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Sample records for nitrosococcus oceani atcc19707

  1. The Complete Genome Sequence of the Marine, Chemolithoautotrophic, Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacterium Nitrosococcus oceani ATCC19707

    SciTech Connect

    Klotz, M G; Arp, D J; Chain, P S; El-Sheikh, A F; Hauser, L J; Hommes, N G; Larimer, F W; Malfatti, S A; Norton, J M; Poret-Peterson, A T; Vergez, L M; Ward, B B

    2006-08-03

    The Gammaproteobacterium, Nitrosococcus oceani (ATCC 19707), is a Gram-negative obligate chemolithoautotroph capable of extracting energy and reducing power from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Sequencing and annotation of the genome revealed a single circular chromosome (3,481,691 bp; 50.4% G+C) and a plasmid (40,420 bp) that contain 3052 and 41 candidate protein-encoding genes, respectively. The genes encoding proteins necessary for the function of known modes of lithotrophy and autotrophy were identified. In contrast to betaproteobacterial nitrifier genomes, the N. oceani genome contained two complete rrn operons. In contrast, only one copy of the genes needed to synthesize functional ammonia monooxygenase and hydroxylamine oxidoreductase, as well as the proteins that relay the extracted electrons to a terminal electron acceptor were identified. The N. oceani genome contained genes for 13 complete two-component systems. The genome also contained all the genes needed to reconstruct complete central pathways, the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnass and pentose phosphate pathways. The N. oceani genome contains the genes required to store and utilize energy from glycogen inclusion bodies and sucrose. Polyphosphate and pyrophosphate appear to be integrated in this bacterium's energy metabolism, stress tolerance and the ability to assimilate carbon via gluconeogenesis. One set of genes for type I RuBisCO was identified, while genes necessary for methanotrophy and for carboxysome formation were not identified. The N. oceani genome contains two copies each of the genes or operons necessary to assemble functional complexes I and IV as well as ATP synthase (one H{sup +}-dependent F{sub 0}F{sub 1}-type, one Na{sup +}-dependent V-type).

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of the Marine, Chemolithoautotrophic, Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacterium Nitrosococcus oceani ATCC 19707

    PubMed Central

    Klotz, Martin G.; Arp, Daniel J.; Chain, Patrick S. G.; El-Sheikh, Amal F.; Hauser, Loren J.; Hommes, Norman G.; Larimer, Frank W.; Malfatti, Stephanie A.; Norton, Jeanette M.; Poret-Peterson, Amisha T.; Vergez, Lisa M.; Ward, Bess B.

    2006-01-01

    The gammaproteobacterium Nitrosococcus oceani (ATCC 19707) is a gram-negative obligate chemolithoautotroph capable of extracting energy and reducing power from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Sequencing and annotation of the genome revealed a single circular chromosome (3,481,691 bp; G+C content of 50.4%) and a plasmid (40,420 bp) that contain 3,052 and 41 candidate protein-encoding genes, respectively. The genes encoding proteins necessary for the function of known modes of lithotrophy and autotrophy were identified. Contrary to betaproteobacterial nitrifier genomes, the N. oceani genome contained two complete rrn operons. In contrast, only one copy of the genes needed to synthesize functional ammonia monooxygenase and hydroxylamine oxidoreductase, as well as the proteins that relay the extracted electrons to a terminal electron acceptor, were identified. The N. oceani genome contained genes for 13 complete two-component systems. The genome also contained all the genes needed to reconstruct complete central pathways, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnass and pentose phosphate pathways. The N. oceani genome contains the genes required to store and utilize energy from glycogen inclusion bodies and sucrose. Polyphosphate and pyrophosphate appear to be integrated in this bacterium's energy metabolism, stress tolerance, and ability to assimilate carbon via gluconeogenesis. One set of genes for type I ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase was identified, while genes necessary for methanotrophy and for carboxysome formation were not identified. The N. oceani genome contains two copies each of the genes or operons necessary to assemble functional complexes I and IV as well as ATP synthase (one H+-dependent F0F1 type, one Na+-dependent V type). PMID:16957257

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of the Marine, Chemolithoautotrophic, Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacterium Nitrosococcus oceani ATCC 19707

    SciTech Connect

    Klots, Martin G.; Arp, D J; Chain, Patrick S; El-Sheikh, Amal F.; Hauser, Loren John; Hommes, Norman G.; Larimer, Frank W; Malfatti, Stephanie; Norton, Jeanette M.; Poret-Peterson, Amisha T.; Vergez, Lisa; Ward, Bess B.

    2006-01-01

    The gammaproteobacterium Nitrosococcus oceani (ATCC 19707) is a gram-negative obligate chemolithoautotroph capable of extracting energy and reducing power from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Sequencing and annotation of the genome revealed a single circular chromosome (3,481,691 bp; G+C content of 50.4%) and a plasmid (40,420 bp) that contain 3,052 and 41 candidate protein-encoding genes, respectively. The genes encoding proteins necessary for the function of known modes of lithotrophy and autotrophy were identified. Contrary to betaproteobacterial nitrifier genomes, the N. oceani genome contained two complete rrn operons. In contrast, only one copy of the genes needed to synthesize functional ammonia monooxygenase and hydroxylamine oxidoreductase, as well as the proteins that relay the extracted electrons to a terminal electron acceptor, were identified. The N. oceani genome contained genes for 13 complete two-component systems. The genome also contained all the genes needed to reconstruct complete central pathways, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnass and pentose phosphate pathways. The N. oceani genome contains the genes required to store and utilize energy from glycogen inclusion bodies and sucrose. Polyphosphate and pyrophosphate appear to be integrated in this bacterium's energy metabolism, stress tolerance, and ability to assimilate carbon via gluconeogenesis. One set of genes for type I ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase was identified, while genes necessary for methanotrophy and for carboxysome formation were not identified. The N. oceani genome contains two copies each of the genes or operons necessary to assemble functional complexes I and IV as well as ATP synthase (one H+-dependent F0F1 type, one Na+-dependent V type).

  4. Worldwide distribution of Nitrosococcus oceani, a marine ammonia-oxidizing gamma-proteobacterium, detected by PCR and sequencing of 16S rRNA and amoA genes.

    PubMed

    Ward, Bess B; O'Mullan, Gregory D

    2002-08-01

    Diversity of cultured ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in the gamma-subdivision of the Proteobacteria was investigated by using strains isolated from various parts of the world ocean. All the strains were very similar to each other on the basis of the sequences of both the 16S rRNA and ammonia monooxygenase genes and could be characterized as a single species. Sequences were also cloned directly from environmental DNA from coastal Pacific and Atlantic sites, and these sequences represented the first Nitrosococcus oceani-like sequences obtained directly from the ocean. Most of the environmental sequences clustered tightly with those of the cultivated strains, but some sequences could represent new species of NITROSOCOCCUS: These findings imply that organisms similar to the cultivated N. oceani strains have a worldwide distribution. PMID:12147525

  5. Virgibacillus oceani sp. nov. isolated from ocean sediment.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xijie; Yang, Yanliu; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Gaiyun

    2015-01-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, moderately halophilic, motile, strictly aerobic, endospore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium, strain MY11(T), was isolated from a sediment sample collected from the Western Pacific. This isolate grew in the presence of 0.5-18% (w/v) NaCl and at pH 6.0-10.0 and 15-45 °C; optimum growth was observed with 3.5% (w/v) NaCl and at pH 8.0-9.0 and 35-37 °C. Strain MY11(T) had menaquinone 7 (MK-7) as the predominant respiratory quinone and anteiso-C15:0 and anteiso-C17:0 as major fatty acids. Major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol. The DNA G+C content was 34.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed that strain MY11(T) was a member of the genus Virgibacillus, exhibiting sequence similarities of 95.3-97.6% to the type strains of recognized Virgibacillus species. Strain MY11(T) could be differentiated from recognized species of the genus Virgibacillus based on phenotypic characteristics, chemotaxonomic differences, phylogenetic analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization data. On the basis of the data presented, strain MY11(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Virgibacillus, for which the name Virgibacillus oceani sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MY11(T) ( =LMG 28105(T) =CGMCC 1.12754(T) =MCCC 1A09973(T)). PMID:25301543

  6. Complete genome sequence of Thermosediminibacter oceani type strain (JW/IW-1228PT)

    SciTech Connect

    Pitluck, Sam; Yasawong, Montri; Munk, Christine; Nolan, Matt; Lapidus, Alla L.; Lucas, Susan; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Tice, Hope; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Bruce, David; Detter, J. Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Liolios, Konstantinos; Ivanova, N; Mavromatis, K; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren John; Chang, Yun-Juan; Jeffries, Cynthia; Rohde, Manfred; Spring, Stefan; Sikorski, Johannes; Goker, Markus; Woyke, Tanja; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2010-01-01

    Thermosediminibacter oceani (Lee et al. 2006) is the type species of the genus Thermosediminibacter in the family Thermoanaerobacteraceae. The anaerobic, barophilic, chemoorganotrophic thermophile is characterized by straight to curved Gram-negative rods. The strain described in this study has been isolated from a core sample of deep sea sediments of the Peruvian high productivity upwelling system. This is the first completed genome sequence of a member of the genus Thermosediminibacter and the seventh genome sequence in the family Thermoanaerobacteraceae. The 2,280,035 bp long genome with its 2,285 protein-coding and 63 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  7. D1FHS, the Type Strain of the Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacterium Nitrosococcus wardiae spec. nov.: Enrichment, Isolation, Phylogenetic, and Growth Physiological Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin; Lim, Chee Kent; Dang, Hongyue; Hanson, Thomas E.; Klotz, Martin G.

    2016-01-01

    An ammonia-oxidizing bacterium, strain D1FHS, was enriched into pure culture from a sediment sample retrieved in Jiaozhou Bay, a hyper-eutrophic semi-closed water body hosting the metropolitan area of Qingdao, China. Based on initial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain D1FHS was classified in the genus Nitrosococcus, family Chromatiaceae, order Chromatiales, class Gammaproteobacteria; the 16S rRNA gene sequence with highest level of identity to that of D1FHS was obtained from Nitrosococcus halophilus Nc4T. The average nucleotide identity between the genomes of strain D1FHS and N. halophilus strain Nc4 is 89.5%. Known species in the genus Nitrosococcus are obligate aerobic chemolithotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria adapted to and restricted to marine environments. The optimum growth (maximum nitrite production) conditions for D1FHS in a minimal salts medium are: 50 mM ammonium and 700 mM NaCl at pH of 7.5 to 8.0 and at 37°C in dark. Because pertinent conditions for other studied Nitrosococcus spp. are 100–200 mM ammonium and <700 mM NaCl at pH of 7.5 to 8.0 and at 28–32°C, D1FHS is physiologically distinct from other Nitrosococcus spp. in terms of substrate, salt, and thermal tolerance. PMID:27148201

  8. Sinomicrobium oceani gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Tian, Xin-Peng; Liu, Yu-Juan; Li, Jie; Kim, Chang-Jin; Yin, Hao; Li, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Si

    2013-03-01

    A marine bacterium, designated SCSIO 03483(T), was isolated from a marine sediment sample collected from the Nansha Islands in the South China Sea. The strain produced roundish colonies with diffusible yellow-coloured pigment on nutrient agar medium or marine agar 2216. Optimal growth occurred in the presence of 0-4 % (w/v) NaCl, at pH 7.0 and a temperature range of 28-37 °C. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the isolate belonged to the family Flavobacteriaceae and showed relatively high sequence similarity with Imtechella halotolerans K1(T) (92.7 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on nearly complete 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the isolate shared a lineage with members of the genera Imtechella, Joostella and Zhouia. Phospholipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified aminolipids and three unknown polar lipids. The major respiratory quinone was MK-6 and the major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω6c/C16 : 1ω7c). The DNA G+C content of strain SCSIO 03483(T) was 38.4 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular data, strain SCSIO 03483(T) represents a novel species in a new genus in the family Flavobacteriaceae, for which the name Sinomicrobium oceani gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Sinobacterium oceani is SCSIO 03483(T) ( = KCTC 23994(T) = CGMCC 1.12145(T)).

  9. Bacillus oceani sp. nov., a new slightly halophilic bacterium, isolated from a deep sea sediment environment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Juan; Long, Li-Juan; Huang, Xiao-Fang; You, Zhi-Qing; Wang, Fa-Zuo; Li, Jie; Kim, Chang-Jin; Tian, Xin-Peng; Zhang, Si

    2013-11-01

    A strictly aerobic, Gram-stain positive, slightly halophilic strain, designated SCSIO 04524(T), was isolated from a deep sea sediment sample collected from the northern South China Sea at a depth of 3415 m. The isolate slightly embedded into the medium after 72 h incubation at 30 °C. Growth was found to occur on media with 0-10 % NaCl but extremely weak growth occurred without supplying NaCl. The predominant menaquinone was determined to be MK-7. The major cellular fatty acid identified was iso-C15:0. The diagnostic polar lipids were determined to be diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidyl methylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. The genomic DNA G+C content was determined to be 38 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequences analysis showed that this strain had the highest similarities with Bacillus carboniphilus JCM 9731(T) (94.7 %) and Bacillus endophyticus 2DT(T) (94.3 %). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that strain SCSIO 04524(T) formed a distinct lineage with Bacillus chungangensis CAU 348(T) and B. carboniphilus JCM 9731(T). Physiological characteristics including utilization of sole nitrogen and carbon sources, and chemotaxonomic properties of cellular fatty acids and polar lipids could readily distinguish strain SCSIO 04524(T) from its most closely related species. Based on this polyphasic taxonomic data, a new species, Bacillus oceani sp. nov., is proposed, with the type strain SCSIO 04524(T) (=DSM 26213(T) = KCTC 33077(T)).

  10. Nocardiopsis oceani sp. nov. and Nocardiopsis nanhaiensis sp. nov., actinomycetes isolated from marine sediment of the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hua-Qi; Zhang, Dao-Feng; Li, Li; Jiang, Zhao; Cheng, Juan; Zhang, Yong-Guang; Wang, Hong-Fei; Hu, Jiang-Chun; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-10-01

    Two actinomycete strains, designated 10A08AT and 10A08BT, were isolated from marine sediment samples of the South China Sea and their taxonomic positions were determined by a polyphasic approach. The two Gram-stain-positive, aerobic strains produced branched substrate mycelium and aerial hyphae, and no diffusible pigment was produced in the media tested. At maturity, spore chains were formed on aerial hyphae and all mycelium fragmented with age. Whole-cell hydrolysates of both strains contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and no diagnostic sugars. Their predominant menaquinones (>10 %) were MK-9(H4), MK-9(H6) and MK-10(H6) for strain 10A08AT and MK-9(H4), MK-9(H6), MK-10(H4) and MK-10(H6) for strain 10A08BT. The polar lipids detected from the two strains were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and unknown phosphoglycolipids and phospholipids. The major fatty acids (>10 %) of both strains were iso-C16 : 0 and summed feature 4 (iso-C17 : 1 I and/or anteiso-C17 : 1 B). The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains 10A08AT and 10A08BT were 70.9 and 71.6 mol%, respectively. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, the two strains were shown to be most closely related to species of the genus Nocardiopsis. DNA–DNA hybridization relatedness values of < 70 % between these two isolates and their closest neighbour, Nocardiopsis terrae YIM 90022T, and between the two strains supported the conclusion that they represent two novel species. Based on phylogenetic analysis and phenotypic and genotypic data, it is concluded that the two isolates belong to the genus Nocardiopsis, and the names Nocardiopsis oceani sp. nov. (type strain 10A08AT = DSM 45931T = BCRC 16951T) and Nocardiopsis nanhaiensis sp. nov. (type strain 10A08BT = CGMCC 47227T = BCRC 16952T) are proposed.

  11. Streptomyces oceani sp. nov., a new obligate marine actinomycete isolated from a deep-sea sample of seep authigenic carbonate nodule in South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xin-Peng; Xu, Ying; Zhang, Jing; Li, Jie; Chen, Zhong; Kim, Chang-Jin; Li, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Chang-Sheng; Zhang, Si

    2012-08-01

    A novel aerobic actinomycete strain, designated as SCSIO 02100(T), was isolated from a deep sea sediment sample collected from Northern South China Sea at a depth of 578 m. This isolate requires sea water or a sodium-supplemented medium for growth. BLAST searches based on the almost full length of the 16S rRNA gene sequence, showed that strain SCSIO 02100(T) had the highest similarities with Streptomyces armeniacus (JCM 3070(T)) (97.1 %). Phylogenetic trees reconstructed on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain SCSIO 02100(T) formed a distinct lineage with S. nanshensis SCSIO 01066(T) with 96.9 % similarity. Further analysis of the polyphasic taxonomic data, including morphological, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic properties, showed that strain SCSIO 02100(T) could be readily distinguished from the most closely related members of the genus Streptomyces. Thus, based on the polyphasic taxonomic data, a novel species, Streptomyces oceani sp. nov., is proposed, with the type strain SCSIO 02100(T) (=DSM 42043(T) = CGMCC 4.7007(T)).

  12. Urease-Encoding Genes in Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria†

    PubMed Central

    Koper, Teresa E.; El-Sheikh, Amal F.; Norton, Jeanette M.; Klotz, Martin G.

    2004-01-01

    Many but not all ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) produce urease (urea amidohydrolase, EC 3.5.1.5) and are capable of using urea for chemolithotrophic growth. We sequenced the urease operons from two AOB, the β-proteobacterium Nitrosospira sp. strain NpAV and the γ-proteobacterium Nitrosococcus oceani. In both organisms, all seven urease genes were contiguous: the three structural urease genes ureABC were preceded and succeeded by the accessory genes ureD and ureEFG, respectively. Green fluorescent protein reporter gene fusions revealed that the ure genes were under control of a single operon promoter upstream of the ureD gene in Nitrosococcus oceani. Southern analyses revealed two copies of ureC in the Nitrosospira sp. strain NpAV genome, while a single copy of the ure operon was detected in the genome of Nitrosococcus oceani. The ureC gene encodes the alpha subunit protein containing the active site and conserved nickel binding ligands; these conserved regions were suitable primer targets for obtaining further ureC sequences from additional AOB. In order to develop molecular tools for detecting the ureolytic ecotype of AOB, ureC genes were sequenced from several β-proteobacterial AOB. Pairwise identity values ranged from 80 to 90% for the UreC peptides of AOB within a subdivision. UreC sequences deduced from AOB urease genes and available UreC sequences in the public databases were used to construct alignments and make phylogenetic inferences. The UreC proteins from β-proteobacterial AOB formed a distinct monophyletic group. Unexpectedly, the peptides from AOB did not group most closely with the UreC proteins from other β-proteobacteria. Instead, it appears that urease in β-proteobacterial autotrophic ammonia oxidizers is the product of divergent evolution in the common ancestor of γ- and β-proteobacteria that was initiated before their divergence during speciation. Sequence motifs conserved for the proteobacteria and variable regions possibly

  13. Characterizing bacterial gene expression in nitrogen cycle metabolism with RT-qPCR.

    PubMed

    Graham, James E; Wantland, Nicholas B; Campbell, Mark; Klotz, Martin G

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in DNA sequencing have greatly accelerated our ability to obtain the raw information needed to recognize both known and potential novel modular microbial genomic capacity for nitrogen metabolism. With PCR-based approaches to quantifying microbial mRNA expression now mainstream in most laboratories, researchers can now more efficiently propose and test hypotheses on the contributions of individual microbes to the biological accessibility of nitrogen upon which all other life depends. We review known microbial roles in these key nitrogen transformations, and describe the necessary steps in carrying out relevant gene expression studies. An example experimental design is then provided characterizing Nitrosococcus oceani mRNA expression in cultures responding to ammonia. The approach described, that of assessing microbial genome inventory and testing putative modular gene expression by mRNA quantification, is likely to remain an important tool in understanding individual microbial contributions within microbial community activities that maintain the Earth's nitrogen balance.

  14. Isotopomeric characterization of nitrous oxide produced by reaction of enzymes extracted from nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, T.; Hozuki, T.; Arai, K.; Toyoda, S.; Koba, K.; Fujiwara, T.; Yoshida, N.

    2013-10-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas and produced in denitrification and nitrification in environmental nitrogen cycle by various microorganism. Site preference (SP) of 15N in N2O, which is defined as the difference in the natural abundance of isotopomers 14N15NO and 15N14NO relative to 14N14NO, has been reported to be a useful tool to quantitatively distinguish N2O production pathway. To determine representative SP value for each microbial process, we firstly measured SP of N2O produced in the enzyme reaction of hydroxylamine oxidoreductase (HAO) purified from two species of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB), Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrosococcus oceani, and that of nitric oxide reductase (NOR) from Paracoccus denitrificans, respectively. The SP value for NOR reaction (-5.9 ± 2.1‰) showed nearly the same value as that reported for N2O produced by P. denitrificans in pure culture. In contrast, SP value for HAO reaction (36.3 ± 2.3‰) was a little higher than the values reported for N2O produced by AOB in aerobic pure culture. Using the SP values obtained by HAO and NOR reactions, we calculated relative contribution of the nitrite (NO2-) reduction (which is followed by NO reduction) to N2O production by N. oceani incubated under different O2 availability. Our calculations revealed that previous in vivo studies might have underestimated the SP value for NH2OH oxidation pathway possibly due to a small contribution of NO2- reduction pathway. Further evaluation of isotopomer signatures of N2O using common enzymes of other processes related to N2O would improve the isotopomer analysis of N2O in various environments.

  15. Isotopomeric characterization of nitrous oxide produced by reaction of enzymes extracted from nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, T.; Hozuki, T.; Arai, K.; Toyoda, S.; Koba, K.; Fujiwara, T.; Yoshida, N.

    2014-05-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas and produced in denitrification and nitrification by various microorganisms. Site preference (SP) of 15N in N2O, which is defined as the difference in the natural abundance of isotopomers 14N15NO and 15N14NO relative to 14N14NO, has been reported to be a useful tool to quantitatively distinguish N2O production pathways. To determine representative SP values for each microbial process, we firstly measured SP of N2O produced in the enzyme reaction of hydroxylamine oxidoreductase (HAO) purified from two species of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB), Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrosococcus oceani, and that of nitric oxide reductase (NOR) from Paracoccus denitrificans. The SP value for NOR reaction (-5.9 ± 2.1‰) showed nearly the same value as that reported for N2O produced by P. denitrificans in pure culture. In contrast, SP value for HAO reaction (36.3 ± 2.3‰) was a little higher than the values reported for N2O produced by AOB in aerobic pure culture. Using the SP values obtained by HAO and NOR reactions, we calculated relative contribution of the nitrite (NO2-) reduction (which is followed by NO reduction) to N2O production by N. oceani incubated under different O2 availability. Our calculations revealed that previous in vivo studies might have underestimated the SP value for the NH2OH oxidation pathway possibly due to a small contribution of NO2- reduction pathway. Further evaluation of isotopomer signatures of N2O using common enzymes of other processes related to N2O would improve the isotopomer analysis of N2O in various environments.

  16. Optimized inhibition assays reveal different inhibitory responses of hydroxylamine oxidoreductases from beta- and gamma-proteobacterial ammonium-oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nishigaya, Yuki; Fujimoto, Zui; Yamazaki, Toshimasa

    2016-07-29

    Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), ubiquitous chemoautotrophic bacteria, convert ammonia (NH3) to nitrite (NO2(-)) via hydroxylamine as energy source. Excessive growth of AOB, enhanced by applying large amounts of ammonium-fertilizer to the farmland, leads to nitrogen leaching and nitrous oxide gas emission. To suppress these unfavorable phenomena, nitrification inhibitors, AOB specific bactericides, are widely used in fertilized farmland. However, new nitrification inhibitors are desired because of toxicity and weak-effects of currently used inhibitors. Toward development of novel nitrification inhibitors that target hydroxylamine oxidoreductase (HAO), a key enzyme of nitrification in AOB, we established inhibitor evaluation systems that include simplified HAO purification procedure and high-throughput HAO activity assays for the purified enzymes and for the live AOB cells. The new assay systems allowed us to observe distinct inhibitory responses of HAOs from beta-proteobacterial AOB (βAOB) Nitrosomonas europaea (NeHAO) and gamma-proteobacterial AOB (γAOB) Nitrosococcus oceani (NoHAO) against phenylhydrazine, a well-known suicide inhibitor for NeHAO. Consistently, the live cells of N. europaea, Nitrosomonas sp. JPCCT2 and Nitrosospira multiformis of βAOB displayed higher responses to phenylhydrazine than those of γAOB N. oceani. Our homology modeling studies suggest that different inhibitory responses of βAOB and γAOB are originated from different local environments around the substrate-binding sites of HAOs in these two classes of bacteria due to substitutions of two residues. The results reported herein strongly recommend inhibitor screenings against both NeHAO of βAOB and NoHAO of γAOB to develop HAO-targeting nitrification inhibitors with wide anti-AOB spectra.

  17. Combiner L'Education Et Le Travail; Experiences en Asie et en Oceanie: Viet Nam (Combining Education and Work; Experiences in Asia and Oceania: Viet Nam).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vien, Hguyen Khac

    Educational policy in Viet Nam has closely followed the revolutionary movement. In the essentially democratic period from 1945 to 1960, Viet Nam created a nationwide 10-grade school system and fought illiteracy on a large scale. By 1960, as socialism began to predominate, especially in the North, traditional educational methods and values began to…

  18. Global Climate Change and Environmental Contaminants: A SETAC Call for Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change has become a global environmental threat that will impact virtually every ecosystem on the planet for generations to come. The widespread nature of the threat is evident in not only industrialized countries, but in remote locations, such as polar regions and oceani...

  19. The effects of salinity on nitrification using halophilic nitrifiers in a Sequencing Batch Reactor treating hypersaline wastewater.

    PubMed

    Cui, You-Wei; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Ding, Jie-Ran; Peng, Yong-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    With annual increases in the generation and use of saline wastewater, the need to avoid environmental problems such as eutrophication is critical. A previous study identified ways to start up a halophilic sludge domesticated from estuarine sediments to remove nitrogen from wastewater with a salinity of 30 g/L. This investigation expands that work to explore the impact of salinity on nitrogen removal. This study demonstrated that the mixed halophilic consortia removed nitrogen from wastewater with a salinity of 30-85 g/L. A kinetic analysis showed that halophilic nitrifiers selected based on hypersalinity were characterized by low Ks, μmax and specific ammonium oxidization rates. This explains the decrease in ammonium removal efficiency in the high salinity operational phases. Salinity inhibited ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) activity, as well as the number of dominant AOB, but did not significantly affect the AOB dominant species. Three most dominant AOB lineages in the halophilic sludge were Nitrosomonas marina, Nitrosomonas europaea, and Nitrosococcus mobilis. Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrosococcus mobilis were mainly affected by salinity, while nitrite accumulation and ammonia loading played the key role in determining the abundance of Nitrosococcus mobilis and Nitrosococcus europaea. The study contributes insights about shifts in halophilic nitrifying bacterial populations. PMID:27109617

  20. The effects of salinity on nitrification using halophilic nitrifiers in a Sequencing Batch Reactor treating hypersaline wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Cui, You-Wei; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Ding, Jie-Ran; Peng, Yong-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    With annual increases in the generation and use of saline wastewater, the need to avoid environmental problems such as eutrophication is critical. A previous study identified ways to start up a halophilic sludge domesticated from estuarine sediments to remove nitrogen from wastewater with a salinity of 30 g/L. This investigation expands that work to explore the impact of salinity on nitrogen removal. This study demonstrated that the mixed halophilic consortia removed nitrogen from wastewater with a salinity of 30–85 g/L. A kinetic analysis showed that halophilic nitrifiers selected based on hypersalinity were characterized by low Ks, μmax and specific ammonium oxidization rates. This explains the decrease in ammonium removal efficiency in the high salinity operational phases. Salinity inhibited ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) activity, as well as the number of dominant AOB, but did not significantly affect the AOB dominant species. Three most dominant AOB lineages in the halophilic sludge were Nitrosomonas marina, Nitrosomonas europaea, and Nitrosococcus mobilis. Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrosococcus mobilis were mainly affected by salinity, while nitrite accumulation and ammonia loading played the key role in determining the abundance of Nitrosococcus mobilis and Nitrosococcus europaea. The study contributes insights about shifts in halophilic nitrifying bacterial populations. PMID:27109617

  1. The timescales of global surface-ocean connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jönsson, Bror F.; Watson, James R.

    2016-04-01

    Planktonic communities are shaped through a balance of local evolutionary adaptation and ecological succession driven in large part by migration. The timescales over which these processes operate are still largely unresolved. Here we use Lagrangian particle tracking and network theory to quantify the timescale over which surface currents connect different regions of the global ocean. We find that the fastest path between two patches--each randomly located anywhere in the surface ocean--is, on average, less than a decade. These results suggest that marine planktonic communities may keep pace with climate change--increasing temperatures, ocean acidification and changes in stratification over decadal timescales--through the advection of resilient types.

  2. The timescales of global surface-ocean connectivity.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, Bror F; Watson, James R

    2016-01-01

    Planktonic communities are shaped through a balance of local evolutionary adaptation and ecological succession driven in large part by migration. The timescales over which these processes operate are still largely unresolved. Here we use Lagrangian particle tracking and network theory to quantify the timescale over which surface currents connect different regions of the global ocean. We find that the fastest path between two patches--each randomly located anywhere in the surface ocean--is, on average, less than a decade. These results suggest that marine planktonic communities may keep pace with climate change--increasing temperatures, ocean acidification and changes in stratification over decadal timescales--through the advection of resilient types. PMID:27093522

  3. Antarctic Bottom Water production by intense sea-ice formation in the Cape Darnley polynya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohshima, Kay I.; Fukamachi, Yasushi; Williams, Guy D.; Nihashi, Sohey; Roquet, Fabien; Kitade, Yujiro; Tamura, Takeshi; Hirano, Daisuke; Herraiz-Borreguero, Laura; Field, Iain; Hindell, Mark; Aoki, Shigeru; Wakatsuchi, Masaaki

    2013-03-01

    The formation of Antarctic Bottom Water--the cold, dense water that occupies the abyssal layer of the global ocean--is a key process in global ocean circulation. This water mass is formed as dense shelf water sinks to depth. Three regions around Antarctica where this process takes place have been previously documented. The presence of another source has been identified in hydrographic and tracer data, although the site of formation is not well constrained. Here we document the formation of dense shelf water in the Cape Darnley polynya (65°-69°E) and its subsequent transformation into bottom water using data from moorings and instrumented elephant seals (Mirounga leonina). Unlike the previously identified sources of Antarctic Bottom Water, which require the presence of an ice shelf or a large storage volume, bottom water production at the Cape Darnley polynya is driven primarily by the flux of salt released by sea-ice formation. We estimate that about 0.3-0.7×106m3s-1 of dense shelf water produced by the Cape Darnley polynya is transformed into Antarctic Bottom Water. The transformation of this water mass, which we term Cape Darnley Bottom Water, accounts for 6-13% of the circumpolar total.

  4. Analysis of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria from hypersaline Mono Lake, California, on the basis of 16S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Ward, B B; Martino, D P; Diaz, M C; Joye, S B

    2000-07-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria were detected by PCR amplification of DNA extracted from filtered water samples throughout the water column of Mono Lake, California. Ammonia-oxidizing members of the beta subdivision of the division Proteobacteria (beta-subdivision Proteobacteria) were detected using previously characterized PCR primers; target sequences were detected by direct amplification in both surface water and below the chemocline. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis indicated the presence of at least four different beta-subdivision ammonia oxidizers in some samples. Subsequent sequencing of amplified 16S rDNA fragments verified the presence of sequences very similar to those of cultured Nitrosomonas strains. Two separate analyses, carried out under different conditions (different reagents, locations, PCR machines, sequencers, etc.), 2 years apart, detected similar ranges of sequence diversity in these samples. It seems likely that the physiological diversity of nitrifiers exceeds the diversity of their ribosomal sequences and that these sequences represent members of the Nitrosomonas europaea group that are acclimated to alkaline, high-salinity environments. Primers specific for Nitrosococcus oceanus, a marine ammonia-oxidizing bacterium in the gamma subdivision of the Proteobacteria, did not amplify target from any samples. PMID:10877781

  5. Biological Treatment of Ammonia-Rich Wastewaters by Natural Microbial Communities in the ATOXIC/ASSET Purification System

    SciTech Connect

    Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Fisher, L. Suzanne; Brodie, Greg A; Phelps, Tommy Joe

    2013-01-01

    Analyses of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes along with high throughput 454 pyrosequencing technology were used to identify microbial communities present at a novel passive wastewater treatment system designed to remove ammonium, nitrate, and heavy metals from fossil plant effluents. Seasonal changes in microbial community composition were observed, however significant (p=0.001) changes were detected in bacterial and archaeal communities consistent with ammonium removal throughout the treatment systems. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed presence of potential ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), Nitrosomonas, Nitrosococcus, Planctomycetes, and OD1. Other bacteria, such as Nitrospira, Nitrococcus, Nitrobacter, Thiobacillus, -Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, which play roles in nitrification and denitrification, were also detected. The relative abundance of the potential ammonium-oxidizing archaea (AOA) (Thermoprotei within the phylum Crenarchaeota) increased with ammonium availability at the splitter box and zero-valent iron extraction trenches even though AOB removed half of the ammonium in the trickling filters at the beginning of the treatment system. The microbial community removed the ammonium from the wastewater within both pilot-scale treatment systems, thus the treatment system components provided an effective environment for the treatment of ammonium enriched wastewater from coal burning power plants equipped with selective catalytic reducers for nitrogen oxide removal.

  6. The small-scale production of [U-14C]acetylene from Ba14CO3: application to labeling of ammonia monooxygenase in autotrophic nitrifying bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hyman, M R; Arp, D J

    1990-11-01

    A small-scale method has been adapted from an established procedure for the generation of [U-14C]acetylene from inexpensive and commonly available precursors. The method involves the fusing of Ba14CO3 with excess barium metal to produce Ba14C2. The BaC2 is reacted with water to generate acetylene which is then selectively dissolved into dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The results presented demonstrate the effect of Ba:BaCO3 ratio on the concentrations of various gases released during the hydrolysis reaction and quantify the selectivity of the DMSO-trapping process for each gas. [U-14C]Acetylene generated by this method has been used to inactivate ammonia monooxygenase in three species of autotrophic nitrifying bacteria: Nitrosomonas europaea, Nitrosococcus oceanus, and Nitrosolobus multiformis. Our results demonstrate that acetylene inactivation of this enzyme in all three species results in the covalent incorporation of radioactive label into a polypeptide of apparent Mr of 25,000-27,000, as determined by sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography. PMID:2291478

  7. So close, so different: geothermal flux shapes divergent soil microbial communities at neighbouring sites.

    PubMed

    Gagliano, A L; Tagliavia, M; D'Alessandro, W; Franzetti, A; Parello, F; Quatrini, P

    2016-03-01

    This study is focused on the (micro)biogeochemical features of two close geothermal sites (FAV1 and FAV2), both selected at the main exhalative area of Pantelleria Island, Italy. A previous biogeochemical survey revealed high CH4 consumption and the presence of a diverse community of methanotrophs at FAV2 site, whereas the close site FAV1 was apparently devoid of methanotrophs and recorded no CH4 consumption. Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) techniques were applied to describe the bacterial and archaeal communities which have been linked to the physicochemical conditions and the geothermal sources of energy available at the two sites. Both sites are dominated by Bacteria and host a negligible component of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (phylum Thaumarchaeota). The FAV2 bacterial community is characterized by an extraordinary diversity of methanotrophs, with 40% of the sequences assigned to Methylocaldum, Methylobacter (Gammaproteobacteria) and Bejerickia (Alphaproteobacteria); conversely, a community of thermo-acidophilic chemolithotrophs (Acidithiobacillus, Nitrosococcus) or putative chemolithotrophs (Ktedonobacter) dominates the FAV1 community, in the absence of methanotrophs. Since physical andchemical factors of FAV1, such as temperature and pH, cannot be considered limiting for methanotrophy, it is hypothesized that the main limiting factor for methanotrophs could be high NH4(+) concentration. At the same time, abundant availability of NH4(+) and other high energy electron donors and acceptors determined by the hydrothermal flux in this site create more energetically favourable conditions for chemolithotrophs that outcompete methanotrophs in non-nitrogen-limited soils.

  8. Environmental factors affecting rates of nitrogen cycling

    SciTech Connect

    Lipschultz, F.

    1984-01-01

    The nitrogen cycle in the eutrophic Delaware river was studied in late summer, 1983 using /sup 15/N tracer additions of NHG/sub 4//sup +/, NO/sub 2//sup -/, and NO/sub 3//sup -/. Rates for nine different transformations were calculated simultaneously with a least-squares minimization analysis. Light was found to stimulate ammonium uptake and to inhibit ammonium oxidation. Rates for nitrification, ammonium uptake by phytoplankton, and photosynthesis were integrated over 24 hours and river depth. High turbidity lifted the effect of light inhibition on nitrification and restricted phytoplankton uptake. Uptake of ammonium contributed over 95% of the inorganic nitrogen ration for phytoplankton, with dark uptake accounting for more than 50%. A mass-conservation, box model of river was used to calculate rate constants required to reproduce observed nutrient concentration changes. The calculated constants correlated well with the measured /sup 15/N and oxygen integrated rates. Water-column nitrification was the major loss term for NH/sub 4//sup +/, while water column regeneration was the primary source. Loss of oxidized nitrogen was insignificant. Oxygen consumption and air-water exchange far exceeded net photosynthetic oxygen production. Nitrification contributed less than 1% to the oxygen demand near Philadelphia but up to 25% further downstream. Production of NO and N/sub 2/O was measured under varying oxygen concentrations in batch cultures of the nitrifying bacteria Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrosococcus oceanus. Production of both gases increased relative to nitrite production as oxygen levels decreased.

  9. Evolutionary relationships among ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Teske, A; Alm, E; Regan, J M; Toze, S; Rittmann, B E; Stahl, D A

    1994-01-01

    Comparative 16S rRNA sequencing was used to evaluate phylogenetic relationships among selected strains of ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. All characterized strains were shown to be affiliated with the proteobacteria. The study extended recent 16S rRNA-based studies of phylogenetic diversity among nitrifiers by the comparison of eight strains of the genus Nitrobacter and representatives of the genera Nitrospira and Nitrospina. The later genera were shown to be affiliated with the delta subdivision of the proteobacteria but did not share a specific relationship to each other or to other members of the delta subdivision. All characterized Nitrobacter strains constituted a closely related assemblage within the alpha subdivision of the proteobacteria. As previously observed, all ammonia-oxidizing genera except Nitrosococcus oceanus constitute a monophyletic assemblage within the beta subdivision of the proteobacteria. Errors in the 16S rRNA sequences for two strains previously deposited in the databases by other investigators (Nitrosolobus multiformis C-71 and Nitrospira briensis C-128) were corrected. Consideration of physiology and phylogenetic distribution suggested that nitrite-oxidizing bacteria of the alpha and gamma subdivisions are derived from immediate photosynthetic ancestry. Each nitrifier retains the general structural features of the specific ancestor's photosynthetic membrane complex. Thus, the nitrifiers, as a group, apparently are not derived from an ancestral nitrifying phenotype. PMID:7961414

  10. Inhibition of Ammonia Oxidation in Nitrosomonas europaea by Sulfur Compounds: Thioethers Are Oxidized to Sulfoxides by Ammonia Monooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Juliette, Lisa Y.; Hyman, Michael R.; Arp, Daniel J.

    1993-01-01

    Organic sulfur compounds are well-known nitrification inhibitors. The inhibitory effects of dimethylsulfide, dimethyldisulfide, and ethanethiol on ammonia oxidation by Nitrosomonas europaea were examined. Both dimethylsulfide and dimethyldisulfide were weak inhibitors of ammonia oxidation and exhibited inhibitory characteristics typical of substrates for ammonia monooxygenase (AMO). Depletion of dimethylsulfide required O2 and was prevented with either acetylene or allylthiourea, two inhibitors of AMO. The inhibition of ammonia oxidation by dimethylsulfide was examined in detail. Cell suspensions incubated in the presence of ammonia oxidized dimethylsulfide to dimethyl sulfoxide. Depletion of six other thioethers was also prevented by treating cell suspensions with either allylthiourea or acetylene. The oxidative products of three thioethers were identified as the corresponding sulfoxides. The amount of sulfoxide formed accounted for a majority of the amount of sulfide depleted. By using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, allylmethylsulfide was shown to be oxidized to allylmethylsulfoxide by N. europaea with the incorporation of a single atom of 18O derived from 18O2 into the sulfide. This result supported our conclusion that a monooxygenase was involved in the oxidation of allylmethylsulfide. The thioethers are concluded to be a new class of substrates for AMO. This is the first report of the oxidation of the sulfur atom by AMO in whole cells of N. europaea. The ability of N. europaea to oxidize dimethylsulfide is not unique among the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Nitrosococcus oceanus, a marine nitrifier, was also demonstrated to oxidize dimethylsulfide to dimethyl sulfoxide. PMID:16349086

  11. Metagenomic analysis of nitrogen metabolism genes in the surface of marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Carolina; Schneider, Dominik; Thürmer, Andrea; Dellwig, Olaf; Lipka, Marko; Daniel, Rolf; Böttcher, Michael E.; Friedrich, Michael W.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we analysed metagenomes along with biogeochemical profiles from Skagerrak (North Sea) and Bothnian Bay (Baltic Sea) sediments, to trace the prevailing nitrogen pathways. NO3- was present in the top 5 cm below the sediment-water interface at both sites. NH4+ increased with depth below 5 cm where it overlapped with the NO3- zone. Steady state modelling of NO3- and NH4+ porewater profiles indicates zones of net nitrogen species transformations. Protease, peptidase, urease and deaminase ammonification genes were detected in metagenomes. Genes involved in ammonia oxidation (amo, hao), nitrite oxidation (nxr), denitrification (nar, nir, nor) and dissimilatory NO3- reduction to NH4+ (nap, nfr and otr) were also present. 16S rRNA gene analysis showed that the nitrifying group Nitrosopumilales and other groups involved in nitrification and denitrification (Nitrobacter, Nitrosomonas, Nitrospira, Nitrosococcus, and Nitrosonomas) appeared less abundant in Skagerrak sediments compared to Bothnian Bay sediments. Beggiatoa and Thiothrix 16S rRNA genes were also present suggesting chemolithoautotrophic NO3- reduction to NO2- or NH4+ as a possible pathway. Although anammox planctomycetes 16S rRNA genes were present in metagenomes, anammox protein-coding genes were not detected. Our results show the metabolic potential for ammonification, nitrification, NO3- reduction, and denitrification activities in Skagerrak and Bothnian Bay sediments.

  12. Assessment of changes in microbial community structure during operation of an ammonia biofilter with molecular tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakano, Y.; Kerkhof, L.; Janes, H. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Biofiltration has been used for two decades to remove odors and various volatile organic and inorganic compounds in contaminated off-gas streams. Although biofiltration is widely practiced, there have been few studies of the bacteria responsible for the removal of air contaminants in biofilters. In this study, molecular techniques were used to identify bacteria in a laboratory-scale ammonia biofilter. Both 16S rRNA and ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes were used to characterize the heterotrophic and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria collected from the biofilter during a 102-day experiment. The overall diversity of the heterotrophic microbial population appeared to decrease by 38% at the end of the experiment. The community structure of the heterotrophic population also shifted from predominantly members of two subdivisions of the Proteobacteria (the beta and gamma subdivisions) to members of one subdivision (the gamma subdivision). An overall decrease in the diversity of ammonia monooxygenase genes was not observed. However, a shift from groups dominated by organisms containing Nitrosomonas-like and Nitrosospira-like amoA genes to groups dominated by organisms containing only Nitrosospira-like amoA genes was observed. In addition, a new amoA gene was discovered. This new gene is the first freshwater amoA gene that is closely affiliated with Nitrosococcus oceanus and the particulate methane monooxygenase gene from the methane oxidizers belonging to the gamma subdivision of the Proteobacteria.

  13. Diversity and structure of soil bacterial communities in the Fildes Region (maritime Antarctica) as revealed by 454 pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Neng Fei; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Fang; Wang, En Tao; He, Jian Feng; Ding, Hui; Zhang, Bo Tao; Liu, Jie; Ran, Xiang Bin; Zang, Jia Ye

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the diversity and composition of bacterial communities in four different soils (human-, penguin-, seal-colony impacted soils and pristine soil) in the Fildes Region (King George Island, Antarctica) using 454 pyrosequencing with bacterial-specific primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia were abundant phyla in almost all the soil samples. The four types of soils were significantly different in geochemical properties and bacterial community structure. Thermotogae, Cyanobacteria, Fibrobacteres, Deinococcus-Thermus, and Chlorobi obviously varied in their abundance among the 4 soil types. Considering all the samples together, members of the genera Gaiella, Chloracidobacterium, Nitrospira, Polaromonas, Gemmatimonas, Sphingomonas, and Chthoniobacter were found to predominate, whereas members of the genera Chamaesiphon, Herbaspirillum, Hirschia, Nevskia, Nitrosococcus, Rhodococcus, Rhodomicrobium, and Xanthomonas varied obviously in their abundance among the four soil types. Distance-based redundancy analysis revealed that pH (p < 0.01), phosphate phosphorus (p < 0.01), organic carbon (p < 0.05), and organic nitrogen (p < 0.05) were the most significant factors that correlated with the community distribution of soil bacteria. To our knowledge, this is the first study to explore the soil bacterial communities in human-, penguin-, and seal- colony impacted soils from ice-free areas in maritime Antarctica using high-throughput pyrosequencing. PMID:26579095

  14. Molecular analysis of enrichment cultures of ammonia oxidizers from the Salar de Huasco, a high altitude saline wetland in northern Chile.

    PubMed

    Dorador, Cristina; Busekow, Annika; Vila, Irma; Imhoff, Johannes F; Witzel, Karl-Paul

    2008-05-01

    We analyzed enrichment cultures of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) collected from different areas of Salar de Huasco, a high altitude, saline, pH-neutral water body in the Chilean Altiplano. Samples were inoculated into mineral media with 10 mM NH4+ at five different salt concentrations (10, 200, 400, 800 and 1,400 mM NaCl). Low diversity (up to three phylotypes per enrichment) of beta-AOB was detected using 16S rDNA and amoA clone libraries. Growth of beta-AOB was only recorded in a few enrichment cultures and varied according to site or media salinity. In total, five 16S rDNA and amoA phylotypes were found which were related to Nitrosomonas europaea/Nitrosococcus mobilis, N. marina and N. communis clusters. Phylotype 1-16S was 97% similar with N. halophila, previously isolated from Mongolian soda lakes, and phylotypes from amoA sequences were similar with yet uncultured beta-AOB from different biofilms. Sequences related to N. halophila were frequently found at all salinities. Neither gamma-AOB nor ammonia-oxidizing Archaea were recorded in these enrichment cultures. PMID:18305895

  15. Shifts in Nitrification Kinetics and Microbial Community during Bioaugmentation of Activated Sludge with Nitrifiers Enriched on Sludge Reject Water

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lifang; Peng, Dangcong; Pan, Ruiling

    2012-01-01

    This study used two laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) to evaluate the shifts in nitrification kinetics and microbial communities of an activated sludge sewage treatment system (main stream) during bioaugmentation with nitrifiers cultivated on real sludge reject water (side stream). Although bioaugmentation exerted a strong influence on the microbial community and the nitrification kinetics in the main stream, there was 58% of maximum ammonia uptake rate (AUR) and 80% of maximum nitrite uptake rate (NUR) loss of the seed source after bioaugmentation. In addition, nitrite accumulation occurred during bioaugmentation due to the unequal and asynchronous increase of the AUR (from 2.88 to 13.36 mg N/L·h) and NUR (from 0.76 to 4.34 mg N/L·h). FISH results showed that ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was inclined to be washed out with effluent in contrast to nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB), and Nitrosococcus mobilis lineage was the dominant AOB, while the dominant NOB in the main stream gradually transferred from Nitrospira to Nitrobacter. Nitrospina and Nitrococcus which existed in the seed source could not be detected in the main stream. It can be inferred that nitrite accumulation occurred due to the mismatch of NOB structure but washed out with effluent. PMID:23091354

  16. Diversity and structure of soil bacterial communities in the Fildes Region (maritime Antarctica) as revealed by 454 pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Neng Fei; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Fang; Wang, En Tao; He, Jian Feng; Ding, Hui; Zhang, Bo Tao; Liu, Jie; Ran, Xiang Bin; Zang, Jia Ye

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the diversity and composition of bacterial communities in four different soils (human-, penguin-, seal-colony impacted soils and pristine soil) in the Fildes Region (King George Island, Antarctica) using 454 pyrosequencing with bacterial-specific primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia were abundant phyla in almost all the soil samples. The four types of soils were significantly different in geochemical properties and bacterial community structure. Thermotogae, Cyanobacteria, Fibrobacteres, Deinococcus-Thermus, and Chlorobi obviously varied in their abundance among the 4 soil types. Considering all the samples together, members of the genera Gaiella, Chloracidobacterium, Nitrospira, Polaromonas, Gemmatimonas, Sphingomonas, and Chthoniobacter were found to predominate, whereas members of the genera Chamaesiphon, Herbaspirillum, Hirschia, Nevskia, Nitrosococcus, Rhodococcus, Rhodomicrobium, and Xanthomonas varied obviously in their abundance among the four soil types. Distance-based redundancy analysis revealed that pH (p < 0.01), phosphate phosphorus (p < 0.01), organic carbon (p < 0.05), and organic nitrogen (p < 0.05) were the most significant factors that correlated with the community distribution of soil bacteria. To our knowledge, this is the first study to explore the soil bacterial communities in human-, penguin-, and seal- colony impacted soils from ice-free areas in maritime Antarctica using high-throughput pyrosequencing. PMID:26579095

  17. So close, so different: geothermal flux shapes divergent soil microbial communities at neighbouring sites.

    PubMed

    Gagliano, A L; Tagliavia, M; D'Alessandro, W; Franzetti, A; Parello, F; Quatrini, P

    2016-03-01

    This study is focused on the (micro)biogeochemical features of two close geothermal sites (FAV1 and FAV2), both selected at the main exhalative area of Pantelleria Island, Italy. A previous biogeochemical survey revealed high CH4 consumption and the presence of a diverse community of methanotrophs at FAV2 site, whereas the close site FAV1 was apparently devoid of methanotrophs and recorded no CH4 consumption. Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) techniques were applied to describe the bacterial and archaeal communities which have been linked to the physicochemical conditions and the geothermal sources of energy available at the two sites. Both sites are dominated by Bacteria and host a negligible component of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (phylum Thaumarchaeota). The FAV2 bacterial community is characterized by an extraordinary diversity of methanotrophs, with 40% of the sequences assigned to Methylocaldum, Methylobacter (Gammaproteobacteria) and Bejerickia (Alphaproteobacteria); conversely, a community of thermo-acidophilic chemolithotrophs (Acidithiobacillus, Nitrosococcus) or putative chemolithotrophs (Ktedonobacter) dominates the FAV1 community, in the absence of methanotrophs. Since physical andchemical factors of FAV1, such as temperature and pH, cannot be considered limiting for methanotrophy, it is hypothesized that the main limiting factor for methanotrophs could be high NH4(+) concentration. At the same time, abundant availability of NH4(+) and other high energy electron donors and acceptors determined by the hydrothermal flux in this site create more energetically favourable conditions for chemolithotrophs that outcompete methanotrophs in non-nitrogen-limited soils. PMID:26560641

  18. Production of NO2/-/ and N2O by nitrifying bacteria at reduced concentrations of oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goreau, T. J.; Kaplan, W. A.; Wofsy, S. C.; Mcelroy, M. B.; Valois, F. W.; Watson, S. W.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of oxygen concentration on the production of NO2(-) and N2O by nitrifying marine bacteria of the genus Nitrosomonas is investigated. Pure cultures of the ammonium-oxiding bacteria isolated from the Western Tropical Atlantic Ocean were grown at oxygen partial pressures from 0.005 to 0.2 atm, and concentrations of N2O in the air above the growth medium and dissolved NO2(-) were determined. Decreasing oxygen concentrations are observed to induce a marked decrease in NO2(-) production rates and increase in N2O evolution, leading to an increase of the relative yield of N2O with respect to NO2(-) from 0.3% to nearly 10%. Similar yields of N2O at atmospheric oxygen levels are found for nitrifying bacteria of the genera Nitrosomonas, Nitrosolobus, Nitrosospira and Nitrosococcus, while nitrite-oxydizing bacteria and a dinoflagellate did not produce detectable quantities of N2O. Results support the view that nitrification is a major source of N2O in the environment.

  19. Immune gene expression profile of Penaeus monodon in response to marine yeast glucan application and white spot syndrome virus challenge.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Wilsy; Lowman, Douglas; Antony, Swapna P; Puthumana, Jayesh; Bright Singh, I S; Philip, Rosamma

    2015-04-01

    Immunostimulant potential of eight marine yeast glucans (YG) from Candida parapsilosis R20, Hortaea werneckii R23, Candida spencermartinsiae R28, Candida haemulonii R63, Candida oceani R89, Debaryomyces fabryi R100, Debaryomyces nepalensis R305 and Meyerozyma guilliermondii R340 were tested against WSSV challenge in Penaeus monodon post larvae (PL). Structural characterization of these marine yeast glucans by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) indicated structures containing (1-6)-branched (1-3)-β-D-glucan. PL were fed 0.2% glucan incorporated diet once in seven days for a period of 45 days and the animals were challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The immunostimulatory activity of yeast glucans were assessed pre- and post-challenge WSSV by analysing the expression profile of six antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes viz., anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF), crustin-1, crustin-2, crustin-3, penaeidin-3 and penaeidin-5 and 13 immune genes viz., alpha-2-macroglobulin (α-2-M), astakine, caspase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-s-transferase, haemocyanin, peroxinectin, pmCathepsinC, prophenol oxidase (proPO), Rab-7, superoxide dismutase and transglutaminase. Expression of seven WSSV genes viz., DNA polymerase, endonuclease, protein kinase, immediate early gene, latency related gene, thymidine kinase and VP28 were also analysed to detect the presence and intensity of viral infection in the experimental animals post-challenge. The study revealed that yeast glucans (YG) do possess immunostimulatory activity against WSSV and also supported higher survival (40-70 %) post-challenge WSSV. Among the various glucans tested, YG23 showed maximum survival (70.27%), followed by YG20 (66.66%), YG28 (60.97%), YG89 (58.53%), YG100 (54.05%), YG63 (48.64%), YG305 (45.7%) and YG340 (43.24%). PMID:25555812

  20. Pustulibacterium marinum gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from the Bashi Channel.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanghua; Zhou, Danyan; Dai, Shikun; Tian, Xinpeng; Li, Jie; Chen, Wen; Xiang, Wenzhou; Li, Xiang

    2013-08-01

    A Gram-reaction-negative, non-spore-forming, gliding, non-translucent, colourless or yellow, aerobic and elevated-colony-forming strain, designated E403(T), was isolated from the Bashi Channel and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Strain E403(T) could grow in the presence of 0.3-8 % (w/v) NaCl, at 16-43 °C and at pH 6-9, and grew optimally at 28 °C, pH 8, in natural seawater medium. The respiratory quinones were MK-6 and MK-7. The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, iso-C15 : 1 G, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c), iso-C15 : 0 3-OH and C16 : 0. The DNA G+C content of strain E403(T) was 37.9 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences of members of the family Flavobacteriaceae showed that strain E403(T) formed a distinct evolutionary lineage within the stable cluster containing type strains Zhouia amylolytica HN-171(T) (92.2 % similarity) and Joostella marina En5(T) (92.4 % similarity). In addition to the large 16S rRNA gene sequence differences, E403(T) can also be distinguished from the reference type strains J. marina En5(T) and Sinomicrobium oceani SCSIO 03483(T) by several phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic properties. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties, strain E403(T) is suggested to represent a novel species of a new genus in the family Flavobacteriaceae, for which the name Pustulibacterium marinum gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is E403(T) (= CCTCC AB2012862(T) = CGMCC 1.12333(T) = KCTC 32192(T)).

  1. Nitrogen-removal performance and community structure of nitrifying bacteria under different aeration modes in an oxidation ditch.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chang-Zi; Fu, Wei; Chen, Xue-Mei; Peng, Dang-Cong; Jin, Peng-Kang

    2013-07-01

    Oxidation-ditch operation modes were simulated using sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) with alternate stirring and aerating. The nitrogen-removal efficiencies and nitrifying characteristics of two aeration modes, point aeration and step aeration, were investigated. Under the same air-supply capacity, oxygen dissolved more efficiently in the system with point aeration, forming a larger aerobic zone. The nitrifying effects were similar in point aeration and step aeration, where the average removal efficiencies of NH4(+) N were 98% and 96%, respectively. When the proportion of anoxic and oxic zones was 1, the average removal efficiencies of total nitrogen (TN) were 45% and 66% under point aeration and step aeration, respectively. Step aeration was more beneficial to both anoxic denitrification and simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND). The maximum specific ammonia-uptake rates (AUR) of point aeration and step aeration were 4.7 and 4.9 mg NH4(+)/(gMLVSS h), respectively, while the maximum specific nitrite-uptake rates (NUR) of the two systems were 7.4 and 5.3 mg NO2(-)-N/(gMLVSS h), respectively. The proportions of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) to all bacteria were 5.1% under point aeration and 7.0% under step aeration, and the proportions of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) reached 6.5% and 9.0% under point and step aeration, respectively. The dominant genera of AOB and NOB were Nitrosococcus and Nitrospira, which accounted for 90% and 91%, respectively, under point aeration, and the diversity of nitrifying bacteria was lower than under step aeration. Point aeration was selective of nitrifying bacteria. The abundance of NOB was greater than that of AOB in both of the operation modes, and complete transformation of NH4(+) N to NO3(-)-N was observed without NO2(-)-N accumulation.

  2. [Mechanism of NH(4+)-N removal in drinking water biofilter].

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing; Fan, Hui; Yu, Guo-Zhong; Yu, Xin; Zhao, Cheng-Mei; Li, Qing-Fei; Zhang, Shu-Ting; Wei, Bo

    2012-07-01

    In order to explore the mechanism of NH(4+)-N removal in drinking water biofilter, water quality parameters, such as NH(4+)-N, NO(2-)-N, NO(3-)-N, total phosphorus, permanganate index, nitrogen gas, temperature and dissolved oxygen etc, were determined in the inflow and outflow of biofilter. Samples of granular activated carbon (GAC) at different height (0, 10, 20, 40, 60 cm) of the biofiter media were collected and analyzed for the bacterial community with molecular biology techniques. The bacterial diversity in the activated carbon biofilm sample was studied based on the phylogenetic analysis of sequences. The results showed that there were three stages according to the NH(4+)-N concentration in the influent. The "nitrogen loss" phenomenon (total inorganic nitrogen in the effluent was less than that in the influent) occurred at the first, second and third stages and the amount of nitrogen loss were 0.94, 0.32 and 0.15 mg x L(-1), respectively. The amount of nitrogen loss had a good positive correlation with the NH(4+)-N concentration in the influent, but not a linear relationship with the concentration of the permanganate index in the influent. The average concentrations of N2 increased gradually with the height of media in the biofilter, with values of 14.04 and 14.67 mg x L(-1) in the influent and the effluent, respectively. Based on the sequencing results, the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the activated carbon biofilm were classified into three common genera: Nitrosococcus, Nitrosomonas and Nitrosospira. When the NH(4+)-N concentration in the influent was relatively high, the "nitrogen loss" phenomenon in biofilter was caused by the AOB.

  3. Developments in Airborne Oceanography and Air-Sea Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melville, W. K.

    2014-12-01

    , just as aircraft carriers "project force". Now we can measure winds, waves, temperatures, currents, radiative transfer, images and air-sea fluxes from aircraft over the ocean.I will review some of the history of airborne oceanography and present examples of how it can extend our knowledge and understanding of air-sea interaction.

  4. Emergent macrophytes select for nitrifying and denitrifying microorganisms in constructed wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trias, Rosalia; Ramió Pujol, Sara; Bañeras, Lluis

    2014-05-01

    The use of constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment is a reliable low-cost alternative that has been widely developed during the last years. Several processes involving plants, sediments, and microbial communities contribute to nitrogen removal in wetlands. Vegetation plays an important role in this process, not only by nutrient assimilation but also by the stimulation of the plant associated microbiota. Plants supply oxygen at the close proximity of the root surface that may favour ammonia oxidizers. At the same time, exudation of organic compounds potentially speeds-up denitrification in the anoxic environment. The aim of this work was to understand the plant-microbe interactions at the root level in the Empuriabrava free water surface constructed wetland (Spain). The roots of the macrophytes Typha latifolia, Typha angustifolia, Phragmites australis and Bolboschoenus maritimus were sampled at four dates from January to September 2012, covering all the stages of plant growth. Additionally, sediment surrounding vegetation and non-vegetated sediments were sampled. Microbial community structure was analysed by pyrosequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S rDNA and functional genes (nirK, nirS, nosZ and amoA). Bacterial communities were significantly different in sediments of the vegetated areas compared to the root surface. Plant roots exhibited a higher proportion of proteobacteria whereas Actinobacteria were dominant in sediments. The nitrifiers Nitrosomonas sp. and Nitrosococcus sp. accounted for less than 1% of all sequences. Archaeal communities were dominated by the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Groups C2 and C3 and Methanomicrobia. Higher relative abundances of MCG were found in roots of P. australis, B. maritimus and T. angustifolia. Ammonia oxidizing archaea accounted for less than 0.1% of all sequences but were consistently more abundant in sediment samples compared to roots. NirK and NirS-type bacterial communities showed clearly distinct distribution

  5. Physiology, biochemistry, and specific inhibitors of CH4, NH4+, and CO oxidation by methanotrophs and nitrifiers.

    PubMed Central

    Bédard, C; Knowles, R

    1989-01-01

    Ammonia oxidizers (family Nitrobacteraceae) and methanotrophs (family Methylococcaceae) oxidize CO and CH4 to CO2 and NH4+ to NO2-. However, the relative contributions of the two groups of organisms to the metabolism of CO, CH4, and NH4+ in various environments are not known. In the ammonia oxidizers, ammonia monooxygenase, the enzyme responsible for the conversion of NH4+ to NH2OH, also catalyzes the oxidation of CH4 to CH3OH. Ammonia monooxygenase also mediates the transformation of CH3OH to CO2 and cell carbon, but the pathway by which this is done is not known. At least one species of ammonia oxidizer, Nitrosococcus oceanus, exhibits a Km for CH4 oxidation similar to that of methanotrophs. However, the highest rate of CH4 oxidation recorded in an ammonia oxidizer is still five times lower than rates in methanotrophs, and ammonia oxidizers are apparently unable to grow on CH4. Methanotrophs oxidize NH4+ to NH2OH via methane monooxygenase and NH4+ to NH2OH via methane monooxygenase and NH2OH to NO2- via an NH2OH oxidase which may resemble the enzyme found in ammonia oxidizers. Maximum rates of NH4+ oxidation are considerably lower than in ammonia oxidizers, and the affinity for NH4+ is generally lower than in ammonia oxidizers. NH4+ does not apparently support growth in methanotrophs. Both ammonia monooxygenase and methane monooxygenase oxidize CO to CO2, but CO cannot support growth in either ammonia oxidizers or methanotrophs. These organisms have affinities for CO which are comparable to those for their growth substrates and often higher than those in carboxydobacteria. The methane monooxygenases of methanotrophs exist in two forms: a soluble form and a particulate form. The soluble form is well characterized and appears unrelated to the particulate. Ammonia monooxygenase and the particulate methane monooxygenase share a number of similarities. Both enzymes contain copper and are membrane bound. They oxidize a variety of inorganic and organic compounds, and

  6. Microbial life in volcanic/geothermal areas: how soil geochemistry shapes microbial communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagliano, Antonina Lisa; D'Alessandro, Walter; Franzetti, Andrea; Parello, Francesco; Tagliavia, Marcello; Quatrini, Paola

    2015-04-01

    Extreme environments, such as volcanic/geothermal areas, are sites of complex interactions between geosphere and biosphere. Although biotic and abiotic components are strictly related, they were separately studied for long time. Nowadays, innovative and interdisciplinary approaches are available to explore microbial life thriving in these environments. Pantelleria island (Italy) hosts a high enthalpy geothermal system characterized by high CH4 and low H2S fluxes. Two selected sites, FAV1 and FAV2, located at Favara Grande, the main exhalative area of the island, show similar physical conditions with a surface temperature close to 60° C and a soil gas composition enriched in CH4, H2 and CO2. FAV1 soil is characterized by harsher conditions (pH 3.4 and 12% of H2O content); conversely, milder conditions were recorded at site FAV2 (pH 5.8 and 4% of H2O content). High methanotrophic activity (59.2 nmol g-1 h-1) and wide diversity of methanotrophic bacteria were preliminary detected at FAV2, while no activity was detected at FAV1(1). Our aim was to investigate how the soil microbial communities of these two close geothermal sites at Pantelleria island respond to different geochemical conditions. Bacterial and Archaeal communities of the sites were investigated by MiSeq Illumina sequencing of hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. More than 33,000 reads were obtained for Bacteria and Archaea from soil samples of the two sites. At FAV1 99% of the bacterial sequences were assigned to four main phyla (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi). FAV2 sequences were distributed in the same phyla with the exception of Chloroflexi that was represented below 1%. Results indicate a high abundance of thermo-acidophilic chemolithotrophs in site FAV1 dominated by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (25%), Nitrosococcus halophilus (10%), Alicyclobacillus spp. (7%) and the rare species Ktedonobacter racemifer (11%). The bacterial community at FAV2 soil is dominated by