implantation energy and fluence. An integrated synthesis technique is developed, including a direct foil-substrate bonding step, an ion implantation step and a two-step post-annealing process. With the tunable capability of the ion implantation fluence and energy, a microstructure with grain size 25–30 nm is constructed on the FeN foil sample with the implantation fluence of 5 × 1017/cm2.

  12. First signal from a broadband cryogenic preamplifier cooled by circulating liquid nitrogen in a 7 T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Choi, Myoung Choul; Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Se Gyu; Choi, Sang Hwan; Choi, Yeon Suk; Lee, Kyung Jae; Kim, SeungYong; Kim, Hyun Sik; Stahl, Stefan

    2012-12-18

    Despite the outstanding performance of Fourier transform ion cyclotron/mass spectrometry (FTICR/MS), the complexity of the cellular proteome or natural compounds presents considerable challenges. Sensitivity is a key performance parameter of a FTICR mass spectrometer. By improving this parameter, the dynamic range of the instrument can be increased to improve the detection signal of low-abundance compounds or fragment ion peaks. In order to improve sensitivity, a cryogenic detection system was developed by the KBSI (Korean Basic Science Institute) in collaboration with Stahl-Electronics (Mettenheim, Germany). A simple, efficient liquid circulation cooling system was designed and a cryogenic preamplifier implemented inside a FTICR mass spectrometer. This cooling system circulates a cryoliquid from a Dewar to the "liquid circulation unit" through a CF flange to cool a copper block and a cryopreamplifier; the cooling medium is subsequently exhausted into the air. The cryopreamplifier can be operated over a very wide temperature range, from room temperature to low temperature environments (4.2 K). First, ion signals detected by the cryopreamplifier using a circulating liquid nitrogen cooling system were observed and showed a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) about 130% better than that obtained at room temperature.

  13. Metal-Organic Frameworks Derived Okra-like SnO2 Encapsulated in Nitrogen-Doped Graphene for Lithium Ion Battery.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiangyang; Chen, Sanmei; Yang, Juan; Bai, Tao; Ren, Yongpeng; Tian, Hangyu

    2017-04-26

    A facile process is developed to prepare SnO2-based composites through using metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as precursors. The nitrogen-doped graphene wrapped okra-like SnO2 composites (SnO2@N-RGO) are successfully synthesized for the first time by using Sn-based metal-organic frameworks (Sn-MOF) as precursors. When utilized as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the SnO2@N-RGO composites possess a remarkably superior reversible capacity of 1041 mA h g(-1) at a constant current of 200 mA g(-1) after 180 charge-discharge processes and excellent rate capability. The excellent performance can be primarily ascribed to the unique structure of 1D okra-like SnO2 in SnO2@N-RGO which are actually composed of a great number of SnO2 primary crystallites and numerous well-defined internal voids, can effectively alleviate the huge volume change of SnO2, and facilitate the transport and storage of lithium ions. Besides, the structural stability acquires further improvement when the okra-like SnO2 are wrapped by N-doped graphene. Similarly, this synthetic strategy can be employed to synthesize other high-capacity metal-oxide-based composites starting from various metal-organic frameworks, exhibiting promising application in novel electrode material field of lithium-ion batteries.

  14. A Sustainable Route from Biomass Byproduct Okara to High Content Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Sheets for Efficient Sodium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tingzhou; Qian, Tao; Wang, Mengfan; Shen, Xiaowei; Xu, Na; Sun, Zhouzhou; Yan, Chenglin

    2016-01-20

    A sustainable route from the biomass byproduct okara as a natural nitrogen fertilizer to high-content N-doped carbon sheets is demonstrated. The as-prepared unique structure exhibits high specific capacity (292 mAh g(-1) ) and extremely long cycle life (exceeding 2000 cycles). A full battery is devised for the practical use of materials with a flexible/wearable LED screen. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Infrared Spectroscopy of Matrix-Isolated Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds and their Ions. 6; Polycyclic Aromatic Nitrogen Heterocycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattioda, A. L.; Hudgins, Douglas M.; Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.; Rosi, M.; Allamandola, L. J.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The matrix-isolation technique has been employed to measure the mid-infrared spectra of several polycyclic aromatic nitrogen heterocycles in both neutral and cationic forms. The species studied include: 7,8 benzoquinoline (C13H9N); 2-azapyrene (C15H9N); 1- and 2-azabenz(a)anthracene (C17H11N); and 1-, 2-, and 4-azachrysene (also C17H11N). The experimentally measured band frequencies and intensities for each molecule are tabulated and compared with their theoretically calculated values computed using density functional theory at the B3LYP/4-31G level. The overall agreement between experiment and theory is quite good, in keeping with previous investigations involving the parent aromatic hydrocarbons. Several interesting spectroscopic trends are found to accompany nitrogen substitution into the aromatic framework of these compounds. First, for the neutral species, the nitrogen atom produces a significant increase in the total integrated infrared intensity across the 1600 - 1100/cm region and plays an essential role in the molecular vibration that underlies an uncharacteristically intense, discrete feature that is observed near 1400/cm in the spectra of 7,8 benzoquinoline, 1-azabenz(a)anthracene, and 4-azachrysene. The origin of this enhanced infrared activity and the nature of the new 1400/cm vibrational mode are explored. Finally, in contrast to the parent hydrocarbon species, these aromatic nitrogen heterocycles possess a significant permanent dipole moment. Consequently, these dipole moments and the rotational constants are reported for these species in their neutral and ionized forms.

  16. Transport and extraction of radioactive ions stopped in superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, W. X.; Dendooven, P.; Gloos, K.; Takahashi, N.; Arutyunov, K.; Pekola, J. P.; Äystö, J.

    2003-05-01

    A new approach to convert a high energy beam to a low energy one, which is essential for the next generation radioactive ion beam facilities, has been proposed and tested at Jyväskylä, Finland. An open 223Ra alpha-decay-recoil source has been used to produce radioactive ions in superfluid helium. The alpha spectra demonstrate that the recoiling 219Rn ions have been extracted out of liquid helium. This first observation of the extraction of heavy positive ions across the superfluid helium surface was possible thanks to the high sensitivity of radioactivity detection. An efficiency of 36% was obtained for the ion extraction out of liquid helium.

  17. Revealing compressed stops using high-momentum recoils

    DOE PAGES

    Macaluso, Sebastian; Park, Michael; Shih, David; ...

    2016-03-22

    In this study, searches for supersymmetric top quarks at the LHC have been making great progress in pushing sensitivity out to higher mass, but are famously plagued by gaps in coverage around lower-mass regions where the decay phase space is closing off. Within the common stop-NLSP/neutralino-LSP simplified model, the line in the mass plane where there is just enough phase space to produce an on-shell top quark remains almost completely unconstrained. Here, we show that is possible to define searches capable of probing a large patch of this difficult region, with S/B ~ 1 and significances often well beyond 5σ.more » The basic strategy is to leverage the large energy gain of LHC Run 2, leading to a sizable population of stop pair events recoiling against a hard jet. The recoil not only re-establishes a ET, but also leads to a distinctive anti-correlation between the ET and the recoil jet transverse vectors when the stops decay all-hadronically. Accounting for jet combinatorics, backgrounds, and imperfections in ET measurements, we estimate that Run 2 will already start to close the gap in exclusion sensitivity with the first few 10s of fb–1. By 300 fb–1, exclusion sensitivity may extend from stop masses of 550 GeV on the high side down to below 200 GeV on the low side, approaching the “stealth” point at mt¯ = mt and potentially overlapping with limits from tt¯ cross section and spin correlation measurements.« less

  18. Revealing compressed stops using high-momentum recoils

    SciTech Connect

    Macaluso, Sebastian; Park, Michael; Shih, David; Tweedie, Brock

    2016-03-22

    In this study, searches for supersymmetric top quarks at the LHC have been making great progress in pushing sensitivity out to higher mass, but are famously plagued by gaps in coverage around lower-mass regions where the decay phase space is closing off. Within the common stop-NLSP/neutralino-LSP simplified model, the line in the mass plane where there is just enough phase space to produce an on-shell top quark remains almost completely unconstrained. Here, we show that is possible to define searches capable of probing a large patch of this difficult region, with S/B ~ 1 and significances often well beyond 5σ. The basic strategy is to leverage the large energy gain of LHC Run 2, leading to a sizable population of stop pair events recoiling against a hard jet. The recoil not only re-establishes a ET, but also leads to a distinctive anti-correlation between the ET and the recoil jet transverse vectors when the stops decay all-hadronically. Accounting for jet combinatorics, backgrounds, and imperfections in ET measurements, we estimate that Run 2 will already start to close the gap in exclusion sensitivity with the first few 10s of fb–1. By 300 fb–1, exclusion sensitivity may extend from stop masses of 550 GeV on the high side down to below 200 GeV on the low side, approaching the “stealth” point at m = mt and potentially overlapping with limits from tt¯ cross section and spin correlation measurements.

  19. Revealing compressed stops using high-momentum recoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macaluso, Sebastian; Park, Michael; Shih, David; Tweedie, Brock

    2016-03-01

    Searches for supersymmetric top quarks at the LHC have been making great progress in pushing sensitivity out to higher mass, but are famously plagued by gaps in coverage around lower-mass regions where the decay phase space is closing off. Within the common stop-NLSP/neutralino-LSP simplified model, the line in the mass plane where there is just enough phase space to produce an on-shell top quark remains almost completely unconstrained. Here, we show that is possible to define searches capable of probing a large patch of this difficult region, with S/B ˜ 1 and significances often well beyond 5 σ. The basic strategy is to leverage the large energy gain of LHC Run 2, leading to a sizable population of stop pair events recoiling against a hard jet. The recoil not only re-establishes a [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] signature, but also leads to a distinctive anti-correlation between the [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] and the recoil jet transverse vectors when the stops decay all-hadronically. Accounting for jet combinatorics, backgrounds, and imperfections in [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] measurements, we estimate that Run 2 will already start to close the gap in exclusion sensitivity with the first few 10s of fb-1. By 300 fb-1, exclusion sensitivity may extend from stop masses of 550 GeV on the high side down to below 200 GeV on the low side, approaching the "stealth" point at {m}_{overline{t}}={m}_t and potentially overlapping with limits from toverline{t} cross section and spin correlation measurements.

  20. (7)Be-recoil radiolabelling of industrially manufactured silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Holzwarth, Uwe; Bellido, Elena; Dalmiglio, Matteo; Kozempel, Jan; Cotogno, Giulio; Gibson, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Radiolabelling of industrially manufactured nanoparticles is useful for nanoparticle dosimetry in biodistribution or cellular uptake studies for hazard and risk assessment. Ideally for such purposes, any chemical processing post production should be avoided as it may change the physico-chemical characteristics of the industrially manufactured species. In many cases, proton irradiation of nanoparticles allows radiolabelling by transmutation of a tiny fraction of their constituent atoms into radionuclides. However, not all types of nanoparticles offer nuclear reactions leading to radionuclides with adequate radiotracer properties. We describe here a process whereby in such cases nanoparticles can be labelled with (7)Be, which exhibits a physical half-life of 53.29 days and emits γ-rays of 478 keV energy, and is suitable for most radiotracer studies. (7)Be is produced via the proton-induced nuclear reaction (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be in a fine-grained lithium compound with which the nanoparticles are mixed. The high recoil energy of (7)Be atoms gives them a range that allows the (7)Be-recoils to be transferred from the lithium compound into the nanoparticles by recoil implantation. The nanoparticles can be recovered from the mixture by dissolving the lithium compound and subsequent filtration or centrifugation. The method has been applied to radiolabel industrially manufactured SiO2 nanoparticles. The process can be controlled in such a way that no alterations of the (7)Be-labelled nanoparticles are detectable by dynamic light scattering, X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. Moreover, cyclotrons with maximum proton energies of 17-18 MeV that are available in most medical research centres could be used for this purpose.

  1. Direct Measurement of Recoil Effects on Ar-Ar Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, C. M.

    2011-12-01

    Advances in the precision possible with the Ar-Ar method using new techniques and equipment have led to considerable effort to improve the accuracy of the calibration of interlaboratory standards. However, ultimately the accuracy of the method relies on the measurement of 40Ar*/39ArK ratios on primary standards that have been calibrated with the K-Ar method and, in turn, on secondary standards that are calibrated against primary standards. It is usually assumed that an Ar-Ar total gas age is equivalent to a K-Ar age, but this assumes that there is zero loss of Ar due to recoil. Instead, traditional Ar-Ar total gas ages are in fact Ar retention ages [1] and not, strictly speaking, comparable to K-Ar ages. There have been efforts to estimate the importance of this effect on standards along with prescriptions for minimizing recoil effects [2,3], but these studies have relied on indirect evidence for 39Ar recoil. We report direct measurements of 39Ar recoil for a set of primary and secondary standards using the vacuum encapsulation techniques of [1] and show that significant adjustments to ages assigned to some standards may be needed. The fraction f of 39Ar lost due to recoil for primary standards MMhb-1 hornblende and GA-1550 biotite are 0.00367 and 0.00314 respectively. It is possible to modify the assumed K-Ar ages of these standards so that when using their measured Ar retention 40Ar*/39ArK ratios, one obtains a correct K-Ar age for an unknown, assuming that the unknown sample has zero loss of 39Ar due to recoil. Assuming a primary K-Ar age for MMhb-1 of 520.4 Ma, the modified age would be 522.1 Ma and assuming a primary K-Ar age for GA-1550 of 98.79 Ma [4] yields a modified effective age of 99.09 Ma. Measured f values for secondary standards FCT-3 biotite, FCT-2 sanidine and TCR-2 sanidine are 0.00932, 0.00182 and 0.00039 respectively. Using an R value for FCT-3 biotite relative to MMhb-1 [5], the K-Ar age for this standard would be 27.83 Ma and using R values

  2. Projectile paths corrected for recoil and air resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, H. R.

    1986-01-01

    The angle of projection of a bullet is not the same as the angle of the bore of the firearm just before firing. This is because recoil alters the direction of the barrel as the bullet moves along the barrel. Neither is the angle of projection of an arrow the same as the direction of the arrow just before it is projected. The difficulty in obtaining the angle of projection limits the value of the standard equation for trajectories relative to a horizontal plane. Furthermore, air resistance makes this equation unrealistic for all but short ranges.

  3. Nano-welding and junction formation in hydrogen titanate nanowires by low-energy nitrogen ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhal, Satyanarayan; Chatterjee, Shyamal; Sarkar, Subhrangsu; Tribedi, Lokesh C.; Bapat, Rudheer; Ayyub, Pushan

    2015-06-01

    Crystalline hydrogen titanate (H2Ti3O7) nanowires were irradiated with N+ ions of different energies and fluences. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that at relatively lower fluence the nanowires are bent and start to adhere strongly to one another as well as to the silicon substrate. At higher fluence, the nanowires show large-scale welding and form a network of mainly ‘X’ and ‘Y’ junctions. Transmission electron microscopy and Raman scattering studies confirm a high degree of amorphization of the nanowire surface after irradiation. We suggest that while ion-irradiation induced defect formation and dangling bonds may lead to chemical bonding between nanowires, the large scale nano-welding and junction network formation can be ascribed to localized surface melting due to heat spike. Our results demonstrate that low energy ion irradiation with suitable choice of fluence may provide an attractive route to the formation and manipulation of large-area nanowire-based devices.

  4. Comparative study of Monte Carlo particle transport code PHITS and nuclear data processing code NJOY for recoil cross section spectra under neutron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, Yosuke; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko

    2017-04-01

    Because primary knock-on atoms (PKAs) create point defects and clusters in materials that are irradiated with neutrons, it is important to validate the calculations of recoil cross section spectra that are used to estimate radiation damage in materials. Here, the recoil cross section spectra of fission- and fusion-relevant materials were calculated using the Event Generator Mode (EGM) of the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS) and also using the data processing code NJOY2012 with the nuclear data libraries TENDL2015, ENDF/BVII.1, and JEFF3.2. The heating number, which is the integral of the recoil cross section spectra, was also calculated using PHITS-EGM and compared with data extracted from the ACE files of TENDL2015, ENDF/BVII.1, and JENDL4.0. In general, only a small difference was found between the PKA spectra of PHITS + TENDL2015 and NJOY + TENDL2015. From analyzing the recoil cross section spectra extracted from the nuclear data libraries using NJOY2012, we found that the recoil cross section spectra were incorrect for 72Ge, 75As, 89Y, and 109Ag in the ENDF/B-VII.1 library, and for 90Zr and 55Mn in the JEFF3.2 library. From analyzing the heating number, we found that the data extracted from the ACE file of TENDL2015 for all nuclides were problematic in the neutron capture region because of incorrect data regarding the emitted gamma energy. However, PHITS + TENDL2015 can calculate PKA spectra and heating numbers correctly.

  5. Pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidinium ions--a novel bridgehead nitrogen heterocycles: synthesis, characterisation, and elucidation of DNA binding and cell imaging properties.

    PubMed

    Manna, Susanta Kumar; Mandal, Arabinda; Mondal, Suresh Kumar; Adak, Arup Kr; Jana, Akash; Das, Somnath; Chattopadhyay, Sourav; Roy, Somenath; Ghorai, Shyamal Kr; Samanta, Shubhankar; Hossain, Maidul; Baidya, Mahiuddin

    2015-08-07

    A novel class of bridgehead nitrogen heterocycles, pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidinium ions, has been readily synthesized by a two-step one-pot reaction in high yields (up to 93%). These ionic compounds are bench stable and moisture tolerant and have highly fluorescent properties (quantum yield up to 0.65). A characteristic bright bluish fluorescence was observed in polar solvents such as acetonitrile and fluorescent intensity gradually diminishes with decreasing the polarity of the medium, which becomes almost negligible in toluene. These compounds also show interesting bioactivity. DNA interaction, imaging, and viability experiments with human leukemic Jurkat and KG-1A cells revealed that they are potential candidates for cancer diagnosis.

  6. Bi2O3 nanoparticles encapsulated by three-dimensional porous nitrogen-doped graphene for high-rate lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Wei; Zhang, Naiqing; Fan, Lishuang; Sun, Kening

    2016-11-01

    A composite consisting of Bi2O3 nanoparticles encapsulated by three-dimensional (3D) porous nitrogen-doped graphene is reported. Due to the 3D porous structure, the composite has large specific surface area of 112 m2 g-1, which can increase the contact area between active material and electrolyte. In addition, the 3D porous conductive framework can not only facilitate the fast electron transport and Li+ diffusion but also enhance the electrical conductivity of the composite. As expected, the composite shows an outstanding rate capability of 273 mAh g-1 at 10000 mA g-1 and a capacity of 417 mAh g-1 over 100 cycles at a current density of 200 mA g-1. Therefore, the composite is a promising candidate as an anode material for high-rate lithium ion batteries.

  7. Nitrogen In Saturn's Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, H. T.; Sittler, E. C.; Johnson, R. E.; McComas, D. J.; Reisenfeld, D.; Shappirio, M. D.; Baragiola, R.; Michael, M.; Shematovich, V. I.; Crary, F.; Young, D. T.

    2004-12-01

    We are analyzing CAPS instrument data on Cassini to look for nitrogen ions in Saturn's magnetosphere. Because Voyager could not separate oxygen and nitrogen, there has been considerable controversy on nitrogen's presence and relative importance. Two principal sources have been suggested: Titan's atmosphere and nitrogen species trapped in Saturn's icy satellite surfaces (Sittler et al 2004). The latter may be primordial nitrogen, likely as NH3 in ice (Stevenson 1982; Squyers et al. 1983) or nitrogen ions that have been implanted in the surface (Delitsky and Lane 2002). We will present the results of Saturnian nitrogen cloud modeling and relevant CAPS observations. We recently described the Titan source (Michael, et al. 2004; Shematovich et al. 2003; Smith et al. 2004; Sittler et al. 2004) in preparation for Cassini's Saturnian plasma measurements. Two components were identified: energetic nitrogen ions formed near Titan and energized as they diffused inward (Sittler et al. 2004) and neutrals in orbits with small perigee that became ionized in the inner magnetosphere (Smith et al 2004). The latter component would be a source of lower energy, co-rotating nitrogen ions in the inner magnetosphere. Such a component would have an energy spectrum similar to nitrogen species sputtered from the icy satellite surfaces (Johnson and Sittler 1990). However, the mass spectrum would differ, likely containing NHx and NOx species also, and, hence, may be separated from the Titan source. Our preliminary analysis for nitrogen species in the CAPS data will be compared to our models. Of interest will be the energy spectra, which can indicate whether any nitrogen present is formed locally or near Titan's orbit and diffused inward. This work is supported by the NASA Planetary Atmospheres, NASA Graduate Student Research, Virginia Space Grant Consortium Graduate Research Fellowship and CAPS Cassini instrument team programs.

  8. Hierarchical self-assembled structures based on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes as advanced negative electrodes for Li-ion batteries and 3D microbatteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifi, Tiva; Valvo, Mario; Gracia-Espino, Eduardo; Sandström, Robin; Edström, Kristina; Wågberg, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Hierarchical structures based on carbon paper and multi-walled nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes were fabricated and subsequently decorated with hematite nanorods to obtain advanced 3D architectures for Li-ion battery negative electrodes. The carbon paper provides a versatile metal-free 3D current collector ensuring a good electrical contact of the active materials to its carbon fiber network. Firstly, the nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes onto the carbon paper were studied and a high footprint area capacity of 2.1 mAh cm-2 at 0.1 mA cm-2 was obtained. The Li can be stored in the inter-wall regions of the nanotubes, mediated by the defects formed on their walls by the nitrogen atoms. Secondly, the incorporation of hematite nanorods raised the footprint area capacity to 2.25 mAh cm-2 at 0.1 mA cm-2. However, the repeated conversion/de-conversion of Fe2O3 limited both coulombic and energy efficiencies for these electrodes, which did not perform as well as those including only the N-doped carbon nanotubes at higher current densities. Thirdly, long-cycling tests showed the robust Li insertion mechanism in these N-doped carbonaceous structures, which yielded an unmatched footprint area capacity enhancement up to 1.95 mAh cm-2 after 60 cycles at 0.3 mA cm-2 and an overall capacity of 204 mAh g-1 referred to the mass of the entire electrode.

  9. Structural characterization of drug-like compounds by ion mobility mass spectrometry: comparison of theoretical and experimentally derived nitrogen collision cross sections.

    PubMed

    Campuzano, Iain; Bush, Matthew F; Robinson, Carol V; Beaumont, Claire; Richardson, Keith; Kim, Hyungjun; Kim, Hugh I

    2012-01-17

    We present the use of drug-like molecules as a traveling wave (T-wave) ion mobility (IM) calibration sample set, covering the m/z range of 122.1-609.3, the nitrogen collision cross-section (Ω(N(2))) range of 124.5-254.3 Å(2) and the helium collision cross-section (Ω(He)) range of 63.0-178.8 Å(2). Absolute Ω(N(2)) and Ω(He) values for the drug-like calibrants and two diastereomers were measured using a drift-tube instrument with radio frequency (RF) ion confinement. T-wave drift-times for the protonated diastereomers betamethasone and dexamethasone are reproducibly different. Calibration of these drift-times yields T-wave Ω(N(2)) values of 189.4 and 190.4 Å(2), respectively. These results demonstrate the ability of T-wave IM spectrometry to differentiate diastereomers differing in Ω(N(2)) value by only 1 Å(2), even though the resolution of these IM experiments were ∼40 (Ω/ΔΩ). Demonstrated through density functional theory optimized geometries and ionic electrostatic surface potential analysis, the small but measurable mobility difference between the two diastereomers is mainly due to short-range van der Waals interactions with the neutral buffer gas and not long-range charge-induced dipole interactions. The experimental RF-confining drift-tube and T-wave Ω(N(2)) values were also evaluated using a nitrogen based trajectory method, optimized for T-wave operating temperature and pressures, incorporating additional scaling factors to the Lennard-Jones potentials. Experimental Ω(He) values were also compared to the original and optimized helium based trajectory methods.

  10. Effect of carbon on the microstructure, mechanical properties and metal ion release of Ni-free Co-Cr-Mo alloys containing nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Mori, Manami; Yamanaka, Kenta; Kuramoto, Koji; Ohmura, Kazuyo; Ashino, Tetsuya; Chiba, Akihiko

    2015-10-01

    This paper investigated the effect of carbon addition on the microstructure and tensile properties of Ni-free biomedical Co-29Cr-6Mo (mass%) alloys containing 0.2 mass% nitrogen. The release of metal ions by the alloys was preliminarily evaluated in an aqueous solution of 0.6% sodium chloride (NaCl) and 1% lactic acid, after which samples with different carbon contents were subjected to hot rolling. All specimens were found to primarily consist of a γ-phase matrix due to nitrogen doping, with only the volume fraction of M23C6 increasing with carbon concentration. Owing to the very fine size of these carbide particles (less than 1 μm), which results from fragmentation during hot rolling, the increased formation of M23C6 increased the 0.2% proof stress, but reduced the elongation-to-failure. Carbon addition also increased the amount of Co and Cr released during static immersion; Co and Cr concentrations at the surfaces, which increased with increasing the bulk carbon concentrations, possibly enhanced the metal ion release. However, only a very small change in the Mo concentration was noticed in the solution. Therefore, it is not necessarily considered a suitable means of improving the strength of biomedical Co-Cr-Mo alloys, even though it has only to date been used in this alloy system. The results of this study revealed the limitations of the carbon strengthening and can aid in the design of biomedical Co-Cr-Mo-based alloys that exhibit the high durability needed for their practical application.

  11. Three-dimensional nitrogen-doped graphene frameworks anchored with bamboo-like tungsten oxide nanorods as high performance anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xinyuan; Wu, Feilong; Lei, Bingbing; Wang, Jing; Chen, Ziliang; Xie, Kai; Song, Yun; Sun, Dalin; Sun, Lixian; Zhou, Huaiying; Fang, Fang

    2016-07-01

    Bamboo-like WO3 nanorods were anchored on three-dimensional nitrogen-doped graphene frameworks (r-WO3/3DNGF) by a facile one-step hydrothermal synthesis plus heating processes. There is a strong dependence of the obtained r-WO3/3DNGF nanostructures on the content of 3DNGF. The composite with 20 wt% 3DNGF content shows the most favorable structure where bamboo-like WO3 nanorods lie flat on the surface of fungus-like 3DNGF, and exhibits a high discharge capacity of 828 mAh g-1 over 100 cycles at 80 mA g-1 with the largest capacity retention of 73.9% for WO3 and excellent rate capacities of 719, 665, 573, 453 and 313 mAh g-1 at 80, 160, 400, 800 and 1600 mA g-1, respectively. The electrochemical performance is better than most of reported WO3-based carbonaceous composites, which can be attributed to the synergistic effects of the following actions: i) WO3 nanorods effectively shorten the diffusion path of Li+; ii) mechanically strong 3DNGF alleviates the huge volume change of WO3 upon Li+ intercalation/extraction; and iii) nitrogen-doping in 3D graphene frameworks improves electronic conductivity and provides large numbers of lithium ion diffusion channels.

  12. Facile Synthesis of ZnO Nanoparticles on Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotubes as High-Performance Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Haipeng; Liu, Zhengjun; Yang, Shuang; Zhao, Yan; Feng, Yuting; Bakenov, Zhumabay; Zhang, Chengwei; Yin, Fuxing

    2017-09-21

    ZnO/nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube (ZnO/NCNT) composite, prepared though a simple one-step sol-gel synthetic technique, has been explored for the first time as an anode material. The as-prepared ZnO/NCNT nanocomposite preserves a good dispersity and homogeneity of the ZnO nanoparticles (~6 nm) which deposited on the surface of NCNT. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals the formation of ZnO nanoparticles with an average size of 6 nm homogeneously deposited on the surface of NCNT. ZnO/NCNT composite, when evaluated as an anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), exhibits remarkably enhanced cycling ability and rate capability compared with the ZnO/CNT counterpart. A relatively large reversible capacity of 1013 mAh·g(-1) is manifested at the second cycle and a capacity of 664 mAh·g(-1) is retained after 100 cycles. Furthermore, the ZnO/NCNT system displays a reversible capacity of 308 mAh·g(-1) even at a high current density of 1600 mA·g(-1). These electrochemical performance enhancements are ascribed to the reinforced accumulative effects of the well-dispersed ZnO nanoparticles and doping nitrogen atoms, which can not only suppress the volumetric expansion of ZnO nanoparticles during the cycling performance but also provide a highly conductive NCNT network for ZnO anode.

  13. Monitoring nitrogen deposition in throughfall using ion exchange resin columns: a field test in the San Bernardino Mountains

    Treesearch

    Mark E. Fenn; Mark A. Poth

    2004-01-01

    Conventional throughfall collection methods are labor intensive and analytically expensive to implement at broad scales. This study was conducted to test an alternative approach requiring infrequent sample collection and a greatly reduced number of chemical analyses. The major objective of the study was to determine the feasibility of using ion exchange resin (IER) to...

  14. Disruption of metal ion homeostasis in soils is associated with nitrogen deposition-induced species loss in an Inner Mongolia steppe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Q.-Y.; Liu, N.-N.; Bai, W.-M.; Li, L.-H.; Zhang, W.-H.

    2015-06-01

    Enhanced deposition of atmospheric nitrogen (N) resulting from anthropogenic activities has negative impacts on plant diversity in ecosystems. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the species loss. Ion toxicity due to N deposition-induced soil acidification has been suggested to be responsible for species loss in acidic grasslands, while few studies have evaluated the role of soil-mediated homeostasis of ions in species loss under elevated N deposition in grasslands with neutral or alkaline soils. To determine whether soil-mediated processes are involved in changes in biodiversity induced by N deposition, the effects of 9-year N addition on soil properties, aboveground biomass (AGB) and species richness were investigated in an Inner Mongolia steppe. Low to moderate N addition rate (2, 4, 8 g N m-2 yr-1) significantly enhanced AGB of graminoids, while high N addition rate (≥ 16 g N m-2 yr-1) reduced AGB of forbs, leading to an overall increase in AGB of the community under low to moderate N addition rates. Forb richness was significantly reduced by N addition at rates greater than 8 g N m-2 yr-1, while no effect of N addition on graminoid richness was observed, resulting in decline in total species richness. N addition reduced soil pH, depleted base cations (Ca2+, Mg2+ and K+) and mobilized Mn2+, Fe3+, Cu2+ and Al3+ ions in soils. Soil inorganic-N concentration was negatively correlated with forb richness and biomass, explaining 23.59% variation of forb biomass. The concentrations of base cations (Ca2+ and Mg2+) and metal ions (Mn2+, Cu2+ and, Fe3+) showed positively and negatively linear correlation with forb richness, respectively. Changes in the metal ion concentrations accounted for 42.77% variation of forb richness, while reduction of base cations was not associated with the reduction in forb richness. These results reveal that patterns of plant biodiversity in the temperate steppe of Inner Mongolia are primarily driven by increases in metal ion

  15. A Measurement of the Recoil Polarization of Electroproduced Λ(1116)

    SciTech Connect

    McAleer, Simeon B.

    2002-01-01

    The CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer at the Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory was used to study the reaction e + p → e' + K+ + Λ(1116) for events where Λ(1116) subsequently decayed via the channel Λ(1116) → p + π-. Data were taken at incident electron beam energies of 2.5, 4.0, and 4.2 GeV during the 1999 E1C run period. They hyperon production spectra span the Q2 range from 0.5 to 2.8 GeV2 and nearly the entire range in the center of mass angles. The proton angular distribution in the Λ(1116) rest frame is used to deduce the recoil polarization of the hyperon, and the W and cos θ$K+\\atop{cm}$ dependence of the recoil polarization will be presented. The data show sizeable negative polarizations for the Λ(1116) as a function of both cos θ$K+\\atop{cm}$ and W.

  16. Computerized measurement of pulmonary conductance and elastic recoil.

    PubMed

    Colebatch, H J; Nail, B S; Ng, C K

    1978-04-01

    A system devloped for on-line measurement of transpulmonary pressure, gas flow at the mouth, change in expired volume and plethysmograph volume uses a minicomputer to control a multiplexed analog to digital converter. The computer identified samples as static or dynamic values by monitoring a voltage activating a solenoid valve, used to close the airway. Analysis of these samples by other task-specific programs yielded the static deflation pressure-volume (PV) curve, the conductance-recoil pressure, GL-Pst(L), relationship and the maximum expiratory flow-volume (MEFV) curve; the MEF-Pst(L) curve and conductance upstream from the equal pressure point were derived. The PV relationship was represented by a fourth-order polynomial and the GL-Pst(L) relationship by linear regression. In 11 subjects the results obtained using on-line data collection, compared with manual analysis of oscillograph recordings, showed small differences in static compliance and in the maximum Pst(L); but overall the two methods showed excellent agreement. Besides advantages of speed and objectivity, this system facilitates a more rigorous analytical treatment of elastic recoil and conductance.

  17. Technique for measuring atomic recoil frequency using coherence functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beattie, S.; Barrett, B.; Chan, I.; Mok, C.; Yavin, I.; Kumarakrishnan, A.

    2009-02-01

    We have developed a technique for measuring the atomic recoil frequency using a single-state echo-type atom interferometer that manipulates laser-cooled atoms in the ground state. The interferometer relies on momentum-state interference due to two standing-wave pulses that produce density gratings. The interference is modified by applying a third standing-wave pulse during the interferometer pulse sequence. As a result, the grating contrast exhibits periodic revivals at the atomic recoil frequency ωr as a function of the time at which the third pulse is applied, allowing ωr to be measured easily and precisely. The contrast is accurately described by a coherence function, which is the Fourier transform of the momentum distribution, produced by the third pulse and by the theory of echo formation. If the third pulse is a traveling wave, loss of grating contrast is observed, an effect also described by a coherence function. The decay of the grating contrast as a function of continuous-wave light intensity is used to infer the cross section for photon absorption.

  18. Contribution of recoil atoms to irradiation damage in absorber materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeone, D.; Hablot, O.; Micalet, V.; Bellon, P.; Serruys, Y.

    1997-08-01

    Absorbing materials are used to control the reactivity of nuclear reactors by taking advantage of nuclear reactions (e.g., 10B(n,α) 7Li) where neutrons are absorbed. During such reactions, energetic recoils are produced. As a result, radiation damage in absorbing materials originates both from these nuclear reactions and from elastic collisions between neutrons and atoms. This damage eventually leads to a partial destruction of the materials, and this is the main limitation on their lifetime in nuclear reactors. Using a formalism developed to calculate displacements per atoms (dpa) in a multi atomic target, we have calculated damages in terms of displacements per atom in a (n,α) absorbing material taking into account geometrical effects of 10 boron self shielding and transmutation reactions induced by neutrons inside the absorber. Radiation damage is calculated for boron carbide and hafnium diboride ceramics in a Pressurized Water Reactor environment. It is shown that recoils produced by nuclear reactions account for the main part of the radiation damage created in these ceramics. Damages are calculated as a function of the distance from the center of an absorber pellet. Due to the self-shielding effect, these damage curves exhibit sharp maxima, the position of which changes in time.

  19. Silicon shallow doping by erbium and oxygen recoils implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feklistov, K. V.; Cherkov, A. G.; Popov, V. P.

    2016-09-01

    In order to get shallow high doping of Si with optically active complexes ErOn, Er followed by O recoils implantation was realized by means of subsequent Ar+ 250-290 keV implantation with doses 2×1015-1×1016 cm-2 through 50-nm deposited films of Er and then SiO2, accordingly. High Er concentration up to 5×1020 cm-3 to the depth of 10 nm was obtained after implantation. However, about a half of the Er implanted atoms become part of surface SiO2 during post-implantation annealing at 950 °C for 1 h in the N2 ambient under a SiO2 cap. The mechanism of Er segregation into the cap oxide following the moving amorphous-crystalline interface during recrystallization was rejected by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Instead, the other mechanism of immobile Er atoms and redistribution of recoil-implanted O atoms toward cap oxide was proposed. It explains the observed formation of two Er containing phases: Er-Si-O phase with a high O content adjacent to the cap oxide and deeper O depleted Er-Si phase. The correction of heat treatments is proposed in order to avoid the above-mentioned problems.

  20. Advances in the helium-jet coupled on-line mass separator RAMA. [Recoil Atom Mass Analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Moltz, D M; Aysto, J; Cable, M D; Parry, R F; Haustein, P E; Wouters, J M; Cerny, J

    1980-01-01

    General improvements to the on-line mass separator RAMA (Recoil Atom Mass Analyzer) have yielded a greater reliability and efficiency for some elements. A new utilitarian helium-jet chamber has been installed to facilitate quick target and degrader foil changes in addition to a new ion source holder. A higher efficiency hollow-cathode, cathode-extraction ion source, for lower melting point elements (< 1200/sup 0/C) has also been designed. Tests with the beta-delayed proton emitter /sup 37/Ca showed a factor of five increase in yield over the old hollow-cathode, anode-extraction source. A differentially-pumped-tape drive system compatible with both ..gamma..-..gamma.. and ..beta..-..gamma.. experiments has been incorporated into the general detection system. All major operating parameters will soon be monitored by a complete stand-alone microprocessor system which will eventually be upgraded to a closed-loop control system.

  1. Metal organic frameworks derived porous lithium iron phosphate with continuous nitrogen-doped carbon networks for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Gu, Junjie; Zhang, Jinli; Yu, Feng; Dong, Lutao; Nie, Ning; Li, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) nanoparticles embedded in the continuous interconnected nitrogen-doped carbon networks (LFP/N-CNWs) is an optimal architecture to fast electron and Li+ conduction. This paper, for the first time, reports a reasonable design and successful preparation of porous hierarchical LFP/N-CNWs composites using unique Fe-based metal organic framework (MIL-100(Fe)) as both template and starting material of Fe and C. Such nitrogen-doped carbon networks (N-CNWs) surrounding the lithium iron phosphate nanoparticles facilitate the transfer of Li+ and electrons throughout the electrodes, which significantly decreases the internal resistance for the electrodes and results in the efficient utilization of LiFePO4. The synthesized LFP/N-CNWs composites possess a porous structure with an amazing surface area of 129 m2 g-1, considerably enhanced electrical conductivities of 7.58 × 10-2 S cm-1 and Li+ diffusion coefficient of 8.82 × 10-14 cm2 s-1, thereby delivering excellent discharge capacities of 161.5 and 93.6 mAh·g-1 at 0.1C and 20C, respectively.

  2. Pulse Shape Discrimination of Nuclear Recoil and Electron Recoil Events With a NaI(Tl) Crystal for Dark Matter Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. W.; Adhikari, G.; Adhikari, P.; Choi, S.; Ha, C.; Hahn, I. S.; Jeon, E. J.; Joo, H. W.; Kang, W. G.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, N. Y.; Kim, S. K.; Kim, Y. D.; Kim, Y. H.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, M. H.; Leonard, D. S.; Oh, S. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Park, H. K.; Park, H. S.; Park, K. S.; Shim, J. H.; So, J. H.; Yoon, Y. S.

    2016-04-01

    In order to investigate discrimination between nuclear recoil and electron recoil events for the KIMS-NaI dark matter search experiment, we measured the pulse shapes produced by neutrons and gamma rays in a NaI(Tl) crystal. Relatively good pulse shape discrimination (PSD) power due to high light output of recently developed crystals makes it possible to test whether the annual modulation signal observed by the DAMA/LIBRA experiment is caused by nuclear recoil events. We applied the PSD to underground data taken with a 9.15 kg low-background and high-light-output NaI(Tl) crystal for 134 days. Good agreement between underground data and electron recoil events was observed.

  3. Photoionization of ions of the nitrogen isoelectronic sequence:experiment and theory for F2+ and Ne3+

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar, A.; Emmons, E.D.; Gharaibeh, M.F.; Covington, A.M.; Bozek, J.D.; Ackerman, G.; Canton, S.; Rude, B.; Schlachter, A.S.; Hinojosa, G.; Alvarez, I.; Cisneros, C.; McLaughlin, B.M.; Phaneuf, R.A.

    2005-06-21

    Absolute photoionization measurements are reported for admixtures of the ground and metastable states of F2+ from 56.3 eV to 75.6 eV, and of Ne3+ from 89.3 eV to 113.8 eV. The 4So ground-state and the 2Do and 2Po metastable-state fractions present in the primary ion beams were estimated from photo ion yield measurements near the irrespective threshold energies. Most of the observed resonance structure has been spectroscopically assigned. The measurements are compared with new R-matrix theoretical calculations and with those in the TOP base astrophysical database. The systematic behaviour of the quantum-defect parameter is analyzed as a function of the nuclear charge for four Rydberg series observed in both species, and compared to published data for O+ and N.

  4. Formation of tin-tin oxide core-shell nanoparticles in the composite SnO2-x/nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes by pulsed ion beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korusenko, P. M.; Nesov, S. N.; Bolotov, V. V.; Povoroznyuk, S. N.; Pushkarev, A. I.; Ivlev, K. E.; Smirnov, D. A.

    2017-03-01

    The complex methods of transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to investigate the changes in the morphology, phase composition, and electronic structure of the composite SnO2-x/nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (SnO2-x/N-MWCNTs) irradiated with the pulsed ion beam of nanosecond duration. The irradiation of the composite SnO2-x/N-MWCNTs leads to the formation of nanoparticles with the core-shell structure on the surface of CNTs with a sharp interfacial boundary. It has been established that the "core" is a metal tin (Sn0) with a typical size of 5-35 nm, and the "shell" is a thin amorphous layer (2-6 nm) consisting of nonstoichiometric tin oxide with a low oxygen content. The "core-shell" structure Snsbnd SnOx is formed due to the process of heating and evaporation of SnO2-x under the effect of the ion beam, followed by vapor deposition on the surface of carbon nanotubes.

  5. Dual ions implantation of zirconium and nitrogen into magnesium alloys for enhanced corrosion resistance, antimicrobial activity and biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Mengqi; Qiao, Yuqin; Wang, Qi; Qin, Hui; Zhang, Xianlong; Liu, Xuanyong

    2016-12-01

    Biodegradable magnesium-based alloys have shown great potential for medical applications due to their superior biological performances and mechanical properties. However, on one hand, some side effects including inferior biocompatibility, a local high-alkaline environment and gas cavities caused by a rapid corrosion rate, hinder their clinical application. On the other hand, it is also necessary to endow Mg alloys with antibacterial properties, which are crucial for clinic orthopedic applications. In this study, Zr and N ions are simultaneously implanted into AZ91 Mg alloys by plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII). A modified layer with a thickness of approximately 80nm is formed on the surface of AZ91 Mg alloys, and the hydrophobicity and roughness of these AZ91 Mg alloys obviously increase after Zr and N implantation. The in vitro evaluations including corrosion resistance tests, antimicrobial tests and cytocompatibility and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity tests, revealed that the dual ions implantation of Zr and N not only enhanced the corrosion resistance of the AZ91 Mg alloy but also provided better antimicrobial properties in vitro. Furthermore, the formation of biocompatible metal nitrides and metal oxides layer in the near surface of the Zr-N-implanted AZ91 Mg alloy provided a favorable implantation surface for cell adhesion and growth, which in return further promoted the bone formation in vivo. These promising results suggest that the Zr-N-implanted AZ91 Mg alloy shows potential for future application in the orthopedic field.

  6. Ion-pair formation of Bi(III)-iodide with some nitrogenous drugs and its application to pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Gawad, F M

    1998-01-01

    A systematic spectrophotometric study on the ion-pair formation of Bi(III)-iodide with amineptine hydrochloride, piribedil and trimebutine maleate is carried out. The optimal experimental conditions pH, concentration of Bi(III) nitrate, potassium iodide; and the nature and amount of organic solvent have been studied. The ion pairs are soluble in 1,2-dichloroethane and the optimum pH range is 2.0-2.8. By application of the methods of Sommer and Job involving non-equimolar solutions, the conditional stability constant (log K') of the Bi(III) piridedil ion pair (1:1) at the optimum pH of 2.4 and an ionic strength (mu) 0.1 M, was found to be 5.436. The validity of Beer's law has been tested in the concentration range 5-50 microg ml(-1) in the organic layer, the relative standard deviation is less than 1%. The method is applied to the determination of these drugs in tablets without interference.

  7. Recoil frame photoemission in multiphoton ionization of small polyatomic molecules: photodynamics of NO2 probed by 400 nm fs pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marggi Poullain, S.; Elkharrat, C.; Li, W. B.; Veyrinas, K.; Houver, J. C.; Cornaggia, C.; Rescigno, T. N.; Lucchese, R. R.; Dowek, D.

    2014-06-01

    We report a general method for the complete analysis of the recoil frame photoelectron angular distribution (RFPAD) in n-photon dissociative ionization of small polyatomic molecules, resulting from (n - 1) bound-to-bound transitions plus one-photon ionization of a neutral excited state of the target. This method relies on the decomposition of the RFPAD in terms of the R_K^{} ( {\\chi ,\\theta _e } ) recoil frame azimuthal harmonics (RFAHs) which are the components of its Fourier expansion in ϕe, where χ and θe are the polar angles referring to the polarization axis P and the photoelectron momentum k relative to the ion fragment recoil direction, respectively, and ϕe is the azimuth of k relative to P. The RFAH expansion method is illustrated by a detailed experimental and theoretical study of one-colour multiphoton dissociative and non-dissociative ionization of the NO2 molecule of C2v symmetry induced by 400 nm fs laser pulses, which involve electronic and nuclear dynamics within the pulse duration of the order of 70 fs. The reaction mechanism proposed to account for five-photon dissociative ionization of NO2 involves the role of [R*(6a1)-1] Rydberg states populated by three-photon absorption, subsequently ionized by a fourth photon into the NO2+ (X1Σg+, v1,v2,v3) manifold involving autoionization of [R*(4b2)-1] Rydberg states, and linear versus bent geometry selective dissociation of NO2+ (X1Σg+, v1,v2,v3) by a fifth photon. The reported calculations provide a coherent picture of the experimental findings although all features are not yet well reproduced.

  8. Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Low-Energy Recoil Events in ThO2, CeO2, and ZrO2

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Haiyan Y.; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2012-08-13

    Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of low-energy recoil events in ThO2, CeO2, and ZrO2 have been carried out to determine the threshold displacement energies, resulting defect configurations, dynamics of defect generation, and role of charge transfer during the process. The results reveal that, in most cases, these fluorite structure oxides exhibit a similar response to low-energy recoils. A variety of different defect configurations are created, consisting mainly of vacancies and interstitials. Charge transfer occurs during the dynamic displacement process. Local charge redistribution leads to cation and O vacancies being negatively and positively charged, respectively. Likewise, due to charge redistribution, the cation and O interstitials are less positively and negatively charged, respectively, than the ions on lattice sites in perfect MO2.

  9. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of low energy recoil events in ThO2, CeO2 and ZrO2

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Haiyan; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J

    2012-01-01

    Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of low energy recoil events in ThO2, CeO2 and ZrO2 have been carried out to determine the threshold displacement energies, resulting defect configurations, dynamics of defect generation, and role of charge transfer during the process. The results reveal that, in most cases, these fluorite structure oxides exhibit a similar response to low-energy recoils. A variety of different defect configurations are created, consisting mainly of vacancies and interstitials. Charge transfer occurs during the dynamic displacement process. Local charge redistribution leads to cation and O vacancies being negatively and positively charged, respectively. Likewise, due to charge redistribution, the cation and O interstitials are less positively and negatively charged, respectively, than the ions on lattice sites in perfect MO2.

  10. Exact calculations of nuclear-recoil energies from prompt gamma decays resulting from neutron capture

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, J.H.

    1981-07-20

    The results of an accurate determination of the recoil spectrum from (n, ..gamma..) reactions in molybdenum are presented. The recoil spectrum has been calculated from nuclear level structure data and measured branching ratios. Angular correlations between successive gammas have been accounted for using the standard theoretical techniques of Racah algebra and the density matrix formalism.

  11. Analytical calculation of radiative-recoil corrections to muonium hyperfine splitting: Muon-line contribution

    SciTech Connect

    Eides, M.I.; Karshenboim, S.G.; Shelyuto, V.A. )

    1991-02-01

    Analytic expression for radiative-recoil corrections to muonium ground-state hyperfine splitting induced by muon-line radiative insertions is obtained. This result completes the program of analytic calculation of all radiative-recoil corrections. The perspectives of further muonium hyperfine splitting investigations are also discussed.

  12. Beam suppression of the DRAGON recoil separator for 3He(α,γ)7Be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjue, S. K. L.; Nara Singh, B. S.; Adsley, P.; Buchmann, L.; Carmona-Gallardo, M.; Davids, B.; Fallis, J.; Fulton, B. R.; Galinski, N.; Hager, U.; Hass, M.; Howell, D.; Hutcheon, D. A.; Laird, A. M.; Martin, L.; Ottewell, D.; Reeve, S.; Ruiz, C.; Ruprecht, G.; Triambak, S.

    2013-02-01

    Preliminary studies in preparation for an absolute cross-section measurement of the radiative capture reaction 3He(α,γ)7Be with the DRAGON recoil separator have demonstrated beam suppression >1014 at the 90% confidence level. A measurement of this cross section by observation of 7Be recoils at the focal plane of the separator should be virtually background free.

  13. Optimal control of gun recoil in direct fire using magnetorheological absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Harinder J.; Wereley, Norman M.

    2014-05-01

    Optimal control of a gun recoil absorber is investigated for minimizing recoil loads and maximizing rate of fire. A multi-objective optimization problem was formulated by considering the mechanical model of the recoil absorber employing a spring and a magnetorheological (MR) damper. The damper forces are predicted by evaluating pressure drops using a nonlinear Bingham-plastic model. The optimization methodology provides multiple optimal design configurations with a trade-off between recoil load minimization and increased rate of fire. The configurations with low or high recoil loads imply low or high rate of fire, respectively. The gun recoil absorber performance is also analyzed for perturbations in the firing forces. The adaptive control of the MR damper for varying gun firing forces provides a smooth operation by returning the recoil mass to its battery position (ready to reload and fire) without incurring an end-stop impact. Furthermore, constant load transmissions are observed with respect to the recoil stroke by implementing optimal control during the simulated firing events.

  14. The mechanism of ion exchange and adsorption coexist on medium-low concentration ammonium-nitrogen removal by ion-exchange resin.

    PubMed

    Yunnen, Chen; Xiaoyan, Luo; Changshi, Xiong; Liming, Liang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the removal of medium-low concentration ammonium-nitrogen ([Formula: see text]) from waters and wastewaters on D113 resin was investigated with respect to pH, initial [Formula: see text] concentration, temperature and contact time. The equilibrium of [Formula: see text] on D113 resin reached in 20-30 min. The process of [Formula: see text] removal by D113 resin fitted Langmuir isotherm well. The pseudo second-order kinetic and intra-particle diffusion models were used to investigate the kinetic data of [Formula: see text] on D113 resin. The desorption solution can be returned to production after pretreatment. The mechanism of removal of [Formula: see text] by D113 resin was coexistence of adsorption and cation exchange. When the dosage of D113 resin was 5 g L(-1), pH 6, contact 30 min at room temperature, initial [Formula: see text] concentration being 116 mg L(-1) in rare earth metallurgical wastewater was reduced to 13 mg L(-1) after adsorption treatment.

  15. A Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer for Quantitative Analysis of Nitrogen-Purged Compartments within the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottens, Andrew K.; Griffin, Timothy P.; Helms, William R.; Yost, Richard A.; Steinrock, T. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    To enter orbit the Space Shuttle burns 1.8 million liters of liquid hydrogen combined with 0.8 million liters of liquid oxygen through three rocket engines mounted in the aft. NASA monitors the nitrogen-purged aft compartment for increased levels of hydrogen or oxygen in order to detect and determine the severity of a cryogenic fuel leak. Current monitoring is accomplished with a group of mass spectrometer systems located as much as 400 feet away from the shuttle. It can take up to 45 seconds for gas to reach the mass spectrometer, which precludes monitoring for leaks in the final moments before liftoff (the orbiter engines are started at T-00:06 seconds). To remedy the situation, NASA is developing a small rugged mass spectrometer to be used as point-sources around the Space Shuttle.

  16. Synthesis of Fe16N2 compound Free-Standing Foils with 20 MGOe Magnetic Energy Product by Nitrogen Ion-Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yanfeng; Mehedi, Md Al; Fu, Engang; Wang, Yongqiang; Allard, Lawrence F.; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Rare-earth-free magnets are highly demanded by clean and renewable energy industries because of the supply constraints and environmental issues. A promising permanent magnet should possess high remanent magnetic flux density (Br), large coercivity (Hc) and hence large maximum magnetic energy product ((BH)max). Fe16N2 has been emerging as one of promising candidates because of the redundancy of Fe and N on the earth, its large magnetocrystalline anisotropy (Ku > 1.0 × 107 erg/cc), and large saturation magnetization (4πMs > 2.4 T). However, there is no report on the formation of Fe16N2 magnet with high Br and large Hc in bulk format before. In this paper, we successfully synthesize free-standing Fe16N2 foils with a coercivity of up to 1910 Oe and a magnetic energy product of up to 20 MGOe at room temperature. Nitrogen ion implantation is used as an alternative nitriding approach with the benefit of tunable implantation energy and fluence. An integrated synthesis technique is developed, including a direct foil-substrate bonding step, an ion implantation step and a two-step post-annealing process. With the tunable capability of the ion implantation fluence and energy, a microstructure with grain size 25–30 nm is constructed on the FeN foil sample with the implantation fluence of 5 × 1017/cm2. PMID:27145983

  17. Comparative study on contribution of charge-transfer collision to excitations of iron ion between argon radio-frequency inductively-coupled plasma and nitrogen microwave induced plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Kozue; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes an ionization/excitation phenomenon of singly-ionized iron occurring in an Okamoto-cavity microwave induced plasma (MIP) as well as an argon radio-frequency inductively-coupled plasma (ICP), by comparing the Boltzmann distribution among iron ionic lines (Fe II) having a wide range of the excitation energy from 4.76 to 9.01 eV. It indicated in both the plasmas that plots of Fe II lines having lower excitation energies (4.76 to 5.88 eV) were fitted on each linear relationship, implying that their excitations were caused by a dominant thermal process such as collision with energetic electron. However, Fe II lines having higher excitation energies (more than 7.55 eV) had a different behavior from each other. In the ICP, Boltzmann plots of Fe II lines assigned to the higher excited levels also followed the normal Boltzmann relationship among the low-lying excited levels, even including a deviation from it in particular excited levels having an excitation energy of ca. 7.8 eV. This deviation can be attributed to a charge-transfer collision with argon ion, which results in the overpopulation of these excited levels, but the contribution is small. On the other hand, the distribution of the high-lying excited levels was non-thermal in the Okamoto-cavity MIP, which did not follow the normal Boltzmann relationship among the low-lying excited levels. A probable reason for the non-thermal characteristics in the MIP is that a charge-transfer collision with nitrogen molecule ion having many vibrational/rotational levels could work for populating the 3d64p (3d54s4p) excited levels of iron ion broadly over an energy range of 7.6-9.0 eV, while collisional excitation by energetic electron would occur insufficiently to excite these high-energy levels.

  18. Measurement of Nuclear Recoils in the CDMS II Dark Matter Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallows, Scott M.

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment is designed to directly detect elastic scatters of weakly-interacting massive dark matter particles (WIMPs), on target nuclei in semiconductor crystals composed of Si and Ge. These scatters would occur very rarely, in an overwhelming background composed primarily of electron recoils from photons and electrons, as well as a smaller but non-negligible background of WIMP-like nuclear recoils from neutrons. The CDMS~II generation of detectors simultaneously measure ionization and athermal phonon signals from each scatter, allowing discrimination against virtually all electron recoils in the detector bulk. Pulse-shape timing analysis allows discrimination against nearly all remaining electron recoils taking place near detector surfaces. Along with carefully limited neutron backgrounds, this experimental program allowed for "background-free'' operation of CDMS~II at Soudan, with less than one background event expected in each WIMP-search analysis. As a result, exclusionary upper-limits on WIMP-nucleon interaction cross section were placed over a wide range of candidate WIMP masses, ruling out large new regions of parameter space. These results, like any others, are subject to a variety of systematic effects that may alter their final interpretations. A primary focus of this dissertation will be difficulties in precisely calibrating the energy scale for nuclear recoil events like those from WIMPs. Nuclear recoils have suppressed ionization signals relative to electron recoils of the same recoil energy, so the response of the detectors is calibrated differently for each recoil type. The overall normalization and linearity of the energy scale for electron recoils in CDMS~II detectors is clearly established by peaks of known gamma energy in the ionization spectrum of calibration data from a 133Ba source. This electron-equivalent keVee) energy scale enables calibration of the total phonon signal (keVt) by enforcing unity

  19. The shape effect of space debris on recoil impulse by pulsed laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chenglin; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Kunpeng

    2016-10-01

    Removing space debris by high-energy pulsed laser may be the most effective way to mitigate the threat posed by the increasing space debris. Laser ablation of a thin surface layer causes recoil impulse, which will lower the orbit perigee of space debris and accelerate the atmospheric capture. When the laser beam vertically irradiates a flat debris, it requires a certain laser fluence to reach the optimal impulse coupling, and the recoil impulse is parallel to the laser beam. However, the incident laser fluence varies in different parts of a non-flat surface. We have taken the shape effect into account to propose a numerical method of calculating the recoil impulse. Taking cylinder debris as the target, we have compared the recoil impulse in different laser fluences through simulation experiments, which implies that a higher laser fluence than the optimal one is needed to obtain a larger recoil impulse for irregularly shaped space debris.

  20. Microstructure characteristics of steel M50 implanted with nitrogen by plasma-based ion implantation at elevated temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shuyan; Ma, Xinxin; Sun, Mingren; Sun, Yue; Yukimura, Ken

    2006-01-01

    Steel M50 was modified by plasma-based ion implantation (PBII) at different temperatures. The results of scanning electron microscope (SEM) indicate that PBII at elevated temperature can reduce both grain size of substrate and precipitates in the implanted layer and remove the network microstructure of carbides in the substrate. Glancing angle X-ray diffraction (GXRD) analysis indicates that the elevated temperature is in favor of the formation of nitrides. The diffraction peaks of nitrides are obvious when the temperature is higher than 300 °C with implantation voltage of 25 kV.

  1. Site-specific recoil-induced effects on inner-shell photoionization of linear triatomic molecules: N 1 s photoelectron spectra of N2 O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivosenko, Yu. S.; Pavlychev, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate hard X-ray ionization of linear triatomic molecules accenting recoil-induced effects on the dynamics of molecular frame. This dynamics is studied within the two-springs and harmonic approximations. The mode-channel relationship connecting the excitations of vibrational, rotational and translational degrees of freedom with the Σ → Σ and Σ → Π photoionization channels is applied to compute the N 1s-1 photoelectron spectra of molecular N2 O for various photon energies. The distinct ionized-site- and molecular-orientation-specific changes in the vibration structure of the 1 s photoelectron lines of terminal and central nitrogen atoms are revealed and discussed.

  2. A Study of Nuclear Recoils in Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber for the Direct Detection of WIMP Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Huajie

    2014-11-01

    Robust results of WIMP direct detection experiments depend on rm understandings of nuclear recoils in the detector media. This thesis documents the most comprehensive study to date on nuclear recoils in liquid argon - a strong candidate for the next generation multi-ton scale WIMP detectors. This study investigates both the energy partition from nuclear recoil energy to secondary modes (scintillation and ionization) and the pulse shape characteristics of scintillation from nuclear recoils.

  3. B{yields}D* at zero recoil revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Gambino, Paolo; Mannel, Thomas; Uraltsev, Nikolai

    2010-06-01

    We examine the B{yields}D* form factor at zero recoil using a continuum QCD approach rooted in the heavy quark sum rules framework. A refined evaluation of the radiative corrections as well as the most recent estimates of higher-order power terms together with more careful continuum calculation are included. An upper bound on the form factor of F(1) < or approx. 0.93 is derived, based on just the positivity of inelastic contributions. A model-independent estimate of the inelastic contributions shows they are quite significant, lowering the form factor by about 6% or more. This results in an unbiased estimate F(1){approx_equal}0.86 with about 3% uncertainty in the central value.

  4. Rejection of Electronic Recoils with the DMTPC Dark Matter Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, J. P.; Ahlen, S.; Battat, J.; Caldwell, T.; Chernicoff, M.; Deaconu, C.; Dujmic, D.; Dushkin, A.; Fedus, W.; Fisher, P.; Golub, F.; Henderson, S.; Inglis, A.; Kaboth, A.; Kohse, G.; Kirsch, L.; Lanza, R.; Lee, A.; Monroe, J.; Ouyang, H.; Sahin, T.; Sciolla, G.; Skvorodnev, N.; Tomita, H.; Wellenstein, H.; Wolfe, I.; Yamamoto, R.; Yegoryan, H.

    The Dark Matter Time Projection Chamber (DMTPC) collaboration is developing a low-pressure gas TPC for detecting WIMP-nucleon interactions. DMTPC detectors use optical readout with CCD cameras to search for the daily modulation of the directional signal of the dark matter wind. An analysis of several charge readout channels has been developed to obtain additional information about ionization events in the detector. In order to reach sensitivities required for the WIMP detection, the detector needs to minimize backgrounds from electron recoils. This article shows that by using the readout of charge signals in addition to CCD readout, a preliminary statistics-limited 90% C.L. upper limit on the γ and e- rejection factor of 5.6 × 10-6 is obtained for energies between 40 keVee and 200 keVee.

  5. Dielectric barrier structure with hollow electrodes and its recoil effect

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Shuang; Chen, Qunzhi; Liu, Jiahui; Wang, Kaile; Jiang, Zhe; Sun, Zhili; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2015-06-15

    A dielectric barrier structure with hollow electrodes (HEDBS), in which gas flow oriented parallel to the electric field, was proposed. Results showed that with this structure, air can be effectively ignited, forming atmospheric low temperature plasma, and the proposed HEDBS could achieve much higher electron density (5 × 10{sup 15}/cm{sup 3}). It was also found that the flow condition, including outlet diameter and flow rate, played a key role in the evolution of electron density. Optical emission spectroscopy diagnostic results showed that the concentration of reactive species had the same variation trend as the electron density. The simulated distribution of discharge gas flow indicated that the HEDBS had a strong recoil effect on discharge gas, and could efficiently promote generating electron density as well as reactive species.

  6. Kicked waveforms: prospects for direct detection of black hole recoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerosa, Davide; Moore, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Generic black hole binaries radiate gravitational waves anisotropically, imparting a recoil, or kick, velocity to the merger remnant. If a component of the kick along the line of sight is present, gravitational waves emitted during the final orbits and merger will be gradually Doppler shifted as the kick builds up. We develop a simple prescription to capture this effect in existing waveform models, showing that future gravitational wave experiments will be able to perform direct measurements, not only of the black hole kick velocity, but also of its accumulation profile. In particular, the eLISA space mission will measure supermassive black hole kick velocities as low as 500 km/s, which are expected to be a common outcome of black hole binary coalescence following galaxy mergers. Black hole kicks thus constitute a promising new observable in the growing field of gravitational wave astronomy. Einstein Fellow.

  7. Calibration of a compact magnetic proton recoil neutron spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianfu; Ouyang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xianpeng; Ruan, Jinlu; Zhang, Guoguang; Zhang, Xiaodong; Qiu, Suizheng; Chen, Liang; Liu, Jinliang; Song, Jiwen; Liu, Linyue; Yang, Shaohua

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic proton recoil (MPR) neutron spectrometer is considered as a powerful instrument to measure deuterium-tritium (DT) neutron spectrum, as it is currently used in inertial confinement fusion facilities and large Tokamak devices. The energy resolution (ER) and neutron detection efficiency (NDE) are the two most important parameters to characterize a neutron spectrometer. In this work, the ER calibration for the MPR spectrometer was performed by using the HI-13 tandem accelerator at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), and the NDE calibration was performed by using the neutron generator at CIAE. The specific calibration techniques used in this work and the associated accuracies were discussed in details in this paper. The calibration results were presented along with Monte Carlo simulation results.

  8. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Energetic Uranium Recoil Damage in Zircon

    SciTech Connect

    Devanathan, Ram; Corrales, Louis R.; Weber, William J.; Chartier, Alain; Meis, Constantin

    2006-10-11

    Defect production and amorphization due to energetic uranium recoils in zircon (ZrSiO4), which is a promising ceramic nuclear waste form, is studied using molecular dynamics simulations with a partial charge model. An algorithm that distinguishes between undamaged crystal, crystalline defects and amorphous regions is used to develop a fundamental understanding of the primary damage state. The amorphous cascade core is separated from the surrounding crystal by a defect-rich region. Small, chemically inhomogeneous amorphous clusters are also produced around the core. The amorphous regions consist of under-coordinated Zr and polymerized Si leading to amorphization and phase separation on a nanometer scale into Zr- and Si-rich regions. This separation could play an important role in the experimentally observed formation of nanoscale ZrO2 in ZrSiO4 irradiated at elevated temperatures.

  9. Study of nuclear recoils in liquid argon with monoenergetic neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regenfus, C.; Allkofer, Y.; Amsler, C.; Creus, W.; Ferella, A.; Rochet, J.; Walter, M.

    2012-07-01

    In the framework of developments for liquid argon dark matter detectors we assembled a laboratory setup to scatter neutrons on a small liquid argon target. The neutrons are produced mono-energetically (Ekin = 2.45 MeV) by nuclear fusion in a deuterium plasma and are collimated onto a 3" liquid argon cell operating in single-phase mode (zero electric field). Organic liquid scintillators are used to tag scattered neutrons and to provide a time-of-flight measurement. The setup is designed to study light pulse shapes and scintillation yields from nuclear and electronic recoils as well as from alpha particles at working points relevant for dark matter searches. Liquid argon offers the possibility to scrutinise scintillation yields in noble liquids with respect to the population strength of the two fundamental excimer states. Here we present experimental methods and first results from recent data towards such studies.

  10. Recoil Polarization for Delta Excitation in Pion Electroproduction

    SciTech Connect

    J. J. Kelly; R. E. Roche; Z. Chai; M. K. Jones; O. Gayou; A. J. Sarty; S. Frullani; K. Aniol; E. J. Beise; F. Benmokhtar; W. Bertozzi; W. U. Boeglin; T. Botto; E. J. Brash; H. Breuer; E. Brown; E. Burtin; J. R. Calarco; C. Cavata; C. C. Chang; N. S. Chant; J.-P. Chen; M. Coman; D. Crovelli; R. De Leo; S. Dieterich; S. Escoffier; K. G. Fissum; V. Garde; F. Garibaldi; S. Georgakopoulus; S. Gilad; R. Gilman; C. Glashausser; J.-O. Hansen; D. W. Higinbotham; A. Hotta; G. M. Huber; H. Ibrahim; M. Iodice; C. W. de Jager; X. Jiang; A. Klimenko; A. Kozlov; G. Kumbartzki; M. Kuss; L. Lagamba; G. Laveissiere; J. J. LeRose; R. A. Lindgren; N. Liyanage; G. J. Lolos; R. W. Lourie; D. J. Margaziotis; F. Marie; P. Markowitz; S. McAleer; D. Meekins; R. Michaels; B. D. Milbrath; J. Mitchell; J. Nappa; D. Neyret; C. F. Perdrisat; M. Potokar; V. A. Punjabi; T. Pussieux; R. D. Ransome; P. G. Roos; M. Rvachev; A. Saha; S. Sirca; R. Suleiman; S. Strauch; J. A. Templon; L. Todor; P. E. Ulmer; G. M. Urciuoli; L. B. Weinstein; K. Wijesooriya; B. Wojtsekhowski; X. Zheng; and L. Zhu

    2005-08-01

    We measured angular distributions of recoil-polarization response functions for neutral pion electroproduction for W=1.23 GeV at Q{sup 2}=1.0 (GeV/c){sup 2}, obtaining 14 separated response functions plus 2 Rosenbluth combinations; of these, 12 have been observed for the first time. Dynamical models do not describe quantities governed by imaginary parts of interference products well, indicating the need for adjusting magnitudes and phases for nonresonant amplitudes. We performed a nearly model-independent multipole analysis and obtained values for Re(S1+/M1+)=-(6.84+/-0.15)% and Re(E1+/M1+)=-(2.91+/-0.19)% that are distinctly different from those from the traditional Legendre analysis based upon M1+ dominance and sp truncation.

  11. Sub-barrier reactions measured using a recoil mass separator

    SciTech Connect

    Betts, R.R.

    1988-01-01

    Few data exist in the sub-barrier region for reaction channels other than fusion. In particular, our experimental knowledge of quasi-elastic transfer reactions is sparse, despite the belief that this particular channel may be dominant in determining some features of the sub-barrier fusion enhancement. Transfer reactions are governed primarily by the closet approach of the colliding nuclei which, at low energies, results in a strong backward peaking of the angular distribution in the center-of-mass frame. For situations where the projectile has a significant fraction of the target mass, as is so in most cases of interest, the backscattered projectile-like fragment has such low energy that the usual techniques of measurement and identification become invalid. Here, we report on a solution to this problem which allows a systematic study of many aspects of transfer reactions in the energy regime of interest. We exploit the fact that associated with the low-energy backscattered projectile-like fragment is a complementary target-like fragment which recoils to forward angles with a large fraction of the incident beam energy. These target-like fragments were detected and identified using the Daresbury Recoil Mass Separator thus allowing the measurement of quasi-elastic transfer over hitherto inaccessible energy range from the vicinity of the barrier to several tens of MeV below. The experiments described here used VYNi beams of energies ranging from 180 to 260 MeV provided by the Daresbury Laboratory Nuclear Structure Facility tandem accelerator. Data on sub-barrier transfer for targets of /sup 116,118,120,122,124/Sn and /sup 144,148,150,152,154/Sm were obtained. 16 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Nitrogen-doped 3D macroporous graphene frameworks as anode for high performance lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaowu; Wu, Ying; Yang, Zhenzhong; Pan, Fusen; Zhong, Xiongwu; Wang, Jiaqing; Gu, Lin; Yu, Yan

    2015-10-01

    Nitrogen-doped 3D graphene frameworks (N-3D GFs) were synthesized by a facile two-step method: Polystyrene (PS) encapsulated in graphene oxide (GO) composites (denoted as PS@GO) are first synthesized, followed by a post-thermal annealing in ammonia step to get N-doped 3D GFs. The resulting N-3D GFs inherit the advantages of graphene, which possesses high electrical conductivity and high specific surface area. Furthermore, the well-defined 3D interconnected structure can facilitate the access of the electrolyte to the electrode surface, thus shortening the diffusion length of both Li+/e-, keeping the overall electrode highly conductive and active in lithium storage. Simultaneously, the in-situ formation of pyridinic N and pyrrolic N in 3D GFs provide high electronic conductivity and structure stability for lithium storage. The designed N-3D GFs electrode delivers a high specific capacity of 1094 mAhg-1 after 100 cycles at 200 mAg-1 and superior rate capability (691 mAhg-1 after 500 cycles at 1000 mAg-1) when used as anode for LIBs. We believe that such an inherently inexpensive, scalable, facile method can significantly increase the feasibility of building high performance energy storage system.

  13. Production of 14 MeV neutrons by heavy ions

    DOEpatents

    Brugger, Robert M.; Miller, Lowell G.; Young, Robert C.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to a neutron generator and a method for the production of 14 MeV neutrons. Heavy ions are accelerated to impinge upon a target mixture of deuterium and tritium to produce recoil atoms of deuterium and tritium. These recoil atoms have a sufficient energy such that they interact with other atoms of tritium or deuterium in the target mixture to produce approximately 14 MeV neutrons.

  14. Effect of nitrogen ion implantation on corrosion inhibition of nickel coated 316 stainless steel and correlation with nano-structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grayeli-Korpi, Ali-Reza; Savaloni, Hadi

    2012-10-01

    The influence of implantation of N+ with 20 keV energy and different fluences in the range of 1 × 1017 and 5 × 1018 ions/cm2 in the nickel coated type 316 stainless steel (SS) on the corrosion inhibition of SS in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution is investigated. The highest available N+ fluence showed highest corrosion inhibition. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed formation of nickel nitride phases that enhanced by increasing the N+ fluence. Surface morphology was studied by atomic force microscope (AFM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) before and after corrosion test, respectively. AFM results showed that by increasing N+ fluence surface of the sample becomes smoother that may be the result of heat accumulation during implantation causing higher rate of diffusion in the sample.

  15. Comparative study of comprehensive gas chromatography-nitrogen chemiluminescence detection and gas chromatography-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry for determining nicotine and carcinogen organic nitrogen compounds in thirdhand tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Noelia; Vallecillos, Laura; Lewis, Alastair C; Borrull, Francesc; Marcé, Rosa M; Hamilton, Jacqueline F

    2015-12-24

    Thirdhand tobacco smoke (THS) constitutes a poorly understood pathway of exposure of non-smokers, especially toddlers, to tobacco-related carcinogens. However, to date most of the carcinogens present in tobacco smoke have not been detected in THS and, therefore, the significance of THS health risk is still unknown. In this study, we have compared the performance of two analytical methods - one based on gas chromatography coupled to ion trap mass spectrometry detection (GC-IT-MS) and the other on comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to a nitrogen chemiluminescence detector (GC×GC-NCD) - for simultaneously determining, in settled house dust, the presence of 16 organic nitrogen carcinogens already detected in tobacco smoke. The target compounds included four aromatic amines, two nitrocompounds, eight N-nitrosamines and two tobacco-specific nitrosamines, as well as nicotine as a tobacco marker. Dust samples were extracted using in-cell clean up pressurized liquid extraction with silica as clean up sorbent and ethyl acetate as the organic solvent, with average recovery of 89%. Although GC-IT-MS, using chemical ionization with methanol and tandem MS, performed well, the optimized GC×GC-NCD gave lower limits of detection (from 4 to 22ngg(-1)) and better repeatability and reproducibility a low concentration levels (%RSD<8%) and, therefore, was applicable for determining these different groups of carcinogens without the need for derivatization prior to the GC analysis. The performance of the optimized PLE/GC×GC-NCD method was tested by quantifying the target compounds in house dust samples from smokers' and non-smokers' homes. The median carcinogen compounds detected was 3.8μgg(-1) and 1.1μgg(-1) in smokers' and non-smokers' house dust, respectively. In this study, we have detected highly carcinogenic aromatic amines and nitro compounds for the first time in settled house dust complementing the state of knowledge of THS composition and providing

  16. Single photon simultaneous K-shell ionization and K-shell excitation. II. Specificities of hollow nitrogen molecular ions

    SciTech Connect

    Carniato, S. Selles, P.; Andric, L.; Palaudoux, J.; Penent, F.; Lablanquie, P.; Žitnik, M.; Bučar, K.; Nakano, M.; Hikosaka, Y.; Ito, K.

    2015-01-07

    The formalism developed in the companion Paper I is used here for the interpretation of spectra obtained recently on the nitrogen molecule. Double core-hole ionization K{sup −2} and core ionization-core excitation K{sup −2}V processes have been observed by coincidence electron spectroscopy after ionization by synchrotron radiation at different photon energies. Theoretical and experimental cross sections reported on an absolute scale are in satisfactory agreement. The evolution with photon energy of the relative contribution of shake-up and conjugate shake-up processes is discussed. The first main resonance in the K{sup −2}V spectrum is assigned to a K{sup −2}π{sup ∗} state mainly populated by the 1s→ lowest unoccupied molecular orbital dipolar excitation, as it is in the K{sup −1}V NEXAFS (Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure) signals. Closer to the K{sup −2} threshold Rydberg resonances have been also identified, and among them a K{sup −2}σ{sup ∗} resonance characterized by a large amount of 2s/2p hybridization, and double K{sup −2}(2σ{sup ∗}/1π/3σ){sup −1}1π{sup ∗2} shake-up states. These resonances correspond in NEXAFS spectra to, respectively, the well-known σ{sup ∗} shape resonance and double excitation K{sup −1}(2σ{sup ∗}/1π/3σ){sup −1}1π{sup ∗2} resonances, all being positioned above the threshold.

  17. Observation of covalent and electrostatic bonds in nitrogen-containing polycyclic ions formed by gas phase reactions of the benzene radical cation with pyrimidine.

    PubMed

    Attah, Isaac Kwame; Soliman, Abdel-Rahman; Platt, Sean P; Meot-Ner Mautner, Michael; Aziz, Saaudallah G; Samy El-Shall, M

    2017-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polycyclic aromatic nitrogen heterocyclics (PANHs) are present in ionizing environments, including interstellar clouds and solar nebulae, where their ions can interact with neutral PAH and PANH molecules leading to the formation of a variety of complex organics including large N-containing ions. Herein, we report on the formation of a covalently-bonded (benzene·pyrimidine) radical cation dimer by the gas phase reaction of pyrimidine with the benzene radical cation at room temperature using the mass-selected ion mobility technique. No ligand exchange reactions with benzene and pyrimidine are observed indicating that the binding energy of the (benzene·pyrimidine)˙(+) adduct is significantly higher than both the benzene dimer cation and the proton-bound pyrimidine dimer. The (benzene·pyrimidine)˙(+) adduct shows thermal stability up to 541 K. Thermal dissociation of the (C6D6·C4H4N2)˙(+) adduct at temperatures higher than 500 K produces C4H4N2D(+) (m/z 82) suggesting the transfer of a D atom from the C6D6 moiety to the C4H4N2 moiety before the dissociation of the adduct. Mass-selected ion mobility of the (benzene·pyrimidine)˙(+) dimer reveals the presence of two families of isomers formed by electron impact ionization of the neutral (benzene·pyrimidine) dimer. The slower mobility peak corresponds to a non-covalent family of isomers with larger collision cross sections (76.0 ± 1.8 Å(2)) and the faster peak is consistent with a family of covalent isomers with more compact structures and smaller collision cross sections (67.7 ± 2.2 Å(2)). The mobility measurements at 509 K show only one peak corresponding to the family of stable covalently bonded isomers characterized by smaller collision cross sections (66.9 ± 1.9 Å(2) at 509 K). DFT calculations at the M06-2X/6-311++G** level show that the most stable (benzene·pyrimidine)˙(+) isomer forms a covalent C-N bond with a binding energy of 49.7 kcal mol(-1) and a

  18. A Novel method for modeling the recoil in W boson events at hadron collider

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich; Abbott, Braden Keim; Abolins, Maris A.; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath; Adams, Mark Raymond; Adams, Todd; Aguilo, Ernest; Ahsan, Mahsana; Alexeev, Guennadi D.; Alkhazov, Georgiy D.; Alton, Andrew K.; /Michigan U. /Augustana Coll., Sioux Falls /Northeastern U.

    2009-07-01

    We present a new method for modeling the hadronic recoil in W {yields} {ell}{nu} events produced at hadron colliders. The recoil is chosen from a library of recoils in Z {yields} {ell}{ell} data events and overlaid on a simulated W {yields} {ell}{nu} event. Implementation of this method requires that the data recoil library describe the properties of the measured recoil as a function of the true, rather than the measured, transverse momentum of the boson. We address this issue using a multidimensional Bayesian unfolding technique. We estimate the statistical and systematic uncertainties from this method for the W boson mass and width measurements assuming 1 fb{sup -1} of data from the Fermilab Tevatron. The uncertainties are found to be small and comparable to those of a more traditional parameterized recoil model. For the high precision measurements that will be possible with data from Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron and from the CERN LHC, the method presented in this paper may be advantageous, since it does not require an understanding of the measured recoil from first principles.

  19. Plasma Time in Discriminating Nuclear Recoils in Germanium Detector for Dark Matter Searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Dongming; Barker, D'ann

    2012-10-01

    In the detection of WIMP-induced nuclear recoils with high-purity germanium detectors, CDMS-type bolometers are often used in measuring the ionization yield. For this technology, the detector is operated in the milli-Kelvin temperature range, which requires high priced detectors. Alternative electron/nuclear recoil discrimination using pulse shape has been widely utilized in the energy range of MeV in neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments with germanium detectors. However, the nuclear recoils induced by WIMPs are in the energy range of keV, and their pulse shape difference with electronic recoils in the same energy range has not proven to be visible in a commercially available germanium detector. This paper presents a new idea of using plasma time difference in pulse shape to discriminate nuclear recoils from electronic recoils. We show the plasma time difference as a function of nuclear recoil energy. The technique using plasma time will be discussed with a generic germanium detector.

  20. First-excited state g factor of 136Te by the recoil in vacuum method

    DOE PAGES

    Danchev, M.; Stone, N. J.; Stuchberry, A. E.; ...

    2017-07-01

    The g factor of the first 2+ state of radioactive 136 Te with two valence protons and two valence neutrons beyond double-magic 132Sn has been measured by the recoil in vacuum (RIV) method. The lifetime of this state is an order of magnitude longer than the lifetimes of excited states recently measured by the RIV method in Sn and Te isotopes, requiring a new evaluation of the free-ion hyperfine interactions and methodology used to determine the g factor. The calibration data are reported and the analysis procedures are described in detail. The resultant g factor has a similar magnitude tomore » the g factors of other nuclei with an equal number of valence protons and neutrons in the major shell. However, an unexpected trend is found in the g factors of the N = 84 isotones, which decrease from 136Te to 144Nd. Shell model calculations with interactions derived from the CD Bonn potential show good agreement with the g factors and E2 transition rates of 2+ states around 132Sn, confirming earlier indications that 132Sn is a good doubly magic core.« less