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Sample records for nk cells mediated

  1. Cytokine-Mediated Activation of NK Cells during Viral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Bailey E.; Raué, Hans-Peter; Hill, Ann B.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Natural killer (NK) cells provide a first line of defense against infection via the production of antiviral cytokines and direct lysis of target cells. Cytokines such as interleukin 12 (IL-12) and IL-18 are critical regulators of NK cell activation, but much remains to be learned about how cytokines interact to regulate NK cell function. Here, we have examined cytokine-mediated activation of NK cells during infection with two natural mouse pathogens, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV). Using a systematic screen of 1,849 cytokine pairs, we identified the most potent combinations capable of eliciting gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production in NK cells. We observed that NK cell responses to cytokine stimulation were reduced 8 days after acute LCMV infection but recovered to preinfection levels by 60 days postinfection. In contrast, during MCMV infection, NK cell responses to cytokines remained robust at all time points examined. Ly49H-positive (Ly49H+) NK cells recognizing viral ligand m157 showed preferential proliferation during early MCMV infection. A population of these cells was still detected beyond 60 days postinfection, but these divided cells did not demonstrate enhanced IFN-γ production in response to innate cytokine stimulation. Instead, the maturation state of the NK cells (as determined by CD11b or CD27 surface phenotype) was predictive of responsiveness to cytokines, regardless of Ly49H expression. These results help define cytokine interactions that regulate NK cell activation and highlight variations in NK cell function during two unrelated viral infections. IMPORTANCE Natural killer cells play an important role in immunity to many viral infections. From an initial screen of 1,849 cytokine pairs, we identified the most stimulatory cytokine combinations capable of inducing IFN-γ production by NK cells. Ly49H+ NK cells, which can be directly activated by MCMV protein m157, preferentially proliferated

  2. HIV-1 adaptation to NK cell mediated immune pressure

    PubMed Central

    Alter, Galit; Heckerman, David; Schneidewind, Arne; Fadda, Lena; Kadie, Carl M.; Carlson, Jonathan M.; Oniangue-Ndza, Cesar; Martin, Maureen; Li, Bin; Khakoo, Salim I.; Carrington, Mary; Allen, Todd M.; Altfeld, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Natural Killer (NK) cells play an important role in the control of viral infections, recognizing virally infected cells through a variety of activating and inhibitory receptors1–3. Epidemiological and functional studies have recently suggested that NK cells can also contribute to the control of HIV-1 infection through recognition of virally infected cells by both activating and inhibitory Killer Immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs)4–7. However, it remains unknown whether NK cells can directly mediate antiviral immune pressure in vivo in humans. Here we describe KIR-associated amino acid polymorphisms in the HIV-1 sequence of chronically infected individuals on a population level. We show that these KIR-associated HIV-1 sequence polymorphisms can enhance the binding of inhibitory KIRs to HIV-1-infected CD4+ T cells, leading to reduced antiviral activity of KIR+ NK cells. These data demonstrate that KIR+ NK cells can place immunological pressure on HIV-1, and that the virus can evade such NK cell mediated immune pressure by selecting for sequence polymorphisms, as previously described for virus-specific T cells and neutralizing antibodies8. NK cells might therefore play a previously underappreciated role in contributing to viral evolution. PMID:21814282

  3. Rhizopus oryzae hyphae are damaged by human natural killer (NK) cells, but suppress NK cell mediated immunity.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Stanislaw; Tramsen, Lars; Perkhofer, Susanne; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Hanisch, Mitra; Röger, Frauke; Klingebiel, Thomas; Koehl, Ulrike; Lehrnbecher, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    Mucormycosis has a high mortality and is increasingly diagnosed in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. In this setting, there is a growing interest to restore host defense to combat infections by adoptively transferring donor-derived immunocompetent cells. Natural killer (NK) cells exhibit antitumor and antiinfective activity, but the interaction with Mucormycetes is unknown. Our data demonstrate that both unstimulated and IL-2 prestimulated human NK cells damage Rhizopus oryzae hyphae, but do not affect resting conidia. The damage of the fungus is mediated, at least in part, by perforin. R. oryzae hyphae decrease the secretion of immunoregulatory molecules by NK cells, such as IFN-γ and RANTES, indicating an immunosuppressive effect of the fungus. Our data indicate that NK cells exhibit activity against Mucormycetes and future research should evaluate NK cells as a potential tool for adoptive immunotherapy in HSCT. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Strategies to rescue mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) from NK cell mediated cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Jewett, Anahid; Arasteh, Aida; Tseng, Han-Ching; Behel, Armin; Arasteh, Hobie; Yang, Wendy; Cacalano, Nicholas A; Paranjpe, Avina

    2010-03-31

    The aim of this paper is to study the function of allogeneic and autologous NK cells against Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs) and Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) and to determine the function of NK cells in a three way interaction with monocytes and stem cells. We demonstrate here that freshly isolated untreated or IL-2 treated NK cells are potent inducers of cell death in DPSCs and MSCs, and that anti-CD16 antibody which induces functional split anergy and apoptosis in NK cells inhibits NK cell mediated lysis of DPSCs and MSCs. Monocytes co-cultured with either DPSCs or MSCs decrease lysis of stem cells by untreated or IL-2 treated NK cells. Monocytes also prevent NK cell apoptosis thereby raising the overall survival and function of NK cells, DPSCs or MSCs. Both total population of monocytes and those depleted of CD16(+) subsets were able to prevent NK cell mediated lysis of MSCs and DPSCs, and to trigger an increased secretion of IFN-gamma by IL-2 treated NK cells. Protection of stem cells from NK cell mediated lysis was also seen when monocytes were sorted out from stem cells before they were added to NK cells. However, this effect was not specific to monocytes since the addition of T and B cells to stem cells also protected stem cells from NK cell mediated lysis. NK cells were found to lyse monocytes, as well as T and B cells. By increasing the release of IFN-gamma and decreasing the cytotoxic function of NK cells monocytes are able to shield stem cells from killing by the NK cells, resulting in an increased protection and differentiation of stem cells. More importantly studies reported in this paper indicate that anti-CD16 antibody can be used to prevent NK cell induced rejection of stem cells.

  5. Activation by SLAM Family Receptors Contributes to NK Cell Mediated "Missing-Self" Recognition.

    PubMed

    Alari-Pahissa, Elisenda; Grandclément, Camille; Jeevan-Raj, Beena; Leclercq, Georges; Veillette, André; Held, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Natural Killer (NK) cells attack normal hematopoietic cells that do not express inhibitory MHC class I (MHC-I) molecules, but the ligands that activate NK cells remain incompletely defined. Here we show that the expression of the Signaling Lymphocyte Activation Molecule (SLAM) family members CD48 and Ly9 (CD229) by MHC-I-deficient tumor cells significantly contributes to NK cell activation. When NK cells develop in the presence of T cells or B cells that lack inhibitory MHC-I but express activating CD48 and Ly9 ligands, the NK cells' ability to respond to MHC-I-deficient tumor cells is severely compromised. In this situation, NK cells express normal levels of the corresponding activation receptors 2B4 (CD244) and Ly9 but these receptors are non-functional. This provides a partial explanation for the tolerance of NK cells to MHC-I-deficient cells in vivo. Activating signaling via 2B4 is restored when MHC-I-deficient T cells are removed, indicating that interactions with MHC-I-deficient T cells dominantly, but not permanently, impair the function of the 2B4 NK cell activation receptor. These data identify an important role of SLAM family receptors for NK cell mediated "missing-self" reactivity and suggest that NK cell tolerance in MHC-I mosaic mice is in part explained by an acquired dysfunction of SLAM family receptors.

  6. Activation by SLAM Family Receptors Contributes to NK Cell Mediated “Missing-Self” Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Alari-Pahissa, Elisenda; Grandclément, Camille; Jeevan-Raj, Beena; Leclercq, Georges; Veillette, André; Held, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Natural Killer (NK) cells attack normal hematopoietic cells that do not express inhibitory MHC class I (MHC-I) molecules, but the ligands that activate NK cells remain incompletely defined. Here we show that the expression of the Signaling Lymphocyte Activation Molecule (SLAM) family members CD48 and Ly9 (CD229) by MHC-I-deficient tumor cells significantly contributes to NK cell activation. When NK cells develop in the presence of T cells or B cells that lack inhibitory MHC-I but express activating CD48 and Ly9 ligands, the NK cells’ ability to respond to MHC-I-deficient tumor cells is severely compromised. In this situation, NK cells express normal levels of the corresponding activation receptors 2B4 (CD244) and Ly9 but these receptors are non-functional. This provides a partial explanation for the tolerance of NK cells to MHC-I-deficient cells in vivo. Activating signaling via 2B4 is restored when MHC-I-deficient T cells are removed, indicating that interactions with MHC-I-deficient T cells dominantly, but not permanently, impair the function of the 2B4 NK cell activation receptor. These data identify an important role of SLAM family receptors for NK cell mediated “missing-self” reactivity and suggest that NK cell tolerance in MHC-I mosaic mice is in part explained by an acquired dysfunction of SLAM family receptors. PMID:27054584

  7. Chicken NK cell receptors.

    PubMed

    Straub, Christian; Neulen, Marie-Luise; Sperling, Beatrice; Windau, Katharina; Zechmann, Maria; Jansen, Christine A; Viertlboeck, Birgit C; Göbel, Thomas W

    2013-11-01

    Natural killer cells are innate immune cells that destroy virally infected or transformed cells. They recognize these altered cells by a plethora of diverse receptors and thereby differ from other lymphocytes that use clonally distributed antigen receptors. To date, several receptor families that play a role in either activating or inhibiting NK cells have been identified in mammals. In the chicken, NK cells have been functionally and morphologically defined, however, a conclusive analysis of receptors involved in NK cell mediated functions has not been available. This is partly due to the low frequencies of NK cells in blood or spleen that has hampered their intensive characterization. Here we will review recent progress regarding the diverse NK cell receptor families, with special emphasis on novel families identified in the chicken genome with potential as chicken NK cell receptors.

  8. PD-1 mediates functional exhaustion of activated NK cells in patients with Kaposi sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Beldi-Ferchiou, Asma; Lambert, Marion; Dogniaux, Stéphanie; Vély, Frédéric; Vivier, Eric; Olive, Daniel; Dupuy, Stéphanie; Levasseur, Frank; Zucman, David; Lebbé, Céleste; Sène, Damien; Hivroz, Claire; Caillat-Zucman, Sophie

    2016-11-08

    Programmed Death-1 (PD-1), an inhibitory receptor expressed by activated lymphocytes, is involved in regulating T- and B-cell responses. PD-1 and its ligands are exploited by a variety of cancers to facilitate tumor escape through PD-1-mediated functional exhaustion of effector T cells. Here, we report that PD-1 is upregulated on Natural Killer (NK) cells from patients with Kaposi sarcoma (KS). PD-1 was expressed in a sub-population of activated, mature CD56dimCD16pos NK cells with otherwise normal expression of NK surface receptors. PD-1pos NK cells from KS patients were hyporesponsive ex vivo following direct triggering of NKp30, NKp46 or CD16 activating receptors, or short stimulation with NK cell targets. PD-1pos NK cells failed to degranulate and release IFNγ, but exogenous IL-2 or IL-15 restored this defect. That PD-1 contributed to NK cell functional impairment and was not simply a marker of dysfunctional NK cells was confirmed in PD-1-transduced NKL cells. In vitro, PD-1 was induced at the surface of healthy control NK cells upon prolonged contact with cells expressing activating ligands, i.e. a condition mimicking persistent stimulation by tumor cells. Thus, PD-1 appears to plays a critical role in mediating NK cell exhaustion. The existence of this negative checkpoint fine-tuning NK activation highlights the possibility that manipulation of the PD-1 pathway may be a strategy for circumventing tumor escape not only from the T cell-, but also the NK-cell mediated immune surveillance.

  9. PD-1 mediates functional exhaustion of activated NK cells in patients with Kaposi sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Beldi-Ferchiou, Asma; Lambert, Marion; Dogniaux, Stéphanie; Vély, Frédéric; Vivier, Eric; Olive, Daniel; Dupuy, Stéphanie; Levasseur, Frank; Zucman, David; Lebbé, Céleste; Sène, Damien; Hivroz, Claire; Caillat-Zucman, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Programmed Death-1 (PD-1), an inhibitory receptor expressed by activated lymphocytes, is involved in regulating T- and B-cell responses. PD-1 and its ligands are exploited by a variety of cancers to facilitate tumor escape through PD-1-mediated functional exhaustion of effector T cells. Here, we report that PD-1 is upregulated on Natural Killer (NK) cells from patients with Kaposi sarcoma (KS). PD-1 was expressed in a sub-population of activated, mature CD56dimCD16pos NK cells with otherwise normal expression of NK surface receptors. PD-1pos NK cells from KS patients were hyporesponsive ex vivo following direct triggering of NKp30, NKp46 or CD16 activating receptors, or short stimulation with NK cell targets. PD-1pos NK cells failed to degranulate and release IFNγ, but exogenous IL-2 or IL-15 restored this defect. That PD-1 contributed to NK cell functional impairment and was not simply a marker of dysfunctional NK cells was confirmed in PD-1-transduced NKL cells. In vitro, PD-1 was induced at the surface of healthy control NK cells upon prolonged contact with cells expressing activating ligands, i.e. a condition mimicking persistent stimulation by tumor cells. Thus, PD-1 appears to plays a critical role in mediating NK cell exhaustion. The existence of this negative checkpoint fine-tuning NK activation highlights the possibility that manipulation of the PD-1 pathway may be a strategy for circumventing tumor escape not only from the T cell-, but also the NK-cell mediated immune surveillance. PMID:27662664

  10. Human Dendritic Cells Mitigate NK-Cell Dysfunction Mediated by Nonselective JAK1/2 Blockade.

    PubMed

    Curran, Shane A; Shyer, Justin A; St Angelo, Erin T; Talbot, Lillian R; Sharma, Sneh; Chung, David J; Heller, Glenn; Hsu, Katharine C; Betts, Brian C; Young, James W

    2017-01-01

    Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors have achieved positive responses in myeloproliferative neoplasms, but at the expense of decreased natural killer (NK) cell numbers and compromised function. Selective JAK2 inhibition may also have a role in preventing and treating graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Although JAK inhibitors can impair monocyte-derived dendritic cell (moDC) activation and function and suppress effector T-cell responses, the effects on NK cells and the relevant mechanisms remain undefined. Using common γc cytokines and distinct human dendritic cell (DC) subtypes, we compared the effects of a JAK2-specific (TG101348) with a less selective JAK1/2 (ruxolitinib) inhibitor on NK-cell activation and function. Ruxolitinib treatment completely blocked IL2, IL15, and DC-mediated STAT5 phosphorylation, along with the capacity of NK cells to secrete IFNγ or lyse NK cell-sensitive targets. Only NK-cell proliferation stimulated by moDCs resisted ruxolitinib treatment. In contrast, TG101348 treatment of stimulated NK cells resulted in far less functional compromise. TG101348 completely inhibited only soluble IL15-mediated STAT5 phosphorylation, which Langerhans-type DCs (LCs), presenting membrane-bound IL15 in trans, could salvage. These results demonstrate that ruxolitinib's nonselective inhibition of JAK1/2 results in profound NK-cell dysfunction by blocking downstream pSTAT5, hence providing a persuasive rationale for the development of selective JAK2 inhibitors for immunotherapeutic applications. Cancer Immunol Res; 5(1); 52-60. ©2016 AACR.

  11. Suppression of NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity against PRRSV-infected porcine alveolar macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jun; Grauwet, Korneel; Vermeulen, Ben; Devriendt, Bert; Jiang, Ping; Favoreel, Herman; Nauwynck, Hans

    2013-06-28

    The adaptive immunity against PRRSV has already been studied in depth, but only limited data are available on the innate immune responses against this pathogen. In the present study, we analyzed the interaction between porcine natural killer (NK) cells and PRRSV-infected primary porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs), since NK cells are one of the most important components of innate immunity and PAMs are primary target cells of PRRSV infection. NK cytotoxicity assays were performed using enriched NK cells as effector cells and virus-infected or mock-inoculated PAMs as target cells. The NK cytotoxicity against PRRSV-infected PAMs was decreased starting from 6h post inoculation (hpi) till the end of the experiment (12 hpi) and was significantly lower than that against pseudorabies virus (PrV)-infected PAMs. UV-inactivated PRRSV also suppressed NK activity, but much less than infectious PRRSV. Furthermore, co-incubation with PRRSV-infected PAMs inhibited degranulation of NK cells. Finally, using the supernatant of PRRSV-infected PAMs collected at 12 hpi showed that the suppressive effect of PRRSV on NK cytotoxicity was not mediated by soluble factors. In conclusion, PRRSV-infected PAMs showed a reduced susceptibility toward NK cytotoxicity, which may represent one of the multiple evasion strategies of PRRSV.

  12. Two photon microscopy intravital study of DC-mediated anti-tumor response of NK cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caccia, Michele; Gorletta, Tatiana; Sironi, Laura; Zanoni, Ivan; Salvetti, Cristina; Collini, Maddalena; Granucci, Francesca; Chirico, Giuseppe

    2010-02-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that dendritic cells (DCs) play a crucial role in the activation of Natural Killer cells (NKs) that are responsible for anti-tumor innate immune responses. The focus of this report is on the role of pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP) activated-DCs in inducing NK cell-mediated anti-tumor responses. Mice transplanted sub-cute (s.c.) with AK7 cells, a mesothelioma cell line sensitive to NK cell responses, are injected with fluorescent NK cells and DC activation is then induced by s.c. injection of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Using 4 dimensional tracking we follow the kinetic behavior of NK cells at the Draining Lymph-Node (DLN). As control, noninflammatory conditions are also evaluated. Our data suggest that NK cells are recruited to the DLN where they can interact with activated-DCs with a peculiar kinetic behavior: short lived interactions interleaved by rarer longer ones. We also found that the changes in the NK dynamic behavior in inflammatory conditions clearly affect relevant motility parameters such as the instantaneous and average velocity and the effective diffusion coefficient. This observation suggests that NK cells and activated-DCs might efficiently interact in the DLN, where cells could be activated. Therefore the interaction between activated-DCs and NK cells in DLN is not only a reality but it may be also crucial for the start of the immune response of the NKs.

  13. Bcl10 plays a divergent role in NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity and cytokine generation.

    PubMed

    Malarkannan, Subramaniam; Regunathan, Jeyarani; Chu, Haiyan; Kutlesa, Snjezana; Chen, Yuhong; Zeng, Hu; Wen, Renren; Wang, Demin

    2007-09-15

    Activating receptors such as NKG2D and Ly49D mediate a multitude of effector functions including cytotoxicity and cytokine generation in NK cells. However, specific signaling events that are responsible for the divergence of distinct effector functions have yet to be determined. In this study, we show that lack of caspase recruitment domain-containing protein Bcl10 significantly affected receptor-mediated cytokine and chemokine generation, but not cytotoxicity against tumor cells representing "missing-self" or "induced-self." Lack of Bcl10 completely abrogated the generation of GM-CSF and chemokines and it significantly reduced the generation of IFN-gamma (>75%) in NK cells. Commitment, development, and terminal maturation of NK cells were largely unaffected in the absence of Bcl10. Although IL-2-activated NK cells could mediate cytotoxicity to the full extent, the ability of the freshly isolated NK cells to mediate cytotoxicity was somewhat reduced. Therefore, we conclude that the Carma1-Bcl10-Malt1 signaling axis is critical for cytokine and chemokine generation, although it is dispensable for cytotoxic granule release depending on the activation state of NK cells. These results indicate that Bcl10 represents an exclusive "molecular switch" that links the upstream receptor-mediated signaling to cytokine and chemokine generations.

  14. Taxanes enhance trastuzumab-mediated ADCC on tumor cells through NKG2D-mediated NK cell recognition.

    PubMed

    Di Modica, Martina; Sfondrini, Lucia; Regondi, Viola; Varchetta, Stefania; Oliviero, Barbara; Mariani, Gabriella; Bianchi, Giulia Valeria; Generali, Daniele; Balsari, Andrea; Triulzi, Tiziana; Tagliabue, Elda

    2016-01-05

    Recent clinical data indicate a synergistic therapeutic effect between trastuzumab and taxanes in neoadjuvantly treated HER2-positive breast cancer (BC) patients. In HER2+ BC experimental models and patients, we investigated whether this synergy depends on the ability of drug-induced stress to improve NK cell effectiveness and thus trastuzumab-mediated ADCC. HER2+ BC cell lines BT474 and MDAMB361 treated with docetaxel showed up-modulation of NK activator ligands both in vitro and in vivo, accompanied by a 15-40% increase in in vitro trastuzumab-mediated ADCC; antibodies blocking the NKG2D receptor significantly reduced this enhancement. NKG2D receptor expression was increased by docetaxel treatment in circulating and splenic NK cells from mice xenografted with tumor cells, an increase related to expansion of the CD11b+Ly6G+ cell population. Accordingly, NK cells derived from HER2+ BC patients after treatment with taxane-containing therapy expressed higher levels of NKG2D receptor than before treatment. Moreover, plasma obtained from these patients recapitulated the modulation of NKG2D on healthy donors' NK cells, improving their trastuzumab-mediated activity in vitro. This enhancement occurred mainly using plasma from patients with low NKG2D basal expression. Our results indicate that taxanes increase tumor susceptibility to ADCC by acting on tumor and NK cells, and suggest that taxanes concomitantly administered with trastuzumab could maximize the antibody effect, especially in patients with low basal immune effector cytotoxic activity.

  15. RB mutation and RAS overexpression induce resistance to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity in glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Orozco-Morales, Mario; Sánchez-García, Francisco Javier; Golán-Cancela, Irene; Hernández-Pedro, Norma; Costoya, Jose A; de la Cruz, Verónica Pérez; Moreno-Jiménez, Sergio; Sotelo, Julio; Pineda, Benjamín

    2015-01-01

    Several theories aim to explain the malignant transformation of cells, including the mutation of tumor suppressors and proto-oncogenes. Deletion of Rb (a tumor suppressor), overexpression of mutated Ras (a proto-oncogene), or both, are sufficient for in vitro gliomagenesis, and these genetic traits are associated with their proliferative capacity. An emerging hallmark of cancer is the ability of tumor cells to evade the immune system. Whether specific mutations are related with this, remains to be analyzed. To address this issue, three transformed glioma cell lines were obtained (Rb(-/-), Ras(V12), and Rb(-/-)/Ras(V12)) by in vitro retroviral transformation of astrocytes, as previously reported. In addition, Ras(V12) and Rb(-/-)/Ras(V12) transformed cells were injected into SCID mice and after tumor growth two stable glioma cell lines were derived. All these cells were characterized in terms of Rb and Ras gene expression, morphology, proliferative capacity, expression of MHC I, Rae1δ, and Rae1αβγδε, mult1, H60a, H60b, H60c, as ligands for NK cell receptors, and their susceptibility to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Our results show that transformation of astrocytes (Rb loss, Ras overexpression, or both) induced phenotypical and functional changes associated with resistance to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Moreover, the transfer of cell lines of transformed astrocytes into SCID mice increased resistance to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity, thus suggesting that specific changes in a tumor suppressor (Rb) and a proto-oncogene (Ras) are enough to confer resistance to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity in glioma cells and therefore provide some insight into the ability of tumor cells to evade immune responses.

  16. CDK8-Mediated STAT1-S727 Phosphorylation Restrains NK Cell Cytotoxicity and Tumor Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Putz, Eva Maria; Gotthardt, Dagmar; Hoermann, Gregor; Csiszar, Agnes; Wirth, Silvia; Berger, Angelika; Straka, Elisabeth; Rigler, Doris; Wallner, Barbara; Jamieson, Amanda M.; Pickl, Winfried F.; Zebedin-Brandl, Eva Maria; Müller, Mathias; Decker, Thomas; Sexl, Veronika

    2013-01-01

    Summary The transcription factor STAT1 is important in natural killer (NK) cells, which provide immediate defense against tumor and virally infected cells. We show that mutation of a single phosphorylation site (Stat1-S727A) enhances NK cell cytotoxicity against a range of tumor cells, accompanied by increased expression of perforin and granzyme B. Stat1-S727A mice display significantly delayed disease onset in NK cell-surveilled tumor models including melanoma, leukemia, and metastasizing breast cancer. Constitutive phosphorylation of S727 depends on cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (CDK8). Inhibition of CDK8-mediated STAT1-S727 phosphorylation may thus represent a therapeutic strategy for stimulating NK cell-mediated tumor surveillance. PMID:23933255

  17. NK Cell-Mediated Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity in Cancer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Erbe, Amy K.; Hank, Jacquelyn A.; Morris, Zachary S.; Sondel, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells play a major role in cancer immunotherapies that involve tumor-antigen targeting by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). NK cells express a variety of activating and inhibitory receptors that serve to regulate the function and activity of the cells. In the context of targeting cells, NK cells can be “specifically activated” through certain Fc receptors that are expressed on their cell surface. NK cells can express FcγRIIIA and/or FcγRIIC, which can bind to the Fc portion of immunoglobulins, transmitting activating signals within NK cells. Once activated through Fc receptors by antibodies bound to target cells, NK cells are able to lyse target cells without priming, and secrete cytokines like interferon gamma to recruit adaptive immune cells. This antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) of tumor cells is utilized in the treatment of various cancers overexpressing unique antigens, such as neuroblastoma, breast cancer, B cell lymphoma, and others. NK cells also express a family of receptors called killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs), which regulate the function and response of NK cells toward target cells through their interaction with their cognate ligands that are expressed on tumor cells. Genetic polymorphisms in KIR and KIR-ligands, as well as FcγRs may influence NK cell responsiveness in conjunction with mAb immunotherapies. This review focuses on current therapeutic mAbs, different strategies to augment the anti-tumor efficacy of ADCC, and genotypic factors that may influence patient responses to antibody-dependent immunotherapies. PMID:26284063

  18. NK Cells in HIV Disease.

    PubMed

    Scully, Eileen; Alter, Galit

    2016-04-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells play a critical role in viral immunity. In the setting of HIV infection, epidemiologic and functional evidence support a role for NK cells in both protection from new infection and in viral control. Specifically, NK cells directly mediate immune pressure leading to virus evolution, and NK cell receptor genotypic profiles, clonal repertoires, and functional capacity have all been implicated in virus containment. In addition, indirect NK cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity has been linked to vaccine-induced protective immunity against HIV infection. With recent advances in our understanding of NK cell deficiency, development, memory-like responses, and editing of the adaptive immune system, the opportunities to direct and exploit NK cell antiviral immunity to target HIV have exponentially grown. In this review, we seek to highlight the intersections between discoveries in basic NK cell biology and the challenges of HIV chronic infection, vaccine development, and cure/eradication strategies.

  19. Increased Tim-3 expression in peripheral NK cells predicts a poorer prognosis and Tim-3 blockade improves NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity in human lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liyun; Huang, Yanyan; Tan, Linlin; Yu, Wei; Chen, Dongdong; Lu, ChangChang; He, Jianying; Wu, Guoqing; Liu, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Yongkui

    2015-12-01

    T cell immunoglobulin- and mucin-domain-containing molecule-3 (Tim-3) has been shown to play an important role in mediating NK-cell function in human diseases. However, the relationship between Tim-3 expression in natural killer (NK) cells and human lung adenocarcinoma remains unclear. We therefore investigated the expression of Tim-3 in NK cells and explored the effect of Tim-3 blockade on NK cell-mediated activity in human lung adenocarcinoma. Upregulated expression of Tim-3 on CD3-CD56+ cells (P<0.05) and CD3-CD56(dim) cells (P<0.05) of patients with lung adenocarcinoma was detected by flow cytometry. Moreover, Tim-3 expression in CD3-CD56+ NK cells was higher in patients with lung adenocarcinoma with lymph node metastasis (LNM) (P<0.05) or with tumor stage T3-T4 (P<0.05). Tim-3 expression in CD56(dim) NK-cell subset was higher in patients with tumor size ≥3cm (P<0.05), or LNM (P<0.05) or with tumor stage T3-T4 (P<0.05). Further analysis showed that higher expressions of Tim-3 on both CD3-CD56+ NK cells and CD56(dim) NK-cell subset were independently correlated with shorter overall survival of patients with lung adenocarcinoma (log-rank test, P=0.0418, 0.0406, respectively). Importantly, blockade of Tim-3 signaling with anti-Tim-3 antibodies resulted in the increased cytotoxicity and IFN-γ production of peripheral NK cells from patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Our data indicate that Tim-3 expression in NK cells can function as a prognostic biomarker in human lung adenocarcinoma and support that Tim-3 could be a new target for an immunotherapeutic strategy.

  20. NK Cells and Cancer Immunoediting.

    PubMed

    Guillerey, Camille; Smyth, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphoid cells (ILC) known for their ability to recognize and rapidly eliminate infected or transformed cells. Consequently, NK cells are fundamental for host protection against virus infections and malignancies. Even though the critical role of NK cells in cancer immunosurveillance was suspected years ago, the underlying mechanisms took time to be unraveled. Today, it is clear that anti-tumor functions of NK cells are tightly regulated and expand far beyond the simple killing of malignant cells. In spite of tremendous steps made in understanding the NK cell biology, further work is warranted to fully exploit the anticancer potential of these cells. Indeed, tumor-mediated immune suppression hampers NK cell activity, thus complicating their stimulation for therapeutic purposes. Herein, we review the current knowledge of NK cell functions in anti-tumor immunity . We discuss NK cell activity in the cancer immunoediting process with particular emphasis on the elimination and escape phases.

  1. Sleep-deprivation reduces NK cell number and function mediated by β-adrenergic signalling.

    PubMed

    De Lorenzo, Beatriz H P; de Oliveira Marchioro, Laís; Greco, Carollina Ribeiro; Suchecki, Deborah

    2015-07-01

    Reduction of sleep time triggers a stress response, leading to augmented levels of glucocorticoids and adrenaline. These hormones regulate components of the innate immune system such as natural killer (NK) and NKT cells. In the present study, we sought to investigate whether and how stress hormones could alter the population and function of NK and NKT cells of mice submitted to different lengths of paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD, from 24 to 72 h). Results showed that 72h of PSD decreased not only NK and NKT cell counts, but also their cytotoxic activity against B16F10 melanoma cells in vitro. Propranolol treatment during PSD reversed these effects, indicating a major inhibitory role of beta-adrenergic receptors (β-AR) on NK cells function. Moreover, both corticosterone plasma levels and expression of beta 2-adrenergic receptors (β2-AR) in NK cells increased by 48 h of PSD. In vitro incubation of NK cells with dexamethasone augmented the level of β2-AR in the cell surface, suggesting that glucocorticoids could induce β2-AR expression. In summary, we propose that reduction of NK and NKT cell number and cytotoxic activity appears to be mediated by glucocorticoids-induced increased expression of β2-AR in these cells.

  2. Curcumin reverses breast tumor exosomes mediated immune suppression of NK cell tumor cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huang-Ge; Kim, Helen; Liu, Cunren; Yu, Shaohua; Wang, Jianhua; Grizzle, William E.; Kimberly, Robert P.; Barnes, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    An important characteristic of tumors is that they at some point in their development overcome the surveillance of the immune system. Tumors secrete exosomes, multivesicular bodies containing a distinct set of proteins that can fuse with cells of the circulating immune system. Purified exosomes from TS/A breast cancer cells, but not non-exosomal fractions, inhibit (at concentrations of nanograms per ml protein) IL-2-induced natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity. The dietary polyphenol, curcumin (diferuloylmethane), partially reverses tumor exosome-mediated inhibition of natural killer cell activation, which is mediated through the impairment of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Exposure of mouse breast tumor cells to curcumin causes a dose-dependent increase in ubiquitinated exosomal proteins compared to those in untreated TS/A breast tumor cells. Furthermore, exosomes isolated from tumor cells pretreated with curcumin have a much attenuated inhibition of IL-2 stimulated NK cell activation. Jak3-mediated activation of Stat5 is required for tumor cytotoxicity of IL-2 stimulated NK cells. TS/A tumor exosomes strongly inhibit activation of Stat5, whereas the tumor exosomes isolated from curcumin-pretreated tumor cells have a lowered potency for inhibition of IL-2 stimulated NK cell cytotoxicity. These data suggest that partial reversal of tumor exosome-mediated inhibition of NK cell tumor cytotoxicity may account for the anti-cancer properties curcumin. PMID:17555831

  3. Phenotypically distinct helper NK cells are required for gp96-mediated anti-tumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    Sedlacek, Abigail L.; Kinner-Bibeau, Lauren B.; Binder, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    A number of Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs), in the extracellular environment, are immunogenic. Following cross-presentation of HSP-chaperoned peptides by CD91+ antigen presenting cells (APCs), T cells are primed with specificity for the derivative antigen-bearing cell. Accordingly, tumor-derived HSPs are in clinical trials for cancer immunotherapy. We investigate the role of NK cells in gp96-mediated anti-tumor immune responses given their propensity to lyse tumor cells. We show that gp96-mediated rejection of tumors requires a unique and necessary helper role in NK cells. This helper role occurs during the effector phase of the anti-tumor immune response and is required for T cell and APC function. Gp96 activates NK cells indirectly via APCs to a phenotype distinct from NK cells activated by other mechanisms such as IL-2. While NK cells have both lytic and cytokine producing properties, we show that gp96 selectively activates cytokine production in NK cells, which is important in the HSP anti-tumor immune response, and leaves their cytotoxic capacity unchanged. PMID:27431727

  4. NK cell-mediated immunopathology during an acute viral infection of the CNS.

    PubMed

    Alsharifi, Mohammed; Lobigs, Mario; Simon, Markus M; Kersten, Astrid; Müller, Klaus; Koskinen, Aulikki; Lee, Eva; Müllbacher, Arno

    2006-04-01

    Natural killer (NK) and cytotoxic T (Tc) cells are prime effector populations in the antiviral response of the host. Tc cells are essential for recovery from many viral diseases but may also be responsible for immunopathology. The role of NK cells in recovery from viral infections is less well established. We have studied acute virulent Semliki Forest virus (vSFV) infection of the central nervous system in C57BL/6J mice, which was mainly controlled by NK cells without marked Tc cell involvement. We show that mice with defects in the Fas and/or granule exocytosis pathways of cytotoxicity are more resistant to lethal vSFV infection than wild-type mice. On the other hand, mice defective in the IFN-gamma response are more sensitive than wild-type mice, whereas mice lacking the Tc cell compartment (beta-2 microglobulin-deficient mice) exhibit susceptibility similar to wild-type mice. The additional finding that depletion of NK cells significantly delayed the mean time to death but did not prevent mortality in SFV-infected B6 mice suggests that cytolytic activity of NK cells is detrimental, while IFN-gamma production is beneficial for recovery from SFV infection. This is the first study illustrating an NK cell-mediated immunopathological outcome to an acute viral infection.

  5. WASH has a critical role in NK cell cytotoxicity through Lck-mediated phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, L; Zhu, P; Xia, P; Fan, Z

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are important effector cells of the innate immune system to kill certain virus-infected and transformed cells. Wiskott–Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASP) and SCAR homolog (WASH) has been identified as a member of WASP family proteins implicated in regulating the cytoskeletal reorganization, yet little is known about its function in lymphocytes. Here we demonstrate that WASH is crucial for NK cell cytotoxicity. WASH was found to colocalize with lytic granules upon NK cell activation. Knockdown of WASH expression substantially inhibited polarization and release of lytic granules to the immune synapse, resulting in the impairment of NK cell cytotoxicity. More importantly, our data also define a previously unappreciated mechanism for WASH function, in which Src family kinase Lck can interact with WASH and induce WASH phosphorylation. Mutation of tyrosine residue Y141, identified here as the major site of WASH phosphorylation, partially blocked WASH tyrosine phosphorylation and NK cell cytotoxicity. Taken together, these observations suggest that WASH has a pivotal role for regulation of NK cell cytotoxicity through Lck-mediated Y141 tyrosine phosphorylation. PMID:27441653

  6. Human NK cell development requires CD56-mediated motility and formation of the developmental synapse

    PubMed Central

    Mace, Emily M.; Gunesch, Justin T.; Dixon, Amera; Orange, Jordan S.

    2016-01-01

    While distinct stages of natural killer (NK) cell development have been defined, the molecular interactions that shape human NK cell maturation are poorly understood. Here we define intercellular interactions between developing NK cells and stromal cells which, through contact-dependent mechanisms, promote the generation of mature, functional human NK cells from CD34+ precursors. We show that developing NK cells undergo unique, developmental stage-specific sustained and transient interactions with developmentally supportive stromal cells, and that the relative motility of NK cells increases as they move through development in vitro and ex vivo. These interactions include the formation of a synapse between developing NK cells and stromal cells, which we term the developmental synapse. Finally, we identify a role for CD56 in developmental synapse structure, NK cell motility and NK cell development. Thus, we define the developmental synapse leading to human NK cell functional maturation. PMID:27435370

  7. Antibody Fc engineering improves frequency and promotes kinetic boosting of serial killing mediated by NK cells.

    PubMed

    Romain, Gabrielle; Senyukov, Vladimir; Rey-Villamizar, Nicolas; Merouane, Amine; Kelton, William; Liadi, Ivan; Mahendra, Ankit; Charab, Wissam; Georgiou, George; Roysam, Badrinath; Lee, Dean A; Varadarajan, Navin

    2014-11-20

    The efficacy of most therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting tumor antigens results primarily from their ability to elicit potent cytotoxicity through effector-mediated functions. We have engineered the fragment crystallizable (Fc) region of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) mAb, HuM195, targeting the leukemic antigen CD33, by introducing the triple mutation Ser293Asp/Ala330Leu/Ile332Glu (DLE), and developed Time-lapse Imaging Microscopy in Nanowell Grids to analyze antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity kinetics of thousands of individual natural killer (NK) cells and mAb-coated target cells. We demonstrate that the DLE-HuM195 antibody increases both the quality and the quantity of NK cell-mediated antibody-dependent cytotoxicity by endowing more NK cells to participate in cytotoxicity via accrued CD16-mediated signaling and by increasing serial killing of target cells. NK cells encountering targets coated with DLE-HuM195 induce rapid target cell apoptosis by promoting simultaneous conjugates to multiple target cells and induce apoptosis in twice the number of target cells within the same period as the wild-type mAb. Enhanced target killing was also associated with increased frequency of NK cells undergoing apoptosis, but this effect was donor-dependent. Antibody-based therapies targeting tumor antigens will benefit from a better understanding of cell-mediated tumor elimination, and our work opens further opportunities for the therapeutic targeting of CD33 in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia.

  8. Antibody Fc engineering improves frequency and promotes kinetic boosting of serial killing mediated by NK cells

    PubMed Central

    Romain, Gabrielle; Senyukov, Vladimir; Rey-Villamizar, Nicolas; Merouane, Amine; Kelton, William; Liadi, Ivan; Mahendra, Ankit; Charab, Wissam; Georgiou, George; Roysam, Badrinath; Lee, Dean A.

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of most therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting tumor antigens results primarily from their ability to elicit potent cytotoxicity through effector-mediated functions. We have engineered the fragment crystallizable (Fc) region of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) mAb, HuM195, targeting the leukemic antigen CD33, by introducing the triple mutation Ser293Asp/Ala330Leu/Ile332Glu (DLE), and developed Time-lapse Imaging Microscopy in Nanowell Grids to analyze antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity kinetics of thousands of individual natural killer (NK) cells and mAb-coated target cells. We demonstrate that the DLE-HuM195 antibody increases both the quality and the quantity of NK cell-mediated antibody-dependent cytotoxicity by endowing more NK cells to participate in cytotoxicity via accrued CD16-mediated signaling and by increasing serial killing of target cells. NK cells encountering targets coated with DLE-HuM195 induce rapid target cell apoptosis by promoting simultaneous conjugates to multiple target cells and induce apoptosis in twice the number of target cells within the same period as the wild-type mAb. Enhanced target killing was also associated with increased frequency of NK cells undergoing apoptosis, but this effect was donor-dependent. Antibody-based therapies targeting tumor antigens will benefit from a better understanding of cell-mediated tumor elimination, and our work opens further opportunities for the therapeutic targeting of CD33 in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia. PMID:25232058

  9. Loss of STAT3 in Lymphoma Relaxes NK Cell-Mediated Tumor Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Putz, Eva Maria; Hoelzl, Maria Agnes; Baeck, Julia; Bago-Horvath, Zsuzsanna; Schuster, Christian; Reichholf, Brian; Kern, Daniela; Aberger, Fritz; Sexl, Veronika; Hoelbl-Kovacic, Andrea

    2014-01-27

    The transcription factors and proto-oncogenes STAT3 and STAT5 are highly activated in hematological malignancies and represent promising therapeutic targets. Whereas the importance of STAT5 as tumor promoter is beyond doubt, the role of STAT3 in hematological cancers is less well understood. Both, enforced as well as attenuated expression of STAT3 were reported in hematopoietic malignancies. Recent evidence implicates STAT3 as key player for tumor immune surveillance as it both mediates the production of and response to inflammatory cytokines. Here we investigated the effects of STAT3 deletion in a BCR/ABL-induced lymphoma model, which is tightly controlled by natural killer (NK) cells in vivo. Upon STAT3 deletion tumor growth is significantly enhanced when compared to STAT3-expressing controls. The increased tumor size upon loss of STAT3 was accompanied by reduced NK cell infiltration and decreased levels of the cytokine IFN-γ and the chemokine RANTES. Upon transplantation into NK cell-deficient mice differences in lymphoma size were abolished indicating that STAT3 expression in the tumor cells controls NK cell-dependent tumor surveillance. Our findings indicate that STAT3 inhibition in lymphoma patients will impair NK cell-mediated tumor surveillance, which needs to be taken into account when testing STAT3 inhibitors in preclinical or clinical trials.

  10. Smad3 promotes cancer progression by inhibiting E4BP4-mediated NK cell development.

    PubMed

    Tang, Patrick Ming-Kuen; Zhou, Shuang; Meng, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Qing-Ming; Li, Chun-Jie; Lian, Guang-Yu; Huang, Xiao-Ru; Tang, Yong-Jiang; Guan, Xin-Yuan; Yan, Bryan Ping-Yen; To, Ka-Fai; Lan, Hui-Yao

    2017-03-06

    TGF-β is known to influence tumour progression. Here we report an additional role of Smad3 in the tumour microenvironment regulating cancer progression. Deletion or inhibition of Smad3 in the tumour microenvironment suppresses tumour growth, invasion and metastasis in two syngeneic mouse tumour models. Smad3(-/-) bone marrow gives rise to an expanded NK cell population with enhanced tumour-suppressive activities in vivo, and promotes differentiation of NK cells ex vivo. We identify E4BP4/NFIL3 as a direct Smad3 target gene critical for NK cell differentiation. Smad3 suppresses transcription of IFN-γ via E4BP4 in a T-bet independent manner. Therefore disruption of Smad3 enhances both the E4BP4-mediated NK cell differentiation and anti-cancer effector functions in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, systemic treatment with a Smad3 inhibitor SIS3 effectively suppresses cancer progression. In summary, suppression of NK cell-mediated immunosurveillance via the Smad3-E4BP4 axis contributes to cancer progression. We propose targeting Smad3-dependent tumour microenvironment may represent an effective anti-cancer strategy.

  11. Smad3 promotes cancer progression by inhibiting E4BP4-mediated NK cell development

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Patrick Ming-Kuen; Zhou, Shuang; Meng, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Qing-Ming; Li, Chun-Jie; Lian, Guang-Yu; Huang, Xiao-Ru; Tang, Yong-Jiang; Guan, Xin-Yuan; Yan, Bryan Ping-Yen; To, Ka-Fai; Lan, Hui-Yao

    2017-01-01

    TGF-β is known to influence tumour progression. Here we report an additional role of Smad3 in the tumour microenvironment regulating cancer progression. Deletion or inhibition of Smad3 in the tumour microenvironment suppresses tumour growth, invasion and metastasis in two syngeneic mouse tumour models. Smad3−/− bone marrow gives rise to an expanded NK cell population with enhanced tumour-suppressive activities in vivo, and promotes differentiation of NK cells ex vivo. We identify E4BP4/NFIL3 as a direct Smad3 target gene critical for NK cell differentiation. Smad3 suppresses transcription of IFN-γ via E4BP4 in a T-bet independent manner. Therefore disruption of Smad3 enhances both the E4BP4-mediated NK cell differentiation and anti-cancer effector functions in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, systemic treatment with a Smad3 inhibitor SIS3 effectively suppresses cancer progression. In summary, suppression of NK cell-mediated immunosurveillance via the Smad3-E4BP4 axis contributes to cancer progression. We propose targeting Smad3-dependent tumour microenvironment may represent an effective anti-cancer strategy. PMID:28262747

  12. NLRP3 suppresses NK cell-mediated responses to carcinogen-induced tumors and metastases.

    PubMed

    Chow, Melvyn T; Sceneay, Jaclyn; Paget, Christophe; Wong, Christina S F; Duret, Helene; Tschopp, Jürg; Möller, Andreas; Smyth, Mark J

    2012-11-15

    The NLRP3 inflammasome acts as a danger signal sensor that triggers and coordinates the inflammatory response upon infectious insults or tissue injury and damage. However, the role of the NLRP3 inflammasome in natural killer (NK) cell-mediated control of tumor immunity is poorly understood. Here, we show in a model of chemical-induced carcinogenesis and a series of experimental and spontaneous metastases models that mice lacking NLRP3 display significantly reduced tumor burden than control wild-type (WT) mice. The suppression of spontaneous and experimental tumor metastases and methylcholanthrene (MCA)-induced sarcomas in mice deficient for NLRP3 was NK cell and IFN-γ-dependent. Focusing on the amenable B16F10 experimental lung metastases model, we determined that expression of NLRP3 in bone marrow-derived cells was necessary for optimal tumor metastasis. Tumor-driven expansion of CD11b(+)Gr-1(intermediate) (Gr-1(int)) myeloid cells within the lung tumor microenvironment of NLRP3(-/-) mice was coincident with increased lung infiltrating activated NK cells and an enhanced antimetastatic response. The CD11b(+)Gr-1(int) myeloid cells displayed a unique cell surface phenotype and were characterized by their elevated production of CCL5 and CXCL9 chemokines. Adoptive transfer of this population into WT mice enhanced NK cell numbers in, and suppression of, B16F10 lung metastases. Together, these data suggested that NLRP3 is an important suppressor of NK cell-mediated control of carcinogenesis and metastases and identify CD11b(+)Gr-1(int) myeloid cells that promote NK cell antimetastatic function.

  13. Activation of Natural Killer (NK) T Cells during Murine Cytomegalovirus Infection Enhances the Antiviral Response Mediated by NK Cells

    PubMed Central

    van Dommelen, Serani L. H.; Tabarias, Hyacinth A.; Smyth, Mark J.; Degli-Esposti, Mariapia A.

    2003-01-01

    NK1.1+ T (NKT) cells are efficient regulators of early host responses which have been shown to play a role in tumor surveillance. The relevance of NKT cells in immune surveillance of viral infections, however, is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the functional relevance of NKT cells in controlling herpesvirus infections by using challenge with murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) as the study model. This model has proven to be one of the best systems for evaluating the role of NK cells during virus infection. Using gene-targeted mice and α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) as an exogenous stimulator of NKT cells, we have analyzed the role of these cells in the immune surveillance of MCMV infection. Our studies in NKT-cell-deficient, T-cell receptor Jα281 gene-targeted mice have established that classical NKT cells do not play a critical role in the early clearance of MCMV infection. Importantly, however, activation of NKT cells by α-GalCer resulted in reduced viral replication in visceral organs. Depletion studies, coupled with analysis of gene-targeted mice lacking perforin and gamma interferon (IFN-γ), have revealed that the antiviral effects of α-GalCer involve NK cells and have clearly demonstrated that the antiviral activity of α-GalCer, unlike the antitumor one, is critically dependent on both perforin and IFN-γ. PMID:12525622

  14. Acute Virus Control Mediated by Licensed NK Cells Sets Primary CD8+ T Cell Dependence on CD27 Costimulation.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Jeffrey J; Gamache, Awndre E; Gillespie, Alyssa L; Stadnisky, Michael D; Yagita, Hideo; Bullock, Timothy N J; Brown, Michael G

    2016-12-01

    NK cells represent a critical first-line of immune defense against a bevy of viral pathogens, and infection can provoke them to mediate supportive and suppressive effects on virus-specific adaptive immunity. In mice expressing MHC class I D(k) (D(k)), a major murine CMV (MCMV) resistance factor and self-ligand of the inhibitory Ly49G2 (G2) receptor, licensed G2(+) NK cells provide essential host resistance against MCMV infection. Additionally G2(+) NK cell responses to MCMV increase the rate and extent of dendritic cell (DC) recovery, as well as early priming of CD8(+) T cell effectors in response to MCMV. However, relatively little is known about the NK cell effect on costimulatory ligand patterns displayed by DCs or on ensuing effector and memory T cell responses. In this study, we found that CD27-dependent CD8(+) T cell priming and differentiation are shaped by the efficiency of NK responses to virus infection. Surprisingly, differences in specific NK responses to MCMV in D(k)-disparate mice failed to distinguish early DC costimulatory patterns. Nonetheless, although CD27 deficiency did not impede licensed NK-mediated resistance, CD70 and CD27 were required to efficiently prime and regulate effector CD8(+) T cell differentiation in response to MCMV, which eventually resulted in biased memory T cell precursor formation in D(k) mice. In contrast, CD8(+) T cells accrued more slowly in non-D(k) mice and eventually differentiated into terminal effector cells regardless of CD27 stimulation. Disparity in this requirement for CD27 signaling indicates that specific virus control mediated by NK cells can shape DC costimulatory signals needed to prime CD8(+) T cells and eventual T cell fate decisions.

  15. Epirubicin pretreatment enhances NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Feng, Hui; Dong, Ying; Wu, Jing; Qiao, Yuan; Zhu, Ge; Jin, Haofan; Cui, Jiuwei; Li, Wei; Liu, Yong-Jun; Chen, Jingtao; Song, Yanqiu

    2016-01-01

    Anthracycline-based chemotherapy is a conventional treatment for breast cancer. However, it can negatively affect host immune function and thereby impair patients' quality of life. Boosting the host immune system and reducing the adverse effect of chemotherapy are important for effective cancer treatment. Natural killer (NK) cells stimulate immune responses against cancer; autologous immune enhancement therapy with NK cells prolongs patient survival without significant adverse effects. This study investigated the effects of combined treatment with the anthracycline agent epirubicin (EPI) and NK cells on human breast cancer cells. NK cells were obtained by autologous adoptive cell transfer from breast cancer patients and amplified for 14 days in vitro. The cytotoxicity of NK cells against breast cancer cells was higher following EPI (5.0 μg/ml) pretreatment than without EPI pretreatment or application of EPI alone. The expression of NKG2D ligands [unique long 16-binding protein (ULBP) 1, ULBP2, and major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A] in breast cancer cells was upregulated by pretreatment with EPI, which also increased the secretion of interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α and expression of perforin and granzyme B in NK cells. These results indicate that EPI-NK cell treatment has synergistic cytotoxic effects against breast cancer cells, and suggest that anthracycline-based chemotherapy and NK cell-based immunotherapy can be combined for more effective breast cancer treatment.

  16. Natural Killer (NK) Cell–mediated Cytotoxicity: Differential Use of  TRAIL and Fas Ligand by Immature and Mature Primary Human NK Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zamai, Loris; Ahmad, Manzoor; Bennett, Ian M.; Azzoni, Livio; Alnemri, Emad S.; Perussia, Bice

    1998-01-01

    Mature natural killer (NK) cells use Ca2+-dependent granule exocytosis and release of cytotoxic proteins, Fas ligand (FasL), and membrane-bound or secreted cytokines (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α) to induce target cell death. Fas belongs to the TNF receptor family of molecules, containing a conserved intracytoplasmic “death domain” that indirectly activates the caspase enzymatic cascade and ultimately apoptotic mechanisms in numerous cell types. Two additional members of this family, DR4 and DR5, transduce apoptotic signals upon binding soluble TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) that, like FasL, belongs to the growing TNF family of molecules. Here, we report that TRAIL produced or expressed by different populations of primary human NK cells is functional, and represents a marker of differentiation or activation of these, and possibly other, cytotoxic leukocytes. During differentiation NK cells, sequentially and differentially, use distinct members of the TNF family or granule exocytosis to mediate target cell death. Phenotypically immature CD161+/CD56− NK cells mediate TRAIL-dependent but not FasL- or granule release–dependent cytotoxicity, whereas mature CD56+ NK cells mediate the latter two. PMID:9858524

  17. Regulation of autoimmune diabetes by complete Freund's adjuvant is mediated by NK cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, I-Fang; Qin, Huilian; Trudeau, Jacqueline; Dutz, Jan; Tan, Rusung

    2004-01-15

    Autoimmune (type 1) diabetes results from a loss of beta cells that is mediated by self-reactive T cells. Previous studies have shown that a single injection of CFA prevents diabetes in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, but the mechanism(s) of protection remain unknown. We show here that NOD mice immunized with CFA have a markedly reduced incidence of diabetes and that this reduced incidence is associated with a decrease in the number of beta cell-specific, autoreactive CTL. In addition, the adoptive transfer of diabetes into syngeneic NOD/SCID recipients was prevented by CFA immunization, and the protective effects of CFA were lost when cells expressing the NK cell marker, asialo GM1, were removed from both donor cells and recipient mice. Returning a population of CD3-DX5+ cells to the adoptive transfer restored the protective effects of CFA. Therefore, NK cells mediate the protective effects of CFA possibly through the down-regulation of autoreactive CTL and stimulation of NK cells represents a novel approach to the prevention of autoimmune diabetes.

  18. NKG2D Signaling Leads to NK Cell Mediated Lysis of Childhood AML

    PubMed Central

    Ditthard, Kerstin; Lang, Peter; Mezger, Markus; Michaelis, Sebastian; Handgretinger, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer cells have been shown to be relevant in the recognition and lysis of acute myeloid leukemia. In childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, it was shown that HLA I expression and KIR receptor-ligand mismatch significantly impact ALL cytolysis. We characterized 14 different primary childhood AML blasts by flow cytometry including NKG2D ligands. Further HLA I typing of blasts was performed and HLA I on the AML blasts was quantified. In two healthy volunteer NK cell donors HLA I typing and KIR genotyping were done. Blasts with high NKG2D ligand expression had significantly higher lysis by isolated NK cells. Grouping the blasts by NKG2D ligand expression led to a significant inverse correlation of HLA I expression and cytolysis in NKG2D low blasts. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation of NKG2D ligand expression and blast cytolysis was shown. No impact of KIR ligand-ligand mismatch was found but a significantly increased lysis of homozygous C2 blasts by KIR2DL1 negative NK cells (donor B) was revealed. In conclusion, NKG2D signaling leads to NK cell mediated lysis of childhood AML despite high HLA I expression. PMID:26236752

  19. Redirecting NK cells mediated tumor cell lysis by a new recombinant bifunctional protein

    PubMed Central

    Germain, Claire; Campigna, Emmanuelle; Salhi, Imed; Morisseau, Sébastien; Navarro-Teulon, Isabelle; Mach, Jean-Pierre; Pèlegrin, André; Robert, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are at the crossroad between innate and adaptive immunity and play a major role in cancer immunosurveillance. NK cell stimulation depends on a balance between inhibitory and activating receptors, such as the stimulatory lectinlike receptor NKG2D. To redirect NK cells against tumor cells we designed bifunctional proteins able to specifically bind tumor cells and to induce their lysis by NK cells, after NKG2D engagement. To this aim, we used the “knob into hole” heterodimerization strategy, in which “knob” and “hole” variants were generated by directed mutagenesis within the CH3 domain of human IgG1 Fc fragments fused to an anti-CEA or anti-HER2 scFv or to the H60 murine ligand of NKG2D, respectively. We demonstrated the capacity of the bifunctional proteins produced to specifically coat tumor cells surface with H60 ligand. Most importantly, we demonstrated that these bifunctional proteins were able to induce an NKG2D-dependent and antibody-specific tumor cell lysis by murine NK cells. Overall, the results show the possibility to redirect NK cytotoxicity to tumor cells by a new format of recombinant bispecific antibody, opening the way of potential NK cell-based cancer immunotherapies by specific activation of the NKG2D receptor at the tumor site. PMID:18790793

  20. Enhancement of NK cell-mediated lysis of non-small lung cancer cells by nPKC activator, ingenol 3,20 dibenzoate.

    PubMed

    Gong, Chenyuan; Yao, Chao; Xu, Zihang; Ni, Zhongya; Zhu, Xiaowen; Wang, Lixin; Yan, Xuewei; Zhou, Wuxiong; Zhu, Shiguo

    2017-03-01

    The IFN-γ production is crucial for NK cell-mediated lysis of cancer cells. Thus increasing the IFN-γ production by NK cells may be an ideal strategy to improve their tumoricidal effect. Since the focus on new drug development has shifted towards natural products, limited information is out there about natural products that enhance the IFN-γ production by NK cells. In this study, through a high-throughput screening, we have identified a natural product ingenol 3,20 dibenzoate (IDB), an activator of tumor suppressor protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes, could increase the IFN-γ production and degranulation by NK cells, especially when NK cells were stimulated by non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. IDB also significantly enhanced the NK cell-mediated lysis of NSCLC cells. Furthermore, PKC inhibitor, sotrastaurin abrogated IDB-induced IFN-γ production, degranulation and cytotoxicity, but did not affect IFN-γ production by NK cells without IDB treatment and NSCLC cell stimulation. The IFN-γ neutralization reversed the IDB-induced enhancement of NK cell mediated killing. In conclusion, our study indicated that IDB enhanced NK cell-mediated lysis of NSCLC cells is dependent on specific PKC mediated IFN-γ production and degranulation. Thus, IDB may have a promising application in clinic for NK cell-based cancer immunotherapy.

  1. HIV-specific antibody immunity mediated through NK cells and monocytes.

    PubMed

    Kramski, Marit; Parsons, Matthew S; Stratov, Ivan; Kent, Stephen J

    2013-07-01

    The partial success of the RV144 trial re-energized the field of HIV vaccine research, which had stalled after vaccines based on neutralizing antibody and cytotoxic T cells had failed to induce protection. A large post-vaccine research effort has focused attention on the role of non-neutralizing antibodies in the protection afforded by the RV144 vaccine. These binding antibodies can initiate immune responses such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) and combine elements of the adaptive and innate immune system in the form of antibodies and effector cells (including NK cells, monocytes and granulocytes). A complex interplay exists between the variable portion of the binding antibody and its HIV antigen target on one hand and the constant region of the antibody and the Fcγ-receptor of the effector cell on the other hand. Technical advances have revolutionized the abilities of scientist to detect the targets of non-neutralizing antibodies, including both envelope and non-envelope epitopes, and their role in forcing escape. Our understanding of the antibody characteristics (including IgG subclasses and Fc glycan profile) is providing valuable insights into their optimal structure and function. We expand on critical research on ADCC effector cells, particularly education of NK cells. We introduce the concept of HIV antibodydependent trogocytosis by monocytes as a potentially important aspect of HIV immunity. In summary, this review highlights recent advances in HIV-specific antibody immunity mediated through NK cells and monocytes.

  2. Inhibition of direct and indirect TLR-mediated activation of human NK cells by low molecular weight dextran sulfate.

    PubMed

    Millard, Anne-Laure; Spirig, Rolf; Mueller, Nicolas J; Seebach, Jörg D; Rieben, Robert

    2010-08-01

    NK cells express toll-like receptors (TLR) that recognize conserved pathogen or damage associated molecular patterns and play a fundamental role in innate immunity. Low molecular weight dextran sulfate (DXS), known to inhibit the complement system, has recently been reported by us to inhibit TLR4-induced maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDC). In this study, we investigated the capability of DXS to interfere with human NK cell activation triggered directly by TLR2 agonists or indirectly by supernatants of TLR4-activated MoDC. Both TLR2 agonists and supernatants of TLR4-activated MoDC activated NK cells phenotypically, as demonstrated by the analysis of NK cell activation markers (CD56, CD25, CD69, NKp30, NKp44, NKp46, DNAM-1 and NKG2D), and functionally as shown by increased NK cell degranulation (CD107a surface expression) and IFN-gamma secretion. DXS prevented the up-regulation of NK cell activation markers triggered by TLR2 ligands or supernatants of TLR4-activated MoDC and dose-dependently abrogated NK cell degranulation and IFN-gamma secretion. In summary our results suggest that DXS may be a useful reagent to inhibit the direct and indirect TLR-mediated activation of NK cells. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Impaired NK-mediated regulation of T-cell activity in multiple sclerosis is reconstituted by IL-2 receptor modulation.

    PubMed

    Gross, Catharina C; Schulte-Mecklenbeck, Andreas; Rünzi, Anna; Kuhlmann, Tanja; Posevitz-Fejfár, Anita; Schwab, Nicholas; Schneider-Hohendorf, Tilman; Herich, Sebastian; Held, Kathrin; Konjević, Matea; Hartwig, Marvin; Dornmair, Klaus; Hohlfeld, Reinhard; Ziemssen, Tjalf; Klotz, Luisa; Meuth, Sven G; Wiendl, Heinz

    2016-05-24

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) resulting from a breakdown in peripheral immune tolerance. Although a beneficial role of natural killer (NK)-cell immune-regulatory function has been proposed, it still needs to be elucidated whether NK cells are functionally impaired as part of the disease. We observed NK cells in active MS lesions in close proximity to T cells. In accordance with a higher migratory capacity across the blood-brain barrier, CD56(bright) NK cells represent the major intrathecal NK-cell subset in both MS patients and healthy individuals. Investigating the peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid of MS patients treated with natalizumab revealed that transmigration of this subset depends on the α4β1 integrin very late antigen (VLA)-4. Although no MS-related changes in the migratory capacity of NK cells were observed, NK cells derived from patients with MS exhibit a reduced cytolytic activity in response to antigen-activated CD4(+) T cells. Defective NK-mediated immune regulation in MS is mainly attributable to a CD4(+) T-cell evasion caused by an impaired DNAX accessory molecule (DNAM)-1/CD155 interaction. Both the expression of the activating NK-cell receptor DNAM-1, a genetic alteration consistently found in MS-association studies, and up-regulation of the receptor's ligand CD155 on CD4(+) T cells are reduced in MS. Therapeutic immune modulation of IL-2 receptor restores impaired immune regulation in MS by increasing the proportion of CD155-expressing CD4(+) T cells and the cytolytic activity of NK cells.

  4. Impaired NK-mediated regulation of T-cell activity in multiple sclerosis is reconstituted by IL-2 receptor modulation

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Catharina C.; Schulte-Mecklenbeck, Andreas; Rünzi, Anna; Kuhlmann, Tanja; Posevitz-Fejfár, Anita; Schwab, Nicholas; Schneider-Hohendorf, Tilman; Herich, Sebastian; Held, Kathrin; Konjević, Matea; Hartwig, Marvin; Dornmair, Klaus; Hohlfeld, Reinhard; Ziemssen, Tjalf; Klotz, Luisa; Meuth, Sven G.; Wiendl, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) resulting from a breakdown in peripheral immune tolerance. Although a beneficial role of natural killer (NK)-cell immune-regulatory function has been proposed, it still needs to be elucidated whether NK cells are functionally impaired as part of the disease. We observed NK cells in active MS lesions in close proximity to T cells. In accordance with a higher migratory capacity across the blood–brain barrier, CD56bright NK cells represent the major intrathecal NK-cell subset in both MS patients and healthy individuals. Investigating the peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid of MS patients treated with natalizumab revealed that transmigration of this subset depends on the α4β1 integrin very late antigen (VLA)-4. Although no MS-related changes in the migratory capacity of NK cells were observed, NK cells derived from patients with MS exhibit a reduced cytolytic activity in response to antigen-activated CD4+ T cells. Defective NK-mediated immune regulation in MS is mainly attributable to a CD4+ T-cell evasion caused by an impaired DNAX accessory molecule (DNAM)-1/CD155 interaction. Both the expression of the activating NK-cell receptor DNAM-1, a genetic alteration consistently found in MS-association studies, and up-regulation of the receptor’s ligand CD155 on CD4+ T cells are reduced in MS. Therapeutic immune modulation of IL-2 receptor restores impaired immune regulation in MS by increasing the proportion of CD155-expressing CD4+ T cells and the cytolytic activity of NK cells. PMID:27162345

  5. Natural killer cells unleashed: Checkpoint receptor blockade and BiKE/TriKE utilization in NK-mediated anti-tumor immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Davis, Zachary B; Vallera, Daniel A; Miller, Jeffrey S; Felices, Martin

    2017-09-04

    Natural killer (NK) cells have long been known to mediate anti-tumor responses without prior sensitization or recognition of specific tumor antigens. However, the tumor microenvironment can suppress NK cell function resulting in tumor escape and disease progression. Despite recent advances in cytokine therapy and NK cell adoptive transfer, tumor expression of ligands to NK - expressed checkpoint receptors can still suppress NK mediated tumor lysis. This review will explore many of the checkpoint receptors tumors utilize to manipulate the NK cell response as well as some of the current and upcoming pharmacological solutions to limit tumor suppression of NK cell function. Furthermore, we will discuss the potential to use these drugs in combinational therapies with novel antibody reagents such as bi- and tri-specific killer engagers (BiKEs and TriKEs) against tumor-specific antigens to enhance NK cell-mediated tumor rejection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. HLA-A11-mediated protection from NK cell-mediated lysis: role of HLA-A11-presented peptides.

    PubMed

    Gavioli, R; Zhang, Q J; Masucci, M G

    1996-08-01

    The capacity of MHC class I to protect target cells from NK is well established, but the mechanism by which these molecules influence NK recognition and the physical properties associated with this function remain poorly defined. We have examined this issue using as a model the HLA-A11 allele. HLA-A11 expression correlated with reduced susceptibility to NK and interferon-activated cytotoxicity in transfected sublines of the A11-defective Burkitt's lymphoma WW2-BL and the HLA class I A,B-null C1R cell line. Protection was also achieved by transfection of HLA-A11 in the peptide processing mutant T2 cells line (T2/A11), despite a very low expression of the transfected product at the cell surface. Induction of surface HLA-A11 by culture of T2/A11 cells at 26 degrees C or in the presence of beta 2m did not affect lysis, whereas NK sensitivity was restored by culture in the presence of HLA-All-binding synthetic peptides derived from viral or cellular proteins. Acid treatment rendered T2/A11 and C1R/A11 cells sensitive to lysis, but protection was restored after preincubation with peptide preparations derived from surface stripping of T2/A11 cells. Similar peptide preparations from T2 cells had no effect. The results suggest that NK protection is mediated by HLA-A11 molecules carrying a particular set of peptides that are translocated to the site of MHC class I assembly in the ER in a TAP-independent fashion.

  7. The Smac Mimetic BV6 Improves NK Cell-Mediated Killing of Rhabdomyosarcoma Cells by Simultaneously Targeting Tumor and Effector Cells.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Kyra; Tognarelli, Sara; Roesler, Stefanie; Boedicker, Cathinka; Schubert, Ralf; Steinle, Alexander; Klingebiel, Thomas; Bader, Peter; Fulda, Simone; Ullrich, Evelyn

    2017-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), the most common cancer of connective tissues in pediatrics, is often resistant to conventional therapies. One underlying mechanism of this resistance is the overexpression of Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) proteins, leading to a dysfunctional cell death program within tumor cells. Smac mimetics (SM) are small molecules that can reactivate the cell death program by antagonizing IAP proteins and thereby compensating their overexpression. Here, we report that SM sensitize two RMS cell lines (RD and RH30) toward natural killer (NK) cell-mediated killing on the one hand, and increase the cytotoxic potential of NK cells on the other. The SM-induced sensitization of RH30 cells toward NK cell-mediated killing is significantly reduced through blocking tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) on NK cells prior to coculture. In addition, the presence of zVAD.fmk, a pancaspase inhibitor, rescues tumor cells from the increase in killing, indicating an apoptosis-dependent cell death. On the NK cell side, the presence of SM in addition to IL-2 during the ex vivo expansion leads to an increase in their cytotoxic activity against RH30 cells. This effect is mainly TNFα-dependent and partially mediated by NK cell activation, which is associated with transcriptional upregulation of NF-κB target genes such as IκBα and RelB. Taken together, our findings implicate that SM represent a novel double-hit strategy, sensitizing tumor and activating NK cells with one single drug.

  8. Exosomes mediate hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission and NK-cell dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yinli; Han, Qiuju; Hou, Zhaohua; Zhang, Cai; Tian, Zhigang; Zhang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Evidence suggests that exosomes can transfer genetic material between cells. However, their roles in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remain unclear. Here, we report that exosomes present in the sera of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients contained both HBV nucleic acids and HBV proteins, and transferred HBV to hepatocytes in an active manner. Notably, HBV nucleic acids were detected in natural killer (NK) cells from both CHB patients and healthy donors after exposure to HBV-positive exosomes. Through real-time fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3',-tetramethylindodicarbocyanine, 4-chlorobenzenesulfnate salt (DiD)-labeled exosomes were observed to interact with NK cells and to be taken up by NK cells, which was enhanced by transforming growth factor-β treatment. Furthermore, HBV-positive exosomes impaired NK-cell functions, including interferon (IFN)-γ production, cytolytic activity, NK-cell proliferation and survival, as well as the responsiveness of the cells to poly (I:C) stimulation. HBV infection suppressed the expression of pattern-recognition receptors, especially retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I), on NK cells, resulting in the dampening of the nuclear factor κB(NF-κB) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Our results highlight a previously unappreciated role of exosomes in HBV transmission and NK-cell dysfunction during CHB infection. PMID:27238466

  9. Viral infection transiently reverses activation receptor-mediated NK cell hyporesponsiveness in an MHC class I-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Mazumdar, Budhaditya; Bolanos, Fred D; Tripathy, Sandeep K

    2013-05-01

    Continuous engagement of the Ly49H activating receptor with its ligand (m157) in a transgenic mouse expressing m157 (m157-Tg) results in hyporesponsiveness of Ly49H(+) NK cells. The same interaction, during murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection, leads to activation of Ly49H(+) NK cells. MCMV infection results in decreased MHC class I (MHC-I) expression on the infected cell as well as inflammatory responses, both of which do not take place in the uninfected m157-Tg mouse, potentially allowing for activation of NK cells in the context of MCMV infection. In this study, we demonstrated that viral infection transiently reverses activation receptor-mediated NK cell hyporesponsiveness in an MHC-I-independent mechanism. Furthermore, Ly49H(+) NK cells in an MHC-I-deficient environment remained hyporesponsive in the context of m157 expression, even when mature WT splenocytes were transferred into m157-Tg mice in an MHC-I-deficient environment. However, the administration of cytokines TNF-α, IL-12, and IFN-β resulted in a partial recovery from activation receptor-induced hyporesponsiveness. Thus, the release of the aforementioned cytokines during MCMV infection and not the downregulation of MHC-I expression appears to be responsible for partial resolution of Ly49H receptor-induced NK cell hyporesponsiveness.

  10. Tissue resident NK cells mediate ischemic kidney injury and are not depleted by anti-Asialo GM1 antibody

    PubMed Central

    Victorino, Francisco; Sojka, Dorothy K.; Brodsky, Kelley S.; McNamee, Eoin N.; Masterson, Joanne C.; Homann, Dirk; Yokoyama, Wayne M.; Eltzschig, Holger K.; Clambey, Eric T.

    2015-01-01

    NK cells are innate lymphoid cells important for immune surveillance, identifying and responding to stress, infection, and/or transformation. While conventional NK (cNK) cells circulate systemically, many NK cells reside in tissues where they appear to be poised to locally regulate tissue function. Here we tested the contribution of tissue-resident NK (trNK) cells to tissue homeostasis by studying ischemic injury in the mouse kidney. Parabiosis experiments demonstrate that the kidney contains a significant fraction of trNK cells under homeostatic conditions. Kidney trNK cells developed independent of NFIL3 and Tbet, and expressed a distinct cell surface phenotype as compared to cNK cells. Among these, trNK cells had reduced asialo-GM1 (AsGM1) expression relative to cNK cells, a phenotype observed in trNK cells across multiple organs and mouse strains. Strikingly, anti-AsGM1 antibody treatment, commonly used as NK cell-depleting regimen, resulted in a robust and selective depletion of cNKs, leaving trNKs largely intact. Using this differential depletion, we tested the relative contribution of cNK and trNK cells in ischemic kidney injury. Whereas anti-NK1.1 antibody effectively depleted both trNK and cNK cells and protected against ischemic-reperfusion injury, anti-AsGM1 antibody preferentially depleted cNK cells and failed to protect against injury. These data demonstrate unanticipated specificity of anti-AsGM1 antibody depletion on NK cell subsets and reveal a new approach to study the contributions of cNK and trNK cells in vivo. In total, these data demonstrate that trNK cells play a key role in modulating local responses to ischemic tissue injury in the kidney and potentially other organs. PMID:26453755

  11. Overexpression of LLT1 (OCIL, CLEC2D) on prostate cancer cells inhibits NK cell-mediated killing through LLT1-NKRP1A (CD161) interaction.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Stephen O; Chaudhary, Pankaj; Powers, Sheila B; Vishwanatha, Jamboor K; Mathew, Porunelloor A

    2016-10-18

    Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer diagnosed and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in American men. Natural Killer (NK) cells are the first line of defense against cancer and infections. NK cell function is regulated by a delicate balance between signals received through activating and inhibitory receptors. Previously, we identified Lectin-like transcript-1 (LLT1/OCIL/CLEC2D) as a counter-receptor for the NK cell inhibitory receptor NKRP1A (CD161). Interaction of LLT1 expressed on target cells with NKRP1A inhibits NK cell activation. In this study, we have found that LLT1 was overexpressed on prostate cancer cell lines (DU145, LNCaP, 22Rv1 and PC3) and in primary prostate cancer tissues both at the mRNA and protein level. We further showed that LLT1 is retained intracellularly in normal prostate cells with minimal cell surface expression. Blocking LLT1 interaction with NKRP1A by anti-LLT1 mAb on prostate cancer cells increased the NK-mediated cytotoxicity of prostate cancer cells. The results indicate that prostate cancer cells may evade immune attack by NK cells by expressing LLT1 to inhibit NK cell-mediated cytolytic activity through LLT1-NKRP1A interaction. Blocking LLT1-NKRP1A interaction will make prostate cancer cells susceptible to killing by NK cells and therefore may be a new therapeutic option for treatment of prostate cancer.

  12. NK cells and interferons.

    PubMed

    Paolini, Rossella; Bernardini, Giovanni; Molfetta, Rosa; Santoni, Angela

    2015-04-01

    The role of Natural Killer cells in host defense against infections as well as in tumour surveillance has been widely appreciated for a number of years. Upon recognition of "altered" cells, NK cells release the content of cytolytic granules, leading to the death of target cells. Moreover, NK cells are powerful producers of chemokines and cytokines, particularly Interferon-γ (IFN-γ), of which they are the earliest source upon a variety of infections. Despite being armed to fight against pathogens, NK cells become fully functional upon an initial phase of activation that requires the action of several cytokines, including type I IFNs. Type I IFNs are now recognized as key players in antiviral defense and immune regulation, and evidences from both mouse models of disease and in vitro studies support the existence of an alliance between type I IFNs and NK cells to ensure effective protection against viral infections. This review will focus on the role of type I IFNs in regulating NK cell functions to elicit antiviral response and on NK cell-produced IFN-γ beneficial and pathological effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. HER2-specific immunoligands engaging NKp30 or NKp80 trigger NK-cell-mediated lysis of tumor cells and enhance antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Peipp, Matthias; Derer, Stefanie; Lohse, Stefan; Staudinger, Matthias; Klausz, Katja; Valerius, Thomas; Gramatzki, Martin; Kellner, Christian

    2015-10-13

    NK cells detect tumors through activating surface receptors, which bind self-antigens that are frequently expressed upon malignant transformation. To increase the recognition of tumor cells, the extracellular domains of ligands of the activating NK cell receptors NKp30, NKp80 and DNAM-1 (i.e. B7-H6, AICL and PVR, respectively) were fused to a single-chain fragment variable (scFv) targeting the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), which is displayed by various solid tumors. The resulting immunoligands, designated B7-H6:HER2-scFv, AICL:HER2-scFv, and PVR:HER2-scFv, respectively, bound HER2 and the addressed NK cell receptor. However, whereas B7-H6:HER2-scFv and AICL:HER2-scFv triggered NK cells to kill HER2-positive breast cancer cells at nanomolar concentrations, PVR:HER2-scFv was not efficacious. Moreover, NK cell cytotoxicity was enhanced synergistically when B7-H6:HER2-scFv or AICL:HER2-scFv were applied in combination with another HER2-specific immunoligand engaging the stimulatory receptor NKG2D. In contrast, no improvements were achieved by combining B7-H6:HER2-scFv with AICL:HER2-scFv. Additionally, B7-H6:HER2-scFv and AICL:HER2-scFv enhanced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) by the therapeutic antibodies trastuzumab and cetuximab synergistically, with B7-H6:HER2-scFv exhibiting a higher efficacy. In summary, antibody-derived proteins engaging NKp30 or NKp80 may represent attractive biologics to further enhance anti-tumor NK cell responses and may provide an innovative approach to sensitize tumor cells for antibody-based immunotherapy.

  14. Sustained Immune Complex-Mediated Reduction in CD16 Expression after Vaccination Regulates NK Cell Function.

    PubMed

    Goodier, Martin R; Lusa, Chiara; Sherratt, Sam; Rodriguez-Galan, Ana; Behrens, Ron; Riley, Eleanor M

    2016-01-01

    Cross-linking of FcγRIII (CD16) by immune complexes induces antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) by natural killer (NK) cells, contributing to control of intracellular pathogens; this pathway can also be targeted for immunotherapy of cancerous or otherwise diseased cells. However, downregulation of CD16 expression on activated NK cells may limit or regulate this response. Here, we report sustained downregulation of CD16 expression on NK cells in vivo after intramuscular (but not intranasal) influenza vaccination. CD16 downregulation persisted for at least 12 weeks after vaccination and was associated with robust enhancement of influenza-specific plasma antibodies after intramuscular (but not intranasal) vaccination. This effect could be emulated in vitro by co-culture of NK cells with influenza antigen and immune serum and, consistent with the sustained effects after vaccination, only very limited recovery of CD16 expression was observed during long-term in vitro culture of immune complex-treated cells. CD16 downregulation was most marked among normally CD16(high) CD57(+) NK cells, irrespective of NKG2C expression, and was strongly positively associated with degranulation (surface CD107a expression). CD16 downregulation was partially reversed by inhibition of ADAM17 matrix metalloprotease, leading to a sustained increase in both CD107a and CD25 (IL-2Rα) expression. Both the degranulation and CD25 responses of CD57+ NK cells were uniquely dependent on trivalent influenza vaccine-specific IgG. These data support a role for CD16 in early activation of NK cells after vaccination and for CD16 downregulation as a means to modulate NK cell responses and maintain immune homeostasis of both antibody and T cell-dependent pathways.

  15. Sustained Immune Complex-Mediated Reduction in CD16 Expression after Vaccination Regulates NK Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Goodier, Martin R.; Lusa, Chiara; Sherratt, Sam; Rodriguez-Galan, Ana; Behrens, Ron; Riley, Eleanor M.

    2016-01-01

    Cross-linking of FcγRIII (CD16) by immune complexes induces antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) by natural killer (NK) cells, contributing to control of intracellular pathogens; this pathway can also be targeted for immunotherapy of cancerous or otherwise diseased cells. However, downregulation of CD16 expression on activated NK cells may limit or regulate this response. Here, we report sustained downregulation of CD16 expression on NK cells in vivo after intramuscular (but not intranasal) influenza vaccination. CD16 downregulation persisted for at least 12 weeks after vaccination and was associated with robust enhancement of influenza-specific plasma antibodies after intramuscular (but not intranasal) vaccination. This effect could be emulated in vitro by co-culture of NK cells with influenza antigen and immune serum and, consistent with the sustained effects after vaccination, only very limited recovery of CD16 expression was observed during long-term in vitro culture of immune complex-treated cells. CD16 downregulation was most marked among normally CD16high CD57+ NK cells, irrespective of NKG2C expression, and was strongly positively associated with degranulation (surface CD107a expression). CD16 downregulation was partially reversed by inhibition of ADAM17 matrix metalloprotease, leading to a sustained increase in both CD107a and CD25 (IL-2Rα) expression. Both the degranulation and CD25 responses of CD57+ NK cells were uniquely dependent on trivalent influenza vaccine-specific IgG. These data support a role for CD16 in early activation of NK cells after vaccination and for CD16 downregulation as a means to modulate NK cell responses and maintain immune homeostasis of both antibody and T cell-dependent pathways. PMID:27725819

  16. Lenalidomide Induces Immunomodulation in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Enhances Antitumor Immune Responses Mediated by NK and CD4 T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Acebes-Huerta, Andrea; Huergo-Zapico, Leticia; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Ana Pilar; Fernandez-Guizan, Azahara; Payer, Angel R.; Gonzalez, Segundo

    2014-01-01

    Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory drug with therapeutic activity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). However, it has pleiotropic effects, and the mechanism of action responsible for its therapeutic activity has not been well defined yet. Herein, we show that lenalidomide treatment does not have an effect on the proliferation of leukemia cells, but it increases the proliferation of B cells from healthy donors. Lenalidomide did not exert a direct effect on the apoptosis of leukemia cells obtained from CLL patients, although it indirectly induced their apoptosis through the activation of nonmalignant immune cells. Thus, lenalidomide markedly increased the proliferation of NK and CD4 T cells. The effect of lenalidomide on NK cells was secondary to the induction of IL-2 production by CD4 T cells. Accordingly, depletion of T cells or blockade of IL-2 activity completely abrogated the proliferation of NK cells. Additionally, lenalidomide enhanced NK and NKT-like cell-mediated natural cytotoxicity against leukemia cells from CLL patients. Lenalidomide also upregulated CD20 expression on leukemia cells and, accordingly, it had a synergistic effect with rituximab on promoting antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity against primary leukemia cells. Overall, these observations provide a support for combining lenalidomide with rituximab as a treatment in CLL. PMID:25313353

  17. NK Cell-Mediated Regulation of Protective Memory Responses against Intracellular Ehrlichial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Samar; El Andaloussi, Abdeljabar; Hisham, Ahmed; Ismail, Nahed

    2016-01-01

    Ehrlichiae are gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria that cause potentially fatal human monocytic ehrlichiosis. We previously showed that natural killer (NK) cells play a critical role in host defense against Ehrlichia during primary infection. However, the contribution of NK cells to the memory response against Ehrlichia remains elusive. Primary infection of C57BL/6 mice with Ehrlichia muris provides long-term protection against a second challenge with the highly virulent Ixodes ovatus Ehrlichia (IOE), which ordinarily causes fatal disease in naïve mice. Here, we show that the depletion of NK cells in E. muris-primed mice abrogates the protective memory response against IOE. Approximately, 80% of NK cell-depleted E. muris-primed mice succumbed to lethal IOE infection on days 8–10 after IOE infection, similar to naïve mice infected with the same dose of IOE. The lack of a recall response in NK cell-depleted mice correlated with an increased bacterial burden, extensive liver injury, decreased frequency of Ehrlichia-specific IFN-γ-producing memory CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, and a low titer of Ehrlichia-specific antibodies. Intraperitoneal infection of mice with E. muris resulted in the production of IL-15, IL-12, and IFN-γ as well as an expansion of activated NKG2D+ NK cells. The adoptive transfer of purified E. muris-primed hepatic and splenic NK cells into Rag2-/-Il2rg-/- recipient mice provided protective immunity against challenge with E. muris. Together, these data suggest that E. muris-induced memory-like NK cells, which contribute to the protective, recall response against Ehrlichia. PMID:27092553

  18. NK cells are strongly activated by Lassa and Mopeia virus-infected human macrophages in vitro but do not mediate virus suppression.

    PubMed

    Russier, Marion; Reynard, Stéphanie; Tordo, Noël; Baize, Sylvain

    2012-07-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) and Mopeia virus (MOPV) are closely related Arenaviruses. LASV causes hemorrhagic fever, whereas MOPV is not pathogenic. Both viruses display tropism for APCs such as DCs and macrophages. During viral infections, NK cells are involved in the clearance of infected cells and promote optimal immune responses by interacting with APCs. We used an in vitro model of human NK and APC coculture to study the role of NK cells and to characterize their interactions with APCs during LASV and MOPV infections. As expected, NK cells alone were neither infected nor activated by LASV and MOPV, and infected DCs did not activate NK cells. By contrast, LASV- and MOPV-infected macrophages activated NK cells, as shown by the upregulation of CD69, NKp30, and NKp44, the downregulation of CXCR3, and an increase in NK-cell proliferation. NK cells acquired enhanced cytotoxicity, as illustrated by the increase in granzyme B (GrzB) expression and killing of K562 targets, but did not produce IFN-γ. Contact between NK cells and infected macrophages and type I IFNs were essential for activation; however, NK cells could not kill infected cells and control infection. Overall, these findings show that MOPV- as well as pathogenic LASV-infected macrophages mediate NK-cell activation.

  19. NK Cells Promote Th-17 Mediated Corneal Barrier Disruption in Dry Eye

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaobo; Volpe, Eugene A.; Gandhi, Niral B.; Schaumburg, Chris S.; Siemasko, Karyn F.; Pangelinan, Solherny B.; Kelly, Scott D.; Hayday, Adrian C.; Li, De-Quan; Stern, Michael E.; Niederkorn, Jerry Y.; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.; De Paiva, Cintia S.

    2012-01-01

    Background The conjunctiva contains a specialized population of lymphocytes that reside in the epithelium, named intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL). Methodology/Principal Findings Here we characterized the IEL population prior to and after experimental desiccating stress (DS) for 5 or 10 days (DS5, DS10) and evaluated the effect of NK depletion on DS. The frequency of IELs in normal murine conjunctiva was CD3+CD103+ (∼22%), CD3+γδ+ (∼9.6%), CD3+NK+ (2%), CD3−NK+ (∼4.4%), CD3+CD8α (∼0.9%), and CD4 (∼0.6%). Systemic depletion of NK cells prior and during DS led to a decrease in the frequency of total and activated DCs, a decrease in T helper-17+ cells in the cervical lymph nodes and generation of less pathogenic CD4+T cells. B6.nude recipient mice of adoptively transferred CD4+T cells isolated from NK-depleted DS5 donor mice showed significantly less corneal barrier disruption, lower levels of IL-17A, CCL20 and MMP-3 in the cornea epithelia compared to recipients of control CD4+T cells. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, these results show that the NK IELs are involved in the acute immune response to desiccation-induced dry eye by activating DC, which in turn coordinate generation of the pathogenic Th-17 response. PMID:22590618

  20. The Host Defense Peptide Cathelicidin Is Required for NK Cell-Mediated Suppression of Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Büchau, Amanda S.; Morizane, Shin; Trowbridge, Janet; Schauber, Jürgen; Kotol, Paul; Bui, Jack D.; Gallo, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Tumor surveillance requires the interaction of multiple molecules and cells that participate in innate and the adaptive immunity. Cathelicidin was initially identified as an antimicrobial peptide, although it is now clear that it fulfills a variety of immune functions beyond microbial killing. Recent data have suggested contrasting roles for cathelicidin in tumor development. Because its role in tumor surveillance is not well understood, we investigated the requirement of cathelicidin in controlling transplantable tumors in mice. Cathelicidin was observed to be abundant in tumor-infiltrating NK1.1+ cells in mice. The importance of this finding was demonstrated by the fact that cathelicidin knockout mice (Camp−/−) permitted faster tumor growth than wild type controls in two different xenograft tumor mouse models (B16.F10 and RMA-S). Functional in vitro analyses found that NK cells derived from Camp−/− versus wild type mice showed impaired cytotoxic activity toward tumor targets. These findings could not be solely attributed to an observed perforin deficiency in freshly isolated Camp−/− NK cells, because this deficiency could be partially restored by IL-2 treatment, whereas cytotoxic activity was still defective in IL-2-activated Camp−/− NK cells. Thus, we demonstrate a previously unrecognized role of cathelicidin in NK cell antitumor function. PMID:19949065

  1. The Smac Mimetic BV6 Improves NK Cell-Mediated Killing of Rhabdomyosarcoma Cells by Simultaneously Targeting Tumor and Effector Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Kyra; Tognarelli, Sara; Roesler, Stefanie; Boedicker, Cathinka; Schubert, Ralf; Steinle, Alexander; Klingebiel, Thomas; Bader, Peter; Fulda, Simone; Ullrich, Evelyn

    2017-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), the most common cancer of connective tissues in pediatrics, is often resistant to conventional therapies. One underlying mechanism of this resistance is the overexpression of Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) proteins, leading to a dysfunctional cell death program within tumor cells. Smac mimetics (SM) are small molecules that can reactivate the cell death program by antagonizing IAP proteins and thereby compensating their overexpression. Here, we report that SM sensitize two RMS cell lines (RD and RH30) toward natural killer (NK) cell-mediated killing on the one hand, and increase the cytotoxic potential of NK cells on the other. The SM-induced sensitization of RH30 cells toward NK cell-mediated killing is significantly reduced through blocking tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) on NK cells prior to coculture. In addition, the presence of zVAD.fmk, a pancaspase inhibitor, rescues tumor cells from the increase in killing, indicating an apoptosis-dependent cell death. On the NK cell side, the presence of SM in addition to IL-2 during the ex vivo expansion leads to an increase in their cytotoxic activity against RH30 cells. This effect is mainly TNFα-dependent and partially mediated by NK cell activation, which is associated with transcriptional upregulation of NF-κB target genes such as IκBα and RelB. Taken together, our findings implicate that SM represent a novel double-hit strategy, sensitizing tumor and activating NK cells with one single drug. PMID:28326081

  2. CD94 is essential for NK cell-mediated resistance to a lethal viral disease

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Min; Orr, Mark T.; Spee, Pieter; Egebjerg, Thomas; Lanier, Lewis L.; Sigal, Luis J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary It is well established that natural killer (NK) cells confer resistance to many viral diseases, but only in a few instances the molecular mechanisms whereby NK cells recognize virus-infected cells are known. Here we show that CD94, a molecule preferentially expressed by NK cells, is essential for the resistance of C57BL/6 mice to mousepox, a disease caused by the Orthopoxvirus ectromelia virus. Ectromelia virus-infected cells expressing the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class Ib molecule Qa-1b are specifically recognized by the activating receptor formed by CD94 and NKG2E. Because CD94-NKG2 receptors and their ligands are highly conserved in rodents and humans, a similar mechanism may exist during human infections with the smallpox and monkeypox viruses, which are highly homologous to ectromelia virus. PMID:21439856

  3. Modulation of CD112 by the alphaherpesvirus gD protein suppresses DNAM-1-dependent NK cell-mediated lysis of infected cells.

    PubMed

    Grauwet, Korneel; Cantoni, Claudia; Parodi, Monica; De Maria, Andrea; Devriendt, Bert; Pende, Daniela; Moretta, Lorenzo; Vitale, Massimo; Favoreel, Herman W

    2014-11-11

    Natural killer (NK) cells are key players in the innate response to viruses, including herpesviruses. In particular, the variety of viral strategies to modulate the recognition of certain herpesviruses witnesses the importance of NK cells in the control of this group of viruses. Still, NK evasion strategies have remained largely elusive for the largest herpesvirus subfamily, the alphaherpesviruses. Here, we report that the gD glycoprotein of the alphaherpesviruses pseudorabies virus (PRV) and herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) displays previously uncharacterized immune evasion properties toward NK cells. Expression of gD during infection or transfection led to degradation and consequent down-regulation of CD112, a ligand for the activating NK receptor DNAX accessory molecule 1 (DNAM-1). CD112 downregulation resulted in a reduced ability of DNAM-1 to bind to the surface of both virus-infected and gD-transfected cells. Consequently, expression of gD suppressed NK cell degranulation and NK cell-mediated lysis of PRV- or HSV-2-infected cells. These data identify an alphaherpesvirus evasion strategy from NK cells and point out that interactions between viral envelope proteins and host cell receptors can have biological consequences that stretch beyond virus entry.

  4. NK cell subsets in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cai; Tian, Zhigang

    2017-03-09

    Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system. They not only exert cell-mediated cytotoxicity against tumor cells or infected cells, but also play regulatory role through promoting or suppressing functions of other immune cells by secretion of cytokines and chemokines. However, overactivation or dysfunction of NK cells may be associated with pathogenesis of some diseases. NK cells are found to act as a two edged weapon and play opposite roles with both regulatory and inducer activity in autoimmune diseases. Though the precise mechanisms for the opposite effects of NK cells has not been fully elucidated, the importance of NK cells in autoimmune diseases might be associated with different NK cell subsets, different tissue microenvironment and different stages of corresponding diseases. The local tissue microenvironment, unique cellular interactions and different stages of corresponding diseases shape the properties and function of NK cells. In this review, we focus on recent research on the features and function of different NK cell subsets, particularly tissue-resident NK cells in different tissues, and their potential role in autoimmune diseases.

  5. NK cells modulate the lung dendritic cell-mediated Th1/Th17 immunity during intracellular bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Shekhar, Sudhanshu; Peng, Ying; Gao, Xiaoling; Joyee, Antony G; Wang, Shuhe; Bai, Hong; Zhao, Lei; Yang, Jie; Yang, Xi

    2015-10-01

    The impact of the interaction between NK cells and lung dendritic cells (LDCs) on the outcome of respiratory infections is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanism of NK cells on the function of LDCs during intracellular bacterial lung infection of Chlamydia muridarum in mice. We found that the naive mice receiving LDCs from C. muridarum-infected NK-cell-depleted mice (NK-LDCs) showed more serious body weight loss, bacterial burden, and pathology upon chlamydial challenge when compared with the recipients of LDCs from infected sham-treated mice (NK+LDCs). Cytokine analysis of the local tissues of the former compared with the latter exhibited lower levels of Th1 (IFN-γ) and Th17 (IL-17), but higher levels of Th2 (IL-4), cytokines. Consistently, NK-LDCs were less efficient in directing C. muridarum-specific Th1 and Th17 responses than NK+LDCs when cocultured with CD4(+) T cells. In NK cell/LDC coculture experiments, the blockade of NKG2D receptor reduced the production of IL-12p70, IL-6, and IL-23 by LDCs. The neutralization of IFN-γ in the culture decreased the production of IL-12p70 by LDCs, whereas the blockade of TNF-α resulted in diminished IL-6 production. Our findings demonstrate that NK cells modulate LDC function to elicit Th1/Th17 immunity during intracellular bacterial infection.

  6. Hepatic NK cell-mediated hypersensitivity to ConA-induced liver injury in mouse liver expressing hepatitis C virus polyprotein.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiuxia; Yan, Shaoduo; Wang, Licui; Duan, Xiangguo; Wang, Lei; Wang, Yue; Wu, Tao; Wang, Xiaohui; An, Jie; Zhang, Yulong; Zhou, Qianqian; Zhan, Linsheng

    2016-08-04

    The role of hepatic NK cells in the pathogenesis of HCV-associated hepatic failure is incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of HCV on ConA-induced immunological hepatic injury and the influence of HCV on hepatic NK cell activation in the liver after ConA administration. An immunocompetent HCV mouse model that encodes the entire viral polyprotein in a liver-specific manner based on hydrodynamic injection and φC31o integrase was used to study the role of hepatic NK cells. Interestingly, the frequency of hepatic NK cells was reduced in HCV mice, whereas the levels of other intrahepatic lymphocytes remained unaltered. Next, we investigated whether the reduction in NK cells within HCV mouse livers might elicit an effect on immune-mediated liver injury. HCV mice were subjected to acute liver injury models upon ConA administration. We observed that HCV mice developed more severe ConA-induced immune-mediated hepatitis, which was dependent on the accumulated intrahepatic NK cells. Our results indicated that after the administration of ConA, NK cells not only mediated liver injury through the production of immunoregulatory cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α and perforin) with direct antiviral activity, but they also killed target cells directly through the TRAIL/DR5 and NKG2D/NKG2D ligand signaling pathway in HCV mice. Our findings suggest a critical role for NK cells in oversensitive liver injury during chronic HCV infection.

  7. Human NKT cells mediate antitumor cytotoxicity directly by recognizing target cell CD1d with bound ligand or indirectly by producing IL-2 to activate NK cells.

    PubMed

    Metelitsa, L S; Naidenko, O V; Kant, A; Wu, H W; Loza, M J; Perussia, B; Kronenberg, M; Seeger, R C

    2001-09-15

    alpha-Galactosylceramide (alphaGalCer) stimulates NKT cells and has antitumor activity in mice. Murine NKT cells may directly kill tumor cells and induce NK cell cytotoxicity, but the mechanisms are not well defined. Newly developed human CD1d/alphaGalCer tetrameric complexes were used to obtain highly purified human alphaGalCer-reactive NKT cell lines (>99%), and the mechanisms of NKT cell cytotoxicity and activation of NK cells were investigated. Human NKT cells were cytotoxic against CD1d(-) neuroblastoma cells only when they were rendered CD1d(+) by transfection and pulsed with alphaGalCer. Four other CD1d(-) tumor cell lines of diverse origin were resistant to NKT cells, whereas Jurkat and U937 leukemia cell lines, which are constitutively CD1d(+), were killed. Killing of the latter was greatly augmented in the presence of alphaGalCer. Upon human CD1d/alphaGalCer recognition, NKT cells induced potent cytotoxicity of NK cells against CD1d(-) neuroblastoma cell lines that were not killed directly by NKT cells. NK cell activation depended upon NKT cell production of IL-2, and was enhanced by secretion of IFN-gamma. These data demonstrate that cytotoxicity of human NKT cells can be CD1d and ligand dependent, and that TCR-stimulated NKT cells produce IL-2 that is required to induce NK cell cytotoxicity. Thus, NKT cells can mediate potent antitumor activity both directly by targeting CD1d and indirectly by activating NK cells.

  8. Genetic Causes of Human NK Cell Deficiency and Their Effect on NK Cell Subsets

    PubMed Central

    Mace, Emily M.; Orange, Jordan S.

    2016-01-01

    Human NK cells play critical roles in human host defense, particularly the control of viral infection and malignancy, and patients with congenital immunodeficiency affecting NK cell function or number can suffer from severe illness. The importance of NK cell function is particularly underscored in patients with primary immunodeficiency in which NK cells are the primary or sole affected population (NK cell deficiency, NKD). While NKD may lead to the absence of NK cells, we are also gaining an increasing appreciation of the effect that NKD may have on the generation of specific NK cell subsets. In turn, this leads to improved insights into the requirements for human NK cell subset generation, as well as their importance in immune homeostasis. The presence of inherently abnormally developed or functionally impaired NK cells, in particular, appears to be problematic in the way of interfering with normal human host defense and may be more impactful than low numbers of NK cells alone. Here, we review the known genetic causes of NKD and the insight that is derived by these into the requirements for human subset generation and, by extension, for NK cell-mediated immunity. PMID:27994588

  9. Genetic Causes of Human NK Cell Deficiency and Their Effect on NK Cell Subsets.

    PubMed

    Mace, Emily M; Orange, Jordan S

    2016-01-01

    Human NK cells play critical roles in human host defense, particularly the control of viral infection and malignancy, and patients with congenital immunodeficiency affecting NK cell function or number can suffer from severe illness. The importance of NK cell function is particularly underscored in patients with primary immunodeficiency in which NK cells are the primary or sole affected population (NK cell deficiency, NKD). While NKD may lead to the absence of NK cells, we are also gaining an increasing appreciation of the effect that NKD may have on the generation of specific NK cell subsets. In turn, this leads to improved insights into the requirements for human NK cell subset generation, as well as their importance in immune homeostasis. The presence of inherently abnormally developed or functionally impaired NK cells, in particular, appears to be problematic in the way of interfering with normal human host defense and may be more impactful than low numbers of NK cells alone. Here, we review the known genetic causes of NKD and the insight that is derived by these into the requirements for human subset generation and, by extension, for NK cell-mediated immunity.

  10. Obinutuzumab-mediated high-affinity ligation of FcγRIIIA/CD16 primes NK cells for IFNγ production.

    PubMed

    Capuano, Cristina; Pighi, Chiara; Molfetta, Rosa; Paolini, Rossella; Battella, Simone; Palmieri, Gabriella; Giannini, Giuseppe; Belardinilli, Francesca; Santoni, Angela; Galandrini, Ricciarda

    2017-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), based on the recognition of IgG-opsonized targets by the low-affinity receptor for IgG FcγRIIIA/CD16, represents one of the main mechanisms by which therapeutic antibodies (mAbs) mediate their antitumor effects. Besides ADCC, CD16 ligation also results in cytokine production, in particular, NK-derived IFNγ is endowed with a well-recognized role in the shaping of adaptive immune responses. Obinutuzumab is a glycoengineered anti-CD20 mAb with a modified crystallizable fragment (Fc) domain designed to increase the affinity for CD16 and consequently the killing of mAb-opsonized targets. However, the impact of CD16 ligation in optimized affinity conditions on NK functional program is not completely understood. Herein, we demonstrate that the interaction of NK cells with obinutuzumab-opsonized cells results in enhanced IFNγ production as compared with parental non-glycoengineered mAb or the reference molecule rituximab. We observed that affinity ligation conditions strictly correlate with the ability to induce CD16 down-modulation and lysosomal targeting of receptor-associated signaling elements. Indeed, a preferential degradation of FcεRIγ chain and Syk kinase was observed upon obinutuzumab stimulation independently from CD16-V158F polymorphism. Although the downregulation of FcεRIγ/Syk module leads to the impairment of cytotoxic function induced by NKp46 and NKp30 receptors, obinutuzumab-experienced cells exhibit an increased ability to produce IFNγ in response to different stimuli. These data highlight a relationship between CD16 aggregation conditions and the ability to promote a degradative pathway of CD16-coupled signaling elements associated to the shift of NK functional program.

  11. Obinutuzumab-mediated high-affinity ligation of FcγRIIIA/CD16 primes NK cells for IFNγ production

    PubMed Central

    Capuano, Cristina; Pighi, Chiara; Molfetta, Rosa; Paolini, Rossella; Battella, Simone; Palmieri, Gabriella; Santoni, Angela; Galandrini, Ricciarda

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Natural killer (NK) cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), based on the recognition of IgG-opsonized targets by the low-affinity receptor for IgG FcγRIIIA/CD16, represents one of the main mechanisms by which therapeutic antibodies (mAbs) mediate their antitumor effects. Besides ADCC, CD16 ligation also results in cytokine production, in particular, NK-derived IFNγ is endowed with a well-recognized role in the shaping of adaptive immune responses. Obinutuzumab is a glycoengineered anti-CD20 mAb with a modified crystallizable fragment (Fc) domain designed to increase the affinity for CD16 and consequently the killing of mAb-opsonized targets. However, the impact of CD16 ligation in optimized affinity conditions on NK functional program is not completely understood. Herein, we demonstrate that the interaction of NK cells with obinutuzumab-opsonized cells results in enhanced IFNγ production as compared with parental non-glycoengineered mAb or the reference molecule rituximab. We observed that affinity ligation conditions strictly correlate with the ability to induce CD16 down-modulation and lysosomal targeting of receptor-associated signaling elements. Indeed, a preferential degradation of FcεRIγ chain and Syk kinase was observed upon obinutuzumab stimulation independently from CD16-V158F polymorphism. Although the downregulation of FcεRIγ/Syk module leads to the impairment of cytotoxic function induced by NKp46 and NKp30 receptors, obinutuzumab-experienced cells exhibit an increased ability to produce IFNγ in response to different stimuli. These data highlight a relationship between CD16 aggregation conditions and the ability to promote a degradative pathway of CD16-coupled signaling elements associated to the shift of NK functional program. PMID:28405525

  12. Interleukin-37 Mediates the Antitumor Activity in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Role for CD57+ NK Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jing-Jing; Pan, Qiu-Zhong; Pan, Ke; Weng, De-Sheng; Wang, Qi-Jing; Li, Jian-Jun; Lv, Lin; Wang, Dan-Dan; Zheng, Hai-Xia; Jiang, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Xia, Jian-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    The biological role of interleukin-37 (IL-37) in cancer is large unknown. Through immunohistochemical detection using 163 primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) clinical specimens, we found the expression of IL-37 was decreased in tumor tissues, and the expression level was negatively correlated with tumor size. High expression of IL-37 in HCC tumor tissues was associated with better overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). IL-37 expression in tumor tissues was positively associated with the density of tumor-infiltrating CD57+ natural killer (NK) cells, but not with the CD3+ and CD8+ T cells. Consistently, in vitro chemotaxis analysis showed that IL-37- overexpressing HCC cells could recruit more NK cells. The in vivo mouse model experiments also revealed that overexpression IL-37 in HCC cells significantly delayed tumor growth and recruited more NK cells into tumors tissues. Our finding suggested that IL-37 might play an important role for the prognosis of HCC patients via regulating innate immune-action. PMID:24898887

  13. NKp46-mediated Dicer1 inactivation results in defective NK-cell differentiation and effector functions in mice.

    PubMed

    Degouve, Sophie; Tavares, Armelle; Viel, Sébastien; Walzer, Thierry; Marçais, Antoine

    2016-08-01

    MicroRNAs control developmental pathways and effector functions in immune cells. Previous studies have studied the role of microRNAs in natural killer (NK) cells. However, the mouse models of microRNA depletion used were nonNK-specific and only partially depleting, hampering the interpretation of the data obtained. To clarify the role of microRNAs in murine NK cells, we deleted the RNase III enzyme Dicer1 in NKp46-expressing cells. We observed a drastic decrease in several microRNAs specifically in NK cells. Furthermore, the overall size of the "NK-cell" pool was severely decreased, a phenotype associated with compromised survival. Moreover, performing a broad flow cytometry profiling, we show that Dicer1-deficient NK cells failed to complete their differentiation program. In particular, several integrins were inappropriately expressed in mature NK cells. These defects coincided with decreased response to IL-15, a cytokine responsible for "NK-cell" maturation and survival. In addition, Dicer1 deletion impaired key "NK-cell" functions: target cell killing and production of IFN-γ, leading to defective control of metastasis. Dicer1 deletion thus affects "NK-cell" biology in a cell intrinsic manner at several distinct stages.

  14. Activation of NK cell cytotoxicity by aerosolized CpG-ODN/poly(I:C) against lung melanoma metastases is mediated by alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sommariva, Michele; Le Noci, Valentino; Storti, Chiara; Bianchi, Francesca; Tagliabue, Elda; Balsari, Andrea; Sfondrini, Lucia

    2017-03-01

    Controversies remain about NK cells direct responsiveness to Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists or dependence on macrophages. In a melanoma lung metastasis model, aerosolized TLR9 and TLR3 agonists have been reported to induce antitumor immunity through NK cells activation. In the current study, we demonstrated that in vitro TLR9/TLR3 stimulation induced IFN-γ secretion by NK cells, but an increase in their cytotoxicity was detected only after NK cells co-culture with in vitro TLR9/TLR3 agonists pretreated alveolar macrophages. Alveolar macrophages from melanoma lung metastases-bearing mice, treated with aerosolized TLR agonists, also promoted NK cell cytotoxicity. Activated NK cells from lungs of melanoma metastases-bearing mice that were given aerosolized TLR9/TLR3 agonists were able to polarize naive alveolar macrophages toward a M1-like phenotype. Our results demonstrate that activation of NK cells in the lung after TLR engagement is mediated by alveolar macrophages and that activated NK cells shape macrophage behavior.

  15. Type I IFN promotes NK cell expansion during viral infection by protecting NK cells against fratricide.

    PubMed

    Madera, Sharline; Rapp, Moritz; Firth, Matthew A; Beilke, Joshua N; Lanier, Lewis L; Sun, Joseph C

    2016-02-08

    Type I interferon (IFN) is crucial in host antiviral defense. Previous studies have described the pleiotropic role of type I IFNs on innate and adaptive immune cells during viral infection. Here, we demonstrate that natural killer (NK) cells from mice lacking the type I IFN-α receptor (Ifnar(-/-)) or STAT1 (which signals downstream of IFNAR) are defective in expansion and memory cell formation after mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection. Despite comparable proliferation, Ifnar(-/-) NK cells showed diminished protection against MCMV infection and exhibited more apoptosis compared with wild-type NK cells. Furthermore, we show that Ifnar(-/-) NK cells express increased levels of NK group 2 member D (NKG2D) ligands during viral infection and are susceptible to NK cell-mediated fratricide in a perforin- and NKG2D-dependent manner. Adoptive transfer of Ifnar(-/-) NK cells into NK cell-deficient mice reverses the defect in survival and expansion. Our study reveals a novel type I IFN-dependent mechanism by which NK cells evade mechanisms of cell death after viral infection.

  16. Matrix Metalloprotease Inhibitors Restore Impaired NK Cell-Mediated Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection ▿

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qingquan; Sun, Yongtao; Rihn, Suzannah; Nolting, Anne; Tsoukas, Peter Nicholas; Jost, Stephanie; Cohen, Kristen; Walker, Bruce; Alter, Galit

    2009-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that NK cells not only are critical in the initial host defense against pathogens but also may contribute to continued protection from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease progression. NK cell cytolysis can be induced directly through diverse receptor families or can be induced indirectly through Fc receptors by antibodies mediating antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). ADCC has been implicated in both protection from simian immunodeficiency virus infection and slower progression of HIV-1 disease. ADCC activity declines with advancing infection, and yet the underlying mechanism for this dysfunction has not been defined, nor has it been determined whether the activity can be reconstituted. Here we demonstrate that NK cell-mediated ADCC is severely compromised in chronic HIV infection. The potency of ADCC function was directly correlated with baseline FcγRIIIa receptor (CD16) expression on NK cells. CD16 expression was negatively influenced by elevated expression of a group of enzymes, the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), normally involved in tissue/receptor remodeling. Inhibition of MMPs resulted in increased CD16 expression and augmented ADCC activity in response to antibody-coated target cells. These data suggest that MMP inhibitors may improve NK cell-mediated ADCC, which may provide subjects with an opportunity to harness the cytolytic power of NK cells through naturally occurring nonneutralizing HIV-specific antibodies. PMID:19553339

  17. Matrix metalloprotease inhibitors restore impaired NK cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingquan; Sun, Yongtao; Rihn, Suzannah; Nolting, Anne; Tsoukas, Peter Nicholas; Jost, Stephanie; Cohen, Kristen; Walker, Bruce; Alter, Galit

    2009-09-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that NK cells not only are critical in the initial host defense against pathogens but also may contribute to continued protection from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease progression. NK cell cytolysis can be induced directly through diverse receptor families or can be induced indirectly through Fc receptors by antibodies mediating antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). ADCC has been implicated in both protection from simian immunodeficiency virus infection and slower progression of HIV-1 disease. ADCC activity declines with advancing infection, and yet the underlying mechanism for this dysfunction has not been defined, nor has it been determined whether the activity can be reconstituted. Here we demonstrate that NK cell-mediated ADCC is severely compromised in chronic HIV infection. The potency of ADCC function was directly correlated with baseline Fc gammaRIIIa receptor (CD16) expression on NK cells. CD16 expression was negatively influenced by elevated expression of a group of enzymes, the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), normally involved in tissue/receptor remodeling. Inhibition of MMPs resulted in increased CD16 expression and augmented ADCC activity in response to antibody-coated target cells. These data suggest that MMP inhibitors may improve NK cell-mediated ADCC, which may provide subjects with an opportunity to harness the cytolytic power of NK cells through naturally occurring nonneutralizing HIV-specific antibodies.

  18. Type I IFN promotes NK cell expansion during viral infection by protecting NK cells against fratricide

    PubMed Central

    Madera, Sharline; Rapp, Moritz; Firth, Matthew A.; Beilke, Joshua N.; Lanier, Lewis L.

    2016-01-01

    Type I interferon (IFN) is crucial in host antiviral defense. Previous studies have described the pleiotropic role of type I IFNs on innate and adaptive immune cells during viral infection. Here, we demonstrate that natural killer (NK) cells from mice lacking the type I IFN-α receptor (Ifnar−/−) or STAT1 (which signals downstream of IFNAR) are defective in expansion and memory cell formation after mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection. Despite comparable proliferation, Ifnar−/− NK cells showed diminished protection against MCMV infection and exhibited more apoptosis compared with wild-type NK cells. Furthermore, we show that Ifnar−/− NK cells express increased levels of NK group 2 member D (NKG2D) ligands during viral infection and are susceptible to NK cell–mediated fratricide in a perforin- and NKG2D-dependent manner. Adoptive transfer of Ifnar−/− NK cells into NK cell–deficient mice reverses the defect in survival and expansion. Our study reveals a novel type I IFN–dependent mechanism by which NK cells evade mechanisms of cell death after viral infection. PMID:26755706

  19. Multi-cellular natural killer (NK) cell clusters enhance NK cell activation through localizing IL-2 within the cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Miju; Kim, Tae-Jin; Kim, Hye Mi; Doh, Junsang; Lee, Kyung-Mi

    2017-01-01

    Multi-cellular cluster formation of natural killer (NK) cells occurs during in vivo priming and potentiates their activation to IL-2. However, the precise mechanism underlying this synergy within NK cell clusters remains unclear. We employed lymphocyte-laden microwell technologies to modulate contact-mediated multi-cellular interactions among activating NK cells and to quantitatively assess the molecular events occurring in multi-cellular clusters of NK cells. NK cells in social microwells, which allow cell-to-cell contact, exhibited significantly higher levels of IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) signaling compared with those in lonesome microwells, which prevent intercellular contact. Further, CD25, an IL-2R α chain, and lytic granules of NK cells in social microwells were polarized toward MTOC. Live cell imaging of lytic granules revealed their dynamic and prolonged polarization toward neighboring NK cells without degranulation. These results suggest that IL-2 bound on CD25 of one NK cells triggered IL-2 signaling of neighboring NK cells. These results were further corroborated by findings that CD25-KO NK cells exhibited lower proliferation than WT NK cells, and when mixed with WT NK cells, underwent significantly higher level of proliferation. These data highlights the existence of IL-2 trans-presentation between NK cells in the local microenvironment where the availability of IL-2 is limited.

  20. Multi-cellular natural killer (NK) cell clusters enhance NK cell activation through localizing IL-2 within the cluster

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Miju; Kim, Tae-Jin; Kim, Hye Mi; Doh, Junsang; Lee, Kyung-Mi

    2017-01-01

    Multi-cellular cluster formation of natural killer (NK) cells occurs during in vivo priming and potentiates their activation to IL-2. However, the precise mechanism underlying this synergy within NK cell clusters remains unclear. We employed lymphocyte-laden microwell technologies to modulate contact-mediated multi-cellular interactions among activating NK cells and to quantitatively assess the molecular events occurring in multi-cellular clusters of NK cells. NK cells in social microwells, which allow cell-to-cell contact, exhibited significantly higher levels of IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) signaling compared with those in lonesome microwells, which prevent intercellular contact. Further, CD25, an IL-2R α chain, and lytic granules of NK cells in social microwells were polarized toward MTOC. Live cell imaging of lytic granules revealed their dynamic and prolonged polarization toward neighboring NK cells without degranulation. These results suggest that IL-2 bound on CD25 of one NK cells triggered IL-2 signaling of neighboring NK cells. These results were further corroborated by findings that CD25-KO NK cells exhibited lower proliferation than WT NK cells, and when mixed with WT NK cells, underwent significantly higher level of proliferation. These data highlights the existence of IL-2 trans-presentation between NK cells in the local microenvironment where the availability of IL-2 is limited. PMID:28074895

  1. "Natural Regulators": NK Cells as Modulators of T Cell Immunity.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Iona S; Coudert, Jerome D; Andoniou, Christopher E; Degli-Esposti, Mariapia A

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are known as frontline responders capable of rapidly mediating a response upon encountering transformed or infected cells. Recent findings indicate that NK cells, in addition to acting as innate effectors, can also regulate adaptive immune responses. Here, we review recent studies on the immunoregulatory function of NK cells with a specific focus on their ability to affect the generation of early, as well as long-term antiviral T cell responses, and their role in modulating immune pathology and disease. In addition, we summarize the current knowledge of the factors governing regulatory NK cell responses and discuss origin, tissue specificity, and open questions about the classification of regulatory NK cells as classical NK cells versus group 1 innate lymphoid cells.

  2. The rapid rejection of allogeneic lymphocytes by a non-adaptive, cell-mediated mechanism (NK activity).

    PubMed Central

    Rolstad, B; Fossum, S; Bazin, H; Kimber, I; Marshall, J; Sparshott, S M; Ford, W L

    1985-01-01

    The fate of allogeneic lymphocytes (AO or DA) transferred to non-immune PVG recipients was studied in the light of previous evidence (Heslop & McNeilage, 1983; Rolstad & Ford, 1983) that allogeneic lymphocytes can be rapidly destroyed in certain strain combinations of rats and mice by a mechanism that is distinct from either T-cell mediated immunity or an alloantibody response. AO lymphocytes injected into PVG recipients were discriminated from syngeneic lymphocytes within 15-30 min of i.v. injection, as testified by the excess release of 51Cr into the lymph plasma of the recipient. The following experiments were intended to distinguish between natural antibody and natural killer (NK) cells as the mechanism responsible for the allogeneic lymphocyte cytotoxicity (ALC) displayed by PVG rats. Nude rats treated from birth with anti-mu chain serum and shown to be lacking B and T lymphocytes, as well as being profoundly deficient in immunoglobulin, displayed more aggressive ALC than did control nude rats which, in turn, showed stronger ALC than did euthymic rats. Serum from PVG nude rats exerted no inhibitory or destructive effect on allogeneic lymphocytes in an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity system, an assay of graft-versus-host activity, or when injected into 3-4-week-old PVG rats which had not yet developed ALC. Treatment of nude rats with anti-asialo GM 1 antiserum depressed ALC and NK activity in parallel, thus adding to a wide range of circumstances in which ALC and NK activity are closely correlated. In conclusion, ALC is implemented by a non-adaptive, cell-mediated mechanism independent of immunoglobulin, but the precise identity of the effector cell in the recipients' lymphatic tissues remains to be settled. Images Figure 2 PMID:3972430

  3. NKG2D mediates NK cell hyperresponsiveness and influenza-induced pathologies in a mouse model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Wortham, Brian W; Eppert, Bryan L; Motz, Greg T; Flury, Jennifer L; Orozco-Levi, Mauricio; Hoebe, Kasper; Panos, Ralph J; Maxfield, Melissa; Glasser, Stephan W; Senft, Albert P; Raulet, David H; Borchers, Michael T

    2012-05-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by peribronchial and perivascular inflammation and largely irreversible airflow obstruction. Acute disease exacerbations, due frequently to viral infections, lead to enhanced disease symptoms and contribute to long-term progression of COPD pathology. Previously, we demonstrated that NK cells from cigarette smoke (CS)-exposed mice exhibit enhanced effector functions in response to stimulating cytokines or TLR ligands. In this article, we show that the activating receptor NKG2D is a key mediator for CS-stimulated NK cell hyperresponsiveness, because CS-exposed NKG2D-deficient mice (Klrk1(-/-)) did not exhibit enhanced effector functions as assessed by cytokine responsiveness. NK cell cytotoxicity against MHC class I-deficient targets was not affected in a COPD model. However, NK cells from CS-exposed mice exhibit greater cytotoxic activity toward cells that express the NKG2D ligand RAET1ε. We also demonstrate that NKG2D-deficient mice exhibit diminished airway damage and reduced inflammation in a model of viral COPD exacerbation, which do not affect viral clearance. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of NKG2D(+) NK cells into CS-exposed, influenza-infected NKG2D-deficient mice recapitulated the phenotypes observed in CS-exposed, influenza-infected wild-type mice. Our findings indicate that NKG2D stimulation during long-term CS exposure is a central pathway in the development of NK cell hyperresponsiveness and influenza-mediated exacerbations of COPD.

  4. Immunomodulatory properties of medicinal mushrooms: differential effects of water and ethanol extracts on NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chia-Chen; Hsu, Ya-Jing; Chang, Chih-Jung; Lin, Chuan-Sheng; Martel, Jan; Ojcius, David M; Ko, Yun-Fei; Lai, Hsin-Chih; Young, John D

    2016-10-01

    Medicinal mushrooms have been used for centuries in Asian countries owing to their beneficial effects on health and longevity. Previous studies have reported that a single medicinal mushroom may produce both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on immune cells, depending on conditions, but the factors responsible for this apparent dichotomy remain obscure. We show here that water and ethanol extracts of cultured mycelium from various species (Agaricus blazei Murrill, Antrodia cinnamomea, Ganoderma lucidum and Hirsutella sinensis) produce opposite effects on NK cells. Water extracts enhance NK cell cytotoxic activity against cancer cells, whereas ethanol extracts inhibit cytotoxicity. Water extracts stimulate the expression and production of cytolytic proteins (perforin and granulysin) and NKG2D/NCR cell surface receptors, and activate intracellular signaling kinases (ERK, JNK and p38). In contrast, ethanol extracts inhibit expression of cytolytic and cell surface receptors. Our results suggest that the mode of extraction of medicinal mushrooms may determine the nature of the immunomodulatory effects produced on immune cells, presumably owing to the differential solubility of stimulatory and inhibitory mediators. These findings have important implications for the preparation of medicinal mushrooms to prevent and treat human diseases.

  5. TLR-mediated activation of NK cells and their role in bacterial/viral immune responses in mammals.

    PubMed

    Adib-Conquy, Minou; Scott-Algara, Daniel; Cavaillon, Jean-Marc; Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes, Fernando

    2014-03-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are important in innate immunity, first described as guardians for the detection and clearance of transformed or virus-infected cells. Later, this cell type was revealed to be also able to recognize and respond to bacteria-infected cells. NK cells possess receptors allowing them to sense and respond to viral and bacterial patterns, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Initially described in other innate immune cells, particularly monocytes/macrophages, TLRs have more recently been characterized in NK cells. Controversies remain regarding the TLR expression in NK cells and their responsiveness to agonists, specifically the requirement for the presence of accessory cells, such as dendritic cells, or of accessory cytokines (IL-2, IL-12, IL-15 and IL-18) to respond to TLR agonists. Upon TLR activation, NK cells are an important source of IFN-γ and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, cytokines necessary to fight infection but that can also contribute to deleterious inflammation if produced in excessive amounts. Here, we review the current knowledge concerning the expression of TLRs in and on NK cells and the responsiveness to their agonists and review the literature on the role of NK cells in the sensing of bacterial or viral patterns and in combatting infection.

  6. Tetraspecific scFv construct provides NK cell mediated ADCC and self-sustaining stimuli via insertion of IL-15 as a cross-linker

    PubMed Central

    Schmohl, Joerg U.; Felices, Martin; Todhunter, Deborah; Taras, Elizabeth; Miller, Jeffrey S.; Vallera, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The design of a highly effective anti-cancer immune-engager would include targeting of highly drug refractory cancer stem cells (CSC). The design would promote effective antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and simultaneously promote costimulation to expand and self-sustain the effector NK cell population. Based on our bispecific NK cell engager platform we constructed a tetraspecific killer engager (TetraKE) comprising single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) binding FcγRIII (CD16) on NK cells, EpCAM on carcinoma cells and CD133 on cancer stem cells in order to promote ADCC. Furthermore, an Interleukin (IL)-15-crosslinker enhanced NK cell related proliferation resulting in a highly active drug termed 1615EpCAM133. Results Proliferation assays showed TetraKE promoted proliferation and enhanced NK cell survival. Drug-target binding, NK cell related degranulation, and IFN-γ production was specific for both tumor related antigens in EpCAM and CD133 bearing cancer cell lines. The TetraKE showed higher killing activity and superior dose dependent degranulation. Cytokine profiling showed a moderately enhanced IFN-γ production, enhanced GM-CSF production, but no evidence of induction of excessive cytokine release. Methods Assembly and synthesis of hybrid genes encoding the TetraKE were performed using DNA shuffling and ligation. The TetraKE was tested for efficacy, specificity, proliferation, survival, and cytokine production using carcinoma cell lines and functional assays measuring NK cell activity. Conclusion 1615EpCAM133 combines improved induction of ADCC with enhanced proliferation, limited cytokine response, and prolonged survival and proliferation of NK cells. By linking scFv-related targeting of carcinoma and CSCs with a sustaining IL-15 signal, our new construct shows great promise to target cancer and CSCs. PMID:27650544

  7. Cognate HLA absence in trans diminishes human NK cell education

    PubMed Central

    Landtwing, Vanessa; Raykova, Ana; Pezzino, Gaetana; Béziat, Vivien; Graf, Claudine; Moretta, Alessandro; Capaul, Riccarda; Zbinden, Andrea; Malmberg, Karl-Johan; Chijioke, Obinna; Münz, Christian

    2016-01-01

    NK cells are innate lymphocytes with protective functions against viral infections and tumor formation. Human NK cells carry inhibitory killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIRs), which recognize distinct HLAs. NK cells with KIRs for self-HLA molecules acquire superior cytotoxicity against HLA– tumor cells during education for improved missing-self recognition. Here, we reconstituted mice with human hematopoietic cells from donors with homozygous KIR ligands or with a mix of hematopoietic cells from these homozygous donors, allowing assessment of the resulting KIR repertoire and NK cell education. We found that co-reconstitution with 2 KIR ligand–mismatched compartments did not alter the frequency of KIR-expressing NK cells. However, NK cell education was diminished in mice reconstituted with parallel HLA compartments due to a lack of cognate HLA molecules on leukocytes for the corresponding KIRs. This change in NK cell education in mixed human donor–reconstituted mice improved NK cell–mediated immune control of EBV infection, indicating that mixed hematopoietic cell populations could be exploited to improve NK cell reactivity against leukotropic pathogens. Taken together, these findings indicate that leukocytes lacking cognate HLA ligands can disarm KIR+ NK cells in a manner that may decrease HLA– tumor cell recognition but allows for improved NK cell–mediated immune control of a human γ-herpesvirus. PMID:27571408

  8. In vitro VLA-4 blockade results in an impaired NK cell-mediated immune surveillance against melanoma.

    PubMed

    Gandoglia, Ilaria; Ivaldi, Federico; Carrega, Paolo; Armentani, Eric; Ferlazzo, Guido; Mancardi, Gianluigi; Kerlero de Rosbo, Nicole; Uccelli, Antonio; Laroni, Alice

    2017-01-01

    Natalizumab (NTZ) is a monoclonal antibody targeting the α4β1 integrin (CD49d/CD29), very late antigen-4 (VLA-4), which is approved for treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS). A possible association between NTZ treatment and a higher risk of melanoma is under debate. Natural Killer (NK) cells, which express VLA-4, represent an innate barrier limiting spreading of melanoma under steady state conditions. Indeed, because of their expression of activating receptors, they are very efficient in recognizing and killing melanoma cells without the need of a previous priming. For this reason, we aimed at assessing whether NK-cell functions might be impaired by sustained exposure to NTZ. To investigate this possibility we isolated NK cells from healthy donors and tested their cytotoxic and migratory functions against primary melanoma cells derived from subcutaneous and lymph node metastases. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated expression of CD49d on both freshly isolated NK cells and activated NK cells. Moreover, VLA-4 and its receptor, vascular cell adhesion protein-1 (VCAM-1) were similarly expressed on freshly isolated NK cells. However, upon a short exposure to NTZ, expression of VLA-4 on NK cells decreased. Analysis of NK receptor expression upon exposure of NK cells from three healthy donors to NTZ indicated that DNAM-1 and NKp46 are apparently decreased, while NKG2A is increased. The degranulation of NK cells towards melanoma cells, which express both VLA-4 and VCAM-1, was not affected when NTZ was added to the co-culture or when both NK cells and melanoma cells were each pre-exposed to NTZ for over 12h. In contrast, degranulation was significantly inhibited after 48h of pre-incubation indicating that NTZ can influence NK-cell degranulation towards melanoma cells only after a prolonged exposure. Using a migration chamber assay, we observed that the migration of NK cells towards melanoma cells was dependent upon the concentration of melanoma

  9. Bystander cells enhance NK cytotoxic efficiency by reducing search time

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiao; Zhao, Renping; Schwarz, Karsten; Mangeat, Matthieu; Schwarz, Eva C.; Hamed, Mohamed; Bogeski, Ivan; Helms, Volkhard; Rieger, Heiko; Qu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells play a central role during innate immune responses by eliminating pathogen-infected or tumorigenic cells. In the microenvironment, NK cells encounter not only target cells but also other cell types including non-target bystander cells. The impact of bystander cells on NK killing efficiency is, however, still elusive. In this study we show that the presence of bystander cells, such as P815, monocytes or HUVEC, enhances NK killing efficiency. With bystander cells present, the velocity and persistence of NK cells were increased, whereas the degranulation of lytic granules remained unchanged. Bystander cell-derived H2O2 was found to mediate the acceleration of NK cell migration. Using mathematical diffusion models, we confirm that local acceleration of NK cells in the vicinity of bystander cells reduces their search time to locate target cells. In addition, we found that integrin β chains (β1, β2 and β7) on NK cells are required for bystander-enhanced NK migration persistence. In conclusion, we show that acceleration of NK cell migration in the vicinity of H2O2-producing bystander cells reduces target cell search time and enhances NK killing efficiency. PMID:28287155

  10. Bystander cells enhance NK cytotoxic efficiency by reducing search time.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao; Zhao, Renping; Schwarz, Karsten; Mangeat, Matthieu; Schwarz, Eva C; Hamed, Mohamed; Bogeski, Ivan; Helms, Volkhard; Rieger, Heiko; Qu, Bin

    2017-03-13

    Natural killer (NK) cells play a central role during innate immune responses by eliminating pathogen-infected or tumorigenic cells. In the microenvironment, NK cells encounter not only target cells but also other cell types including non-target bystander cells. The impact of bystander cells on NK killing efficiency is, however, still elusive. In this study we show that the presence of bystander cells, such as P815, monocytes or HUVEC, enhances NK killing efficiency. With bystander cells present, the velocity and persistence of NK cells were increased, whereas the degranulation of lytic granules remained unchanged. Bystander cell-derived H2O2 was found to mediate the acceleration of NK cell migration. Using mathematical diffusion models, we confirm that local acceleration of NK cells in the vicinity of bystander cells reduces their search time to locate target cells. In addition, we found that integrin β chains (β1, β2 and β7) on NK cells are required for bystander-enhanced NK migration persistence. In conclusion, we show that acceleration of NK cell migration in the vicinity of H2O2-producing bystander cells reduces target cell search time and enhances NK killing efficiency.

  11. Bisphosphonate-induced differential modulation of immune cell function in gingiva and bone marrow in vivo: role in osteoclast-mediated NK cell activation.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Han-Ching; Kanayama, Keiichi; Kaur, Kawaljit; Park, So-Hyun; Park, Sil; Kozlowska, Anna; Sun, Shuting; McKenna, Charles E; Nishimura, Ichiro; Jewett, Anahid

    2015-08-21

    The aim of this study is to establish osteoclasts as key immune effectors capable of activating the function of Natural Killer (NK) cells, and expanding their numbers, and to determine in vivo and in vitro effect of bisphosphonates (BPs) during NK cell interaction with osteoclasts and on systemic and local immune function. The profiles of 27 cytokines, chemokines and growth factors released from osteoclasts were found to be different from dendritic cells and M1 macrophages but resembling to untreated monocytes and M2 macrophages. Nitrogen-containing BPs Zoledronate (ZOL) and Alendronate (ALN), but not non-nitrogen-containing BPs Etidronate (ETI), triggered increased release of pro-inflammatory mediators from osteoclasts while all three BPs decreased pit formation by osteoclasts. ZOL and ALN mediated significant release of IL-6, TNF-` and IL-1β, whereas they inhibited IL-10 secretion by osteoclasts. Treatment of osteoclasts with ZOL inhibited NK cell mediated cytotoxicity whereas it induced significant secretion of cytokines and chemokines. NK cells lysed osteoclasts much more than their precursor cells monocytes, and this correlated with the decreased expression of MHC class I expression on osteoclasts. Intravenous injection of ZOL in mice induced pro-inflammatory microenvironment in bone marrow and demonstrated significant immune activation. By contrast, tooth extraction wound of gingival tissues exhibited profound immune suppressive microenvironment associated with dysregulated wound healing to the effect of ZOL which could potentially be responsible for the pathogenesis of Osteonecrosis of the Jaw (ONJ). Finally, based on the data obtained in this paper we demonstrate that osteoclasts can be used as targets for the expansion of NK cells with superior function for immunotherapy of cancer.

  12. RAET1E2, a soluble isoform of the UL16-binding protein RAET1E produced by tumor cells, inhibits NKG2D-mediated NK cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wei; Xi, Xueyan; Hao, Zhiyong; Li, Wenjing; Kong, Yan; Cui, Lianxian; Ma, Chi; Ba, Denian; He, Wei

    2007-06-29

    UL16-binding proteins (ULBPs, also termed as retinoic acid early transcripts, encoded by RAET1 genes), a family of ligands for NKG2D in humans, are frequently expressed by tumor cells and mediate cytotoxicities of natural killer (NK) cells and CD8(+) alphabeta T cells to tumor cells. ULBP1, ULBP2, ULBP3, and RAET1L link to membrane through glycosylphosphatidylinositol, whereas RAET1E and RAET1G contain transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. Proteolytic cleavage of ULBP2 produces truncated and soluble forms that may counteract NKG2D-mediated tumor immune surveillance. In this study, we report that RAET1E can produce a soluble, 35-kDa protein (termed as RAET1E2) lacking the transmembrane region by selective splicing in tumor cells. The expressions of both RAET1E2 transcripts and protein can be found in different tumor cells and tissues. Preincubation of NK-92 cells, a human NK cell line, with culture supernatants from tumor cell lines expressing RAET1E2 or RAET1E2 gene-transfected COS-7 cells resulted in decreased expression of NKG2D on NK-92 cells. Furthermore, incubation of NK-92 cells with recombinant RAET1E2 protein also decreased the surface expression of NKG2D and resulted in marked reduction in cytotoxicities to MGC-803, HepG2, or K562 tumor cells. Taken together, our data provide strong evidence for an immune escape mechanism of tumors via alternative splicing of ULBP RNA to generate a free soluble ULBP protein, RAET1E2, that may impair NKG2D-mediated NK cell cytotoxicity to tumors.

  13. NK cell cytotoxicity mediated by 2B4 and NTB-A is dependent on SAP acting downstream of receptor phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Meinke, Stephan; Watzl, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    2B4 (CD244) and NK-T-B-antigen (NTB-A, CD352) are activating receptors on human natural killer (NK) cells and belong to the family of signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM)-related receptors (SRR). Engagement of these receptors leads to phosphorylation of their cytoplasmic tails and recruitment of the adapter proteins SLAM-associated protein (SAP) and Ewing's sarcoma-activated transcript-2 (EAT-2). X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP) is a severe immunodeficiency that results from mutations in the SAP gene. 2B4 and NTB-A-mediated cytotoxicity are abrogated in XLP NK cells. To elucidate the molecular basis for this defect we analyzed early signaling events in SAP knockdown cells. Similar to XLP NK cells, knockdown of SAP in primary human NK cells leads to a reduction of 2B4 and NTB-A-mediated cytotoxicity. We found that early signaling events such as raft recruitment and receptor phosphorylation are not affected by the absence of SAP, indicating the defect in the absence of SAP is downstream of these events. In addition, knockdown of EAT-2 does not impair 2B4 or NTB-A-mediated cytotoxicity. Surprisingly, EAT-2 recruitment to both receptors is abrogated in the absence of SAP, revealing a novel cooperativity between these adapters.

  14. Equipping NK Cells with CARs.

    PubMed

    2017-09-06

    Adding a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) to natural killer (NK) cells is garnering interest as a therapeutic strategy because this immune cell type doesn't cause graft-versus-host disease, making its widespread, off-the-shelf use feasible. Based on promising preclinical data, a phase I/II trial of one such CAR NK-cell therapy is under way, targeting CD19 in hematologic malignancies. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Complement regulates conventional DC-mediated NK-cell activation by inducing TGF-β1 in Gr-1+ myeloid cells.

    PubMed

    Qing, Xiaoping; Koo, Gloria C; Salmon, Jane E

    2012-07-01

    Complement activation modulates DC-mediated T-cell activation, but whether complement affects DC-mediated priming of NK cells is unknown. Here, we demonstrated that conventional DCs (cDCs) from C3(-/-) and C5aR(-/-) mice are hyperresponsive to polyI:C, a TLR3 ligand, leading to enhanced NK-cell activation. We found that cDCs lack C5a receptor (C5aR) and do not respond to C5a directly. Depletion of Gr-1(+) myeloid cells augments polyI:C-induced cDC activation in WT but not in C3(-/-) or C5aR(-/-) mice, indicating that the effect of complement activation on cDCs is indirectly mediated through C5aR-expressing Gr-1(+) myeloid cells. We further demonstrated that the mechanism by which Gr-1(+) myeloid cells regulate the activity of cDCs involves C5a-dependent TGF-β1 production in Gr-1(+) myeloid cells. C5a enhances and blocking C5aR decreases TGF-β1 production in cultured bone marrow Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) cells. C5aR deficiency is associated with reduced circulating TGF-β1 levels, while depleting Gr-1(+) myeloid cells abrogates this difference between WT and C5aR(-/-) mice. Lastly, we showed that enhanced cDC-NK-cell activity in C3(-/-) mice led to delayed melanoma tumor growth. Thus, complement activation indirectly regulates cDC-NK-cell activation in response to inflammatory stimuli such as TLR3 by promoting TGF-β1 production in Gr-1(+) myeloid cells at steady state.

  16. Single-colour flow cytometric assay to determine NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity and viability against non-adherent human tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Ajit; Zaman, Abeyat; Hummel, Jeff; Jones, Kim; Hortelano, Gonzalo

    2012-03-01

    A flow cytometry-based cytotoxicity (FCC) assay was developed using a single fluorophore, calcein-acetoxymethyl diacetylester (calcein-AM), to measure NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Non-adherent human K562 and U937 target cells were individually labelled with calcein-AM and co-incubated with effector NK cells to measure calcein loss, and therefore calculate target cell cytotoxicity. This FCC assay also provided a measure of sample viability. Notably, cell viability measured by traditional calcein/7-amino-actinomycin D (7-AAD) double labelling and Trypan Blue methods were comparable to the viability calculated using calcein-loss FCC. This FCC assay may also be used with various effector and target cell types and as a multi-parameter tool to measure viability and immunophenotype cells for tissue engineering purposes.

  17. PILRα binds an unknown receptor expressed primarily on CD56bright and decidual-NK cells and activates NK cell functions.

    PubMed

    Ophir, Yael; Duev-Cohen, Alexandra; Yamin, Rachel; Tsukerman, Pini; Bauman, Yoav; Gamliel, Moriya; Mandelboim, Ofer

    2016-07-05

    Natural Killer (NK) cells are innate immune lymphocytes specializing in recognition and killing of tumors and pathogens, using an array of activating and inhibitory receptors. NK inhibition is mediated by a large repertoire of inhibitory receptors, whereas a limited number of activating NK cell receptors execute NK cell activation. The ligands recognized by the activating receptors are stress-induced, pathogen derived, tumor specific and even self ligands. However, the full spectrum of NK cell receptors and ligands that control NK cell activity remains uncharacterized. Here we demonstrate that Paired Ig-Like type 2 Receptor Alpha (PILRα), binds a distinct human NK cell sub-population present in the peripheral blood and also in the decidua. We further demonstrate that the interaction of NK cells with PILRα expressing targets lead to elevated IFNγ secretion and cytotoxicity. In conclusion, we present here a novel NK activating ligand which binds and activates an unknown NK receptor expressed on a unique NK cell subset.

  18. IL-21-mediated reversal of NK cell exhaustion facilitates anti-tumour immunity in MHC class I-deficient tumours

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hyungseok; Jeon, Insu; Kim, Byung-Seok; Park, Myunghwan; Bae, Eun-Ah; Song, Boyeong; Koh, Choong-Hyun; Shin, Kwang-Soo; Kim, Il-Kyu; Choi, Kiyoung; Oh, Taegwon; Min, Jiyoun; Min, Byung Soh; Han, Yoon Dae; Kang, Suk-Jo; Shin, Sang Joon; Chung, Yeonseok; Kang, Chang-Yuil

    2017-01-01

    During cancer immunoediting, loss of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) in neoplasm contributes to the evasion of tumours from host immune system. Recent studies have demonstrated that most natural killer (NK) cells that are found in advanced cancers are defective, releasing the malignant MHC-I-deficient tumours from NK-cell-dependent immune control. Here, we show that a natural killer T (NKT)-cell-ligand-loaded tumour-antigen expressing antigen-presenting cell (APC)-based vaccine effectively eradicates these advanced tumours. During this process, we find that the co-expression of Tim-3 and PD-1 marks functionally exhausted NK cells in advanced tumours and that MHC-I downregulation in tumours is closely associated with the induction of NK-cell exhaustion in both tumour-bearing mice and cancer patients. Furthermore, the recovery of NK-cell function by IL-21 is critical for the anti-tumour effects of the vaccine against advanced tumours. These results reveal the process involved in the induction of NK-cell dysfunction in advanced cancers and provide a guidance for the development of strategies for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:28585539

  19. The natural product phyllanthusmin C enhances IFN-γ production by human NK cells through upregulation of TLR-mediated NF-κB signaling.

    PubMed

    Deng, Youcai; Chu, Jianhong; Ren, Yulin; Fan, Zhijin; Ji, Xiaotian; Mundy-Bosse, Bethany; Yuan, Shunzong; Hughes, Tiffany; Zhang, Jianying; Cheema, Baljash; Camardo, Andrew T; Xia, Yong; Wu, Lai-Chu; Wang, Li-Shu; He, Xiaoming; Kinghorn, A Douglas; Li, Xiaohui; Caligiuri, Michael A; Yu, Jianhua

    2014-09-15

    Natural products are a major source for cancer drug development. NK cells are a critical component of innate immunity with the capacity to destroy cancer cells, cancer-initiating cells, and clear viral infections. However, few reports describe a natural product that stimulates NK cell IFN-γ production and unravel a mechanism of action. In this study, through screening, we found that a natural product, phyllanthusmin C (PL-C), alone enhanced IFN-γ production by human NK cells. PL-C also synergized with IL-12, even at the low cytokine concentration of 0.1 ng/ml, and stimulated IFN-γ production in both human CD56(bright) and CD56(dim) NK cell subsets. Mechanistically, TLR1 and/or TLR6 mediated PL-C's activation of the NF-κB p65 subunit that in turn bound to the proximal promoter of IFNG and subsequently resulted in increased IFN-γ production in NK cells. However, IL-12 and IL-15Rs and their related STAT signaling pathways were not responsible for the enhanced IFN-γ secretion by PL-C. PL-C induced little or no T cell IFN-γ production or NK cell cytotoxicity. Collectively, we identify a natural product with the capacity to selectively enhance human NK cell IFN-γ production. Given the role of IFN-γ in immune surveillance, additional studies to understand the role of this natural product in prevention of cancer or infection in select populations are warranted.

  20. Effect of Fibroblast-Like Cells of Mesenchymal Origin of Cytotoxic Activity of Lymphocytes against NK-Sensitive Target Cells.

    PubMed

    Lupatov, A Yu; Kim, Ya S; Bystrykh, O A; Vakhrushev, I V; Pavlovich, S V; Yarygin, K N; Sukhikh, G T

    2017-02-01

    We studied immunosuppressive properties of skin fibroblasts and mesenchymal stromal cells against NK cells. In vitro experiments showed that mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from human umbilical cord and human skin fibroblasts can considerably attenuate cytotoxic activity of NK cells against Jurkat cells sensitive to NK-mediated lysis. NK cells cultured in lymphocyte population exhibited higher cytotoxic activity than isolated NK cells. Mesenchymal stromal cells or fibroblasts added 1:1 to lymphocyte culture almost completely suppressed NK cell cytotoxicity. This suggests that fibroblast-like cells can suppress not only isolated NK cells, but also NK cells in natural cell microenvironment.

  1. IL-27 stimulates human NK-cell effector functions and primes NK cells for IL-18 responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Ziblat, Andrea; Domaica, Carolina I; Spallanzani, Raúl G; Iraolagoitia, Ximena L Raffo; Rossi, Lucas E; Avila, Damián E; Torres, Nicolás I; Fuertes, Mercedes B; Zwirner, Norberto W

    2015-01-01

    IL-27, a member of the IL-12 family of cytokines, is produced by APCs, and displays pro- and anti-inflammatory effects. How IL-27 affects human NK cells still remains unknown. In this study, we observed that mature DCs secreted IL-27 and that blockade of IL-27R (CD130) reduced the amount of IFN-γ produced by NK cells during their coculture, showing the importance of IL-27 during DC-NK-cell crosstalk. Accordingly, human rIL-27 stimulated IFN-γ secretion by NK cells in a STAT1-dependent manner, induced upregulation of CD25 and CD69 on NK cells, and displayed a synergistic effect with IL-18. Preincubation experiments demonstrated that IL-27 primed NK cells for IL-18-induced IFN-γ secretion, which was associated with an IL-27-driven upregulation of T-bet expression. Also, IL-27 triggered NKp46-dependent NK-cell-mediated cytotoxicity against Raji, T-47D, and HCT116 cells, and IL-18 enhanced this cytotoxic response. Such NK-cell-mediated cytotoxicity involved upregulation of perforin, granule exocytosis, and TRAIL-mediated cytotoxicity but not Fas-FasL interaction. Moreover, IL-27 also potentiated Ab-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity against mAb-coated target cells. Taken together, IL-27 stimulates NK-cell effector functions, which might be relevant in different physiological and pathological situations.

  2. Involvement of NK cells against tumors and parasites.

    PubMed

    Papazahariadou, M; Athanasiadis, G I; Papadopoulos, E; Symeonidou, I; Hatzistilianou, M; Castellani, M L; Bhattacharya, K; Shanmugham, L N; Conti, P; Frydas, S

    2007-01-01

    Host resistance against pathogens depends on a complex interplay of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms. Acting as an early line of defence, the immune system includes activation of neutrophils, tissue macrophages, monocytes, dendritic cells, eosinophils and natural killer (NK) cells. NK cells are lymphoid cells that can be activated without previous stimulation and are therefore like macrophages in the first line of defence against tumor cells and a diverse range of pathogens. NK cells mediate significant activity and produce high levels of proinflammatory cytokines in response to infection. Their cytotoxicity production is induced principally by monocyte-, macrophage- and dendritic cell-derived cytokines, but their activation is also believed to be cytokine-mediated. Recognition of infection by NK cells is accomplished by numerous activating and inhibitory receptors on the NK cells' surface that selectively trigger the cytolytic activity in a major histocompability complex-independent manner. NK cells have trypanocidal activity of fibroblast cells and mediate direct destruction of extracellular epimastigote and trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi and T. lewisi in vitro; moreover, they kill plasmodia-infected erythrocytes directly through cell-cell interaction. This review provides a more detailed analysis of how NK cells recognize and respond to parasites and how they mediate cytotoxicity against tumor cells. Also the unique role of NK cells in innate immunity to infection and the relationship between parasites and carcinogenesis are discussed.

  3. The CC chemokine CK beta-11/MIP-3 beta/ELC/Exodus 3 mediates tumor rejection of murine breast cancer cells through NK cells.

    PubMed

    Braun, S E; Chen, K; Foster, R G; Kim, C H; Hromas, R; Kaplan, M H; Broxmeyer, H E; Cornetta, K

    2000-04-15

    CK beta-11 chemoattracts T cells, B cells, dendritic cells, macrophage progenitors, and NK cells and facilitates dendritic cell and T cell interactions in secondary lymphoid tissues. We hypothesized that expression of CK beta-11 in tumor cells may generate antitumor immunity through these interactions. After transduction with the retroviral vector L(CK beta 11)SN, the murine breast cancer cell line C3L5 (C3L5-CK beta 11) showed expression of retroviral mRNA by Northern analysis and production of functional CK beta-11 by chemotaxis of human NK cells to C3L5-CK beta 11 supernatant. Only 10% of mice injected with C3L5-CK beta 11 developed tumors, compared with 100% of mice injected with a transduced control C3L5 line (C3L5-G1N). Importantly, the in vitro growth characteristics of the CK beta-11-transduced cell line were unaffected, suggesting the difference in growth in vivo was a result of chemokine production. Vaccination with C3L5-CK beta 11 partially protected animals from parental C3L5 challenge. Immunodepletion with anti-asialo-GM1 or anti-CD4 during C3L5-CK beta 11 vaccination significantly reduced CK beta-11 antitumor activity compared with control and anti-CD8-treated groups. Splenocytes from NK-depleted animals transferred the acquired immunity generated with C3L5-CK beta 11 vaccination, while splenocytes from the CD4-depleted animals did not. These results indicate, for the first time, that expression of CK beta-11 in a breast cancer cell line mediates rejection of the transduced tumor through a mechanism involving NK and CD4+ cells. Furthermore, CK beta-11-transduced tumor cells generate long-term antitumor immunity that requires CD4+ cells. These studies demonstrate the potential role of CK beta-11 as an adjuvant in stimulating antitumor responses.

  4. Augmented IFN-γ and TNF-α Induced by Probiotic Bacteria in NK Cells Mediate Differentiation of Stem-Like Tumors Leading to Inhibition of Tumor Growth and Reduction in Inflammatory Cytokine Release; Regulation by IL-10

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Vickie T.; Tseng, Han-Ching; Kozlowska, Anna; Maung, Phyu Ou; Kaur, Kawaljit; Topchyan, Paytsar; Jewett, Anahid

    2015-01-01

    Our previous reports demonstrated that the magnitude of natural killer (NK) cell-mediated cytotoxicity correlate directly with the stage and level of differentiation of tumor cells. In addition, we have shown previously that activated NK cells inhibit growth of cancer cells through induction of differentiation, resulting in the resistance of tumor cells to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity through secreted cytokines, as well as direct NK-tumor cell contact. In this report, we show that in comparison to IL-2 + anti-CD16mAb-treated NK cells, activation of NK cells by probiotic bacteria (sAJ2) in combination with IL-2 and anti-CD16mAb substantially decreases tumor growth and induces maturation, differentiation, and resistance of oral squamous cancer stem cells, MIA PaCa-2 stem-like/poorly differentiated pancreatic tumors, and healthy stem cells of apical papillae through increased secretion of IFN-γ and TNF-α, as well as direct NK-tumor cell contact. Tumor resistance to NK cell-mediated killing induced by IL-2 + anti-CD16mAb + sAJ2-treated NK cells is induced by combination of IFN-γ and TNF-α since antibodies to both, and not each cytokine alone, were able to restore tumor sensitivity to NK cells. Increased surface expression of CD54, B7H1, and MHC-I on NK-differentiated tumors was mediated by IFN-γ since the addition of anti-IFN-γ abolished their increase and restored the ability of NK cells to trigger cytokine and chemokine release; whereas differentiated tumors inhibited cytokine release by the NK cells. Monocytes synergize with NK cells in the presence of probiotic bacteria to induce regulated differentiation of stem cells through secretion of IL-10 resulting in resistance to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity and inhibition of cytokine release. Therefore, probiotic bacteria condition activated NK cells to provide augmented differentiation of cancer stem cells resulting in inhibition of tumor growth, and decreased inflammatory cytokine release. PMID

  5. Ablation of interaction between IL-33 and ST2+ regulatory T cells increases immune cell-mediated hepatitis and activated NK cell liver infiltration.

    PubMed

    Noel, Gregory; Arshad, Muhammad Imran; Filliol, Aveline; Genet, Valentine; Rauch, Michel; Lucas-Clerc, Catherine; Lehuen, Agnès; Girard, Jean-Philippe; Piquet-Pellorce, Claire; Samson, Michel

    2016-08-01

    The IL-33/ST2 axis plays a protective role in T-cell-mediated hepatitis, but little is known about the functional impact of endogenous IL-33 on liver immunopathology. We used IL-33-deficient mice to investigate the functional effect of endogenous IL-33 in concanavalin A (Con A)-hepatitis. IL-33(-/-) mice displayed more severe Con A liver injury than wild-type (WT) mice, consistent with a hepatoprotective effect of IL-33. The more severe hepatic injury in IL-33(-/-) mice was associated with significantly higher levels of TNF-α and IL-1β and a larger number of NK cells infiltrating the liver. The expression of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-10) and IL-17 was not significantly varied between WT and IL-33(-/-) mice following Con A-hepatitis. The percentage of CD25(+) NK cells was significantly higher in the livers of IL-33(-/-) mice than in WT mice in association with upregulated expression of CXCR3 in the liver. Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) strongly infiltrated the liver in both WT and IL-33(-/-) mice, but Con A treatment increased their membrane expression of ST2 and CD25 only in WT mice. In vitro, IL-33 had a significant survival effect, increasing the total number of splenocytes, including B cells, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, and the frequency of ST2(+) Treg cells. In conclusion, IL-33 acts as a potent immune modulator protecting the liver through activation of ST2(+) Treg cells and control of NK cells. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Accessory Cell Mediated Activation of Porcine NK Cells by TLR7 and TLR8 Agonists

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The induction of innate immune responses by toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists is the subject of intense investigation in many different species. In large part, this reflects the potential of such compounds to be effective vaccine adjuvants. For that reason, we analyzed the activation of innate cells...

  7. Overexpression of CD85j in TNBC patients inhibits Cetuximab-mediated NK-cell ADCC but can be restored with CD85j functional blockade.

    PubMed

    Roberti, María P; Juliá, Estefanía P; Rocca, Yamila S; Amat, Mora; Bravo, Alicia I; Loza, José; Coló, Federico; Loza, Carlos M; Fabiano, Verónica; Maino, Mercedes; Podhorzer, Ariel; Fainboim, Leonardo; Barrio, María M; Mordoh, José; Levy, Estrella M

    2015-05-01

    Clinical studies suggest that triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-expressing tumors could benefit from therapy with Cetuximab, which targets EGFR. NK cells are the primary effectors of antibody (Ab)-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and thus play a role in Ab-based therapies. We have previously described diminished levels of Cetuximab-mediated ADCC in vitro in patients with advanced breast cancer. Here, we investigated the potential causes of this NK-cell functional deficiency. We characterized NK-cell activating/inhibitory receptors in the peripheral blood of breast cancer patients and found CD85j inhibitory receptor overexpression. The capacity of NK cells to perform Cetuximab-triggered ADCC against TNBC cells correlated inversely with CD85j expression, even in the presence of the stimulatory cytokines IL-2 or IL-15. Hence, patients expressing high levels of CD85j had an impaired ability to lyse TNBC cells in the presence of Cetuximab. We also found that CD85j overexpression was associated with HLA-I and soluble HLA-G expression by tumors. A CD85j functional blockade with a CD85j antagonist Ab restored ADCC levels in breast cancer patients and reverted this negative effect. Our data suggest that strategies that overcome the hurdles of immune activation could improve Cetuximab clinical efficacy.

  8. NK cells require antigen-specific memory CD4+ T cells to mediate superior effector functions during HSV-2 recall responses in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chen, Branson; Lee, Amanda J; Chew, Marianne V; Ashkar, Ali A

    2016-12-14

    Natural killer (NK) cells have an important role in mounting protective innate responses against genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections. However their role as effectors in adaptive immune responses against HSV-2 is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that NK cells from C57BL/6 mice in an ex vivo splenocyte culture produce significantly more interferon γ (IFN-γ) upon re-exposure to HSV-2 antigens in a mouse model of genital HSV-2 immunization. We find that naïve NK cells do not require any prior stimulation or priming to be activated to produce IFN-γ. Our results demonstrate that HSV-2-experienced CD4(+) T cells have a crucial role in coordinating NK cell activation and that their presence during HSV-2 antigen presentation is required to activate NK cells in this model of secondary immune response. We also examined the requirement of cell-to-cell contacts for both CD4(+) T cells and NK cells. NK cells are dependent on direct interactions with other HSV-2-experienced splenocytes, and CD4(+) T cells need to be in close proximity to NK cells to activate them. This study revealed that NK cells do not exhibit any memory toward HSV-2 antigens and, in fact, require specific interactions with HSV-2-experienced CD4(+) T cells to produce IFN-γ.

  9. IL-2-mediated augmentation of NK-cell activity and activation antigen expression on NK- and T-cell subsets in patients with metastatic melanoma treated with interferon-alpha and DTIC.

    PubMed

    Konjević, Gordana; Jović, Viktor; Jurisić, Vladimir; Radulović, Sinisa; Jelić, Svetislav; Spuzić, Ivan

    2003-01-01

    Considering that well-defined and comprehensive immunological monitoring is the basis for the evaluation of the obtained immunmodulatory effects, we evaluated NK-cell activity, the number of CD3+ CD4+, CD3+ CD8+ T cells and CD16+ CD56+ NK cells, as well as the expression of activation antigens, CD69, CD38 and HLA-DR on CD56+ NK cells, CD8+ and CD3+ T cells, simultaneously with IL-2 and TNF-alpha production, during chemoimmunotherapy with dacarbazine (DTIC) and interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) in 39 patients with metastatic melanoma. In the first cycle of therapy, there was a significant rise in NK-cell activity, CD4+ T helper cell number, CD4/CD8 T-cell ratio, and the expression of activation antigens CD69 and CD38, on NK and T cells, respectively. However, in the following cycles there was a significant increase only in activation antigens without an increase in the percent or activity of NK cells. The early, but transient, immunopotentiation, present only in the first cycle of combined DTIC and IFN-alpha therapy, suggests that, in spite of increased IL-2 level, associated with augmented NK-cell activity, this therapy has a limited effect probably owing to the adverse effect of persistently high level of TNF-alpha in metastatic disease.

  10. Differentiation and functional regulation of human fetal NK cells.

    PubMed

    Ivarsson, Martin A; Loh, Liyen; Marquardt, Nicole; Kekäläinen, Eliisa; Berglin, Lena; Björkström, Niklas K; Westgren, Magnus; Nixon, Douglas F; Michaëlsson, Jakob

    2013-09-01

    The human fetal immune system is naturally exposed to maternal allogeneic cells, maternal antibodies, and pathogens. As such, it is faced with a considerable challenge with respect to the balance between immune reactivity and tolerance. Here, we show that fetal natural killer (NK) cells differentiate early in utero and are highly responsive to cytokines and antibody-mediated stimulation but respond poorly to HLA class I-negative target cells. Strikingly, expression of killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) did not educate fetal NK cells but rendered them hyporesponsive to target cells lacking HLA class I. In addition, fetal NK cells were highly susceptible to TGF-β-mediated suppression, and blocking of TGF-β signaling enhanced fetal NK cell responses to target cells. Our data demonstrate that KIR-mediated hyporesponsiveness and TGF-β-mediated suppression are major factors determining human fetal NK cell hyporesponsiveness to HLA class I-negative target cells and provide a potential mechanism for fetal-maternal tolerance in utero. Finally, our results provide a basis for understanding the role of fetal NK cells in pregnancy complications in which NK cells could be involved, for example, during in utero infections and anti-RhD-induced fetal anemia.

  11. Differentiation and functional regulation of human fetal NK cells

    PubMed Central

    Ivarsson, Martin A.; Loh, Liyen; Marquardt, Nicole; Kekäläinen, Eliisa; Berglin, Lena; Björkström, Niklas K.; Westgren, Magnus; Nixon, Douglas F.; Michaëlsson, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    The human fetal immune system is naturally exposed to maternal allogeneic cells, maternal antibodies, and pathogens. As such, it is faced with a considerable challenge with respect to the balance between immune reactivity and tolerance. Here, we show that fetal natural killer (NK) cells differentiate early in utero and are highly responsive to cytokines and antibody-mediated stimulation but respond poorly to HLA class I–negative target cells. Strikingly, expression of killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) did not educate fetal NK cells but rendered them hyporesponsive to target cells lacking HLA class I. In addition, fetal NK cells were highly susceptible to TGF-β–mediated suppression, and blocking of TGF-β signaling enhanced fetal NK cell responses to target cells. Our data demonstrate that KIR-mediated hyporesponsiveness and TGF-β–mediated suppression are major factors determining human fetal NK cell hyporesponsiveness to HLA class I–negative target cells and provide a potential mechanism for fetal-maternal tolerance in utero. Finally, our results provide a basis for understanding the role of fetal NK cells in pregnancy complications in which NK cells could be involved, for example, during in utero infections and anti-RhD–induced fetal anemia. PMID:23945237

  12. Redefining Memory: Building the Case for Adaptive NK Cells.

    PubMed

    Paust, Silke; Blish, Catherine A; Reeves, R Keith

    2017-10-15

    Classically, natural killer (NK) cells have been defined by nonspecific innate killing of virus-infected and tumor cells. However, burgeoning evidence suggests that the functional repertoire of NK cells is far more diverse than has been previously appreciated, thus raising the possibility that there may be unexpected functional specialization and even adaptive capabilities among NK cell subpopulations. Some of the first evidence that NK cells respond in an antigen-specific fashion came from experiments revealing that subpopulations of murine NK cells were able to respond to a specific murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) protein and that in the absence of T and B cells, murine NK cells also mediated adaptive immune responses to a secondary challenge with specific haptens. These data have been followed by demonstrations of NK cell memory of viruses and viral antigens in mice and primates. Herein, we discuss different forms of NK cell antigen specificity and how these responses may be tuned to specific viral pathogens, and we provide assessment of the current literature that may explain molecular mechanisms of the novel phenomenon of NK cell memory. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Valproic Acid Upregulates NKG2D Ligand Expression through an ERK-dependent Mechanism and Potentially Enhances NK Cell-mediated Lysis of Myeloma1

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaosong; Tao, Yi; Hou, Jun; Meng, Xiuqin; Shi, Jumei

    2012-01-01

    Modulation of the antitumor immune response through the engagement of NKG2D receptors with their ligands (L) on targets represents a promising therapeutic approach against cancer. In this study, we tested the effect of valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, on the expression of NKG2D ligands in myeloma cells. We demonstrated that VPA was able to upregulate both protein and mRNA expression of major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain (MIC) A/B and UL16-binding protein (ULBP) 2 without any significant effect on the expression of ULBP1, ULBP3, and ULBP4 or induction of other natural killer (NK) cell ligands, such as NKp30-L, NKp44-L, and NKp46-L in myeloma cells. A 51Cr release assay and degranulation assay indicated that the induction of MICA/B and ULBP2 augmented NK cell-mediated lysis of myeloma cells, which was abolished by the addition of a blocking NKG2D antibody. Activation of constitutively phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) by VPA is essential for the up-regulation of MICA/B and ULBP2 expressions. Inhibition of ERK using ERK inhibitor PD98059 decreased both MICA/B and ULBP2 expressions and NK cell cytotoxicity. Furthermore, overexpression of constitutively active ERK in ARK resulted in increased MICA/B and ULBP2 expressions and enhanced NK cell lysis. These data indicate that increased sensitivity of VPA-treated myeloma cells to NK cell lysis is caused by higher NKG2D ligand expression, resulting from more active ERK signaling pathway. Our results provide evidence that targeting ERK signaling pathway may be an additional mechanism supporting the antimyeloma activity of HDAC inhibitors and suggest its possible immunotherapeutic value for myeloma treatment. PMID:23308050

  14. CD56brightCD16- NK Cells Produce Adenosine through a CD38-Mediated Pathway and Act as Regulatory Cells Inhibiting Autologous CD4+ T Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Fabio; Horenstein, Alberto L; Chillemi, Antonella; Quarona, Valeria; Chiesa, Sabrina; Imperatori, Andrea; Zanellato, Silvia; Mortara, Lorenzo; Gattorno, Marco; Pistoia, Vito; Malavasi, Fabio

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies suggested that human CD56(bright)CD16(-) NK cells may play a role in the regulation of the immune response. Since the mechanism(s) involved have not yet been elucidated, in the present study we have investigated the role of nucleotide-metabolizing enzymes that regulate the extracellular balance of nucleotides/nucleosides and produce the immunosuppressive molecule adenosine (ADO). Peripheral blood CD56(dim)CD16(+) and CD56(bright)CD16(-) NK cells expressed similar levels of CD38. CD39, CD73, and CD157 expression was higher in CD56(bright)CD16(-) than in CD56(dim)CD16(+) NK cells. CD57 was mostly expressed by CD56(dim)CD16(+) NK cells. CD203a/PC-1 expression was restricted to CD56(bright)CD16(-) NK cells. CD56(bright)CD16(-) NK cells produce ADO and inhibit autologous CD4(+) T cell proliferation. Such inhibition was 1) reverted pretreating CD56(bright)CD16(-) NK cells with a CD38 inhibitor and 2) increased pretreating CD56(bright)CD16(-) NK cells with a nucleoside transporter inhibitor, which increase extracellular ADO concentration. CD56(bright)CD16(-) NK cells isolated from the synovial fluid of juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients failed to inhibit autologous CD4(+) T cell proliferation. Such functional impairment could be related to 1) the observed reduced CD38/CD73 expression, 2) a peculiar ADO production kinetics, and 3) a different expression of ADO receptors. In contrast, CD56(bright)CD16(-) NK cells isolated from inflammatory pleural effusions display a potent regulatory activity. In conclusion, CD56(bright)CD16(-) NK cells act as "regulatory cells" through ADO produced by an ectoenzymes network, with a pivotal role of CD38. This function may be relevant for the modulation of the immune response in physiological and pathological conditions, and it could be impaired during autoimmune/inflammatory diseases.

  15. NAP-2 Secreted by Human NK Cells Can Stimulate Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cell Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Catarina R.; Caires, Hugo R.; Vasconcelos, Daniela P.; Barbosa, Mário A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Strategies for improved homing of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to a place of injury are being sought and it has been shown that natural killer (NK) cells can stimulate MSC recruitment. Here, we studied the chemokines behind this recruitment. Assays were performed with bone marrow human MSCs and NK cells freshly isolated from healthy donor buffy coats. Supernatants from MSC-NK cell co-cultures can induce MSC recruitment but not to the same extent as when NK cells are present. Antibody arrays and ELISA assays confirmed that NK cells secrete RANTES (CCL5) and revealed that human NK cells secrete NAP-2 (CXCL7), a chemokine that can induce MSC migration. Inhibition with specific antagonists of CXCR2, a receptor that recognizes NAP-2, abolished NK cell-mediated MSC recruitment. This capacity of NK cells to produce chemokines that stimulate MSC recruitment points toward a role for this immune cell population in regulating tissue repair/regeneration. PMID:27052313

  16. NAP-2 Secreted by Human NK Cells Can Stimulate Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cell Recruitment.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Catarina R; Caires, Hugo R; Vasconcelos, Daniela P; Barbosa, Mário A

    2016-04-12

    Strategies for improved homing of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to a place of injury are being sought and it has been shown that natural killer (NK) cells can stimulate MSC recruitment. Here, we studied the chemokines behind this recruitment. Assays were performed with bone marrow human MSCs and NK cells freshly isolated from healthy donor buffy coats. Supernatants from MSC-NK cell co-cultures can induce MSC recruitment but not to the same extent as when NK cells are present. Antibody arrays and ELISA assays confirmed that NK cells secrete RANTES (CCL5) and revealed that human NK cells secrete NAP-2 (CXCL7), a chemokine that can induce MSC migration. Inhibition with specific antagonists of CXCR2, a receptor that recognizes NAP-2, abolished NK cell-mediated MSC recruitment. This capacity of NK cells to produce chemokines that stimulate MSC recruitment points toward a role for this immune cell population in regulating tissue repair/regeneration.

  17. The Fc-region of a new class of intact bispecific antibody mediates activation of accessory cells and NK cells and induces direct phagocytosis of tumour cells

    PubMed Central

    Zeidler, R; Mysliwietz, J; Csánady, M; Walz, A; Ziegler, I; Schmitt, B; Wollenberg, B; Lindhofer, H

    2000-01-01

    Bispecific antibodies (bsAb) are considered as promising tools for the elimination of disseminated tumour cells in a minimal residual disease situation. The bsAb-mediated recruitment of an immune effector cell in close vicinity of a tumour cell is thought to induce an antitumoural immune response. However, classical bispecific molecules activate only a single class of immune effector cell that may not yield optimal immune responses. We therefore constructed an intact bispecific antibody, BiUII (anti-CD3 × anti-EpCAM), that not only recognizes tumour cells and T lymphocytes with its two binding arms, but also binds and activates Fcγ-receptor positive accessory cells through its Fc-region. We have demonstrated recently that activated accessory cells contribute to the bsAb-induced antitumoural activity. We now analyse this stimulation in more detail and demonstrate here the BiUll-induced upregulation of activation markers like CD83 and CD95 on accessory cells and the induction of neopterin and biopterin synthesis. Experiments with pure cell subpopulations revealed binding of BiUll to CD64+ accessory cells and CD16+ NK cells, but not to CD32+ B lymphocytes. We provide further evidence for the importance of the Fc-region in that this bispecific molecule stimulates Fcγ-R-positive accessory cells to eliminate tumour cells in vitro by direct phagocytosis. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10901380

  18. Distinct phenotype and function of NK cells in the pancreas of nonobese diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Brauner, Hanna; Elemans, Marjet; Lemos, Sara; Broberger, Christian; Holmberg, Dan; Flodström-Tullberg, Malin; Kärre, Klas; Höglund, Petter

    2010-03-01

    Little is known about target organ-infiltrating NK cells in type 1 diabetes and other autoimmune diseases. In this study, we identified NK cells with a unique phenotype in the pancreas of NOD mice. Pancreatic NK cells, localized to the endocrine and exocrine parts, were present before T cells during disease development and did not require T cells for their infiltration. Furthermore, NK cells, or NK cell precursors, from the spleen could traffic to the pancreas, where they displayed the pancreatic phenotype. Pancreatic NK cells from other mouse strains shared phenotypic characteristics with pancreatic NK cells from NOD mice, but displayed less surface killer cell lectin-like receptor G1, a marker for mature NK cells that have undergone proliferation, and also did not proliferate to the same extent. A subset of NOD mouse pancreatic NK cells produced IFN-gamma spontaneously, suggesting ongoing effector responses. However, most NOD mouse pancreatic NK cells were hyporesponsive compared with spleen NK cells, as reflected by diminished cytokine secretion and a lower capacity to degranulate. Interestingly, such hyporesponsiveness was not seen in pancreatic NK cells from the nonautoimmune strain C57BL/6, suggesting that this feature is not a general property of pancreatic NK cells. Based on our data, we propose that NK cells are sentinel cells in a normal pancreas. We further speculate that during inflammation, pancreatic NK cells initially mediate proinflammatory effector functions, potentially contributing to organ-specific autoimmunity, but later become hyporesponsive because of exhaustion or regulation.

  19. Effects of cryopreservation on effector cells for antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and natural killer (NK) cell activity in (51)Cr-release and CD107a assays.

    PubMed

    Mata, Mariana M; Mahmood, Fareeha; Sowell, Ryan T; Baum, Linda L

    2014-04-01

    Freshly isolated PBMC are broadly used as effector cells in functional assays that evaluate antibody-dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and NK activity; however, they introduce natural-individual donor-to-donor variability. Cryopreserved PBMC provide a more consistent source of effectors than fresh cells in cytotoxicity assays. Our objective was to determine the effects of cryopreservation of effector PBMC on cell frequency, and on the magnitude and specificity of ADCC and NK activity. Fresh, frozen/overnight rested and frozen/not rested PBMC were used as effector cells in (51)Cr-release and CD107a degranulation assays. Frozen/overnight rested PBMC had higher ADCC and NK activity in both assays when compared to fresh PBMC; however, when using frozen/not rested PBMC, ADCC and NK activities were significantly lower than fresh PBMC. Background CD107a degranulation in the absence of target cell stimulation was greater in PBMC that were frozen/not rested when compared to fresh PBMC or PBMC that were frozen overnight and rested. The percentages of CD16(+)CD56(dim) NK cells and CD14(+) monocytes were lower in PBMC that were frozen and rested overnight than in fresh PBMC. CD16 expression on CD56(dim) NK cells was similar for all PBMC treatments. PBMC that were frozen and rested overnight were comparable to fresh PBMC effectors. PBMC that were frozen and used immediately when evaluating ADCC or NK activity using either a (51)Cr-release assay or a CD107a degranulation assay had the lowest activity. Clinical studies of antibodies that mediate ADCC would benefit from using effector cells that have been frozen, thawed and rested overnight prior to assay.

  20. IκBζ augments IL-12- and IL-18-mediated IFN-γ production in human NK cells.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Yashaswini; Yu, Jianhua; Raices, Raquel M; Seshadri, Sudarshan; Wei, Min; Caligiuri, Michael A; Wewers, Mark D

    2011-03-10

    Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production by natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic lymphocytes is a key component of innate and adaptive immune responses. Because inhibitor of κB-ζ (IκBζ), a Toll-like receptor (TLR)/interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) inducible transcription factor, regulates IFN-γ production in KG-1 cells, we tested IκBζ's role in the classic lymphocyte pathway of IL-12/IL-18-induced IFN-γ. Upon stimulation with IL-12/IL-18, monocyte-depleted human peripheral blood lymphocytes expressed the 79-kDa form of IκBζ and released IFN-γ. CD56(+) NK cells were shown to be the IκBζ-producing lymphocyte subpopulation, which also released abundant IFN-γ in response to IL-12/IL-18. Importantly, IκBζ was undetectable in CD56(-) lymphocytes where IFN-γ release was 10-fold lower. In addition, small interfering RNA knockdown of IκBζ suppressed IFN-γ expression in CD56(+) cells. The association of IκBζ with the IFN-γ promoter was documented by chromatin immunoprecipitation. IFN-γ promoter activity from IκBζ overexpression was confirmed by luciferase reporter assay. Finally, IκBζ coprecipitated with p65 and p50 NF-κB in NK cells in response to IL-12/IL-18, suggesting that IκBζ's effects on IFN-γ promoter activity are coregulated by NF-κB. These results suggest that IκBζ functions as an important regulator of IFN-γ in human NK cells, further expanding the class of IκBζ-modulated genes.

  1. Signalling through NK1.1 triggers NK cells to die but induces NK T cells to produce interleukin-4.

    PubMed Central

    Asea, A; Stein-Streilein, J

    1998-01-01

    In vivo inoculation of specific antibody is an accepted protocol for elimination of specific cell populations. Except for anti-CD3 and anti-CD4, it is not known if the depleted cells are eliminated by signalling through the target molecule or through a more non-specific mechanism. C57BL/6 mice were inoculated with anti-natural killer (NK1.1) monoclonal antibody (mAb). Thereafter spleen cells were harvested, stained for both surface and intracellular markers, and analysed by flow cytometry. As early as 2 hr post inoculation, NK cells were signalled to become apoptotic while signalling through the NK1.1 molecule activated NK1.1+ T-cell receptor (TCR)+ (NK T) cells to increase in number, and produce interleukin-4 (IL-4). Anti NK1.1 mAb was less efficient at signalling apoptosis in NK cells when NK T-cell deficient [beta 2-microglobulin beta 2m-deficient] mice were used compared with wild type mice. Efficient apoptotic signalling was restored when beta 2m-deficient mice were reconstituted with NK T cells. NK-specific antibody best signals the apoptotic process in susceptible NK cells when resistant NK T cells are present, activated, and secrete IL-4. Images Figure 4 PMID:9616382

  2. Tissue-resident natural killer (NK) cells are cell lineages distinct from thymic and conventional splenic NK cells

    PubMed Central

    Sojka, Dorothy K; Plougastel-Douglas, Beatrice; Yang, Liping; Pak-Wittel, Melissa A; Artyomov, Maxim N; Ivanova, Yulia; Zhong, Chao; Chase, Julie M; Rothman, Paul B; Yu, Jenny; Riley, Joan K; Zhu, Jinfang; Tian, Zhigang; Yokoyama, Wayne M

    2014-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells belong to the innate immune system; they can control virus infections and developing tumors by cytotoxicity and producing inflammatory cytokines. Most studies of mouse NK cells, however, have focused on conventional NK (cNK) cells in the spleen. Recently, we described two populations of liver NK cells, tissue-resident NK (trNK) cells and those resembling splenic cNK cells. However, their lineage relationship was unclear; trNK cells could be developing cNK cells, related to thymic NK cells, or a lineage distinct from both cNK and thymic NK cells. Herein we used detailed transcriptomic, flow cytometric, and functional analysis and transcription factor-deficient mice to determine that liver trNK cells form a distinct lineage from cNK and thymic NK cells. Taken together with analysis of trNK cells in other tissues, there are at least four distinct lineages of NK cells: cNK, thymic, liver (and skin) trNK, and uterine trNK cells. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01659.001 PMID:24714492

  3. HIV-Specific Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity (ADCC) -Mediating Antibodies Decline while NK Cell Function Increases during Antiretroviral Therapy (ART).

    PubMed

    Jensen, Sanne Skov; Fomsgaard, Anders; Borggren, Marie; Tingstedt, Jeanette Linnea; Gerstoft, Jan; Kronborg, Gitte; Rasmussen, Line Dahlerup; Pedersen, Court; Karlsson, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Understanding alterations in HIV-specific immune responses during antiretroviral therapy (ART), such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), is important in the development of novel strategies to control HIV-1 infection. This study included 53 HIV-1 positive individuals. We evaluated the ability of effector cells and antibodies to mediate ADCC separately and in combination using the ADCC-PanToxiLux assay. The ability of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to mediate ADCC was significantly higher in individuals who had been treated with ART before seroconversion, compared to the individuals initiating ART at a low CD4+ T cell count (<350 cells/μl blood) and the ART-naïve individuals. The frequency of CD16 expressing natural killer (NK) cells correlated with both the duration of ART and Granzyme B (GzB) activity. In contrast, the plasma titer of antibodies mediating ADCC declined during ART. These findings suggest improved cytotoxic function of the NK cells if initiating ART early during infection, while the levels of ADCC mediating antibodies declined during ART.

  4. Inhibition of NKp30- and 2B4-mediated NK cell activation by evolutionary different human and bovine CEACAM1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Merkt, Wolfgang; Urlaub, Doris; Meinke, Stephan; Kammerer, Robert; Watzl, Carsten

    2015-07-01

    Carcinoembryonicantigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) is a receptor involved in the regulation of NK-cell function. In most species, the CEACAM1 cytoplasmic tail possesses a membrane-proximal ITIM paired with a membrane-distal immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motif (ITSM) signaling motif. Human CEACAM1 has phylogenetically relatively recently acquired a second ITIM instead of the ITSM and was shown to inhibit NKG2D-mediated NK-cell activation. Here, we compare the function of bovine and human CEACAM1. We show that in addition to NKG2D, human CEACAM1 can inhibit NK-cell activation via NKp30 or 2B4. Bovine CEACAM1, possessing an ITIM and an ITSM signaling motif, is also inhibitory. However, bovine CEACAM1 inhibition of NKp30-mediated lysis is less pronounced compared with its human counterpart. Bovine CEACAM1 inhibition is dependent on the membrane-proximal ITIM and our data suggest that also the membrane distal ITSM motif contributes to inhibitory signaling. Biochemically, human and bovine CEACAM1 can recruit the phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2 after receptor phosphorylation to a similar extend. Bovine CEACAM1 can additionally recruit the adapter molecule Ewing's sarcoma virus-activated transcript-2 (EAT-2), but not SLAM-associated protein (SAP). Taken together, we show that although human and bovine CEACAM1 are differentially equipped with ITIM and ITSM motifs, both receptors can inhibit NKp30 and 2B4 activation of NK cells. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Targeting Stat3 induces senescence in tumor cells and elicits prophylactic and therapeutic immune responses against breast cancer growth mediated by NK cells and CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Tkach, Mercedes; Coria, Lorena; Rosemblit, Cinthia; Rivas, Martín A; Proietti, Cecilia J; Díaz Flaqué, María Celeste; Beguelin, Wendy; Frahm, Isabel; Charreau, Eduardo H; Cassataro, Juliana; Elizalde, Patricia V; Schillaci, Roxana

    2012-08-01

    Aberrant Stat3 activation and signaling contribute to malignant transformation by promoting cell cycle progression, inhibiting apoptosis, and mediating tumor immune evasion. Stat3 inhibition in tumor cells induces the expression of chemokines and proinflammatory cytokines, so we proposed to apply Stat3-inhibited breast cancer cells as a source of immunogens to induce an antitumor immune response. Studies were performed in two murine breast cancer models in which Stat3 is activated: progestin-dependent C4HD cells and 4T1 cells. We immunized BALB/c mice with irradiated cancer cells previously transfected with a dominant-negative Stat3 vector (Stat3Y705F) in either a prophylactic or a therapeutic manner. Prophylactic administration of breast cancer cells transfected with Stat3Y705F (Stat3Y705F-breast cancer cells) inhibited primary tumor growth compared with administration of empty vector-transfected cells in both models. In the 4T1 model, 50% of the challenged mice were tumor free, and the incidence of metastasis decreased by 90%. In vivo assays of C4HD tumors showed that the antitumor immune response involves the participation of CD4(+) T cells and cytotoxic NK cells. Therapeutic immunization with Stat3Y705F-breast cancer cells inhibited tumor growth, promoted tumor cell differentiation, and decreased metastasis. Furthermore, inhibition of Stat3 activation in breast cancer cells induced cellular senescence, contributing to their immunogenic phenotype. In this work, we provide preclinical proof of concept that ablating Stat3 signaling in breast cancer cells results in an effective immunotherapy against breast cancer growth and metastasis. Moreover, our findings showing that Stat3 inactivation results in induction of a cellular senescence program disclose a potential mechanism for immunotherapy research.

  6. Human NK cells: From surface receptors to clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Moretta, Lorenzo; Pietra, Gabriella; Vacca, Paola; Pende, Daniela; Moretta, Francesca; Bertaina, Alice; Mingari, Maria Cristina; Locatelli, Franco; Moretta, Alessandro

    2016-10-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells play a major role in innate defenses against pathogens, primarily viruses, and are also thought to be part of the immunosurveillance against tumors. They express an array of surface receptors that mediate NK cell function. The human leukocytes antigen (HLA) class I-specific inhibitory receptors allow NK cells to detect and kill cells that have lost or under-express HLA class I antigens, a typical feature of tumor or virally infected cells. However, NK cell activation and induction of cytolytic activity and cytokine production depends on another important checkpoint, namely the expression on target cells of ligands recognized by activating NK receptors. Despite their potent cytolytic activity, NK cells frequently fail to eliminate tumors. This is due to mechanisms of tumor escape, determined by the tumor cells themselves or by tumor-associated cells (i.e. the tumor microenvironment) via the release of soluble suppressive factors or the induction of inhibitory loops involving induction of regulatory T cells, M2-polarized macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. The most important clinical application involving NK cells is the cure of high-risk leukemias in the haplo-identical hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) setting. NK cells originated from hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) of HLA-haploidentical donors may express Killer Immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) that are mismatched with the HLA class I alleles of the recipient. This allows NK cells to kill leukemia blasts residual after the conditioning regimen, while sparing normal cells (that do not express ligands for activating NK receptors). More recent approaches based on the specific removal of TCR α/β(+) T cells and of CD19(+) B cells, allow the infusion, together with CD34(+) HSC, of mature KIR(+) NK cells and of TCR γ/δ(+) T cells, both characterized by a potent anti-leukemia activity. This greatly reduces the time interval necessary to obtain alloreactive, KIR(+) NK

  7. NK Cells: Uncertain Allies against Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Asia-Sophia; Sherratt, Samuel; Riley, Eleanor M.

    2017-01-01

    Until recently, studies of natural killer (NK) cells in infection have focused almost entirely on their role in viral infections. However, there is an increasing awareness of the potential for NK cells to contribute to the control of a wider range of pathogens, including intracellular parasites such as Plasmodium spp. Given the high prevalence of parasitic diseases in the developing world and the devastating effects these pathogens have on large numbers of vulnerable people, investigating interactions between NK cells and parasitized host cells presents the opportunity to reveal novel immunological mechanisms with the potential to aid efforts to eradicate these diseases. The capacity of NK cells to produce inflammatory cytokines early after malaria infection, as well as a possible role in direct cytotoxic killing of malaria-infected cells, suggests a beneficial impact of NK cells in this disease. However, NK cells may also contribute to overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the consequent immunopathology. As comparatively little is known about the role of NK cells later in the course of infection, and growing evidence suggests that heterogeneity in NK cell responses to malaria may be influenced by KIR/HLA interactions, a better understanding of the mechanisms by which NK cells might directly interact with parasitized cells may reveal a new role for these cells in the course of malaria infection. PMID:28337195

  8. NK Cells: Uncertain Allies against Malaria.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Asia-Sophia; Sherratt, Samuel; Riley, Eleanor M

    2017-01-01

    Until recently, studies of natural killer (NK) cells in infection have focused almost entirely on their role in viral infections. However, there is an increasing awareness of the potential for NK cells to contribute to the control of a wider range of pathogens, including intracellular parasites such as Plasmodium spp. Given the high prevalence of parasitic diseases in the developing world and the devastating effects these pathogens have on large numbers of vulnerable people, investigating interactions between NK cells and parasitized host cells presents the opportunity to reveal novel immunological mechanisms with the potential to aid efforts to eradicate these diseases. The capacity of NK cells to produce inflammatory cytokines early after malaria infection, as well as a possible role in direct cytotoxic killing of malaria-infected cells, suggests a beneficial impact of NK cells in this disease. However, NK cells may also contribute to overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the consequent immunopathology. As comparatively little is known about the role of NK cells later in the course of infection, and growing evidence suggests that heterogeneity in NK cell responses to malaria may be influenced by KIR/HLA interactions, a better understanding of the mechanisms by which NK cells might directly interact with parasitized cells may reveal a new role for these cells in the course of malaria infection.

  9. NK Cell Subtypes as Regulators of Autoimmune Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    As major components of innate immunity, NK cells not only exert cell-mediated cytotoxicity to destroy tumors or infected cells, but also act to regulate the functions of other cells in the immune system by secreting cytokines and chemokines. Thus, NK cells provide surveillance in the early defense against viruses, intracellular bacteria, and cancer cells. However, the effecter function of NK cells must be exquisitely controlled to prevent inadvertent attack against normal “self” cells. In an organ such as the liver, where the distinction between immunotolerance and immune defense against routinely processed pathogens is critical, the plethora of NK cells has a unique role in the maintenance of homeostasis. Once self-tolerance is broken, autoimmune liver disease resulted. NK cells act as a “two-edged weapon” and even play opposite roles with both regulatory and inducer activities in the hepatic environment. That is, NK cells act not only to produce inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, but also to alter the proliferation and activation of associated lymphocytes. However, the precise regulatory mechanisms at work in autoimmune liver diseases remain to be identified. In this review, we focus on recent research with NK cells and their potential role in the development of autoimmune liver disease. PMID:27462349

  10. NK cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity is enhanced by tamoxifen in HER2/neu non-amplified, but not HER2/neu-amplified, breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Richards, John O; Albers, Alex J; Smith, Thomas S; Tjoe, Judy A

    2016-11-01

    Tumor-targeting antibodies have been successful in the treatment of various types of cancers. Antibodies engage the immune system with their Fc, stimulating immune cell effector function. In the clinic, FcγRIIIa polymorphisms with higher affinity for the Fc of antibodies were shown to improve response rates and overall survival. Efforts have been made to modify the Fc to enhance affinity to Fc receptors and thereby improve effector function. An alternative for improving immune effector function may be to increase the level of tumor antigen expression. In this study, tamoxifen was used to increase HER2/neu protein level to determine whether increased tumor antigen expression could enhance NK cell-mediated antibody-dependent cytotoxicity (ADCC). Tamoxifen was found to increase HER2/neu 1.5-fold to threefold in breast cancer cell lines that were HER2/neu non-amplified. Using flow cytometry to simultaneously evaluate NK cell degranulation and tumor cell death, the increase in HER2/neu enhanced NK cell-mediated ADCC. However, in cells that had HER2/neu gene amplification and estrogen receptor expression, tamoxifen elevated HER2/neu but failed to improve NK cell function. The quantity of HER2/neu on the tumor cell surface was approximately double that of the number of Fc receptors found on NK cells. This appears to reflect a ceiling at which increasing antigen expression fails to improve NK cell effector function. This has clinical implications as trying to increase antigen expression to enhance NK cell function may be useful for patients with antigen-low tumors, but not in those whose tumors have gene amplification or high levels of antigen expression.

  11. Macrophage and NK-mediated killing of precursor-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells targeted with a-fucosylated anti-CD19 humanized antibodies.

    PubMed

    Matlawska-Wasowska, K; Ward, E; Stevens, S; Wang, Y; Herbst, R; Winter, S S; Wilson, B S

    2013-06-01

    This work reports the tumoricidal effects of a novel investigational humanized anti-CD19 monoclonal antibody (Medi-551). An a-fucosylated antibody with increased affinity for human FcγRIIIA, Medi-551 is shown to mediate both antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP). Medi-551/CD19 complexes internalize slowly (>5 h) and thus remain accessible to effector cells for prolonged periods. We evaluated in vitro ADCC and ADCP activities of primary human natural killer (NK) cells and macrophages against precursor-B (pre-B) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cell lines and pediatric patient blasts. Fluorescent imaging studies document immunological synapses formed between anti-CD19-bound target leukemia cells and effector cells and capture the kinetics of both NK-mediated killing and macrophage phagocytosis. Genetic polymorphisms in FcγRIIIA-158F/V modulate in vitro activities of effector cells, with FcγRIIIA-158V homozygotes or heterozygotes showing the strongest activity. Medi-551 treatment of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice engrafted with human pre-B cells led to prolonged animal survival and markedly reduced disease burden in blood, liver and bone marrow. These data show that anti-CD19 antibodies effectively recruit immune cells to pre-B ALL cells and support a move forward to early phase trials in this disease.

  12. Murine thymic NK cells are distinct from ILC1s and have unique transcription factor requirements.

    PubMed

    Gabrielli, Sara; Sun, Mengxi; Bell, April; Zook, Erin C; de Pooter, Renee F; Zamai, Loris; Kee, Barbara L

    2017-03-09

    Group 1 innate lymphoid cells include natural killer (NK) cells and ILC1s, which mediate the response to intracellular pathogens. Thymic NK (tNK) cells were described with hybrid features of immature NK cells and ILC1 but whether these cells are related to NK cells or ILC1 has not been fully investigated. We report that murine tNK cells expressed the NK-cell associated transcription factor EOMES and developed independent of the essential ILC1 factor TBET, confirming their placement within the NK lineage. Moreover, tNK cells resemble NK cells rather than ILC1 in their requirements for the E protein transcription factor inhibitor ID2. We provide further insight into the mechanisms governing tNK-cell development by showing that the transcription factor ETS1 prevented tNK cell acquisition of the conventional NK-cell maturation markers CD11b and KLRG1. Our data reveal few ILC1 in the thymus and clarify the identity and developmental requirements of tNK cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. NK-CD11c+ Cell Crosstalk in Diabetes Enhances IL-6-Mediated Inflammation during Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection.

    PubMed

    Cheekatla, Satyanarayana Swamy; Tripathi, Deepak; Venkatasubramanian, Sambasivan; Nathella, Pavan Kumar; Paidipally, Padmaja; Ishibashi, Munenori; Welch, Elwyn; Tvinnereim, Amy R; Ikebe, Mitsuo; Valluri, Vijaya Lakshmi; Babu, Subash; Kornfeld, Hardy; Vankayalapati, Ramakrishna

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we developed a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using streptozotocin and nicotinamide and identified factors that increase susceptibility of T2DM mice to infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). All Mtb-infected T2DM mice and 40% of uninfected T2DM mice died within 10 months, whereas all control mice survived. In Mtb-infected mice, T2DM increased the bacterial burden and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production in the lungs relative to those in uninfected T2DM mice and infected control mice. Levels of IL-6 also increased. Anti-IL-6 monoclonal antibody treatment of Mtb-infected acute- and chronic-T2DM mice increased survival (to 100%) and reduced pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression. CD11c+ cells were the major source of IL-6 in Mtb-infected T2DM mice. Pulmonary natural killer (NK) cells in Mtb-infected T2DM mice further increased IL-6 production by autologous CD11c+ cells through their activating receptors. Anti-NK1.1 antibody treatment of Mtb-infected acute-T2DM mice increased survival and reduced pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression. Furthermore, IL-6 increased inflammatory cytokine production by T lymphocytes in pulmonary tuberculosis patients with T2DM. Overall, the results suggest that NK-CD11c+ cell interactions increase IL-6 production, which in turn drives the pathological immune response and mortality associated with Mtb infection in diabetic mice.

  14. NK-CD11c+ Cell Crosstalk in Diabetes Enhances IL-6-Mediated Inflammation during Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Cheekatla, Satyanarayana Swamy; Tripathi, Deepak; Venkatasubramanian, Sambasivan; Nathella, Pavan Kumar; Paidipally, Padmaja; Ishibashi, Munenori; Welch, Elwyn; Tvinnereim, Amy R.; Ikebe, Mitsuo; Valluri, Vijaya Lakshmi; Babu, Subash; Kornfeld, Hardy; Vankayalapati, Ramakrishna

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we developed a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using streptozotocin and nicotinamide and identified factors that increase susceptibility of T2DM mice to infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). All Mtb-infected T2DM mice and 40% of uninfected T2DM mice died within 10 months, whereas all control mice survived. In Mtb-infected mice, T2DM increased the bacterial burden and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production in the lungs relative to those in uninfected T2DM mice and infected control mice. Levels of IL-6 also increased. Anti-IL-6 monoclonal antibody treatment of Mtb-infected acute- and chronic-T2DM mice increased survival (to 100%) and reduced pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression. CD11c+ cells were the major source of IL-6 in Mtb-infected T2DM mice. Pulmonary natural killer (NK) cells in Mtb-infected T2DM mice further increased IL-6 production by autologous CD11c+ cells through their activating receptors. Anti-NK1.1 antibody treatment of Mtb-infected acute-T2DM mice increased survival and reduced pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression. Furthermore, IL-6 increased inflammatory cytokine production by T lymphocytes in pulmonary tuberculosis patients with T2DM. Overall, the results suggest that NK-CD11c+ cell interactions increase IL-6 production, which in turn drives the pathological immune response and mortality associated with Mtb infection in diabetic mice. PMID:27783671

  15. NK Cells and Their Ability to Modulate T Cells during Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Kevin D.; Waggoner, Stephen N.; Whitmire, Jason K.

    2014-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are important in protection against virus infections, and many viruses have evolved mechanisms to thwart NK cell activity. NK cells respond to inflammatory signals at an early stage of virus infection, resulting in proliferation, cytokine production, and cytolytic activity that can reduce virus loads. Moreover, the rapid kinetics of the NK cell response enables NK cells to influence other populations of innate immune cells, affect the inflammatory milieu, and guide adaptive immune responses to infection. Early NK cell interactions with other leukocytes can have long-lasting effects on the number and quality of memory T cells, as well as impact the exhaustion of T cells during chronic infections. The ability of NK cells to modulate T cell responses can be mediated through direct T-NK interactions, cytokine production, or indirectly through dendritic cells and other cell types. Herein, we summarize our current understanding of how NK cells interact with T cells, dendritic cells, B cells, and other cell types involved in adaptive immune responses to virus infection. We outline several mechanisms by which NK cells enhance or suppress adaptive immune response and long-lived immunological memory. PMID:25404045

  16. Macrophages help NK cells to attack tumor cells by stimulatory NKG2D ligand but protect themselves from NK killing by inhibitory ligand Qa-1.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhixia; Zhang, Cai; Zhang, Jian; Tian, Zhigang

    2012-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells and their crosstalk with other immune cells are important for innate immunity against tumor. To explore the role of the interaction between NK cells and macrophages in the regulation of anti-tumor activities of NK cells, we here demonstrate that poly I:C-treated macrophages increased NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity against target tumor cells in NKG2D-dependent manner. In addition, IL-15, IL-18, and IFN-β secreted by poly I:C-treated macrophages are also involved in NKG2D expression and NK cell activation. Interestingly, the increase in expression of NKG2D ligands on macrophages induced a highly NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity against tumor cells, but not against macrophages themselves. Notably, a high expression level of Qa-1, a NKG2A ligand, on macrophages may contribute to such protection of macrophages from NK cell-mediated killing. Furthermore, Qa-1 or NKG2A knockdown and Qa-1 antibody blockade caused the macrophages to be sensitive to NK cytolysis. These results suggested that macrophages may activate NK cells to attack tumor by NKG2D recognition whereas macrophages protect themselves from NK lysis via preferential expression of Qa-1.

  17. Contrasting Effects of the Cytotoxic Anticancer Drug Gemcitabine and the EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Gefitinib on NK Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity via Regulation of NKG2D Ligand in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Okita, Riki; Wolf, Diana; Yasuda, Koichiro; Maeda, Ai; Yukawa, Takuro; Saisho, Shinsuke; Shimizu, Katsuhiko; Yamaguchi, Yoshiyuki; Oka, Mikio; Nakayama, Eiichi; Lundqvist, Andreas; Kiessling, Rolf; Seliger, Barbara; Nakata, Masao

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Several cytotoxic anticancer drugs inhibit DNA replication and/or mitosis, while EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors inactivate EGFR signalling in cancer cell. Both types of anticancer drugs improve the overall survival of the patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), although tumors often become refractory to this treatment. Despite several mechanisms by which the tumors become resistant having been described the effect of these compounds on anti-tumor immunity remains largely unknown. Methods This study examines the effect of the cytotoxic drug Gemcitabine and the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor Gefitinib on the expression of NK group 2 member D (NKG2D) ligands as well as the sensitivity of NSCLC cells to the NK-mediated lysis. Results We demonstrate that Gemcitabine treatment leads to an enhanced expression, while Gefitinib downregulated the expression of molecules that act as key ligands for the activating receptor NKG2D and promote NK cell-mediated recognition and cytolysis. Gemcitabine activated ATM and ATM- and Rad-3-related protein kinase (ATR) pathways. The Gemcitabine-induced phosphorylation of ATM as well as the upregulation of the NKG2D ligand expression could be blocked by an ATM-ATR inhibitor. In contrast, Gefitinib attenuated NKG2D ligand expression. Silencing EGFR using siRNA or addition of the PI3K inhibitor resulted in downregulation of NKG2D ligands. The observations suggest that the EGFR/PI3K pathway also regulates the expression of NKG2D ligands. Additionally, we showed that both ATM-ATR and EGFR regulate MICA/B via miR20a. Conclusion In keeping with the effect on NKG2D expression, Gemcitabine enhanced NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity while Gefitinib attenuated NK cell killing in NSCLC cells. PMID:26439264

  18. Mouse host unlicensed NK cells promote donor allogeneic bone marrow engraftment.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Maite; Sun, Kai; Murphy, William J

    2016-03-03

    Natural killer (NK) cells exist as subsets based on expression of inhibitory receptors that recognize major histocompatibility complex I (MHCI) molecules. NK cell subsets bearing MHCI binding receptors for self-MHCI have been termed as "licensed" and exhibit a higher ability to respond to stimuli. In the context of bone marrow transplantation (BMT), host licensed-NK (L-NK) cells have also been demonstrated to be responsible for the acute rejection of allogeneic and MHCI-deficient BM cells (BMCs) in mice after lethal irradiation. However, the role of recipient unlicensed-NK (U-NK) cells has not been well established with regard to allogeneic BMC resistance. After NK cell stimulation, the prior depletion of host L-NK cells resulted in a marked increase of donor engraftment compared with the untreated group. Surprisingly, this increased donor engraftment was reduced after total host NK cell depletion, indicating that U-NK cells can actually promote donor allogeneic BMC engraftment. Furthermore, direct coculture of U-NK cells with allogeneic but not syngeneic BMCs resulted in increased colony-forming unit cell growth in vitro, which was at least partially mediated by granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) production. These data demonstrate that host NK cell subsets exert markedly different roles in allogeneic BMC engraftment where host L- and U-NK cells reject or promote donor allogeneic BMC engraftment, respectively.

  19. No monkey business: why studying NK cells in non-human primates pays off.

    PubMed

    Hong, Henoch S; Rajakumar, Premeela A; Billingsley, James M; Reeves, R Keith; Johnson, R Paul

    2013-01-01

    Human NK (hNK) cells play a key role in mediating host immune responses against various infectious diseases. For practical reasons, the majority of the data on hNK cells has been generated using peripheral blood lymphocytes. In contrast, our knowledge of NK cells in human tissues is limited, and not much is known about developmental pathways of hNK cell subpopulations in vivo. Although research in mice has elucidated a number of fundamental features of NK cell biology, mouse, and hNK cells significantly differ in their subpopulations, functions, and receptor repertoires. Thus, there is a need for a model that is more closely related to humans and yet allows experimental manipulations. Non-human primate models offer numerous opportunities for the study of NK cells, including the study of the role of NK cells after solid organ and stem cell transplantation, as well as in acute viral infection. Macaque NK cells can be depleted in vivo or adoptively transferred in an autologous system. All of these studies are either difficult or unethical to carry out in humans. Here we highlight recent advances in rhesus NK cell research and their parallels in humans. Using high-throughput transcriptional profiling, we demonstrate that the human CD56(bright) and CD56(dim) NK cell subsets have phenotypically and functionally analogous counterparts in rhesus macaques. Thus, the use of non-human primate models offers the potential to substantially advance hNK cell research.

  20. Inhibition of IL-6-JAK/Stat3 signaling in castration-resistant prostate cancer cells enhances the NK cell mediated cytotoxicity via alteration of PD-L1/NKG2D ligand levels.

    PubMed

    Xu, LiJun; Chen, XiaoDong; Shen, MingJing; Yang, Dong-Rong; Fang, Laifu; Weng, Guobin; Tsai, Ying; Keng, Peter C; Chen, Yuhchyau; Lee, Soo Ok

    2017-09-02

    To investigate whether IL-6 signaling affects the susceptibility of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) cells to cytotoxic action of natural killer (NK) cells, CRPC cell lines (having different IL-6 level) were developed by lentiviral transduction. While observing no secreted IL-6 level in parental C4-2 and CWR22Rv1 cells, we found the IL-6 expression/secretion in these cells was induced after the transduction process and the IL-6 level difference in C4-2siIL-6/sc and CWR22siIL-6/sc cell CRPC cell sets could be detected. We then found that IL-6 knocked down cells were more susceptible to NK cell cytotoxicity than control cells due to lowered programmed death receptor ligand 1 (PD-L1) and increased NK group 2D (NKG2D) ligand levels. In animal studies, to concur with the in vitro results, we found that IL-6 expressing cells-derived tumors were more resistant to NK cell action than the tumors of IL-6 knocked down cells. Further, we discovered that JAK-Stat3 is the most critical IL-6 downstream signaling that modulates PD-L1/NKG2D ligand levels in CRPC cells. Furthermore, inhibition of the JAK or Stat3 signaling effectively increased the susceptibility of C4-2sc and CWRsc cells to NK cell cytotoxicity. We observed the most effective cytotoxicity when the PD-L1 Ab and JAK inhibitor (or Stat 3 inhibitor) were used together. These results suggest that the strategy of targeting IL-6 signaling (or its downstream signaling) may enhance the NK cell-mediated immune action to CRPC tumors, thus yielding clinical implications in developing future immunotherapeutics of exploiting this strategy to treat CRPC patients. Molecular Oncology (2017) © 2017 The Authors. Published by FEBS Press and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The unconventional expression of IL-15 and its role in NK cell homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Huntington, Nicholas D

    2014-03-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are the founding members of the innate lymphoid cell family and contribute to the rapid production of inflammatory mediators upon pathogen detection. The evolution of receptors for self major histocompatibility complex-I and stress-induced ligands also bestows upon NK cells an important effector role in the clearance of virus-infected and transformed cells. NK cells are dependent on the pleiotropic cytokine interleukin (IL)-15 for their development, differentiation and optimal function. Here I review the regulation of IL-15 in vivo, its role in driving NK cell differentiation and discuss the function of NK cell diversification with regard to innate immunity.

  2. HIF-2α/ITPR1 axis: A new saboteur of NK-mediated lysis

    PubMed Central

    Messai, Yosra; Noman, Muhammad Zaeem; Hasmim, Meriem; Escudier, Bernard; Chouaib, Salem

    2015-01-01

    We recently investigated the role of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) mutation and the subsequent induction of hypoxia-inducible factor 2α (HIF-2α) in the regulation of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) susceptibility to natural killer (NK) cell-mediated killing. We demonstrated that the resistance of VHL-mutated RCC cell line 786-0 to NK-mediated lysis requires HIF-2α and ITPR1, a direct novel target of HIF-2α, through the activation of autophagy in target cells by NK-derived signals. PMID:25949883

  3. NK cells: walking three paths down memory lane

    PubMed Central

    Min-Oo, Gundula; Kamimura, Yosuke; Hendricks, Deborah W.; Nabekura, Tsukasa; Lanier, Lewis L.

    2013-01-01

    Immunological memory has traditionally been regarded as a unique feature of the adaptive immune response, mediated in an antigen-specific manner by T and B lymphocytes. All other hematopoietic cells, including natural killer (NK) cells, are classified as innate immune cells, which have been considered short-lived but can respond rapidly against pathogens in a manner not thought to be driven by antigen. Interestingly, NK cells have recently been shown to survive long term after antigen exposure and subsequently mediate antigen-specific recall responses. In this review, we will address the similarities between, and the controversies surrounding, three major viewpoints of NK memory that have arisen from these recent studies: (i) MCMV (mouse cytomegalovirus)-induced memory; (ii) cytokine-induced memory; (iii) liver-restricted memory cells. PMID:23499559

  4. Homotypic NK cell-to-cell communication controls cytokine responsiveness of innate immune NK cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Jin; Kim, Miju; Kim, Hye Mi; Lim, Seon Ah; Kim, Eun-Ok; Kim, Kwanghee; Song, Kwang Hoon; Kim, Jiyoung; Kumar, Vinay; Yee, Cassian; Doh, Junsang; Lee, Kyung-Mi

    2014-12-05

    While stationary organ cells are in continuous contact with neighboring cells, immune cells circulate throughout the body without an apparent requirement for cell-cell contact to persist in vivo. This study challenges current convention by demonstrating, both in vitro and in vivo, that innate immune NK cells can engage in homotypic NK-to-NK cell interactions for optimal survival, activation, and proliferation. Using a specialized cell-laden microwell approach, we discover that NK cells experiencing constant NK-to-NK contact exhibit a synergistic increase in activation status, cell proliferation, and anti-tumor function in response to IL-2 or IL-15. This effect is dependent on 2B4/CD48 ligation and an active cytoskeleton, resulting in amplification of IL-2 receptor signaling, enhanced CD122/CD132 colocalization, CD25 upregulation, and Stat3 activation. Conversely, 'orphan' NK cells demonstrate no such synergy and fail to persist. Therefore, our data uncover the existence of homotypic cell-to-cell communication among mobile innate lymphocytes, which promotes functional synergy within the cytokine-rich microenvironment.

  5. Natural Killer Cells for Immunotherapy - Advantages of the NK-92 Cell Line over Blood NK Cells.

    PubMed

    Klingemann, Hans; Boissel, Laurent; Toneguzzo, Frances

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are potent cytotoxic effector cells for cancer therapy and potentially for severe viral infections. However, there are technical challenges to obtain sufficient numbers of functionally active NK cells from a patient's blood since they represent only 10% of the lymphocytes and are often dysfunctional. The alternative is to obtain cells from a healthy donor, which requires depletion of the allogeneic T cells to prevent graft-versus-host reactions. Cytotoxic cell lines have been established from patients with clonal NK-cell lymphoma. Those cells can be expanded in culture in the presence of IL-2. Except for the NK-92 cell line, though, none of the other six known NK cell lines has consistently and reproducibly shown high antitumor cytotoxicity. Only NK-92 cells can easily be genetically manipulated to recognize specific tumor antigens or to augment monoclonal antibody activity through antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. NK-92 is also the only cell line product that has been infused into patients with advanced cancer with clinical benefit and minimal side effects.

  6. Tim-3 Is Upregulated in NK Cells during Early Pregnancy and Inhibits NK Cytotoxicity toward Trophoblast in Galectin-9 Dependent Pathway.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jintang; Yang, Meixiang; Ban, Yanli; Gao, Wenjuan; Song, Bingfeng; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Yun; Shao, Qianqian; Kong, Beihua; Qu, Xun

    2016-01-01

    NK cells accumulate at the maternal-fetal interface (MFI) and play essential roles in maintaining immune tolerance during pregnancy. The mechanisms that facilitate NK cells tolerance to fetal tissue are largely unknown. T cell Ig and mucin domain-containing protein 3 (Tim-3) is a newly defined molecule with essential immunological function in many physiological and pathological processes. Recent study showed that Tim-3 was involved in the regulation of immune tolerance at MFI. However, whether Tim-3 regulates NK cells cytotoxicity toward trophoblasts is unclear. Here, we showed Tim-3 was mainly expressed by decidual NK cells (dNK) and Tim-3 level in dNK was higher than peripheral NK cells (pNK). Tim-3(+) dNK expressed more levels of mature markers CD94 and CD69 than Tim-3- dNK cells and blocking Tim-3 significantly inhibited dNK IFN-γ and TNF-α secretion. Furthermore, we found TGF-β1 may contribute to such up-regulation of Tim-3 in NK cells. Interestingly, blocking Tim-3 enhanced NK cytotoxicity toward trophoblast cell line HTR-8 but not K562. We found HTR-8 expressed Tim-3 ligand Galectin-9, in contrast K562 did not. Small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of Galectin-9 expression enhanced NK cytotoxicity toward HTR-8. We further showed Tim-3/Galecin-9 inhibited NK cytotoxicity toward trophoblast partially via impairing the degranulation process. In addition, clinical data showed that abnormal Tim-3 level on pNK might be associated with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). Thus, our data demonstrate Tim-3/Galectin-9 pathway maintains local tolerance by suppressing NK cytotoxicity toward trophoblasts which may represent a new immunologic tolerance mechanism at MFI.

  7. Tim-3 Is Upregulated in NK Cells during Early Pregnancy and Inhibits NK Cytotoxicity toward Trophoblast in Galectin-9 Dependent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jintang; Yang, Meixiang; Ban, Yanli; Gao, Wenjuan; Song, Bingfeng; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Yun; Shao, Qianqian; Kong, Beihua; Qu, Xun

    2016-01-01

    NK cells accumulate at the maternal-fetal interface (MFI) and play essential roles in maintaining immune tolerance during pregnancy. The mechanisms that facilitate NK cells tolerance to fetal tissue are largely unknown. T cell Ig and mucin domain-containing protein 3 (Tim-3) is a newly defined molecule with essential immunological function in many physiological and pathological processes. Recent study showed that Tim-3 was involved in the regulation of immune tolerance at MFI. However, whether Tim-3 regulates NK cells cytotoxicity toward trophoblasts is unclear. Here, we showed Tim-3 was mainly expressed by decidual NK cells (dNK) and Tim-3 level in dNK was higher than peripheral NK cells (pNK). Tim-3+ dNK expressed more levels of mature markers CD94 and CD69 than Tim-3- dNK cells and blocking Tim-3 significantly inhibited dNK IFN-γ and TNF-α secretion. Furthermore, we found TGF-β1 may contribute to such up-regulation of Tim-3 in NK cells. Interestingly, blocking Tim-3 enhanced NK cytotoxicity toward trophoblast cell line HTR-8 but not K562. We found HTR-8 expressed Tim-3 ligand Galectin-9, in contrast K562 did not. Small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of Galectin-9 expression enhanced NK cytotoxicity toward HTR-8. We further showed Tim-3/Galecin-9 inhibited NK cytotoxicity toward trophoblast partially via impairing the degranulation process. In addition, clinical data showed that abnormal Tim-3 level on pNK might be associated with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). Thus, our data demonstrate Tim-3/Galectin-9 pathway maintains local tolerance by suppressing NK cytotoxicity toward trophoblasts which may represent a new immunologic tolerance mechanism at MFI. PMID:26789128

  8. Dacarbazine-mediated upregulation of NKG2D ligands on tumor cells activates NK and CD8 T cells and restrains melanoma growth.

    PubMed

    Hervieu, Alice; Rébé, Cédric; Végran, Frédérique; Chalmin, Fanny; Bruchard, Mélanie; Vabres, Pierre; Apetoh, Lionel; Ghiringhelli, François; Mignot, Grégoire

    2013-02-01

    Dacarbazine (DTIC) is a cytotoxic drug widely used for melanoma treatment. However, the putative contribution of anticancer immune responses in the efficacy of DTIC has not been evaluated. By testing how DTIC affects host immune responses to cancer in a mouse model of melanoma, we unexpectedly found that both natural killer (NK) and CD8(+) T cells were indispensable for DTIC therapeutic effect. Although DTIC did not directly affect immune cells, it triggered the upregulation of NKG2D ligands on tumor cells, leading to NK cell activation and IFNγ secretion in mice and humans. NK cell-derived IFNγ subsequently favored upregulation of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules on tumor cells, rendering them sensitive to cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells. Accordingly, DTIC markedly enhanced cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 inhibition efficacy in vivo in an NK-dependent manner. These results underscore the immunogenic properties of DTIC and provide a rationale to combine DTIC with immunotherapeutic agents that relieve immunosuppression in vivo.

  9. Upregulation of CD54 and downregulation of HLA‑ABC contribute to the novel enhancement of the susceptibility of HL-60 cells to NK cell-mediated cytolysis induced by ATRA plus VPA.

    PubMed

    Zou, Huijuan; Li, Lianlian; Han, Yang; Ma, Ruiping; Liao, Qiong; Tian, Jing; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Ren, Xia; Song, Guanhua; Guo, Qiang; Li, Xia; Ding, Huifang; Jiang, Guosheng

    2017-01-01

    Enhancement of the susceptibility of HL-60 cells to NK cell-mediated cytolysis induced by all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) plus valproate (VPA) was evaluated. In addition to the synergistic effect of ATRA plus VPA on HL-60 cells, the optimal concentration of 1 mM VPA plus 0.5 µM ATRA increased the cytotoxic sensitivity of HL-60 cells to NK cells. The expression of the activated receptors NKp30 and NKG2D on NK-92 cells was higher compared with the levels noted for the other receptors, and the expression of NKG2D ligands MICA/B on HL-60 cells was not significantly upregulated in the ATRA plus VPA goup compared with the control. Moreover, it was observed that the ligands of NKp30 on HL-60 cells presented the same variation trend. As to the co-stimulatory and adhesion molecules on NK-92 and their ligands on HL-60 cells post exposure to ATRA and VPA alone or their combination, there was no obvious change in the expression of CD112, CD48 and CD70 on the HL-60 cells. However, the expression of CD54 on HL-60 cells was significantly upregulated. In contrast, the expression of NKG2A ligands HLA-ABC on HL-60 cells was obviously downregulated. In addition, the expression of HLA-E on the HL-60 cells in the group treated with ATRA plus VPA was not significantly increased. In conclusion, the combination of VPA and ATRA not only induced the differentiation of HL-60 cells, but also induced enhancement of the sensitivity of HL-60 cells to NK cells by downregulating the expression of HLA-ABC and upregulating the expression of CD54, but not MICA/MICB. The results provide experimental and theoretical basis for the clinical combination of a low-dose of ATRA plus VPA for the treatment of leukemia.

  10. Ionomycin Treatment Renders NK Cells Hyporesponsive

    PubMed Central

    Romera-Cárdenas, Gema; Thomas, L. Michael; Lopez-Cobo, Sheila; García-Cuesta, Eva M.; Long, Eric O.; Reyburn, Hugh T.

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes important in immune responses to cancer and multiple pathogens. However, chronic activation of NK cells can induce a hyporesponsive state. The molecular basis of the mechanisms underlying the generation and maintenance of this hyporesponsive condition are unknown, thus an easy and reproducible mechanism able to induce hyporesponsiveness on human NK cells would be very useful to gain understanding of this process. Human NK cells treated with ionomycin lose their ability to degranulate and secrete IFN-γ in response to a variety of stimuli, but IL-2 stimulation can compensate these defects. Apart from reductions in the expression of CD11a/CD18, no great changes were observed in the activating and inhibitory receptors expressed by these NK cells, however their transcriptional signature is different to that described for other hyporesponsive lymphocytes. PMID:27007115

  11. Upregulation of thioredoxin-1 in activated human NK cells confers increased tolerance to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Kousaku; Kua, Ley-Fang; Shimasaki, Noriko; Shiraishi, Kensuke; Nakajima, Shotaro; Siang, Lim Kee; Shabbir, Asim; So, Jimmy; Yong, Wei-Peng; Kono, Koji

    2017-02-21

    Adoptive transfer of immune cells, such as T lymphocytes and NK cells, has potential to control cancer growth. However, this can be counteracted by immune escape mechanisms within the tumor microenvironment, including those mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we determined the levels of anti-oxidant molecules in NK cells and their capacity to overcome ROS-induced immune suppression. We investigated the effect of H2O2 on resting NK cells, IL-2-activated NK cells and NK cells expanded by coculture with the K562 leukemia cell line genetically modified to express membrane-bound IL-15 and 4-1BB ligand (K562-mb15-41BBL). Expression of anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic genes was evaluated by expression array, and protein levels of anti-oxidant molecules by Western blot. Activated NK cells, IL-2-activated NK cells and NK cells expanded by K562-mb15-41BBL were significantly more resistant to H2O2-induced cell death than resting NK. Thioredoxin-1 (TXN1) and peroxiredoxin-1 (PRDX1) were also up-regulated in activated NK cells. Moreover, H2O2-induced cell death after IL-2 activation was significantly induced in the presence of an anti-TXN1-neutralising antibody. Collectively, these data document that activated NK cells can resist to H2O2-induced cell death by up-regulation of TXN1.

  12. Novel immune modulators used in hematology: impact on NK cells.

    PubMed

    Krieg, Stephanie; Ullrich, Evelyn

    2012-01-01

    There is a wide range of important pharmaceuticals used in treatment of cancer. Besides their known effects on tumor cells, there is growing evidence for modulation of the immune system. Immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs(®)) play an important role in the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma or myelodysplastic syndrome and have already demonstrated antitumor, anti-angiogenic, and immunostimulating effects, in particular on natural killer (NK) cells. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors are directly targeting different kinases and are known to regulate effector NK cells and expression of NKG2D ligands (NKG2DLs) on tumor cells. Demethylating agents, histone deacetylases, and proteasome inhibitors interfere with the epigenetic regulation and protein degradation of malignant cells. There are first hints that these drugs also sensitize tumor cells to chemotherapy, radiation, and NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity by enhanced expression of TRAIL and NKG2DLs. However, these pharmaceuticals may also impair NK cell function in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In summary, this review provides an update on the effects of different novel molecules on the immune system focusing NK cells.

  13. NK cell-based cancer immunotherapy: from basic biology to clinical application.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Yin, Jie; Li, Ting; Huang, Shan; Yan, Han; Leavenworth, JianMei; Wang, Xi

    2015-12-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells, which recognize and kill target cells independent of antigen specificity and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) matching, play pivotal roles in immune defence against tumors. However, tumor cells often acquire the ability to escape NK cell-mediated immune surveillance. Thus, understanding mechanisms underlying regulation of NK cell phenotype and function within the tumor environment is instrumental for designing new approaches to improve the current cell-based immunotherapy. In this review, we elaborate the main biological features and molecular mechanisms of NK cells that pertain to regulation of NK cell-mediated anti-tumor activity. We further overview current clinical approaches regarding NK cell-based cancer therapy, including cytokine infusion, adoptive transfer of autologous or allogeneic NK cells, applications of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-expressing NK cells and adoptive transfer of memory-like NK cells. With these promising clinical outcomes and fuller understanding the basic questions raised in this review, we foresee that NK cell-based approaches may hold great potential for future cancer immunotherapy.

  14. Novel APC-like properties of human NK cells directly regulate T cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Jacob; Gonen-Gross, Tsufit; Fitchett, Jonathan; Rowe, Tony; Daniels, Mark; Arnon, Tal I.; Gazit, Roi; Joseph, Aviva; Schjetne, Karoline W.; Steinle, Alexander; Porgador, Angel; Mevorach, Dror; Goldman-Wohl, Debra; Yagel, Simcha; LaBarre, Michael J.; Buckner, Jane H.; Mandelboim, Ofer

    2004-01-01

    Initiation of the adaptive immune response is dependent on the priming of naive T cells by APCs. Proteomic analysis of unactivated and activated human NK cell membrane–enriched fractions demonstrated that activated NK cells can efficiently stimulate T cells, since they upregulate MHC class II molecules and multiple ligands for TCR costimulatory molecules. Furthermore, by manipulating antigen administration, we show that NK cells possess multiple independent unique pathways for antigen uptake. These results highlight NK cell–mediated cytotoxicity and specific ligand recognition by cell surface–activating receptors on NK cells as unique mechanisms for antigen capturing and presentation. In addition, we analyzed the T cell–activating potential of human NK cells derived from different clinical conditions, such as inflamed tonsils and noninfected and CMV-infected uterine decidual samples, and from transporter-associated processing antigen 2–deficient patients. This in vivo analysis revealed that proinflammatory, but not immune-suppressive, microenvironmental requirements can selectively dictate upregulation of T cell–activating molecules on NK cells. Taken together, these observations offer new and unexpected insights into the direct interactions between NK and T cells and suggest novel APC-like activating functions for human NK cells. PMID:15578093

  15. Larger Size of Donor Alloreactive NK Cell Repertoire Correlates with Better Response to NK Cell Immunotherapy in Elderly Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients.

    PubMed

    Curti, Antonio; Ruggeri, Loredana; Parisi, Sarah; Bontadini, Andrea; Dan, Elisa; Motta, Maria Rosa; Rizzi, Simonetta; Trabanelli, Sara; Ocadlikova, Darina; Lecciso, Mariangela; Giudice, Valeria; Fruet, Fiorenza; Urbani, Elena; Papayannidis, Cristina; Martinelli, Giovanni; Bandini, Giuseppe; Bonifazi, Francesca; Lewis, Russell E; Cavo, Michele; Velardi, Andrea; Lemoli, Roberto M

    2016-04-15

    In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), alloreactive natural killer (NK) cells are crucial mediators of immune responses after haploidentical stem cell transplantation. Allogeneic NK cell infusions have been adoptively transferred with promising clinical results. We aimed at determining whether the composition of NK graft in terms of frequency of alloreactive NK cells influence the clinical response in a group of elderly AML patients undergoing NK immunotherapy. Seventeen AML patients, in first complete remission (CR; median age 64 years, range 53-73) received NK cells from haploidentical KIR-ligand-mismatched donors after fludarabine/cyclophosphamide chemotherapy, followed by IL2. To correlate donor NK cell activity with clinical response, donor NK cells were assessed before and after infusion. Toxicity was moderate, although 1 patient died due to bacterial pneumonia and was censored for clinical follow-up. With a median follow-up of 22.5 months (range, 6-68 months), 9 of 16 evaluable patients (0.56) are alive disease-free, whereas 7 of 16 (0.44) relapsed with a median time to relapse of 9 months (range, 3-51 months). All patients treated with molecular disease achieved molecular CR. A significantly higher number of donor alloreactive NK cell clones was observed in responders over nonresponders. The infusion of higher number of alloreactive NK cells was associated with prolonged disease-free survival (0.81 vs. 0.14, respectively;P= 0.03). Infusion of purified NK cells is feasible in elderly AML patients as post-CR consolidation strategy. The clinical efficacy of adoptively transferred haploidentical NK cells may be improved by infusing high numbers of alloreactive NK cells. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. The biology of NK cells and their receptors affects clinical outcomes after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT).

    PubMed

    Foley, Bree; Felices, Martin; Cichocki, Frank; Cooley, Sarah; Verneris, Michael R; Miller, Jeffrey S

    2014-03-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells were first identified for their capacity to reject bone marrow allografts in lethally irradiated mice without prior sensitization. Subsequently, human NK cells were detected and defined by their non-major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted cytotoxicity toward transformed or virally infected target cells. Karre et al. later proposed 'the missing self hypothesis' to explain the mechanism by which self-tolerant cells could kill targets that had lost self MHC class I. Subsequently, the receptors that recognize MHC class I to mediate tolerance in the host were identified on NK cells. These class I-recognizing receptors contribute to the acquisition of function by a dynamic process known as NK cell education or licensing. In the past, NK cells were assumed to be short lived, but more recently NK cells have been shown to mediate immunologic memory to secondary exposures to cytomegalovirus infection. Because of their ability to lyse tumors with aberrant MHC class I expression and to produce cytokines and chemokines upon activation, NK cells may be primed by many stimuli, including viruses and inflammation, to contribute to a graft-versus-tumor effect. In addition, interactions with other immune cells support the therapeutic potential of NK cells to eradicate tumor and to enhance outcomes after hematopoietic cell transplantation.

  17. Functional CD32 molecules on human NK cells.

    PubMed

    Morel, P A; Ernst, L K; Metes, D

    1999-09-01

    Human NK cells are large granular lymphocytes that kill neoplastic or virally infected targets using perforin-dependent mechanisms. CD16 or FcgammaRIII is one of the cell surface molecules that can trigger the killing machinery following binding of the Fc portion of IgG to the receptor: a mechanism known as antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). We have recently shown that some individuals express an additional FcgammaR on their NK cells, CD32 or FcgammaRII. This receptor has now been characterized at the molecular, biochemical and functional level. The present review outlines our findings to date on the features of this novel receptor. These findings suggest that the presence of a functional FcgammaRII on the surface of NK cells could have important clinical consequences in both tumor immunotherapy and autoimmune disease.

  18. Targeting NK-cell checkpoints for cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Muntasell, Aura; Ochoa, Maria C; Cordeiro, Luna; Berraondo, Pedro; López-Díaz de Cerio, Ascension; Cabo, Mariona; López-Botet, Miguel; Melero, Ignacio

    2017-02-22

    Natural Killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes specialized in early defense against virus-infected and transformed cells. NK-cell function is regulated by activating and inhibitory surface receptors recognizing their ligands on transformed cells. Modulation of NK numbers and/or function by a variety of agents such as cytokines and monoclonal antibodies may result in enhanced anti-tumor activity. Recombinant cytokines (i.e., IL-15 and IL-2), antibodies blocking inhibitory receptors (i.e., KIR, NKG2A and TIGIT) and agonists delivering signals via CD137, NKG2D and CD16 stand out as the most suitable opportunities. These agents can be used to potentiate NKcell- mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against antibody-coated tumor cells, offering potential for multiple combinatorial immunotherapy strategies against cancer.

  19. NK Cell–Mediated Antitumor Effects of a Folate-Conjugated Immunoglobulin are Enhanced by Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Kondadasula, SriVidya; Skinner, Cassandra C.; Mundy-Bosse, Bethany L.; Luedke, Eric; Jones, Natalie B.; Mani, Aruna; Roda, Julie; Karpa, Volodymyr; Li, Hong; Li, Jilong; Elavazhagan, Saranya; La Perle, Krista M.; Schmitt, Alessandra C.; Lu, Yanhui; Zhang, Xiaoli; Pan, Xueliang; Mao, Hsaioyin; Davis, Melanie; Jarjoura, David; Butchar, Jonathan P.; Poi, Ming; Phelps, Mitch; Tridandapani, Susheela; Byrd, John C.; Caligiuri, Michael A.; Lee, Robert J.; Carson, William E.

    2016-01-01

    Optimally effective antitumor therapies would not only activate immune effector cells, but engage them at the tumor. Folate-conjugated to immunoglobulin (F-IgG) could direct innate immune cells with Fc receptors to folate receptor–expressing cancer cells. F-IgG bound to human KB and HeLa cells, as well as murine L1210JF, a folate receptor (FR) overexpressing cancer cell line, as determined by flow cytometry. Recognition of F-IgG by NK cell Fc receptors led to phosphorylation of the ERK transcription factor and increased NK cell expression of CD69. Lysis of KB tumor cells by NK cells increased about 5-fold after treatment with F-IgG, an effect synergistically enhanced by treatment with IL2, IL12, IL15, or IL21 (P < 0.001). F-IgG also enhanced the lysis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells by autologous NK cells. NK cells significantly increased production of IFNγ, MIP-1α, and RANTES in response to F-IgG–coated KB target cells in the presence of the NK cell–activating cytokine IL12, and these coculture supernatants induced significant T cell chemotaxis P < 0.001). F-IgG–coated targets also stimulated FcR-mediated monocyte effector functions. Studies in a murine leukemia model confirmed the intratumoral localization and antitumor activity of F-IgG, as well as enhancement of its effects by IL12 (P = 0.05). The antitumor effect of this combination was dependent on NK cells and led to decreased tumor cell proliferation in vivo. Thus, F-IgG can induce an immune response against FR-positive tumor cells that is mediated by NK cells and can be augmented by cytokine therapy. PMID:26865456

  20. Natural Killer (NK) Cell Education Differentially Influences HIV Antibody-Dependent NK Cell Activation and Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Nicole F; Kiani, Zahra; Tremblay-McLean, Alexandra; Kant, Sanket A; Leeks, Christopher E; Dupuy, Franck P

    2017-01-01

    Immunotherapy using broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) endowed with Fc-mediated effector functions has been shown to be critical for protecting or controlling viral replication in animal models. In human, the RV144 Thai trial was the first trial to demonstrate a significant protection against HIV infection following vaccination. Analysis of the correlates of immune protection in this trial identified an association between the presence of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) mediated by immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies (Abs) to HIV envelope (Env) V1/V2 loop structures and protection from infection, provided IgA Abs with competing specificity were not present. Systems serology analyses implicated a broader range of Ab-dependent functions in protection from HIV infection, including but not limited to ADCC and Ab-dependent NK cell activation (ADNKA) for secretion of IFN-γ and CCL4 and expression of the degranulation marker CD107a. The existence of such correlations in the absence of bNAbs in the RV144 trial suggest that NK cells could be instrumental in protecting against HIV infection by limiting viral spread through Fc-mediated functions such as ADCC and the production of antiviral cytokines/chemokines. Beside the engagement of FcγRIIIa or CD16 by the Fc portion of anti-Env IgG1 and IgG3 Abs, natural killer (NK) cells are also able to directly kill infected cells and produce cytokines/chemokines in an Ab-independent manner. Responsiveness of NK cells depends on the integration of activating and inhibitory signals through NK receptors, which is determined by a process during their development known as education. NK cell education requires the engagement of inhibitory NK receptors by their human leukocyte antigen ligands to establish tolerance to self while allowing NK cells to respond to self cells altered by virus infection, transformation, stress, and to allogeneic cells. Here, we review recent findings regarding the impact of inter

  1. Insufficient natural killer cell responses against retroviruses: how to improve NK cell killing of retrovirus-infected cells.

    PubMed

    Littwitz-Salomon, Elisabeth; Dittmer, Ulf; Sutter, Kathrin

    2016-11-08

    Natural killer (NK) cells belong to the innate immune system and protect against cancers and a variety of viruses including retroviruses by killing transformed or infected cells. They express activating and inhibitory receptors on their cell surface and often become activated after recognizing virus-infected cells. They have diverse antiviral effector functions like the release of cytotoxic granules, cytokine production and antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity. The importance of NK cell activity in retroviral infections became evident due to the discovery of several viral strategies to escape recognition and elimination by NK cells. Mutational sequence polymorphisms as well as modulation of surface receptors and their ligands are mechanisms of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 to evade NK cell-mediated immune pressure. In Friend retrovirus infected mice the virus can manipulate molecular or cellular immune factors that in turn suppress the NK cell response. In this model NK cells lack cytokines for optimal activation and can be functionally suppressed by regulatory T cells. However, these inhibitory pathways can be overcome therapeutically to achieve full activation of NK cell responses and ultimately control dissemination of retroviral infection. One effective approach is to modulate the crosstalk between NK cells and dendritic cells, which produce NK cell-stimulating cytokines like type I interferons (IFN), IL-12, IL-15, and IL-18 upon retrovirus sensing or infection. Therapeutic administration of IFNα directly increases NK cell killing of retrovirus-infected cells. In addition, IL-2/anti-IL-2 complexes that direct IL-2 to NK cells have been shown to significantly improve control of retroviral infection by NK cells in vivo. In this review, we describe novel approaches to improve NK cell effector functions in retroviral infections. Immunotherapies that target NK cells of patients suffering from viral infections might be a promising treatment option for the

  2. Murine peripheral NK-cell populations originate from site-specific immature NK cells more than from BM-derived NK cells.

    PubMed

    Pinhas, Nissim; Sternberg-Simon, Michal; Chiossone, Laura; Shahaf, Gitit; Walzer, Thierry; Vivier, Eric; Mehr, Ramit

    2016-05-01

    Murine NK cells can be divided by the expression of two cell surface markers, CD27 and Mac-1 (a.k.a. CD11b), into four separate subsets. These subsets suggest a linear development model: CD27(-) Mac-1(-) → CD27(+) Mac-1(-) → CD27(+) Mac-1(+) → CD27(-) Mac-1(+) . Here, we used a combination of BrdU labeling experiments and mathematical modeling to gain insights regarding NK-cell development in mouse bone marrow (BM), spleen and liver. The modeling results that best fit the experimental data show that the majority of NK cells already express CD27 upon entering the NK-cell developmental pathway. Additionally, only a small fraction of NK cells exit the BM to other sites, suggesting that peripheral NK-cell populations originate from site-specific immature NK cells more than from BM-derived mature NK cells.

  3. NK Cell-derived Exosomes From NK Cells Previously Exposed to Neuroblastoma Cells Augment the Antitumor Activity of Cytokine-activated NK Cells.

    PubMed

    Shoae-Hassani, Alireza; Hamidieh, Amir Ali; Behfar, Maryam; Mohseni, Rashin; Mortazavi-Tabatabaei, Seyed A; Asgharzadeh, Shahab

    2017-09-01

    Immune cell-derived exosomes can increase immunity against tumors. In contrast, tumor-derived exosomes can reduce the immunity and can change the tumor microenvironment to further develop and provide metastasis. These effects take place by an alteration in the innate and adaptive immune cell functions. In this experiment, we studied the natural killer (NK) cells' effectiveness on tumor cells after expansion and thereafter incubated it with exosomes. The exosomes were derived from 2 populations of NK cells: (1) naive NK cells and, (2) NK cells previously exposed to neuroblastoma (NB) cells. Moreover, we have studied the NB-derived exosomes on NK cell function. The molecular load of the characterized exosomes (by means of nanoparticle-tracking analysis, flow cytometry, scanning electron microscopy, and western blot) from NK cells exposed to the NB cell revealed their expression of natural killer cell receptors in addition to CD56, NKG2D, and KIR2DL2 receptors. These exosomes were used to treat NK cells and thereafter administered to NB tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed some kind of NK cells' education by the exosomes. This education from NK cells previously exposed to NB cell-derived exosomes caused efficient and greater cytotoxicity against NB tumors, but NB-derived exosomes act as tumor promoters by providing a tumor supporting niche. Hence, this method of preparing the exosomes has a dramatic effect on activation of anti-NK cells against NB cells.

  4. NK cell-based immunotherapy for malignant diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Min; Chen, Yongyan; Xiao, Weihua; Sun, Rui; Tian, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells play critical roles in host immunity against cancer. In response, cancers develop mechanisms to escape NK cell attack or induce defective NK cells. Current NK cell-based cancer immunotherapy aims to overcome NK cell paralysis using several approaches. One approach uses expanded allogeneic NK cells, which are not inhibited by self histocompatibility antigens like autologous NK cells, for adoptive cellular immunotherapy. Another adoptive transfer approach uses stable allogeneic NK cell lines, which is more practical for quality control and large-scale production. A third approach is genetic modification of fresh NK cells or NK cell lines to highly express cytokines, Fc receptors and/or chimeric tumor-antigen receptors. Therapeutic NK cells can be derived from various sources, including peripheral or cord blood cells, stem cells or even induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and a variety of stimulators can be used for large-scale production in laboratories or good manufacturing practice (GMP) facilities, including soluble growth factors, immobilized molecules or antibodies, and other cellular activators. A list of NK cell therapies to treat several types of cancer in clinical trials is reviewed here. Several different approaches to NK-based immunotherapy, such as tissue-specific NK cells, killer receptor-oriented NK cells and chemically treated NK cells, are discussed. A few new techniques or strategies to monitor NK cell therapy by non-invasive imaging, predetermine the efficiency of NK cell therapy by in vivo experiments and evaluate NK cell therapy approaches in clinical trials are also introduced. PMID:23604045

  5. Proapoptotic Bim regulates antigen-specific NK cell contraction and the generation of the memory NK cell pool after cytomegalovirus infection

    PubMed Central

    Min-Oo, Gundula; Bezman, Natalie A.; Madera, Sharline; Sun, Joseph C.

    2014-01-01

    Apoptosis is critical for the elimination of activated lymphocytes after viral infection. Proapoptotic factor Bim (Bcl2l11) controls T lymphocyte contraction and the formation of memory T cells after infection. Natural killer (NK) cells also undergo antigen-driven expansion to become long-lived memory cells after mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection; therefore, we examined the role of Bim in regulating the MCMV-driven memory NK cell pool. Despite responding similarly early after infection, Bcl2l11−/− Ly49H+ NK cells show impaired contraction and significantly outnumber wild-type (WT) cells after the expansion phase. The inability to reduce the effector pool leads to a larger Bcl2l11−/− NK memory subset, which displays a less mature phenotype (CD11blo, CD27+) and lower levels of NK cell memory-associated markers KLRG1 and Ly6C. Bcl2l11−/− memory NK cells demonstrate a reduced response to m157-mediated stimulation and do not protect as effectively as WT memory NK cells in an MCMV challenge model. Thus, Bim-mediated apoptosis drives selective contraction of effector NK cells to generate a pool of mature, MCMV-specific memory cells. PMID:24958849

  6. Proapoptotic Bim regulates antigen-specific NK cell contraction and the generation of the memory NK cell pool after cytomegalovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Min-Oo, Gundula; Bezman, Natalie A; Madera, Sharline; Sun, Joseph C; Lanier, Lewis L

    2014-06-30

    Apoptosis is critical for the elimination of activated lymphocytes after viral infection. Proapoptotic factor Bim (Bcl2l11) controls T lymphocyte contraction and the formation of memory T cells after infection. Natural killer (NK) cells also undergo antigen-driven expansion to become long-lived memory cells after mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection; therefore, we examined the role of Bim in regulating the MCMV-driven memory NK cell pool. Despite responding similarly early after infection, Bcl2l11(-/-) Ly49H(+) NK cells show impaired contraction and significantly outnumber wild-type (WT) cells after the expansion phase. The inability to reduce the effector pool leads to a larger Bcl2l11(-/-) NK memory subset, which displays a less mature phenotype (CD11b(lo), CD27(+)) and lower levels of NK cell memory-associated markers KLRG1 and Ly6C. Bcl2l11(-/-) memory NK cells demonstrate a reduced response to m157-mediated stimulation and do not protect as effectively as WT memory NK cells in an MCMV challenge model. Thus, Bim-mediated apoptosis drives selective contraction of effector NK cells to generate a pool of mature, MCMV-specific memory cells. © 2014 Min-Oo et al.

  7. An overview of the potential strategies for NK cell-based immunotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Chandrima; Cunningham, Lea C

    2016-12-01

    Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have relatively low survival rates compared to patients with other pediatric cancers. Relapse is frequent with conventional treatment and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Natural killer (NK) cells offer an alternative approach to chemotherapy that combats relapse by substantially eradicating AML blasts. New methods for enhancing NK cell activation and expression of the activating ligand on target malignant cells will increase the likelihood of success with this approach. We review these latest discoveries in NK cell-based therapy for AML and delineate recent advances in sensitizing AML cells to NK cell-mediated immunosurveillance. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Adaptive NK Cells with Low TIGIT Expression Are Inherently Resistant to Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells.

    PubMed

    Sarhan, Dhifaf; Cichocki, Frank; Zhang, Bin; Yingst, Ashley; Spellman, Stephen R; Cooley, Sarah; Verneris, Michael R; Blazar, Bruce R; Miller, Jeffrey S

    2016-10-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV)-induced adaptive natural killer (NK) cells display distinct phenotypic and functional characteristics, including properties of immune memory. We hypothesized that these cells may be more resistant to suppression mediated by immunoregulatory cell subsets, making them attractive for use in cancer therapy. Here we report that relative to conventional NK cells, adaptive NK cells express lower levels of the inhibitory receptor T-cell Ig and ITIM domain (TIGIT), which results in resistance to immune suppression mediated by myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), as derived from cytokine induction in normal blood or patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. In contrast, conventional NK cells were potently suppressed by MDSCs, an effect abrogated completely by TIGIT blockade. Mechanistically, TIGIT signaling in NK cells after MDSC coculture led to a decrease in the phosphorylation of ZAP70/Syk and ERK1/2. These effects were reversed by blocking TIGIT on NK cells or by inhibiting production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by MDSCs, the latter of which upregulated the TIGIT ligand CD155 on MDSCs. Accordingly, the blunted cytotoxicity of NK cells cocultured with MDSCs against tumor cells could be reversed by blocking TIGIT or ROS production. Overall, our results show how adaptive NK cells arising in response to CMV infection can escape MDSC-mediated suppression, and defined TIGIT antagonists as a novel type of checkpoint inhibitor to enhance NK-cell-mediated responses against cancer and infection. Cancer Res; 76(19); 5696-706. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. An NK cell line (haNK) expressing high levels of granzyme and engineered to express the high affinity CD16 allele.

    PubMed

    Jochems, Caroline; Hodge, James W; Fantini, Massimo; Fujii, Rika; Morillon, Y Maurice; Greiner, John W; Padget, Michelle R; Tritsch, Sarah R; Tsang, Kwong Yok; Campbell, Kerry S; Klingemann, Hans; Boissel, Laurent; Rabizadeh, Shahrooz; Soon-Shiong, Patrick; Schlom, Jeffrey

    2016-12-27

    Natural killer (NK) cells are known to play a role in mediating innate immunity, in enhancing adaptive immune responses, and have been implicated in mediating anti-tumor responses via antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) by reactivity of CD16 with the Fc region of human IgG1 antibodies. The NK-92 cell line, derived from a lymphoma patient, has previously been well characterized and adoptive transfer of irradiated NK-92 cells has demonstrated safety and shown preliminary evidence of clinical benefit in cancer patients. The NK-92 cell line, devoid of CD16, has now been engineered to express the high affinity (ha) CD16 V158 FcγRIIIa receptor, as well as engineered to express IL-2; IL-2 has been shown to replenish the granular stock of NK cells, leading to enhanced perforin- and granzyme-mediated lysis of tumor cells. The studies reported here show high levels of granzyme in haNK cells, and demonstrate the effects of irradiation of haNK cells on multiple phenotypic markers, viability, IL-2 production, and lysis of a spectrum of human tumor cells. Studies also compare endogenous irradiated haNK lysis of tumor cells with that of irradiated haNK-mediated ADCC using cetuximab, trastuzumab and pertuzumab monoclonal antibodies. These studies thus provide the rationale for the potential use of irradiated haNK cells in adoptive transfer studies for a range of human tumor types. Moreover, since only approximately 10% of humans are homozygous for the high affinity V CD16 allele, these studies also provide the rationale for the use of irradiated haNK cells in combination with IgG1 anti-tumor monoclonal antibodies.

  10. An NK cell line (haNK) expressing high levels of granzyme and engineered to express the high affinity CD16 allele

    PubMed Central

    Jochems, Caroline; Hodge, James W.; Fantini, Massimo; Fujii, Rika; Maurice, Y. Morillon; Greiner, John W.; Padget, Michelle R.; Tritsch, Sarah R.; Tsang, Kwong Yok; Campbell, Kerry S.; Klingemann, Hans; Boissel, Laurent; Rabizadeh, Shahrooz; Soon-Shiong, Patrick; Schlom, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are known to play a role in mediating innate immunity, in enhancing adaptive immune responses, and have been implicated in mediating anti-tumor responses via antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) by reactivity of CD16 with the Fc region of human IgG1 antibodies. The NK-92 cell line, derived from a lymphoma patient, has previously been well characterized and adoptive transfer of irradiated NK-92 cells has demonstrated safety and shown preliminary evidence of clinical benefit in cancer patients. The NK-92 cell line, devoid of CD16, has now been engineered to express the high affinity (ha) CD16 V158 FcγRIIIa receptor, as well as engineered to express IL-2; IL-2 has been shown to replenish the granular stock of NK cells, leading to enhanced perforin- and granzyme-mediated lysis of tumor cells. The studies reported here show high levels of granzyme in haNK cells, and demonstrate the effects of irradiation of haNK cells on multiple phenotypic markers, viability, IL-2 production, and lysis of a spectrum of human tumor cells. Studies also compare endogenous irradiated haNK lysis of tumor cells with that of irradiated haNK-mediated ADCC using cetuximab, trastuzumab and pertuzumab monoclonal antibodies. These studies thus provide the rationale for the potential use of irradiated haNK cells in adoptive transfer studies for a range of human tumor types. Moreover, since only approximately 10% of humans are homozygous for the high affinity V CD16 allele, these studies also provide the rationale for the use of irradiated haNK cells in combination with IgG1 anti-tumor monoclonal antibodies. PMID:27861156

  11. Evaluation of Functional NK Cell Responses in Vaccinated and SIV-Infected Rhesus Macaques.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Inchaustegui, Diego A; Ying, Olivia; Demberg, Thorsten; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    NK cells are crucial components of the innate immune system due to their capacity to exert rapid cytotoxic and immunomodulatory function in the absence of prior sensitization. NK cells can become activated by exposure to target cells and/or by cytokines produced by antigen-presenting cells. In this study, we examined the effects of a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) vaccine regimen and subsequent SIV infection on the cytotoxic and immunomodulatory functions of circulatory NK cells. While vaccination did not significantly impact the capacity of NK cells to kill MHC-devoid 721.221 target cells, SIV-infection led to a significant decrease in target cell killing. NK cells from uninfected macaques were responsive to a low dose (5 ng/ml) of IL-15 pre-activation, leading to significant increases in their cytotoxic potential, however, NK cells from SIV-infected macaques required a higher dose (50 ng/ml) of IL-15 pre-activation in order to significantly increase their cytotoxic potential. By contrast, no differences were observed in the capacity of NK cells from vaccinated and SIV-infected macaques to respond to IL-12 and IL-18. Similarly, NK cells both before and after infection exhibited equivalent responses to Fc-mediated activation. Collectively, our results show that early SIV-infection impairs the natural cytotoxic capacity of circulatory NK cells without affecting Fc-mediated or cytokine-producing function.

  12. A phenotypic and functional characterization of NK cells in adenoids.

    PubMed

    Mizrahi, Sa'ar; Yefenof, Eitan; Gross, Menahem; Attal, Pierre; Ben Yaakov, Avraham; Goldman-Wohl, Debra; Maly, Bella; Stern, Noam; Katz, Gil; Gazit, Roi; Sionov, Ronit Vogt; Mandelboim, Ofer; Chaushu, Stella

    2007-11-01

    Adenoids are part of the MALT. In the present study, we analyzed cell surface markers and cytolytic activity of adenoidal NK (A-NK) cells and compared them with NK cells derived from blood of the same donors (B-NK). NK cells comprised 0.67% (0.4-1.2%) of the total lymphoid population isolated from adenoids. The majority (median=92%) of the A-NK cells was CD56(bright)CD16(-). A-NK cells were characterized by the increased expression of activation-induced receptors. NKp44 was detected on >60%, CD25 on >40%, and HLA-DR on >50% of freshly isolated A-NK cells. Functional assays indicated that the cytotoxic machinery of A-NK is intact, and sensitive target cells are killed via natural cytotoxicity receptors, such as NKG2D. Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1; CD66) expression was up-regulated in 23% (median) of the A-NK cells by IL-2 activation but unchanged in B-NK cells. CEACAM1 inhibited the A-NK killing of target cells. CXCR4 was expressed on more than 40% A-NK cells prior to activation. Its ligand, CXCL12, was found in endothelial cells of the capillaries within the adenoid and in cells of the epithelial lining. In addition, A-NK cells migrated in vitro toward a gradient of CXCL12 in a dose-responsive manner, suggesting a role for this chemokine in A-NK cell recruitment and trafficking. We conclude that the A-NK cells are unique in that they display an activated-like phenotype and are different from their CD16(-) B-NK cell counterparts. This phenotype presumably reflects the chronic interaction of A-NK cells with antigens penetrating the body through the nasal route.

  13. Expansion of CMV-mediated NKG2C+ NK cells associates with the development of specific de novo malignancies in liver-transplanted patients.

    PubMed

    Achour, Abla; Baychelier, Florence; Besson, Caroline; Arnoux, Armelle; Marty, Michel; Hannoun, Laurent; Samuel, Didier; Debré, Patrice; Vieillard, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Solid cancers are a major adverse outcome of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Although the use of chronic immunosuppression is known to play a role in T cell impairment, recent insights into the specificities of NK cells led us to reassess the potential modulation of this innate immune cell compartment after transplantation. Our extensive phenotypic and functional study reveals that the development of specific de novo noncutaneous tumors post-OLT is linked to unusual NK cell subsets with maturation defects and to uncommon cytokine production associated with the development of specific cancers. Remarkably, in CMV(+) patients, the development de novo head/neck or colorectal tumors is linked to an aberrant expansion of NK cells expressing NKG2C and a high level of intracellular TNF-α, which impact on their polyfunctional capacities. In contrast, NK cells from patients diagnosed with genitourinary tumors possessed a standard immature signature, including high expression of NKG2A and a robust production of IFN-γ. Taken together, our results suggest that under an immunosuppressive environment, the interplay between the modulation of NK repertoire and CMV status may greatly hamper the spectrum of immune surveillance and thus favor outgrowth and the development of specific de novo tumors after OLT.

  14. Myeloma cells resistance to NK cell lysis mainly involves an HLA class I-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Gao, Minjie; Gao, Lu; Yang, Guang; Tao, Yi; Hou, Jun; Xu, Hongwei; Hu, Xiaojing; Han, Ying; Zhang, Qianqiao; Zhan, Fenghuang; Wu, Xiaosong; Shi, Jumei

    2014-07-01

    The anti-multiple myeloma (MM) potential of natural killer (NK) cells has been of rising interest in recent years. However, the molecular mechanism of NK cell cytotoxicity to myeloma cells remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the expressions of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and HLA-G in patient myeloma cells, and determined their relevance in patient tumor-cell susceptibility to NK cell cytotoxicity. Our results showed that patient myeloma cells (n = 12) were relatively resistant to NK-92 cell lysis, compared with myeloma cell lines (n = 7, P < 0.01). Gene expression profiling and flow cytometry analysis showed that both mRNA and protein of HLA class I were highly expressed in 12 patient myeloma cells. Interestingly, no or low HLA-G surface expression was detected, although multiple HLA-G transcripts were detected in these myeloma cells. NK cell function assay showed that down-regulating HLA class I expression on patient cells by acid treatment significantly increased the susceptibility of MM cells to NK-mediated lysis. Furthermore, we found that the blocking of membrane-bound HLA class I rather than HLA-G using antibodies on myeloma samples markedly increased their susceptibility to NK-mediated killing. These results demonstrated that the resistance of patient MM cells to NK lysis mainly involves an HLA class I-dependent mechanism, suggesting that HLA class I may be involved in protecting MM cells from NK-mediated attack and contribute to their immune escape in vivo.

  15. Exogenous activated NK cells enhance trafficking of endogenous NK cells to endometriotic lesions.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, Mary Lourdes; Ferriani, Rui Alberto; Basse, Per H

    2015-08-29

    Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrial glands and stroma at ectopic locations. Although the prevalence of endometriosis is as high as 35%-50%, its pathogenesis remains controversial. An increasing number of studies suggest that changes in immune reactivity may be primarily involved in the development of endometriosis development. In this sense, it has been strongly suggested that a fundamental part of immunologic system, the natural killer cells (NK cells), are an important part of this process. NK cells, a component of the innate immune system, have been extensively studied for their ability to defend the organism against infections and malignancy. Recent studies have shown that IL-2-activated NK (A-NK) cells are able to attack and destroy tumors in lungs and livers of mice, demonstrating the therapeutic potential of these cells. Similarly to metastatic tumor cells, endometrial cells are able to adhere, infiltrate and proliferate at ectopic locations. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the ability of adoptively transferred and endogenous NK cells to infiltrate endometriosis lesions. As NK cells donors were used C57BL/6 B6. PL- Thy 1.1 female mice. As uterine horns donors were used C57/BL6+GFP female mice and as endometriosis recipients C57BL/6 Thy1.2 female mice. Endometriosis induction was made by injection of endometrial tissue fragments. After 4 weeks, necessary for endometriosis lesions establishment the animals were divided in 3 experimental groups with 10 animals each. Group 1 received i.v doses of 5x106 A-NK in 200μl RPMI; Group 2 received i.p dose of 5x106 A-NK in 200μl RPMI and Group 3 received i.p dose of IL2 (0.5 mL RPMI containing 5.000U of IL2). Our data show that exogenous A-NK cells injected via ip combined with endogenous A-NK cells seems to be the most efficient way for activated NK cells track and infiltrate endometriosis. For the first time, it was shown that both endogenous as exogenous A-NK cells are able to track

  16. Uptake of poly-dispersed single-walled carbon nanotubes and decline of functions in mouse NK cells undergoing activation.

    PubMed

    Alam, Anwar; Puri, Niti; Saxena, Rajiv K

    2016-09-01

    The interaction of poly-dispersed acid-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (AF-SWCNT) with NK cells undergoing activation was examined. Exposure to AF-SWCNT during NK activation in vitro by interleukin (IL)-2, and in vivo by Poly(I:C) significantly lowered cytotoxic activity generated against YAC-1 tumor cells. Recoveries of spleen NK1.1(+) cells as well as the activated subset of NK cells (NK1.1(+)CD69(+) cells) were significantly reduced by the AF-SWCNT exposure. The proportion of apoptotic NK cells (NK1.1(+) phosphatidylserine(+)) in the spleen cell preparations activated in vitro was also significantly elevated. Expression levels of CD107a [for assessing NK cell degranulation] as well as of FasL marker [mediating non-secretory pathway of NK cell killing] were significantly lower in cells exposed to AF-SWCNT during the activation phase. Intracellular levels of interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the cells were also significantly reduced. Fluorescent AF-SWCNT (FAF-SWCNT) were internalized by the NK cells and uptake was significantly greater in activated cells. Confocal microscopy indicated the internalized FAF-SWCNT were localized to the cytoplasm of the NK cells. These results indicated that AF-SWCNT were internalized by NK cells and caused a general down-regulation of a variety of parameters associated with NK cell cytotoxicity and other cellular functions.

  17. CD4+ T-cell help enhances NK cell function following therapeutic HIV-1 vaccination.

    PubMed

    Jost, Stephanie; Tomezsko, Phillip John; Rands, Keith; Toth, Ildiko; Lichterfeld, Mathias; Gandhi, Rajesh Tim; Altfeld, Marcus

    2014-08-01

    Increasing data suggest that NK cells can mediate antiviral activity in HIV-1-infected humans, and as such, novel approaches harnessing the anti-HIV-1 function of both T cells and NK cells represent attractive options to improve future HIV-1 immunotherapies. Chronic progressive HIV-1 infection has been associated with a loss of CD4(+) T helper cell function and with the accumulation of anergic NK cells. As several studies have suggested that cytokines produced by CD4(+) T cells are required to enhance NK cell function in various infection models, we hypothesized that reconstitution of HIV-1-specific CD4(+) T-cell responses by therapeutic immunization would restore NK cell activity in infected individuals. Using flow cytometry, we examined the function of CD4(+) T cells and NK cells in response to HIV-1 in subjects with treated chronic HIV-1 infection before and after immunization with an adjuvanted HIV-1 Gp120/NefTat subunit protein vaccine candidate provided by GlaxoSmithKline. Vaccination induced an increased expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2) by Gp120-specific CD4(+) T cells in response to HIV-1 peptides ex vivo, which was associated with enhanced production of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) by NK cells. Our data show that reconstitution of HIV-1-specific CD4(+) T-cell function by therapeutic immunization can enhance NK cell activity in HIV-1-infected individuals. NK cells are effector cells of the innate immune system and are important in the control of viral infection. Recent studies have demonstrated the crucial role played by NK cells in controlling and/or limiting acquisition of HIV-1 infection. However, NK cell function is impaired during progressive HIV-1 infection. We recently showed that therapeutic immunization of treated HIV-1-infected individuals reconstituted strong T-cell responses, measured notably by their production of IL-2, a cytokine that can activate NK cells. The current study suggests that reconstitution of T-cell function by therapeutic

  18. SNPs rs4656317 and rs12071048 located within an enhancer in FCGR3A are in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs396991 and influence NK cell-mediated ADCC by transcriptional regulation.

    PubMed

    Oboshi, Wataru; Watanabe, Toru; Yukimasa, Nobuyasu; Ueno, Ichiro; Aki, Kensaku; Tada, Tomoki; Hosoi, Eiji

    2016-10-01

    CD16 receptors are mainly expresses on the surface of NK cells and mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). The authors previously reported that NK cell-mediated ADCC is influenced by the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs396991 (T>G; F158V), and the structure and expression levels of CD16 differed among these genotypes. The authors examined haplotype frequency distributions among rs396991 and other SNPs, rs10917571 (G>T), rs4656317 (C>G), and rs12071048 (G>A), located in an enhancer of the FCGR3A gene. A total of 101 healthy Japanese were genotyped for the presence of these SNPs. The authors also measured ADCC activity, FCGR3A transcript levels, and surface CD16 expression on NK cells. We found that the regulatory SNPs (rSNPs) rs4656317 and rs12071048 were in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs396991. These two SNPs with major alleles had higher ADCC activity than those with minor alleles. In addition, FCGR3A transcript levels and surface CD16 expression levels were regulated by these SNPs. These findings suggest that NK cell-mediated ADCC could be influenced by transcriptional regulation of these rSNPs. These findings help to clarify our understanding of the linkage disequilibrium among functional SNPs in the FCGR3A gene, and provide a resource for investigating the roles of functional SNPs in NK cell-mediated ADCC. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Combination chemotherapy and IL-15 administration induce permanent tumor regression in a mouse lung tumor model: NK and T cell-mediated effects antagonized by B cells.

    PubMed

    Chapoval, A I; Fuller, J A; Kremlev, S G; Kamdar, S J; Evans, R

    1998-12-15

    Previous studies have demonstrated that IL-15 administration after cyclophosphamide (CY) injection of C57BL/6J mice bearing the i.m. 76-9 rhabdomyosarcoma resulted in a significant prolongation of life. In the present study, we investigated the immune response against the 76-9 experimental lung metastases after CY + IL-15 therapy. Administration of CY + IL-15, but not IL-15 alone, induced prolongation of life and cures in 32% of mice bearing established experimental pulmonary metastases of 76-9 tumor. The CY + IL-15 therapy resulted in increased levels of NK1.1+/LGL-1+ cells, and CD8+/CD44+ T cells in PBL. In vitro cytotoxic assay of PBL indicated the induction of lymphokine-activated killer cell activity, but no evident tumor-specific class I-restricted lytic activity. Survival studies showed that the presence of NK and T lymphocytes is necessary for successful CY + IL-15 therapy. Experiments using knockout mice implied that either alphabeta or gammadelta T cells were required for an antitumor effect induced by CY + IL-15 therapy. However, mice lacking in both alphabeta and gammadelta T cells failed to respond to combination therapy. Cured B6 and alphabeta or gammadelta T cell-deficient mice were immune to rechallenge with 76-9, but not B16LM tumor. B cell-deficient mice showed a significant improvement in the survival rate both after CY and combination CY + IL-15 therapy compared with normal B6 mice. Overall, the data suggest that the interaction of NK cells with tumor-specific alphabeta or gammadelta T lymphocytes is necessary for successful therapy, while B cells appear to suppress the antitumor effects of CY + IL-15 therapy.

  20. CD19-CAR engineered NK-92 cells are sufficient to overcome NK cell resistance in B-cell malignancies.

    PubMed

    Romanski, Annette; Uherek, Christoph; Bug, Gesine; Seifried, Erhard; Klingemann, Hans; Wels, Winfried S; Ottmann, Oliver G; Tonn, Torsten

    2016-07-01

    Many B-cell acute and chronic leukaemias tend to be resistant to killing by natural killer (NK) cells. The introduction of chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) into T cells or NK cells could potentially overcome this resistance. Here, we extend our previous observations on the resistance of malignant lymphoblasts to NK-92 cells, a continuously growing NK cell line, showing that anti-CD19-CAR (αCD19-CAR) engineered NK-92 cells can regain significant cytotoxicity against CD19 positive leukaemic cell lines and primary leukaemia cells that are resistant to cytolytic activity of parental NK-92 cells. The 'first generation' CAR was generated from a scFv (CD19) antibody fragment, coupled to a flexible hinge region, the CD3ζ chain and a Myc-tag and cloned into a retrovirus backbone. No difference in cytotoxic activity of NK-92 and transduced αCD19-CAR NK-92 cells towards CD19 negative targets was found. However, αCD19-CAR NK-92 cells specifically and efficiently lysed CD19 expressing B-precursor leukaemia cell lines as well as lymphoblasts from leukaemia patients. Since NK-92 cells can be easily expanded to clinical grade numbers under current Good Manufactoring Practice (cGMP) conditions and its safety has been documented in several phase I clinical studies, treatment with CAR modified NK-92 should be considered a treatment option for patients with lymphoid malignancies.

  1. Engagement of TLR3, TLR7, and NKG2D regulate IFN-gamma secretion but not NKG2D-mediated cytotoxicity by human NK cells stimulated with suboptimal doses of IL-12.

    PubMed

    Girart, María V; Fuertes, Mercedes B; Domaica, Carolina I; Rossi, Lucas E; Zwirner, Norberto W

    2007-09-15

    NK cells express different TLRs, such as TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9, but little is known about their role in NK cell stimulation. In this study, we used specific agonists (poly(I:C), loxoribine, and synthetic oligonucleotides containing unmethylated CpG sequences to stimulate human NK cells without or with suboptimal doses of IL-12, IL-15, or IFN-alpha, and investigated the secretion of IFN-gamma, cytotoxicity, and expression of the activating receptor NKG2D. Poly(I:C) and loxoribine, in conjunction with IL-12, but not IL-15, triggered secretion of IFN-gamma. Inhibition of IFN-gamma secretion by chloroquine suggested that internalization of the TLR agonists was necessary. Also, secretion of IFN-gamma was dependent on MEK1/ERK, p38 MAPK, p70(S6) kinase, and NF-kappaB, but not on calcineurin. IFN-alpha induced a similar effect, but promoted lesser IFN-gamma secretion. However, cytotoxicity (51Cr release assays) against MHC class I-chain related A (MICA)- and MICA+ tumor targets remained unchanged, as well as the expression of the NKG2D receptor. Excitingly, IFN-gamma secretion was significantly increased when NK cells were stimulated with poly(I:C) or loxoribine and IL-12, and NKG2D engagement was induced by coculture with MICA+ tumor cells in a PI3K-dependent manner. We conclude that resting NK cells secrete high levels of IFN-gamma in response to agonists of TLR3 or TLR7 and IL-12, and this effect can be further enhanced by costimulation through NKG2D. Hence, integration of the signaling cascades that involve TLR3, TLR7, IL-12, and NKG2D emerges as a critical step to promote IFN-gamma-dependent NK cell-mediated effector functions, which could be a strategy to promote Th1-biased immune responses in pathological situations such as cancer.

  2. NK1.1 cells and CD8 T cells mediate the antitumor activity of Cl-IB-MECA in a mouse melanoma model.

    PubMed

    Morello, Silvana; Sorrentino, Rosalinda; Montinaro, Antonella; Luciano, Antonio; Maiolino, Piera; Ngkelo, Anta; Arra, Claudio; Adcock, Ian M; Pinto, Aldo

    2011-04-01

    Cl-IB-MECA, synthetic A(3) adenosine receptor agonist, is a potential anticancer agent. In this study, we have examined the effect of Cl-IB-MECA in a mouse melanoma model. Cl-IB-MECA significantly inhibited tumor growth in immune-competent mice. Notably, the number of tumor-infiltrating NK1.1(+) cells and CD8(+) T cells was significantly increased in Cl-IB-MECA-treated mice. This effect was correlated with high levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interferon γ in melanoma tissue. Depletion of either CD8(+) T cells or NK1.1(+) cells completely abrogated the antitumor effect of Cl-IB-MECA. Accordingly, Cl-IB-MECA did not affect tumor growth in nude mice. In addition, we also found that the number of mature and active conventional dendritic cells at the tumor site was increased after Cl-IB-MECA administration. Moreover, Cl-IB-MECA significantly increased TNF-α and IL-12p40 release from splenic CD11c(+) cells. In conclusion, our study provides novel insights into the mechanism by which Cl-IB-MECA leads to an effective antitumor response that involves the activation of natural killer cells and CD8(+) T cells and further highlights its therapeutic potential.

  3. Suppressive effect of a standardized mistletoe extract on the expression of activatory NK receptors and function of human NK cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Jung; Son, Young-Ok; Kim, Hyunjin; Kim, Joo-Young; Park, Soon-Won; Bae, Jae-Ho; Kim, Hyung Hoi; Lee, Eun-Yup; Chung, Byung-Seon; Kim, Sun-Hee; Kang, Chi-Dug

    2007-09-01

    Despite long-term use of mistletoe extracts for cancer treatment, their mode of action remains elusive. In this study, it was studied in vitro if mistletoe extract is able to modulate the expression of natural cytotoxic receptors (NCRs) and NKG2D receptor, which stimulate natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Unexpectedly, a mistletoe extract, ABNOBA viscum Fraxini, inhibited the expression level of NKp46 and NKG2D receptors in dose- and time-dependent manners. The levels of NKp30 and NKG2D receptors were remarkably induced and NKp44 was slightly induced after 48 h treatment with IL-2 and IL-15 in both mRNA and surface expression. The activatory NK receptors were not induced significantly after treatment with IL-12, IL-18, and IL-21 for 48 h. Induction of activatory NK receptors by IL-2 and IL-15 was suppressed almost to the untreated levels by treatment with mistletoe extract, which appeared to induce apoptosis of NK cells in a dose-dependent manner. However, the treatment with IL-2 and IL-15 did not prevent the mistletoe-induced NK-cell death. Mistletoe extract inhibited significantly the cytotoxic activity of resting and IL-2- or IL-15-stimulated NK cells. These results suggest that inhibition of survival and function of NK cells by mistletoe extract may curtail in part the therapeutic effects of mistletoe.

  4. Broadly impaired NK cell function in non-obese diabetic mice is partially restored by NK cell activation in vivo and by IL-12/IL-18 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Sofia E; Hall, Håkan; Björklund, Jens; Höglund, Petter

    2004-01-01

    NK cells represent a link between innate and adaptive immunity, and may play a role in regulating autoimmune disorders. We have characterized the NK cell population in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. The percentage and absolute numbers of NK cells were similar in NOD and control MHC-matched B6.g7 mice. However, the capacity of NOD NK cells to mediate natural cytotoxicity as well as FcR- and Ly49D-mediated killing was compromised in vitro, suggesting a defect affecting multiple activation pathways. The defect was neither linked to the NK gene complex nor to the MHC, as determined by comparison with mice congenic for these regions. Introducing the beta(2)-microglobulin mutation on the NOD background further impaired NK cell function, showing that the compromised cytotoxic capacity in these two strains arises from two independent mechanisms. In vivo rejection responses against tumor cells and against MHC class I-deficient spleen cells were decreased in naive NOD recipients, but restored in mice pre-activated with tilorone, a potent activator of NK cells. In addition, killing of some tumor targets was restored in vitro after activation of NK cells with IL-12 plus IL-18 or with IFN-alpha/beta, but not with IL-2. Interestingly, natural killing of RMA-S targets by NOD NK cells could not be restored in vitro, indicating that restoration of killing capacity was only partial. Our data suggest a severe, but partially restorable, killing defect in NOD NK cells, affecting activation through several pathways.

  5. Protocol for the clonal analysis of NK cell effector functions by multi-parameter flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Schönberg, Kathrin; Hejazi, Maryam; Uhrberg, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells provide a first line of defense against viral infections and prepare the ground for subsequent action of virus-specific T cells in a concerted way. Human NK cells use a sophisticated system of inhibitory and stimulatory receptors of the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) gene family, which are expressed in a clonally distributed manner. Several studies suggest that KIR play a critical role in NK cell-mediated protection against HCV and HIV infection. As each NK cell expresses an individual set of KIR receptors that enables them to sense differences in HLA class I expression, classical measurement of NK cell function by analysis of target cell killing does not enable one to define and isolate the clinically relevant NK cell effector subsets. Here, we have developed a flow cytometry-based protocol to measure cytolytic activity together with KIR expression at a clonal level. Combined analysis of KIR expression in conjunction with cell surface mobilization of CD107 enables precise enumeration of cytolytic NK cells with defined specificity for HLA class I. Moreover, via inclusion of intracellular perforin or alternatively granzyme B, NK cells with deficient loading of cytotoxic granula can be identified. The present protocol enables identification and isolation of cytotoxic NK cells on a clonal level and enables reliable measurement in healthy as well as in pathological settings such as virus infection and hematological disease.

  6. Combination Immune Therapies to Enhance Anti-Tumor Responses by NK Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mentlik James, Ashley; Cohen, Adam D.; Campbell, Kerry S.

    2013-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are critical innate immune lymphocytes capable of destroying virally infected or cancerous cells through targeted cytotoxicity and further assisting in the immune response by releasing inflammatory cytokines. NK cells are thought to contribute to the process of tumor killing by certain therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAb) by directing antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) through FcγRIIIA (CD16). Numerous therapeutic mAb have been developed that target distinct cancer-specific cell markers and may direct NK cell-mediated ADCC. Recent therapeutic approaches have combined some of these cancer-specific mAb with additional strategies to optimize NK cell cytotoxicity. These include agonistic mAb targeting NK cell activating receptors and mAbs blocking NK cell inhibitory receptors to enhance NK cell functions. Furthermore, several drugs that can potentiate NK cell cytotoxicity through other mechanisms are being used in combination with therapeutic mAb. In this review, we examine the mechanisms employed by several promising agents used in combination therapies that enhance natural or Ab-dependent cytotoxicity of cancer cells by NK cells, with a focus on treatments for leukemia and multiple myeloma. PMID:24391651

  7. The utility of flow cytometry in differentiating NK/T cell lymphoma from indolent and reactive NK cell proliferations.

    PubMed

    de Mel, Sanjay; Li, Jenny Bei; Abid, Muhammad Bilal; Tang, Tiffany; Tay, Hui Ming; Ting, Wen Chang; Poon, Li Mei; Chung, Tae Hoon; Mow, Benjamin; Tso, Allison; Ong, Kiat Hoe; Chng, Wee Joo; Liu, Te Chih

    2017-04-21

    The WHO defines three categories of NK cell malignancies; extra nodal NK/T cell lymphoma (NKTCL), aggressive NK cell leukemia, and the provisional entity chronic lymphoproliferative disorder of NK cells (CLPD-NK). Although the flow cytometric (FC) phenotype of CLPD-NK has been described, studies on FC phenotype of NKTCL are limited. To the best of our knowledge ours is the first study to compare the phenotype of NKTCL, CLPD-NK, reactive NK lymphocytosis (RNKL), and normal NK cells using eight color (8C) FC. Specimens analyzed using the Euroflow8C NK Lymphoproliferative Disorder (NKLPD) panel between 2011 and 2014 were identified from our database. All samples were analyzed on the FACSCantoII cytometer. NK cells were identified as CD45+, smCD3-, CD19-, CD56+ and normal T-cells served as internal controls. The majority of NKTCL were CD56 bright, CD16 dim, CD57-, and CD94+. CLPD-NK and RNKL were predominantly CD56+ or dim with positive expression of CD16 and CD57 and weak CD94 expression. Antigen based statistical analyses showed robust division of samples along the NKTCL/normal CD56 bright NK cell and CLPD-NK/RNKL/normal CD56 positive NK cell groups. It was concluded that FC can reliably distinguish NKTCL from CLPD-NK, normal NK cells of CD56+ phenotype, and RNKL. It was proposed that the typical phenotype for NKTCL is: CD56 bright, CD16 dim with positive CD2, CD7, CD94, HLADR, CD25, CD26, and absent CD57. This resembles the phenotype of the CD56 bright immunoregulatory subset of NK cells which we therefore hypothesize is the cell of origin of NKTCL. © 2017 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2017 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  8. A hematopoietic cell-driven mechanism involving SLAMF6 receptor, SAP adaptors and SHP-1 phosphatase regulates NK cell education.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ning; Zhong, Ming-Chao; Roncagalli, Romain; Pérez-Quintero, Luis-Alberto; Guo, Huaijian; Zhang, Zhanguang; Lenoir, Christelle; Dong, Zhongjun; Latour, Sylvain; Veillette, André

    2016-04-01

    Activation of natural killer (NK) cells by hematopoietic target cells is controlled by the SLAM family of receptors and by the associated SAP family of adaptors. Here we found that SLAM receptors also enhanced NK cell activation by nonhematopoietic target cells, which lack ligands for SLAM receptors. This function was mediated by SLAMF6, a homotypic SLAM receptor found on NK cells and other hematopoietic cells, and was regulated by SAP adaptors, which uncoupled SLAM receptors from phosphatase SHP-1 and diminished the effect of SLAMF6 on NK cell responsiveness toward nonhematopoietic cells. Thus, in addition to their role in NK cell activation by hematopoietic cells, the SLAM-SAP pathways influence responsiveness toward nonhematopoietic targets by a process akin to NK cell 'education'.

  9. Neutralization of (NK-cell-derived) B-cell activating factor by Belimumab restores sensitivity of chronic lymphoid leukemia cells to direct and Rituximab-induced NK lysis.

    PubMed

    Wild, J; Schmiedel, B J; Maurer, A; Raab, S; Prokop, L; Stevanović, S; Dörfel, D; Schneider, P; Salih, H R

    2015-08-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes that substantially contribute to the therapeutic benefit of antitumor antibodies like Rituximab, a crucial component in the treatment of B-cell malignancies. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the ability of NK cells to lyse the malignant cells and to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity upon Fc receptor stimulation is compromised, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unclear. We report here that NK-cells activation-dependently produce the tumor necrosis factor family member 'B-cell activating factor' (BAFF) in soluble form with no detectable surface expression, also in response to Fc receptor triggering by therapeutic CD20-antibodies. BAFF in turn enhanced the metabolic activity of primary CLL cells and impaired direct and Rituximab-induced lysis of CLL cells without affecting NK reactivity per se. The neutralizing BAFF antibody Belimumab, which is approved for treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus, prevented the effects of BAFF on the metabolism of CLL cells and restored their susceptibility to direct and Rituximab-induced NK-cell killing in allogeneic and autologous experimental systems. Our findings unravel the involvement of BAFF in the resistance of CLL cells to NK-cell antitumor immunity and Rituximab treatment and point to a benefit of combinatory approaches employing BAFF-neutralizing drugs in B-cell malignancies.

  10. Lenalidomide augments actin remodeling and lowers NK-cell activation thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Lagrue, Kathryn; Carisey, Alex; Morgan, David J.; Chopra, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    As multiple myeloma (MM) progresses, natural killer (NK)-cell responses decline against malignant plasma cells. The immunomodulatory drug lenalidomide is widely used for treatment of MM but its influence on NK-cell biology is unclear. Here, we report that lenalidomide lowers the threshold for NK-cell activation, causing a 66% decrease in the 50% effective concentration (EC50) for activation through CD16, and a 38% decrease in EC50 for NK group 2 member D (NKG2D)–mediated activation, allowing NK cells to respond to lower doses of ligand. In addition, lenalidomide augments NK-cell responses, causing a twofold increase in the proportion of primary NK cells producing interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and a 20-fold increase in the amount of IFN-γ produced per cell. Importantly, lenalidomide did not trigger IFN-γ production in unstimulated NK cells. Thus, lenalidomide enhances the NK-cell arm of the immune response, without activating NK cells inappropriately. Of particular clinical importance, lenalidomide also allowed NK cells to be activated by lower doses of rituximab, an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (mAb) widely used to treat B-cell malignancies. This supports combined use of lenalidomide and rituximab in a clinical setting. Finally, superresolution microscopy revealed that lenalidomide increased the periodicity of cortical actin at immune synapses, resulting in an increase in the area of the actin mesh predicted to be penetrable to vesicles containing IFN-γ. NK cells from MM patients also responded to lenalidomide in this way. This indicates that nanometer-scale rearrangements in cortical actin, a recently discovered step in immune synapse assembly, are a potential new target for therapeutic compounds. PMID:26002964

  11. Lenalidomide augments actin remodeling and lowers NK-cell activation thresholds.

    PubMed

    Lagrue, Kathryn; Carisey, Alex; Morgan, David J; Chopra, Rajesh; Davis, Daniel M

    2015-07-02

    As multiple myeloma (MM) progresses, natural killer (NK)-cell responses decline against malignant plasma cells. The immunomodulatory drug lenalidomide is widely used for treatment of MM but its influence on NK-cell biology is unclear. Here, we report that lenalidomide lowers the threshold for NK-cell activation, causing a 66% decrease in the 50% effective concentration (EC50) for activation through CD16, and a 38% decrease in EC50 for NK group 2 member D (NKG2D)-mediated activation, allowing NK cells to respond to lower doses of ligand. In addition, lenalidomide augments NK-cell responses, causing a twofold increase in the proportion of primary NK cells producing interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and a 20-fold increase in the amount of IFN-γ produced per cell. Importantly, lenalidomide did not trigger IFN-γ production in unstimulated NK cells. Thus, lenalidomide enhances the NK-cell arm of the immune response, without activating NK cells inappropriately. Of particular clinical importance, lenalidomide also allowed NK cells to be activated by lower doses of rituximab, an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (mAb) widely used to treat B-cell malignancies. This supports combined use of lenalidomide and rituximab in a clinical setting. Finally, superresolution microscopy revealed that lenalidomide increased the periodicity of cortical actin at immune synapses, resulting in an increase in the area of the actin mesh predicted to be penetrable to vesicles containing IFN-γ. NK cells from MM patients also responded to lenalidomide in this way. This indicates that nanometer-scale rearrangements in cortical actin, a recently discovered step in immune synapse assembly, are a potential new target for therapeutic compounds.

  12. Influenza Virus Targets Class I MHC-Educated NK Cells for Immunoevasion.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Ahmad Bakur; Tu, Megan M; Wight, Andrew; Zein, Haggag S; Rahim, Mir Munir A; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Sekhon, Harman S; Brown, Earl G; Makrigiannis, Andrew P

    2016-02-01

    The immune response to influenza virus infection comprises both innate and adaptive defenses. NK cells play an early role in the destruction of tumors and virally-infected cells. NK cells express a variety of inhibitory receptors, including those of the Ly49 family, which are functional homologs of human killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR). Like human KIR, Ly49 receptors inhibit NK cell-mediated lysis by binding to major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules that are expressed on normal cells. During NK cell maturation, the interaction of NK cell inhibitory Ly49 receptors with their MHC-I ligands results in two types of NK cells: licensed ("functional"), or unlicensed ("hypofunctional"). Despite being completely dysfunctional with regard to rejecting MHC-I-deficient cells, unlicensed NK cells represent up to half of the mature NK cell pool in rodents and humans, suggesting an alternative role for these cells in host defense. Here, we demonstrate that after influenza infection, MHC-I expression on lung epithelial cells is upregulated, and mice bearing unlicensed NK cells (Ly49-deficient NKCKD and MHC-I-deficient B2m-/- mice) survive the infection better than WT mice. Importantly, transgenic expression of an inhibitory self-MHC-I-specific Ly49 receptor in NKCKD mice restores WT influenza susceptibility, confirming a direct role for Ly49. Conversely, F(ab')2-mediated blockade of self-MHC-I-specific Ly49 inhibitory receptors protects WT mice from influenza virus infection. Mechanistically, perforin-deficient NKCKD mice succumb to influenza infection rapidly, indicating that direct cytotoxicity is necessary for unlicensed NK cell-mediated protection. Our findings demonstrate that Ly49:MHC-I interactions play a critical role in influenza virus pathogenesis. We suggest a similar role may be conserved in human KIR, and their blockade may be protective in humans.

  13. Repression of GSK3 restores NK cell cytotoxicity in AML patients.

    PubMed

    Parameswaran, Reshmi; Ramakrishnan, Parameswaran; Moreton, Stephen A; Xia, Zhiqiang; Hou, Yongchun; Lee, Dean A; Gupta, Kalpana; deLima, Marcos; Beck, Rose C; Wald, David N

    2016-04-04

    Natural killer cells from acute myeloid leukaemia patients (AML-NK) show a dramatic impairment in cytotoxic activity. The exact reasons for this dysfunction are not fully understood. Here we show that the glycogen synthase kinase beta (GSK3β) expression is elevated in AML-NK cells. Interestingly, GSK3 overexpression in normal NK cells impairs their ability to kill AML cells, while genetic or pharmacological GSK3 inactivation enhances their cytotoxic activity. Mechanistic studies reveal that the increased cytotoxic activity correlates with an increase in AML-NK cell conjugates. GSK3 inhibition promotes the conjugate formation by upregulating LFA expression on NK cells and by inducing ICAM-1 expression on AML cells. The latter is mediated by increased NF-κB activation in response to TNF-α production by NK cells. Finally, GSK3-inhibited NK cells show significant efficacy in human AML mouse models. Overall, our work provides mechanistic insights into the AML-NK dysfunction and a potential NK cell therapy strategy.

  14. Control of Metastasis by NK Cells.

    PubMed

    López-Soto, Alejandro; Gonzalez, Segundo; Smyth, Mark J; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2017-08-14

    The metastatic spread of malignant cells to distant anatomical locations is a prominent cause of cancer-related death. Metastasis is governed by cancer-cell-intrinsic mechanisms that enable neoplastic cells to invade the local microenvironment, reach the circulation, and colonize distant sites, including the so-called epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Moreover, metastasis is regulated by microenvironmental and systemic processes, such as immunosurveillance. Here, we outline the cancer-cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic factors that regulate metastasis, discuss the key role of natural killer (NK) cells in the control of metastatic dissemination, and present potential therapeutic approaches to prevent or target metastatic disease by harnessing NK cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Phenotypic profile of expanded NK cells in chronic lymphoproliferative disorders: a surrogate marker for NK-cell clonality.

    PubMed

    Bárcena, Paloma; Jara-Acevedo, María; Tabernero, María Dolores; López, Antonio; Sánchez, María Luz; García-Montero, Andrés C; Muñoz-García, Noemí; Vidriales, María Belén; Paiva, Artur; Lecrevisse, Quentin; Lima, Margarida; Langerak, Anton W; Böttcher, Sebastian; van Dongen, Jacques J M; Orfao, Alberto; Almeida, Julia

    2015-12-15

    Currently, the lack of a universal and specific marker of clonality hampers the diagnosis and classification of chronic expansions of natural killer (NK) cells. Here we investigated the utility of flow cytometric detection of aberrant/altered NK-cell phenotypes as a surrogate marker for clonality, in the diagnostic work-up of chronic lymphoproliferative disorders of NK cells (CLPD-NK). For this purpose, a large panel of markers was evaluated by multiparametric flow cytometry on peripheral blood (PB) CD56(low) NK cells from 60 patients, including 23 subjects with predefined clonal (n = 9) and polyclonal (n = 14) CD56(low) NK-cell expansions, and 37 with CLPD-NK of undetermined clonality; also, PB samples from 10 healthy adults were included. Clonality was established using the human androgen receptor (HUMARA) assay. Clonal NK cells were found to show decreased expression of CD7, CD11b and CD38, and higher CD2, CD94 and HLADR levels vs. normal NK cells, together with a restricted repertoire of expression of the CD158a, CD158b and CD161 killer-associated receptors. In turn, NK cells from both clonal and polyclonal CLPD-NK showed similar/overlapping phenotypic profiles, except for high and more homogeneous expression of CD94 and HLADR, which was restricted to clonal CLPD-NK. We conclude that the CD94(hi)/HLADR+ phenotypic profile proved to be a useful surrogate marker for NK-cell clonality.

  16. Phenotypic profile of expanded NK cells in chronic lymphoproliferative disorders: a surrogate marker for NK-cell clonality

    PubMed Central

    Bárcena, Paloma; Jara-Acevedo, María; Tabernero, María Dolores; López, Antonio; Sánchez, María Luz; García-Montero, Andrés C.; Muñoz-García, Noemí; Vidriales, María Belén; Paiva, Artur; Lecrevisse, Quentin; Lima, Margarida; Langerak, Anton W.; Böttcher, Sebastian; van Dongen, Jacques J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the lack of a universal and specific marker of clonality hampers the diagnosis and classification of chronic expansions of natural killer (NK) cells. Here we investigated the utility of flow cytometric detection of aberrant/altered NK-cell phenotypes as a surrogate marker for clonality, in the diagnostic work-up of chronic lymphoproliferative disorders of NK cells (CLPD-NK). For this purpose, a large panel of markers was evaluated by multiparametric flow cytometry on peripheral blood (PB) CD56low NK cells from 60 patients, including 23 subjects with predefined clonal (n = 9) and polyclonal (n = 14) CD56low NK-cell expansions, and 37 with CLPD-NK of undetermined clonality; also, PB samples from 10 healthy adults were included. Clonality was established using the human androgen receptor (HUMARA) assay. Clonal NK cells were found to show decreased expression of CD7, CD11b and CD38, and higher CD2, CD94 and HLADR levels vs. normal NK cells, together with a restricted repertoire of expression of the CD158a, CD158b and CD161 killer-associated receptors. In turn, NK cells from both clonal and polyclonal CLPD-NK showed similar/overlapping phenotypic profiles, except for high and more homogeneous expression of CD94 and HLADR, which was restricted to clonal CLPD-NK. We conclude that the CD94hi/HLADR+ phenotypic profile proved to be a useful surrogate marker for NK-cell clonality. PMID:26556869

  17. Perturbation of NK cell peripheral homeostasis accelerates prostate carcinoma metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gang; Lu, Shengjun; Wang, Xuanjun; Page, Stephanie T.; Higano, Celestia S.; Plymate, Stephen R.; Greenberg, Norman M.; Sun, Shaoli; Li, Zihai; Wu, Jennifer D.

    2013-01-01

    The activating receptor NK cell group 2 member D (NKG2D) mediates antitumor immunity in experimental animal models. However, whether NKG2D ligands contribute to tumor suppression or progression clinically remains controversial. Here, we have described 2 novel lines of “humanized” bi-transgenic (bi-Tg) mice in which native human NKG2D ligand MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence B (MICB) or the engineered membrane-restricted MICB (MICB.A2) was expressed in the prostate of the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model of spontaneous carcinogenesis. Bi-Tg TRAMP/MICB mice exhibited a markedly increased incidence of progressed carcinomas and metastasis, whereas TRAMP/MICB.A2 mice enjoyed long-term tumor-free survival conferred by sustained NKG2D-mediated antitumor immunity. Mechanistically, we found that cancer progression in TRAMP/MICB mice was associated with loss of the peripheral NK cell pool owing to high serum levels of tumor-derived soluble MICB (sMICB). Prostate cancer patients also displayed reduction of peripheral NK cells and high sMIC levels. Our study has not only provided direct evidence in “humanized” mouse models that soluble and membrane-restricted NKG2D ligands pose opposite impacts on cancer progression, but also uncovered a mechanism of sMIC-induced impairment of NK cell antitumor immunity. Our findings suggest that the impact of soluble NKG2D ligands should be considered in NK cell–based cancer immunotherapy and that our unique mouse models should be valuable for therapy optimization. PMID:24018560

  18. Location and cellular stages of NK cell development

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jianhua; Freud, Aharon G.; Caligiuri, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    The identification of distinct tissue-specific natural killer (NK) cell populations that apparently mature from local precursor populations has brought new insight into the diversity and developmental regulation of this important lymphoid subset. NK cells provide a necessary link between the early (innate) and late (adaptive) immune responses to infection. Gaining a better understanding of the processes that govern NK cell development should allow us to better harness NK cell functions in multiple clinical settings as well as to gain further insight into how these cells undergo malignant transformation. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding sites and cellular stages of NK cell development in humans and mice. PMID:24055329

  19. Dysregulation of regulatory CD56(bright) NK cells/T cells interactions in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Laroni, Alice; Armentani, Eric; Kerlero de Rosbo, Nicole; Ivaldi, Federico; Marcenaro, Emanuela; Sivori, Simona; Gandhi, Roopali; Weiner, Howard L; Moretta, Alessandro; Mancardi, Giovanni L; Uccelli, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Recent evidence has shown that CD56(bright) NK cells, a subset of NK cells abundant in lymph nodes, may have an immunoregulatory function. In multiple sclerosis (MS), expansion of CD56(bright) NK cells has been associated to successful response to different treatments and to remission of disease during pregnancy; how whether they exert immunoregulation in physiologic conditions and whether this is impaired in MS is not known. We dissected the immunoregulatory role of CD56(bright) NK cells function in healthy subjects (HS) and compared it with that of untreated MS subjects or patients with clinically isolated syndrome suggestive of MS (CIS). We found that CD56(bright) NK cells from HS acquire, upon inflammatory cues, the capability of suppressing autologous CD4+T cell proliferation through direct cytotoxicity requiring engagement of natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs) and secretion of granzyme B. CD56(bright) NK cells from patients with MS/CIS did not differ in frequency and share a similar phenotype but displayed a significantly lower ability to inhibit autologous T cell proliferation. This impairment was not related to deficient expression of NCRs or granzyme B by CD56(bright) NK cells, but to increased HLA-E expression on T cells from MS/CIS subjects, which could enhance the inhibitory effect mediated by NKG2A that is homogeneously expressed on CD56(bright) NK cells. The defect in controlling autologous T cells by CD56(bright) NK cells in MS/CIS might contribute to the excess of autoimmune response that is associated to disease development. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Tumor-Associated Monocytes/Macrophages Impair NK-Cell Function via TGFβ1 in Human Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Peng, Liu-Sheng; Zhang, Jin-Yu; Teng, Yong-Sheng; Zhao, Yong-Liang; Wang, Ting-Ting; Mao, Fang-Yuan; Lv, Yi-Pin; Cheng, Ping; Li, Wen-Hua; Chen, Na; Duan, Mubing; Chen, Weisan; Guo, Gang; Zou, Quan-Ming; Zhuang, Yuan

    2017-03-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are a major component of the host antitumor immune response in human cancer. However, the nature, functional regulation, and clinical relevance of NK cells in gastric cancer remain largely unknown. In this study, we showed that the percentages of NK cells in tumors were significantly decreased, and low percentages of tumor-infiltrating NK cells were positively correlated with poor survival and disease progression. Although the expression of activating and inhibitory receptors on NK cells was shown to be not different between tumor and nontumor tissues, NK cells in tumors had impaired effector functions, characterized by decreased IFNγ, TNFα, and Ki-67 expression. We found that tumor-infiltrating monocytes/macrophages were physically close to NK cells, and their percentages negatively correlated with IFNγ(+) and TNFα(+) NK-cell percentages. Ex vivo study showed that isolated tumor-associated monocytes/macrophages could impair NK-cell expression of IFNγ, TNFα, and Ki-67. Blockade of TGFβ1 attenuated such monocytes/macrophages-mediated impairment of NK-cell function. Our data suggest that human NK-cell function was impaired by tumor-associated monocytes/macrophages, and that restoring NK-cell function may be an important therapeutic strategy to prevent tumor immune escape in gastric cancer. Cancer Immunol Res; 5(3); 248-56. ©2017 AACR.

  1. Human immunodeficiency-causing mutation defines CD16 in spontaneous NK cell cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Grier, Jennifer T; Forbes, Lisa R; Monaco-Shawver, Linda; Oshinsky, Jennifer; Atkinson, T Prescott; Moody, Curtis; Pandey, Rahul; Campbell, Kerry S; Orange, Jordan S

    2012-10-01

    The Fc receptor on NK cells, FcγRIIIA (CD16), has been extensively studied for its role in mediating antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). A homozygous missense mutation in CD16 (encoding a L66H substitution) is associated with severe herpesvirus infections in rare patients. Here, we identified a new patient with this CD16 mutation and compared the patient's NK cells to those of the originally reported patient. Patients with the L66H mutation had intact ADCC, but deficient spontaneous NK cell cytotoxicity and decreased surface expression of CD2, a coactivation receptor. Mechanistic studies in a human NK cell line, NK-92, demonstrated that CD16 expression correlated with CD2 surface levels and enabled killing of a melanoma cell line typically resistant to CD16-deficient NK-92 cells. An association between CD16 and CD2 was identified biochemically and at the immunological synapse, which elicited CD16 signaling after CD2 engagement. Stable expression of CD16 L66H in NK-92 cells recapitulated the patient phenotype, abrogating association of CD16 with CD2 as well as CD16 signaling after CD2 ligation. Thus, CD16 serves a role in NK cell-mediated spontaneous cytotoxicity through a specific association with CD2 and represents a potential mechanism underlying a human congenital immunodeficiency.

  2. Tricking the balance: NK cells in anti-cancer immunity.

    PubMed

    Pahl, Jens; Cerwenka, Adelheid

    2017-01-01

    Natural Killer (NK) cells are classically considered innate immune effector cells involved in the first line of defense against infected and malignant cells. More recently, NK cells have emerged to acquire properties of adaptive immunity in response to certain viral infections such as expansion of specific NK cell subsets and long-lasting virus-specific responses to secondary challenges. NK cells distinguish healthy cells from abnormal cells by measuring the net input of activating and inhibitory signals perceived from target cells through NK cell surface receptors. Acquisition of activating ligands in combination with reduced expression of MHC class I molecules on virus-infected and cancer cells activates NK cell cytotoxicity and release of immunostimulatory cytokines like IFN-γ. In the cancer microenvironment however, NK cells become functionally impaired by inhibitory factors produced by immunosuppressive immune cells and cancer cells. Here we review recent progress on the role of NK cells in cancer immunity. We describe regulatory factors of the tumor microenvironment on NK cell function which determine cancer cell destruction or escape from immune recognition. Finally, recent strategies that focus on exploiting NK cell anti-cancer responses for immunotherapeutic approaches are outlined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. KIR3DS1-Mediated Recognition of HLA-*B51: Modulation of KIR3DS1 Responsiveness by Self HLA-B Allotypes and Effect on NK Cell Licensing

    PubMed Central

    Carlomagno, Simona; Falco, Michela; Bono, Maria; Alicata, Claudia; Garbarino, Lucia; Mazzocco, Michela; Moretta, Lorenzo; Moretta, Alessandro; Sivori, Simona

    2017-01-01

    Several studies described an association between killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR)/HLA gene combinations and clinical outcomes in various diseases. In particular, an important combined role for KIR3DS1 and HLA-B Bw4-I80 in controlling viral infections and a higher protection against leukemic relapses in donor equipped with activating KIRs in haplo-HSCT has been described. Here, we show that KIR3DS1 mediates positive signals upon recognition of HLA-B*51 (Bw4-I80) surface molecules on target cells and that this activation occurs only in Bw4-I80neg individuals, including those carrying particular KIR/HLA combination settings. In addition, killing of HLA-B*51 transfected target cells mediated by KIR3DS1+/NKG2A+ natural killer (NK) cell clones from Bw4-I80neg donors could be partially inhibited by antibody-mediated masking of KIR3DS1. Interestingly, KIR3DS1-mediated recognition of HLA-B*51 could be better appreciated under experimental conditions in which the function of NKG2D was reduced by mAb-mediated blocking. This experimental approach may mimic the compromised function of NKG2D occurring in certain viral infections. We also show that, in KIR3DS1+/NKG2A+ NK cell clones derived from an HLA-B Bw4-T80 donor carrying 2 KIR3DS1 gene copy numbers, the positive signal generated by the engagement of KIR3DS1 by HLA-B*51 resulted in a more efficient killing of HLA-B*51-transfected target cells. Moreover, in these clones, a direct correlation between KIR3DS1 and NKG2D surface density was detected, while the expression of NKp46 was inversely correlated with that of KIR3DS1. Finally, we analyzed KIR3DS1+/NKG2A+ NK cell clones from a HLA-B Bw4neg donor carrying cytoplasmic KIR3DL1. Although these clones expressed lower levels of surface KIR3DS1, they displayed responses comparable to those of NK cell clones derived from HLA-B Bw4neg donors that expressed surface KIR3DL1. Altogether these data suggest that, in particular KIR/HLA combinations, KIR3DS1 may play a role

  4. Effect of tumor cells and tumor microenvironment on NK-cell function.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Massimo; Cantoni, Claudia; Pietra, Gabriella; Mingari, Maria Cristina; Moretta, Lorenzo

    2014-06-01

    The ability of tumors to manage an immune-mediated attack has been recently included in the "next generation" of cancer hallmarks. In solid tumors, the microenvironment that is generated during the first steps of tumor development has a pivotal role in immune regulation. An intricate net of cross-interactions occurring between tumor components, stromal cells, and resident or recruited immune cells skews the possible acute inflammatory response toward an aberrant ineffective chronic inflammatory status that favors the evasion from the host's defenses. Natural killer (NK) cells have powerful cytotoxic activity, but their activity may be eluded by the tumor microenvironment. Immunosubversion, immunoediting or immunoselection of poorly immunogenic tumor cells and interference with tumor infiltration play a major role in evading NK-cell responses to tumors. Tumor cells, tumor-associated fibroblasts and tumor-induced aberrant immune cells (i.e. tolerogenic or suppressive macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells) can interfere with NK-cell activation pathways or the complex receptor array that regulate NK-cell activation and antitumor activity. Thus, the definition of tumor microenvironment-related immunosuppressive factors, along with the identification of new classes of tissue-residing NK-like innate lymphoid cells, represent key issues to design effective NK-cell-based therapies of solid tumors.

  5. Zika virus escapes NK cell detection by upregulating MHC class I molecules.

    PubMed

    Glasner, Ariella; Oiknine-Djian, Esther; Weisblum, Yiska; Diab, Mohammad; Panet, Amos; Wolf, Dana G; Mandelboim, Ofer

    2017-09-06

    NK cells are innate lymphocytes that participate in many immune processes encompassing cancer, bacterial and fungal infection, autoimmunity and even pregnancy and are specialize in anti-viral defense. NK cells express inhibitory and activating receptors and kill their targets when activating signals overpower the inhibitory ones. The NK cell inhibitory receptors compose of a uniquely diverse array of proteins named Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) the CD94 family and the leukocyte immunoglobulin like receptor family (LIR). The NK inhibitory receptors recognize mostly MHC class I proteins. Zika virus has recently emerged as a major threat due to its association with birth defects and its pandemic potential. How Zika virus interacts with the immune system, especially with NK cells is unclear. Here we show that Zika virus infection is barely sensed by NK cells, as little or no increase in the expression of activating NK cell ligands was observed. In contrast, we demonstrate that Zika virus infection leads to the upregulation of MHC class I proteins and consequently to inhibition of NK cell killing. Mechanistically, we show that the upregulation of MHC class I occurs via the RIGI-IRF3 pathway, and is mediated via IFNβ. Potentially, countering MHC class I upregulation during Zika virus infection could be used as a prophylactic treatment against Zika virus.IMPORTANCE NK cells are innate lymphocytes, which recognize and eliminate various pathogens, and are mostly known for their role in controlling viral infections. NK cells express inhibitory and activating receptors and kill or spare their targets based on integration of inhibitory and activating signals. Zika virus has recently emerged as a major threat to humans due to its pandemic potential and association with birth defects. The role of NK cells in Zika virus infection is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that Zika virus infection is almost undetected by NK cells, as expression of activating

  6. IκBζ augments IL-12– and IL-18–mediated IFN-γ production in human NK cells

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Yashaswini; Yu, Jianhua; Raices, Raquel M.; Seshadri, Sudarshan; Wei, Min; Caligiuri, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production by natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic lymphocytes is a key component of innate and adaptive immune responses. Because inhibitor of κB-ζ (IκBζ), a Toll-like receptor (TLR)/interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) inducible transcription factor, regulates IFN-γ production in KG-1 cells, we tested IκBζ's role in the classic lymphocyte pathway of IL-12/IL-18–induced IFN-γ. Upon stimulation with IL-12/IL-18, monocyte-depleted human peripheral blood lymphocytes expressed the 79-kDa form of IκBζ and released IFN-γ. CD56+ NK cells were shown to be the IκBζ-producing lymphocyte subpopulation, which also released abundant IFN-γ in response to IL-12/IL-18. Importantly, IκBζ was undetectable in CD56− lymphocytes where IFN-γ release was 10-fold lower. In addition, small interfering RNA knockdown of IκBζ suppressed IFN-γ expression in CD56+ cells. The association of IκBζ with the IFN-γ promoter was documented by chromatin immunoprecipitation. IFN-γ promoter activity from IκBζ overexpression was confirmed by luciferase reporter assay. Finally, IκBζ coprecipitated with p65 and p50 NF-κB in NK cells in response to IL-12/IL-18, suggesting that IκBζ's effects on IFN-γ promoter activity are coregulated by NF-κB. These results suggest that IκBζ functions as an important regulator of IFN-γ in human NK cells, further expanding the class of IκBζ-modulated genes. PMID:21224476

  7. Teach Your NK Cells Well.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Megan A

    2016-08-16

    Natural killer cells readily kill target cells, and education ensures tolerance to self. In this issue of Immunity, Boudreau et al. (2016) and Chen et al. (2016) report new mechanisms of human and mouse natural killer cell education by inhibitory and activating receptors.

  8. CALGB 150905 (Alliance): Rituximab broadens the anti-lymphoma response by activating unlicensed NK cells

    PubMed Central

    Du, Juan; Lopez-Verges, Sandra; Pitcher, Brandelyn N.; Johnson, Jeffrey; Jung, Sin-Ho; Zhou, Lili; Hsu, Katharine; Czuczman, Myron S.; Cheson, Bruce; Kaplan, Lawrence; Lanier, Lewis L.; Venstrom, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells contribute to clinical responses in patients treated with rituximab, but the rules determining NK cell responsiveness to mAb therapies are poorly defined. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms responsible for antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) could yield useful biomarkers for predicting clinical responses in patients. Unlicensed NK cells, defined as NK cells lacking expression of an inhibitory KIR for self-HLA class I ligands, are hypo-responsive in steady-state, but are potent effectors in inflammatory conditions. We hypothesized that antitumor antibodies such as rituximab can overcome NK cell dependence on licensing, making unlicensed NK cells important for clinical responses. Here we examined the influences of variations in KIR and HLA class I alleles on in vitro responses to rituximab. We tested the clinical significance in a cohort of follicular lymphoma patients treated with rituximab-containing mAb combinations and show that rituximab triggers responses from all NK cell populations regardless of licensing. Neither IL-2 nor accessory cells are required for activating unlicensed NK cells, but both can augment rituximab-mediated ADCC. Moreover, in 101 follicular lymphoma patients treated with rituximab-containing mAb combinations, a “missing ligand” genotype (predictive of unlicensed NK cells) is associated with higher progression-free survival. Our data suggest that the clinical efficacy of rituximab may be driven, in part, by its ability to broaden the NK cell repertoire to include previously hypo-responsive, unlicensed NK cells. A “missing ligand” KIR and HLA class I genotype may be predictive of this benefit, and useful for personalizing treatment decisions in lymphomas and other tumors. PMID:24958280

  9. GVHD prevents NK-cell-dependent leukemia and virus-specific innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Bunting, Mark D; Varelias, Antiopi; Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes, Fernando; Schuster, Iona S; Lineburg, Katie E; Kuns, Rachel D; Fleming, Peter; Locke, Kelly R; Huntington, Nicholas D; Blazar, Bruce R; Lane, Steven W; Tey, Siok-Keen; MacDonald, Kelli P A; Smyth, Mark J; Degli-Esposti, Mariapia A; Hill, Geoffrey R

    2017-02-02

    Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT) is a curative therapy for hematological malignancies, but is associated with significant complications, principally graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and opportunistic infections. Natural killer (NK) cells mediate important innate immunity that provides a temporal bridge until the reconstruction of adaptive immunity. Here, we show that the development of GVHD after allo-BMT prevented NK-cell reconstitution, particularly within the maturing M1 and M2 NK-cell subsets in association with exaggerated activation, apoptosis, and autophagy. Donor T cells were critical in this process by limiting the availability of interleukin 15 (IL-15), and administration of IL-15/IL-15Rα or immune suppression with rapamycin could restore NK-cell reconstitution. Importantly, the NK-cell defect induced by GVHD resulted in the failure of NK-cell-dependent in vivo cytotoxicity and graft-versus-leukemia effects. Control of cytomegalovirus infection after allo-BMT was also impaired during GVHD. Thus, during GVHD, donor T cells compete with NK cells for IL-15 thereby inducing profound defects in NK-cell reconstitution that compromise both leukemia and pathogen-specific immunity. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  10. Salivary Gland NK Cells Are Phenotypically and Functionally Unique

    PubMed Central

    Brossay, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells and CD8+ T cells play vital roles in containing and eliminating systemic cytomegalovirus (CMV). However, CMV has a tropism for the salivary gland acinar epithelial cells and persists in this organ for several weeks after primary infection. Here we characterize a distinct NK cell population that resides in the salivary gland, uncommon to any described to date, expressing both mature and immature NK cell markers. Using RORγt reporter mice and nude mice, we also show that the salivary gland NK cells are not lymphoid tissue inducer NK-like cells and are not thymic derived. During the course of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection, we found that salivary gland NK cells detect the infection and acquire activation markers, but have limited capacity to produce IFN-γ and degranulate. Salivary gland NK cell effector functions are not regulated by iNKT or Treg cells, which are mostly absent in the salivary gland. Additionally, we demonstrate that peripheral NK cells are not recruited to this organ even after the systemic infection has been controlled. Altogether, these results indicate that viral persistence and latency in the salivary glands may be due in part to the presence of unfit NK cells and the lack of recruitment of peripheral NK cells. PMID:21249177

  11. NK cell phenotypic modulation in lung cancer environment.

    PubMed

    Jin, Shi; Deng, Yi; Hao, Jun-Wei; Li, Yang; Liu, Bin; Yu, Yan; Shi, Fu-Dong; Zhou, Qing-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Nature killer (NK) cells play an important role in anti-tumor immunotherapy. But it indicated that tumor cells impacted possibly on NK cell normal functions through some molecules mechanisms in tumor microenvironment. Our study analyzed the change about NK cells surface markers (NK cells receptors) through immunofluorescence, flow cytometry and real-time PCR, the killed function from mouse spleen NK cell and human high/low lung cancer cell line by co-culture. Furthermore we certificated the above result on the lung cancer model of SCID mouse. We showed that the infiltration of NK cells in tumor periphery was related with lung cancer patients' prognosis. And the number of NK cell infiltrating in lung cancer tissue is closely related to the pathological types, size of the primary cancer, smoking history and prognosis of the patients with lung cancer. The expression of NK cells inhibitor receptors increased remarkably in tumor micro-environment, in opposite, the expression of NK cells activated receptors decrease magnificently. The survival time of lung cancer patient was positively related to NK cell infiltration degree in lung cancer. Thus, the down-regulation of NKG2D, Ly49I and the up-regulation of NKG2A may indicate immune tolerance mechanism and facilitate metastasis in tumor environment. Our research will offer more theory for clinical strategy about tumor immunotherapy.

  12. Models to Study NK Cell Biology and Possible Clinical Application.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Anthony E; Grossenbacher, Steven K; Aguilar, Ethan G; Murphy, William J

    2015-08-03

    Natural killer (NK) cells are large granular lymphocytes of the innate immune system, responsible for direct targeting and killing of both virally infected and transformed cells. NK cells rapidly recognize and respond to abnormal cells in the absence of prior sensitization due to their wide array of germline-encoded inhibitory and activating receptors, which differs from the receptor diversity found in B and T lymphocytes that is due to the use of recombination-activation gene (RAG) enzymes. Although NK cells have traditionally been described as natural killers that provide a first line of defense prior to the induction of adaptive immunity, a more complex view of NK cells is beginning to emerge, indicating they may also function in various immunoregulatory roles and have the capacity to shape adaptive immune responses. With the growing appreciation for the diverse functions of NK cells, and recent technological advancements that allow for a more in-depth understanding of NK cell biology, we can now begin to explore new ways to manipulate NK cells to increase their clinical utility. In this overview unit, we introduce the reader to various aspects of NK cell biology by reviewing topics ranging from NK cell diversity and function, mouse models, and the roles of NK cells in health and disease, to potential clinical applications. © 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  13. A simple method to measure NK cell cytotoxicity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Saudemont, Aurore; Burke, Shannon; Colucci, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells were discovered in the 1970 s and named after their naturally occurring cytotoxic activity against tumor cells. It has recently become clear that NK cells are not just killers and that malignancy is unlikely to be the selective pressure driving the evolution of NK cells. Indeed, NK cells secrete a host of cytokines and chemokines that contribute to tissue remodeling at the feto-maternal interface and to both innate and adaptive immunity during infection. Moreover, in certain conditions, they cannot deliver functions cell autonomously, as they require priming from other cells, namely dendritic cells. Nevertheless, natural cytotoxicity is still considered an important parameter used to evaluate NK cell biology, both in the clinic and in the research lab. In this chapter we describe a simple method to quantify spontaneous NK cell cytotoxicity in vivo.

  14. NK Cells Respond to Haptens by the Activation of Calcium Permeable Plasma Membrane Channels

    PubMed Central

    Grandclément, Camille; Pick, Horst; Vogel, Horst; Held, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Natural Killer (NK) cells mediate innate immunity to infected and transformed cells. Yet, NK cells can also mount hapten-specific recall responses thereby contributing to contact hypersensitivity (CHS). However, since NK cells lack antigen receptors that are used by the adaptive immune system to recognize haptens, it is not clear if NK cells respond directly to haptens and, if so, what mediates these responses. Here we show that among four haptens the two that are known to induce NK cell-dependent CHS trigger the rapid influx of extracellular Ca2+ into NK cells and lymphocyte cell lines. Thus lymphocytes can respond to haptens independent of antigen presentation and antigen receptors. We identify the Ca2+-permeable cation channel TRPC3 as a component of the lymphocyte response to one of these haptens. These data suggest that the response to the second hapten is based on a distinct mechanism, consistent with the capacity of NK cells to discriminate haptens. These findings raise the possibility that antigen-receptor independent activation of immune cells contributes to CHS. PMID:26963818

  15. NK Cell-based Immunotherapies in Pediatric Oncology

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, Kimberly A.; Hank, Jacquelyn A.; DeSantes, Kenneth B.; Capitini, Christian M.; Otto, Mario; Sondel, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has seen several anti-cancer immunotherapeutic strategies transition from “promising preclinical models” to treatments with proven clinical activity or benefit. In 2013, the journal Science selected the field of Cancer Immunotherapy as the overall number-1 breakthrough for the year in all of scientific research. In the setting of cancer immunotherapy for adult malignancies, many of these immunotherapy strategies have relied on the cancer patient’s endogenous anti-tumor T cell response. While much promising research in pediatric oncology is similarly focused on T cell reactivity, several pediatric malignancies themselves, or the chemo-radiotherapy used to achieve initial responses, can be associated with profound immune suppression, particularly of the T cell system. A separate component of the immune system, also able to mediate anti-tumor effects and less suppressed by conventional cancer treatment, is the NK cell system. In recent years, several distinct immunotherapeutic approaches that rely on the activity of NK cells have moved from preclinical development into clinical testing, and some have shown clear antitumor benefit. This review provides an overview of NK cell-based immunotherapy efforts that are directed towards childhood malignancies, with an emphasis on protocols that are already in clinical testing. PMID:25590232

  16. NK cells: immune cross-talk and therapeutic implications

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Anshu; Shanker, Anil

    2011-01-01

    Increased evidence of cross-talk between NK cells and other immune cells has enhanced the possibilities of exploiting the interplay between the activation and inhibition of NK cells for immunotherapeutic purposes. The battery of receptors possessed by NK cells help them to efficiently detect aberrant and infected cells and embark on the signaling pathways necessary to eliminate them. Endogenous expansion of NK cells and their effector mechanisms are under exploration for enhancing adoptive immunotherapy prospects in combination with immunostimulatory and cell-death-sensitizing treatments against cancer, viral infections and other pathophysiological autoimmune conditions. Various modes of NK cell manipulation are being undertaken to overcome issues such as relapse and graft rejections associated with adoptive immunotherapy. While tracing the remarkable properties of NK cells and the major developments in this field, we highlight the role of immune cooperativity in the betterment of current immunotherapeutic approaches. PMID:21995569

  17. Human NK cells in acute myeloid leukaemia patients: analysis of NK cell-activating receptors and their ligands.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Correa, Beatriz; Morgado, Sara; Gayoso, Inmaculada; Bergua, Juan M; Casado, Javier G; Arcos, Maria Jose; Bengochea, Maria Luisa; Duran, Esther; Solana, Rafael; Tarazona, Raquel

    2011-08-01

    Natural killer (NK) cell activation is strictly regulated to ensure that healthy cells are preserved, but tumour-transformed or virus-infected cells are recognized and eliminated. To carry out this selective killing, NK cells have an ample repertoire of receptors on their surface. Signalling by inhibitory and activating receptors by interaction with their ligands will determine whether the NK cell becomes activated and kills the target cell. Here, we show reduced expression of NKp46, NKp30, DNAM-1, CD244 and CD94/NKG2C activating receptors on NK cells from acute myeloid leukaemia patients. This reduction may be induced by chronic exposure to their ligands on leukaemic blasts. The analysis of ligands for NK cell-activating receptors showed that leukaemic blasts from the majority of patients express ligands for NK cell-activating receptors. DNAM-1 ligands are frequently expressed on blasts, whereas the expression of the NKG2D ligand MICA/B is found in half of the patients and CD48, a ligand for CD244, in only one-fourth of the patients. The decreased expression of NK cell-activating receptors and/or the heterogeneous expression of ligands for major receptors on leukaemic blasts can lead to an inadequate tumour immunosurveillance by NK cells. A better knowledge of the activating receptor repertoire on NK cells and their putative ligands on blasts together with the possibility to modulate their expression will open new possibilities for the use of NK cells in immunotherapy against leukaemia.

  18. Extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma and aggressive NK cell leukaemia: evidence for their origin on CD56+bright CD16-/+dim NK cells.

    PubMed

    Lima, Margarida

    2015-10-01

    Mature natural killer (NK) cell neoplasms are classified by the World Health Organization into extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL) and aggressive NK cell leukaemia (ANKL). In order to propose their normal NK cell counterparts, we reviewed the literature on the phenotype of the neoplastic NK cells from five series of patients with ENKTL (n = 411) and seven series of patients with ANKL (n = 114) and compared with that of the normal and activated mature CD56 NK cell subsets. The tumour NK cells usually express brightly the CD56 adhesion molecule and CD94 lectin type killer receptor, and have an activation-related (cytoplasmic CD3ε, CD7, CD45RO, HLA-DR) phenotype; in contrast, CD16 and killer immunoglobulin-like receptors are frequently negative, and CD57 expression is almost never observed. These phenotypic features would suggest that ENKTL and ANKL cells do represent the neoplastic counterpart of the mature CD56 NK cells, which undergo activation and malignant transformation after Epstein-Barr virus infection.

  19. Trypanosoma brucei Co-opts NK Cells to Kill Splenic B2 B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Frenkel, Deborah; Guirnalda, Patrick; Haynes, Carole; Bockstal, Viki; Magez, Stefan; Black, Samuel J.

    2016-01-01

    After infection with T. brucei AnTat 1.1, C57BL/6 mice lost splenic B2 B cells and lymphoid follicles, developed poor parasite-specific antibody responses, lost weight, became anemic and died with fulminating parasitemia within 35 days. In contrast, infected C57BL/6 mice lacking the cytotoxic granule pore-forming protein perforin (Prf1 -/-) retained splenic B2 B cells and lymphoid follicles, developed high-titer antibody responses against many trypanosome polypeptides, rapidly suppressed parasitemia and did not develop anemia or lose weight for at least 60 days. Several lines of evidence show that T. brucei infection-induced splenic B cell depletion results from natural killer (NK) cell-mediated cytotoxicity: i) B2 B cells were depleted from the spleens of infected intact, T cell deficient (TCR -/-) and FcγRIIIa deficient (CD16-/-) C57BL/6 mice excluding a requirement for T cells, NKT cell, or antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity; ii) administration of NK1.1 specific IgG2a (mAb PK136) but not irrelevant IgG2a (myeloma M9144) prevented infection-induced B cell depletion consistent with a requirement for NK cells; iii) splenic NK cells but not T cells or NKT cells degranulated in infected C57BL/6 mice co-incident with B cell depletion evidenced by increased surface expression of CD107a; iv) purified NK cells from naïve C57BL/6 mice killed purified splenic B cells from T. brucei infected but not uninfected mice in vitro indicating acquisition of an NK cell activating phenotype by the post-infection B cells; v) adoptively transferred C57BL/6 NK cells prevented infection-induced B cell population growth in infected Prf1-/- mice consistent with in vivo B cell killing; vi) degranulated NK cells in infected mice had altered gene and differentiation antigen expression and lost cytotoxic activity consistent with functional exhaustion, but increased in number as infection progressed indicating continued generation. We conclude that NK cells in T. brucei infected

  20. Trypanosoma brucei Co-opts NK Cells to Kill Splenic B2 B Cells.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Deborah; Zhang, Fengqiu; Guirnalda, Patrick; Haynes, Carole; Bockstal, Viki; Radwanska, Magdalena; Magez, Stefan; Black, Samuel J

    2016-07-01

    After infection with T. brucei AnTat 1.1, C57BL/6 mice lost splenic B2 B cells and lymphoid follicles, developed poor parasite-specific antibody responses, lost weight, became anemic and died with fulminating parasitemia within 35 days. In contrast, infected C57BL/6 mice lacking the cytotoxic granule pore-forming protein perforin (Prf1-/-) retained splenic B2 B cells and lymphoid follicles, developed high-titer antibody responses against many trypanosome polypeptides, rapidly suppressed parasitemia and did not develop anemia or lose weight for at least 60 days. Several lines of evidence show that T. brucei infection-induced splenic B cell depletion results from natural killer (NK) cell-mediated cytotoxicity: i) B2 B cells were depleted from the spleens of infected intact, T cell deficient (TCR-/-) and FcγRIIIa deficient (CD16-/-) C57BL/6 mice excluding a requirement for T cells, NKT cell, or antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity; ii) administration of NK1.1 specific IgG2a (mAb PK136) but not irrelevant IgG2a (myeloma M9144) prevented infection-induced B cell depletion consistent with a requirement for NK cells; iii) splenic NK cells but not T cells or NKT cells degranulated in infected C57BL/6 mice co-incident with B cell depletion evidenced by increased surface expression of CD107a; iv) purified NK cells from naïve C57BL/6 mice killed purified splenic B cells from T. brucei infected but not uninfected mice in vitro indicating acquisition of an NK cell activating phenotype by the post-infection B cells; v) adoptively transferred C57BL/6 NK cells prevented infection-induced B cell population growth in infected Prf1-/- mice consistent with in vivo B cell killing; vi) degranulated NK cells in infected mice had altered gene and differentiation antigen expression and lost cytotoxic activity consistent with functional exhaustion, but increased in number as infection progressed indicating continued generation. We conclude that NK cells in T. brucei infected mice

  1. T-cell and NK-cell posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorders.

    PubMed

    Swerdlow, Steven H

    2007-06-01

    Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) of T-cell or natural killer (NK)-cell origin are an uncommon heterogeneous group of lymphoid proliferations that fulfill the criteria for one of the T- or NK-cell lymphomas/leukemias. This report summarizes 130 T/NK-cell PTLDs reported in the literature or presented at the Society for Hematopathology/European Association for Haematopathology Workshop on T/NK-cell malignancies. The T/NK-cell PTLDs occur at a median of 66 months following transplantation and are usually extranodal. The most common types reported are peripheral T-cell lymphoma, unspecified, and hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma. Approximately one third are Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)+. The median survival is 6 months. EBV+ cases have a significantly longer survival than EBV- cases, even when indolent T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemias are included among the EBV- cases. Many T/NK-cell PTLDs have been treated with chemotherapy, often together with decreased immunosuppression, but there are infrequent patients who have done well without chemotherapy or radiation.

  2. Natural killer cell (NK) subsets and NK-like T-cell populations in acute myeloid leukemias and myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, N; Swerdlow, S H; TenEyck, S P; Boyiadzis, M; Felgar, R E

    2016-07-01

    The impact of the immune microenvironment on the behavior and therapeutic strategies for hematopoietic and lymphoid neoplasms is being increasingly recognized. Many functional studies of natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxic responses in myelodysplasia (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) exist, but with limited data on these lymphocyte proportions and related T-cell subsets. The proportions of these cells and their prognostic implications were therefore investigated in 89 AML, 51 MDS, and 20 control marrows by flow cytometry. The median proportion of NK cells (relative to the total lymphocytes) was lower in AML versus controls (P = 0.01). Among AML, a lower proportion of NK cells predicted better survival, whereas a higher NK cell proportion was associated with the poor prognostic AML category (P = 0.002). NK cell proportions were similar in MDS, MDS subgroups, and control marrows. The relative proportion of the mature NK cell subset (CD56(dim) CD16/57(bright) ) was lower in AML and MDS versus controls (P = 0.006, P = 0.0002, respectively). The proportion of mature NK cells was not a prognostic indicator although fewer were seen in poor prognosis AML. In contrast, a lower proportion of mature NK cells correlated with worse survival in MDS (P = 0.027). A higher proportion of NK-like T-cells (of total lymphoid cells) was found in MDS compared to controls (P = 0.01). A lower proportion of NK-like T-cells predicted better survival in AML but not in MDS. Thus, the proportions of NK, NK-cell subsets, and NK-like T-cells vary in myeloid neoplasms, may potentially impact immunomodulatory therapies, and may impact outcome. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  3. A high-throughput assay of NK cell activity in whole blood and its clinical application

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Saet-byul; Cha, Junhoe; Kim, Im-kyung; Yoon, Joo Chun; Lee, Hyo Joon; Park, Sang Woo; Cho, Sunjung; Youn, Dong-Ye; Lee, Heyja; Lee, Choong Hwan; Lee, Jae Myun; Lee, Kang Young; Kim, Jongsun

    2014-03-14

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We demonstrated a simple assay of NK cell activity from whole blood. • The measurement of secreted IFN-γ from NK cell enables high-throughput screening. • The NKA assay was validated by clinical results of colorectal cancer patients. - Abstract: Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system and have the ability to kill tumor cells and virus-infected cells without prior sensitization. Malignant tumors and viruses have developed, however, strategies to suppress NK cells to escape from their responses. Thus, the evaluation of NK cell activity (NKA) could be invaluable to estimate the status and the outcome of cancers, viral infections, and immune-mediated diseases. Established methods that measure NKA, such as {sup 51}Cr release assay and CD107a degranulation assay, may be used to determine NK cell function, but they are complicated and time-consuming because they require isolation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) or NK cells. In some cases these assays require hazardous material such as radioactive isotopes. To overcome these difficulties, we developed a simple assay that uses whole blood instead of PBMC or isolated NK cells. This novel assay is suitable for high-throughput screening and the monitoring of diseases, because it employs serum of ex vivo stimulated whole blood to detect interferon (IFN)-γ secreted from NK cells as an indicator of NKA. After the stimulation of NK cells, the determination of IFNγ concentration in serum samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) provided a swift, uncomplicated, and high-throughput assay of NKA ex vivo. The NKA results microsatellite stable (MSS) colorectal cancer patients was showed significantly lower NKA, 263.6 ± 54.5 pg/mL compared with healthy subjects, 867.5 ± 50.2 pg/mL (p value <0.0001). Therefore, the NKA could be utilized as a supportive diagnostic marker for microsatellite stable (MSS) colorectal cancer.

  4. GITR ligand provided by thrombopoietic cells inhibits NK cell antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Placke, Theresa; Salih, Helmut R; Kopp, Hans-Georg

    2012-07-01

    Thrombocytopenia inhibits tumor growth and especially metastasis in mice, whereas additional depletion of NK cells reverts this antimetastatic phenotype. It has therefore been speculated that platelets may protect hematogenously disseminating tumor cells from NK-dependent antitumor immunity. Tumor cells do not travel through the blood alone, but are rapidly coated by platelets, and this phenomenon has been proposed to shield disseminating tumor cells from NK-mediated lysis. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. In this study, we show that megakaryocytes acquire expression of the TNF family member glucocorticoid-induced TNF-related ligand (GITRL) during differentiation, resulting in GITRL expression by platelets. Upon platelet activation, GITRL is upregulated on the platelet surface in parallel with the α-granular activation marker P-selectin. GITRL is also rapidly mobilized to the platelet surface following interaction with tumor cells, which results in platelet coating. Whereas GITRL, in the fashion of several other TNF family members, is capable of transducing reverse signals, no influence on platelet activation and function was observed upon GITRL triggering. However, platelet coating of tumor cells inhibited NK cell cytotoxicity and IFN-γ production that could partially be restored by blocking GITR on NK cells, thus indicating that platelet-derived GITRL mediates NK-inhibitory forward signaling via GITR. These data identify conferment of GITRL pseudoexpression to tumor cells by platelets as a mechanism by which platelets may alter tumor cell immunogenicity. Our data thus provide further evidence for the involvement of platelets in facilitating evasion of tumor cells from NK cell immune surveillance.

  5. Split anergized Natural Killer cells halt inflammation by inducing stem cell differentiation, resistance to NK cell cytotoxicity and prevention of cytokine and chemokine secretion.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Han-Ching; Cacalano, Nicholas; Jewett, Anahid

    2015-04-20

    The mechanism of suppression of NK cytotoxicity in cancer patients is not clearly established. In this paper we provide evidence that anergized NK cells induce differentiation of healthy Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs) or transformed Oral Squamous Cancer Stem Cells (OSCSCs) resulting in cell growth inhibition, resistance to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity and prevention of inflammatory mediators secretion. Induction of cytotoxicity resistance in differentiated cells correlated with increased CD54 and MHC class I surface expression and mediated by the combination of IFN-γ and TNF-α since antibodies to both, but not each cytokine alone, was able to inhibit resistance. In contrast, inhibition of cytokine and chemokine release was mediated by IFN-γ since the addition of anti-IFN-γ antibody, and not anti-TNF-α, restored secretion of inflammatory mediators in NK cell cultures with differentiated DPSCs and OSCSCs. There was a gradual and time dependent decrease in MHC class I and CD54 expression which correlated with the restoration of NK cell cytotoxicity, augmentation of cytokine secretion and increased cell growth from days 0-12 post NK removal. Continuous presence of NK cells is required for the maintenance of cell differentiation since the removal of NK cell-mediated function reverses the phenotype and function of differentiated cells to their stem-like cells.

  6. NK cell-derived IL-10 is critical for DC-NK cell dialogue at the maternal-fetal interface.

    PubMed

    Blois, Sandra M; Freitag, Nancy; Tirado-González, Irene; Cheng, Shi-Bin; Heimesaat, Markus M; Bereswill, Stefan; Rose, Matthias; Conrad, Melanie L; Barrientos, Gabriela; Sharma, Surendra

    2017-05-19

    DC-NK cell interactions are thought to influence the development of maternal tolerance and de novo angiogenesis during early gestation. However, it is unclear which mechanism ensures the cooperative dialogue between DC and NK cells at the feto-maternal interface. In this article, we show that uterine NK cells are the key source of IL-10 that is required to regulate DC phenotype and pregnancy success. Upon in vivo expansion of DC during early gestation, NK cells expressed increased levels of IL-10. Exogenous administration of IL-10 was sufficient to overcome early pregnancy failure in dams treated to achieve simultaneous DC expansion and NK cell depletion. Remarkably, DC expansion in IL-10(-/-) dams provoked pregnancy loss, which could be abrogated by the adoptive transfer of IL-10(+/+) NK cells and not by IL-10(-/-) NK cells. Furthermore, the IL-10 expressing NK cells markedly enhanced angiogenic responses and placental development in DC expanded IL-10(-/-) dams. Thus, the capacity of NK cells to secrete IL-10 plays a unique role facilitating the DC-NK cell dialogue during the establishment of a healthy gestation.

  7. Studying NK cell responses to ectromelia virus infections in mice.

    PubMed

    Fang, Min; Sigal, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Here we describe methods for the in vivo study of antiviral NK cell responses using the mouse Orthopoxvirus ectromelia virus as a model, the agent of mousepox. The methods include those specific for the preparation and use of ectromelia virus such as the production of virus stocks in tissue culture and in live mice, the purification of virus stocks, the titration of virus stocks and virus loads in organs, and the infection of mice. The chapter also includes methods for the specific study of NK cell responses in infected mice such as the preparation of organs (lymph nodes, spleen, and liver) for analysis, the study of NK cell responses by flow cytometry, the adoptive transfer of NK cells, the measurement of NK cell cytolytic activity ex vivo and in vivo, and the determination of NK cell proliferation by bromodeoxyuridine loading or by dilution of carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE).

  8. NK Cells, Tumor Cell Transition, and Tumor Progression in Solid Malignancies: New Hints for NK-Based Immunotherapy?

    PubMed

    Cantoni, Claudia; Huergo-Zapico, Leticia; Parodi, Monica; Pedrazzi, Marco; Mingari, Maria Cristina; Moretta, Alessandro; Sparatore, Bianca; Gonzalez, Segundo; Olive, Daniel; Bottino, Cristina; Castriconi, Roberta; Vitale, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Several evidences suggest that NK cells can patrol the body and eliminate tumors in their initial phases but may hardly control established solid tumors. Multiple factors, including the transition of tumor cells towards a proinvasive/prometastatic phenotype, the immunosuppressive effect of the tumor microenvironment, and the tumor structure complexity, may account for limited NK cell efficacy. Several putative mechanisms of NK cell suppression have been defined in these last years; conversely, the cross talk between NK cells and tumor cells undergoing different transitional phases remains poorly explored. Nevertheless, recent in vitro studies and immunohistochemical analyses on tumor biopsies suggest that NK cells could not only kill tumor cells but also influence their evolution. Indeed, NK cells may induce tumor cells to change the expression of HLA-I, PD-L1, or NKG2D-L and modulate their susceptibility to the immune response. Moreover, NK cells may be preferentially located in the borders of tumor masses, where, indeed, tumor cells can undergo Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) acquiring prometastatic phenotype. Finally, the recently highlighted role of HMGB1 both in EMT and in amplifying the recruitment of NK cells provides further hints on a possible effect of NK cells on tumor progression and fosters new studies on this issue.

  9. NK Cells, Tumor Cell Transition, and Tumor Progression in Solid Malignancies: New Hints for NK-Based Immunotherapy?

    PubMed Central

    Huergo-Zapico, Leticia; Parodi, Monica; Pedrazzi, Marco; Mingari, Maria Cristina; Sparatore, Bianca; Gonzalez, Segundo; Olive, Daniel; Bottino, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Several evidences suggest that NK cells can patrol the body and eliminate tumors in their initial phases but may hardly control established solid tumors. Multiple factors, including the transition of tumor cells towards a proinvasive/prometastatic phenotype, the immunosuppressive effect of the tumor microenvironment, and the tumor structure complexity, may account for limited NK cell efficacy. Several putative mechanisms of NK cell suppression have been defined in these last years; conversely, the cross talk between NK cells and tumor cells undergoing different transitional phases remains poorly explored. Nevertheless, recent in vitro studies and immunohistochemical analyses on tumor biopsies suggest that NK cells could not only kill tumor cells but also influence their evolution. Indeed, NK cells may induce tumor cells to change the expression of HLA-I, PD-L1, or NKG2D-L and modulate their susceptibility to the immune response. Moreover, NK cells may be preferentially located in the borders of tumor masses, where, indeed, tumor cells can undergo Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) acquiring prometastatic phenotype. Finally, the recently highlighted role of HMGB1 both in EMT and in amplifying the recruitment of NK cells provides further hints on a possible effect of NK cells on tumor progression and fosters new studies on this issue. PMID:27294158

  10. Hepatic stellate cell interferes with NK cell regulation of fibrogenesis via curcumin induced senescence of hepatic stellate cell.

    PubMed

    Jin, Huanhuan; Jia, Yan; Yao, Zhen; Huang, Jingjing; Hao, Meng; Yao, Shunyu; Lian, Naqi; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Chenxi; Chen, Xingran; Bian, Mianli; Shao, Jiangjuan; Wu, Li; Chen, Anping; Zheng, Shizhong

    2017-05-01

    Hepatic fibrosis, a common scarring response to various forms of chronic liver injury, is a precursor to cirrhosis and liver cancer. During liver fibrosis, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) initially activate and proliferate, which are responsible for the secretion of extracellular matrix components. However, these cells eventually senesce and are cleared by natural killer (NK) cells. Our previous researches have shown that the natural product curcumin could promote the senescence of activated HSC. In this study, we investigated how NK cells target senescent HSC and assessed the effect of this process on liver fibrosis. We found that senescent HSC induced by curcumin are susceptible to NK cells killing, due to the increased expression of NK cell activating ligand major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related genes A (MICA) and UL16-binding proteins 2 (ULBP2), but not Poliovirus Receptor (PVR). Further studies displayed that the interaction between NK cells and senescent LX2 cells stimulated granule exocytosis. Moreover, the inhibition of granule exocytosis weakened the cytotoxicity of NK cells and promoted the accumulation of senescent LX2 cells. Therefore, these aggregated data indicated that NK cells mediated clearance of senescent LX2 cells and granule exocytosis could play a protective role in the improvement of liver fibrosis.

  11. The role of natural killer (NK) cells and NK cell receptor polymorphisms in the assessment of HIV-1 neutralization.

    PubMed

    Brown, Bruce K; Wieczorek, Lindsay; Kijak, Gustavo; Lombardi, Kara; Currier, Jeffrey; Wesberry, Maggie; Kappes, John C; Ngauy, Viseth; Marovich, Mary; Michael, Nelson; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Montefiori, David C; Polonis, Victoria R

    2012-01-01

    The importance of innate immune cells in HIV-1 pathogenesis and protection has been highlighted by the role of natural killer (NK) cells in the containment of viral replication. Use of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in immunologic studies provides both HIV-1 target cells (ie. CD4+ T cells), as well as anti-HIV-1 effector cells, such as NK cells. In this study, NK and other immune cell populations were analyzed in HIV-negative donor PBMC for an impact on the anti-HIV activity of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. NK cell percentages were significantly higher in donor PBMC that supported lower levels of viral replication. While the percentage of NK cells was not directly associated with neutralization titers, NK cell-depletion significantly diminished the antiviral antibody activity by up to three logs, and polymorphisms in NK killer immunoglobulin receptor (KIR) and FcγRIIIa alleles appear to be associated with this affect. These findings demonstrate that NK cells and NK cell receptor polymorphisms may influence assessment of traditional HIV-1 neutralization in a platform where antibody is continuously present. This format appears to simultaneously assess conventional entry inhibition (neutralization) and non-neutralizing antibody-dependent HIV inhibition, which may provide the opportunity to delineate the dominant antibody function(s) in polyclonal vaccine responses.

  12. The Role of Natural Killer (NK) Cells and NK Cell Receptor Polymorphisms in the Assessment of HIV-1 Neutralization

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Bruce K.; Wieczorek, Lindsay; Kijak, Gustavo; Lombardi, Kara; Currier, Jeffrey; Wesberry, Maggie; Kappes, John C.; Ngauy, Viseth; Marovich, Mary; Michael, Nelson; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Montefiori, David C.; Polonis, Victoria R.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of innate immune cells in HIV-1 pathogenesis and protection has been highlighted by the role of natural killer (NK) cells in the containment of viral replication. Use of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in immunologic studies provides both HIV-1 target cells (ie. CD4+ T cells), as well as anti-HIV-1 effector cells, such as NK cells. In this study, NK and other immune cell populations were analyzed in HIV-negative donor PBMC for an impact on the anti-HIV activity of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. NK cell percentages were significantly higher in donor PBMC that supported lower levels of viral replication. While the percentage of NK cells was not directly associated with neutralization titers, NK cell-depletion significantly diminished the antiviral antibody activity by up to three logs, and polymorphisms in NK killer immunoglobulin receptor (KIR) and FcγRIIIa alleles appear to be associated with this affect. These findings demonstrate that NK cells and NK cell receptor polymorphisms may influence assessment of traditional HIV-1 neutralization in a platform where antibody is continuously present. This format appears to simultaneously assess conventional entry inhibition (neutralization) and non-neutralizing antibody-dependent HIV inhibition, which may provide the opportunity to delineate the dominant antibody function(s) in polyclonal vaccine responses. PMID:22509241

  13. Decreased NK cell functions in obesity can be reactivated by fat mass reduction.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Janine; Spielau, Marco; Brandsch, Corinna; Stangl, Gabriele I; Delank, Karl-Stefan; Bähr, Ina; Berreis, Tobias; Wrann, Christiane D; Kielstein, Heike

    2015-11-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are the first defense against malignant cells, and their functions are severely impaired in individuals with obesity. However, it is not known whether functions can be re-activated after weight loss. The alterations of NK cell functions after fat mass reduction were investigated. Thirty-two healthy adults with obesity were divided into control and experimental groups. Participants of the experimental group performed a 3-month program of exercise training and nutrition. Anthropometric, physiological, and metabolic parameters and plasma adipocytokines were determined. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were analyzed by means of flow cytometry and Western blot assay for various NK cell-specific functional parameters and leptin signaling components. NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity assay with leptin stimulation was performed. Male participants significantly decreased their body fat mass (P < 0.05) and increased physical fitness (P < 0.05). Plasma leptin levels were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) and intracellular interferon gamma (IFN-γ) expression in CD56(dim) NK cells was significantly increased (P < 0.001) 3 months after study end. Stimulation of NK-92 cells with different leptin dosages revealed a significant dose-dependent decrease of specific tumor cell lysis. The present study demonstrates a reactivation of NK cell functionality after body fat mass reduction in persons with obesity. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  14. Stage-specific requirement of IL-18 for antiviral NK cell expansion

    PubMed Central

    Madera, Sharline; Sun, Joseph C.

    2014-01-01

    Although natural killer (NK) cells are considered part of the innate immune system, recent studies have demonstrated the ability of antigen-experienced NK cells to become long-lived and contribute to potent recall responses similar to T and B cells. The precise signals that promote the generation of a long-lived NK cell response are largely undefined. Here, we demonstrate that NK cells require interleukin (IL)-18 signaling to generate a robust primary response during mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection, but do not require this signal for memory cell maintenance or recall responses. IL-12 signaling and STAT4 in activated NK cells increased the expression of the adaptor protein MyD88, which mediates signaling downstream of the IL-18 and IL-1 receptors. During MCMV infection, NK cells required MyD88 but not IL-1 receptor for optimal expansion. Thus, an IL-18-MyD88 signaling axis facilitates the prolific expansion of NK cells in response to primary viral infection, but not recall responses. PMID:25589075

  15. Cutting edge: stage-specific requirement of IL-18 for antiviral NK cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Madera, Sharline; Sun, Joseph C

    2015-02-15

    Although NK cells are considered part of the innate immune system, recent studies have demonstrated the ability of Ag-experienced NK cells to become long-lived and contribute to potent recall responses similar to T and B cells. The precise signals that promote the generation of a long-lived NK cell response are largely undefined. In this article, we demonstrate that NK cells require IL-18 signaling to generate a robust primary response during mouse CMV (MCMV) infection but do not require this signal for memory cell maintenance or recall responses. IL-12 signaling and STAT4 in activated NK cells increased the expression of the adaptor protein MyD88, which mediates signaling downstream of the IL-18 and IL-1 receptors. During MCMV infection, NK cells required MyD88, but not IL-1R, for optimal expansion. Thus, an IL-18-MyD88 signaling axis facilitates the prolific expansion of NK cells in response to primary viral infection, but not recall responses. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  16. Role for coronin 1 in mouse NK cell function.

    PubMed

    Tchang, Vincent Sam Yong; Stiess, Michael; Siegmund, Kerstin; Karrer, Urs; Pieters, Jean

    2017-02-01

    Coronin 1, a member of the evolutionary conserved WD repeat protein family of coronin proteins is expressed in all leukocytes, but a role for coronin 1 in natural killer (NK) cell homeostasis and function remains unclear. Here, we have analyzed the number and functionality of NK cells in the presence and absence of coronin 1. In coronin 1-deficient mice, absolute NK cell numbers and phenotype were comparable to wild type mice in blood, spleen and liver. Following in vitro stimulation of the activating NK cell receptors NK1.1, NKp46, Ly49D and NKG2D, coronin 1-deficient NK cells were functional with respect to interferon-γ production, degranulation and intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization. Also, both wild type as well as coronin 1-deficient NK cells showed comparable cytotoxic activity. Furthermore, activation and functionality of NK cells following Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) infection was similar between wild type and coronin 1-deficient mice. Taken together these data suggest that coronin 1 is dispensable for mouse NK cell homeostasis and function.

  17. Anti-ovarian tumor response of donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells is due to infiltrating cytotoxic NK cells.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Veethika; Oyer, Jeremiah L; Igarashi, Robert Y; Gitto, Sarah B; Copik, Alicja J; Altomare, Deborah A

    2016-02-09

    Treatment of ovarian cancer, a leading cause of gynecological malignancy, has good initial efficacy with surgery and platinum/taxane-based chemotherapy, but poor long-term survival in patients. Inferior long-term prognosis is attributed to intraperitoneal spreading, relapse and ineffective alternate therapies. Adoptive cell therapy is promising for tumor remission, although logistical concerns impede widespread implementation. In this study, healthy PBMCs were used to examine the immune response in a mouse model with human ovarian cancer, where natural killer (NK) cells were found to be the effector cells that elicited an anti-tumor response. Presence of tumor was found to stimulate NK cell expansion in mice treated intraperitoneally with PBMC+Interleukin-2 (IL-2), as compared to no expansion in non-tumor-bearing mice given the same treatment. PBMC+IL-2 treated mice exhibiting NK cell expansion had complete tumor remission. To validate NK cell mediated anti-tumor response, the intratumoral presence of NK cells and their cytotoxicity was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and granzyme activity of NK cells recovered from the tumor. Collectively, this study highlights the significance of NK cell-cytotoxic response to tumor, which may be attributed to interacting immune cell types in the PBMC population, as opposed to clinically used isolated NK cells showing lack of anti-tumor efficacy in ovarian cancer patients.

  18. Anti-ovarian tumor response of donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells is due to infiltrating cytotoxic NK cells

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Veethika; Oyer, Jeremiah L.; Igarashi, Robert Y.; Gitto, Sarah B.; Copik, Alicja J.; Altomare, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of ovarian cancer, a leading cause of gynecological malignancy, has good initial efficacy with surgery and platinum/taxane-based chemotherapy, but poor long-term survival in patients. Inferior long-term prognosis is attributed to intraperitoneal spreading, relapse and ineffective alternate therapies. Adoptive cell therapy is promising for tumor remission, although logistical concerns impede widespread implementation. In this study, healthy PBMCs were used to examine the immune response in a mouse model with human ovarian cancer, where natural killer (NK) cells were found to be the effector cells that elicited an anti-tumor response. Presence of tumor was found to stimulate NK cell expansion in mice treated intraperitoneally with PBMC+Interleukin-2 (IL-2), as compared to no expansion in non-tumor-bearing mice given the same treatment. PBMC+IL-2 treated mice exhibiting NK cell expansion had complete tumor remission. To validate NK cell mediated anti-tumor response, the intratumoral presence of NK cells and their cytotoxicity was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and granzyme activity of NK cells recovered from the tumor. Collectively, this study highlights the significance of NK cell-cytotoxic response to tumor, which may be attributed to interacting immune cell types in the PBMC population, as opposed to clinically used isolated NK cells showing lack of anti-tumor efficacy in ovarian cancer patients. PMID:26802025

  19. High NKG2A expression contributes to NK cell exhaustion and predicts a poor prognosis of patients with liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Cheng; Xu, Jing; Huang, Qiang; Huang, Mei; Wen, Hao; Zhang, Chuanshan; Wang, Jinyu; Song, Jiaxi; Zheng, Meijuan; Sun, Haoyu; Wei, Haiming; Xiao, Weihua; Sun, Rui; Tian, Zhigang

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: As the predominant lymphocyte subset in the liver, natural killer (NK) cells have been shown to be highly associated with the outcomes of patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection (CHB) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Previously, we reported that NKG2A, a checkpoint candidate, mediates human and murine NK cell dysfunction in CHB. However, NK cell exhaustion and, particularly, the level of NKG2A expression within liver tumors have not been reported. Methods: In this study, we analyzed NKG2A expression and the related dysfunction of NK cells located in intra- or peritumor regions of liver tissue samples from 207 HCC patients, in addition to analyzing disease outcomes. Results: The expression of NKG2A in NK cells and the NKG2A ligand, HLA-E, in intratumor HCC tissues was observed to be increased. These NK cells, and particularly CD56(dim) NK cells, with higher NKG2A expression showed features of functional exhaustion and were associated with a poor prognosis. The increase in NKG2A expression might be induced by IL-10, which was present at a high level in the plasma of HCC patients. Blocking IL-10 could specifically inhibit NKG2A expression in NK cells. Conclusions: These findings indicate that NKG2A expression is influenced by factors from cancer nests and contributes to NK cell exhaustion, suggesting that NKG2A blockade has the potential to restore immunity against liver tumors by reversing NK cell exhaustion.

  20. A Novel Toll-Like Receptor 9 Agonist, MGN1703, Enhances HIV-1 Transcription and NK Cell-Mediated Inhibition of HIV-1-Infected Autologous CD4+ T Cells.

    PubMed

    Offersen, Rasmus; Nissen, Sara Konstantin; Rasmussen, Thomas A; Østergaard, Lars; Denton, Paul W; Søgaard, Ole Schmeltz; Tolstrup, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists are potent enhancers of innate antiviral immunity and may also reverse HIV-1 latency. Therefore, TLR agonists have a potential role in the context of a "shock-and-kill" approach to eradicate HIV-1. Our extensive preclinical evaluation suggests that a novel TLR9 agonist, MGN1703, may indeed perform both functions in an HIV-1 eradication trial. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from aviremic HIV-1-infected donors on antiretroviral therapy (ART) that were incubated with MGN1703 ex vivo exhibited increased secretion of interferon alpha (IFN-α) (P= 0.005) and CXCL10 (P= 0.0005) in culture supernatants. Within the incubated PBMC pool, there were higher proportions of CD69-positive CD56(dim)CD16(+)NK cells (P= 0.001) as well as higher proportions of CD107a-positive (P= 0.002) and IFN-γ-producing (P= 0.038) NK cells. Incubation with MGN1703 also increased the proportions of CD69-expressing CD4(+)and CD8(+)T cells. Furthermore, CD4(+)T cells within the pool of MGN1703-incubated PBMCs showed enhanced levels of unspliced HIV-1 RNA (P= 0.036). Importantly, MGN1703 increased the capacity of NK cells to inhibit virus spread within a culture of autologous CD4(+)T cells assessed by using an HIV-1 p24 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (P= 0.03). In conclusion, we show that MGN1703 induced strong antiviral innate immune responses, enhanced HIV-1 transcription, and boosted NK cell-mediated suppression of HIV-1 infection in autologous CD4(+)T cells. These findings support clinical testing of MGN1703 in HIV-1 eradication trials. We demonstrate that MGN1703 (a TLR9 agonist currently undergoing phase 3 clinical testing for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer) induces potent antiviral responses in immune effector cells from HIV-1-infected individuals on suppressive antiretroviral therapy. The significantly improved safety and tolerability profiles of MGN1703 versus TLR9 agonists of the CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-ODN) family

  1. Effects of prolactin and cortisol on natural killer (NK) cell surface expression and function of human natural cytotoxicity receptors (NKp46, NKp44 and NKp30).

    PubMed

    Mavoungou, E; Bouyou-Akotet, M K; Kremsner, P G

    2005-02-01

    The surface density of the triggering receptors (e.g. NKp46 and NKp30) responsible for natural killer (NK) cell-mediated cytotoxicity determines the ability of NK cells to kill susceptible target cells. In this study, we show that prolactin up-regulates and cortisol down-regulates the surface expression of NKp46 and NKp30. The prolactin-mediated activation and the cortisol-mediated inhibition of natural cytotoxicity receptor (NCR) surface expression reflects gene regulation at the transcriptional level. NKp46 and NKp30 are the major receptors involved in the NK-mediated killing of K562, a human chronic myelogenous leukaemia cell line. Accordingly, the prolactin dramatically increased the NK-mediated killing of the K562 cell line, whereas cortisol abolished this activity. Our data suggest a mechanism by which prolactin activates the lytic function of NK cells, and cortisol inhibits the NK-mediated attack.

  2. Identification of Human Memory-Like NK Cells.

    PubMed

    Kovalenko, Elena I; Streltsova, Maria A; Kanevskiy, Leonid M; Erokhina, Sophia A; Telford, William G

    2017-01-05

    Our understanding of NK biology is increased dramatically, a product of improved flow-cytometric techniques for analyzing these cells. NK cells undergo significant changes in repertoire during differentiation. A repeating stimulus, such as a cytomegalovirus infection, may result in accumulation of certain types of highly differentiated NK cells designated as memory-like, or adaptive NK cells. Adaptive NK cells are capable of rapid expansion and effective response to the recall stimulus. These cells differ significantly from conventional NK cells both functionally and phenotypically. Here we describe an approach for identification and analysis of adaptive NK cells in human peripheral blood. CD57-positive cells with high expression of activating-receptor NKG2C, increased expression of KIR receptors, lack of co-expression with inhibitory receptor NKG2A, and decreased expression of activating receptor NCR3 (NKp30) all characterize this cell type. The flow-cytometric method described below can identify this NK cell subset on a relatively simple flow cytometer. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. In Vivo Efficacy of Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cell-Derived NK Cells in the Treatment of Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Veluchamy, John P.; Lopez-Lastra, Silvia; Spanholtz, Jan; Bohme, Fenna; Kok, Nina; Heideman, Daniëlle A. M.; Verheul, Henk M. W.; Di Santo, James P.; de Gruijl, Tanja D.; van der Vliet, Hans J.

    2017-01-01

    Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) act by inhibiting EGFR downstream signaling and by eliciting a natural killer (NK) cell-mediated antitumor response. The IgG1 mAb cetuximab has been used for treatment of RASwt metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients, showing limited efficacy. In the present study, we address the potential of adoptive NK cell therapy to overcome these limitations investigating two allogeneic NK cell products, i.e., allogeneic activated peripheral blood NK cells (A-PBNK) and umbilical cord blood stem cell-derived NK cells (UCB-NK). While cetuximab monotherapy was not effective against EGFR− RASwt, EGFR+ RASmut, and EGFR+ BRAFmut cells, A-PBNK were able to initiate lysis of EGFR+ colon cancer cells irrespective of RAS or BRAF status. Cytotoxic effects of A-PBNK (but not UCB-NK) were further potentiated significantly by coating EGFR+ colon cancer cells with cetuximab. Of note, a significantly higher cytotoxicity was induced by UCB-NK in EGFR−RASwt (42 ± 8 versus 67 ± 7%), EGFR+ RASmut (20 ± 2 versus 37 ± 6%), and EGFR+ BRAFmut (23 ± 3 versus 43 ± 7%) colon cancer cells compared to A-PBNK and equaled the cytotoxic efficacy of the combination of A-PBNK and cetuximab. The antitumor efficacy of UCB-NK cells against cetuximab-resistant human EGFR+ RASmut colon cancer cells was further confirmed in an in vivo preclinical mouse model where UCB-NK showed enhanced antitumor cytotoxicity against colon cancer independent of EGFR and RAS status. As UCB-NK have been proven safe in a recently conducted phase I clinical trial in acute myeloid leukemia, a fast translation into clinical proof of concept for mCRC could be considered. PMID:28220124

  4. Interleukin-15 Dendritic Cells Harness NK Cell Cytotoxic Effector Function in a Contact- and IL-15-Dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Anguille, Sébastien; Van Acker, Heleen H; Van den Bergh, Johan; Willemen, Yannick; Goossens, Herman; Van Tendeloo, Viggo F; Smits, Evelien L; Berneman, Zwi N; Lion, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of natural killer (NK) cells to the treatment efficacy of dendritic cell (DC)-based cancer vaccines is being increasingly recognized. Much current efforts to optimize this form of immunotherapy are therefore geared towards harnessing the NK cell-stimulatory ability of DCs. In this study, we investigated whether generation of human monocyte-derived DCs with interleukin (IL)-15 followed by activation with a Toll-like receptor stimulus endows these DCs, commonly referred to as "IL-15 DCs", with the capacity to stimulate NK cells. In a head-to-head comparison with "IL-4 DCs" used routinely for clinical studies, IL-15 DCs were found to induce a more activated, cytotoxic effector phenotype in NK cells, in particular in the CD56bright NK cell subset. With the exception of GM-CSF, no significant enhancement of cytokine/chemokine secretion was observed following co-culture of NK cells with IL-15 DCs. IL-15 DCs, but not IL-4 DCs, promoted NK cell tumoricidal activity towards both NK-sensitive and NK-resistant targets. This effect was found to require cell-to-cell contact and to be mediated by DC surface-bound IL-15. This study shows that DCs can express a membrane-bound form of IL-15 through which they enhance NK cell cytotoxic function. The observed lack of membrane-bound IL-15 on "gold-standard" IL-4 DCs and their consequent inability to effectively promote NK cell cytotoxicity may have important implications for the future design of DC-based cancer vaccine studies.

  5. The influence of NK cell-mediated ADCC: Structure and expression of the CD16 molecule differ among FcγRIIIa-V158F genotypes in healthy Japanese subjects.

    PubMed

    Oboshi, Wataru; Watanabe, Toru; Matsuyama, Yuumi; Kobara, Ayana; Yukimasa, Nobuyasu; Ueno, Ichiro; Aki, Kensaku; Tada, Tomoki; Hosoi, Eiji

    2016-02-01

    NK cells express the CD16 (FcγRIIIa) receptor, which mediates antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), on their cell surface. Therefore, ADCC activity may be influenced by qualitative or quantitative changes in the CD16 molecule on NK cells. Responses to NK cell-mediated ADCC have been shown to depend on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at FcγRIIIa amino acid position 158. However, a consensus has not yet been reached regarding differences in the structure and expression levels of the CD16 molecule among FcγRIIIa-V158F genotypes, which have not yet been adequately investigated in healthy Japanese individuals. We herein examined the influence of the FcγRIIIa polymorphism on ADCC, binding affinity of CD16 to the Fc region, FCGR3A gene expression, and cell-surface CD16 expression in healthy Japanese subjects. FcγRIIIa-V158F genotyping was performed for 101 subjects. The results obtained showed that all parameters analyzed increased in the order of V/V>V/F>F/F and were significantly higher in V/V subjects than in F/F subjects. Moreover, a positive correlation was observed between ADCC activity and binding affinity, FCGR3A transcript levels, and surface CD16 expression levels. These results suggest that the structure and expression of the CD16 molecule differs among FcγRIIIa-V158F genotypes, and the FcγRIIIa-V158F polymorphism may be represent a haplotype with other SNPs in regulatory regions in Japanese subjects.

  6. Human natural killer (NK) cells present staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) to T lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    D'ORAZIO, J A; STEIN-STREILEIN, J

    1996-01-01

    Superantigen-mediated T cell activation requires the participation of antigen-presenting cells (APC). Once superantigen has bound class II MHC molecules on the surface of APC, it then can interact with the T cell receptor to induce T cell activation. Superantigen-mediated T lymphocyte activation, along with its consequent cytokine production is thought to be the basis for the pathophysiology of conditions such as toxic shock syndrome, Kawasaki's disease and possibly rheumatoid arthritis. We examined the role of CD56+ NK lymphocytes in the interaction between superantigens and T lymphocytes. First, we found that a subpopulation of CD56+ cells freshly isolated from human peripheral blood expressed class II MHC molecules. The amount of HLA-DR expression varied between individuals, ranging from 9.3% to 37.7%. CD56+ (NK) cells were purified from the peripheral blood by cell sorting and were tested for their ability to support SEB-mediated T cell activation as assessed by surface expression of IL-2 receptor α-chain (CD25) on CD3+ lymphocytes. We observed that when enriched T cells were incubated with SEB in the presence of NK cells, there was a significant up-regulation of CD25 expression on the T cells. When HLA-DR+ cells were removed from sorted CD56+ populations, the remaining HLA-DR− NK cells were unable to support SEB-mediated T cell activation. Also, SEB up-regulated the expression of HLA-DR on CD56+ cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) populations after 24 h of incubation, implying that the ability of NK cells to function as superantigen-presenting cells is up-regulated by superantigens themselves. Together, these data demonstrate for the first time that human CD56+HLA-DR+ NK cells can function as superantigen-presenting cells, and imply that NK cells may be involved in the activation of non-specific T cell reactivity during early host defences against superantigen-elaborating microorganisms in vivo. Furthermore, the physical linkage of NK cells

  7. Cryptococcus neoformans Directly Stimulates Perforin Production and Rearms NK Cells for Enhanced Anticryptococcal Microbicidal Activity▿

    PubMed Central

    Marr, Kaleb J.; Jones, Gareth J.; Zheng, Chunfu; Huston, Shaunna M.; Timm-McCann, Martina; Islam, Anowara; Berenger, Byron M.; Ma, Ling Ling; Wiseman, Jeremy C. D.; Mody, Christopher H.

    2009-01-01

    NK cells, in addition to possessing antitumor and antiviral activity, exhibit perforin-dependent microbicidal activity against the opportunistic pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. However, the factors controlling this response, particularly whether the pathogen itself provides an activation or rearming signal, are largely unknown. The current studies were performed to determine whether exposure to this fungus alters subsequent NK cell anticryptococcal activity. NK cells lost perforin and mobilized lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 to the cell surface following incubation with the fungus, indicating that degranulation had occurred. Despite a reduced perforin content during killing, NK cells acquired an enhanced ability to kill C. neoformans, as demonstrated using auxotrophs that allowed independent assessment of the killing of two strains. De novo protein synthesis was required for optimal killing; however, there was no evidence that a soluble factor contributed to the enhanced anticryptococcal activity. Exposure of NK cells to C. neoformans caused the cells to rearm, as demonstrated by increased perforin mRNA levels and enhanced loss of perforin when transcription was blocked. Degranulation alone was insufficient to provide the activation signal as NK cells lost anticryptococcal activity following treatment with strontium chloride. However, NK cells regained the activity upon prolonged exposure to C. neoformans, which is consistent with activation by the microbe. The enhanced cytotoxicity did not extend to tumor killing since NK cells exposed to C. neoformans failed to kill NK-sensitive tumor targets (K562 cells). These studies demonstrate that there is contact-mediated microbe-specific rearming and activation of microbicidal activity that are necessary for optimal killing of C. neoformans. PMID:19307209

  8. Use of allogeneic NK cells for cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Geller, Melissa A; Miller, Jeffrey S

    2012-01-01

    Controversy exists as to the role that the immune system plays in cancer therapy. While the immune system has been proposed to scavenge the body to prevent microscopic transformation from forming cancer, it has been difficult to mount its potential of shrinking established tumors. NK cells are components of the innate immune system. They can recognize targets without prior sensitization, making them ideal candidates to manipulate for therapeutic use against cancer. Initially, autologous NK cells were directed against tumors but it was realized that NK cells that recognize self cells are inhibited. More encouraging advances have been made with allogeneic NK cell therapy in clinical trials to overcome this limitation. In this article, we present developments in NK cell adoptive immunotherapy for hematologic and solid tumor malignancies. PMID:22091681

  9. Biallelic IRF8 Mutations Causing NK Cell Deficiency.

    PubMed

    López-Soto, Alejandro; Lorenzo-Herrero, Seila; Gonzalez, Segundo

    2017-03-01

    Human primary immunodeficiencies result in an exacerbated susceptibility to contracting infectious diseases. Recent work by Mace et al., published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation, unveils a novel genetic cause for the development of familial natural killer (NK) cell deficiency: a biallelic compound heterozygous mutation in IRF8, which leads to impaired NK cell development and cytotoxic activity.

  10. Microfluidic-based, live-cell analysis allows assessment of NK-cell migration in response to crosstalk with dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Sajid; Nandagopal, Saravanan; Sow, Ibrahim; Lin, Francis; Kung, Sam K P

    2014-09-01

    Migration and localization of NK cells into peripheral tissues are tightly regulated under normal and pathological conditions. The physiological importance of NK cell-DC crosstalk has been well documented. However, the ways in which DCs regulate the migratory properties of NK cells (such as chemotaxis, chemokinesis, chemo-repulsion) are not fully defined in vitro. Here, we employed a microfluidic platform to examine, at the single-cell level, C57BL/6 NK-cell migrations in a stable chemical gradient. We observed that soluble factors released by the immature and LPS-activated mature DCs induced a high level of chemotactic movement of IL-2-activated NK cells in vitro. We confirmed these findings in a standard trans-well migration assay, and identified CXCR3 as a key receptor on the NK cells that mediated the migration. More interestingly, we revealed a novel function of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor in repulsing NK-cell migrations. The future uses of such microfluidic device in the systematic evaluations of NK-cell migratory responses in NK cell-DC crosstalk will provide new insights into the development of DC-based NK-cell therapies against tumor and infections.

  11. Prostaglandin E2 exerts the proapoptotic and antiproliferative effects on bovine NK cells.

    PubMed

    Maślanka, Tomasz; Chrostowska, Małgorzata; Otrocka-Domagała, Iwona; Snarska, Anna; Mikiewicz, Mateusz; Zuśka-Prot, Monika; Jasiecka, Agnieszka; Ziółkowski, Hubert; Markiewicz, Włodzimierz; Jaroszewski, Jerzy J

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this research was to determine whether prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) affects bovine NK cells in respect of their counts, apoptosis and proliferation, and if it does, then which of the PGE2 receptor (EP) subtype(s) mediate(s) these effects. We here report that long-term, but not short-term, exposure of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells to PGE2 at 10(-5)M, 10(-6)M and 10(-7)M, but not at 10(-8)M, caused a significant increase in the percentage of early apoptotic cells among NK cell subset. Moreover, PGE2 at 10(-5)M and 10(-6)M, but not at 10(-7)M and 10(-8)M, induced a considerable decrease in the absolute count of NK cells. The magnitude of these effects increased with an increasing concentration of PGE2. The blockade of EP1, EP2, EP3 and EP4 receptors did not prevent the PGE2-induced apoptosis and depletion of NK cells. The results suggest that the proapoptotic effect of PGE2 is secondary in character and the induction of this effect is not mediated through EP receptors. Furthermore, the studies demonstrated that PGE2 at 10(-5)M and 10(-6)M, but not at 10(-7)M and 10(-8)M, highly significantly reduced the percentage of proliferating NK cells. The EP1, EP1/2 and EP3 receptor antagonists were unable to block this effect significantly, whereas the selective blockade of EP4 receptors prevented the PGE2-induced inhibition of NK cells proliferation. These results indicate that PGE2 at certain concentrations may impair the proliferation of NK cells and this effect is mediated via the EP4 receptor.

  12. Fenretinide sensitizes multidrug-resistant human neuroblastoma cells to antibody-independent and ch14.18-mediated NK cell cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Shibina, Anastasia; Seidel, Diana; Somanchi, Srinivas S; Lee, Dean A; Stermann, Alexander; Maurer, Barry J; Lode, Holger N; Reynolds, C Patrick; Huebener, Nicole

    2013-04-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumor in children. Combining passive immunotherapy with an antibody to the disialoganglioside GD2 (ch14.18/SP2/0) and cytokines with 13-cis-retinoic acid for post-myeloablative maintenance therapy increased survival in high-risk NB, but the overall prognosis for these children is still in need of improvement. Fenretinide (4-HPR) is a synthetic retinoid that has shown clinical activity in recurrent NB and is cytotoxic to a variety of cancer cells, in part via the accumulation of dihydroceramides, which are precursors of GD2. We investigated the effect of 4-HPR on CHO-derived, ch14.18-mediated anti-NB effector functions, complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), and antibody-dependent and antibody-independent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC and AICC, respectively). Here, we demonstrate for the first time that pretreatment of fenretinide-resistant NB cells with 4-HPR significantly enhanced ch14.18/CHO-mediated CDC and ADCC and AICC by both human natural killer cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Treatment with 4-HPR increased GD2 and death receptor (DR) expression in resistant NB cells and induced an enhanced granzyme B and perforin production by effector cells. Blocking of ganglioside synthesis with a glucosylceramide synthase inhibitor abrogated the increased ADCC response but had no effect on the AICC, indicating that GD2 induced by 4-HPR mediates the sensitization of NB cells for ADCC. We also showed that 4-HPR induced increased GD2 and DR expression in a resistant NB xenograft model that was associated with an increased ADCC and AICC response using explanted tumor target cells from 4-HPR-treated mice. In summary, these findings provide an important baseline for the combination of 4-HPR and passive immunotherapy with ch14.18/CHO in future clinical trials for high-risk NB patients.

  13. An autosomal dominant locus, Nka, mapping to the Ly-49 region of a rat natural killer (NK) gene complex, controls NK cell lysis of allogeneic lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Natural Killer (NK) cells can recognize and kill MHC-incompatible normal bone marrow-derived cells. Presently characterized MHC-binding receptors on NK cells, including the Ly-49 family in the mouse, transmit inhibitory signals upon binding to cognate class I MHC ligands. Here we study in vivo NK-mediated lysis of normal allogeneic lymphocytes in crosses between alloreactivity-competent PVG rats and alloreactivity-deficient DA rats. NK cells from both strains are able to lyse standard tumor targets. We identify an autosomal dominant locus, Nka, that controls NK-mediated alloreactivity. Individuals carrying the dominant PVG allele in single dose were fully competent in eliminating allogeneic target cells, suggesting that Nka encodes or regulates a gene product inducing or activating alloreactivity. By linkage analysis and pulsed field gel electrophoresis, a natural killer gene complex (NKC) on rat chromosome 4 is described that contains the rat NKR-P1 and Ly-49 multigene families plus a rat NKG2D homologue. Nka maps within the NKC, together with the most telomeric Ly-49 family members, but separate from NKG2D and the NKR-P1 family. The Nka-encoded response, moreover, correlates with the expression of transcripts for Ly-49 receptors in NK cell populations, as Northern blot analysis demonstrated low expression of Ly-49 genes in DA NK cells, in contrast to high expression in alloreactivity-competent PVG, (DA X PVG)F1, and PVG.1AVI NK cells. The low Ly-49 expression in DA is not induced by MHC haplotype, as demonstrated by high expression of Ly-49 in the DA MHC- congenic PVG.1AVI strain. Finally, we have cloned and characterized the first four members of the rat Ly-49 gene family. Their cytoplasmic domains demonstrate substantial heterogeneity, consistent with the hypothesis that different Ly-49 family members may subserve different signaling functions. PMID:8642329

  14. Effects of Simulated Microgravity on Primary Human NK Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qi; Mei, Qibing; Huyan, Ting; Xie, Li; Che, Su; Yang, Hui; Zhang, Mingjie

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The deleterious effects of microgravity on lymphocytes have been demonstrated in previous studies. However, research on the effects of microgravity on human natural killer (NK) cells remains exceedingly limited. In this study, we demonstrated that NK cell cytotoxicity was significantly decreased under simulated microgravity (SMG) conditions (p<0.05). Several processes, including apoptosis, receptor expression, and cytokine secretion, were investigated in human NK cells under SMG. We observed decreased cytotoxicity, concurrent with increased apoptosis and necrosis, in NK cells after exposure to SMG (p<0.05). Additionally, interferon (IFN)-γ and perforin expression decreased significantly, and the expression of granzyme-B was only slightly reduced. Meanwhile, SMG selectively inhibited the expression of certain surface receptors on NK cells. Specifically, the expression of NKG2A and NKG2D were significantly downregulated under SMG, but the expression of NKp30 and NKp44 was not affected. We also found that interleukin (IL)–15 alone or in combination with IL-12 could counteract the inhibition of NK cell cytotoxicity under SMG. Our findings indicate that human NK cells were sensitive to SMG, as reflected by their decreased cytotoxicity. Factors such as increased early apoptosis and late apoptosis/necrosis and the decreased expression of INF-γ, cytolytic proteins, and cell surface receptors may be responsible for the loss of cytotoxicity in human NK cells under SMG. A combination of IL-12 and IL-15 may be useful as a therapeutic strategy for overcoming the effects of microgravity on human NK cells during long space missions. Key Words: Simulated microgravity (SMG)—Natural killer (NK) cells—Cytotoxicity. Astrobiology 13, 703–714. PMID:23919749

  15. Both mature KIR+ and immature KIR- NK cells control pediatric acute B-cell precursor leukemia in NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid IL2rgtmWjl/Sz mice.

    PubMed

    Kübler, Ayline; Woiterski, Jeanette; Witte, Kai-Erik; Bühring, Hans-Jörg; Hartwig, Udo F; Ebinger, Martin; Oevermann, Lena; Mezger, Markus; Herr, Wolfgang; Lang, Peter; Handgretinger, Rupert; Münz, Christian; André, Maya C

    2014-12-18

    Therapeutic natural killer (NK)-cell-mediated alloreactivity toward acute myeloid leukemia has largely been attributed to mismatches between killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) on NK cells and their ligands, HLA class I molecules, on target cells. While adult acute B-cell precursor leukemia (BCP-ALL) appears to be resistant to NK-cell-mediated lysis, recent data indicate that pediatric BCP-ALL might yet be a target of NK cells. In this study, we demonstrate in a donor-patient-specific NOD.Cg-Prkdc(scid) IL2rg(tmWjl)/Sz (NSG) xenotransplantation model that NK cells mediate considerable alloreactivity toward pediatric BCP-ALL in vivo. Notably, both adoptively transferred mature KIR(+) NK cells and immature KIR(-) NK cells arising early posttransplantation in humanized NSG mice exerted substantial antileukemic activity. Low-dose and long-term treatment of humanized NSG mice with the DNA-demethylating agent 5-aza-cytidine distinctly enhanced the antitumor response, interestingly without inducing common inhibitory KIR expression but rather by promoting the differentiation of various NK-cell precursor subsets. Collectively, these data indicate that the future design of innovative therapy protocols should consider further exploitation of NK-cell-mediated immune responses for poor prognosis pediatric BCP-ALL patients. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

  16. Human Parthenogenetic Embryonic Stem Cell–Derived Neural Stem Cells Express HLA-G and Show Unique Resistance to NK Cell–Mediated Killing

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Jessica; Eckardt, Sigrid; Schlegel, Paul G; Sirén, Anna-Leena; Bruttel, Valentin S; McLaughlin, K John; Wischhusen, Jörg; Müller, Albrecht M

    2015-01-01

    Parent-of-origin imprints have been implicated in the regulation of neural differentiation and brain development. Previously we have shown that, despite the lack of a paternal genome, human parthenogenetic (PG) embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can form proliferating neural stem cells (NSCs) that are capable of differentiation into physiologically functional neurons while maintaining allele-specific expression of imprinted genes. Since biparental (“normal”) hESC–derived NSCs (N NSCs) are targeted by immune cells, we characterized the immunogenicity of PG NSCs. Flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry revealed that both N NSCs and PG NSCs exhibited surface expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I but not HLA-DR molecules. Functional analyses using an in vitro mixed lymphocyte reaction assay resulted in less proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with PG compared with N NSCs. In addition, natural killer (NK) cells cytolyzed PG less than N NSCs. At a molecular level, expression analyses of immune regulatory factors revealed higher HLA-G levels in PG compared with N NSCs. In line with this finding, MIR152, which represses HLA-G expression, is less transcribed in PG compared with N cells. Blockage of HLA-G receptors ILT2 and KIR2DL4 on natural killer cell leukemia (NKL) cells increased cytolysis of PG NSCs. Together this indicates that PG NSCs have unique immunological properties due to elevated HLA-G expression. PMID:25811991

  17. Highly efficient IL-21 and feeder cell-driven ex vivo expansion of human NK cells with therapeutic activity in a xenograft mouse model of melanoma.

    PubMed

    Granzin, Markus; Stojanovic, Ana; Miller, Matthias; Childs, Richard; Huppert, Volker; Cerwenka, Adelheid

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are promising antitumor effector cells, but the generation of sufficient NK cell numbers for adoptive immunotherapy remains challenging. Therefore, we developed a method for highly efficient ex vivo expansion of human NK cells. Ex vivo expansion of NK cells in medium containing IL-2 and irradiated clinical-grade feeder cells (EBV-LCL) induced a 22-fold NK cell expansion after one week that was significantly increased to 53-fold by IL-21. Repeated stimulation with irradiated EBV-LCL and IL-2 and addition of IL-21 at the initiation of the culture allowed sustained NK cell proliferation with 10(11)-fold NK cell expansion after 6 weeks. Compared to naive NK cells, expanded NK cells upregulated TRAIL, NKG2D, and DNAM-1, had superior cytotoxicity against tumor cell lines in vitro and produced more IFNγ and TNF-α upon PMA/Iono stimulation. Most importantly, adoptive transfer of NK cells expanded using feeder cells, IL-2 and IL-21 led to significant inhibition of tumor growth in a melanoma xenograft mouse model, which was greater than with NK cells activated with IL-2 alone. Intriguingly, adoptively transferred NK cells maintained their enhanced production of IFNγ and TNF-α upon ex vivo restimulation, although they rapidly lost their capacity to degranulate and mediate tumor cytotoxicity after the in vivo transfer. In conclusion, we developed a protocol for ex vivo NK cell expansion that results in outstanding cell yields. The expanded NK cells possess potent antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo and could be utilized at high numbers for adoptive immunotherapy in the clinic.

  18. Highly efficient IL-21 and feeder cell-driven ex vivo expansion of human NK cells with therapeutic activity in a xenograft mouse model of melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Granzin, Markus; Stojanovic, Ana; Miller, Matthias; Childs, Richard; Huppert, Volker; Cerwenka, Adelheid

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Natural killer (NK) cells are promising antitumor effector cells, but the generation of sufficient NK cell numbers for adoptive immunotherapy remains challenging. Therefore, we developed a method for highly efficient ex vivo expansion of human NK cells. Ex vivo expansion of NK cells in medium containing IL-2 and irradiated clinical-grade feeder cells (EBV-LCL) induced a 22-fold NK cell expansion after one week that was significantly increased to 53-fold by IL-21. Repeated stimulation with irradiated EBV-LCL and IL-2 and addition of IL-21 at the initiation of the culture allowed sustained NK cell proliferation with 1011-fold NK cell expansion after 6 weeks. Compared to naive NK cells, expanded NK cells upregulated TRAIL, NKG2D, and DNAM-1, had superior cytotoxicity against tumor cell lines in vitro and produced more IFNγ and TNF-α upon PMA/Iono stimulation. Most importantly, adoptive transfer of NK cells expanded using feeder cells, IL-2 and IL-21 led to significant inhibition of tumor growth in a melanoma xenograft mouse model, which was greater than with NK cells activated with IL-2 alone. Intriguingly, adoptively transferred NK cells maintained their enhanced production of IFNγ and TNF-α upon ex vivo restimulation, although they rapidly lost their capacity to degranulate and mediate tumor cytotoxicity after the in vivo transfer. In conclusion, we developed a protocol for ex vivo NK cell expansion that results in outstanding cell yields. The expanded NK cells possess potent antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo and could be utilized at high numbers for adoptive immunotherapy in the clinic. PMID:27757317

  19. Isolation and (111)In-Oxine Labeling of Murine NK Cells for Assessment of Cell Trafficking in Orthotopic Lung Tumor Model.

    PubMed

    Malviya, Gaurav; Nayak, Tapan; Gerdes, Christian; Dierckx, Rudi A J O; Signore, Alberto; de Vries, Erik F J

    2016-04-04

    A noninvasive in vivo imaging method for NK cell trafficking is essential to gain further understanding of the pathogenesis of NK cell mediated immune response to the novel cancer treatment strategies, and to discover the homing sites and physiological distribution of NK cells. Although human NK cells can be labeled for in vivo imaging, little is known about the murine NK cell labeling and its application in animal models. This study describes the isolation and ex vivo radiolabeling of murine NK cells for the evaluation of cell trafficking in an orthotopic model of human lung cancer in mice. Scid-Tg(FCGR3A)Blt transgenic SCID mice were used to isolate NK cells from mouse splenocytes using the CD49b (DX5) MicroBeads positive selection method. The purity and viability of the isolated NK cells were confirmed by FACS analysis. Different labeling buffers and incubation times were evaluated to optimize (111)In-oxine labeling conditions. Functionality of the radiolabeled NK cell was assessed by (51)Cr-release assay. We evaluated physiological distribution of (111)In-oxine labeled murine NK cells in normal SCID mice and biodistribution in irradiated and nonirradiated SCID mice with orthotopic A549 human lung tumor lesions. Imaging findings were confirmed by histology. Results showed that incubation with 0.011 MBq of (111)In-oxine per million murine NK cells in PBS (pH 7.4) for 20 min is the best condition that provides optimum labeling efficiency without affecting cell viability and functionality. Physiological distribution in normal SCID mice demonstrated NK cells homing mainly in the spleen, while (111)In released from NK cells was excreted via kidneys into urine. Biodistribution studies demonstrated a higher lung uptake in orthotopic lung tumor-bearing mice than control mice. In irradiated mice, lung tumor uptake of radiolabeled murine NK cells decreased between 24 h and 72 h postinjection (p.i.), which was accompanied by tumor regression, while in nonirradiated mice

  20. Involvement of autophagy in NK cell development and function.

    PubMed

    López-Soto, Alejandro; Bravo-San Pedro, José Manuel; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Gonzalez, Segundo

    2017-03-04

    Natural killer (NK) cells are the prototypical members of the recently identified family of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). Thanks to their cytotoxic and secretory functions, NK cells play a key role in the immune response to cells experiencing various forms of stress, including viral infection and malignant transformation. Autophagy is a highly conserved network of degradative pathways that participate in the maintenance of cellular and organismal homeostasis as they promote adaptation to adverse microenvironmental conditions. The relevance of autophagy in the development and functionality of cellular components of the adaptive immune system is well established. Conversely, whether autophagy also plays an important role in the biology of ILC populations such as NK cells has long remained elusive. Recent experimental evidence shows that ablating Atg5 (autophagy-related 5, an essential component of the autophagic machinery) in NK cells and other specific ILC populations results in progressive mitochondrial damage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) overgeneration, and regulated cell death, hence interrupting ILC development. Moreover, disrupting the interaction of ATG7 with phosphorylated FOXO1 (forkhead box O1) in the cytosol of immature NK cells prevents autophagic responses that are essential for NK cell maturation. These findings suggest that activating autophagy may support the maturation of NK cells and other ILCs that manifest antiviral and anticancer activity.

  1. Immunoregulatory Role of NK Cells in Tissue Inflammation and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Tosello-Trampont, Annie; Surette, Fionna A.; Ewald, Sarah E.; Hahn, Young S.

    2017-01-01

    NK cells represent an important first line of defense against viral infection and cancer and are also involved in tissue homeostasis. Studies of NK cell activation in the last decade have revealed that they are able to respond to the inflammatory stimuli evoked by tissue damage and contribute to both progression and resolution of diseases. Exacerbation of the inflammatory response through interactions between immune effector cells facilitates the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) into steatosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). When hepatic damage is incurred, macrophage activation is crucial for initiating cross talk with neighboring cells present in the liver, including hepatocytes and NK cells, and the importance of this interaction in shaping the immune response in liver disease is increasingly recognized. Inflicted structural damage can be in part regenerated via the process of self-limiting fibrosis, though persistent hepatic damage will lead to chronic fibrosis and loss of tissue organization and function. The cytotoxic activity of NK cells plays an important role in inducing hepatic stellate cell apoptosis and thus curtailing the progression of fibrosis. Alternatively, in some diseases, such as HCC, NK cells may become dysregulated, promoting an immunosuppressive state where tumors are able to escape immune surveillance. This review describes the current understanding of the contributions of NK cells to tissue inflammation and metabolic liver diseases and the ongoing effort to develop therapeutics that target the immunoregulatory function of NK cells. PMID:28373874

  2. Features of Memory-Like and PD-1(+) Human NK Cell Subsets.

    PubMed

    Della Chiesa, Mariella; Pesce, Silvia; Muccio, Letizia; Carlomagno, Simona; Sivori, Simona; Moretta, Alessandro; Marcenaro, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    Human NK cells are distinguished into CD56(bright)CD16(-) cells and CD56(dim)CD16(+) cells. These two subsets are conventionally associated with differential functional outcomes and are heterogeneous with respect to the expression of KIR and CD94/NKG2 heterodimers that represent the two major types of HLA-class I-specific receptors. Recent studies indicated that immature CD56(bright) NK cells, homogeneously expressing the inhibitory CD94/NKG2A receptor, are precursors of CD56(dim) NK cells that, in turn, during their process of differentiation, lose expression of CD94/NKG2A and subsequentially acquire inhibitory KIRs and LIR-1. The terminally differentiated phenotype of CD56(dim) cells is marked by the expression of the CD57 molecule that is associated with poor responsiveness to cytokine stimulation, but retained cytolytic capacity. Remarkably, this NKG2A(-)KIR(+)LIR-1(+)CD57(+)CD56(dim) NK cell subset when derived from individuals previously exposed to pathogens, such as human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), may contain "memory-like" NK cells. These cells are generally characterized by an upregulation of the activating receptor CD94/NKG2C and a downregulation of the inhibitory receptor Siglec-7. The "memory-like" NK cells are persistent over time and display some hallmarks of adaptive immunity, i.e., clonal expansion, more effective antitumor and antiviral immune responses, longevity, as well as given epigenetic modifications. Interestingly, unknown cofactors associated with HCMV infection may induce the onset of a recently identified fully mature NK cell subset, characterized by marked downregulation of the activating receptors NKp30 and NKp46 and by the unexpected expression of the inhibitory PD-1 receptor. This phenotype correlates with an impaired antitumor NK cell activity that can be partially restored by antibody-mediated disruption of PD-1/PD-L interaction.

  3. ACTIVATED NOTCH SUPPORTS DEVELOPMENT OF CYTOKINE PRODUCING NK CELLS WHICH ARE HYPORESPONSIVE AND FAIL TO ACQUIRE NK CELL EFFECTOR FUNCTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Bachanova, Veronika; McCullar, Valarie; Lenvik, Todd; Wangen, Rosanna; Peterson, Karen A.; Ankarlo, Dave EM.; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Wagner, John E.; Miller, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Natural Killer (NK) cells are powerful effectors of cytotoxicity against “stressed” cells. They also produce cytokines and chemokines to activate the adaptive immune response. Understanding NK cell development and maturation may have implications for cancer therapy and for immunity against infections. We hypothesized that Notch signaling, critical for hematopoesis, would be involved in NK cell development. The role of constitutively activated Notch1 (ICN) on NK cell maturation was studied using human umbilical cord blood (UCB) progenitors cultured on a murine embryonic liver stroma cell line (EL08-1D2) and human cytokines. UCB CD34+/ICN+ sorted cells resulted in a population of CD7+ early lymphoid precursors and subsequent NK lineage commitment independent of stroma or IL-15. Early expression of L-selectin on ICN+ precursors suggested their homing competence. These precursors further committed to the NK lineage, and were capable of producing cytokines and chemokines such as IL-13, GM-CSF, TNF-α, yet poorly acquired NK inhibitory receptors and cytotoxic effector function. In the presence of stroma, ICN+ precursors also gave rise to a population of early T lineage committed cells characterized by expression of cytoplasmic CD3 γ, ε, δ chains, RAG1/2 and production of IL-2, suggesting bona fide Th1 commitment. Importantly, signals from EL08-1D2 stroma were required for this development process. In conclusion, sustained Notch signaling can replace stroma in differentiation of a common CD7+ lymphoid precursor from UCB CD34+ progenitors and induce NK cell commitment. However, these NK cells are immature in their cytokine production profile, are hyporesponsive and poorly acquire NK cell receptors involved in self tolerance and effector function. PMID:19167678

  4. Impaired NK Cell Activation and Chemotaxis toward Dendritic Cells Exposed to Complement-Opsonized HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Ellegård, Rada; Crisci, Elisa; Andersson, Jonas; Shankar, Esaki M; Nyström, Sofia; Hinkula, Jorma; Larsson, Marie

    2015-08-15

    Mucosa resident dendritic cells (DCs) may represent one of the first immune cells that HIV-1 encounters during sexual transmission. The virions in body fluids can be opsonized with complement factors because of HIV-mediated triggering of the complement cascade, and this appears to influence numerous aspects of the immune defense targeting the virus. One key attribute of host defense is the ability to attract immune cells to the site of infection. In this study, we investigated whether the opsonization of HIV with complement (C-HIV) or a mixture of complement and Abs (CI-HIV) affected the cytokine and chemokine responses generated by DCs, as well as their ability to attract other immune cells. We found that the expression levels of CXCL8, CXCL10, CCL3, and CCL17 were lowered after exposure to either C-HIV or CI-HIV relative to free HIV (F-HIV). DCs exposed to F-HIV induced higher cell migration, consisting mainly of NK cells, compared with opsonized virus, and the chemotaxis of NK cells was dependent on CCL3 and CXCL10. NK cell exposure to supernatants derived from HIV-exposed DCs showed that F-HIV induced phenotypic activation (e.g., increased levels of TIM3, CD69, and CD25) and effector function (e.g., production of IFNγ and killing of target cells) in NK cells, whereas C-HIV and CI-HIV did not. The impairment of NK cell recruitment by DCs exposed to complement-opsonized HIV and the lack of NK activation may contribute to the failure of innate immune responses to control HIV at the site of initial mucosa infection.

  5. The role of NK cells in HIV-1 protection: autologous, allogeneic or both?

    PubMed

    Hens, Jef; Jennes, Wim; Kestens, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells specialize in killing virally infected- or tumor cells and are part of the innate immune system. The activational state of NK cells is determined by the balance of incoming activating and inhibitory signals mediated by receptor-ligand binding with the target cell. These receptor-ligand bonds mainly consist of the killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR), which are expressed at the cell surface of NK cells, and their ligands: the highly variable human leukocyte antigen -class I molecules (HLA). Absence of an inhibitory receptor-ligand bond lowers the NK cell activation threshold, whereas an activating receptor-ligand bond stimulates the cell, potentially overcoming this threshold and triggering NK cell activation. NK cells influence the course of infection as well as the acquisition of HIV-1. Several lines of evidence relate the activating NK cell receptor KIR3DS1, in the presence or absence of its putative ligand HLA-Bw4, with slower disease progression as well as resistance to HIV-1 infection. Overall, resistance to HIV-1 infection predominantly correlates with activating KIR/HLA profiles, consisting of e.g. activating KIRs, group B haplotypes, or inhibitory KIRs in absence of their ligands. Such a conclusion is less evident for studies of HIV-1 disease progression, with studies reporting beneficial as well as detrimental effects of activating KIR/HLA genotypes. It is likely that KIR/HLA association studies are complicated by the complexity of the KIR and HLA loci and their mutual interactions, as well as by additional factors like route of HIV exposure, immune activation, presence of co-infections, and the effect of anti-HIV-1 antibodies. One newly discovered NK cell activation pathway associated with resistance to HIV-1 infection involves the presence of an iKIR/HLA mismatch between partners. The absence of such an iKIR/HLA bond renders donor-derived allogeneic HIV-1 infected cells vulnerable to NK cell responses during HIV-1

  6. Human NK Cell Diversity in Viral Infection: Ramifications of Ramification

    PubMed Central

    Strauss-Albee, Dara M.; Blish, Catherine A.

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are a unique lymphocyte lineage with remarkable agility in the rapid destruction of virus-infected cells. They are also the most poorly understood class of lymphocyte. A spectrum of activating and inhibitory receptors at the NK cell surface leads to an unusual and difficult-to-study mechanism of cellular recognition, as well as a very high capacity for diversity at the single-cell level. Here, we review the evidence for the role of NK cells in the earliest stage of human viral infection, and in its prevention. We argue that single-cell diversity is a logical evolutionary adaptation for their position in the immune response and contributes to their ability to kill virus-infected cells. Finally, we look to the future, where emerging single-cell technologies will enable a new generation of rigorous and clinically relevant studies on NK cells accounting for all of their unique and diverse characteristics. PMID:26973646

  7. Human NK cells maintain licensing status and are subject to killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) and KIR-ligand inhibition following ex vivo expansion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Erbe, Amy K; Alderson, Kory A; Phillips, Emily; Gallenberger, Mikayla; Gan, Jacek; Campana, Dario; Hank, Jacquelyn A; Sondel, Paul M

    2016-09-01

    Infusion of allogeneic NK cells is a potential immunotherapy for both hematopoietic malignancies and solid tumors. Interactions between killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) on human NK cells and KIR-ligands on tumor cells influence the magnitude of NK function. To obtain sufficient numbers of activated NK cells for infusion, one potent method uses cells from the K562 human erythroleukemia line that have been transfected to express activating 41BB ligand (41BBL) and membrane-bound interleukin 15 (mbIL15). The functional importance of KIRs on ex vivo expanded NK cells has not been studied in detail. We found that after a 12-day co-culture with K562-mbIL15-41BBL cells, expanded NK cells maintained inhibition specificity and prior in vivo licensing status determined by KIR/KIR-ligand interactions. Addition of an anti-CD20 antibody (rituximab) induced NK-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and augmented killing of CD20+ target cells. However, partial inhibition induced by KIR/KIR-ligand interactions persisted. Finally, we found that extended co-cultures of NK cells with stimulatory cells transduced to express various KIR-ligands modified both the inhibitory and activating KIR repertoires of the expanded NK cell product. These studies demonstrate that the licensing interactions known to occur during NK ontogeny also influence NK cell function following NK expansion ex vivo with HLA-null stimulatory cells.

  8. Cancer immunoediting by GITR (glucocorticoid-induced TNF-related protein) ligand in humans: NK cell/tumor cell interactions.

    PubMed

    Baltz, Katrin M; Krusch, Matthias; Bringmann, Anita; Brossart, Peter; Mayer, Frank; Kloss, Mercedes; Baessler, Tina; Kumbier, Ingrid; Peterfi, Andrea; Kupka, Susan; Kroeber, Stefan; Menzel, Dagmar; Radsak, Markus P; Rammensee, Hans-Georg; Salih, Helmut R

    2007-08-01

    Glucocorticoid-induced TNF-related protein (GITR) has been shown to stimulate T cell-mediated antitumor immunity in mice. However, the functional relevance of GITR and its ligand (GITRL) for non-T cells has yet to be fully explored. In addition, recent evidence suggests that GITR plays different roles in mice and humans. We studied the role of GITR-GITRL interaction in human tumor immunology and report for the first time that primary gastrointestinal cancers and tumor cell lines of different histological origin express substantial levels of GITRL. Signaling through GITRL down-regulated the expression of the immunostimulatory molecules CD40 and CD54 and the adhesion molecule EpCAM, and induced production of the immunosuppressive cytokine TGF-beta by tumor cells. On NK cells, GITR is constitutively expressed and up-regulated following activation. Blocking GITR-GITRL interaction in cocultures of tumor cells and NK cells substantially increased cytotoxicity and IFN-gamma production of NK cells demonstrating that constitutive expression of GITRL by tumor cells diminishes NK cell antitumor immunity. GITRL-Ig fusion protein or cell surface-expressed GITRL did not induce apoptosis in NK cells, but diminished nuclear localized c-Rel and RelB, indicating that GITR might negatively modulate NK cell NF-kappaB activity. Taken together, our data indicate that tumor-expressed GITRL mediates immunosubversion in humans.

  9. Protective role of NK1.1+ cells in experimental Staphylococcus aureus arthritis

    PubMed Central

    NILSSON, N; BREMELL, T; TARKOWSKI, A; CARLSTEN, H

    1999-01-01

    In a model of Staphylococcus aureus-induced septic arthritis in C57Bl/6 mice we investigated the role of natural killer (NK) cells in the development of disease. Depletion of NK1.1+ cells was achieved by repeated injections of the PK136 antibody, whereas control mice received an irrelevant monoclonal antibody, O1C5.B2. Both groups of mice then received injections intravenously with 2 × 107 live S. aureus LS-1 secreting toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1). The mice were evaluated for 16 days with regard to weight, mortality and arthritis. Nine days after bacterial injection, 9/19 mice depleted of NK cells had developed arthritis compared with 1/17 in the control group (P = 0.01). The experiment was repeated twice with the same outcome. NK cell-depleted and control mice displayed the same degree of histopathological signs of arthritis at day 16. Depletion of NK cells did not affect uptake of bacteria by phagocytic cells in vitro, or bacterial clearance in vivo. In NK cell-depleted mice there was a tendency to increased levels of antibodies to TSST-1, whereas total immunoglobulin levels were similar to those in controls. NK cell depletion of non-infected mice did not affect the magnitude of inflammatory response during the T cell-dependent cutaneous DTH reaction to oxazolone, or during granulocyte-mediated inflammation. However, specific antibody responses to oxazolone were greatly increased in depleted animals. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that NK cells protect against arthritis during S. aureus infection. This outcome does not seem to be due to an influence on bacterial clearance, but could be due to an interaction with the host anti-inflammatory mechanisms. PMID:10403917

  10. Anti-metastatic effects of viral and non-viral mediated Nk4 delivery to tumours

    PubMed Central

    Buhles, Alexandra; Collins, Sara A; van Pijkeren, Jan P; Rajendran, Simon; Miles, Michelle; O'Sullivan, Gerald C; O'Hanlon, Deirdre M; Tangney, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The most common cause of death of cancer sufferers is through the occurrence of metastases. The metastatic behaviour of tumour cells is regulated by extracellular growth factors such as hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), a ligand for the c-Met receptor tyrosine kinase, and aberrant expression/activation of the c-Met receptor is closely associated with metastatic progression. Nk4 (also known as Interleukin (IL)32b) is a competitive antagonist of the HGF c-Met system and inhibits c-Met signalling and tumour metastasis. Nk4 has an additional anti-angiogenic activity independent of its HGF-antagonist function. Angiogenesis-inhibitory as well as cancer-specific apoptosis inducing effects make the Nk4 sequence an attractive candidate for gene therapy of cancer. This study investigates the inhibition of tumour metasasis by gene therapy mediated production of Nk4 by the primary tumour. Optimal delivery of anti-cancer genes is vital in order to achieve the highest therapeutic responses. Non-viral plasmid delivery methods have the advantage of safety and ease of production, providing immediate transgene expression, albeit short-lived in most tumours. Sustained presence of anti-angiogenic molecules is preferable with anti-angiogenic therapies, and the long-term expression mediated by Adeno-associated Virus (AAV) might represent a more appropriate delivery in this respect. However, the incubation time required by AAV vectors to reach appropriate gene expression levels hampers efficacy in many fast-growing murine tumour models. Here, we describe murine trials assessing the effects of Nk4 on the spontaneously metastatic Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LLC) model when delivered to primary tumour via plasmid lipofection or AAV2 vector. Intratumoural AAV-Nk4 administration produced the highest therapeutic response with significant reduction in both primary tumour growth and incidence of lung metastases. Plasmid-mediated therapy also significantly reduced metastatic growth, but with moderate

  11. In vivo IFN-γ secretion by NK cells in response to Salmonella typhimurium requires NLRC4 inflammasomes.

    PubMed

    Kupz, Andreas; Curtiss, Roy; Bedoui, Sammy; Strugnell, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are a critical part of the innate immune defense against viral infections and for the control of tumors. Much less is known about how NK cells contribute to anti-bacterial immunity. NK cell-produced interferon gamma (IFN-γ) contributes to the control of early exponential replication of bacterial pathogens, however the regulation of these events remains poorly resolved. Using a mouse model of invasive Salmonellosis, here we report that the activation of the intracellular danger sensor NLRC4 by Salmonella-derived flagellin within CD11c+ cells regulates early IFN-γ secretion by NK cells through the provision of interleukin 18 (IL-18), independently of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-signaling. Although IL18-signalling deficient NK cells improved host protection during S. Typhimurium infection, this increased resistance was inferior to that provided by wild-type NK cells. These findings suggest that although NLRC4 inflammasome-driven secretion of IL18 serves as a potent activator of NK cell mediated IFN-γ secretion, IL18-independent NK cell-mediated mechanisms of IFN-γ secretion contribute to in vivo control of Salmonella replication.

  12. Cord Blood Mononuclear Cells Have a Potential to Produce NK Cells Using IL2Rg Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Khaziri, Nahid; Mohammadi, Momeneh; Aliyari, Zeinab; Soleimani Rad, Jafar; Tayefi Nasrabadi, Hamid; Nozad Charoudeh, Hojjatollah

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Although bone marrow represents the main site for NK cell development and also distinct thymic-dependentNK cell pathway was identified, the cytokines effect on the NK cell generation from cord blood is unclear. Studies were identified the role of cytokines in the regulation of bone marrow and thymic NK cells. Previous studies reported that IL15 are critical for bone marrow dependent and IL7 is important for thymic NK cells. It is remain unclear the cytokines influence on the expantion of NK cells in cord blood mononuclear cells. Methods: We evaluated cultured cord blood mononuclear cells suplememnted with combinations of cytokines using FACS in distinct time points. In this study, we presented the role of IL2, IL7 and IL15 as members of the common gamma receptor -chain (Il2rg) on the expansion NK cells from cord blood cells. Results: By investigating cord blood mononuclear cells in vitro , we demonstrated that IL2 and IL15 are important for expansion of NK cells. IL2 in comparision with IL15 has more influences in NK cell expansion. In contrast IL-7 is dispensable for NK cell generation in cord blood. Conclusion: Thus,IL-2Rg cytokines play complementary roles and are indispensable for homeostasis of NK cell development in cord blood. Probably these cytokines could help to use NK beneficials in engrafment of transplanted cells and Anti tumor activity of NK cells. PMID:27123412

  13. Resveratrol Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Malignant NK Cells via JAK2/STAT3 Pathway Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Quoc Trung, Ly; Espinoza, J. Luis; Takami, Akiyoshi; Nakao, Shinji

    2013-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cell malignancies, particularly aggressive NK cell leukaemias and lymphomas, have poor prognoses. Although recent regimens with L-asparaginase substantially improved outcomes, novel therapeutic approaches are still needed to enhance clinical response. Resveratrol, a naturally occurring polyphenol, has been extensively studied for its anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective and anti-cancer activities. In this study, we investigated the potential anti-tumour activities of resveratrol against the NK cell lines KHYG-1, NKL, NK-92 and NK-YS. Resveratrol induced robust G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, significantly suppressed cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner for all four cell lines. In addition, resveratrol suppressed constitutively active STAT3 in all the cell lines and inhibited JAK2 phosphorylation but had no effect on other upstream mediators of STAT3 activation, such as PTEN, TYK2, and JAK1. Resveratrol also induced downregulation of the anti-apoptotic proteins MCL1 and survivin, two downstream effectors of the STAT3 pathway. Finally, resveratrol induced synergistic effect on the apoptotic and antiproliferative activities of L-asparaginase against KHYG-1, NKL and NK-92 cells. These results suggest that resveratrol may have therapeutic potential against NK cell malignancies. Furthermore, our finding that resveratrol is a bonafide JAK2 inhibitor extends its potential benefits to other diseases with dysregulated JAK2 signaling. PMID:23372833

  14. Bone marrow produces sufficient alloreactive natural killer (NK) cells in vivo to cure mice from subcutaneously and intravascularly injected 4T1 breast cancer.

    PubMed

    van Gelder, Michel; Vanclée, Ariane; van Elssen, Catharina H M J; Hupperets, Pierre; Wieten, Lotte; Bos, Gerard M

    2017-02-01

    Administration of 5 million alloreactive natural killer (NK) cells after low-dose chemo-irradiation cured mice of 4T1 breast cancer, supposedly dose dependent. We now explored the efficacy of bone marrow as alternative in vivo source of NK cells for anti-breast cancer treatment, as methods for in vitro clinical scale NK cell expansion are still in developmental phases. Progression-free survival (PFS) after treatment with different doses of spleen-derived alloreactive NK cells to 4T1-bearing Balb/c mice was measured to determine a dose-response relation. The potential of bone marrow as source of alloreactive NK cells was explored using MHC-mismatched mice as recipients of 4T1. Chemo-irradiation consisted of 2× 2 Gy total body irradiation and 200 mg/kg cyclophosphamide. Antibody-mediated in vivo NK cell depletion was applied to demonstrate the NK cell's role. Administration of 2.5 instead of 5 million alloreactive NK cells significantly reduced PFS, evidencing dose responsiveness. Compared to MHC-matched receivers of subcutaneous 4T1, fewer MHC-mismatched mice developed tumors, which was due to NK cell alloreactivity because in vivo NK cell depletion facilitated tumor growth. Application of low-dose chemo-irradiation increased plasma levels of NK cell-activating cytokines, NK cell activity and enhanced NK cell-dependent elimination of subcutaneous tumors. Intravenously injected 4T1 was eliminated by alloreactive NK cells in MHC-mismatched recipients without the need for chemo-irradiation. Bone marrow is a suitable source of sufficient alloreactive NK cells for the cure of 4T1 breast cancer. These results prompt clinical exploration of bone marrow transplantation from NK-alloreactive MHC-mismatched donors in patients with metastasized breast cancer.

  15. Histaminergic regulation of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) production by human natural killer (NK) cells

    PubMed Central

    ASEA, A; HANSSON, M; CZERKINSKY, C; HOUZE, T; HERMODSSON, S; STRANNEGÅRD, Ö; HELLSTRAND, K

    1996-01-01

    Monocytes, recovered from human peripheral blood by counter-current centrifugal elutriation, effectively inhibit the production of IFN-γ by CD3−/56+ NK cells in response to IL-2. This study aimed at defining the nature of the inhibitory signal, particularly the importance of monocyte-derived reactive metabolites of oxygen. It was found that monocytes recovered from patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), a condition characterized by deficient NADPH-oxidase activity of phagocytes, did not inhibit IFN-γ production by NK cells. Further, catalase, a scavenger of hydrogen peroxide, completely reversed the inhibitory signal, whereas scavengers of the superoxide anion, hypohalous acids, the hydroxyl radical, or nitric oxide synthesis inhibitors such as L-NMMA were ineffective. Inhibition of IFN-γ production was operating on a pre-translational level, as indicated by the inability of enriched NK cells to accumulate IFN-γ mRNA in the presence of elutriated monocytes. Hydrogen peroxide, at micromolar concentrations, reconstituted the inhibition of IFN-γ production when added to enriched NK cells. Histamine, a biogenic amine which inhibits the generation of reactive oxygen metabolites in monocytes, abrogated the inhibition of IFN-γ production in NK cells; by this mechanism, histamine strongly synergized with IL-2 to induce IFN-γ in mixtures of NK cells and monocytes. The synergizing effect of histamine was specifically mediated by H2-type histamine receptors. We conclude that: (i) the induction of IFN-γ mRNA in NK cells is effectively down-regulated by products of the oxidative metabolism of monocytes; and (ii) histamine effectively enhances IFN-γ production by preventing monocyte-induced oxidative damage to NK cells. PMID:8706348

  16. Continuously expanding CAR NK-92 cells display selective cytotoxicity against B-cell leukemia and lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Oelsner, Sarah; Friede, Miriam E; Zhang, Congcong; Wagner, Juliane; Badura, Susanne; Bader, Peter; Ullrich, Evelyn; Ottmann, Oliver G; Klingemann, Hans; Tonn, Torsten; Wels, Winfried S

    2017-02-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells can rapidly respond to transformed and stressed cells and represent an important effector cell type for adoptive immunotherapy. In addition to donor-derived primary NK cells, continuously expanding cytotoxic cell lines such as NK-92 are being developed for clinical applications. To enhance their therapeutic utility for the treatment of B-cell malignancies, we engineered NK-92 cells by lentiviral gene transfer to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) that target CD19 and contain human CD3ζ (CAR 63.z), composite CD28-CD3ζ or CD137-CD3ζ signaling domains (CARs 63.28.z and 63.137.z). Exposure of CD19-positive targets to CAR NK-92 cells resulted in formation of conjugates between NK and cancer cells, NK-cell degranulation and selective cytotoxicity toward established B-cell leukemia and lymphoma cells. Likewise, the CAR NK cells displayed targeted cell killing of primary pre-B-ALL blasts that were resistant to parental NK-92. Although all three CAR NK-92 cell variants were functionally active, NK-92/63.137.z cells were less effective than NK-92/63.z and NK-92/63.28.z in cell killing and cytokine production, pointing to differential effects of the costimulatory CD28 and CD137 domains. In a Raji B-cell lymphoma model in NOD-SCID IL2R γ(null) mice, treatment with NK-92/63.z cells, but not parental NK-92 cells, inhibited disease progression, indicating that selective cytotoxicity was retained in vivo. Our data demonstrate that it is feasible to generate CAR-engineered NK-92 cells with potent and selective antitumor activity. These cells may become clinically useful as a continuously expandable off-the-shelf cell therapeutic agent. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sera from patients with colon, breast and lung cancer induce resistance to lysis mediated by NK cytotoxic factors (NKCF).

    PubMed Central

    Marubayashi, M.; Solana, R.; Ramirez, R.; Aranda, E.; Galan, F.; Peña, J.

    1991-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are involved in the antitumoral immunologic mechanism. These cells act through the release of cytotoxic molecules defined as NK cytotoxic factors (NKCF). Inhibitory factors of NK and NKCF mediated lysis have been described in in vitro assays. This study evaluates the induction of resistance to NKCF cytotoxicity by sera from 27 patients with colon, breast and lung cancer. Addition of these sera to the cytolytic assay where K562 cells and concentrated NKCF were used, induced resistance to NKCF mediated cytotoxicity in 21 cases (77%). The sera from the group with metastasis blocked NKCF lysis more markedly than the group with local tumours. However, no differences were observed when the groups with colon, breast and lung cancers were compared. This blocking effect was not found to be related to gamma interferon (IFN) levels. In a previous study, we described a tumour factor (NK-RIF) produced by human cell lines derived from metastatic adenocarcinomas. This factor blocked lysis of tumour target cells by NK cells. Consequently, it is proposed that the release of similar tumour factors with a capacity to induce resistance to NKCF may be involved in tumour growth and metastatic spreading in in vivo. PMID:1906292

  18. Generation and preclinical characterization of an NKp80-Fc fusion protein for redirected cytolysis of natural killer (NK) cells against leukemia.

    PubMed

    Deng, Gang; Zheng, Xiaodong; Zhou, Jing; Wei, Haiming; Tian, Zhigang; Sun, Rui

    2015-09-11

    The capacity of natural killer (NK) cells to mediate Fc receptor-dependent effector functions, such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), largely contributes to their clinical application. Given that activation-induced C-type lectin (AICL), an identified ligand for the NK-activating receptor NKp80, is frequently highly expressed on leukemia cells, the lack of therapeutic AICL-specific antibodies limits clinical application. Here we explore a strategy to reinforce NK anti-leukemia reactivity by combining targeting AICL-expressing leukemia cells with the induction of NK cell ADCC using NKp80-Fc fusion proteins. The NKp80-Fc fusion protein we generated bound specifically to leukemia cells in an AICL-specific manner. Cell binding assays between NK and leukemia cells showed that NKp80-Fc significantly increased NK target cell conjugation. In functional analyses, treatment with NKp80-Fc clearly induced the ADCC effect of NK cells. NKp80-Fc not only promoted NK-mediated leukemia cell apoptosis in the early stage of cell conjugation but also enhanced NK cell degranulation and cytotoxicity activity in the late stage. The bifunctional NKp80-Fc could redirect NK cells toward leukemia cells and triggered NK cell killing in vitro. Moreover, NKp80-Fc enhanced the lysis of NK cells against tumors in leukemia xenograft non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency mice. Taken together, our results demonstrate that NKp80-Fc potently amplifies NK cell anti-leukemia effects in vitro and in vivo through induction of the NK cell ADCC effect. This method could potentially be useful for molecular targeted therapy, and the fusion proteins may be a promising drug for immunotherapy of leukemia.

  19. Polarization of NK cell cytoskeleton upon conjugation with sensitive target cells.

    PubMed

    Carpén, O; Virtanen, I; Lehto, V P; Saksela, E

    1983-12-01

    We studied the cytoskeletal changes in natural killer (NK) cells during conjugate formation, i.e., when NK cells make contact with sensitive vs resistant target cells. F-actin and vinculin were seen to polarize at the contact sites upon conjugation with sensitive K562 cells, whereas in conjugates with resistant Raji target cells such an orientation was an infrequent finding. Myosin and two other cytoskeletal proteins, spectrin and vimentin, on the other hand, showed a random distribution in conjugating NK cells regardless of the target cell type. Hence the cytoskeletal redistribution associated with conjugation seems to be different from the receptor capping phenomenon, which is accompanied by clustering of actin, myosin, vimentin, and spectrin. On the basis of these results it seems probable that the lytic conjugate formation in NK-mediated cytotoxicity is associated with the formation of a specific type of junction that involves actin and vinculin. This cytoskeletal reorganization precedes and could be a prerequisite for the polarization of the cellular secretory apparatus and may be functionally responsible for the required cytokinetic movements.

  20. TGF-β inhibits the activation and functions of NK cells by repressing the mTOR pathway.

    PubMed

    Viel, Sébastien; Marçais, Antoine; Guimaraes, Fernando Souza-Fonseca; Loftus, Roisin; Rabilloud, Jessica; Grau, Morgan; Degouve, Sophie; Djebali, Sophia; Sanlaville, Amélien; Charrier, Emily; Bienvenu, Jacques; Marie, Julien C; Caux, Christophe; Marvel, Jacqueline; Town, Liam; Huntington, Nicholas D; Bartholin, Laurent; Finlay, David; Smyth, Mark J; Walzer, Thierry

    2016-02-16

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a major immunosuppressive cytokine that maintains immune homeostasis and prevents autoimmunity through its antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory properties in various immune cell types. We provide genetic, pharmacologic, and biochemical evidence that a critical target of TGF-β signaling in mouse and human natural killer (NK) cells is the serine and threonine kinase mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin). Treatment of mouse or human NK cells with TGF-β in vitro blocked interleukin-15 (IL-15)-induced activation of mTOR. TGF-β and the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin both reduced the metabolic activity and proliferation of NK cells and reduced the abundances of various NK cell receptors and the cytotoxic activity of NK cells. In vivo, constitutive TGF-β signaling or depletion of mTOR arrested NK cell development, whereas deletion of the TGF-β receptor subunit TGF-βRII enhanced mTOR activity and the cytotoxic activity of the NK cells in response to IL-15. Suppression of TGF-β signaling in NK cells did not affect either NK cell development or homeostasis; however, it enhanced the ability of NK cells to limit metastases in two different tumor models in mice. Together, these results suggest that the kinase mTOR is a crucial signaling integrator of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in NK cells. Moreover, we propose that boosting the metabolic activity of antitumor lymphocytes could be an effective strategy to promote immune-mediated tumor suppression.

  1. DOCK8 Drives Src-Dependent NK Cell Effector Function.

    PubMed

    Kearney, Conor J; Vervoort, Stephin J; Ramsbottom, Kelly M; Freeman, Andrew J; Michie, Jessica; Peake, Jane; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Picard, Capucine; Tangye, Stuart G; Ma, Cindy S; Johnstone, Ricky W; Randall, Katrina L; Oliaro, Jane

    2017-08-09

    Mutations in the dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) gene cause an autosomal recessive form of hyper-IgE syndrome, characterized by chronic immunodeficiency with persistent microbial infection and increased incidence of malignancy. These manifestations suggest a defect in cytotoxic lymphocyte function and immune surveillance. However, how DOCK8 regulates NK cell-driven immune responses remains unclear. In this article, we demonstrate that DOCK8 regulates NK cell cytotoxicity and cytokine production in response to target cell engagement or receptor ligation. Genetic ablation of DOCK8 in human NK cells attenuated cytokine transcription and secretion through inhibition of Src family kinase activation, particularly Lck, downstream of target cell engagement or NKp30 ligation. PMA/Ionomycin treatment of DOCK8-deficient NK cells rescued cytokine production, indicating a defect proximal to receptor ligation. Importantly, NK cells from DOCK8-deficient patients had attenuated production of IFN-γ and TNF-α upon NKp30 stimulation. Taken together, we reveal a novel molecular mechanism by which DOCK8 regulates NK cell-driven immunity. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  2. Bacterial Manipulation of NK Cell Regulatory Activity Increases Susceptibility to Listeria monocytogenes Infection

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, Brandon S.; Schmidt, Rebecca L.; Jamieson, Amanda; Merkel, Patricia; Knight, Vijaya; Cole, Caroline M.; Raulet, David H.; Lenz, Laurel L.

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells produce interferon (IFN)-γ and thus have been suggested to promote type I immunity during bacterial infections. Yet, Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) and some other pathogens encode proteins that cause increased NK cell activation. Here, we show that stimulation of NK cell activation increases susceptibility during Lm infection despite and independent from robust NK cell production of IFNγ. The increased susceptibility correlated with IL-10 production by responding NK cells. NK cells produced IL-10 as their IFNγ production waned and the Lm virulence protein p60 promoted induction of IL-10 production by mouse and human NK cells. NK cells consequently exerted regulatory effects to suppress accumulation and activation of inflammatory myeloid cells. Our results reveal new dimensions of the role played by NK cells during Lm infection and demonstrate the ability of this bacterial pathogen to exploit the induction of regulatory NK cell activity to increase host susceptibility. PMID:27295349

  3. Epigenetic regulation of NK cell differentiation and effector functions

    PubMed Central

    Cichocki, Frank; Miller, Jeffrey S.; Anderson, Stephen K.; Bryceson, Yenan T.

    2013-01-01

    Upon maturation, natural killer (NK) cells acquire effector functions and regulatory receptors. New insights suggest a considerable functional heterogeneity and dynamic regulation of receptor expression in mature human NK cell subsets based on different developmental axes. Such processes include acquisition of lytic granules as well as regulation of cytokine production in response to exogenous cytokine stimulation or target cell interactions. One axis is regulated by expression of inhibitory receptors for self-MHC class I molecules, whereas other axes are less well defined but likely are driven by different activating receptor engagements or cytokines. Moreover, the recent identification of long-lived NK cell subsets in mice that are able to expand and respond rapidly following a secondary viral challenge suggest previously unappreciated plasticity in the programming of NK cell differentiation. Here, we review advances in our understanding of mature NK cell development and plasticity with regards to regulation of cellular function. Furthermore, we highlight some of the major questions that remain pertaining to the epigenetic changes that underlie the differentiation and functional specialization of NK cells and the regulation of their responses. PMID:23450696

  4. Tumor immunoevasion by the conversion of effector NK cells into type 1 innate lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yulong; Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes, Fernando; Bald, Tobias; Ng, Susanna S; Young, Arabella; Ngiow, Shin Foong; Rautela, Jai; Straube, Jasmin; Waddell, Nic; Blake, Stephen J; Yan, Juming; Bartholin, Laurent; Lee, Jason S; Vivier, Eric; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Messaoudene, Meriem; Zitvogel, Laurence; Teng, Michele W L; Belz, Gabrielle T; Engwerda, Christian R; Huntington, Nicholas D; Nakamura, Kyohei; Hölzel, Michael; Smyth, Mark J

    2017-09-01

    Avoiding destruction by immune cells is a hallmark of cancer, yet how tumors ultimately evade control by natural killer (NK) cells remains incompletely defined. Using global transcriptomic and flow-cytometry analyses and genetically engineered mouse models, we identified the cytokine-TGF-β-signaling-dependent conversion of NK cells (CD49a(-)CD49b(+)Eomes(+)) into intermediate type 1 innate lymphoid cell (intILC1) (CD49a(+)CD49b(+)Eomes(+)) populations and ILC1 (CD49a(+)CD49b(-)Eomes(int)) populations in the tumor microenvironment. Strikingly, intILC1s and ILC1s were unable to control local tumor growth and metastasis, whereas NK cells favored tumor immunosurveillance. Experiments with an antibody that neutralizes the cytokine TNF suggested that escape from the innate immune system was partially mediated by TNF-producing ILC1s. Our findings provide new insight into the plasticity of group 1 ILCs in the tumor microenvironment and suggest that the TGF-β-driven conversion of NK cells into ILC1s is a previously unknown mechanism by which tumors escape surveillance by the innate immune system.

  5. Interferon-γ-induced activation of JAK1 and JAK2 suppresses tumor cell susceptibility to NK cells through upregulation of PD-L1 expression.

    PubMed

    Bellucci, Roberto; Martin, Allison; Bommarito, Davide; Wang, Kathy; Hansen, Steen H; Freeman, Gordon J; Ritz, Jerome

    2015-06-01

    Inhibition of JAK1 or JAK2 in human tumor cells was previously shown to increase susceptibility of these cells to NK cell lysis. In the present study, we examined the cellular mechanisms that mediate this effect in hematopoietic tumor cell lines and primary tumor cells. Incubation of tumor cells with supernatant from activated NK cells or interferon-gamma (IFNγ)-induced activation of pSTAT1 and increased expression of PD-L1 without altering expression of other activating or inhibitory NK cell ligands. These functional effects were blocked by chemical JAK inhibition or shRNAs targeting JAK1, JAK2 or STAT1. Inhibition of IFNγ signaling also prevented the upregulation of PD-L1 and blocking PD-L1 resulted in increased tumor lysis by NK cells. These results show that NK cell activation and secretion of IFNγ results in activation of JAK1, JAK2 and STAT1 in tumor cells, resulting in rapid up-regulation of PD-L1 expression. Increased expression of PD-L1 results in increased resistance to NK cell lysis. Blockade of JAK pathway activation prevents increased PD-L1 expression resulting in increased susceptibility of tumor cells to NK cell activity. These observations suggest that JAK pathway inhibitors as well as PD-1 and PD-L1 antibodies may work synergistically with other immune therapies by preventing IFN-induced inhibition of NK cell-mediated tumor cell lysis.

  6. Influenza vaccine induces intracellular immune memory of human NK cells.

    PubMed

    Dou, Yaling; Fu, Binqing; Sun, Rui; Li, Wenting; Hu, Wanfu; Tian, Zhigang; Wei, Haiming

    2015-01-01

    Influenza vaccines elicit antigen-specific antibodies and immune memory to protect humans from infection with drift variants. However, what supports or limits vaccine efficacy and duration is unclear. Here, we vaccinated healthy volunteers with annual vaccine formulations and investigated the dynamics of T cell, natural killer (NK) cell and antibody responses upon restimulation with heterologous or homologous influenza virus strains. Influenza vaccines induced potential memory NK cells with increased antigen-specific recall IFN-γ responses during the first 6 months. In the absence of significant changes in other NK cell markers (CD45RO, NKp44, CXCR6, CD57, NKG2C, CCR7, CD62L and CD27), influenza vaccines induced memory NK cells with the distinct feature of intracellular NKp46 expression. Indeed, surface NKp46 was internalized, and the dynamic increase in NKp46(intracellular)+CD56dim NK cells positively correlated with increased IFN-γ production to influenza virus restimulation after vaccination. In addition, anti-NKp46 antibodies blocked IFN-γ responses. These findings provide insights into a novel mechanism underlying vaccine-induced immunity and NK-related diseases, which may help to design persisting and universal vaccines in the future.

  7. Functional Assessment of NK and LAK Cells Following Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaur, Indreshpal; Pierson, Duane L.; Paloski, W. H. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Space flight associated stress alters some aspects of the human immune response. In this study, we determined the effects of 10 days aboard the Space Shuttle on the cytotoxic activity of NK and LAK cells. PBMCs were collected from 10-ml blood specimens from 5 astronauts 10 days before launch, immediately after landing, and again at 3 days after landing and stored at -80 C. All PBMCs were thawed simultaneously, and the cytotoxic activities of NK and LAK cells were measured by a 4 hour Cr-51 release assay. K562 cells were used to assess NK cell cytotoxicity. Following 4 days of IL-2 activation, the LAK cell cytotoxic activity was determined using K562 cells and Daudi cells as the target cells. NK cell cytotoxicity decreased at landing (p<.05) in 3/5 astronauts, and recovered to preflight levels by 3 days following landing; NK cell cytotoxicity was increased (p=0.1) in the remaining 2 astronauts at landing. In 4/5 astronauts, LAK cytotoxic activity was decreased at landing against K562 cells (p = 0.13) and Daudi cells (p = 0.08). Phenotyping of PBMC's and LAK cells showed alterations in some surface markers and adhesion molecules (CD11b, CD11c, CD11a, CD16, L-selectin, and CD3).

  8. Functional Assessment of NK and LAK Cells Following Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaur, Indreshpal; Pierson, Duane L.; Paloski, W. H. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Space flight associated stress alters some aspects of the human immune response. In this study, we determined the effects of 10 days aboard the Space Shuttle on the cytotoxic activity of NK and LAK cells. PBMCs were collected from 10-ml blood specimens from 5 astronauts 10 days before launch, immediately after landing, and again at 3 days after landing and stored at -80 C. All PBMCs were thawed simultaneously, and the cytotoxic activities of NK and LAK cells were measured by a 4 hour Cr-51 release assay. K562 cells were used to assess NK cell cytotoxicity. Following 4 days of IL-2 activation, the LAK cell cytotoxic activity was determined using K562 cells and Daudi cells as the target cells. NK cell cytotoxicity decreased at landing (p<.05) in 3/5 astronauts, and recovered to preflight levels by 3 days following landing; NK cell cytotoxicity was increased (p=0.1) in the remaining 2 astronauts at landing. In 4/5 astronauts, LAK cytotoxic activity was decreased at landing against K562 cells (p = 0.13) and Daudi cells (p = 0.08). Phenotyping of PBMC's and LAK cells showed alterations in some surface markers and adhesion molecules (CD11b, CD11c, CD11a, CD16, L-selectin, and CD3).

  9. Beyond NK Cells: The Expanding Universe of Innate Lymphoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cella, Marina; Miller, Hannah; Song, Christina

    2014-01-01

    For a long time, natural killer (NK) cells were thought to be the only innate immune lymphoid population capable of responding to invading pathogens under the influence of changing environmental cues. In the last few years, an increasing amount of evidence has shown that a number of different innate lymphoid cell (ILC) populations found at mucosal sites rapidly respond to locally produced cytokines in order to establish or maintain homeostasis. These ILC populations closely mirror the phenotype of adaptive T helper subsets in their repertoire of secreted soluble factors. Early in the immune response, ILCs are responsible for setting the stage to mount an adaptive T cell response that is appropriate for the incoming insult. Here, we review the diversity of ILC subsets and discuss similarities and differences between ILCs and NK cells in function and key transcriptional factors required for their development. PMID:24982658

  10. Beyond NK cells: the expanding universe of innate lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Cella, Marina; Miller, Hannah; Song, Christina

    2014-01-01

    For a long time, natural killer (NK) cells were thought to be the only innate immune lymphoid population capable of responding to invading pathogens under the influence of changing environmental cues. In the last few years, an increasing amount of evidence has shown that a number of different innate lymphoid cell (ILC) populations found at mucosal sites rapidly respond to locally produced cytokines in order to establish or maintain homeostasis. These ILC populations closely mirror the phenotype of adaptive T helper subsets in their repertoire of secreted soluble factors. Early in the immune response, ILCs are responsible for setting the stage to mount an adaptive T cell response that is appropriate for the incoming insult. Here, we review the diversity of ILC subsets and discuss similarities and differences between ILCs and NK cells in function and key transcriptional factors required for their development.

  11. Impact of the NK Cell Receptor LIR-1 (ILT-2/CD85j/LILRB1) on Cytotoxicity against Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Heidenreich, Silke; zu Eulenburg, Christine; Hildebrandt, York; Stübig, Thomas; Sierich, Heidi; Badbaran, Anita; Eiermann, Thomas H.; Binder, Thomas M. C.; Kröger, Nicolaus

    2012-01-01

    The role of different receptors in natural-killer- (NK-) cell-mediated cytotoxicity against multiple myeloma (MM) cells is unknown. We investigated if an enhancement of NK-cell-mediated cytotoxicity against MM could be reached by blocking of the inhibitory leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor 1 (LIR-1). Our investigations revealed high levels of LIR-1 expression not only on the NK cell line NK-92, but also on myeloma cells (MOLP-8, RPMI8226) as well as on a lymphoblastoid cell line (LBCL; IM-9). Subsequent cytotoxicity assays were designed to show the isolated effects of LIR-1 blocking on either the effector or the tumor side to rule out receptor-receptor interactions. Although NK-92 was shown to be capable of myeloma cell lysis, inhibition of LIR-1 on NK-92 did not enhance cytotoxicity. Targeting the receptor on MM and LBCL did not also alter NK-92-mediated lysis. We come to the conclusion that LIR-1 alone does not directly influence NK-cell-mediated cytotoxicity against myeloma. To our knowledge, this work provides the first investigation of the inhibitory capability of LIR-1 in NK-92-mediated cytotoxicity against MM and the first functional evaluation of LIR-1 on MM and LBCL. PMID:22844324

  12. Melanoma-associated fibroblasts modulate NK cell phenotype and antitumor cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Balsamo, Mirna; Scordamaglia, Francesca; Pietra, Gabriella; Manzini, Claudia; Cantoni, Claudia; Boitano, Monica; Queirolo, Paola; Vermi, William; Facchetti, Fabio; Moretta, Alessandro; Moretta, Lorenzo; Mingari, Maria Cristina; Vitale, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    Although the role of the tumor microenvironment in the process of cancer progression has been extensively investigated, the contribution of different stromal components to tumor growth and/or evasion from immune surveillance is still only partially defined. In this study we analyzed fibroblasts derived from metastatic melanomas and provide evidence for their strong immunosuppressive activity. In coculture experiments, melanoma-derived fibroblasts sharply interfered with NK cell functions including cytotoxicity and cytokine production. Thus, both the IL-2-induced up-regulation of the surface expression of NKp44, NKp30, and DNAM-1 triggering receptors and the acquisition of cytolytic granules were inhibited in NK cells. This resulted in an impairment of the NK cell-mediated killing of melanoma target cells. Transwell cocultures and the use of specific inhibitors suggested that cell-to-cell contact was required for inducing DNAM-1 modulation. In contrast, modulation of NKp44 and NKp30 was due to PGE2 released by fibroblasts during coculture. Normal skin fibroblasts could also partially affect NK cell phenotype and function. However, the inhibitory effect of tumor-derived fibroblasts was far stronger and directly correlated with their ability to produce PGE2 either constitutively or upon induction by NK cells. PMID:19934056

  13. Selection and expansion of natural killer cells for NK cell-based immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Becker, Petra S A; Suck, Garnet; Nowakowska, Paulina; Ullrich, Evelyn; Seifried, Erhard; Bader, Peter; Tonn, Torsten; Seidl, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells have been used in several clinical trials as adaptive immunotherapy. The low numbers of these cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) have resulted in various approaches to preferentially expand primary NK cells from PBMC. While some clinical trials have used the addition of interleukin 2 (IL-2) to co-stimulate the expansion of purified NK cells from allogeneic donors, recent studies have shown promising results in achieving in vitro expansion of NK cells to large numbers for adoptive immunotherapy. NK cell expansion requires multiple cell signals for survival, proliferation and activation. Thus, expansion strategies have been focused either to substitute these factors using autologous feeder cells or to use genetically modified allogeneic feeder cells. Recent developments in the clinical use of genetically modified NK cell lines with chimeric antigen receptors, the development of expansion protocols for the clinical use of NK cell from human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells are challenging improvements for NK cell-based immunotherapy. Transfer of several of these protocols to clinical-grade production of NK cells necessitates adaptation of good manufacturing practice conditions, and the development of freezing conditions to establish NK cell stocks will require some effort and, however, should enhance the therapeutic options of NK cells in clinical medicine.

  14. Recruitment and Activation of Natural Killer (Nk) Cells in Vivo Determined by the Target Cell Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Glas, Rickard; Franksson, Lars; Une, Clas; Eloranta, Maija-Leena; Öhlén, Claes; Örn, Anders; Kärre, Klas

    2000-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells can spontaneously lyse certain virally infected and transformed cells. However, early in immune responses NK cells are further activated and recruited to tissue sites where they perform effector functions. This process is dependent on cytokines, but it is unclear if it is regulated by NK cell recognition of susceptible target cells. We show here that infiltration of activated NK cells into the peritoneal cavity in response to tumor cells is controlled by the tumor major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I phenotype. Tumor cells lacking appropriate MHC class I expression induced NK cell infiltration, cytotoxic activation, and induction of transcription of interferon γ in NK cells. The induction of these responses was inhibited by restoration of tumor cell MHC class I expression. The NK cells responding to MHC class I–deficient tumor cells were ∼10 times as active as endogenous NK cells on a per cell basis. Although these effector cells showed a typical NK specificity in that they preferentially killed MHC class I–deficient cells, this specificity was even more distinct during induction of the intraperitoneal response. Observations are discussed in relation to a possible adaptive component of the NK response, i.e., recruitment/activation in response to challenges that only NK cells are able to neutralize. PMID:10620611

  15. PIBF positive uterine NK cells in the mouse decidua.

    PubMed

    Bogdan, Agnes; Berta, Gergely; Szekeres-Bartho, Julia

    2017-02-01

    Though uterine NK cells (u NK cells) contain cytotoxic granules, and selectively over- express the genes of perforin and granzymes, during normal pregnancy, they are not cytotoxic. Progesterone is indispensable for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy both in humans and in mice. Mouse uterine NK cells do not express the classical progesterone receptor, yet progesterone affects the recruitment and function of uterine NK cells, the latter partly via the Progesterone-Induced Blocking Factor (PIBF). We demonstrated PIBF positive granulated cells in the mouse decidua. The aim of this study was to characterize these cells by lectin immunohistochemistry and anti-perforin reactivity. PIBF+ granulated cells were absent from the deciduae of alymphoid mice, but appeared in the decidua of those that had been reconstituted with bone marrow from male BALB/c mice. PIBF+ granulated cells bound the DBA lectin, suggesting their NK cell nature, and also contained perforin, which co-localized with PIBF in the cytoplasmic granules. In anti-progesterone treated mice all of the PIBF+ cells were perforin positive at g. d. 12.5, in contrast to the 54% perforin positivity of PIBF+ cells in untreated mice.

  16. α1-Antitrypsin modifies general NK cell interactions with dendritic cells and specific interactions with islet β-cells in favor of protection from autoimmune diabetes.

    PubMed

    Guttman, Ofer; Yossef, Rami; Freixo-Lima, Gabriella; Rider, Peleg; Porgador, Angel; Lewis, Eli C

    2014-10-13

    The autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β-cells is the hallmark of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Failure of anti-CD3 antibodies to provide long-lasting reversal of T1D and the expression of an NK cell ligand on β-cells suggest that NK cells play a role in disease pathogenesis. Indeed, killing of β-cells by NK cells has been shown to occur, mediated by activation of the NK cell activating receptor, NKp46. α1-antitrypsin (AAT), an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory glycoprotein, protects β-cells from injurious immune responses and is currently evaluated as a therapeutic for recent onset T1D. While isolated T lymphocytes are not inhibited by AAT, dendritic cells (DCs) become tolerogenic in its presence and other innate immune cells become less inflammatory. Yet a comprehensive profile of NK cell responses in the presence of AAT has yet to be described. In the present study, we demonstrate that AAT significantly reduces NK cell degranulation against β-cells, albeit in the whole animal and not in isolated NK cell cultures. AAT-treated mice, and not isolated cultured β-cells, exhibited a marked reduction in NKp46 ligand levels on β-cells. In related experiments, AAT-treated DCs exhibited reduced inducible DC-expressed IL-15 levels and evoked a weaker NK cell response. NK cell depletion in a T1D mouse model resulted in improved β-cell function and survival, similar to the effects observed by AAT treatment alone; nonetheless, the two approaches were non-synergistic. Our data suggest that AAT is a selective immunomodulator that retains pivotal NK cell responses, while diverting their activities away from islet β-cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Listeria monocytogenes infection differentially affects expression of ligands for NK cells and NK cell responses, depending on the cell type infected.

    PubMed

    Shegarfi, Hamid; Rolstad, Bent; Kane, Kevin P; Nestvold, Janne

    2016-04-22

    The pivotal role of NK cells in viral infection is extensively studied, whereas the role of NK cells in bacterial infection has been poorly investigated. Here, we have examined how Listeria monocytogenes (LM) affects expression of ligands for NK cell receptors and subsequent NK cell responses, depending on the type of cell infected. LM infected rat cell lines derived from different tissues were coincubated with splenic NK cells, and NK cell proliferation and IFN-γ production were measured. In addition, expression of ligands for the NK cell receptors Ly49 and NK cell receptor protein 1 (NKR-P1), MHC class I and C-type lectin-related molecules, respectively, was assessed. Infected pleural R2 cells, but not epithelium-derived colon carcinoma cell line CC531 cells, induced proliferation of NK cells. Reporter cells expressing the inhibitory NKR-P1G receptor or the activating NKR-P1F receptor were less stimulated under incubation with infected CC531 cells versus uninfected CC531 controls, suggesting that the ligand(s) in question were down-regulated by infection. Conversely, LM infection of R2 cells did not affect reporter cell stimulation compared with uninfected R2 controls. We characterized a rat monocyte cell line, termed RmW cells. In contrast to LM infected R2 cells that up-regulate MHC class I molecules, RmW cells displayed unchanged MHC class I expression following infection. In line with MHC class I expression, more NK cells produced a higher amount of IFN-γ against infected R2 cells compared with RmW cells. Together, L. monocytogenes infection may variously regulate cellular ligands for NK cells, depending on the cell type infected, affecting the outcome of NK cell responses.

  18. Comparative analysis of NK-cell receptor expression and function across primate species

    PubMed Central

    Ugolotti, Elisabetta; De Maria, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphoid effectors that are involved in the innate immune surveillance against infected and/or tumor cells. Their function is under the fine-tuning control of cell surface receptors that display either inhibitory or activating function and in healthy condition, mediate self-tolerance. It is known that inhibitory receptors are characterized by clonal and stochastic distribution and are extremely sensible to any modification, downregulation or loss of MHC class I surface expression that are induced in autologous cells upon viral infection or cancer transformation. This alteration of the MHC class I expression weakens the strength of the inhibitory receptor-induced interaction, thus resulting in a prompt triggering of NK cell function, which ends up in the inhibition of tumor progression and proliferation of pathogen-infected cells. Thus, the inhibitory function of NK cells is only one face of the coin, since NK-cell activation is controlled by different arrays of activating receptors that finally are involved in the induction of cytolysis and/or cytokine release. Interestingly, the inhibitory NK-cell receptors that are involved in dampening NK cell-mediated responses evolved during speciation in different, often structurally unrelated surface-expressed molecules, all using a conserved signaling pathway. In detail, during evolution, the inhibitory receptors that assure the recognition of MHC class I molecules, originate in, at least, three different ways. This ended up in multigene families showing marked structural divergences that coevolved in a convergent way with the availability of appropriate MHC ligand molecules. PMID:21487512

  19. Cytomegalovirus Infection Drives Adaptive Epigenetic Diversification of NK Cells with Altered Signaling and Effector Function

    PubMed Central

    Schlums, Heinrich; Cichocki, Frank; Tesi, Bianca; Theorell, Jakob; Beziat, Vivien; Holmes, Tim D.; Han, Hongya; Chiang, Samuel C.C.; Foley, Bree; Mattsson, Kristin; Larsson, Stella; Schaffer, Marie; Malmberg, Karl-Johan; Ljunggren, Hans-Gustaf; Miller, Jeffrey S.; Bryceson, Yenan T.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The mechanisms underlying human natural killer (NK) cell phenotypic and functional heterogeneity are unknown. Here, we describe the emergence of diverse subsets of human NK cells selectively lacking expression of signaling proteins after human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection. The absence of B and myeloid cell-related signaling protein expression in these NK cell subsets correlated with promoter DNA hyperme-thylation. Genome-wide DNA methylation patterns were strikingly similar between HCMV-associated adaptive NK cells and cytotoxic effector T cells but differed from those of canonical NK cells. Functional interrogation demonstrated altered cytokine responsiveness in adaptive NK cells that was linked to reduced expression of the transcription factor PLZF. Furthermore, subsets of adaptive NK cells demonstrated significantly reduced functional responses to activated autologous T cells. The present results uncover a spectrum of epigenetically unique adaptive NK cell subsets that diversify in response to viral infection and have distinct functional capabilities compared to canonical NK cell subsets. PMID:25786176

  20. Using NK Cell Lipid Raft Fractionation to Understand the Role of Lipid Rafts in NK Cell Receptor Signaling.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Pertierra, Esther; López-Larrea, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Lipid rafts were first defined as detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) due to their relative insolubility in non-ionic detergents. Although they should not be confused with lipid rafts, DRMs are a valuable starting point for the study of these membrane domains and the interactions of proteins with rafts.Here we describe the isolation of DRMs by ultracentrifugation on a sucrose gradient, a method we have used to study the role of lipid rafts in NKG2D-mediated signaling. We also describe raft fractionation of NK cells involving the selective solubility of β-octylglucoside (β-OG). OG is a non-ionic detergent that efficiently dissolves DRMs but does not disrupt protein associations with the cytoskeleton. Using these two techniques may yield useful information about the proteins involved in receptor recruitment into lipid rafts and the interactions of the actin cytoskeleton with lipid rafts.

  1. Retroviral gene transfer into primary human NK cells activated by IL-2 and K562 feeder cells expressing membrane-bound IL-21.

    PubMed

    Streltsova, Maria A; Barsov, Eugene; Erokhina, Sofia A; Kovalenko, Elena I

    2017-11-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are capable of rapidly recognizing and efficiently killing tumor cells. This makes them a potentially promising agent for cancer immunotherapy. Additional genetic modifications of NK cells may further improve their anti-tumor efficacy. Numerous technical challenges associated with gene delivery into NK cells have significantly tempered this approach. We achieved efficient retroviral vector transduction of primary human NK cells that were stimulated by a combination of IL-2 and engineered K562 cells expressing membrane-bound IL-21. The activated NK cells were in less differentiated state and expressed NK cell activation receptors NKG2D, NKp30, CD16, and were highly HLA-DR-positive. This NK cell population was highly susceptible to the transduction by both GFP- and NGFR-expressing retroviral vectors, with transduction efficiency exceeding 50%. More mature CD57(+) NK cell population was generally resistant to retroviral vector transduction because of poor response to the stimulation. Our findings may facilitate retroviral vector-mediated genetic engineering of human primary NK cells for future immunotherapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Human mesenchymal stromal/stem cells acquire immunostimulatory capacity upon cross-talk with natural killer cells and might improve the NK cell function of immunocompromised patients.

    PubMed

    Cui, Rongtao; Rekasi, Heike; Hepner-Schefczyk, Monika; Fessmann, Kai; Petri, Robert M; Bruderek, Kirsten; Brandau, Sven; Jäger, Marcus; Flohé, Stefanie B

    2016-07-07

    The suppressive effect of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) on diverse immune cells is well known, but it is unclear whether MSCs additionally possess immunostimulatory properties. We investigated the impact of human MSCs on the responsiveness of primary natural killer (NK) cells in terms of cytokine secretion. Human MSCs were generated from bone marrow and nasal mucosa. NK cells were isolated from peripheral blood of healthy volunteers or of immunocompromised patients after severe injury. NK cells were cultured with MSCs or with MSC-derived conditioned media in the absence or presence of IL-12 and IL-18. C-C chemokine receptor (CCR) 2, C-C chemokine ligand (CCL) 2, and the interferon (IFN)-γ receptor was blocked by specific inhibitors or antibodies. The synthesis of IFN-γ and CCL2 was determined. In the absence of exogenous cytokines, trace amounts of NK cell-derived IFN-γ licensed MSCs for enhanced synthesis of CCL2. In turn, MSCs primed NK cells for increased release of IFN-γ in response to IL-12 and IL-18. Priming of NK cells by MSCs occurred in a cell-cell contact-independent manner and was impaired by inhibition of the CCR2, the receptor of CCL2, on NK cells. CD56(bright) NK cells expressed higher levels of CCR2 and were more sensitive to CCL2-mediated priming by MSCs and by recombinant CCR2 ligands than cytotoxic CD56(dim) NK cells. NK cells from severely injured patients were impaired in cytokine-induced IFN-γ synthesis. Co-culture with MSCs or with conditioned media from MSCs and MSC/NK cell co-cultures from healthy donors improved the IFN-γ production of the patients' NK cells in a CCR2-dependent manner. A positive feedback loop driven by NK cell-derived IFN-γ and MSC-derived CCL2 increases the inflammatory response of cytokine-stimulated NK cells not only from healthy donors but also from immunocompromised patients. Therapeutic application of MSCs or their soluble factors might thus improve the NK function after severe injury.

  3. Acute GVHD in patients receiving IL-15/4-1BBL activated NK cells following T-cell-depleted stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Shah, Nirali N; Baird, Kristin; Delbrook, Cynthia P; Fleisher, Thomas A; Kohler, Mark E; Rampertaap, Shakuntala; Lemberg, Kimberly; Hurley, Carolyn K; Kleiner, David E; Merchant, Melinda S; Pittaluga, Stefania; Sabatino, Marianna; Stroncek, David F; Wayne, Alan S; Zhang, Hua; Fry, Terry J; Mackall, Crystal L

    2015-01-29

    Natural killer (NK) cells can enhance engraftment and mediate graft-versus-leukemia following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), but the potency of graft-versus-leukemia mediated by naturally reconstituting NK cells following HSCT is limited. Preclinical studies demonstrate that activation of NK cells using interleukin-15 (IL-15) plus 4-1BBL upregulates activating receptor expression and augments killing capacity. In an effort to amplify the beneficial effects of NK cells post-HSCT, we conducted a first-in-human trial of adoptive transfer of donor-derived IL-15/4-1BBL-activated NK cells (aNK-DLI) following HLA-matched, T-cell-depleted (1-2 × 10(4) T cells/kg) nonmyeloablative peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in children and young adults with ultra-high-risk solid tumors. aNK-DLI were CD3(+)-depleted, CD56(+)-selected lymphocytes, cultured for 9 to 11 days with recombinant human IL-15 plus 4-1BBL(+)IL-15Rα(+) artificial antigen-presenting cells. aNK-DLI demonstrated potent killing capacity and displayed high levels of activating receptor expression. Five of 9 transplant recipients experienced acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) following aNK-DLI, with grade 4 GVHD observed in 3 subjects. GVHD was more common in matched unrelated donor vs matched sibling donor recipients and was associated with higher donor CD3 chimerism. Given that the T-cell dose was below the threshold required for GVHD in this setting, we conclude that aNK-DLI contributed to the acute GVHD observed, likely by augmenting underlying T-cell alloreactivity. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01287104.

  4. Trogocytosis and killing of IL-4-polarized monocytes by autologous NK cells.

    PubMed

    Poupot, Mary; Fournié, Jean-Jacques; Poupot, Rémy

    2008-11-01

    Cross-regulations between innate immune cells have been given more and more emphasis. Here, we address the question of bidirectional interactions between activated monocytes and autologous NK cells. Classically activated monocytes (class-monocytes), obtained by priming with IFN-gamma, drive an inflammatory immune response. On the contrary, alternatively activated monocytes (alt-monocytes), obtained by stimulation with IL-4 or IL-13, engage an anti-inflammatory immune response. We show that alt-monocytes inhibit proliferation and production of IFN-gamma by autologous, IL-2-activated NK cells, whereas class-monocytes do not inhibit these NK cell functions. Reciprocally, IL-2-activated NK cells interact and undertake intensive synaptic transfer with alt-monocytes, whereas interactions with class-monocytes are weaker. This strong trogocytosis correlates with an efficient killing of alt-monocytes, mediated by natural cytotoxicity receptors and a lowered killing of class-monocytes. These results suggest that interactions between NK cells and autologous-activated monocytes modulate inflammatory responses. This might be extended further in the elimination of tumor-associated macrophages, which actively promote solid tumor progression and metastasis.

  5. Inflammasome-Dependent Induction of Adaptive NK Cell Memory.

    PubMed

    van den Boorn, Jasper G; Jakobs, Christopher; Hagen, Christian; Renn, Marcel; Luiten, Rosalie M; Melief, Cornelis J M; Tüting, Thomas; Garbi, Natalio; Hartmann, Gunther; Hornung, Veit

    2016-06-21

    Monobenzone is a pro-hapten that is exclusively metabolized by melanocytes, thereby haptenizing melanocyte-specific antigens, which results in cytotoxic autoimmunity specifically against pigmented cells. Studying monobenzone in a setting of contact hypersensitivity (CHS), we observed that monobenzone induced a long-lasting, melanocyte-specific immune response that was dependent on NK cells, yet fully intact in the absence of T- and B cells. Consistent with the concept of "memory NK cells," monobenzone-induced NK cells resided in the liver and transfer of these cells conferred melanocyte-specific immunity to naive animals. Monobenzone-exposed skin displayed macrophage infiltration and cutaneous lymph nodes showed an inflammasome-dependent influx of macrophages with a tissue-resident phenotype, coinciding with local NK cell activation. Indeed, macrophage depletion or the absence of the NLRP3 inflammasome, the adaptor protein ASC or interleukin-18 (IL-18) abolished monobenzone CHS, thereby establishing a non-redundant role for the NLRP3 inflammasome as a critical proinflammatory checkpoint in the induction of hapten-dependent memory NK cells.

  6. Low-dose bortezomib increases the expression of NKG2D and DNAM-1 ligands and enhances induced NK and γδ T cell-mediated lysis in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shan; Zhou, Lei; Jin, Feng; Zhou, Yulai; Xu, Dongsheng; Xu, Jianting; Zhao, Lianjing; Hao, Shanshan; Li, Wei; Cui, Jiuwei

    2017-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable hematological malignancy, although bortezomib has markedly improved its outcomes. Growing clinical evidence indicates that enhancing induced natural killer (NK) or γδ T cells for infusion is useful in the treatment of MM. However, whether combination treatment with bortezomib and induced NK and γδ T cells further improves outcomes in MM, and how the treatments should be combined, remain unclear. Herein, we found that low-dose bortezomib did not suppress the viability of induced NK and γδ T cells, but did induce MM cell apoptosis. Importantly, low-dose bortezomib increased the expression of NKG2D and DNAM-1 ligands on MM cells, which sensitized the multiple myeloma cells to lysis by induced NK and γδ T cells. Our results suggested that combination treatment with low-dose bortezomib and induced NK or γδ T cells had a synergistic cytotoxic effect on MM cells. This study provided a proof of principle for the design of future trials and investigation of this combination therapeutic strategy for MM treatment. PMID:27992381

  7. HIV-1-Specific T Cell-Dependent Natural Killer (NK) Cell Activation: Major Contribution by NK Cells to Interferon-γ Production in Response to HIV-1 Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Loo, Christopher P.; Long, Brian R.; Hecht, Frederick M.; Nixon, Douglas F.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Natural killer (NK) cells can directly recognize virus-infected cells. Here, we demonstrate that NK cells also produce interferon (IFN)-γ in an HIV-1-specific, T cell-dependent manner. After stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from HIV-1-infected individuals with HIV-1-derived peptides, up to half of the IFN-γ-producing PBMCs are NK cells. These results indicate that T cell-dependent NK cell IFN-γ production can be important for immune control of HIV-1, and have implications for the interpretation of data from vaccine trials using ELISPOT and ELISA. PMID:19500013

  8. Kinetics of Cytotoxic Lymphocytes Reconstitution after Induction Chemotherapy in Elderly AML Patients Reveals Progressive Recovery of Normal Phenotypic and Functional Features in NK Cells.

    PubMed

    Rey, Jérôme; Fauriat, Cyril; Kochbati, Eloïse; Orlanducci, Florence; Charbonnier, Aude; D'Incan, Evelyne; Andre, Pascale; Romagne, François; Barbarat, Bernadette; Vey, Norbert; Olive, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    NK cells are defective in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) at diagnosis. Here, we studied the kinetic of expression of the major activating and inhibitory receptors of NK, CD8 T, and γδ T cells in patients undergoing chemotherapy (CT) for the treatment of AML (n = 29). We showed that NK cells are the main affected population at diagnosis and that expression of activating receptors is partially restored within a few weeks after CT. CD8 T cells and γδ T cells are only weakly affected at diagnosis. Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor expression by NK cells, but not NKG2A and CD85j, was downregulated. Interestingly, the development of NK cells appeared altered as the most immature CD56(bright) NK cells were seriously underrepresented. Finally, we showed that NK cell functions were only partially restored 6 weeks after CT as degranulation capabilities of NK cells recovered, whereas cytokine production remained low. Our data point out NK cells as antitumor effectors peculiarly hampered by leukemic cells. This study may indicate a timeline when NK-mediated therapies or other immunotherapies could be performed, particularly for patients excluded of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

  9. Kinetics of Cytotoxic Lymphocytes Reconstitution after Induction Chemotherapy in Elderly AML Patients Reveals Progressive Recovery of Normal Phenotypic and Functional Features in NK Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Jérôme; Fauriat, Cyril; Kochbati, Eloïse; Orlanducci, Florence; Charbonnier, Aude; D’Incan, Evelyne; Andre, Pascale; Romagne, François; Barbarat, Bernadette; Vey, Norbert; Olive, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    NK cells are defective in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) at diagnosis. Here, we studied the kinetic of expression of the major activating and inhibitory receptors of NK, CD8 T, and γδ T cells in patients undergoing chemotherapy (CT) for the treatment of AML (n = 29). We showed that NK cells are the main affected population at diagnosis and that expression of activating receptors is partially restored within a few weeks after CT. CD8 T cells and γδ T cells are only weakly affected at diagnosis. Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor expression by NK cells, but not NKG2A and CD85j, was downregulated. Interestingly, the development of NK cells appeared altered as the most immature CD56bright NK cells were seriously underrepresented. Finally, we showed that NK cell functions were only partially restored 6 weeks after CT as degranulation capabilities of NK cells recovered, whereas cytokine production remained low. Our data point out NK cells as antitumor effectors peculiarly hampered by leukemic cells. This study may indicate a timeline when NK-mediated therapies or other immunotherapies could be performed, particularly for patients excluded of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:28210257

  10. Ex Vivo Expanded Adaptive NK Cells Effectively Kill Primary Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lisa L; Béziat, Vivien; Oei, Vincent Y S; Pfefferle, Aline; Schaffer, Marie; Lehmann, Sören; Hellström-Lindberg, Eva; Söderhäll, Stefan; Heyman, Mats; Grandér, Dan; Malmberg, Karl-Johan

    2017-08-01

    Manipulation of human natural killer (NK) cell repertoires promises more effective strategies for NK cell-based cancer immunotherapy. A subset of highly differentiated NK cells, termed adaptive NK cells, expands naturally in vivo in response to human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection, carries unique repertoires of inhibitory killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR), and displays strong cytotoxicity against tumor cells. Here, we established a robust and scalable protocol for ex vivo generation and expansion of adaptive NK cells for cell therapy against pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Culture of polyclonal NK cells together with feeder cells expressing HLA-E, the ligand for the activating NKG2C receptor, led to selective expansion of adaptive NK cells with enhanced alloreactivity against HLA-mismatched targets. The ex vivo expanded adaptive NK cells gradually obtained a more differentiated phenotype and were specific and highly efficient killers of allogeneic pediatric T- and precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) blasts, previously shown to be refractory to killing by autologous NK cells and the NK-cell line NK92 currently in clinical testing. Selective expansion of NK cells that express one single inhibitory KIR for self-HLA class I would allow exploitation of the full potential of NK-cell alloreactivity in cancer immunotherapy. In summary, our data suggest that adaptive NK cells may hold utility for therapy of refractory ALL, either as a bridge to transplant or for patients that lack stem cell donors. Cancer Immunol Res; 5(8); 654-65. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Regulation of NK-cell function by mucins via antigen-presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Laskarin, G; Redzovic, A; Medancic, S Srsen; Rukavina, D

    2010-12-01

    Decidual antigen-presenting cells including dendritic cells (DCs) and CD14(+) macrophages, as mediators of the first encounter with fetal antigens, appear to be critically involved in the initiation of primary immune response by regulating innate- and adaptive immunity. Interleukin-15, produced by them, permits the proliferation and differentiation of CD3(-)CD16(-)CD94(+)NKG2A(+)CD56(+bright) decidual NK cells that identify trophoblast cells. These cells are able to kill them after Th1 cytokine overstimulation and by increasing the release of preformed cytotoxic mediators. Thus, the local microenvironment is a potent modulator of antigen-presenting cell functions. Tumor associated glycoprotein-72 (TAG-72) and mucine 1 (MUC-1) are glycoproteins secreted by uterine epithelial cells. Our hypothesis is that TAG-72 and MUC-1 are the natural ligands for carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) of endocytic mannose receptor (MR or CD206) and DC-specific ICAM non-integrin (DC-SIGN or CD209) expressed on decidual CD14(+) macrophages and CD1a(+) DCs. They might be able to condition antigen-presenting cells to produce distinct profiles of cyto/chemokines with consequential reduction in NK-cell numbers and cytotoxic potential leading to insufficient control over trophoblast growth. This hypothesis could explain the disappearance of MUC-1 beneath the attached embryo during the process of successful implantation when tight regulation of trophoblast invasion is needed. As IL-15 is the earliest and the most important factor in NK-cell proliferation, differentiation, and maturation, we expected primarily an increase of IL-15 expression in antigen-presenting cells concomitant with the disappearance of mucins and the enhancement in NK cells numbers and of cytotoxic potential after their close contact with early pregnancy decidual antigen-presenting cells. If our hypothesis is correct, it would contribute to the understanding of the role of mucins in the redirection of immune response

  12. T and NK cells: two sides of tumor immunoevasion.

    PubMed

    Fruci, Doriana; Lo Monaco, Elisa; Cifaldi, Loredana; Locatelli, Franco; Tremante, Elisa; Benevolo, Maria; Giacomini, Patrizio

    2013-02-04

    Natural Killer (NK) cells are known to reject several experimental murine tumors, but their antineoplastic activity in humans is not generally agreed upon, as exemplified by an interesting correspondence recently appeared in Cancer Research. In the present commentary, we join the discussion and bring to the attention of the readers of the Journal of Translational Medicine a set of recent, related reports. These studies demonstrate that effectors of the adaptive and innate immunity need to actively cooperate in order to reject tumors and, conversely, tumors protect themselves by dampening both T and NK cell responses. The recently reported ability of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) expressed by melanoma cells to down-regulate activating NK receptors is yet another piece of evidence supporting combined and highly effective T/NK cell disabling. Major Histocompatibility Complex class I (MHC-I) molecules, including Human Leukocyte Antigen E (HLA-E), represent another class of shared activating/inhibitory ligands. Ongoing clinical trials with small molecules interfering with IDO and PGE2 may be exploiting an immune bonus to control cancer. Conversely, failure to simultaneously engage effectors of both the innate and the adaptive immunity may contribute to explain the limited clinical efficacy of T cell-only vaccination trials. Shared (T/NK cells) natural immunosuppressants and activating/inhibitory ligands expressed by tumor cells may provide mechanistic insight into impaired gathering and function of immune effectors at the tumor site.

  13. T and NK cells: two sides of tumor immunoevasion

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Natural Killer (NK) cells are known to reject several experimental murine tumors, but their antineoplastic activity in humans is not generally agreed upon, as exemplified by an interesting correspondence recently appeared in Cancer Research. In the present commentary, we join the discussion and bring to the attention of the readers of the Journal of Translational Medicine a set of recent, related reports. These studies demonstrate that effectors of the adaptive and innate immunity need to actively cooperate in order to reject tumors and, conversely, tumors protect themselves by dampening both T and NK cell responses. The recently reported ability of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) expressed by melanoma cells to down-regulate activating NK receptors is yet another piece of evidence supporting combined and highly effective T/NK cell disabling. Major Histocompatibility Complex class I (MHC-I) molecules, including Human Leukocyte Antigen E (HLA-E), represent another class of shared activating/inhibitory ligands. Ongoing clinical trials with small molecules interfering with IDO and PGE2 may be exploiting an immune bonus to control cancer. Conversely, failure to simultaneously engage effectors of both the innate and the adaptive immunity may contribute to explain the limited clinical efficacy of T cell-only vaccination trials. Shared (T/NK cells) natural immunosuppressants and activating/inhibitory ligands expressed by tumor cells may provide mechanistic insight into impaired gathering and function of immune effectors at the tumor site. PMID:23379575

  14. Blastoid NK cell leukemia/lymphoma with cutaneous involvement.

    PubMed

    Ginarte, M; Abalde, M T; Peteiro, C; Fraga, M; Alonso, N; Toribio, J

    2000-01-01

    Malignant neoplasms from natural killer (NK) cells are characterized by their positivity for CD56 and absence of monoclonal TCR gene rearrangement. Recently, they have been classified into four main types (nasal and nasal-type NK cell lymphoma, aggressive NK cell leukemia/lymphoma, and blastoid NK cell leukemia/lymphoma), based on clinical features, racial predisposition, presence of azurophilic granules, immunophenotype and association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. A 72-year-old Caucasian man presented with a malignant neoplasm comprised of blastoid cells without azurophilic granules in the Giemsa stain, with positivity for CD2, CD4, HLA-DR, CD45 and CD56, and negativity for CD3 (surface and cytoplasmic) and CD5. In situ hybridization for EBV and PCR analysis of rearrangement of the T cell receptor gene were negative. Based on these results, a diagnosis of blastoid NK cell lymphoma was made. In this case the first clinical manifestations were the cutaneous lesions, and, although the disease was already advanced at the diagnosis, the patient responded completely to the treatment and remains asymptomatic 14 months after diagnosis. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Differentiation by NK cells is a prerequisite for effective targeting of cancer stem cells/poorly differentiated tumors by chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Kozlowska, Anna Karolina; Topchyan, Paytsar; Kaur, Kawaljit; Tseng, Han-Ching; Teruel, Antonia; Hiraga, Toru; Jewett, Anahid

    2017-01-01

    Natural Killer (NK) cells target oral, pancreatic, lung, breast, glioblastoma and melanoma stem-like/poorly differentiated tumors. Differentiation of the abovementioned tumors with supernatants from split-anergized NK cells decreases their susceptibility to NK cells, but increases their sensitivity to cisplatin (CDDP)-mediated cell death. Breast and melanoma tumor cells with CD44 knockdown display enhanced susceptibility to NK cell-mediated lysis, potentially due to decreased differentiation. We also demonstrate that sulindac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug and a chemopreventive agent, not only limits the growth of oral tumor cells, but also aids in cancer cell elimination by NK cells. Treatment of oral tumors with sulindac, but not adriamycin inversely modulates the expression and function of NFκB and JNK, resulting in a significant down-regulation of IL-6, and VEGF secretion by oral tumor cells. In addition, increased secretion of IL-6 and VEGF is blocked by sulindac during interaction of oral tumors with NK cells. Sulindac treatment prevents synergistic induction of VEGF secretion by the tumor cells after their co-culture with untreated NK cells since non-activated NK cells lack the ability to efficiently kill tumor cells. Moreover, sulindac is able to profoundly reduce VEGF secretion by tumor cells cultured with IL-2 activated NK cells, which are able to significantly lyse the tumor cells. Based on the data presented in this study, we propose the following combinatorial approach for the treatment of stem-like/ poorly differentiated tumors in cancer patients with metastatic disease. Stem-like/ poorly differentiated tumor cells may in part undergo lysis or differentiation after NK cell immunotherapy, followed by treatment of differentiated tumors with chemotherapy and chemopreventive agents to eliminate the bulk of the tumor. This dual approach should limit tumor growth and prevent metastasis. PMID:28367234

  16. Tumour-experienced T cells promote NK cell activity through trogocytosis of NKG2D and NKp46 ligands

    PubMed Central

    Domaica, Carolina I; Fuertes, Mercedes B; Rossi, Lucas E; Girart, María V; Ávila, Damián E; Rabinovich, Gabriel A; Zwirner, Norberto W

    2009-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells trigger cytotoxicity and interferon (IFN)-γ secretion on engagement of the natural-killer group (NKG)2D receptor or members of the natural cytotoxicity receptor (NCR) family, such as NKp46, by ligands expressed on tumour cells. However, it remains unknown whether T cells can regulate NK cell-mediated anti-tumour responses. Here, we investigated the early events occurring during T cell–tumour cell interactions, and their impact on NK cell functions. We observed that on co-culture with some melanomas, activated CD4+ T cells promoted degranulation, and NKG2D- and NKp46-dependent IFN-γ secretion by NK cells, probably owing to the capture of NKG2D and NKp46 ligands from the tumour-cell surface (trogocytosis). This effect was observed in CD4+, CD8+ and resting T cells, which showed substantial amounts of cell surface major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related protein A on co-culture with tumour cells. Our findings identify a new, so far, unrecognized mechanism by which effector T cells support NK cell function through the capture of specific tumour ligands with profound implications at the crossroad of innate and adaptive immunity. PMID:19498463

  17. Application of tissue-specific NK and NKT cell activity for tumor immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Subleski, Jeff J.; Wiltrout, Robert H.; Weiss, Jonathan M.

    2009-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) and NKT cells are a first line of defense against pathogens and transformed cells. However, dysregulation of their function can lead to autoimmune disease. A better understanding of the mechanisms controlling NK and NKT effector function should lead to the development of improved strategies for the treatment of many diseases. The site in which NK and NKT cells reside should be taken into account, because accumulating evidence suggests that the tissue microenvironment strongly influences their function. In this regard, the liver represents a unique immunologic organ in which the balance between the need for tolerance and the ability to respond rapidly to pathogens and tissue injury is tightly regulated. NK cells in the liver have augmented cytolytic activity as compared to other organs, which is consistent with a role for liver-associated NK cells in being critical effector cells for inhibiting tumor metastasis in the liver. Several studies also suggest that hepatic NKT cells have different functions than those in other organs. Whereas splenic and thymic NKT cells have been shown to suppress diabetes development, facilitate the induction of systemic tolerance and are regulated by IL-4 and other Th2 cytokines, certain subsets of NKT cells in the liver are important sources of Th1 cytokines such as Interferon gamma, and are the primary mediators of anti-tumor responses. The unique properties and roles as critical effector cells make NK and NKT cells within the liver microenvironment attractive targets of immunotherapeutic approaches that have the goal of controlling tumor metastasis in the liver. PMID:19682859

  18. Natural killer (NK) cell deficit in coronary artery disease: no aberrations in phenotype but sustained reduction of NK cells is associated with low-grade inflammation.

    PubMed

    Backteman, K; Ernerudh, J; Jonasson, L

    2014-01-01

    Although reduced natural killer (NK) cell levels have been reported consistently in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), the clinical significance and persistence of this immune perturbation is not clarified. In this study we characterized the NK cell deficit further by determining (i) differentiation surface markers and cytokine profile of NK cell subsets and (ii) ability to reconstitute NK cell levels over time. Flow cytometry was used to analyse NK cell subsets and the intracellular cytokine profile in 31 patients with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (non-STEMI), 34 patients with stable angina (SA) and 37 healthy controls. In blood collected prior to coronary angiography, the proportions of NK cells were reduced significantly in non-STEMI and SA patients compared with controls, whereas NK cell subset analyses or cytokine profile measurements did not reveal any differences across groups. During a 12-month follow-up, the proportions of NK cells increased, although not in all patients. Failure to reconstitute NK cell levels was associated with several components of metabolic syndrome. Moreover, interleukin (IL)-6 levels remained high in patients with sustained NK cell deficit, whereas a decline in IL-6 (P < 0·001) was seen in patients with a pronounced increase in NK cells. In conclusion, we found no evidence that reduction of NK cells in CAD patients was associated with aberrations in NK cell phenotype at any clinical stage of the disease. Conversely, failure to reconstitute NK cell levels was associated with a persistent low-grade inflammation, suggesting a protective role of NK cells in CAD.

  19. Enteropathy-type T-cell lymphoma expressing NK-cell intraepithelial lymphocyte (NK-IEL) phenotype.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Naoko; Asaoka, Daisuke; Mori, Kiyoshi L; Sohda, Naomi; Miura, Ichiro; Miwa, Hiroto; Sato, Nobuhiro; Oshimi, Kazuo

    2004-07-01

    Enteropathy-type T-cell lymphoma (ETL) is an intraepithelial T-lymphocyte (T-IEL) tumor. The tumor cells are usually CD3+, CD4-, CD8+, and contain cytotoxic granule associated proteins. We report on a CD3-negative CD56-positive enteropathy-associated lymphoma (ETL). This is the first case report of CD3-negative, CD56-positive, CD94-negative, and CD161-positive ETL. ETL cells originate from intraepithelial T-lymphocytes of the intestine. CD3-negative intraepithelial lymphocytes are known as natural killer (NK)-IELs. The phenotype of NK-IELs is also CD3-negative, CD56-positive, CD94-negative, and CD161-positive, while most normal NK cells express CD56 and CD94. CD3-negative lymphoma cells in this report also expressed CD56 and CD161, but not CD94. Because Southern blotting analysis showed a rearrangement of T-cell receptor (TCR) Cbeta in this case, the tumor is classified as an ETL. Based on the findings, NK-IELs may originate from T-cells, not NK-cells.

  20. Immunomodulation of endothelial differentiated mesenchymal stromal cells: impact on T and NK cells.

    PubMed

    El Omar, Reine; Xiong, Yu; Dostert, Gabriel; Louis, Huguette; Gentils, Monique; Menu, Patrick; Stoltz, Jean-François; Velot, Émilie; Decot, Véronique

    2016-04-01

    Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stromal cells (WJ-MSCs) are promising candidates for tissue engineering, as their immunomodulatory activity allows them to escape immune recognition and to suppress several immune cell functions. To date, however, few studies have investigated the effect of differentiation of the MSCs on this immunomodulation. To address this question, we sought to determine the impact of differentiation toward endothelial cells on immunoregulation by WJ-MSCs. Following differentiation, the endothelial-like cells (ELCs) were positive for CD31, vascular endothelial cadherin and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, and able to take up acetylated low-density lipoproteins. The expression of HLA-DR and CD86, which contribute to MSCs immunoprivilege, was still weak after differentiation. We then co-cultured un- and differentiated MSCs with immune cells, under conditions of both direct and indirect contact. The proliferation and phenotype of the immune cells were analyzed and the mediators secreted by both ELCs and WJ-MSCs quantified. Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, prostaglandin E2 and in particular indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase expression were upregulated in ELCs on stimulation by T and NK cells, suggesting the possible involvement of these factors in allosuppression. ELCs co-cultured with T cells were able to generate CD25(+) T cells, which were shown to be of the CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory subset. Direct contact between NK cells and ELCs or WJ-MSCs decreased the level of NK-activating receptor natural-killer group 2, member D. Moreover, direct co-culturing with ELCs stimulates CD73 acquisition on NK cells, a mechanism which may induce adenosine secretion by the cells and lead to an immunosuppressive function. Taken together, our results show that ELCs obtained following differentiation of WJ-MSCs remain largely immunosuppressive.

  1. In Vivo Efficacy of Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cell-Derived NK Cells in the Treatment of Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Veluchamy, John P; Lopez-Lastra, Silvia; Spanholtz, Jan; Bohme, Fenna; Kok, Nina; Heideman, Daniëlle A M; Verheul, Henk M W; Di Santo, James P; de Gruijl, Tanja D; van der Vliet, Hans J

    2017-01-01

    Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) act by inhibiting EGFR downstream signaling and by eliciting a natural killer (NK) cell-mediated antitumor response. The IgG1 mAb cetuximab has been used for treatment of RAS(wt) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients, showing limited efficacy. In the present study, we address the potential of adoptive NK cell therapy to overcome these limitations investigating two allogeneic NK cell products, i.e., allogeneic activated peripheral blood NK cells (A-PBNK) and umbilical cord blood stem cell-derived NK cells (UCB-NK). While cetuximab monotherapy was not effective against EGFR(-) RAS(wt), EGFR(+) RAS(mut), and EGFR(+) BRAF(mut) cells, A-PBNK were able to initiate lysis of EGFR(+) colon cancer cells irrespective of RAS or BRAF status. Cytotoxic effects of A-PBNK (but not UCB-NK) were further potentiated significantly by coating EGFR(+) colon cancer cells with cetuximab. Of note, a significantly higher cytotoxicity was induced by UCB-NK in EGFR(-)RAS(wt) (42 ± 8 versus 67 ± 7%), EGFR(+) RAS(mut) (20 ± 2 versus 37 ± 6%), and EGFR(+) BRAF(mut) (23 ± 3 versus 43 ± 7%) colon cancer cells compared to A-PBNK and equaled the cytotoxic efficacy of the combination of A-PBNK and cetuximab. The antitumor efficacy of UCB-NK cells against cetuximab-resistant human EGFR(+) RAS(mut) colon cancer cells was further confirmed in an in vivo preclinical mouse model where UCB-NK showed enhanced antitumor cytotoxicity against colon cancer independent of EGFR and RAS status. As UCB-NK have been proven safe in a recently conducted phase I clinical trial in acute myeloid leukemia, a fast translation into clinical proof of concept for mCRC could be considered.

  2. Regulatory T cells inhibit CD34+ cell differentiation into NK cells by blocking their proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Pedroza-Pacheco, Isabela; Shah, Divya; Domogala, Anna; Luevano, Martha; Blundell, Michael; Jackson, Nicola; Thrasher, Adrian; Madrigal, Alejandro; Saudemont, Aurore

    2016-01-01

    Graft versus Host Disease (GvHD) remains one of the main complications after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Due to their ability to suppress effector cells, regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been proposed as a cellular therapy to prevent GvHD, however they also inhibit the functions of natural killer (NK) cells, key effectors of the Graft versus Leukemia effect. In this study, we have explored whether a Tregs therapy will also impact on NK cell differentiation. Using an in vitro model of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) differentiation into NK cells, we found that activated Tregs led to a 90% reduction in NK cell numbers when added at the time of commitment to the NK cell lineage. This effect was contact dependent and was reversible upon Tregs depletion. The few NK cells that developed in these cultures were mature and exhibited normal functions. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of activated Tregs in rag-/- γc-/- mice abrogated HSC differentiation into NK cells thus confirming our in vitro findings. Collectively, these results demonstrate for the first time that activated Tregs can inhibit NK cell differentiation from HSC under specific conditions. PMID:26915707

  3. Regulatory T cells inhibit CD34+ cell differentiation into NK cells by blocking their proliferation.

    PubMed

    Pedroza-Pacheco, Isabela; Shah, Divya; Domogala, Anna; Luevano, Martha; Blundell, Michael; Jackson, Nicola; Thrasher, Adrian; Madrigal, Alejandro; Saudemont, Aurore

    2016-02-26

    Graft versus Host Disease (GvHD) remains one of the main complications after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Due to their ability to suppress effector cells, regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been proposed as a cellular therapy to prevent GvHD, however they also inhibit the functions of natural killer (NK) cells, key effectors of the Graft versus Leukemia effect. In this study, we have explored whether a Tregs therapy will also impact on NK cell differentiation. Using an in vitro model of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) differentiation into NK cells, we found that activated Tregs led to a 90% reduction in NK cell numbers when added at the time of commitment to the NK cell lineage. This effect was contact dependent and was reversible upon Tregs depletion. The few NK cells that developed in these cultures were mature and exhibited normal functions. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of activated Tregs in rag(-/-) γc(-/-) mice abrogated HSC differentiation into NK cells thus confirming our in vitro findings. Collectively, these results demonstrate for the first time that activated Tregs can inhibit NK cell differentiation from HSC under specific conditions.

  4. IL-18-induced expression of high-affinity IL-2R on murine NK cells is essential for NK-cell IFN-γ production during murine Plasmodium yoelii infection.

    PubMed

    Stegmann, Kerstin A; De Souza, J Brian; Riley, Eleanor M

    2015-12-01

    Early production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IFN-γ, is essential for control of blood-stage malaria infections. We have shown that IFN-γ production can be induced among human natural killer (NK) cells by coculture with Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes, but the importance of this response is unclear. To further explore the role of NK cells during malaria infection, we have characterized the NK-cell response of C57BL/6 mice during lethal (PyYM) or nonlethal (Py17XNL) P. yoelii infection. Ex vivo flow cytometry revealed that NK cells are activated within 24 h of Py17XNL blood-stage infection, expressing CD25 and producing IFN-γ; this response was blunted and delayed during PyYM infection. CD25 expression and IFN-γ production were highly correlated, suggesting a causal relationship between the two responses. Subsequent in vitro experiments revealed that IL-18 signaling is essential for induction of CD25 and synergizes with IL-12 to enhance CD25 expression on splenic NK cells. In accordance with this, Py17XNL-infected erythrocytes induced NK-cell CD25 expression and IFN-γ production in a manner that is completely IL-18- and partially IL-12-dependent, and IFN-γ production is enhanced by IL-2. These data suggest that IL-2 signaling via CD25 amplifies IL-18- and IL-12-mediated NK-cell activation during malaria infection.

  5. NK Cell Subgroups, Phenotype, and Functions After Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Benedikt; Tognarelli, Sara; Poller, Kerstin; Bader, Peter; Mackensen, Andreas; Ullrich, Evelyn

    2015-01-01

    High-dose chemotherapy with consecutive autologous stem cell transplantation (autoSCT) is a well-established treatment option for patients suffering from malignant lymphoma or multiple myeloma. Natural killer (NK) cells are an important part of the immune surveillance, and their cell number after autoSCT is predictive for progression-free and overall survival. To improve knowledge about the role of NK cells after autoSCT, we investigated different NK cell subgroups, their phenotype, and their functions in patients treated with autoSCT. Directly after leukocyte regeneration (>1000 leukocytes/μl) following autoSCT, CD56(++) NK cells were the major NK cell subset. Surprisingly, these cells showed unusually high surface expression levels of CD57 and killer Ig-like receptors (KIRs) compared to expression levels before or at later time points after autoSCT. Moreover, these NK cells strongly upregulated KIR2DL2/3/S2 and KIR3DL1, whereas KIR2DL1/S1 remained constant, indicating that this cell population arose from more immature NK cells instead of from activated mature ones. Remarkably, NK cells were already able to degranulate and produce IFN-γ and MIP-1β upon tumor interaction early after leukocyte regeneration. In conclusion, we describe an unusual upregulation of CD57 and KIRs on CD56(++) NK cells shortly after autoSCT. Importantly, these NK cells were functionally competent upon tumor interaction at this early time point.

  6. Candida albicans Induces Metabolic Reprogramming in Human NK Cells and Responds to Perforin with a Zinc Depletion Response

    PubMed Central

    Hellwig, Daniela; Voigt, Jessica; Bouzani, Maria; Löffler, Jürgen; Albrecht-Eckardt, Daniela; Weber, Michael; Brunke, Sascha; Martin, Ronny; Kurzai, Oliver; Hünniger, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    As part of the innate immune system, natural killer (NK) cells are directly involved in the response to fungal infections. Perforin has been identified as the major effector molecule acting against many fungal pathogens. While several studies have shown that perforin mediated fungicidal effects can contribute to fungal clearance, neither the activation of NK cells by fungal pathogens nor the effects of perforin on fungal cells are well-understood. In a dual approach, we have studied the global gene expression pattern of primary and cytokine activated NK cells after co-incubation with Candida albicans and the transcriptomic adaptation of C. albicans to perforin exposure. NK cells responded to the fungal pathogen with an up-regulation of genes involved in immune signaling and release of cytokines. Furthermore, we observed a pronounced increase of genes involved in glycolysis and glycolysis inhibitor 2-deoxy-D-glucose impaired C. albicans induced NK cell activation. This strongly indicates that metabolic adaptation is a major part of the NK cell response to C. albicans infections. In the fungal pathogen, perforin induced a strong up-regulation of several fungal genes involved in the zinc depletion response, such as PRA1 and ZRT1. These data suggest that fungal zinc homeostasis is linked to the reaction to perforin secreted by NK cells. However, deletion mutants in PRA1 and ZRT1 did not show altered susceptibility to perforin. PMID:27242763

  7. Candida albicans Induces Metabolic Reprogramming in Human NK Cells and Responds to Perforin with a Zinc Depletion Response.

    PubMed

    Hellwig, Daniela; Voigt, Jessica; Bouzani, Maria; Löffler, Jürgen; Albrecht-Eckardt, Daniela; Weber, Michael; Brunke, Sascha; Martin, Ronny; Kurzai, Oliver; Hünniger, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    As part of the innate immune system, natural killer (NK) cells are directly involved in the response to fungal infections. Perforin has been identified as the major effector molecule acting against many fungal pathogens. While several studies have shown that perforin mediated fungicidal effects can contribute to fungal clearance, neither the activation of NK cells by fungal pathogens nor the effects of perforin on fungal cells are well-understood. In a dual approach, we have studied the global gene expression pattern of primary and cytokine activated NK cells after co-incubation with Candida albicans and the transcriptomic adaptation of C. albicans to perforin exposure. NK cells responded to the fungal pathogen with an up-regulation of genes involved in immune signaling and release of cytokines. Furthermore, we observed a pronounced increase of genes involved in glycolysis and glycolysis inhibitor 2-deoxy-D-glucose impaired C. albicans induced NK cell activation. This strongly indicates that metabolic adaptation is a major part of the NK cell response to C. albicans infections. In the fungal pathogen, perforin induced a strong up-regulation of several fungal genes involved in the zinc depletion response, such as PRA1 and ZRT1. These data suggest that fungal zinc homeostasis is linked to the reaction to perforin secreted by NK cells. However, deletion mutants in PRA1 and ZRT1 did not show altered susceptibility to perforin.

  8. TLR9-dependent recognition of MCMV by IPC and DC generates coordinated cytokine responses that activate antiviral NK cell function.

    PubMed

    Krug, Anne; French, Anthony R; Barchet, Winfried; Fischer, Jens A A; Dzionek, Andrzej; Pingel, Jeanette T; Orihuela, Michael M; Akira, Shizuo; Yokoyama, Wayne M; Colonna, Marco

    2004-07-01

    Natural interferon-producing cells (IPC) respond to viruses by secreting type I interferon (IFN) and interleukin-12 (IL-12). Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 mediates IPC recognition of some of these viruses in vitro. However, whether TLR9-induced activation of IPC is necessary for an effective antiviral response in vivo is not clear. Here, we demonstrate that IPC and dendritic cells (DC) recognize murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) through TLR9. TLR9-mediated cytokine secretion promotes viral clearance by NK cells that express the MCMV-specific receptor Ly49H. Although depletion of IPC leads to a drastic reduction of the IFN-alpha response, this allows other cell types to secrete IL-12, ensuring normal IFN-gamma and NK cell responses to MCMV. We conclude that the TLR9/MyD88 pathway mediates antiviral cytokine responses by IPC, DC, and possibly other cell types, which are coordinated to promote effective NK cell function and MCMV clearance.

  9. Activated Allogeneic NK Cells Preferentially Kill Poor Prognosis B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Martínez, Diego; Lanuza, Pilar M; Gómez, Natalia; Muntasell, Aura; Cisneros, Elisa; Moraru, Manuela; Azaceta, Gemma; Anel, Alberto; Martínez-Lostao, Luis; Villalba, Martin; Palomera, Luis; Vilches, Carlos; García Marco, José A; Pardo, Julián

    2016-01-01

    Mutational status of TP53 together with expression of wild-type (wt) IGHV represents the most widely accepted biomarkers, establishing a very poor prognosis in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) patients. Adoptive cell therapy using allogeneic HLA-mismatched Natural killer (NK) cells has emerged as an effective and safe alternative in the treatment of acute myeloid and lymphoid leukemias that do not respond to traditional therapies. We have described that allogeneic activated NK cells eliminate hematological cancer cell lines with multidrug resistance acquired by mutations in the apoptotic machinery. This effect depends on the activation protocol, being B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) the most effective stimulus to activate NK cells. Here, we have further analyzed the molecular determinants involved in allogeneic NK cell recognition and elimination of B-CLL cells, including the expression of ligands of the main NK cell-activating receptors (NKG2D and NCRs) and HLA mismatch. We present preliminary data suggesting that B-CLL susceptibility significantly correlates with HLA mismatch between NK cell donor and B-CLL patient. Moreover, we show that the sensitivity of B-CLL cells to NK cells depends on the prognosis based on TP53 and IGHV mutational status. Cells from patients with worse prognosis (mutated TP53 and wt IGHV) are the most susceptible to activated NK cells. Hence, B-CLL prognosis may predict the efficacy of allogenic activated NK cells, and, thus, NK cell transfer represents a good alternative to treat poor prognosis B-CLL patients who present a very short life expectancy due to lack of effective treatments.

  10. Activated Allogeneic NK Cells Preferentially Kill Poor Prognosis B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Martínez, Diego; Lanuza, Pilar M.; Gómez, Natalia; Muntasell, Aura; Cisneros, Elisa; Moraru, Manuela; Azaceta, Gemma; Anel, Alberto; Martínez-Lostao, Luis; Villalba, Martin; Palomera, Luis; Vilches, Carlos; García Marco, José A.; Pardo, Julián

    2016-01-01

    Mutational status of TP53 together with expression of wild-type (wt) IGHV represents the most widely accepted biomarkers, establishing a very poor prognosis in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) patients. Adoptive cell therapy using allogeneic HLA-mismatched Natural killer (NK) cells has emerged as an effective and safe alternative in the treatment of acute myeloid and lymphoid leukemias that do not respond to traditional therapies. We have described that allogeneic activated NK cells eliminate hematological cancer cell lines with multidrug resistance acquired by mutations in the apoptotic machinery. This effect depends on the activation protocol, being B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) the most effective stimulus to activate NK cells. Here, we have further analyzed the molecular determinants involved in allogeneic NK cell recognition and elimination of B-CLL cells, including the expression of ligands of the main NK cell-activating receptors (NKG2D and NCRs) and HLA mismatch. We present preliminary data suggesting that B-CLL susceptibility significantly correlates with HLA mismatch between NK cell donor and B-CLL patient. Moreover, we show that the sensitivity of B-CLL cells to NK cells depends on the prognosis based on TP53 and IGHV mutational status. Cells from patients with worse prognosis (mutated TP53 and wt IGHV) are the most susceptible to activated NK cells. Hence, B-CLL prognosis may predict the efficacy of allogenic activated NK cells, and, thus, NK cell transfer represents a good alternative to treat poor prognosis B-CLL patients who present a very short life expectancy due to lack of effective treatments. PMID:27833611

  11. Suppression of NK cells and regulatory T lymphocytes in cats naturally infected with feline infectious peritonitis virus.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Ben L; Devriendt, Bert; Olyslaegers, Dominique A; Dedeurwaerder, Annelike; Desmarets, Lowiese M; Favoreel, Herman W; Dewerchin, Hannah L; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2013-05-31

    A strong cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is thought to be indispensable for protection against infection with feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) in cats. In this study, the role of natural killer (NK) cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs), central players in the innate and adaptive CMI respectively, was examined during natural FIPV infection. When quantified, both NK cells and Tregs were drastically depleted from the peripheral blood, mesenteric lymph node (LN) and spleen in FIP cats. In contrast, mesentery and kidney from FIP cats did not show any difference when compared to healthy non-infected control animals. In addition, other regulatory lymphocytes (CD4+CD25-Foxp3+ and CD3+CD8+Foxp3+) were found to be depleted from blood and LN as well. Phenotypic analysis of blood-derived NK cells in FIP cats revealed an upregulation of activation markers (CD16 and CD25) and migration markers (CD11b and CD62L) while LN-derived NK cells showed upregulation of only CD16 and CD62L. LN-derived NK cells from FIPV-infected cats were also significantly less cytotoxic when compared with healthy cats. This study reveals for the first time that FIPV infection is associated with severe suppression of NK cells and Tregs, which is reflected by cell depletion and lowered cell functionality (only NK cells). This will un-doubtfully lead to a reduced capacity of the innate immune system (NK cells) to battle FIPV infection and a decreased capacity (Tregs) to suppress the immunopathology typical for FIP. However, these results will also open possibilities for new therapies targeting specifically NK cells and Tregs to enhance their numbers and/or functionality during FIPV infection.

  12. Regulation of NK Cell Activation and Effector Functions by the IL-12 Family of Cytokines: The Case of IL-27.

    PubMed

    Zwirner, Norberto Walter; Ziblat, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are characterized by their ability to detect and induce apoptosis of susceptible target cells and by secretion of immunoregulatory cytokines such as IFN-γ. Activation of these effector functions is triggered upon recognition of tumor and pathogen (mostly virus)-infected cells and because of a bidirectional cross talk that NK cells establish with other cells of myeloid origin such as dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages. A common characteristic of these myeloid cells is their ability to secrete different members of the IL-12 family of cytokines such as IL-12, IL-23, and IL-27 and cytokines such as IL-15 and IL-18. Although the effect of IL-12, IL-15, and IL-18 has been characterized, the effect of IL-23 and IL-27 on NK cells (especially human) remains ill-defined. Particularly, IL-27 is a cytokine with dual functions as it has been described as pro- and as anti-inflammatory in different experimental settings. Recent evidence indicates that this cytokine indeed promotes human NK cell activation, IFN-γ secretion, NKp46-dependent NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and antibody (Ab)-dependent NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against monoclonal Ab-coated tumor cells. Remarkably, IL-27 also primes NK cells for IL-18 responsiveness, enhancing these functional responses. Consequently, IL-27 acts as a pro-inflammatory cytokine that, in concert with other DC-derived cytokines, hierarchically contributes to NK cells activation and effector functions, which likely contributes to foster the adaptive immune response in different physiopathological conditions.

  13. Regulation of NK Cell Activation and Effector Functions by the IL-12 Family of Cytokines: The Case of IL-27

    PubMed Central

    Zwirner, Norberto Walter; Ziblat, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are characterized by their ability to detect and induce apoptosis of susceptible target cells and by secretion of immunoregulatory cytokines such as IFN-γ. Activation of these effector functions is triggered upon recognition of tumor and pathogen (mostly virus)-infected cells and because of a bidirectional cross talk that NK cells establish with other cells of myeloid origin such as dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages. A common characteristic of these myeloid cells is their ability to secrete different members of the IL-12 family of cytokines such as IL-12, IL-23, and IL-27 and cytokines such as IL-15 and IL-18. Although the effect of IL-12, IL-15, and IL-18 has been characterized, the effect of IL-23 and IL-27 on NK cells (especially human) remains ill-defined. Particularly, IL-27 is a cytokine with dual functions as it has been described as pro- and as anti-inflammatory in different experimental settings. Recent evidence indicates that this cytokine indeed promotes human NK cell activation, IFN-γ secretion, NKp46-dependent NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and antibody (Ab)-dependent NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against monoclonal Ab-coated tumor cells. Remarkably, IL-27 also primes NK cells for IL-18 responsiveness, enhancing these functional responses. Consequently, IL-27 acts as a pro-inflammatory cytokine that, in concert with other DC-derived cytokines, hierarchically contributes to NK cells activation and effector functions, which likely contributes to foster the adaptive immune response in different physiopathological conditions. PMID:28154569

  14. Advances in clinical NK cell studies: Donor selection, manufacturing and quality control.

    PubMed

    Koehl, U; Kalberer, C; Spanholtz, J; Lee, D A; Miller, J S; Cooley, S; Lowdell, M; Uharek, L; Klingemann, H; Curti, A; Leung, W; Alici, E

    2016-04-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are increasingly used in clinical studies in order to treat patients with various malignancies. The following review summarizes platform lectures and 2013-2015 consortium meetings on manufacturing and clinical use of NK cells in Europe and United States. A broad overview of recent pre-clinical and clinical results in NK cell therapies is provided based on unstimulated, cytokine-activated, as well as genetically engineered NK cells using chimeric antigen receptors (CAR). Differences in donor selection, manufacturing and quality control of NK cells for cancer immunotherapies are described and basic recommendations are outlined for harmonization in future NK cell studies.

  15. Advances in clinical NK cell studies: Donor selection, manufacturing and quality control

    PubMed Central

    Koehl, U.; Kalberer, C.; Spanholtz, J.; Lee, D. A.; Miller, J. S.; Cooley, S.; Lowdell, M.; Uharek, L.; Klingemann, H.; Curti, A.; Leung, W.; Alici, E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Natural killer (NK) cells are increasingly used in clinical studies in order to treat patients with various malignancies. The following review summarizes platform lectures and 2013–2015 consortium meetings on manufacturing and clinical use of NK cells in Europe and United States. A broad overview of recent pre-clinical and clinical results in NK cell therapies is provided based on unstimulated, cytokine-activated, as well as genetically engineered NK cells using chimeric antigen receptors (CAR). Differences in donor selection, manufacturing and quality control of NK cells for cancer immunotherapies are described and basic recommendations are outlined for harmonization in future NK cell studies. PMID:27141397

  16. Aspergillus fumigatus responds to natural killer (NK) cells with upregulation of stress related genes and inhibits the immunoregulatory function of NK cells

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Andreas; Blatzer, Michael; Posch, Wilfried; Schubert, Ralf; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Schmidt, Stanislaw; Lehrnbecher, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Natural Killer (NK) cells are active against Aspergillus fumigatus, which in turn is able to impair the host defense. Unfortunately, little is known on the mutual interaction of NK cells and A. fumigatus. We coincubated human NK cells with A. fumigatus hyphae and assessed the gene expression and protein concentration of selected molecules. We found that A. fumigatus up-regulates the gene expression of pro-inflammatory molecules in NK cells, but inhibited the release of these molecules resulting in intracellular accumulation and limited extracellular availability. A. fumigatus down-regulatedmRNA levels of perforin in NK cells, but increased its intra- and extracellular protein concentration. The gene expression of stress related molecules of A. fumigatus such as heat shock protein hsp90 was up-regulated by human NK cells. Our data characterize for the first time the immunosuppressive effect of A. fumigatus on NK cells and may help to develop new therapeutic antifungal strategies. PMID:27738337

  17. The role of NK cells in antitumor activity of dietary fucoidan from Undaria pinnatifida sporophylls (Mekabu).

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Hiroko; Tamauchi, Hidekazu; Iizuka, Mariko; Nakano, Takahisa

    2006-12-01

    Fucoidan from Mekabu (sporophyll of Undaria pinnatifida), a dietary alga, exerts antitumor activity possibly through enhancing the immune response. The present report describes the effects of dietary Mekabu fucoidan on the tumor growth of mouse A20 leukemia cells and on T cell-mediated immune responses in T cell receptor transgenic (DO-11 - 10 - Tg) mice. The animals were fed with a diet containing 1% Mekabu fucoidan (0.034 +/- 0.003 g/mouse/day) for 10 days and subcutaneously (s. c.) inoculated with A20 leukemia cells. Thereafter, the mice were fed with the diet containing fucoidan for 40 days. Mekabu fucoidan inhibited tumors by 65.4 %. We studied how the killer activities of T cell-mediated and natural killer (NK) cells are augmented in DO-11 - 10 mice fed with Mekabu fucoidan. The cytolytic activities of ovalbumin (OVA), which is specific against OVA-transfected A20 (OVA-A20) B lymphoma cells, and NK cells against YAC-1 were significantly enhanced in the mice fed with fucoidan compared with a basic diet. Thus, these findings suggested that Mekabu fucoidan mediates tumor destruction through Th1 cell and NK cell responses.

  18. Enhancement of anti-leukemia activity of NK cells in vitro and in vivo by inhibition of leukemia cell-induced NK cell damage.

    PubMed

    Arriga, Roberto; Caratelli, Sara; Coppola, Andrea; Spagnoli, Giulio Cesare; Venditti, Adriano; Amadori, Sergio; Lanzilli, Giulia; Lauro, Davide; Palomba, Patrizia; Sconocchia, Tommaso; Del Principe, Maria Ilaria; Maurillo, Luca; Buccisano, Francesco; Capuani, Barbara; Ferrone, Soldano; Sconocchia, Giuseppe

    2016-01-12

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells induce, in vitro, NK cell abnormalities (NKCAs) including apoptosis and activating receptor down-regulation. The potential negative impact of AML cells on the therapeutic efficacy of NK cell-based strategies prompted us to analyze the mechanisms underlying NKCAs and to develop approaches to protect NK cells from NKCAs. NKCA induction by the AML leukemia cells target a subpopulation of peripheral blood NK cells and is interleukin-2 independent but is abrogated by a long-term culture of NK (LTNK) cells at 37°C. LTNK cells displayed a significantly enhanced ability to damage AML cells in vitro and inhibited the subcutaneous growth of ML-2 cells grafted into CB17 SCID mice. Actinomycin D restored the susceptibility of LTNK cells to NKCAs while TAPI-0, a functional analog of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) 3, inhibits ML-2 cell-induced NKCAs suggesting that the generation of NK cell resistance to NKCAs involves RNA transcription and metalloproteinase (MPP) inactivation. This conclusion is supported by the reduced susceptibility to AML cell-induced NKCAs of LTNK cells in which TIMP3 gene and protein are over-expressed. This information may contribute to the rational design of targeted strategies to enhance the efficacy of NK cell-based-immunotherapy of AML with haploidentical NK cells.

  19. Enhancement of anti-leukemia activity of NK cells in vitro and in vivo by inhibition of leukemia cell-induced NK cell damage

    PubMed Central

    Arriga, Roberto; Caratelli, Sara; Coppola, Andrea; Spagnoli, Giulio Cesare; Venditti, Adriano; Amadori, Sergio; Lanzilli, Giulia; Lauro, Davide; Palomba, Patrizia; Sconocchia, Tommaso; Del Principe, Maria Ilaria; Maurillo, Luca; Buccisano, Francesco; Capuani, Barbara; Ferrone, Soldano; Sconocchia, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells induce, in vitro, NK cell abnormalities (NKCAs) including apoptosis and activating receptor down-regulation. The potential negative impact of AML cells on the therapeutic efficacy of NK cell-based strategies prompted us to analyze the mechanisms underlying NKCAs and to develop approaches to protect NK cells from NKCAs. NKCA induction by the AML leukemia cells target a subpopulation of peripheral blood NK cells and is interleukin-2 independent but is abrogated by a long-term culture of NK (LTNK) cells at 37°C. LTNK cells displayed a significantly enhanced ability to damage AML cells in vitro and inhibited the subcutaneous growth of ML-2 cells grafted into CB17 SCID mice. Actinomycin D restored the susceptibility of LTNK cells to NKCAs while TAPI-0, a functional analog of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) 3, inhibits ML-2 cell-induced NKCAs suggesting that the generation of NK cell resistance to NKCAs involves RNA transcription and metalloproteinase (MPP) inactivation. This conclusion is supported by the reduced susceptibility to AML cell-induced NKCAs of LTNK cells in which TIMP3 gene and protein are over-expressed. This information may contribute to the rational design of targeted strategies to enhance the efficacy of NK cell-based-immunotherapy of AML with haploidentical NK cells. PMID:26655503

  20. Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Engineered NK-92 Cells: An Off-the-Shelf Cellular Therapeutic for Targeted Elimination of Cancer Cells and Induction of Protective Antitumor Immunity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Congcong; Oberoi, Pranav; Oelsner, Sarah; Waldmann, Anja; Lindner, Aline; Tonn, Torsten; Wels, Winfried S

    2017-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in recent years toward realizing the potential of natural killer (NK) cells for cancer immunotherapy. NK cells can respond rapidly to transformed and stressed cells and have the intrinsic potential to extravasate and reach their targets in almost all body tissues. In addition to donor-derived primary NK cells, also the established NK cell line NK-92 is being developed for adoptive immunotherapy, and general safety of infusion of irradiated NK-92 cells has been established in phase I clinical trials with clinical responses observed in some of the cancer patients treated. To enhance their therapeutic utility, NK-92 cells have been modified to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) composed of a tumor-specific single chain fragment variable antibody fragment fused via hinge and transmembrane regions to intracellular signaling moieties such as CD3ζ or composite signaling domains containing a costimulatory protein together with CD3ζ. CAR-mediated activation of NK cells then bypasses inhibitory signals and overcomes NK resistance of tumor cells. In contrast to primary NK cells, CAR-engineered NK-92 cell lines suitable for clinical development can be established from molecularly and functionally well-characterized single cell clones following good manufacturing practice-compliant procedures. In preclinical in vitro and in vivo models, potent antitumor activity of NK-92 variants targeted to differentiation antigens expressed by hematologic malignancies, and overexpressed or mutated self-antigens associated with solid tumors has been found, encouraging further development of CAR-engineered NK-92 cells. Importantly, in syngeneic mouse tumor models, induction of endogenous antitumor immunity after treatment with CAR-expressing NK-92 cells has been demonstrated, resulting in cures and long-lasting immunological memory protecting against tumor rechallenge at distant sites. Here, we summarize the current status and future prospects of CAR

  1. Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Engineered NK-92 Cells: An Off-the-Shelf Cellular Therapeutic for Targeted Elimination of Cancer Cells and Induction of Protective Antitumor Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Congcong; Oberoi, Pranav; Oelsner, Sarah; Waldmann, Anja; Lindner, Aline; Tonn, Torsten; Wels, Winfried S.

    2017-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in recent years toward realizing the potential of natural killer (NK) cells for cancer immunotherapy. NK cells can respond rapidly to transformed and stressed cells and have the intrinsic potential to extravasate and reach their targets in almost all body tissues. In addition to donor-derived primary NK cells, also the established NK cell line NK-92 is being developed for adoptive immunotherapy, and general safety of infusion of irradiated NK-92 cells has been established in phase I clinical trials with clinical responses observed in some of the cancer patients treated. To enhance their therapeutic utility, NK-92 cells have been modified to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) composed of a tumor-specific single chain fragment variable antibody fragment fused via hinge and transmembrane regions to intracellular signaling moieties such as CD3ζ or composite signaling domains containing a costimulatory protein together with CD3ζ. CAR-mediated activation of NK cells then bypasses inhibitory signals and overcomes NK resistance of tumor cells. In contrast to primary NK cells, CAR-engineered NK-92 cell lines suitable for clinical development can be established from molecularly and functionally well-characterized single cell clones following good manufacturing practice-compliant procedures. In preclinical in vitro and in vivo models, potent antitumor activity of NK-92 variants targeted to differentiation antigens expressed by hematologic malignancies, and overexpressed or mutated self-antigens associated with solid tumors has been found, encouraging further development of CAR-engineered NK-92 cells. Importantly, in syngeneic mouse tumor models, induction of endogenous antitumor immunity after treatment with CAR-expressing NK-92 cells has been demonstrated, resulting in cures and long-lasting immunological memory protecting against tumor rechallenge at distant sites. Here, we summarize the current status and future prospects of CAR

  2. IL-15 promotes regulatory T cell function and protects against diabetes development in NK-depleted NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jinxing; Liu, Wentao; Hu, Biliang; Tian, Zhigang; Yang, Yongguang

    2010-02-01

    IL-15, an anti-apoptotic cytokine, has been reported to promote the survival and function of NK cells and T cells, including regulatory T cells (Tregs). Here we examined the effect of repeated injections of IL-15 on the development of diabetes in NOD mice. Injection of recombinant murine IL-15, once a day for 2 weeks, neither inhibited nor accelerated diabetes development in untreated NOD mice. However, treatment with IL-15 significantly reduced the incidence and delayed the onset of diabetes in NOD mice that were depleted of NK cells, while NK cell depletion alone had no protection against the disease development. The protective effect in IL-15-treated, NK cell-depleted NOD mice was associated with an increase in immunosuppressive activity of CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs. IL-15 also enhanced Foxp3 expression in CD4(+)CD25(+) cells in an in vitro culture system, and such an effect of IL-15 was abrogated by IL-15-activated NK cells. Inhibition of IL-15-induced Foxp3 expression by IL-15-activated NK cells likely resulted from their IFN-gamma production, as recombinant IFN-gamma, or the culture supernatant of IL-15-activated wild-type mouse NK cells but not of IL-15-activated IFN-gamma-deficient NK cells, mediated a similar inhibition. IFN-gamma also diminished the stimulatory effect of IL-15 on Treg function in vitro. These results indicate that IL-15 has the potential to promote Treg function and protect against diabetes development in NOD mice, but such an activity can be eliminated by simultaneous activation of NK cells in IL-15-treated mice.

  3. NK cells and T cells cooperate during the clinical course of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sconocchia, Giuseppe; Eppenberger, Serenella; Spagnoli, Giulio C; Tornillo, Luigi; Droeser, Raoul; Caratelli, Sara; Ferrelli, Francesca; Coppola, Andrea; Arriga, Roberto; Lauro, Davide; Iezzi, Giandomenica; Terracciano, Luigi; Ferrone, Soldano

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that natural killer (NK) cells are typically defective in infiltrating solid tumors, with the exception of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). Interestingly, however, infrequently infiltrating NK cells do not appear to have a direct effect on tumor progression. Here, prompted by the recent evidence that NK cell and T cell crosstalk may trigger, or enhance, tumor antigen-specific immune responses, we have tested the clinical significance of this reciprocal signaling. To this end, a tissue microarray constructed with 1410 colorectal carcinoma (CRC) patient specimens was stained with NK and T cell antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies, utilizing the immunoperoxidase staining technique. Cut-off scores for positive (>4 NK cells) and negative (≤4 NK cells) NK cell CRC patient samples were determined using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Using this approach, NK cells were detected in 423 (30%) of the 1410 CRC specimens evaluated. The number of NK cells was >4 in only 132 (9%) of CRC samples. Correlation of the immunohistochemical staining results together with analysis of the clinical course of the disease revealed that the infiltration of colorectal tumors with both NK cells and CD8+ T cells is associated with prolonged patient survival. In contrast, infiltration of tumors with NK cells in combination with CD3+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes had no detectable effect on the clinical course of the disease. These results suggest that NK cell and CD8+ T cell crosstalk in the tumor microenvironment may benefit patient outcome and further, that the enumeration of infiltrating NK and CD8+ T cells in CRC tumors may provide useful prognostic information. PMID:25610741

  4. CpG and double-stranded RNA trigger human NK cells by Toll-like receptors: Induction of cytokine release and cytotoxicity against tumors and dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Sivori, Simona; Falco, Michela; Chiesa, Mariella Della; Carlomagno, Simona; Vitale, Massimo; Moretta, Lorenzo; Moretta, Alessandro

    2004-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern-recognition receptors responible for triggering cells of innate immunity. In this study we investigated the expression and function of TLRs 3 and 9 in human natural killer (NK) cells. In the presence of IL-12, freshly isolated NK cells responded to double-stranded RNA or unmethylated CpG DNA and expressed CD69 and CD25 activation markers. Because both markers were expressed by virtually all NK cells, this would suggest that most of them can be triggered by TLRs. Remarkably, NK cell stimulation also resulted in the induction of their functional program as revealed by IFN-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α release and by up-regulation of cytolytic activity against tumor cells. IL-8 could efficiently substitute IL-12 in supporting NK cell responses to TLR-mediated stimulation. Importantly, freshly isolated NK cells acquired the ability to lyse immature dendritic cells after stimulation with double-stranded RNA and IL-12. However, responses to these stimuli were not restricted to fresh NK cells, because significant responses were also detected in polyclonal NK cells cultured in the presence of exogenous IL-2 for several weeks. The analysis of NK cell clones revealed some degree of heterogeneity in the ability to respond to TLR stimulation also among NK clones derived from a single donor. These data suggest that stimuli acting on TLR not only activate immature dendritic cells to release IL-12 but also render NK cells capable of receiving triggering signals from pathogen-associated molecules, thus exerting a regulatory control on the early steps of innate immune responses against infectious agents. PMID:15218108

  5. CpG and double-stranded RNA trigger human NK cells by Toll-like receptors: induction of cytokine release and cytotoxicity against tumors and dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Sivori, Simona; Falco, Michela; Della Chiesa, Mariella; Carlomagno, Simona; Vitale, Massimo; Moretta, Lorenzo; Moretta, Alessandro

    2004-07-06

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern-recognition receptors responsible for triggering cells of innate immunity. In this study we investigated the expression and function of TLRs 3 and 9 in human natural killer (NK) cells. In the presence of IL-12, freshly isolated NK cells responded to double-stranded RNA or unmethylated CpG DNA and expressed CD69 and CD25 activation markers. Because both markers were expressed by virtually all NK cells, this would suggest that most of them can be triggered by TLRs. Remarkably, NK cell stimulation also resulted in the induction of their functional program as revealed by IFN-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha release and by up-regulation of cytolytic activity against tumor cells. IL-8 could efficiently substitute IL-12 in supporting NK cell responses to TLR-mediated stimulation. Importantly, freshly isolated NK cells acquired the ability to lyse immature dendritic cells after stimulation with double-stranded RNA and IL-12. However, responses to these stimuli were not restricted to fresh NK cells, because significant responses were also detected in polyclonal NK cells cultured in the presence of exogenous IL-2 for several weeks. The analysis of NK cell clones revealed some degree of heterogeneity in the ability to respond to TLR stimulation also among NK clones derived from a single donor. These data suggest that stimuli acting on TLR not only activate immature dendritic cells to release IL-12 but also render NK cells capable of receiving triggering signals from pathogen-associated molecules, thus exerting a regulatory control on the early steps of innate immune responses against infectious agents.

  6. Absence of circulating natural killer (NK) cells in a child with erythrophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis lacking NK cell activity

    SciTech Connect

    Kawai, H.; Komiyama, A.; Aoyama, K.; Miyagawa, Y.; Akabane, T.

    1988-06-01

    A 5-year-old girl who was diagnosed as having erythrophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis died at age 9 years. Peripheral lymphocytes from the patient persistently lacked natural killer (NK) cell activity during the 4-year observation period: the percent lysis values as measured by a 4-hr /sup 51/Cr release assay at a 40:1 effector:target ratio were below 1.0% against K562 and Molt-4 cells as compared with the normal lymphocyte value (mean +/- SD) of 46.2% +/- 5.8% and 43.9% +/- 6.7%, respectively. The patient's lymphocytes never developed NK cell activity by their incubation with target cells for longer time periods or by their stimulation with interferon-alpha, interleukin-2, or polyinosinic-polycytidilic acid. Single cell-in-agarose assay showed the absence of target-binding cells (TBCs): TBC numbers were below 0.3% as compared with the normal lymphocyte value of 8.1% +/- 1.3% (mean +/- SD). Flow cytometry showed a marked decrease in Leu-7+ cells (1.7%) and the absence of Leu-11+ cells (0.4%) in the peripheral blood. These results first demonstrate a case of erythrophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in which there is the lack of NK cell activity due to the absence of circulating NK cells.

  7. Microchip Screening Platform for Single Cell Assessment of NK Cell Cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Guldevall, Karolin; Brandt, Ludwig; Forslund, Elin; Olofsson, Karl; Frisk, Thomas W; Olofsson, Per E; Gustafsson, Karin; Manneberg, Otto; Vanherberghen, Bruno; Brismar, Hjalmar; Kärre, Klas; Uhlin, Michael; Önfelt, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report a screening platform for assessment of the cytotoxic potential of individual natural killer (NK) cells within larger populations. Human primary NK cells were distributed across a silicon-glass microchip containing 32,400 individual microwells loaded with target cells. Through fluorescence screening and automated image analysis, the numbers of NK and live or dead target cells in each well could be assessed at different time points after initial mixing. Cytotoxicity was also studied by time-lapse live-cell imaging in microwells quantifying the killing potential of individual NK cells. Although most resting NK cells (≈75%) were non-cytotoxic against the leukemia cell line K562, some NK cells were able to kill several (≥3) target cells within the 12-h long experiment. In addition, the screening approach was adapted to increase the chance to find and evaluate serial killing NK cells. Even if the cytotoxic potential varied between donors, it was evident that a small fraction of highly cytotoxic NK cells were responsible for a substantial portion of the killing. We demonstrate multiple assays where our platform can be used to enumerate and characterize cytotoxic cells, such as NK or T cells. This approach could find use in clinical applications, e.g., in the selection of donors for stem cell transplantation or generation of highly specific and cytotoxic cells for adoptive immunotherapy.

  8. Microchip Screening Platform for Single Cell Assessment of NK Cell Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Guldevall, Karolin; Brandt, Ludwig; Forslund, Elin; Olofsson, Karl; Frisk, Thomas W.; Olofsson, Per E.; Gustafsson, Karin; Manneberg, Otto; Vanherberghen, Bruno; Brismar, Hjalmar; Kärre, Klas; Uhlin, Michael; Önfelt, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report a screening platform for assessment of the cytotoxic potential of individual natural killer (NK) cells within larger populations. Human primary NK cells were distributed across a silicon–glass microchip containing 32,400 individual microwells loaded with target cells. Through fluorescence screening and automated image analysis, the numbers of NK and live or dead target cells in each well could be assessed at different time points after initial mixing. Cytotoxicity was also studied by time-lapse live-cell imaging in microwells quantifying the killing potential of individual NK cells. Although most resting NK cells (≈75%) were non-cytotoxic against the leukemia cell line K562, some NK cells were able to kill several (≥3) target cells within the 12-h long experiment. In addition, the screening approach was adapted to increase the chance to find and evaluate serial killing NK cells. Even if the cytotoxic potential varied between donors, it was evident that a small fraction of highly cytotoxic NK cells were responsible for a substantial portion of the killing. We demonstrate multiple assays where our platform can be used to enumerate and characterize cytotoxic cells, such as NK or T cells. This approach could find use in clinical applications, e.g., in the selection of donors for stem cell transplantation or generation of highly specific and cytotoxic cells for adoptive immunotherapy. PMID:27092139

  9. Induced Human Decidual NK-Like Cells Improve Utero-Placental Perfusion in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pernicone, Elizabeth; Korkes, Henri A.; Burke, Suzanne D.; Rajakumar, Augustine; Thadhani, Ravi I.; Roberts, Drucilla J.; Bhasin, Manoj; Karumanchi, S. Ananth

    2016-01-01

    Decidual NK (dNK) cells, a distinct type of NK cell, are thought to regulate uterine spiral artery remodeling, a process that allows for increased blood delivery to the fetal-placental unit. Impairment of uterine spiral artery remodeling is associated with decreased placental perfusion, increased uterine artery resistance, and obstetric complications such as preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. Ex vivo manipulation of human peripheral blood NK (pNK) cells by a combination of hypoxia, TGFß-1 and 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine yields cells with phenotypic and in vitro functional similarities to dNK cells, called idNK cells. Here, gene expression profiling shows that CD56Bright idNK cells derived ex vivo from human pNK cells, and to a lesser extent CD56Dim idNK cells, are enriched in the gene expression signature that distinguishes dNK cells from pNK cells. When injected into immunocompromised pregnant mice with elevated uterine artery resistance, idNK cells homed to the uterus and reduced the uterine artery resistance index, suggesting improved placental perfusion. PMID:27736914

  10. NK Cells Preferentially Target Tumor Cells with a Cancer Stem Cell Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Ames, Erik; Canter, Robert J; Grossenbacher, Steven K; Mac, Stephanie; Chen, Mingyi; Smith, Rachel C; Hagino, Takeshi; Perez-Cunningham, Jessica; Sckisel, Gail D; Urayama, Shiro; Monjazeb, Arta M; Fragoso, Ruben C; Sayers, Thomas J; Murphy, William J

    2015-10-15

    Increasing evidence supports the hypothesis that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are resistant to antiproliferative therapies, able to repopulate tumor bulk, and seed metastasis. NK cells are able to target stem cells as shown by their ability to reject allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells but not solid tissue grafts. Using multiple preclinical models, including NK coculture (autologous and allogeneic) with multiple human cancer cell lines and dissociated primary cancer specimens and NK transfer in NSG mice harboring orthotopic pancreatic cancer xenografts, we assessed CSC viability, CSC frequency, expression of death receptor ligands, and tumor burden. We demonstrate that activated NK cells are capable of preferentially killing CSCs identified by multiple CSC markers (CD24(+)/CD44(+), CD133(+), and aldehyde dehydrogenase(bright)) from a wide variety of human cancer cell lines in vitro and dissociated primary cancer specimens ex vivo. We observed comparable effector function of allogeneic and autologous NK cells. We also observed preferential upregulation of NK activation ligands MICA/B, Fas, and DR5 on CSCs. Blocking studies further implicated an NKG2D-dependent mechanism for NK killing of CSCs. Treatment of orthotopic human pancreatic cancer tumor-bearing NSG mice with activated NK cells led to significant reductions in both intratumoral CSCs and tumor burden. Taken together, these data from multiple preclinical models, including a strong reliance on primary human cancer specimens, provide compelling preclinical evidence that activated NK cells preferentially target cancer cells with a CSC phenotype, highlighting the translational potential of NK immunotherapy as part of a combined modality approach for refractory solid malignancies.

  11. Maternal obesity drives functional alterations in uterine NK cells

    PubMed Central

    Perdu, Sofie; Castellana, Barbara; Kim, Yoona; Chan, Kathy; DeLuca, Lauren; Beristain, Alexander G.

    2016-01-01

    Over one-fifth of North American women of childbearing age are obese, putting these women at risk for a variety of detrimental chronic diseases. In addition, obesity increases the risk for developing major complications during pregnancy. The mechanisms by which obesity contributes to pregnancy complications and loss remain unknown. Increasing evidence indicates that obesity results in major changes to adipose tissue immune cell composition and function; whether or not obesity also affects immune function in the uterus has not been explored. Here we investigated the effect of obesity on uterine natural killer (uNK) cells, which are essential for uterine artery remodeling and placental development. Using a cohort of obese or lean women, we found that obesity led to a significant reduction in uNK cell numbers accompanied with impaired uterine artery remodeling. uNK cells isolated from obese women had altered expression of genes and pathways associated with extracellular matrix remodeling and growth factor signaling. Specifically, uNK cells were hyper-responsive to PDGF, resulting in overexpression of decorin. Functionally, decorin strongly inhibited placental development by limiting trophoblast survival. Together, these findings establish a potentially new link between obesity and poor pregnancy outcomes, and indicate that obesity-driven changes to uterine-resident immune cells critically impair placental development. PMID:27699222

  12. DNAM-1 expression marks an alternative program of NK cell maturation.

    PubMed

    Martinet, Ludovic; Ferrari De Andrade, Lucas; Guillerey, Camille; Lee, Jason S; Liu, Jing; Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes, Fernando; Hutchinson, Dana S; Kolesnik, Tatiana B; Nicholson, Sandra E; Huntington, Nicholas D; Smyth, Mark J

    2015-04-07

    Natural killer (NK) cells comprise a heterogeneous population of cells important for pathogen defense and cancer surveillance. However, the functional significance of this diversity is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate through transcriptional profiling and functional studies that the activating receptor DNAM-1 (CD226) identifies two distinct NK cell functional subsets: DNAM-1(+) and DNAM-1(-) NK cells. DNAM-1(+) NK cells produce high levels of inflammatory cytokines, have enhanced interleukin 15 signaling, and proliferate vigorously. By contrast, DNAM-1(-) NK cells that differentiate from DNAM-1(+) NK cells have greater expression of NK-cell-receptor-related genes and are higher producers of MIP1 chemokines. Collectively, our data reveal the existence of a functional program of NK cell maturation marked by DNAM-1 expression. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The TGF-β/SMAD pathway is an important mechanism for NK cell immune evasion in childhood B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Rouce, R H; Shaim, H; Sekine, T; Weber, G; Ballard, B; Ku, S; Barese, C; Murali, V; Wu, M-F; Liu, H; Shpall, E J; Bollard, C M; Rabin, K R; Rezvani, K

    2016-04-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are key components of the innate immune system, providing potent antitumor immunity. Here, we show that the tumor growth factor-β (TGF-β)/SMAD signaling pathway is an important mechanism for NK cell immune evasion in childhood B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We characterized NK cells in 50 consecutive children with B-ALL at diagnosis, end induction and during maintenance therapy compared with age-matched controls. ALL-NK cells at diagnosis had an inhibitory phenotype associated with impaired function, most notably interferon-γ production and cytotoxicity. By maintenance therapy, these phenotypic and functional abnormalities partially normalized; however, cytotoxicity against autologous blasts remained impaired. We identified ALL-derived TGF-β1 to be an important mediator of leukemia-induced NK cell dysfunction. The TGF-β/SMAD signaling pathway was constitutively activated in ALL-NK cells at diagnosis and end induction when compared with healthy controls and patients during maintenance therapy. Culture of ALL blasts with healthy NK cells induced NK dysfunction and an inhibitory phenotype, mediated by activation of the TGF-β/SMAD signaling pathway, and abrogated by blocking TGF-β. These data indicate that by regulating the TGF-β/SMAD pathway, ALL blasts induce changes in NK cells to evade innate immune surveillance, thus highlighting the importance of developing novel therapies to target this inhibitory pathway and restore antileukemic cytotoxicity.

  14. The TGF-β/SMAD pathway is an important mechanism for NK cell immune evasion in childhood B acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Rouce, Rayne H.; Shaim, Hila; Sekine, Takuya; Weber, Gerrit; Ballard, Brandon; Ku, Stephanie; Barese, Cecilia; Murali, Vineeth; Wu, Meng-Fen; Liu, Hao; Shpall, Elizabeth J.; Bollard, Catherine M.; Rabin, Karen R.; Rezvani, Katayoun

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are key components of the innate immune system, providing potent antitumor immunity. Here, we show that the TGF-β/SMAD signaling pathway is an important mechanism for NK cell immune evasion in childhood B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We characterized NK cells in 50 consecutive children with B-ALL at diagnosis, end-Induction, and during maintenance therapy compared to age-matched controls. ALL-NK cells at diagnosis had an inhibitory phenotype associated with impaired function, most notably IFN-γ production and cytotoxicity. By maintenance, these phenotypic and functional abnormalities partially normalized, however, cytotoxicity against autologous blasts remained impaired. We identified ALL-derived TGF-β1 to be an important mediator of leukemia-induced NK cell dysfunction. The TGF-β/SMAD signaling pathway was constitutively activated in ALL-NK cells at diagnosis and end-induction when compared to healthy controls and patients during maintenance. Culture of ALL blasts with healthy NK cells induced NK dysfunction and an inhibitory phenotype, mediated by activation of the TGF-β/SMAD signaling pathway, and abrogated by blocking TGF-β. These data indicate that by regulating the TGF-β/SMAD pathway, ALL blasts induce changes in NK cells to evade innate immune surveillance, thus highlighting the importance of developing novel therapies to target this inhibitory pathway and restore antileukemic cytotoxicity. PMID:26621337

  15. NK cells with KIR2DS2 immunogenotype have a functional activation advantage to efficiently kill glioblastoma and prolong animal survival.

    PubMed

    Gras Navarro, Andrea; Kmiecik, Justyna; Leiss, Lina; Zelkowski, Mateusz; Engelsen, Agnete; Bruserud, Øystein; Zimmer, Jacques; Enger, Per Øyvind; Chekenya, Martha

    2014-12-15

    Glioblastomas (GBMs) are lethal brain cancers that are resistant to current therapies. We investigated the cytotoxicity of human allogeneic NK cells against patient-derived GBM in vitro and in vivo, as well as mechanisms mediating their efficacy. We demonstrate that KIR2DS2 immunogenotype NK cells were more potent killers, notwithstanding the absence of inhibitory killer Ig-like receptor (KIR)-HLA ligand mismatch. FACS-sorted and enriched KIR2DS2(+) NK cell subpopulations retained significantly high levels of CD69 and CD16 when in contact with GBM cells at a 1:1 ratio and highly expressed CD107a and secreted more soluble CD137 and granzyme A. In contrast, KIR2DS2(-) immunogenotype donor NK cells were less cytotoxic against GBM and K562, and, similar to FACS-sorted or gated KIR2DS2(-) NK cells, significantly diminished CD16, CD107a, granzyme A, and CD69 when in contact with GBM cells. Furthermore, NK cell-mediated GBM killing in vitro depended upon the expression of ligands for the activating receptor NKG2D and was partially abrogated by Ab blockade. Treatment of GBM xenografts in NOD/SCID mice with NK cells from a KIR2DS2(+) donor lacking inhibitory KIR-HLA ligand mismatch significantly prolonged the median survival to 163 d compared with vehicle controls (log-rank test, p = 0.0001), in contrast to 117.5 d (log-rank test, p = 0.0005) for NK cells with several inhibitory KIR-HLA ligand mismatches but lacking KIR2DS2 genotype. Significantly more CD56(+)CD16(+) NK cells from a KIR2DS2(+) donor survived in nontumor-bearing brains 3 wk after infusion compared with KIR2DS2(-) NK cells, independent of their proliferative capacity. In conclusion, KIR2DS2 identifies potent alloreactive NK cells against GBM that are mediated by commensurate, but dominant, activating signals.

  16. Immunomodulatory effect of prednisolone (PRD) induced soluble suppressor factor(s) (PRD-SSF) on natural killer (NK) cell activity

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, M.P.N.; Cilik, J.M.; Schwartz, S.A.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have previously reported that peripheral blood lymphocytes precultured for 24 hrs with PRD showed significant suppression of their NK activity. Purified HNK-1/sup +/ lymphocytes were treated either directly with PRD or with supernates from allogeneic lymphocytes precultured with 10/sup -6/ to 10/sup -9/M PRD and examined for any inhibition of NK activity. For the NK assay K562 and U937 cell lines were used as targets in a 4 hr /sup 51/Cr release assay. HNK-1/sup +/ lymphocytes precultured with PRD showed significantly lower level of NK activity. In a single cell assay, both HNK-1/sup +/ and HNK-1/sup -/ subpopulations of PBL precultured with PRD also suppressed the target binding and lytic capacity of allogeneic fresh large granular lymphocytes, suggesting that NK cells/T cells or their precursors can be stimulated by PRD to inhibit NK activity. PBL precultured with increasing concentrations of culture supernates containing PRD-SSF showed a dose dependent inhibitory effect of their NK activity. This data suggest that PRD activated suppressor cells function through the release of soluble mediators. These findings may be of clinical significance to patients receiving corticosteroids for a variety of disorders including malignant, autoimmune and atopic diseases.

  17. Alterations in target cell membrane phospholipids alter T cell but not NK cell killing.

    PubMed

    Harris, David T

    2013-01-01

    The ability of tumor cells to grow progressively in vivo despite the host immune response remains a major conundrum in tumor immunology. Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain how tumors evade immune destruction. The work presented herein shows that simple alterations in plasma membrane phospholipid composition can alter susceptibility to immune lysis. The phospholipid composition of target cells was specifically altered by growth in medium containing choline analogs. Manipulation of membrane phospholipids was observed to alter cell susceptibility to murine CTL but not NK cell lysis. The effects of such changes in phospholipid composition on CTL-mediated lysis appeared to occur during the recognition phase of lysis. This mechanism could be a means by which tumor cells, as well as other pathogenic organisms, escape immune detection and destruction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Acute GVHD in patients receiving IL-15/4-1BBL activated NK cells following T-cell–depleted stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Nirali N.; Baird, Kristin; Delbrook, Cynthia P.; Fleisher, Thomas A.; Kohler, Mark E.; Rampertaap, Shakuntala; Lemberg, Kimberly; Hurley, Carolyn K.; Kleiner, David E.; Merchant, Melinda S.; Pittaluga, Stefania; Sabatino, Marianna; Stroncek, David F.; Wayne, Alan S.; Zhang, Hua; Fry, Terry J.

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells can enhance engraftment and mediate graft-versus-leukemia following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), but the potency of graft-versus-leukemia mediated by naturally reconstituting NK cells following HSCT is limited. Preclinical studies demonstrate that activation of NK cells using interleukin-15 (IL-15) plus 4-1BBL upregulates activating receptor expression and augments killing capacity. In an effort to amplify the beneficial effects of NK cells post-HSCT, we conducted a first-in-human trial of adoptive transfer of donor-derived IL-15/4-1BBL–activated NK cells (aNK-DLI) following HLA-matched, T-cell–depleted (1-2 × 104 T cells/kg) nonmyeloablative peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in children and young adults with ultra-high-risk solid tumors. aNK-DLI were CD3+-depleted, CD56+-selected lymphocytes, cultured for 9 to 11 days with recombinant human IL-15 plus 4-1BBL+IL-15Rα+ artificial antigen-presenting cells. aNK-DLI demonstrated potent killing capacity and displayed high levels of activating receptor expression. Five of 9 transplant recipients experienced acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) following aNK-DLI, with grade 4 GVHD observed in 3 subjects. GVHD was more common in matched unrelated donor vs matched sibling donor recipients and was associated with higher donor CD3 chimerism. Given that the T-cell dose was below the threshold required for GVHD in this setting, we conclude that aNK-DLI contributed to the acute GVHD observed, likely by augmenting underlying T-cell alloreactivity. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01287104. PMID:25452614

  19. Membrane-type 6 matrix metalloproteinase regulates the activation-induced downmodulation of CD16 in human primary NK cells.

    PubMed

    Peruzzi, Giovanna; Femnou, Laurette; Gil-Krzewska, Aleksandra; Borrego, Francisco; Weck, Jennifer; Krzewski, Konrad; Coligan, John E

    2013-08-15

    CD16 (FcγRIIIa), the low-affinity receptor for IgG, expressed by the majority of human NK cells, is a potent activating receptor that facilitates Ab-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). ADCC dysfunction has been linked to cancer progression and poor prognosis for chronic infections, such as HIV; thus, understanding how CD16 expression is regulated by NK cells has clinical relevance. Importantly, CD16 cell-surface expression is downmodulated following NK cell activation and, in particular, exposure to stimulatory cytokines (IL-2 or IL-15), likely owing to the action of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). In this article, we identify membrane-type 6 (MT6) MMP (also known as MMP25) as a proteinase responsible for CD16 downmodulation. IL-2-induced upregulation of MT6/MMP25 cell-surface expression correlates with CD16 downmodulation. MT6/MMP25, sequestered in intracellular compartments in unstimulated NK cells, translocates to the cell surface after stimulation; moreover, it polarizes to the effector-target cell interface of the CD16-mediated immunological synapse. siRNA-mediated disruption of MT6/MMP25 expression enhances the ADCC capacity of NK cells, emphasizing the important functional role of MT6/MMP25 in the regulation of ADCC activity. Thus, this study uncovers a previously unknown role of MT6/MMP25 in human NK cells, and suggests that inhibition of MT6/MMP25 activity could improve ADCC efficacy of therapeutically administered NK cells that require IL-2 for culture and expansion.

  20. Development of Three Different NK Cell Subpopulations during Immune Reconstitution after Pediatric Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Prognostic Markers in GvHD and Viral Infections.

    PubMed

    Huenecke, Sabine; Cappel, Claudia; Esser, Ruth; Pfirrmann, Verena; Salzmann-Manrique, Emilia; Betz, Sibille; Keitl, Eileen; Banisharif-Dehkordi, Julia; Bakhtiar, Shahrzad; Königs, Christoph; Jarisch, Andrea; Soerensen, Jan; Ullrich, Evelyn; Klingebiel, Thomas; Bader, Peter; Bremm, Melanie

    2017-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) exerting graft-versus-leukemia/tumor effect and mediating pathogen-specific immunity. Although NK cells are the first donor-derived lymphocytes reconstituting post-HSCT, their distribution of CD56(++)CD16(-) (CD56(bright)), CD56(++)CD16(+) (CD56(intermediate=int)), and CD56(+)CD16(++) (CD56(dim)) NK cells is explicitly divergent from healthy adults, but to some extent comparable to the NK cell development in early childhood. The proportion of CD56(bright)/CD56(int)/CD56(dim) changed from 15/8/78% in early childhood to 6/4/90% in adults, respectively. Within this study, we first compared the NK cell reconstitution post-HSCT to reference values of NK cell subpopulations of healthy children. Afterward, we investigated the reconstitution of NK cell subpopulations post-HSCT in correlation to acute graft versus host disease (aGvHD) and chronic graft versus host disease (cGvHD) as well as to viral infections. Interestingly, after a HSCT follow-up phase of 12 months, the distribution of NK cell subpopulations largely matched the 50th percentile of the reference range for healthy individuals. Patients suffering from aGvHD and cGvHD showed a delayed reconstitution of NK cells. Remarkably, within the first 2 months post-HSCT, patients suffering from aGvHD had significantly lower levels of CD56(bright) NK cells compared to patients without viral infection or without graft versus host disease (GvHD). Therefore, the amount of CD56(bright) NK cells might serve as an early prognostic factor for GvHD development. Furthermore, a prolonged and elevated peak in CD56(int) NK cells seemed to be characteristic for the chronification of GvHD. In context of viral infection, a slightly lower CD56 and CD16 receptor expression followed by a considerable reduction in the absolute CD56(dim) NK cell numbers combined with reoccurrence of CD56(int) NK cells was observed. Our

  1. Development of Three Different NK Cell Subpopulations during Immune Reconstitution after Pediatric Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Prognostic Markers in GvHD and Viral Infections

    PubMed Central

    Huenecke, Sabine; Cappel, Claudia; Esser, Ruth; Pfirrmann, Verena; Salzmann-Manrique, Emilia; Betz, Sibille; Keitl, Eileen; Banisharif-Dehkordi, Julia; Bakhtiar, Shahrzad; Königs, Christoph; Jarisch, Andrea; Soerensen, Jan; Ullrich, Evelyn; Klingebiel, Thomas; Bader, Peter; Bremm, Melanie

    2017-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) exerting graft-versus-leukemia/tumor effect and mediating pathogen-specific immunity. Although NK cells are the first donor-derived lymphocytes reconstituting post-HSCT, their distribution of CD56++CD16− (CD56bright), CD56++CD16+ (CD56intermediate=int), and CD56+CD16++ (CD56dim) NK cells is explicitly divergent from healthy adults, but to some extent comparable to the NK cell development in early childhood. The proportion of CD56bright/CD56int/CD56dim changed from 15/8/78% in early childhood to 6/4/90% in adults, respectively. Within this study, we first compared the NK cell reconstitution post-HSCT to reference values of NK cell subpopulations of healthy children. Afterward, we investigated the reconstitution of NK cell subpopulations post-HSCT in correlation to acute graft versus host disease (aGvHD) and chronic graft versus host disease (cGvHD) as well as to viral infections. Interestingly, after a HSCT follow-up phase of 12 months, the distribution of NK cell subpopulations largely matched the 50th percentile of the reference range for healthy individuals. Patients suffering from aGvHD and cGvHD showed a delayed reconstitution of NK cells. Remarkably, within the first 2 months post-HSCT, patients suffering from aGvHD had significantly lower levels of CD56bright NK cells compared to patients without viral infection or without graft versus host disease (GvHD). Therefore, the amount of CD56bright NK cells might serve as an early prognostic factor for GvHD development. Furthermore, a prolonged and elevated peak in CD56int NK cells seemed to be characteristic for the chronification of GvHD. In context of viral infection, a slightly lower CD56 and CD16 receptor expression followed by a considerable reduction in the absolute CD56dim NK cell numbers combined with reoccurrence of CD56int NK cells was observed. Our results suggest that a precise

  2. Orbital involvement by non-Hodgkin lymphoma NK T cells.

    PubMed

    Hervás-Ontiveros, A; España-Gregori, E; Hernández-Martínez, P; Vera-Sempere, F J; Díaz-Llopis, M

    2014-11-01

    The case is presented of 37 year-old male with a history of nasal obstruction with right rhinorrhea, headache, hearing loss and right exophthalmos of 4 months progression. The MRI revealed that the ethmoidal and maxillary sinuses contained inflammatory tissue extending into the orbital region. The biopsy confirmed a non-Hodgkin lymphoma of natural killer (NK) T cells. Non-Hodgkin's T NK lymphoma is a rare tumor in the orbital area that requires an early detection and multi-disciplinary care to ensure appropriate monitoring and treatment. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. MUC16 provides immune protection by inhibiting synapse formation between NK and ovarian tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cancer cells utilize a variety of mechanisms to evade immune detection and attack. Effective immune detection largely relies on the formation of an immune synapse which requires close contact between immune cells and their targets. Here, we show that MUC16, a heavily glycosylated 3-5 million Da mucin expressed on the surface of ovarian tumor cells, inhibits the formation of immune synapses between NK cells and ovarian tumor targets. Our results indicate that MUC16-mediated inhibition of immune synapse formation is an effective mechanism employed by ovarian tumors to evade immune recognition. Results Expression of low levels of MUC16 strongly correlated with an increased number of conjugates and activating immune synapses between ovarian tumor cells and primary naïve NK cells. MUC16-knockdown ovarian tumor cells were more susceptible to lysis by primary NK cells than MUC16 expressing controls. This increased lysis was not due to differences in the expression levels of the ligands for the activating receptors DNAM-1 and NKG2D. The NK cell leukemia cell line (NKL), which does not express KIRs but are positive for DNAM-1 and NKG2D, also conjugated and lysed MUC16-knockdown cells more efficiently than MUC16 expressing controls. Tumor cells that survived the NKL challenge expressed higher levels of MUC16 indicating selective lysis of MUC16low targets. The higher csMUC16 levels on the NKL resistant tumor cells correlated with more protection from lysis as compared to target cells that were never exposed to the effectors. Conclusion MUC16, a carrier of the tumor marker CA125, has previously been shown to facilitate ovarian tumor metastasis and inhibits NK cell mediated lysis of tumor targets. Our data now demonstrates that MUC16 expressing ovarian cancer cells are protected from recognition by NK cells. The immune protection provided by MUC16 may lead to selective survival of ovarian cancer cells that are more efficient in metastasizing within the peritoneal

  4. MUC16 provides immune protection by inhibiting synapse formation between NK and ovarian tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Gubbels, Jennifer A A; Felder, Mildred; Horibata, Sachi; Belisle, Jennifer A; Kapur, Arvinder; Holden, Helen; Petrie, Sarah; Migneault, Martine; Rancourt, Claudine; Connor, Joseph P; Patankar, Manish S

    2010-01-20

    Cancer cells utilize a variety of mechanisms to evade immune detection and attack. Effective immune detection largely relies on the formation of an immune synapse which requires close contact between immune cells and their targets. Here, we show that MUC16, a heavily glycosylated 3-5 million Da mucin expressed on the surface of ovarian tumor cells, inhibits the formation of immune synapses between NK cells and ovarian tumor targets. Our results indicate that MUC16-mediated inhibition of immune synapse formation is an effective mechanism employed by ovarian tumors to evade immune recognition. Expression of low levels of MUC16 strongly correlated with an increased number of conjugates and activating immune synapses between ovarian tumor cells and primary naïve NK cells. MUC16-knockdown ovarian tumor cells were more susceptible to lysis by primary NK cells than MUC16 expressing controls. This increased lysis was not due to differences in the expression levels of the ligands for the activating receptors DNAM-1 and NKG2D. The NK cell leukemia cell line (NKL), which does not express KIRs but are positive for DNAM-1 and NKG2D, also conjugated and lysed MUC16-knockdown cells more efficiently than MUC16 expressing controls. Tumor cells that survived the NKL challenge expressed higher levels of MUC16 indicating selective lysis of MUC16(low) targets. The higher csMUC16 levels on the NKL resistant tumor cells correlated with more protection from lysis as compared to target cells that were never exposed to the effectors. MUC16, a carrier of the tumor marker CA125, has previously been shown to facilitate ovarian tumor metastasis and inhibits NK cell mediated lysis of tumor targets. Our data now demonstrates that MUC16 expressing ovarian cancer cells are protected from recognition by NK cells. The immune protection provided by MUC16 may lead to selective survival of ovarian cancer cells that are more efficient in metastasizing within the peritoneal cavity and also at overcoming

  5. Activated hepatic stellate cells impair NK cell anti-fibrosis capacity through a TGF-β-dependent emperipolesis in HBV cirrhotic patients.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jijing; Zhao, Juanjuan; Zhang, Xin; Cheng, Yongqian; Hu, Jinhua; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Xin; Shang, Qinghua; Sun, Yanling; Tu, Bo; Shi, Lei; Gao, Bin; Wang, Fu-Sheng; Zhang, Zheng

    2017-03-14

    Natural killer (NK) cells can induce liver fibrosis remission by killing hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and producing interferon (IFN)-γ in a mouse model; however, their anti-fibrotic immune-characteristics and regulatory mechanisms by HSCs remain to be determined, especially in livers from HBV-infected liver cirrhosis (LC) patients. We analyzed frequency, phenotype and anti-fibrotic function of hepatic and peripheral NK subsets in 43 HBV-LC patients. We found that hepatic NK subsets from LC patients displayed a decreased frequency, activation status and anti-fibrotic activity compared with those from chronic hepatitis B patients, which were mainly mediated by increased intrahepatic tumour-growth factor (TGF)-β because blockade of TGF-β significantly reversed NK anti-fibrotic function in vitro. In vivo, hepatic NK cells were enriched in proximity to the α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA+) area within mild fibrosis regions; while in severe fibrotic areas, they were either directly attached to or separated from the α-SMA+ region. NK cells from LC patients could enter HSCs to form emperipolesis (a cell-in-cell structure) and become apoptotic; anti-TGF-β treatment ameliorated this emperipolesis. This finding suggested a novel mechanism by which activated HSCs impair NK cells' anti-fibrosis capacity through a TGF-β-dependent emperipolesis in LC patients, providing an anti-fibrotic rational by enhancing NK cell activity.

  6. NK Cells Help Induce Anti-Hepatitis B Virus CD8+ T Cell Immunity in Mice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Meijuan; Sun, Rui; Wei, Haiming; Tian, Zhigang

    2016-05-15

    Although recent clinical studies demonstrate that NK cell function is impaired in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-persistent patients, whether or how NK cells play a role in anti-HBV adaptive immunity remains to be explored. Using a mouse model mimicking acute HBV infection by hydrodynamic injection of an HBV plasmid, we observed that although serum hepatitis B surface Ag and hepatitis B envelope Ag were eliminated within 3 to 4 wk, HBV might persist for >8 wk in CD8(-/-) mice and that adoptive transfer of anti-HBV CD8(+) T cells restored the ability to clear HBV in HBV-carrier Rag1(-/-) mice. These results indicate that CD8(+) T cells are critical in HBV elimination. Furthermore, NK cells increased IFN-γ production after HBV plasmid injection, and NK cell depletion led to significantly increased HBV persistence along with reduced frequency of hepatitis B core Ag-specific CD8(+) T cells. Adoptive transfer of IFN-γ-sufficient NK cells restored donor CD8(+) T cell function, indicating that NK cells positively regulated CD8(+) T cells via secreting IFN-γ. We also observed that NK cell depletion correlated with decreased effector memory CD8(+) T cell frequencies. Importantly, adoptive transfer experiments showed that NK cells were involved in anti-HBV CD8(+) T cell recall responses. Moreover, DX5(+)CD49a(-) conventional, but not DX5(-)CD49a(+) liver-resident, NK cells were involved in improving CD8(+) T cell responses against HBV. Overall, the current study reveals that NK cells, especially DX5(+)CD49a(-) conventional NK cells, promote the antiviral activity of CD8(+) T cell responses via secreting IFN-γ in a mouse model mimicking acute HBV infection.

  7. Peripheral NK cell phenotypes: multiple changing of faces of an adapting, developing cell.

    PubMed

    Perussia, Bice; Chen, Yingying; Loza, Matthew J

    2005-02-01

    We have defined the existence of developmental relationships among human peripheral NK cells with distinct phenotypic and functional characteristics. These findings closely parallel the changes that occur in vivo during NK cell development, and in vitro in experimental culture systems supporting NK cell generation from hematopoietic progenitors. These new insights provide a simplified framework to understand NK cell immunobiology and the cellular bases for their roles in innate immunity, initiation and maintenance of immune responses via regulation of adaptive and accessory cell functions, and immune pathologies.

  8. Human NK Cell Subsets in Pregnancy and Disease: Toward a New Biological Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Cristiani, Costanza Maria; Palella, Eleonora; Sottile, Rosa; Tallerico, Rossana; Garofalo, Cinzia; Carbone, Ennio

    2016-01-01

    In humans, NK cells are mainly identified by the surface expression levels of CD56 and CD16, which differentiate between five functionally different NK cell subsets. However, nowadays NK cells are considered as a more heterogeneous population formed by various subsets differing in function, surface phenotype, and anatomic localization. In human CMV- and hantaviruses-infected subjects, an increased frequency of a NKG2A−CD57+NKG2C+ NK cell subset has been observed, while the phenotype of the NK cell subpopulation associated with cancer may vary according to the specific kind of tumor and its anatomical location. The healthy human lymph nodes contain mainly the CD56bright NK cell subset while in melanoma metastatic lymph nodes the CD56dimCD57+KIR+CCR7+ NK cell subpopulation prevails. The five NK cell subpopulations are found in breast cancer patients, where they differ for expression pattern of chemokine receptors, maturation stage, functional capabilities. In pregnancy, uterine NK cells show a prevalence of the CD56brightCD16− NK cell compartment, whose activity is influenced by KIRs repertoire. This NK cell subset’s super specialization could be explained by (i) the expansion of single mature CD56dim clones, (ii) the recruitment and maturation of CD56bright NK cells through specific stimuli, and (iii) the in situ development of tumor-resident NK cells from tissue-resident CD56bright NK cells independently of the circulating NK cell compartment. This new and unexpected biological feature of the NK cell compartment could be an important source of new biomarkers to improve patients’ diagnosis. PMID:28082990

  9. Human NK Cell Subsets in Pregnancy and Disease: Toward a New Biological Complexity.

    PubMed

    Cristiani, Costanza Maria; Palella, Eleonora; Sottile, Rosa; Tallerico, Rossana; Garofalo, Cinzia; Carbone, Ennio

    2016-01-01

    In humans, NK cells are mainly identified by the surface expression levels of CD56 and CD16, which differentiate between five functionally different NK cell subsets. However, nowadays NK cells are considered as a more heterogeneous population formed by various subsets differing in function, surface phenotype, and anatomic localization. In human CMV- and hantaviruses-infected subjects, an increased frequency of a NKG2A(-)CD57(+)NKG2C(+) NK cell subset has been observed, while the phenotype of the NK cell subpopulation associated with cancer may vary according to the specific kind of tumor and its anatomical location. The healthy human lymph nodes contain mainly the CD56(bright) NK cell subset while in melanoma metastatic lymph nodes the CD56(dim)CD57(+)KIR(+)CCR7(+) NK cell subpopulation prevails. The five NK cell subpopulations are found in breast cancer patients, where they differ for expression pattern of chemokine receptors, maturation stage, functional capabilities. In pregnancy, uterine NK cells show a prevalence of the CD56(bright)CD16(-) NK cell compartment, whose activity is influenced by KIRs repertoire. This NK cell subset's super specialization could be explained by (i) the expansion of single mature CD56(dim) clones, (ii) the recruitment and maturation of CD56(bright) NK cells through specific stimuli, and (iii) the in situ development of tumor-resident NK cells from tissue-resident CD56(bright) NK cells independently of the circulating NK cell compartment. This new and unexpected biological feature of the NK cell compartment could be an important source of new biomarkers to improve patients' diagnosis.

  10. Efficient Killing of Murine Pluripotent Stem Cells by Natural Killer (NK) Cells Requires Activation by Cytokines and Partly Depends on the Activating NK Receptor NKG2D.

    PubMed

    Gröschel, Carina; Hübscher, Daniela; Nolte, Jessica; Monecke, Sebastian; Sasse, André; Elsner, Leslie; Paulus, Walter; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Polić, Bojan; Mansouri, Ahmed; Guan, Kaomei; Dressel, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role as cytotoxic effector cells, which scan the organism for infected or tumorigenic cells. Conflicting data have been published whether NK cells can also kill allogeneic or even autologous pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) and which receptors are involved. A clarification of this question is relevant since an activity of NK cells against PSCs could reduce the risk of teratoma growth after transplantation of PSC-derived grafts. Therefore, the hypothesis has been tested that the activity of NK cells against PSCs depends on cytokine activation and specifically on the activating NK receptor NKG2D. It is shown that a subcutaneous injection of autologous iPSCs failed to activate NK cells against these iPSCs and can give rise to teratomas. In agreement with this result, several PSC lines, including two iPSC, two embryonic stem cell (ESC), and two so-called multipotent adult germline stem cell (maGSC) lines, were largely resistant against resting NK cells although differences in killing were found at low level. All PSC lines were killed by interleukin (IL)-2-activated NK cells, and maGSCs were better killed than the other PSC types. The PSCs expressed ligands of the activating NK receptor NKG2D and NKG2D-deficient NK cells from Klrk1(-)(/)(-) mice were impaired in their cytotoxic activity against PSCs. The low-cytotoxic activity of resting NK cells was almost completely dependent on NKG2D. The cytotoxic activity of IL-2-activated NKG2D-deficient NK cells against PSCs was reduced, indicating that also other activating receptors on cytokine-activated NK cells must be engaged by ligands on PSCs. Thus, NKG2D is an important activating receptor involved in killing of murine PSCs. However, NK cells need to be activated by cytokines before they efficiently target PSCs and then also other NK receptors become relevant. These features of NK cells might be relevant for transplantation of PSC-derived grafts since NK cells have the capability

  11. Intratumoral delivery of CpG-conjugated anti-MUC1 antibody enhances NK cell anti-tumor activity

    PubMed Central

    Schettini, Jorge; Kidiyoor, Amritha; Besmer, Dahlia M.; Tinder, Teresa L.; Roy, Lopamudra Das; Lustgarten, Joseph; Gendler, Sandra J.

    2013-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against tumor-associated antigens are useful anticancer agents. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is one of the major mechanisms responsible for initiating natural killer cell (NK)-mediated killing of tumors. However, the regulation of ADCC via