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Sample records for nitroimidazole hypoxia marker

  1. Targeting tumor hypoxia with 2-nitroimidazole-indocyanine green dye conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan; Zanganeh, Saeid; Mohammad, Innus; Aguirre, Andres; Wang, Tianheng; Yang, Yi; Kuhn, Liisa; Smith, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Tumor hypoxia is a major indicator of treatment resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs, and fluorescence optical tomography has tremendous potential to provide clinically useful, functional information by identifying tumor hypoxia. The synthesis of a 2-nitroimidazole-indocyanine green conjugate using a piperazine linker (piperazine-2-nitroimidazole-ICG) capable of robust fluorescent imaging of tumor hypoxia is described. In vivo mouse tumor imaging studies were completed and demonstrate an improved imaging capability of the new dye relative to an earlier version of the dye that was synthesized with an ethanolamine linker (ethanolamine-2-nitroimidazole-ICG). Mouse tumors located at imaging depths of 1.5 and 2.0 cm in a turbid medium were imaged at various time points after intravenous injection of the dyes. On average, the reconstructed maximum fluorescence concentration of the tumors injected with piperazine-2-nitroimidazole-ICG was twofold higher than that injected with ethanolamine-2-nitroimidazole-ICG within 3 h postinjection period and 1.6 to 1.7 times higher beyond 3 h postinjection. The untargeted bis-carboxylic acid ICG completely washed out after 3 h postinjection. Thus, the optimal window to assess tumor hypoxia is beyond 3 h postinjection. These findings were supported with fluorescence images of histological sections of tumor samples and an immunohistochemistry technique for identifying tumor hypoxia. PMID:23764695

  2. Targeting tumor hypoxia with 2-nitroimidazole-indocyanine green dye conjugates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yan; Zanganeh, Saeid; Mohammad, Innus; Aguirre, Andres; Wang, Tianheng; Yang, Yi; Kuhn, Liisa; Smith, Michael B.; Zhu, Quing

    2013-06-01

    Tumor hypoxia is a major indicator of treatment resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs, and fluorescence optical tomography has tremendous potential to provide clinically useful, functional information by identifying tumor hypoxia. The synthesis of a 2-nitroimidazole-indocyanine green conjugate using a piperazine linker (piperazine-2-nitroimidazole-ICG) capable of robust fluorescent imaging of tumor hypoxia is described. In vivo mouse tumor imaging studies were completed and demonstrate an improved imaging capability of the new dye relative to an earlier version of the dye that was synthesized with an ethanolamine linker (ethanolamine-2-nitroimidazole-ICG). Mouse tumors located at imaging depths of 1.5 and 2.0 cm in a turbid medium were imaged at various time points after intravenous injection of the dyes. On average, the reconstructed maximum fluorescence concentration of the tumors injected with piperazine-2-nitroimidazole-ICG was twofold higher than that injected with ethanolamine-2-nitroimidazole-ICG within 3 h postinjection period and 1.6 to 1.7 times higher beyond 3 h postinjection. The untargeted bis-carboxylic acid ICG completely washed out after 3 h postinjection. Thus, the optimal window to assess tumor hypoxia is beyond 3 h postinjection. These findings were supported with fluorescence images of histological sections of tumor samples and an immunohistochemistry technique for identifying tumor hypoxia.

  3. Development of (68)Ga-labeled multivalent nitroimidazole derivatives for hypoxia imaging.

    PubMed

    Seelam, Sudhakara Reddy; Lee, Ji Youn; Lee, Yun-Sang; Hong, Mi Kyung; Kim, Young Joo; Banka, Vinay Kumar; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June-Key; Jeong, Jae Min

    2015-12-15

    Radiolabeled nitroimidazole (NI) derivatives have been extensively studied for imaging hypoxia. To increase the hypoxic tissue uptake, we developed (68)Ga-labeled agents based on mono-, bis-, and trisnitroimidazole conjugates with the chelating agent 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-tris[methyl(2-carboxyethyl)phosphinic acid] (TRAP). All the three agents showed high radiolabeling yields (>96%) and were found to be stable up to 4h in prepared medium at room temperature and in human serum at 37°C. The trivalent agent showed a significant increase in hypoxic to normoxic uptake ratio (p <0.005) according to the in vitro cell uptake experiments. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the presence of hypoxia in xenografted CT26 tumor tissue. The trivalent derivative ((68)Ga-3: 0.17±0.04, (68)Ga-4: 0.33±0.04, (68)Ga-5: 0.45±0.09, and (68)Ga-6: 0.47±0.05% ID/g) showed the highest uptake by tumor cells according to the biodistribution studies in CT-26 xenografted mice. All the nitroimidazole derivatives showed significantly higher uptake by tumor cells than the control agent (p <0.05) at 1h post-injection. The trivalent derivative ((68)Ga-3: 0.10±0.06; (68)Ga-4: 0.20±0.06; (68)Ga-5: 0.33±0.08; (68)Ga-6: 0.59±0.09) also showed the highest standard uptake value for tumor cells at 1h post-injection in animal PET studies using CT-26 xenografted mice. In conclusion, we successfully synthesized multivalent (68)Ga-labeled NI derivatives for imaging hypoxia. Among them, the trivalent agent showed the highest tumor uptake in biodistribution and animal PET studies.

  4. [(68) Ga]-HP-DO3A-nitroimidazole: a promising agent for PET detection of tumor hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yunkou; Hao, Guiyang; Ramezani, Saleh; Saha, Debabrata; Zhao, Dawen; Sun, Xiankai; Sherry, A Dean

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate a new (68) Ga-based imaging agent for detecting tumor hypoxia using positron emission tomography (PET). The new hypoxia targeting agent reported here, [(68) Ga]-HP-DO3A-nitroimidazole ([(68) Ga]-HP-DO3A-NI), was constructed by linking a nitroimidazole moiety with the macrocyclic ligand component of ProHance®, HP-DO3A. The hypoxia targeting capability of this agent was evaluated in A549 lung cancer cells in vitro and in SCID mice bearing subcutaneous A549 tumor xenografts. The cellular uptake assays showed that significantly more [(68) Ga]-HP-DO3A-NI accumulates in hypoxic tumor cells at 30, 60 and 120 min than in the same cells exposed to 21% O2 . The agent also accumulated in hypoxic tumors in vivo to give a tumor/muscle ratio (T/M) of 5.0 ± 1.2 (n = 3) as measured by PET at 2 h post-injection (p.i.). This was further confirmed by ex vivo biodistribution data. In addition, [(68) Ga]-HP-DO3A-NI displayed very favorable pharmacokinetic properties, as it was cleared largely through the kidneys with little to no accumulation in liver, heart or lung (%ID/g < 0.5%) at 2 h p.i. The specificity of the agent for hypoxic tissues was further validated in a comparative study with a control compound, [(68) Ga]-HP-DO3A, which lacks the nitroimidazole moiety, and by PET imaging of tumor-bearing mice breathing air versus 100% O2 . Given the commercial availability of cGMP (68) Ge/(68) Ga generators and the ease of (68) Ga labeling, the new agent could potentially be widely applied for imaging tumor hypoxia prior to radiation therapy.

  5. In vivo click reaction between Tc-99m-labeled azadibenzocyclooctyne-MAMA and 2-nitroimidazole-azide for tumor hypoxia targeting.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenjing; Chu, Taiwei

    2015-10-15

    The bioactivity of nitroimidazole in Tc-99m-labeled 2-nitroimidazole, a traditional solid tumor hypoxia-imaging agent for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), is reduced by the presence of large ligand and metallic radionuclide, exhibiting lower tumor-to-nontumor ratios. In an effort to solve this general problem, a pretargeting strategy based on click chemistry (strain-promoted cyclooctyne-azide cycloaddition) was applied. The functional click synthons were synthesized as pretargeting components: an azide group linked to 2-nitroimidazole (2NIM-Az) serves for tumor hypoxia-targeting and azadibenzocyclooctyne conjugated with monoamine monoamide dithiol ligand (AM) functions as radiolabeling and binding group to azides in vivo. 2NIM-triazole-MAMA was obtained from in vitro click reaction with a reaction rate constant of 0.98M(-1)s(-1). AM and 2NIM-triazole-MAMA were radiolabeled with Tc-99m. The hypoxia-pretargeting biodistribution was studied in Kunming mice bearing S180 tumor; (99m)Tc-AM and (99m)Tc-triazole-2NIM were used as blank control and conventional control. Compared to the control groups, the pretargeting experiment exhibits the best radio-uptake and retention in tumor, with higher tumor-to-muscle and tumor-to-blood ratios (up to 8.55 and 1.44 at 8h post-(99m)Tc-complex-injection, respectively). To some extent, the pretargeting strategy protects the bioactivity of nitroimidazole and therefore provides an innovative approach for the development of tumor hypoxia-SPECT imaging agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of 6-(nitroimidazole-1H-alkyloxyl)-4-anilinoquinazolines as efficient EGFR inhibitors exerting cytotoxic effects both under normoxia and hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Weiyan; Zhu, Shijun; Ma, Xiaodong; Qiu, Ni; Peng, Peng; Sheng, Rong; Hu, Yongzhou

    2015-01-07

    A series of novel 6-(nitroimidazole-1H-alkyloxyl)-4-anilinoquinazoline derivatives (15a-15r) were designed, synthesized and evaluated as efficient EGFR inhibitors through introduction of hypoxia activated nitroimidazole moiety into the quinazoline scaffold of EGFR inhibitors. The majority of these newly synthesized compounds exhibited comparable EGFR inhibitory activities to gefitinib and moderate to excellent anti-proliferative activities against HT-29 cells under normoxia and hypoxia. The most promising compound 15c displayed the IC50 value of 0.47 nM against EGFR kinase and excellent cytotoxic effect against HT-29 cells under normoxia and hypoxia with the IC50 values of 2.21 μM and 1.62 μM, respectively. The mimic reductive activation study revealed that compound 15c exerted reductive activation properties under hypoxia, which were consistent with the in vitro metabolic study, wherein 15c was easily reductive activated under hypoxia and much more stable under normoxia. All these results suggested that 15c was a potential cancer therapeutic agent both under normoxia and hypoxia and was worth of further development. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. A nitroimidazole derivative, PR-350, enhances the killing of pancreatic cancer cells exposed to high-dose irradiation under hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Mizumoto, Kazuhiro; Qian, Li-Wu; Zhang, Li; Nagai, Eishi; Kura, Shinobu; Tanaka, Masao

    2002-03-01

    The radiosensitizing effects of PR-350, a nitroimidazole derivative, were examined concerning the cell killing of human pancreatic cancer cell lines exposed to high doses of gamma-ray irradiation in vitro. The percentages of dead cells were analyzed with a multiwell plate reader to measure the fluorescence intensity of propidium iodide before and after a digitonin treatment. The sensitizing effect of PR-350 on cell killing by high-dose irradiation was confirmed by time-course, dose-dependency, and microscopic observations. In five of seven pancreatic cancer cell lines in which the number of dead cells was determined 5 days after 30 Gy irradiation in the presence of PR-350, the number was significantly increased under hypoxic conditions, but not under aerobic conditions. The selective radiosensitive effect of PR-350 on hypoxic cells was also confirmed by flow cytometry. The results indicate that PR-350 can enhance the killing of pancreatic cancer cells by high-dose irradiation under hypoxia, which supports its clinical radiosensitizing effects when administered during intraoperative irradiation to pancreatic cancer.

  8. Imaging Mass Spectrometry Revealed the Accumulation Characteristics of the 2-Nitroimidazole-Based Agent “Pimonidazole” in Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Yoshioka, Takeshi; Feng, Fei; Zhao, Songji; Higashino, Kenichi; Numata, Yoshito; Kuge, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia, or low oxygen concentration, is a key factor promoting tumor progression and angiogenesis and resistance of cancer to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. 2-Nitroimidazole-based agents have been widely used in pathological and nuclear medicine examinations to detect hypoxic regions in tumors; in particular, pimonidazole is used for histochemical staining of hypoxic regions. It is considered to accumulate in hypoxic cells via covalent binding with macromolecules or by forming reductive metabolites after reduction of its nitro group. However, the detailed mechanism of its accumulation remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the accumulation mechanism of pimonidazole in hypoxic tumor tissues in a mouse model by mass spectrometric analyses including imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). Pimonidazole and its reductive metabolites were observed in the tumor tissues. However, their locations in the tumor sections were not similar to the positively stained areas in pimonidazole-immunohistochemistry, an area considered hypoxic. The glutathione conjugate of reduced pimonidazole, a low-molecular-weight metabolite of pimonidazole, was found in tumor tissues by LC-MS analysis, and our IMS study determined that the intratumor localization of the glutathione conjugate was consistent with the area positively immunostained for pimonidazole. We also found complementary localization of the glutathione conjugate and reduced glutathione (GSH), implying that formation of the glutathione conjugate occurred in the tumor tissue. These results suggest that in hypoxic tumor cells, pimonidazole is reduced at its nitro group, followed by conjugation with GSH. PMID:27580239

  9. Imaging Mass Spectrometry Revealed the Accumulation Characteristics of the 2-Nitroimidazole-Based Agent "Pimonidazole" in Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Masaki, Yukiko; Shimizu, Yoichi; Yoshioka, Takeshi; Feng, Fei; Zhao, Songji; Higashino, Kenichi; Numata, Yoshito; Kuge, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia, or low oxygen concentration, is a key factor promoting tumor progression and angiogenesis and resistance of cancer to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. 2-Nitroimidazole-based agents have been widely used in pathological and nuclear medicine examinations to detect hypoxic regions in tumors; in particular, pimonidazole is used for histochemical staining of hypoxic regions. It is considered to accumulate in hypoxic cells via covalent binding with macromolecules or by forming reductive metabolites after reduction of its nitro group. However, the detailed mechanism of its accumulation remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the accumulation mechanism of pimonidazole in hypoxic tumor tissues in a mouse model by mass spectrometric analyses including imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). Pimonidazole and its reductive metabolites were observed in the tumor tissues. However, their locations in the tumor sections were not similar to the positively stained areas in pimonidazole-immunohistochemistry, an area considered hypoxic. The glutathione conjugate of reduced pimonidazole, a low-molecular-weight metabolite of pimonidazole, was found in tumor tissues by LC-MS analysis, and our IMS study determined that the intratumor localization of the glutathione conjugate was consistent with the area positively immunostained for pimonidazole. We also found complementary localization of the glutathione conjugate and reduced glutathione (GSH), implying that formation of the glutathione conjugate occurred in the tumor tissue. These results suggest that in hypoxic tumor cells, pimonidazole is reduced at its nitro group, followed by conjugation with GSH.

  10. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of a New Nitroimidazole-99mTc-Complex for Imaging of Hypoxia in Mice Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Qing; Guan, Yanxing; Liu, Shaozheng; Chen, Qingjie; Li, Xiangmin

    2016-01-01

    Background This study was specifically designed to develop a new 99mTc compound with 3-amino-4-[2-(2-methyl-5-nitro-1H-imidazol)-ethylamino]-4-oxo-butyrate (5-ntm-asp) and to verify whether this compound is feasible to be a radiopharmaceutical for hypoxic tumors. Material/Methods Metronidazole derivative 5-ntm-asp was synthesized and then radio-labeled by Na [99mTcO4], forming 99mTc-5-ntm-asp. Another two complexes of 99mTc-2- and 99mTc-5-nitroimidazole-iminodiacetic acid (99mTc-2-ntm-IDA and 99mTc-5-ntm-IDA) were also synthesized based on previous studies. Physicochemical properties (stability, lipophilicity, protein binding) of the compounds were compared, and we also assessed the accumulation status of the compounds within A549 cells under both hypoxic and aerobic conditions. Distribution of the complex was also studied in vivo using BALB/c nude mice that were injected with A549 cells. Results Compared with 99mTc-2-ntm-IDA and 99mTc-5-ntm-IDA, 99mTc-5-ntm-asp was more stable in both phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) buffer and human plasma (P<0.05). Besides that, 99mTc-5-ntm-asp offered lower lipophilicity and protein-binding rate than the two complexes (P<0.05). During assessment of hypoxic uptake status and high hypoxic/aerobic ratio in mice injected with A549 cells, 99mTc-5-ntm-asp exhibited a more favorable profile than 9mTc-2-ntm-IDA and 99mTc-5-ntm-IDA, including uptake ratio of tumor/blood and uptake ratio of tumor/muscle. Conclusions With overall consideration of physicochemical properties and biological uptake behavior, it is feasible to use 99mTc-5-ntm-asp as an imaging agent for tumor hypoxia. PMID:27752036

  11. Bioreductive metabolism of AF-2[2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)acrylamide] combined with 2-nitroimidazoles. Implications for use as hypoxic cell markers.

    PubMed

    Koch, C J; Giandomenico, A R; Iyengar, C W

    1993-09-14

    Metabolism of misonidazole under hypoxic conditions depletes the parent drug and causes about 4% of the reduced-drug-products to form adducts with cellular macromolecules (binding), and this process has been used to detect hypoxia in cells and tissues. The nitrofuran, AF-2 [2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)acrylamide] has been shown to increase both the metabolic depletion of misonidazole and its binding. In the present study, factors which might affect this process have been examined, in an in vitro system, to test the hypothesis that metabolic depletion of misonidazole could limit its ability to diffuse freely to the hypoxic cell population. Drastic reductions in glucose concentrations from their normal value of 5-10 mM to less than 0.5 mM had no significant effect on the metabolism of either misonidazole or AF-2. Similarly, glucose concentration did not influence the binding of misonidazole, even when concentrations of both oxygen (extreme hypoxia) and glucose were near zero--a very toxic biochemical environment. Similarly, the metabolism of the nitroheterocyclics had no effect on glucose consumption. The bioreductive depletion of misonidazole in extreme hypoxia appeared to be independent of drug concentration between 25 and 100 microM: this nearly zero-order rate of drug metabolism prevented the possibility of working at constant drug concentration. AF-2 exacerbated this effect by greatly enhancing the metabolic depletion of misonidazole. AF-2 was found to increase both the metabolic depletion and binding of misonidazole by the same factor. An unexpected finding was that metabolism of etanidazole, a 2-nitroimidazole closely related to misonidazole, was not enhanced by AF-2. Micromolar amounts of oxygen inhibited the reductive activation of AF-2, and also the interaction between AF-2 and misonidazole. Our results suggest that metabolic depletion of nitroheterocyclics could influence their ability to diffuse adequately to hypoxic tissues, particularly at the low

  12. Noninvasive molecular imaging of hypoxia in human xenografts: comparing hypoxia-induced gene expression with endogenous and exogenous hypoxia markers.

    PubMed

    He, Fuqiu; Deng, Xuelong; Wen, Bixiu; Liu, Yueping; Sun, Xiaorong; Xing, Ligang; Minami, Akiko; Huang, Yunhong; Chen, Qing; Zanzonico, Pat B; Ling, C Clifton; Li, Gloria C

    2008-10-15

    Tumor hypoxia is important in the development and treatment of human cancers. We have developed a novel xenograft model for studying and imaging of hypoxia-induced gene expression. A hypoxia-inducible dual reporter herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase and enhanced green fluorescence protein (HSV1-TKeGFP), under the control of hypoxia response element (9HRE), was stably transfected into human colorectal HT29 cancer cells. Selected clones were further enriched by repeated live cell sorting gated for hypoxia-induced eGFP expression. Fluorescent microscopy, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and radioactive substrate trapping assays showed strong hypoxia-induced expression of eGFP and HSV1-tk enzyme in the HT29-9HRE cells in vitro. Sequential micropositron emission tomography (PET) imaging of tumor-bearing animals, using the hypoxic cell tracer (18)F-FMISO and the reporter substrate (124)I-FIAU, yielded similar tumor hypoxia images for the HT29-9HRE xenograft but not in the parental HT29 tumor. Using autoradiography and IHC, detailed spatial distributions in tumor sections were obtained and compared for the following hypoxia-associated biomarkers in the HT29-9HRE xenograft: (124)I-FIAU, (18)F-FMISO, Hoechst (perfusion), lectin-TRITC (functional blood vessels), eGFP, pimonidazole, EF5, and CA9. Intratumoral distributions of (124)I-FIAU and (18)F-FMISO were similar, and eGFP, pimonidazole, EF5, and CA9 colocalized in the same areas but not in well-perfused regions that were positive for Hoechst and lectin-TRITC. In enabling the detection of hypoxia-induced molecular events and mapping their distribution in vivo with serial noninvasive positron emission tomography imaging, and multiple variable analysis with immunohistochemistry and fluorescence microscopy, this human xenograft model provides a valuable tool for studying tumor hypoxia and in validating existing and future exogenous markers for tumor hypoxia.

  13. Preliminary research on 1-(4-bromo-2-nitroimidazol-1-yl)-3-[(18)F]fluoropropan-2-ol as a novel brain hypoxia PET tracer in a rodent model of stroke.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Elena; Delgado, Mercedes; Sobrado, Mónica; de Ceballos, María L; Alajarín, Ramón; García-García, Luis; Kelly, James; Lizasoain, Ignacio; Pozo, Miguel A; Álvarez-Builla, Julio

    2015-08-28

    The synthesis of the new radiotracer precursor 4-Br-NITTP and the radiolabeling of the new tracer 1-(4-bromo-2-nitroimidazol-1-yl)-3-[(18)F]fluoropropan-2-ol (4-Br-[(18)F]FMISO) is reported. The cyclic voltammetry behaviour, neuronal cell toxicity, transport through the brain endothelial cell monolayer, in vivo PET imaging and preliminary calculations of the tracer uptake for a rodent model of stroke were studied for the new compound and the results were compared to those obtained with [(18)F]FMISO, the current gold standard PET hypoxia tracer. The new PET brain hypoxia tracer is more easily reduced, has higher CLogP than [(18)F]FMISO and it diffuses more rapidly through brain endothelial cells. The new compound is non-toxic to neuronal cells and it allows the in vivo mapping of stroke in mice with higher sensitivity. 4-Br-[(18)F]FMISO is a good candidate for further development in ischemic stroke.

  14. Modification of chemotherapy by nitroimidazoles

    SciTech Connect

    Siemann, D.W.

    1984-09-01

    The potentiation of chemotherapeutic agents by radiation sensitizers has been extensively studied for several years. There is little doubt that the effectiveness of certain anti-cancer drugs, primarily alkylating agents, can readily be enhanced both in vitro and in vivo through the addition of a sensitizer. While enhanced effects have been observed in certain critical normal tissues, in general most animal model studies have demonstrated a therapeutic gain at large sensitizer doses. This approach to combination therapies therefore appears promising. Yet many questions concerning the interaction between chemotherapeutic agents and radiosensitizers, particularly in the aspects of modification of chemotherapy by nitroimidazoles are reviewed and discussed. These address the importance in chemopotentiation of (i) hypoxia, (ii) alterations in DNA damage and/or repair, (iii) depletion of intracellular sulfhydryls and (iv) modification of drug pharmacokinetics.

  15. Hypoxia in human colorectal adenocarcinoma: Comparison between extrinsic and potential intrinsic hypoxia markers

    SciTech Connect

    Goethals, Laurence; Debucquoy, Annelies; Perneel, Christiaan; Geboes, Karel; Ectors, Nadine; De Schutter, Harlinde; Penninckx, Freddy; McBride, William H.; Begg, Adrian C.; Haustermans, Karin M. . E-mail: karin.haustermans@uzleuven.be

    2006-05-01

    Purpose: To detect and quantify hypoxia in colorectal adenocarcinomas by use of pimonidazole and iododeoxyuridine (IdUrd) as extrinsic markers and carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX), microvessel density (MVD), epidermal growth-factor receptor (EGFR), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as intrinsic markers of hypoxia. Methods and Material: Twenty patients with an adenocarcinoma of the left colon and rectum treated by primary surgery were injected with pimonidazole and IdUrd. Serial sections of tumor biopsies were single stained for VEGF, EGFR, Ki67, and double stained for blood vessels in combination with either pimonidazole, IdUrd, or CA IX. Percentage of expression was scored as well as colocalization of pimonidazole with CA IX. Results: The median percentage of hypoxia, as judged by pimonidazole staining, was 16.7% (range, 0-52.4%). The expression of pimonidazole correlated inversely with the total MVD and endothelial cord MVD (R = -0.55, p = 0.01; R = -0.47, p = 0.04). Good colocalization was found between pimonidazole and CA IX in only 30% of tumors, with no correlation overall between pimonidazole and CA IX, VEGF, or EGFR or between the different intrinsic markers. Cells around some vessels (0.08-11%) were negative for IdUrd but positive for Ki 67, which indicated their lack of perfusion at the time of injection. Conclusion: Chronic and acute hypoxic regions are present in colorectal tumors, as shown by pimonidazole and IdUrd staining. Only in a minority of tumors did an association exist between the areas stained by pimonidazole and those positive for CA IX. Pimonidazole also did not correlate with expression of other putative intrinsic hypoxia markers (VEGF, EGFR)

  16. Preparation of Nucleosides Derived from 2-Nitroimidazole and d-Arabinose, d-Ribose, and d-Galactose by the Vorbrüggen Method and Their Conversion to Potential Precursors for Tracers To Image Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    2-Nitroimidazole was silylated using hexaethyldisilazane and then reacted with 1-O-acetyl derivatives of d-arabinose, d-ribose, and d-galactose in acetonitrile at mild temperatures (−20 °C to rt), catalyzed by triethylsilyl triflate (Vorbrüggen conditions). The α-anomer was formed in the former case and the β-anomers in the latter two cases (highly) selectively. When d-arabinose and d-ribose were silylated with tert-butyldiphenylsilyl chloride in pyridine at the hydroxyl groups at C-5 and acetylated at the other ones in a one-pot reaction, mixtures of anomeric 1-O-acetyl derivatives were obtained. These were coupled by the Vorbrüggen method and then deblocked at C-5 and tosylated to give precursors for tracers to image hypoxia in four steps without using Hg(CN)2 necessary for other methods. The Vorbrüggen conditions enable a shorter route to azomycin nucleoside analogues than the previous coupling procedures. PMID:21905640

  17. Hypoxia markers are expressed in interneurons exposed to recurrent seizures.

    PubMed

    Gualtieri, Fabio; Marinelli, Carla; Longo, Daniela; Pugnaghi, Matteo; Nichelli, Paolo F; Meletti, Stefano; Biagini, Giuseppe

    2013-03-01

    An early but transient decrease in oxygen availability occurs during experimentally induced seizures. Using pimonidazole, which probes hypoxic insults, we found that by increasing the duration of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) from 30 to 120 min, counts of pimonidazole-immunoreactive neurons also increased (P < 0.01, 120 vs 60 and 30 min). All the animals exposed to SE were immunopositive to pimonidazole, but a different scenario emerged during epileptogenesis when a decrease in pimonidazole-immunostained cells occurred from 7 to 14 days, so that only 1 out of 4 rats presented with pimonidazole-immunopositive cells. Pimonidazole-immunoreactive cells robustly reappeared at 21 days post-SE induction when all animals (7 out of 7) had developed spontaneous recurrent seizures. Specific neuronal markers revealed that immunopositivity to pimonidazole was present in cells identified by neuropeptide Y (NPY) or somatostatin antibodies. At variance, neurons immunopositive to parvalbumin or cholecystokinin were not immunopositive to pimonidazole. Pimonidazole-immunopositive neurons expressed remarkable immunoreactivity to hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α). Interestingly, surgical samples obtained from pharmacoresistant patients showed neurons co-labeled by HIF-1α and NPY antibodies. These interneurons, along with parvalbumin-positive interneurons that were negative to HIF-1α, showed immunopositivity to markers of cell damage, such as high-mobility group box 1 in the cytoplasm and cleaved caspase-3 in the nucleus. These findings suggest that interneurons are continuously endangered in rodent and human epileptogenic tissue. The presence of hypoxia and cell damage markers in NPY interneurons of rats and patients presenting with recurrent seizures indicates a mechanism of selective vulnerability in a specific neuronal subpopulation.

  18. Kinetics of a putative hypoxic tissue marker, Technetium-99m-nitroimidazole (BMS181321), in normoxic, hypoxic, ischemic and stunned myocardium

    SciTech Connect

    Kusuoka, Hideo; Hashimoto, Katsuji; Fukuchi, Kazuki

    1994-08-01

    This study focused on the kinetics of the newly developed {sup 99m}TTc-nitroimidazole, propyleneamine oxime-1,2-nitroimidazole (BMS181321) in the different setting of myocardial perfusion states and oxygenation levels, and compared the kinetics of BMS181321 with those of other technetium analogues. The kinetics of BMS181321 were evaluated in isolated perfused rat hearts. Technetium-99m-hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) and a non-nitroimidazole-containing analogue of BMS 181321 (6-methyl propyleneamine oxime; PAO-6-Me) were used to compare their kinetics with those of BMS181321. BMS181321 cleared quickly from normoxic hearts and the retention in the myocardium 10 min after injection was 0.84% {plus_minus} 0.04% ID/g wet wt (mean {plus_minus} s.e.m.). In contrast, BMS181321 was retained after reperfusion when it was injected before ischemia; the uptake in the myocardium 10 min after reperfusion was significantly greater than in controls (23.9% {plus_minus} 3.9%ID/g wt, p<0.05). These results indicate that {sup 99m}Tc-BMS181321 is well trapped in ischemic myocardium and moderately trapped in hypoxic myocardium, but washed out quickly in stunned myocardium. The residence time influences the amount retained. 14 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Comparison of ECG-based physiological markers for hypoxia in a preterm ovine model.

    PubMed

    Zwanenburg, Alex; Hermans, Ben Jm; Andriessen, Peter; Niemarkt, Hendrik J; Jellema, Reint K; Ophelders, Daan Rmg; Vullings, Rik; Wolfs, Tim Gam; Kramer, Boris W; Delhaas, Tammo

    2016-06-01

    Current methods for assessing perinatal hypoxic conditions did not improve infant outcomes. Various waveform-based and interval-based ECG markers have been suggested, but not directly compared. We compare performance of ECG markers in a standardized ovine model for fetal hypoxia. Sixty-nine fetal sheep of 0.7 gestation had ECG recorded 4 h before, during, and 4 h after a 25-min period of umbilical cord occlusion (UCO), leading to severe hypoxia. Various ECG markers were calculated, among which were heart rate (HR), HR-corrected ventricular depolarization/repolarization interval (QTc), and ST-segment analysis (STAN) episodic and baseline rise markers, analogue to clinical STAN device alarms. Performance of interval- and waveform-based ECG markers was assessed by correlating predicted and actual hypoxic/normoxic state. Of the markers studied, HR and QTc demonstrated high sensitivity (≥86%), specificity (≥96%), and positive predictive value (PPV) (≥86%) and detected hypoxia in ≥90% of fetuses at 4 min after UCO. In contrast, STAN episodic and baseline rise markers displayed low sensitivity (≤20%) and could not detect severe fetal hypoxia in 65 and 28% of the animals, respectively. Interval-based HR and QTc markers could assess the presence of severe hypoxia. Waveform-based STAN episodic and baseline rise markers were ineffective as markers for hypoxia.

  20. Immunohistochemical Detection of Changes in Tumor Hypoxia

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, James Carlin, Sean; Burke, Sean A.; Wen Bixiu; Yang, Kwang Mo; Ling, C. Clifton

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: Although hypoxia is a known prognostic factor, its effect will be modified by the rate of reoxygenation and the extent to which the cells are acutely hypoxic. We tested the ability of exogenous and endogenous markers to detect reoxygenation in a xenograft model. Our technique might be applicable to stored patient samples. Methods and Materials: The human colorectal carcinoma line, HT29, was grown in nude mice. Changes in tumor hypoxia were examined by injection of pimonidazole, followed 24 hours later by EF5. Cryosections were stained for these markers and for carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1{alpha} (HIF1{alpha}). Tumor hypoxia was artificially manipulated by carbogen exposure. Results: In unstressed tumors, all four markers showed very similar spatial distributions. After carbogen treatment, pimonidazole and EF5 could detect decreased hypoxia. HIF1{alpha} staining was also decreased relative to CAIX, although the effect was less pronounced than for EF5. Control tumors displayed small regions that had undergone spontaneous changes in tumor hypoxia, as judged by pimonidazole relative to EF5; most of these changes were reflected by CAIX and HIF1{alpha}. Conclusion: HIF1{alpha} can be compared with either CAIX or a previously administered nitroimidazole to provide an estimate of reoxygenation.

  1. Markers of physiological stress during exercise under conditions of normoxia, normobaric hypoxia, hypobaric hypoxia, and genuine high altitude.

    PubMed

    Woods, David Richard; O'Hara, John Paul; Boos, Christopher John; Hodkinson, Peter David; Tsakirides, Costas; Hill, Neil Edward; Jose, Darren; Hawkins, Amanda; Phillipson, Kelly; Hazlerigg, Antonia; Arjomandkhah, Nicola; Gallagher, Liam; Holdsworth, David; Cooke, Mark; Green, Nicholas Donald Charles; Mellor, Adrian

    2017-05-01

    To investigate whether there is a differential response at rest and following exercise to conditions of genuine high altitude (GHA), normobaric hypoxia (NH), hypobaric hypoxia (HH), and normobaric normoxia (NN). Markers of sympathoadrenal and adrenocortical function [plasma normetanephrine (PNORMET), metanephrine (PMET), cortisol], myocardial injury [highly sensitive cardiac troponin T (hscTnT)], and function [N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP)] were evaluated at rest and with exercise under NN, at 3375 m in the Alps (GHA) and at equivalent simulated altitude under NH and HH. Participants cycled for 2 h [15-min warm-up, 105 min at 55% Wmax (maximal workload)] with venous blood samples taken prior (T0), immediately following (T120) and 2-h post-exercise (T240). Exercise in the three hypoxic environments produced a similar pattern of response with the only difference between environments being in relation to PNORMET. Exercise in NN only induced a rise in PNORMET and PMET. Biochemical markers that reflect sympathoadrenal, adrenocortical, and myocardial responses to physiological stress demonstrate significant differences in the response to exercise under conditions of normoxia versus hypoxia, while NH and HH appear to induce broadly similar responses to GHA and may, therefore, be reasonable surrogates.

  2. Hypoxia promotes redifferentiation and suppresses markers of hypertrophy and degeneration in both healthy and osteoarthritic chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    matrix accumulation, but still little is known of its effects on catabolism. We show herein that the increased expression of matrix proteins, combined with decreased expression of numerous degradative enzymes by hypoxia, minimizes but does not abolish differences between redifferentiated healthy and OA chondrocytes. Hypoxia-induced HIF expression is associated with hypertrophic marker and degradative enzyme downregulation and increased measures of redifferentiation in both healthy and OA chondrocytes. Therefore, though HIFs may be involved in the pathogenesis of OA, conditions that promote HIF expression in vitro promote matrix accumulation and decrease degradation and hypertrophy, even in cells from OA joints. PMID:23965235

  3. Expression and Prognostic Significance of a Panel of Tissue Hypoxia Markers in Head-and-Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Le, Quynh-Thu Kong, Christina; Lavori, Phillip W.; O'Byrne, Ken; Erler, Janine T.; Huang Xin; Chen Yijun; Cao Hongbin; Tibshirani, Robert; Denko, Nic; Giaccia, Amato J.; Koong, Albert C.

    2007-09-01

    Purpose: To investigate the expression pattern of hypoxia-induced proteins identified as being involved in malignant progression of head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and to determine their relationship to tumor pO{sub 2} and prognosis. Methods and Materials: We performed immunohistochemical staining of hypoxia-induced proteins (carbonic anhydrase IX [CA IX], BNIP3L, connective tissue growth factor, osteopontin, ephrin A1, hypoxia inducible gene-2, dihydrofolate reductase, galectin-1, I{kappa}B kinase {beta}, and lysyl oxidase) on tumor tissue arrays of 101 HNSCC patients with pretreatment pO{sub 2} measurements. Analysis of variance and Fisher's exact tests were used to evaluate the relationship between marker expression, tumor pO{sub 2}, and CA IX staining. Cox proportional hazard model and log-rank tests were used to determine the relationship between markers and prognosis. Results: Osteopontin expression correlated with tumor pO{sub 2} (Eppendorf measurements) (p = 0.04). However, there was a strong correlation between lysyl oxidase, ephrin A1, and galectin-1 and CA IX staining. These markers also predicted for cancer-specific survival and overall survival on univariate analysis. A hypoxia score of 0-5 was assigned to each patient, on the basis of the presence of strong staining for these markers, whereby a higher score signifies increased marker expression. On multivariate analysis, increasing hypoxia score was an independent prognostic factor for cancer-specific survival (p = 0.015) and was borderline significant for overall survival (p = 0.057) when adjusted for other independent predictors of outcomes (hemoglobin and age). Conclusions: We identified a panel of hypoxia-related tissue markers that correlates with treatment outcomes in HNSCC. Validation of these markers will be needed to determine their utility in identifying patients for hypoxia-targeted therapy.

  4. Hypoxia-Related MicroRNA-210 Is a Diagnostic Marker for Discriminating Osteoblastoma and Osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Riester, Scott M.; Torres-Mora, Jorge; Dudakovic, Amel; Camilleri, Emily T.; Wang, Wei; Xu, Fuhua; Thaler, Roman R.; Evans, Jared M.; Zwartbol, René; Briaire-de Bruijn, Inge H.; Maran, Avudaiappan; Folpe, Andrew L.; Inwards, Carrie Y.; Rose, Peter S.; Shives, Thomas C.; Yaszemski, Michael J.; Sim, Franklin H.; Deyle, David R.; Larson, Annalise N.; Galindo, Mario A.; Cleven, Arjen G. H.; Oliveira, Andre M.; Cleton-Jansen, Anne-Marie; Bovée, Judith V. M. G.; van Wijnen, Andre J.

    2017-01-01

    Osteoblastoma is a benign bone tumor that can often be difficult to distinguish from malignant osteosarcoma. Because misdiagnosis can result in unfavorable clinical outcomes, we have investigated microRNAs as potential diagnostic biomarkers for distinguishing between these two tumor types. Next generation RNA sequencing was used as an expression screen to evaluate >2,000 microRNAs present in tissue derived from rare formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) archival tumor specimens. MicroRNAs displaying the greatest ability to discriminate between these two tumors were validated on an independent tumor set, using qPCR assays. Initial screening by RNA-seq identified four microRNA biomarker candidates. Expression of three miRNAs (miR-451a, miR-144-3p, miR-486-5p) was higher in osteoblastoma, while the miR-210 was elevated in osteosarcoma. Validation of these microRNAs on an independent data set of 22 tumor specimens by qPCR revealed that miR-210 is the most discriminating marker. This microRNA displays low levels of expression across all of the osteoblastoma specimens and robust expression in the majority of the osteosarcoma specimens. Application of these biomarkers to a clinical test case showed that these microRNA biomarkers permit re-classification of a misdiagnosed FFPE tumor sample from osteoblastoma to osteosarcoma. Our findings establish that the hypoxia-related miR-210 is a discriminatory marker that distinguishes between osteoblastoma and osteosarcoma. This discovery provides a complementary molecular approach to support pathological classification of two diagnostically challenging musculoskeletal tumors. Because miR-210 is linked to the cellular hypoxia response, its detection may be linked to well-established pro-angiogenic and metastatic roles of hypoxia in osteosarcomas and other tumor cell types. PMID:27324965

  5. Prognostic value of hypoxia-associated markers in advanced larynx and hypopharynx squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Jonathan M; Andrews, Timothy D; Slevin, Nick J; West, Catharine M L; Homer, Jarrod J

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prognostic value of hypoxia-associated markers carbonic anhydrase-9 (CA-9) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in advanced larynx and hypopharynx squamous cell carcinoma (SCCa) treated by organ preservation strategies. Retrospective cohort study. Pretreatment CA-9 and HIF-1α expression, clinicopathologic data, and tumor volume were analyzed in a series of 114 patients with T3-4 SCCa larynx or hypopharynx treated by (chemo)radiation. Adverse prognostic factors for locoregional control were T4 classification (P = 0.008), and for disease-specific survival were CA-9 positivity (P = 0.039), T4 classification (P = 0.001), larger tumor volume (P = 0.004), N1-3 classification (P = 0.002), and pretreatment hemoglobin < 13.0 g/dl (P = 0.014). With increasing CA-9 expression, there was a trend to increasing tumor recurrence (P trend = 0.009) and decreasing survival (P trend = 0.002). On multivariate analysis, independent variables were T4 classification (hazard ratio [HR] 13.54, P = 0.01) for locoregional failure, and CA-9 positivity (HR = 8.02, P = 0.042) and higher tumor volume (HR = 3.33, P = 0.007) for disease-specific mortality. This is the first study to look specifically at T3 and T4 SCCa larynx and hypopharynx for a relationship between hypoxia-associated marker expression and clinical outcome. Pretreatment immunohistochemical CA-9 expression is an adverse prognostic factor for disease-specific survival, indicating that CA-9 expression may confer a more aggressive tumor phenotype. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. Hypoxia targeted carbon nanotubes as a sensitive contrast agent for photoacoustic imaging of tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanganeh, Saeid; Aguirre, Andres; Biswal, Nrusingh C.; Pavlik, Christopher; Smith, Michael B.; Alqasemi, Umar; Li, Hai; Zhu, Quing

    2011-03-01

    Development of new and efficient contrast agents is of fundamental importance to improve detection sensitivity of smaller lesions. Within the family of nanomaterials, carbon nanotubes (CNT) not only have emerged as a new alternative and efficient transporter and translocater of therapeutic molecules but also as a photoacoustic molecular imaging agent owing to its strong optical absorption in the near-infrared region. Drugs, Antibodies and nucleic acids could functionalize the CNT and prepare an appropriate system for delivering the cargos to cells and organs. In this work, we present a novel photoacoustic contrast agent which is based on a unique hypoxic marker in the near infrared region, 2-nitroimidazole -bis carboxylic acid derivative of Indocyanine Green conjugated to single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT-2nitroimidazole-ICG). The 2-nitroimidazole-ICG has an absorption peak at 755 nm and an extinction coefficient of 20,5222 M-1cm-1. The conjugation of this marker with SWCNT shows more than 25 times enhancement of optical absorption of carbon nanotubes in the near infrared region. This new conjugate has been optically evaluated and shows promising results for high contrast photoacoustic imaging of deeply located tumors. The conjugate specifically targets tumor hypoxia, an important indicator of tumor metabolism and tumor therapeutic response. The detection sensitivity of the new contrast agent has been evaluated in-vitro cell lines and with in-vivo tumors in mice.

  7. An immunohistochemical study of the expression of the hypoxia markers Glut-1 and Ca-IX in canine sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Abbondati, E; Del-Pozo, J; Hoather, T M; Constantino-Casas, F; Dobson, J M

    2013-11-01

    Tumor hypoxia has been associated with increased malignancy, likelihood of metastasis, and increased resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy in human medicine. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a key transcription factor that is induced by tumor hypoxia and regulates the pathways involved in cellular response and adaptation to the hostile tumor microenvironment. HIF-1 induces transcription of different proteins, including Ca-IX and Glut-1, which are considered endogenous markers of chronic hypoxia in solid tumors in humans. In this study, sections from 40 canine sarcomas (20 histiocytic sarcomas and 20 low-grade soft-tissue sarcomas) were immunostained for these markers. Expression of Glut-1 was scored based on percentage of positive staining cells (0 = <1%; 1 = 1%-50%; 2 = >50%) and intensity of cellular staining (1 = weak; 2 = strong); Ca-IX was scored based on percentage of positive cells (0 = <1%; 1 = 1%-30%; 2 = >30%). Intratumoral microvessel density was measured using CD31 to assess intratumoral neoangiogenesis. Histiocytic sarcomas showed statistically significant higher Glut-1 immunoreactivity and angiogenesis than did low-grade soft-tissue sarcomas. Intratumoral microvessel density in histiocytic sarcomas was positively associated with Glut-1 immunoreactivity score. These findings suggest a potential role of hypoxia in the biology of these tumors and may provide a base for investigation of the potential prognostic use of these markers in naturally occurring canine tumors.

  8. Hypoxia inducible BHLHB2 is a novel and independent prognostic marker in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weibin; Reiser-Erkan, Carolin; Michalski, Christoph W.; Raggi, Matthias C.; Quan, Liao; Yupei, Zhao; Friess, Helmut; Erkan, Mert; Kleeff, Joerg

    2010-10-22

    cells. Patients with weak/absent nuclear BHLHB2 staining had significantly worse median survival compared to those with strong staining (13 months vs. 27 months, p = 0.03). In a multivariable analysis, BHLHB2 staining was an independent prognostic factor (Hazard-Ratio = 2.348, 95% CI = 1.250-4.411, p = 0.008). Conclusions: Hypoxia-inducible BHLHB2 expression is a novel independent prognostic marker in pancreatic cancer patients and indicates increased chemosensitivity towards gemcitabine.

  9. Hypoxia-related microRNA-210 is a diagnostic marker for discriminating osteoblastoma and osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Riester, Scott M; Torres-Mora, Jorge; Dudakovic, Amel; Camilleri, Emily T; Wang, Wei; Xu, Fuhua; Thaler, Roman R; Evans, Jared M; Zwartbol, René; Briaire-de Bruijn, Inge H; Maran, Avudaiappan; Folpe, Andrew L; Inwards, Carrie Y; Rose, Peter S; Shives, Thomas C; Yaszemski, Michael J; Sim, Franklin H; Deyle, David R; Larson, Annalise N; Galindo, Mario A; Cleven, Arjen G H; Oliveira, Andre M; Cleton-Jansen, Anne-Marie; Bovée, Judith V M G; van Wijnen, Andre J

    2017-05-01

    Osteoblastoma is a benign bone tumor that can often be difficult to distinguish from malignant osteosarcoma. Because misdiagnosis can result in unfavorable clinical outcomes, we have investigated microRNAs as potential diagnostic biomarkers for distinguishing between these two tumor types. Next generation RNA sequencing was used as an expression screen to evaluate >2,000 microRNAs present in tissue derived from rare formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) archival tumor specimens. MicroRNAs displaying the greatest ability to discriminate between these two tumors were validated on an independent tumor set, using qPCR assays. Initial screening by RNA-seq identified four microRNA biomarker candidates. Expression of three miRNAs (miR-451a, miR-144-3p, miR-486-5p) was higher in osteoblastoma, while the miR-210 was elevated in osteosarcoma. Validation of these microRNAs on an independent data set of 22 tumor specimens by qPCR revealed that miR-210 is the most discriminating marker. This microRNA displays low levels of expression across all of the osteoblastoma specimens and robust expression in the majority of the osteosarcoma specimens. Application of these biomarkers to a clinical test case showed that these microRNA biomarkers permit re-classification of a misdiagnosed FFPE tumor sample from osteoblastoma to osteosarcoma. Our findings establish that the hypoxia-related miR-210 is a discriminatory marker that distinguishes between osteoblastoma and osteosarcoma. This discovery provides a complementary molecular approach to support pathological classification of two diagnostically challenging musculoskeletal tumors. Because miR-210 is linked to the cellular hypoxia response, its detection may be linked to well-established pro-angiogenic and metastatic roles of hypoxia in osteosarcomas and other tumor cell types. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1137-1146, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by

  10. Treatment of giardiasis after nonresponse to nitroimidazole.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Eyal; Lachish, Tamar; Schwartz, Eli

    2014-10-01

    During January 2008-October 2013, a total of 12 cases of giardiasis at the Chaim Sheba and Shaare Zedek Medical Centers, Israel, did not respond to nitroimidazole; 83.3% were associated with travel and 33% with immunoglobulin deficiency. Among 110 published cases, the most effective treatment was quinacrine (efficacy 90%-100%), but its availability is limited.

  11. In vivo profiling of hypoxic gene expression in gliomas using the hypoxia marker EF5 and laser-capture microdissection

    PubMed Central

    Marotta, Diane; Karar, Jayashree; Jenkins, W. Timothy; Kumanova, Monika; Jenkins, Kevin W.; Tobias, John W.; Baldwin, Donald; Hatzigeorgiou, Artemis; Alexiou, Panagiotis; Evans, Sydney M.; Alarcon, Rodolfo; Maity, Amit; Koch, Cameron; Koumenis, Constantinos

    2010-01-01

    Hypoxia is a key determinant of tumor aggressiveness, yet little is known regarding hypoxic global gene regulation in vivo. We have employed the hypoxia marker EF5 coupled with laser capture microdissection to isolate RNA from viable hypoxic and normoxic regions of 9L experimental gliomas. Through microarray analysis, we have identified several mRNAs (including the HIF targets Vegf, Glut-1 and Hsp27) with increased levels under hypoxia compared to normoxia both in vitro and in vivo. However, we also found striking differences between the global in vitro and in vivo hypoxic mRNA profiles. Intriguingly, the mRNA levels of a substantial number of immunomodulatory and DNA repair proteins including CXCL9, CD3D and RAD51 were found to be downregulated in hypoxic areas in vivo, consistent with a pro-tumorigenic role of hypoxia in solid tumors. Immunohistochemical staining verified increased HSP27 and decreased RAD51 protein levels in hypoxic vs. normoxic tumor regions. Moreover, CD8+ T cells which are recruited to tumors upon stimulation by CXCL9 and CXCL10, were largely excluded from viable hypoxic areas in vivo. This is the first study to analyze the influence of hypoxia on mRNA levels in vivo and can be readily adapted to obtain a comprehensive picture of hypoxic regulation of gene expression and its influence on biological functions in solid tumors. PMID:21266355

  12. Characterization of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) as an endogenous marker of chronic hypoxia in live human tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Vordermark, Dirk . E-mail: vordermark_d@klinik.uni-wuerzburg.de; Kaffer, Anja; Riedl, Susanne; Katzer, Astrid; Flentje, Michael

    2005-03-15

    Purpose: Published clinical studies provide conflicting data regarding the prognostic significance of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) overexpression as an endogenous marker of tumor hypoxia and its comparability with other methods of hypoxia detection. We performed a systematic analysis of CA IX protein levels under various in vitro conditions of tumor hypoxia in HT 1080 human fibrosarcoma and FaDu human pharyngeal carcinoma cells. Because sorting of live CA IX positive cells from tumors provides a tool to study the radiosensitivity of chronically hypoxic cells, we modified and tested a CA IX flow cytometry protocol on mixed hypoxic/aerobic suspensions of HT 1080 and FaDu cells. Methods and materials: HT 1080 and FaDu cells were treated with up to 24 h of in vitro hypoxia and up to 96 h of reoxygenation. To test the effect of nonhypoxic stimuli, glucose and serum availability, pH and cell density were modified. CA IX protein was quantified in Western blots of whole-cell lysates. Mixed suspensions with known percentages of hypoxic cells were prepared for CA IX flow cytometry. The same mixtures were assayed for clonogenic survival after 10 Gy. Results: Hypoxia-induced CA IX protein expression was seen after >6 h at {<=}5% O{sub 2}, and protein was stable over 96 h of reoxygenation in both cell lines. Glucose deprivation abolished the hypoxic CA IX response, and high cell density caused CA IX induction under aerobic conditions. Measured percentages of CA IX-positive cells in mixtures closely reflected known percentages of hypoxic cells in HT 1080 and were associated with radioresistance of mixtures after 10 Gy. Conclusion: CA IX is a stable marker of current or previous chronic hypoxia but influenced by nonhypoxic stimuli. Except the time course of accumulation, all properties of this marker resembled our previous findings for hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha}. A modified flow cytometry protocol provided good separability of CA IX-negative and -positive cells in vitro

  13. Carbonic anhydrase IX is a marker of hypoxia and correlates with higher Gleason scores and ISUP grading in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ambrosio, Maria Raffaella; Di Serio, Claudia; Danza, Giovanna; Rocca, Bruno Jim; Ginori, Alessandro; Prudovsky, Igor; Marchionni, Niccolò; Del Vecchio, Maria Teresa; Tarantini, Francesca

    2016-05-25

    Carbonic anhydrase IX is a member of α-carbonic anhydrases that is preferentially expressed in solid tumors. It enables bicarbonate transport across the plasma membrane, neutralizing intracellular pH and conferring to cancer cells a survival advantage in hypoxic/acidic microenvironments. Overexpression of carbonic anhydrase IX in cancer tissues is regulated by hypoxia inducible factor 1α - mediated transcription and the enzyme is considered a marker of tumor hypoxia and poor outcome. The role of carbonic anhydrase IX in prostate cancer has not been fully clarified and controversy has arisen on whether this enzyme is overexpressed in hypoxic prostate cancer tissues. We analyzed the expression of carbonic anhydrase IX and hypoxia inducible factor 1α in two prostate cancer cell lines, LNCaP and PC-3, and in 110 cancer biopsies, by western blotting and immunocyto/histochemistry. In LNCaP and PC-3 cells, carbonic anhydrase IX was mostly cytoplasmic/nuclear, with very limited membrane localization. Nuclear staining became stronger under hypoxia. When we analyzed carbonic anhydrase IX expression in human prostate cancer biopsies, we found that protein staining positively correlated with hypoxia inducible factor 1α and with Gleason pattern and score, as well as with the novel grading system proposed by the International Society of Urological Pathology for prostate cancer. Once more, carbonic anhydrase IX was mainly cytoplasmic in low grade carcinomas, whereas in high grade tumors was strongly expressed in the nucleus of the neoplastic cell. An association between carbonic anhydrase IX expression level and the main clinic-pathological features involved in prostate cancer aggressiveness was identified. There was a statistically significant association between carbonic anhydrase IX and hypoxia inducible factor 1α in prostate cancer tissues, that identifies the enzyme as a reliable marker of tumor hypoxia. In addition, carbonic anhydrase IX expression positively

  14. A comparison of oral and intravenous pimonidazole in canine tumors using intravenous CCI-103F as a control hypoxia marker

    SciTech Connect

    Kleiter, Miriam M.; Thrall, Donald E.; Malarkey, David E.; Ji Xiaoshen; Lee, David Y.W.; Chou, S.-C.; Raleigh, James A. . E-mail: james_raleigh@med.unc.edu

    2006-02-01

    Purpose: Pimonidazole HCl is widely used in immunohistochemical analyses of hypoxia in normal and malignant tissues. The present study investigates oral administration as a means of minimizing invasiveness. Methods and Materials: Twelve dogs with confirmed malignancy received 0.5 g/m{sup 2} of pimonidazole HCl: 6 by mouth and 6 by i.v. infusion. All dogs received i.v. CCI-103F as a control. Plasma levels of pimonidazole, pimonidazole N-oxide, and CCI-103F were measured. Tumor biopsies were formalin fixed, paraffin embedded, sectioned, immunostained, and analyzed for pimonidazole and CCI-103F binding. pH dependence for pimonidazole and CCI-103F binding was studied in vitro. Results: Pimonidazole and CCI-103F binding in carcinomas and sarcomas was strongly correlated for both oral and i.v. pimonidazole HCl (r {sup 2} = 0.97). On average, the extent of pimonidazole binding exceeded that for CCI-103F by a factor of approximately 1.2, with the factor ranging from 1.0 to 1.65. Binding of both markers was pH dependent, but pimonidazole binding was greater at all values of pH. Conclusions: Oral pimonidazole HCl is effective as a hypoxia marker in spontaneously arising canine tumors. Selective cellular uptake and concomitant higher levels of binding in regions of hypoxia at the high end of pH gradients might account for the greater extent of pimonidazole binding.

  15. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan CSPG4 as a novel hypoxia-sensitive marker in pancreatic tumors.

    PubMed

    Keleg, Shereen; Titov, Alexandr; Heller, Anette; Giese, Thomas; Tjaden, Christine; Ahmad, Sufian S; Gaida, Matthias M; Bauer, Andrea S; Werner, Jens; Giese, Nathalia A

    2014-01-01

    CSPG4 marks pericytes, undifferentiated precursors and tumor cells. We assessed whether the shed ectodomain of CSPG4 (sCSPG4) might circulate and reflect potential changes in CSPG4 tissue expression (pCSPG4) due to desmoplastic and malignant aberrations occurring in pancreatic tumors. Serum sCSPG4 was measured using ELISA in test (n = 83) and validation (n = 221) cohorts comprising donors (n = 11+26) and patients with chronic pancreatitis (n = 11+20) or neoplasms: benign (serous cystadenoma SCA, n = 13+20), premalignant (intraductal dysplastic IPMNs, n = 9+55), and malignant (IPMN-associated invasive carcinomas, n = 4+14; ductal adenocarcinomas, n = 35+86). Pancreatic pCSPG4 expression was evaluated using qRT-PCR (n = 139), western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. sCSPG4 was found in circulation, but its level was significantly lower in pancreatic patients than in donors. Selective maintenance was observed in advanced IPMNs and PDACs and showed a nodal association while lacking prognostic relevance. Pancreatic pCSPG4 expression was preserved or elevated, whereby neoplastic cells lacked pCSPG4 or tended to overexpress without shedding. Extreme pancreatic overexpression, membranous exposure and tissue(high)/sera(low)-discordance highlighted stroma-poor benign cystic neoplasm. SCA is known to display hypoxic markers and coincide with von-Hippel-Lindau and Peutz-Jeghers syndromes, in which pVHL and LBK1 mutations affect hypoxic signaling pathways. In vitro testing confined pCSPG4 overexpression to normal mesenchymal but not epithelial cells, and a third of tested carcinoma cell lines; however, only the latter showed pCSPG4-responsiveness to chronic hypoxia. siRNA-based knockdowns failed to reduce the malignant potential of either normoxic or hypoxic cells. Thus, overexpression of the newly established conditional hypoxic indicator, CSPG4, is apparently non-pathogenic in pancreatic malignancies but might mark distinct

  16. Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan CSPG4 as a Novel Hypoxia-Sensitive Marker in Pancreatic Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Keleg, Shereen; Titov, Alexandr; Heller, Anette; Giese, Thomas; Tjaden, Christine; Ahmad, Sufian S.; Gaida, Matthias M.; Bauer, Andrea S.; Werner, Jens; Giese, Nathalia A.

    2014-01-01

    CSPG4 marks pericytes, undifferentiated precursors and tumor cells. We assessed whether the shed ectodomain of CSPG4 (sCSPG4) might circulate and reflect potential changes in CSPG4 tissue expression (pCSPG4) due to desmoplastic and malignant aberrations occurring in pancreatic tumors. Serum sCSPG4 was measured using ELISA in test (n = 83) and validation (n = 221) cohorts comprising donors (n = 11+26) and patients with chronic pancreatitis (n = 11+20) or neoplasms: benign (serous cystadenoma SCA, n = 13+20), premalignant (intraductal dysplastic IPMNs, n = 9+55), and malignant (IPMN-associated invasive carcinomas, n = 4+14; ductal adenocarcinomas, n = 35+86). Pancreatic pCSPG4 expression was evaluated using qRT-PCR (n = 139), western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. sCSPG4 was found in circulation, but its level was significantly lower in pancreatic patients than in donors. Selective maintenance was observed in advanced IPMNs and PDACs and showed a nodal association while lacking prognostic relevance. Pancreatic pCSPG4 expression was preserved or elevated, whereby neoplastic cells lacked pCSPG4 or tended to overexpress without shedding. Extreme pancreatic overexpression, membranous exposure and tissuehigh/seralow-discordance highlighted stroma-poor benign cystic neoplasm. SCA is known to display hypoxic markers and coincide with von-Hippel-Lindau and Peutz-Jeghers syndromes, in which pVHL and LBK1 mutations affect hypoxic signaling pathways. In vitro testing confined pCSPG4 overexpression to normal mesenchymal but not epithelial cells, and a third of tested carcinoma cell lines; however, only the latter showed pCSPG4-responsiveness to chronic hypoxia. siRNA-based knockdowns failed to reduce the malignant potential of either normoxic or hypoxic cells. Thus, overexpression of the newly established conditional hypoxic indicator, CSPG4, is apparently non-pathogenic in pancreatic malignancies but might mark distinct epithelial

  17. The potential of hypoxia markers as target for breast molecular imaging – a systematic review and meta-analysis of human marker expression

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Molecular imaging of breast cancer is a promising emerging technology, potentially able to improve clinical care. Valid imaging targets for molecular imaging tracer development are membrane-bound hypoxia-related proteins, expressed when tumor growth outpaces neo-angiogenesis. We performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of such hypoxia marker expression rates in human breast cancer to evaluate their potential as clinically relevant molecular imaging targets. Methods We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for articles describing membrane-bound proteins that are related to hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), the key regulator of the hypoxia response. We extracted expression rates of carbonic anhydrase-IX (CAIX), glucose transporter-1 (GLUT1), C-X-C chemokine receptor type-4 (CXCR4), or insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) in human breast disease, evaluated by immunohistochemistry. We pooled study results using random-effects models and applied meta-regression to identify associations with clinicopathological variables. Results Of 1,705 identified articles, 117 matched our selection criteria, totaling 30,216 immunohistochemistry results. We found substantial between-study variability in expression rates. Invasive cancer showed pooled expression rates of 35% for CAIX (95% confidence interval (CI): 26-46%), 51% for GLUT1 (CI: 40-61%), 46% for CXCR4 (CI: 33-59%), and 46% for IGF1R (CI: 35-70%). Expression rates increased with tumor grade for GLUT1, CAIX, and CXCR4 (all p < 0.001), but decreased for IGF1R (p < 0.001). GLUT1 showed the highest expression rate in grade III cancers with 58% (45-69%). CXCR4 showed the highest expression rate in small T1 tumors with 48% (CI: 28-69%), but associations with size were only significant for CAIX (p < 0.001; positive association) and IGF1R (p = 0.047; negative association). Although based on few studies, CAIX, GLUT1, and CXCR4 showed profound lower expression rates in normal breast tissue and benign

  18. Fragmentation patterns of 4(5)-nitroimidazole and 1-methyl-5-nitroimidazole - the effect of the methylation.

    PubMed

    Itälä, Eero; Tanzer, Katrin; Granroth, Sari; Kooser, Kuno; Denifl, Stephan Paul; Kukk, Edwin

    2017-08-01

    We present here the photofragmentation patterns of doubly ionized 4(5)-nitroimidazole and 1-methyl-5-nitroimidazole. The doubly ionized state was created by core ionizing the C 1s orbitals of the samples, rapidly followed by Auger decay. Due to the recent development of nitroimidazole-based radiosensitizing drugs, core ionization was selected as it represents the very same processes taking place under the irradiation with medical X-rays. In addition to the fragmentation patterns of the sample, we study the effects of methylation on the fragmentation patterns of nitroimidazoles. We found that methylation alters the fragmentation significantly, especially the charge distribution between the final fragments. The most characteristic feature of the methylation is that it effectively quenches the production of NO and NO(+) , widely regarded as key radicals in the chemistry of radiosensitization by the nitroimidazoles. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Hypoxia and oxidative stress markers in pediatric patients undergoing hemodialysis: cross section study.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Enas A; El-Abaseri, Taghrid B; Mohamed, Amany O; Ahmed, Ahmed R; El-Metwally, Tarek H

    2012-10-13

    Tissue injury due to hypoxia and/or free radicals is common in a variety of disease processes. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate effect of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) and hemodialysis (HD) on hypoxia and oxidative stress biomarkers. Forty pediatric patients with CKD on HD and 20 healthy children were recruited. Plasma hypoxia induced factor-1α (HIF-1α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were measured by specific ELISA kits while, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total peroxide (TPX), pyruvate and lactate by enzymatic/chemical colorimetric methods. Oxidative stress index (OSI) and lactate/pyruvate (L/P) ratio were calculated. TAC was significantly lower while TPX, OSI and VEGF were higher in patients at before- and after-dialysis session than controls. Lactate and HIF-1α levels were significantly higher at before-dialysis session than controls. Before dialysis, TAC and L/P ratio were lower than after-dialysis. In before-dialysis session, VEGF correlated positively with pyruvate, HIF-1α and OSI correlated positively with TPX, but, negatively with TAC. In after-dialysis session, HIF-1α correlated negatively with TPX and OSI; while, OSI correlated positively with TPX. CKD patients succumb considerable tissue hypoxia with oxidative stress. Hemodialysis ameliorated hypoxia but lowered antioxidants as evidenced by decreased levels of HIF-1α and TAC at before- compared to after-dialysis levels.

  20. Hypoxia imaging agents labeled with positron emitters.

    PubMed

    Hoigebazar, Lathika; Jeong, Jae Min

    2013-01-01

    Imaging hypoxia using positron emission tomography (PET) is of great importance for therapy of cancer. [(18)F]Fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) was the first PET agent for hypoxia imaging, and various radiolabeled nitroimidazole derivatives such as [(18)F]fluoroerythronitroimidazole (FETNIM), [(18)F]1-α-D: -(2-deoxy-2-fluoroarabinofuranosyl)-2-nitroimidazole (FAZA), [(18)F]2-(2-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)-N-(2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropyl) acetamide (EF-5), and [(18)F]fluoroetanidazole (FETA) have been developed successively. To overcome the high cost of cyclotron installation, (68)Ga-labeled nitroimidazole derivatives also have been developed. Another important hypoxia imaging agent is (64)Cu-diacetyl-bis(N (4)-methylthiosemicarbazone) ((64)Cu-ATSM), which can distribute in cancer tissue rapidly due to high lipophilicity. However, its application is limited due to high cost of radionuclide production. Although various hypoxia imaging agents have been reported and tested, hypoxia PET images still have to be improved, because of the low blood flow in hypoxic tissues and resulting low uptake of the agents.

  1. The relationships between hypoxia-dependent markers: HIF-1alpha, EPO and EPOR in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Baltaziak, Marek; Wincewicz, Andrzej; Kanczuga-Koda, Luiza; Lotowska, Joanna M; Koda, Mariusz; Sulkowska, Urszula; Baltaziak, Marcin; Podbielski, Monika; Sobaniec-Lotowska, Maria E; Sulkowski, Stanislaw

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia triggers production of several cytoprotective proteins. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1α) is a powerful stimulator of transcription of many genes, including erythropoietin (EPO) in hypoxia-affected cells. Recent data have also implicated signaling by EPO receptor (EPOR) as a new factor influencing tumor progression. The aim of the study was to detect by immunohistochemistry the presence of HIF-1α, EPO and EPOR in colorectal cancer (CRC) in reference to clinicopathological variables. We found the presence of the studied proteins in specimens of all 125 CRC patients which is suggestive of the occurrence of hypoxia in colorectal cancer tissues. The expression of HIF-1α correlated significantly with the presence of EPO and EPOR in all samples (P < 0.001, r = 0.549 and P < 0.001, r = 0.536, respectively). Significant correlations (from P < 0.024 to P < 0.001) were found in the analyses of CRC subgroups such as histopathological type tumor, tumor grade, tumor stage and patients with lymph nodes metastases. The same high significant correlations (P < 0.001) were observed in group of sex, age and tumor location. However, the values of the correlation coefficients (r) which usually ranged from 0.5 to 0.6 suggest the existence of independent or concurrent mechanism stimulating generation of these proteins in colorectal cancer.

  2. Irradiation-Dependent Effects on Tumor Perfusion and Endogenous and Exogenous Hypoxia Markers in an A549 Xenograft Model

    SciTech Connect

    Fokas, Emmanouil; Haenze, Joerg; Kamlah, Florentine; Eul, Bastian G.; Lang, Nico; Keil, Boris; Heverhagen, Johannes T.; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; An Hanxiang; Rose, Frank

    2010-08-01

    Purpose: Hypoxia is a major determinant of tumor radiosensitivity, and microenvironmental changes in response to ionizing radiation (IR) are often heterogenous. We analyzed IR-dependent changes in hypoxia and perfusion in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma xenografts. Materials and Methods: Immunohistological analysis of two exogenously added chemical hypoxic markers, pimonidazole and CCI-103F, and of the endogenous marker Glut-1 was performed time dependently after IR. Tumor vessels and apoptosis were analyzed using CD31 and caspase-3 antibodies. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and fluorescent beads (Hoechst 33342) were used to monitor vascular perfusion. Results: CCI-103F signals measuring the fraction of hypoxic areas after IR were significantly decreased by approximately 50% when compared with pimonidazole signals, representing the fraction of hypoxic areas from the same tumors before IR. Interestingly, Glut-1 signals were significantly decreased at early time point (6.5 h) after IR returning to the initial levels at 30.5 h. Vascular density showed no difference between irradiated and control groups, whereas apoptosis was significantly induced at 10.5 h post-IR. DCE-MRI indicated increased perfusion 1 h post-IR. Conclusions: The discrepancy between the hypoxic fractions of CCI-103F and Glut-1 forces us to consider the possibility that both markers reflect different metabolic alterations of tumor microenvironment. The reliability of endogenous markers such as Glut-1 to measure reoxygenation in irradiated tumors needs further consideration. Monitoring tumor microvascular response to IR by DCE-MRI and measuring tumor volume alterations should be encouraged.

  3. Nitroimidazoles for the treatment of TB: past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Tathagata; Boshoff, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains a leading cause of death resulting from an infectious agent, and the spread of multi- and extensively drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis poses a threat to management of global health. New drugs that effectively shorten the duration of treatment and are active against drug-resistant strains of this pathogen are urgently required to develop effective chemotherapies to combat this disease. Two nitroimidazoles, PA-824 and OPC-67683, are currently in Phase II clinical trials for the treatment of TB and the outcome of these may determine the future directions of drug development for anti-tubercular nitroimidazoles. In this review we summarize the development of these nitroimidazoles and alternative analogs in these series that may offer attractive alternatives to PA-824 and OPC-67683 for further development in the drug-discovery pipeline. Lastly, the potential pitfalls in the development of nitroimidazoles as drugs for TB are discussed. PMID:21879846

  4. Aerobic glycolysis in cancers: implications for the usability of oxygen-responsive genes and fluorodeoxyglucose-PET as markers of tissue hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Busk, Morten; Horsman, Michael R; Kristjansen, Paul E G; van der Kogel, Albert J; Bussink, Johan; Overgaard, Jens

    2008-06-15

    The hypoxia-responsiveness of the glycolytic machinery may allow pretreatment identification of hypoxic tumors from HIF-1 targets (e.g., Glut-1) or [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography but results have been mixed. We hypothesized that this discrepancy is an inevitable consequence of elevated aerobic glycolysis in tumors (Warburg effect) as energetics in predominantly glycolytic cells is little affected by hypoxia. Accordingly, we characterized glycolytic and mitochondrial ATP generation in normoxic and anoxic cell lines. Measurements demonstrated that most cancer cells rely largely on aerobic glycolysis as it accounts for 56-63% of their ATP budget, but in the cervical carcinoma SiHa, ATP synthesis was mainly mitochondrial. Moreover, the stimulatory effect of anoxia on glycolytic flux was inversely correlated to the relative reliance on aerobic glycolysis. Next, tumor cells representing a Warburg or a nonglycolytic phenotype were grown in mice and spatial patterns of hypoxia (pimonidazole-stained), Glut-1 expression and (18)F-FDG uptake were analysed on sectioned tumors. Only in SiHa tumors did foci of elevated glucose metabolism consistently colocalize with regions of hypoxia and elevated Glut-1 expression. In contrast, spatial patterns of Glut-1 and pimonidazole staining correlated reasonably well in all tumors. In conclusion, Glut-1's value as a hypoxia marker is not severely restricted by aerobic glycolysis. In contrast, the specificity of (18)F-FDG uptake and Glut-1 expression as markers of regional hypoxia and glucose metabolism, respectively, scales inversely with the intensity of the Warburg effect. This linkage suggests that multi-tracer imaging combining FDG and hypoxia-specific markers may provide therapeutically relevant information on tumor energetic phenotypes.

  5. Effect of nitroimidazole sensitizers on in vitro glycolytic metabolism of hypoxic squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Minn, H; Clavo, A C; Fisher, S J; Wahl, R L

    2000-01-01

    Two nitroimidazole compounds, misonidazole (MISO) and nimorazole (NIMO), were evaluated for their potential to modify uptake of [5,6-3H] 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (3H-FDG) in the human squamous carcinoma cell line UT-SCC-5 exposed to increasing levels of hypoxia. UT-SCC-5 cells were incubated with 0-10 mM of MISO or NIMO under normal or reduced oxygen concentrations of 20%, 1.5%, or 0% with 5% CO2 for 6 h, after which 74 KBq of 3H-FDG was added in media for 1 h. In the presence of normal concentrations of O2, both sensitizers increased 3H-FDG uptake by up to 178% (MISO) or 84% (NIMO) when compared with untreated cells. In anoxia, MISO decreased 3H-FDG uptake to 35% of that of control whereas NIMO-treated cells showed a respective decrease in tracer uptake to 62%. Clonogenic assays clearly indicated that MISO was toxic and NIMO moderately toxic for hypoxic cells, whereas both sensitizers exerted only a very modest effect on survival of fully oxygenated cells. Our findings indicate that nitroimidazole treatment consistently increases 3H-FDG uptake into UT-SCC-5 cells under normal oxygen concentrations. In hypoxia, the observed decrease in tracer uptake is dependent on both the level of ambient oxygen and drug concentration and may reflect both direct toxicity and inhibition of glycolysis. The observations may be useful for further applications of 18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) to monitor effects of hypoxic cell radiosensitizers on tumor metabolism in vivo.

  6. Relationships between hypoxia markers and the leptin system, estrogen receptors in human primary and metastatic breast cancer: effects of preoperative chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Tumor hypoxia is marked by enhanced expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-α (HIF-1α) and glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1). Hypoxic conditions have also been associated with overexpression of angiogenic factors, such as leptin. The aim of our study was to analyze the relationships between hypoxia markers HIF-1α, Glut-1, leptin, leptin receptor (ObR) and other breast cancer biomarkers in primary and metastatic breast cancer in patients treated or untreated with preoperative chemotherapy. Methods The expression of different biomarkers was examined by immunohistochemistry in 116 primary breast cancers and 65 lymph node metastases. Forty five of these samples were obtained form patients who received preoperative chemotherapy and 71 from untreated patients. Results In primary tumors without preoperative chemotherapy, HIF-1α and Glut-1 were positively correlated (p = 0.02, r = 0.437). HIF-1α in primary and metastatic tumors without preoperative therapy positively correlated with leptin (p < 0.0001, r = 0.532; p = 0.013, r = 0.533, respectively) and ObR (p = 0.002, r = 0.319; p = 0.083, r = 0.387, respectively). Hypoxia markers HIF-1α and Glut-1 were negatively associated with estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and positively correlated with estrogen receptor beta (ERβ). In this group of tumors, a positive correlation between Glut-1 and proliferation marker Ki-67 (p = 0.017, r = 0.433) was noted. The associations between HIF-1α and Glut-1, HIF-1α and leptin, HIF-1α and ERα as well as Glut-1 and ERβ were lost following preoperative chemotherapy. Conclusions Intratumoral hypoxia in breast cancer is marked by coordinated expression of such markers as HIF-1α, Glut-1, leptin and ObR. The relationships among these proteins can be altered by preoperative chemotherapy. PMID:20569445

  7. Positron Emission Tomography Imaging of Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Lapi, Suzanne E.; Voller, Thomas F.; Welch, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis Hypoxia imaging has applications in functional recovery in ischemic events such as stroke and myocardial ischemia, but especially in tumors in which hypoxia can be predictive of treatment response and overall prognosis. Recently there has been development of imaging agents utilizing positron emission tomography for non-invasive imaging of hypoxia. Many of these PET agents have come to the forefront of hypoxia imaging. Halogenated PET nitroimidazole imaging agents labeled with 18F (t1/2 = 110 m) and 124I (t1/2 = 110 m) have been under investigation for the last 25 years, with radiometal agents (64Cu-ATSM) being developed more recently. This review focuses on these positron emission tomography imaging agents for hypoxia. PMID:20046923

  8. Fifteen days of 3,200 m simulated hypoxia marginally regulates markers for protein synthesis and degradation in human skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    D’Hulst, Gommaar; Ferri, Alessandra; Naslain, Damien; Bertrand, Luc; Horman, Sandrine; Francaux, Marc; Bishop, David J; Deldicque, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hypoxia leads to muscle atrophy. The molecular mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon are not well defined in vivo. We sought to determine how chronic hypoxia regulates molecular markers of protein synthesis and degradation in human skeletal muscle and whether these regulations were related to the regulation of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway. Eight young male subjects lived in a normobaric hypoxic hotel (FiO2 14.1%, 3,200 m) for 15 days in well-controlled conditions for nutrition and physical activity. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained in the musculus vastus lateralis before (PRE) and immediately after (POST) hypoxic exposure. Intramuscular hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) protein expression decreased (−49%, P=0.03), whereas hypoxia-inducible factor-2 alpha (HIF-2α) remained unaffected from PRE to POST hypoxic exposure. Also, downstream HIF-1α target genes VEGF-A (−66%, P=0.006) and BNIP3 (−24%, P=0.002) were downregulated, and a tendency was measured for neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally Nedd4 (−47%, P=0.07), suggesting lowered HIF-1α transcriptional activity after 15 days of exposure to environmental hypoxia. No difference was found on microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 type II/I (LC3b-II/I) ratio, and P62 protein expression tended to increase (+45%, P=0.07) compared to PRE exposure levels, suggesting that autophagy was not modulated after chronic hypoxia. The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 pathway was not altered as Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin, S6 kinase 1, and 4E-binding protein 1 phosphorylation did not change between PRE and POST. Finally, myofiber cross-sectional area was unchanged between PRE and POST. In summary, our data indicate that moderate chronic hypoxia differentially regulates HIF-1α and HIF-2α, marginally affects markers of protein degradation, and does not modify markers of protein synthesis or myofiber cross-sectional area in human skeletal muscle

  9. Communication: "Position" does matter: The photofragmentation of the nitroimidazole isomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolognesi, P.; Casavola, A. R.; Cartoni, A.; Richter, R.; Markus, P.; Borocci, S.; Chiarinelli, J.; Tošić, S.; Sa'adeh, H.; Masič, M.; Marinković, B. P.; Prince, K. C.; Avaldi, L.

    2016-11-01

    A combined experimental and theoretical approach has been used to disentangle the fundamental mechanisms of the fragmentation of the three isomers of nitroimidazole induced by vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) radiation, namely, 4-, 5-, and 2-nitroimidazole. The results of mass spectrometry as well as photoelectron-photoion coincidence spectroscopy display striking differences in the radiation-induced decomposition of the different nitroimidazole radical cations. Based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations, a model is proposed which fully explains such differences, and reveals the subtle fragmentation mechanisms leading to the release of neutral species like NO, CO, and HCN. Such species have a profound impact in biological media and may play a fundamental role in radiosensitising mechanisms during radiotherapy.

  10. Patterns and Levels of Hypoxia in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas and Their Relationship to Patient Outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Sydney M. V. Du, Kevin L.; Chalian, Ara A.; Mick, Rosemarie; Zhang, Paul J.; Hahn, Stephen M.; Quon, Harry; Lustig, Robert; Weinstein, Gregory S.; Koch, Cameron J.

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: EF5, a 2-nitroimidazole hypoxia marker, was used to study the presence, levels, and prognostic significance of hypoxia in primary head and neck squamous cell tumors. Methods and Materials: Twenty-two patients with newly diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx, or larynx with at least 2 years of clinical follow-up were included in this study. Quantitative analyses of EF5 immunofluorescence was carried out, and these data were compared with patient outcome. Results: EF5 immunostaining showed substantial intra- and intertumoral hypoxic heterogeneity. The majority of cells in all tumors were well oxygenated. Three patterns of EF5 binding in cells were identified using criteria based on the cellular region that was stained (peripheral or central) and the relationship of binding to necrosis. We tested the association between EF5-binding levels with event-free and overall survival irrespective of the pattern of cellular binding or treatment regimen. Patients with tumors containing EF5-binding regions corresponding to severe hypoxia ({<=}0.1% oxygen) had a shorter event-free survival time than patients with pO{sub 2} values greater than 0.1% (p = 0.032). Nodal status was also predictive for outcome. Conclusions: These data illustrate the potential utility of EF5 binding based on quantitative immunohistochemistry of tissue pO{sub 2} and provide support for the development of noninvasive hypoxia positron emission tomographic studies with fluorine 18-labeled EF5.

  11. Transfer of nitroimidazoles from contaminated beeswax to honey.

    PubMed

    Mitrowska, Kamila; Antczak, Maja

    2017-04-01

    Nitroimidazoles are not authorised for the treatment of honey bees in the European Union. However, they can be found in honey largely because they are illegally used in apiculture for the treatment of Nosema. The aim of the study was to examine the possible transfer of nitroimidazoles (metronidazole, ronidazole, dimetridazole and ipronidazole) from contaminated beeswax to honey. The wax foundations fortified with a mixture of four nitroimidazoles at three concentration levels (1000, 10,000 and 100,000 μg kg(-)(1)) were placed in beehives to let the honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) draw out the contaminated wax foundations to honeycombs. At 1 month from the start, the frames filled with capped honey were removed from the hives for a first sampling of honey. Next, the honeycombs were further incubated for 5 months in the laboratory at 35°C and sampled monthly. In the sampled honey, the concentrations of nitroimidazoles and their main metabolites (hydroxymetronidazole, 2-hydroxymethyl-1-methyl-5-nitroimidazole, hydroxyipronidazole) were determined by LC-MS/MS and compared with those determined in the nitroimidazole-containing wax foundations. Each of the tested nitroimidazoles could migrate from beeswax to honey kept in the contaminated combs at each tested concentration level. Higher maximum concentrations of residues in honey sampled from contaminated combs at 1000, 10,000 and 100,000 μg kg(-)(1) were observed for metronidazole (28.9, 368.5 and 2589.4 μg kg(-)(1) respectively) and ronidazole (27.4, 232.9 and 2351.2 μg kg(-)(1) respectively), while lower maximum concentrations were measured for dimetridazole (0.98, 8.4 and 67.7 μg kg(-)(1)) and ipronidazole (0.9, 7.9 and 35.7 μg kg(-)(1) respectively). When we took into account that a frame completely filled with honey on both sides of the comb contained 110 g of beeswax and 2488 g of honey, and that this ratio was constant, then maximum amounts of initial metronidazole, ronidazole, dimetridazole

  12. 18F-FDG imaging of human atherosclerotic carotid plaques reflects gene expression of the key hypoxia marker HIF-1α

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Sune Folke; Græbe, Martin; Hag, Anne Mette F; Højgaard, Liselotte; Sillesen, Henrik; Kjær, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the association between gene expression of key molecular markers of hypoxia and inflammation in atherosclerotic carotid lesions with 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG) uptake as determined clinically by positron emission tomography (PET). Studies using PET have demonstrated 18F-FDG-uptake in patients with confirmed plaques of the carotid artery. Inflammatory active or “vulnerable” plaques progressively increase in bulk, develop necrotic cores, poor vessel-wall vascularization and become prone to hypoxia. We used quantitative polymerase-chain reaction (qPCR) to determine gene expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and cluster of differentiation 68 (CD68) on plaques recovered by carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in 18 patients. Gene expression was compared with 18F-FDG-uptake quantified as the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) on co-registered PET/computed tomography (CT) scans performed the day before CEA. Immunohistochemistry was used to validate target-gene protein expression. In univariate linear regression analysis HIF-1α was significantly correlated with 18F-FDG-uptake (SUVmax) as was CD68. A two-tailed Pearson regression model demonstrated that HIF-1α and CD68 gene expression co-variated and accordingly when entering the variables into multivariate linear regression models with SUV-values as dependent variables, HIF-1α was eliminated in the final models. 18F-FDG-uptake (SUVmax) is correlated with HIF-1α gene expression indicating an association between hypoxia and glucose metabolism in vivo. The marker of inflammation CD68 is also associated with 18F-FDG-uptake (SUVmax). As CD68 and HIF-1α gene expression co-variate their information is overlapping. PMID:24116346

  13. Phage display library selection of a hypoxia-binding scFv antibody for liver cancer metabolic marker discovery

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hang; Gao, Zhihui; Li, Yao; Sun, Zhongyuan; Xiang, Rong; Zhang, Sihe

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia, which is frequently observed in liver cancer and metastasis, influences tumor progression and resistance to therapy. Although hypoxia-associated biomarkers are of use in other cancers, none is recognized as a surrogate for hypoxia in liver cancer. In this study, we generated seven unique human single-chain Fv (scFv) antibodies (Abs) specific to hypoxic liver cancer cells, using normoxia-depleted vs hypoxia-selected phage library panning technology. By developing the scFv immunoprecipitation-based mass spectrometry method, the antigen that bound with one of the Abs (H103) was identified as the M2 splice isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2), an enzyme that is a key regulator of aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells. Increased expression of PKM2 was induced by hypoxia in liver cancer cell lines. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining showed that PKM2 was highly expressed in moderately and well differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues with a hypovascular staining pattern. High expression of PKM2 was also localized in the perinecrotic area of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) tissues. The percentage of the HCC or ICC tumor expressing PKM2 was significantly higher with more tumor necrosis, low microvessel density, and advanced stage. Moreover, the H103 scFv Ab was efficiently internalized into hypoxic liver cancer cells and could have potential for targeted drug delivery. Conclusion: our study, for the first time, developed hypoxia-specific scFv Ab H103 to liver cancer cells, and revealed that PKM2 is a promising biomarker for hypoxia in HCC and ICC tissues. These allow further exploration of this valuable Ab and PKM2 antigen for hypoxia targeting in liver cancer. PMID:27203546

  14. Nitroimidazole drugs vary in their mode of action in the human parasite Giardia lamblia

    PubMed Central

    Leitsch, David; Schlosser, Sarah; Burgess, Anita; Duchêne, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Giardia lamblia (syn. duodenalis, intestinalis) is a globally occurring micro-aerophilic human parasite that causes gastrointestinal disease. Standard treatment of G. lamblia infections is based on the 5-nitroimidazole drugs metronidazole and tinidazole. In two other micro-aerophilic parasites, Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis, 5-nitroimidazole drugs bind to proteins involved in the thioredoxin-mediated redox network and disrupt the redox equilibrium by inhibiting thioredoxin reductase and depleting intracellular thiol pools. The major aim of this study was to assess whether nitroimidazoles exert a similar toxic effect on G. lamblia physiology. The 5-nitroimidazoles metronidazole and tinidazole were found to bind to the same subset of proteins including thioredoxin reductase. However, in contrast to E. histolytica and T. vaginalis, none of the other proteins bound are candidates for being involved in the thioredoxin-mediated redox network. Translation elongation factor EF-1γ, an essential factor in protein synthesis, was widely degraded upon treatment with 5-nitroimidazoles. 2-Nitroimidazole (azomycin) and the 5-nitroimidazole ronidazole did not bind to any G. lamblia proteins, which is in contrast to previous findings in E. histolytica and T. vaginalis. All nitroimidazoles tested reduced intracellular thiol pools in G. lamblia, but metronidazole, also in contrast to the situation in the other two parasites, had the slightest effect. Taken together, our results suggest that nitroimidazole drugs affect G. lamblia in a fundamentally different way than E. histolytica and T. vaginalis. PMID:24533278

  15. Mechanism of nitroimidazole damage to DNA: coulometric evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, R.J.; Edwards, D.I.; Knight, R.C.

    1984-08-01

    A high resolution coulometric technique has been developed to measure the electron requirement for reduction of 12 nitroimidazoles, both in the presence and absence of DNA. The cytotoxic species is shown to be a light sensitive intermediate of drug reduction and a common mechanism of cytotoxicity proposed which involves electron transfer from DNA to the one-electron radical anion (R-NO/sub 2//sup -/).

  16. Nitroimidazoles adsorption on activated carbon cloth from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Ocampo-Pérez, R; Orellana-Garcia, F; Sánchez-Polo, M; Rivera-Utrilla, J; Velo-Gala, I; López-Ramón, M V; Alvarez-Merino, M A

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the equilibrium and adsorption kinetics of nitroimidazoles on activated carbon cloth (ACC), determining the main interactions responsible for the adsorption process and the diffusion mechanism of these compounds on this material. The influence of the different operational variables, such as ionic strength, pH, temperature, and type of water (ultrapure, surface, and waste), was also studied. The results obtained show that the ACC has a high capacity to adsorb nitroimidazoles in aqueous solution. Electrostatic interactions play an important role at pH<3, which favors the repulsive forces between dimetridazole or metronidazole and the ACC surface. The formation of hydrogen bonds and dispersive interactions play the predominant role at higher pH values. Modifications of the ACC with NH3, K2S2O8, and O3 demonstrated that its surface chemistry plays a predominant role in nitroimidazole adsorption on this material. The adsorption capacity of ACC is considerably high in surface waters and reduced in urban wastewater, due to the levels of alkalinity and dissolved organic matter present in the different types of water. Finally, the results of applying kinetic models revealed that the global adsorption rate of dimetridazole and metronidazole is controlled by intraparticle diffusion.

  17. Maternal separation prior to neonatal hypoxia-ischemia: Impact on emotional aspects of behavior and markers of synaptic plasticity in hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Markostamou, Ioanna; Ioannidis, Anestis; Dandi, Evgenia; Mandyla, Maria-Aikaterini; Nousiopoulou, Evangelia; Simeonidou, Constantina; Spandou, Evangelia; Tata, Despina A

    2016-08-01

    Exposure to early-life stress is associated with long-term alterations in brain and behavior, and may aggravate the outcome of neurological insults. This study aimed at investigating the possible interaction between maternal separation, a model of early stress, and subsequent neonatal hypoxia-ischemia on emotional behavior and markers of synaptic plasticity in hippocampus. Therefore, rat pups (N=60) were maternally separated for a prolonged (MS 180min) or a brief (MS 15min) period during the first six postnatal days, while a control group was left undisturbed. Hypoxia-ischemia was applied to a subgroup of each rearing condition on postnatal day 7. Emotional behavior was examined at three months of age and included assessments of anxiety (elevated plus maze), depression-like behavior (forced swimming) and spontaneous exploration (open field). Synaptic plasticity was evaluated based on BDNF and synaptophysin expression in CA3 and dentate gyrus hippocampal regions. We found that neonatal hypoxia-ischemia caused increased levels of anxiety, depression-like behavior and locomotor activity (ambulation). Higher anxiety levels were also seen in maternally separated rats (MS180min) compared to non-maternally separated rats, but prolonged maternal separation prior to HI did not potentiate the HI-associated effect. No differences among the three rearing conditions were found regarding depression-like behavior or ambulation. Immunohistochemical evaluation of synaptophysin revealed that both prolonged maternal separation (MS180min) and neonatal hypoxia-ischemia significantly reduced its expression in the CA3 and dentate gyrus. Decreases in synaptophysin expression in these areas were not exacerbated in rats that were maternally separated for a prolonged period prior to HI. Regarding BDNF expression, we found a significant decrease in immunoreactivity only in the hypoxic-ischemic rats that were subjected to the prolonged maternal separation paradigm. The above findings suggest

  18. [Food intake during the previous 24h as a percentage of usual intake: a marker of hypoxia in infants with bronchiolitis: an observational, prospective, multicenter study].

    PubMed

    Corrard, F; de La Rocque, F; Martin, E; Wollner, C; Elbez, A; Koskas, M; Wollner, A; Cohen, R

    2013-06-01

    Hypoxia associated with bronchiolitis is not always easy to assess on clinical grounds alone. The aim of this study was to determine the value of food intake during the previous 24h (bottle and spoon feeding), as a percentage of usual intake (24h FI), as a marker of hypoxia, and to compare its diagnostic value with that of usual clinical signs. In this observational, prospective, multicenter study, 18 community pediatricians, enrolled 171 infants, aged from 0 to 6 months, with bronchiolitis (rhinorrhea+dyspnea+cough+expiratory sounds). Infants with risk factors (history of prematurity, chronic heart or lung disorders), breast-fed infants, and infants having previously been treated for bronchial disorders were excluded. The 24h FI, subcostal, intercostal, supracostal retractions, nasal flaring, respiratory rate, pauses, cyanosis, rectal temperature and respiratory syncytial virus test results were noted. The highest stable value of transcutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2) was recorded. Hypoxia was noted if SpO2 was below 95% and verified. 24h FI greater or equal to 50% was associated with a 96% likelihood of SpO2 greater or equal to 95% [95% CI, 91-99%]. In univariate analysis, 24h FI less than 50% had the highest odds ratio (13.8) for SpO2 less than 95%, compared to other 24h FI values and other clinical signs, as well as providing one of the best compromises between specificity (90%) and sensitivity (60%) for identifying infants with hypoxia. In multivariate analysis with adjustment for age, SpO2 less than 95% was related to the presence of intercostal retractions (OR=9.1 [95% CI, 2.4-33.8%]) and 24h FI less than 50% (OR=10.9 [95% CI, 3.0-39.1%]). Hospitalization (17 infants) was strongly related to younger age, 24h FI and intercostal retractions. In practice, the measure of 24h FI may be useful in identifying hypoxia and deserves further study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Systematic analysis of 18F-FDG PET and metabolism, proliferation and hypoxia markers for classification of head and neck tumors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Quantification of molecular cell processes is important for prognostication and treatment individualization of head and neck cancer (HNC). However, individual tumor comparison can show discord in upregulation similarities when analyzing multiple biological mechanisms. Elaborate tumor characterization, integrating multiple pathways reflecting intrinsic and microenvironmental properties, may be beneficial to group most uniform tumors for treatment modification schemes. The goal of this study was to systematically analyze if immunohistochemical (IHC) assessment of molecular markers, involved in treatment resistance, and 18F-FDG PET parameters could accurately distinguish separate HNC tumors. Methods Several imaging parameters and texture features for 18F-FDG small-animal PET and immunohistochemical markers related to metabolism, hypoxia, proliferation and tumor blood perfusion were assessed within groups of BALB/c nu/nu mice xenografted with 14 human HNC models. Classification methods were used to predict tumor line based on sets of parameters. Results We found that 18F-FDG PET could not differentiate between the tumor lines. On the contrary, combined IHC parameters could accurately allocate individual tumors to the correct model. From 9 analyzed IHC parameters, a cluster of 6 random parameters already classified 70.3% correctly. Combining all PET/IHC characteristics resulted in the highest tumor line classification accuracy (81.0%; cross validation 82.0%), which was just 2.2% higher (p = 5.2×10-32) than the performance of the IHC parameter/feature based model. Conclusions With a select set of IHC markers representing cellular processes of metabolism, proliferation, hypoxia and perfusion, one can reliably distinguish between HNC tumor lines. Addition of 18F-FDG PET improves classification accuracy of IHC to a significant yet minor degree. These results may form a basis for development of tumor characterization models for treatment allocation purposes

  20. Neuropathy of nitroimidazole radiosensitizers: clinical and pathological description

    SciTech Connect

    Wasserman, T.H.; Nelson, J.S.; VonGerichten, D.

    1984-09-01

    The dose limiting toxicity of the nitroimidazole radiosensitizers is peripherial neuropathy. Improved pharmacology of newer drugs has eliminated the encephalopathy. Peripheral neuropathies are predominently mild to moderate paresthesias of both hands and feet. Subjective changes occur with or without minimal objective changes on neurologic exam. All of the neuropathies occurred within 30 days of the last drug dose and are of varible duration. Sural nerve biopsies from patients indicate progressive axonal degeneration affecting both large and small caliber myelinated fibers. Axonal damage appears to be more severe in the distal portion of the nerves. More data are needed for correlation of clinical and pathological changes.

  1. Pharmacokinetics-Pharmacodynamics Analysis of Bicyclic 4-Nitroimidazole Analogs in a Murine Model of Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Lakshminarayana, Suresh B.; Boshoff, Helena I. M.; Cherian, Joseph; Ravindran, Sindhu; Goh, Anne; Jiricek, Jan; Nanjundappa, Mahesh; Nayyar, Amit; Gurumurthy, Meera; Singh, Ramandeep; Dick, Thomas; Blasco, Francesca; Barry, Clifton E.; Ho, Paul C.; Manjunatha, Ujjini H.

    2014-01-01

    PA-824 is a bicyclic 4-nitroimidazole, currently in phase II clinical trials for the treatment of tuberculosis. Dose fractionation pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic studies in mice indicated that the driver of PA-824 in vivo efficacy is the time during which the free drug concentrations in plasma are above the MIC (fT>MIC). In this study, a panel of closely related potent bicyclic 4-nitroimidazoles was profiled in both in vivo PK and efficacy studies. In an established murine TB model, the efficacy of diverse nitroimidazole analogs ranged between 0.5 and 2.3 log CFU reduction compared to untreated controls. Further, a retrospective analysis was performed for a set of seven nitroimidazole analogs to identify the PK parameters that correlate with in vivo efficacy. Our findings show that the in vivo efficacy of bicyclic 4-nitroimidazoles correlated better with lung PK than with plasma PK. Further, nitroimidazole analogs with moderate-to-high volume of distribution and Lung to plasma ratios of >2 showed good efficacy. Among all the PK-PD indices, total lung T>MIC correlated the best with in vivo efficacy (rs = 0.88) followed by lung Cmax/MIC and AUC/MIC. Thus, lung drug distribution studies could potentially be exploited to guide the selection of compounds for efficacy studies, thereby accelerating the drug discovery efforts in finding new nitroimidazole analogs. PMID:25141257

  2. Enhancement of DNA damage in mammalian cells upon bioreduction of the nitroimidazole-aziridines RSU-1069 and RSU-1131.

    PubMed

    Jenner, T J; Sapora, O; O'Neill, P; Fielden, E M

    1988-10-15

    The induction of DNA double-(dsb) and single-(ssb) strand breaks by RSU-1069, RSU-1131 and misonidazole in V79 mammalian cells has been investigated using sedimentation in isokinetic sucrose gradients after incubation for various times (1-3 hr) at 310 K under both hypoxic and aerobic conditions. Double strand breaks are produced by RSU-1069 and RSU-1131 predominantly under hypoxic conditions. Comparison of the cellular DNA damage induced by these agents leads to the following facts: (1) the yield of ssb induced by these agents is substantially increased under hypoxia, (2) RSU-1069 and RSU-1131 are much more effective than misonidazole, on a concentration basis, at causing strand breakage both under hypoxic and aerobic conditions; and (3) RSU-1069 is more efficient on a concentration basis than RSU-1131 at inducing both ssb and dsb under both conditions. From these findings and molecular studies it is suggested that these 2-nitroimidazole aziridines act as monofunctional alkylating agents under aerobic conditions, a factor that governs their aerobic cytotoxicity. Under hypoxic conditions, it is suggested that the induction of dsb and crosslinks by these agents (bifunctional character) may play a major role in determining the ability of such agents to act as hypoxia-selective cytotoxins.

  3. Comparison of the Hypoxia PET Tracer 18F-EF5 to Immunohistochemical Marker EF5 in 3 Different Human Tumor Xenograft Models

    PubMed Central

    Chitneni, Satish K.; Bida, Gerald T.; Zalutsky, Michael R.; Dewhirst, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    The availability of 18F-labeled and unlabeled 2-(2-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)-N-(2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropyl)-acetamide (EF5) allows for a comparative assessment of tumor hypoxia by PET and immunohistochemistry; however, the combined use of these 2 approaches has not been fully assessed in vivo. The aim of this study was to evaluate 18F-EF5 tumor uptake versus EF5 binding and hypoxia as determined from immunohistochemistry at both macroscopic and microregional levels. Methods Three tumor models— PC3, HCT116, and H460—were evaluated. Tumor-bearing animals were coinjected with 18F-EF5 and EF5 (30 mg/kg), and PET imaging was performed at 2.5 h after injection. After PET imaging and 2 min after Hoechst 33342 injection, the tumors were excised and evaluated for 18F-EF5 distribution by autoradiography and EF5 binding by immunohistochemistry. Additionally, the effects of nonradioactive EF5 (30 mg/kg) on the hypoxia-imaging characteristics of 18F-EF5 were evaluated by comparing the PET data for H460 tumors with those from animals injected with 18F-EF5 alone. Results The uptake of 18F-EF5 in hypoxic tumor regions and the spatial relationship between 18F-EF5 uptake and EF5 binding varied among tumors. H460 tumors showed higher tumor-to-muscle contrast in PET imaging; however, the distribution and uptake of the tracer was less specific for hypoxia in H460 than in HCT116 and PC3 tumors. Correlation analyses revealed that the highest spatial correlation between 18F-EF5 uptake and EF5 binding was in PC3 tumors (r = 0.73 ± 0.02) followed by HCT116 (r = 0.60 ± 0.06) and H460 (r = 0.53 ± 0.10). Uptake and binding of 18F-EF5 and EF5 correlated negatively with Hoechst 33342 perfusion marker distribution in the 3 tumor models. Image contrast and heterogeneous uptake of 18F-EF5 in H460 tumors was significantly higher when the radiotracer was used alone versus in combination with unlabeled EF5 (tumor-to-muscle ratio of 2.51 ± 0.33 vs. 1.71 ± 0.17, P , 0.001). Conclusion The uptake

  4. Metabolic profiling reveals potential metabolic markers associated with Hypoxia Inducible Factor-mediated signalling in hypoxic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Armitage, Emily G.; Kotze, Helen L.; Allwood, J. William; Dunn, Warwick B.; Goodacre, Royston; Williams, Kaye J.

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) plays an important role in oxygen compromised environments and therefore in tumour survival. In this research, metabolomics has been applied to study HIFs metabolic function in two cell models: mouse hepatocellular carcinoma and human colon carcinoma, whereby the metabolism has been profiled for a range of oxygen potentials. Wild type cells have been compared to cells deficient in HIF signalling to reveal its effect on cellular metabolism under normal oxygen conditions as well as low oxygen, hypoxic and anoxic environments. Characteristic responses to hypoxia that were conserved across both cell models involved the anti-correlation between 2-hydroxyglutarate, 2-oxoglutarate, fructose, hexadecanoic acid, hypotaurine, pyruvate and octadecenoic acid with 4-hydroxyproline, aspartate, cysteine, glutamine, lysine, malate and pyroglutamate. Further to this, network-based correlation analysis revealed HIF specific pathway responses to each oxygen condition that were also conserved between cell models. From this, 4-hydroxyproline was revealed as a regulating hub in low oxygen survival of WT cells while fructose appeared to be in HIF deficient cells. Pathways surrounding these hubs were built from the direct connections of correlated metabolites that look beyond traditional pathways in order to understand the mechanism of HIF response to low oxygen environments. PMID:26508589

  5. Metabolic profiling reveals potential metabolic markers associated with Hypoxia Inducible Factor-mediated signalling in hypoxic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Armitage, Emily G; Kotze, Helen L; Allwood, J William; Dunn, Warwick B; Goodacre, Royston; Williams, Kaye J

    2015-10-28

    Hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) plays an important role in oxygen compromised environments and therefore in tumour survival. In this research, metabolomics has been applied to study HIFs metabolic function in two cell models: mouse hepatocellular carcinoma and human colon carcinoma, whereby the metabolism has been profiled for a range of oxygen potentials. Wild type cells have been compared to cells deficient in HIF signalling to reveal its effect on cellular metabolism under normal oxygen conditions as well as low oxygen, hypoxic and anoxic environments. Characteristic responses to hypoxia that were conserved across both cell models involved the anti-correlation between 2-hydroxyglutarate, 2-oxoglutarate, fructose, hexadecanoic acid, hypotaurine, pyruvate and octadecenoic acid with 4-hydroxyproline, aspartate, cysteine, glutamine, lysine, malate and pyroglutamate. Further to this, network-based correlation analysis revealed HIF specific pathway responses to each oxygen condition that were also conserved between cell models. From this, 4-hydroxyproline was revealed as a regulating hub in low oxygen survival of WT cells while fructose appeared to be in HIF deficient cells. Pathways surrounding these hubs were built from the direct connections of correlated metabolites that look beyond traditional pathways in order to understand the mechanism of HIF response to low oxygen environments.

  6. Imaging tumor hypoxia by near-infrared fluorescence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswal, Nrusingh C.; Pavlik, Christopher; Smith, Michael B.; Aguirre, Andres; Xu, Yan; Zanganeh, Saeid; Kuhn, Liisa T.; Claffey, Kevin P.; Zhu, Quing

    2011-06-01

    We have developed a novel nitroimidazole indocyanine dye conjugate for tumor-targeted hypoxia fluorescence tomography. The hypoxia probe has been evaluated in vitro using tumor cell lines and in vivo with tumor targeting in mice. The in vitro cell studies were performed to assess fluorescence labeling differences between hypoxia and normoxia conditions. When treated with the hypoxia probe, a fluorescence emission ratio of 2.5-fold was found between the cells incubated under hypoxia compared to the cells in normoxia condition. Hypoxia specificity was also confirmed by comparing the cells treated with indocyanine dye alone. In vivo tumor targeting in mice showed that the fluorescence signals measured at the tumor site were twice those at the normal site after 150 min post-injection of the hypoxia probe. On the other hand, the fluorescence signals measured after injection of indocyanine dye were the same at tumor and normal sites. In vivo fluorescence tomography images of mice injected with the hypoxia probe showed that the probe remained for more than 5 to 7 h in the tumors, however, the images of mice injected with indocyanine only dye confirmed that the unbound dye washed out in less than 3 h. These findings are supported with fluorescence images of histological sections of tumor samples using a Li-COR scanner and immunohistochemistry technique for tumor hypoxia.

  7. Toward hypoxia-selective rhenium and technetium tricarbonyl complexes.

    PubMed

    North, Andrea J; Hayne, David J; Schieber, Christine; Price, Katherine; White, Anthony R; Crouch, Peter J; Rigopoulos, Angela; O'Keefe, Graeme J; Tochon-Danguy, Henri; Scott, Andrew M; White, Jonathan M; Ackermann, Uwe; Donnelly, Paul S

    2015-10-05

    With the aim of preparing hypoxia-selective imaging and therapeutic agents, technetium(I) and rhenium(I) tricarbonyl complexes with pyridylhydrazone, dipyridylamine, and pyridylaminocarboxylate ligands containing nitrobenzyl or nitroimidazole functional groups have been prepared. The rhenium tricarbonyl complexes were synthesized with short reaction times using microwave irradiation. Rhenium tricarbonyl complexes with deprotonated p-nitrophenyl pyridylhydrazone ligands are luminescent, and this has been used to track their uptake in HeLa cells using confocal fluorescent microscopy. Selected rhenium tricarbonyl complexes displayed higher uptake in hypoxic cells when compared to normoxic cells. A (99m)Tc tricarbonyl complex with a dipyridylamine ligand bearing a nitroimidazole functional group is stable in human serum and was shown to localize in a human renal cell carcinoma (RCC; SK-RC-52) tumor in a mouse.

  8. HPV status, cancer stem cell marker expression, hypoxia gene signatures and tumour volume identify good prognosis subgroups in patients with HNSCC after primary radiochemotherapy: A multicentre retrospective study of the German Cancer Consortium Radiation Oncology Group (DKTK-ROG).

    PubMed

    Linge, Annett; Lohaus, Fabian; Löck, Steffen; Nowak, Alexander; Gudziol, Volker; Valentini, Chiara; von Neubeck, Cläre; Jütz, Martin; Tinhofer, Inge; Budach, Volker; Sak, Ali; Stuschke, Martin; Balermpas, Panagiotis; Rödel, Claus; Grosu, Anca-Ligia; Abdollahi, Amir; Debus, Jürgen; Ganswindt, Ute; Belka, Claus; Pigorsch, Steffi; Combs, Stephanie E; Mönnich, David; Zips, Daniel; Buchholz, Frank; Aust, Daniela E; Baretton, Gustavo B; Thames, Howard D; Dubrovska, Anna; Alsner, Jan; Overgaard, Jens; Krause, Mechthild; Baumann, Michael

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the impact of the tumour volume, HPV status, cancer stem cell (CSC) marker expression and hypoxia gene signatures, as potential markers of radiobiological mechanisms of radioresistance, in a contemporary cohort of patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), who received primary radiochemotherapy (RCTx). For 158 patients with locally advanced HNSCC of the oral cavity, oropharynx or hypopharynx who were treated at six DKTK partner sites, the impact of tumour volume, HPV DNA, p16 overexpression, p53 expression, CSC marker expression and hypoxia-associated gene signatures on outcome of primary RCTx was retrospectively analyzed. The primary endpoint of this study was loco-regional control (LRC). Univariate Cox regression revealed a significant impact of tumour volume, p16 overexpression, and SLC3A2 and CD44 protein expression on LRC. The tumour hypoxia classification showed a significant impact only for small tumours. In multivariate analyses an independent correlation of tumour volume, SLC3A2 expression, and the 15-gene hypoxia signature with LRC was identified (CD44 protein n/a because of no event in the CD44-negative group). Logistic modelling showed that inclusion of CD44 protein expression and p16 overexpression significantly improved the performance to predict LRC at 2years compared to the model with tumour volume alone. Tumour volume, HPV status, CSC marker expression and hypoxia gene signatures are potential prognostic biomarkers for patients with locally advanced HNSCC, who were treated by primary RCTx. The study also supports that the individual tumour volumes should generally be included in biomarker studies and that panels of biomarkers are superior to individual parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nitroimidazoles: Molecular Fireworks That Combat a Broad Spectrum of Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ang, Chee Wei; Jarrad, Angie M; Cooper, Matthew A; Blaskovich, Mark A T

    2017-09-28

    Infectious diseases claim millions of lives every year, but with the advent of drug resistance, therapeutic options to treat infections are inadequate. There is now an urgent need to develop new and effective treatments. Nitroimidazoles are a class of antimicrobial drugs that have remarkable broad spectrum activity against parasites, mycobacteria, and anaerobic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. While nitroimidazoles were discovered in the 1950s, there has been renewed interest in their therapeutic potential, particularly for the treatment of parasitic infections and tuberculosis. In this review, we summarize different classes of nitroimidazoles that have been described in the literature in the past five years, from approved drugs and clinical candidates to examples undergoing preclinical or early stage development. The relatively "nonspecific" mode of action and resistance mechanisms of nitromidazoles are discussed, and contemporary strategies to facilitate nitroimidazole drug development are highlighted.

  10. DNA Damage Is a Prerequisite for p53-Mediated Proteasomal Degradation of HIF-1α in Hypoxic Cells and Downregulation of the Hypoxia Marker Carbonic Anhydrase IX

    PubMed Central

    Kaluzová, Milota; Kaluz, Stefan; Lerman, Michael I.; Stanbridge, Eric J.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between the tumor suppressor p53 and the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1)-dependent expression of the hypoxia marker, carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX). MCF-7 (wt p53) and Saos-2 (p53-null) cells displayed similar induction of CAIX expression and CA9 promoter activity under hypoxic conditions. Activation of p53 by the DNA damaging agent mitomycin C (MC) was accompanied by a potent repression of CAIX expression and the CA9 promoter in MCF-7 but not in Saos-2 cells. The activated p53 mediated increased proteasomal degradation of HIF-1α protein, resulting in considerably lower steady-state levels of HIF-1α protein in hypoxic MCF-7 cells but not in Saos-2 cells. Overexpression of HIF-1α relieved the MC-induced repression in MCF-7 cells, confirming regulation at the HIF-1α level. Similarly, CA9 promoter activity was downregulated by MC in HCT 116 p53+/+ but not the isogenic p53−/− cells. Activated p53 decreased HIF-1α protein levels by accelerated proteasome-dependent degradation without affecting significantly HIF-1α transcription. In summary, our results demonstrate that the presence of wtp53 under hypoxic conditions has an insignificant effect on the stabilization of HIF-1α protein and HIF-1-dependent expression of CAIX. However, upon activation by DNA damage, wt p53 mediates an accelerated degradation of HIF-1α protein, resulting in reduced activation of CA9 transcription and, correspondingly, decreased levels of CAIX protein. A model outlining the quantitative relationship between p53, HIF-1α, and CAIX is presented. PMID:15199132

  11. Removal of pharmaceutical compounds, nitroimidazoles, from waters by using the ozone/carbon system.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Polo, M; Rivera-Utrilla, J; Prados-Joya, G; Ferro-García, M A; Bautista-Toledo, I

    2008-09-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of technologies based on the use of ozone and activated carbon for the removal of nitroimidazoles from water, considering them as model of pharmaceutical compounds. A study was undertaken of the influence of the different operational variables on the effectiveness of each system studied (O(3), O(3)/activated carbon), and on the kinetics involved in each process. Ozone reaction kinetics showed that nitroimidazoles have a low reactivity, with K(O)(3) values <350 M(-1)s(-1) regardless of the nitroimidazole and solution pH considered. However, nitroimidazoles have a high affinity for HO radicals, with radical rate constant (k(HO)) values of around 10(10)M(-1)s(-1). Among the nitroimidazole ozonation by-products, nitrate ions and 3-acetyl-2-oxazolidinone were detected. The presence of activated carbon during nitroimidazole ozonation produces (i) an increase in the removal rate, (ii) a reduction in the toxicity of oxidation by-products, and (iii) a reduction in the concentration of dissolved organic matter. These results are explained by the generation of HO radicals at the O(3)-activated carbon interface.

  12. Determination of five nitroimidazole residues in artificial porcine muscle tissue samples by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yingyun; Su, Yan; Liao, Xiulin; Yang, Na; Yang, Xiupei; Choi, Martin M F

    2012-01-15

    A capillary electrophoresis (CE) method with ultraviolet detection has been developed for simultaneous detection and quantification of five nitroimidazoles including benzoylmetronidazole, dimetridazole, metronidazole, ronidazole, and secnidazole in porcine muscles. Nitroimidazoles in samples were extracted by ethyl acetate with subsequent clean-up by a strong cation exchange solid phase extraction column. The clean extracts were subjected to CE separation with optimal experimental conditions: pH 3.0 running buffer containing 25mM sodium phosphate and 0.10mM tetrabutylammonium bromide, 5s hydrodynamic injection at 0.5psi and 28kV separation voltage. The nitroimidazoles could be monitored and detected at 320nm within 18min. The limits of detection were below 1.0μg/kg and limits of quantification were lower than 3.2μg/kg for all nitroimidazoles in the muscle samples. The recoveries and relative standard deviations were 85.4-96.0, 83.5-92.5, 1.3-3.9, and 1.1-4.2%, respectively for the intra-day and inter-day analyses. The proposed CE method has been successfully applied to determine nitroimidazoles in artificial porcine muscle samples with good accuracy and recovery, demonstrating that it has potential for detection and quantification of multi-nitroimidazole residue in real muscle samples.

  13. Overexpression of Intrinsic Hypoxia Markers HIF1{alpha} and CA-IX Predict for Local Recurrence in Stage T1-T2 Glottic Laryngeal Carcinoma Treated With Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Schrijvers, M.L.; Laan, B.F.A.M. van der; Bock, G.H. de; Pattje, W.J.; Mastik, M.F.; Menkema, L.; Langendijk, J.A.; Kluin, P.M.; Schuuring, E.; Wal, J.E. van der

    2008-09-01

    Purpose: To examine the prognostic value of three endogenous hypoxia markers (hypoxia inducible factor 1 {alpha} subunit [HIF1{alpha}], carbonic anhydrase IX [CA-IX], and glucose transporter type 1 [GLUT-1]) on the clinical outcome in patients with early-stage glottic carcinoma primarily treated with radiotherapy (RT) and to determine the predictive hypoxic profile to choose the optimal treatment of early-stage laryngeal carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Immunohistochemistry for HIF1{alpha}, CA-IX, and GLUT-1 was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, pretreatment tissue samples of 91 glottic squamous cell carcinoma specimens. The patient group consisted only of those with early-stage (T1-T2) glottic carcinoma, and all patients were treated with RT only. Relative tumor staining was scored on the tissue samples. Receiver operating curve analysis was performed to determine the optimal cutoff value for each tumor marker. Cox regression analyses for the variables HIF1{alpha}, CA-IX, GLUT-1, gender, age, hemoglobin level, T category, N category, tobacco use, and alcohol use were performed with local control and overall survival as endpoints. Results: HIF1{alpha} overexpression in early-stage glottic carcinoma correlated significantly with worse local control (hazard ratio [HR], 3.05; p = 0.021) and overall survival (HR, 2.92; p = 0.016). CA-IX overexpression correlated significantly with worse local control (HR, 2.93; p = 0.020). GLUT-1 overexpression did not show any correlation with the clinical outcome parameters. Tumors with a nonhypoxic profile (defined as low HIF1{alpha} and low CA-IX expression) had significantly better local control (HR, 6.32; p 0.013). Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that early-stage glottic laryngeal carcinomas with low HIF1{alpha} and CA-IX expression are highly curable with RT. For this group, RT is a good treatment option. For tumors with HIF1{alpha} or CA-IX overexpression, hypoxic modification before RT or primary

  14. Mapping of global R1 and R2* values versus lipids R1 values as potential markers of hypoxia in human glial tumors: A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Safronova, Marta M; Colliez, Florence; Magat, Julie; Joudiou, Nicolas; Jordan, Bénédicte F; Raftopoulos, Christian; Gallez, Bernard; Duprez, Thierry

    2016-02-01

    Availability of an innocuous and repeatable technique for monitoring tumor oxygenation throughout therapeutic course should be a key factor for adaptative therapeutic strategies. We previously qualified lipids R1 as a marker of oxygen level on experimental tumor models. The objectives of the present study were to assess the applicability of measuring lipids R1 in primary central nervous system malignancies in a clinical setting as well as to compare lipids R1 with global (water+lipids) R1 and R2* which are also sensitive to the oxygen environment. 25 patients with brain neuroepithelial tumors were examined on a clinical 3T MR system. Values obtained within regions of interest contouring contrast-enhanced tumor (C+), unenhanced tumor (C-), peritumoral edema, and normal appearing white matter (NAWM) were compared to those obtained for the normal brain parenchyma of 17 healthy volunteers. Global R1 and lipids R1 values were significantly lower in tumors than in NAWM of patients or healthy brain of normal volunteers. In contrast, R2* values were not significantly different in tumors compared to NAWM or healthy brains. None of them showed significant difference between C+ and C- tumors. Global R1 values within NAWM were significantly different from that of both tumor and peritumoral edema, but lacked sensitivity to differentiate between tumor and peritumoral edema. In turn, lipids R1 measurements enabled discrimination between tumor areas and peritumoral edema. In conclusion, global R1 and lipids R1 deserve further attention as potential markers of tumor hypoxia in primary brain tumors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Trichomonas vaginalis: metronidazole and other nitroimidazole drugs are reduced by the flavin enzyme thioredoxin reductase and disrupt the cellular redox system. Implications for nitroimidazole toxicity and resistance.

    PubMed

    Leitsch, David; Kolarich, Daniel; Binder, Marina; Stadlmann, Johannes; Altmann, Friedrich; Duchêne, Michael

    2009-04-01

    Infections with the microaerophilic parasite Trichomonas vaginalis are treated with the 5-nitroimidazole drug metronidazole, which is also in use against Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia intestinalis and microaerophilic/anaerobic bacteria. Here we report that in T. vaginalis the flavin enzyme thioredoxin reductase displays nitroreductase activity with nitroimidazoles, including metronidazole, and with the nitrofuran drug furazolidone. Reactive metabolites of metronidazole and other nitroimidazoles form covalent adducts with several proteins that are known or assumed to be associated with thioredoxin-mediated redox regulation, including thioredoxin reductase itself, ribonucleotide reductase, thioredoxin peroxidase and cytosolic malate dehydrogenase. Disulphide reducing activity of thioredoxin reductase was greatly diminished in extracts of metronidazole-treated cells and intracellular non-protein thiol levels were sharply decreased. We generated a highly metronidazole-resistant cell line that displayed only minimal thioredoxin reductase activity, not due to diminished expression of the enzyme but due to the lack of its FAD cofactor. Reduction of free flavins, readily observed in metronidazole-susceptible cells, was also absent in the resistant cells. On the other hand, iron-depleted T. vaginalis cells, expressing only minimal amounts of PFOR and hydrogenosomal malate dehydrogenase, remained fully susceptible to metronidazole. Thus, taken together, our data suggest a flavin-based mechanism of metronidazole activation and thereby challenge the current model of hydrogenosomal activation of nitroimidazole drugs.

  16. Markers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2011

    2011-01-01

    Dry erase whiteboards come with toxic dry erase markers and toxic cleaning products. Dry erase markers labeled "nontoxic" are not free of toxic chemicals and can cause health problems. Children are especially vulnerable to environmental health hazards; moreover, schools commonly have problems with indoor air pollution, as they are more densely…

  17. Induction of DNA crosslinks in vitro upon reduction of the nitroimidazole-aziridines RSU-1069 and RSU-1131.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, P; McNeil, S S; Jenkins, T C

    1987-06-01

    The interaction of the nitroimidazole-aziridines RSU-1069 and RSU-1131, as parent or radiation-reduced species, with plasmid DNA in aqueous solution at pH 7 results in strand breakage. The yields of DNA single strand breaks (ssb), "alkali-labile" damage and DNA crosslinks induced by these alkylating agents have been assessed. It is shown that DNA crosslinks are induced only by the reduced nitro-compounds. RSU-1069, as parent or reduced compound, is more efficient at producing these effects than the equivalent form of RSU-1131. Further, RSU-1069 is about 2 X more susceptible to nucleophilic attack by inorganic phosphate and deoxynucleotides than RSU-1131. RSU-1069 also shows greater selectivity for reaction with the nucleotide base moiety than does the less-reactive monomethyl analogue, RSU-1131. The yields of ssb and "alkali-labile" damaged sites induced by the two agents reflect their respective chemical reactivities and appear largely to determine their aerobic cytotoxicities. In contrast, the yield of DNA crosslinks induced by the reduced compounds appears to correspond rather better with the observed hypoxic cytotoxicities. From these findings it is suggested that the induction of DNA crosslinks by these agents may play a major role in their effectiveness as hypoxia-selective cytotoxins.

  18. Assessment of the repair and damage of DNA induced by parent and reduced RSU-1069, a 2-nitroimidazole-aziridine.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, P; Cunniffe, S M

    1989-04-01

    The cellular repair and damage of DNA induced by parent and reduced RSU-1069, a 2-nitroimidazole-aziridine, was assessed at both the molecular and cellular level. At the molecular level, after in vitro incubation with parent or reduced RSU-1069, plasmid DNA was transfected into Escherichia coli (AB1157) with subsequent selection for gene expression. For equivalent levels of DNA strand breakage following such treatment it is evident from the relative transformation frequencies that interactions with reduced RSU-1069 lead to DNA damage consistent with bifunctional action of a metabolite(s). At the cellular level, the cytoxicity of RSU-1069 was determined for a series of repair deficient mutants of E. coli under both aerobic and hypoxic conditions. The differential aerobic:hypoxic cytotoxicity ratio is approximately 3. We conclude that the repair of cellular DNA damage induced by RSU-1069 involves activation of the gene products under the control of the recA gene and not those under the control of the ada gene. The ability of cellular systems to repair damage induced by RSU-1069 may play a significant role in determining its efficiency to act as a hypoxic cell radiosensitizer and a hypoxia selective cytotoxin.

  19. Nitroimidazoles, Quinolones and Oxazolidinones as Fluorine Bearing Antitubercular Clinical Candidates.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rahul V; Keum, Young-Soo; Park, Se Won

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a leading killer of lives worldwide and the global curse of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis is attaining really dangerous levels. Synergistic interaction of HIV and TB is the twin epidemics in resource-limited countries as each potentiate progression of the other. The increasing emergence of MDR-TB and XDR-TB place an immense burden for the treatment of TB with currently available drugs. The situation urgently demands for the discovery of new drugs with novel mode of action and differs in structural features in order to overcome resistance appears in conventional TB therapeutics. The present report covers the discovery of three classes of antituberculosis drugs, Nitroimidazoles, Quinolones and Oxazolidinones, undergoing clinical development with fluorine atom in their structures. Highly electronegative fluorine atom plays a signature role in advancing medicinal innovations as it existence in the drug compounds critically influences metabolic stability and lipophilicity thereby delaying its elimination by the body which results into a long term in vivo efficiency of the drug. Presence of fluorine atom(s) in the drug structures described in this report, has been associated with the several fold increase in the overall potency of the compound as demonstrated since the early discoveries. 6 Fluorinated derivatives from these three classes as pretomanid, delamanid, moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, linezolid and sutezolid have been discussed with their antituberculosis effects, mode of action, chemical synthetic routes and results of clinical studies.

  20. Gamma irradiation of pharmaceutical compounds, nitroimidazoles, as a new alternative for water treatment.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Polo, M; López-Peñalver, J; Prados-Joya, G; Ferro-García, M A; Rivera-Utrilla, J

    2009-09-01

    The main objectives of this study were: (1) to investigate the decomposition and mineralization of nitroimidazoles (Metronidazole [MNZ], Dimetridazole [DMZ], and Tinidazole [TNZ]) in waste and drinking water using gamma irradiation; (2) to study the decomposition kinetics of these nitroimidazoles; and (3) to evaluate the efficacy of nitroimidazole removal using radical promoters and scavengers. The results obtained showed that nitroimidazole concentrations decreased with increasing absorbed dose. No differences in irradiation kinetic constant were detected for any nitroimidazole studied (0.0014-0.0017 Gy(-1)). The decomposition yield was higher under acidic conditions than in neutral and alkaline media. Results obtained showed that, at appropriate concentrations, H(2)O(2) accelerates MNZ degradation by generating additional HO(); however, when the dosage of H(2)O(2) exceeds the optimal concentration, the efficacy of MNZ degradation is reduced. The presence of t-BuOH (HO() radical scavenger) and thiourea (HO(), H() and e(aq)(-) scavenger) reduced the MNZ irradiation rate, indicating that degradation of this pollutant can take place via two pathways: oxidation by HO() radicals and reduction by e(aq)(-) and H(). MNZ removal rate was slightly lower in subterranean and surface waters than in ultrapure water and was markedly lower in wastewater. Regardless of the water chemical composition, MNZ gamma irradiation can achieve i) a decrease in the concentration of dissolved organic carbon, and ii) a reduction in the toxicity of the system with higher gamma absorbed dose.

  1. Catabolic pathway for 2-nitroimidazole involves a novel nitrohydrolase that also confers drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yi; Spain, Jim C

    2011-04-01

    Antibiotic resistance in pathogens can be mediated by catabolic enzymes thought to originate from soil bacteria, but the physiological functions and evolutionary origins of the enzymes in natural ecosystems are poorly understood. 2-Nitroimidazole (2NI) is a natural antibiotic and an analogue of the synthetic nitroimidazoles used for treatment of tuberculosis, Chagas' disease and cancer. Mycobacterium sp. JS330 was isolated from soil based on its ability to use 2NI as a sole growth substrate. The initial step in the degradation pathway is the hydrolytic denitration of 2NI to produce imidazol-2-one and nitrite. The amino acid sequence of 2NI nitrohydrolase is highly divergent from those of biochemically characterized enzymes, and it confers drug resistance when it is heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The unusual enzymatic reaction seems likely to determine the flux of nitroimidazole in natural ecosystems and also represents the discovery of a previously unreported drug resistance mechanism in soil before its identification in clinical situations.

  2. Non-invasive assessment of human tumour hypoxia with 123I-iodoazomycin arabinoside: preliminary report of a clinical study.

    PubMed Central

    Parliament, M. B.; Chapman, J. D.; Urtasun, R. C.; McEwan, A. J.; Golberg, L.; Mercer, J. R.; Mannan, R. H.; Wiebe, L. I.

    1992-01-01

    Non-invasive predictive assays which can confirm the presence or absence of hypoxic cells in human tumours show promise for understanding the natural history of tumour oxygenation, and improving the selection of patient subsets for novel radiotherapeutic strategies. Sensitiser adducts have been proposed as markers for hypoxic cells. Misonidazole analogues radiolabelled with iodine-123 have been developed for the detection of tumour hypoxia using conventional nuclear medicine techniques. In this pilot study, we have investigated one such potential marker, 123I-iodoazomycin arabinoside (123I-IAZA). Patients with advanced malignancies have undergone planar and single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) imaging after intravenous administration of 123I-IAZA. We have observed radiotracer avidity in three out of ten tumours studied to date. Normal tissue activity of variable extent was also seen in the thyroid and salivary glands, upper aerodigestive tract, liver, intestine, and urinary bladder. Quantitative analysis of those images showing radiotracer avidity revealed tumour/normal tissue (T/N) ratios of 2.3 (primary small cell lung carcinoma), 1.9 (primary malignant fibrous histiocytoma) and 3.2 (brain metastasis from small cell lung carcinoma) at 18-24 h post injection. These preliminary data suggest that the use of gamma-emitter labelled 2-nitroimidazoles as diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals is feasible and safe, and that metabolic binding of 123I-IAZA is observed in some, but not all tumours. The inference that tumour 123I-IAZA avidity could be a non-invasive measure of tumour hypoxia deserves independent confirmation with needle oximetry. Images p92-a Figure 2 PMID:1310253

  3. Trypanosoma cruzi: effect and mode of action of nitroimidazole and nitrofuran derivatives.

    PubMed

    Maya, Juan Diego; Bollo, Soledad; Nuñez-Vergara, Luis J; Squella, Juan A; Repetto, Yolanda; Morello, Antonio; Périé, Jacques; Chauvière, Gérard

    2003-03-15

    With the aim of determining the actual target(s) of nitro-group bearing compounds considered as possible leads for the development of drugs against Chagas' disease, we studied in parallel nitrofurans and nitroimidazoles. We investigated nine representative compounds for the following properties: efficacy on different Trypanosoma cruzi strains, redox cyclers, inhibition of respiration, production of corresponding nitroso derivatives and intracellular thiol scavengers. Our results indicate that nifurtimox and related compounds act as redox cyclers, whereas the most active in the series, the 5-nitroimidazole megazol essentially acts as thiol scavenger particularly for trypanothione, the cofactor for trypanothione reductase, an essential enzyme in the detoxification process.

  4. Oxygen dependence of the reduction of nitroimidazoles in a radiolytic model system

    SciTech Connect

    Rauth, A.M.; McClelland, R.A.; Michaels, H.B.; Battistella, R.

    1984-08-01

    Radiation chemical reductions using e/sub aq//sup -/ and CO/sub 2//sup -/ have been carried out in the presence of oxygen with metronidazole, p-nitroacetophenone, misonidazole and three other 2-nitroimidazoles. Low concentrations of oxygen were found to effectively inhibit the reduction of the first two compounds while much higher concentrations of oxygen were required for all of the 2-nitroimidazoles. Kinetic modelling of the radiochemical system suggests that the explanation for the differences lies in different reactions of the nitro radical anions; it appears that the anion derived from metronidazole undergoes disproportionation while that derived from misonidazole undergoes a unimolecular decay.

  5. Optimizing Hypoxia Detection and Treatment Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Cameron J.; Evans, Sydney M.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies using Eppendorf® needle sensors have invariably documented the resistance of hypoxic human tumors to therapy. These studies first documented the need for individual patient measurement of hypoxia, since hypoxia varied from tumor-to-tumor. Furthermore, hypoxia in sarcomas & cervical cancer leads to distant metastasis or local/regional spread, respectively. For various reasons, the field has moved away from direct needle-sensor oxygen measurements to indirect assays (HIF-related changes; bioreductive metabolism) and the latter can be imaged non-invasively. Many of hypoxia’s detrimental therapeutic effects are reversible in mice but little treatment-improvement in hypoxic human tumors has been seen. The question is why? What factors cause human tumors to be refractory to anti-hypoxia strategies? We suggest the primary cause to be the complexity of hypoxia formation and its characteristics. Three basic types of hypoxia exist, encompassing various diffusional (distance from perfused vessel), temporal (on/off cycling) and perfusional (blood-flow efficiency) limitations. Surprisingly, there is no current information on their relative prevalence in human tumors and even animal models. This is important because different hypoxia sub-types are predicted to require different diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, but the implications of this remain unknown. Even more challenging, no agreement exists for the best way to measure hypoxia. Some results even suggest that hypoxia is unlikely to be targetable therapeutically. In this review, the authors will revisit various critical aspects of this field that are sometimes forgotten or misrepresented in the recent literature. Since most current non-invasive imaging studies involve PET-isotope-labelled 2-nitroimidazoles, we will emphasize key findings made in our studies using EF5 [2-(2-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)-N-(2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropyl)acetamide] and F18-labelled EF5. These will show the importance of

  6. Immunohistochemical detection of osteopontin in advanced head-and-neck cancer: Prognostic role and correlation with oxygen electrode measurements, hypoxia-inducible-factor-1{alpha}-related markers, and hemoglobin levels

    SciTech Connect

    Bache, Matthias; Reddemann, Rolf; Said, Harun M.; Holzhausen, Hans-Juergen; Taubert, Helge; Becker, Axel; Kuhnt, Thomas; Haensgen, Gabriele; Dunst, Juergen; Vordermark, Dirk . E-mail: vordermark_d@klinik.uni-wuerzburg.de

    2006-12-01

    Purpose: The tumor-associated glycoprotein osteopontin (OPN) is discussed as a plasma marker of tumor hypoxia. However, the association of immunohistochemical OPN expression in tumor sections with tumor oxygenation parameters (HF5, median pO{sub 2}), the hypoxia-related markers hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), or hemoglobin and systemic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels has not been investigated. Methods and Materials: Tumor tissue sections of 34 patients with advanced head-and-neck cancer treated with radiotherapy were assessed by immunochemistry for the expression of OPN, HIF-1{alpha}, and CA IX. Relationship of OPN expression with tumor oxygenation parameters (HF5, median pO{sub 2}), HIF-1{alpha} and CA IX expression, hemoglobin and serum VEGF level, and clinical parameters was studied. Results: Bivariate analysis showed a significant correlation of positive OPN staining with low hemoglobin level (p = 0.02), high HIF-1{alpha} expression (p = 0.02), and high serum vascular endothelial growth factor level (p = 0.02) for advanced head-and-neck cancer. Furthermore, considering the 31 Stage IV patients, the median pO{sub 2} correlated significantly with the OPN expression (p = 0.02). OPN expression alone had only a small impact on prognosis. However, in a univariate Cox proportional hazard regression model, the expression of either OPN or HIF-1{alpha} or CA IX was associated with a 4.1-fold increased risk of death (p = 0.02) compared with negativity of all three markers. Conclusion: Osteopontin expression detected immunohistochemically is associated with oxygenation parameters in advanced head-and-neck cancer. When the results of OPN, HIF-1{alpha}, and CA IX immunohistochemistry are combined into a hypoxic profile, a strong and statistically significant impact on overall survival is found.

  7. Increased incidence of nitroimidazole-refractory giardiasis at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, London: 2008-2013.

    PubMed

    Nabarro, L E B; Lever, R A; Armstrong, M; Chiodini, P L

    2015-08-01

    Giardia intestinalis is the commonest gastrointestinal protozoal pathogen worldwide, and causes acute and chronic diarrhoea with malabsorption. First-line treatment is with a nitroimidazole, with a reported efficacy rate of 89%. Failure of treatment can occur in patients with hypogammaglobulinaemia or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), or be due to nitroimidazole-resistant organisms. There is little evidence to guide the clinical management of nitroimidazole-refractory disease. We performed a retrospective audit of nitroimidazole-refractory giardiasis in returned travellers at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, London between 2011 and 2013. Seventy-three patients with microscopy-proven or PCR-proven giardiasis in whom nitroimidazole treatment had failed were identified, and their management was investigated. In 2008, nitroimidazole treatment failed in 15.1% of patients. This increased to 20.6% in 2011 and to 40.2% in 2013. Patient demographics remained stable during this period, as did routes of referral. Of patients with giardiasis, 39.0% had travelled to India; this rose to 69.9% in patients with nitroimidazole-refractory disease. Of the patients with refractory disease, 44.6% had HIV serological investigations performed and 36.5% had immunoglobulin levels determined. Patients with refractory disease were treated with various agents, including albendazole, nitazoxanide, and mepacrine, alone or in combination. All 20 patients who received a mepacrine-containing regimen were cured. This data shows a worrying increase in refractory disease, predominantly in travellers from India, which is likely to represent increasing nitroimidazole resistance. Improved tools for the diagnosis of resistant G. intestinalis are urgently needed to establish the true prevalence of nitroimidazole-resistant giardiasis, together with clinical trials to establish the most effective second-line agent for empirical treatment regimens.

  8. Studies of genotoxicity and mutagenicity of nitroimidazoles: demystifying this critical relationship with the nitro group

    PubMed Central

    Boechat, Núbia; Carvalho, Alcione S; Salomão, Kelly; de Castro, Solange L; Araujo-Lima, Carlos F; Mello, Francisco VC; Felzenszwalb, Israel; Aiub, Claudia AF; Conde, Taline Ramos; Zamith, Helena PS; Skupin, Rolf; Haufe, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Nitroimidazoles exhibit high microbicidal activity, but mutagenic, genotoxic and cytotoxic properties have been attributed to the presence of the nitro group. However, we synthesised nitroimidazoles with activity against the trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, but that were not genotoxic. Herein, nitroimidazoles (11-19) bearing different substituent groups were investigated for their potential induction of genotoxicity (comet assay) and mutagenicity (Salmonella/Microsome assay) and the correlations of these effects with their trypanocidal effect and with megazol were investigated. The compounds were designed to analyse the role played by the position of the nitro group in the imidazole nucleus (C-4 or C-5) and the presence of oxidisable groups at N-1 as an anion receptor group and the role of a methyl group at C-2. Nitroimidazoles bearing NO2 at C-4 and CH3 at C-2 were not genotoxic compared to those bearing NO2 at C-5. However, when there was a CH3 at C-2, the position of the NO2 group had no influence on the genotoxic activity. Fluorinated compounds exhibited higher genotoxicity regardless of the presence of CH3 at C-2 or NO2 at C-4 or C-5. However, in compounds 11 (2-CH3; 4-NO2; N-CH2OHCH2Cl) and 12 (2-CH3; 4-NO2; N-CH2OHCH2F), the fluorine atom had no influence on genotoxicity. This study contributes to the future search for new and safer prototypes and provide. PMID:26018452

  9. Efficacy of New 5-Nitroimidazoles against Metronidazole-Susceptible and -Resistant Giardia, Trichomonas, and Entamoeba spp.

    PubMed Central

    Upcroft, Jacqueline A.; Campbell, Raymond W.; Benakli, Kamel; Upcroft, Peter; Vanelle, Patrice

    1999-01-01

    The efficacies of 12 5-nitroimidazole compounds and 1 previously described lactam-substituted nitroimidazole with antiparasitic activity, synthesized via SRN1 and subsequent reactions, were assayed against the protozoan parasites Giardia duodenalis, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Entamoeba histolytica. Two metronidazole-sensitive lines and two metronidazole-resistant lines of Giardia and one line each of metronidazole-sensitive and -resistant Trichomonas were tested. All except one of the compounds were as effective or more effective than metronidazole against Giardia and Trichomonas, but none was as effective overall as the previously described 2-lactam-substituted 5-nitroimidazole. None of the compounds was markedly more effective than metronidazole against Entamoeba. Significant cross-resistance between most of the drugs tested and metronidazole was evident among metronidazole-resistant lines of Giardia and Trichomonas. However, some drugs were lethal to metronidazole-resistant Giardia and had minimum lethal concentrations similar to that of metronidazole for drug-susceptible parasites. This study emphasizes the potential in developing new nitroimidazole drugs which are more effective than metronidazole and which may prove to be useful clinical alternatives to metronidazole. PMID:9869568

  10. Studies of genotoxicity and mutagenicity of nitroimidazoles: demystifying this critical relationship with the nitro group.

    PubMed

    Boechat, Núbia; Carvalho, Alcione S; Salomão, Kelly; Castro, Solange L de; Araujo-Lima, Carlos F; Mello, Francisco V C; Felzenszwalb, Israel; Aiub, Claudia A F; Conde, Taline Ramos; Zamith, Helena P S; Skupin, Rolf; Haufe, Günter

    2015-06-01

    Nitroimidazoles exhibit high microbicidal activity, but mutagenic, genotoxic and cytotoxic properties have been attributed to the presence of the nitro group. However, we synthesised nitroimidazoles with activity against the trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, but that were not genotoxic. Herein, nitroimidazoles (11-19) bearing different substituent groups were investigated for their potential induction of genotoxicity (comet assay) and mutagenicity (Salmonella/Microsome assay) and the correlations of these effects with their trypanocidal effect and with megazol were investigated. The compounds were designed to analyse the role played by the position of the nitro group in the imidazole nucleus (C-4 or C-5) and the presence of oxidisable groups at N-1 as an anion receptor group and the role of a methyl group at C-2. Nitroimidazoles bearing NO2 at C-4 and CH3 at C-2 were not genotoxic compared to those bearing NO 2 at C-5. However, when there was a CH3 at C-2, the position of the NO2 group had no influence on the genotoxic activity. Fluorinated compounds exhibited higher genotoxicity regardless of the presence of CH3 at C-2 or NO2 at C-4 or C-5. However, in compounds 11 (2-CH3; 4-NO2; N-CH2OHCH2Cl) and 12 (2-CH3; 4-NO2; N-CH2OHCH2F), the fluorine atom had no influence on genotoxicity. This study contributes to the future search for new and safer prototypes and provide.

  11. MRI texture analysis parameters of contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images of Crohn's disease differ according to the presence or absence of histological markers of hypoxia and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Gauraang; Makanyanga, Jesica; Ganeshan, Balaji; Groves, Ashley; Rodriguez-Justo, Manuel; Halligan, Steve; Taylor, Stuart A

    2016-07-01

    To investigate if texture analysis parameters of contrast-enhanced MRI differ according to the presence of histological markers of hypoxia and angiogenesis in Crohn's disease (CD). Seven CD patients (mean age 38 (19-75), 3 male)) undergoing ileal resection underwent 3T MR enterography including axial ultrafast spoiled gradient-echo T1 post IV gadolinium chelate. Regions of interest were placed in bowel destined for resection and registered to trans-mural histological sections (n = 28 across 7 bowel sections) via MRI of the resected specimen. Microvessel density (MVD) and staining for markers of hypoxia (HIF 1α) and angiogenesis (VEGF) were performed. Texture analysis features were derived utilizing an image filtration-histogram technique at spatial scaling factor (SSF) 0-6 mm, including mean, standard deviation, mean of positive pixels, entropy, kurtosis and skewness and compared according to the presence or absence of histological markers of hypoxia/angiogenesis using Mann-Whitney U/Kruskal-Wallis tests and with the log of MVD using simple linear regression. Mean, standard deviation and mean of positive pixels were significantly lower in sections expressing VEGF. For example at SSF 6 mm, median (inter-quartile range) of mean, standard deviation and mean of positive pixels in those with VEGF expression were 150.1 (134.7), 132.4 (49.2) and 184.0 (91.4) vs. 362.5 (150.2), 216.3 (100.1) and 416.6 (80.0) in those without (p = 0.001, p = 0.004 and p = 0.001), respectively. There was a significant association between skewness and MVD (ratio 1.97 (1.15-3.41)) at SSF = 2 mm. Contrast-enhanced MRI texture analysis features significantly differ according to the presence or absence of histological markers of hypoxia and angiogenesis in CD.

  12. Development of insulin resistance through sprouting of inflammatory markers during hypoxia in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and amelioration with curcumin.

    PubMed

    Priyanka, A; Shyni, G L; Anupama, Nair; Raj, P Salin; Anusree, S S; Raghu, K G

    2017-07-04

    The role of phytochemicals in general well-being has been recognized. Curcumin is an ideal example. Hypoxia in adipose tissue is a major cause of inflammation and insulin resistance in obesity. Herein we mainly explored inflammation, insulin resistance and angiogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and possible reversal with the curcumin during hypoxia. Hypoxia for 24h significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05) the secretion of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (4.59 fold), leptin (2.96 fold) and reduced adiponectin (2.93 fold). mRNA level of resistin (6.8 fold) and toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) (8.8 fold) was upregulated. Increased serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) (1.9 fold) and decreased expression of insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS-2) (0.53 fold) in hypoxic group were observed. Hypoxia significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05) basal glucose uptake (3.3 fold), GLUT-1 expression and angiogenic factors but down regulated GLUT-4. Curcumin protected adipocytes from hypoxia induced inflammation and insulin resistance via reducing inflammatory adipokine, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)/c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and serine phosphorylation of IRS-1 receptors and improving adiponectin secretion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Changes in metabolic markers in insulin-producing β-cells during hypoxia-induced cell death as studied by NMR metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lianji; Kim, Hoe Suk; Kim, Heyonjin; Jin, Xing; Jung, Hye Seung; Park, Kyong Soo; Cho, Kyoung Won; Park, Sunghyouk; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2013-08-02

    This study was designed to investigate changes in the metabolites in the intracellular fluid of the pancreatic β-cell line INS-1 to identify potential early and late biomarkers for predicting hypoxia-induced cell death. INS-1 cells were incubated under normoxic conditions (95% air, 5% CO₂) or hypoxic conditions (1% O₂, 5% CO₂, 95% N₂) for 2, 4, 6, 12, or 24 h. The biological changes indicating the process of cell death were analyzed using the MTT assay, flow cytometry, Western blotting, and immunostaining. Changes in the metabolic profiles from cell lysates were identified using ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H NMR) spectroscopy, and the spectra were analyzed by the multivariate model Orthogonal Projections to Latent Structure-Discriminant Analysis. Cell viability decreased approximately 40% after 12-24 h of hypoxia, coincident with a high level of cleaved caspase-3. A high level of HIF-1α was detected in the 12-24 h hypoxic conditions. The metabolite profiles were altered according to the degree of exposure to hypoxia. A spectral analysis showed significant differences in creatine-containing compounds at the early stage (2-6 h) and taurine-containing compounds at the late stage (12-24 h), with the detection of HIF-1α and cleaved caspase-3 in cells exposed to hypoxia compared to normoxia. Glycerophosphocholine decreased during the early stage hypoxia. The change in taurine- and creatine-containing compounds and choline species could be involved in the β-cell death process as inhibitors or activators of cell death. Our results imply that assessment by ¹H NMR spectroscopy would be a useful tool to predict the cell death process and to identify molecules regulating hypoxia-induced cell death mechanisms.

  14. FDG uptake, a surrogate of tumour hypoxia?

    PubMed Central

    Van de Wiele, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Tumour hyperglycolysis is driven by activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) through tumour hypoxia. Accordingly, the degree of 2-fluro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) uptake by tumours might indirectly reflect the level of hypoxia, obviating the need for more specific radiopharmaceuticals for hypoxia imaging. Discussion In this paper, available data on the relationship between hypoxia and FDG uptake by tumour tissue in vitro and in vivo are reviewed. In pre-clinical in vitro studies, acute hypoxia was consistently shown to increase FDG uptake by normal and tumour cells within a couple of hours after onset with mobilisation or modification of glucose transporters optimising glucose uptake, followed by a delayed response with increased rates of transcription of GLUT mRNA. In pre-clinical imaging studies on chronic hypoxia that compared FDG uptake by tumours grown in rat or mice to uptake by FMISO, the pattern of normoxic and hypoxic regions within the human tumour xenografts, as imaged by FMISO, largely correlated with glucose metabolism although minor locoregional differences could not be excluded. In the clinical setting, data are limited and discordant. Conclusion Further evaluation of FDG uptake by various tumour types in relation to intrinsic and bioreductive markers of hypoxia and response to radiotherapy or hypoxia-dependent drugs is needed to fully assess its application as a marker of hypoxia in the clinical setting. PMID:18509637

  15. In vivo bypass efficiencies and mutational signatures of the guanine oxidation products 2-aminoimidazolone and 5-guanidino-4-nitroimidazole.

    PubMed

    Neeley, William L; Delaney, James C; Henderson, Paul T; Essigmann, John M

    2004-10-15

    The in vivo mutagenic properties of 2-aminoimidazolone and 5-guanidino-4-nitroimidazole, two products of peroxynitrite oxidation of guanine, are reported. Two oligodeoxynucleotides of identical sequence, but containing either 2-aminoimidazolone or 5-guanidino-4-nitroimidazole at a specific site, were ligated into single-stranded M13mp7L2 bacteriophage genomes. Wild-type AB1157 Escherichia coli cells were transformed with the site-specific 2-aminoimidazolone- and 5-guanidino-4-nitroimidazole-containing genomes, and analysis of the resulting progeny phage allowed determination of the in vivo bypass efficiencies and mutational signatures of the DNA lesions. 2-Aminoimidazolone was efficiently bypassed and 91% mutagenic, producing almost exclusively G to C transversion mutations. In contrast, 5-guanidino-4-nitroimidazole was a strong block to replication and 50% mutagenic, generating G to A, G to T, and to a lesser extent, G to C mutations. The G to A mutation elicited by 5-guanidino-4-nitroimidazole implicates this lesion as a novel source of peroxynitrite-induced transition mutations in vivo. For comparison, the error-prone bypass DNA polymerases were overexpressed in the cells by irradiation with UV light (SOS induction) prior to transformation. SOS induction caused little change in the efficiency of DNA polymerase bypass of 2-aminoimidazolone; however, bypass of 5-guanidino-4-nitroimidazole increased nearly 10-fold. Importantly, the mutation frequencies of both lesions decreased during replication in SOS-induced cells. These data suggest that 2-aminoimidazolone and 5-guanidino-4-nitroimidazole in DNA are substrates for one or more of the SOS-induced Y-family DNA polymerases and demonstrate that 2-aminoimidazolone and 5-guanidino-4-nitroimidazole are potent sources of mutations in vivo.

  16. Intrinsic markers of tumour hypoxia and angiogenesis in localised prostate cancer and outcome of radical treatment: a retrospective analysis of two randomised radiotherapy trials and one surgical cohort study.

    PubMed

    Vergis, Roy; Corbishley, Catherine M; Norman, Andrew R; Bartlett, Jaclyn; Jhavar, Sameer; Borre, Michael; Heeboll, Sara; Horwich, Alan; Huddart, Robert; Khoo, Vincent; Eeles, Ros; Cooper, Colin; Sydes, Matthew; Dearnaley, David; Parker, Chris

    2008-04-01

    Expression of intrinsic markers of tumour hypoxia and angiogenesis are important predictors of radiotherapeutic, and possibly surgical, outcome in several cancers. Extent of tumour hypoxia in localised prostate cancer is comparable to that in other cancers, but few data exist on the association of extent of tumour hypoxia with treatment outcome. We aimed to study the predictive value of intrinsic markers of tumour hypoxia and angiogenesis in localised prostate cancer, both in patients treated with radiotherapy and in those treated surgically. We applied a new, needle biopsy tissue microarray (TMA) technique to study diagnostic samples from men with localised, previously untreated prostate cancer treated in two randomised controlled trials of radiotherapy-dose escalation. Multivariate analysis by Cox proportional hazards was done to assess the association between clinical outcome, in terms of biochemical control, and immunohistochemical staining of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and osteopontin expression. The analysis was repeated on an independent series of men with localised, previously untreated prostate cancer treated by radical prostatectomy. The main outcome was time to biochemical (ie, prostate-specific antigen [PSA]) failure. Between Oct 12, 1995, and Feb 5, 2002, 308 patients were identified from two prospective, randomised trials at the Royal Marsden Hospital, London and Sutton, UK, for the radiotherapy cohort and diagnostic biopsies were available for 201 of these patients. Between June 6, 1995, and Nov 4, 2005, 329 patients were identified from the Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Denmark, for the prostatectomy cohort; of these, 40 patients were excluded because the tumour was too small to sample (19 patients), because the paraffin block was too thin (19 patients), or because the blocks were missing (two patients), leaving 289 patients for analysis. For patients treated with radiotherapy

  17. Imaging tumour hypoxia with positron emission tomography

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, I N; Manavaki, R; Blower, P J; West, C; Williams, K J; Harris, A L; Domarkas, J; Lord, S; Baldry, C; Gilbert, F J

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia, a hallmark of most solid tumours, is a negative prognostic factor due to its association with an aggressive tumour phenotype and therapeutic resistance. Given its prominent role in oncology, accurate detection of hypoxia is important, as it impacts on prognosis and could influence treatment planning. A variety of approaches have been explored over the years for detecting and monitoring changes in hypoxia in tumours, including biological markers and noninvasive imaging techniques. Positron emission tomography (PET) is the preferred method for imaging tumour hypoxia due to its high specificity and sensitivity to probe physiological processes in vivo, as well as the ability to provide information about intracellular oxygenation levels. This review provides an overview of imaging hypoxia with PET, with an emphasis on the advantages and limitations of the currently available hypoxia radiotracers. PMID:25514380

  18. Enhanced cytotoxicity of melphalan by prolonged exposure to nitroimidazoles: the role of endogenous thiols

    SciTech Connect

    Roizin-Towle, L.; Hall, E.J.; Flynn, M.; Biaglow, J.E.; Varnes, M.E.

    1982-01-01

    The present study shows that a prolonged exposure of V-79 cells to a variety of nitroimidazoles (misonidazole, Ro-05-9963, Sr-2508, and MRT1-80) results in an enhanced cytotoxicity when these cells are subsequently exposed to melphalan. This process of enhanced malphalan toxicity occurred only when cells were pretreated with misonidazole under hypoxic conditions, suggesting that nitroreduction is necessary for chemosensitization as it is for increased radiosensitization. Different nitroimidazoles tested vary in the extent to which they sensitize cells to the subsequent action of melphalan. Repair from a misonidazole pretreatment is essentially complete by six hours. This study demonstrated that cysteamine could reduce the cytotoxicity of misonidazole and the enhancement of melphalan toxicity. This was an effect reversible with time and one implying similar mechanisms for the preincubation effect observed in vitro for radiation and chemotherapy agents.

  19. DNA single strand breaks in peripheral blood lymphocytes induced by three nitroimidazole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Ferreiro, Gisell; Cancino Badías, Lourdes; Lopez-Nigro, Marcela; Palermo, Ana; Mudry, Marta; González Elio, Prieto; Carballo, Marta Ana

    2002-06-14

    Tinidazole (TNZ), ornidazole (ONZ) and metronidazole (MTZ) are antiparasitic drugs (nitroimidazole derivatives) that have proven to be effective against Trichomonas vaginalis, Entoamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Helicobacter pylori. The reduction of the nitro group and the generation of short-lived reactive intermediates are the basis of its parasiticidal activity. This reduction is associated with its mutagenic activity in bacteria, although in mammalian cells DNA damage seems to be related to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Using alkaline single cell electrophoresis, a significant increase in single strand breaks and alkali labile sites in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) exposed to MTZ, ONZ and TNZ at 10, 100 and 500 microg/ml is observed. MTZ causes less damage, especially at higher concentrations, when compared with TNZ, the most harmful of the drugs tested. These findings suggest that primary damage is induced under aerobic conditions and confirms that these nitroimidazoles are DNA damaging agents.

  20. Effect of radiation-induced reduction of nitroimidazoles on biologically active DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Lafleur, M.V.; Pluijmackers-Westmijze, E.J.; Loman, H.

    1986-07-01

    Radiation-chemical reductions have been carried out with several nitroimidazoles. Reduction of these drugs in the presence of single-stranded phi chi 174 DNA causes extensive lethal damage. However, relatively stable (end) products, do not contribute to the damage, although glyoxal is potentially toxic. This demonstrates that a short-lived intermediate in the reduction process is responsible. Further, the quantity of damage in the DNA depends on both dose (reduction)-rate and also the nature of the drug.

  1. Nitroimidazole carboxamides as antiparasitic agents targeting Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Jarrad, A M; Debnath, A; Miyamoto, Y; Hansford, K A; Pelingon, R; Butler, M S; Bains, T; Karoli, T; Blaskovich, M A T; Eckmann, L; Cooper, M A

    2016-09-14

    Diarrhoeal diseases caused by the intestinal parasites Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica constitute a major global health burden. Nitroimidazoles are first-line drugs for the treatment of giardiasis and amebiasis, with metronidazole 1 being the most commonly used drug worldwide. However, treatment failures in giardiasis occur in up to 20% of cases and development of resistance to metronidazole is of concern. We have re-examined 'old' nitroimidazoles as a foundation for the systematic development of next-generation derivatives. Using this approach, derivatisation of the nitroimidazole carboxamide scaffold provided improved antiparasitic agents. Thirty-three novel nitroimidazole carboxamides were synthesised and evaluated for activity against G. lamblia and E. histolytica. Several of the new compounds exhibited potent activity against G. lamblia strains, including metronidazole-resistant strains of G. lamblia (EC50 = 0.1-2.5 μM cf. metronidazole EC50 = 6.1-18 μM). Other compounds showed improved activity against E. histolytica (EC50 = 1.7-5.1 μM cf. metronidazole EC50 = 5.0 μM), potent activity against Trichomonas vaginalis (EC50 = 0.6-1.4 μM cf. metronidazole EC50 = 0.8 μM) and moderate activity against the intestinal bacterial pathogen Clostridium difficile (0.5-2 μg/mL, cf. metronidazole = 0.5 μg/mL). The new compounds had low toxicity against mammalian kidney and liver cells (CC50 > 100 μM), and selected antiparasitic hits were assessed for human plasma protein binding and metabolic stability in liver microsomes to demonstrate their therapeutic potential. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  2. Symptomatic Trichomonas vaginalis infection in the setting of severe nitroimidazole allergy: successful treatment with boric acid.

    PubMed

    Muzny, Christina; Barnes, Arti; Mena, Leandro

    2012-09-01

    This report describes a patient with symptomatic Trichomonas vaginalis infection who was unable to tolerate nitroimidazole drugs because of severe hypersensitivity, for which desensitisation was not possible. Use of intravaginal clotrimazole, intravaginal paromomycin, intravaginal furazolidone, povidone-iodine douches, and oral nitazoxanide were unsuccessful in eradicating the patient's T. vaginalis infection. A 2-month course of intravaginal topical boric acid subsequently achieved a complete symptomatic cure and the patient remained T. vaginalis wet prep- and culture-negative 60 days after treatment.

  3. Development and method validation for the determination of nitroimidazole residues in salmon, tilapia and shrimp muscle.

    PubMed

    Watson, Lynn; Potter, Ross; MacNeil, James D; Murphy, Cory

    2014-01-01

    The use of nitroimidazoles in aquacultured fish has been banned in many countries due to the suspected mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of these compounds. In response to the need to conduct residue testing of these compounds in fish, a simple, rapid, and sensitive method was developed and validated that is suitable for regulatory monitoring of nitroimidazole residues and their hydroxy metabolites in fish muscle tissue. Following solvent extraction of homogenized tissue and clean-up using a C18 SPE cartridge, analyses were conducted by ultra-performance UPLC-MS/MS. A precursor ion and two product ions were monitored for each of the parent compounds and metabolites included in the method. The validated method has an analytical range from 1 to 50 ng/g in the representative species (tilapia, salmon, and shrimp), with an LOD and LOQ ranging from 0.07 to 1.0 nglg and 0.21 to 3.0 nglg, respectively, depending on the analyte. Recoveries ranged from 81 to 124% and repeatability was between 4 and 17%. HorRat values were within typical limits of acceptability for a single laboratory. Working standards were stable for 12 months, extracts were stable for 5 days, and tissues for 2 months under appropriate storage conditions. This method was determined to be suitable for routine use for screening, quantification, and confirmation of nitroimidazole residues in a residue monitoring program for fish with regulatory oversight.

  4. Preparation, toxicity and mutagenicity of 1-methyl-2-nitrosoimidazole. A toxic 2-nitroimidazole reduction product.

    PubMed

    Noss, M B; Panicucci, R; McClelland, R A; Rauth, A M

    1988-07-01

    1-Methyl-2-nitrosoimidazole (INO), the 2-electron reduction product of 1-methyl-2-nitroimidazole (INO2), was prepared by electrochemical reduction of INO2 to 2-hydroxylamino-1-methyl-imidazole (INHOH), followed by back oxidation with iodine. Although stable in crystalline form, INO reacted in water, phosphate-buffered saline, and mammalian cell growth medium. Half-lives for decay were determined by UV-visible spectroscopy. INO was found to be highly toxic towards Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, concentrations of 10-60 microM producing significant cytotoxicity. The rate of INO decay was found to be increased in the presence of CHO cells. INO was also toxic and mutagenic towards Salmonella typhimurium TA-100. When compared on a molar basis to the parent nitro compound INO2, and the 4- and 6-electron reduction products INHOH and 2-amino-1-methylimidazole (INH2), INO was by far (two orders of magnitude) the most toxic under aerobic conditions. These results suggest that the nitroso reduction product of 2-nitroimidazoles may be the reduced species responsible for hypoxic cell selective toxicity of 2-nitroimidazoles.

  5. The Clinical Importance of Assessing Tumor Hypoxia: Relationship of Tumor Hypoxia to Prognosis and Therapeutic Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Joseph C.; Lebedev, Artem; Aten, Edward; Madsen, Kathleen; Marciano, Liane

    2014-01-01

    I. Introduction II. The Clinical Importance of Tumor Hypoxia A. Pathophysiology of hypoxia B. Hypoxia's negative impact on the effectiveness of curative treatment 1. Hypoxic tumors accumulate and propagate cancer stem cells 2. Hypoxia reduces the effectiveness of radiotherapy 3. Hypoxia increases metastasis risk and reduces the effectiveness of surgery 4. Hypoxic tumors are resistant to the effects of chemotherapy and chemoradiation C. Hypoxia is prognostic for poor patient outcomes III. Diagnosis of Tumor Hypoxia A. Direct methods 1. Oxygen electrode—direct pO2 measurement most used in cancer research 2. Phosphorescence quenching—alternative direct pO2 measurement 3. Electron paramagnetic resonance 4. 19F-magnetic resonance spectroscopy 5. Overhauser-enhanced MRI B. Endogenous markers of hypoxia 1. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α 2. Carbonic anhydrase IX 3. Glucose transporter 1 4. Osteopontin 5. A combined IHC panel of protein markers for hypoxia 6. Comet assay C. Physiologic methods 1. Near-infrared spectroscopy/tomography—widely used for pulse oximetry 2. Photoacoustic tomography 3. Contrast-enhanced color duplex sonography 4. MRI-based measurements 5. Blood oxygen level-dependent MRI 6. Pimonidazole 7. EF5 (pentafluorinated etanidazole) 8. Hypoxia PET imaging—physiologic hypoxia measurement providing tomographic information a. 18F-fluoromisonidazole b. 18F-fluoroazomycinarabinofuranoside c. 18F-EF5 (pentafluorinated etanidazole) d. 18F-flortanidazole e. Copper (II) (diacetyl-bis (N4-methylthiosemicarbazone)) f. 18F-FDG imaging of hypoxia IV. Modifying Hypoxia to Improve Therapeutic Outcomes A. Use of hypoxia information in radiation therapy planning B. Use of hypoxia assessment for selection of patients responsive to nimorazole C. Use of hypoxia assessment for selection of patients responsive to tirapazamine D. Use of hypoxia assessment for selection of patients

  6. Disrupted intracellular redox balance of the diplomonad fish parasite Spironucleus vortens by 5-nitroimidazoles and garlic-derived compounds.

    PubMed

    Williams, C F; Lloyd, D; Kolarich, D; Alagesan, K; Duchêne, M; Cable, J; Williams, D; Leitsch, D

    2012-11-23

    The 5-nitroimidazole, metronidazole, has traditionally been employed in veterinary medicine to treat a range of infections including the diplomonad fish parasite Spironucleus. This study aims to determine the mode of action of metronidazole on Spironucleus vortens, including the specific mechanism of activation of the pro-drug and subsequent cellular targets of the drug metabolites. Due to the ban on use of metronidazole in the treatment of production animals in Europe and USA, garlic-derived compounds were also investigated as natural alternatives to metronidazole chemotherapy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) provided an overview of gross cellular damage caused by metronidazole and garlic derivatives. Proteomic analyses by 2D gel electrophoresis identified the proteins involved in specific covalent adduct formation with nitroimidazoles. Furthermore, thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity and non-protein thiol concentration were assayed in extracts of S. vortens before and after treatment with nitroimidazoles and garlic-derivatives. Metronidazole and garlic-derived compounds caused severe damage of trophozoites indicated by membrane blebbing and lysed cell debris. Analysis of the S. vortens proteome identified several proteins capable of specific nitroimidazole binding, including; uridine phosphorylase, enolase, protein disulphide isomerase, aminoacyl-histidine dipeptidase and malic enzyme. Of the compounds tested, metronidazole and the garlic-derived compound ajoene were the most effective at inhibiting TrxR activity and depleting non-protein thiols. These data suggest TrxR-mediated activation of nitroimidazoles, leading to depletion of non-protein thiols. Redox imbalance due to antioxidant failure is implicated as the mode of action of nitroimidazoles and garlic-derived compounds, ultimately leading to cell death. Possible synergy between garlic derivatives and metronidazole should be further investigated in vitro in order to determine their theoretical

  7. Placental hypoxia during placental malaria

    PubMed Central

    Boeuf, Philippe; Tan, Aimee; Romagosa, Cleofe; Radford, Jane; Mwapasa, Victor; Molyneux, Malcolm E.; Meshnick, Steven R.; Hunt, Nicholas H.; Rogerson, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Placental malaria causes fetal growth retardation (FGR), which has been linked epidemiologically to placental monocyte infiltrates. We investigated whether parasite or monocyte infiltrates were associated with placental hypoxia, as a potential mechanism underlying malarial FGR. Methods We studied the hypoxia markers hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), placental growth factor, VEGF receptor 1 and its soluble form and VEGF receptor 2. We used real time PCR (in 59 women) to examine gene transcription, immunohistochemistry (in 30 women) to describe protein expression and laser capture microdissection (in 23 women) to examine syncytiotrophoblast-specific changes in gene expression. We compared gene and protein expression in relation to malaria infection, monocytes infiltrates and birth weight. Results we could not associate any hallmark of placental malaria with a transcription, expression or tissue distribution profile characteristic of a response to hypoxia but found higher HIF-1α (P=.0005) and lower VEGF levels (P=.0026) in the syncytiotrophoblast of malaria cases versus asymptomatic controls. Conclusion our data are inconsistent with a role for placental hypoxia in the pathogenesis of malaria-associated FGR. The laser capture microdissection study was small, but suggests that malaria affects syncytiotrophoblast gene transcription, and proposes novel potential mechanisms for placental malaria-associated FGR. PMID:18279052

  8. Optical isomers of a new 2-nitroimidazole nucleoside analog (PR-350 series): Radiosensitization efficiency and toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Oya, Natsuo; Sasai, Keisuke; Shibata, Toru

    1995-08-30

    A new 2-nitroimidazole nucleoside radiosensitizer, PR-350 (1-[1{prime},3{prime},4{prime}-trihydroxy-2{prime}-butoxy]-methyl-2-nitroimidazole), has been reported to be as efficient as and less toxic than etanidazole. This compound is racemic, and it was recently optically resolved into two isomers, PR-68 (2{prime}R,3{prime}S type) and PR-69 (2{prime}S,3{prime}R type). The other two isomers, PR-28 (2{prime}S,3{prime}S type) and PR-44 (2{prime}R,3{prime}R type), were asymmetrically synthesized. In the present study, we investigated the properties, sensitizing activity, and toxicity of PR-350 and the four optical isomers in comparison with those of other 2-nitroimidazole hypoxic cell radiosensitizers, etanidazole, KU-2285, KIN-804, and RP-170. Because PR-350 and PR-28 can be industrially synthesized, we evaluated whether either of these two drugs are suitable for further investigation. In vivo radiosensitizing activity differed among the four optical isomers, which appeared to be due, at least in part, to differences in lipophilicity. Although PR-28 was the least toxic, its low sensitization efficiency does not warrant clinical trials. Among the PR compounds, PR-68 appears to be most efficient, but optical resolution of PR-68 from PR-350 is expensive, and asymmetrical synthesis of PR-68 is not established. Therefore, PR-350 seems to be most suitable for further investigation among the PR-350 series compounds, considering its higher efficiency compared with PR-28 and PR-44, and established synthesis. 28 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Mutagenic action of 5-nitroimidazoles: in vivo induction of GC-->CG transversion in two Bacteroides fragilis reporter genes.

    PubMed

    Trinh, S; Reysset, G

    1998-02-26

    The in vivo mutagenic potential of two 5-nitroimidazoles, metronidazole and dimetridazole, was evaluated in Bacteroides fragilis, a strictly anaerobic bacterium. Two antibiotic resistance genes, tetA(Q)3 and nimA, were used as DNA targets. The forward and back mutations were identified by nucleotide sequence analysis. Both drugs induced GC-->CG transversion exclusively. The results suggest that the reactive molecules generated during the intracellular reduction of the 5-nitroimidazoles are responsible for both base pair substitutions and DNA strand breaks, although the mechanisms and targets may be different.

  10. Interaction of nitroimidazole sensitizers and oxygen in the radiosensitization of mammalian cells at ultrahigh dose rates

    SciTech Connect

    Michaels, H.B.; Ling, C.C.; Epp, E.R.; Peterson, E.C.

    1981-03-01

    When CHO cells, equilibrated with 0.44% oxygen, are irradiated with single 3-nsec pulses of electrons from a 600-kV-field emission source, a breaking survival curve is observed. The breaking behavior, believed to be the result of radiolytic oxygen depletion, can be prevented by the presence of a relatively low concentration of the hypoxic cell sensitizer misonidazole; similar results are obtained with metronidazole and Ro-05-9963. The resulting survival curves exhibit a sensitized response similar to that obtained with conventional dose rate radiation for CHO cells under this oxygen concentration. This degree of sensitization is greater than that observed for CHO cells irradiated at ultrahigh dose rates under the same concentration of sensitizer in nitrogen. The data suggest that the nitroimidazole compounds interfere with the radiation chemical oxygen depletion process and that the radiosensitization observed in the nonbreaking survival curve is the consequence of sensitization by both the nitroimidazole and, primarily, the oxygen rather than a direct subsitution for oxygen by the sensitizer. This conclusion is also supported by data obtained in double-pulse experiments. The results are discussed with regard to the mechanisms of the oxygen depletion process and radiosensitization.

  11. Phosphorescent ruthenium complexes with a nitroimidazole unit that image oxygen fluctuation in tumor tissue.

    PubMed

    Son, Aoi; Kawasaki, Atsushi; Hara, Daiki; Ito, Takeo; Tanabe, Kazuhito

    2015-02-02

    Understanding oxygen fluctuation in a cancerous tumor is important for effective treatment, especially during radiotherapy. In this paper, ruthenium complexes bearing a nitroimidazole group are shown to report the oxygen status in tumor tissue directly. The nitroimidazole group was known to be accumulated in hypoxic tumor tissues. On the other hand, the ruthenium complex showed strong phosphorescence around 600 nm. The emission of ruthenium is quenched instantaneously by molecular oxygen due to energy transfer between triplet states of oxygen and ruthenium complex, but the emission is then recovered by the removal of oxygen. Thus, we could observe oxygen fluctuation in tumor tissue in a real-time manner by monitoring the phosphorescence of the ruthenium complex. The versatility of the probe is demonstrated by monitoring oxygen fluctuation in living cells and tumor tissue planted in mice. The ruthenium complex promptly penetrated plasma membrane and accumulated in cells to emit its oxygen-dependent phosphorescence. In vivo experiments revealed that the oxygen level in tumor tissue seems to fluctuate at the sub-minute timescale. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Effect of nitroimidazoles on glucose utilization and lactate accumulation in mouse brain

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, C.F.; Subjeck, J.R.; Brody, H.; Shen, J.; Johnson, R.J.R.

    1984-01-01

    The radiation sensitizers misonidazole (MISO) and desmethylmisonidazole (DMM) can produce central and peripheral neuropathy in patients and laboratory animals. Nitroimidazoles can also interfere with glycolysis in vitro under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In the present work, the authors studied the effect of MISO or DMM on lactate production and glucose utilization in mouse brain. It is observed that these compounds result in a 25% inhibition of lactate production in brain slices relative to the control at a 10 mM level. Additionally, MISO (1.0 mg/g/day) or DMM (1.4 mg/g/day) were administered daily (oral) for 1, 4, 7, or 14 days to examine the effect of these two drugs on the regional glucose utilization in C3Hf mouse brain. Five microcuries of 2-deoxy(/sup 14/C)glucose was given following the last drug dose and autoradiographs of serial brain sections were made and analyzed by a densitometer. Following a single dose of either MISO or DMM, no significant differences in glucose uptake were observed when compared with controls. However, following 4, 7, and 14 doses the rate of glucose utilization was significantly reduced in the intoxicated animals. Larger reductions were measured in specific regions including the posterior colliculus, cochlear nuclei, vestibular nuclei, and pons with increasing effects observed at later stages. These results share a degree of correspondence with the regional brain pathology produced by these nitroimidazoles.

  13. Simultaneous determination of 15 nitroimidazoles in cosmetics by HPLC coupled with electrospray ionization- tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xian-Shuang; Bai, Hua; Zhang, Qing; Lv, Qing; Chen, Yun-Xia; Ma, Hui-Juan; Li, Jing-Rui; Ma, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    A sensitive and reliable analytical method based on HPLC/MSIMS has been developed for the simultaneous determination of 15 nitroimidazoles in cosmetics. A diversity of cosmetic samples, including powder, lotion, shampoo, and cream were collected. The samples were ultrasonically extracted with aqueous methanol, and the extracts were then subjected to cleanup bySPE using an Oasis HLB cartridge followed by filtration with a 0.20 pm membrane filter. Afterwards, chromatographic separation was performed on an XSelect CSH C18 column (2.1 x 150 mm, 3.5 pm) maintained at 30°C within 15 min by a gradient of acetonitrile-0.1% aqueous formic acid solution at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. The mass spectrometric detection was carried, out using electrospray positive ionization under the multiple reaction monitoring mode. A good linearity was observed over the concentration range from 0.5 to 500 ng/mL. The intraday and interday precisions, which were investigated by determining all target compounds in cosmetics seven times/day and on 7 consecutive days, were below 5.00%. The mean recoveries at three spiked levels ranged from 80.42 to 100.83% with the RSDs from 0.45 to 9.02%. The LOQs were determined to be between 0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg. The method was sufficiently rapid, reliable, and sensitive for the determination of 15 nitroimidazoles in cosmetics.

  14. In vitro and in vivo activities of the nitroimidazole CGI 17341 against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Ashtekar, D R; Costa-Perira, R; Nagrajan, K; Vishvanathan, N; Bhatt, A D; Rittel, W

    1993-01-01

    CGI 17341 (2-ethyl-5-nitro-2,3-dihydro[2-1b]imidazo-oxazole) is a novel orally active representative of the 5-nitroimidazole series of antimicrobial agents. At concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 micrograms/ml, CGI 17341 inhibited the drug-susceptible and multi-drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. CGI 17341 had no cross-resistance with isoniazid, rifampin, streptomycin, or ethambutol. While the in vitro activity of CGI 17341 against M. tuberculosis was comparable to those of isoniazid and rifampin, it was superior to those of streptomycin, ciprofloxacin or norfloxacin, and oxazolidinone DuP 721. The MIC of CGI 17341 was not affected when the pH of the medium was decreased from 6.8 to 5.6, while four- to sixfold increases in the MICs of ciprofloxacin and isoniazid were observed. In mice infected with M. tuberculosis, the 50% effective dose for CGI 17341 was 7.7 mg/kg of body weight (95% confidence limits, 3.5 and 10.27) when administered on days 11 and 12 postinfection. CGI 17341 gave a dose-dependent (r = 0.995) and significant increase in the survival time. Our data indicate that the 5-nitroimidazole CGI 17341 is a promising and novel antituberculosis compound with potent in vitro and in vivo activities. Further investigations on this compound are warranted. PMID:8452346

  15. Extracellular brain pH with or without hypoxia is a marker of profound metabolic derangement and increased mortality after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Timofeev, Ivan; Nortje, Jurgens; Al-Rawi, Pippa G; Hutchinson, Peter J A; Gupta, Arun K

    2013-03-01

    Cerebral hypoxia and acidosis can follow traumatic brain injury (TBI) and are associated with increased mortality. This study aimed to evaluate a relationship between reduced pH(bt) and disturbances of cerebral metabolism. Prospective data from 56 patients with TBI, receiving microdialysis and Neurotrend monitoring, were analyzed. Four tissue states were defined based on pH(bt) and P(bt)O(2): 1--low P(bt)O(2)/pH(bt), 2--low pH(bt)/normal P(bt)O(2), 3--normal pH(bt)/low P(bt)O(2), and 4--normal pH(bt)/P(bt)O(2)). Microdialysis values were compared between the groups. The relationship between P(bt)O(2) and lactate/pyruvate (LP) ratio was evaluated at different pH(bt) levels. Proportional contribution of each state was evaluated against mortality. As compared with the state 4, the state 3 was not different, the state 2 exhibited higher levels of lactate, LP, and glucose and the state 1--higher LP and reduced glucose (P<0.001). A significant negative correlation between LP and P(bt)O(2) (rho=-0.159, P<0.001) was stronger at low pH(bt) (rho=-0.201, P<0.001) and nonsignificant at normal pH(bt) (P=0.993). The state 2 was a significant discriminator of mortality categories (P=0.031). Decreased pH(bt) is associated with impaired metabolism. Measuring pH(bt) with P(bt)O(2) is a more robust way of detecting metabolic derangements.

  16. Biodistribution and Radiation Dosimetry of the Hypoxia Marker 18F–HX4 in Monkeys and Humans Determined from Whole-body PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Doss, Mohan; Zhang, James J.; Bélanger, Marie-José; Stubbs, James B.; Hostetler, Eric D.; Alpaugh, R. Katherine; Kolb, Hartmuth C.; Yu, Jian Q.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives 18F-HX4 is a novel positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for imaging hypoxia. The purpose of this study was to determine the biodistribution and estimate the radiation dose from 18F-HX4 using whole body PET/CT scans in monkeys and humans. Methods Successive whole body PET/CT scans were performed following the injection of 18F-HX4 to four healthy humans (422 ± 142 MBq) and to three rhesus monkeys (189 ± 3 MBq). Biodistribution was determined from PET images and organ doses were estimated using OLINDA/EXM software. Results The bladder, liver and kidneys show the highest percentage of the injected radioactivity for humans and monkeys. For humans about 45% of the activity is eliminated by bladder voiding in 3.6 hours, and for monkeys 60% is in the bladder content after 3.0 hours. The critical organ is the urinary bladder wall with the highest absorbed radiation dose of 415 ± 18 μGy/MBq (monkeys) and 299±38 μGy/MBq (humans), in the 4.8 hour bladder voiding interval model. The average value of effective dose (ED) for the adult male was estimated at 42 ± 4.2 μSv/MBq from monkey data and 27 ± 2 μSv/MBq from human data. Conclusions Bladder, kidneys, and liver have the highest uptake of injected 18F-HX4 activity for both monkeys and humans. Urinary bladder wall receives the highest dose of 18F-HX4 and is the critical organ. Thus, patients should be encouraged to maintain adequate hydration and void frequently. The effective dose from 18F-HX4 is comparable to that of other 18F-based imaging agents. PMID:20948452

  17. Extracellular brain pH with or without hypoxia is a marker of profound metabolic derangement and increased mortality after traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Timofeev, Ivan; Nortje, Jurgens; Al-Rawi, Pippa G; Hutchinson, Peter JA; Gupta, Arun K

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral hypoxia and acidosis can follow traumatic brain injury (TBI) and are associated with increased mortality. This study aimed to evaluate a relationship between reduced pHbt and disturbances of cerebral metabolism. Prospective data from 56 patients with TBI, receiving microdialysis and Neurotrend monitoring, were analyzed. Four tissue states were defined based on pHbt and PbtO2: 1—low PbtO2/pHbt, 2—low pHbt/normal PbtO2, 3—normal pHbt/low PbtO2, and 4—normal pHbt/PbtO2). Microdialysis values were compared between the groups. The relationship between PbtO2 and lactate/pyruvate (LP) ratio was evaluated at different pHbt levels. Proportional contribution of each state was evaluated against mortality. As compared with the state 4, the state 3 was not different, the state 2 exhibited higher levels of lactate, LP, and glucose and the state 1—higher LP and reduced glucose (P<0.001). A significant negative correlation between LP and PbtO2 (rho=−0.159, P<0.001) was stronger at low pHbt (rho=−0.201, P<0.001) and nonsignificant at normal pHbt (P=0.993). The state 2 was a significant discriminator of mortality categories (P=0.031). Decreased pHbt is associated with impaired metabolism. Measuring pHbt with PbtO2 is a more robust way of detecting metabolic derangements. PMID:23232949

  18. Mutagenicity study on pyrazole, seven pyrazole derivatives, and two nitroimidazoles with the L-arabinose resistance test of Salmonella typhimurium

    SciTech Connect

    Alejandre-Duran, E.; Ruiz-Rubio, M.; Claramunt, R.M.; Lopez, C.; Pueyo, C.

    1986-01-01

    The mutagenicity of pyrazole and seven pyrazole derivatives (4-nitropyrazole, 4-bromopyrazole, 1-methyl-4-nitropyrazole, 3,5-dimethyl-4-nitropyrazole, 1-methyl-4-bromopyrazole, 4,4'-dinitro-1, 1'-methylene-dipyrazole and 4,4'-dibromo-1,1'-methylene-dipyrazole) has been investigated with the L-arabinose forward mutation assay of Salmonella typhimurium. Two nitroimidazoles (1-methyl-5-nitroimidazole and metronidazole) were included as reference drugs. The mutagenicity of each chemical was determined by both preincubation and liquid tests, in the presence or absence of S9 microsomal fraction. The mutagenic responses was expressed as the absolute number of L-arabinose resistant mutants growing in selective plates, supplemented with traces of D-glucose. Strain BA13 with a wild-type lipopolysaccharide barrier was used as a comparison to the deep rough derivative BA9. No mutagenic effect was detected with pyrazole and two of its derivatives, 1-methyl-4-bromopyrazole and 4,4'-dibromo-1,1'-methylene-dipyrazole. The other five pyrazole derivatives were mutagenic to different degrees, although their mutagenic potencies were always considerably lower than those of the two nitroimidazoles. The results suggest that 4-nitropyrazoles, as well as 4,4'-dinitro-1, 1'-methylene-dipyrazoles, should be investigated further as alternatives to, or even substitutes for, the currently used nitroimidazoles.

  19. PET radiopharmaceuticals for imaging of tumor hypoxia: a review of the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Lopci, Egesta; Grassi, Ilaria; Chiti, Arturo; Nanni, Cristina; Cicoria, Gianfranco; Toschi, Luca; Fonti, Cristina; Lodi, Filippo; Mattioli, Sandro; Fanti, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia is a pathological condition arising in living tissues when oxygen supply does not adequately cover the cellular metabolic demand. Detection of this phenomenon in tumors is of the utmost clinical relevance because tumor aggressiveness, metastatic spread, failure to achieve tumor control, increased rate of recurrence, and ultimate poor outcome are all associated with hypoxia. Consequently, in recent decades there has been increasing interest in developing methods for measurement of oxygen levels in tumors. Among the image-based modalities for hypoxia assessment, positron emission tomography (PET) is one of the most extensively investigated based on the various advantages it offers, i.e., broad range of radiopharmaceuticals, good intrinsic resolution, three-dimensional tumor representation, possibility of semiquantification/quantification of the amount of hypoxic tumor burden, overall patient friendliness, and ease of repetition. Compared with the other non-invasive techniques, the biggest advantage of PET imaging is that it offers the highest specificity for detection of hypoxic tissue. Starting with the 2-nitroimidazole family of compounds in the early 1980s, a great number of PET tracers have been developed for the identification of hypoxia in living tissue and solid tumors. This paper provides an overview of the principal PET tracers applied in cancer imaging of hypoxia and discusses in detail their advantages and pitfalls. PMID:24982822

  20. Preliminary study of hypoxia-related cardiovascular mediator-markers in patients with end-stage renal disease with and without diabetes and the effects of haemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Treweeke, A.; Hall, J.; Lambie, S.; Leslie, S. J.; Megson, I. L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Evidence points to activation of pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic stimuli during the haemodialysis process in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) with potential to predispose to cardiovascular events. Diabetes is associated with a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease in haemodialysis patients. We tested the hypothesis that a range of mediators and markers that modulate cardiovascular risk are elevated in haemodialysis patients with diabetes compared to those without. Methods Men and women with diabetes (n = 6) and without diabetes (n = 6) aged 18–90 years receiving haemodialysis were recruited. Blood samples were collected and analysed pre- and post-haemodialysis sessions for (platelet-monocyte conjugates (PMC), oxidised LDL (Ox-LDL), endothelin 1 (ET-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A). Results PMC levels significantly increased after haemodialysis in both groups (diabetes p = 0.047; non-diabetes p = 0.005). Baseline VEGF-A was significantly higher in people with diabetes (p = 0.009) and post-dialysis levels were significantly reduced in both groups (P = 0.002). Ox-LDL and CRP concentrations were not significantly different between groups nor affected in either group post-dialysis. Similarly, ET-1 concentrations were comparable in all patients at baseline, with no change post-dialysis in either group. Conclusions In this pilot study, we have confirmed that circulating PMCs are increased following dialysis irrespective of diabetes status. This is likely to be a mechanistic process and offers a potential explanation for high rates of vascular events associated with haemodialysis. The higher VEGF-A concentrations between patients with and without diabetes is a previously unreported finding in diabetic ESRD. Further research is merited to establish whether VEGF-A is a marker or mediator (or both) of cardiovascular risk in haemodialysis. PMID:28542479

  1. Preliminary study of hypoxia-related cardiovascular mediator-markers in patients with end-stage renal disease with and without diabetes and the effects of haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Treweeke, A; Hall, J; Lambie, S; Leslie, S J; Megson, I L; MacRury, S M

    2017-01-01

    Evidence points to activation of pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic stimuli during the haemodialysis process in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) with potential to predispose to cardiovascular events. Diabetes is associated with a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease in haemodialysis patients. We tested the hypothesis that a range of mediators and markers that modulate cardiovascular risk are elevated in haemodialysis patients with diabetes compared to those without. Men and women with diabetes (n = 6) and without diabetes (n = 6) aged 18-90 years receiving haemodialysis were recruited. Blood samples were collected and analysed pre- and post-haemodialysis sessions for (platelet-monocyte conjugates (PMC), oxidised LDL (Ox-LDL), endothelin 1 (ET-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A). PMC levels significantly increased after haemodialysis in both groups (diabetes p = 0.047; non-diabetes p = 0.005). Baseline VEGF-A was significantly higher in people with diabetes (p = 0.009) and post-dialysis levels were significantly reduced in both groups (P = 0.002). Ox-LDL and CRP concentrations were not significantly different between groups nor affected in either group post-dialysis. Similarly, ET-1 concentrations were comparable in all patients at baseline, with no change post-dialysis in either group. In this pilot study, we have confirmed that circulating PMCs are increased following dialysis irrespective of diabetes status. This is likely to be a mechanistic process and offers a potential explanation for high rates of vascular events associated with haemodialysis. The higher VEGF-A concentrations between patients with and without diabetes is a previously unreported finding in diabetic ESRD. Further research is merited to establish whether VEGF-A is a marker or mediator (or both) of cardiovascular risk in haemodialysis.

  2. Kit formulation for preparation and biological evaluation of a novel (99m)Tc-oxo complex with metronidazole xanthate for imaging tumor hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenxiang; Lin, Xiao; Zhang, Junbo; Wang, Xuebin; Jin, Zhonghui; Zhang, Weifang; Zhang, Yanyan

    2016-02-01

    Achieving an ideal (99m)Tc labeled nitroimidazole hypoxia marker is still considered to be of great interest. Metronidazole xanthate (MNXT) ligand was synthesized and radiolabeled with (99m)Tc-glucoheptonate (GH) to form the (99m)TcO-MNXT complex, for the potential use as a novel probe for imaging tumor hypoxia. For labeling, (99m)TcO-MNXT was prepared by ligand-exchange reaction with (99m)Tc-GH. The radiochemical purity of the (99m)TcO-MNXT complex was measured by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The distribution coefficient and stability of the complex was investigated. The structure of the (99m)TcO-MNXT complex was verified by preparation and characterization of the corresponding stable rhenium complex. The cellular uptake of the (99m)TcO-MNXT complex was determined in murine sarcoma S180 cell lines under hypoxic and aerobic conditions. The biodistribution and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) image studies of the (99m)TcO-MNXT complex were performed in mice bearing S 180 tumor. The radiochemical purity of the (99m)TcO-MNXT complex was over 90%. It had good in vitro stability and its distribution coefficient indicated that it was a hydrophilic complex. When (99m)Tc and Re complexes were coinjected in HPLC, both radioactivity (for (99m)Tc complex) and UV detectors (for Re complex) showed nearly identical HPLC profiles, suggesting their structures are similar. The tumor cell experiment and the biodistribution in mice bearing S 180 tumor showed that the (99m)TcO-MNXT complex had a good hypoxic selectivity and accumulated in the tumor with high uptake and good retention. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) image studies showed that the tumor detection was observable. (99m)TcO-MNXT is prepared from a kit without the need for purification and shows high tumor uptake, tumor/blood and tumor/muscle ratios, suggesting that it would be a promising candidate for imaging tumor hypoxia

  3. Design and synthesis of 2-nitroimidazoles with variable alkylating and acylating functionality.

    PubMed

    Winters, Thomas; Sercel, Anthony; Suto, Carla; Elliott, William; Leopold, Wilbur; Leopold, Judith; Showalter, Hollis

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of a small series of 2-nitroimidazoles in which the β-amino alcohol side chain was amidated with a range of alkylating/acylating functionality is described. Synthetic methodologies were developed that generally provided for selective N-acyl versus N,O-bisacyl products. In vitro, target analogs showed minimal radiosensitization activity, with only a few exhibiting a sensitizer enhancement ratio (SER) >2.0 and C(1.6) values comparable to reference agents RB-6145 and RSU-1069. In an assay to determine potential to alkylate biomolecules, representative analogs showed <1% of the alkylating activity of RSU-1069. In vivo, one analog showed an enhancement ratio of 1.6 relative to vehicle control when tested in B6C3F1 mice with an implanted KHT sarcoma. The data reinforce prior findings that there is a correlation between alkylation potential and in vivo activity.

  4. Biological characterization of novel nitroimidazole-peptide conjugates in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Ralf; Splith, Katrin; Pietzsch, Jens; Bachmann, Michael; Neundorf, Ines

    2017-07-01

    Recently, we reported on the design of a multimodal peptide conjugate useful as delivery platform for targeting hypoxic cells. A nitroimidazole (2-(2-nitroimidazol-1-yl)acetic acid, NIA) moiety, which is selectively entrapped in hypoxic cells, was coupled to a cell-penetrating peptide serving as the transporter. Furthermore, attachment of a bifunctional linker allowed the introduction of a diagnostic or therapeutic radiometal. However, although selective tumor accumulation could be detected in vivo, a fast renal clearance of the compound was observed. The present study aims to improve the system by using the more proteolytically stable all-d version of the peptide carrier (DsC18), by attaching two NIA moieties instead of one (DsC18(NIA)2 ) to enhance the tumor uptake, and by incorporating the bifunctional chelator NODAGA instead of DOTA (NODAGA-DsC18(NIA)2 ) to optimize labeling chemistry. First, we characterized in vitro the novel all-d peptide compared with its parent l-version. Then, in order to investigate and compare the pharmacological profiles of the peptides, these were radiolabeled with (64) Cu(II) and (68) Ga(III) , and the biodistribution and kinetics were evaluated in vivo. Our results show the versatility of the d-peptide as cell-penetrating peptide and transporter. However, attaching two NIA groups modified the system in such a way that no selective tumor uptake could be observed compared with the peptide without NIA moieties. Still, this work highlights new pharmacokinetic data on the biodistribution of such compounds in vivo. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. [Efficacy of combined 5-nitroimidazole and probiotic therapy of bacterial vaginosis: randomized open trial].

    PubMed

    Kovachev, S; Vatcheva-Dobrevski, R

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current research is to identify the clinical and microbiological effect of 5-nitroimidazol therapy for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis and in combination with probiotics and the influence of such therapy upon vaginal flora. Women (n = 539) with bacterial vaginosis who meet the criteria were included in the study. They were randomized into two groups with the following therapeutic regimes: in the first group (n = 242 women) the treatment included applications of 2g BID tinidazole for two days and vaginal suppositories of 1000 mg metronidazol at day 1 and 3 (T+M). In the second group (n = 297) the women were cured with the same treatment as those in the first group. In addition to it from the fifth day of the treatment was added a topical administration of vaginal probiotic which contains species of alive lactobacilli: Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus (T+M+P). The efficacy from the therapy was evaluated using the clinical compliances of the women, the data from the clinical examination and the microbiological tests results. The results showed expected increase of clinical therapy efficacy (Amsel - criteria) from 42.8% (T+M; n = 211/242) to 84.06% (T+M+P; n = 274/297) in groups and of microbiological efficacy (Nugent) from 44.7% (T+M; n = 211/242) to 83.3% (T+M+P; n = 274/297), in follow up 35-40 days from the beginning of treatment. The percentage of women with normal vaginal flora on 35-40 day after the therapy increase with 57% in the (T+M) first group while in the second group (T+M+P) with 94%. Combining the therapies of 5-nitroimidazoles and vaginal probiotic reduce bacterial vaginosis recurrence and restores permanently normal vaginal flora.

  6. Hypoxia induces adipogenic differentitation of myoblastic cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Itoigawa, Yoshiaki; Kishimoto, Koshi N.; Okuno, Hiroshi; Sano, Hirotaka; Kaneko, Kazuo; Itoi, Eiji

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} C2C12 and G8 myogenic cell lines treated by hypoxia differentiate into adipocytes. {yields} The expression of C/EBP{beta}, {alpha} and PPAR{gamma} were increased under hypoxia. {yields} Myogenic differentiation of C2C12 was inhibited under hypoxia. -- Abstract: Muscle atrophy usually accompanies fat accumulation in the muscle. In such atrophic conditions as back muscles of kyphotic spine and the rotator cuff muscles with torn tendons, blood flow might be diminished. It is known that hypoxia causes trans-differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow into adipocytes. However, it has not been elucidated yet if hypoxia turned myoblasts into adipocytes. We investigated adipogenesis in C2C12 and G8 murine myogenic cell line treated by hypoxia. Cells were also treated with the cocktail of insulin, dexamethasone and IBMX (MDI), which has been known to inhibit Wnt signaling and promote adipogenesis. Adipogenic differentiation was seen in both hypoxia and MDI. Adipogenic marker gene expression was assessed in C2C12. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) {beta}, {alpha} and peroxisome proliferator activating receptor (PPAR) {gamma} were increased by both hypoxia and MDI. The expression profile of Wnt10b was different between hypoxia and MDI. The mechanism for adipogenesis of myoblasts in hypoxia might be regulated by different mechanism than the modification of Wnt signaling.

  7. Preparation and Biodistribution of Technetium-99m-Labeled Bis- Misonidazole (MISO) as an Imaging Agent for Tumour Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Fan, Di; Qian, Jun; Zhang, Zhe; Zhu, Jianhua; Chen, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis of tumour hypoxia is an important aspect in determining the course of tumour therapy. In this study, we developed a novel imaging agent, (99m)Tc-ethylenedicysteine-bis-misonidazole ((99m)Tc-EC-MISO), for diagnosing tumour hypoxia. We used 2-nitroimidazole as a reactant to synthesize the amino derivative of misonidazole (MISO) in the first step and then conjugated the di-amino derivative of MISO to the chelating agent ethylenedicysteine (EC) for labelling (99m)Tc in the second step. (99m)Tc-pertechnetate ((99m)TcO4-) was reduced by tin chloride (SnCl2) for radiolabeling. The radiochemical purity was up to 94%. Tissue biodistribution and SPECT/CT imaging studies were conducted on subcutaneous gliomal tumour-bearing mice. The tumour-to-muscle ratio in the (99m)Tc-EC-MISO group increased with time, up to 4.6 at 4 h after injection. SPECT/CT imaging confirmed that the tumours could be visualized clearly with (99m)Tc-EC-MISO at 2 h. By introducing a second 2-nitroimidazole redox centre, an apparent hypoxic accumulation of this novel (99m)Tc-labeled imaging agent in the tumour was observed.

  8. Design of antiangiogenic hypoxic cell radiosensitizers: 2-nitroimidazoles containing a 2-aminomethylene-4-cyclopentene-1,3-dione moiety.

    PubMed

    Uto, Yoshihiro; Nagasawa, Hideko; Jin, Cheng-Zhe; Nakayama, Shinichi; Tanaka, Ayako; Kiyoi, Saori; Nakashima, Hitomi; Shimamura, Mariko; Inayama, Seiichi; Fujiwara, Tomoya; Takeuchi, Yoshio; Uehara, Yoshimasa; Kirk, Kenneth L; Nakata, Eiji; Hori, Hitoshi

    2008-06-01

    We designed chiral 2-nitroimidazole derivatives containing a 2-aminomethylene-4-cyclopentene-1,3-dione moiety as antiangiogenic hypoxic cell radiosensitizers. Based on results of molecular orbital calculations, the 2-aminomethylene-4-cyclopentene-1,3-dione moiety is expected to show high electrophilicity comparable to that of the 2-methylene-4-cyclopentene-1,3-dione moiety included in TX-1123 and tyrphostin AG17. We evaluated the antiangiogenic and radiosensitizing effects of the new compounds, along with other biological properties including their activities as hypoxic cytotoxicities and protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitory activities. Among the compounds tested, 5 (TX-2036) proved to be the strongest antiangiogenic hypoxic cell radiosensitizer. All the other chiral 2-nitroimidazole derivatives having 2-aminomethylene-4-cyclopentene-1,3-dione moiety tested were also antiangiogenic hypoxic cell radiosensitizers. The PTK inhibitory activity of 5 (TX-2036) showed this to be a promising and potent EGFR kinase inhibitor, having an IC(50) value of lower than 2microM. This compound also was an Flt-1 kinase inhibitor having an IC(50) value of lower than 20microM. Our results show that these chiral 2-nitroimidazole derivatives that contain the 2-aminomethylene-4-cyclopentene-1,3-dione moiety as a potent antiangiogenic pharmacophoric descriptor are promising lead candidates for the development of antiangiogenic hypoxic cell radiosensitizers.

  9. Topological characterization of electron density, electrostatic potential and intermolecular interactions of 2-nitroimidazole: an experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Kalaiarasi, Chinnasamy; Pavan, Mysore S; Kumaradhas, Poomani

    2016-10-01

    An experimental charge density distribution of 2-nitroimidazole was determined from high-resolution X-ray diffraction and the Hansen-Coppens multipole model. The 2-nitroimidazole compound was crystallized and a high-angle X-ray diffraction intensity data set has been collected at low temperature (110 K). The structure was solved and further, an aspherical multipole model refinement was performed up to octapole level; the results were used to determine the structure, bond topological and electrostatic properties of the molecule. In the crystal, the molecule exhibits a planar structure and forms weak and strong intermolecular hydrogen-bonding interactions with the neighbouring molecules. The Hirshfeld surface of the molecule was plotted, which explores different types of intermolecular interactions and their strength. The topological analysis of electron density at the bond critical points (b.c.p.) of the molecule was performed, from that the electron density ρbcp(r) and the Laplacian of electron density ∇(2)ρbcp(r) at the b.c.p.s of the molecule have been determined; these parameters show the charge concentration/depletion of the nitroimidazole bonds in the crystal. The electrostatic parameters like atomic charges and the dipole moment of the molecule were calculated. The electrostatic potential surface of the molecule has been plotted, and it displays a large electronegative region around the nitro group. All the experimental results were compared with the corresponding theoretical calculations performed using CRYSTAL09.

  10. Hypoxia-induced dedifferentiation in neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Jögi, Annika; Øra, Ingrid; Nilsson, Helen; Poellinger, Lorenz; Axelson, Håkan; Påhlman, Sven

    2003-07-18

    Hypoxia in solid tumors is associated with aggressive behavior and poor outcome. We recently discovered that hypoxia alters the expression of differentiation marker genes in neuroblastoma cells, in that the tumor cells adjust to the hypoxic environment by down-regulating genes associated with a neuronal and upregulating genes associated with a neural crest-like phenotype. As there is a correlation in neuroblastoma between low stage of differentiation and high (aggressive) clinical stage, we propose that dedifferentiation of neuroblastoma cells in hypoxic tumor regions contribute to the malignancy of the tumor.

  11. Efficacy of 5-Nitroimidazoles for the Treatment of Giardiasis: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Abhishek; Thota, Priyaleela; Roman, Yuani; Hernandez, Adrian V.

    2014-01-01

    Background Giardiasis is one of the most common causes of diarrheal disease worldwide and 5-nitroimidazoles (5-NI) are the most commonly prescribed drugs for the treatment of giardiasis. We evaluated the efficacy of 5-nitroimidazoles (5-NI) in the treatment of giardiasis in a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a comprehensive literature search in PubMed-Medline, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane Library for RCTs evaluating the efficacy of 5-NI vs. control (placebo or active treatment) on parasitological cure in patients with parasitologically-demonstrated giardiasis. The search was performed in May 2013 with no language restriction by two authors independently. The efficacy outcome was parasitological cure, and harmful outcomes were abdominal pain, bitter or metallic taste, and headache. We included 30 RCTs (n = 3,930). There was a significant and slightly higher response rate with 5-NI in giardiasis treatment (RR 1.06, 95%CI 1.02–1.11, p = 0.005). There was high heterogeneity among studies (I2 = 72%). The response rates for metronidazole, tinidazole and secnidazole were similar (RR 1.05, 95%CI 1.01–1.09, p = 0.01; RR 1.32 95%CI 1.10–1.59, p = 0.003; and RR 1.18 95%CI 0.93–1.449, p = 0.18, respectively). On subgroup analyses, the response rates did not vary substantially and high heterogeneity persisted (I2 = 57%–80%). Harmful outcomes were uncommon, and 5-NIs were associated with lower risk of abdominal pain, and higher risk of both bitter or metallic taste and headache. Conclusions Studies investigating the efficacy of 5-NI in giardiasis treatment are highly heterogeneous. 5-NIs have a slightly better efficacy and worse profile for mild harmful outcomes in the treatment of giardiasis in comparison to controls. Larger high quality RCTs are needed to further assess efficacy and safety profiles of 5-NI. PMID:24625554

  12. Efficacy of 5-nitroimidazoles for the treatment of giardiasis: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Pasupuleti, Vinay; Escobedo, Angel Arturo; Deshpande, Abhishek; Thota, Priyaleela; Roman, Yuani; Hernandez, Adrian V

    2014-03-01

    Giardiasis is one of the most common causes of diarrheal disease worldwide and 5-nitroimidazoles (5-NI) are the most commonly prescribed drugs for the treatment of giardiasis. We evaluated the efficacy of 5-nitroimidazoles (5-NI) in the treatment of giardiasis in a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We conducted a comprehensive literature search in PubMed-Medline, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane Library for RCTs evaluating the efficacy of 5-NI vs. control (placebo or active treatment) on parasitological cure in patients with parasitologically-demonstrated giardiasis. The search was performed in May 2013 with no language restriction by two authors independently. The efficacy outcome was parasitological cure, and harmful outcomes were abdominal pain, bitter or metallic taste, and headache. We included 30 RCTs (n = 3,930). There was a significant and slightly higher response rate with 5-NI in giardiasis treatment (RR 1.06, 95%CI 1.02-1.11, p = 0.005). There was high heterogeneity among studies (I2 = 72%). The response rates for metronidazole, tinidazole and secnidazole were similar (RR 1.05, 95%CI 1.01-1.09, p = 0.01; RR 1.32 95%CI 1.10-1.59, p = 0.003; and RR 1.18 95%CI 0.93-1.449, p = 0.18, respectively). On subgroup analyses, the response rates did not vary substantially and high heterogeneity persisted (I2 = 57%-80%). Harmful outcomes were uncommon, and 5-NIs were associated with lower risk of abdominal pain, and higher risk of both bitter or metallic taste and headache. Studies investigating the efficacy of 5-NI in giardiasis treatment are highly heterogeneous. 5-NIs have a slightly better efficacy and worse profile for mild harmful outcomes in the treatment of giardiasis in comparison to controls. Larger high quality RCTs are needed to further assess efficacy and safety profiles of 5-NI.

  13. Bayesian Inference of Tumor Hypoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawan, R.; Tenti, G.; Sivaloganathan, S.

    2009-12-01

    Tumor hypoxia is a state of oxygen deprivation in tumors. It has been associated with aggressive tumor phenotypes and with increased resistance to conventional cancer therapies. In this study, we report on the application of Bayesian sequential analysis in estimating the most probable value of tumor hypoxia quantification based on immunohistochemical assays of a biomarker. The `gold standard' of tumor hypoxia assessment is a direct measurement of pO2 in vivo by the Eppendorf polarographic electrode, which is an invasive technique restricted to accessible sites and living tissues. An attractive alternative is immunohistochemical staining to detect proteins expressed by cells during hypoxia. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is an enzyme expressed on the cell membrane during hypoxia to balance the immediate extracellular microenvironment. CAIX is widely regarded as a surrogate marker of chronic hypoxia in various cancers. The study was conducted with two different experimental procedures. The first data set was a group of three patients with invasive cervical carcinomas, from which five biopsies were obtained. Each of the biopsies was fully sectioned and from each section, the proportion of CAIX-positive cells was estimated. Measurements were made by image analysis of multiple deep sections cut through these biopsies, labeled for CAIX using both immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical techniques [1]. The second data set was a group of 24 patients, also with invasive cervical carcinomas, from which two biopsies were obtained. Bayesian parameter estimation was applied to obtain a reliable inference about the proportion of CAIX-positive cells within the carcinomas, based on the available biopsies. From the first data set, two to three biopsies were found to be sufficient to infer the overall CAIX percentage in the simple form: best estimate±uncertainty. The second data-set led to a similar result in 70% of the cases. In the remaining cases Bayes' theorem warned us

  14. Hypoxia in Microscopic Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Feng; O’Donoghue, Joseph A

    2008-01-01

    Tumor hypoxia has been commonly observed in a broad spectrum of primary solid malignancies. Hypoxia is associated with tumor progression, increased aggressiveness, enhanced metastatic potential and poor prognosis. Hypoxic tumor cells are resistant to radiotherapy and some forms of chemotherapy. Using an animal model, we recently showed that microscopic tumors less than 1 mm diameter were severely hypoxic. In this review, models and techniques for the study of hypoxia in microscopic tumors are discussed. PMID:18384940

  15. Nitroimidazole derivatives of polypyridyl ruthenium complexes: Towards understanding their anticancer activity and mode of action.

    PubMed

    Mazuryk, Olga; Krysiak-Foria, Oksana; Żak, Agnieszka; Suzenet, Franck; Ptak-Belowska, Agata; Brzozowski, Tomasz; Stochel, Grażyna; Brindell, Małgorzata

    2017-04-01

    The mechanism of cell death induced by the ruthenium polypyridyl complexes comprising two 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline ligands as well as one unmodified 2,2'-bipyridyl or modified with 2-nitroimidazole moiety attached by shorter (C3H6) or longer (C6H12) linker was investigated. Cytotoxicity and proliferation assays revealed that the studied Ru polypyridyl complexes are more toxic against human pancreas carcinoma PANC-1 cell line than normal human keratinocytes HaCaT with IC50 of 3-5μM. The Ru complexes despite accumulation in mitochondria do not lead to mitochondrial disfunction, though decreasing of mitochondrial Ca(2+) causes mitochondria membrane hyperpolarization. The Ru polypyridyl conjugates induce some phenotypical characteristic of apoptosis, such as condensation of chromatin or phosphatidylserine translocation, however no caspase or calpain activation in the studied cell lines was observed, indicating that detected cell death does not occur via mitochondria- or ER-activated pathways. Caspase-independent cell death is caused by enormous ROS formation, mainly hydrogen peroxide and peroxyl radicals as well as by intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis disruption. Accumulation of the Ru compounds inhibits the completion of DNA synthesis, arresting cells in S-phase of cell cycle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Nitroimidazole Action in Entamoeba histolytica: A Central Role for Thioredoxin Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Leitsch, David; Kolarich, Daniel; Wilson, Iain B. H; Altmann, Friedrich; Duchêne, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Metronidazole, a 5-nitroimidazole drug, has been the gold standard for several decades in the treatment of infections with microaerophilic protist parasites, including Entamoeba histolytica. For activation, the drug must be chemically reduced, but little is known about the targets of the active metabolites. Applying two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, we searched for protein targets in E. histolytica. Of all proteins visualized, only five were found to form adducts with metronidazole metabolites: thioredoxin, thioredoxin reductase, superoxide dismutase, purine nucleoside phosphorylase, and a previously unknown protein. Recombinant thioredoxin reductase carrying the modification displayed reduced enzymatic activity. In treated cells, essential non-protein thiols such as free cysteine were also affected by covalent adduct formation, their levels being drastically reduced. Accordingly, addition of cysteine allowed E. histolytica to survive in the presence of otherwise lethal metronidazole concentrations and reduced protein adduct formation. Finally, we discovered that thioredoxin reductase reduces metronidazole and other nitro compounds, suggesting a new model of metronidazole activation in E. histolytica with a central role for thioredoxin reductase. By reducing metronidazole, the enzyme renders itself and associated thiol-containing proteins vulnerable to adduct formation. Because thioredoxin reductase is a ubiquitous enzyme, similar processes could occur in other eukaryotic or prokaryotic organisms. PMID:17676992

  17. A new-generation 5-nitroimidazole can induce highly metronidazole-resistant Giardia lamblia in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Linda A.; Burgess, Anita G.; Krauer, Kenia G.; Eckmann, Lars; Vanelle, Patrice; Crozet, Maxime D.; Gillin, Frances D.; Upcroft, Peter; Upcroft, Jacqueline A.

    2010-01-01

    The 5-nitroimidazole (NI) compound C17, with a side chain carrying a remote phenyl group in the 2-position of the imidazole ring, is at least 14-fold more active against the gut protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia than the 5-NI drug metronidazole (MTR), with a side chain in the 1-position of the imidazole ring, which is the primary drug for the treatment of giardiasis. Over 10 months, lines resistant to C17 were induced in vitro and were at least 12-fold more resistant to C17 than the parent strains. However, these lines had ID90 values (concentration of drug at which 10% of control parasite ATP levels are detected) for MTR of >200 μM, whilst lines induced to be highly resistant to MTR in vitro have maximum ID90 values around 100 μM (MTR-susceptible isolates typically have an ID90 of 5–12.8 μM). The mechanism of MTR activation in Giardia apparently involves reduction to toxic radicals by the activity of pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) and the electron acceptor ferredoxin. MTR-resistant Giardia have decreased PFOR activity, which is consistent with decreased activation of MTR in these lines, but C17-resistant lines have normal levels of PFOR. Therefore, an alternative mechanism of resistance in Giardia must account for these super-MTR-resistant cells. PMID:20456926

  18. Survey of 11 nitroimidazole residues in hen and duck eggs from the Irish market.

    PubMed

    Cronly, Mark; Behan, Patrice; Foley, Barry; Danaher, Martin; Malone, Edward; Regan, Liam

    2011-01-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method, recently developed, validated and accredited, was used to screen for metronidazole, ronidazole dimetridazole ipronidazole, ternidazole, tinidazole, ornidazole carnidazole and three hydroxy metabolites (hydroxy-metronidazole, HMMNI and hydroxy-ipronidazole) in Irish retail egg samples. The method used had decision limits (CCα) in the range 0.33-1.26 µg kg(-1) and detection capabilities (CCβ) ranging 0.56-2.15 µg kg(-1) for all analytes. Internal standard-corrected recovery, calculated for the various analytes, ranged 87.2-106.2%, while the coefficient of variance, expressed as % CV, ranged 3.7-11.3%. The method was applied to 160 samples of caged, free range and organic hen and duck eggs available on the Irish retail market as well as two incurred proficiency test egg samples. No nitroimidazole residues were detected in the survey samples above the CCα and the results achieved for the two proficiency test samples were acceptable when compared with the assigned values.

  19. Ruthenium(II) sulfoxide-maltolato and -nitroimidazole complexes: synthesis and MTT assay.

    PubMed

    Wu, Adam; Kennedy, David C; Patrick, Brian O; James, Brian R

    2003-11-17

    Ru(II) sulfoxide-maltolato complexes, Ru(ma)(2)(L)(2) (L = DMSO (1a) and TMSO (1b) or L(2) = BESE (1c)), were synthesized, as well as the analogous ethylmaltolato derivatives, Ru(etma)(2)(L)(2) (2a-c) (ma = 3-hydroxy-2-methylpyran-4-onate, etma = 2-ethyl-3-hydroxypyran-4-onate, TMSO = tetramethylene sulfoxide, BESE = 1,2-bis(ethylsulfinyl)ethane). A Ru(II) bidentate sulfoxide-metronidazole complex, RuCl(2)(BESE)(metro)(2) (3), was also synthesized (metro = metronidazole = 2-methyl-5-nitroimidazole-1-ethanol). The complexes were characterized generally by (1)H NMR, UV-vis, and IR spectroscopies, as well as MS, elemental analysis, solution conductivity, and cyclic voltammetry. The molecular structures of Ru(ma)(2)(S,R-BESE) (1c) and trans-RuCl(2)(R,R-BESE)(metro)(2) (3) were determined by X-ray crystallography. All sulfoxide ligands are S-bonded. The complexes were tested against human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-435S) using an in vitro MTT assay, a colorimetric determination of cell viability: 2a,b exhibit the lowest IC(50) values of 190 +/- 10 and 220 +/- 10 microM, respectively. Cisplatin exhibits an IC(50) value of 30 +/- 5 microM.

  20. Giardia, Entamoeba, and Trichomonas enzymes activate metronidazole (nitroreductases) and inactivate metronidazole (nitroimidazole reductases).

    PubMed

    Pal, Dibyarupa; Banerjee, Sulagna; Cui, Jike; Schwartz, Aaron; Ghosh, Sudip K; Samuelson, John

    2009-02-01

    Infections with Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, and Trichomonas vaginalis, which cause diarrhea, dysentery, and vaginitis, respectively, are each treated with metronidazole. Here we show that Giardia, Entamoeba, and Trichomonas have oxygen-insensitive nitroreductase (ntr) genes which are homologous to those genes that have nonsense mutations in metronidazole-resistant Helicobacter pylori isolates. Entamoeba and Trichomonas also have nim genes which are homologous to those genes expressed in metronidazole-resistant Bacteroides fragilis isolates. Recombinant Giardia, Entamoeba, and Trichomonas nitroreductases used NADH rather than the NADPH used by Helicobacter, and two recombinant Entamoeba nitroreductases increased the metronidazole sensitivity of transformed Escherichia coli strains. Conversely, the recombinant nitroimidazole reductases (NIMs) of Entamoeba and Trichmonas conferred very strong metronidazole resistance to transformed bacteria. The Ehntr1 gene of the genome project HM-1:IMSS strain of Entamoeba histolytica had a nonsense mutation, and the same nonsense mutation was present in 3 of 22 clinical isolates of Entamoeba. While ntr and nim mRNAs were variably expressed by cultured Entamoeba and Trichomonas isolates, there was no relationship to metronidazole sensitivity. We conclude that microaerophilic protists have bacterium-like enzymes capable of activating metronidazole (nitroreductases) and inactivating metronidazole (NIMs). While Entamoeba and Trichomonas displayed some of the changes (nonsense mutations and gene overexpression) associated with metronidazole resistance in bacteria, these changes did not confer metronidazole resistance to the microaerophilic protists examined here.

  1. Hypoxia and Mucosal Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Colgan, Sean P.; Campbell, Eric L.; Kominsky, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    Sites of inflammation are defined by significant changes in metabolic activity. Recent studies have suggested that O2 metabolism and hypoxia play a prominent role in inflammation so-called “inflammatory hypoxia,” which results from a combination of recruited inflammatory cells (e.g., neutrophils and monocytes), the local proliferation of multiple cell types, and the activation of multiple O2-consuming enzymes during inflammation. These shifts in energy supply and demand result in localized regions of hypoxia and have revealed the important function off the transcription factor HIF (hypoxia-inducible factor) in the regulation of key target genes that promote inflammatory resolution. Analysis of these pathways has provided multiple opportunities for understanding basic mechanisms of inflammation and has defined new targets for intervention. Here, we review recent work addressing tissue hypoxia and metabolic control of inflammation and immunity. PMID:27193451

  2. Hypoxia induces autophagy in cardiomyocytes via a hypoxia-inducible factor 1-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    GUI, LAN; LIU, BATU; LV, GUANG

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia frequently accompanies such vascular disorders as atherosclerosis, thrombosis and ischemia/reperfusion injury. Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion, in particular, is a major contributor to cardiomyocyte impairment. Autophagy is a dynamic, self-catabolic process that has been implicated in a wide range of physiological processes and the pathogenesis of diverse diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the promotion of autophagy by hypoxia in a rat H9c2 heart cell line and determine the regulatory role of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) in the hypoxia-induced autophagy in H9c2 cells, using quantitative green fluorescent protein-microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 analysis and electron microscopy of autophagic vesicles. In addition, western blot and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of autophagy-associated markers was conducted. In addition, the role of HIF-1-mediated autophagy in the hypoxia-induced impairment of H9c2 cells was examined, as a measure of cellular viability, using an MTT assay. The results demonstrated that autophagy was induced in H9c2 cells under hypoxia, and the autophagy induction triggered by hypoxia could be enhanced by HIF-1α overexpression and inhibited by HIF-1α knockdown. Furthermore, the HIF-1-mediated autophagy ameliorated the reduction in the H9c2 cell viability induced by hypoxia. These findings provide a novel insight into the hypoxic-ischemic injury to cardiomyocytes and give evidence for the occurrence of HIF-1-mediated autophagy in myocardial ischemia. PMID:27284306

  3. Treatment with suramin and 2-substituted 5-nitroimidazoles of chronic murine Trypanosoma brucei infections with central nervous system involvement.

    PubMed

    Jennings, F W; Urquhart, G M; Murray, P K; Miller, B M

    1983-01-01

    Mice infected with either of two isolates of Trypanosoma brucei, GVR 23/1 or GVR 35/1, develop a chronic infection in which trypanosomes are localized in the central nervous system. These infected mice were used to evaluate the efficacy of a combination drug treatment comprising suramin and one of three 2-substituted 5-nitroimidazoles. None of the three 5-nitroimidazoles tested alone, cured mice when administered 21 days after infection. However, it was found that T. brucei GVR 23/1 infections could be cured by a single dose of 20 mg/kg suramin followed by a single dose of 80 mg/kg L611,744 [3a,4,5,6,7,8,9,9a-octahydro-3-(1-methyl-5-nitroimidazol-2yl)cycloocta(D) isoxazole]. The single dose of 20 mg/kg suramin had to be followed by four doses of 80 mg/kg L611,744 to cure mice infected with another stabilate, T. brucei GVR 35/1. A single dose of 20 mg/kg suramin followed either by four doses of 250 mg/kg MK 436 [3a,4,5,6,7,7a-hexahydro-3-(1-methyl-5nitro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-1, 2-benzisoxazole] or four doses of 70 mg/kg of a dihydroxy analogue of MK 436 [cis-3a,4,5,6,7,7a-hexahydro-3-(1-methyl-5-nitro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-1, 2-benzisoxazole-6,7-diol] also permanently cured all T. brucei GVR 35/1.

  4. Hypoxia-responsive ionizable liposome delivery siRNA for glioma therapy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong-Mei; Zhang, Ya-Fei; Xie, Yan-Dong; Cai, Yi-Fan; Li, Bai-Yang; Li, Wen; Zeng, Ling-Yu; Li, Yu-Ling; Yu, Ru-Tong

    2017-01-01

    Here, we report the hypoxia-responsive ionizable liposomes to deliver small interference RNA (siRNA) anticancer drugs, which can selectively enhance cellular uptake of the siRNA under hypoxic and low-pH conditions to cure glioma. For this purpose, malate dehydrogenase lipid molecules were synthesized, which contain nitroimidazole groups that impart hypoxia sensitivity and specificity as hydrophobic tails, and tertiary amines as hydrophilic head groups. These malate dehydrogenase molecules, together with DSPE-PEG2000 and cholesterol, were self-assembled into O′1,O1-(3-(dimethylamino)propane-1,2-diyl) 16-bis(2-(2-methyl-5-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethyl) di(hexadecanedioate) liposomes (MLP) to encapsulate siRNA through electrostatic interaction. Our study showed that the MLP could deliver polo-like kinase 1 siRNA (siPLK1) into glioma cells and effectively enhance the cellular uptake of MLP/siPLK1 because of increased positive charges induced by hypoxia and low pH. Moreover, MLP/siPLK1 was shown to be very effective in inhibiting the growth of glioma cells both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, the MLP is a promising siRNA delivery system for tumor therapy. PMID:28223799

  5. 2-Nitroimidazole-ruthenium polypyridyl complex as a new conjugate for cancer treatment and visualization.

    PubMed

    Mazuryk, Olga; Maciuszek, Monika; Stochel, Grażyna; Suzenet, Franck; Brindell, Małgorzata

    2014-05-01

    A novel long-lifetime highly luminescent ruthenium polypyridyl complex containing 2-nitroimidazole moiety [Ru(dip)2(bpy-2-nitroIm)]Cl2 (dip=4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline, bpy-2-nitroIm=4-[3-(2-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)propyl]-2,2'-bipyridine) has been designed cancer treatment and imaging. The luminescence properties of the synthesized compound strongly depend on the oxygen concentration. Under oxygen-free conditions quantum yield of luminescence and the average lifetime of emission were found to be 0.034 and 1.9 μs, respectively, which is ca. three times higher in comparison to values obtained in air-equilibrated solution. The binding properties of the investigated ruthenium complex to human serum albumin have been studied and the apparent binding constant for the formation of the protein-ruthenium adduct was determined to be 1.1×10(5)M(-1). The quantum yield and the average lifetime of emission are greatly enhanced upon binding of ruthenium compound to the protein. The DNA binding studies revealed two distinguished binding modes which lead to a decrease in luminescence intensity of ruthenium complex up to 60% for [DNA]/[Ru]<2, and enhancement of emission for [DNA]/[Ru]>80. Preliminary biological studies confirmed fast and efficient accumulation of the ruthenium complex inside cells. Furthermore, the ruthenium complex was found to be relatively cytotoxic with LD50 of 12 and 13 μM for A549 and CT26 cell lines, respectively, under normoxic conditions. The retention and cellular uptake of ruthenium complex is enhanced under hypoxic conditions and its LD50 decreases to 8 μM for A549 cell line. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Antitrypanosomal activity of fexinidazole, a new oral nitroimidazole drug candidate for treatment of sleeping sickness.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Marcel; Bray, Michael A; Cal, Monica; Bourdin Trunz, Bernadette; Torreele, Els; Brun, Reto

    2011-12-01

    Fexinidazole is a 5-nitroimidazole drug currently in clinical development for the treatment of human sleeping sickness (human African trypanosomiasis [HAT]), caused by infection with species of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei. The compound and its two principal metabolites, sulfoxide and sulfone, have been assessed for their ability to kill a range of T. brucei parasite strains in vitro and to cure both acute and chronic HAT disease models in the mouse. The parent molecule and both metabolites have shown trypanocidal activity in vitro in the 0.7-to-3.3 μM (0.2-to-0.9 μg/ml) range against all parasite strains tested. In vivo, fexinidazole is orally effective in curing both acute and chronic diseases in the mouse at doses of 100 mg/kg of body weight/day for 4 days and 200 mg/kg/day for 5 days, respectively. Pharmacokinetic data indicate that it is likely that the sulfoxide and sulfone metabolites provide most, if not all, of the in vivo killing activity. Fexinidazole and its metabolites require up to 48 h exposure in order to induce maximal trypanocidal efficacy in vitro. The parent drug and its metabolites show no in vitro cross-reactivity in terms of trypanocidal activity with either themselves or other known trypanocidal drugs in use in humans. The in vitro and in vivo antitrypanosomal activities of fexinidazole and its two principal metabolites provide evidence that the compound has the potential to be an effective oral treatment for both the T. b. gambiense and T. b. rhodesiense forms of human sleeping sickness and both stages of the disease.

  7. Characterization and properties of monoammine nitroimidazole complexes of platinum (PtCl sub 2 (NH sub 3 )(NO sub 2 Im)). Crystal and molecular structure of cis-Amminedichloro(1-((((2-hydroxyethyl)amino)carbonyl)methyl)-2-nitroimidazole)platinum(II)

    SciTech Connect

    Rochon, F.D.; Pichang Kong; Melanson, R. ); Skov, K.A. ); Farrell, N. )

    1991-11-27

    The characterization of monoammine(nitroimidazole)platinum(II) complexes of structure (PtCl{sub 2}(NH{sub 3})(NO{sub 2}Im)) (NO{sub 2}Im = 1-((((2-hydroxyethyl)amino)carbonyl)methyl)-2-nitroimidazole, Etanidazole (I), 1-(2-nitro-1-imidazolyl)-3-methoxy2-propanol, Misonidazole (II), and 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-methyl-5-nitroimidazole, Metronidazole (III)) is reported. Both is cis and trans isomers may be isolated for II and III. The crystal structure of cis-amminedichloro(1-((((2-hydroxyethyl)amino)carbonyl)methyl)-2-nitroimidazole)platinum(II) has been determined by X-ray diffraction. The crystals are orthorhombic, space group Pnab with cell dimensions a = 14.867 (7) {angstrom}, b = 9.915 (5) {angstrom}, c = 19.015 (9) {angstrom}, and Z = 8. The structure was refined to R = 0.062 and R{sub w} = 0.052. Platinum has the expected square-planar coordination. The Pt-Cl bond trans to the nitroimidazole ligand is shorter (2.269 (3) {angstrom}) than normal. The dihedral angle between the platinum plane and the imidazole ring is 111{degree}, while the nitro group makes an angle of 31{degree} with the imidazole ring plane. Electrochemistry and {sup 195}Pt NMR data are also reported. The relevance of the chemical properties to their biological properties as radiosensitizers and hypoxic cytotoxins is discussed.

  8. Macrophage Responses to Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Claire; Murdoch, Craig

    2005-01-01

    The presence of multiple areas of hypoxia (low oxygen tension) is a hallmark feature of human and experimental tumors. Monocytes are continually recruited into tumors, differentiate into tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), and then accumulate in these hypoxic areas. A number of recent studies have shown that macrophages respond to the levels of hypoxia found in tumors by up-regulating such transcription factors as hypoxia-inducible factors 1 and 2, which in turn activate a broad array of mitogenic, proinvasive, proangiogenic, and prometastatic genes. This could explain why high numbers of TAMs correlate with poor prognosis in various forms of cancer. In this review, we assess the evidence for hypoxia activating a distinct, protumor phenotype in macrophages and the possible effect of this on the growth, invasion, angiogenesis, and immune evasion of tumors. We also discuss current attempts to selectively target TAMs for destruction or to use them to deliver gene therapy specifically to hypoxic tumor sites. PMID:16127144

  9. Hypoxia-Inducible Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyung Min; Gerecht, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Oxygen is vital for the existence of all multicellular organisms, acting as a signaling molecule regulating cellular activities. Specifically, hypoxia, which occurs when the partial pressure of oxygen falls below 5%, plays a pivotal role during development, regeneration, and cancer. Here we report a novel hypoxia-inducible (HI) hydrogel composed of gelatin and ferulic acid that can form hydrogel networks via oxygen consumption in a laccase-mediated reaction. Oxygen levels and gradients within the hydrogels can be accurately controlled and precisely predicted. We demonstrate that HI hydrogels guide vascular morphogenesis in vitro via hypoxia-inducible factors activation of matrix metalloproteinases and promote rapid neovascularization from the host tissue during subcutaneous wound healing. The HI hydrogel is a new class of biomaterials that may prove useful in many applications, ranging from fundamental studies of developmental, regenerative and disease processes through the engineering of healthy and diseased tissue models towards the treatment of hypoxia-regulated disorders. PMID:24909742

  10. Hypoxia-induced oxygen tolerance: maintenance of endothelial metabolic function

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, R.M.; Ann, H.S.; Oparil, S.

    1988-01-01

    Hypoxia (10%-12% O2) preadaptation for 4-7 days effectively protects rats from oxygen toxicity. The present study was designed to investigate the hypothesis that the lung's microvascular endothelium shares in development of oxygen tolerance and therefore that endothelial metabolic function would be protected from oxygen toxicity by prior adaptation to hypoxia. Since pulmonary oxygen toxicity decreases lung capillary angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity, we assayed converting enzyme active sites in an isolated perfused rat lung preparation as a marker for the development of oxygen toxicity and tolerance. Rats were exposed to air, hypoxia (10% O2 for 4 days), hyperoxia (greater than 95% O2 for 2 days) alone, or hypoxia followed immediately by hyperoxia. Lung vascular ACE content was quantitated by measuring the single pass binding of an iodinated-converting enzyme inhibitor, 125I-MK351A, a derivative of lisinopril. Hypoxia adaptation per se had no effect on ACE content reflected in normal 125I-MK351A binding, whereas hyperoxia exposure caused a significant decrease in lung vascular ACE. Hyperoxia-induced decreases in ACE content were prevented partially by hypoxia adaptation, indicating that ACE content on luminal endothelial surfaces was protected from oxygen toxicity. In isolated perfused lungs 125I-MK351A binding reflects development of oxygen tolerance after hypoxia preadaptation and suggests that lung endothelial metabolic function is protected from oxygen toxicity.

  11. Cytopathic hypoxia in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Fink, M

    1997-01-01

    Diminished availability of oxygen at the cellular level might account for organ dysfunction in sepsis. Although the classical forms of tissue hypoxia due to hypoxemia, anemia, or inadequate perfusion all might be important under some conditions, it seems increasingly likely that a fourth mechanism, namely cytopathic hypoxia, might play a role as well. The term cytopathic hypoxia is used to denote diminished production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) despite normal (or even supranormal) PO2 values in the vicinity of mitochondria within cells. At least in theory, cytopathic hypoxia could be a consequence of several different (but mutually compatible) pathogenic mechanisms, including diminished delivery of a key substrate (e.g., pyruvate) into the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, inhibition of key mitochondrial enzymes involved in either the TCA cycle or the electron transport chain, activation of the enzyme, poly-(ADP)-ribosylpolymerase (PARP), or collapse of the protonic gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane leading to uncoupling of oxidation (of NADH and FADH) from phosphorylation of ADP to form ATP. Tantalizing, but limited, data support the view that cytopathic hypoxia occurs in both animals and patients with sepsis or endotoxemia.

  12. Hypoxia-Induced Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Krock, Bryan L.; Skuli, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    The vascular network delivers oxygen (O2) and nutrients to all cells within the body. It is therefore not surprising that O2 availability serves as a primary regulator of this complex organ. Most transcriptional responses to low O2 are mediated by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), highly conserved transcription factors that control the expression of numerous angiogenic, metabolic, and cell cycle genes. Accordingly, the HIF pathway is currently viewed as a master regulator of angiogenesis. HIF modulation could provide therapeutic benefit for a wide array of pathologies, including cancer, ischemic heart disease, peripheral artery disease, wound healing, and neovascular eye diseases. Hypoxia promotes vessel growth by upregulating multiple pro-angiogenic pathways that mediate key aspects of endothelial, stromal, and vascular support cell biology. Interestingly, recent studies show that hypoxia influences additional aspects of angiogenesis, including vessel patterning, maturation, and function. Through extensive research, the integral role of hypoxia and HIF signaling in human disease is becoming increasingly clear. Consequently, a thorough understanding of how hypoxia regulates angiogenesis through an ever-expanding number of pathways in multiple cell types will be essential for the identification of new therapeutic targets and modalities. PMID:22866203

  13. Hypoxia-mediated metastasis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Joan; Erler, Janine

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis is responsible for more than 90 % of deaths among cancer patient. It is a highly complex process that involves the interplay between cancer cells, the tumor microenvironment, and even noncancerous host cells. Metastasis can be seen as a step-wise process: acquisition of malignant phenotype, invasion into surrounding tissue, intravasation into blood vessels, survival in circulation, extravasation to distant sites, and colonization of new organs. Before the actual metastatic process, the secondary site is also prepared for the arrival of the cancer cells through formation of "premetastatic niches." Hypoxia (low oxygen tension) is commonly found in solid tumors more than a few millimeters cubed and often is associated with a poor prognosis. Hypoxia increases angiogenesis, cancer cell survival, and metastasis. This chapter described how hypoxia regulates each step of the metastatic process and how blocking hypoxia-driven metastasis through targeting hypoxia-inducible factor 1, or downstream effector molecules such as the lysyl oxidase family may represent highly effective preventive strategies against metastasis in cancer patients.

  14. Use of power Doppler ultrasound-guided biopsies to locate regions of tumour hypoxia.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, S. M.; Laughlin, K. M.; Pugh, C. R.; Sehgal, C. M.; Saunders, H. M.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether power Doppler ultrasound techniques could be used to direct biopsies into tumour regions with relatively low red blood cell flux, and therefore preferentially sample regions that were relatively hypoxic. Subcutaneous 9L glioma rat tumours were biopsied using power Doppler ultrasound guidance. Immunohistochemical detection of the 2-nitroimidazole EF5 was performed to determine the presence and level of hypoxia in the biopsy samples. Comparisons between the power Doppler-determined red blood cell flux and EF5 binding were made. In seven out of eight tumours studied, power Doppler ultrasound allowed differentiation of a relatively hypoxic region from a relatively oxic region by localizing relatively low vs high red blood cell flux areas respectively. In one of these seven tumours, RBC flux was high in both biopsied sites and hypoxia was not present in either. In two of these seven tumours, hypoxia was present in each biopsy and both of the red blood cell flux measurements were low. In the eighth tumour, both the EF5 binding and the red blood cell flux measurements were low. In this tumour, low EF5 binding was due to the dominance of necrotic cells, which will not reduce or bind EF5 in the biopsy specimen. Using EF5-binding techniques, we have confirmed that regions of relatively low red blood cell flux are more hypoxic than those with relatively high red blood cell flux. Counterstaining specimens with haematoxylin and eosin allows differentiation of low EF5-binding regions due to oxia vs necrosis. These methods have clinical implications for the expanded use of power Doppler ultrasound as a means to direct tissue sampling when it is important to identify the presence of hypoxia. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9374376

  15. Kidney hypoxia, attributable to increased oxygen consumption, induces nephropathy independently of hyperglycemia and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Friederich-Persson, Malou; Thörn, Erik; Hansell, Peter; Nangaku, Masaomi; Levin, Max; Palm, Fredrik

    2013-11-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is strongly associated with both increased oxidative stress and kidney tissue hypoxia. The increased oxidative stress causes increased kidney oxygen consumption resulting in kidney tissue hypoxia. To date, it has been difficult to determine the role of kidney hypoxia, per se, for the development of nephropathy. We tested the hypothesis that kidney hypoxia, without confounding factors such as hyperglycemia or elevated oxidative stress, results in nephropathy. To induce kidney hypoxia, dinitrophenol (30 mg per day per kg bodyweight by gavage), a mitochondrial uncoupler that increases oxygen consumption and causes kidney hypoxia, was administered for 30 consecutive days to rats. Thereafter, glomerular filtration rate, renal blood flow, kidney oxygen consumption, kidney oxygen tension, kidney concentrations of glucose and glycogen, markers of oxidative stress, urinary protein excretion, and histological findings were determined and compared with vehicle-treated controls. Dinitrophenol did not affect arterial blood pressure, renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, blood glucose, or markers of oxidative stress but increased kidney oxygen consumption, and reduced cortical and medullary concentrations of glucose and glycogen, and resulted in intrarenal tissue hypoxia. Furthermore, dinitrophenol treatment increased urinary protein excretion, kidney vimentin expression, and infiltration of inflammatory cells. In conclusion, increased mitochondrial oxygen consumption results in kidney hypoxia and subsequent nephropathy. Importantly, these results demonstrate that kidney tissue hypoxia, per se, without confounding hyperglycemia or oxidative stress, may be sufficient to initiate the development of nephropathy and therefore demonstrate a new interventional target for treating kidney disease.

  16. Effect of graded hypoxia on retention of technetium-99m-nitroheterocycle in perfused rat heart

    SciTech Connect

    Rumsey, W.L.; Patel, B.; Linder, K.E.

    1995-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of graded hypoxia on the retention of a {sup 99m}Tc-labeled nitroimidazole. Rat hearts were perfused retrogradely with Krebs-Henseleit buffer at 37{degrees}C and paced at 5 Hz. After a 20-min stabilization period, coronary flow was maintained at 8 ml/min/g wet wt and the hearts were perfused with media equilibrated with gas mixtures containing 5% CO{sub 2} and various levels of O{sub 2}, from 544 to 29 Torr. Technetium-99m-O(PnAO-1-(2-nitroimidazole)), BMS-181321, was infused for 20 min into a side port of the aortic cannula. Perfusion continued for an additional 40 min to allow for compound clearance. Each decrease of perfusate PO{sub 2} brought about an increase in the retention of BMS-181321, resulting in a good correlation between its retention and perfusate PO{sub 2} (r=0.97). Myocardial oxygen consumption was independent of oxygen delivery when the perfusate oxygen pressure was greater than 350 Torr. Below this value, oxygen consumption declined markedly as influent PO{sub 2}. A good correlation was obtained between retention of the nitroheterocycle and the cytosolic lactate/pyruvate ratio (r=0.98). When glucose was omitted from the perfusate (PO{sub 2}=27 Torr), retention of the nitroheterocycle was increased by about 25% as compared to hearts perfused in the presence of this substrate. These results indicate that myocardial retention of BMS-181321 is coupled to the level of tissue oxygenation and that hypoxic retention may be affected by substrate input. 24 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Hypoxia-activated pro-drug TH-302 exhibits potent tumor suppressive activity and cooperates with chemotherapy against osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Liapis, Vasilios; Labrinidis, Agatha; Zinonos, Irene; Hay, Shelley; Ponomarev, Vladimir; Panagopoulos, Vasilios; DeNichilo, Mark; Ingman, Wendy; Atkins, Gerald J; Findlay, David M; Zannettino, Andrew C W; Evdokiou, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    Tumor hypoxia is a major cause of treatment failure for a variety of malignancies. However, tumor hypoxia also offers treatment opportunities, exemplified by the development compounds that target hypoxic regions within tumors. TH-302 is a pro-drug created by the conjugation of 2-nitroimidazole to bromo-isophosphoramide (Br-IPM). When TH-302 is delivered to regions of hypoxia, Br-IPM, the DNA cross linking toxin, is released. In this study we assessed the cytotoxic activity of TH-302 against osteosarcoma cells in vitro and evaluated its anticancer efficacy as a single agent, and in combination with doxorubicin, in an orthotopic mouse model of human osteosarcoma (OS). In vitro, TH-302 was potently cytotoxic to osteosarcoma cells selectively under hypoxic conditions, whereas primary normal human osteoblasts were protected. Animals transplanted with OS cells directly into their tibiae and left untreated developed mixed osteolytic/osteosclerotic bone lesions and subsequently developed lung metastases. TH-302 reduced tumor burden in bone and cooperated with doxorubicin to protect bone from osteosarcoma induced bone destruction, while it also reduced lung metastases. TH-302 may therefore be an attractive therapeutic agent with strong activity as a single agent and in combination with chemotherapy against OS. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of Molecular Imaging Markers of Glycolysis, Hypoxia and Proliferation (18F-FDG, 64Cu-ATSM and 18F-FLT) in a Dog with Fibrosarcoma: The Importance of Individualized Treatment Planning and Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Zornhagen, Kamilla Westarp; Clausen, Malene M.; Hansen, Anders E.; Law, Ian; McEvoy, Fintan J.; Engelholm, Svend A.; Kjær, Andreas; Kristensen, Annemarie T.

    2015-01-01

    Glycolysis, hypoxia, and proliferation are important factors in the tumor microenvironment contributing to treatment-resistant aggressiveness. Imaging these factors using combined functional positron emission tomography and computed tomography can potentially guide diagnosis and management of cancer patients. A dog with fibrosarcoma was imaged using 18F-FDG, 64Cu-ATSM, and 18F-FLT before, during, and after 10 fractions of 4.5 Gy radiotherapy. Uptake of all tracers decreased during treatment. Fluctuations in 18F-FDG and 18F-FLT PET uptakes and a heterogeneous spatial distribution of the three tracers were seen. Tracer distributions partially overlapped. It appears that each tracer provides distinct information about tumor heterogeneity and treatment response. PMID:26854160

  19. HypoxiaDB: a database of hypoxia-regulated proteins

    PubMed Central

    Khurana, Pankaj; Sugadev, Ragumani; Jain, Jaspreet; Singh, Shashi Bala

    2013-01-01

    There has been intense interest in the cellular response to hypoxia, and a large number of differentially expressed proteins have been identified through various high-throughput experiments. These valuable data are scattered, and there have been no systematic attempts to document the various proteins regulated by hypoxia. Compilation, curation and annotation of these data are important in deciphering their role in hypoxia and hypoxia-related disorders. Therefore, we have compiled HypoxiaDB, a database of hypoxia-regulated proteins. It is a comprehensive, manually-curated, non-redundant catalog of proteins whose expressions are shown experimentally to be altered at different levels and durations of hypoxia. The database currently contains 72 000 manually curated entries taken on 3500 proteins extracted from 73 peer-reviewed publications selected from PubMed. HypoxiaDB is distinctive from other generalized databases: (i) it compiles tissue-specific protein expression changes under different levels and duration of hypoxia. Also, it provides manually curated literature references to support the inclusion of the protein in the database and establish its association with hypoxia. (ii) For each protein, HypoxiaDB integrates data on gene ontology, KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway, protein–protein interactions, protein family (Pfam), OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man), PDB (Protein Data Bank) structures and homology to other sequenced genomes. (iii) It also provides pre-compiled information on hypoxia-proteins, which otherwise requires tedious computational analysis. This includes information like chromosomal location, identifiers like Entrez, HGNC, Unigene, Uniprot, Ensembl, Vega, GI numbers and Genbank accession numbers associated with the protein. These are further cross-linked to respective public databases augmenting HypoxiaDB to the external repositories. (iv) In addition, HypoxiaDB provides an online sequence-similarity search tool for

  20. No Detectable Hypoxia in Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors: Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Wijffels, Karien; Hoogsteen, Ilse J.; Lok, Jasper; Rijken, Paulus F.J.W.; Marres, Henri A.M.; Wilde, Peter C.M. de; Kogel, Albert J. van der; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: Hypoxia is detected in most solid tumors and is associated with malignant progression and adverse treatment outcomes. However, the oxygenation status of malignant salivary gland tumors has not been previously studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential clinical relevance of hypoxia in this tumor type. Methods and Materials: Twelve patients scheduled for surgical resection of a salivary gland tumor were preoperatively injected with the hypoxia marker pimonidazole and the proliferation marker iododeoxyuridine. Tissue samples of the dissected tumor were immunohistochemically stained for blood vessels, pimonidazole, carbonic anhydrase-IX, glucose transporters-1 and -3 (Glut-1, Glut-3), hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha}, iododeoxyuridine, and epidermal growth factor receptor. The tissue sections were quantitatively assessed by computerized image analysis. Results: The tissue material from 8 patients was of sufficient quality for quantitative analysis. All tumors were negative for pimonidazole binding, as well as for carbonic anhydrase-IX, Glut-1, Glut-3, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha}. The vascular density was high, with a median value of 285 mm{sup -2} (range, 209-546). The iododeoxyuridine-labeling index varied from <0.1% to 12.2% (median, 2.2%). Epidermal growth factor receptor expression levels were mostly moderate to high. In one-half of the cases, nuclear expression of epidermal growth factor receptor was observed. Conclusion: The absence of detectable pimonidazole binding, as well as the lack of expression of hypoxia-associated proteins in all tumors, indicates that malignant salivary gland tumors are generally well oxygenated. It is unlikely that hypoxia is a relevant factor for their clinical behavior and treatment responsiveness.

  1. Screening and confirmation of steroids and nitroimidazoles in urine, blood, and food matrices: Sample preparation methods and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric separations.

    PubMed

    Tölgyesi, Ádám; Barta, Enikő; Simon, Andrea; McDonald, Thomas J; Sharma, Virender K

    2017-10-25

    Veterinary drugs containing synthetic anabolic steroid and nitroimidazole active agents are not allowed for their applications in livestock of the European Union (EU). This paper presents analyses of twelve selected steroids and six nitroimidazole antibiotics at low levels (1.56μg/L-4.95μg/L and 0.17μg/kg-2.14μg/kg, respectively) in body fluids and egg incurred samples. Analyses involved clean-up procedures, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation, and tandem mass spectrometric screening and confirmatory methods. Target steroids and nitroimidazoles in samples were cleaned by two independent supported liquid extraction and solid phase extraction procedures. Separation of the selected compounds was conducted on Kinetex XB C-18 HPLC column using gradient elution. The screening methods utilised supported liquid extraction that enabled fast and cost effective clean-up. The confirmatory methods were improved by extending the number of matrices and compounds, and by introducing an isotope dilution mass spectrometry for nitroimidazoles. The new methods were validated according to the recommendation of the European Union Reference Laboratories and the performance characteristics evaluated met fully the criteria. The methods were applied to incurred samples in the proficiency tests. The obtained results of Z-scores demonstrated the applicability of developed protocols of the methods to real samples. The confirmatory methods were applied to the national monitoring program and natural contamination of prednisolone could be detected in urine at low concentration in few samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Isolation and characterization of 2-nitroimidazole produced by Streptomyces species as an inhibitor of both carbonic anhydrase and shell formation in the barnacle Balanus amphitrite.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Mari; Ozaki, Noriaki; Ikeda, Hiroyuki; Furihata, Keiko; Hayakawa, Yoichi; Sakuda, Shohei; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

    2002-03-01

    Carbonic anhydrase is thought to be involved in the process of calcium carbonate deposition in calcified tissues of many organisms. Barnacles form hard calcified shells for protection against predation, and represent a class of marine-fouling animals. In order to inhibit barnacle growth by inhibiting shell formation, we searched for carbonic anhydrase inhibitors from microbial secondary metabolites. A simple assay for assessing carbonic-anhydrase-inhibiting activity was developed. Screening of many microorganisms isolated from soil with this assay resulted in a microbial strain that produced a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. This strain was identified as Streptomyces eurocidicus mf294. The inhibitor was isolated through 4 purification steps and identified as 2-nitroimidazole on the basis of spectroscopic data. 2-Nitroimidazole inhibited barnacle carbonic anhydrase dose-dependently and complete inhibition was reached at the concentration of 1 x 10(-5) M. 2-Nitroimidazole did not affect settlement or metamorphosis of barnacle larvae, but inhibited shell formation at concentrations higher than 1 x 10(-4) M. These findings strongly support the idea that carbonic anhydrase is involved in calcification.

  3. Carnosine pretreatment protects against hypoxia-ischemia brain damage in the neonatal rat model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiangmin; Song, Lili; Cheng, Xiuyong; Yang, Yi; Luan, Bin; Jia, Liting; Xu, Falin; Zhang, Zhan

    2011-09-30

    Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia brain injury is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in neonates and lacks an effective treatment thus far. Carnosine has been demonstrated to play a neuroprotective role in the adult brain injuries. However, there is no information available concerning its neuroprotective role in the immature brains after hypoxia-ischemia insults. Therefore, we investigated whether carnosine could also confer neuroprotective effects in a neonatal rat hypoxia-ischemia model. Hypoxia-ischemia was induced in rats on postnatal day 7 (P7). Carnosine (250 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally, 30 min prior to hypoxia-ischemia induction. Morphological brain injury and biochemical markers of apoptosis and oxidative stress were evaluated 24 h after hypoxia-ischemia induction. Cognitive performance was evaluated by the Morris Water Maze test on P28-P33. We found that pretreatment with carnosine significantly reduced the infarct volume and the number of terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells in the hypoxia-ischemia brain. Carnosine also inhibited mRNA expression of apoptosis-inducing factor(AIF) and caspase-3, which was accompanied by an increase in superoxide dismutase(SOD)activity and a decrease in the malondialdehyde(MDA)level in carnosine-treated rats. Furthermore, carnosine also improved the spatial learning and memory abilities of rats declined due to hypoxia-ischemia. These results demonstrate that carnosine can protect rats against hypoxia-ischemia-induced brain damage by antioxidation.

  4. Intermittent hypoxia and neurorehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Rothi, Elisa J.; Lee, Kun-Ze; Dale, Erica A.; Reier, Paul J.; Mitchell, Gordon S.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, it has become clear that brief, repeated presentations of hypoxia [i.e., acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH)] can boost the efficacy of more traditional therapeutic strategies in certain cases of neurologic dysfunction. This hypothesis derives from a series of studies in animal models and human subjects performed over the past 35 yr. In 1980, Millhorn et al. (Millhorn DE, Eldridge FL, Waldrop TG. Respir Physiol 41: 87-103, 1980) showed that electrical stimulation of carotid chemoafferent neurons produced a persistent, serotonin-dependent increase in phrenic motor output that outlasts the stimulus for more than 90 min (i.e., a “respiratory memory”). AIH elicits similar phrenic “long-term facilitation” (LTF) by a mechanism that requires cervical spinal serotonin receptor activation and de novo protein synthesis. From 2003 to present, a series of studies demonstrated that AIH can induce neuroplasticity in the injured spinal cord, causing functional recovery of breathing capacity after cervical spinal injury. Subsequently, it was demonstrated that repeated AIH (rAIH) can induce recovery of limb function, and the functional benefits of rAIH are greatest when paired with task-specific training. Since uncontrolled and/or prolonged intermittent hypoxia can elicit pathophysiology, a challenge of intermittent hypoxia research is to ensure that therapeutic protocols are well below the threshold for pathogenesis. This is possible since many low dose rAIH protocols have induced functional benefits without evidence of pathology. We propose that carefully controlled rAIH is a safe and noninvasive modality that can be paired with other neurorehabilitative strategies including traditional activity-based physical therapy or cell-based therapies such as intraspinal transplantation of neural progenitors. PMID:25997947

  5. Intermittent hypoxia and neurorehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Rothi, Elisa J; Lee, Kun-Ze; Dale, Erica A; Reier, Paul J; Mitchell, Gordon S; Fuller, David D

    2015-12-15

    In recent years, it has become clear that brief, repeated presentations of hypoxia [i.e., acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH)] can boost the efficacy of more traditional therapeutic strategies in certain cases of neurologic dysfunction. This hypothesis derives from a series of studies in animal models and human subjects performed over the past 35 yr. In 1980, Millhorn et al. (Millhorn DE, Eldridge FL, Waldrop TG. Respir Physiol 41: 87-103, 1980) showed that electrical stimulation of carotid chemoafferent neurons produced a persistent, serotonin-dependent increase in phrenic motor output that outlasts the stimulus for more than 90 min (i.e., a "respiratory memory"). AIH elicits similar phrenic "long-term facilitation" (LTF) by a mechanism that requires cervical spinal serotonin receptor activation and de novo protein synthesis. From 2003 to present, a series of studies demonstrated that AIH can induce neuroplasticity in the injured spinal cord, causing functional recovery of breathing capacity after cervical spinal injury. Subsequently, it was demonstrated that repeated AIH (rAIH) can induce recovery of limb function, and the functional benefits of rAIH are greatest when paired with task-specific training. Since uncontrolled and/or prolonged intermittent hypoxia can elicit pathophysiology, a challenge of intermittent hypoxia research is to ensure that therapeutic protocols are well below the threshold for pathogenesis. This is possible since many low dose rAIH protocols have induced functional benefits without evidence of pathology. We propose that carefully controlled rAIH is a safe and noninvasive modality that can be paired with other neurorehabilitative strategies including traditional activity-based physical therapy or cell-based therapies such as intraspinal transplantation of neural progenitors.

  6. Hypoxia and fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tomohiro; Shinjo, Satoko; Arai, Takatomo; Kanai, Mai; Goda, Nobuhito

    2014-11-07

    The liver is a central organ that metabolizes excessive nutrients for storage in the form of glycogen and lipids and supplies energy-producing substrates to the peripheral tissues to maintain their function, even under starved conditions. These processes require a considerable amount of oxygen, which causes a steep oxygen gradient throughout the hepatic lobules. Alcohol consumption and/or excessive food intake can alter the hepatic metabolic balance drastically, which can precipitate fatty liver disease, a major cause of chronic liver diseases worldwide, ranging from simple steatosis, through steatohepatitis and hepatic fibrosis, to liver cirrhosis. Altered hepatic metabolism and tissue remodeling in fatty liver disease further disrupt hepatic oxygen homeostasis, resulting in severe liver hypoxia. As master regulators of adaptive responses to hypoxic stress, hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) modulate various cellular and organ functions, including erythropoiesis, angiogenesis, metabolic demand, and cell survival, by activating their target genes during fetal development and also in many disease conditions such as cancer, heart failure, and diabetes. In the past decade, it has become clear that HIFs serve as key factors in the regulation of lipid metabolism and fatty liver formation. This review discusses the molecular mechanisms by which hypoxia and HIFs regulate lipid metabolism in the development and progression of fatty liver disease.

  7. Hypoxia and Fetal Heart Development

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, A.J.; Zhang, L

    2010-01-01

    Fetal hearts show a remarkable ability to develop under hypoxic conditions. The metabolic flexibility of fetal hearts allows sustained development under low oxygen conditions. In fact, hypoxia is critical for proper myocardial formation. Particularly, hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor play central roles in hypoxia-dependent signaling in fetal heart formation, impacting embryonic outflow track remodeling and coronary vessel growth. Although HIF is not the only gene involved in adaptation to hypoxia, its role places it as a central figure in orchestrating events needed for adaptation to hypoxic stress. Although “normal” hypoxia (lower oxygen tension in the fetus as compared with the adult) is essential in heart formation, further abnormal hypoxia in utero adversely affects cardiogenesis. Prenatal hypoxia alters myocardial structure and causes a decline in cardiac performance. Not only are the effects of hypoxia apparent during the perinatal period, but prolonged hypoxia in utero also causes fetal programming of abnormality in the heart’s development. The altered expression pattern of cardioprotective genes such as protein kinase c epsilon, heat shock protein 70, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase, likely predispose the developing heart to increased vulnerability to ischemia and reperfusion injury later in life. The events underlying the long-term changes in gene expression are not clear, but likely involve variation in epigenetic regulation. PMID:20712587

  8. Development of an ultrasensitive stacking technique for 5-nitroimidazole determination in untreated biological fluids by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Mesa, Maykel; Airado-Rodríguez, Diego; García-Campaña, Ana M; Cruces-Blanco, Carmen

    2015-10-01

    Cation-selective exhaustive injection and sweeping followed by a MEKC separation is evaluated for the sensitive analysis of 5-nitroimidazoles in untreated human serum and urine. Deproteinized serum and urine samples were diluted 76 and 143 times, respectively, in a low-conductivity solvent (5.00 mM orthophosphoric acid containing 5.0% v/v methanol). Samples were electrokinetically injected at 9.8 kV for 632 s in a previously conditioned fused-silica capillary (65.0 cm × 50 μm id). Separation was performed at -30 kV and 20°C using 44 mM phosphate buffer (pH 2.5), 123 mM SDS, and 8% v/v tetrahydrofurane as BGE. Signals were monitored at 276 nm and peak area was selected as analytical response. Good linearity (R(2) ≥ 0.988) and LODs lower than 1.5 and 1.8 μg/mL were achieved in serum and urine, respectively.

  9. Expanded therapeutic potential in activity space of next-generation 5-nitroimidazole antimicrobials with broad structural diversity.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Yukiko; Kalisiak, Jaroslaw; Korthals, Keith; Lauwaet, Tineke; Cheung, Dae Young; Lozano, Ricardo; Cobo, Eduardo R; Upcroft, Peter; Upcroft, Jacqueline A; Berg, Douglas E; Gillin, Frances D; Fokin, Valery V; Sharpless, K Barry; Eckmann, Lars

    2013-10-22

    Metronidazole and other 5-nitroimidazoles (5-NI) are among the most effective antimicrobials available against many important anaerobic pathogens, but evolving resistance is threatening their long-term clinical utility. The common 5-NIs were developed decades ago, yet little 5-NI drug development has since taken place, leaving the true potential of this important drug class unexplored. Here we report on a unique approach to the modular synthesis of diversified 5-NIs for broad exploration of their antimicrobial potential. Many of the more than 650 synthesized compounds, carrying structurally diverse functional groups, have vastly improved activity against a range of microbes, including the pathogenic protozoa Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis, and the bacterial pathogens Helicobacter pylori, Clostridium difficile, and Bacteroides fragilis. Furthermore, they can overcome different forms of drug resistance, and are active and nontoxic in animal infection models. These findings provide impetus to the development of structurally diverse, next-generation 5-NI drugs as agents in the antimicrobial armamentarium, thus ensuring their future viability as primary therapeutic agents against many clinically important infections.

  10. High-throughput method for the determination of nitroimidazoles in muscle samples by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rúbies, A; Sans, G; Kumar, P; Granados, M; Companyó, R; Centrich, F

    2015-06-01

    We present a high-throughput confirmatory method for the analysis of 11 nitroimidazoles in muscle samples (metronidazole, MNZ; dimetridazole, DMZ; ronidazole, RNZ; tinidazole, TNZ; carnidazole, CRZ; secnidazole semihydrate, SCZ; ornidazole, ORZ; metronidazole-hydroxy, MNZ-OH; ipronidazole, IPZ; ipronidazole-hydroxy, IPZ-OH; and dimetridazole-hydroxy, HMMNI). Extraction with acetonitrile is efficient and simple, with the majority of recoveries ranging between 65 and 101%, and without the need for clean-up of the extracts. The chromatographic analysis is performed using UPLC-QqQ-MS in the MRM mode, with an electrospray source operated in positive mode. Total chromatographic analysis time is 12 min. This method has been fully validated in muscle according to Decision 657/2002/CE guidelines, and the CCα values obtained were in the range of 0.04-0.4 μg·kg(-1). The method is currently used for the analysis of muscle samples and has been tested in other matrices of animal origin, such as kidney, retina and egg, with excellent results.

  11. Radiosensitization of hypoxic bacterial cells by nitroimidazoles of low lipophilicity: steady-state and rapid-mix studies

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.F.; Patel, K.B.; Sehmi, D.S.

    1981-03-01

    Radiosensitization of hypoxic bacterial cells by five 2-nitroimidazoles, with similar reduction potentials to misonidazole but having lower lipophilicites, has been measured in Escherichia coli AB 1157 and Streptococcus lactis 712. Sensitization efficiency progressively decreased with decreasing lepophilicity in E. coli but not in S. lactis. This difference is discussed in terms of the differing membrane properties of the two bacteria; E. coli resembled a multicompartment model, as would also be expected with mammalian cells. Rapid-mix experiments are described which show that the radiosensitization observed after experiments are described which show that the radiosensitization observed after preirradiation contact times between ca. 3 and 30 msec is dependent on the lipophilicity of the sensitizer, higher lipophilicity resulting in a lower contact time being required for radiosensitization. This result and the observation that a highly lipophilic compound affects only half the full oxygen enhancement level after short contact times suggest that part of the sensitization process occurs in a lipophilic compartment of the cell.

  12. Radiosensitization by a new nucleoside analogue: 1-(2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy)methyl-2-nitroimidazole (RP-170)

    SciTech Connect

    Murayama, C.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, T.; Miyata, Y.; Sakaguchi, M.; Tanabe, Y.; Tanaka, N.; Mori, T. )

    1989-09-01

    A new potent hypoxic cell sensitizer, a 2-nitroimidazole nucleoside analogue having methoxyglycerol as a sugar moiety at the N-1 position of the imidazole ring (RP-170), has been synthesized. Its radiosensitizing activities in vitro and in vivo were investigated and compared with those of misonidazole (MISO) and etanidazole (SR-2508). As might be expected from the almost identical electron affinities of the three compounds, they were equally effective against hypoxic EMT6 cells in vitro. The in vivo-in vitro excision analysis showed that RP-170 was also as effective as MISO and etanidazole to radiosensitize solid tumor cells in vivo. An intraperitoneal administration of 200 mg/kg of RP-170 and an intravenous administration of the same dose of etanidazole showed an equal sensitizer-enhancement ratio of 1.51 to solid EMT6/KU tumors. Its effectiveness was also demonstrated by growth delay assay using solid SCCVII tumors. As predicted from the low partition coefficient, RP-170 and etanidazole showed apparently lower toxicity in vivo than MISO; their LD50/14 were 4.3, 4.8, and 1.8 g/kg in our experiment, respectively. Moreover, RP-170 showed fast clearance from serum in mice (t1/2 = 10.24 min) and poor penetration into neural tissues. Although RP-170 does not show any advantages over etanidazole in terms of sensitization or toxicity, RP-170 might be preferable under certain circumstances because it can be given orally.

  13. Synthesis and Electrochemistry of 2-Ethenyl and 2-Ethanyl Derivatives of 5-Nitroimidazole and Antimicrobial Activity against Giardia lamblia

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Carlos A.; Tripp, Jonathan C.; Miyamoto, Yukiko; Kalisiak, Jaroslaw; Hruz, Petr; Andersen, Yolanda S.; Brown, Sabrina E.; Kangas, Karina; Arzu, Leo V.; Davids, Barbara J.; Gillin, Frances D.; Upcroft, Jacqueline A.; Upcroft, Peter; Fokin, Valery V.; Smith, Diane K.; Sharpless, K. Barry; Eckmann, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Infections with the diarrheagenic pathogen, Giardia lamblia, are commonly treated with the 5-nitroimidazole (5-NI) metronidazole (Mz), and yet treatment failures and Mz resistance occur. Using a panel of new 2-ethenyl and 2-ethanyl 5-NI derivatives, we found that compounds with a saturated bridge between the 5-NI core and a pendant ring system exhibited only modestly increased antigiardial activity and could not overcome Mz resistance. By contrast, olefins with a conjugated bridge connecting the core and a substituted phenyl or heterocyclic ring showed greatly increased antigiardial activity without toxicity, and several overcame Mz resistance and were more effective than Mz in a murine giardiasis model. Determination of the half-wave potential of the initial one-electron transfer by cyclic voltammetry revealed that easier redox activation correlated with greater antigiardial activity and capacity to overcome Mz resistance. These studies show the potential of combining systematic synthetic approaches with biological and electrochemical evaluations in developing improved 5-NI drugs. PMID:19480409

  14. Temporal Onset of Hypoxia and Oxidative Stress After Pulmonary Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Fleckenstein, Katharina; Zgonjanin, Larisa; Chen Liguang; Rabbani, Zahid; Jackson, Isabel L.; Thrasher, Bradley; Kirkpatrick, John; Foster, W. Michael; Vujaskovic, Zeljko . E-mail: vujas@radonc.duke.edu

    2007-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate the temporal onset of hypoxia following irradiation, and to show how it relates to pulmonary vascular damage, macrophage accumulation, and the production of reactive oxygen species and cytokines. Our previous studies showed that tissue hypoxia in the lung after irradiation contributed to radiation-induced injury. Methods and Materials: Female Fisher 344 rats were irradiated to the right hemithorax with a single dose of 28 Gy. Serial studies were performed up to 20 weeks following irradiation. Radionuclide lung-perfusion studies were performed to detect changes in pulmonary vasculature. Immunohistochemical studies were conducted to study macrophages, tissue hypoxia (carbonic anhydrase-9 marker), oxidative stress (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine), and the expression of profibrogenic (transforming growth factor-{beta} [TGF-{beta}]) and proangiogenic (vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF]) cytokines. Results: Significant changes in lung perfusion along with tissue hypoxia were observed 3 days after irradiation. Significant oxidative stress was detected 1 week after radiation, whereas macrophages started to accumulate at 4 weeks. A significant increase in TGF-{beta} expression was seen within 1 day after radiation, and for VEGF at 2 weeks after radiation. Levels of hypoxia, oxidative stress, and both cytokines continued to rise with time after irradiation. The steepest increase correlated with vast macrophage accumulation. Conclusions: Early changes in lung perfusion, among other factors initiate, the development of hypoxia and chronic oxidative stress after irradiation. Tissue hypoxia is associated with a significant increase in the activation of macrophages and their continuous production of reactive oxygen species, stimulating the production of fibrogenic and angiogenic cytokines, and maintaining the development of chronic radiation-induced lung injury.

  15. Hypoxia: a critical regulator of early human tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Millar, Neal L; Reilly, James H; Kerr, Shauna C; Campbell, Abigail L; Little, Kevin J; Leach, William J; Rooney, Brian P; Murrell, George A C; McInnes, Iain B

    2012-02-01

    To seek evidence for the role of hypoxia in early human tendinopathy, and thereafter to explore mechanisms whereby tissue hypoxia may regulate apoptosis, inflammatory mediator expression and matrix regulation in human tenocytes. Fifteen torn supraspinatus tendon (established pathology) and matched intact subscapularis tendon (representing 'early pathology') biopsies were collected from patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery. Control samples of the subscapularis tendon were collected from 10 patients undergoing arthroscopic stabilisation surgery. Markers of hypoxia were quantified by immunohistochemical methods. Human tendon-derived primary cells were derived from hamstring tendon tissue obtained during hamstring tendon anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The impact of hypoxia upon tenocyte biology ex vivo was measured using quantitative real-time PCR, multiplex cytokine assays, apoptotic proteomic profiling, immunohistochemistry and annexin V fluorescence-activated cell sorter staining. Increased expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α, Bcl-2 and clusterin was detected in subscapularis tendon samples compared with both matched torn samples and non-matched control samples (p<0.01). Hypoxic tenocytes exhibited increased production of proinflammatory cytokines (p<0.001), altered matrix regulation (p<0.01) with increased production of collagen type III operating through a mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent pathway. Finally, hypoxia increased the expression of several mediators of apoptosis and thereby promoted tenocyte apoptosis. Hypoxia promotes the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, key apoptotic mediators and drives matrix component synthesis towards a collagen type III profile by human tenocytes. The authors propose hypoxic cell injury as a critical pathophysiological mechanism in early tendinopathy offering novel therapeutic opportunities in the management of tendon disorders.

  16. Is hypoxia training good for muscles and exercise performance?

    PubMed

    Vogt, Michael; Hoppeler, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Altitude training has become very popular among athletes as a means to further increase exercise performance at sea level or to acclimatize to competition at altitude. Several approaches have evolved during the last few decades, with "live high-train low" and "live low-train high" being the most popular. This review focuses on functional, muscular, and practical aspects derived from extensive research on the "live low-train high" approach. According to this, subjects train in hypoxia but remain under normoxia for the rest of the time. It has been reasoned that exercising in hypoxia could increase the training stimulus. Hypoxia training studies published in the past have varied considerably in altitude (2300-5700 m) and training duration (10 days to 8 weeks) and the fitness of the subjects. The evidence from muscle structural, biochemical, and molecular findings point to a specific role of hypoxia in endurance training. However, based on the available performance capacity data such as maximal oxygen uptake (Vo(2)max) and (maximal) power output, hypoxia as a supplement to training is not consistently found to be advantageous for performance at sea level. Stronger evidence exists for benefits of hypoxic training on performance at altitude. "Live low-train high" may thus be considered when altitude acclimatization is not an option. In addition, the complex pattern of gene expression adaptations induced by supplemental training in hypoxia, but not normoxia, suggest that muscle tissue specifically responds to hypoxia. Whether and to what degree these gene expression changes translate into significant changes in protein concentrations that are ultimately responsible for observable structural or functional phenotypes remains open. It is conceivable that the global functional markers such as Vo(2)max and (maximal) power output are too coarse to detect more subtle changes that might still be functionally relevant, at least to high-level athletes.

  17. [Biochemical aspects of fetal hypoxia].

    PubMed

    Biringer, K; Danko, J; Dókus, K; Mat'asová, K; Zibolen, M; Pullmann, R

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate validity of biochemical diagnostic methods of fetal hypoxia. A case-control study. Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, Martin, Slovak Republic. We included 67 patients, and they were retrospectively divided into group of controls (n=36), and studied group (n=31) according to pH in umbilical artery (UA) <7.15. Acid-base parameters were assessed with Rapidlab 248, Bayer Healthcare LLC, East Walpole, USA. We determined criterion for metabolic acidosis (MAC) as pH UA <7.15, resp. base deficit (BD) UA >12 mmol/l. Postpartal lactate concentration in umbilical vein (UV) and UA was determined with lactatemeter Accutrend Lactate, Roche Diagnostics, Switzerland. Quantitative assessment of fetal human protein S100B was provided with ELISA (Sangtec 100 ELISA, DiaSorin Inc., Stillwater, Minnesota, USA). Fetal erythropoietin concentration in UV was examined with immunoenzymatic assessment Access EPO (Beckman Coulter, Inc., Fullerton, CA, USA). histograms, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Mann-Whitney test, Spearman's rho; statistical significance: p<0.05, Receiver Operating Characteristic curves, Area Under the Curve. The best correlation was between fetal acid-base parameters and lactate in UA (p<0.0005). Significant correlation was between EPO in UV, and protein S100B in UV (p<0.05). EPO in UV significantly correlated with lactate in UA (p<0.05). Correlation between EPO in UV and protein S100B was not significant. According to ROC curves in prediction of fetal hypoxia, we found an excellent accuracy (AUC>0.9) for lactate in UA, good accuracy (AUC>0.7) had EPO in UV. Results for protein S100B were not significant. The highest sensitivity had EPO in UV, while the highest specificity has had lactate in UA. An indisputable evidence of labor management quality is the fetal metabolic status. On the basis of our results, the suitable clinical markers are lactate and EPO, in addition to acid-base parameters.

  18. Activation of Src and Src-associated signaling pathways in relation to hypoxia in human cancer xenograft models.

    PubMed

    Pham, Nhu-An; Magalhaes, Joao M M M; Do, Trevor; Schwock, Joerg; Dhani, Neesha; Cao, Ping-Jiang; Hill, Richard P; Hedley, David W

    2009-01-15

    The hypoxic response in vitro involves alterations in signaling proteins, including Src, STAT3 and AKT that are considered to be broadly pro-survival. The involvement of these signaling proteins in the hypoxic microenviroments that occur in solid tumors was investigated by the use of multicolor fluorescence image analysis to colocalize signaling proteins and regions of hypoxia in 4 human tumor xenografts, pancreatic carcinoma BxPC3 and PANC1 and cervical squamous cell carcinoma ME180 and SiHa. Expression levels of total Src protein (mean intensity x labeled region fraction) were higher in hypoxic regions, identified using the nitroimidazole probe EF5, relative to non-EF5 regions in all 4 tumor models. This was associated with higher levels of phosphorylated (p-) Y419p-Src and its substrate Y861p-FAK in EF5 positive regions of BxPC3 tumors. This effect was also seen in tumor-bearing mice continuously breathing 7% oxygen for 3 hr which markedly increased the extent of EF5 positive labeling. In contrast, the hypoxia treatment resulted in a significant decrease in S727p-STAT3 in BxPC3 xenografts and suggested that STAT3 activity is responsive to acute hypoxia, whereas Src-FAK signaling is associated with predominantly chronically hypoxic EF5 positive regions. Src activity in both hypoxic and nonhypoxic BxPC3 tumor regions was suppressed when mice were treated with the Src inhibitor AZD0530 (25 mg/kg/day, 5 days), suggesting that both hypoxic and normoxic tumor regions are accessible to pharmacological Src inhibition. These results show that signaling pathways are responsive to tumor hypoxia in vivo, although the effects appear to differ between individual tumor types. Copyright (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Hypoxia induces re-entry of committed cells into pluripotency

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Julie; Zhang, Zhan; Nelson, Angelique; Lamba, Deepak A.; Reh, Thomas A.; Ware, Carol; Ruohola-Baker, Hannele

    2014-01-01

    Adult stem cells reside in hypoxic niches and embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are derived from a low oxygen environment. However, it is not clear whether hypoxia is critical for stem cell fate since for example human ESCs (hESCs) are able to self-renew in atmospheric oxygen concentrations as well. We now show that hypoxia can govern cell fate decision since hypoxia alone can revert hESC- or iPSC-derived differentiated cells back to a stem cell-like state, as evidenced by re-activation of an Oct4-promoter reporter. Hypoxia-induced “de-differentiated” cells also mimic hESCs in their morphology, long-term self-renewal capacity, genome wide mRNA and miRNA profiles, Oct4 promoter methylation state, cell surface markers TRA1-60 and SSEA4 expression and capacity to form teratomas. These data demonstrate that hypoxia can influence cell fate decisions and could elucidate hypoxic niche function. PMID:23765801

  20. Radiopharmaceuticals in Tumor Hypoxia Imaging: A Review Focused on Medicinal Chemistry Aspects.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Pablo; Cerecetto, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    Since its first description in 1955, tumor hypoxia has become a central issue in cancer treatment. Since then, it is essential to diagnose accurately the tumor oxygenation degree in order to establish the appropriate treatment. In this regard, a wide diversity of radiopharmaceuticals for in vivo imaging has been developed. Special conditions of the hypoxic microenvironment are low O2 partial pressure, enhanced levels of reductases, and genetic-adaptation-expression biomolecules involved in angiogenesis, erythropoiesis, cellular proliferation, apoptosis, metabolism- and glucose-uptake, local invasion, and metastatic spread. The development of radiolabeled hypoxia markers has been based on reductase substrates, like bioreductive ligands, or on entities capable of recognizing overexpressed proteins under hypoxia conditions, i.e. HIF-1α and carbonic anhydrase IX, among others. In this review these hypoxia markers are analyzed focusing on their medicinal chemistry characteristics. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Hypoxia-Related Hormonal Appetite Modulation in Humans during Rest and Exercise: Mini Review

    PubMed Central

    Debevec, Tadej

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is associated with numerous chronic ailments and represents one of the major health and economic issues in the modernized societies. Accordingly, there is an obvious need for novel treatment approaches. Recently, based on the reports of reduced appetite and subsequent weight loss following high-altitude sojourns, exposure to hypoxia has been proposed as a viable weight-reduction strategy. While altitude-related appetite modulation is complex and not entirely clear, hypoxia-induced alterations in hormonal appetite modulation might be among the key underlying mechanisms. The present paper summarizes the up-to-date research on hypoxia/altitude-induced changes in the gut and adipose tissue derived peptides related to appetite regulation. Orexigenic hormone ghrelin and anorexigenic peptides leptin, glucagon-like peptide-1, peptide YY, and cholecystokinin have to-date been investigated as potential modulators of hypoxia-driven appetite alterations. Current evidence suggests that hypoxia can, especially acutely, lead to decreased appetite, most probably via reduction of acylated ghrelin concentration. Hypoxia-related short and long-term changes in other hormonal markers are more unclear although hypoxia seems to importantly modulate leptin levels, especially following prolonged hypoxic exposures. Limited evidence also suggests that different activity levels during exposures to hypoxia do not additively affect hormonal appetite markers. Although very few studies have been performed in obese/overweight individuals, the available data indicate that hypoxia/altitude exposures do not seem to differentially affect appetite regulation via hormonal pathways in this cohort. Given the lack of experimental data, future well-controlled acute and prolonged studies are warranted to expand our understanding of hypoxia-induced hormonal appetite modulation and its kinetics in health and disease. PMID:28611686

  2. The expanding universe of hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huafeng; Semenza, Gregg L

    2008-07-01

    Reduced oxygen availability (hypoxia) is sensed and transduced into changes in the activity or expression of cellular macromolecules. These responses impact on virtually all areas of biology and medicine. In this meeting report, we summarize major developments in the field that were presented at the 2008 Keystone Symposium on Cellular, Physiological, and Pathogenic Responses to Hypoxia.

  3. Chronic intermittent hypoxia induces cardiac inflammation and dysfunction in a rat obstructive sleep apnea model.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qin; Bian, Yeping; Yu, Fuchao; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Guanghao; Li, Yang; Song, Songsong; Ren, Xiaomei; Tong, Jiayi

    2016-11-01

    Chronic intermittent hypoxia is considered to play an important role in cardiovascular pathogenesis during the development of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We used a well-described OSA rat model induced with simultaneous intermittent hypoxia. Male Sprague Dawley rats were individually placed into plexiglass chambers with air pressure and components were electronically controlled. The rats were exposed to intermittent hypoxia 8 hours daily for 5 weeks. The changes of cardiac structure and function were examined by ultrasound. The cardiac pathology, apoptosis, and fibrosis were analyzed by H&E staining, TUNNEL assay, and picosirius staining, respectively. The expression of inflammation and fibrosis marker genes was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. Chronic intermittent hypoxia/low pressure resulted in significant increase of left ventricular internal diameters (LVIDs), end-systolic volume (ESV), end-diastolic volume (EDV), and blood lactate level and marked reduction in ejection fraction and fractional shortening. Chronic intermittent hypoxia increased TUNNEL-positive myocytes, disrupted normal arrangement of cardiac fibers, and increased Sirius stained collagen fibers. The expression levels of hypoxia induced factor (HIF)-1α, NF-kB, IL-6, and matrix metallopeptidase 2 (MMP-2) were significantly increased in the heart of rats exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia. In conclusion, the left ventricular function was adversely affected by chronic intermittent hypoxia, which is associated with increased expression of HIF-1α and NF-kB signaling molecules and development of cardiac inflammation, apoptosis and fibrosis.

  4. Chronic intermittent hypoxia induces cardiac inflammation and dysfunction in a rat obstructive sleep apnea model

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Qin; Bian, Yeping; Yu, Fuchao; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Guanghao; Li, Yang; Song, Songsong; Ren, Xiaomei; Tong, Jiayi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Chronic intermittent hypoxia is considered to play an important role in cardiovascular pathogenesis during the development of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We used a well-described OSA rat model induced with simultaneous intermittent hypoxia. Male Sprague Dawley rats were individually placed into plexiglass chambers with air pressure and components were electronically controlled. The rats were exposed to intermittent hypoxia 8 hours daily for 5 weeks. The changes of cardiac structure and function were examined by ultrasound. The cardiac pathology, apoptosis, and fibrosis were analyzed by H&E staining, TUNNEL assay, and picosirius staining, respectively. The expression of inflammation and fibrosis marker genes was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. Chronic intermittent hypoxia/low pressure resulted in significant increase of left ventricular internal diameters (LVIDs), end-systolic volume (ESV), end-diastolic volume (EDV), and blood lactate level and marked reduction in ejection fraction and fractional shortening. Chronic intermittent hypoxia increased TUNNEL-positive myocytes, disrupted normal arrangement of cardiac fibers, and increased Sirius stained collagen fibers. The expression levels of hypoxia induced factor (HIF)-1α, NF-kB, IL-6, and matrix metallopeptidase 2 (MMP-2) were significantly increased in the heart of rats exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia. In conclusion, the left ventricular function was adversely affected by chronic intermittent hypoxia, which is associated with increased expression of HIF-1α and NF-kB signaling molecules and development of cardiac inflammation, apoptosis and fibrosis. PMID:27924067

  5. Role of catalase on the hypoxia/reoxygenation stress in the hypoxia-tolerant Nile tilapia.

    PubMed

    Welker, Alexis F; Campos, Elida G; Cardoso, Luciano A; Hermes-Lima, Marcelo

    2012-05-01

    The specific contribution of each antioxidant enzyme to protection against the reoxygenation-associated oxidative stress after periods of hypoxia is not well understood. We assessed the physiological role of catalase during posthypoxic reoxygenation by the combination of two approaches. First, catalase activity of Nile tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus) was 90% suppressed by intraperitoneal injection of 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (ATZ, 1g/kg). In ATZ-injected fish, liver GSH levels, oxidative stress markers, and activities of other antioxidant enzymes remained unchanged. Second, animals with depleted catalase activity (or those saline-injected) were subjected to a cycle of severe hypoxia (dissolved O(2) = 0.28 mg/l for 3 h) followed by reoxygenation (0.5 to 24 h). Hypoxia did not induce changes in the above-mentioned parameters, either in saline- or in ATZ-injected animals. Reoxygenation increased superoxide dismutase activity in saline-injected fish, whose levels were similar to ATZ-injected animals. The activities of glutathione S-transferase, selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase, and total-GPX and the levels of GSH-eq, GSSG, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances remained unchanged during reoxygenation in both saline- and ATZ-injected fish. The GSSG/GSH-eq ratio in ATZ-injected fish increased at 30 min of reoxygenation compared with saline-injected ones. Reoxygenation also increased carbonyl protein levels in saline-injected fish, whose levels were similar to the ATZ-injected group. Our work shows that inhibition of liver tilapia catalase causes a redox imbalance during reoxygenation, which is insufficient to induce further oxidative stress. This indicates the relevance of hepatic catalase for hypoxia/reoxygenation stress in tilapia fish.

  6. Pulse radiolysis studies on the hypoxia-selective toxicity of a colbalt-mustard complex.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, R. F.; Denny, W. A.; Ware, D. C.; Wilson, W. R.

    1996-01-01

    The kinetic basis for the in vitro hypoxia-selective cytotoxicity (HSC) of the Co(III)-nitrogen mustard complex SN 24771 (NSC 675352) has been investigated using pulse radiolysis. The rate constants for the one-electron reduction of SN 24771 by model reductants exhibited a marked dependence on the one-electron reduction potential of the reductant, with values up to several orders of magnitude slower than for the nitroimidazole drug misonidazole. Following one-electron reduction to form the Co(II) complex (species I) consecutive conversion to further transient species (II and III) occurs with first order rate constants of 120 +/- 10 s-1 and 10 +/- 2 s-1 and are associated with release of ligands. Neither of these subsequent processes are inhibited by the addition of O2 up to a concentration of 0.5 mmol l-1 suggesting that the HSC action of SN 24771 most likely arises from a mechanism other than simple redox cycling between the Co(III) and Co(II) forms by O2. If the measured low rate constants of one-electron reduction by model reductants of SN 24771 (as compared to the reduction of nitroaromatics), is mirrored by biological reductants, then it is proposed that HSC may occur through competition between SN 24771 and O2 for these reductants. PMID:8763845

  7. Hypoxia in Models of Lung Cancer: Implications for Targeted Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Edward E.; Vilalta, Marta; Cecic, Ivana K.; Erler, Janine T.; Tran, Phuoc T.; Felsher, Dean; Sayles, Leanne; Sweet-Cordero, Alejandro; –Thu Le, Quynh; Giaccia, Amato J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose In order to efficiently translate experimental methods from bench to bedside, it is imperative that laboratory models of cancer mimic human disease as closely as possible. In this study we sought to compare patterns of hypoxia in several standard and emerging mouse models of lung cancer in order to establish the appropriateness of each for evaluating the role of oxygen in lung cancer progression and therapeutic response. Experimental Design Subcutaneous and orthotopic human A549 lung carcinomas growing in nude mice as well as spontaneous K-ras or Myc-induced lung tumors grown in situ or subcutaneously were studied using fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and fluoroazomycin arabinoside (FAZA) positron emission tomography (PET), and post-mortem by immunohistochemical observation of the hypoxia marker pimonidazole. The response of these models to the hypoxia-activated cytotoxin PR-104 was also quantified by formation of γH2AX foci in vitro and in vivo. Finally, our findings were compared with oxygen electrode measurements of human lung cancers. Results Minimal FAZA and pimonidazole accumulation was seen in tumors growing within the lungs, while subcutaneous tumors showed substantial trapping of both hypoxia probes. These observations correlated with the response of these tumors to PR-104, and with the reduced incidence of hypoxia in human lung cancers relative to other solid tumor types. Conclusions These findings suggest that in situ models of lung cancer in mice may be more reflective of the human disease, and encourage judicious selection of preclinical tumor models for the study of hypoxia imaging and anti-hypoxic cell therapies. PMID:20858837

  8. Adipogenesis, lipogenesis and lipolysis is stimulated by mild but not severe hypoxia in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Weiszenstein, Martin; Musutova, Martina; Plihalova, Andrea; Westlake, Katerina; Elkalaf, Moustafa; Koc, Michal; Prochazka, Antonin; Pala, Jan; Gulati, Sumeet; Trnka, Jan; Polak, Jan

    2016-09-16

    In-vitro investigation of the effects of hypoxia is limited by physical laws of gas diffusion and cellular O2 consumption, making prolonged exposures to stable O2 concentrations impossible. Using a gas-permeable cultureware, chronic effects of mild and severe hypoxia on triglyceride accumulation, lipid droplet size distribution, spontaneous lipolysis and gene expression of adipocyte-specific markers were assessed. 3T3-L1 cells were differentiated under 20%, 4% or 1% O2 using a gas-permeable cultureware. Triglyceride accumulation, expression of genes characteristic for advanced adipocyte differentiation and involvement of key lipogenesis enzymes were assessed after exposures. Lipogenesis increased by 375% under mild hypoxia, but dropped by 43% in severe hypoxia. Mild, but not severe, hypoxia increased formation of large lipid droplets 6.4 fold and strongly induced gene expression of adipocyte-specific markers. Spontaneous lipolysis increased by 488% in mild, but only by 135% in severe hypoxia. Inhibition of ATP-dependent citrate lyase suppressed hypoxia-induced lipogenesis by 81% and 85%. Activation of HIF inhibited lipogenesis by 59%. Mild, but not severe, hypoxia stimulates lipolysis and promotes adipocyte differentiation, probably through excess of acetyl-CoA originating from tricarboxylic acid cycle independently of HIF activation.

  9. Lanthanum Probe Studies of Cellular Pathophysiology Induced by Hypoxia in Isolated Cardiac Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Karen P.; Hagler, Herbert K.; Templeton, Gordon H.; Willerson, James T.; Buja, L. Maximilian

    1977-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate directly the relationship between evolution of irreversible myocardial injury induced by hypoxia in an isolated papillary muscle preparation and the development of pathophysiological alterations related to severely impaired membrane function. An ionic lanthanum probe technique was employed as a cytochemical marker to monitor the progression of cellular injury, and data from this cytologic technique were correlated with ultrastructure and measurements of contractile parameters in a total of 67 muscles subjected to control conditions or to graded intervals of hypoxia with or without reoxygenation. Marked depression of developed tension and rate of tension development occurred after 30 min of hypoxia. Contractile function showed significant recovery with reoxygenation after 1 h and 15 min of hypoxia but remained depressed when reoxygenation was provided after 2 or 3 h of hypoxia. Examination by transmission and analytical electron microscopy (energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis) revealed lanthanum deposition only in extracellular regions of control muscles and muscles subjected to 30 min of hypoxia. After hypoxic intervals of over 1 h, abnormal intracytoplasmic and intramitochondrial localization of lanthanum were detected. After 1 h and 15 min of hypoxia, abnormal intracellular lanthanum accumulation was associated with only minimal ultrastructural evidence of injury; muscle provided reoxygenation after 1 h and 15 min of hypoxia showed improved ultrastructure and did not exhibit intracellular lanthanum deposits upon exposure to lanthanum during the reoxygenation period. After 2 to 3 h of hypoxia, abnormal intracellular lanthanum accumulation was associated with ultrastructural evidence of severe muscle injury which persisted after reoxygenation. Thus, the data support the conclusion that cellular and membrane alterations responsible for abnormal intracellular lanthanum deposition precede the development of irreversible injury

  10. Augmentation of aerobic respiration and mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle by hypoxia preconditioning with cobalt chloride.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Saurabh; Shukla, Dhananjay; Bansal, Anju

    2012-11-01

    High altitude/hypoxia training is known to improve physical performance in athletes. Hypoxia induces hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and its downstream genes that facilitate hypoxia adaptation in muscle to increase physical performance. Cobalt chloride (CoCl₂), a hypoxia mimetic, stabilizes HIF-1, which otherwise is degraded in normoxic conditions. We studied the effects of hypoxia preconditioning by CoCl₂ supplementation on physical performance, glucose metabolism, and mitochondrial biogenesis using rodent model. The results showed significant increase in physical performance in cobalt supplemented rats without (two times) or with training (3.3 times) as compared to control animals. CoCl₂ supplementation in rats augmented the biological activities of enzymes of TCA cycle, glycolysis and cytochrome c oxidase (COX); and increased the expression of glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1) in muscle showing increased glucose metabolism by aerobic respiration. There was also an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle observed by increased mRNA expressions of mitochondrial biogenesis markers which was further confirmed by electron microscopy. Moreover, nitric oxide production increased in skeletal muscle in cobalt supplemented rats, which seems to be the major reason for peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) induction and mitochondrial biogenesis. Thus, in conclusion, we state that hypoxia preconditioning by CoCl₂ supplementation in rats increases mitochondrial biogenesis, glucose uptake and metabolism by aerobic respiration in skeletal muscle, which leads to increased physical performance. The significance of this study lies in understanding the molecular mechanism of hypoxia adaptation and improvement of work performance in normal as well as extreme conditions like hypoxia via hypoxia preconditioning.

  11. Modeling the spatial distribution of chronic tumor hypoxia: implications for experimental and clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Powathil, Gibin; Kohandel, Mohammad; Milosevic, Michael; Sivaloganathan, Siv

    2012-01-01

    Tumor oxygenation status is considered one of the important prognostic markers in cancer since it strongly influences the response of cancer cells to various treatments; in particular, to radiation therapy. Thus, a proper and accurate assessment of tumor oxygen distribution before the treatment may highly affect the outcome of the treatment. The heterogeneous nature of tumor hypoxia, mainly influenced by the complex tumor microenvironment, often makes its quantification very difficult. The usual methods used to measure tumor hypoxia are biomarkers and the polarographic needle electrode. Although these techniques may provide an acceptable assessment of hypoxia, they are invasive and may not always give a spatial distribution of hypoxia, which is very useful for treatment planning. An alternative method to quantify the tumor hypoxia is to use theoretical simulations with the knowledge of tumor vasculature. The purpose of this paper is to model tumor hypoxia using a known spatial distribution of tumor vasculature obtained from image data, to analyze the accuracy of polarographic needle electrode measurements in quantifying hypoxia, to quantify the optimum number of measurements required to satisfactorily evaluate the tumor oxygenation status, and to study the effects of hypoxia on radiation response. Our results indicate that the model successfully generated an accurate oxygenation map for tumor cross-sections with known vascular distribution. The method developed here provides a way to estimate tumor hypoxia and provides guidance in planning accurate and effective therapeutic strategies and invasive estimation techniques. Our results agree with the previous findings that the needle electrode technique gives a good estimate of tumor hypoxia if the sampling is done in a uniform way with 5-6 tracks of 20-30 measurements each. Moreover, the analysis indicates that the accurate measurement of oxygen profile can be very useful in determining right radiation doses to the

  12. Hypoxia, Monitoring, and Mitigation System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    value.  Hypoxia leads to a depressed cough reflex  The effects of altitude may be specific to particular cognitive tasks; exercise during...as pressure, like the controls required to drive the air craft? ( Depression in smell sensation during hypobaric hypoxia was shown in a different study...and 60 min), brachial artery FMD was measured during reactive hyperemia by ultrasound under normoxic conditions. FMD was estimated as the percent

  13. Development of a rapid method for the determination and confirmation of nitroimidazoles in six matrices by fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tölgyesi, Adám; Sharma, Virender K; Fekete, Szabolcs; Fekete, Jenő; Simon, Andrea; Farkas, Szilvia

    2012-05-01

    A rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method was developed to identify and to quantify nitroimidazoles, metronidazole (MNZ), ronidazole (RNZ) and dimetridazole (DMZ) and their corresponding hydroxy metabolites, MNZ-OH and 2-hydroxymethyl-1-methyl-5-nitroimidazole (HMNNI) in plasma, milk, muscle, egg, honey and feed samples. The same sample clean-up procedure including a novel solid-phase extraction (SPE) on polymeric Strata-SDB cartridges was used for each matrix. The analytes were separated on Kinetex XB C-18 core-shell type HPLC column using isocratic elution mode with a mobile phase containing 0.1% formic acid in water/methanol (88/12, v/v, pH 2.6) at a flow rate of 0.7 ml/min. The main advantage of the developed method is that the analysis time of only 3 min, which is about three to ten times shorter than in other reported HPLC methods. The developed method was validated using a matrix-comprehensive in-house validation strategy. The matrix effect of LC-MS/MS analysis was also investigated. Results are presented from the successful application of the developed method to an incurred pork meat certified reference material and to incur porcine plasmas in a proficiency test in year 2011. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Studies of methyl 2-nitroimidazole-1-acetohydroxamate (KIN-804) 1: effect on free radical scavenging system in mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Abu-Zeid, M; Hori, H; Nagasawa, H; Uto, Y; Inayama, S

    2000-02-01

    Methyl 2-nitroimidazole-1-acetohydroxamate (KIN-804) is a 2-nitroimidazole derivative containing a hydroxamate side chain designed to enhance the radiosensitization response of hypoxic cells. The possible sensitization of tumor tissue by KIN-804 can be evaluated through investigation of the levels of the free radical scavengers; namely, glutathione (GSH) and its complex enzyme system including glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), as well as glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD). Female albino mice were inoculated with Ehrlich carcinoma in the thigh. Administration of KIN-804 (i.p. 80 mg/kg body weight) was carried out 20 min before localized irradiation of 10 Gy. The data revealed that KIN-804 administration, followed or not by gamma irradiation, resulted in a significant decrease in GSH content in tumor tissues associated with inhibition in GR and G-6-PD activities. Blood GSH-Px was enhanced in tumor inoculated mice and the administration of KIN-804 returned it to the normal value. These changes were more noticeable in tumor bearing mice exposed to both KIN-804 and irradiation.

  15. Simultaneous determination of nitroimidazoles, benzimidazoles, and chloramphenicol components in bovine milk by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Li, Xiaowei; Zhang, Zhiwen; Ding, Shuangyang; Jiang, Haiyang; Li, Jiancheng; Shen, Jianzhong; Xia, Xi

    2016-02-01

    A sensitive, confirmatory ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method was developed and validated to detect 23 veterinary drugs and metabolites (nitroimidazoles, benzimidazoles, and chloramphenicol components) in bovine milk. Compounds of interest were sequentially extracted from milk with acetonitrile and basified acetonitrile using sodium chloride to induce liquid-liquid partition. The extract was purified on a mixed mode solid-phase extraction cartridge. Using rapid polarity switching in electrospray ionization, a single injection was capable of detecting both positively and negatively charged analytes in a 9 min chromatography run time. Recoveries based on matrix-matched calibrations and isotope labeled internal standards for milk ranged from 51.7% to 101.8%. The detection limits and quantitation limits of the analytical method were found to be within the range of 2-20 ng/kg and 5-50 ng/kg, respectively. The recommended method is simple, specific, and reliable for the routine monitoring of nitroimidazoles, benzimidazoles, and chloramphenicol components in bovine milk samples.

  16. Imaging Tumor Hypoxia to Advance Radiation Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chen-Ting; Boss, Mary-Keara

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Most solid tumors contain regions of low oxygenation or hypoxia. Tumor hypoxia has been associated with a poor clinical outcome and plays a critical role in tumor radioresistance. Recent Advances: Two main types of hypoxia exist in the tumor microenvironment: chronic and cycling hypoxia. Chronic hypoxia results from the limited diffusion distance of oxygen, and cycling hypoxia primarily results from the variation in microvessel red blood cell flux and temporary disturbances in perfusion. Chronic hypoxia may cause either tumor progression or regressive effects depending on the tumor model. However, there is a general trend toward the development of a more aggressive phenotype after cycling hypoxia. With advanced hypoxia imaging techniques, spatiotemporal characteristics of tumor hypoxia and the changes to the tumor microenvironment can be analyzed. Critical Issues: In this review, we focus on the biological and clinical consequences of chronic and cycling hypoxia on radiation treatment. We also discuss the advanced non-invasive imaging techniques that have been developed to detect and monitor tumor hypoxia in preclinical and clinical studies. Future Directions: A better understanding of the mechanisms of tumor hypoxia with non-invasive imaging will provide a basis for improved radiation therapeutic practices. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 313–337. PMID:24329000

  17. Hypoxia and visualization of the stem cell niche.

    PubMed

    Dalloul, Ali

    2013-01-01

    It is widely accepted that mammalian stem cells reside in a specialized cellular and a cellular microenvironment called the niche. The niche contrary to other tissues is characterized by a low partial Oxygen pressure (ppO2). This microenvironment protects stem cells from deleterious effects of O2 on proteins and DNA, through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition there is now solid evidence that this physiological hypoxia helps stem cells maintaining their major characteristics: multipotency and ability to differentiate and migrate from the niche to specialized tissues in order to fulfill the needs of the organism. Immuno Histological techniques can stain stem cells in situ by specific Abs (such as against CD34 and CD45 for Hematopoietic Stem Cells HSC). However, a universal marker of hypoxia is Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1, HIF-1, which is stabilized by low ppO2 and acts as a transcription factor to regulate a vast array of genes downstream. HIF-1, together with pimonidazole, a chemical compound interacting with proteins that are reduced in a hypoxic environment, are bona fide markers of the stem cell niche.

  18. Lung Oxidative Damage by Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Araneda, O. F.; Tuesta, M.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important functions of lungs is to maintain an adequate oxygenation in the organism. This organ can be affected by hypoxia facing both physiological and pathological situations. Exposure to this condition favors the increase of reactive oxygen species from mitochondria, as from NADPH oxidase, xanthine oxidase/reductase, and nitric oxide synthase enzymes, as well as establishing an inflammatory process. In lungs, hypoxia also modifies the levels of antioxidant substances causing pulmonary oxidative damage. Imbalance of redox state in lungs induced by hypoxia has been suggested as a participant in the changes observed in lung function in the hypoxic context, such as hypoxic vasoconstriction and pulmonary edema, in addition to vascular remodeling and chronic pulmonary hypertension. In this work, experimental evidence that shows the implied mechanisms in pulmonary redox state by hypoxia is reviewed. Herein, studies of cultures of different lung cells and complete isolated lung and tests conducted in vivo in the different forms of hypoxia, conducted in both animal models and humans, are described. PMID:22966417

  19. Hypoxia, pseudohypoxia and cellular differentiation.

    PubMed

    Mohlin, Sofie; Wigerup, Caroline; Jögi, Annika; Påhlman, Sven

    2017-07-15

    Tumor hypoxia correlates to aggressive disease, and while this is explained by a variety of factors, one clue to understand this phenomena was the finding that hypoxia induces a de-differentiated, stem cell-like phenotype in neuroblastoma and breast tumor cells. The hypoxia inducible transcription factors (HIFs) are regulated at the translational level by fluctuating oxygen concentrations, but emerging data reveal that both HIF-1α and HIF-2α expression can be induced by aberrantly activated growth factor signaling independently of oxygen levels. Furthermore, HIF-2α is regulated by hypoxia also at the transcriptional level in neuroblastoma and glioma cells. In cultured tumor cells, HIF-2α is stabilized at physiological oxygen concentrations followed by induced expression of classical hypoxia-driven genes, resulting in a pseudohypoxic phenotype. In addition, in neuroblastoma and glioma specimens, a small subset of HIF-2α positive, HIF-1α negative, tumor cells is found adjacent to blood vessels, i.e. in areas with presumably adequate oxygenation. These tumor niches are thus pseudohypoxic, and the HIF-2α expressing cells present immature features. We have postulated that this niche in neuroblastomas encompass the tumor stem cells. Oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes associated with pseudohypoxia are frequently mutated or deleted in the germline, implicating that the pseudohypoxic phenotype indeed is tumorigenic. In summary, the hypoxic and pseudohypoxic phenotypes of solid tumors are attractive therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Lung oxidative damage by hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Araneda, O F; Tuesta, M

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important functions of lungs is to maintain an adequate oxygenation in the organism. This organ can be affected by hypoxia facing both physiological and pathological situations. Exposure to this condition favors the increase of reactive oxygen species from mitochondria, as from NADPH oxidase, xanthine oxidase/reductase, and nitric oxide synthase enzymes, as well as establishing an inflammatory process. In lungs, hypoxia also modifies the levels of antioxidant substances causing pulmonary oxidative damage. Imbalance of redox state in lungs induced by hypoxia has been suggested as a participant in the changes observed in lung function in the hypoxic context, such as hypoxic vasoconstriction and pulmonary edema, in addition to vascular remodeling and chronic pulmonary hypertension. In this work, experimental evidence that shows the implied mechanisms in pulmonary redox state by hypoxia is reviewed. Herein, studies of cultures of different lung cells and complete isolated lung and tests conducted in vivo in the different forms of hypoxia, conducted in both animal models and humans, are described.

  1. Betaine reduces the expression of inflammatory adipokines caused by hypoxia in human adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Olli, K; Lahtinen, S; Rautonen, N; Tiihonen, K

    2013-01-14

    Obesity is characterised by a state of chronic low-grade inflammation and the elevated circulating and tissue levels of inflammatory markers, including inflammation-related adipokines, released from white adipose tissue. The expression and release of these adipokines generally rises as the adipose tissue expands and hypoxic conditions start to develop within the tissue. Here, the effect of betaine, a trimethylglycine having a biological role as an osmolyte and a methyl donor, on the expression of inflammation-related markers was tested in human adipocytes under hypoxia. Differentiated adipocytes were cultivated under low (1 %) oxygen tension for 8-20 h. The expression of different adipokines, including IL-6, leptin, PPARγ, TNF-α and adiponectin, was measured by quantitative PCR by determining the relative mRNA level from the adipocytes. Hypoxia, in general, led to a decrease in the expression of PPARγ mRNA in human adipocytes, whereas the expression levels of leptin and IL-6 mRNA were substantially increased by hypoxia. The cultivation of adipocytes under hypoxia also led to a reduction in the expression of TNF-α mRNA. The results showed that hypoxia increased the relative quantification of leptin gene transcription, and that betaine (250 μmol/l) reduced this effect, caused by low oxygen conditions. Under hypoxia, betaine also reduced the mRNA level of the pro-inflammatory markers IL-6 and TNF-α. These results demonstrate that the extensive changes in the expression of inflammation-related adipokines in human adipocytes caused by hypoxia can be diminished by the presence of physiologically relevant concentrations of betaine.

  2. PKCδ/midkine pathway drives hypoxia-induced proliferation and differentiation of human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hanying; Okamoto, Miyako; Panzhinskiy, Evgeniy; Zawada, W Michael; Das, Mita

    2014-04-01

    Epithelial cells are key players in the pathobiology of numerous hypoxia-induced lung diseases. The mechanisms mediating such hypoxic responses of epithelial cells are not well characterized. Earlier studies reported that hypoxia stimulates protein kinase C (PKC)δ activation in renal cancer cells and an increase in expression of a heparin-binding growth factor, midkine (MK), in lung alveolar epithelial cells. We reasoned that hypoxia might regulate MK levels via a PKCδ-dependent pathway and hypothesized that PKCδ-driven MK expression is required for hypoxia-induced lung epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation. Replication of human lung epithelial cells (A549) was significantly increased by chronic hypoxia (1% O2) and was dependent on expression of PKCδ. Hypoxia-induced proliferation of epithelial cells was accompanied by translocation of PKCδ from Golgi into the nuclei. Marked attenuation in MK protein levels by rottlerin, a pharmacological antagonist of PKC, and by small interfering RNA-targeting PKCδ, revealed that PKCδ is required for MK expression in both normoxic and hypoxic lung epithelial cells. Sequestering MK secreted into the culture media with a neutralizing antibody reduced hypoxia-induced proliferation demonstrating that an increase in MK release from cells is linked with epithelial cell division under hypoxia. In addition, recombinant MK accelerated transition of hypoxic epithelial cells to cells of mesenchymal phenotype characterized by elongated morphology and increased expression of mesenchymal markers, α-smooth muscle actin, and vimentin. We conclude that PKCδ/MK axis mediates hypoxic proliferation and differentiation of lung epithelial cells. Manipulation of PKCδ and MK activity in epithelial cells might be beneficial for the treatment of hypoxia-mediated lung diseases.

  3. PKCδ/midkine pathway drives hypoxia-induced proliferation and differentiation of human lung epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hanying; Okamoto, Miyako; Panzhinskiy, Evgeniy; Zawada, W. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial cells are key players in the pathobiology of numerous hypoxia-induced lung diseases. The mechanisms mediating such hypoxic responses of epithelial cells are not well characterized. Earlier studies reported that hypoxia stimulates protein kinase C (PKC)δ activation in renal cancer cells and an increase in expression of a heparin-binding growth factor, midkine (MK), in lung alveolar epithelial cells. We reasoned that hypoxia might regulate MK levels via a PKCδ-dependent pathway and hypothesized that PKCδ-driven MK expression is required for hypoxia-induced lung epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation. Replication of human lung epithelial cells (A549) was significantly increased by chronic hypoxia (1% O2) and was dependent on expression of PKCδ. Hypoxia-induced proliferation of epithelial cells was accompanied by translocation of PKCδ from Golgi into the nuclei. Marked attenuation in MK protein levels by rottlerin, a pharmacological antagonist of PKC, and by small interfering RNA-targeting PKCδ, revealed that PKCδ is required for MK expression in both normoxic and hypoxic lung epithelial cells. Sequestering MK secreted into the culture media with a neutralizing antibody reduced hypoxia-induced proliferation demonstrating that an increase in MK release from cells is linked with epithelial cell division under hypoxia. In addition, recombinant MK accelerated transition of hypoxic epithelial cells to cells of mesenchymal phenotype characterized by elongated morphology and increased expression of mesenchymal markers, α-smooth muscle actin, and vimentin. We conclude that PKCδ/MK axis mediates hypoxic proliferation and differentiation of lung epithelial cells. Manipulation of PKCδ and MK activity in epithelial cells might be beneficial for the treatment of hypoxia-mediated lung diseases. PMID:24500281

  4. Hypoxia Promotes Osteogenesis of Human Placental-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Gu, Qiaoli; Gu, Yanzheng; Shi, Qin; Yang, Huilin

    2016-08-01

    Placental-derived mesenchymal stem cells (pMSCs) are promising candidates for regenerative medicine because they possess high proliferative capacity and multi-differentiation potential. Human pMSCs are residing in an environment with low oxygen tension in the body. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is known to participate in the regulation of MSC differentiation. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of hypoxia on the osteogenic differentiation of human pMSCs, and to elucidate the role of HO-1 in the osteogenic differentiation of hypoxic pMSCs. Human pMSCs were cultured under normoxia (21% O2) or hypoxia (5% O2) for 3 days. We found that hypoxia maintained the morphology and immunophenotype of human pMSCs. The expression of stemness markers Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2 was increased under hypoxia. After a 5-day hypoxic culture, the proliferation ability of pMSCs was increased, which might be correlated with the increased expression of stem cell factor. During osteogenic induction, hypoxia increased the expression of osteogenic genes including osteopontin, osteocalcin, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Moreover, hypoxia increased the mineralization and ALP levels of human pMSCs as evidenced by Alizarin Red staining and ALP staining. Upregulation of HO-1 by cobalt-protoporphyrin treatment increased the osteogenic differentiation of pMSCs under hypoxia, while inhibition of HO-1 by Zn-protoporphyrin reduced the osteogenic differentiation of hypoxic pMSCs. Taken together, our data suggest that hypoxia can promote the osteogenic differentiation of human pMSCs. Upregulation of HO-1 can further increase the osteogenesis of human pMSCs under hypoxia. Our findings will highlight the therapeutic potential of MSCs in the tissue engineering of bones.

  5. Marker development

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, M.R.

    1987-05-01

    This report is to discuss the marker development for radioactive waste disposal sites. The markers must be designed to last 10,000 years, and place no undue burdens on the future generations. Barriers cannot be constructed that preclude human intrusion. Design specifications for surface markers will be discussed, also marker pictograms will also be covered.

  6. Hypoxia induces an undifferentiated phenotype of oral keratinocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hiroko; Izumi, Kenji; Uenoyama, Atsushi; Shiomi, Aki; Kuo, Shiuhyang; Feinberg, Stephen E

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of hypoxia on the proliferating potential and phenotype of primary human oral keratinocytes cultured at ambient oxygen tension (20%) or at different levels of hypoxia (2 and 0.5% O2). The effects of oxygen tensions on cellular metabolic activity, cell proliferation, clonogenicity and proliferation heterogeneity were measured. Cell cycle profiles were analyzed by a fluorescent-activated cell sorter, and p21(WAF1/CIP1) expression in the G0/G1 phase was also concomitantly quantitated. The expression levels of cell cycle regulatory proteins were examined by immunoblotting, and the cellular senescence was assessed by senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining. Basal and suprabasal keratinocyte phenotypes were determined by the expression levels of 14-3-3σ, p75(NTR) and α6 integrin. Despite having a lower metabolism, the proliferation rate and clonogenic potential were remarkably enhanced in hypoxic cells. The significantly higher percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase under hypoxia and the expression patterns of cell cycle regulatory proteins in hypoxic cells were indicative of a state of cell cycle arrest in hypoxia. Furthermore, a decrease in the expression of p21(WAF1/CIP1) and p16(INK4A) and fewer β-galactosidase-positive cells suggested a quiescent phenotype rather than a senescent one in hypoxic cells. Compared with normoxic cells, the differential expression patterns of keratinocyte phenotypic markers suggest that hypoxic cells that generate minimal reactive oxygen species, suppress the mammalian target of rapamycin activity and express hypoxia-inducible factor-1α favor a basal cell phenotype. Thus, regardless of the predisposition to the state of cell cycle arrest, hypoxic conditions can maintain oral keratinocytes in vitro in an undifferentiated and quiescent state.

  7. Hypoxia-regulated angiogenic inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Messmer-Blust, Angela; An, Xiaojin; Li, Jian

    2010-01-01

    The regulation of angiogenesis by hypoxia is an essential homeostatic mechanism that depends on a precise balance between positive and negative angiogenic regulatory molecules. Pro-angiogenic factors are well characterized; however, several in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that there are feedback mechanisms in place to inhibit angiogenesis during hypoxia. Understanding the signaling pathways leading to the negative feedback of angiogenesis will undoubtedly provide important tools to develop novel therapeutic strategies not only to enhance the angiogenic response in coronary artery disease but also to hinder deregulated angiogenesis in tumorigenesis. PMID:20447566

  8. Jim Milledge: Hypoxia Honoree 2007.

    PubMed

    Nickol, Annabel

    2007-01-01

    Jim Milledge is well known to the international "Hypoxia" community for his many contributions to many high altitude medical and scientific expeditions, including the recent Extreme Everest Expedition in the aspring of 2007! His role as a physician, scientist, teacher, mentor and fried is cherished by those who have had the pleasure of working with him, either at home in the U.K., or abroad during his many forays into thin air. In 2007 the International Hypoxia Symposium honored Jim for his outstanding service and role in leading the entire field of high altitude medicine and physiology.

  9. Hypoxia-Independent Downregulation of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 Targets by Androgen Deprivation Therapy in Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Ragnum, Harald Bull; Røe, Kathrine; Holm, Ruth; Vlatkovic, Ljiljana; Nesland, Jahn Marthin; Aarnes, Eva-Katrine; Ree, Anne Hansen; Flatmark, Kjersti; Seierstad, Therese; Lilleby, Wolfgang; Lyng, Heidi

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: We explored changes in hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1) signaling during androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) of androgen-sensitive prostate cancer xenografts under conditions in which no significant change in immunostaining of the hypoxia marker pimonidazole had occurred. Methods and Materials: Gene expression profiles of volume-matched androgen-exposed and androgen-deprived CWR22 xenografts, with similar pimonidazole-positive fractions, were compared. Direct targets of androgen receptor (AR) and HIF1 transcription factors were identified among the differentially expressed genes by using published lists. Biological processes affected by ADT were determined by gene ontology analysis. HIF1α protein expression in xenografts and biopsy samples from 35 patients receiving neoadjuvant ADT was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results: A total of 1344 genes showed more than 2-fold change in expression by ADT, including 35 downregulated and 5 upregulated HIF1 targets. Six genes were shared HIF1 and AR targets, and their downregulation was confirmed with quantitative RT-PCR. Significant suppression of the biological processes proliferation, metabolism, and stress response in androgen-deprived xenografts was found, consistent with tumor regression. Nineteen downregulated HIF1 targets were involved in those significant biological processes, most of them in metabolism. Four of these were shared AR and HIF1 targets, including genes encoding the regulatory glycolytic proteins HK2, PFKFB3, and SLC2A1. Most of the downregulated HIF1 targets were induced by hypoxia in androgen-responsive prostate cancer cell lines, confirming their role as hypoxia-responsive HIF1 targets in prostate cancer. Downregulation of HIF1 targets was consistent with the absence of HIF1α protein in xenografts and downregulation in patients by ADT (P<.001). Conclusions: AR repression by ADT may lead to downregulation of HIF1 signaling independently of hypoxic fraction, and this may contribute to

  10. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1alpha and MAPK Co-Regulate Activation of Hepatic Stellate Cells upon Hypoxia Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Fei; Xiao, Yan; Deng, Jing; Chen, Huoying; Chen, Xiaolin; Li, Jianrong; Huang, Hanju; Shi, Chunwei

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatic stellate cell (HSC) plays a key role in pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. During liver injury, hypoxia in local micro-environment is inevitable. Hif-1α is the key transcriptional regulation factor that induces cell’s adaptive responses to hypoxia. Recently, it was reported that MAPK is involved in regulation of Hif-1α activity. Aims To explore whether Hif-1α regulates HSC activation upon hypoxia, and whether MAPK affects Hif-1α-regulated signaling cascades, thus providing new targets for preventing liver fibrosis. Methods Hif-1α expression in livers of Schistosomajaponicum infected BALB/c mice was detected with western blot and immunohistochemistry. A rat cell line of HSC, HSC-T6, was cultured in 1% oxygen. HSC activation, including F-actin reorganization, increase of vimentin and α-SMA, was detected with western blot or immunocytochemistry. Cells were transfected with specific siRNA to Hif-1α, expression of activation markers, transcription of fibrosis-promoting cytokines, secretion of collagen I were detected with western blot, Real Time PCR and ELISA. Lysate from HSC-T6 cells pretreated with PD98059, a specific MEK1 pharmacological inhibitor, was subjected to detect Hif-1α ubiquitination and nuclear translocation with western blot and immunoprecipitation. Results and Conclusions Hif-1α apparently increased in liver tissues of Schistosomajaponicum infected mice. 1% O2 induced F-actin reorganization, increase of Hif-1α, vimentin and α-SMA in HSC-T6 cells. Hif-1α Knockdown inhibited HSC-T6 activation, transcription of IL-6, TGF-β and CTGF and secretion of collagen I from HSC-T6 cells upon hypoxia. Inhibition of MAPK phosphorylation enhanced Hif-1α ubiquitination, and inhibited Hif-1α translocation into nucleus. Conclusively, Hif-1α and MAPK participate in HSC activation upon hypoxia. PMID:24040163

  11. Chronic hypoxia in pregnancy affects thymus development in Balb/c mouse offspring via IL2 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaopeng; Zhou, Xiuwen; Li, Lingjun; Sun, Miao; Gao, Qingqing; Zhang, Pengjie; Tang, Jiaqi; He, Yu; Zhu, Di; Xu, Zhice

    2016-04-01

    Hypoxia during pregnancy can adversely affect development. This study, addressed the impact of prenatal hypoxia on thymus development in the rodent offspring. Pregnant Balb/c mice were exposed to hypoxia or normoxia during pregnancy, and the thymuses of their offspring were tested. Chronic hypoxia during pregnancy resulted in significantly decreased fetal body weight, with an increased thymus-to-body weight ratio. Histological analysis revealed a smaller cortical zone in the thymus of the offspring exposed to hypoxia. A reduction in the cortical T lymphocyte population corresponded to increased mRNA abundance of caspase 3 (Casp3) and decreased expression of the proliferation marker Ki-67 (Mki67). Differences in T lymphocyte sub-populations in the thymus further indicate that thymus development in offspring was retarded or stagnated by prenatal hypoxia. The abundance of IL2 and its receptor was reduced in the thymus following prenatal hypoxia. This was accompanied by an increase in thymus HIF1A and IKKβ and a decrease in phosphorylated NFKB, MAP2K1, and MAPK1/3 compared to control pregnancies. Together, these results implicate deficiencies in IL2-mediated signaling as one source of prenatal-hypoxia-impaired thymus development. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Historical Assessment of Hypoxia in Narragansett Bay Using Geochemical Markers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eutrophication due to anthropogenic activities has affected aquatic ecosystems globally. Increased inputs of nitrogen and other nutrients to estuarine and marine ecosystems as a result of agricultural practices, urbanization and suburbanization have resulted in degradation of wat...

  13. Historical Assessment of Hypoxia in Narragansett Bay Using Geochemical Markers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eutrophication due to anthropogenic activities has affected aquatic ecosystems globally. Increased inputs of nitrogen and other nutrients to estuarine and marine ecosystems as a result of agricultural practices, urbanization and suburbanization have resulted in degradation of wat...

  14. The repair of DNA damage induced in V79 mammalian cells by the nitroimidazole-aziridine, RSU-1069. Implications for radiosensitization.

    PubMed

    Jenner, T J; O'Neill, P; Crump, P W; Fielden, E M; Sapora, O; Santodonato, L

    1991-10-09

    The induction and repair of single (ssb) and double (dsb) strand breaks in DNA under aerobic or hypoxic conditions have been determined using sucrose sedimentation techniques following incubation of V79 mammalian cells with RSU-1069 or misonidazole, representative of a conventional 2-nitroimidazole radiosensitizer, for 1-1.5 hr at either 293 or 277 degrees K and subsequent irradiation at 277 degrees K. In all cases, the dose dependences for the induction of strand breaks are linear and consistent with an enhancement in the yield of DNA damage induced by the 2-nitroimidazoles under hypoxic conditions. With RSU-1069 at 293 degrees K, the dose dependence of ssb is displaced reflecting DNA damage induced during pre-incubation. From these dependences, it is evident that the enhanced radiosensitization by RSU-1069 may not be accounted for in terms of accumulation of the agent at DNA. From the repair studies, DNA breaks induced by RSU-1069 in the absence of radiation have been shown to persist for at least 3 hr. With a combination of RSU-1069 and radiation under hypoxic conditions, the repair timescale of the induced breaks is significantly longer and an increase in the residual yields of both ssb and dsb (at 2-3 hr) was observed when compared with the observation in the presence of misonidazole or oxygen. From these studies, it is inferred that the enhanced radiosensitization of RSU-1069 at 293 degrees K is a consequence of the formation of non-repairable DNA damage together with a modification of the repairability of the radiation-induced DNA breaks.

  15. Covalent triazine framework-1 as adsorbent for inline solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of trace nitroimidazoles in porcine liver and environmental waters.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Cheng; Chen, Beibei; He, Man; Hu, Bin

    2017-02-03

    In this study, covalent triazine framework-1 (CTF-1) was adopted as solid phase extraction (SPE) sorbents, and a method of SPE inline coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) detection was developed for trace analysis of three nitroimidazolaes (including metronidazole, ronidazole and dimetridazole) in porcine liver and environmental water samples. CTF-1 has rich π-electron and N containing triazine, thus can form π-π interaction and intermolecular hydrogen bond with three target polar nitroimidazoles, resulting in high extraction efficiency (87%-98%). Besides, CTF-1 has large specific area, which benefits rapid mass transfer and low column pressure, leading to fast adsorption/desorption dynamics. Several parameters affecting inline SPE including pH, sample flow rate, sample volume, desorption reagents, elution flow rate, elution volume, and ionic strength were investigated. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the limits of detection (S/N=3) were found to be in the range of 0.11-0.13μg/L. The enrichment factors (EFs) ranged from 52 to 59 fold (theoretical EF was 60-fold). The relative standard deviations were in the range of 4.3-9.4% (n=7, c=1μg/L), and the linear range was 0.5-500μg/L for three target analytes. The sample throughput is 7/h. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of nitroimidazoles in porcine liver and environmental water samples with good recoveries for the spiked samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Hypoxia sensing through β-adrenergic receptors

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Hoi I.; Asosingh, Kewal; Stephens, Olivia R.; Queisser, Kimberly A.; Xu, Weiling; Willard, Belinda; Hu, Bo; Dermawan, Josephine Kam Tai; Stark, George R.; Naga Prasad, Sathyamangla V.; Erzurum, Serpil C.

    2016-01-01

    Life-sustaining responses to low oxygen, or hypoxia, depend on signal transduction by HIFs, but the underlying mechanisms by which cells sense hypoxia are not completely understood. Based on prior studies suggesting a link between the β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) and hypoxia responses, we hypothesized that the β-AR mediates hypoxia sensing and is necessary for HIF-1α accumulation. Beta blocker treatment of mice suppressed hypoxia induction of renal HIF-1α accumulation, erythropoietin production, and erythropoiesis in vivo. Likewise, beta blocker treatment of primary human endothelial cells in vitro decreased hypoxia-mediated HIF-1α accumulation and binding to target genes and the downstream hypoxia-inducible gene expression. In mechanistic studies, cAMP-activated PKA and/or GPCR kinases (GRK), which both participate in β-AR signal transduction, were investigated. Direct activation of cAMP/PKA pathways did not induce HIF-1α accumulation, and inhibition of PKA did not blunt HIF-1α induction by hypoxia. In contrast, pharmacological inhibition of GRK, or expression of a GRK phosphorylation–deficient β-AR mutant in cells, blocked hypoxia-mediated HIF-1α accumulation. Mass spectrometry–based quantitative analyses revealed a hypoxia-mediated β-AR phosphorylation barcode that was different from the classical agonist phosphorylation barcode. These findings indicate that the β-AR is fundamental to the molecular and physiological responses to hypoxia. PMID:28018974

  17. The role of hypoxia at primary dysmenorrhea, utilizing a novel hypoxia marker--SCUBE1.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Yeşim Bayoğlu; Güvendağ Güven, Emine Seda; Kirbas, Aynur; Üstüner, Işık; Doğan, Osman Deniz; Balik, Gülşah; Şahin, Figen Kir

    2015-02-01

    To determine the SCUBE1 levels in adolescents with primary dysmenorrhea. A prospective cross-sectional study. A university hospital outpatient clinic, Rize, Turkey. A total of 40 adolescent girls, 15 on menses and 25 not on menses. Demographic features and menstrual history of the participants were assessed and blood samples were obtained for detecting the platelet volume, platelet counts, and SCUBE1 levels of the participants. No difference was detected between the 2 groups in mean platelet volume, platelet count, and SCUBE1 levels. Future trials are required to investigate the relation between SCUBE1 levels and primary dysmenorrhea. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Risk prediction for malignant conversion of oral epithelial dysplasia by hypoxia related protein expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianglan; Han, Seonhui; Han, Hye-Yeon; Ryu, Mi Heon; Kim, Ki-Yeol; Choi, Eun-Joo; Cha, In-Ho; Kim, Jin

    2013-08-01

    Increased aerobic glycolysis is a unique finding in cancers and hypoxia-related proteins are associated with aerobic glycolysis. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether hypoxia-related proteins can be predictive markers for malignant conversion of oral premalignant lesions with epithelial dysplasia (OED). Expression of HIF-1α, Glut-1 and CA9 were detected in clinical samples of eight normal oral mucosa, 85 transitional areas of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and 28 OED with or without malignant conversion using immunohistochemistry and were also comparatively detected in immortalised human oral keratinocyte (IHOK) and OSCC cell lines under hypoxia using immunoblotting. Sequential expression of HIF-1α, Glut-1 and CA9 was found both in transitional areas of OSCC and cell lines of IHOK and OSCC under hypoxia, supporting hypoxia-aerobic glycolysis-acidosis axis. Expression of all proteins showed significant association with malignant conversion of OED and CA9 was an independent risk factor of malignant transformation of OED. But the predictability of malignant transformation was improved when all three proteins were applied together. High expression of CA9 was an independent predictive marker of malignant conversion. Moreover, the combined application of these three proteins may be useful to assess the risk of malignant conversion of OED.

  19. Marker chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Rao, Kiran Prabhaker; Belogolovkin, Victoria

    2013-04-01

    Marker chromosomes are a morphologically heterogeneous group of structurally abnormal chromosomes that pose a significant challenge in prenatal diagnosis. Phenotypes associated with marker chromosomes are highly variable and range from normal to severely abnormal. Clinical outcomes are very difficult to predict when marker chromosomes are detected prenatally. In this review, we outline the classification, etiology, cytogenetic characterization, and clinical consequences of marker chromosomes, as well as practical approaches to prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling.

  20. Hyperplasia and hypertrophy of pulmonary neuroepithelial bodies, presumed airway hypoxia sensors, in hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jie; Bishop, Tammie; Ratcliffe, Peter J; Yeger, Herman; Cutz, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs), presumed polymodal airway sensors, consist of innervated clusters of amine (serotonin) and peptide-producing cells. While NEB responses to acute hypoxia are mediated by a membrane-bound O2 sensor complex, responses to sustained and/or chronic hypoxia involve a prolyl hydroxylase (PHD)-hypoxia-inducible factor-dependent mechanism. We have previously reported hyperplasia of NEBs in the lungs of Phd1-/- mice associated with enhanced serotonin secretion. Here we use a novel multilabel immunofluorescence method to assess NEB distribution, frequency, and size, together with the number and size of NEB cell nuclei, and to colocalize multiple cytoplasmic and nuclear epitopes in the lungs of Phd1-/-, Phd2+/-, and Phd3-/- mice and compare them with wild-type controls. To define the mechanisms of NEB cell hyperplasia, we used antibodies against Mash1 and Prox1 (neurogenic genes involved in NEB cell differentiation/maturation), hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha, and the cell proliferation marker Ki67. Morphometric analysis of (% total lung area) immunostaining for synaptophysin (% synaptophysin), a cytoplasmic marker of NEB cells, was significantly increased in Phd1-/- and Phd3-/- mice compared to wild-type mice. In addition, NEB size and the number and size of NEB nuclei were also significantly increased, indicating that deficiency of Phds is associated with striking hyperplasia and hypertrophy of NEBs. In Phd2+/- mice, while mean % synaptophysin was comparable to wild-type controls, the NEB size was moderately increased, suggesting an effect even in heterozygotes. NEBs in all Phd-deficient mice showed increased expression of Mash1, Prox1, Ki67, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha, in keeping with enhanced differentiation from precursor cells and a minor component of cell proliferation. Since the loss of PHD activity mimics chronic hypoxia, our data provide critical information on the potential role of PHDs in the pathobiology and

  1. Apoptosis and neurogenesis after transient hypoxia in the developing rat brain.

    PubMed

    Daval, Jean-Luc; Vert, Paul

    2004-08-01

    Perinatal brain damage following a hypoxic-ischemic episode has been considered for a long time as an irreversible phenomenon. However, recent studies have shown that various insults may induce de novo neurogenesis in the adult rodent brain. The present study tested the hypothesis that acute hypoxia may trigger neurogenesis in the developing brain. In vitro, the influence of transient hypoxia was analyzed on the outcome of embryonic rat neurons in culture. In vivo, the temporal profile of brain damage was monitored at the level of the CA1 layer of the hippocampus after the exposure to hypoxia of 1-day-old rats. The extent of cell loss and regeneration was evaluated after staining with DAPI. The characterization of newly generated cells was performed in the subventricular zone at 20 days postexposure by immunohistochemistry. Following hypoxia for 6 hours, neuronal viability in the culture dishes was reduced by 36% at 96 hours, with a significant number of cell nuclei showing apoptosis features. In contrast, a 3-hour hypoxia apparently did not damage cultured neurons whose number increased by 14%. The Bax/Bcl-2 ratio tended to increase after 6-hour hypoxia and to decrease after 3-hour hypoxia. In vivo, hypoxia induced cell damage in the CA1 subfield of the hippocampus, where the total number of cells was reduced by 27% at days 6-7 postreoxygenation, with histopathological hallmarks of apoptosis. This cell deficit was followed by a gradual recovery observable from day 20, suggesting a repair mechanism. Brain incorporation of BrdU in the subventricular zone revealed an accumulation of proliferating cells expressing the neuronal marker NeuroD. The present data demonstrate that a posthypoxic neurogenesis does occur during development and may account for brain protection.

  2. Hypoxia and the antipredator behaviours of fishes.

    PubMed

    Domenici, P; Lefrançois, C; Shingles, A

    2007-11-29

    Hypoxia is a phenomenon occurring in marine coastal areas with increasing frequency. While hypoxia has been documented to affect fish activity and metabolism, recent evidence shows that hypoxia can also have a detrimental effect on various antipredator behaviours. Here, we review such evidence with a focus on the effect of hypoxia on fish escape responses, its modulation by aquatic surface respiration (ASR) and schooling behaviour. The main effect of hypoxia on escape behaviour was found in responsiveness and directionality. Locomotor performance in escapes was expected to be relatively independent of hypoxia, since escape responses are fuelled anaerobically. However, hypoxia decreased locomotor performance in some species (Mugilidae) although only in the absence of ASR in severe hypoxia. ASR allows fish to show higher escape performance than fish staying in the water column where hypoxia occurs. This situation provides a trade-off whereby fish may perform ASR in order to avoid the detrimental effects of hypoxia, although they would be subjected to higher exposure to aerial predation. As a result of this trade-off, fishes appear to minimize surfacing behaviour in the presence of aerial predators and to surface near shelters, where possible. For many fish species, schooling can be an effective antipredator behaviour. Severe hypoxia may lead to the disruption of the school unit. At moderate levels, hypoxia can increase school volume and can change the shuffling behaviour of individuals. By altering school structure and dynamics, hypoxia may affect the well functioning of schooling in terms of synchronization and execution of antipredator manoeuvres. School structure and volume appear to be the results of numerous trade-offs, where school shape may be dictated by the presence of predators, the need for energy saving via hydrodynamic advantages and oxygen level. The effects of hypoxia on aquatic organisms can be taxon specific. While hypoxia may not necessarily

  3. Exercise Improves Mood State in Normobaric Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yongsuk; Fennell, Curtis; Burns, Keith; Pollock, Brandon S; Gunstad, John; McDaniel, John; Glickman, Ellen

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the efficacy of using exercise to alleviate the impairments in mood state associated with hypoxic exposure. Nineteen young, healthy men completed Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics-4(th) Edition (ANAM4) versions of the mood state test before hypoxia exposure, after 60 min of hypoxia exposure (12.5% O(2)), and during and after two intensities of cycling exercise (40% and 60% adjusted Vo(2max)) under the same hypoxic conditions. Peripheral oxygen saturation (Spo(2)) and regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSo(2)) were continuously monitored. At rest in hypoxia, Total Mood Disturbance (TMD) was significantly increased compared to baseline in both the 40% and 60% groups. TMD was significantly decreased during exercise compared to rest in hypoxia. TMD was also significantly decreased during recovery compared to rest in hypoxia. Spo(2) significantly decreased at 60 min rest in hypoxia, during exercise, and recovery compared to baseline. Regional cerebral oxygen saturation was also reduced at 60 min rest in hypoxia, during exercise, and recovery compared to baseline. The current study demonstrated that exercise at 40% and 60% of adjusted Vo(2max) attenuated the adverse effects of hypoxia on mood. These findings may have significant applied value, as negative mood states are known to impair performance in hypoxia. Further studies are needed to replicate the current finding and to clarify the possible mechanisms associated with the potential benefits of exercise on mood state in normobaric hypoxia.

  4. Physical factors connected to hypoxia in Long Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, M.; Fribance, D. B.; Keiner, L. E.

    2016-02-01

    The Grand Strand (or Long Bay) area has experienced seasonal hypoxia events in the late summer months most years since the first event was observed in 2004. Hypoxia is a severe depletion in dissolved oxygen, typically near the bottom of a given body of water. Although the effects of hypoxic waters are well studied, the combination of physical, biological, and chemical factors leading to these events may vary based on location. Long Bay is an area of interest because it is an open basin along a coastline with a shallow, broad shelf, giving it characteristics different from other known regions which experience chronic seasonal hypoxia. In an attempt to characterize these hypoxic events, we have analyzed the physical factors leading up to recent hypoxic events to best determine the precursors and key features that determine the extent, duration, or source of these events. Satellite imagery is used to gather spatial and temporal information about chlorophyll levels and sea surface temperature during the time periods of interest. Additionally, in-situ wind and water quality data from three long-term monitoring stations are used to find biological, physical, or chemical markers that indicate the extent, duration, and/or cause of these events.

  5. Wound Hypoxia in Deep Tissue after Incision in the Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sinyoung; Lee, Dongchul; Theusch, Brett E.; Arpey, Christopher J.; Brennan, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Our previous studies using rat models of incisional pain have demonstrated that tissue lactate levels increase and pH decreases for several days after incision, suggesting the presence of an ischemic-like condition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the time course and the extent of tissue hypoxia that develops in incised muscle and skin. We directly measured oxygen tension at several time points after incisions of the gastrocnemius muscle, the paraspinal skin, and the plantar hindpaw in anesthetized rats using an oxygen-sensitive microelectrode. In vivo hypoxia of the incised tissues was also evaluated immunohistochemically using a hypoxia marker pimonidazole hydrochloride. To minimized inter-subject variability, unincised contralateral tissues were used as a control. Tissue oxygen tension was decreased in both skeletal muscle and skin compared to control, for several days after incision: when measured directly, oxygen tension decreased immediately and remained low for several days after incisions. Pimonidazole immunostaining revealed hypoxic areas in incised muscle and skin for several days. By postoperative day 10, tissue oxygen tension recovered to that of control tissue. These results support the evidence that a hypoxic condition is present in deep tissue after incisions and that an ischemic-like mechanism may contribute to postoperative pain. PMID:23926943

  6. Current relevance of hypoxia in head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bredell, Marius G.; Ernst, Jutta; El-Kochairi, Ilhem; Dahlem, Yuliya; Ikenberg, Kristian; Schumann, Desiree M.

    2016-01-01

    Head and Neck cancer (HNC) is a complex mix of cancers and one of the more common cancers with a relatively poor prognosis. One of the factors that may assist us in predicting survival and allow us to adjust our treatment strategies is the presence of tumor hypoxia. In this overview we aim to evaluate the current evidence and potential clinical relevance of tumor hypoxia in head and neck cancer according to an extensive search of current literature. An abundance of evidence and often contradictory evidence is found in the literature. Even the contradictory evidence and comparisons are difficult to judge as criteria and methodologies differ greatly, furthermore few prospective observational studies exist for verification of the pre-clinical studies. Despite these discrepancies there is clear evidence of associations between prognosis and poor tumor oxygenation biomarkers such as HIF-1α, GLUT-1 and lactate, though these associations are not exclusive. The use of genetic markers is expanding and will probably lead to significantly more and complex evidence. The lack of oxygenation in head and neck tumors is of paramount importance for the prediction of treatment outcomes and prognosis. Despite the wide array of conflicting evidence, the drive towards non-invasive prediction of tumor hypoxia should continue. PMID:27434126

  7. Comparative metabolomics analysis of Callosobruchus chinensis larvae under hypoxia, hypoxia/hypercapnia and normoxia.

    PubMed

    Cui, Sufen; Wang, Lei; Qiu, Jiangping; Liu, Zhicheng; Geng, Xueqing

    2017-06-01

    Insect tolerance to low oxygen (hypoxia) and high carbon dioxide (hypercapnia) is critical for insect control. On the basis of bioassay, metabolism profiles were built to investigate adaptive mechanisms in bean weevil under hypoxia (2% O2 ), hypoxia/hypercapnia (2% O2 + 18% CO2 ) and normoxia (control, 20% O2 + 80% N2 ) using gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC/TOF-MS). The growth and development of bean weevils were significantly suppressed by the two hypoxia conditions; hypercapnia enhanced the mortality, but after 24 days of exposure, the surviving insects emerged as adults earlier than those under hypoxia only. Metabolism profiles also showed striking differences in metabolites among the treatment and control groups, both quantitatively and qualitatively. Pairwise comparisons of the three groups showed that 61 metabolites changed significantly, 40 in the hypoxia group and 37 in the hypoxia/hypercapnia group relative to the control group, while only 16 were shared equally by the hypoxia and hypoxia/hypercapnia groups. Increased metabolites were mainly carbohydrates, amino acids and organic acids, while free fatty acids were decreased. Furthermore, the changes were strengthened by the addition of hypercapnia, but excluding free fatty acids. The findings show that bean weevil has high tolerance to hypoxia or even hypoxia/hypercapnia at biologically achievable levels and provide more direct evidence for stored product insect mechanism regulation under hypoxia stress, especially free fatty acid regulation by hypercapnia but not by hypoxia. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Hypoxia, HIFs and bone development

    PubMed Central

    Araldi, Elisa; Schipani, Ernestina

    2010-01-01

    Oxygen is not only an obviously important substrate, but it is also a regulatory signal that controls expression of a specific genetic program. Crucial mediator of the adaptive response of cells to hypoxia is the family of Hypoxia-Inducible Transcription Factors (HIFṣ. The fetal growth plate, which is an avascular structure of mesenchymal origin, has a unique out-in gradient of oxygenation. HIF-1α is necessary for chondrogenesis in vivo by controlling a complex homeostatic response that allows chondrocytes to survive and differentiate in a hypoxic environment. Moreover, HIFs are also essential in osteogenesis and joint development. This brief Perspective summarizes the critical role of HIFs in endochondral bone development. PMID:20444436

  9. Development of Hypoxia in a Preclinical Model of Tumor Micrometastases

    SciTech Connect

    Simonsen, Trude G.; Gaustad, Jon-Vidar; Rofstad, Einar K.

    2010-03-01

    Purpose: Hypoxic regions have been shown to be a characteristic feature of a wide variety of human primary tumors, whereas the oxygenation status of subclinical micrometastases is in general unknown. The development of hypoxia in a xenograft model of microscopic metastases was investigated in this study. Methods and Materials: U-25-GFP human melanomas growing in dorsal window chamber preparations in BALB/c nu/nu mice were used as a preclinical model of micrometastases. Tumor blood supply time and morphologic parameters of the vascular network were determined from first-pass imaging movies and vascular maps recorded by use of 155-kDa tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate-labeled dextran as a vascular tracer. Tumor hypoxia was assessed from immunohistochemical preparations of the imaged tissue by use of pimonidazole as a hypoxia marker. Results: Nearly half of the tumors had developed hypoxic regions when they reached a diameter of 2 to 3 mm. Tumors with multiple hypoxic foci showed a low growth rate, low blood flow velocity, high vessel tortuosity, high vessel segment length, and high vascular density, whereas tumors with a single hypoxic region showed a high growth rate, high blood flow velocity, low vessel tortuosity, low vessel segment length, and low vascular density. The tumors with hypoxic regions did not differ from those without hypoxia in any single parameter. Conclusions: U-25-GFP xenograft models of vascularized human tumor micrometastases may develop hypoxic regions as a consequence of two distinctly different morphologic abnormalities in the vascular network: high resistance against blood flow (i.e., high vessel tortuosity and high vessel segment length) or low vascular density.

  10. Hypoxia, Monitoring, and Mitigation System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    Document CDRL A001-3 Revision: Original Date: Aug 2015 Page: 1 of 43 Document Title: HAMS II Quarterly Progress Report...unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The original document contains color images. 14. ABSTRACT The Hypoxia Monitoring, Alert and Mitigation System...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Document CDRL A001-3 Revision: Original Date: Aug 2015 Page: 2

  11. The impact of Wnt signalling and hypoxia on osteogenic and cementogenic differentiation in human periodontal ligament cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuigen; Shao, Jin; Zhou, Yinghong; Friis, Thor; Yao, Jiangwu; Shi, Bin; Xiao, Yin

    2016-01-01

    Cementum is a periodontal support tissue that is directly connected to the periodontal ligament. It shares common traits with bone tissues, however, unlike bone, the cementum has a limited capacity for regeneration. As a result, following damage the cementum rarely, if ever, regenerates. Periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) are able to differentiate into osteoblastic and cementogenic lineages according to specific local environmental conditions, including hypoxia, which is induced by inflammation or activation of the Wnt signalling pathway by local loading. The interactions between the Wnt signalling pathway and hypoxia during cementogenesis are of particular interest to improve the understanding of periodontal tissue regeneration. In the present study, osteogenic and cementogenic differentiation of PDLCs was investigated under hypoxic conditions in the presence and absence of Wnt pathway activation. Protein and gene expression of the osteogenic markers type 1 collagen (COL1) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), and cementum protein 1 (CEMP1) were used as markers for osteogenic and cementogenic differentiation, respectively. Wnt signalling activation inhibited cementogenesis, whereas hypoxia alone did not affect PDLC differentiation. However, hypoxia reversed the inhibition of cementogenesis that resulted from overexpression of Wnt signalling. Cross-talk between hypoxia and Wnt signalling pathways was, therefore, demonstrated to be involved in the differentiation of PDLCs to the osteogenic and cementogenic lineages. In summary, the present study suggests that the differentiation of PDLCs into osteogenic and cementogenic lineages is partially regulated by the Wnt signalling pathway and that hypoxia is also involved in this process. PMID:27840938

  12. Transcriptional Regulation by Hypoxia Inducible Factors

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa, Joaquín M.

    2015-01-01

    The cellular response to oxygen deprivation is governed largely by a family of transcription factors known as Hypoxia Inducible Factors (HIFs). This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms by which HIFs regulate the transcriptional apparatus to enable the cellular and organismal response to hypoxia. We discuss here how the various HIF polypeptides, their post-translational modifications, binding partners and transcriptional cofactors affect RNA polymerase II activity to drive context-dependent transcriptional programs during hypoxia. PMID:24099156

  13. Activation of microglia and astrocytes in the nucleus tractus solitarius during ventilatory acclimatization to 10% hypoxia in unanesthetized mice.

    PubMed

    Tadmouri, A; Champagnat, J; Morin-Surun, M P

    2014-05-01

    Nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) is the integrative sensory relay of autonomic functions in the brainstem. To explore the nonneuronal cellular basis of central chemosensitivity during the first 24 hr of ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia (VHA), we have investigated glial activation markers in the NTS. Conscious mice (C57/BL6) were placed in a hermetic hypoxia chamber containing a plethysmograph to record ventilation. After 4 days of habituation to the normoxic environment, mice were subjected to physiological hypoxia (10% O2 ) for 1, 6, or 24 hr. To dissociate interactions between microglia and astrocytes, another group received daily minocycline, a microglia activation blocker. By immunochemical localization of astrocytes (GFAP), activated microglia (Cd11b), and total microglia (Iba-1), we identified an oxygen-sensing glial layer in the NTS, in which astrocytes are first activated after 1-6 hr of hypoxia, followed by microglia after 6-24 hr of hypoxia. Minocycline administration suppressed microglial activation and decreased astrocyte activation at 6 hr and VHA at 24 hr of hypoxia. These results suggest that astrocytes contribute to the neuronal response during the first hour of hypoxia, whereas microglial cells, via cross-talk with astrocytes, are involved in the VHA during the first 24 hr of acclimatization. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Hypoxia disrupts proteostasis in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Fawcett, Emily M; Hoyt, Jill M; Johnson, Jenna K; Miller, Dana L

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen is fundamentally important for cell metabolism, and as a consequence, O2 deprivation (hypoxia) can impair many essential physiological processes. Here, we show that an active response to hypoxia disrupts cellular proteostasis – the coordination of protein synthesis, quality control, and degradation that maintains the functionality of the proteome. We have discovered that specific hypoxic conditions enhance the aggregation and toxicity of aggregation-prone proteins that are associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Our data indicate this is an active response to hypoxia, rather than a passive consequence of energy limitation. This response to hypoxia is partially antagonized by the conserved hypoxia-inducible transcription factor, hif-1. We further demonstrate that exposure to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) protects animals from hypoxia-induced disruption of proteostasis. H2S has been shown to protect against hypoxic damage in mammals and extends lifespan in nematodes. Remarkably, our data also show that H2S can reverse detrimental effects of hypoxia on proteostasis. Our data indicate that the protective effects of H2S in hypoxia are mechanistically distinct from the effect of H2S to increase lifespan and thermotolerance, suggesting that control of proteostasis and aging can be dissociated. Together, our studies reveal a novel effect of the hypoxia response in animals and provide a foundation to understand how the integrated proteostasis network is integrated with this stress response pathway. PMID:25510338

  15. HIF and pulmonary vascular responses to hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Laurie, Steven S.

    2013-01-01

    In the lung, acute reductions in oxygen lead to hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, whereas prolonged exposures to hypoxia result in sustained vasoconstriction, pulmonary vascular remodeling, and the development of pulmonary hypertension. Data from both human subjects and animal models implicate a role for hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), oxygen-sensitive transcription factors, in pulmonary vascular responses to both acute and chronic hypoxia. In this review, we discuss work from our laboratory and others supporting a role for HIF in modulating hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and mediating hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension, identify some of the downstream targets of HIF, and assess the potential to pharmacologically target the HIF system. PMID:24336881

  16. Arginine-vasopressin marker copeptin is a sensitive plasma surrogate of hypoxic exposure

    PubMed Central

    Ostergaard, Louise; Rudiger, Alain; Wellmann, Sven; Gammella, Elena; Beck-Schimmer, Beatrice; Struck, Joachim; Maggiorini, Marco; Gassmann, Max

    2014-01-01

    Background A reduced oxygen supply puts patients at risk of tissue hypoxia, organ damage, and even death. In response, several changes are activated that allow for at least partial adaptation, thereby increasing the chances of survival. We aimed to investigate whether the arginine vasopressin marker, copeptin, can be used as a marker of the degree of acclimatization/adaptation in rats exposed to hypoxia. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 10% oxygen for up to 48 hours. Arterial and right ventricular pressures were measured, and blood gas analysis was performed at set time points. Pulmonary changes were investigated by bronchoalveolar lavage, wet and dry weight measurements, and lung histology. Using a newly developed specific rat copeptin luminescence immunoassay, the regulation of vasopressin in response to hypoxia was studied, as was atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) by detecting mid-regional proANP. Results With a decreasing oxygen supply, the rats rapidly became cyanotic and inactive. Despite continued exposure to 10% oxygen, all animals recuperated within 16 hours and ultimately survived. Their systemic blood pressure fell with acute (5 minutes) hypoxia but was partially recovered over time. In contrast, right ventricular pressures increased with acute (5 minutes) hypoxia and normalized after 16 hours. No signs of pulmonary inflammation or edema were found despite prolonged hypoxia. Whereas copeptin levels increased significantly after acute (5 minutes) hypoxia and then returned to near baseline after 16 hours, mid-regional proANP levels were even further increased after 16 hours of exposure to hypoxia. Conclusion Plasma copeptin is a sensitive marker of acute (5 minutes) exposure to severe hypoxia, and subsequent regulation can indicate recovery. Copeptin levels can therefore reflect clinical and physiological changes in response to hypoxia and indicate recovery from ongoing hypoxic exposure. PMID:27774473

  17. Approximate Simulation of Acute Hypobaric Hypoxia with Normobaric Hypoxia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conkin, J.; Wessel, J. H., III

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. Some manufacturers of reduced oxygen (O2) breathing devices claim a comparable hypobaric hypoxia (HH) training experience by providing F(sub I) O2 < 0.209 at or near sea level pressure to match the ambient O2 partial pressure (iso-pO2) of the target altitude. METHODS. Literature from investigators and manufacturers indicate that these devices may not properly account for the 47 mmHg of water vapor partial pressure that reduces the inspired partial pressure of O2 (P(sub I) O2). Nor do they account for the complex reality of alveolar gas composition as defined by the Alveolar Gas Equation. In essence, by providing iso-pO2 conditions for normobaric hypoxia (NH) as for HH exposures the devices ignore P(sub A)O2 and P(sub A)CO2 as more direct agents to induce signs and symptoms of hypoxia during acute training exposures. RESULTS. There is not a sufficient integrated physiological understanding of the determinants of P(sub A)O2 and P(sub A)CO2 under acute NH and HH given the same hypoxic pO2 to claim a device that provides isohypoxia. Isohypoxia is defined as the same distribution of hypoxia signs and symptoms under any circumstances of equivalent hypoxic dose, and hypoxic pO2 is an incomplete hypoxic dose. Some devices that claim an equivalent HH experience under NH conditions significantly overestimate the HH condition, especially when simulating altitudes above 10,000 feet (3,048 m). CONCLUSIONS. At best, the claim should be that the devices provide an approximate HH experience since they only duplicate the ambient pO2 at sea level as at altitude (iso-pO2 machines). An approach to reduce the overestimation is to at least provide machines that create the same P(sub I)O2 (iso-P(sub I)O2 machines) conditions at sea level as at the target altitude, a simple software upgrade.

  18. Effect of Hypoxia on the Differentiation and the Self-Renewal of Metanephrogenic Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shaopeng; Song, Nana; He, Jianqiang; Yu, Xiaofang; Guo, Jia; Jiao, Xiaoyan

    2017-01-01

    Hypoxia is an important and influential factor in development. The embryonic kidney is exposed to a hypoxic environment throughout its development. The Wnt/β-catenin pathway plays vital roles in the differentiation and self-renewal of metanephrogenic mesenchymal stem cells (MMSCs) from which the kidney is derived. Thus, we hypothesized that hypoxia can regulate the differentiation and pluripotency of MMSCs through the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. To test this hypothesis, MMSCs from rats at embryonic day 18.5 were cultured in normoxic (21% O2) and hypoxic (1% O2) conditions. The effects of hypoxia on differentiation, stemness, proliferation, and apoptosis of cultured MMSCs and on the activity of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway were tested. Our results revealed that the hypoxic condition increased the number of epithelial cells (E-cadherin+ or CK18+) as well the expression of markers of renal tubule epithelia cells (CDH6, Aqp1, and OPN), decreased the number and proliferation of stem cells (SIX-2+ or CITED1+), and induced apoptosis. Additionally, hypoxia reduced the expression of Wnt4 as well as its downstream molecules β-catenin, LEF-1, and Axin2. Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by LiCl or BIO modified the effects of hypoxia on the differentiation and self-renewal of MMSCs. Thus, we concluded that hypoxia induces the differentiation and inhibits the self-renewal of MMSCs by inhibiting the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. The observations further our understanding of the effects of hypoxia on kidney. PMID:28194187

  19. Arabidopsis CML38, a Calcium Sensor That Localizes to Ribonucleoprotein Complexes under Hypoxia Stress1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    McClintock, Carlee; Li, Tian

    2016-01-01

    During waterlogging and the associated oxygen deprivation stress, plants respond by the induction of adaptive programs, including the redirected expression of gene networks toward the synthesis of core hypoxia-response proteins. Among these core response proteins in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is the calcium sensor CML38, a protein related to regulator of gene silencing calmodulin-like proteins (rgsCaMs). CML38 transcripts are up-regulated more than 300-fold in roots within 6 h of hypoxia treatment. Transfer DNA insertional mutants of CML38 show an enhanced sensitivity to hypoxia stress, with lowered survival and more severe inhibition of root and shoot growth. By using yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) translational fusions, CML38 protein was found to be localized to cytosolic granule structures similar in morphology to hypoxia-induced stress granules. Immunoprecipitation of CML38 from the roots of hypoxia-challenged transgenic plants harboring CML38pro::CML38:YFP followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of protein targets associated with messenger RNA ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) complexes including stress granules, which are known to accumulate as messenger RNA storage and triage centers during hypoxia. This finding is further supported by the colocalization of CML38 with the mRNP stress granule marker RNA Binding Protein 47 (RBP47) upon cotransfection of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Ruthenium Red treatment results in the loss of CML38 signal in cytosolic granules, suggesting that calcium is necessary for stress granule association. These results confirm that CML38 is a core hypoxia response calcium sensor protein and suggest that it serves as a potential calcium signaling target within stress granules and other mRNPs that accumulate during flooding stress responses. PMID:26634999

  20. Augmentation of aerobic respiration and mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle by hypoxia preconditioning with cobalt chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, Saurabh; Shukla, Dhananjay; Bansal, Anju

    2012-11-01

    High altitude/hypoxia training is known to improve physical performance in athletes. Hypoxia induces hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and its downstream genes that facilitate hypoxia adaptation in muscle to increase physical performance. Cobalt chloride (CoCl{sub 2}), a hypoxia mimetic, stabilizes HIF-1, which otherwise is degraded in normoxic conditions. We studied the effects of hypoxia preconditioning by CoCl{sub 2} supplementation on physical performance, glucose metabolism, and mitochondrial biogenesis using rodent model. The results showed significant increase in physical performance in cobalt supplemented rats without (two times) or with training (3.3 times) as compared to control animals. CoCl{sub 2} supplementation in rats augmented the biological activities of enzymes of TCA cycle, glycolysis and cytochrome c oxidase (COX); and increased the expression of glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1) in muscle showing increased glucose metabolism by aerobic respiration. There was also an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle observed by increased mRNA expressions of mitochondrial biogenesis markers which was further confirmed by electron microscopy. Moreover, nitric oxide production increased in skeletal muscle in cobalt supplemented rats, which seems to be the major reason for peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) induction and mitochondrial biogenesis. Thus, in conclusion, we state that hypoxia preconditioning by CoCl{sub 2} supplementation in rats increases mitochondrial biogenesis, glucose uptake and metabolism by aerobic respiration in skeletal muscle, which leads to increased physical performance. The significance of this study lies in understanding the molecular mechanism of hypoxia adaptation and improvement of work performance in normal as well as extreme conditions like hypoxia via hypoxia preconditioning. -- Highlights: ► We supplemented rats with CoCl{sub 2} for 15 days along with training. ► Co

  1. Twin Resemblance in Muscle HIF-1α Responses to Hypoxia and Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Van Thienen, Ruud; Masschelein, Evi; D'Hulst, Gommaar; Thomis, Martine; Hespel, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a master regulator of myocellular adaptation to exercise and hypoxia. However, the role of genetic factors in regulation of HIF-1 responses to exercise and hypoxia is unknown. We hypothesized that hypoxia at rest and during exercise stimulates the HIF-1 pathway and its downstream targets in energy metabolism regulation in a genotype-dependent manner. Eleven monozygotic twin (MZ) pairs performed an experimental trial in both normoxia and hypoxia (FiO2 10.7%). Biopsies were taken from m. vastus lateralis before and after a 20-min submaximal cycling bout @~30% of sea-level VO2max. Key-markers of the HIF-1 pathway and glycolytic and oxidative metabolism were analyzed using real-time PCR and Western Blot. Hypoxia increased HIF-1α protein expression by ~120% at rest vs. +150% during exercise (p < 0.05). Furthermore, hypoxia but not exercise increased muscle mRNA content of HIF-1α (+50%), PHD2 (+45%), pVHL (+45%; p < 0.05), PDK4 (+1200%), as well as PFK-M (+20%) and PPAR-γ1 (+60%; p < 0.05). Neither hypoxia nor exercise altered PHD1, LDH-A, PDH-A1, COX-4, and CS mRNA expressions. The hypoxic, but not normoxic exercise-induced increment of muscle HIF-1α mRNA content was about 10-fold more similar within MZ twins than between the twins (p < 0.05). Furthermore, in resting muscle the hypoxia-induced increments of muscle HIF-1α protein content, and HIF-1α and PDK4 mRNA content were about 3–4-fold more homogeneous within than between the twins pairs (p < 0.05). The present observations in monozygotic twins for the first time clearly indicate that the HIF-1α protein as well as mRNA responses to submaximal exercise in acute hypoxia are at least partly regulated by genetic factors. PMID:28149279

  2. Superoxide radical production in response to environmental hypoxia in cultured shrimp.

    PubMed

    Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Saldierna, Ricardo; Ahuejote-Sandoval, Mauricio

    2006-01-01

    Markers of oxidative stress in response to hypoxia and reoxygenation were assessed in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Adult shrimp were either exposed to hypoxia (1 mg O(2)/L) for 6, 12, or 24 h followed by 1-h reoxygenation, or exposed to hypoxia for 24 h followed by 1- to 6-h reoxygenation. In all cases, shrimp maintained at constant normoxia were used as controls. Spectrophotometric techniques were applied to analyze lactate concentration, superoxide radical (O(2)(*-)) production, lipid peroxidation (TBARS), and antioxidant capacity status in muscle, hepatopancreas, and gill samples. Results indicate differences among tissues, even under control conditions. O(2)(*-) production and TBARS levels were higher in hepatopancreas than in gill or muscle. No effect of exposure to hypoxia was found. However, reoxygenation following exposure to hypoxia was found to affect the oxidative metabolism of muscle and hepatopancreas from cultured shrimp. Lactate concentration and O(2)(*-) production increased while antioxidant capacity decreased in hepatopancreas and muscle in the first hours of reoxygenation. This could translate into tissue damage, which may significantly jeopardize the commercial aquaculture product.

  3. Hypoxia-induced gene expression results from selective mRNA partitioning to the endoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Staudacher, Jonas J.; Naarmann-de Vries, Isabel S.; Ujvari, Stefanie J.; Klinger, Bertram; Kasim, Mumtaz; Benko, Edgar; Ostareck-Lederer, Antje; Ostareck, Dirk H.; Bondke Persson, Anja; Lorenzen, Stephan; Meier, Jochen C.; Blüthgen, Nils; Persson, Pontus B.; Henrion-Caude, Alexandra; Mrowka, Ralf; Fähling, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Protein synthesis is a primary energy-consuming process in the cell. Therefore, under hypoxic conditions, rapid inhibition of global mRNA translation represents a major protective strategy to maintain energy metabolism. How some mRNAs, especially those that encode crucial survival factors, continue to be efficiently translated in hypoxia is not completely understood. By comparing specific transcript levels in ribonucleoprotein complexes, cytoplasmic polysomes and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-bound ribosomes, we show that the synthesis of proteins encoded by hypoxia marker genes is favoured at the ER in hypoxia. Gene expression profiling revealed that transcripts particularly increased by the HIF-1 transcription factor network show hypoxia-induced enrichment at the ER. We found that mRNAs favourably translated at the ER have higher conservation scores for both the 5′- and 3′-untranslated regions (UTRs) and contain less upstream initiation codons (uAUGs), indicating the significance of these sequence elements for sustained mRNA translation under hypoxic conditions. Furthermore, we found enrichment of specific cis-elements in mRNA 5′- as well as 3′-UTRs that mediate transcript localization to the ER in hypoxia. We conclude that transcriptome partitioning between the cytoplasm and the ER permits selective mRNA translation under conditions of energy shortage. PMID:25753659

  4. Biliverdin Reductase Mediates Hypoxia-Induced EMT via PI3-Kinase and Akt

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Rui; Yao, Ying; Han, Min; Zhao, Xiaoqin; Liu, Xiao-Cheng; Wei, Juncheng; Luo, Yun; Zhang, Juan; Zhou, Jianfeng; Wang, Shixuan; Ma, Ding; Xu, Gang

    2008-01-01

    Chronic hypoxia in the renal parenchyma is thought to induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), leading to fibrogenesis and ultimately end-stage renal failure. Biliverdin reductase, recently identified as a serine/threonine/tyrosine kinase that may activate phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt, is upregulated in response to reactive oxygen species that may accompany hypoxia. We investigated this potential role of biliverdin reductase in hypoxia-induced renal tubular EMT. Expression of biliverdin reductase was upregulated in a human proximal tubule cell line (HK-2) cultured in hypoxic conditions (1% O2), and this was accompanied by reduced expression of E-cadherin and increased expression of the mesenchymal marker vimentin. Inhibiting PI3K reversed these changes, consistent with EMT. In normoxic conditions, overexpression of biliverdin reductase promoted similar characteristics of EMT, which were also reversed by inhibiting PI3K. Furthermore, using small interfering RNA (siRNA) to knockdown biliverdin reductase, we demonstrated that the enzyme associates with phosphorylated Akt and mediates the hypoxia-induced EMT phenotype. In vivo, expression of biliverdin reductase increased in the tubular epithelia of 5/6-nephrectomized rats, and immunohistochemistry of serial sections demonstrated similar localization of phosphorylated Akt and biliverdin reductase. In conclusion, biliverdin reductase mediates hypoxia-induced EMT through a PI3K/Akt-dependent pathway. PMID:18184861

  5. Evaluation of the combination of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography with sweeping and cation selective exhaustive injection for the determination of 5-nitroimidazoles in egg samples.

    PubMed

    Airado-Rodríguez, Diego; Hernández-Mesa, Maykel; García-Campaña, Ana M; Cruces-Blanco, Carmen

    2016-12-15

    A methodology is presented for the sensitive determination of nitromidazole residues in egg by means of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography in combination with cation selective exhaustive injection and ultraviolet detection. Six compounds have been considered and the separation has been achieved in less than 12min in a 61.5-cm effective length capillary with 50-μm internal diameter. Phosphate buffer 44mM pH 2.5, containing 8% tetrahydrofurane and 123mM sodium dodecyl sulfate was employed as running buffer. Solid phase extraction has been employed for sample clean-up. The methodology has been successfully validated in hen eggs, obtaining method detection limits in the range of 2.1-5.0ng/g. Precision was studied in terms of repeatability and intermediate precision, with relative standard deviations lower than 18.0%. Recoveries were calculated in quail eggs and a commercial pasteurized egg white product, reaching over 70% for most of the considered 5-nitroimidazoles.

  6. Analysis of four 5-nitroimidazoles and their corresponding hydroxylated metabolites in egg, processed egg, and chicken meat by isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mottier, Pascal; Huré, Isabelle; Gremaud, Eric; Guy, Philippe A

    2006-03-22

    An isotope dilution liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method is presented for the simultaneous analysis of several 5-nitroimidazole-based veterinary drugs, which are dimetridazole (DMZ), ronidazole (RNZ), metronidazole (MNZ), ipronidazole (IPZ), and their hydroxylated metabolites (DMZOH, MNZOH, and IPZOH), in egg (fresh egg, whole egg powder, and egg yolk powder) and chicken meat. Data acquisition was achieved by applying multiple reaction monitoring, and quantitation was performed by means of five deuterated internal standards (ISs), namely, DMZ-d3, RNZ-d3, IPZ-d3, DMZOH-d3, and IPZOH-d3, whereas MNZ and MNZOH were quantitated using DMZOH-d3. At the lowest fortification levels (i.e., 0.5 microg/kg for fresh egg and chicken meat and 1.0 microg/kg for other egg-based matrices) and for compounds having their own corresponding deuterated analogue used as an IS, acceptable performance data were obtained (corrected recoveries, 88-111%; decision limits, 0.07-0.36 microg/kg; detection capabilities, 0.11-0.60 microg/kg; and within-lab precision, < or = 15%). The method failed to give acceptable quantitative results for MNZ and MNZOH due to the unavailability of the corresponding deuterated ISs. Nevertheless, a reliable identification of these two analytes at levels < or = 1 microg/kg was still feasible.

  7. DYT-40, a novel synthetic 2-styryl-5-nitroimidazole derivative, blocks malignant glioblastoma growth and invasion by inhibiting AEG-1 and NF-κB signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Meijuan; Duan, Yongtao; Wang, Pengfei; Gao, Rui; Chen, Xuguan; Ou, Yingwei; Liang, Mingxing; Wang, Zhongchang; Yuan, Yi; Wang, Li; Zhu, Hailiang

    2016-01-01

    Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) has been explored as a novel target for human glioma therapy, thus reflecting its potential contribution to gliomagenesis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of DYT-40, a novel synthetic 2-styryl-5-nitroimidazole derivative, on cell growth and invasion in glioblastoma (GBM) and uncovered the underlying mechanisms of this molecule. DYT-40 induces the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis and inhibits the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion of GBM cell lines. Furthermore, DYT-40 deactivates PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathways, suppresses AEG-1 expression, and inhibits NF-κB nuclear translocation. DYT-40 reduced the tumor volumes in a rat C6 glioma model by apoptotic induction. Moreover, HE staining demonstrated that the glioma rat model treated with DYT-40 exhibited better defined tumor margins and fewer invasive cells to the contralateral striatum compared with the vehicle control and temozolomide-treated rats. Microscopic examination showed a decrease in AEG-1-positive cells in DYT-40-treated rats compared with the untreated controls. DYT-40-treatment increases the in vivo apoptotic response of glioma cells to DYT-40 treatment by TUNEL staining. In conclusion, the inhibitory effects of DYT-40 on growth and invasion in GBM suggest that DYT-40 might be a potential AEG-1 inhibitor to prevent the growth and motility of malignant glioma. PMID:27251589

  8. No effect of isolated long-term supine immobilization or profound prolonged hypoxia on blood coagulation.

    PubMed

    Venemans-Jellema, A; Schreijer, A J M; Le Cessie, S; Emmerich, J; Rosendaal, F R; Cannegieter, S C

    2014-06-01

    Long-distance air travel is associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis. The most obvious factor that can explain air travel-related thrombosis is prolonged seated immobilization. In addition, hypobaric hypoxia has been shown to affect coagulation, and the lowered atmospheric pressures present in the cabin during the flight may therefore play an etiologic role. Because immobilization and hypoxic conditions are usually present simultaneously in airplanes or hypobaric chambers, their separate effects on the coagulation system or on thrombosis risk have not been studied extensively. To investigate the separate effects of long-term immobilization and profound prolonged hypoxia on blood coagulation. We performed two studies in collaboration with European Space Agency/European Space Research and Technology Centre. In the first study, 24 healthy, non-smoking, adult women underwent 60 days of -6° head-down bed rest. In the second study, we took blood samples from 25 healthy men who participated during their stay in the Concordia station in Antarctica, where, due to the atmospheric conditions, continuous severe hypobaric hypoxia is present. In both studies, we measured markers of blood coagulation at baseline and at several time points during the exposures. We observed no increase in coagulation markers during immobilization or in the hypobaric environment, compared with baseline measurements. Our results indicate that neither immobilization nor hypoxia per se affects blood coagulation. These results implicate that a combination of risk factors is necessary to induce the coagulation system during air travel. © 2014 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  9. Thresholds of hypoxia for marine biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Vaquer-Sunyer, Raquel; Duarte, Carlos M

    2008-10-07

    Hypoxia is a mounting problem affecting the world's coastal waters, with severe consequences for marine life, including death and catastrophic changes. Hypoxia is forecast to increase owing to the combined effects of the continued spread of coastal eutrophication and global warming. A broad comparative analysis across a range of contrasting marine benthic organisms showed that hypoxia thresholds vary greatly across marine benthic organisms and that the conventional definition of 2 mg O(2)/liter to designate waters as hypoxic is below the empirical sublethal and lethal O(2) thresholds for half of the species tested. These results imply that the number and area of coastal ecosystems affected by hypoxia and the future extent of hypoxia impacts on marine life have been generally underestimated.

  10. Induction by hypoxia combined with low glucose or low bicarbonate and high posttranslational stability upon reoxygenation contribute to carbonic anhydrase IX expression in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Rafajová, Monika; Zatovicová, Miriam; Kettmann, Richard; Pastorek, Jaromír; Pastoreková, Silvia

    2004-04-01

    Hypoxia is an important factor of tumor microenvironment that significantly influences behaviour of tumor cells via activation of genes whose products are involved in adaptation to hypoxic stress, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and glucose transporter (GLUT-1). Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is one of the most strongly hypoxia-inducible proteins with potential value as an intrinsic marker of hypoxia. However, intratumoral distribution of CA IX only partially overlaps with distribution of VEGF and GLUT-1 indicating that regulation of CA IX differs from the regulation of other hypoxic markers. Therefore, we analysed CA IX expression in response to hypoxia combined with other stresses, and determined the stability of CA IX protein upon reoxygenation using HeLa cells as a model. We found that both hypoxia-induced transcription and CA IX protein level are further increased by reduced glucose or bicarbonate concentrations. Post-translational stability of CA IX was assessed by monitoring the quantity of biotinylated protein extracted at different time points from the cells labelled immediately after shift to reoxygenation. CA IX protein half-life in reoxygenated cells was 38 h and was independent of the duration of the foregoing hypoxia. This finding has potential implications for interpretation of clinical data as it suggests that CA IX expression may detect not only actually hypoxic tumor regions, but also the regions affected by hypoxia and adverse microenvironmental stresses before biopsy or tumor removal.

  11. Hypoxia and tissue destruction in pulmonary TB

    PubMed Central

    Belton, Moerida; Brilha, Sara; Manavaki, Roido; Mauri, Francesco; Nijran, Kuldip; Hong, Young T; Patel, Neva H; Dembek, Marcin; Tezera, Liku; Green, Justin; Moores, Rachel; Aigbirhio, Franklin; Al-Nahhas, Adil; Fryer, Tim D; Elkington, Paul T; Friedland, Jon S

    2016-01-01

    Background It is unknown whether lesions in human TB are hypoxic or whether this influences disease pathology. Human TB is characterised by extensive lung destruction driven by host matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), particularly collagenases such as matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1). Methods We investigated tissue hypoxia in five patients with PET imaging using the tracer [18F]-fluoromisonidazole ([18F]FMISO) and by immunohistochemistry. We studied the regulation of MMP secretion in primary human cell culture model systems in normoxia, hypoxia, chemical hypoxia and by small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibition. Results [18F]FMISO accumulated in regions of TB consolidation and around pulmonary cavities, demonstrating for the first time severe tissue hypoxia in man. Patlak analysis of dynamic PET data showed heterogeneous levels of hypoxia within and between patients. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb)-infected human macrophages, hypoxia (1% pO2) upregulated MMP-1 gene expression 170-fold, driving secretion and caseinolytic activity. Dimethyloxalyl glycine (DMOG), a small molecule inhibitor which stabilises the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, similarly upregulated MMP-1. Hypoxia did not affect mycobacterial replication. Hypoxia increased MMP-1 expression in primary respiratory epithelial cells via intercellular networks regulated by TB. HIF-1α and NF-κB regulated increased MMP-1 activity in hypoxia. Furthermore, M.tb infection drove HIF-1α accumulation even in normoxia. In human TB lung biopsies, epithelioid macrophages and multinucleate giant cells express HIF-1α. HIF-1α blockade, including by targeted siRNA, inhibited TB-driven MMP-1 gene expression and secretion. Conclusions Human TB lesions are severely hypoxic and M.tb drives HIF-1α accumulation, synergistically increasing collagenase activity which will lead to lung destruction and cavitation. PMID:27245780

  12. Grave Markers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMuro, Ted

    1985-01-01

    Junior high school students studied the cultural uses, symbolic meanings, and general physical forms of tombs and tombstones and then used basic slab building techniques to construct large clay grave markers. (RM)

  13. Bone Markers

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the amino terminal end of the protein matrix; another marker used to monitor therapy. Deoxypyridinoline (DPD) – a collagen breakdown product with a ring structure. Pyridinium Crosslinks – a group of collagen breakdown products ...

  14. Impaired acclimatization to chronic hypoxia in adult male and female rats following neonatal hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Lumbroso, Delphine; Joseph, Vincent

    2009-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that neonatal exposure to hypoxia alters acclimatization to chronic hypoxia later in life. Rat pups were exposed to normobaric hypoxia (12% O(2); nHx group) in a sealed chamber, or to normoxia (21% O(2); nNx group) from the day before birth to postnatal day 10. The animals were then raised in normal conditions until reaching 12 wk of age. At this age, we assessed ventilatory and hematological acclimatization to chronic hypoxia by exposing male and female nHx and nNx rats for 2 wk to 10% O(2). Minute ventilation, metabolic rate, hypoxic ventilatory response, hematocrit, and hemoglobin levels were measured both before and after acclimatization. We also quantified right ventricular hypertrophy as an index of pulmonary hypertension both before and after acclimatization. There was a significant effect of neonatal hypoxia that decreases ventilatory response (relative to metabolic rate, VE/VCO(2)) to acute hypoxia before acclimatization in males but not in females. nHx rats had an impaired acclimatization to chronic hypoxia characterized by altered respiratory pattern and elevated hematocrit and hemoglobin levels after acclimatization, in both males and females. Right ventricular hypertrophy was present before and after acclimatization in nHx rats, indicating that neonatal hypoxia results in pulmonary hypertension in adults. We conclude that neonatal hypoxia impairs acclimatization to chronic hypoxia in adults and may be a factor contributing to the establishment of chronic mountain sickness in humans living at high altitude.

  15. Calpain protease causes hypoxia-induced proteolysis in cultured human retina.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Mitsuyoshi; Hammond, Katherine B; Nakajima, Emi; Shearer, Thomas R

    2014-04-01

    Calpain proteases are known to be involved in retinal cell death in animal models. The purpose of the present study was to test for calpain activation in human retinas cultured under hypoxic conditions. Calpain activation was detected by immunoblotting for calpain substrates in human and monkey retinas cultured in gas generating pouches to reduce oxygen. Hypoxia caused activation of calpains as measured by accumulation of the calpain-specific 145 kDa α-spectrin breakdown product. Opsin-1 (photoreceptor marker) and vimentin (Müller cell marker) were degraded. Calpain inhibitor SNJ-1945 ameliorated these changes. Results were similar to comparative data from cultured monkey retinas. In cultured human retina, hypoxia caused activation of calpain and subsequent proteolysis of critical substrates. The efficacy of SNJ-1945 in ameliorating these changes indicated that it might be useful to test as a drug for protecting against pathologic proteolysis of photoreceptor and Müller cells.

  16. Cancer cell-associated cytoplasmic B7–H4 is induced by hypoxia through hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and promotes cancer cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Jeon, You-Kyoung; Park, Sae-Gwang; Choi, Il-Whan; Lee, Soo-Woong; Lee, Sang Min

    2015-04-03

    Aberrant B7–H4 expression in cancer tissues serves as a novel prognostic biomarker for poor survival in patients with cancer. However, the factor(s) that induce cancer cell-associated B7–H4 remain to be fully elucidated. We herein demonstrate that hypoxia upregulates B7–H4 transcription in primary CD138{sup +} multiple myeloma cells and cancer cell lines. In support of this finding, analysis of the Multiple Myeloma Genomics Portal (MMGP) data set revealed a positive correlation between the mRNA expression levels of B7–H4 and the endogenous hypoxia marker carbonic anhydrogenase 9. Hypoxia-induced B7–H4 expression was detected in the cytoplasm, but not in cancer cell membranes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated binding of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) to proximal hypoxia-response element (HRE) sites within the B7–H4 promoter. Knockdown of HIF-1α and pharmacological inhibition of HIF-1α diminished B7–H4 expression. Furthermore, knockdown of cytoplasmic B7–H4 in MCF-7 decreased the S-phase cell population under hypoxia. Finally, MMGP analysis revealed a positive correlation between the transcript levels of B7–H4 and proliferation-related genes including MKI67, CCNA1, and Myc in several patients with multiple myeloma. Our results provide insight into the mechanisms underlying B7–H4 upregulation and its role in cancer cell proliferation in a hypoxic tumor microenvironment. - Highlights: • Hypoxia upregulates B7–H4 transcription and protein expression. • Hypoxia-induced B7–H4 is detected in the cytoplasm, but not on membrane. • ChIP assay reveals a binding of HIF-1α to B7–H4 promoter at HRE site. • Knockdown and pharmacological inhibition of HIF-1α reduce B7–H4 expression. • B7–H4 knockdown decrease the number of cells in S-phase of cell cycle.

  17. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF A NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO ESTUARY TO HYPOXIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bottom water hypoxia is a common adverse consequence of nutrient enrichment in estuaries and coastal waters. To protect against hypoxia, it is helpful to know which waters are most susceptible to hypoxia. Hypoxia has been observed regularly in Pensacola Bay, a northeastern Gulf o...

  18. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF A NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO ESTUARY TO HYPOXIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bottom water hypoxia is a common adverse consequence of nutrient enrichment in estuaries and coastal waters. To protect against hypoxia, it is helpful to know which waters are most susceptible to hypoxia. Hypoxia has been observed regularly in Pensacola Bay, a northeastern Gulf o...

  19. Hypoxia and metabolic adaptation of cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Eales, K L; Hollinshead, K E R; Tennant, D A

    2016-01-01

    Low oxygen tension (hypoxia) is a pervasive physiological and pathophysiological stimulus that metazoan organisms have contended with since they evolved from their single-celled ancestors. The effect of hypoxia on a tissue can be either positive or negative, depending on the severity, duration and context. Over the long-term, hypoxia is not usually consistent with normal function and so multicellular organisms have had to evolve both systemic and cellular responses to hypoxia. Our reliance on oxygen for efficient adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation has meant that the cellular metabolic network is particularly sensitive to alterations in oxygen tension. Metabolic changes in response to hypoxia are elicited through both direct mechanisms, such as the reduction in ATP generation by oxidative phosphorylation or inhibition of fatty-acid desaturation, and indirect mechanisms including changes in isozyme expression through hypoxia-responsive transcription factor activity. Significant regions of cancers often grow in hypoxic conditions owing to the lack of a functional vasculature. As hypoxic tumour areas contain some of the most malignant cells, it is important that we understand the role metabolism has in keeping these cells alive. This review will outline our current understanding of many of the hypoxia-induced changes in cancer cell metabolism, how they are affected by other genetic defects often present in cancers, and how these metabolic alterations support the malignant hypoxic phenotype. PMID:26807645

  20. Nocturnal Hypoxia and Loss of Kidney Function

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Sofia B.; Ronksley, Paul E.; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.; Tsai, Willis H.; Manns, Braden J.; Tonelli, Marcello; Klarenbach, Scott W.; Chin, Rick; Clement, Fiona M.; Hanly, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is more common in patients with kidney disease, whether nocturnal hypoxia affects kidney function is unknown. Methods We studied all adult subjects referred for diagnostic testing of sleep apnea between July 2005 and December 31 2007 who had serial measurement of their kidney function. Nocturnal hypoxia was defined as oxygen saturation (SaO2) below 90% for ≥12% of the nocturnal monitoring time. The primary outcome, accelerated loss of kidney function, was defined as a decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥4 ml/min/1.73 m2 per year. Results 858 participants were included and followed for a mean study period of 2.1 years. Overall 374 (44%) had nocturnal hypoxia, and 49 (5.7%) had accelerated loss of kidney function. Compared to controls without hypoxia, patients with nocturnal hypoxia had a significant increase in the adjusted risk of accelerated kidney function loss (odds ratio (OR) 2.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.25, 6.67). Conclusion Nocturnal hypoxia was independently associated with an increased risk of accelerated kidney function loss. Further studies are required to determine whether treatment and correction of nocturnal hypoxia reduces loss of kidney function. PMID:21559506

  1. The impact of hypoxia in pancreatic cancer invasion and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Angela; Díaz, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    Intratumoral hypoxia is a common feature of solid tumors. Recent advances in cancer biology indicate that hypoxia is not only a consequence of unrestrained tumor growth, but also plays an active role in promoting tumor progression, malignancy, and resistance to therapy. Hypoxia signaling is mediated by the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), which are not only stabilized under hypoxia, but also by activated oncogenes or inactivated tumor suppressors under normoxia. Hypoxia is a prominent feature of the tumor microenvironment of pancreatic tumors, also characterized by the presence of a fibrotic reaction that promotes, and is also modulated by, hypoxia. As the mechanisms by which hypoxia signaling impacts invasion and metastasis in pancreatic cancer are being elucidated, hypoxia is emerging as a key determinant of pancreatic cancer malignancy as well as an important target for therapy. Herein we present an overview of recent advances in the understanding of the impact that hypoxia has in pancreatic cancer invasion and metastasis. PMID:27774469

  2. Hypoxia alters gene expression in human neuroblastoma cells toward an immature and neural crest-like phenotype.

    PubMed

    Jögi, Annika; Øra, Ingrid; Nilsson, Helén; Lindeheim, Asa; Makino, Yuichi; Poellinger, Lorenz; Axelson, Håkan; Påhlman, Sven

    2002-05-14

    Insufficient oxygen and nutrient supply often restrain solid tumor growth, and the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF) 1 alpha and HIF-2 alpha are key transcription regulators of phenotypic adaptation to low oxygen levels. Moreover, mouse gene disruption studies have implicated HIF-2 alpha in embryonic regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase, a hallmark gene of the sympathetic nervous system. Neuroblastoma tumors originate from immature sympathetic cells, and therefore we investigated the effect of hypoxia on the differentiation status of human neuroblastoma cells. Hypoxia stabilized HIF-1 alpha and HIF-2 alpha proteins and activated the expression of known hypoxia-induced genes, such as vascular endothelial growth factor and tyrosine hydroxylase. These changes in gene expression also occurred in hypoxic regions of experimental neuroblastoma xenografts grown in mice. In contrast, hypoxia decreased the expression of several neuronal/neuroendocrine marker genes but induced genes expressed in neural crest sympathetic progenitors, for instance c-kit and Notch-1. Thus, hypoxia apparently causes dedifferentiation both in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest a novel mechanism for selection of highly malignant tumor cells with stem-cell characteristics.

  3. Hypoxia alters gene expression in human neuroblastoma cells toward an immature and neural crest-like phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Jögi, Annika; Øra, Ingrid; Nilsson, Helén; Lindeheim, Åsa; Makino, Yuichi; Poellinger, Lorenz; Axelson, Håkan; Påhlman, Sven

    2002-01-01

    Insufficient oxygen and nutrient supply often restrain solid tumor growth, and the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF) 1α and HIF-2α are key transcription regulators of phenotypic adaptation to low oxygen levels. Moreover, mouse gene disruption studies have implicated HIF-2α in embryonic regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase, a hallmark gene of the sympathetic nervous system. Neuroblastoma tumors originate from immature sympathetic cells, and therefore we investigated the effect of hypoxia on the differentiation status of human neuroblastoma cells. Hypoxia stabilized HIF-1α and HIF-2α proteins and activated the expression of known hypoxia-induced genes, such as vascular endothelial growth factor and tyrosine hydroxylase. These changes in gene expression also occurred in hypoxic regions of experimental neuroblastoma xenografts grown in mice. In contrast, hypoxia decreased the expression of several neuronal/neuroendocrine marker genes but induced genes expressed in neural crest sympathetic progenitors, for instance c-kit and Notch-1. Thus, hypoxia apparently causes dedifferentiation both in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest a novel mechanism for selection of highly malignant tumor cells with stem-cell characteristics. PMID:12011461

  4. Influence of hypoxia on the stemness of umbilical cord matrix-derived mesenchymal stem cells cultured on chitosan films.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Takashi; Cho, Jane Y; Hao, Jijun; Nout-Lomas, Yvette S; Kang, Kyung-Sun; Griffon, Dominique J

    2017-02-11

    Chitosan is attractive as a substrate for stem cell expansion because it improves stemness through formation of spheroids. Hypoxia has also been proposed as a strategy to enhance stemness and survival of stem cells after in vivo implantation. This study was therefore designed to evaluate the influence of hypoxia on chitosan-induced behavior of stem cells. Umbilical cord matrix-derived stem cells were cultured on chitosan film or standard plate under normoxia and hypoxia, for 3 and 7 days. Based on immunophenotyping, chitosan strongly suppresses the expression of CD90 and CD105 cell surface markers, changes partially reversed by combined exposure to hypoxia. Hypoxia generally increased the volume and number of spheroids formed on chitosan, but the cellularity of cultures on chitosan films remained lower than that of standard plates. After 7 days of culture, the expression of stemness related genes (Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog) was best stimulated by combined exposure to chitosan and hypoxia. Based on our results, conditioning stem cells for 7 days on chitosan films under hypoxic conditions is recommended to enhance the stemness of stem cells, and minimize cell loss due to lack of attachment on chitosan. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Wheatgrass extract inhibits hypoxia-inducible factor-1-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition in A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    Do, Nam Yong; Shin, Hyun-Jae

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved in not only cancer development and metastasis but also non-cancerous conditions. Hypoxia is one of the proposed critical factors contributing to formation of chronic rhinosinusitis or nasal polyposis. Wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum) has antioxidant, anti-aging, and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we analyzed whether wheatgrass has an inhibitory effect on the EMT process in airway epithelial cells. MATERIALS/METHODS A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells were incubated in hypoxic conditions (CO2 5%/O2 1%) for 24 h in the presence of different concentrations of wheatgrass extract (50, 75, 100, and 150 µg/mL) and changes in expression of epithelial or mesenchymal markers were evaluated by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence. Accordingly, associated EMT-related transcriptional factors, Snail and Smad, were also evaluated. RESULTS Hypoxia increased expression of N-cadherin and reduced expression of E-cadherin. Mechanistically, E-cadherin levels were recovered during hypoxia by silencing hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α or administering wheatgrass extract. Wheatgrass inhibited the hypoxia-mediated EMT by reducing the expression of phosphorylated Smad3 (pSmad3) and Snail. It suppressed the hypoxia-mediated EMT processes of airway epithelial cells via HIF-1α and the pSmad3 signaling pathway. CONCLUSION These results suggest that wheatgrass has potential as a therapeutic or supplementary agent for HIF-1-related diseases. PMID:28386380

  6. Targeting hypoxia in the leukemia microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Benito, Juliana; Zeng, Zhihong; Konopleva, Marina; Wilson, William R

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The bone marrow (BM) microenvironment regulates survival and maintenance of normal hematopoietic stem cells. Within the endosteal niche, hypoxia has an essential role in maintenance of the primitive quiescent hematopoietic stem cell. We and others have demonstrated that in the context of hematologic malignancies the BM is highly hypoxic, and that progression of the disease is associated with expansion of hypoxic niches and stabilization of the oncogenic HIF-1α. This review will provide an overview of the normal and leukemic BM microenvironment with a special emphasis on pathological hypoxia including the development of hypoxia-activated prodrugs and their applicability in hematological malignancies. PMID:24490034

  7. Hypoxia-induced increases in serotonin-immunoreactive nerve fibers in the medulla oblongata of the rat.

    PubMed

    Morinaga, Ryosuke; Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Yamamoto, Yoshio

    2016-10-01

    Hypoxia induces respiratory responses in mammals and serotonergic neurons in the medulla oblongata participate in respiratory control. However, the morphological changes in serotonergic neurons induced by hypoxia have not yet been examined and respiratory controls of serotonergic neurons have not been clarified. We herein investigated the distribution of immunoreactivity for serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) in the medulla oblongata of control rats and rats exposed to 1-6h of hypoxia (10% O2). We also examined the medulla oblongata by multiple immunofluorescence labeling for 5-HT, neurokinin 1 receptors (NK1R), a marker for some respiratory neurons in the pre-Bötzinger complex (PBC), and dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH), a marker for catecholaminergic neurons. The number of 5-HT-immunoreactive nerve cell bodies in the raphe nuclei was higher in rats exposed to hypoxia than in control rats. The number of 5-HT-immunoreactive nerve fibers significantly increased in the rostral ventrolateral medulla of rats exposed to 1-6h of hypoxia, caudal ventrolateral medulla of rats exposed to 2-6h of hypoxia, and lateral part of the nucleus of the solitary tract and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve of rats exposed to 1-2h of hypoxia. Multiple immunofluorescence labeling showed that 5-HT-immunoreactive nerve fibers were close to NK1R-immunoreactive neurons in ventrolateral medulla and to DBH-immunoreactive neurons in the medulla. These results suggest that serotonergic neurons partly regulate respiratory control under hypoxic conditions by modulating the activity of NK1R-expressing and catecholaminergic neurons.

  8. Chemically induced hypoxia promotes differential outcomes over preadipocyte- or adipocyte-macrophage communication.

    PubMed

    Avila-George, K; Ramos-Olivares, K; Vasquez-Munoz, K; Villanueva-Morales, V; Reyes-Farias, M; Quintero, P; Garcia, L; Garcia-Diaz, D F

    2017-07-01

    Expansion of white adipose tissue induce insufficient vascularization, driving hypoxia and low-grade inflammation. Resident preadipocytes are thought to be involved. We evaluated the effects of hypoxia over preadipocytes and adipocytes, to determine which cellular type impacts the most over macrophages activation. 3T3-L1 cells were either differentiated, or maintained undifferentiated. Each group was subjected to the presence or absence of chemical hypoxia (200 μM CoCl2) for 24 h. Conditioned media were used as treatment for murine RAW264.7 macrophages for 24 h. Gene expression of HIF-1α and TNF-α, and the release of several markers were assessed. It was observed that culture media from hypoxic preadipocytes induced greater expression of inflammatory markers and NO release than culture media from hypoxic adipocytes, by macrophages. Gene expression correlated closer with inflammatory markers release specially on macrophages treated with conditioned media from preadipocytes. Hence, the present work highlights the importance of preadipocytes on inflammatory conditions in vitro.

  9. Sirtuin 6 Modulates Hypoxia-induced Apoptosis in Osteoblasts via Inhibition of Glycolysis: Implication for Pathogenesis of Periapical Lesions.

    PubMed

    Kok, Sang-Heng; Hou, Kuo-Liang; Hong, Chi-Yuan; Chao, Ling-Hsiu; Hsiang-Hua Lai, Eddie; Wang, Han-Wei; Yang, Hsiang; Shun, Chia-Tung; Wang, Juo-Song; Lin, Sze-Kwan

    2015-10-01

    Osteoblast apoptosis is important in the regulation of inflammatory bone resorption. Hypoxia resulting from inflammation enhances glycolysis and apoptosis. Sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) is a modulator of glucose metabolism and apoptosis. In the study we assessed the role of SIRT6 in hypoxia-induced glycolysis and apoptosis in osteoblasts, with special attention on the significance of these cellular processes in periapical lesions. Human bone marrow-derived osteoblasts were cultured under hypoxia. Expression of lactate dehydrogenase A was examined by Western blot, and production of lactate was measured by colorimetric assay. Cleavage of poly (adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase was used as an apoptosis marker and assessed by Western blot. SIRT6 was overexpressed in osteoblasts by lentiviral gene transduction, and then glycolytic and apoptotic responses were studied. In a rat model of bacteria-induced periapical lesions, expressions of SIRT6 and markers of glycolysis and apoptosis in osteoblasts were examined. Hypoxia enhanced lactate dehydrogenase A expression and lactate production in osteoblasts. Poly (adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase cleavage was induced by hypoxia or lactate treatment. SIRT6 suppressed hypoxia-augmented glycolysis and inhibited apoptosis induced by hypoxia or lactate treatment. Expression of SIRT6 in osteoblasts was downregulated by hypoxia and inflammatory mediators. Development of periapical lesions in rats was associated with decreased expression of SIRT6 and increased glycolysis and apoptosis in osteoblasts. Our study suggested that hypoxia-induced apoptosis of osteoblasts is dependent on glycolytic activity. SIRT6 is a negative regulator of inflammation and may alleviate periapical lesions by suppressing osteoblastic glycolysis and apoptosis. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The essential roles of CCR7 in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition induced by hypoxia in epithelial ovarian carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shaomei; Han, Lin; Guo, Jingyan; Yang, Qing; Zhou, Jianfang; Yang, Xiangshan

    2014-12-01

    The chemokine receptor CCR7 and its ligands CCL19/21 mediate the tumor mobility, invasion, and metastasis (Wu et al. Curr Pharm Des. 15:742-57, 2009). Hypoxia induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to facilitate the tumor biology. Here, we addressed the roles of CCR7 in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and hypoxia-induced serous papillary cystic adenocarcinoma (SKOV-3) EMT. The expression level of CCR7 protein was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 30 specimens of epithelial ovarian carcinomas. Western blot was used to investigate the expression of hypoxia-induced CCR7, HIF-1α, and EMT markers (N-cadherin, Snail, MMP-9). In addition, wound healing and Transwell assay were introduced to observe the capacity of migration and invasiveness. Our data showed CCR7 expression was observed in 22 cases of tissues and closely associated with lymph node metastasis and FIGO stage (III + IV). At 6, 12, 24, and 36 h following hypoxia, CCR7 and HIF-1α proteins were both obviously upregulated in a time-dependent method, compared with normal oxygen. In vitro, SKOV-3 expressed N-cadherin, Snail, and MMP-9 once either CCL21 stimulation or hypoxia induction, while hypoxia accompanied with CCL21 induction exhibited strongest upregulation of N-cadherin, Snail, and MMP-9 proteins. Besides, wound healing and Transwell assay further identified that hypoxia with CCL21 stimulation can remarkably promote cell migration and invasiveness. Taken together, CCR7 can constitutively express in epithelial ovarian carcinomas and be induced rapidly in response to hypoxia, which indeed participates in EMT development and prompts the cell migration and invasion. Thus, this study suggested that the epithelial ovarian cancer invasion and metastasis can be inhibited by antagonizing CCR7.

  11. Hypoxia Promotes Glycogen Accumulation through Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF)-Mediated Induction of Glycogen Synthase 1

    PubMed Central

    Pescador, Nuria; Garcia-Rocha, Mar; Ortiz-Barahona, Amaya; Vazquez, Silvia; Ordoñez, Angel; Cuevas, Yolanda; Saez-Morales, David; Garcia-Bermejo, Maria Laura; Landazuri, Manuel O.; Guinovart, Joan; del Peso, Luis

    2010-01-01

    When oxygen becomes limiting, cells reduce mitochondrial respiration and increase ATP production through anaerobic fermentation of glucose. The Hypoxia Inducible Factors (HIFs) play a key role in this metabolic shift by regulating the transcription of key enzymes of glucose metabolism. Here we show that oxygen regulates the expression of the muscle glycogen synthase (GYS1). Hypoxic GYS1 induction requires HIF activity and a Hypoxia Response Element within its promoter. GYS1 gene induction correlated with a significant increase in glycogen synthase activity and glycogen accumulation in cells exposed to hypoxia. Significantly, knockdown of either HIF1α or GYS1 attenuated hypoxia-induced glycogen accumulation, while GYS1 overexpression was sufficient to mimic this effect. Altogether, these results indicate that GYS1 regulation by HIF plays a central role in the hypoxic accumulation of glycogen. Importantly, we found that hypoxia also upregulates the expression of UTP:glucose-1-phosphate urydylyltransferase (UGP2) and 1,4-α glucan branching enzyme (GBE1), two enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of glycogen. Therefore, hypoxia regulates almost all the enzymes involved in glycogen metabolism in a coordinated fashion, leading to its accumulation. Finally, we demonstrated that abrogation of glycogen synthesis, by knock-down of GYS1 expression, impairs hypoxic preconditioning, suggesting a physiological role for the glycogen accumulated during chronic hypoxia. In summary, our results uncover a novel effect of hypoxia on glucose metabolism, further supporting the central importance of metabolic reprogramming in the cellular adaptation to hypoxia. PMID:20300197

  12. Hypoxia and hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs): master regulators of metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xin; Kang, Yibin

    2010-01-01

    Hypoxia is a common condition found in a wide range of solid tumors and is often associated with poor prognosis. Hypoxia increases tumor glycolysis, angiogenesis and other survival response as well as invasion and metastasis by activating relevant gene expressions through hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). HIF-1α and HIF-2α undergo oxygen-dependent regulation and their overexpression is frequently associated with metastasis and poor clinical outcomes. Recent studies show that each step of the metastasis process, from the initial epithelial-mesenchymal transition to the ultimate organotropic colonization, can potentially be regulated by hypoxia, suggesting a master regulator role of hypoxia and HIFs in metastasis. Furthermore, modulation of cancer stem cell self-renewal by HIFs may also contribute to the hypoxia-regulated metastasis program. Hypoxia-induced metastatic phenotype may be one of the reasons for the modest efficacy of antiangiogenic therapies and may well explain the recent provocative findings that antiangiogenic therapy increased metastasis in preclinical models. Multiple approaches to targeting hypoxia and HIFs, including HIF inhibitors, hypoxia-activated bioreductive prodrugs and gene therapies may become effective treatments to prevent or reduce metastasis. PMID:20962028

  13. Notch signaling modulates hypoxia-induced neuroendocrine differentiation of human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Danza, Giovanna; Di Serio, Claudia; Rosati, Fabiana; Lonetto, Giuseppe; Sturli, Niccolò; Kacer, Doreen; Pennella, Antonio; Ventimiglia, Giuseppina; Barucci, Riccardo; Piscazzi, Annamaria; Prudovsky, Igor; Landriscina, Matteo; Marchionni, Niccolò; Tarantini, Francesca

    2012-02-01

    Prostate carcinoma is among the most common causes of cancer-related death in men, representing 15% of all male malignancies in developed countries. Neuroendocrine differentiation (NED) has been associated with tumor progression, poor prognosis, and with the androgen-independent status. Currently, no successful therapy exists for advanced, castration-resistant disease. Because hypoxia has been linked to prostate cancer progression and unfavorable outcome, we sought to determine whether hypoxia would impact the degree of neuroendocrine differentiation of prostate cancer cells in vitro. Exposure of LNCaP cells to low oxygen tension induced a neuroendocrine phenotype, associated with an increased expression of the transcription factor neurogenin3 and neuroendocrine markers, such as neuron-specific enolase, chromogranin A, and β3-tubulin. Moreover, hypoxia triggered a significant decrease of Notch 1 and Notch 2 mRNA and protein expression, with subsequent downregulation of Notch-mediated signaling, as shown by reduced levels of the Notch target genes, Hes1 and Hey1. NED was promoted by attenuation of Hes1 transcription, as cells expressing a dominant-negative form of Hes1 displayed increased levels of neuroendocrine markers under normoxic conditions. Although hypoxia downregulated Notch 1 and Notch 2 mRNA transcription and receptor activation also in the androgen-independent cell lines, PC-3 and Du145, it did not change the extent of NED in these cultures, suggesting that androgen sensitivity may be required for transdifferentiation to occur. Hypoxia induces NED of LNCaP cells in vitro, which seems to be driven by the inhibition of Notch signaling with subsequent downregulation of Hes1 transcription. ©2011 AACR.

  14. Structural modifications of the prostate in hypoxia, oxidative stress, and chronic ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Thurmond, Portia; Yang, Jing-Hua; Li, Yedan; Lerner, Lori B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Clinical studies have reported a correlation between pelvic ischemia and voiding dysfunction in elderly men. The aim of this study was to identify and compare prostate structural modifications in cultured cells and in a rabbit model after exposure to hypoxia, oxidative stress, and chronic ischemia. Materials and Methods Cultured human prostate smooth muscle cells (SMCs), epithelial cells (ECs), and stromal cells (SCs) were incubated under normoxia, hypoxia, and oxidative stress conditions by use of a computerized oxycycler system. We developed a rabbit model of chronic prostate ischemia by creating aorto-iliac arterial atherosclerosis. Markers of oxidative stress were examined by using fluorometric analysis and enzyme immunoassay. Prostate structure was examined by using Masson's trichrome staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results Lipid peroxidation was found in SMCs exposed to hypoxia and in all cell types exposed to oxidative stress. We identified protein oxidation in ECs exposed to hypoxia and in all cell types exposed to oxidative stress. Markers indicating oxidative damage were present in chronically ischemic rabbit prostate tissue. These reactions were associated with DNA damage. Prostate ischemia resulted in epithelial atrophy, loss of smooth muscle, and diffuse fibrosis. TEM showed swollen mitochondria with degraded cristae, loss of membrane, loss of Golgi bodies, degenerated nerves, and disrupted cell-to-cell junctions. Conclusions Human prostate cells exhibited differential reactions to hypoxia and oxidative stress with widespread DNA damage. Structural modifications in ischemic prostate tissue were similar to those in cells exposed to oxidative stress. Structural changes due to ischemia and oxidative stress may contribute to prostatic noncompliance in aging men. PMID:25763122

  15. NOTCH SIGNALLING MODULATES HYPOXIA-INDUCED NEUROENDOCRINE DIFFERENTIATION OF HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Danza, Giovanna; Di Serio, Claudia; Rosati, Fabiana; Lonetto, Giuseppe; Sturli, Niccolò; Kacer, Doreen; Pennella, Antonio; Ventimiglia, Giuseppina; Barucci, Riccardo; Piscazzi, Annamaria; Prudovsky, Igor; Landriscina, Matteo; Marchionni, Niccolò; Tarantini, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Prostate carcinoma is among the most common causes of cancer-related death in men, representing 15% of all male malignancies in developed countries. Neuroendocrine differentiation has been associated with tumor progression, poor prognosis and with the androgen-independent status. Currently, no successful therapy exists for advanced, castration-resistant disease. Because hypoxia has been linked to prostate cancer progression and unfavourable outcome, we sought to determine whether hypoxia would impact the degree of neuroendocrine differentiation of prostate cancer cells, in vitro. Results exposure of LNCaP cells to low oxygen tension induced a neuroendocrine phenotype, associated with an increased expression of the transcription factor neurogenin3 and neuroendocrine markers, such as neuron-specific enolase, chromogranin A and β3-tubulin. Moreover, hypoxia triggered a significant decrease of Notch 1 and Notch 2 mRNA and protein expression, with subsequent down regulation of Notch-mediated signalling, as demonstrated by reduced levels of the Notch target genes, Hes1 and Hey1. Neuroendocrine differentiation was promoted by attenuation of Hes1 transcription, as cells expressing a dominant negative form of Hes1 displayed increased levels of neuroendocrine markers under normoxic conditions. Although hypoxia down regulated Notch 1 and Notch 2 mRNA transcription and receptor activation also in the androgen independent cell lines, PC3 and Du145, it did not change the extent of NE differentiation in these cultures, suggesting that androgen sensitivity may be required for transdifferentiation to occur. Conclusions hypoxia induces neuroendocrine differentiation of LNCaP cells in vitro, which appears to be driven by the inhibition of Notch signalling with subsequent down-regulation of Hes1 transcription. PMID:22172337

  16. Mesenchymal stem cells protect from hypoxia-induced alveolar epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Uzunhan, Yurdagül; Bernard, Olivier; Marchant, Dominique; Dard, Nicolas; Vanneaux, Valérie; Larghero, Jérôme; Gille, Thomas; Clerici, Christine; Valeyre, Dominique; Nunes, Hilario; Boncoeur, Emilie; Planès, Carole

    2016-03-01

    Administration of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) reduces lung inflammation, fibrosis, and mortality in animal models of lung injury, by a mechanism not completely understood. We investigated whether hMSC would prevent epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) induced by hypoxia in primary rat alveolar epithelial cell (AEC). In AEC cultured on semipermeable filters, prolonged hypoxic exposure (1.5% O2 for up to 12 days) induced phenotypic changes consistent with EMT, i.e., a change in cell morphology, a decrease in transepithelial resistance (Rte) and in the expression of epithelial markers [zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), E-cadherin, AQP-5, TTF-1], together with an increase in mesenchymal markers [vimentin, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)]. Expression of transcription factors driving EMT such as SNAIL1, ZEB1, and TWIST1 increased after 2, 24, and 48 h of hypoxia, respectively. Hypoxia also induced TGF-β1 mRNA expression and the secretion of active TGF-β1 in apical medium, and the expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), two inducers of EMT. Coculture of AEC with hMSC partially prevented the decrease in Rte and in ZO-1, E-cadherin, and TTF-1 expression, and the increase in vimentin expression induced by hypoxia. It also abolished the increase in TGF-β1 expression and in TGF-β1-induced genes ZEB1, TWIST1, and CTGF. Finally, incubation with human recombinant KGF at a concentration similar to what was measured in hMSC-conditioned media restored the expression of TTF-1 and prevented the increase in TWIST1, TGF-β1, and CTGF in hypoxic AEC. Our results indicate that hMSC prevent hypoxia-induced alveolar EMT through the paracrine modulation of EMT signaling pathways and suggest that this effect is partly mediated by KGF. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Development of a monoclonal antibody-based indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for nitroimidazoles in edible animal tissues and feeds.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Pan, Yuanhu; Wang, Yulian; Chen, Dongmei; Liu, Zhenli; Zhou, Qi; Feng, Liang; Peng, Dapeng; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-02-20

    The misuse of nitroimidazoles (NDZs) can lead to NDZs residues in edible animal tissues, which would be harmful to consumer health. To quickly monitor NDZs residues in edible animal tissues and feed, a monoclonal antibody-based indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ic-ELISA) with a simple sample preparation method and clean-up was developed in the present study. At first, a broad-specificity monoclonal antibody, 1D5, against NDZs has been produced, which the IC50 values of the NDZs, dimetridazole, ipronidazole, ronidazole hydroxydimetridazole, and hydroxyipronidazole, were 4.79μgL(-1), 0.47μgL(-1), 5.97μgL(-1), 23.48μgL(-1), and 15.03μgL(-1), respectively. The limit of detection of the method for the NDZ matrix calibration ranged from 4.2μgkg(-1) to 50.3μgkg(-1) in the feed matrices and from 0.11μgkg(-1) to 4.11μgkg(-1) in the edible animal tissues matrices. The recoveries of the NDZs were in the range of 75.5-111.8%. The CVs were less than 14.4%. A good correlation (r=0.9905) between the ELISA and HPLC-MS results of the tissues demonstrated the reliability of the developed ic-ELISA, which makes it a useful tool for screening of NDZs in animal edible tissue and feed.

  18. Local hypoxia is produced at sites of intratumour injection

    PubMed Central

    Olive, P L; Luo, C-M; Banáth, J P

    2002-01-01

    Intratumour injection, commonly used for gene or drug delivery but also associated with needle biopsy or insertion of invasive measuring devices, may damage tumour microvessels. To examine this possibility, SCCVII tumours grown subcutaneously in C3H mice were injected with a 26 gauge needle containing 0.1 ml of the fluorescent dye Hoechst 33342 to label cells lining the track of the needle. Hoechst-labelled cells sorted from these tumours were more sensitive to killing by hypoxic cell cytotoxins (tirapazamine, RSU-1069) and less sensitive to damage by ionizing radiation. Hoechst-labelled cells also bound the hypoxia marker pimonidazole when given by i.p. injection. Intratumour injection transiently increased hypoxia from 18 to 70% in the tumour cells adjacent to the track of the needle. The half-time for return to pre-treatment oxygenation was about 30 min; oxygenation of tumour cells along the track had recovered by 20 h after intratumour injection. This effect could have significant implications for intratumour injection of drugs, cytokines or vectors that are affected by the oxygenation status of the tumour cells as well as potential effects on biodistribution via local microvasculature. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 429–435. DOI: 10.1038/sj/bjc/6600059 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 The Cancer Research Campaign PMID:11875711

  19. Hypoxia and its implications in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Quiñonez-Flores, Celia María; González-Chávez, Susana Aideé; Pacheco-Tena, César

    2016-08-22

    Alterations in tissue oxygen pressure contribute to a number of diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Low partial pressure of oxygen, a condition known as hypoxia, is a relevant feature in RA since it is involved in angiogenesis, inflammation, apoptosis, cartilage degradation, energy metabolism, and oxidative damage. Therefore, alterations in hypoxia-related signaling pathways are considered potential mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. The objective of this review is to highlight and update our current knowledge of the role of hypoxia in the pathogenesis of RA. We describe the experimental evidence that RA synovial tissue exists in a hypoxic state, as well as the origin and involvement of synovial hypoxia in different aspects of the pathogenic process.

  20. Potentiation of carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity by hypoxia.

    PubMed Central

    Shibayama, Y.

    1986-01-01

    To determine the cause of hepatic injury in patients with hypoxaemia, the persistence of liver susceptibility to toxic injury after hypoxia was investigated in rats. Centrilobular necrosis and marked elevation of serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) and serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) activities were induced by carbon tetrachloride (0.1 ml/kg body weight) given in the period between 3 h before and 21 h after exposure to 7% oxygen for 3 h. This observation, that a short period of hypoxia results in a prolonged sensitivity to carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury, has not been described previously. The mechanism of the phenomenon is obscure. These observations suggest that the hepatic injury in patients with hypoxaemia may be caused not only by the hypoxia per se or chemicals administered before or during hypoxia, but also by chemicals given within 24 h of hypoxaemia. Images Fig. 2 PMID:3801302

  1. Redox signaling during hypoxia in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kimberly A; Waypa, Gregory B; Schumacker, Paul T

    2017-10-01

    Hypoxia triggers a wide range of protective responses in mammalian cells, which are mediated through transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms. Redox signaling in cells by reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) occurs through the reversible oxidation of cysteine thiol groups, resulting in structural modifications that can change protein function profoundly. Mitochondria are an important source of ROS generation, and studies reveal that superoxide generation by the electron transport chain increases during hypoxia. Other sources of ROS, such as the NAD(P)H oxidases, may also generate oxidant signals in hypoxia. This review considers the growing body of work indicating that increased ROS signals during hypoxia are responsible for regulating the activation of protective mechanisms in diverse cell types. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Ca2EDTA on Zinc Mediated Inflammation and Neuronal Apoptosis in Hippocampus of an In Vivo Mouse Model of Hypobaric Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Malairaman, Udayabanu; Dandapani, Kumaran; Katyal, Anju

    2014-01-01

    Background Calcium overload has been implicated as a critical event in glutamate excitotoxicity associated neurodegeneration. Recently, zinc accumulation and its neurotoxic role similar to calcium has been proposed. Earlier, we reported that free chelatable zinc released during hypobaric hypoxia mediates neuronal damage and memory impairment. The molecular mechanism behind hypobaric hypoxia mediated neuronal damage is obscure. The role of free zinc in such neuropathological condition has not been elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the underlying role of free chelatable zinc in hypobaric hypoxia-induced neuronal inflammation and apoptosis resulting in hippocampal damage. Methods Adult male Balb/c mice were exposed to hypobaric hypoxia and treated with saline or Ca2EDTA (1.25 mM/kg i.p) daily for four days. The effects of Ca2EDTA on apoptosis (caspases activity and DNA fragmentation), pro-inflammatory markers (iNOS, TNF-α and COX-2), NADPH oxidase activity, poly(ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP) activity and expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, HIF-1α, metallothionein-3, ZnT-1 and ZIP-6 were examined in the hippocampal region of brain. Results Hypobaric hypoxia resulted in increased expression of metallothionein-3 and zinc transporters (ZnT-1 and ZIP-6). Hypobaric hypoxia elicited an oxidative stress and inflammatory response characterized by elevated NADPH oxidase activity and up-regulation of iNOS, COX-2 and TNF-α. Furthermore, hypobaric hypoxia induced HIF-1α protein expression, PARP activation and apoptosis in the hippocampus. Administration of Ca2EDTA significantly attenuated the hypobaric hypoxia induced oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in the hippocampus. Conclusion We propose that hypobaric hypoxia/reperfusion instigates free chelatable zinc imbalance in brain associated with neuroinflammation and neuronal apoptosis. Therefore, zinc chelating strategies which block zinc mediated neuronal damage linked with cerebral hypoxia and other

  3. Effects of hypoxia-induced neonatal seizures on acute hippocampal injury and later-life seizure susceptibility and anxiety-related behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Alvarez, Natalia; Jimenez-Mateos, Eva M; Dunleavy, Mark; Waddington, John L; Boylan, Geraldine B; Henshall, David C

    2015-11-01

    Seizures are common during the neonatal period, often due to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and may contribute to acute brain injury and the subsequent development of cognitive deficits and childhood epilepsy. Here we explored short- and long-term consequences of neonatal hypoxia-induced seizures in 7 day old C57BL/6J mice. Seizure activity, molecular markers of hypoxia and histological injury were investigated acutely after hypoxia and response to chemoconvulsants and animal behaviour was explored at adulthood. Hypoxia was induced by exposing pups to 5% oxygen for 15 min (global hypoxia). Electrographically defined seizures with behavioral correlates occurred in 95% of these animals and seizures persisted for many minutes after restitution of normoxia. There was minimal morbidity or mortality. Pre- or post-hypoxia injection of phenobarbital (50mg/kg) had limited efficacy at suppressing seizures. The hippocampus from neonatal hypoxia-seizure mice displayed increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and the immediate early gene c-fos, minimal histological evidence of cell injury and activation of caspase-3 in scattered neurons. Behavioral analysis of mice five weeks after hypoxia-induced seizures detected novel anxiety-related and other behaviors, while performance in a spatial memory test was similar to controls. Seizure threshold tests with kainic acid at six weeks revealed that mice previously subject to neonatal hypoxia-induced seizures developed earlier, more frequent and longer-duration seizures. This study defines a set of electro-clinical, molecular, pharmacological and behavioral consequences of hypoxia-induced seizures that indicate short- and long-term deleterious outcomes and may be a useful model to investigate the pathophysiology and treatment of neonatal seizures in humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Extended Hypoxia on Night Vision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    and Krill (5) have reported a study of fundamental sig- nificance on the effects of stimulus paraneter; and retinal placement of the stimulus on night...by Ernest and Krill (5), that the early segment of the dark adaptation function was unaffected by hypoxia. This disagreement probably can be explained...in recovery capability, even after extended hypoxia. The clear implication of this relationship for practical operetions is that supplemental oxygen

  5. Hypoxia-sensitive NMR contrast agents

    SciTech Connect

    Swartz, H.M.; Chen, K.; Pals, M.; Sentjurc, M.; Morse, P.D. 2d.

    1986-02-01

    The rate of reduction of nitroxides is shown to be more rapid in hypoxic cells. The rate of reduction and the effect of hypoxia on the reduction rate vary for different nitroxides. These findings indicate that it may be feasible to develop in vivo NMR contrast agents that selectively will indicate areas of hypoxia and thereby aid in the detection of disease processes such as neoplasia, ischemia, and inflammation.

  6. Sensing and surviving hypoxia in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Jonz, Michael G; Buck, Leslie T; Perry, Steve F; Schwerte, Thorsten; Zaccone, Giacomo

    2016-02-01

    Surviving hypoxia is one of the most critical challenges faced by vertebrates. Most species have adapted to changing levels of oxygen in their environment with specialized organs that sense hypoxia, while only few have been uniquely adapted to survive prolonged periods of anoxia. The goal of this review is to present the most recent research on oxygen sensing, adaptation to hypoxia, and mechanisms of anoxia tolerance in nonmammalian vertebrates. We discuss the respiratory structures in fish, including the skin, gills, and air-breathing organs, and recent evidence for chemosensory neuroepithelial cells (NECs) in these tissues that initiate reflex responses to hypoxia. The use of the zebrafish as a genetic and developmental model has allowed observation of the ontogenesis of respiratory and chemosensory systems, demonstration of a putative intracellular O2 sensor in chemoreceptors that may initiate transduction of the hypoxia signal, and investigation into the effects of extreme hypoxia on cardiorespiratory development. Other organisms, such as goldfish and freshwater turtles, display a high degree of anoxia tolerance, and these models are revealing important adaptations at the cellular level, such as the regulation of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission in defense of homeostasis in central neurons.

  7. Acid-sensing ion channels under hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Yingjun, Guo; Xun, Qu

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia represents the lack of oxygen below the basic level, and the range of known channels related to hypoxia is continually increasing. Since abnormal hypoxia initiates pathological processes in numerous diseases via, to a great degree, producing acidic microenvironment, the significance of these channels in this environment has, until now, remained completely unknown. However, recent discovery of acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) have enhanced our understanding of the hypoxic channelome. They belong to the degenerin/epithelial Na (+) channel family and function once extracellular pH decreases to a certain level. So does the ratiocination emerge that ASICs participate in many hypoxia-induced pathological processes, including pain, apoptosis, malignancy, which all appear to involve them. Since evidence suggests that activity of ASICs is altered under pathological hypoxia, future studies are needed to deeply explore the relationship between ASICs and hypoxia, which may provide a progressive understanding of hypoxic effects in cancer, arthritis, intervertebral disc degeneration, ischemic brain injury and so on.

  8. Acid-sensing ion channels under hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Yingjun, Guo; Xun, Qu

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia represents the lack of oxygen below the basic level, and the range of known channels related to hypoxia is continually increasing. Since abnormal hypoxia initiates pathological processes in numerous diseases via, to a great degree, producing acidic microenvironment, the significance of these channels in this environment has, until now, remained completely unknown. However, recent discovery of acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) have enhanced our understanding of the hypoxic channelome. They belong to the degenerin/epithelial Na+ channel family and function once extracellular pH decreases to a certain level. So does the ratiocination emerge that ASICs participate in many hypoxia-induced pathological processes, including pain, apoptosis, malignancy, which all appear to involve them. Since evidence suggests that activity of ASICs is altered under pathological hypoxia, future studies are needed to deeply explore the relationship between ASICs and hypoxia, which may provide a progressive understanding of hypoxic effects in cancer, arthritis, intervertebral disc degeneration, ischemic brain injury and so on. PMID:23764948

  9. The influence of chronic hypoxia upon chemoreception

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Frank L.

    2007-01-01

    Carotid body chemoreceptors are essential for time-dependent changes in ventilatory control during chronic hypoxia. Early theories of ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia focused on time-dependent changes in known ventilatory stimuli, such as small changes in arterial pH that may play a significant role in some species. However, plasticity in the cellular and molecular mechanisms of carotid body chemoreception play a major role in ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia in all species studied. Chronic hypoxia causes changes in (a) ion channels (potassium, sodium, calcium) to increase glomus cell excitability, and (b) neurotransmitters (dopamine, acetylcholine, ATP) and neuromodulators (endothelin-1) to increase carotid body afferent activity for a given PO2 and optimize O2-sensitivity. O2-sensing heme-containing molecules in the carotid body have not been studied in chronic hypoxia. Plasticity in medullary respiratory centers processing carotid body afferent input also contributes to ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia. It is not known if the same mechanisms occur in patients with chronic hypoxemia from lung disease or high altitude natives. PMID:17291837

  10. Hyperplasia and hypertrophy of pulmonary neuroepithelial bodies, presumed airway hypoxia sensors, in hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Jie; Bishop, Tammie; Ratcliffe, Peter J; Yeger, Herman; Cutz, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs), presumed polymodal airway sensors, consist of innervated clusters of amine (serotonin) and peptide-producing cells. While NEB responses to acute hypoxia are mediated by a membrane-bound O2 sensor complex, responses to sustained and/or chronic hypoxia involve a prolyl hydroxylase (PHD)–hypoxia-inducible factor-dependent mechanism. We have previously reported hyperplasia of NEBs in the lungs of Phd1−/− mice associated with enhanced serotonin secretion. Here we use a novel multilabel immunofluorescence method to assess NEB distribution, frequency, and size, together with the number and size of NEB cell nuclei, and to colocalize multiple cytoplasmic and nuclear epitopes in the lungs of Phd1−/−, Phd2+/−, and Phd3−/− mice and compare them with wild-type controls. To define the mechanisms of NEB cell hyperplasia, we used antibodies against Mash1 and Prox1 (neurogenic genes involved in NEB cell differentiation/maturation), hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha, and the cell proliferation marker Ki67. Morphometric analysis of (% total lung area) immunostaining for synaptophysin (% synaptophysin), a cytoplasmic marker of NEB cells, was significantly increased in Phd1−/− and Phd3−/− mice compared to wild-type mice. In addition, NEB size and the number and size of NEB nuclei were also significantly increased, indicating that deficiency of Phds is associated with striking hyperplasia and hypertrophy of NEBs. In Phd2+/− mice, while mean % synaptophysin was comparable to wild-type controls, the NEB size was moderately increased, suggesting an effect even in heterozygotes. NEBs in all Phd-deficient mice showed increased expression of Mash1, Prox1, Ki67, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha, in keeping with enhanced differentiation from precursor cells and a minor component of cell proliferation. Since the loss of PHD activity mimics chronic hypoxia, our data provide critical information on the potential role of PHDs in

  11. Hypoxia stabilizes GAS6/AXl signaling in metastatic prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Anjali; Wang, Jingcheng; Shiozawa, Yusuke; McGee, Samantha; Kim, Jinkoo; Jung, Younghun; Joseph, Jeena; Berry, Janice E.; Havens, Aaron; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Taichman, Russell S.

    2012-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase Axl is over-expressed in a variety of cancers and is known to play a role in proliferation and invasion. Previous data from our lab indicates that Axl and its ligand GAS6 may play a role in establishing metastatic dormancy in the bone marrow microenvironment. In the current study, we found that Axl is highly expressed in metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) cell lines PC3 and DU145 and has negligible levels of expression in a non-metastatic cancer cell line LNCaP. Knockdown of Axl in PC3 and DU145 cells resulted in decreased expression of several mesenchymal markers including Snail, Slug, and N-cadherin, and enhanced expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin, suggesting that Axl is involved in the epithelial to mesenchymal transition in PCa cells. The Axl-knockdown PC3 and DU145 cells also displayed decreased in vitro migration and invasion. Interestingly, when PC3 and DU145 cells were treated with GAS6, Axl protein levels were down-regulated. Moreover, CoCl2, a hypoxia mimicking agent, prevented GAS6 mediated down-regulation of Axl in these cell lines. Immunochemical staining of human PCa tissue microarrays demonstrated that Axl, GAS6 and Hif1-α (indicator of hypoxia) were all co-expressed in PCa and in bone metastases, compared to normal tissues. Together, our studies indicate that Axl plays a crucial role in PCa metastasis, and that GAS6 regulates the expression of Axl. Importantly, in a hypoxic tumor microenvironment Axl expression maintained leading to enhanced signaling. PMID:22516347

  12. NOTCH3 IS ACTIVATED BY CHRONIC HYPOXIA AND CONTRIBUTES TO THE PROGRESSION OF HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Danza, Giovanna; Di Serio, Claudia; Ambrosio, Maria Raffaella; Sturli, Niccolò; Lonetto, Giuseppe; Rosati, Fabiana; Rocca, Bruno Jim; Ventimiglia, Giuseppina; del Vecchio, Maria Teresa; Prudovsky, Igor; Marchionni, Niccolò; Tarantini, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is still the second cause of cancer-related death among men. Although patients with metastatic presentation have an ominous outcome, the vast majority of PCs are diagnosed at an early stage. Nonetheless, even among patients with clinically localized disease the outcome may vary considerably. Other than androgen sensitivity, little is known about which other signaling pathways are deranged in aggressive, localized cancers. The elucidation of such pathways may help to develop innovative therapies aimed at specific molecular targets. We report that in a hormone-sensitive prostate cancer cell line, LNCaP, Notch3 was activated by hypoxia and sustained cell proliferation and colony formation in soft agar. Hypoxia also modulated cellular cholesterol content and the number and size of lipid rafts, causing a coalescence of small rafts into bigger clusters; under this experimental condition Notch3 migrated from the non-raft into the raft compartment where it co-localized with the γ-secretase complex. We also looked at human prostate cancer biopsies and found that expression of Notch3 positively correlated with Gleason score and with expression of carbonic anhydrase IX, a marker of hypoxia. In conclusion, hypoxia triggers the activation of Notch3 which, in turn, sustains proliferation of prostate cancer cells. Notch3 pathway represents a promising target for adjuvant therapy in patients with prostate cancer. PMID:23729168

  13. Notch3 is activated by chronic hypoxia and contributes to the progression of human prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Danza, Giovanna; Di Serio, Claudia; Ambrosio, Maria Raffaella; Sturli, Niccolò; Lonetto, Giuseppe; Rosati, Fabiana; Rocca, Bruno Jim; Ventimiglia, Giuseppina; del Vecchio, Maria Teresa; Prudovsky, Igor; Marchionni, Niccolò; Tarantini, Francesca

    2013-12-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is still the second cause of cancer-related death among men. Although patients with metastatic presentation have an ominous outcome, the vast majority of PCs are diagnosed at an early stage. Nonetheless, even among patients with clinically localized disease the outcome may vary considerably. Other than androgen sensitivity, little is known about which other signaling pathways are deranged in aggressive, localized cancers. The elucidation of such pathways may help to develop innovative therapies aimed at specific molecular targets. We report that in a hormone-sensitive PC cell line, LNCaP, Notch3 was activated by hypoxia and sustained cell proliferation and colony formation in soft agar. Hypoxia also modulated cellular cholesterol content and the number and size of lipid rafts, causing a coalescence of small rafts into bigger clusters; under this experimental condition, Notch3 migrated from the non-raft into the raft compartment where it colocalized with the γ-secretase complex. We also looked at human PC biopsies and found that expression of Notch3 positively correlated with Gleason score and with expression of carbonic anhydrase IX, a marker of hypoxia. In conclusion, hypoxia triggers the activation of Notch3, which, in turn, sustains proliferation of PC cells. Notch3 pathway represents a promising target for adjuvant therapy in patients with PC. Copyright © 2013 UICC.

  14. Resistance of contracting myocardium to swelling with hypoxia and glycolytic blockade.

    PubMed

    Pine, M B; Caulfield, J B; Bing, O H; Brooks, W W; Abelmann, W H

    1979-04-01

    The interrelationship of myocardial metabolism, performance and tissue hydration was examined in isolated contracting rat, guinea pig and dog myocardium. Myocardial metabolism was altered by blocking aerobic, and both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism. Myocardial water content and distribution were measured in rat myocardium using 3H-inulin and 51Cr-EDTA as extracellular markers. Myocardial hydration was also evaluated by light and electron microscopy. The relative susceptibility of non-contracting slices of rat and guinea pig myocardium and kidney to swelling secondary to these interventions was also explored. Hypoxia resulted in a partially reversible reduction in mechanical function; hypoxia plus glycolytic blockade led to irreversible severe contracture and total loss of tension development. Neither hypoxia nor hypoxia plus glycolytic blockade resulted in increased total tissue or extracellular water in previously contracting preparations or in non-contracting slices of myocardium. On the other hand, there were significant increases in cellular water in similarly treated kidney slices after each intervention. Thus, despite severe, irreversible derangements of mechanical function, myocardium did not swell under conditions which produced swelling in renal cortex.

  15. CHRONIC FETAL HYPOXIA PRODUCES SELECTIVE BRAIN INJURY ASSOCIATED WITH ALTERED NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASES

    PubMed Central

    DONG, Yafeng; YU, Zhiyong; SUN, Yan; ZHOU, Hui; STITES, Josh; NEWELL, Katherine; WEINER, Carl P.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The impact of chronic hypoxia on the nitric oxide synthase isoenzymes (NOSs) in specific brain structures is unknown. STUDY DESIGN Time-mated pregnant guinea pigs were exposed to 10.5% O2 for 14d (HPX) or room air (NMX); L-NIL (an iNOS inhibitor, 1mg/kg/day) was administered to HPX animals for 14d (L-NIL+HPX). Fetal brains were harvested at term. Multi-labeled immunofluorescence was used to generate a brain injury map. Laser capture microdissection and quantitative PCR were applied and cell injury markers, apoptosis activation, neuron loss, total NO, and the levels of individual NOSs quantified. RESULTS Chronic hypoxia causes selective fetal brain injury rather than globally. Injury is associated with differentially affected NO synthases in both neurons and glial cells, with iNOS up regulated at all injury sites. L-NIL attenuated the injury despite continued hypoxia. CONCLUSIONS These studies demonstrate chronic hypoxia selectively injures the fetal brain in part by the differential regulation of NOSs in an anatomic and cell specific manner. PMID:21272843

  16. Treatment with carnosine reduces hypoxia-ischemia brain damage in a neonatal rat model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huizhen; Guo, Shang; Zhang, Linlin; Jia, Liting; Zhang, Zhan; Duan, Hongbao; Zhang, Jingbin; Liu, Jingyan; Zhang, Weidong

    2014-03-15

    Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia brain damage (HIBD) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in neonates, and there is currently no effective therapy for HIBD. Carnosine plays a neuroprotective role in adult brain damage. We have previously demonstrated that carnosine pretreatment protects against HIBD in a neonatal rat model. Therefore, we hypothesized that treatment with carnosine would also have neuroprotective effects. Hypoxia-ischemia was induced in rats on postnatal days 7-9 (P7-9). Carnosine was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 250mg/kg at 0h, 24h, and 48h after hypoxia-ischemia was induced. The biochemical markers of oxidative stress and apoptosis were evaluated at 72h after hypoxia-ischemia was induced, Brain learning and memory function performance were observed using the Morris water maze test on postnatal days 28-33 (P28-33). Treatment with carnosine post-HIBD significantly reduced the concentration of 8-iso-prostaglandinF2alpha in brain tissue and decreased the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) positive cells in the hippocampus CA1 region and cortex as well as the mitochondria caspase-3 protein expression. Furthermore, carnosine also improved the cognitive function of P28-33 rats, whose cognitive function decline was due to HIBD. These results demonstrate that carnosine treatment after HIBD can reduce the brain injury, improving brain function. Carnosine could be an attractive candidate for treating HIBD.

  17. Sunitinib treatment does not improve blood supply but induces hypoxia in human melanoma xenografts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Antiangiogenic agents that disrupt the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway have been demonstrated to normalize tumor vasculature and improve tumor oxygenation in some studies and to induce hypoxia in others. The aim of this preclinical study was to investigate the effect of sunitinib treatment on the morphology and function of tumor vasculature and on tumor oxygenation. Methods A-07-GFP and R-18-GFP human melanoma xenografts grown in dorsal window chambers were used as preclinical tumor models. Morphologic parameters of tumor vascular networks were assessed from high-resolution transillumination images, and tumor blood supply time was assessed from first-pass imaging movies recorded after a bolus of 155 kDa tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate-labeled dextran had been administered intravenously. Tumor hypoxia was assessed from immunohistochemical preparations of the imaged tissue by use of pimonidazole as a hypoxia marker. Results Sunitinib treatment reduced vessel densities, increased vessel segment lengths, did not affect blood supply times, and increased hypoxic area fractions. Conclusion Sunitinib treatment did not improve vascular function but induced hypoxia in A-07-GFP and R-18-GFP tumors. PMID:22947392

  18. Nanoparticles for Targeting Intratumoral Hypoxia: Exploiting a Potential Weakness of Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Aldea, Mihaela; Florian, Ioan Alexandru; Kacso, Gabriel; Craciun, Lucian; Boca, Sanda; Soritau, Olga; Florian, Ioan Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Extensive hypoxic regions are the daunting hallmark of glioblastoma, as they host aggressive stem-like cells, hinder drug delivery and shield cancer cells from the effects of radiotherapy. Nanotechnology could address most of these issues, as it employs nanoparticles (NPs) carrying drugs that selectively accumulate and achieve controlled drug release in tumor tissues. Methods overcoming the stiff interstitium and scarce vascularity within hypoxic zones include the incorporation of collagenases to degrade the collagen-rich tumor extracellular matrix, the use of multistage systems that progressively reduce NP size or of NP-loaded cells that display inherent hypoxia-targeting abilities. The unfavorable hypoxia-induced low pH could be converted into a therapeutical advantage by pH-responsive NPs or multilayer NPs, while overexpressed markers of hypoxic cells could be specifically targeted for an enhanced preferential drug delivery. Finally, promising new gene therapeutics could also be incorporated into nanovehicles, which could lead to silencing of hypoxia-specific genes that are overexpressed in cancer cells. In this review, we highlight NPs which have shown promising results in targeting cancer hypoxia and we discuss their applicability in glioblastoma, as well as possible limitations. Novel research directions in this field are also considered.

  19. Hypoxia on the Expression of Hepatoma Upregulated Protein in Prostate Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Ingrid; Sakiyama, Marcelo J; Ma, Tangeng; Fair, Logan; Zhou, Xinchun; Hassan, Mohamed; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Gomez, Christian R

    2016-01-01

    Hepatoma upregulated protein (HURP) is a multifunctional protein with clinical promise. This protein has been demonstrated to be a predictive marker for the outcome in high-risk prostate cancer (PCa) patients, besides being a resistance factor in PCa. Although changes in oxygen tension (pO2) are associated with PCa aggressiveness, the role of hypoxia in the regulation of tumor progression genes such as HURP has not yet been described. We hypothesized that pO2 alteration is involved in the regulation of HURP expression in PCa cells. In the present study, PCa cells were incubated at 2% O2 (hypoxia) and 20% O2 (normoxia) conditions. Hypoxia reduced cell growth rate of PCa cells, when compared to the growth rate of cells cultured under normoxia (p < 0.05). The decrease in cell viability was accompanied by fivefold (p < 0.05) elevated rate of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) release. The expression of VEGF and the hypoxia-inducible metabolic enzyme carbonic anhydrase 9 were elevated maximally nearly 61-fold and 200-fold, respectively (p < 0.05). Noted in two cell lines (LNCaP and C4-2B) and independent of the oxygen levels, HURP expression assessed at both mRNA and protein levels was reduced. However, the decrease was more pronounced in cells cultured under hypoxia (p < 0.05). Interestingly, the analysis of patients' specimens by Western blot revealed a marked increase of HURP protein (fivefold), when compared to control (cystoprostatectomy) tissue (p < 0.05). Immunohistochemistry analysis showed an increase in the immunostaining intensity of HURP and the hypoxia-sensitive molecules, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α), VEGF, and heat-shock protein 60 (HSP60) in association with tumor grade. The data also suggested a redistribution of subcellular localization for HURP and HIF-1α from the nucleus to the cytoplasmic compartment in relation to increasing tumor grade. Analysis of HURP Promoter for HIF-1-binding sites revealed presence of

  20. In vivo characterization of a reporter gene system for imaging hypoxia-induced gene expression.

    PubMed

    Carlin, Sean; Pugachev, Andrei; Sun, Xiaorong; Burke, Sean; Claus, Filip; O'Donoghue, Joseph; Ling, C Clifton; Humm, John L

    2009-10-01

    To characterize a tumor model containing a hypoxia-inducible reporter gene and to demonstrate utility by comparison of reporter gene expression to the uptake and distribution of the hypoxia tracer (18)F-fluoromisonidazole ((18)F-FMISO). Three tumors derived from the rat prostate cancer cell line R3327-AT were grown in each of two rats as follows: (1) parental R3327-AT, (2) positive control R3327-AT/PC in which the HSV1-tkeGFP fusion reporter gene was expressed constitutively, (3) R3327-AT/HRE in which the reporter gene was placed under the control of a hypoxia-inducible factor-responsive promoter sequence (HRE). Animals were coadministered a hypoxia-specific marker (pimonidazole) and the reporter gene probe (124)I-2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-1-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl-5-iodouracil ((124)I-FIAU) 3 h prior to sacrifice. Statistical analysis of the spatial association between (124)I-FIAU uptake and pimonidazole fluorescent staining intensity was then performed on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Utility of this system was demonstrated by assessment of reporter gene expression versus the exogenous hypoxia probe (18)F-FMISO. Two rats, each bearing a single R3327-AT/HRE tumor, were injected with (124)I-FIAU (3 h before sacrifice) and (18)F-FMISO (2 h before sacrifice). Statistical analysis of the spatial association between (18)F-FMISO and (124)I-FIAU on a pixel-by-pixel basis was performed. Correlation coefficients between (124)I-FIAU uptake and pimonidazole staining intensity were: 0.11 in R3327-AT tumors, -0.66 in R3327-AT/PC and 0.76 in R3327-AT/HRE, confirming that only in the R3327-AT/HRE tumor was HSV1-tkeGFP gene expression associated with hypoxia. Correlation coefficients between (18)F-FMISO and (124)I-FIAU uptakes in R3327-AT/HRE tumors were r=0.56, demonstrating good spatial correspondence between the two tracers. We have confirmed hypoxia-specific expression of the HSV1-tkeGFP fusion gene in the R3327-AT/HRE tumor model and demonstrated the utility of this model for the

  1. Effect of hypoxia on cerebrovascular and cognitive function during moderate intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Lefferts, Wesley K; Babcock, Matthew C; Tiss, Matthew J; Ives, Stephen J; White, Corey N; Brutsaert, Tom D; Heffernan, Kevin S

    2016-10-15

    Exercise in hypoxia places added demands on the brain and cerebrovasculature that can impact cognitive function. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acute hypoxia on cerebrovascular hemodynamics, markers of neuro-steroidal modulation and brain-blood barrier (BBB) integrity, and cognition during exercise. Thirty healthy participants (21±4yrs., BMI 24.0±2.6kg∙m(-2); 15 men) were randomized to both a≈2.5h normoxic (FiO2 20.0%) and hypoxic (FiO2 12.5%) condition on two separate days. After 1.25h, participants underwent 10min of exercise-alone (cycling at 55% HRmax) and 15min of exercise+cognitive testing. Prefrontal cortex (PFC) tissue oxygenation and middle cerebral artery (MCA) mean blood velocity (MnV) were measured using near-infrared spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler respectively at rest, during exercise-alone, and during exercise+cognitive testing. Salivary levels of dehydroepiandosterone [DHEA], DHEA-sulfate [DHEAS]) and neuron specific enolase (NSE) were measured pre and post exercise. Cognition was assessed using standard metrics of accuracy and reaction time (RT), and advanced metrics from drift-diffusion modeling across memory recognition, N-Back and Flanker tasks. MCA MnV increased from rest to exercise (p<0.01) and was unchanged with addition of cognitive testing during exercise in both normoxia and hypoxia. PFC oxygenation increased during exercise (p<0.05) and was further increased with addition of cognitive challenge in normoxia but decreased during exercise in hypoxia (p<0.05) with further reductions occurring with addition of cognitive tasks (p<0.05). DHEA and NSE increased and decreased post-exercise, respectively, in both normoxia and hypoxia (p<0.01). Accuracy on cognitive tasks was similar in normoxia compared to hypoxia, while RT was slower in hypoxia vs normoxia across memory recognition (p<0.01) and Flanker tasks (p=0.04). Drift-diffusion modeling suggested changes in memory RT were due to increases in caution

  2. Hypoxia on the Expression of Hepatoma Upregulated Protein in Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Espinoza, Ingrid; Sakiyama, Marcelo J.; Ma, Tangeng; Fair, Logan; Zhou, Xinchun; Hassan, Mohamed; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Gomez, Christian R.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatoma upregulated protein (HURP) is a multifunctional protein with clinical promise. This protein has been demonstrated to be a predictive marker for the outcome in high-risk prostate cancer (PCa) patients, besides being a resistance factor in PCa. Although changes in oxygen tension (pO2) are associated with PCa aggressiveness, the role of hypoxia in the regulation of tumor progression genes such as HURP has not yet been described. We hypothesized that pO2 alteration is involved in the regulation of HURP expression in PCa cells. In the present study, PCa cells were incubated at 2% O2 (hypoxia) and 20% O2 (normoxia) conditions. Hypoxia reduced cell growth rate of PCa cells, when compared to the growth rate of cells cultured under normoxia (p < 0.05). The decrease in cell viability was accompanied by fivefold (p < 0.05) elevated rate of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) release. The expression of VEGF and the hypoxia-inducible metabolic enzyme carbonic anhydrase 9 were elevated maximally nearly 61-fold and 200-fold, respectively (p < 0.05). Noted in two cell lines (LNCaP and C4-2B) and independent of the oxygen levels, HURP expression assessed at both mRNA and protein levels was reduced. However, the decrease was more pronounced in cells cultured under hypoxia (p < 0.05). Interestingly, the analysis of patients’ specimens by Western blot revealed a marked increase of HURP protein (fivefold), when compared to control (cystoprostatectomy) tissue (p < 0.05). Immunohistochemistry analysis showed an increase in the immunostaining intensity of HURP and the hypoxia-sensitive molecules, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α), VEGF, and heat-shock protein 60 (HSP60) in association with tumor grade. The data also suggested a redistribution of subcellular localization for HURP and HIF-1α from the nucleus to the cytoplasmic compartment in relation to increasing tumor grade. Analysis of HURP Promoter for HIF-1-binding sites revealed presence

  3. Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Virginia H

    2010-01-01

    Since 1985, scientists have been documenting a hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico each year. The hypoxic zone, an area of low dissolved oxygen that cannot support marine life, generally manifests itself in the spring. Since marine species either die or flee the hypoxic zone, the spread of hypoxia reduces the available habitat for marine species, which are important for the ecosystem as well as commercial and recreational fishing in the Gulf. Since 2001, the hypoxic zone has averaged 16,500 km{sup 2} during its peak summer months, an area slightly larger than the state of Connecticut, and ranged from a low of 8,500 km{sup 2} to a high of 22,000 km{sup 2}. To address the hypoxia problem, the Mississippi River/Gulf of Mexico Watershed Nutrient Task Force (or Task Force) was formed to bring together representatives from federal agencies, states, and tribes to consider options for responding to hypoxia. The Task Force asked the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy to conduct a scientific assessment of the causes and consequences of Gulf hypoxia through its Committee on Environment and Natural Resources (CENR). In 2000 the CENR completed An Integrated Assessment: Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (or Integrated Assessment), which formed the scientific basis for the Task Force's Action Plan for Reducing, Mitigating, and Controlling Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (Action Plan, 2001). In its Action Plan, the Task Force pledged to implement ten management actions and to assess progress every 5 years. This reassessment would address the nutrient load reductions achieved, the responses of the hypoxic zone and associated water quality and habitat conditions, and economic and social effects. The Task Force began its reassessment in 2005. In 2006 as part of the reassessment, USEPA's Office of Water, on behalf of the Task Force, requested that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Science Advisory Board (SAB) convene an independent panel to

  4. Chronic hypoxia enhances the secretory response of rat phaeochromocytoma cells to acute hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, S C; Peers, C

    1999-01-01

    Amperometric recordings were made from individual phaeochromocytoma (PC12) cells using carbon fibre microelectrodes to investigate the effects of chronic hypoxia (10% O2) on the secretory responses evoked by acute hypoxia.Exposure to chronic hypoxia for 21–26 h increased the frequency of exocytotic events evoked in response to acute hypoxia (PO2ca 10–60 mmHg).Chronic hypoxia increased the value of Q1/3, determined by the integration of amperometric events, indicating an increase in quantal size: this reflects either an increase in vesicular dimensions or vesicular catecholamine concentration.Exocytotic frequency evoked by bath application of tetraethylammonium (1–10 mm) was significantly enhanced following chronic hypoxia.In both control and chronically hypoxic PC12 cells, exocytosis in response to acute hypoxia was completely abolished in Ca2+-free solutions. Cd2+ (200 μm) completely inhibited exocytosis from control cells, but left a significant residual release in chronically hypoxic PC12 cells.The Cd2+-resistant release evoked by acute hypoxia in chronically hypoxic PC12 cells was inhibited by inorganic ions (0.01–10 mm) in a potency order of La3+ > Gd3+ > Zn2+. Ni2+ (10 mm) was without effect.Our results suggest that chronic hypoxia enhances the secretory response of PC12 cells in part by increasing the depolarization mediated by an oxygen-sensitive K+ channel. In addition, acute hypoxia activates a Cd2+-resistant Ca2+ influx pathway in chronically hypoxic PC12 cells. PMID:9852329

  5. Normobaric hypoxia impairs human cardiac energetics.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Cameron; Cochlin, Lowri; Codreanu, Ion; Bloch, Edward; Fatemian, Marzieh; Szmigielski, Cezary; Atherton, Helen; Heather, Lisa; Francis, Jane; Neubauer, Stefan; Robbins, Peter; Montgomery, Hugh; Clarke, Kieran

    2011-09-01

    Hypoxia causes left ventricular dysfunction in the human heart, but the biochemical mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we tested whether short-term normobaric hypoxia leads to changes in cardiac energetics and early cardiac dysfunction. Healthy male volunteers (n=12, age 24 ± 2 yr) were exposed to normobaric hypoxia in a purpose-built hypoxic chamber. The partial pressure of oxygen during end-tidal expiration (P(ET)o₂) was kept between 50 and 60 mmHg, and peripheral oxygen saturation (Sao₂) was kept above 80%. Cardiac morphology and function were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging and echocardiography, both before and after 20 h of hypoxic exposure, and high-energy phosphate metabolism [measured as the phosphocreatine (PCr)/ATP ratio] was measured using ³¹P magnetic resonance spectroscopy. During hypoxia, P(ET)o₂ and Sao₂ averaged 55 ± 1 mmHg and 83.6 ± 0.4%, respectively. Hypoxia caused a 15% reduction in cardiac PCr/ATP (from 2.0 ± 0.1 to 1.7 ± 0.1, P<0.01) and reduced diastolic function (measured as E/E', rising from 6.1 ± 0.4 to 7.5 ± 0.7, P<0.01). Normobaric hypoxia causes a rapid decrease in high-energy phosphate metabolism in the human cardiac left ventricle, which may lead to a decline in diastolic function. These findings are important in understanding the response of normal individuals to environmental hypoxia, and to situations in which disease reduces cardiac oxygen delivery.

  6. Robustness of quantitative hypoxia PET image analysis for predicting local tumor control.

    PubMed

    Mönnich, David; Welz, Stefan; Thorwarth, Daniela; Pfannenberg, Christina; Reischl, Gerald; Mauz, Paul-Stefan; Nikolaou, Konstantin; la Fougère, Christian; Zips, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    in multicenter trials requires careful standardization and harmonization of all steps from patient preparation to image analysis. Our results indicate that TBRmax should deviate less than 10% from reference conditions (absolute value in this dataset ± 0.2). This conclusion likely applies to all low contrast nitroimidazole hypoxia PET tracers.

  7. Wnt/β-catenin signaling enhances hypoxia-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in hepatocellular carcinoma via crosstalk with hif-1α signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Bai, Xueli; Chen, Wei; Ma, Tao; Hu, Qida; Liang, Chao; Xie, Shangzhi; Chen, Conglin; Hu, Liqiang; Xu, Shiguo; Liang, Tingbo

    2013-05-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical process for tumor invasion and metastasis. Hypoxia may induce EMT, and upregulated β-catenin expression has been found in various tumors. In this study, we investigate the role of β-catenin in hypoxia-induced EMT in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Induction of EMT in HCC cell lines by hypoxia was confirmed by altered morphology, expression change of EMT-associated markers and enhanced invasion capacity. We showed that hypoxia-induced EMT could be enhanced by addition of recombinant Wnt3a while it was repressed by β-catenin small interfering RNA. An interaction between β-catenin and hypoxia-induced factor-1α (hif-1α) was found, and an underlying competition for β-catenin between hif-1α and T-cell factor-4 was implied. Notably, increased hif-1α activity was accompanied with more significant EMT features. We also showed that the pro-EMT effect of β-catenin in hypoxia was deprived in the absence of hif-1α. Moreover, β-catenin was found to be responsible for the maintenance of viability and proliferation for tumor cells undergoing hypoxia. We further showed a correlation between hif-1α and β-catenin expression, and corresponding expression of EMT-associated markers in human HCC tissues. Our results suggest that Wnt/β-catenin signaling enhances hypoxia-induced EMT in HCC by increasing the EMT-associated activity of hif-1α and preventing tumor cell death.

  8. Pien Tze Huang inhibits hypoxia-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human colon carcinoma cells through suppression of the HIF-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongwei; Shen, Aling; Zhang, Yuchen; Chen, Youqin; Lin, Jiumao; Lin, Wei; Sferra, Thomas; Peng, Jun

    2014-05-01

    Hypoxia-induced activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) signaling pathway is frequently observed in solid tumors and is strongly associated with numerous pathophysiological processes, including the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which result in cancer progression and metastasis. Thus, inhibiting EMT through the suppression of the HIF-1 pathway may be a promising strategy for anticancer chemotherapy. Pien Tze Huang (PZH), a well-established traditional Chinese medicine has been prescribed for >450 years and has been used for centuries to clinically treat various types of human cancer. We previously reported that PZH suppresses multiple intracellular signaling pathways and thereby promotes the apoptosis of cancer cells and the inhibition of cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis. In the present study, to further explore the mechanisms underlying the antitumor action of PZH, HCT-8 human colon carcinoma cells were cultured under hypoxic conditions and the effect of PZH on hypoxia-induced EMT was assessed. Hypoxia was found to induce EMT-associated morphological changes in HCT-8 cells, including loss of cell adhesion and the development of spindle-shaped fibroblastoid-like morphology. In addition, hypoxia was observed to reduce the expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin, but increase that of the mesenchymal marker N-cadherin. In addition, hypoxia significantly enhanced HCT-8 cell migration and invasion and induced the activation of the HIF-1 pathway. However, treatment of the HCT-8 cells with PZH significantly inhibited the hypoxia-mediated EMT and HIF-1 signaling. These findings suggest that PZH inhibits hypoxia-induced cancer EMT through the suppression of the HIF-1 pathway, which may be one of the molecular mechanisms by which PZH exerts its antitumor activity.

  9. Pien Tze Huang inhibits hypoxia-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human colon carcinoma cells through suppression of the HIF-1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, HONGWEI; SHEN, ALING; ZHANG, YUCHEN; CHEN, YOUQIN; LIN, JIUMAO; LIN, WEI; SFERRA, THOMAS; PENG, JUN

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia-induced activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) signaling pathway is frequently observed in solid tumors and is strongly associated with numerous pathophysiological processes, including the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which result in cancer progression and metastasis. Thus, inhibiting EMT through the suppression of the HIF-1 pathway may be a promising strategy for anticancer chemotherapy. Pien Tze Huang (PZH), a well-established traditional Chinese medicine has been prescribed for >450 years and has been used for centuries to clinically treat various types of human cancer. We previously reported that PZH suppresses multiple intracellular signaling pathways and thereby promotes the apoptosis of cancer cells and the inhibition of cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis. In the present study, to further explore the mechanisms underlying the antitumor action of PZH, HCT-8 human colon carcinoma cells were cultured under hypoxic conditions and the effect of PZH on hypoxia-induced EMT was assessed. Hypoxia was found to induce EMT-associated morphological changes in HCT-8 cells, including loss of cell adhesion and the development of spindle-shaped fibroblastoid-like morphology. In addition, hypoxia was observed to reduce the expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin, but increase that of the mesenchymal marker N-cadherin. In addition, hypoxia significantly enhanced HCT-8 cell migration and invasion and induced the activation of the HIF-1 pathway. However, treatment of the HCT-8 cells with PZH significantly inhibited the hypoxia-mediated EMT and HIF-1 signaling. These findings suggest that PZH inhibits hypoxia-induced cancer EMT through the suppression of the HIF-1 pathway, which may be one of the molecular mechanisms by which PZH exerts its antitumor activity. PMID:24940418

  10. Hippocampal and cerebellar histological changes and their behavioural repercussions caused by brain ischaemic hypoxia experimentally induced by sodium nitrite.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Mara Cláudia; Bezerra, Thiago Dos Santos; Soares, Aluízio Carlos; Boechat-Ramos, Raphael; Carneiro, Fabiana Pirani; Vianna, Leonora Maciel de Souza; Faro, Lilian Rosana Ferreira; Silva, Mônica Valero da; Vieira, Matheus Papa; Monteiro, Isabelle de Oliveira; Ferreira, Vania Moraes

    2017-08-14

    Brain ischaemic hypoxia can produce severe neurological damage that leads to behavioural disorders. This research analysed the hippocampal and cerebellar histological alterations caused by brain ischaemic hypoxia experimentally induced by sodium nitrite (NaNO2) and possible direct repercussions of this hypoxia on behaviour. An experimental study was carried out by administering 60mg/kg NaNO2 to 10 Wistar rats at 3 months of age for 15 consecutive days. Ten control rats did not receive NaNO2. To assess behavioural repercussions, the animals were evaluated in Open Field, Elevated Plus-Maze (EPM), and Forced Swim tests before and after injury to evaluate locomotion, anxiety, and depression, respectively. Markers of stress were evaluated by measuring the blood levels of cortisol, glucose, cholesterol, and lactate. The presence of hippocampal lesions was verified by histologically studying the CA1-CA4 areas. Sections of the cerebellum were also evaluated because Purkinje cells are highly sensitive to ischaemic hypoxia and may serve as markers for this process. The number of neurons with lesions was significantly higher in animals exposed to NaNO2 in the hippocampus areas CA2, CA3, and CA4. The cerebellum was also very vulnerable to hypoxia, presenting extensive lesion áreas. These results are correlated with the parameters of the anxiety and depression tests. NaNO2 promoted brain damage due to ischaemic hypoxia in rats. Intoxicated animals showed decreased brain weights; damage in hippocampus and cerebellum; and anxiogenic and depressive behaviour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Novel cation selective exhaustive injection-sweeping procedure for 5-nitroimidazole determination in waters by micellar electrokinetic chromatography using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Mesa, Maykel; Airado-Rodríguez, Diego; Cruces-Blanco, Carmen; García-Campaña, Ana M

    2014-05-09

    A novel method consisting of cation-selective exhaustive injection and sweeping (CSEI-sweeping) as on-line preconcentration followed by a micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) separation has been developed for the determination of 5-nitroimidazoles (5-NDZ) in environmental waters. Moreover, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) has been proposed for first time as sample treatment technique prior to CSEI-sweeping-MEKC. DLLME was applied to 5mL of sample. Dibromomethane (1156μL) and 2-butanol (1363μL) were employed as extractant and dispersive solvents, respectively. Salting-out effect was achieved by the addition of 16% (w/v) NaCl to the samples. After DLLME and organic solvent evaporation, the residue was redissolved in a low conductivity solvent (5mM phosphoric acid with 5% of methanol) and electrokinetically injected at 9.8kV for 632s in a bare fused-silica capillary (57.2cm, 50μm I.D.). Prior to the injection, the capillary was rinsed with 50mM phosphate buffer pH 2.5, followed by a plug of a higher conductivity buffer (100mM phosphate pH 2.5, 50mbar, 264s) and a plug of water (50mbar, 2s). Separation was carried out applying -30kV at 20°C in 44mM phosphate buffer pH 2.5, containing 8% tetrahydrofuran and 123mM sodium dodecyl sulfate. Analytical signals were monitored at 276nm. Validation was performed in river and well waters, obtaining satisfactory results in terms of linearity, precision (% RSD generally lower than 10%) and trueness (recoveries higher than 70% in almost all cases). LODs ranged from 0.61 to 2.44ng/mL. The combination of this microextraction technique with the proposed capillary electrophoresis methodology supposes a simple, sensitive and cheap alternative for 5-NDZ analyses, in accordance with the aims of green chemistry.

  12. Oxidative generation of guanine radicals by carbonate radicals and their reactions with nitrogen dioxide to form site specific 5-guanidino-4-nitroimidazole lesions in oligodeoxynucleotides.

    PubMed

    Joffe, Avrum; Mock, Steven; Yun, Byeong Hwa; Kolbanovskiy, Alexander; Geacintov, Nicholas E; Shafirovich, Vladimir

    2003-08-01

    A simple photochemical approach is described for synthesizing site specific, stable 5-guanidino-4-nitroimidazole (NIm) adducts in single- and double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides containing single and multiple guanine residues. The DNA sequences employed, 5'-d(ACC CG(1)C G(2)TC CG(3)C G(4)CC) and 5'-d(ACC CG(1)C G(2)TC C), were a portion of exon 5 of the p53 tumor suppressor gene, including the codons 157 (G(2)) and 158 (G(3)) mutation hot spots in the former sequence with four Gs and the codon 157 (G(2)) mutation hot spot in the latter sequence with two Gs. The nitration of oligodeoxynucleotides was initiated by the selective photodissociation of persulfate anions to sulfate radicals induced by UV laser pulses (308 nm). In aqueous solutions, of bicarbonate and nitrite anions, the sulfate radicals generate carbonate anion radicals and nitrogen dioxide radicals by one electron oxidation of the respective anions. The guanine residue in the oligodeoxynucleotide is oxidized by the carbonate anion radical to form the neutral guanine radical. While the nitrogen dioxide radicals do not react with any of the intact DNA bases, they readily combine with the guanine radicals at either the C8 or the C5 positions. The C8 addition generates the well-known 8-nitroguanine (8-nitro-G) lesions, whereas the C5 attack produces unstable adducts, which rapidly decompose to NIm lesions. The maximum yields of the nitro products (NIm + 8-nitro-G) were typically in the range of 20-40%, depending on the number of guanine residues in the sequence. The ratio of the NIm to 8-nitro-G lesions gradually decreases from 3.4 in the model compound, 2',3',5'-tri-O-acetylguanosine, to 2.1-2.6 in the single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides and to 0.8-1.1 in the duplexes. The adduct of the 5'-d(ACC CG(1)C G(2)TC C) oligodeoxynucleotide containing the NIm lesion in codon 157 (G(2)) was isolated in HPLC-pure form. The integrity of this adduct was established by a detailed analysis of exonuclease digestion

  13. Hypoxia-induced angiogenesis: good and evil.

    PubMed

    Krock, Bryan L; Skuli, Nicolas; Simon, M Celeste

    2011-12-01

    The vascular network delivers oxygen (O(2)) and nutrients to all cells within the body. It is therefore not surprising that O(2) availability serves as a primary regulator of this complex organ. Most transcriptional responses to low O(2) are mediated by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), highly conserved transcription factors that control the expression of numerous angiogenic, metabolic, and cell cycle genes. Accordingly, the HIF pathway is currently viewed as a master regulator of angiogenesis. HIF modulation could provide therapeutic benefit for a wide array of pathologies, including cancer, ischemic heart disease, peripheral artery disease, wound healing, and neovascular eye diseases. Hypoxia promotes vessel growth by upregulating multiple pro-angiogenic pathways that mediate key aspects of endothelial, stromal, and vascular support cell biology. Interestingly, recent studies show that hypoxia influences additional aspects of angiogenesis, including vessel patterning, maturation, and function. Through extensive research, the integral role of hypoxia and HIF signaling in human disease is becoming increasingly clear. Consequently, a thorough understanding of how hypoxia regulates angiogenesis through an ever-expanding number of pathways in multiple cell types will be essential for the identification of new therapeutic targets and modalities.

  14. Hypoxia causes glucose intolerance in humans.

    PubMed

    Oltmanns, Kerstin M; Gehring, Hartmut; Rudolf, Sebastian; Schultes, Bernd; Rook, Stefanie; Schweiger, Ulrich; Born, Jan; Fehm, Horst L; Peters, Achim

    2004-06-01

    Hypoxic respiratory diseases are frequently accompanied by glucose intolerance. We examined whether hypoxia is a cause of glucose intolerance in healthy subjects. In a double-blind within-subject crossover design, hypoxic versus normoxic conditions were induced in 14 healthy men for 30 minutes by decreasing oxygen saturation to 75% (versus 96% in control subjects) under the conditions of a euglycemic clamp. The rate of dextrose infusion needed to maintain stable blood glucose levels was monitored. Neurohormonal stress response was evaluated by measuring catecholamine and cortisol concentrations as well as cardiovascular parameters, and symptoms of anxiety. To differentiate between the effects of stress hormonal response, and hypoxia itself, on glucose intolerance, we performed hypoglycemic clamps as a nonspecific control. We found a significant decrease in dextrose infusion rate over a period of 150 minutes after the start of hypoxia (p < 0.01). Hypoxia also increased plasma epinephrine concentration (p < 0.01), heart rate (p < 0.01), and symptoms of anxiety (p < 0.05), whereas the other parameters remained unaffected. Glucose intolerance was closely comparable between hypoxic and hypoglycemic conditions (p < 0.9) despite clear differences in stress hormonal responses. Hypoxia acutely causes glucose intolerance. One of the factors mediating this effect could be an elevated release of epinephrine.

  15. Preparation and preservation of hypoxia UW solution.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chidang; Wang, Chunyou; Liu, Tao; Cheng, Rui; Yang, Zhiyong

    2007-10-01

    In order to explore the method to prepare hypoxia UW solution and the stability and preservation of hypoxia UW solution, UW solution was purged by argon or air for 15 min or 60 at a flow rate of 0.8 or 2 L/min, and the oxygen partial pressure of UW solution was detected. The hypoxia UW solution was exposed to the air or sealed up to preserve by using different methods, and the changes of oxygen partial pressure was tested. The results showed that oxygen partial presure of 50 mL UW solution, purged by argon for 15 min at a flow rate of 2 L/min, was declined from 242+/-6 mmHg to 83+/-10 mmHg. After exposure to the air, oxygen partial pressure of hypoxia UW solution was gradually increased to 160+/-7 mmHg at 48 h. After sealed up by the centrifuge tube and plastic bad filled with argon, oxygen partial pressure of hypoxia UW solution was stable, about 88+/-13 mmHg at 72 h. It was concluded that oxygen of UW solution could be purged by argon efficiently. Sealed up by the centrifuge tube and plastic bag filled with argon, oxygen partial pressure of UW solution could be stabilized.

  16. The effect of hypoxia on fish schooling.

    PubMed

    Domenici, Paolo; Steffensen, John F; Marras, Stefano

    2017-08-19

    Low-oxygen areas are expanding in the oceans as a result of climate change. Work carried out during the past two decades suggests that, in addition to impairing basic physiological functions, hypoxia can also affect fish behaviour. Given that many fish species are known to school, and that schooling is advantageous for their survival, the effect of hypoxia on schooling behaviour may have important ecological consequences. Here, we review the effects of hypoxia on school structure and dynamics, together with the mechanisms that cause an increase in school volume and that ultimately lead to school disruption. Furthermore, the effect of hypoxia generates a number of trade-offs in terms of schooling positions and school structure. Field observations have found that large schools of fish can exacerbate hypoxic conditions, with potential consequences for school structure and size. Therefore, previous models that predict the maximum size attainable by fish schools in relation to oxygen levels are also reviewed. Finally, we suggest that studies on the effect of hypoxia on schooling need to be integrated with those on temperature and ocean acidifications within a framework aimed at increasing our ability to predict the effect of multiple stressors of climate change on fish behaviour.This article is part of the themed issue 'Physiological determinants of social behaviour in animals'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  17. Distinct physiological strategies are used to cope with constant hypoxia and intermittent hypoxia in killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus).

    PubMed

    Borowiec, Brittney G; Darcy, Kimberly L; Gillette, Danielle M; Scott, Graham R

    2015-04-15

    Many fish encounter hypoxia on a daily cycle, but the physiological effects of intermittent hypoxia are poorly understood. We investigated whether acclimation to constant (sustained) hypoxia or to intermittent diel cycles of nocturnal hypoxia (12 h normoxia:12 h hypoxia) had distinct effects on hypoxia tolerance or on several determinants of O2 transport and O2 utilization in estuarine killifish. Adult killifish were acclimated to normoxia, constant hypoxia, or intermittent hypoxia for 7 or 28 days in brackish water (4 ppt). Acclimation to both hypoxia patterns led to comparable reductions in critical O2 tension and resting O2 consumption rate, but only constant hypoxia reduced the O2 tension at loss of equilibrium. Constant (but not intermittent) hypoxia decreased filament length and the proportion of seawater-type mitochondrion-rich cells in the gills (which may reduce ion loss and the associated costs of active ion uptake), increased blood haemoglobin content, and reduced the abundance of oxidative fibres in the swimming muscle. In contrast, only intermittent hypoxia augmented the oxidative and gluconeogenic enzyme activities in the liver and increased the capillarity of glycolytic muscle, each of which should facilitate recovery between hypoxia bouts. Neither exposure pattern affected muscle myoglobin content or the activities of metabolic enzymes in the brain or heart, but intermittent hypoxia increased brain mass. We conclude that the pattern of hypoxia exposure has an important influence on the mechanisms of acclimation, and that the optimal strategies used to cope with intermittent hypoxia may be distinct from those for coping with constant hypoxia.

  18. Nocturnal intermittent hypoxia and C reactive protein among middle-aged community residents: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Muraki, Isao; Tanigawa, Takeshi; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Sakurai, Susumu; Ohira, Tetsuya; Imano, Hironori; Kitamura, Akihiko; Kiyama, Masahiko; Sato, Shinichi; Shimamoto, Takashi; Konishi, Masamitsu; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2010-06-01

    There are conflicting results for the association between obstructive sleep apnoea and raised C reactive protein (CRP) levels. A study was undertaken to investigate whether nocturnal intermittent hypoxia, a surrogate marker for obstructive sleep apnoea, was associated with CRP levels among a community-dwelling Japanese population. Among participants in the Circulatory Risk in Communities Study (CIRCS), 1422 male and 2466 female community residents aged 40-69 years were tested during sleep. No nocturnal intermittent hypoxia, mild nocturnal intermittent hypoxia and moderate to severe nocturnal intermittent hypoxia were defined using 3% oxygen desaturation index cut-off points at 5 and 15 events/h, respectively. High-sensitivity CRP levels were measured using a latex particle-enhanced immunonephelometric assay. Multivariate analysis was adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, current alcohol intake, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes mellitus and menopausal status for women. Multivariable-adjusted mean CRP levels among men were 0.70 mg/l (95% CI 0.65 to 0.75) for no nocturnal intermittent hypoxia, 0.82 mg/l (95% CI 0.74 to 0.89) for mild nocturnal intermittent hypoxia and 0.84 mg/l (95% CI 0.70 to 1.00) for moderate to severe nocturnal intermittent hypoxia (p for trend=0.03). The values for women were 0.59 mg/l (95% CI 0.57 to 0.62), 0.66 mg/l (95% CI 0.59 to 0.73) and 0.82 mg/l (95% CI 0.62 to 1.03), respectively (p for trend=0.008). Compared with no nocturnal intermittent hypoxia, the prevalence of a high CRP level (>or=1.0 mg/l) was 1.4-1.7-fold higher for mild to severe nocturnal intermittent hypoxia in both sexes. Nocturnal intermittent hypoxia is associated with raised serum CRP levels among middle-aged Japanese subjects.

  19. Expression of EGFR Under Tumor Hypoxia: Identification of a Subpopulation of Tumor Cells Responsible for Aggressiveness and Treatment Resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Hoogsteen, Ilse J.; Marres, Henri A.M.; Hoogen, Franciscus J.A. van den

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: Overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and tumor hypoxia have been shown to correlate with worse outcome in several types of cancer including head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma. Little is known about the combination and possible interactions between the two phenomena. Methods and Materials: In this study, 45 cases of histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck were analyzed. All patients received intravenous infusions of the exogenous hypoxia marker pimonidazole prior to biopsy. Presence of EGFR, pimonidazole binding, and colocalization between EGFR and tumor hypoxia were examined using immunohistochemistry. Results: Of all biopsies examined, respectively, 91% and 60% demonstrated EGFR- and pimonidazole-positive areas. A weak but significant association was found between the hypoxic fractions of pimonidazole (HFpimo) and EGFR fractions (F-EGFR) and between F-EGFR and relative vascular area. Various degrees of colocalization between hypoxia and EGFR were found, increasing with distance from the vasculature. A high fraction of EGFR was correlated with better disease-free and metastasis-free survival, whereas a high degree of colocalization correlated with poor outcome. Conclusions: Colocalization of hypoxia and EGFR was demonstrated in head-and-neck squamous cell carcinomas, predominantly at longer distances from vessels. A large amount of colocalization was associated with poor outcome, which points to a survival advantage of hypoxic cells that are also able to express EGFR. This subpopulation of tumor cells might be indicative of tumor aggressiveness and be partly responsible for treatment resistance.

  20. Morphological evaluation of the cerebral blood vessels in the late gestation fetal sheep following hypoxia in utero.

    PubMed

    Baburamani, Ana A; Lo, Camden; Castillo-Melendez, Margie; Walker, David W

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia can significantly contribute to the development of permanent brain injury in the term neonate; however the response of cerebral blood vessels is not well understood. This study aimed to quantitatively measure vascular density and morphology using laminin immunohistochemistry as a marker of blood vessels, and determine the effects of a single, severe bout of hypoxia (umbilical cord occlusion, UCO) late in gestation on the developing cerebrovasculature in fetal sheep. At 124-126 days gestation singleton fetal sheep underwent surgery for implantation of catheters and placement of an inflatable cuff around the umbilical cord. A 10 min UCO or sham UCO (n=5) occurred at 132 days gestation. Fetal brains were collected at 24 h (n=5) or 48 h (n=4) after UCO for vascular density and morphology analysis of laminin immunohistochemistry. 48 h following a single, brief bout of severe hypoxia late in gestation decreased vascular density was seen in the caudate nucleus and no changes in vascular morphology occurred. However closer analysis revealed a significant shift in the frequency of smaller (≤10 μm) to larger (≤100 μm) perimeter blood vessels in periventricular and subcortical white matter. Close examination of the frequency distribution of vascular perimeter highlights that alterations in vascular morphology persist in the near term fetal brain for up to 48 h following a brief (10 min) hypoxia in white but not gray matter. These findings suggest that the near term brain may still be vulnerable to white matter injury following in utero hypoxia.

  1. Hypoxia, MTOR and autophagy: converging on senescence or quiescence.

    PubMed

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2013-02-01

    Although hypoxia can cause cell cycle arrest, it may simultaneously suppress a conversion from this arrest to senescence. Furthermore, hypoxia can suppress senescence caused by diverse stimuli, maintaining reversible quiescence instead. Hypoxia activates autophagy and inhibits MTOR, thus also activating autophagy. What is the relationship between autophagy and cellular senescence? Also, can inhibition of MTOR and stimulation of autophagy explain the gerosuppressive effects of hypoxia?

  2. Rat reaction to hypokinesia after prior adaptation to hypoxia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barashova, Z. I.; Tarakanova, O. I.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of prior hypoxia adaptation on body tolerance to hypokinesia was investigated. Rats trained to a 50 day period of hypokinesia and hypoxia with a preliminary month of adaptation to hypoxia showed less weight loss, higher indices for red blood content, heightened reactivity of the overall organism and the central nervous system to acute hypoxia, and decreased modification of the skeletal muscles compared to rats subjected to hypokinesia alone.

  3. Analysis of Hypoxia and Hypoxia-Like States through Metabolite Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Cox, James E.; Reddi, Amit R.; McGinnis, Lauren A.; Culotta, Valeria C.

    2011-01-01

    Background In diverse organisms, adaptation to low oxygen (hypoxia) is mediated through complex gene expression changes that can, in part, be mimicked by exposure to metals such as cobalt. Although much is known about the transcriptional response to hypoxia and cobalt, little is known about the all-important cell metabolism effects that trigger these responses. Methods and Findings Herein we use a low molecular weight metabolome profiling approach to identify classes of metabolites in yeast cells that are altered as a consequence of hypoxia or cobalt exposures. Key findings on metabolites were followed-up by measuring expression of relevant proteins and enzyme activities. We find that both hypoxia and cobalt result in a loss of essential sterols and unsaturated fatty acids, but the basis for these changes are disparate. While hypoxia can affect a variety of enzymatic steps requiring oxygen and heme, cobalt specifically interferes with diiron-oxo enzymatic steps for sterol synthesis and fatty acid desaturation. In addition to diiron-oxo enzymes, cobalt but not hypoxia results in loss of labile 4Fe-4S dehydratases in the mitochondria, but has no effect on homologous 4Fe-4S dehydratases in the cytosol. Most striking, hypoxia but not cobalt affected cellular pools of amino acids. Amino acids such as aromatics were elevated whereas leucine and methionine, essential to the strain used here, dramatically decreased due to hypoxia induced down-regulation of amino acid permeases. Conclusions These studies underscore the notion that cobalt targets a specific class of iron proteins and provide the first evidence for hypoxia effects on amino acid regulation. This research illustrates the power of metabolite profiling for uncovering new adaptations to environmental stress. PMID:21931840

  4. Tissue and imaging biomarkers for hypoxia predict poor outcome in endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Anna; Fasmer, Kristine E.; Mauland, Karen K.; Ytre-Hauge, Sigmund; Hoivik, Erling A.; Husby, Jenny A.; Tangen, Ingvild L.; Trovik, Jone; Halle, Mari K.; Woie, Kathrine; Bjørge, Line; Bjørnerud, Atle; Salvesen, Helga B.; Henrica M. J., Werner

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia is frequent in solid tumors and linked to aggressive phenotypes and therapy resistance. We explored expression patterns of the proposed hypoxia marker HIF-1α in endometrial cancer (EC) and investigate whether preoperative functional imaging parameters are associated with tumor hypoxia. Expression of HIF-1α was explored both in the epithelial and the stromal tumor component. We found that low epithelial HIF-1α and high stromal HIF-1α expression were significantly associated with reduced disease specific survival in EC. Only stromal HIF-1α had independent prognostic value in Cox regression analysis. High stromal HIF-1α protein expression was rare in the premalignant lesions of complex atypical hyperplasia but increased significantly to invasive cancer. High stromal HIF-1α expression was correlated with overexpression of important genes downstream from HIF-1α, i.e. VEGFA and SLC2A1 (GLUT1). Detecting hypoxic tumors with preoperative functional imaging might have therapeutic benefits. We found that high stromal HIF-1α expression associated with high total lesion glycolysis (TLG) at PET/CT. High expression of a gene signature linked to hypoxia also correlated with low tumor blood flow at DCE-MRI and increased metabolism measured by FDG-PET. PI3K pathway inhibitors were identified as potential therapeutic compounds in patients with lesions overexpressing this gene signature. In conclusion, we show that high stromal HIF-1α expression predicts reduced survival in EC and is associated with increased tumor metabolism at FDG-PET/CT. Importantly; we demonstrate a correlation between tissue and imaging biomarkers reflecting hypoxia, and also possible treatment targets for selected patients. PMID:27634881

  5. Effects of chronic intermittent hypoxia on allergen-induced airway inflammation in rats.

    PubMed

    Broytman, Oleg; Braun, Rudolf K; Morgan, Barbara J; Pegelow, David F; Hsu, Pei-Ning; Mei, Linda S; Koya, Ajay K; Eldridge, Marlowe; Teodorescu, Mihaela

    2015-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea aggravates asthma, but its mechanisms are unknown. Chronic intermittent hypoxia is one hallmark feature of sleep apnea. In this study, we tested the effects of chronic intermittent hypoxia on allergen-induced inflammation in rats. Four groups (n = 9-11/group) of ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized Brown-Norway rats underwent intermittent hypoxia (10% oxygen, 30 cycles/h, 10 h/d) or normoxia for 30 days concurrent with weekly OVA or vehicle challenges. Lung physiology, differential leukocyte counts from bronchoalveolar lavage, and histology (Picro Sirius Red staining for collagen content) were compared between groups 2 days after the last challenge. Gene expression in bronchoalveolar lavage cells was quantified by quantitative PCR. Compared with normoxia, chronic intermittent hypoxia reduced the FEV0.1/FVC ratio (P = 0.005), peak expiratory flow (P = 0.002), and mean midexpiratory flow (P = 0.004), predominantly in medium and large airways; decreased the baseline eosinophil number (P = 0.01) and amplified the effect of OVA on monocyte number (P = 0.02 for the interaction); in proximal airways, increased (P = 0.008), whereas in distal airways it decreased (P = 0.004), collagen density; induced qualitative emphysematous changes in lung periphery; and increased expression of the M2 macrophage marker YM-1 and augmented OVA-induced expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Chronic intermittent hypoxia alters immune response to allergen toward a more TH-1-predominant cellular phenotype with collagen deposition and matrix degradation, leading to airflow limitation. These findings highlight the potential of sleep apnea to aggravate airway dysfunction in patients with preexistent asthma.

  6. Protective effect of salidroside on cardiac apoptosis in mice with chronic intermittent hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Lai, Mei-Chih; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Pai, Pei-Ying; Lai, Mei-Hsin; Lin, Yueh-Min; Yeh, Yu-Lan; Cheng, Shiu-Min; Liu, Yi-fan; Huang, Chih-Yang; Lee, Shin-Da

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this study is to determine if salidroside has protective effects on hypoxia-induced cardiac widely dispersed apoptosis in mice with severe sleep apnea model. Sixty-four C57BL/6J mice 5-6 months of age were divided into four groups, i.e. Control group (21% O2, 24h per day, 8 weeks, n=16); Hypoxia group (Hypoxia: 7% O2 60s, 20% O2 alternating 60s, 8h per day, 8 weeks, n=16); and Hypoxia+S10 and Hypoxia+S 30 groups (Hypoxia for 1st 4 weeks, hypoxia pretreated 10mg/kg and 30 mg/kg salidroside by oral gavage per day for 2nd 4 weeks, n=16 and 16). The excised hearts from four groups were measured by the heart weight index, H&E staining, TUNEL-positive assays and Western blotting. TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells in mice heart were less in Hypoxia+S10 and Hypoxia+S30 than those in the Hypoxia group. Compared with Hypoxia, the protein levels of Fas ligand, Fas death receptors, Fas-Associated Death Domain (FADD), activated caspase 8, and activated caspase 3 (Fas pathways) were decreased in Hypoxia+S10 and Hypoxia+S30. In the mitochondria pathway, the protein levels of BcLx, Bcl2, and Bid (anti-apoptotic Bcl2 family) in Hypoxia+S10 and Hypoxia+S30 were more than those in Hypoxia. The protein levels of Bax, t-Bid, activated caspase 9, and activated caspase 3 were less in Hypoxia+S10 and Hypoxia+S30 than those in hypoxia. Our findings suggest that salidroside has protective effects on chronic intermittent hypoxia-induced Fas-dependent and mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways in mice hearts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Induction of marrow hypoxia by radioprotective agents

    SciTech Connect

    Allalunis-Turner, M.J.; Walden, T.L.; Sawich, C.

    1989-01-01

    Many compounds that possess sulfhydryl groups have been shown to protect bone marrow from radiation injury. The most effective thiol radioprotective agent is ethiofos (S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothoic acid or WR-2721). The ability of thiol and non-thiol radioprotectors to induce hypoxia was determined using binding of ({sup 3}H)misonidazole by bone marrow cells as a measure of hypoxia. When administered at maximally radioprotective doses, four drugs (WR-2721, cysteamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, and 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2) significantly increased the amount of ({sup 3}H)misonidazole bound by marrow cells, while no significant increase in binding was observed with three other agents (endotoxin, AET, superoxide dimutase). Doses of WR-2721 previously shown to provide suboptimal radioprotection did not significantly increase {sup 3}H-misonidazole binding. These results suggest that the physiological effects of some radioprotectors, that is, their ability to induce marrow hypoxia, may contribute to their efficacy in vivo.

  8. Induction of marrow hypoxia by radioprotective agents

    SciTech Connect

    Allalunis-Turner, M.J.; Walden, T.L. Jr.; Sawich, C.

    1989-06-01

    The ability of thiol and non-thiol radioprotectors to induce hypoxia was determined using the binding of (/sup 3/H)misonidazole by bone marrow cells as a measure of hypoxia. When administered at maximally radioprotective doses, four drugs (WR-2721, cysteamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, and 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2) significantly increased the amount of (/sup 3/H)misonidazole bound by marrow cells, while no significant increase in binding was observed with three other agents (endotoxin, AET, superoxide dimutase). Doses of WR-2721 previously shown to provide suboptimal radioprotection did not significantly increase /sup 3/H-misonidazole binding. These results suggest that the physiological effects of some radioprotectors, that is, their ability to induce marrow hypoxia, may contribute to their efficacy in vivo.

  9. Pheochromocytomas: the (pseudo)-hypoxia hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Favier, Judith; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne-Paule

    2010-12-01

    Hypoxia and pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma have a long common history. Since the description, almost 40 years ago, of an increased incidence of head and neck paragangliomas in chronic hypoxia, discoveries on oxygen-sensing and on hereditary paraganglioma in the beginning of years 2000 provided the proof of concept of a strong link between these neuroendocrine tumors and the hypoxic pathway. It was demonstrated that both SDH and VHL genes mutations lead to the abnormal stabilization and activation of hypoxia-inducible factors, and to the subsequent regulation of multiple target genes, the products of which are implicated in proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, energy metabolism or invasiveness and metastases. Altogether, physiological, genetic, cellular and molecular data collected over years all point to a central role of the hypoxic or pseudohypoxic pathway in pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma tumorigenesis. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Intermittent hypoxia in patients with unexplained polycythaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Moore-Gillon, J C; Treacher, D F; Gaminara, E J; Pearson, T C; Cameron, I R

    1986-01-01

    The aetiology of polycythaemia is unclear in up to 30% of patients. Twenty patients with unexplained polycythaemia were investigated to see whether they had an intermittent hypoxic stimulus to erythropoiesis that was undetected by conventional investigations for hypoxic secondary polycythaemia. Overnight polygraphic sleep studies showed that five patients had prolonged nocturnal hypoxaemia. Their arterial oxygen saturation was below 92%, the level at which appreciable hypoxic stimulation of erythropoiesis occurs, for 26-68% of the time for which they were studied. Considerable evidence is accumulating that intermittent hypoxia is a potent stimulus to erythropoiesis, and clinicians should consider the possibility of nocturnal hypoxia in patients with unexplained polycythaemia. Appropriate investigation will lead to the correct diagnosis of polycythaemia secondary to hypoxia in some cases previously regarded as idiopathic, and treatment may then be planned accordingly. PMID:3092936

  11. Hypoxia: An Unusual Cause with Specific Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Berger, John P.; Raveendran, Ganesh; Ingbar, David H.; Bhargava, Maneesh

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia is a well-recognized consequence of venous admixture resulting from right to left intracardiac shunting. Right to left shunting is usually associated with high pulmonary artery pressure or alteration in the direction of blood flow due to an anatomical abnormality of the thorax. Surgical or percutaneous closure remains controversial; however it is performed frequently for patients presenting with clinical sequela presumed to be resulting from paradoxical embolization secondary to right to left shunting. We report two patients with hypoxia and dyspnea due to right to left shunting through a patent foramen ovale (PFO) and venous admixture in the absence of elevated pulmonary artery pressures or other predisposing conditions like pneumonectomy or diaphragmatic weakness. Percutaneous closures of the PFOs with the self-centering Amplatzer device resulted in resolution of hypoxia and symptoms related to it. PMID:25722910

  12. Kinetic modeling in PET imaging of hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fan; Joergensen, Jesper T; Hansen, Anders E; Kjaer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Tumor hypoxia is associated with increased therapeutic resistance leading to poor treatment outcome. Therefore the ability to detect and quantify intratumoral oxygenation could play an important role in future individual personalized treatment strategies. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) can be used for non-invasive mapping of tissue oxygenation in vivo and several hypoxia specific PET tracers have been developed. Evaluation of PET data in the clinic is commonly based on visual assessment together with semiquantitative measurements e.g. standard uptake value (SUV). However, dynamic PET contains additional valuable information on the temporal changes in tracer distribution. Kinetic modeling can be used to extract relevant pharmacokinetic parameters of tracer behavior in vivo that reflects relevant physiological processes. In this paper, we review the potential contribution of kinetic analysis for PET imaging of hypoxia. PMID:25250200

  13. In Brief: Report finds hypoxia increasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-09-01

    The occurrence of hypoxia is increasing in coastal waters worldwide and represents a significant threat to the health and economy of U.S. coasts and the Great Lakes, according to a 3 September report issued by the U.S. Interagency Working Group on Harmful Algal Blooms, Hypoxia, and Human Health. The report found that the incidence of hypoxia—low dissolved oxygen that can negatively affect fish and other aquatic species—has increased tenfold globally in the past 50 years and almost thirtyfold in the United States since 1960. Noting that federal research programs are addressing many aspects of eutrophication, enrichment, and hypoxia, the report indicates, “Despite decades of research, however, management efforts to reduce nutrients—particularly from nonpoint sources—and their adverse impacts on coastal ecosystems have not made significant headway, in part due to increased development and population in coastal watersheds.”

  14. Epigenetic regulation by histone demethylases in hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Rebecca L; Dunne, Kate; Walport, Louise J; Flashman, Emily; Kawamura, Akane

    2015-08-01

    The response to hypoxia is primarily mediated by the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF). Levels of HIF are regulated by the oxygen-sensing HIF hydroxylases, members of the 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) dependent oxygenase family. JmjC-domain containing histone lysine demethylases (JmjC-KDMs), also members of the 2OG oxygenase family, are key epigenetic regulators that modulate the methylation levels of histone tails. Kinetic studies of the JmjC-KDMs indicate they could also act in an oxygen-sensitive manner. This may have important implications for epigenetic regulation in hypoxia. In this review we examine evidence that the levels and activity of JmjC-KDMs are sensitive to oxygen availability, and consider how this may influence their roles in early development and hypoxic disease states including cancer and cardiovascular disease.

  15. Hypoxia as a Therapy for Mitochondrial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Isha H.; Zazzeron, Luca; Goli, Rahul; Alexa, Kristen; Schatzman-Bone, Stephanie; Dhillon, Harveen; Goldberger, Olga; Peng, Jun; Shalem, Ophir; Sanjana, Neville E.; Zhang, Feng; Goessling, Wolfram; Zapol, Warren M.; Mootha, Vamsi K.

    2016-01-01

    Defects in the mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) underlie a spectrum of human conditions, ranging from devastating inborn errors of metabolism to aging. We performed a genome-wide, Cas9-mediated screen to identify factors that are protective during RC inhibition. Our results highlight the hypoxia response, an endogenous program evolved to adapt to limiting oxygen availability. Genetic or small molecule activation of the hypoxia response is protective against mitochondrial toxicity in cultured cells and zebrafish models. Chronic hypoxia leads to a marked improvement in survival, body weight, body temperature, behavior, neuropathology and disease biomarkers in a genetic mouse model of Leigh syndrome, the most common pediatric manifestation of mitochondrial disease. Further preclinical studies are required to assess whether hypoxic exposure can be developed into a safe and effective treatment for human diseases associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:26917594

  16. Frequently asked questions in hypoxia research

    PubMed Central

    Wenger, Roland H; Kurtcuoglu, Vartan; Scholz, Carsten C; Marti, Hugo H; Hoogewijs, David

    2015-01-01

    “What is the O2 concentration in a normoxic cell culture incubator?” This and other frequently asked questions in hypoxia research will be answered in this review. Our intention is to give a simple introduction to the physics of gases that would be helpful for newcomers to the field of hypoxia research. We will provide background knowledge about questions often asked, but without straightforward answers. What is O2 concentration, and what is O2 partial pressure? What is normoxia, and what is hypoxia? How much O2 is experienced by a cell residing in a culture dish in vitro vs in a tissue in vivo? By the way, the O2 concentration in a normoxic incubator is 18.6%, rather than 20.9% or 20%, as commonly stated in research publications. And this is strictly only valid for incubators at sea level. PMID:27774480

  17. High 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) uptake in microscopic peritoneal tumors requires physiological hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Feng; Ma, Yuanyuan; Sun, Xiaorong; Humm, John L.; Ling, C. Clifton; O’Donoghue, Joseph A.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) uptake in microscopic tumors grown intraperitoneally in nude mice and to relate this to physiological hypoxia and glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) expression. Methods Human colon cancer HT29 and HCT-8 cells were injected intraperitoneally into nude mice to generate disseminated tumors of varying sizes. Following overnight fasting, animals, either breathing air or carbogen (95% O2+ 5% CO2), were intravenously administered 18F-FDG together with the hypoxia marker pimonidazole (PIMO) and the cellular proliferation marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) one hour before sacrifice. Hoechst 33342, a perfusion marker, was administered one minute before sacrifice. Following sacrifice, the intratumoral distribution of 18F-FDG was assessed by digital autoradiography of frozen tissue sections. This was compared with the distributions of PIMO, GLUT-1 expression, BrdUrd and Hoechst 33342 as visualized by immunofluorescent microscopy. Results Small tumors (< 1 mm diameter) had high 18F-FDG accumulation and were severely hypoxic with high GLUT-1 expression. Larger tumors (1–4 mm diameter) generally had low 18F-FDG accumulation and were not significantly hypoxic with low GLUT1 expression. Carbogen breathing significantly decreased 18F-FDG accumulation and tumor hypoxia in microscopic tumors but had little effect on GLUT1 expression. Conclusion There was high 18F-FDG uptake in microscopic tumors which was spatially associated with physiological hypoxia and high GLUT-1 expression. This enhanced uptake was abrogated by carbogen breathing, indicating that in the absence of physiological hypoxia, high GLUT1 expression, by itself, was insufficient to ensure high 18F-FDG uptake. PMID:20351353

  18. Individual variation in whole-animal hypoxia tolerance is associated with cardiac hypoxia tolerance in a marine teleost.

    PubMed

    Joyce, William; Ozolina, Karlina; Mauduit, Florian; Ollivier, Hélène; Claireaux, Guy; Shiels, Holly A

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia is a pervasive problem in coastal environments and is predicted to have enduring impacts on aquatic ecosystems. Intraspecific variation in hypoxia tolerance is well documented in fish; however, the factors underlying this variation remain unknown. Here, we investigate the role of the heart in individual hypoxia tolerance of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). We found individual whole-animal hypoxia tolerance is a stable trait in sea bass for more than 18 months (duration of study). We next examined in vitro cardiac performance and found myocardial muscle from hypoxia-tolerant individuals generated greater force, with higher rates of contraction and relaxation, than hypoxic-sensitive individuals during hypoxic exposure. Thus, whole-animal hypoxia tolerance is associated with cardiac hypoxia tolerance. As the occurrence of aquatic hypoxia is expected to increase in marine ecosystems, our experimental data suggest that cardiac performance may influence fish survival and distribution.

  19. Mast cells and hypoxia drive tissue metaplasia and heterotopic ossification in idiopathic arthrofibrosis after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Theresa A; Parvizi, Javad; Dela Valle, Craig J; Steinbeck, Marla J

    2010-09-01

    Idiopathic arthrofibrosis occurs in 3-4% of patients who undergo total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, little is known about the cellular or molecular changes involved in the onset or progression of this condition. To classify the histomorphologic changes and evaluate potential contributing factors, periarticular tissues from the knees of patients with arthrofibrosis were analyzed for fibroblast and mast cell proliferation, heterotopic ossification, cellular apoptosis, hypoxia and oxidative stress. The arthrofibrotic tissue was composed of dense fibroblastic regions, with limited vascularity along the outer edges. Within the fibrotic regions, elevated numbers of chymase/fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-expressing mast cells were observed. In addition, this region contained fibrocartilage and associated heterotopic ossification, which quantitatively correlated with decreased range of motion (stiffness). Fibrotic, fibrocartilage and ossified regions contained few terminal dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive or apoptotic cells, despite positive immunostaining for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)5, a marker of hypoxia, and nitrotyrosine, a marker for protein nitrosylation. LDH5 and nitrotyrosine were found in the same tissue areas, indicating that hypoxic areas within the tissue were associated with increased production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Taken together, we suggest that hypoxia-associated oxidative stress initiates mast cell proliferation and FGF secretion, spurring fibroblast proliferation and tissue fibrosis. Fibroblasts within this hypoxic environment undergo metaplastic transformation to fibrocartilage, followed by heterotopic ossification, resulting in increased joint stiffness. Thus, hypoxia and associated oxidative stress are potential therapeutic targets for fibrosis and metaplastic progression of idiopathic arthrofibrosis after TKA.

  20. Differential effects of hypoxia on osteochondrogenic potential of human adipose-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Merceron, Christophe; Vinatier, Claire; Portron, Sophie; Masson, Martial; Amiaud, Jérôme; Guigand, Lydie; Chérel, Yan; Weiss, Pierre; Guicheux, Jérôme

    2010-02-01

    Human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hATSC) have been contemplated as reparative cells for cartilage engineering. Chondrogenic differentiation of hATSC can be induced by an enriched culture medium and a three-dimensional environment. Given that bone is vascularized and cartilage is not, oxygen tension has been suggested as a regulatory factor for osteochondrogenic differentiation. Our work aimed at determining whether hypoxia affects the osteochondrogenic potential of hATSC. hATSC were cultured in chondrogenic or osteogenic medium for 28 days, in pellets or monolayers, and under 5% or 20% oxygen tension. Cell differentiation was monitored by real-time PCR (COL2A1, aggrecan, Runx2, and osteocalcin). The chondrogenic differentiation was further evaluated by Alcian blue and immunohistological staining for glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and type II collagen, respectively. Osteogenic differentiation was also assessed by the staining of mineralized matrix (Alizarin Red) and measurement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. The expression of chondrogenic markers was upregulated when hATSC were exposed to hypoxia in chondrogenic medium. Conversely, osteocalcin expression, mineralization, and ALP activity were severely reduced under hypoxic conditions even in the presence of osteogenic medium. Our data strongly suggest that hypoxia favors the chondrogenic differentiation of hATSC as evidenced by the expression of the chondrogenic markers, whereas it could alter their osteogenic potential. Our results highlight the differential regulatory role of hypoxia on the chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation processes of hATSC. These data could help us exploit the potential of tissue engineering and stem cells to replace or restore the function of osteoarticular tissues.

  1. Withanolide A prevents neurodegeneration by modulating hippocampal glutathione biosynthesis during hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Baitharu, Iswar; Jain, Vishal; Deep, Satya Narayan; Shroff, Sabita; Sahu, Jayanta Kumar; Naik, Pradeep Kumar; Ilavazhagan, Govindasamy

    2014-01-01

    Withania somnifera root extract has been used traditionally in ayurvedic system of medicine as a memory enhancer. Present study explores the ameliorative effect of withanolide A, a major component of withania root extract and its molecular mechanism against hypoxia induced memory impairment. Withanolide A was administered to male Sprague Dawley rats before a period of 21 days pre-exposure and during 07 days of exposure to a simulated altitude of 25,000 ft. Glutathione level and glutathione dependent free radicals scavenging enzyme system, ATP, NADPH level, γ-glutamylcysteinyl ligase (GCLC) activity and oxidative stress markers were assessed in the hippocampus. Expression of apoptotic marker caspase 3 in hippocampus was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Transcriptional alteration and expression of GCLC and Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were investigated by real time PCR and immunoblotting respectively. Exposure to hypobaric hypoxia decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) level and impaired reduced gluatathione dependent free radical scavenging system in hippocampus resulting in elevated oxidative stress. Supplementation of withanolide A during hypoxic exposure increased GSH level, augmented GSH dependent free radicals scavenging system and decreased the number of caspase and hoescht positive cells in hippocampus. While withanolide A reversed hypoxia mediated neurodegeneration, administration of buthionine sulfoximine along with withanolide A blunted its neuroprotective effects. Exogenous administration of corticosterone suppressed Nrf2 and GCLC expression whereas inhibition of corticosterone synthesis upregulated Nrf2 as well as GCLC. Thus present study infers that withanolide A reduces neurodegeneration by restoring hypoxia induced glutathione depletion in hippocampus. Further, Withanolide A increases glutathione biosynthesis in neuronal cells by upregulating GCLC level through Nrf2 pathway in a corticosterone dependenet manner.

  2. Withanolide A Prevents Neurodegeneration by Modulating Hippocampal Glutathione Biosynthesis during Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Baitharu, Iswar; Jain, Vishal; Deep, Satya Narayan; Shroff, Sabita; Sahu, Jayanta Kumar; Naik, Pradeep Kumar; Ilavazhagan, Govindasamy

    2014-01-01

    Withania somnifera root extract has been used traditionally in ayurvedic system of medicine as a memory enhancer. Present study explores the ameliorative effect of withanolide A, a major component of withania root extract and its molecular mechanism against hypoxia induced memory impairment. Withanolide A was administered to male Sprague Dawley rats before a period of 21 days pre-exposure and during 07 days of exposure to a simulated altitude of 25,000 ft. Glutathione level and glutathione dependent free radicals scavenging enzyme system, ATP, NADPH level, γ-glutamylcysteinyl ligase (GCLC) activity and oxidative stress markers were assessed in the hippocampus. Expression of apoptotic marker caspase 3 in hippocampus was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Transcriptional alteration and expression of GCLC and Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)–related factor 2 (Nrf2) were investigated by real time PCR and immunoblotting respectively. Exposure to hypobaric hypoxia decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) level and impaired reduced gluatathione dependent free radical scavenging system in hippocampus resulting in elevated oxidative stress. Supplementation of withanolide A during hypoxic exposure increased GSH level, augmented GSH dependent free radicals scavenging system and decreased the number of caspase and hoescht positive cells in hippocampus. While withanolide A reversed hypoxia mediated neurodegeneration, administration of buthionine sulfoximine along with withanolide A blunted its neuroprotective effects. Exogenous administration of corticosterone suppressed Nrf2 and GCLC expression whereas inhibition of corticosterone synthesis upregulated Nrf2 as well as GCLC. Thus present study infers that withanolide A reduces neurodegeneration by restoring hypoxia induced glutathione depletion in hippocampus. Further, Withanolide A increases glutathione biosynthesis in neuronal cells by upregulating GCLC level through Nrf2 pathway in a corticosterone dependenet manner

  3. Posterior mediastinal extramedullary hematopoiesis secondary to hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Solazzo, A; D’Auria, V; Moccia, LG; Vatrella, A; Bocchino, M; Rea, G

    2016-01-01

    Two mediastinal masses were incidentally detected at high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of a 72 year-old male patient, former smoker, affected by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with worsening dyspnea and 2-year medical history of polycythemia secondary to hypoxia. Integration with a multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scan after administration of intravenous injection contrast medium showed slightly inhomogeneous increase of enhancement of masses, suggesting in the first case potential malignancy. Diagnosis of extramedullary hematopoiesis was achieved by fine needle aspiration citology (FNAC). Extramedullary hematopoiesis must be considered in differential diagnosis in patients with medical history of polycythemia and severe hypoxia. PMID:27326388

  4. Posterior mediastinal extramedullary hematopoiesis secondary to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Solazzo, A; D'Auria, V; Moccia, L G; Vatrella, A; Bocchino, M; Rea, G

    2016-05-01

    Two mediastinal masses were incidentally detected at high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of a 72 year-old male patient, former smoker, affected by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with worsening dyspnea and 2-year medical history of polycythemia secondary to hypoxia. Integration with a multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scan after administration of intravenous injection contrast medium showed slightly inhomogeneous increase of enhancement of masses, suggesting in the first case potential malignancy. Diagnosis of extramedullary hematopoiesis was achieved by fine needle aspiration citology (FNAC). Extramedullary hematopoiesis must be considered in differential diagnosis in patients with medical history of polycythemia and severe hypoxia.

  5. Hypoxia, notch signalling, and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Marignol, Laure; Rivera-Figueroa, Karla; Lynch, Thomas; Hollywood, Donal

    2013-07-01

    The notch signalling pathway is involved in differentiation, proliferation, angiogenesis, vascular remodelling, and apoptosis. Deregulated expression of notch receptors, ligands, and targets is observed in many solid tumours, including prostate cancer. Hypoxia is a common feature of prostate tumours, leading to increased gene instability, reduced treatment response, and increased tumour aggressiveness. The notch signalling pathway is known to regulate vascular cell fate and is responsive to hypoxia-inducible factors. Evidence to date suggests similar, therapeutically exploitable, behaviour of notch-activated and hypoxic prostate cancer cells.

  6. Silencing cardiomyocyte TLR4 reduces injury following hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Avlas, Orna; Srara, Smadar; Shainberg, Asher; Aravot, Dan; Hochhauser, Edith

    2016-11-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), the receptor for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of gram-negative pathogens expressed in the heart, is activated by several endogenous ligands associated with tissue injury in response to myocardial infarction (MI). The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of TLR4 signaling in cardiomyocytes dysfunction following hypoxia (90min) using multiple methodologies such as knocking down TLR4 and small interfering RNA (siTLR4). Cardiomyocytes of C57Bl/6 mice (WT) subjected to hypoxic stress showed increased cardiac release of LDH, HMGB1, IκB, TNF-α and myocardial apoptotic and necrotic markers (BAX, PI) compared to TLR4 knock out mice (TLR4KO). Treating these cardiomyocytes with siRNA against TLR4 decreased the damage markers (LDH, IκB, TNF-α). TLR4 silencing during hypoxic stress resulted in the activation of the p-AKT and p-GSK3β (by ∼25%). The latter is an indicator that there is a reduction of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening following hypoxic myocardial induced injury leading to preserved mitochondrial membrane potential. Silencing TLR4 in cardiomyocytes improved cell survival following hypoxic injury through activation of the AKT/GSK3β pathway, reduced inflammatory and apoptotic signals. These findings suggest that TLR4 may serve as a potential target in the treatment of ischemic myocardial injury. Moreover, RNA interfering targeting TLR4 expression represents a therapeutic strategy.

  7. Acute hypoxia influences collagen and matrix metalloproteinase expression by human keratoconus cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Tina B.; Hjortdal, Jesper; Priyadarsini, Shrestha

    2017-01-01

    Keratoconus (KC) is a progressive corneal ectasia linked to thinning of the central cornea. Hard contact lenses, rigid gas permeable lenses, and scleral lenses are the primary treatment modalities for early to mid- stages of KC to correct refractive error and astigmatism that develops as a result of an irregular corneal structure. These treatments are associated with significant drawbacks, including reduced availability of the tear film and oxygen to the corneal epithelium and stroma. However, it remains unknown whether hypoxia affects corneal integrity in the KC pathobiology. A number of studies have associated elevated oxidative stress with KC both in vitro and ex vivo. We hypothesized that KC-derived corneal fibroblasts are more susceptible to hypoxia-induced oxidative stress compared to healthy controls leading to exacerbation of corneal thinning in KC. This study investigated the effects of hypoxia on ECM secretion, assembly, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression in human corneal fibroblasts from healthy controls (HCFs) and KC patients (HKCs) in vitro. HCFs and HKCs were cultured in 3D constructs for 3 weeks and maintained or transferred to normoxic (21% O2) or hypoxic (2% O2) conditions, respectively, for 1 additional week. At the 4 week time-point, constructs were isolated and probed for Collagen I, III, and V, keratocan and MMP-1, -2, -3, -9, and -13, as well as hypoxia markers, hypoxia inducible factor-1α and lactoferrin. Conditioned media was also collected and probed for Collagen I, III, and V by Western blot. Thickness of the ECM assembled by HCFs and HKCs was measured using immunofluorescence microscopy. Results showed that hypoxia significantly reduced Collagen I secretion in HKCs, as well as upregulated the expression of MMP-1 and -2 with no significant effects on MMP-3, -9, or -13. ECM thickness was reduced in both cell types following 1 week in a low oxygen environment. Our study shows that hypoxia influences collagen and MMP expression by

  8. Effect of hypobaric hypoxia on immune function in albino rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SaiRam, M.; Sharma, S. K.; Dipti, P.; Pauline, T.; Kain, A. K.; Mongia, S. S.; Bansal, Anju; Patra, B. D.; Ilavazhagan, G.; Devendra, K.; Selvamurthy, W.

    The effect of exposure to hypoxia on macrophage activity, lymphocyte function and oxidative stress was investigated. Hypoxia enhanced peritoneal macrophage activity as revealed by enhanced phagocytosis and free radical production. There was no significant change in antibody titres to sheep red blood cells in either serum or spleen during hypoxia. However, there was a considerable reduction in the delayed-type hypersensitivity response to sheep red blood cells, indicating the impairment of T-cell activity. Hypoxia decreased the blood glutathione (reduced) level and increased plasma malondialdehyde by a factor of about 2. It is therefore speculated that hypoxia imposes an oxidative stress leading to decreased T-cell acivity.

  9. Hypoxia inducible factor 1α promotes survival of mesenchymal stem cells under hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Bingke; Li, Feng; Fang, Jie; Xu, Limin; Sun, Chengmei; Han, Jianbang; Hua, Tian; Zhang, Zhongfei; Feng, Zhiming; Jiang, Xiaodan

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are ideal materials for cell therapy. Research has indicated that hypoxia benefits MSC survival, but little is known about the underlying mechanism. This study aims to uncover potential mechanisms involving hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF1A) to explain the promoted MSC survival under hypoxia. MSCs were obtained from Sprague-Dawley rats and cultured under normoxia or hypoxia condition. The overexpression vector or small interfering RNA of Hif1a gene was transfected to MSCs, after which cell viability, apoptosis and expression of HIF1A were analyzed by MTT assay, flow cytometry, qRT-PCR and Western blot. Factors in p53 pathway were detected to reveal the related mechanisms. Results showed that hypoxia elevated MSCs viability and up-regulated HIF1A (P < 0.05) as previously reported. HIF1A overexpression promoted viability (P < 0.01) and suppressed apoptosis (P < 0.001) under normoxia. Correspondingly, HIF1A knockdown inhibited viability (P < 0.05) and promoted apoptosis (P < 0.01) of MSCs under hypoxia. Expression analysis suggested that p53, phosphate-p53 and p21 were repressed by HIF1A overexpression and promoted by HIF1A knockdown, and B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL2) expression had the opposite pattern (P < 0.05). These results suggest that HIF1A may improve viability and suppress apoptosis of MSCs, implying the protective effect of HIF1A on MSC survival under hypoxia. The underlying mechanisms may involve the HIF1A-suppressed p53 pathway. This study helps to explain the mechanism of MSC survival under hypoxia, and facilitates the application of MSCs in cell therapy. PMID:28386377

  10. [Effects of hypoxia on the phenotype transformation of human dermal fibroblasts to myofibroblasts and the mechanism].

    PubMed

    Zhao, B; Han, F; Zhang, W; Wang, X J; Zhang, J; Yang, F F; Shi, J H; Su, L L; Hu, D H

    2017-06-20

    Objective: To investigate the effects of hypoxia on the phenotype transformation of human dermal fibroblasts to myofibroblasts and the mechanism. Methods: The third passage of healthy adult human dermal fibroblasts in logarithmic phase were cultured in DMEM medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum for the following five experiments. (1) In experiments 1, 2, and 3, cells were divided into normoxia group and hypoxia group according to the random number table, with 10 dishes in each group. Cells of normoxia group were cultured in incubator containing 21% oxygen, while those of hypoxia group with 1% oxygen. At post culture hour (PCH) 0 and 48, 5 dishes of cells were collected from each group, respectively. mRNA expressions of markers of myofibroblasts including alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), type Ⅰ collagen, and type Ⅲ collagen of cells were determined with real time fluorescent quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in experiment 1. Protein expressions of α-SMA, type Ⅰ collagen, and type Ⅲ collagen of cells were determined with Western blotting in experiment 2. The protein expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) of cells was determined with Western blotting in experiment 3. (2) In experiment 4, cells were divided into normoxia group, hypoxia group, and hypoxia+ pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) group according to the random number table, with 5 dishes in each group. Cells in the former two groups were treated the same as those in experiment 1. Cells in hypoxia+ PDTC group were treated the same as those in hypoxia group plus adding 4 mL PDTC with a final molarity of 10 μmol/L in the culture medium. At PCH 48, the protein expression of NF-κB of cells was determined with Western blotting. (3) In experiment 5, cells were divided into normoxia group, hypoxia group, hypoxia+ PDTC group, and normoxia+ PDTC group according to the random number table, with 5 dishes in each group. Cells in the former three groups were treated the

  11. Subtle Cognitive Effects of Moderate Hypoxia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    difference in word fluency, word association, or lateralized lexical decision performances. In addition, Schlaepfer, Bartsch, and Fisch (1992...12,000 and 15,000 feet. Schlaepfer, T. E., Bartsch, P., & Fisch , H. U. 1992. Paradoxical effects of mild hypoxia and moderate altitude on human

  12. GULF OF MEXICO HYPOXIA MONITORING AND MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Greene, Richard M. and Russell G. Kreis. In press. Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia Monitoring and Modeling (Abstract). To be presented at the EPA Science Forum: Healthy Communities and Ecosystems, 1-3 June 2004, Washington, DC. 1 p. (ERL,GB R990).

    Oxygen-depleted or hypoxic bottom...

  13. Hypoxia reduces and redirects selenoprotein biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Becker, Niels-Peter; Martitz, Janine; Renko, Kostja; Stoedter, Mette; Hybsier, Sandra; Cramer, Thorsten; Schomburg, Lutz

    2014-05-01

    Selenium deficiency constitutes a risk factor for the incidence and negative course of severe diseases including sepsis, stroke, autoimmune diseases or cancer. In this study, hypoxia is identified as a powerful stimulus to redirect selenoprotein biosynthesis causing reduced selenoprotein P expression and diminished selenium export from hepatocytes in favour of increased biosynthesis of the essential protective intracellular phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase GPX4. Specifically, hypoxia decreases transcript concentrations of central factors controlling selenium and selenocysteine metabolism including selenophosphate synthetase-2, phosphoseryl-tRNA(SerSec) kinase and selenocysteine lyase, which are all proven to be rate-limiting enzymes in selenoprotein biosynthesis. These effects are paralleled by a general decline of selenoprotein expression; however, not all selenoproteins are affected to the same extent by hypoxia, and GPX4 constitutes an exception as its expression becomes slightly increased. Supplemental selenium is able to overcome the hypoxia-dependent down regulation of selenoprotein expression in our cell culture model system, supporting the concept of using selenium as an adjuvant treatment option in severe diseases. Although it remains to be tested whether these effects constitute a hepatocyte-specific response, the selenium-dependent decline of selenoprotein P biosynthesis under hypoxic conditions may explain the progressive selenium deficit developing in severe diseases.

  14. Mechanisms of increased lifespan in hypoxia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genetic variation accounts for a relatively small amount of the variation in lifespan (generally 15-30%), while environmental stressors are very strong predictors (Finch and Kirkwood 2000). Hypoxia is an environmental stress that increases longevity in some contexts, but the mechanisms remain poorly...

  15. Acridine-intercalator based hypoxia selective cytotoxins

    DOEpatents

    Papadopoulou-Rosenzweig, M.; Bloomer, W.D.

    1994-03-15

    Hypoxia selective cytotoxins of the general formula STR1 wherein n is from 1 to 5, and NO[sub 2] is in at least one of the 2, 4 or 5-positions of the imidazole are developed. Such compounds have utility as radiosensitizers and chemosensitizers. 9 figs.

  16. Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Macrophage Response to Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Rahat, Michal A.; Bitterman, Haim; Lahat, Nitza

    2011-01-01

    Monocytes and Macrophages (Mo/Mɸ) exhibit great plasticity, as they can shift between different modes of activation and, driven by their immediate microenvironment, perform divergent functions. These include, among others, patrolling their surroundings and maintaining homeostasis (resident Mo/Mɸ), combating invading pathogens and tumor cells (classically activated or M1 Mo/Mɸ), orchestrating wound healing (alternatively activated or M2 Mo/Mɸ), and restoring homeostasis after an inflammatory response (resolution Mɸ). Hypoxia is an important factor in the Mɸ microenvironment, is prevalent in many physiological and pathological conditions, and is interdependent with the inflammatory response. Although Mo/Mɸ have been studied in hypoxia, the mechanisms by which hypoxia influences the different modes of their activation, and how it regulates the shift between them, remain unclear. Here we review the current knowledge about the molecular mechanisms that mediate this hypoxic regulation of Mɸ activation. Much is known about the hypoxic transcriptional regulatory network, which includes the master regulators hypoxia-induced factor-1 and NF-κB, as well as other transcription factors (e.g., AP-1, Erg-1), but we also highlight the role of post-transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms. These mechanisms mediate hypoxic induction of Mɸ pro-angiogenic mediators, suppress M1 Mɸ by post-transcriptionally inhibiting pro-inflammatory mediators, and help shift the classically activated Mɸ into an activation state which approximate the alternatively activated or resolution Mɸ. PMID:22566835

  17. Multimodality imaging of hypoxia in preclinical settings

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Ralph P.; Zhao, Dawen; Pacheco-Torres, Jesús; Cui, Weina; Kodibagkar, Vikram D.; Gulaka, Praveen K.; Hao, Guiyang; Thorpe, Philip; Hahn, Eric W.; Peschke, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Hypoxia has long been recognized to influence solid tumor response to therapy. Increasingly, hypoxia has also been implicated in tumor aggressiveness, including growth, development and metastatic potential. Thus, there is a fundamental, as well as a clinical interest, in assessing in situ tumor hypoxia. This review will examine diverse approaches focusing on the pre-clinical setting, particularly, in rodents. The strategies are inevitably a compromise in terms of sensitivity, precision, temporal and spatial resolution, as well as cost, feasibility, ease and robustness of implementation. We will review capabilities of multiple modalities and examine what makes them particularly suitable for investigating specific aspects of tumor pathophysiology. Current approaches range from nuclear imaging to magnetic resonance and optical, with varying degrees of invasiveness and ability to examine spatial heterogeneity, as well as dynamic response to interventions. Ideally, measurements would be non-invasive, exploiting endogenous reporters to reveal quantitatively local oxygen tension dynamics. A primary focus of this review is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based techniques, such as 19F MRI oximetry, which reveals not only hypoxia in vivo, but more significantly, spatial distribution of pO2 quantitatively, with a precision relevant to radiobiology. It should be noted that pre-clinical methods may have very different criteria for acceptance, as compared with potential investigations for prognostic radiology or predictive biomarkers suitable for use in patients. PMID:20639813

  18. GULF OF MEXICO HYPOXIA MONITORING AND MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Greene, Richard M. and Russell G. Kreis. In press. Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia Monitoring and Modeling (Abstract). To be presented at the EPA Science Forum: Healthy Communities and Ecosystems, 1-3 June 2004, Washington, DC. 1 p. (ERL,GB R990).

    Oxygen-depleted or hypoxic bottom...

  19. Acridine-intercalator based hypoxia selective cytotoxins

    DOEpatents

    Papadopoulou-Rosenzweig, Maria; Bloomer, William D.; Bloomer, William D.

    1994-01-01

    Hypoxia selective cytotoxins of the general formula ##STR1## wherein n is from 1 to 5, and NO.sub.2 is in at least one of the 2, 4 or 5-positions of the imidazole. Such compounds have utility as radiosensitizers and chemosensitizers.

  20. Signaling hypoxia by hypoxia-inducible factor protein hydroxylases: a historical overview and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Tammie; Ratcliffe, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    By the early 1900s, the close matching of oxygen supply with demand was recognized to be a fundamental requirement for physiological function, and multiple adaptive responses to environment hypoxia had been described. Nevertheless, the widespread operation of mechanisms that directly sense and respond to levels of oxygen in animal cells was not appreciated for most of the twentieth century with investigators generally stressing the regulatory importance of metabolic products. Work over the last 25 years has overturned that paradigm. It has revealed the existence of a set of “oxygen-sensing” 2-oxoglutarate dependent dioxygenases that catalyze the hydroxylation of specific amino acid residues and thereby control the stability and activity of hypoxia-inducible factor. The hypoxia-inducible factor hydroxylase pathway regulates a massive transcriptional cascade that is operative in essentially all animal cells. It transduces a wide range of responses to hypoxia, extending well beyond the classical boundaries of hypoxia physiology. Here we review the discovery and elucidation of these pathways, and consider the opportunities and challenges that have been brought into focus by the findings, including new implications for the integrated physiology of hypoxia and therapeutic approaches to ischemic/hypoxic disease. PMID:27774477

  1. The hypoxia signaling pathway and hypoxic adaptation in fishes.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wuhan

    2015-02-01

    The hypoxia signaling pathway is an evolutionarily conserved cellular signaling pathway present in animals ranging from Caenorhabditis elegans to mammals. The pathway is crucial for oxygen homeostasis maintenance. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF-1α and HIF-2α) are master regulators in the hypoxia signaling pathway. Oxygen concentrations vary a lot in the aquatic environment. To deal with this, fishes have adapted and developed varying strategies for living in hypoxic conditions. Investigations into the strategies and mechanisms of hypoxia adaptation in fishes will allow us to understand fish speciation and breed hypoxia-tolerant fish species/strains. This review summarizes the process of the hypoxia signaling pathway and its regulation, as well as the mechanism of hypoxia adaptation in fishes.

  2. The Effects of Hypoxia on U937 Cell Line in Mesenchymal Stem Cells Co-Culture System

    PubMed Central

    Ejtehadifar, Mostafa; Shamsasenjan, Karim; Akbarzadehlaleh, Parvin; Zahedi, Sarah; Kazemi, Narjes

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are the most important members of Bone Marrow (BM) milieu. MSCs affect different kinds of cells, particularly malignant cells of hematologic malignancies, but the effects of MSCs are unclear exactly. Here we analyzed the effects of derived Umbilical Cord Blood-MSCs on proliferation, cell death and some surface markers of U937 cell line in a Co-culture system with MSCs. Methods: Here we designed Co-culture systems as a model of BM milieu. We cultured U937 cells on UCB-MSCs and MSCs Conditioned Medium (C.M) driven and then treated U937 cells with optimum concentration of chloride cobalt (CoCl2) as a hypoxia-mimetic agent. In addition, we applied suitable concentrations of H2O2 to induce cell death. Proliferation rate, cell death rate and some surface markers of hypoxic U937 cells were analyzed by MTT assay, flow cytometry and Real Time-PCR were flown respectively. Results: UCB-MSCs showed supportive effects on U937 proliferation rate in normoxia and hypoxia. Lethal effect of H2O2 suppressed in the presence of UCB-MSCs in hypoxia and normoxia. Among CD11a, CD14, CD49d, CD54 and CD116 markers, CD49d was down regulated in presence of UCB-MSCs and CD116 was up regulated in hypoxia. Other markers didn’t show any significant changes. Conclusion: This work provides evidences that MSCs play critical roles in U937 cells biology. These observations shed new light on MSCs roles and demonstrated that MSCs should be regarded as an important member of BM milieu in several clinical applications such as BM transplantation prognosis and treatment of hematologic malignancies. PMID:28101472

  3. The Effects of Hypoxia on U937 Cell Line in Mesenchymal Stem Cells Co-Culture System.

    PubMed

    Ejtehadifar, Mostafa; Shamsasenjan, Karim; Akbarzadehlaleh, Parvin; Zahedi, Sarah; Kazemi, Narjes

    2016-12-01

    Purpose: Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are the most important members of Bone Marrow (BM) milieu. MSCs affect different kinds of cells, particularly malignant cells of hematologic malignancies, but the effects of MSCs are unclear exactly. Here we analyzed the effects of derived Umbilical Cord Blood-MSCs on proliferation, cell death and some surface markers of U937 cell line in a Co-culture system with MSCs. Methods: Here we designed Co-culture systems as a model of BM milieu. We cultured U937 cells on UCB-MSCs and MSCs Conditioned Medium (C.M) driven and then treated U937 cells with optimum concentration of chloride cobalt (CoCl2) as a hypoxia-mimetic agent. In addition, we applied suitable concentrations of H2O2 to induce cell death. Proliferation rate, cell death rate and some surface markers of hypoxic U937 cells were analyzed by MTT assay, flow cytometry and Real Time-PCR were flown respectively. Results: UCB-MSCs showed supportive effects on U937 proliferation rate in normoxia and hypoxia. Lethal effect of H2O2 suppressed in the presence of UCB-MSCs in hypoxia and normoxia. Among CD11a, CD14, CD49d, CD54 and CD116 markers, CD49d was down regulated in presence of UCB-MSCs and CD116 was up regulated in hypoxia. Other markers didn't show any significant changes. Conclusion: This work provides evidences that MSCs play critical roles in U937 cells biology. These observations shed new light on MSCs roles and demonstrated that MSCs should be regarded as an important member of BM milieu in several clinical applications such as BM transplantation prognosis and treatment of hematologic malignancies.

  4. Cerebral Oxygenation in Awake Rats during Acclimation and Deacclimation to Hypoxia: An In Vivo Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Study

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohammad N.; Hou, Huagang G.; Merlis, Jennifer; Abajian, Michelle A.; Demidenko, Eugene; Grinberg, Oleg Y.; Swartz, Harold M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Dunn, J. F., N. Khan, H. G. Hou, J. Merlis, M. A. Abajian, E. Demidenko, O.Y. Grinberg, and H. M. Swartz. Cerebral oxygenation in awake rats during acclimation and deacclimation to hypoxia: an in vivo EPR study. High Alt. Med. Biol. 12:71–77, 2011.— Exposure to high altitude or hypobaric hypoxia results in a series of metabolic, physiologic, and genetic changes that serve to acclimate the brain to hypoxia. Tissue Po2 (Pto2) is a sensitive index of the balance between oxygen delivery and utilization and can be considered to represent the summation of such factors as cerebral blood flow, capillary density, hematocrit, arterial Po2, and metabolic rate. As such, it can be used as a marker of the extent of acclimation. We developed a method using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to measure Pto2 in unanesthetized subjects with a chronically implanted sensor. EPR was used to measure rat cortical tissue Pto2 in awake rats during acute hypoxia and over a time course of acclimation and deacclimation to hypobaric hypoxia. This was done to simulate the effects on brain Pto2 of traveling to altitude for a limited period. Acute reduction of inspired O2 to 10% caused a decline from 26.7 ± 2.2 to 13.0 ± 1.5 mmHg (mean ± SD). Addition of 10% CO2 to animals breathing 10% O2 returned Pto2 to values measured while breathing 21% O2, indicating that hypercapnia can reverse the effects of acute hypoxia. Pto2 in animals acclimated to 10% O2 was similar to that measured preacclimation when breathing 21% O2. Using a novel, individualized statistical model, it was shown that the T1/2 of the Pto2 response during exposure to chronic hypoxia was approximately 2 days. This indicates a capacity for rapid adaptation to hypoxia. When subjects were returned to normoxia, there was a transient hyperoxygenation, followed by a return to lower values with a T1/2 of deacclimation of 1.5 to 3 days. These data indicate that exposure to hypoxia results in significant

  5. Hypoxic cell sensitization to radiation damage by a new radiosensitizer: cis-dichloro-bis(1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-methyl-5-nitroimidazole-N3)platinum(II) (flap).

    PubMed Central

    Bales, J. R.; Sadler, P. J.; Coulson, C. J.; Laverick, M.; Nias, A. H.

    1982-01-01

    A new, stable platinum coordination complex (FLAP) containing the 5-nitroimidazole, metronidazole, has been prepared and characterized. The square-planar platinum(II) complex has two metronidazole molecules and two chlorine atoms in the cis configuration. The properties of FLAP differ significantly from metronidazole alone or other platinum complexes tested in the same system. It has a low toxicity towards Chinese hamster ovary cells and is a very effective radiosensitizer toward hypoxic cells in vitro: a one-h pretreatment with a non-toxic dose of 50 microM gave an enhancement ratio of 2.4. No potentiation of aerated cells to X-irradiation damage was observed after a similar schedule of pretreatment at the higher dose of 100 microM FLAP. PMID:6890846

  6. K63-polyubiquitinated HAUSP deubiquitinates HIF-1α and dictates H3K56 acetylation promoting hypoxia-induced tumour progression

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Han-Tsang; Kuo, Yi-Chih; Hung, Jung-Jyh; Huang, Chi-Hung; Chen, Wei-Yi; Chou, Teh-Ying; Chen, Yeh; Chen, Yi-Ju; Chen, Yu-Ju; Cheng, Wei-Chung; Teng, Shu-Chun; Wu, Kou-Juey

    2016-01-01

    Intratumoural hypoxia induces HIF-1α and promotes tumour progression, metastasis and treatment resistance. HIF-1α stability is regulated by VHL-E3 ligase-mediated ubiquitin-dependent degradation; however, the hypoxia-regulated deubiquitinase that stabilizes HIF-1α has not been identified. Here we report that HAUSP (USP7) deubiquitinase deubiquitinates HIF-1α to increase its stability, induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition and promote metastasis. Hypoxia induces K63-linked polyubiquitinated HAUSP at lysine 443 to enhance its functions. Knockdown of HAUSP decreases acetylation of histone 3 lysine 56 (H3K56Ac). K63-polyubiquitinated HAUSP interacts with a ubiquitin receptor CBP to specifically mediate H3K56 acetylation. ChIP-seq analysis of HAUSP and HIF-1α binding reveals two motifs responsive to hypoxia. HectH9 is the E3 ligase for HAUSP and a prognostic marker together with HIF-1α. This report demonstrates that hypoxia-induced K63-polyubiquitinated HAUSP deubiquitinates HIF-1α and causes CBP-mediated H3K56 acetylation on HIF-1α target gene promoters to promote EMT/metastasis, further defining HAUSP as a therapeutic target in hypoxia-induced tumour progression. PMID:27934968

  7. Nobiletin inhibited hypoxia-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition of lung cancer cells by inactivating of Notch-1 signaling and switching on miR-200b.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xue-Jun; Liu, Jian-Wei; Zhang, Qing-Guang; Zhang, Jing-Jing; Xu, Hai-Tao; Liu, Hong-Jian

    2015-04-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an early step in the process of tumor metastasis. It is well known that tumor microenvironment affects malignancy in various carcinomas; in particular, that hypoxia induces EMT. Deregulated notch signaling also contributes a lot to the development of EMT in lung cancer. In this study, we investigated the use of Notch-1-inhibiting compound as novel therapeutic candidates to regulate hypoxia-induced EMT in lung cancer cells. According to previous screening, nobiletin was selected as a Notch-1 inhibitor. Hypoxia-induced EMT was characteristic of increased N-cadherin & vimentin expressions and decreased E-cadherin expressions. Treatment with nobiletin notably attenuated hypoxia-induced EMT, invasion and migration in H1299 cells, accompanied with reduced Notch-1, Jagged1/2 expressions and its downstream genes Hey-1 and Hes-1. Nobiletin treatment also promoted tumorsuppressive miR-200b level. Moreover, notch-1 siRNA prevented hypoxia-mediated cell migration and decreased Twist1, Snail1, and ZEB1/2 expressions, which are key EMT markers. Re-expression of miR-200b blocked hypoxia-induced EMT and cell invasion. Our findings suggest that downregulation of Notch-1 and reexpression of miR-200b by nobiletin might be a novel remedy for the therapy of lung cancer.

  8. Multiresidue method for identification and quantification of avermectins, benzimidazoles and nitroimidazoles residues in bovine muscle tissue by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) using a QuEChERS approach.

    PubMed

    Silva, Guilherme Resende da; Lima, Josefa Abucater; Souza, Leonardo Francisco de; Santos, Flávio Alves; Lana, Mary Ane Gonçalves; Assis, Débora Cristina Sampaio de; Cançado, Silvana de Vasconcelos

    2017-08-15

    A quantitative and confirmatory multiresidue method for determining the presence of avermectins, benzimidazoles and nitroimidazoles in bovine muscle tissue by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was developed, optimized and validated, using a QuEChERS extraction. The evaluated performance parameters were linearity, selectivity, matrix effect, decision limits (CCα), detection capability (CCβ), limits of detection (LOD), limits of quantification (LOQ), accuracy, precision and robustness. The validated method exhibited linearity with coefficient of determination (R(2)) higher than 0.90 in the working range from 0.5 to 2.0 times the maximum residue limit (MRL) or the minimum required performance level (MRPL) for the studied analytes, except for closantel, for which the linear study range was defined from 50 to 200µgkg(-1). The method was selective in the presence of macrolides and lincosamides for all the studied analytes. The LOD varied from 0.007 to 66.715µgkg(-1), whereas LOQ values ranging from 0.011 to 113.674µgkg(-1) were found. The results of the evaluation of the accuracy and precision were satisfactory for all the studied analytes, and according to the assessment of the robustness, the method was not robust only for the analytes abamectin, moxidectin, doramectin fenbendazole sulfone, closantel, thiabendazole, hydroxyl-metronidazole and ronidazole. The performance parameters demonstrated total method adequacy for the detection and quantification of avermectins, benzimidazoles and nitroimidazoles residues in bovine muscle tissues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Transdifferentiation of pulmonary arteriolar endothelial cells into smooth muscle-like cells regulated by myocardin involved in hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodelling

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Pengcheng; Huang, Lei; Ge, Xiaona; Yan, Fei; Wu, Renliang; Ao, Qilin

    2006-01-01

    Myocardin gene has been identified as a master regulator of smooth muscle cell differentiation. Smooth muscle cells play a critical role in the pathogenesis of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH) and pulmonary vascular remodelling (PVR). The purpose of this study was to investigate the change of myocardin gene expression in the pulmonary vessels of hypoxia-induced PH affected by Sildenafil treatment and the involvement of endothelial cells transdifferentiation into smooth muscle cells in the process of hypoxia-induced PH and PVR. Myocardin and relative markers were investigated in animal models and cultured endothelial cells. Mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) was measured. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were used to show the expression of smooth muscle α-actin (SMA), in situ hybridization (ISH) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were performed respectively to detect the myocardin and SMA expression at mRNA levels. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) induced suppression of myocardin in cultured cells. We confirmed that hypoxia induced the PH and PVR in rats. Sildenafil could attenuate the hypoxia-induced PH. We found that myocardin mRNA expression is upregulated significantly in the hypoxic pulmonary vessels and cultured cells but downregulated in PH with Sildenafil treatment. The porcine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs) transdifferentiate into smooth muscle-like cells in hypoxic culture while the transdifferentiation did not occur when SiRNA of myocardin was applied. Our results suggest that myocardin gene, as a marker of smooth muscle cell differentiation, was expressed in the pulmonary vessels in hypoxia-induced PH rats, which could be downregulated by Sildenafil treatment, as well as in hypoxic cultured endothelial cells. Hypoxia induced the transdifferentiation of endothelial cells of vessels into smooth muscle-like cells which was regulated by myocardin. PMID:17222214

  10. Pancreatic Fibroblasts Stimulate the Motility of Pancreatic Cancer Cells through IGF1/IGF1R Signaling under Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Hirakawa, Toshiki; Yashiro, Masakazu; Doi, Yosuke; Kinoshita, Haruhito; Morisaki, Tamami; Fukuoka, Tatsunari; Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi; Kimura, Kenjiro; Amano, Ryosuke; Hirakawa, Kosei

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by its hypovascularity, with an extremely poor prognosis because of its highly invasive nature. PDAC proliferates with abundant stromal cells, suggesting that its invasive activity might be controlled by intercellular interactions between cancer cells and fibroblasts. Using four PDAC cell lines and two pancreas cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) and IGF1 receptor (IGF1R) was evaluated by RT-PCR, FACScan, western blot, or ELISA. Correlation between IGF1R and the hypoxia marker carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9) was examined by immunohistochemical staining of 120 pancreatic specimens. The effects of CAFs, IGF1, and IGF1R inhibitors on the motility of cancer cells were examined by wound-healing assay or invasion assay under normoxia (20% O2) and hypoxia (1% O2). IGF1R expression was significantly higher in RWP-1, MiaPaCa-2, and OCUP-AT cells than in Panc-1 cells. Hypoxia increased the expression level of IGF1R in RWP-1, MiaPaCa-2, and OCUP-AT cells. CA9 expression was correlated with IGF1R expression in pancreatic specimens. CAFs produced IGF1 under hypoxia, but PDAC cells did not. A conditioned medium from CAFs, which expressed αSMA, stimulated the migration and invasion ability of MiaPaCa-2, RWP-1, and OCUP-AT cells. The motility of all PDAC cells was greater under hypoxia than under normoxia. The motility-stimulating ability of CAFs was decreased by IGF1R inhibitors. These findings might suggest that pancreas CAFs stimulate the invasion activity of PDAC cells through paracrine IGF1/IGF1R signaling, especially under hypoxia. Therefore the targeting of IGF1R signaling might represent a promising therapeutic approach in IGF1R-dependent PDAC. PMID:27487118

  11. Inhibition of mitochondrial fission prevents hypoxia-induced metabolic shift and cellular proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Parra, Valentina; Bravo-Sagua, Roberto; Norambuena-Soto, Ignacio; Hernández-Fuentes, Carolina P; Gómez-Contreras, Andrés G; Verdejo, Hugo E; Mellado, Rosemarie; Chiong, Mario; Lavandero, Sergio; Castro, Pablo F

    2017-07-22

    Chronic hypoxia exacerbates proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC), thereby reducing the lumen of pulmonary arteries. This leads to poor blood oxygenation and cardiac work overload, which are the basis of diseases such as pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). Recent studies revealed an emerging role of mitochondria in PAH pathogenesis, as key regulators of cell survival and metabolism. In this work, we assessed whether hypoxia-induced mitochondrial fragmentation contributes to the alterations of both PASMC death and proliferation. In previous work in cardiac myocytes, we showed that trimetazidine (TMZ), a partial inhibitor of lipid oxidation, stimulates mitochondrial fusion and preserves mitochondrial function. Thus, here we evaluated whether TMZ-induced mitochondrial fusion can prevent human PASMC proliferation in an in vitro hypoxic model. Using confocal fluorescence microscopy, we showed that prolonged hypoxia (48h) induces mitochondrial fragmentation along with higher levels of the mitochondrial fission protein DRP1. Concomitantly, both mitochondrial potential and respiratory rates decreased, indicative of mitochondrial dysfunction. In accordance with a metabolic shift towards non-mitochondrial ATP generation, mRNA levels of glycolytic markers HK2, PFKFB2 and GLUT1 increased during hypoxia. Incubation of PASMC with TMZ, prior to hypoxia, prevented all these changes and precluded the increase in PASMC proliferation. These findings were also observed using Mdivi-1 (a pharmacological DRP1 inhibitor) or a dominant negative DRP1 K38A as pre-treatments. Altogether, our data indicate that TMZ exerts a protective role against hypoxia-induced PASMC proliferation, by preserving mitochondrial function, thus highlighting DRP1-dependent morphology as a novel therapeutic approach for diseases such as PAH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Cyclosporine treatment reduces oxygen free radical generation and oxidative stress in the brain of hypoxia-reoxygenated newborn piglets.

    PubMed

    Gill, Richdeep S; Lee, Tze-Fun; Liu, Jiang-Qin; Chaudhary, Hetal; Brocks, Dion R; Bigam, David L; Cheung, Po-Yin

    2012-01-01

    Oxygen free radicals have been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. It has previously been shown in traumatic brain injury animal models that treatment with cyclosporine reduces brain injury. However, the potential neuroprotective effect of cyclosporine in asphyxiated neonates has yet to be fully studied. Using an acute newborn swine model of hypoxia-reoxygenation, we evaluated the effects of cyclosporine on the brain, focusing on hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) production and markers of oxidative stress. Piglets (1-4 d, 1.4-2.5 kg) were block-randomized into three hypoxia-reoxygenation experimental groups (2 h hypoxia followed by 4 h reoxygenation) (n = 8/group). At 5 min after reoxygenation, piglets were given either i.v. saline (placebo, controls) or cyclosporine (2.5 or 10 mg/kg i.v. bolus) in a blinded-randomized fashion. An additional sham-operated group (n = 4) underwent no hypoxia-reoxygenation. Systemic hemodynamics, carotid arterial blood flow (transit-time ultrasonic probe), cerebral cortical H(2)O(2) production (electrochemical sensor), cerebral tissue glutathione (ELISA) and cytosolic cytochrome-c (western blot) levels were examined. Hypoxic piglets had cardiogenic shock (cardiac output 40-48% of baseline), hypotension (mean arterial pressure 27-31 mmHg) and acidosis (pH 7.04) at the end of 2 h of hypoxia. Post-resuscitation cyclosporine treatment, particularly the higher dose (10 mg/kg), significantly attenuated the increase in cortical H(2)O(2) concentration during reoxygenation, and was associated with lower cerebral oxidized glutathione levels. Furthermore, cyclosporine treatment significantly attenuated the increase in cortical cytochrome-c and lactate levels. Carotid blood arterial flow was similar among groups during reoxygenation. Conclusively, post-resuscitation administration of cyclosporine significantly attenuates H(2)O(2) production and minimizes oxidative stress in newborn piglets following hypoxia-reoxygenation.

  13. Hypoxia Induces Mesenchymal Gene Expression in Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells: An in vitro Model of Kidney Transplant Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Zell, Stephanie; Schmitt, Roland; Witting, Sandra; Kreipe, Hans H; Hussein, Kais; Becker, Jan U

    2013-01-01

    The development of interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy is a common complication after kidney transplantation and is associated with reduced long-term outcome. The hallmark of tubulointerstitial fibrosis is an increase in extracellular matrix resulting from exaggerated activation of fibroblasts/myofibroblasts, and tubular atrophy is characterized by a decrease in tubular diameter and loss of function. Atrophic epithelial cells may undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) with potential differentiation into interstitial fibroblasts. One potential driver of EMT in developing interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy is chronic hypoxia. The expression of 46 EMT-related genes was analyzed in an in vitro hypoxia model in renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTEC). Furthermore, the expression of 342 microRNAs (miR) was evaluated in hypoxic culture conditions. Hypoxic RPTEC expressed markers of a more mesenchymal phenotype and showed an increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2). MMP2 expression in RPTEC correlated inversely with a decreased expression of miR-124, which was found to have a putative binding site for the MMP2 transcript. Overexpression of miR-124 inhibited MMP2 protein translation. Hypoxia was associated with increased migration/proliferation of RPTEC which was reversed by miR-124. These results indicate that hypoxia promotes a mesenchymal and migratory phenotype in renal epithelial cells, which is associated with increased MMP2 expression. Hypoxia-dependent MMP2 expression is regulated via a reduced transcription of miR-124. Overexpression of miR-124 antagonizes hypoxia-induced cell migration. Further research is needed to elucidate the functional role of miR-124 and MMP2 in the development of fibrosis in renal transplant degeneration.

  14. Hypoxia Induces Mesenchymal Gene Expression in Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells: An in vitro Model of Kidney Transplant Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Zell, Stephanie; Schmitt, Roland; Witting, Sandra; Kreipe, Hans H.; Hussein, Kais; Becker, Jan U.

    2013-01-01

    Background The development of interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy is a common complication after kidney transplantation and is associated with reduced long-term outcome. The hallmark of tubulointerstitial fibrosis is an increase in extracellular matrix resulting from exaggerated activation of fibroblasts/myofibroblasts, and tubular atrophy is characterized by a decrease in tubular diameter and loss of function. Atrophic epithelial cells may undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) with potential differentiation into interstitial fibroblasts. One potential driver of EMT in developing interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy is chronic hypoxia. Methods The expression of 46 EMT-related genes was analyzed in an in vitro hypoxia model in renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTEC). Furthermore, the expression of 342 microRNAs (miR) was evaluated in hypoxic culture conditions. Results Hypoxic RPTEC expressed markers of a more mesenchymal phenotype and showed an increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2). MMP2 expression in RPTEC correlated inversely with a decreased expression of miR-124, which was found to have a putative binding site for the MMP2 transcript. Overexpression of miR-124 inhibited MMP2 protein translation. Hypoxia was associated with increased migration/proliferation of RPTEC which was reversed by miR-124. Conclusions These results indicate that hypoxia promotes a mesenchymal and migratory phenotype in renal epithelial cells, which is associated with increased MMP2 expression. Hypoxia-dependent MMP2 expression is regulated via a reduced transcription of miR-124. Overexpression of miR-124 antagonizes hypoxia-induced cell migration. Further research is needed to elucidate the functional role of miR-124 and MMP2 in the development of fibrosis in renal transplant degeneration. PMID:23898346

  15. Cyclosporine Treatment Reduces Oxygen Free Radical Generation and Oxidative Stress in the Brain of Hypoxia-Reoxygenated Newborn Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiang-Qin; Chaudhary, Hetal; Brocks, Dion R.; Bigam, David L.; Cheung, Po-Yin

    2012-01-01

    Oxygen free radicals have been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. It has previously been shown in traumatic brain injury animal models that treatment with cyclosporine reduces brain injury. However, the potential neuroprotective effect of cyclosporine in asphyxiated neonates has yet to be fully studied. Using an acute newborn swine model of hypoxia-reoxygenation, we evaluated the effects of cyclosporine on the brain, focusing on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production and markers of oxidative stress. Piglets (1–4 d, 1.4–2.5 kg) were block-randomized into three hypoxia-reoxygenation experimental groups (2 h hypoxia followed by 4 h reoxygenation)(n = 8/group). At 5 min after reoxygenation, piglets were given either i.v. saline (placebo, controls) or cyclosporine (2.5 or 10 mg/kg i.v. bolus) in a blinded-randomized fashion. An additional sham-operated group (n = 4) underwent no hypoxia-reoxygenation. Systemic hemodynamics, carotid arterial blood flow (transit-time ultrasonic probe), cerebral cortical H2O2 production (electrochemical sensor), cerebral tissue glutathione (ELISA) and cytosolic cytochrome-c (western blot) levels were examined. Hypoxic piglets had cardiogenic shock (cardiac output 40–48% of baseline), hypotension (mean arterial pressure 27–31 mmHg) and acidosis (pH 7.04) at the end of 2 h of hypoxia. Post-resuscitation cyclosporine treatment, particularly the higher dose (10 mg/kg), significantly attenuated the increase in cortical H2O2 concentration during reoxygenation, and was associated with lower cerebral oxidized glutathione levels. Furthermore, cyclosporine treatment significantly attenuated the increase in cortical cytochrome-c and lactate levels. Carotid blood arterial flow was similar among groups during reoxygenation. Conclusively, post-resuscitation administration of cyclosporine significantly attenuates H2O2 production and minimizes oxidative stress in newborn piglets following hypoxia

  16. Pancreatic Fibroblasts Stimulate the Motility of Pancreatic Cancer Cells through IGF1/IGF1R Signaling under Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Toshiki; Yashiro, Masakazu; Doi, Yosuke; Kinoshita, Haruhito; Morisaki, Tamami; Fukuoka, Tatsunari; Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi; Kimura, Kenjiro; Amano, Ryosuke; Hirakawa, Kosei

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by its hypovascularity, with an extremely poor prognosis because of its highly invasive nature. PDAC proliferates with abundant stromal cells, suggesting that its invasive activity might be controlled by intercellular interactions between cancer cells and fibroblasts. Using four PDAC cell lines and two pancreas cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) and IGF1 receptor (IGF1R) was evaluated by RT-PCR, FACScan, western blot, or ELISA. Correlation between IGF1R and the hypoxia marker carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9) was examined by immunohistochemical staining of 120 pancreatic specimens. The effects of CAFs, IGF1, and IGF1R inhibitors on the motility of cancer cells were examined by wound-healing assay or invasion assay under normoxia (20% O2) and hypoxia (1% O2). IGF1R expression was significantly higher in RWP-1, MiaPaCa-2, and OCUP-AT cells than in Panc-1 cells. Hypoxia increased the expression level of IGF1R in RWP-1, MiaPaCa-2, and OCUP-AT cells. CA9 expression was correlated with IGF1R expression in pancreatic specimens. CAFs produced IGF1 under hypoxia, but PDAC cells did not. A conditioned medium from CAFs, which expressed αSMA, stimulated the migration and invasion ability of MiaPaCa-2, RWP-1, and OCUP-AT cells. The motility of all PDAC cells was greater under hypoxia than under normoxia. The motility-stimulating ability of CAFs was decreased by IGF1R inhibitors. These findings might suggest that pancreas CAFs stimulate the invasion activity of PDAC cells through paracrine IGF1/IGF1R signaling, especially under hypoxia. Therefore the targeting of IGF1R signaling might represent a promising therapeutic approach in IGF1R-dependent PDAC.

  17. Culture media from hypoxia conditioned endothelial cells protect human intestinal cells from hypoxia/reoxygenation injury.

    PubMed

    Hummitzsch, Lars; Zitta, Karina; Bein, Berthold; Steinfath, Markus; Albrecht, Martin

    2014-03-10

    Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is a phenomenon, whereby short episodes of non-lethal ischemia to an organ or tissue exert protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury in a distant organ. However, there is still an apparent lack of knowledge concerning the RIPC-mediated mechanisms within the target organ and the released factors. Here we established a human cell culture model to investigate cellular and molecular effects of RIPC and to identify factors responsible for RIPC-mediated intestinal protection. Human umbilical vein cells (HUVEC) were exposed to repeated episodes of hypoxia (3 × 15 min) and conditioned culture media (CM) were collected after 24h. Human intestinal cells (CaCo-2) were cultured with or without CM and subjected to 90 min of hypoxia/reoxygenation injury. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, gelatin zymography, hydrogen peroxide measurements and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays were performed. In HUVEC cultures hypoxic conditioning did not influence the profile of secreted proteins but led to an increased gelatinase activity (P<0.05) in CM. In CaCo-2 cultures 90 min of hypoxia/reoxygenation resulted in morphological signs of cell damage, increased LDH levels (P<0.001) and elevated levels of hydrogen peroxide (P<0.01). Incubation of CaCo-2 cells with CM reduced the hypoxia-induced signs of cell damage and LDH release (P<0.01) and abrogated the hypoxia-induced increase of hydrogen peroxide. These events were associated with an enhanced phosphorylation status of the prosurvival kinase Erk1/2 (P<0.05) but not Akt and STAT-5. Taken together, CM of hypoxia conditioned endothelial cells protect human intestinal cells from hypoxia/reoxygenation injury. The established culture model may help to unravel RIPC-mediated cellular events and to identify molecules released by RIPC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hypoxia-Inducible Factors: Mediators of Cancer Progression; Prognostic and Therapeutic Targets in Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Sadri, Navid; Zhang, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Soft-tissue sarcomas remain aggressive tumors that result in death in greater than a third of patients due to either loco-regional recurrence or distant metastasis. Surgical resection remains the main choice of treatment for soft tissue sarcomas with pre- and/or post-operational radiation and neoadjuvant chemotherapy employed in more advanced stage disease. However, in recent decades, there has been little progress in the average five-year survival for the majority of patients with high-grade soft tissue sarcomas, highlighting the need for improved targeted therapeutic agents. Clinical and preclinical studies demonstrate that tumor hypoxia and up-regulation of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) is associated with decreased survival, increased metastasis, and resistance to therapy in soft tissue sarcomas. HIF-mediated gene expression regulates many critical aspects of tumor biology, including cell survival, metabolic programming, angiogenesis, metastasis, and therapy resistance. In this review, we discuss HIFs and HIF-mediated genes as potential prognostic markers and therapeutic targets in sarcomas. Many pharmacological agents targeting hypoxia-related pathways are in development that may hold therapeutic potential for treating both primary and metastatic sarcomas that demonstrate increased HIF expression. PMID:24216979

  19. Hypoxia in Head and Neck Cancer in Theory and Practice: A PET-Based Imaging Approach

    PubMed Central

    Marcu, Loredana G.; Harriss-Phillips, Wendy M.; Filip, Sanda M.

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia plays an important role in tumour recurrence among head and neck cancer patients. The identification and quantification of hypoxic regions are therefore an essential aspect of disease management. Several predictive assays for tumour oxygenation status have been developed in the past with varying degrees of success. To date, functional imaging techniques employing positron emission tomography (PET) have been shown to be an important tool for both pretreatment assessment and tumour response evaluation during therapy. Hypoxia-specific PET markers have been implemented in several clinics to quantify hypoxic tumour subvolumes for dose painting and personalized treatment planning and delivery. Several new radiotracers are under investigation. PET-derived functional parameters and tracer pharmacokinetics serve as valuable input data for computational models aiming at simulating or interpreting PET acquired data, for the purposes of input into treatment planning or radio/chemotherapy response prediction programs. The present paper aims to cover the current status of hypoxia imaging in head and neck cancer together with the justification for the need and the role of computer models based on PET parameters in understanding patient-specific tumour behaviour. PMID:25214887

  20. Effects of Severe Hypoxia on Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Differentiation Potential

    PubMed Central

    Cicione, Claudia; Muiños-López, Emma; Hermida-Gómez, Tamara; Fuentes-Boquete, Isaac; Díaz-Prado, Silvia; Blanco, Francisco J.

    2013-01-01

    Background. The interests in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their application in cell therapy have resulted in a better understanding of the basic biology of these cells. Recently hypoxia has been indicated as crucial for complete chondrogenesis. We aimed at analyzing bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs) differentiation capacity under normoxic and severe hypoxic culture conditions. Methods. MSCs were characterized by flow cytometry and differentiated towards adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes under normoxic or severe hypoxic conditions. The differentiations were confirmed comparing each treated point with a control point made of cells grown in DMEM and fetal bovine serum (FBS). Results. BM-MSCs from the donors displayed only few phenotypical differences in surface antigens expressions. Analyzing marker genes expression levels of the treated cells compared to their control point for each lineage showed a good differentiation in normoxic conditions and the absence of this differentiation capacity in severe hypoxic cultures. Conclusions. In our experimental conditions, severe hypoxia affects the in vitro differentiation potential of BM-MSCs. Adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic differentiations are absent in severe hypoxic conditions. Our work underlines that severe hypoxia slows cell differentiation by means of molecular mechanisms since a decrease in the expression of adipocyte-, osteoblast-, and chondrocyte-specific genes was observed. PMID:24082888

  1. Prolonged mild hypoxia modifies human circadian core body temperature and may be associated with sleep disturbances.

    PubMed

    Coste, Olivier; Beaumont, Maurice; Batéjat, Denise; Beers, Pascal Van; Touitou, Yvan

    2004-05-01

    Fatigue is often reported after long-haul airplane flights. Hypobaric hypoxia, observed in pressurized cabins, may play a role in this phenomenon by altering circadian rhythms. In a controlled cross-over study, we assessed the effects of two levels of hypoxia, corresponding to cabin altitudes of 8000 and 12,000 ft, on the rhythm of core body temperature (CBT), a marker of circadian rhythmicity, and on subjective sleep. Twenty healthy young male volunteers were exposed for 8 h (08:00-16:00 h) in a hypobaric chamber to a cabin altitude of 8000 ft and, 4 weeks later, 12,000 ft. Each subject served as his own control. For each exposure, CBT was recorded by telemetry for two 24h cycles (control and hypoxic exposure). After filtering out nonphysiological values, the individual CBT data were fitted with a five-order moving average before statistical group analysis. Sleep latency, sleep time, and sleep efficiency were studied by sleep logs completed every day in the morning. Our results show that the CBT rhythm expression was altered, mainly at 12,000 ft, with a significant increase of amplitude and a delay in the evening decline in CBT, associated with alterations of sleep latency. Mild hypoxia may therefore alter circadian structure and result in sleep disturbances. These results may explain in part the frequent complaints of prolonged post-flight fatigue after long flights, even when no time zones are crossed.

  2. Zinc finger nuclease knock-out of NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) in human tumor cell lines demonstrates that hypoxia-activated prodrugs differ in POR dependence.

    PubMed

    Su, Jiechuang; Gu, Yongchuan; Pruijn, Frederik B; Smaill, Jeff B; Patterson, Adam V; Guise, Christopher P; Wilson, William R

    2013-12-27

    Hypoxia, a ubiquitous feature of tumors, can be exploited by hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAP) that are substrates for one-electron reduction in the absence of oxygen. NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is considered one of the major enzymes responsible, based on studies using purified enzyme or forced overexpression in cell lines. To examine the role of POR in HAP activation at endogenous levels of expression, POR knock-outs were generated in HCT116 and SiHa cells by targeted mutation of exon 8 using zinc finger nucleases. Absolute quantitation by proteotypic peptide mass spectrometry of DNA sequence-confirmed multiallelic mutants demonstrated expression of proteins with residual one-electron reductase activity in some clones and identified two (Hko2 from HCT116 and S2ko1 from SiHa) that were functionally null by multiple criteria. Sensitivities of the clones to 11 HAP (six nitroaromatics, three benzotriazine N-oxides, and two quinones) were compared with wild-type and POR-overexpressing cells. All except the quinones were potentiated by POR overexpression. Knocking out POR had a marked effect on antiproliferative activity of the 5-nitroquinoline SN24349 in both genetic backgrounds after anoxic exposure but little or no effect on activity of most other HAP, including the clinical stage 2-nitroimidazole mustard TH-302, dinitrobenzamide mustard PR-104A, and benzotriazine N-oxide SN30000. Clonogenic cell killing and reductive metabolism of PR-104A and SN30000 under anoxia also showed little change in the POR knock-outs. Thus, although POR expression is a potential biomarker of sensitivity to some HAP, identification of other one-electron reductases responsible for HAP activation is needed for their rational clinical development.

  3. Zinc Finger Nuclease Knock-out of NADPH:Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase (POR) in Human Tumor Cell Lines Demonstrates That Hypoxia-activated Prodrugs Differ in POR Dependence*

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jiechuang; Gu, Yongchuan; Pruijn, Frederik B.; Smaill, Jeff B.; Patterson, Adam V.; Guise, Christopher P.; Wilson, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia, a ubiquitous feature of tumors, can be exploited by hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAP) that are substrates for one-electron reduction in the absence of oxygen. NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is considered one of the major enzymes responsible, based on studies using purified enzyme or forced overexpression in cell lines. To examine the role of POR in HAP activation at endogenous levels of expression, POR knock-outs were generated in HCT116 and SiHa cells by targeted mutation of exon 8 using zinc finger nucleases. Absolute quantitation by proteotypic peptide mass spectrometry of DNA sequence-confirmed multiallelic mutants demonstrated expression of proteins with residual one-electron reductase activity in some clones and identified two (Hko2 from HCT116 and S2ko1 from SiHa) that were functionally null by multiple criteria. Sensitivities of the clones to 11 HAP (six nitroaromatics, three benzotriazine N-oxides, and two quinones) were compared with wild-type and POR-overexpressing cells. All except the quinones were potentiated by POR overexpression. Knocking out POR had a marked effect on antiproliferative activity of the 5-nitroquinoline SN24349 in both genetic backgrounds after anoxic exposure but little or no effect on activity of most other HAP, including the clinical stage 2-nitroimidazole mustard TH-302, dinitrobenzamide mustard PR-104A, and benzotriazine N-oxide SN30000. Clonogenic cell killing and reductive metabolism of PR-104A and SN30000 under anoxia also showed little change in the POR knock-outs. Thus, although POR expression is a potential biomarker of sensitivity to some HAP, identification of other one-electron reductases responsible for HAP activation is needed for their rational clinical development. PMID:24196959

  4. High twin resemblance for sensitivity to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Masschelein, Evi; Van Thienen, Ruud; Thomis, Martine; Hespel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Physiological responses to hypoxia vary between individuals, and genetic factors are conceivably involved. Using a monozygotic twin design, we investigated the role of genetic factors in physiological responses to acute hypoxia. Thirteen pairs of monozygotic twin brothers participated in two experimental sessions in a normobaric hypoxic facility with a 2-wk interval. In one session, fraction of inspired O2 (FiO2) was gradually reduced to 10.7% (approximately 5300 m altitude) over 5 h. During the next 3 h at 10.7%, FiO2 subjects performed a 20-min submaximal exercise bout (EXSUB, 1.2 W·kg) and a maximal incremental exercise test (EXMAX). An identical control experiment was done in normoxia. Cardiorespiratory measurements were continuously performed, and 8-h urine output was collected. Compared with normoxia, hypoxia decreased (P < 0.05) arterial O2 saturation (%SpO2) at rest (-22%) and during exercise (-28%). Furthermore, V˙O2max (-39%), HRmax (HR, -8%), maximal pulmonary ventilation (V˙Emax, -11%), and urinary norepinephrine excretion (-31%) were reduced (P < 0.05) whereas HR at rest (25%) and during EXSUB (16%) and V˙E at rest (38%) and during EXSUB (70%) were increased (P < 0.05). However, hypoxia-induced changes (Δ) were not randomly distributed between subjects. Between-pair variance was substantially larger than within-pair variance (P < 0.05) for Δ%SpO2 at rest (approximately threefold) and during exercise (approximately fourfold), ΔV˙O2max (approximately fourfold), ΔHR during exercise (approximately seven- to eightfold), hypoxic ventilatory response (approximately sixfold), and Δ urinary norepinephrine output (approximately threefold). Incidence of acute mountain sickness (AMS) also yielded significant twin similarity (P < 0.05). AMS subjects showed approximately 50% greater drop in urinary norepinephrine and lower hypoxic ventilator response than AMS individuals. Our data suggest that genetic factors regulate cardiorespiratory responses, exercise

  5. Hypoxia inducible factors 1 and 2 are important transcriptional effectors in primary macrophages experiencing hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Hsin-Yu; Hughes, Russell; Murdoch, Craig; Coffelt, Seth; Biswas, Subhra K.; Harris, Adrian L.; Johnson, Randall S.; Imityaz, Hongxia Z.; Simon, M. Celeste; Fredlund, Erik; Greten, Florian; Rius, Jordi; Lewis, Claire E.

    2010-01-01

    Ischemia exists in many diseased tissues including arthritic joints, atherosclerotic plaques and malignant tumors. Macrophages accumulate in these sites and upregulate hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) 1 and 2 in response to the hypoxia present. Here we show that the gene expression profile in primary human and murine macrophages changes markedly when they are exposed to hypoxia for 18h. For example, they were seen to upregulate the cell surface receptors, CXCR4 and GLUT1, and the potent, tumor-promoting cytokines, VEGFA, interleukins 1β and 8, adrenomedullin, CXCR4 and angiopoietin-2. Hypoxia also stimulated their expression and/or phosphorylation of various proteins in the NF-κB signalling pathway. We then used both genetic and pharmacological methods to manipulate the levels of HIFs 1α and 2α or NF-κB in primary macrophages in order to elucidate their role in the hypoxic induction of many of these key genes. These studies showed that both HIFs 1 and 2, but not NF-κB, are important transcriptional effectors regulating the responses of macrophages to such a period of hypoxia. Further studies using experimental mouse models are now warranted to investigate the role of such macrophage responses in the progression of various diseased tissues like malignant tumors. PMID:19454749

  6. Hypoxia-inducible factors 1 and 2 are important transcriptional effectors in primary macrophages experiencing hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hsin-Yu; Hughes, Russell; Murdoch, Craig; Coffelt, Seth B; Biswas, Subhra K; Harris, Adrian L; Johnson, Randall S; Imityaz, Hongxia Z; Simon, M Celeste; Fredlund, Erik; Greten, Florian R; Rius, Jordi; Lewis, Claire E

    2009-07-23

    Ischemia exists in many diseased tissues, including arthritic joints, atherosclerotic plaques, and malignant tumors. Macrophages accumulate in these sites and up-regulate hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) 1 and 2 in response to the hypoxia present. Here we show that the gene expression profile in primary human and murine macrophages changes markedly when they are exposed to hypoxia for 18 hours. For example, they were seen to up-regulate the cell surface receptors, CXCR4 and GLUT1, and the potent, tumor-promoting cytokines, vascular endothelial growth factor A, interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-8, adrenomedullin, CXCR4, and angiopoietin-2. Hypoxia also stimulated their expression and/or phosphorylation of various proteins in the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) signaling pathway. We then used both genetic and pharmacologic methods to manipulate the levels of HIFs-1alpha and 2alpha or NF-kappaB in primary macrophages to elucidate their role in the hypoxic induction of many of these key genes. These studies showed that both HIF-1 and -2, but not NF-kappaB, are important transcriptional effectors regulating the responses of macrophages to such a period of hypoxia. Further studies using experimental mouse models are now warranted to investigate the role of such macrophage responses in the progression of various diseased tissues, such as malignant tumors.

  7. Hypoxia increases sirtuin 1 expression in a hypoxia-inducible factor-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui; Dioum, Elhadji M; Hogg, Richard T; Gerard, Robert D; Garcia, Joseph A

    2011-04-22

    Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are stress-responsive transcriptional regulators of cellular and physiological processes involved in oxygen metabolism. Although much is understood about the molecular machinery that confers HIF responsiveness to oxygen, far less is known about HIF isoform-specific mechanisms of regulation, despite the fact that HIF-1 and HIF-2 exhibit distinct biological roles. We recently determined that the stress-responsive genetic regulator sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) selectively augments HIF-2 signaling during hypoxia. However, the mechanism by which Sirt1 maintains activity during hypoxia is unknown. In this report, we demonstrate that Sirt1 gene expression increases in a HIF-dependent manner during hypoxia in Hep3B and in HT1080 cells. Impairment of HIF signaling affects Sirt1 deacetylase activity as decreased HIF-1 signaling results in the appearance of acetylated HIF-2α, which is detected without pharmacological inhibition of Sirt1. We also find that Sirt1 augments HIF-2 mediated, but not HIF-1 mediated, transcriptional activation of the isolated Sirt1 promoter. These data in summary reveal a bidirectional link of HIF and Sirt1 signaling during hypoxia.

  8. Hypoxia and Hypoxia Mimetics Decrease Aquaporin 5 (AQP5) Expression through Both Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α and Proteasome-Mediated Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Kawedia, Jitesh D.; Yang, Fan; Sartor, Maureen A.; Gozal, David; Czyzyk-Krzeska, Maria; Menon, Anil G.

    2013-01-01

    The alveolar epithelium plays a central role in gas exchange and fluid transport, and is therefore critical for normal lung function. Since the bulk of water flux across this epithelium depends on the membrane water channel Aquaporin 5 (AQP5), we asked whether hypoxia had any effect on AQP5 expression. We show that hypoxia causes a significant (70%) decrease in AQP5 expression in the lungs of mice exposed to hypoxia. Hypoxia and the hypoxia mimetic, cobalt, also caused similar decreases in AQP5 mRNA and protein expression in the mouse lung epithelial cell line MLE-12. The action of hypoxia and cobalt on AQP5 transcription was demonstrated by directly quantifying heternonuclear RNA by real-time PCR. Dominant negative mutants of Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF-1α) and HIF-1α siRNA blocked the action of cobalt, showing that HIF-1α is a key component in this mechanism. The proteasome inhibitors, lactacystin or proteasome inhibitor-III completely abolished the effect of hypoxia and cobalt both at the protein and mRNA level indicating that the proteasome pathway is probably involved not only for the stability of HIF-1α protein, but for the stability of unidentified transcription factors that regulate AQP5 transcription. These studies reveal a potentially important physiological mechanism linking hypoxic stress and membrane water channels. PMID:23469202

  9. Induction of tumour hypoxia post-irradiation: a method for increasing the sensitizing efficiency of misonidazole and RSU 1069 in vivo.

    PubMed

    Stratford, I J; Adams, G E; Godden, J; Howells, N

    1989-03-01

    It is known that hydralazine can decrease blood flow to experimental murine tumours. A consequence of this, in the KHT sarcoma, is the induction of close to 100 per cent radiobiological hypoxia, which lasts for nearly 2 h following i.v. injection of 5 mg/kg hydralazine to the mouse. This phenomenon is exploitable in order to increase the apparent sensitizing efficiency of the nitroheterocyclic radiosensitizers, misonidazole and RSU 1069, and is demonstrated using the treatment schedule: sensitizer----60 min----X-rays----1 min----hydralazine. Such a strategy will first take advantage of the radiosensitizing properties of the nitroimidazole, then after irradiation the hydralazine should allow expression of the differential toxicity towards hypoxic cells known to occur with misonidazole and RSU 1069. Misonidazole gives an enhancement ratio (ER) of 1.3 at 100 mg/kg, rising to 2.0 at 1000 mg/kg. Where hydralazine is given after irradiation, no additional cell kill is observed with 1000 mg/kg. In contrast, at lower doses of misonidazole, hydralazine induces a substantial increase in cell killing such that the ER obtained with 100 mg/kg is the same as that achieved with 1000 mg/kg misonidazole when used alone with radiation. Similarly, 20 mg/kg RSU 1069 with radiation followed by hydralazine is equivalent to the radiosensitizing effect of 80 mg/kg RSU 1069 without hydralazine. In addition, doses of RSU 1069 that normally give no radiosensitization (5 or 10 mg/kg) produce substantial increases in cell killing when combined with hydralazine.

  10. Psychomotor skills learning under chronic hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Bouquet, C A; Gardette, B; Gortan, C; Abraini, J H

    1999-09-29

    Psychomotor deficits are a prominent feature in subjects exposed to hypoxia. Eight subjects exposed to chronic hypoxia during a simulated climb to 8848 m (Everest-Comex 97) were investigated using both a simple psychomotor task (Purdue pegboard) and two complex psychomotor tasks including a recognition task of either a color stimulus (high semantic level) or an abstract sign (low semantic level). Exposure to hypoxic stress mainly produced psychomotor skills learning deficits compared to control study, with greater deficits in the complex psychomotor task. The pattern of results suggests disruptions of motor strategic process. Our data further suggest that the relative strength of implicit or automatic memory processes associated with semantic information processing may increase when disturbances occur in brain functions.

  11. Hypoxia in patients with acute hemiplegia.

    PubMed Central

    Walshaw, M J; Pearson, M G

    1984-01-01

    Sixteen patients with an early dense hemiplegia due to cerebrovascular accidents were shown to have a greater degree of hypoxia than 16 matched control patients. The patients with hemiplegia had a reflex compensatory fall in arterial carbon dioxide tensions (PaCO2) with possible reduction in cerebral blood flow. Oxygen treatment led to an increase in PaCO2 in the patients with hemiplegia, but the increase in oxygen tensions in these patients was significantly less than that in the control group, suggesting increased pulmonary shunting as the cause for the hypoxia. Oxygen treatment may improve cerebral blood flow and oxygenation and have a useful role in the early management of patients with a dense hemiplegia. PMID:6418296

  12. Intermittent hypoxia and cancer: Undesirable bed partners?

    PubMed

    Almendros, Isaac; Gozal, David

    2017-08-14

    The deleterious effects of intermittent hypoxia (IH) on cancer biology have been primarily evaluated in the context of the aberrant circulation observed in solid tumors which results in recurrent intra-tumoral episodic hypoxia. From those studies, IH has been linked to an accelerated tumor progression, metastasis and resistance to therapies. More recently, the role of IH in cancer has also been studied in the context of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), since IH is a hallmark characteristic of this condition. Such recent studies are undoubtedly adding more information regarding the role of IH on tumor malignancy. In terms of the IH patterns associated with OSA, this altered oxygenation paradigm has been recently proposed as a determinant factor in fostering cancer incidence and progression from both in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Here, we summarize all the available evidence to date linking IH effects on several types of cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Acetaminophen hepatotoxicity and HIF-1α induction in mice occurs without hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Shubhra; McCullough, Sandra S.; Hennings, Leah; Letzig, Lynda; Simpson, Pippa M.; Hinson, Jack A.; James, Laura P.

    2011-01-01

    HIF-1α is a nuclear factor important in the transcription of genes controlling angiogenesis including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Both hypoxia and oxidative stress are known mechanisms for the induction of HIF-1α. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) are mechanistically important in acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity in the mouse. MPT may occur as a result of oxidative stress and leads to a large increase in oxidative stress. We previously reported the induction of HIF-1α in mice with APAP toxicity and have shown that VEGF is important in hepatocyte regeneration following APAP toxicity. The following study was performed to examine the relative contribution of hypoxia versus oxidative stress to the induction of HIF-1α in APAP toxicity in the mouse. Time course studies using the hypoxia marker pimonidazole showed no staining for pimonidazole at 1 or 2 h in B6C3F1 mice treated with APAP. Staining for pimonidazole was present in the midzonal to periportal regions at 4, 8, 24 and 48 h and no staining was observed in centrilobular hepatocytes, the site of the toxicity. Subsequent studies with the MPT inhibitor cyclosporine A showed that cyclosporine A (CYC; 10 mg/kg) reduced HIF-1α induction in APAP treated mice at 1 and 4 h and did not inhibit the metabolism of APAP (depletion of hepatic non-protein sulfhydryls and hepatic protein adduct levels). The data suggest that HIF-1α induction in the early stages of APAP toxicity is secondary to oxidative stress via a mechanism involving MPT. In addition, APAP toxicity is not mediated by a hypoxia mechanism. PMID:21316383

  14. Cellular response to orthodontically-induced short-term hypoxia in dental pulp cells.

    PubMed

    Römer, Piero; Wolf, Michael; Fanghänel, Jochen; Reicheneder, Claudia; Proff, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Orthodontic force application is well known to induce sterile inflammation, which is initially caused by the compression of blood vessels in tooth-supporting apparatus. The reaction of periodontal ligament cells to mechanical loading has been thoroughly investigated, whereas knowledge on tissue reactions of the dental pulp is rather limited. The aim of the present trial is to analyze the effect of orthodontic treatment on the induction and cellular regulation of intra-pulpal hypoxia. To investigate the effect of orthodontic force on dental pulp cells, which results in circulatory disturbances within the dental pulp, we used a rat model for the immunohistochemical analysis of the accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in the initial phase of orthodontic tooth movement. To further examine the regulatory role of circulatory disturbances and hypoxic conditions, we analyze isolated dental pulp cells from human teeth with regard to their specific reaction under hypoxic conditions by means of flow cytometry, immunoblot, ELISA and real-time PCR on markers (Hif-1α, VEGF, Cox-2, IL-6, IL-8, ROS, p65). In vivo experiments showed the induction of hypoxia in dental pulp after orthodontic tooth movement. The induction of oxidative stress in human dental pulp cells showed up-regulation of the pro-inflammatory and angiogenic genes Cox-2, VEGF, IL-6 and IL-8. The present data suggest that orthodontic tooth movement affects dental pulp circulation by hypoxia, which leads to an inflammatory response inside treated teeth. Therefore, pulp tissue may be expected to undergo a remodeling process after tooth movement.

  15. Hypoxia and differentiation in squamous cell carcinomas of the uterine cervix: pimonidazole and involucrin.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Yoshihiro; Chou, Shu-Chuan; Lininger, Ruth A; Murphy, Brian J; Varia, Mahesh A; Raleigh, James A

    2003-10-15

    Pimonidazole binding (hypoxia) and involucrin expression (differentiation) overlap extensively in squamous cell carcinomas. This study asks whether involucrin might serve as an endogenous marker for tumor hypoxia. A second question is whether differentiation affects hypoxia-inducible metallothionein (MT) expression in normal human epithelia and squamous cell carcinomas as it does in rodent epithelia. Thirty-four patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix were infused with pimonidazole hydrochloride solution. The next day, multiple biopsies were formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded and sectioned at 4 micro m. Qualitative and quantitative analyses for involucrin expression, pimonidazole binding, and human MT-IIa mRNA expression were performed. No overall correlation between the extent of involucrin expression and pimonidazole binding was observed. The lack of correlation was because of heterogeneous patterns of immunostaining for involucrin generally related to tumor grade. Colocalized immunostaining for involucrin and pimonidazole binding was observed in intermediate grade tumors but not in well-differentiated or poorly differentiated tumors. Human MT-IIa mRNA and MT protein were expressed in basal lamina of normal human epithelia and in the proliferative rims of tumor nests. Colocalization of immunostaining for involucrin and pimonidazole binding is consistent with oxygen regulation, but the lack of involucrin expression in hypoxic regions of poorly differentiated tumors indicates that its transcriptional status with respect to hypoxia induction is altered by cell differentiation. The localization of MT message and protein in the outer rims of most tumor nests indicates that the transcriptional status of metallothionein is also altered by differentiation.

  16. Acetaminophen hepatotoxicity and HIF-1{alpha} induction in acetaminophen toxicity in mice occurs without hypoxia

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhuri, Shubhra; McCullough, Sandra S.; Hennings, Leah; Letzig, Lynda; Simpson, Pippa M.; Hinson, Jack A.; James, Laura P.

    2011-05-01

    HIF-1{alpha} is a nuclear factor important in the transcription of genes controlling angiogenesis including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Both hypoxia and oxidative stress are known mechanisms for the induction of HIF-1{alpha}. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) are mechanistically important in acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity in the mouse. MPT may occur as a result of oxidative stress and leads to a large increase in oxidative stress. We previously reported the induction of HIF-1{alpha} in mice with APAP toxicity and have shown that VEGF is important in hepatocyte regeneration following APAP toxicity. The following study was performed to examine the relative contribution of hypoxia versus oxidative stress to the induction of HIF-1{alpha} in APAP toxicity in the mouse. Time course studies using the hypoxia marker pimonidazole showed no staining for pimonidazole at 1 or 2 h in B6C3F1 mice treated with APAP. Staining for pimonidazole was present in the midzonal to periportal regions at 4, 8, 24 and 48 h and no staining was observed in centrilobular hepatocytes, the sites of the toxicity. Subsequent studies with the MPT inhibitor cyclosporine A showed that cyclosporine A (CYC; 10 mg/kg) reduced HIF-1{alpha} induction in APAP treated mice at 1 and 4 h and did not inhibit the metabolism of APAP (depletion of hepatic non-protein sulfhydryls and hepatic protein adduct levels). The data suggest that HIF-1{alpha} induction in the early stages of APAP toxicity is secondary to oxidative stress via a mechanism involving MPT. In addition, APAP toxicity is not mediated by a hypoxia mechanism.

  17. Neuroepithelial cells and the hypoxia emersion response in the amphibious fish Kryptolebias marmoratus.

    PubMed

    Regan, Kelly S; Jonz, Michael G; Wright, Patricia A

    2011-08-01

    Teleost fish have oxygen-sensitive neuroepithelial cells (NECs) in the gills that appear to mediate physiological responses to hypoxia, but little is known about oxygen sensing in amphibious fish. The mangrove rivulus, Kryptolebias marmoratus, is an amphibious fish that respires via the gills and/or the skin. First, we hypothesized that both the skin and gills are sites of oxygen sensing in K. marmoratus. Serotonin-positive NECs were abundant in both gills and skin, as determined by immunohistochemical labelling and fluorescence microscopy. NECs retained synaptic vesicles and were found near nerve fibres labelled with the neuronal marker zn-12. Skin NECs were 42% larger than those of the gill, as estimated by measurement of projection area, and 45% greater in number. Moreover, for both skin and gill NECs, NEC area increased significantly (30-60%) following 7 days of exposure to hypoxia (1.5 mg l(-1) dissolved oxygen). Another population of cells containing vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) proteins were also observed in the skin and gills. The second hypothesis we tested was that K. marmoratus emerse in order to breathe air cutaneously when challenged with severe aquatic hypoxia, and this response will be modulated by neurochemicals associated chemoreceptor activity. Acute exposure to hypoxia induced fish to emerse at 0.2 mg l(-1). When K. marmoratus were pre-exposed to serotonin or acetylcholine, they emersed at a significantly higher concentration of oxygen than untreated fish. Pre-exposure to receptor antagonists (ketanserin and hexamethonium) predictably resulted in fish emersing at a lower concentration of oxygen. Taken together, these results suggest that oxygen sensing occurs at the branchial and/or cutaneous surfaces in K. marmoratus and that serotonin and acetylcholine mediate, in part, the emersion response.

  18. Examining the Polymorphisms in the Hypoxia Pathway Genes in Relation to Outcome in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Haja Mohideen, Asan M. S.; Hyde, Angela; Squires, Jessica; Wang, Jing; Dicks, Elizabeth; Younghusband, Ban; Parfrey, Patrick; Green, Roger; Savas, Sevtap

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Colorectal cancer is a common malignancy. Identification of genetic prognostic markers may help prognostic estimations in colorectal cancer. Genes that regulate response to hypoxia and other genes that are regulated under the hypoxic conditions have been shown to play roles in cancer progression. In this study, we hypothesized that genetic variations in the hypoxia pathway genes were associated with the risk of outcome in colorectal cancer patients. Methods This study was performed in two phases. In the first phase, 49 SNPs from six hypoxia pathway genes (HIF1A, HIF1B, HIF2A, LOX, MIF and CXCL12) in 272 colorectal cancer patients were analyzed. In the second phase, 77 SNPs from seven hypoxia pathway genes (HIF1A, HIF1B, HIF2A, HIF2B, HIF3A, LOX and CXCL12) were analyzed in an additional cohort of 535 patients. Kaplan Meier, Cox univariate and multivariable regression analyses were performed to analyze the relationship between the SNPs and overall survival (OS), disease free survival (DFS) or disease specific survival (DSS). Since this was a hypothesis-generating study, no correction for multiple testing was applied. Results In phase I, one SNP (HIF2A rs11125070) was found to be associated with DFS in multivariable analysis; yet association of a proxy polymorphism (HIF2A rs4953342) was not detected in the phase II patient cohort. In phase II, associations of two SNPs (HIF2A rs4953352 and HIF2B rs12593988) were significant in both OS and DFS multivariable analyses. However, association of HIF2A rs4953352 was not replicated in the phase I cohort using a proxy SNP (HIF2A rs6706003). Conclusion Overall, our study did not find a convincing evidence of association of the investigated polymorphisms with the disease outcomes in colorectal cancer. PMID:25405996

  19. Mapping Tumor Hypoxia In Vivo Using Pattern Recognition of Dynamic Contrast-enhanced MRI Data12

    PubMed Central

    Stoyanova, Radka; Huang, Kris; Sandler, Kiri; Cho, HyungJoon; Carlin, Sean; Zanzonico, Pat B; Koutcher, Jason A; Ackerstaff, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    In solid tumors, hypoxia contributes significantly to radiation and chemotherapy resistance and to poor outcomes. The “gold standard” pO2 electrode measurements of hypoxia in vivo are unsatisfactory because they are invasive and have limited spatial coverage. Here, we present an approach to identify areas of tumor hypoxia using the signal versus time curves of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) data as a surrogate marker of hypoxia. We apply an unsupervised pattern recognition (PR) technique to determine the differential signal versus time curves associated with different tumor microenvironmental characteristics in DCE-MRI data of a preclinical cancer model. Well-perfused tumor areas are identified by rapid contrast uptake followed by rapid washout; hypoxic areas, which are regions of reduced vascularization, are identified by delayed contrast signal buildup and washout; and necrotic areas exhibit slow or no contrast uptake and no discernible washout over the experimental observation. The strength of the PR concept is that it captures the pixel-enhancing behavior in its entirety—during both contrast agent uptake and washout—and thus, subtleties in the temporal behavior of contrast enhancement related to features of the tumor microenvironment (driven by vascular changes) may be detected. The assignment of the tumor compartments/microenvironment to well vascularized, hypoxic, and necrotic is validated by comparison to data previously obtained using complementary imaging modalities. The proposed novel analysis approach has the advantage that it can be readily translated to the clinic, as DCE-MRI is used routinely for the identification of tumors in patients, is widely available, and easily implemented on any clinical magnet. PMID:23326621

  20. Acetaminophen hepatotoxicity and HIF-1α induction in acetaminophen toxicity in mice occurs without hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Shubhra; McCullough, Sandra S; Hennings, Leah; Letzig, Lynda; Simpson, Pippa M; Hinson, Jack A; James, Laura P

    2011-05-01

    HIF-1α is a nuclear factor important in the transcription of genes controlling angiogenesis including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Both hypoxia and oxidative stress are known mechanisms for the induction of HIF-1α. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) are mechanistically important in acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity in the mouse. MPT may occur as a result of oxidative stress and leads to a large increase in oxidative stress. We previously reported the induction of HIF-1α in mice with APAP toxicity and have shown that VEGF is important in hepatocyte regeneration following APAP toxicity. The following study was performed to examine the relative contribution of hypoxia versus oxidative stress to the induction of HIF-1α in APAP toxicity in the mouse. Time course studies using the hypoxia marker pimonidazole showed no staining for pimonidazole at 1 or 2h in B6C3F1 mice treated with APAP. Staining for pimonidazole was present in the midzonal to periportal regions at 4, 8, 24 and 48h and no staining was observed in centrilobular hepatocytes, the sites of the toxicity. Subsequent studies with the MPT inhibitor cyclosporine A showed that cyclosporine A (CYC; 10mg/kg) reduced HIF-1α induction in APAP treated mice at 1 and 4h and did not inhibit the metabolism of APAP (depletion of hepatic non-protein sulfhydryls and hepatic protein adduct levels). The data suggest that HIF-1α induction in the early stages of APAP toxicity is secondary to oxidative stress via a mechanism involving MPT. In addition, APAP toxicity is not mediated by a hypoxia mechanism.

  1. Human Performance and Acute Hypoxia. Chapter 12

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    release; distribution is 2b. DECLASSIFICATION/IDOWNG LHED~L unlimited 4. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION UMBER( S ) 5. MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER( S ) 6g.ý...01760-5007 Natick, MA 01760-5007 8.. NAME OF FUNDING ISPONSORING et) OFFICE SYMBOL 9. PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER ORGANIZATION (if...1787A879 ! 879/BC F126 I1I TITLE (include Security Clasufocation)IV BWHuman Pertormance ana’ Acute Hypoxia 12.PESOi UTCRS)Charles S . Fulcu, M.A.T

  2. Induction of Marrow Hypoxia by Radioprotective Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    administered at maximally radioprotective doses. four drugs (WR.2721, cysteamine , 5-hydroxytryptamine, and 16.16-dimethyl prostaglndin Ez) uignificantly...2721, DiPGE2, cysteamine (Cys), or 5-HT induces significant hypoxia in mouse bone marrow. MATERIALS AND METHODS Mice. Six- to twelve-week-old BALB/c...Factors influencing the oxidation of cysteamine and other thiols: Implications for hypcr- thermic sensitization and radiation protection. Radiat. Res

  3. NASA Gulf of Mexico Initiative Hypoxia Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Curtis D.

    2012-01-01

    The Applied Science & Technology Project Office at Stennis Space Center (SSC) manages NASA's Gulf of Mexico Initiative (GOMI). Addressing short-term crises and long-term issues, GOMI participants seek to understand the environment using remote sensing, in-situ observations, laboratory analyses, field observations and computational models. New capabilities are transferred to end-users to help them make informed decisions. Some GOMI activities of interest to the hypoxia research community are highlighted.

  4. Humans In Hypoxia: A Conspiracy Of Maladaptation?!

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    We address adaptive vs. maladaptive responses to hypoxemia in healthy humans and hypoxic-tolerant species during wakefulness, sleep, and exercise. Types of hypoxemia discussed include short-term and life-long residence at high altitudes, the intermittent hypoxemia attending sleep apnea, or training regimens prescribed for endurance athletes. We propose that hypoxia presents an insult to O2 transport, which is poorly tolerated in most humans because of the physiological cost. PMID:26136544

  5. Acute normobaric hypoxia stimulates erythropoietin release.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Richard W A; Watt, Peter W; Maxwell, Neil S

    2008-01-01

    Investigations studying the secretion of EPO (erythropoietin) in response to acute hypoxia have produced mixed results. Further, the errors associated with the various methods used to determine EPO are not well documented. The purpose of the current study was to determine the EPO response of 17 trained male subjects to either an acute bout of normobaric hypoxia (Hy; n = 10) or normoxia (Con; n = 7). A secondary aim was to determine the error associated with the measurement of EPO. After baseline tests, the treatment group (Hy) underwent a single bout of hypoxic exposure (F(I(O(2))) approximately 0.148; 3100 m) consisting of a 90-min rest period followed by a 30-min exercise phase (50% V(O)(2max)). Venous blood samples were drawn pre (0 min) and post (120 min) each test to assess changes in plasma EPO (DeltaEPO). The control (Con) group was subjected to the same general experimental design, but placed in a normoxic environment (F(I(O(2))) approximately 0.2093). The Hy group demonstrated a mean increase in EPO [19.3 (4.4) vs. 24.1 (5.1) mU/mL], p < 0.04, post 120 min of normobaric hypoxia. The calculated technical error of measurement for EPO was 2.1 mU/mL (9.8%). It was concluded that an acute bout of hypoxia, has the capacity to elevate plasma EPO. This study also demonstrates that the increase in EPO accumulation was 2 times greater than the calculated measurement of error.

  6. Physiological Determinants of Human Acute Hypoxia Tolerance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    Ernsting , 1963; Lilienthal, Riley, Proemmel, & Franke, 1946) but not the causes of variation among individuals, per se. In this study, we tested the...hemoglobin oxygen saturation falls when human subjects breathe a gas mixture with reduced oxygen tension. Previous work by Ernsting (1963...Determination of PO2 from saturation. J Appl Physiol 67: 902, 1989. Ernsting J. The effect of brief profound hypoxia upon the arte- rial and venous

  7. Tumor hypoxia causes DNA hypermethylation by reducing TET activity

    PubMed Central

    Kuchnio, Anna; Ploumakis, Athanasios; Ghesquière, Bart; Van Dyck, Laurien; Boeckx, Bram; Schoonjans, Luc; Hermans, Els; Amant, Frederic; Kristensen, Vessela N.; Peng Koh, Kian; Mazzone, Massimiliano; Coleman, Mathew; Carell, Thomas; Carmeliet, Peter; Lambrechts, Diether

    2016-01-01

    Summary Hypermethylation of tumor suppressor gene (TSG) promoters confers growth advantages to cancer cells, but how these changes arise is poorly understood. Here, we report that tumor hypoxia reduces the activity of oxygen-dependent TET enzymes, which catalyze DNA de-methylation through 5-methylcytosine oxidation. This occurs independently of hypoxia-associated alterations in TET expression, proliferation, metabolism, HIF activity or reactive oxygen, but directly depends on oxygen shortage. Hypoxia-induced loss of TET activity increases hypermethylation at gene promoters in vitro. Also in patients, TSG promoters are markedly more methylated in hypoxic tumors, independently of proliferation, stromal cell infiltration and tumor characteristics. Our data suggest cellular selection of hypermethylation events, with almost half of them being ascribable to hypoxia across tumor types. Accordingly, increased hypoxia after vessel pruning in murine breast tumors increases hypermethylation, while restored tumor oxygenation by vessel normalization abrogates this effect. Tumor hypoxia thus acts as a novel regulator underlying DNA methylation. PMID:27533040

  8. Arginase inhibition enhances angiogenesis in endothelial cells exposed to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Bhatta, Anil; Toque, Haroldo A; Rojas, Modesto; Yao, Lin; Xu, Zhimin; Patel, Chintan; Caldwell, Ruth B; Caldwell, R William

    2015-03-01

    Hypoxia-induced arginase elevation plays an essential role in several vascular diseases but influence of arginase on hypoxia-mediated angiogenesis is completely unknown. In this study, in vitro network formation in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) was examined after exposure to hypoxia for 24h with or without arginase inhibition. Arginase activity, protein levels of the two arginase isoforms, eNOS, and VEGF as well as production of NO and ROS were examined to determine the involvement of arginase in hypoxia-mediated angiogenesis. Hypoxia elevated arginase activity and arginase 2 expression but reduced active p-eNOS(Ser1177) and NO levels in BAEC. In addition, both VEGF protein levels and endothelial elongation and network formation were reduced with continued hypoxia, whereas ROS levels increased and NO levels decreased. Arginase inhibition limited ROS, restored NO formation and VEGF expression, and prevented the reduction of angiogenesis. These results suggest a fundamental role of arginase activity in regulating angiogenic function.

  9. Nutrient Enrichment Drives Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boesch, Donald F.; Boynton, Walter R.; Crowder, Larry B.; Diaz, Robert J.; Howarth, Robert W.; Mee, Laurence D.; Nixon, Scott W.; Rabalais, Nancy N.; Rosenberg, Rutger; Sanders, James G.; Scavia, Donald; Turner, R. Eugene

    2009-04-01

    During most summers over the past 30 years, bottom dissolved oxygen across a large area of the Louisiana and upper Texas continental shelf declined to concentrations too low (hypoxia) for most fish and large invertebrate animals to survive. This area is one of the best known “dead zones” proliferating around the world [Diaz and Rosenberg, 2008]. During July 2008, hypoxic bottom waters extended across 20,720 square kilometers (Figure 1), but they were probably even more extensive because winds from Hurricane Dolly mixed the waters off Texas before the survey could be completed. Increased inputs of nutrients (principally nitrogen and phosphorus) from the U.S. agricultural heartland within the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Basin (MARB) are implicated in the development and spread of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. Consequently, the causes of, and solutions for, hypoxia have been subjects of extensive debate and analysis. An integrated scientific assessment led to a 2001 Action Plan [Mississippi River/Gulf of Mexico Watershed Nutrient Task Force, 2001] with a goal of reducing the area of the hypoxic zone to less than 5000 square kilometers by reducing nitrogen loading [Rabalais et al., 2007].

  10. Endocrine targets of hypoxia-inducible factors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsiu-Chi; Tsai, Shaw-Jenq

    2017-07-01

    Endocrine is an important and tightly regulated system for maintaining body homeostasis. Endocrine glands produce hormones, which are released into blood stream to guide the target cells responding to all sorts of stimulations. For maintaining body homeostasis, the secretion and activity of a particular hormone needs to be adjusted in responding to environmental challenges such as changes in nutritional status or chronic stress. Hypoxia, a status caused by reduced oxygen availability or imbalance of oxygen consumption/supply in an organ or within a cell, is a stress that affects many physiological and pathological processes. Hypoxic stress in endocrine organs is especially critical because endocrine glands control body homeostasis. Local hypoxia affects not only the particular gland but also the downstream cells/organs regulated by hormones secreted from this gland. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are transcription factors that function as master regulators of oxygen homeostasis. Recent studies report that aberrant expression of HIFs in endocrine organs may result in the development and/or progression of diseases including diabetes, endometriosis, infertility and cancers. In this article, we will review recent findings in HIF-mediated endocrine organ dysfunction and the systemic syndromes caused by these disorders. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  11. Structural integration in hypoxia-inducible factors

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Dalei; Potluri, Nalini; Lu, Jingping; Kim, Youngchang; Rastinejad, Fraydoon

    2015-08-20

    The hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) coordinate cellular adaptations to low oxygen stress by regulating transcriptional programs in erythropoiesis, angiogenesis and metabolism. These programs promote the growth and progression of many tumours, making HIFs attractive anticancer targets. Transcriptionally active HIFs consist of HIF-alpha and ARNT (also called HIF-1 beta) subunits. Here we describe crystal structures for each of mouse HIF-2 alpha-ARNT and HIF-1 alpha-ARNT heterodimers in states that include bound small molecules and their hypoxia response element. A highly integrated quaternary architecture is shared by HIF-2 alpha-ARNT and HIF-1 alpha-ARNT, wherein ARNT spirals around the outside of each HIF-alpha subunit. Five distinct pockets are observed that permit small-molecule binding, including PAS domain encapsulated sites and an interfacial cavity formed through subunit heterodimerization. The DNA-reading head rotates, extends and cooperates with a distal PAS domain to bind hypoxia response elements. HIF-alpha mutations linked to human cancers map to sensitive sites that establish DNA binding and the stability of PAS domains and pockets.

  12. Imaging hypoxia using 3D photoacoustic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stantz, Keith M.

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: The objective is to develop a multivariate in vivo hemodynamic model of tissue oxygenation (MiHMO2) based on 3D photoacoustic spectroscopy. Introduction: Low oxygen levels, or hypoxia, deprives cancer cells of oxygen and confers resistance to irradiation, some chemotherapeutic drugs, and oxygen-dependent therapies (phototherapy) leading to treatment failure and poor disease-free and overall survival. For example, clinical studies of patients with breast carcinomas, cervical cancer, and head and neck carcinomas (HNC) are more likely to suffer local reoccurrence and metastasis if their tumors are hypoxic. A novel method to non invasively measure tumor hypoxia, identify its type, and monitor its heterogeneity is devised by measuring tumor hemodynamics, MiHMO2. Material and Methods: Simulations are performed to compare tumor pO2 levels and hypoxia based on physiology - perfusion, fractional plasma volume, fractional cellular volume - and its hemoglobin status - oxygen saturation and hemoglobin concentration - based on in vivo measurements of breast, prostate, and ovarian tumors. Simulations of MiHMO2 are performed to assess the influence of scanner resolutions and different mathematic models of oxygen delivery. Results: Sensitivity of pO2 and hypoxic fraction to photoacoustic scanner resolution and dependencies on model complexity will be presented using hemodynamic parameters for different tumors. Conclusions: Photoacoustic CT spectroscopy provides a unique ability to monitor hemodynamic and cellular physiology in tissue, which can be used to longitudinally monitor tumor oxygenation and its response to anti-angiogenic therapies.

  13. Intragel oxygen promotes hypoxia tolerance of scyphomedusae.

    PubMed

    Thuesen, Erik V; Rutherford, Ladd D; Brommer, Patricia L; Garrison, Kurt; Gutowska, Magdalena A; Towanda, Trisha

    2005-07-01

    Populations of jellyfish are known to thrive in many low oxygen environments, however, the physiological mechanisms that permit these organisms to live in hypoxia remain unknown. The oxyregulatory abilities of four species of scyphomedusae were investigated, and it was found that Aurelia labiata, Phacellophora camtschatica, Cyanea capillata and Chrysaora quinquecirrha maintain steady oxygen consumption to below 20 hPa oxygen (<10% air saturation). Oxygen content of the mesoglea of A. labiata was measured using a fibre optic oxygen optode, and oxygen profiles through the gel are characterised by a gradient that decreases from just below normoxia at the aboral subsurface to approximately 85% air saturation near the subumbrellar musculature. This gradient sustains oxyregulation by scyphomedusae, and it is demonstrated that A. labiata must be using intragel oxygen to meet its metabolic needs. Gel can also be used as an oxygen reservoir when A. labiata moves into hypoxia. Gel oxygen is depleted after about 2 h in anoxia and recovers to 70% of normal after 2.5 h in normoxia. Behaviour experiments in the laboratory showed that Aurelia labiata behaves similarly in normoxia and hypoxia (30% and 18% air saturation). The acute threshold for provoking behavioural changes in A. labiata is somewhere near its critical partial pressure, and oxygen stratification stimulates swimming back and forth across the oxycline. Intragel oxygen dynamics are recognised as a fundamental component of medusan physiology.

  14. Hypoxia in the changing marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Cowie, G.; Naqvi, S. W. A.

    2013-03-01

    The predicted future of the global marine environment, as a combined result of forcing due to climate change (e.g. warming and acidification) and other anthropogenic perturbation (e.g. eutrophication), presents a challenge to the sustainability of ecosystems from tropics to high latitudes. Among the various associated phenomena of ecosystem deterioration, hypoxia can cause serious problems in coastal areas as well as oxygen minimum zones in the open ocean (Diaz and Rosenberg 2008 Science 321 926-9, Stramma et al 2008 Science 320 655-8). The negative impacts of hypoxia include changes in populations of marine organisms, such as large-scale mortality and behavioral responses, as well as variations of species distributions, biodiversity, physiological stress, and other sub-lethal effects (e.g. growth and reproduction). Social and economic activities that are related to services provided by the marine ecosystems, such as tourism and fisheries, can be negatively affected by the aesthetic outcomes as well as perceived or real impacts on seafood quality (STAP 2011 (Washington, DC: Global Environment Facility) p 88). Moreover, low oxygen concentration in marine waters can have considerable feedbacks to other compartments of the Earth system, like the emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, and can affect the global biogeochemical cycles of nutrients and trace elements. It is of critical importance to prediction and adaptation strategies that the key processes of hypoxia in marine environments be precisely determined and understood (cf Zhang et al 2010 Biogeosciences 7 1-24).

  15. ATM activation in hypoxia - causes and consequences.

    PubMed

    Olcina, Monica M; Grand, Roger Ja; Hammond, Ester M

    2014-01-01

    The DNA damage response is a complex signaling cascade that is triggered by cellular stress. This response is essential for the maintenance of genomic integrity and is considered to act as a barrier to the early stages of tumorigenesis. The integral role of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase in the response to DNA damaging agents is well characterized; however, ATM can also be activated by non-DNA damaging agents. In fact, much has been learnt recently about the mechanism of ATM activation in response to physiologic stresses such as hypoxia that do not induce DNA damage. Regions of low oxygen concentrations that occur in solid tumors are associated with a poor prognostic outcome irrespective of treatment modality. Severe levels of hypoxia induce replication stress and trigger the activation of DNA damage response pathways including ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR)- and ATM-mediated signaling. In this review, we discuss hypoxia-driven ATM signaling and the possible contribution of ATM activation in this context to tumorigenesis.

  16. Metformin suppresses hypoxia-induced stabilization of HIF-1α through reprogramming of oxygen metabolism in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Min; Liu, Hao; Liang, Min; Shi, Boyun; Fu, Xin; Chen, Yuqin; Chen, Liangcai; He, Zhimin; Wang, Jian; Liu, Jifang

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of hypoxia-induced factor 1α (HIF-1α) has been shown to be involved in the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HIF-1α should therefore be a promising molecular target for the development of anti-HCC agents. Metformin, an established antidiabetic drug, has proved to also be effective in treating cancer although the precise underlying mechanisms of this activity are not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of metformin on the expression of HIF-1α and oxygen metabolism in HCC. The results showed that metformin inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1α accumulation and activation independent of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Moreover, this decrease in HIF-1α accumulation was accompanied by promotion of HIF-1α protein degradation. In addition, metformin significantly decreased oxygen consumption, ultimately leading to increased intracellular oxygen tension and decreased staining with the hypoxia marker pimonidazole. In vivo studies demonstrated that metformin delayed tumor growth and attenuated the expression of HIF-1α in HCC tumor xenografts. Together, these findings suggest that metformin decreases hypoxia-induced HIF-1α accumulation by actively suppressing mitochondrial oxygen consumption and enhancing cellular oxygenation ability, providing a fundamental mechanism of metformin activity against HCC. PMID:26621849

  17. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 Is an Inductor of Transcription Factor Activating Protein 2 Epsilon Expression during Chondrogenic Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Niebler, Stephan; Angele, Peter; Kujat, Richard; Bosserhoff, Anja K

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor AP-2ε (activating enhancer-binding protein epsilon) is expressed in cartilage of humans and mice. However, knowledge about regulatory mechanisms influencing AP-2ε expression is limited. Using quantitative real time PCR, we detected a significant increase in AP-2ε mRNA expression comparing initial and late stages of chondrogenic differentiation processes in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, in these samples the expression pattern of the prominent hypoxia marker gene angiopoietin-like 4 (Angptl4) strongly correlated with that of AP-2ε suggesting that hypoxia might represent an external regulator of AP-2ε expression in mammals. In order to show this, experiments directly targeting the activity of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF1), the complex mediating responses to oxygen deprivation, were performed. While the HIF1-activating compounds 2,2'-dipyridyl and desferrioxamine resulted in significantly enhanced mRNA concentration of AP-2ε, siRNA against HIF1α led to a significantly reduced expression rate of AP-2ε. Additionally, we detected a significant upregulation of the AP-2ε mRNA level after oxygen deprivation. In sum, these different experimental approaches revealed a novel role for the HIF1 complex in the regulation of the AP-2ε gene in cartilaginous cells and underlined the important role of hypoxia as an important external regulatory stimulus during chondrogenic differentiation modulating the expression of downstream transcription factors.

  18. Targeting Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α in a New Orthotopic Model of Glioblastoma Recapitulating the Hypoxic Tumor Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Nigim, Fares; Cavanaugh, Jill; Patel, Anoop P; Curry, William T; Esaki, Shin-ichi; Kasper, Ekkehard M; Chi, Andrew S; Louis, David N; Martuza, Robert L; Rabkin, Samuel D; Wakimoto, Hiroaki

    2015-07-01

    Tissue hypoxia and necrosis represent pathophysiologic and histologic hallmarks of glioblastoma (GBM). Although hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) plays crucial roles in the malignant phenotypes of GBM, developing HIF-1α-targeted agents has been hampered by the lack of a suitable preclinical model that recapitulates the complex biology of clinical GBM. We present a new GBM model, MGG123, which was established from a recurrent human GBM. Orthotopic xenografting of stem-like MGG123 cells reproducibly generated lethal tumors that were characterized by foci of palisading necrosis, hypervascularity, and robust stem cell marker expression. Perinecrotic neoplastic cells distinctively express HIF-1α and are proliferative in both xenografts and the patient tissue. The xenografts contain scattered hypoxic foci that were consistently greater than 50 μm distant from blood vessels, indicating intratumoral heterogeneity of oxygenation. Hypoxia enhanced HIF-1α expression in cultured MGG123 cells, which was abrogated by the HIF-1α inhibitors digoxin or ouabain. In vivo, treatment of orthotopic MGG123 xenografts with digoxin decreased HIF-1α expression, vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA levels, and CD34-positive vasculature within the tumors, and extended survival of mice bearing the aggressive MGG123 GBM. This preclinical tumor model faithfully recapitulates the GBM-relevant hypoxic microenvironment and stemness and is a suitable platform for studying disease biology and developing hypoxia-targeted agents.

  19. Tariquidar sensitizes multiple myeloma cells to proteasome inhibitors via reduction of hypoxia-induced P-gp-mediated drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Muz, Barbara; Kusdono, Hubert D; Azab, Feda; de la Puente, Pilar; Federico, Cinzia; Fiala, Mark; Vij, Ravi; Salama, Noha N; Azab, Abdel Kareem

    2017-12-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) presents a poor prognosis and high lethality of patients due to development of drug resistance. P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a drug-efflux transporter, is upregulated in MM patients post-chemotherapy and is involved in the development of drug resistance since many anti-myeloma drugs (including proteasome inhibitors) are P-gp substrates. Hypoxia develops in the bone marrow niche during MM progression and has long been linked to chemoresistance. Additionally, hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF-1α) was demonstrated to directly regulate P-gp expression. We found that in MM patients P-gp expression positively correlated with the hypoxic marker, HIF-1α. Hypoxia increased P-gp protein expression and its efflux capabilities in MM cells in vitro using flow cytometry. We reported herein that hypoxia-mediated resistance to carfilzomib and bortezomib in MM cells is due to P-gp activity and was reversed by tariquidar, a P-gp inhibitor. These results suggest combining proteasome inhibitors with P-gp inhibition for future clinical studies.

  20. Targeting Hypoxia-inducible Factor 1α in a New Orthotopic Model of Glioblastoma Recapitulating the Hypoxic Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Nigim, Fares; Cavanaugh, Jill; Patel, Anoop P.; Curry, William T.; Esaki, Shin-ichi; Kasper, Ekkehard M.; Chi, Andrew S.; Louis, David N.; Martuza, Robert L.; Rabkin, Samuel D.; Wakimoto, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Tissue hypoxia and necrosis represent pathophysiological and histological hallmarks of glioblastoma (GBM). Although hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) plays crucial roles in the malignant phenotypes of GBM, developing HIF-1α-targeted agents has been hampered by the lack of a suitable preclinical model that recapitulates the complex biology of clinical GBM. We present a new GBM model, MGG123, which was established from a recurrent human GBM. Orthotopic xenografting of stem-like MGG123 cells reproducibly generated lethal tumors that were characterized by foci of palisading necrosis, hypervascularity, and robust stem cell marker expression. Perinecrotic neoplastic cells distinctively express HIF-1α and are proliferative in both xenografts and the patient tissue. The xenografts contain scattered hypoxic foci that were consistently >50 μm distant from blood vessels, indicating intratumoral heterogeneity of oxygenation. Hypoxia enhanced HIF-1α expression in cultured MGG123 cells, which was abrogated by the HIF-1α inhibitors digoxin or ouabain. In vivo, treatment of orthotopic MGG123 xenografts with digoxin decreased HIF-1α expression, vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA levels and CD34-positive vasculature within the tumors, and extended survival of mice bearing the aggressive MGG123 GBM. This preclinical tumor model faithfully recapitulates the GBM-relevant hypoxic microenvironment and stemness, and is a suitable platform for studying disease biology and developing hypoxia-targeted agents. PMID:26083570

  1. Hypoxia symptoms during altitude training in professional Iranian fighter pilots.

    PubMed

    Alagha, Babak; AhmadBeygi, Shervin; Ahmadbeigy, Shervin; Moosavi, Seyed Ali Javad; Jalali, Seyed Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    Susceptibility to hypoxia is influenced by a multitude of factors, including fatigue, physical activity, illnesses, ambient temperature, rate of ascent, destination altitude, medications, and alcohol. Anecdotally, several reports have been made regarding changes in the form of hypoxia presentation in Iranian fighter pilots in the absence of these factors. This study focused specifically on the effect of pilot age on susceptibility to hypoxia and its initial presentation. We assumed that a pilot's age may increase his susceptibility to hypoxia and consequently reduce the amount of time it takes for hypoxia to present. Because our literature review did not reveal any previous study addressing the possible relationship between age and susceptibility to hypoxia, the purpose of this study is to address and clarify this relationship. In this retrospective study, we collected information from Iranian fighter pilots (n = 30) through an anonymous questionnaire in 2000. The form of hypoxia presentation of each subject was evaluated during five altitude chamber training (ACT) sessions that were conducted routinely from 1972 to 1984. To enhance the accuracy of the study's results, confounding factors such as prior hypoxia experience in an ACT session have been taken into consideration. The results revealed a statistically significant relationship between age and a change in the form of hypoxia presentation in our subjects. Increased age reduced the amount of time before the first individual hypoxia symptom appeared (P < .000002). Although having previous hypoxia experience may help pilots to recognize their symptoms earlier, its effect was not statistically significant (P < .18). A few changes in the nature of individual symptoms were observed; however, we did not find a meaningful statistical correlation between pilot age and change in the nature of symptoms. Susceptibility ot hypoxia increases with pilot age. Copyright © 2012 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by

  2. Effects of hypoxia on sympathetic neural control in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. L.; Muenter, N. K.

    2000-01-01

    This special issue is principally focused on the time domain of the adaptive mechanisms of ventilatory responses to short-term, long-term and intermittent hypoxia. The purpose of this review is to summarize the limited literature on the sympathetic neural responses to sustained or intermittent hypoxia in humans and attempt to discern the time domain of these responses and potential adaptive processes that are evoked during short and long-term exposures to hypoxia.

  3. Effects of hypoxia on sympathetic neural control in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. L.; Muenter, N. K.

    2000-01-01

    This special issue is principally focused on the time domain of the adaptive mechanisms of ventilatory responses to short-term, long-term and intermittent hypoxia. The purpose of this review is to summarize the limited literature on the sympathetic neural responses to sustained or intermittent hypoxia in humans and attempt to discern the time domain of these responses and potential adaptive processes that are evoked during short and long-term exposures to hypoxia.

  4. Deleterious effect of chronic continuous hypoxia on oral health.

    PubMed

    Terrizzi, Antonela R; Fernandez-Solari, Javier; Lee, Ching M; Conti, María Ines; Martínez, María Pilar

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of chronic continuous hypoxia (CCH) in alveolar bone and its correlation with the inflammatory markers which play a key role in the development of periodontitis. Wistar rats were exposed to CCH (600mbar, 3 months). Macroscopic and histological analyses of alveolar bone were performed, together with measurement of oxidative stress and inflammatory parameters in gums and submandibular glands (SMG). HCC induced cortical alveolar bone loss, decreased interradicular bone volume and increased the periodontal ligament height compared to control rats (p<0.05). CCH enhanced iNOS activity in gums (from 2735,04±662,96 nmol/min/mg proteins to 4289,58±915,63 p<0.05) and in SMG (from 56,71±12,05 nmol/min/mg proteins to 90,15±21,78 p<0.05). PGE2 did not change in gums or in SMG by means of CCH, while TNFα decreased in gums (p<0.05). Regarding oxidative stress, thiobarbituric acid reactive species concentration in CCH animals was higher both in gums as in SMG, and catalase activity was decreased in SMG. Higher iNOS activity both in gums and SMG under CCH could be associated with the alveolar bone loss observed. The increase in oxidative stress occurring in SMG and gums, together with a lower antioxidant capacity might indicate a deleterious effect of HX in oral health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Tissue hypoxia during ischemic stroke: adaptive clues from hypoxia-tolerant animal models.

    PubMed

    Nathaniel, Thomas I; Williams-Hernandez, Ashley; Hunter, Anan L; Liddy, Caroline; Peffley, Dennis M; Umesiri, Francis E; Imeh-Nathaniel, Adebobola

    2015-05-01

    The treatment and prevention of hypoxic/ischemic brain injury in stroke patients remain a severe and global medical issue. Numerous clinical studies have resulted in a failure to develop chemical neuroprotection for acute, ischemic stroke. Over 150 estimated clinical trials of ischemic stroke treatments have been done, and more than 200 drugs and combinations of drugs for ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes have been developed. Billions of dollars have been invested for new scientific breakthroughs with only limited success. The revascularization of occluded cerebral arteries such as anti-clot treatments of thrombolysis has proven effective, but it can only be used in a 3-4.5h time frame after the onset of a stroke, and not for every patient. This review is about novel insights on how to resist tissue hypoxia from unconventional animal models. Ability to resist tissue hypoxia is an extraordinary ability that is not common in many laboratory animals such as rat and mouse models. For example, we can learn from a naked mole-rat, Chrysemys picta, how to actively regulate brain metabolic activity to defend the brain against fluctuating oxygen tension and acute bouts of oxidative stress following the onset of a stroke. Additionally, a euthermic arctic ground squirrel can teach us how the brain of a stroke patient can remain well oxygenated during tissue hypoxia with no evidence of cellular stress. In this review, we discuss how these animals provide us with a system to gain insight into the possible mechanisms of tissue hypoxia/ischemia. This issue is of clinical significance to stroke patients. We describe specific physiological and molecular adaptations employed by different animals' models of hypoxia tolerance in aquatic and terrestrial environments. We highlight how these adaptations might provide potential clues on strategies to adapt for the clinical management of tissue hypoxia during conditions such as stroke where oxygen demand fails to match the supply.

  6. Prolonged lobar hypoxia in vivo enhances the responsivity of isolated pulmonary veins to hypoxia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheehan, D. W.; Farhi, L. E.; Russell, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    The hypoxic response of pulmonary vessels isolated from eight sheep whose right apical lobes (RAL) had inspired 100% N2 for 20 h was studied. The RAL of these conscious sheep inspired hypoxic gas and the remainder of the lung inspired air. During hypoxia, RAL perfusion was 33 +/- 3% of its air value, carotid arterial PO2 averaged 86 +/- 3 mm Hg and pulmonary perfusion pressure was not significantly different from the initial control period when the RAL inspired air. At the end of the hypoxic exposure, the sheep were killed, and pulmonary artery and vein rings (0.5 to 2 mm inner diameter) were isolated from both the RAL and the right cardiac lobe, which served as the control lobe (CL). Arteries from the RAL and CL did not contract in response to 6% O2/6% CO2/88% N2 (hypoxia). In contrast, RAL veins did contract vigorously in response to hypoxia, whereas CL veins did not contract or contracted only minimally. Rubbing of the endothelium or prior incubation of RAL veins with catalase (1,200 units/ml), indomethacin (10(-5) M), or the thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2 (TxA2/PGH2) receptor antagonist, SQ 29,548 (3 X 10(-6) M) each significantly reduced the response to hypoxia. RAL veins were also found to be more reactive than CL veins to the prostaglandin endoperoxide analogue U46619. We conclude that prolonged lobar hypoxia in vivo increases the responsivity of isolated pulmonary veins to hypoxia. These contractions may result from an increase in reactive O2 species, which in turn modify production of, metabolism of, and/or tissue responsivity to TxA2/PGH2.

  7. Prolonged lobar hypoxia in vivo enhances the responsivity of isolated pulmonary veins to hypoxia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheehan, D. W.; Farhi, L. E.; Russell, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    The hypoxic response of pulmonary vessels isolated from eight sheep whose right apical lobes (RAL) had inspired 100% N2 for 20 h was studied. The RAL of these conscious sheep inspired hypoxic gas and the remainder of the lung inspired air. During hypoxia, RAL perfusion was 33 +/- 3% of its air value, carotid arterial PO2 averaged 86 +/- 3 mm Hg and pulmonary perfusion pressure was not significantly different from the initial control period when the RAL inspired air. At the end of the hypoxic exposure, the sheep were killed, and pulmonary artery and vein rings (0.5 to 2 mm inner diameter) were isolated from both the RAL and the right cardiac lobe, which served as the control lobe (CL). Arteries from the RAL and CL did not contract in response to 6% O2/6% CO2/88% N2 (hypoxia). In contrast, RAL veins did contract vigorously in response to hypoxia, whereas CL veins did not contract or contracted only minimally. Rubbing of the endothelium or prior incubation of RAL veins with catalase (1,200 units/ml), indomethacin (10(-5) M), or the thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2 (TxA2/PGH2) receptor antagonist, SQ 29,548 (3 X 10(-6) M) each significantly reduced the response to hypoxia. RAL veins were also found to be more reactive than CL veins to the prostaglandin endoperoxide analogue U46619. We conclude that prolonged lobar hypoxia in vivo increases the responsivity of isolated pulmonary veins to hypoxia. These contractions may result from an increase in reactive O2 species, which in turn modify production of, metabolism of, and/or tissue responsivity to TxA2/PGH2.

  8. Targeting hypoxia at the forefront of anticancer immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Noman, Muhammad Zaeem; Chouaib, Salem

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia influences immune checkpoint receptors and their respective ligands. In support, we recently demonstrated that hypoxia selectively upregulates programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) on myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) via hypoxia inducible factor 1 α (HIF-1α) binding to a hypoxia-response element (HRE) in the PD-L1 proximal promoter. Furthermore, blockade of PD-L1 under hypoxic conditions enhanced MDSC-mediated T-cell activation by attenuating MDSC secretion of IL-6 and IL-10. PMID:25964858

  9. Ibuprofen does not reverse ventilatory acclimatization to chronic hypoxia.

    PubMed

    De La Zerda, D J; Stokes, J A; Do, J; Go, A; Fu, Z; Powell, F L

    2017-07-27

    Ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia involves an increase in the acute hypoxic ventilatory response that is blocked by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs administered during sustained hypoxia. We tested the hypothesis that inflammatory signals are necessary to sustain ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia once it is established. Adult, rats were acclimatized to normoxia or chronic hypoxia (CH, [Formula: see text] =70Torr) for 11-12days and treated with ibuprofen or saline for the last 2days of hypoxia. Ventilation, metabolic rate, and arterial blood gas responses to O2 and CO2 were not affected by ibuprofen after acclimatization had been established. Immunohistochemistry and image analysis showed acute (1h) hypoxia activated microglia in a medullary respiratory center (nucleus tractus solitarius, NTS) and this was blocked by ibuprofen administered from the beginning of hypoxic exposure. Microglia returned to the control state after 7days of CH and were not affected by ibuprofen administered for 2 more days of CH. In contrast, NTS astrocytes were activated by CH but not acute hypoxia and activation was not reversed by administering ibuprofen for the last 2days of CH. Hence, ibuprofen cannot reverse ventilatory acclimatization or astrocyte activation after they have been established by sustained hypoxia. The results are consistent with a model for microglia activation or other ibuprofen-sensitive processes being necessary for the induction but not maintenance of ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Developmental Hypoxia Has Negligible Effects on Long-Term Hypoxia Tolerance and Aerobic Metabolism of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Wood, Andrew T; Clark, Timothy D; Andrewartha, Sarah J; Elliott, Nicholas G; Frappell, Peter B

    Exposure to developmental hypoxia can have long-term impacts on the physiological performance of fish because of irreversible plasticity. Wild and captive-reared Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) can be exposed to hypoxic conditions during development and continue to experience fluctuating oxygen levels as juveniles and adults. Here, we examine whether developmental hypoxia impacts subsequent hypoxia tolerance and aerobic performance of Atlantic salmon. Individuals at 8°C were exposed to 50% (hypoxia) or 100% (normoxia) dissolved oxygen (DO) saturation (as percent of air saturation) from fertilization for ∼100 d (800 degree days) and then raised in normoxic conditions for a further 15 mo. At 18 mo after fertilization, aerobic scope was calculated in normoxia (100% DO) and acute (18 h) hypoxia (50% DO) from the difference between the minimum and maximum oxygen consumption rates ([Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], respectively) at 10°C. Hypoxia tolerance was determined as the DO at which loss of equilibrium (LOE) occurred in a constantly decreasing DO environment. There was no difference in [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], or aerobic scope between fish raised in hypoxia or normoxia. There was some evidence that hypoxia tolerance was lower (higher DO at LOE) in hypoxia-raised fish compared with those raised in normoxia, but the magnitude of the effect was small (12.52% DO vs. 11.73% DO at LOE). Acute hypoxia significantly reduced aerobic scope by reducing [Formula: see text], while [Formula: see text] remained unchanged. Interestingly, acute hypoxia uncovered individual-level relationships between DO at LOE and [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and aerobic scope. We discuss our findings in the context of developmental trajectories and the role of aerobic performance in hypoxia tolerance.

  11. The effects of hypoxia on the stemness properties of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs)

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Nermeen El-Moataz Bellah; Murakami, Masashi; Kaneko, Satoru; Nakashima, Misako

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that culture under hypoxia has beneficial effects on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). However, there are limitations to achieving a stable condition in conventional hypoxic CO2 incubators. DPSCs are a unique type of MSCs which are promising in many regenerative therapies. In this study, we investigated the ideal hypoxic culture environment for DPSCs using a new system that can provide controlled O2 environment. The effects of hypoxia (3%, 5%) on the stemness properties of DPSCs. Their morphology, proliferation rate, expression of stem cell markers, migration ability, mRNA expression of angiogenic/neurotrophic factors and immunomodulatory genes were evaluated and compared. Additionally, the effect of the discrete secretome on proliferation, migration, and neurogenic induction was assessed. Hypoxic DPSCs were found to be smaller in size and exhibited larger nuclei. 5% O2 significantly increased the proliferation rate, migration ability, expression of stem cell markers (CXCR4 and G-CSFR), and expression of SOX2, VEGF, NGF, and BDNF genes of DPSCs. Moreover, secretome collected from 5%O2 cultures displayed higher stimulatory effects on proliferation and migration of NIH3T3 cells and on neuronal differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells. These results demonstrate that 5%O2 may be ideal for enhancing DPSCs growth, stem cell properties, and secretome trophic effect. PMID:27739509

  12. Cell and Signal Components of the Microenvironment of Bone Metastasis Are Affected by Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Bendinelli, Paola; Maroni, Paola; Matteucci, Emanuela; Desiderio, Maria Alfonsina

    2016-01-01

    Bone metastatic cells release bone microenvironment proteins, such as the matricellular protein SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine), and share a cell signaling typical of the bone metabolism controlled by Runx2. The megakaryocytes in the bone marrow engrafted by the metastases seem to be one of the principal microenvironment sources of the biological stimuli, implicated in the formation of an osteoblastic niche, and affecting metastasis phenotype and colonization. Educated platelets in the circulation might derive from megakaryocytes in bone metastasis. The evaluation of predictive markers in the circulating platelets might be useful for the stratification of patients for therapeutic purposes. The hypoxic environment in bone metastasis is one of the key regulators of the network of the biological soluble and structural components of the matrix. In bone metastatic cells under hypoxia, similar patterns of Runx2 and SPARC are observed, both showing downregulation. Conversely, hypoxia induces Endothelin 1, which upregulates SPARC, and these biological stimuli may be considered prognostic markers of bone metastasis in breast carcinoma patients. PMID:27187355

  13. WIPP marker development

    SciTech Connect

    1994-04-01

    This article discusses the development of permanent, passive markers for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and presents some preliminary concepts in drawings and a table of components for the markers. The panel, convened by Sandia National Laboratories, was charged with developing design characteristics for permanent markers and judging the efficacy of markers in deterring inadvertent human intrusion. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Acute hypoxia-reperfusion triggers immunocompromise in Nile tilapia.

    PubMed

    Choi, K; Lehmann, D W; Harms, C A; Law, J M

    2007-06-01

    Inadequate dissolved oxygen in the aquatic environment is a well-established cause of fish morbidity and mortality. The specific effects of hypoxia on immune function in fish, however, are not well characterized. In this study, the effects of acute hypoxia followed by reoxygenation (rapid tissue reperfusion) as a source of immunocompromise in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were investigated. Using a precision apparatus developed in our laboratory for hypoxia exposures, a series of assays of increasing specificity for immune function were performed on acutely hypoxia-stressed Nile tilapia: tier I consisted of histopathology, tier II of hematology, plasma chemistry, and determining cortisol concentration, and tier III of determining the phagocytic index and analyzing the expression of the cytokines transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). Nile tilapia were exposed to 7% oxygen saturation for 96 h, then tank water was rapidly reoxygenated. Sampling intervals were 48 and 96 h during hypoxia and 12 and 84 h during reperfusion. Histopathology showed no remarkable microscopic abnormalities in lymphoid or other tissues. Lymphopenia and neutrophilia were observed in peripheral blood. Plasma total protein, partial pressure of oxygen, and oxygen saturation were decreased in response to hypoxia. Plasma lipase decreased in response to hypoxia but returned to normal during reperfusion. Phagocytic capability and the phagocytic index decreased during hypoxia and 12 h reperfusion, whereas these values were recovered by 84 h reperfusion. The TGF-beta transcription continued to increase during the exposures, the greatest production being at 12 h reperfusion, whereas IL-1beta transcription decreased in response to hypoxia and reperfusion. We conclude that acute hypoxia triggered an overall downregulation of the immune system in the test fish. This suggests a possible factor in the pathogenesis of disease outbreaks in fish in which repeated

  15. Phase I/II study of the hypoxia-activated prodrug PR104 in refractory/relapsed acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Konopleva, Marina; Thall, Peter F; Yi, Cecilia Arana; Borthakur, Gautam; Coveler, Andrew; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos; Benito, Juliana; Konoplev, Sergej; Gu, Yongchuan; Ravandi, Farhad; Jabbour, Elias; Faderl, Stefan; Thomas, Deborah; Cortes, Jorge; Kadia, Tapan; Kornblau, Steven; Daver, Naval; Pemmaraju, Naveen; Nguyen, Hoang Q; Feliu, Jennie; Lu, Hongbo; Wei, Caimiao; Wilson, William R; Melink, Teresa J; Gutheil, John C; Andreeff, Michael; Estey, Elihu H; Kantarjian, Hagop

    2015-07-01

    We previously demonstrated vast expansion of hypoxic areas in the leukemic microenvironment and provided a rationale for using hypoxia-activated prodrugs. PR104 is a phosphate ester that is rapidly hydrolyzed in vivo to the corresponding alcohol PR-104A and further reduced to the amine and hydroxyl-amine nitrogen mustards that induce DNA cross-linking in hypoxic cells under low oxygen concentrations. In this phase I/II study, patients with relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (n=40) after 1 or 2 prior treatments or acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n=10) after any number of prior treatments received PR104; dose ranged from 1.1 to 4 g/m(2). The most common treatment-related grade 3/4 adverse events were myelosuppression (anemia 62%, neutropenia 50%, thrombocytopenia 46%), febrile neutropenia (40%), infection (24%), and enterocolitis (14%). Ten of 31 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (32%) and 2 of 10 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (20%) who received 3 g/m(2) or 4 g/m(2) had a response (complete response, n=1; complete response without platelet recovery, n=5; morphological leukemia-free state, n=6). The extent of hypoxia was evaluated by the hypoxia tracer pimonidazole administered prior to a bone marrow biopsy and by immunohistochemical assessments of hypoxia-inducible factor alpha and carbonic anhydrase IX. A high fraction of leukemic cells expressed these markers, and PR104 administration resulted in measurable decrease of the proportions of hypoxic cells. These findings indicate that hypoxia is a prevalent feature of the leukemic microenvironment and that targeting hypoxia with hypoxia-activated prodrugs warrants further evaluation in acute leukemia. The trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov identifier: 01037556.

  16. Adropin Is a Key Mediator of Hypoxia Induced Anti-Dipsogenic Effects via TRPV4-CamKK-AMPK Signaling in the Circumventricular Organs of Rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Zhou, Li; Qian, Xu; Wang, Dong; He, Wen-Juan; Tang, Zhong-Wei; Yin, Jun; Huang, Qing-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Water intake reduction (anti-dipsogenic effects) under hypoxia has been well established, but the underlying reason remains unknown. Our previous report indicated that activated TRPV4 neurons in SFO are associated with anti-dipsogenic effects under hypoxia. Although low partial pressure of blood oxygen directly activates TRPV4, humoral factors could also be involved. In the present study, we hypothesize that adropin, a new endogenous peptide hormone, was rapidly increased (serum and brain) concomitant with reduced water intake in early hypoxia. Also, the nuclear expression of c-Fos, a marker for neuronal activation, related to water-consumption (SFO and MnPO) was inhibited. These effects were mitigated by a scavenger, rat adropin neutralizing antibody, which effectively neutralized adropin under hypoxia. Interestingly, injection of recombinant adropin in the third ventricle of the rats also triggered anti-dipsogenic effects and reduced c-Fos positive cells in SFO, but these effects were absent when TRPV4 was knocked down by shRNA. Moreover, adropin-activated CamKK-AMPK signaling related to TRPV4 calcium channel in SFO in normoxia. These results revealed that dissociative adropin was elevated in acute hypoxia, which was responsible for anti-dipsogenic effects by altering TRPV4-CamKK-AMPK signaling in SFO.

  17. Intermittent hypoxia training in prediabetes patients: Beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis, hypoxia tolerance and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Serebrovska, Tetiana V; Portnychenko, Alla G; Drevytska, Tetiana I; Portnichenko, Vladimir I; Xi, Lei; Egorov, Egor; Gavalko, Anna V; Naskalova, Svitlana; Chizhova, Valentina; Shatylo, Valeriy B

    2017-09-01

    The present study aimed at examining beneficial effects of intermittent hypoxia training (IHT) under prediabetic conditions. We investigate the effects of three-week IHT on blood glucose level, tolerance to acute hypoxia, and leukocyte mRNA expression of hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and its target genes, i.e. insulin receptor, facilitated glucose transporter-solute carrier family-2, and potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily J. Seven healthy and 11 prediabetic men and women (44-70 years of age) were examined before, next day and one month after three-week IHT (3 sessions per week, each session consisting 4 cycles of 5-min 12% O2 and 5-min room air breathing). We found that IHT afforded beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis in patients with prediabetes reducing fasting glucose and during standard oral glucose tolerance test. The most pronounced positive effects were observed at one month after IHT termination. IHT also significantly increased the tolerance to acute hypoxia (i.e. SaO2 level at 20th min of breathing with 12% O2) and improved functional parameters of respiratory and cardiovascular systems. IHT stimulated HIF-1α mRNA expression in blood leukocytes in healthy and prediabetic subjects, but in prediabetes patients the maximum increase was lagged. The greatest changes in mRNA expression of HIF-1α target genes occurred a month after IHT and coincided with the largest decrease in blood glucose levels. The higher expression of HIF-1α was positively associated with higher tolerance to hypoxia and better glucose homeostasis. In conclusion, our results suggest that IHT may be useful for preventing the development of type 2 diabetes. Impact statement The present study investigated the beneficial effects of intermittent hypoxia training (IHT) in humans under prediabetic conditions. We found that three-week moderate IHT induced higher HIF-1α mRNA expressions as well as its target genes, which were positively correlated with higher tolerance to

  18. Prognostic Cell Biological Markers in Cervical Cancer Patients Primarily Treated With (Chemo)radiation: A Systematic Review

    SciTech Connect

    Noordhuis, Maartje G.; Eijsink, Jasper J.H.; Roossink, Frank; Graeff, Pauline de; Pras, Elisabeth; Schuuring, Ed; Wisman, G. Bea A.; Bock, Geertruida H. de; Zee, Ate G.J. van der

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the prognostic and predictive significance of cell biological markers in cervical cancer patients primarily treated with (chemo)radiation. A PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane literature search was performed. Studies describing a relation between a cell biological marker and survival in {>=}50 cervical cancer patients primarily treated with (chemo)radiation were selected. Study quality was assessed, and studies with a quality score of 4 or lower were excluded. Cell biological markers were clustered on biological function, and the prognostic and predictive significance of these markers was described. In total, 42 studies concerning 82 cell biological markers were included in this systematic review. In addition to cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-ag) levels, markers associated with poor prognosis were involved in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling (EGFR and C-erbB-2) and in angiogenesis and hypoxia (carbonic anhydrase 9 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha}). Epidermal growth factor receptor and C-erbB-2 were also associated with poor response to (chemo)radiation. In conclusion, EGFR signaling is associated with poor prognosis and response to therapy in cervical cancer patients primarily treated with (chemo)radiation, whereas markers involved in angiogenesis and hypoxia, COX-2, and serum SCC-ag levels are associated with a poor prognosis. Therefore, targeting these pathways in combination with chemoradiation may improve survival in advanced-stage cervical cancer patients.

  19. Cognitive responses to hypobaric hypoxia: implications for aviation training.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Christopher; Hinkelbein, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this narrative review is to provide an overview on cognitive responses to hypobaric hypoxia and to show relevant implications for aviation training. A principal element of hypoxia-awareness training is the intentional evocation of hypoxia symptoms during specific training sessions within a safe and controlled environment. Repetitive training should enable pilots to learn and recognize their personal hypoxia symptoms. A time span of 3-6 years is generally considered suitable to refresh knowledge of the more subtle and early symptoms especially. Currently, there are two different technical approaches available to induce hypoxia during training: hypobaric chamber training and reduced-oxygen breathing devices. Hypoxia training for aircrew is extremely important and effective, and the hypoxia symptoms should be emphasized clearly to aircrews. The use of tight-fitting masks, leak checks, and equipment checks should be taught to all aircrew and reinforced regularly. It is noteworthy that there are major differences in the required quality and quantity of hypoxia training for both military and civilian pilots.

  20. The infectious hypoxia: occurrence and causes during Shigella infection.

    PubMed

    Arena, Ellen T; Tinevez, Jean-Yves; Nigro, Giulia; Sansonetti, Philippe J; Marteyn, Benoit S

    2017-03-01

    Hypoxia is defined as a tissue oxygenation status below physiological needs. During Shigella infection, an infectious hypoxia is induced within foci of infection. In this review, we discuss how Shigella physiology and virulence are modulated and how the main recruited immune cells, the neutrophils, adapt to this environment.

  1. Hypoxia induced cognitive impairment modulating activity of Cyperus rotundus.

    PubMed

    Kandikattu, Hemanth Kumar; Deep, Satya Narayan; Razack, Sakina; Amruta, Narayanappa; Prasad, Dipti; Khanum, Farhath

    2017-03-27

    Hypobaric hypoxia leads to decrease in cellular oxygen content which subsequently damages the hippocampus with an increase in brain oxidative stress and impairs the memory of the individual. In the present study, we have evaluated the cognitive impairment modulating activity of total oligomeric flavonoids fraction of Cyperus rotundus (TOF) in Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were trained for memory activity for a period of 7days followed by 7days exposure to 25,000ft. altitude and the spatial reference memory was evaluated. Behavioral analysis of the rats by Morris water maze experiment showed that TOF supplementation enhanced the spatial reference memory activity of the rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia. The decrease in antioxidant status of the animals exposed to hypoxia was restored with TOF supplementation. The increase in ROS, lipid peroxidation products and protein carbonyls of the hippocampus was significantly decreased in animals with TOF administration. The histological assessment of the pyramidal cells of the hippocampus of hypoxia-exposed animals showed nuclear damage and TOF supplementation prevented nuclear damage. TOF administration suppressed hypoxia-induced increase in serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine. GABA and Ach levels were decreased by hypoxia which was prevented by TOF supplementation. The increase in GFAP, HIF-1α and VEGF expression in CA3 region of the hippocampus in hypoxia-exposed rats was decreased in TOF administered rats. Taken together, TOF extract ameliorates hypobaric hypoxia induced memory impairment and neurodegeneration in hippocampus through its anti-stress effects.

  2. REST is a hypoxia-responsive transcriptional repressor

    PubMed Central

    Cavadas, Miguel A. S.; Mesnieres, Marion; Crifo, Bianca; Manresa, Mario C.; Selfridge, Andrew C.; Keogh, Ciara E.; Fabian, Zsolt; Scholz, Carsten C.; Nolan, Karen A.; Rocha, Liliane M. A.; Tambuwala, Murtaza M.; Brown, Stuart; Wdowicz, Anita; Corbett, Danielle; Murphy, Keith J.; Godson, Catherine; Cummins, Eoin P.; Taylor, Cormac T.; Cheong, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Cellular exposure to hypoxia results in altered gene expression in a range of physiologic and pathophysiologic states. Discrete cohorts of genes can be either up- or down-regulated in response to hypoxia. While the Hypoxia-Inducible Factor (HIF) is the primary driver of hypoxia-induced adaptive gene expression, less is known about the signalling mechanisms regulating hypoxia-dependent gene repression. Using RNA-seq, we demonstrate that equivalent numbers of genes are induced and repressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. We demonstrate that nuclear localization of the Repressor Element 1-Silencing Transcription factor (REST) is induced in hypoxia and that REST is responsible for regulating approximately 20% of the hypoxia-repressed genes. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays we demonstrate that REST-dependent gene repression is at least in part mediated by direct binding to the promoters of target genes. Based on these data, we propose that REST is a key mediator of gene repression in hypoxia. PMID:27531581

  3. Ageing and hypoxia cause protein aggregation in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Daniel M; Wu, Xia; Sco