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Sample records for nm red light

  1. Red (660 nm) or near-infrared (810 nm) photobiomodulation stimulates, while blue (415 nm), green (540 nm) light inhibits proliferation in human adipose-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuguang; Huang, Ying-Ying; Wang, Yong; Lyu, Peijun; Hamblin, Michael R

    2017-08-10

    We previously showed that blue (415 nm) and green (540 nm) wavelengths were more effective in stimulating osteoblast differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASC), compared to red (660 nm) and near-infrared (NIR, 810 nm). Intracellular calcium was higher after blue/green, and could be inhibited by the ion channel blocker, capsazepine. In the present study we asked what was the effect of these four wavelengths on proliferation of the hASC? When cultured in proliferation medium there was a clear difference between blue/green which inhibited proliferation and red/NIR which stimulated proliferation, all at 3 J/cm 2 . Blue/green reduced cellular ATP, while red/NIR increased ATP in a biphasic manner. Blue/green produced a bigger increase in intracellular calcium and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Blue/green reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and lowered intracellular pH, while red/NIR had the opposite effect. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ion channel was expressed in hADSC, and the TRPV1 ligand capsaicin (5uM) stimulated proliferation, which could be abrogated by capsazepine. The inhibition of proliferation caused by blue/green could also be abrogated by capsazepine, and by the antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine. The data suggest that blue/green light inhibits proliferation by activating TRPV1, and increasing calcium and ROS.

  2. Activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling is involved in hair growth-promoting effect of 655-nm red light and LED in in vitro culture model.

    PubMed

    Han, Le; Liu, Ben; Chen, Xianyan; Chen, Haiyan; Deng, Wenjia; Yang, Changsheng; Ji, Bin; Wan, Miaojian

    2018-04-01

    Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays an important role in hair follicle morphogenesis and hair growth. Recently, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) was evaluated for stimulating hair growth in numerous clinical studies, in which 655-nm red light was found to be most effective and practical for stimulating hair growth. We evaluated whether 655-nm red light + light-emitting diode (LED) could promote human hair growth by activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling. An in vitro culture of human hair follicles (HFs) was irradiated with different intensities of 655-nm red light + LED, 21 h7 (an inhibitor of β-catenin), or both. Immunofluorescence staining was performed to assess the expression of β-catenin, GSK3β, p-GSK3β, and Lef1 in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling. The 655-nm red light + LED not only enhanced hair shaft elongation, but also reduced catagen transition in human hair follicle organ culture, with the greatest effectiveness observed at 5 min (0.839 J/cm 2 ). Additionally, 655-nm red light + LED enhanced the expression of β-catenin, p-GSK3β, and Lef1, signaling molecules of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, in the hair matrix. Activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling is involved in hair growth-promoting effect of 655-nm red light and LED in vitro and therefore may serve as an alternative therapeutic option for alopecia.

  3. Illumination with 630-nm red light reduces oxidative stress and restores memory by photo-activating catalase and formaldehyde dehydrogenase in SAMP8 mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingnan; Yue, Xiangpei; Luo, Hongjun; Jiang, Wenjing; Mei, Yufei; Ai, Li; Gao, Ge; Wu, Yan; Yang, Hui; An, Jieran; Ding, Shumao; Yang, Xu; Sun, Bingui; Luo, Wenhong; He, Rongqiao; Jia, Jianping; Lyu, Jihui; Tong, Zhiqian

    2018-06-05

    Pharmacological treatments for Alzheimer's disease (AD) have not resulted in desirable clinical efficacy over 100 years. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a reactive and the most stable compound of reactive oxygen species (ROS), contributes to oxidative stress in AD patients. Here, we designed a medical device to emit red light at 630±15 nm from a light-emitting diode (LED-RL) and investigated whether the LED-RL reduces brain H2O2 levels and improves memory in senescence-accelerated prone 8 mouse (SAMP8) model of age-related dementia. We found that age-associated H2O2 directly inhibited formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FDH). FDH inactivity and semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) disorder resulted in endogenous formaldehyde (FA) accumulation. Unexpectedly, excess FA, in turn, caused acetylcholine (Ach) deficiency by inhibiting choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, the 630-nm red light can penetrate the skull and abdomen with light penetration rates: ~49% and ~43%, respectively. Illumination with LED-RL markedly activated both catalase and FDH in the brains, cultured cells and purified protein solutions, all reduced brain H2O2 and FA levels and restored brain Ach contents. Consequently, LED-RL not only prevented early-stage memory decline but also rescued late-stage memory deficits in SAMP8 mice. We developed a phototherapeutic device with 630-nm red light, and this LED-RL reduced brain H2O2 levels and reversed age-related memory disorders. The phototherapy of LED-RL has low photo toxicity and high rate of tissue penetration, and non-invasively reverses aging-associated cognitive decline. This finding opens a promising opportunity to translate LED-RL into clinical treatment for patients with dementia.

  4. [Effect of low-energy 633 nm red light stimulation on proliferation and reactive oxygen species level of human epidermal cell line HaCaT].

    PubMed

    Chen, Z Y; Li, D L; Duan, X D; Peng, D Z

    2016-09-20

    To investigate the changes of proliferative activity and reactive oxygen species level of human epidermal cell line HaCaT after being irradiated with low-energy 633 nm red light. Irradiation distance was determined through preliminary experiment. HaCaT cells were conventionally sub-cultured with RPMI 1640 culture medium containing 10% fetal calf serum, 100 U/mL penicillin, and 100 μg/mL streptomycin. Cells of the third passage were used in the following experiments. (1) Cells were divided into blank control group and 0.082, 0.164, 0.245, 0.491, 1.472, 2.453, 4.910, and 9.810 J/cm(2) irradiation groups according to the random number table, with 3 wells in each group. Cells in blank control group were not irradiated, while cells in the latter 8 irradiation groups were irradiated with 633 nm red light for 10, 20, 30, 60, 180, 300, 600, and 1 200 s in turn. Cells were reirradiated once every 8 hours. After being irradiated for 48 hours (6 times) in irradiation groups, the proliferative activity of cells in 9 groups was determined with cell counting kit 8 and microplate reader (denoted as absorbance value). (2) Another batch of cells were grouped and irradiated as in experiment (1). After being irradiated for once in irradiation groups, cells in 9 groups were conventionally cultured for 60 min with detection reagent of reactive oxygen species. At post culture minute (PCM) 0 (immediately), 30, 60, and 120, reactive oxygen species level of cells was determined with microplate reader (denoted as absorbance value). (3) Another batch of cells were divided into blank control group, 0.082, 0.491, 2.453, and 9.810 J/cm(2) irradiation groups, and positive control group. Cells in blank control group and positive control group were not irradiated (positive control reagent of reactive oxygen species was added to cells in positive control group), and cells in irradiation groups were irradiated as in experiment (1) for once. The expression of reactive oxygen species in cells of each

  5. Red light running camera assessment.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-04-01

    In the 2004-2007 period, the Mission Street SE and 25th Street SE intersection in Salem, Oregon showed relatively few crashes attributable to red light running (RLR) but, since a high number of RLR violations were observed, the intersection was ident...

  6. Identification of cyanobacteriochromes detecting far-red light

    SciTech Connect

    Rockwell, Nathan C.; Martin, Shelley S.; Lagarias, J. Clark

    The opacity of mammalian tissue to visible light and the strong attenuation of infrared light by water at ≥900 nm have contributed to growing interest in the development of far-red and near-infrared absorbing tools for visualizing and actuating responses within live cells. Here we report the discovery of cyanobacteriochromes (CBCRs) responsive to light in this far-red window. CBCRs are linear tetrapyrrole (bilin)-based light sensors distantly related to plant phytochrome sensors. Our studies reveal far-red (λ max = 725–755 nm)/orange (λ max = 590–600 nm) and far-red/red (λ max = 615–685 nm) photoswitches that are small (<200 amino acids) and canmore » be genetically reconstituted in living cells. Phylogenetic analysis and characterization of additional CBCRs demonstrated that far-red/orange CBCRs evolved after a complex transition from green/red CBCRs known for regulating complementary chromatic acclimation. Incorporation of different bilin chromophores demonstrated that tuning mechanisms responsible for red-shifted chromophore absorption act at the A-, B-, and/ or C-rings, whereas photoisomerization occurs at the D-ring. Two such proteins exhibited detectable fluorescence extending well into the near-infrared region. In conclusion, this work extends the spectral window of CBCRs to the edge of the infrared, raising the possibility of using CBCRs in synthetic biology applications in the far-red region of the spectrum.« less

  7. Identification of cyanobacteriochromes detecting far-red light

    DOE PAGES

    Rockwell, Nathan C.; Martin, Shelley S.; Lagarias, J. Clark

    2016-06-13

    The opacity of mammalian tissue to visible light and the strong attenuation of infrared light by water at ≥900 nm have contributed to growing interest in the development of far-red and near-infrared absorbing tools for visualizing and actuating responses within live cells. Here we report the discovery of cyanobacteriochromes (CBCRs) responsive to light in this far-red window. CBCRs are linear tetrapyrrole (bilin)-based light sensors distantly related to plant phytochrome sensors. Our studies reveal far-red (λ max = 725–755 nm)/orange (λ max = 590–600 nm) and far-red/red (λ max = 615–685 nm) photoswitches that are small (<200 amino acids) and canmore » be genetically reconstituted in living cells. Phylogenetic analysis and characterization of additional CBCRs demonstrated that far-red/orange CBCRs evolved after a complex transition from green/red CBCRs known for regulating complementary chromatic acclimation. Incorporation of different bilin chromophores demonstrated that tuning mechanisms responsible for red-shifted chromophore absorption act at the A-, B-, and/ or C-rings, whereas photoisomerization occurs at the D-ring. Two such proteins exhibited detectable fluorescence extending well into the near-infrared region. In conclusion, this work extends the spectral window of CBCRs to the edge of the infrared, raising the possibility of using CBCRs in synthetic biology applications in the far-red region of the spectrum.« less

  8. Growth and photomorphogenesis of pepper plants under red light-emitting diodes with supplemental blue or far-red lighting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, C. S.; Schuerger, A. C.; Sager, J. C.

    1995-01-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are a potential irradiation source for intensive plant culture systems and photobiological research. They have small size, low mass, a long functional life, and narrow spectral output. In this study, we measured the growth and dry matter partitioning of 'Hungarian Wax' pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants grown under red LEDs compared with similar plants grown under red LEDs with supplemental blue or far-red radiation or under broad spectrum metal halide (MH) lamps. Additionally, we describe the thermal and spectral characteristics of these sources. The LEDs used in this study had a narrow bandwidth at half peak height (25 nm) and a focused maximum spectral output at 660 nm for the red and 735 nm for the far-red. Near infrared radiation (800 to 3000 nm) was below detection and thermal infrared radiation (3000 to 50,000 nm) was lower in the LEDs compared to the MH source. Although the red to far-red ratio varied considerably, the calculated phytochrome photostationary state (phi) was only slightly different between the radiation sources. Plant biomass was reduced when peppers were grown under red LEDs in the absence of blue wavelengths compared to plants grown under supplemental blue fluorescent lamps or MH lamps. The addition of far-red radiation resulted in taller plants with greater stem mass than red LEDs alone. There were fewer leaves under red or red plus far-red radiation than with lamps producing blue wavelengths. These results indicate that red LEDs may be suitable, in proper combination with other wavelengths of light, for the culture of plants in tightly controlled environments such as space-based plant culture systems.

  9. The effect of 630-nm light stimulation on the sEMG signal of forearm muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dan D.; Hou, W. Sheng; Wu, Xiao Y.; Zheng, Xiao L.; Zheng, Jun; Jiang, Ying T.

    2010-11-01

    This study aimed to explore if the red light irradiation can affect the electrophysiology performance of flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) and fatigue recovery. Four healthy volunteers were randomly divided into two groups. In the designed force-tracking tasks, all subjects performed the four fingertip isometric force production except thumb with a load of 30% of the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) force until exhaustion. Subsequently, for the red light group, red light irradiation (640 nm wavelength, 0.23J/cm2, 20 min) was used on the right forearm; for the control group, the subjects relaxed without red light irradiation. Then subjects were required to perform fatigue trail again, and sEMG signal was collected simultaneously from FDS during finger force production. Average rectified value (ARV) and median frequency (MF) of sEMG were calculated. Compared to the control group, the red light irradiation induced more smoother value of ARV between 30% and 40%, and the value of MF was obviously large and smooth. The above electrophysiological markers indicated that recovery from muscle fatigue may be positively affected by the red light irradiation, suggesting that sEMG would become a power tool for exploring the effect of red light irradiation on local muscle fatigue.

  10. Instense red phosphors for UV light emitting diode devices.

    PubMed

    Cao, Fa-Bin; Tian, Yan-Wen; Chen, Yong-Jie; Xiao, Lin-Jiu; Liu, Yun-Yi

    2010-03-01

    Ca(x)Sr1-x-1.5y-0.5zMoO4:yEu3+ zNa+ red phosphors were prepared by solid-state reaction using Na+ as charge supply for LEDs (light emitting diodes). The content of charge compensator, Ca2+ concentration, synthesis temperature, reaction time, and Eu3+ concentration were the keys to improving the properties of luminescence and crystal structure of red phosphors. The photoluminescence spectra shows the red phosphors are effectively excited at 616 nm by 311 nm, 395 nm, and 465 nm light. The wavelengths of 395 and 465 nm nicely match the widely applied emission wavelengths of ultraviolet or blue LED chips. Its chromaticity coordinates (CIE) are calculated to be x = 0.65, y = 0.32. Bright red light can be observed by the naked eye from the LED-based Ca0.60Sr0.25MoO4:0.08Eu3+ 0.06Na+.

  11. Red light running : a policy review

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-03-01

    There are more than 100,000 red light running crashes per year in the U.S., resulting in some 90,000 people injured and 1,000 people killed. More than half of red light running-related fatalities are pedestrians and occupants in other vehicles who ar...

  12. Anatomical features of pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) grown under red light-emitting diodes supplemented with blue or far-red light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuerger, A. C.; Brown, C. S.; Stryjewski, E. C.

    1997-01-01

    Pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L. cv., Hungarian Wax) were grown under metal halide (MH) lamps or light-emitting diode (LED) arrays with different spectra to determine the effects of light quality on plant anatomy of leaves and stems. One LED (660) array supplied 90% red light at 660 nm (25nm band-width at half-peak height) and 1% far-red light between 700-800nm. A second LED (660/735) array supplied 83% red light at 660nm and 17% far-red light at 735nm (25nm band-width at half-peak height). A third LED (660/blue) array supplied 98% red light at 660nm, 1% blue light between 350-550nm, and 1% far-red light between 700-800nm. Control plants were grown under broad spectrum metal halide lamps. Plants were gron at a mean photon flux (300-800nm) of 330 micromol m-2 s-1 under a 12 h day-night photoperiod. Significant anatomical changes in stem and leaf morphologies were observed in plants grown under the LED arrays compared to plants grown under the broad-spectrum MH lamp. Cross-sectional areas of pepper stems, thickness of secondary xylem, numbers of intraxylary phloem bundles in the periphery of stem pith tissues, leaf thickness, numbers of choloplasts per palisade mesophyll cell, and thickness of palisade and spongy mesophyll tissues were greatest in peppers grown under MH lamps, intermediate in plants grown under the 660/blue LED array, and lowest in peppers grown under the 660 or 660/735 LED arrays. Most anatomical features of pepper stems and leaves were similar among plants grown under 660 or 660/735 LED arrays. The effects of spectral quality on anatomical changes in stem and leaf tissues of peppers generally correlate to the amount of blue light present in the primary light source.

  13. Anatomical features of pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) grown under red light-emitting diodes supplemented with blue or far-red light.

    PubMed

    Schuerger, A C; Brown, C S; Stryjewski, E C

    1997-03-01

    Pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L. cv., Hungarian Wax) were grown under metal halide (MH) lamps or light-emitting diode (LED) arrays with different spectra to determine the effects of light quality on plant anatomy of leaves and stems. One LED (660) array supplied 90% red light at 660 nm (25nm band-width at half-peak height) and 1% far-red light between 700-800nm. A second LED (660/735) array supplied 83% red light at 660nm and 17% far-red light at 735nm (25nm band-width at half-peak height). A third LED (660/blue) array supplied 98% red light at 660nm, 1% blue light between 350-550nm, and 1% far-red light between 700-800nm. Control plants were grown under broad spectrum metal halide lamps. Plants were gron at a mean photon flux (300-800nm) of 330 micromol m-2 s-1 under a 12 h day-night photoperiod. Significant anatomical changes in stem and leaf morphologies were observed in plants grown under the LED arrays compared to plants grown under the broad-spectrum MH lamp. Cross-sectional areas of pepper stems, thickness of secondary xylem, numbers of intraxylary phloem bundles in the periphery of stem pith tissues, leaf thickness, numbers of choloplasts per palisade mesophyll cell, and thickness of palisade and spongy mesophyll tissues were greatest in peppers grown under MH lamps, intermediate in plants grown under the 660/blue LED array, and lowest in peppers grown under the 660 or 660/735 LED arrays. Most anatomical features of pepper stems and leaves were similar among plants grown under 660 or 660/735 LED arrays. The effects of spectral quality on anatomical changes in stem and leaf tissues of peppers generally correlate to the amount of blue light present in the primary light source.

  14. Green-light supplementation for enhanced lettuce growth under red- and blue-light-emitting diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyeon-Hye; Goins, Gregory D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Sager, John C.

    2004-01-01

    Plants will be an important component of future long-term space missions. Lighting systems for growing plants will need to be lightweight, reliable, and durable, and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have these characteristics. Previous studies demonstrated that the combination of red and blue light was an effective light source for several crops. Yet the appearance of plants under red and blue lighting is purplish gray making visual assessment of any problems difficult. The addition of green light would make the plant leave appear green and normal similar to a natural setting under white light and may also offer a psychological benefit to the crew. Green supplemental lighting could also offer benefits, since green light can better penetrate the plant canopy and potentially increase plant growth by increasing photosynthesis from the leaves in the lower canopy. In this study, four light sources were tested: 1) red and blue LEDs (RB), 2) red and blue LEDs with green fluorescent lamps (RGB), 3) green fluorescent lamps (GF), and 4) cool-white fluorescent lamps (CWF), that provided 0%, 24%, 86%, and 51% of the total PPF in the green region of the spectrum, respectively. The addition of 24% green light (500 to 600 nm) to red and blue LEDs (RGB treatment) enhanced plant growth. The RGB treatment plants produced more biomass than the plants grown under the cool-white fluorescent lamps (CWF treatment), a commonly tested light source used as a broad-spectrum control.

  15. Red Shifts with Obliquely Approaching Light Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Head, C. E.; Moore-Head, M. E.

    1988-01-01

    Refutes the Doppler effect as the explanation of large red shifts in the spectra of distant galaxies and explains the relativistic effects in which the light sources approach the observer obliquely. Provides several diagrams and graphs. (YP)

  16. When red lights look yellow.

    PubMed

    Wood, Joanne M; Atchison, David A; Chaparro, Alex

    2005-11-01

    Red signals are typically used to signify danger. This study was conducted to investigate a situation identified by train drivers in which red signals appear yellow when viewed at long distances (approximately 900 m) through progressive-addition lenses. A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effects of defocus, target size, ambient illumination, and surround characteristics on the extent of the color misperception of train signals by nine visually normal participants. The data from the laboratory study were validated in a field study by measuring the amounts of defocus and the distances at which the misperception of the color of train signals was apparent and whether these distances varied as a function of time of day. The laboratory study demonstrated that small red targets (approximately 1 min arc) can appear yellow when viewed through small amounts of defocus (approximately +0.75 D) under bright illumination (1910 cd/m(2)). In the field study, the defocus needed to produce the color misperception was similar to that found in the laboratory study. Time of day affected the color misperception, and there was no misperception at night. The color misperception is not solely associated with progressive-addition lenses, but occurs in the presence of small amounts of positive defocus. The potential for the misperception to result in collisions and fatalities presents a major safety concern.

  17. Far-red light is needed for efficient photochemistry and photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Shuyang; van Iersel, Marc W

    2017-02-01

    The efficiency of monochromatic light to drive photosynthesis drops rapidly at wavelengths longer than 685nm. The photosynthetic efficiency of these longer wavelengths can be improved by adding shorter wavelength light, a phenomenon known as the Emerson enhancement effect. The reverse effect, the enhancement of photosynthesis under shorter wavelength light by longer wavelengths, however, has not been well studied and is often thought to be insignificant. We quantified the effect of adding far-red light (peak at 735nm) to red/blue or warm-white light on the photosynthetic efficiency of lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Adding far-red light immediately increased quantum yield of photosystem II (Φ PSII ) of lettuce by an average of 6.5 and 3.6% under red/blue and warm-white light, respectively. Similar or greater increases in Φ PSII were observed after 20min of exposure to far-red light. This longer-term effect of far-red light on Φ PSII was accompanied by a reduction in non-photochemical quenching of fluorescence (NPQ), indicating that far-red light reduced the dissipation of absorbed light as heat. The increase in Φ PSII and complementary decrease in NPQ is presumably due to preferential excitation of photosystem I (PSI) by far-red light, which leads to faster re-oxidization of the plastoquinone pool. This facilitates reopening of PSII reaction centers, enabling them to use absorbed photons more efficiently. The increase in Φ PSII by far-red light was associated with an increase in net photosynthesis (P n ). The stimulatory effect of far-red light increased asymptotically with increasing amounts of far-red. Overall, our results show that far-red light can increase the photosynthetic efficiency of shorter wavelength light that over-excites PSII. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of red light violation data collected from intersections equipped with red light photo enforcement cameras

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-03-01

    This report presents results from an analysis of about 47,000 red light violation records collected from 11 intersections in the : City of Sacramento, California, by red light photo enforcement cameras between May 1999 and June 2003. The goal of this...

  19. Highly Efficient Spectrally Stable Red Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu; Zhou, Chenkun; Worku, Michael; Wang, Xi; Ling, Yichuan; Gao, Hanwei; Zhou, Yan; Miao, Yu; Guan, Jingjiao; Ma, Biwu

    2018-05-01

    Perovskite light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have recently attracted great research interest for their narrow emissions and solution processability. Remarkable progress has been achieved in green perovskite LEDs in recent years, but not blue or red ones. Here, highly efficient and spectrally stable red perovskite LEDs with quasi-2D perovskite/poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) composite thin films as the light-emitting layer are reported. By controlling the molar ratios of organic salt (benzylammonium iodide) to inorganic salts (cesium iodide and lead iodide), luminescent quasi-2D perovskite thin films are obtained with tunable emission colors from red to deep red. The perovskite/polymer composite approach enables quasi-2D perovskite/PEO composite thin films to possess much higher photoluminescence quantum efficiencies and smoothness than their neat quasi-2D perovskite counterparts. Electrically driven LEDs with emissions peaked at 638, 664, 680, and 690 nm have been fabricated to exhibit high brightness and external quantum efficiencies (EQEs). For instance, the perovskite LED with an emission peaked at 680 nm exhibits a brightness of 1392 cd m -2 and an EQE of 6.23%. Moreover, exceptional electroluminescence spectral stability under continuous device operation has been achieved for these red perovskite LEDs. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Red light for Anderson localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skipetrov, S. E.; Page, J. H.

    2016-02-01

    During the last 30 years, the search for Anderson localization of light in three-dimensional (3D) disordered samples yielded a number of experimental observations that were first considered successful, then disputed by opponents, and later refuted by their authors. This includes recent results for light in TiO2 powders that Sperling et al now show to be due to fluorescence and not to Anderson localization (2016 New J. Phys. 18 013039). The difficulty of observing Anderson localization of light in 3D may be due to a number of factors: insufficient optical contrast between the components of the disordered material, near-field effects, etc. The way to overcome these difficulties may consist in using partially ordered materials, complex structured scatterers, or clouds of cold atoms in magnetic fields.

  1. Blue light (470 nm) effectively inhibits bacterial and fungal growth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The activity of blue light (470nm) alone on (1) bacterial viability, and (2) with a food grade photosensitizer on filamentous fungal viability, was studied. Suspensions of the bacteria Leuconostoc mesenteroides (LM), Bacillus atrophaeus (BA), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) were prepared and aliquo...

  2. The effect of red light irradiation on spermatozoa DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Kay W.; Preece, Daryl; Gomez-Godinez, Veronica; Berns, Michael W.

    2016-09-01

    A key goal in the conservation of endangered species is to increase successful reproduction. In cases where traditional methods of in vitro fertilization are unsuccessful, new methods of assisted reproduction are needed. One option is selective fertilization via optically trapped sperm. A more passive option is red light irradiation. Red light irradiation has been shown to increase sperm motility, thus increasing fertilizing potential. However, there is some concern that exposure to laser irradiation induces the production of oxidative species in cells, which can be damaging to DNA. In order to test the safety of irradiating sperm, sperm samples were exposed to 633 nm laser light and their DNA were tested for oxidative damage. Using fluorescence microscopy, antibody staining, and ELISA to detect oxidative DNA damage, it was concluded that red light irradiation does not pose a safety risk to sperm DNA. The use of red light on sperm has potential in both animal conservation and human reproduction techniques. This method can also be used in conjunction with optical trapping for viable sperm selection.

  3. Safety evaluation of red-light cameras

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this final study was to determine the effectiveness of red-light-camera (RLC) systems in reducing crashes. The study used empirical Bayes before-and-after research using data from seven jurisdictions across the United States at 132 t...

  4. Magnetic Nature of Light Transmission through a 5-nm Gap.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyosim; Kim, Dai-Sik; Kim, Richard H Joon-Yeon; Ahn, Jae Sung; Kang, Taehee; Jeong, Jeeyoon; Lee, Dukhyung

    2018-02-09

    Slot antennas have been exploited as important building blocks of optical magnetism because their radiations are invoked by the magnetic fields along the axes, as vectorial Babinet principle predicts. However, optical magnetism of a few-nanometer-width slit, for which fascinating applications are found due to the colossal field enhancement but Babinet principle fails due to the nonnegligible thickness, has not been investigated. In this paper, we demonstrated that the magnetic field plays a dominant role in light transmission through a 5-nm slit on a 150-nm-thick gold film. The 5-nm slit was fabricated by atomic layer lithography, and the transmission was investigated for various incident angles by experiment and simulation at 785-nm wavelength. We found that, due to the deep subwavelength gap width, the transmission has the same incident angle dependence as the tangential magnetic field on the metal surface and this magnetic nature of a nanogap holds up to ~100-nm width. Our analysis establishes conditions for nanogap optical magnetism and suggests new possibilities in realizing magnetic-field-driven optical nonlinearities.

  5. Red and infrared light distribution in blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Magalhães, Ana Carolina; Yoshimura, Elisabeth M.

    2013-02-01

    Low level laser therapy (LLLT) is used in several applications, including the reduction of inflammatory processes. It might be used to prevent the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), which some patients develop after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) surgery. The objectives of this study were to investigate light distribution inside blood, in order to implement the LLLT during CPB, and, through this study, to determine the best wavelength and the best way to perform the treatment. The blood, diluted to the same conditions of CPB procedure was contained inside a cuvette and an optical fiber was used to collect the scattered light. Two wavelengths were used: 632.8 nm and 820 nm. Light distribution in blood inside CPB tubes was also evaluated. Compared to the 820 nm light, the 632.8 nm light is scattered further away from the laser beam, turning it possible that a bigger volume of blood be treated. The blood should be illuminated through the smallest diameter CPB tube, using at least four distinct points around it, in only one cross section, because the blood is kept passing through the tube all the time and the whole volume will be illuminated.

  6. Red Light-enhanced Phytochrome Pelletability

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Lee H.; Marmé, Dieter

    1976-01-01

    Red light-enhanced pelletability of phytochrome was observed in extracts of all 11 plants tested: Avena sativa L., Secale cereale L., Zea mays L., Cucurbita pepo L., Sinapis alba L., Pisum sativum L., Helianthus anuus L., Raphanus sativus L., Glycine max (L.) Merr., Phaseolus vulgaris L., and Lupinus albus L. This enhanced pelletability was observed in all 11 plants following in situ irradiation (in vivo binding) but only in Sinapis and Cucurbita after irradiation of crude extracts (in vitro binding). In vivo binding was not strongly dependent upon pH and, with few exceptions, was not markedly sensitive to high salt concentration, whereas in vitro binding was completely reversed by both high pH and high salt concentration. However, both binding phenomena were observed only with a divalent cation in the extract buffer. In vivo binding was further characterized using Avena which showed an increase in pelletability from less than 10% in dark control extracts to more than 60% in extracts of red light-irradiated shoots. The half-life for binding was 40 seconds at 0.5 C and was strongly temperature-dependent, binding being complete within 5 to 10 sec at 22 C. If pelletable phytochrome in the far red-absorbing form was photoconverted back to the red-absorbing form in situ, phytochrome was released from the pelletable condition with a half-life of 25 minutes at 25 C and 100 minutes at both 13 C and 3 C. No cooperativity in red light-enhanced pelletability with respect to phytochrome-far red-absorbing form was observed. PMID:16659745

  7. Improving spinach, radish, and lettuce growth under red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with blue light supplementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yorio, N. C.; Goins, G. D.; Kagie, H. R.; Wheeler, R. M.; Sager, J. C.

    2001-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherriette), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Waldmann's Green), and spinach (Spinacea oleracea L. cv. Nordic IV) plants were grown under 660-nm red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and were compared at equal photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) with either plants grown under cool-white fluorescent lamps (CWF) or red LEDs supplemented with 10% (30 micromoles m-2 s-1) blue light (400-500 nm) from blue fluorescent (BF) lamps. At 21 days after planting (DAP), leaf photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance were greater for plants grown under CWF light than for those grown under red LEDs, with or without supplemental blue light. At harvest (21 DAP), total dry-weight accumulation was significantly lower for all species tested when grown under red LEDs alone than when grown under CWF light or red LEDs + 10% BF light. Moreover, total dry weight for radish and spinach was significantly lower under red LEDs + 10% BF than under CWF light, suggesting that addition of blue light to the red LEDs was still insufficient for achieving maximal growth for these crops.

  8. Chlorophyll derivatives enhance invertebrate red-light and ultraviolet phototaxis.

    PubMed

    Degl'Innocenti, Andrea; Rossi, Leonardo; Salvetti, Alessandra; Marino, Attilio; Meloni, Gabriella; Mazzolai, Barbara; Ciofani, Gianni

    2017-06-13

    Chlorophyll derivatives are known to enhance vision in vertebrates. They are thought to bind visual pigments (i.e., opsins apoproteins bound to retinal chromophores) directly within the retina. Consistent with previous findings in vertebrates, here we show that chlorin e 6 - a chlorophyll derivative - enhances photophobicity in a flatworm (Dugesia japonica), specifically when exposed to UV radiation (λ = 405 nm) or red light (λ = 660 nm). This is the first report of chlorophyll derivatives acting as modulators of invertebrate phototaxis, and in general the first account demonstrating that they can artificially alter animal response to light at a behavioral level. Our findings show that the interaction between chlorophyll derivatives and opsins virtually concerns the vast majority of bilaterian animals, and also occurs in visual systems based on rhabdomeric (rather than ciliary) opsins.

  9. Light-dependent magnetoreception: orientation behaviour of migratory birds under dim red light.

    PubMed

    Wiltschko, Roswitha; Munro, Ursula; Ford, Hugh; Stapput, Katrin; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

    2008-10-01

    Magnetic compass orientation in migratory birds has been shown to be based on radical pair processes and to require light from the short wavelength part of the spectrum up to 565 nm Green. Under dim red light of 645 nm wavelength and 1 mW m(-2) intensity, Australian silvereyes and European robins showed a westerly tendency that did not change between spring and autumn, identifying it as a 'fixed direction' response. A thorough analysis revealed that this orientation did not involve the inclination compass, but was a response based on the polarity of the magnetic field. Furthermore, in contrast to the orientation under short-wavelength light, it could be disrupted by local anaesthesia of the upper beak where iron-containing receptors are located, indicating that it is controlled by these receptors. The similarity of the response under dim red light to the response in total darkness suggests that the two responses may be identical. These findings indicate that the observed 'fixed direction' response under dim red light is fundamentally different from the normal compass orientation, which is based on radical pair processes.

  10. A lighting assembly based on red and blue light-emitting diodes as a lighting source for space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avercheva, Olga; Berkovich, Yuliy A.; Smolyanina, Svetlana; Bassarskaya, Elizaveta; Zhigalova, Tatiana; Ptushenko, Vasiliy; Erokhin, Alexei

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are a promising lighting source for space agriculture due to their high efficiency, longevity, safety, and other factors. Assemblies based on red and blue LEDs have been recommended in literature, although not all plants show sufficient productivity in such lighting conditions. Adding of green LEDs proposed in some works was aimed at psychological support for the crew, and not at the improvement of plant growth. We studied the growth and the state of the photosynthetic apparatus in Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.) plants grown under red (650 nm) and blue (470 nm) light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Plants grown under a high-pressure sodium lamp (HPS lamp) were used as a control. The plants were illuminated with two photosynthetic photon flux levels: nearly 400 µE and about 100 µE. Plants grown under LEDs with 400 µE level, as compared to control plants, showed lower fresh weight, edible biomass, growth rate, and sugar content. The difference in fresh weight and edible biomass was even more pronounced in plants grown with 100 µE level; the data indicate that the adaptability of the test plants to insufficient lighting decreased. Under LEDs, we observed the decreasing of root growth and the absence of transition to the flowering stage, which points to a change in the hormonal balance in plants grown in such lighting conditions. We also found differences in the functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus and its reaction to a low lighting level. We have concluded that a lighting assembly with red and blue LEDs only is insufficient for the plant growth and productivity, and can bring about alterations in their adaptive and regulatory mechanisms. Further studies are needed to optimize the lighting spectrum for space agriculture, taking into account the photosynthetic, phototropic and regulatory roles of light. Using white LEDs or adding far-red and green LEDs might be a promising approach.

  11. Comparison between red, green and blue light reflection photoplethysmography for heart rate monitoring during motion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jihyoung; Matsumura, Kenta; Yamakoshi, Ken-ichi; Rolfe, Peter; Tanaka, Shinobu; Yamakoshi, Takehiro

    2013-01-01

    Reflection photoplethysmography (PPG) using 530 nm (green) wavelength light has the potential to be a superior method for monitoring heart rate (HR) during normal daily life due to its relative freedom from artifacts. However, little is known about the accuracy of pulse rate (PR) measured by 530 nm light PPG during motion. Therefore, we compared the HR measured by electrocadiography (ECG) as a reference with PR measured by 530, 645 (red), and 470 nm (blue) wavelength light PPG during baseline and while performing hand waving in 12 participants. In addition, we examined the change of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by motion for each of the three wavelengths used for the PPG. The results showed that the limit of agreement in Bland-Altman plots between the HR measured by ECG and PR measured by 530 nm light PPG (±0.61 bpm) was smaller than that achieved when using 645 and 470 nm light PPG (±3.20 bpm and ±2.23 bpm, respectively). The ΔSNR (the difference between baseline and task values) of 530 and 470nm light PPG was significantly smaller than ΔSNR for red light PPG. In conclusion, 530 nm light PPG could be a more suitable method than 645 and 470nm light PPG for monitoring HR in normal daily life.

  12. Importance of 'blue' photon levels for lettuce seedlings grown under red-light-emitting diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoenecke, M. E.; Bula, R. J.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1992-01-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with high-intensity output are being studied as a photosynthetic light source for plants. High-output LEDs have peak emission at approximately 660 nm concentrated in a waveband of +/- 30 nm. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa Grand Rapids') seedlings developed extended hypocotyls and elongated cotyledons when grown under these LEDs as a sole source of irradiance. This extension and elongation was prevented when the red LED radiation was supplemented with more than 15 micromoles m-2 s-1 of 400- to 500-nm photons from blue fluorescent lamps. Blue radiation effects were independent of the photon level of the red radiation.

  13. Evaluating the use of red light running photographic enforcement using collisions and red light running violations ; Final Report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2004-12-01

    The issue of red light running (RLR) has long been a problem throughout the United States. : There is considerable debate within the general public and public agencies regarding the use of : photographic enforcement to deter red light violations. Man...

  14. Molecular mechanisms and ecological function of far-red light signalling.

    PubMed

    Sheerin, David J; Hiltbrunner, Andreas

    2017-11-01

    Land plants possess the ability to sense and respond to far-red light (700-760 nm), which serves as an important environmental cue. Due to the nature of far-red light, it is not absorbed by chlorophyll and thus is enriched in canopy shade and will also penetrate deeper into soil than other visible wavelengths. Far-red light responses include regulation of seed germination, suppression of hypocotyl growth, induction of flowering and accumulation of anthocyanins, which depend on one member of the phytochrome photoreceptor family, phytochrome A (phyA). Here, we review the current understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of how plants sense far-red light through phyA and the physiological responses to this light quality. Light-activated phytochromes act on two primary pathways within the nucleus; suppression of the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex CUL4/DDB1 COP1/SPA and inactivation of the PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR (PIF) family of bHLH transcription factors. These pathways integrate with other signal transduction pathways, including phytohormones, for tissue and developmental stage specific responses. Unlike other phytochromes that mediate red-light responses, phyA is transported from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in far-red light by the shuttle proteins FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 1 (FHY1) and FHY1-LIKE (FHL). However, additional mechanisms must exist that shift the action of phyA to far-red light; current hypotheses are discussed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Blue and red light-induced germination of resting spores in the red-tide diatom Leptocylindrus danicus.

    PubMed

    Shikata, Tomoyuki; Iseki, Mineo; Matsunaga, Shigeru; Higashi, Sho-ichi; Kamei, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Masakatsu

    2011-01-01

    Photophysiological and pharmacological approaches were used to examine light-induced germination of resting spores in the red-tide diatom Leptocylindrus danicus. The equal-quantum action spectrum for photogermination had peaks at about 440 nm (blue light) and 680 nm (red light), which matched the absorption spectrum of the resting spore chloroplast, as well as photosynthetic action spectra reported for other diatoms. DCMU, an inhibitor of photosynthetic electron flow near photosystem II, completely blocked photogermination. These results suggest that the photosynthetic system is involved in the photoreception process of light-induced germination. Results of pharmacological studies of the downstream signal transduction pathway suggested that Ca(2+) influx is the closest downstream neighbor, followed by steps involving calmodulin, nitric oxide synthase, guanylyl cyclase, protein-tyrosine-phosphatase, protein kinase C and actin polymerization and translation. © 2011 The Authors. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2011 The American Society of Photobiology.

  16. Dataset of red light induced pupil constriction superimposed on post-illumination pupil response.

    PubMed

    Lei, Shaobo; Goltz, Herbert C; Sklar, Jaime C; Wong, Agnes M F

    2016-09-01

    We collected and analyzed pupil diameter data from of 7 visually normal participants to compare the maximum pupil constriction (MPC) induced by "Red Only" vs. "Blue+Red" visual stimulation conditions. The "Red Only" condition consisted of red light (640±10 nm) stimuli of variable intensity and duration presented to dark-adapted eyes with pupils at resting state. This condition stimulates the cone-driven activity of the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGC). The "Blue+Red" condition consisted of the same red light stimulus presented during ongoing blue (470±17 nm) light-induced post-illumination pupil response (PIPR), representing the cone-driven ipRGC activity superimposed on the melanopsin-driven intrinsic activity of the ipRGCs ("The Absence of Attenuating Effect of Red light Exposure on Pre-existing Melanopsin-Driven Post-illumination Pupil Response" Lei et al. (2016) [1]). MPC induced by the "Red Only" condition was compared with the MPC induced by the "Blue+Red" condition by multiple paired sample t -tests with Bonferroni correction.

  17. Continuous-wave ultraviolet generation at 320 nm by intracavity frequency doubling of red-emitting Praseodymium lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, A.; Pavel, N.; Heumann, E.; Huber, G.; Parisi, D.; Toncelli, A.; Tonelli, M.; Diening, A.; Seelert, W.

    2006-04-01

    We describe a new approach for the generation of coherent ultraviolet radiation. Continuous-wave ultraviolet light at 320 nm has been obtained by intracavity frequency doubling of red-emitting Praseodymium lasers. Lasing at the 640-nm fundamental wavelength in Pr:LiYF4 and Pr:BaY2F8 was realized by employing an optically pumped semiconductor laser at 480 nm as pump source.Using LiB3O5 as nonlinear medium, ~19 mW of ultraviolet radiation with ~9% optical efficiency with respect to absorbed power was reached for both laser crystals; the visible-to-ultraviolet conversion efficiency was 26% and 35% for Pr:LiYF4 and Pr:BaY2F8, respectively.

  18. Tunnel-injected sub-260 nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuewei; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Akyol, Fatih; Bajaj, Sanyam; Allerman, Andrew A.; Moseley, Michael W.; Armstrong, Andrew M.; Rajan, Siddharth

    2017-05-01

    We report on tunnel-injected deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) configured with a polarization engineered Al0.75Ga0.25 N/In0.2Ga0.8 N tunnel junction structure. Tunnel-injected UV LED structure enables n-type contacts for both bottom and top contact layers. However, achieving Ohmic contact to wide bandgap n-AlGaN layers is challenging and typically requires high temperature contact metal annealing. In this work, we adopted a compositionally graded top contact layer for non-alloyed metal contact and obtained a low contact resistance of ρc = 4.8 × 10-5 Ω cm2 on n-Al0.75Ga0.25 N. We also observed a significant reduction in the forward operation voltage from 30.9 V to 19.2 V at 1 kA/cm2 by increasing the Mg doping concentration from 6.2 × 1018 cm-3 to 1.5 × 1019 cm-3. Non-equilibrium hole injection into wide bandgap Al0.75Ga0.25 N with Eg>5.2 eV was confirmed by light emission at 257 nm. This work demonstrates the feasibility of tunneling hole injection into deep UV LEDs and provides a structural design towards high power deep-UV emitters.

  19. Gene profiling of the red light signalling pathways in roots.

    PubMed

    Molas, Maria Lia; Kiss, John Z; Correll, Melanie J

    2006-01-01

    Red light, acting through the phytochromes, controls numerous aspects of plant development. Many of the signal transduction elements downstream of the phytochromes have been identified in the aerial portions of the plant; however, very few elements in red-light signalling have been identified specifically for roots. Gene profiling studies using microarrays and quantitative Real-Time PCR were performed to characterize gene expression changes in roots of Arabidopsis seedlings exposed to 1 h of red light. Several factors acting downstream of phytochromes in red-light signalling in roots were identified. Some of the genes found to be differentially expressed in this study have already been characterized in the red-light-signalling pathway for whole plants. For example, PHYTOCHROME KINASE 1 (PKS1), LONG HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5), EARLY FLOWERING 4 (ELF4), and GIGANTEA (GI) were all significantly up-regulated in roots of seedlings exposed to 1 h of red light. The up-regulation of SUPPRESSOR OF PHYTOCHROME A RESPONSES 1 (SPA1) and CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1-like (COP1-like) genes suggests that the PHYA-mediated pathway was attenuated by red light. In addition, genes involved in lateral root and root hair formation, root plastid development, phenylpropanoid metabolism, and hormone signalling were also regulated by exposure to red light. Interestingly, members of the RPT2/NPH3 (ROOT PHOTOTROPIC 2/NON PHOTOTROPIC HYPOCOTYL 3) family, which have been shown to mediate blue-light-induced phototropism, were also differentially regulated in roots in red light. Therefore, these results suggest that red and blue light pathways interact in roots of seedlings and that many elements involved in red-light-signalling found in the aerial portions of the plant are differentially expressed in roots within 1 h of red light exposure.

  20. Transcranial Red and Near Infrared Light Transmission in a Cadaveric Model

    PubMed Central

    Jagdeo, Jared R.; Adams, Lauren E.; Brody, Neil I.; Siegel, Daniel M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objective Low level light therapy has garnered significant interest within the past decade. The exact molecular mechanisms of how red and near infrared light result in physiologic modulation are not fully understood. Heme moieties and copper within cells are red and near infrared light photoreceptors that induce the mitochondrial respiratory chain component cytochrome C oxidase, resulting in a cascade linked to cytoprotection and cellular metabolism. The copper centers in cytochrome C oxidase have a broad absorption range that peaks around 830 nm. Several in vitro and in vivo animal and human models exist that have demonstrated the benefits of red light and near infrared light for various conditions. Clinical applications for low level light therapy are varied. One study in particular demonstrated improved durable functional outcomes status post-stroke in patients treated with near infrared low level light therapy compared to sham treatment [1]. Despite previous data suggesting the beneficial effect in treating multiple conditions, including stroke, with low level light therapy, limited data exists that measures transmission in a human model. Study Design/Materials and Methods To investigate this idea, we measured the transmission of near infrared light energy, using red light for purposes of comparison, through intact cadaver soft tissue, skull bones, and brain using a commercially available LED device at 830 nm and 633 nm. Results Our results demonstrate that near infrared measurably penetrates soft tissue, bone and brain parenchyma in the formalin preserved cadaveric model, in comparison to negligible red light transmission in the same conditions. Conclusion These findings indicate that near infrared light can penetrate formalin fixed soft tissue, bone and brain and implicate that benefits observed in clinical studies are potentially related to direct action of near infrared light on neural tissue. PMID:23077622

  1. The Use of Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) as Green and Red/Far-Red Light Sources in Plant Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, David L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The use of green, red, and far-red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as light sources for plant physiological studies is outlined and evaluated. Indicates that LED lamps have the advantage over conventional light sources in that they are lightweight, low-cost, portable, easily constructed, and do not require color filters. (Author/DH)

  2. The effect of red light and far-red light conditions on secondary metabolism in agarwood.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Tony Chien-Yen; Chen, Chuan-Hung; Chen, Shu-Hwa; Lu, I-Hsuan; Chu, Mei-Ju; Huang, Li-Chun; Lin, Chung-Yen; Chen, Chien-Yu; Lo, Hsiao-Feng; Jeng, Shih-Tong; Chen, Long-Fang O

    2015-06-12

    Agarwood, a heartwood derived from Aquilaria trees, is a valuable commodity that has seen prevalent use among many cultures. In particular, it is widely used in herbal medicine and many compounds in agarwood are known to exhibit medicinal properties. Although there exists much research into medicinal herbs and extraction of high value compounds, few have focused on increasing the quantity of target compounds through stimulation of its related pathways in this species. In this study, we observed that cucurbitacin yield can be increased through the use of different light conditions to stimulate related pathways and conducted three types of high-throughput sequencing experiments in order to study the effect of light conditions on secondary metabolism in agarwood. We constructed genome-wide profiles of RNA expression, small RNA, and DNA methylation under red light and far-red light conditions. With these profiles, we identified a set of small RNA which potentially regulates gene expression via the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway. We demonstrate that light conditions can be used to stimulate pathways related to secondary metabolism, increasing the yield of cucurbitacins. The genome-wide expression and methylation profiles from our study provide insight into the effect of light on gene expression for secondary metabolism in agarwood and provide compelling new candidates towards the study of functional secondary metabolic components.

  3. Effect of 670-nm Light-Emitting Diode Light On Neuronal Cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong-Riley, Margaret T. T.; Whelan, Harry T.

    2002-01-01

    Light close to and within the near infrared range has documented benefits for promoting wound healing in human and animal studies. Our preliminary results using light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in this range have also demonstrated two-to five-fold increases in growth-phase-specific DNA synthesis in normal fibroblasts, muscle cells, osteoblasts, and mucosal epithelial cells in tissue cultures. However, the mechanisms of action of such light on cells are poorly understood. We hypothesized that the therapeutic effects of such light result from the stimulation of cellular events associated with increases in cytochrome oxidase activity. As a first step in testing our hypothesis, we subjected primary neuronal cultures to impulse blockade by tetrodotoxin (TTX), a voltage-dependent sodium channel blocker, and applied LED light at 670 nm to determine if it could partially or fully reverse the reduction of cytochrome oxidase activity by TTX. The wavelength and parameters were previously tested to be beneficial for wound healing.

  4. Light from Red-Hot Planet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    This figure charts 30 hours of observations taken by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope of a strongly irradiated exoplanet (an planet orbiting a star beyond our own). Spitzer measured changes in the planet's heat, or infrared light.

    The lower graph shows precise measurements of infrared light with a wavelength of 8 microns coming from the HD 80606 stellar system. The system consists of a sun-like star and a planetary companion on an extremely eccentric, comet-like orbit. The geometry of the planet-star encounter is shown in the upper part of the figure.

    As the planet swung through its closest approach to the star, the Spitzer observations indicated that it experienced very rapid heating (as shown by the red curve). Just before close approach, the planet was eclipsed by the star as seen from Earth, allowing astronomers to determine the amount of energy coming from the planet in comparison to the amount coming from the star.

    The observations were made in Nov. of 2007, using Spitzer's infrared array camera. They represent a significant first for astronomers, opening the door to studying changes in atmospheric conditions of planets far beyond our own solar system.

  5. Red oak borers become sterile when reared under continuous light

    Treesearch

    Jimmy R. Galford

    1975-01-01

    Red oak borers, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman), reared under continuous light for 12 weeks became sterile. Sterility is thought to have been caused by light destroying vitamins essential for fertility

  6. Red light accelerates the formation of a human dermal equivalent.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Anna Cb; Morais, Thayz Fl; Bernal, Claudia; Martins, Virginia Ca; Plepis, Ana Mg; Menezes, Priscila Fc; Perussi, Janice R

    2018-04-01

    Development of biomaterials' substitutes and/or equivalents to mimic normal tissue is a current challenge in tissue engineering. Thus, three-dimensional cell culture using type I collagen as a polymeric matrix cell support designed to promote cell proliferation and differentiation was employed to create a dermal equivalent in vitro, as well to evaluate the photobiomodulation using red light. Polymeric matrix cell support was prepared from porcine serous collagen (1.1%) hydrolyzed for 96 h. The biomaterial exhibited porosity of 95%, a median pore of 44 µm and channels with an average distance between the walls of 78 ± 14 µm. The absorption of culture medium was 95%, and the sponge showed no cytotoxicity to Vero cells, a non-tumor cell line. Additionally, it was observed that irradiation with light at 630 nm (fluency 30 J cm -2 ) leads to the cellular photobiomodulation in both monolayer and human dermal equivalent (three-dimensional cell culture system). It was also verified that the cells cultured in the presence of the polymeric matrix cell support, allows differentiation and extracellular matrix secretion. Therefore, the results showed that the collagen sponge used as polymeric matrix cell support and the photobiomodulation at 630 nm are efficient for the production of a reconstructed human dermal equivalent in vitro.

  7. 47 CFR 17.23 - Aviation Red Obstruction Lighting [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aviation Red Obstruction Lighting [Reserved] 17.23 Section 17.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL CONSTRUCTION, MARKING..., May 20, 1999, as amended at 69 FR 18803, Apr. 9, 2004] Aviation Red Obstruction Lighting [Reserved] ...

  8. 47 CFR 17.23 - Aviation Red Obstruction Lighting [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aviation Red Obstruction Lighting [Reserved] 17.23 Section 17.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL CONSTRUCTION, MARKING... Commission. Aviation Red Obstruction Lighting [Reserved] Effective Date Note: At 79 FR 56986, Sept. 24, 2014...

  9. 47 CFR 17.23 - Aviation Red Obstruction Lighting [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aviation Red Obstruction Lighting [Reserved] 17.23 Section 17.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL CONSTRUCTION, MARKING..., May 20, 1999, as amended at 69 FR 18803, Apr. 9, 2004] Aviation Red Obstruction Lighting [Reserved] ...

  10. 47 CFR 17.23 - Aviation Red Obstruction Lighting [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aviation Red Obstruction Lighting [Reserved] 17.23 Section 17.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL CONSTRUCTION, MARKING..., May 20, 1999, as amended at 69 FR 18803, Apr. 9, 2004] Aviation Red Obstruction Lighting [Reserved] ...

  11. 47 CFR 17.23 - Aviation Red Obstruction Lighting [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aviation Red Obstruction Lighting [Reserved] 17.23 Section 17.23 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL CONSTRUCTION, MARKING..., May 20, 1999, as amended at 69 FR 18803, Apr. 9, 2004] Aviation Red Obstruction Lighting [Reserved] ...

  12. Red-light excitation of protoporphyrin IX fluorescence for subsurface tumor detection.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David W; Olson, Jonathan D; Evans, Linton T; Kolste, Kolbein K; Kanick, Stephen C; Fan, Xiaoyao; Bravo, Jaime J; Wilson, Brian C; Leblond, Frederic; Marois, Mikael; Paulsen, Keith D

    2018-06-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to detect 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced tumor fluorescence from glioma below the surface of the surgical field by using red-light illumination. METHODS To overcome the shallow tissue penetration of blue light, which maximally excites the ALA-induced fluorophore protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) but is also strongly absorbed by hemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin, a system was developed to illuminate the surgical field with red light (620-640 nm) matching a secondary, smaller absorption peak of PpIX and detecting the fluorescence emission through a 650-nm longpass filter. This wide-field spectroscopic imaging system was used in conjunction with conventional blue-light fluorescence for comparison in 29 patients undergoing craniotomy for resection of high-grade glioma, low-grade glioma, meningioma, or metastasis. RESULTS Although, as expected, red-light excitation is less sensitive to PpIX in exposed tumor, it did reveal tumor at a depth up to 5 mm below the resection bed in 22 of 24 patients who also exhibited PpIX fluorescence under blue-light excitation during the course of surgery. CONCLUSIONS Red-light excitation of tumor-associated PpIX fluorescence below the surface of the surgical field can be achieved intraoperatively and enables detection of subsurface tumor that is not visualized under conventional blue-light excitation. Clinical trial registration no.: NCT02191488 (clinicaltrials.gov).

  13. Red photoluminescent property and modification of WO3:Eu3+ inverse opal for blue light converted LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Jiufeng; Yang, Zhengwen; Huang, Anjun; Chai, Zhuangzhuang; Qiu, Jianbei; Song, Zhiguo

    2018-01-01

    Blue light converted light-emitting diodes is of great significance as a candidate for next generation lighting. In this work, the WO3:Eu3+ inverse opal photonic crystals were prepared and their luminescence properties were studied. The results demonstrated that the main excitation peak of WO3:Eu3+ inverse opals were located at 465 nm. The red luminescence peak at the 613 nm was observed in the WO3:Eu3+ inverse opal upon 465 nm excitation, exhibiting better red color purity. The influence of photonic band gap on the photoluminescence of WO3:Eu3+ inverse opal was obtained. When the red luminescence peak is in the regions of the photonic band gap and the edge of the band-gap, the red luminescence suppression and enhancement was observed respectively. The WO3:Eu3+ inverse opals may be a promising candidate for the blue light converted LEDs.

  14. Evaluation of 405 nm monochromatic light for inactivation of tulane virus on blueberry surfaces

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of 405 nm light as an intervention for virus contaminated blueberries. Tulane virus-contaminated-blueberries were treated with 4.2 mW/sq cm of 405 nm light for 5 to 30 min. To mitigate thermal heating due to the intense light, a dry ice-chilled ni...

  15. Far-red light photoacclimation (FaRLiP) in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7335. II.Characterization of phycobiliproteins produced during acclimation to far-red light.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ming-Yang; Gan, Fei; Shen, Gaozhong; Bryant, Donald A

    2017-02-01

    Phycobilisomes (PBS) are antenna complexes that harvest light for photosystem (PS) I and PS II in cyanobacteria and some algae. A process known as far-red light photoacclimation (FaRLiP) occurs when some cyanobacteria are grown in far-red light (FRL). They synthesize chlorophylls d and f and remodel PS I, PS II, and PBS using subunits paralogous to those produced in white light. The FaRLiP strain, Leptolyngbya sp. JSC-1, replaces hemidiscoidal PBS with pentacylindrical cores, which are produced when cells are grown in red or white light, with PBS with bicylindrical cores when cells are grown in FRL. This study shows that the PBS of another FaRLiP strain, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7335, are not remodeled in cells grown in FRL. Instead, cells grown in FRL produce bicylindrical cores that uniquely contain the paralogous allophycocyanin subunits encoded in the FaRLiP cluster, and these bicylindrical cores coexist with red-light-type PBS with tricylindrical cores. The bicylindrical cores have absorption maxima at 650 and 711 nm and a low-temperature fluorescence emission maximum at 730 nm. They contain ApcE2:ApcF:ApcD3:ApcD2:ApcD5:ApcB2 in the approximate ratio 2:2:4:6:12:22, and a structural model is proposed. Time course experiments showed that bicylindrical cores were detectable about 48 h after cells were transferred from RL to FRL and that synthesis of red-light-type PBS continued throughout a 21-day growth period. When considered in comparison with results for other FaRLiP cyanobacteria, the results here show that acclimation responses to FRL can differ considerably among FaRLiP cyanobacteria.

  16. 234 nm and 246 nm AlN-Delta-GaN quantum well deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cheng; Ooi, Yu Kee; Islam, S. M.; Xing, Huili Grace; Jena, Debdeep; Zhang, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Deep ultraviolet (DUV) AlN-delta-GaN quantum well (QW) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with emission wavelengths of 234 nm and 246 nm are proposed and demonstrated in this work. Our results reveal that the use of AlN-delta-GaN QW with ˜1-3 monolayer GaN delta-layer can achieve a large transverse electric (TE)-polarized spontaneous emission rate instead of transverse magnetic-polarized emission, contrary to what is observed in conventional AlGaN QW in the 230-250 nm wavelength regime. The switching of light polarization in the proposed AlN-delta-GaN QW active region is attributed to the rearrangement of the valence subbands near the Γ-point. The light radiation patterns obtained from angle-dependent electroluminescence measurements for the Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE)-grown 234 nm and 246 nm AlN-delta-GaN QW LEDs show that the photons are mainly emitted towards the surface rather than the edge, consistent with the simulated patterns achieved by the finite-difference time-domain modeling. The results demonstrate that the proposed AlN-delta-GaN QWs would potentially lead to high-efficiency TE-polarized surface-emitting DUV LEDs.

  17. The impact of red light cameras (photo-red enforcement) on crashes in Virginia.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-01-01

    Red light running is a significant public health concern, killing more than 800 people and injuring 200,000 in the United States per year (Retting et al., 1999a; Retting and Kyrychenko, 2002). To reduce red light running in Virginia, six jurisdiction...

  18. Seeing Red: Discourse, Metaphor, and the Implementation of Red Light Cameras in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Lance Alan

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the deployment of automated red light camera systems in the state of Texas from 2003 through late 2007. The deployment of new technologies in general, and surveillance infrastructures in particular, can prove controversial and challenging for the formation of public policy. Red light camera surveillance during this period in…

  19. Low-Level Light Therapy with 410 nm Light Emitting Diode Suppresses Collagen Synthesis in Human Keloid Fibroblasts: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Soo; Jung, Soo-Eun; Kim, Sue Kyung; Kim, You-Sun; Sohn, Seonghyang; Kim, You Chan

    2017-04-01

    Keloids are characterized by excessive collagen deposition in the dermis, in which transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling plays an important role. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) is reported as effective in preventing keloids in clinical reports, recently. To date, studies investigating the effect of LLLT on keloid fibroblasts are extremely rare. We investigated the effect of LLLT with blue (410 nm), red (630 nm), and infrared (830 nm) light on the collagen synthesis in keloid fibroblasts. Keloid fibroblasts were isolated from keloid-revision surgery samples and irradiated using 410-, 630-, 830-nm light emitting diode twice, with a 24-hour interval at 10 J/cm 2 . After irradiation, cells were incubated for 24 and 48 hours and real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed. Western blot analysis was also performed in 48 hours after last irradiation. The genes and proteins of collagen type I, TGF-β1, Smad3, and Smad7 were analyzed. We observed no statistically significant change in the viability of keloid fibroblasts after irradiation. Collagen type I was the only gene whose expression significantly decreased after irradiation at 410 nm when compared to the non-irradiated control. Western blot analysis showed that LLLT at 410 nm lowered the protein levels of collagen type I compared to the control. LLLT at 410 nm decreased the expression of collagen type I in keloid fibroblasts and might be effective in preventing keloid formation in their initial stage.

  20. Preillumination of lettuce seedlings with red light enhances the resistance of photosynthetic apparatus to UV-A.

    PubMed

    Kreslavski, Vladimir D; Lyubimov, Valery Yu; Shirshikova, Galina N; Shmarev, Alexander N; Kosobryukhov, Anatoly A; Schmitt, Franz-Josef; Friedrich, Thomas; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I

    2013-05-05

    Seedlings of 10-day-old lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., cultivar Berlin) were preilluminated by low intensity red light (λmax=660 nm, 10 min, 5 μmol quanta m(-2) s(-1)) and far-red light (λmax=730 nm, 10 min, 5 μmol quanta m(-2) s(-1)) to study the effect of pre-treatment on photosynthesis, photochemical activity of photosystem II (PSII), the contents of photosynthetic and UV-A-absorbing pigments (UAPs) and H2O2, as well as total and ascorbate peroxidase activities in cotyledonary leaves of seedlings exposed to UV-A. UV radiation reduced the photosynthetic rate (Pn), the activity of PSII, and the contents of Chl a and b, carotenoids and UAPs in the leaves, but increased the content of H2O2 and the total peroxidase activity. Preillumination with red light removed these effects of UV. In turn, the illumination with red light, then far-red light removed the effect of the red light. Illumination with red light alone increased the content of UAPs, as well as peroxidase activity. It is suggested that higher resistance of the lettuce photosynthetic apparatus to UV-A radiation is associated with involvement of the active form of phytochrome B, thereby increasing peroxidase activities as well as UAPs and saving preservation of photosynthetic pigment contents due to pre-illumination with red light. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Red light-induced suppression of gravitropism in moss protonemata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, V. D.; Sack, F. D.

    1999-01-01

    Moss protonemata are among the few cell types known that both sense and respond to gravity and light. Apical cells of Ceratodon protonemata grow by oriented tip growth which is negatively gravitropic in the dark or positively phototropic in unilateral red light. Phototropism is phytochrome-mediated. To determine whether any gravitropism persists during irradiation, cultures were turned at various angles with respect to gravity and illuminated so that the light and gravity vectors acted either in the same or in different directions. Red light for 24h (≥140nmol m-2s-1) caused the protonemata to be oriented directly towards the light. Similarly, protonemata grew directly towards the light regardless of light position with respect to gravity indicating that all growth is oriented strictly by phototropism, not gravitropism. At light intensities ≤100nmol m-2s-1, no phototropism occurs and the mean protonemal tip angle remains above the horizontal, which is the criterion for negative gravitropism. But those protonemata are not as uniformly upright as they would be in the dark indicating that low intensity red light permits gravitropism but also modulates the response. Protonemata of the aphototropic mutant ptr1 that lacks a functional Pfr chromophore, exhibit gravitropism regardless of red light intensity. This indicates that red light acts via Pfr to modulate gravitropism at low intensities and to suppress gravitropism at intensities ≥140nmol m-2s-1.

  2. Interactions between red light, abscisic acid, and calcium in gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leopold, A. C.; LaFavre, A. K.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of red light on orthogravitropism of Merit corn (Zea mays L.) roots has been attributed to its effects on the transduction phase of gravitropism (AC Leopold, SH Wettlaufer [1988] Plant Physiol 87:803-805). In an effort to characterize the orthogravitropic transduction system, comparative experiments have been carried out on the effects of red light, calcium, and abscisic acid (ABA). The red light effect can be completely satisfied with added ABA (100 micromolar) or with osmotic shock, which is presumed to increase endogenous ABA. The decay of the red light effect is closely paralleled by the decay of the ABA effect. ABA and exogenous calcium show strong additive effects when applied to either Merit or a line of corn which does not require red light for orthogravitropism. Measurements of the ABA content show marked increases in endogenous ABA in the growing region of the roots after red light. The interpretation is offered that red light or ABA may serve to increase the cytoplasmic concentrations of calcium, and that this may be an integral part of orthogravitropic transduction.

  3. Phototropin 1 and dim-blue light modulate the red light de-etiolation response.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yihai; M Folta, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Light signals regulate seedling morphological changes during de-etiolation through the coordinated actions of multiple light-sensing pathways. Previously we have shown that red-light-induced hypocotyl growth inhibition can be reversed by addition of dim blue light through the action of phototropin 1 (phot1). Here we further examine the fluence-rate relationships of this blue light effect in short-term (hours) and long-term (days) hypocotyl growth assays. The red stem-growth inhibition and blue promotion is a low-fluence rate response, and blue light delays or attenuates both the red light and far-red light responses. These de-etiolation responses include blue light reversal of red or far-red induced apical hook opening. This response also requires phot1. Cryptochromes (cry1 and cry2) are activated by higher blue light fluence-rates and override phot1's influence on hypocotyl growth promotion. Exogenous application of auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid abolished the blue light stem growth promotion in both hypocotyl growth and hook opening. Results from the genetic tests of this blue light effect in auxin transporter mutants, as well as phytochrome kinase substrate mutants indicated that aux1 may play a role in blue light reversal of red light response. Together, the phot1-mediated adjustment of phytochrome-regulated photomorphogenic events is most robust in dim blue light conditions and is likely modulated by auxin transport through its transporters.

  4. Phototropin 1 and dim-blue light modulate the red light de-etiolation response

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yihai; M Folta, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Light signals regulate seedling morphological changes during de-etiolation through the coordinated actions of multiple light-sensing pathways. Previously we have shown that red-light-induced hypocotyl growth inhibition can be reversed by addition of dim blue light through the action of phototropin 1 (phot1). Here we further examine the fluence-rate relationships of this blue light effect in short-term (hours) and long-term (days) hypocotyl growth assays. The red stem-growth inhibition and blue promotion is a low-fluence rate response, and blue light delays or attenuates both the red light and far-red light responses. These de-etiolation responses include blue light reversal of red or far-red induced apical hook opening. This response also requires phot1. Cryptochromes (cry1 and cry2) are activated by higher blue light fluence-rates and override phot1's influence on hypocotyl growth promotion. Exogenous application of auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid abolished the blue light stem growth promotion in both hypocotyl growth and hook opening. Results from the genetic tests of this blue light effect in auxin transporter mutants, as well as phytochrome kinase substrate mutants indicated that aux1 may play a role in blue light reversal of red light response. Together, the phot1-mediated adjustment of phytochrome-regulated photomorphogenic events is most robust in dim blue light conditions and is likely modulated by auxin transport through its transporters. PMID:25482790

  5. Blue light versus red light for photodynamic therapy of basal cell carcinoma in patients with Gorlin syndrome: A bilaterally controlled comparison study.

    PubMed

    Maytin, Edward V; Kaw, Urvashi; Ilyas, Muneeb; Mack, Judith A; Hu, Bo

    2018-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-scarring alternative for treating basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in patients with Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome (BCNS), also known as Gorlin syndrome. In Europe, red light (635 nm) is the predominant source for PDT, whereas in the United States blue light (400 nm) is more widely available. The objective of this study was to conduct a head-to-head comparison of blue light and red light PDT in the same BCNS patients. In a pilot study of three patients with 141 BCC lesions, 5-aminolevulinate (20% solution) was applied to all tumors. After 4 h, half of the tumors were illuminated with blue light and the remainder with red light. To ensure safety while treating this many tumors simultaneously, light doses were escalated gradually. Six treatments were administered in three biweekly sessions over 4 months, with a final evaluation at 6 months. Tumor status was documented with high-resolution photographs. Persistent lesions were biopsied at 6 months. Clearance rates after blue light (98%) were slightly better than after red light (93%), with blue light shown to be statistically non-inferior to red light. Eight suspicious lesions were biopsied, 5 after red light (5/5 were BCC) and 3 after blue light (1 was BCC). Blue light PDT was reportedly less painful. Blue light and red light PDT appear to be equally safe and perhaps equally effective for treating BCC tumors in BCNS patients. Further studies to evaluate long-term clearance after blue light PDT are needed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessing the therapeutic effect of 625-nm light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Zongzhen; Xu, Guodong; Yang, Yi

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the effects of red Light-Emitting Diodes on elbow extensor and flexor strength and the recovery of exercise induced fatigue, the torque values from the isokinetic dynamometer as well as biochemistry parameters were used as outcome measures. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial was performed with twenty male young tennis athletes. Active LED therapy (LEDT, with wavelength 625nm, 10 minutes total irradiation time, irradiated area amount to 30cm2, and 900J of total energy irradiated) or an identical placebo was delivered under double-blinded conditions to the left elbow just before exercise. The isokinetic muscle strength was measured immediately after irradiation. The blood lactate levels were sampled pre-exercise and post-exercise. The peak torque values of elbow extensor strength were significantly different between two groups. As in elbow flexor strength, the difference of peak torque was not significant. The blood lactate concentration of LEDT group post-exercise was significantly lower than those of placebo group. The results indicate that 625nm LED therapy is effective in preventing muscle fatigue as it can significantly reduce peak torque value of elbow extensors and blood lactate concentration. It has no effect on the strength of left elbow flexor or backhand performance in tennis.

  7. Empirical observations of red light running at arterial signalized intersection.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-12-01

    Red Light Running (RLR) has become an increasely national safety issue at signalized intersections. : Significant efforts have been made to understand the RLR related driver behaviors and develop : countermeasures to reduce RLR and its related crashe...

  8. Spillover Effect and Economic Effect of Red Light Cameras

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-04-01

    "Spillover effect" of red light cameras (RLCs) refers to the expected safety improvement at intersections other than those actually treated. Such effects may be due to jurisdiction-wide publicity of RLCs and the general publics lack of knowledge o...

  9. Use of automated enforcement for red light violations

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-08-01

    The use of automated enforcement systems offers the potential to decrease the number of red light violations and improve the safety of intersections. Included in this report are an evaluation of the operating conditions where automated enforcement wa...

  10. Model predictions of ocular injury from 1315-nm laser light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polhamus, Garrett D.; Zuclich, Joseph A.; Cain, Clarence P.; Thomas, Robert J.; Foltz, Michael

    2003-06-01

    With the advent of future weapons systems that employ high energy lasers, the 1315 nm wavelength will present a new laser safety hazard to the armed forces. Experiments in non-human primates using this wavelength have demonstrated a range of ocular injuries, including corneal, lenticular and retinal lesions, as a function of pulse duration and spot size at the cornea. To improve our understanding of this phenomena, there is a need for a mathematical model that properly predicts these injuries and their dependence on appropriate exposure parameters. This paper describes the use of a finite difference model of laser thermal injury in the cornea and retina. The model was originally developed for use with shorter wavelength laser irradiation, and as such, requires estimation of several key parameters used in the computations. The predictions from the model are compared to the experimental data, and conclusions are drawn regarding the ability of the model to properly follow the published observations at this wavelength.

  11. Comparative study of the bactericidal effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid with blue and red light on Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Myoung-Soon; Yun, Sook Jung; Beom, Hee Ju; Park, Hyoung Ryun; Lee, Jee-Bum

    2011-07-01

    Propionibacterium acnes naturally produces endogenous porphyrins that are composed of coproporphyrin III (CPIII) and protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). Red light alone and photodynamic therapy (PDT) improve acne vulgaris clinically, but there remains a paucity of quantitative data that directly examine the bactericidal effects that result from PDT on P. acnes itself in vitro. The purpose of this study was to measure the difference of bactericidal effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-PDT with red and blue light on P. acnes. P. acnes were cultured under anaerobic conditions and divided into two groups (ALA-treated group and control group), and were then illuminated with blue (415 nm) and red (635 nm) lights using a light-emitting diode (LED). The cultured P. acnes were killed with both blue and red LED light illumination. The efficacy increased with larger doses of light and a greater number of consecutive illuminations. We demonstrated that red light phototherapy was less effective for the eradication of P. acnes than blue light phototherapy without the addition of ALA. However, pretreatment with ALA could enhance markedly the efficacy of red light phototherapy. © 2010 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  12. Germicidal Efficacy and Mammalian Skin Safety of 222-nm UV Light

    PubMed Central

    Buonanno, Manuela; Ponnaiya, Brian; Welch, David; Stanislauskas, Milda; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Smilenov, Lubomir; Lowy, Franklin D.; Owens, David M.; Brenner, David J.

    2017-01-01

    We have previously shown that 207-nm ultraviolet (UV) light has similar antimicrobial properties as typical germicidal UV light (254 nm), but without inducing mammalian skin damage. The biophysical rationale is based on the limited penetration distance of 207-nm light in biological samples (e.g. stratum corneum) compared with that of 254-nm light. Here we extended our previous studies to 222-nm light and tested the hypothesis that there exists a narrow wavelength window in the far-UVC region, from around 200–222 nm, which is significantly harmful to bacteria, but without damaging cells in tissues. We used a krypton-chlorine (Kr-Cl) excimer lamp that produces 222-nm UV light with a bandpass filter to remove the lower- and higher-wavelength components. Relative to respective controls, we measured: 1. in vitro killing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as a function of UV fluence; 2. yields of the main UV-associated premutagenic DNA lesions (cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 6-4 photoproducts) in a 3D human skin tissue model in vitro; 3. eight cellular and molecular skin damage endpoints in exposed hairless mice in vivo. Comparisons were made with results from a conventional 254-nm UV germicidal lamp used as positive control. We found that 222-nm light kills MRSA efficiently but, unlike conventional germicidal UV lamps (254 nm), it produces almost no premutagenic UV-associated DNA lesions in a 3D human skin model and it is not cytotoxic to exposed mammalian skin. As predicted by biophysical considerations and in agreement with our previous findings, far-UVC light in the range of 200–222 nm kills bacteria efficiently regardless of their drug-resistant proficiency, but without the skin damaging effects associated with conventional germicidal UV exposure. PMID:28225654

  13. Germicidal Efficacy and Mammalian Skin Safety of 222-nm UV Light.

    PubMed

    Buonanno, Manuela; Ponnaiya, Brian; Welch, David; Stanislauskas, Milda; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Smilenov, Lubomir; Lowy, Franklin D; Owens, David M; Brenner, David J

    2017-04-01

    We have previously shown that 207-nm ultraviolet (UV) light has similar antimicrobial properties as typical germicidal UV light (254 nm), but without inducing mammalian skin damage. The biophysical rationale is based on the limited penetration distance of 207-nm light in biological samples (e.g. stratum corneum) compared with that of 254-nm light. Here we extended our previous studies to 222-nm light and tested the hypothesis that there exists a narrow wavelength window in the far-UVC region, from around 200-222 nm, which is significantly harmful to bacteria, but without damaging cells in tissues. We used a krypton-chlorine (Kr-Cl) excimer lamp that produces 222-nm UV light with a bandpass filter to remove the lower- and higher-wavelength components. Relative to respective controls, we measured: 1. in vitro killing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as a function of UV fluence; 2. yields of the main UV-associated premutagenic DNA lesions (cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 6-4 photoproducts) in a 3D human skin tissue model in vitro; 3. eight cellular and molecular skin damage endpoints in exposed hairless mice in vivo. Comparisons were made with results from a conventional 254-nm UV germicidal lamp used as positive control. We found that 222-nm light kills MRSA efficiently but, unlike conventional germicidal UV lamps (254 nm), it produces almost no premutagenic UV-associated DNA lesions in a 3D human skin model and it is not cytotoxic to exposed mammalian skin. As predicted by biophysical considerations and in agreement with our previous findings, far-UVC light in the range of 200-222 nm kills bacteria efficiently regardless of their drug-resistant proficiency, but without the skin damaging effects associated with conventional germicidal UV exposure.

  14. Light-induced flickering of DsRed provides evidence for distinct and interconvertible fluorescent states.

    PubMed Central

    Malvezzi-Campeggi, F; Jahnz, M; Heinze, K G; Dittrich, P; Schwille, P

    2001-01-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) from jellyfish Aequorea victoria, the powerful genetically encoded tag presently available in a variety of mutants featuring blue to yellow emission, has found a red-emitting counterpart. The recently cloned red fluorescent protein DsRed, isolated from Discosoma corals (), with its emission maximum at 583 nm, appears to be the long awaited tool for multi-color applications in fluorescence-based biological research. Studying the emission dynamics of DsRed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), it can be verified that this protein exhibits strong light-dependent flickering similar to what is observed in several yellow-shifted mutants of GFP. FCS data recorded at different intensities and excitation wavelengths suggest that DsRed appears under equilibrated conditions in at minimum three interconvertible states, apparently fluorescent with different excitation and emission properties. Light absorption induces transitions and/or cycling between these states on time scales of several tens to several hundreds of microseconds, dependent on excitation intensity. With increasing intensity, the emission maximum of the static fluorescence continuously shifts to the red, implying that at least one state emitting at longer wavelength is preferably populated at higher light levels. In close resemblance to GFP, this light-induced dynamic behavior implies that the chromophore is subject to conformational rearrangements upon population of the excited state. PMID:11509387

  15. Red-light-induced positive phototropism in Arabidopsis roots.

    PubMed

    Ruppel, N J; Hangarter, R P; Kiss, J Z

    2001-02-01

    The interaction between light and gravity is critical in determining the final form of a plant. For example, the competing activities of gravitropism and phototropism can determine the final orientation of a stem or root. The results reported here indicate that, in addition to the previously described blue-light-dependent negative phototropic response in roots, roots of Arahidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. display a previously unknown red-light-dependent positive phototropic response. Both phototropic responses in roots are considerably weaker than the graviresponse, which often masks phototropic curvature. However, through the use of mutant strains with impaired gravitropism, we were able to identify a red-light-dependent positive phototropic response in Arabidopsis roots. The red-induced positive phototropic response is considerably weaker than the blue-light response and is barely detectable in plants with a normal gravitropic response.

  16. Red-light-induced positive phototropism in Arabidopsis roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruppel, N. J.; Hangarter, R. P.; Kiss, J. Z.

    2001-01-01

    The interaction between light and gravity is critical in determining the final form of a plant. For example, the competing activities of gravitropism and phototropism can determine the final orientation of a stem or root. The results reported here indicate that, in addition to the previously described blue-light-dependent negative phototropic response in roots, roots of Arahidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. display a previously unknown red-light-dependent positive phototropic response. Both phototropic responses in roots are considerably weaker than the graviresponse, which often masks phototropic curvature. However, through the use of mutant strains with impaired gravitropism, we were able to identify a red-light-dependent positive phototropic response in Arabidopsis roots. The red-induced positive phototropic response is considerably weaker than the blue-light response and is barely detectable in plants with a normal gravitropic response.

  17. Differential Effects of 670 and 830 nm Red near Infrared Irradiation Therapy: A Comparative Study of Optic Nerve Injury, Retinal Degeneration, Traumatic Brain and Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Giacci, Marcus K.; Wheeler, Lachlan; Lovett, Sarah; Dishington, Emma; Majda, Bernadette; Bartlett, Carole A.; Thornton, Emma; Harford-Wright, Elizabeth; Leonard, Anna; Vink, Robert; Harvey, Alan R.; Provis, Jan; Dunlop, Sarah A.; Fitzgerald, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    Red/near-infrared irradiation therapy (R/NIR-IT) delivered by laser or light-emitting diode (LED) has improved functional outcomes in a range of CNS injuries. However, translation of R/NIR-IT to the clinic for treatment of neurotrauma has been hampered by lack of comparative information regarding the degree of penetration of the delivered irradiation to the injury site and the optimal treatment parameters for different CNS injuries. We compared the treatment efficacy of R/NIR-IT at 670 nm and 830 nm, provided by narrow-band LED arrays adjusted to produce equal irradiance, in four in vivo rat models of CNS injury: partial optic nerve transection, light-induced retinal degeneration, traumatic brain injury (TBI) and spinal cord injury (SCI). The number of photons of 670 nm or 830 nm light reaching the SCI injury site was 6.6% and 11.3% of emitted light respectively. Treatment of rats with 670 nm R/NIR-IT following partial optic nerve transection significantly increased the number of visual responses at 7 days after injury (P≤0.05); 830 nm R/NIR-IT was partially effective. 670 nm R/NIR-IT also significantly reduced reactive species and both 670 nm and 830 nm R/NIR-IT reduced hydroxynonenal immunoreactivity (P≤0.05) in this model. Pre-treatment of light-induced retinal degeneration with 670 nm R/NIR-IT significantly reduced the number of Tunel+ cells and 8-hydroxyguanosine immunoreactivity (P≤0.05); outcomes in 830 nm R/NIR-IT treated animals were not significantly different to controls. Treatment of fluid-percussion TBI with 670 nm or 830 nm R/NIR-IT did not result in improvements in motor or sensory function or lesion size at 7 days (P>0.05). Similarly, treatment of contusive SCI with 670 nm or 830 nm R/NIR-IT did not result in significant improvements in functional recovery or reduced cyst size at 28 days (P>0.05). Outcomes from this comparative study indicate that it will be necessary to optimise delivery devices, wavelength, intensity and duration of R

  18. Photooxidation of Amplex Red to resorufin: implications of exposing the Amplex Red assay to light

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Baozhong; Summers, Fiona A.; Mason, Ronald P.

    2012-01-01

    The Amplex Red assay, a fluorescent assay for the detection of H2O2, relies on the reaction of H2O2 and colorless, nonfluorescent Amplex Red with a 1:1 stoichiometry to form colored, fluorescent resorufin, catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP). We have found that resorufin is artifactually formed when Amplex Red is exposed to light. In the absence of H2O2 and HRP, the absorption and fluorescence spectra of Amplex Red changed during exposure to ambient room light or instrumental excitation light, clearly indicating that the fluorescent product resorufin had formed. This photochemistry was initiated by trace amounts of resorufin that are present in Amplex Red stock solutions. ESR spin-trapping studies demonstrated that superoxide radical was an intermediate in this process. Oxygen consumption measurements further confirmed that superoxide and H2O2 were artifactually produced by the photooxidation of Amplex Red. The artifactual formation of resorufin was also significantly increased by the presence of superoxide dismutase or HRP. This photooxidation process will result in a less sensitive assay for H2O2 under ambient light exposure and potentially invalid measurements under high energy exposure such as UVA irradiation. In general, precautions should be taken to minimize exposure to light during measurement of oxidative stress with Amplex Red. PMID:22765927

  19. Photooxidation of Amplex Red to resorufin: implications of exposing the Amplex Red assay to light.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baozhong; Summers, Fiona A; Mason, Ronald P

    2012-09-01

    The Amplex Red assay, a fluorescent assay for the detection of H(2)O(2), relies on the reaction of H(2)O(2) and colorless, nonfluorescent Amplex Red with a 1:1 stoichiometry to form colored, fluorescent resorufin, catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP). We have found that resorufin is artifactually formed when Amplex Red is exposed to light. In the absence of H(2)O(2) and HRP, the absorption and fluorescence spectra of Amplex Red changed during exposure to ambient room light or instrumental excitation light, clearly indicating that the fluorescent product resorufin had formed. This photochemistry was initiated by trace amounts of resorufin that are present in Amplex Red stock solutions. ESR spin-trapping studies demonstrated that superoxide radical was an intermediate in this process. Oxygen consumption measurements further confirmed that superoxide and H(2)O(2) were artifactually produced by the photooxidation of Amplex Red. The artifactual formation of resorufin was also significantly increased by the presence of superoxide dismutase or HRP. This photooxidation process will result in a less sensitive assay for H(2)O(2) under ambient light exposure and potentially invalid measurements under high energy exposure such as UVA irradiation. In general, precautions should be taken to minimize exposure to light during measurement of oxidative stress with Amplex Red. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. The red edge in arid region vegetation: 340-1060 nm spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Terrill W.; Murray, Bruce C.; Chehbouni, A.; Njoku, Eni

    1993-01-01

    The remote sensing study of vegetated regions of the world has typically been focused on the use of broad-band vegetation indices such as NDVI. Various modifications of these indices have been developed in attempts to minimize the effect of soil background, e.g., SAVI, or to reduce the effect of the atmosphere, e.g., ARVI. Most of these indices depend on the so-called 'red edge,' the sharp transition between the strong absorption of chlorophyll pigment in visible wavelengths and the strong scattering in the near-infrared from the cellular structure of leaves. These broadband indices tend to become highly inaccurate as the green canopy cover becomes sparse. The advent of high spectral resolution remote sensing instrument such as the Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) has allowed the detection of narrow spectral features in vegetation and there are reports of detection of the red edge even for pixels with very low levels of green vegetation cover by Vane et al. and Elvidge et al., and to characterize algal biomass in coastal areas. Spectral mixing approaches similar to those of Smith et al. can be extended into the high spectral resolution domain allowing for the analysis of more endmembers, and potentially, discrimination between material with narrow spectral differences. Vegetation in arid regions tends to be sparse, often with small leaves such as the creosote bush. Many types of arid region vegetation spend much of the year with their leaves in a senescent state, i.e., yellow, with lowered chlorophyll pigmentation. The sparseness of the leaves of many arid region plants has the dual effect of lowering the green leaf area which can be observed and of allowing more of the sub-shrub soil to be visible which further complicates the spectrum of a region covered with arid region vegetation. Elvidge examined the spectral characteristics of dry plant materials showing significant differences in the region of the red edge and the diagnostic ligno

  1. Light from Red-Hot Planet

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-01-28

    This figure charts 30 hours of observations taken by NASA Spitzer Space Telescope of a strongly irradiated exoplanet an planet orbiting a star beyond our own. Spitzer measured changes in the planet heat, or infrared light.

  2. Low-Level Light Therapy with 410 nm Light Emitting Diode Suppresses Collagen Synthesis in Human Keloid Fibroblasts: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Soo; Jung, Soo-Eun; Kim, Sue Kyung; Kim, You-Sun; Sohn, Seonghyang

    2017-01-01

    Background Keloids are characterized by excessive collagen deposition in the dermis, in which transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling plays an important role. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) is reported as effective in preventing keloids in clinical reports, recently. To date, studies investigating the effect of LLLT on keloid fibroblasts are extremely rare. Objective We investigated the effect of LLLT with blue (410 nm), red (630 nm), and infrared (830 nm) light on the collagen synthesis in keloid fibroblasts. Methods Keloid fibroblasts were isolated from keloid-revision surgery samples and irradiated using 410-, 630-, 830-nm light emitting diode twice, with a 24-hour interval at 10 J/cm2. After irradiation, cells were incubated for 24 and 48 hours and real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed. Western blot analysis was also performed in 48 hours after last irradiation. The genes and proteins of collagen type I, TGF-β1, Smad3, and Smad7 were analyzed. Results We observed no statistically significant change in the viability of keloid fibroblasts after irradiation. Collagen type I was the only gene whose expression significantly decreased after irradiation at 410 nm when compared to the non-irradiated control. Western blot analysis showed that LLLT at 410 nm lowered the protein levels of collagen type I compared to the control. Conclusion LLLT at 410 nm decreased the expression of collagen type I in keloid fibroblasts and might be effective in preventing keloid formation in their initial stage. PMID:28392641

  3. Effects of exposure to intermittent versus continuous red light on human circadian rhythms, melatonin suppression, and pupillary constriction.

    PubMed

    Ho Mien, Ivan; Chua, Eric Chern-Pin; Lau, Pauline; Tan, Luuan-Chin; Lee, Ivan Tian-Guang; Yeo, Sing-Chen; Tan, Sara Shuhui; Gooley, Joshua J

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to light is a major determinant of sleep timing and hormonal rhythms. The role of retinal cones in regulating circadian physiology remains unclear, however, as most studies have used light exposures that also activate the photopigment melanopsin. Here, we tested the hypothesis that exposure to alternating red light and darkness can enhance circadian resetting responses in humans by repeatedly activating cone photoreceptors. In a between-subjects study, healthy volunteers (n = 24, 21-28 yr) lived individually in a laboratory for 6 consecutive days. Circadian rhythms of melatonin, cortisol, body temperature, and heart rate were assessed before and after exposure to 6 h of continuous red light (631 nm, 13 log photons cm(-2) s(-1)), intermittent red light (1 min on/off), or bright white light (2,500 lux) near the onset of nocturnal melatonin secretion (n = 8 in each group). Melatonin suppression and pupillary constriction were also assessed during light exposure. We found that circadian resetting responses were similar for exposure to continuous versus intermittent red light (P = 0.69), with an average phase delay shift of almost an hour. Surprisingly, 2 subjects who were exposed to red light exhibited circadian responses similar in magnitude to those who were exposed to bright white light. Red light also elicited prolonged pupillary constriction, but did not suppress melatonin levels. These findings suggest that, for red light stimuli outside the range of sensitivity for melanopsin, cone photoreceptors can mediate circadian phase resetting of physiologic rhythms in some individuals. Our results also show that sensitivity thresholds differ across non-visual light responses, suggesting that cones may contribute differentially to circadian resetting, melatonin suppression, and the pupillary light reflex during exposure to continuous light.

  4. Blue and Red Light Modulates SigB-Dependent Gene Transcription, Swimming Motility and Invasiveness in Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Ondrusch, Nicolai; Kreft, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Background In a number of gram-positive bacteria, including Listeria, the general stress response is regulated by the alternative sigma factor B (SigB). Common stressors which lead to the activation of SigB and the SigB-dependent regulon are high osmolarity, acid and several more. Recently is has been shown that also blue and red light activates SigB in Bacillus subtilis. Methodology/Principal Findings By qRT-PCR we analyzed the transcriptional response of the pathogen L. monocytogenes to blue and red light in wild type bacteria and in isogenic deletion mutants for the putative blue-light receptor Lmo0799 and the stress sigma factor SigB. It was found that both blue (455 nm) and red (625 nm) light induced the transcription of sigB and SigB-dependent genes, this induction was completely abolished in the SigB mutant. The blue-light effect was largely dependent on Lmo0799, proving that this protein is a genuine blue-light receptor. The deletion of lmo0799 enhanced the red-light effect, the underlying mechanism as well as that of SigB activation by red light remains unknown. Blue light led to an increased transcription of the internalin A/B genes and of bacterial invasiveness for Caco-2 enterocytes. Exposure to blue light also strongly inhibited swimming motility of the bacteria in a Lmo0799- and SigB-dependent manner, red light had no effect there. Conclusions/Significance Our data established that visible, in particular blue light is an important environmental signal with an impact on gene expression and physiology of the non-phototrophic bacterium L. monocytogenes. In natural environments these effects will result in sometimes random but potentially also cyclic fluctuations of gene activity, depending on the light conditions prevailing in the respective habitat. PMID:21264304

  5. Drinking and driving behavior at stop signs and red lights.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jingyan; Wu, Changxu; Zhang, Yiqi; Houston, Rebecca J; Chen, Chang Wen; Chanawangsa, Panya

    2017-07-01

    Alcohol is one of the principal risk factors for motor vehicle crashes. One factor that contributes to vehicle crashes is noncompliance with stop signs and red lights. The present experiment investigated the effects of alcohol and drinking patterns on driving behavior at stop signs and red lights. 28 participants participated in drinking and simulated driving sessions during which they received a moderate dose of alcohol (0.08% BAC) or a placebo. Simulated driving tasks measured participants' driving performance at stop signs and red lights in response to each dose. Results suggested that alcohol impaired the driver control of speed and direction and prolonged their simple and complex reaction time, which were exhibited by impaired speed and lateral control, longer reaction time when the lights turned yellow, and lower deceleration towards stop signs and red lights. Visual degradation may also occur under alcohol intake. It was also suggested that alcohol impaired non-binge drinkers more severely. To be specific, higher acceleration was observed in impaired non-binge drinkers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. When yellow lights look red: tinted sunglasses on the railroads.

    PubMed

    Hovis, Jeffery K

    2011-02-01

    A major Canadian railway company purchased safety eyewear sunglasses that were purported to have a neutral gray tint and that met the North American occupational and fashion sunglass requirements for signal light transmittance. After several weeks, the company began to receive reliable reports from employees that the yellow wayside signal appeared red when viewed through these sunglasses. Furthermore, the lenses themselves appeared to have a greenish brown tint rather than gray as the labeling implied. The transmission properties of the lenses were measured with a spectrophotometer, and color shifts were calculated for both roadway and railway signal lights. The lenses did have a brown tint and they did meet the North American and European occupational sunglass transmittance requirements for roadway traffic signal lights. However, they did not meet the Australian occupational requirements because the red signal visibility factor was too high. Calculations using typical railroad wayside signal lights showed that the lenses would shift the yellow signal chromaticity coordinates beyond the boundaries for the railway yellow signals and toward the red end of the International Commission on Illumination chromaticity diagram, confirming the employees' reports. Although the lenses met the North American and European sunglass transmittance requirements for traffic signal lights, the results showed that these standards are inappropriate for the railroad environment because the yellow wayside signal lights are redder and smaller in angular size than typical North American and European traffic lights. Some suggestions on a modified transmittance requirement are given to avoid this problem in the future.

  7. Photochemical Construction of Carbonitride Structures for Red-Light Redox Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pengju; Wang, Ruirui; Zhou, Min; Wang, Xinchen

    2018-05-22

    Metal-free carbonitride(CN) semiconductors are appealing light-transducers for photocatalytic redox reactions owing to the unique band gap and stability. To harness solar energy efficiently, CN catalysts that are active over a wider range of the visible spectrum are desired. Now a photochemical approach has been used to prepare a new-type triazine-based CN structure. The obtained CN shows extraordinary light-harvesting characteristics, with suitable semiconductor-redox potentials. The light absorption edge of the CN reaches up to 735 nm, which is significantly longer than that of the conventional CN semiconductor at about 460 nm. As expected, the CN can efficiently catalyze oxidation of alcohols and reduction of CO 2 with visible light, even under red-light irradiation. The results represent an important step toward the development of red-light-responsive triazine-based structures for solar applications. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Cyclodextrin-gated mesoporous silica nanoparticles as drug carriers for red light-induced drug release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Shiqiang; Guo, Yu; Zhang, Zhenyu; Chai, Zhen; Ma, Yurong; Qi, Limin

    2017-04-01

    Long wavelength light-responsive drug delivery systems based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) have attracted much attention in the last few years. In this paper, a red light (660 nm)-responsive drug delivery system based on low-cost cyclodextrin (CD)-gated MSNs containing a photodynamic therapy (PDT) photosensitizer (Chlorin e6, Ce6) was developed for the first time. The drug release experiment in water demonstrated that with the irradiation of red light, Ce6 can be excited to generate singlet oxygen, which can further cleave the singlet oxygen sensitive linker to trigger the departure of CD and the release of cargo. Further in vitro release experiments confirmed that cargo can be released from MSNs with the irradiation of red light and spread into the entire cell. The relative low power density (0.5 W cm-2) of excitation light together with the short irradiation time (one-three min) result in a low light dose (30-90 J cm-2) for the drug delivery, contributing to their potential clinical applications.

  9. Visible red light enhances physiological anagen entry in vivo and has direct and indirect stimulative effects in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sheen, Yi-Shuan; Fan, Sabrina Mai-Yi; Chan, Chih-Chieh; Wu, Yueh-Feng; Jee, Shiou-Hwa; Lin, Sung-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Hair follicles are located at the interface of the external and internal environments and their cycling has been shown to be regulated by intra- and extra-follicular factors. The aim of this study is to examine whether or how hair follicles respond to visible light. We examined the effect of 3 mW red (630 nm, 1 J/cm(2)), 2 mW green (522 nm, 1 J/cm(2)), and 2 mW blue light (463 nm, 1 J/cm(2)) on telogen in mice for 3 weeks. The photobiologic effects of red light on cell proliferation of outer root sheath keratinocytes and dermal papilla cells were studied in vitro. We found that red light accelerated anagen entry faster than green and blue light in mice. Red light irradiation stimulated the proliferation of both outer root sheath keratinocytes and dermal papilla cells in a dose-dependent manner by promoting cell cycle progression. This stimulative effect was mediated via extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation in both cells. In a co-culture condition, dermal papilla cells irradiated by red light further enhanced keratinocyte proliferation, suggesting enhanced epithelial-mesenchymal interaction. In search for factors that mediated this paracrine effect, we found fibroblast growth factor 7 was upregulated in both mRNA and protein levels. The stimulative paracrine effect on keratinocytes was significantly inhibited by neutralizing antibody against fibroblast growth factor 7. These results suggest that hair follicles respond to visible light in vivo. Red light may promote physiological telogen to anagen transition by directly stimulating outer root sheath keratinocytes and indirectly by enhancing epithelial-mesenchymal interaction in vitro. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Red light improves spermatozoa motility and does not induce oxidative DNA damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preece, Daryl; Chow, Kay W.; Gomez-Godinez, Veronica; Gustafson, Kyle; Esener, Selin; Ravida, Nicole; Durrant, Barbara; Berns, Michael W.

    2017-04-01

    The ability to successfully fertilize ova relies upon the swimming ability of spermatozoa. Both in humans and in animals, sperm motility has been used as a metric for the viability of semen samples. Recently, several studies have examined the efficacy of low dosage red light exposure for cellular repair and increasing sperm motility. Of prime importance to the practical application of this technique is the absence of DNA damage caused by radiation exposure. In this study, we examine the effect of 633 nm coherent, red laser light on sperm motility using a novel wavelet-based algorithm that allows for direct measurement of curvilinear velocity under red light illumination. This new algorithm gives results comparable to the standard computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system. We then assess the safety of red light treatment of sperm by analyzing, (1) the levels of double-strand breaks in the DNA, and (2) oxidative damage in the sperm DNA. The results demonstrate that for the parameters used there are insignificant differences in oxidative DNA damage as a result of irradiation.

  11. Safety Evaluation of Red Light Running Camera Intersections in Illinois

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-04-01

    As a part of this research, the safety performance of red light running (RLR) camera systems was evaluated for a sample of 41 intersections and 60 RLR camera approaches located on state routes under IDOTs jurisdiction in the Chicago suburbs. Compr...

  12. Toolbox of countermeasures to reduce red light running.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-04-01

    Red light running (RLR) is a problem in the US that has resulted in 165,000 injuries and 907 fatalities annually. In Iowa, RLR-related crashes make up 24.5 percent of all crashes and account for 31.7 percent of fatal and major injury crashes at signa...

  13. Light-Regulated Polymerization under Near-Infrared/Far-Red Irradiation Catalyzed by Bacteriochlorophyll a.

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, Sivaprakash; Xu, Jiangtao; Boyer, Cyrille

    2016-01-18

    Photoregulated polymerizations are typically conducted using high-energy (UV and blue) light, which may lead to undesired side reactions. Furthermore, as the penetration of visible light is rather limited, the range of applications with such wavelengths is likewise limited. We herein report the first living radical polymerization that can be activated and deactivated by irradiation with near-infrared (NIR) and far-red light. Bacteriochlorophyll a (Bachl a) was employed as a photoredox catalyst for photoinduced electron transfer/reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (PET-RAFT) polymerization. Well-defined polymers were thus synthesized within a few hours under NIR (λ=850 nm) and far-red (λ=780 nm) irradiation with excellent control over the molecular weight (M(n)/M(w)<1.25). Taking advantage of the good penetration of NIR light, we showed that the polymerization also proceeded smoothly when a translucent barrier was placed between light source and reaction vessel. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Detection of silver nanoparticles in cells by flow cytometry using light scatter and far-red fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Zucker, R M; Daniel, K M; Massaro, E J; Karafas, S J; Degn, L L; Boyes, W K

    2013-10-01

    The cellular uptake of different sized silver nanoparticles (AgNP) (10, 50, and 75 nm) coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) or citrate on a human derived retinal pigment epithelial cell line (ARPE-19) was detected by flow cytometry following 24-h incubation of the cells with AgNP. A dose dependent increase of side scatter and far red fluorescence was observed with both PVP and citrate-coated 50 nm or 75 nm silver particles. Using five different flow cytometers, a far red fluorescence signal in the 700-800 nm range increased as much as 100 times background as a ratio comparing the intensity measurements of treated sample and controls. The citrate-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNP) revealed slightly more side scatter and far red fluorescence than did the PVP coated silver nanoparticles. This increased far red fluorescence signal was observed with 50 and 75 nm particles, but not with 10 nm particles. Morphological evaluation by dark field microscopy showed silver particles (50 and 75 nm) clumped and concentrated around the nucleus. One possible hypothesis to explain the emission of far red fluorescence from cells incubated with silver nanoparticles is that the silver nanoparticles inside cells agglomerate into small nano clusters that form surface plasmon resonance which interacts with laser light to emit a strong far red fluorescence signal. The results demonstrate that two different parameters (side scatter and far red fluorescence) on standard flow cytometers can be used to detect and observe metallic nanoparticles inside cells. The strength of the far red fluorescence suggests that it may be particularly useful for applications that require high sensitivity. © Published 2013 Wiley-Periodicals, Inc. Published 2013 Wiley‐Periodicals, Inc. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  15. Blue and Red Light-Evoked Pupil Responses in Photophobic Subjects with TBI.

    PubMed

    Yuhas, Phillip T; Shorter, Patrick D; McDaniel, Catherine E; Earley, Michael J; Hartwick, Andrew T E

    2017-01-01

    Photophobia is a common symptom in individuals suffering from traumatic brain injury (TBI). Recent evidence has implicated blue light-sensitive intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) in contributing to the neural circuitry mediating photophobia in migraine sufferers. The goal of this work is to test the hypothesis that ipRGC function is altered in TBI patients with photophobia by assessing pupillary responses to blue and red light. Twenty-four case participants (mean age 43.3; 58% female), with mild TBI and self-reported photophobia, and 12 control participants (mean age 42.6; 58% female) were in this study. After 10 minutes of dark adaptation, blue (470 nm, 1 × 10 phots/s/cm) and red (625 nm, 7 × 10 phots/s/cm) flashing (0.1 Hz) light stimuli were delivered for 30 seconds to the dilated left eye while the right pupil was recorded. The amplitude of normalized pupil fluctuation (constriction and dilation) was quantified using Fourier fast transforms. In both case and control participants, the amplitude of pupil fluctuation was significantly less for the blue light stimuli as compared to the red light stimuli, consistent with a contribution of ipRGCs to these pupil responses. There was no significant difference in the mean pupil fluctuation amplitudes between the two participant groups, but case participants displayed greater variability in their pupil responses to the blue stimulus. Case and control participants showed robust ipRGC-mediated components in their pupil responses to blue light. The results did not support the hypothesis that ipRGCs are "hypersensitive" to light in TBI participants with photophobia. However, greater pupil response variability in the case subjects suggests that ipRGC function may be more heterogeneous in this group.

  16. Highly reliable 637-639 nm red high-power LDs for displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Takehiro; Shimada, Naoyuki; Ono, Kenichi; Yagi, Tetsuya; Shima, Akihiro

    2010-02-01

    Higher power laser diodes (LDs) with a wavelength of 637-639nm are strongly demanded as a light source of display applications because luminosity factor of laser light is relatively high. In order to realize reliable high power operation, we have optimized LD structure, focusing on improvement of power saturation and sudden degradation. As a result, 40μm-wide broad-area (BA) LDs with window-mirror structure have been designed. We fabricated two kinds of single emitter LDs of 1.0mm cavity and 1.5mm cavity. The single LD is installed in conventional φ5.6 mm TO-CAN package. The 1.0mm LD showed very high wall plug efficiency (WPE) of 33% at 25 ºC (23% at 45 ºC) in the power range of around 300mW (30 lm). High output power of 600mW (60 lm) is realized by the 1.5mm LD. Both LDs have operated for over 1,000 hours without any degradation. Estimated mean time to failure (MTTF) is 10,000 hours. In addition, we fabricated an array LD consisting of 20 emitters (BA-LD structure), which shows reliable CW operation of 8W (at junction temperature of 50 ºC) for 10,000 hours.

  17. Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) Sprouts Germinated under Red Light Irradiation Induce Disease Resistance against Bacterial Rotting Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dhakal, Radhika; Park, Euiho; Lee, Se-Weon; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Specific wavelengths of light can exert various physiological changes in plants, including effects on responses to disease incidence. To determine whether specific light wavelength had effects on rotting disease caused by Pseudomonas putida 229, soybean sprouts were germinated under a narrow range of wavelengths from light emitting diodes (LEDs), including red (650–660), far red (720–730) and blue (440–450 nm) or broad range of wavelength from daylight fluorescence bulbs. The controls were composed of soybean sprouts germinated in darkness. After germination under different conditions for 5 days, the soybean sprouts were inoculated with P. putida 229 and the disease incidence was observed for 5 days. The sprouts exposed to red light showed increased resistance against P. putida 229 relative to those grown under other conditions. Soybean sprouts germinated under red light accumulated high levels of salicylic acid (SA) accompanied with up-regulation of the biosynthetic gene ICS and the pathogenesis- related (PR) gene PR-1, indicating that the resistance was induced by the action of SA via de novo synthesis of SA in the soybean sprouts by red light irradiation. Taken together, these data suggest that only the narrow range of red light can induce disease resistance in soybean sprouts, regulated by the SA-dependent pathway via the de novo synthesis of SA and up-regulation of PR genes. PMID:25679808

  18. Efficacy of antimicrobial 405 nm blue-light for inactivation of airborne bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougall, Laura R.; Anderson, John G.; Timoshkin, Igor V.; MacGregor, Scott J.; Maclean, Michelle

    2018-02-01

    Airborne transmission of infectious organisms is a considerable concern within the healthcare environment. A number of novel methods for `whole room' decontamination, including antimicrobial 405 nm blue light, are being developed. To date, research has focused on its effects against surface-deposited contamination; however, it is important to also establish its efficacy against airborne bacteria. This study demonstrates evidence of the dose-response kinetics of airborne bacterial contamination when exposed to 405 nm light and compares bacterial susceptibility when exposed in three different media: air, liquid and surfaces. Bacterial aerosols of Staphylococcus epidermidis, generated using a 6-Jet Collison nebulizer, were introduced into an aerosol suspension chamber. Aerosolized bacteria were exposed to increasing doses of 405 nm light, and air samples were extracted from the chamber using a BioSampler liquid impinger, with viability analysed using pour-plate culture. Results have demonstrated successful aerosol inactivation, with a 99.1% reduction achieved with a 30 minute exposure to high irradiance (22 mWcm-2) 405 nm light (P=0.001). Comparison to liquid and surface exposures proved bacteria to be 3-4 times more susceptible to 405 nm light inactivation when in aerosol form. Overall, results have provided fundamental evidence of the susceptibility of bacterial aerosols to antimicrobial 405 nm light treatment, which offers benefits in terms of increased safety for human exposure, and eradication of microbes regardless of antibiotic resistance. Such benefits provide advantages for a number of applications including `whole room' environmental decontamination, in which reducing levels of airborne bacteria should reduce the number of infections arising from airborne contamination.

  19. RNA-seq analysis of the transcriptional response to blue and red light in the extremophilic red alga, Cyanidioschyzon merolae.

    PubMed

    Tardu, Mehmet; Dikbas, Ugur Meric; Baris, Ibrahim; Kavakli, Ibrahim Halil

    2016-11-01

    Light is one of the main environmental cues that affects the physiology and behavior of many organisms. The effect of light on genome-wide transcriptional regulation has been well-studied in green algae and plants, but not in red algae. Cyanidioschyzon merolae is used as a model red algae, and is suitable for studies on transcriptomics because of its compact genome with a relatively small number of genes. In addition, complete genome sequences of the nucleus, mitochondrion, and chloroplast of this organism have been determined. Together, these attributes make C. merolae an ideal model organism to study the response to light stimuli at the transcriptional and the systems biology levels. Previous studies have shown that light significantly affects cell signaling in this organism, but there are no reports on its blue light- and red light-mediated transcriptional responses. We investigated the direct effects of blue and red light at the transcriptional level using RNA-seq. Blue and red lights were found to regulate 35 % of the total genes in C. merolae. Blue light affected the transcription of genes involved in protein synthesis while red light specifically regulated the transcription of genes involved in photosynthesis and DNA repair. Blue or red light regulated genes involved in carbon metabolism and pigment biosynthesis. Overall, our data showed that red and blue light regulate the majority of the cellular, cell division, and repair processes in C. merolae.

  20. Anisotropic light scattering of individual sickle red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngchan; Higgins, John M; Dasari, Ramachandra R; Suresh, Subra; Park, YongKeun

    2012-04-01

    We present the anisotropic light scattering of individual red blood cells (RBCs) from a patient with sickle cell disease (SCD). To measure light scattering spectra along two independent axes of elongated-shaped sickle RBCs with arbitrary orientation, we introduce the anisotropic Fourier transform light scattering (aFTLS) technique and measured both the static and dynamic anisotropic light scattering. We observed strong anisotropy in light scattering patterns of elongated-shaped sickle RBCs along its major axes using static aFTLS. Dynamic aFTLS analysis reveals the significantly altered biophysical properties in individual sickle RBCs. These results provide evidence that effective viscosity and elasticity of sickle RBCs are significantly different from those of the healthy RBCs.

  1. Bilirubin isomer distribution in jaundiced neonates during phototherapy with LED light centered at 497 nm (turquoise) vs. 459 nm (blue).

    PubMed

    Ebbesen, Finn; Madsen, Poul H; Vandborg, Pernille K; Jakobsen, Lasse H; Trydal, Torleif; Vreman, Hendrik J

    2016-10-01

    Phototherapy using blue light is the treatment of choice worldwide for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. However, treatment with turquoise light may be a desirable alternative. Therefore, the aim of this randomized, controlled study was to compare the bilirubin isomer distribution in serum of jaundiced neonates after 24 h of therapy with narrow-band (LED) light centered at 497 nm (turquoise) vs. 459 nm (blue), of essentially equal irradiance. Eighty-three neonates (≥33 wk gestational age) with uncomplicated hyperbilirubinemia were included in the study. Forty neonates were exposed to light centered at 497 nm and 43 infants with light centered at 459 nm. Irradiances were 5.2 × 10(15) and 5.1 × 10(15) photons/cm(2)/s, respectively. After 24 h of treatment no significant differences in serum concentrations of total bilirubin isomers and Z,Z-bilirubin were observed between the 2 groups. Interestingly, concentrations of Z,E-bilirubin, and thus also total bilirubin isomers formed during therapy, were highest for infants receiving light centered at 459 nm, while the concentration of E,Z-bilirubin was highest for those receiving light centered at 497 nm. No significant difference was found between concentrations of E,Z-lumirubin. Therapy with LED light centered at 497 nm vs. 459 nm, applied with equal irradiance on the infants, resulted in a different distribution of bilirubin isomers in serum.

  2. Adjunctive 830 nm light-emitting diode therapy can improve the results following aesthetic procedures

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won-Serk; Ohshiro, Toshio; Trelles, Mario A; Vasily, David B

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aggressive, or even minimally aggressive, aesthetic interventions are almost inevitably followed by such events as discomfort, erythema, edema and hematoma formation which could lengthen patient downtime and represent a major problem to the surgeon. Recently, low level light therapy with light-emitting diodes (LED-LLLT) at 830 nm has attracted attention in wound healing indications for its anti-inflammatory effects and control of erythema, edema and bruising. Rationale: The wavelength of 830 nm offers deep penetration into living biological tissue, including bone. A new-generation of 830 nm LEDs, based on those developed in the NASA Space Medicine Laboratory, has enabled the construction of planar array-based LED-LLLT systems with clinically useful irradiances. Irradiation with 830 nm energy has been shown in vitro and in vivo to increase the action potential of epidermal and dermal cells significantly. The response of the inflammatory stage cells is enhanced both in terms of function and trophic factor release, and fibroblasts demonstrate superior collagenesis and elastinogenesis. Conclusions: A growing body of clinical evidence is showing that applying 830 nm LED-LLLT as soon as possible post-procedure, both invasive and noninvasive, successfully hastens the resolution of sequelae associated with patient downtime in addition to significantly speeding up frank wound healing. This article reviews that evidence, and attempts to show that 830 nm LED-LLLT delivers swift resolution of postoperative sequelae, minimizes downtime and enhances patient satisfaction. PMID:26877592

  3. Adjunctive 830 nm light-emitting diode therapy can improve the results following aesthetic procedures.

    PubMed

    Calderhead, R Glen; Kim, Won-Serk; Ohshiro, Toshio; Trelles, Mario A; Vasily, David B

    2015-12-30

    Aggressive, or even minimally aggressive, aesthetic interventions are almost inevitably followed by such events as discomfort, erythema, edema and hematoma formation which could lengthen patient downtime and represent a major problem to the surgeon. Recently, low level light therapy with light-emitting diodes (LED-LLLT) at 830 nm has attracted attention in wound healing indications for its anti-inflammatory effects and control of erythema, edema and bruising. The wavelength of 830 nm offers deep penetration into living biological tissue, including bone. A new-generation of 830 nm LEDs, based on those developed in the NASA Space Medicine Laboratory, has enabled the construction of planar array-based LED-LLLT systems with clinically useful irradiances. Irradiation with 830 nm energy has been shown in vitro and in vivo to increase the action potential of epidermal and dermal cells significantly. The response of the inflammatory stage cells is enhanced both in terms of function and trophic factor release, and fibroblasts demonstrate superior collagenesis and elastinogenesis. A growing body of clinical evidence is showing that applying 830 nm LED-LLLT as soon as possible post-procedure, both invasive and noninvasive, successfully hastens the resolution of sequelae associated with patient downtime in addition to significantly speeding up frank wound healing. This article reviews that evidence, and attempts to show that 830 nm LED-LLLT delivers swift resolution of postoperative sequelae, minimizes downtime and enhances patient satisfaction.

  4. Red Emission of SrAl2O4:Mn4+ Phosphor for Warm White Light-Emitting Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, N. T. K.; Tuan, N. T.; Lien, N. T. K.; Nguyen, D. H.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, SrAl2O4:Mn4+ phosphor is prepared by co-precipitation. The phase structure, morphology, composition and luminescent performance of the phosphor are investigated in detail with x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, steady-state photoluminescence (PL) spectra, and temperature-dependent PL measurements. The phosphor shows a strong red emission peak at ˜ 690 nm, which is due to the transition between electronic levels and the electric dipole transition 2Eg to 4A2g of Mn4+ ions located at the sites with D3d local symmetry. The sample doped with 0.04 mol.% Mn4+ exhibits intense red emission with high thermal stability and appropriate International Commission on Illumination (CIE) coordinates (x = 0.6959, y = 0.2737). It is also found that the phosphor absorption in an extended band from 250 nm to 500 nm has three peaks at 320 nm, 405 nm, and 470 nm, which match well with the emission band of ultraviolet (UV) lighting emission diode (LED) or blue LED chips. These results demonstrate that SrAl2O4:Mn4+ phosphor can play the role of activator in narrow red-emitting phosphor, which is potentially useful in UV (˜ 320 nm) or blue (˜ 460 nm) LED.

  5. Backward elastic light scattering of malaria infected red blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seungjun; Lu, Wei

    2011-08-01

    We investigated the backward light scattering pattern of healthy and malaria (Plasmodium falciparum) parasitized red blood cells. The spectrum could clearly distinguish between predominant ring stage infected blood cells and healthy blood cells. Further, we found that infected samples mixed with different stages of P. falciparum showed different signals, suggesting that even variance in parasite stages could also be detected by the spectrum. These results together with the backward scattering technique suggest the potential of non-invasive diagnosis of malaria through light scattering of blood cells near the surface of human body, such as using eyes or skin surface.

  6. Seeing the Light: The Roles of Red- and Blue-Light Sensing in Plant Microbes.

    PubMed

    Beattie, Gwyn A; Hatfield, Bridget M; Dong, Haili; McGrane, Regina S

    2018-05-16

    Plants collect, concentrate, and conduct light throughout their tissues, thus enhancing light availability to their resident microbes. This review explores the role of photosensing in the biology of plant-associated bacteria and fungi, including the molecular mechanisms of red-light sensing by phytochromes and blue-light sensing by LOV (light-oxygen-voltage)-domain proteins in these microbes. Bacteriophytochromes function as major drivers of the bacterial transcriptome and mediate light-regulated suppression of virulence, motility, and conjugation in some phytopathogens and light-regulated induction of the photosynthetic apparatus in a stem-nodulating symbiont. Bacterial LOV proteins also influence light-mediated changes in both symbiotic and pathogenic phenotypes. Although red-light sensing by fungal phytopathogens is poorly understood, fungal LOV proteins contribute to blue-light regulation of traits, including asexual development and virulence. Collectively, these studies highlight that plant microbes have evolved to exploit light cues and that light sensing is often coupled with sensing other environmental signals. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Phytopathology Volume 56 is August 25, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  7. Replication of adeno-associated virus in cells irradiated with UV light at 254 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Yakobson, B.; Hrynko, T.A.; Peak, M.J.

    1989-03-01

    Irradiation of simian virus 40 (ori mutant)-transformed Chinese hamster embryo cells (OD4 line) with UV light induced a cellular capacity which supported a full cycle of helper-independent adeno-associated virus replication. Monochromatic UV light at 254 nm was about 1,000-fold more effective than UV light at 313 nm, indicating that cellular nucleic acid is the primary chromophore in the UV-induced process leading to permissiveness for adeno-associated virus replication. The UV irradiation and the infection could be separated for up to 12 h without substantial loss of permissiveness. During this time interval, the induction process was partly sensitive to cycloheximide, suggesting amore » requirement for de novo protein synthesis.« less

  8. Inhibition of enteric pathogens and surrogates using integrated, high intensity 405nm led light on the surface of almonds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The disinfecting properties of 405 nm light were investigated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and their non-pathogenic surrogate bacteria on the surface of almonds. High intensity monochromatic blue light (MBL) was generated from an array of narrow-band 405 nm light-emitting diodes (LE...

  9. Photonic modulation of EGFR: 280nm low level light arrests cancer cell activation and migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botelho, Cláudia M.; Marques, Rogério; Viruthachalam, Thiagarajan; Gonçalves, Odete; Vorum, Henrik; Gomes, Andreia C.; Neves-Petersen, Maria Teresa

    2017-02-01

    Overexpression of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) by cancer cells is associated with a poor prognosis for the patient. For several decades, therapies targeting EGFR have been designed, including the use of monoclonal antibodies and small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The use of these molecules had good clinical results, although its efficiency (and specificity) is still far from being optimal. In this paper, we present a new approach for a possible new cancer therapy targeting EGFR and using low intensity 280nm light. The influence of 280nm UVB illumination on cancer cells stimulated with 2nM of EGF was followed by time-lapse confocal microscopy. The 280nm illumination of the cancer cells blocks EGFR activation, inhibiting EGFR internalization and cell migration thus inhibiting the transition to the metastatic phenotype. Exposure time is a very important factor. The higher the illumination time the more significant differences were observed: 280nm light delayed or completely halted EGFR activation in the cell membrane, mainly at the cell junction level, and delayed or halted EGFR endocytic internalization, filopodia formation and cell migration.

  10. Red Light Represses the Photophysiology of the Scleractinian Coral Stylophora pistillata

    PubMed Central

    Wijgerde, Tim; van Melis, Anne; Silva, Catarina I. F.; Leal, Miguel C.; Vogels, Luc; Mutter, Claudia; Osinga, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Light spectrum plays a key role in the biology of symbiotic corals, with blue light resulting in higher coral growth, zooxanthellae density, chlorophyll a content and photosynthesis rates as compared to red light. However, it is still unclear whether these physiological processes are blue-enhanced or red-repressed. This study investigated the individual and combined effects of blue and red light on the health, zooxanthellae density, photophysiology and colouration of the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata over 6 weeks. Coral fragments were exposed to blue, red, and combined 50/50% blue red light, at two irradiance levels (128 and 256 μmol m−2 s−1). Light spectrum affected the health/survival, zooxanthellae density, and NDVI (a proxy for chlorophyll a content) of S. pistillata. Blue light resulted in highest survival rates, whereas red light resulted in low survival at 256 μmol m−2 s−1. Blue light also resulted in higher zooxanthellae densities compared to red light at 256 μmol m−2 s−1, and a higher NDVI compared to red and combined blue red light. Overall, our results suggest that red light negatively affects the health, survival, symbiont density and NDVI of S. pistillata, with a dominance of red over blue light for NDVI. PMID:24658108

  11. Red light represses the photophysiology of the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata.

    PubMed

    Wijgerde, Tim; van Melis, Anne; Silva, Catarina I F; Leal, Miguel C; Vogels, Luc; Mutter, Claudia; Osinga, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Light spectrum plays a key role in the biology of symbiotic corals, with blue light resulting in higher coral growth, zooxanthellae density, chlorophyll a content and photosynthesis rates as compared to red light. However, it is still unclear whether these physiological processes are blue-enhanced or red-repressed. This study investigated the individual and combined effects of blue and red light on the health, zooxanthellae density, photophysiology and colouration of the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata over 6 weeks. Coral fragments were exposed to blue, red, and combined 50/50% blue red light, at two irradiance levels (128 and 256 μmol m(-2) s(-1)). Light spectrum affected the health/survival, zooxanthellae density, and NDVI (a proxy for chlorophyll a content) of S. pistillata. Blue light resulted in highest survival rates, whereas red light resulted in low survival at 256 μmol m(-2) s(-1). Blue light also resulted in higher zooxanthellae densities compared to red light at 256 μmol m(-2) s(-1), and a higher NDVI compared to red and combined blue red light. Overall, our results suggest that red light negatively affects the health, survival, symbiont density and NDVI of S. pistillata, with a dominance of red over blue light for NDVI.

  12. Can red-light 5-aminolevulinic photodynamic therapy cure port wine stains on comb animal model?

    PubMed

    Lai, Yongxian; Zhang, Haiyan; Wei, Minglei; Ji, Jie; Shi, Lei; Wang, Peiru; Wang, Bo; Huang, Zheng; Wang, Xiuli

    2018-06-01

    To study the curative effect of red-light 5-Aminolevulinic photodynamic therapy(ALA-PDT) to port wine stains(PWS) on comb animal model. 160 male cocks were randomly divided into 16 groups. The ALA only group was given ALA only topical or systemic application. Light only groups were only given 630 nm red light irradiation with different light density. ALA-PDT groups were given red light after the application of topical or systemic ALA. PDL group was given PDL irradiation. The distribution of fluorescence in tissue after topical or systemic application of ALA was detected. The morphological changes, the pathological changes and the capillary reduction rate of the comb were observed after treatment for 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 days. The PpIX fluorescence generated after topical and systemic application of ALA. In the topical ALA-PDT group at low light density 80 J/cm 2 , the morphology and the histopathology had no obvious change. While under 160 J/cm 2 and 200 J/cm 2 light density, severe erosion and thick scab appeared. The histopathology showed epidermal necrosis and loss. The immunohistochemistry showed that there was no significant change in the number of capillaries under different light density (P > 0.05). In the systemic ALA-PDT group under low light density 80 J/cm 2 , only partial erosion and thin scab was observed on the treatment side. With the increase of light density, thick charred crust and even scar was observed. The histopathology showed that there were different degrees of damage to dermal and epidermal tissues. And the immunohistochemistry showed the capillary reduced significantly in the treatment side (P < 0.01). In control group, the comb is ruddy and plump. These results suggest that either topical or systemic red-light ALA-PDT is not suitable treatment methods for PWS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Regional peculiarities in the inter-annual distribution of the red 630.0 nm line nightglow intensities over Abastumani

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toriashvili, L.; Didebulidze, G. G.; Todua, M.

    2017-12-01

    Peculiarities of the inter-annual distribution of atomic oxygen red OI 630.0 nm line nightglow intensity observed from Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory (41.75 N; 42.82 E) are considered, using the long-term dataset. This distribution demonstrates semi-annual and annual-like variations which occur during solar minimum, as well as maximum phases. The maximum values of the red line intensities are in Summer, however in June it is lower than in May and July, which may be due to regional effects. This phenomenon is considered as a the possible result of regional dynamical processes influencing the behavior of the ionosphere F2 layer which cause changes of electrons/ions densities in the 630.0 nm line luminous region (maximum luminous layer is at about 230-280 km). Using the red line intensities and ionosphere F2 layer electron density data of the IRI-12 model, the changes of meridional thermospheric wind velocities are estimated for this mid-latitude region. These meridional and vertical wind field changes causes of variations of the red line intensities in June can be caused by tidal wind and accompanied by atmospheric gravity waves activities.

  14. Pulpal blood flow recorded from human premolar teeth with a laser Doppler flow meter using either red or infrared light.

    PubMed

    Kijsamanmith, Kanittha; Timpawat, Siriporn; Vongsavan, Noppakun; Matthews, Bruce

    2011-07-01

    To compare red (635 nm) and infrared (780 nm) light for recording pulpal blood flow from human premolar teeth. Recordings were made from 11 healthy teeth in 9 subjects (aged 16-30 years) using a laser Doppler flow meter (Periflux 4001) equipped with both red and infrared lasers. Average blood flow signals were obtained with both light sources alternately from each tooth under five conditions: intact tooth without opaque rubber dam, intact tooth with dam, after injecting local anaesthetic (3% Mepivacaine) (LA) over the apex of the tooth and cavity preparation to almost expose the pulp, after removal and replacement of the pulp, and with the root canal empty. With infrared light, the dam significantly decreased the mean blood flow by 80%. Injecting LA and cavity preparation had no significant effect. Removal and replacement of the pulp reduced the mean blood flow by 58%. There was no further change when the pulp was removed. With red light, the dam reduced the signal from intact teeth by 60%. Injecting LA and cavity preparation had no significant effect. The signal fell by 67% after pulp removal and replacement and did not change significantly when the pulp was removed. Opaque rubber dam minimises the contribution of non-pulpal tissues to the laser Doppler signal recorded from premolars. Using dam, the pulp contributed about 60% to the blood flow signal with both red and infrared light. The difference between them in this respect was not significant. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The photochemistry in Photosystem II at 5 K is different in visible and far-red light.

    PubMed

    Mokvist, Fredrik; Sjöholm, Johannes; Mamedov, Fikret; Styring, Stenbjörn

    2014-07-08

    We have earlier shown that all electron transfer reactions in Photosystem II are operational up to 800 nm at room temperature [Thapper, A., et al. (2009) Plant Cell 21, 2391-2401]. This led us to suggest an alternative charge separation pathway for far-red excitation. Here we extend these studies to a very low temperature (5 K). Illumination of Photosystem II (PS II) with visible light at 5 K is known to result in oxidation of almost similar amounts of YZ and the Cyt b559/ChlZ/CarD2 pathway. This is reproduced here using laser flashes at 532 nm, and we find the partition ratio between the two pathways to be 1:0.8 at 5 K [the partition ratio is here defined as (yield of YZ/CaMn4 oxidation):(yield of Cyt b559/ChlZ/CarD2 oxidation)]. The result using far-red laser flashes is very different. We find partition ratios of 1.8 at 730 nm, 2.7 at 740 nm, and >2.7 at 750 nm. No photochemistry involving these pathways is observed above 750 nm at this temperature. Thus, far-red illumination preferentially oxidizes YZ, while the Cyt b559/ChlZ/CarD2 pathway is hardly touched. We propose that the difference in the partition ratio between visible and far-red light at 5 K reflects the formation of a different first stable charge pair. In visible light, the first stable charge pair is considered to be PD1+QA-. In contrast, we propose that the electron hole is residing on the ChlD1 molecule after illumination by far-red light at 5 K, resulting in the first stable charge pair being ChlD1+QA-. ChlD1 is much closer to YZ (11.3 Å) than to any component in the Cyt b559/ChlZ/CarD2 pathway (shortest ChlD1-CarD2 distance of 28.8 Å). This would then explain that far-red illumination preferentially drives efficient electron transfer from YZ. We also discuss mechanisms for accounting for the absorption of the far-red light and the existence of hitherto unobserved charge transfer states. The involvement of two or more of the porphyrin molecules in the core of the Photosystem II reaction center

  16. Application of 265-nm UVC LED Lighting to Sterilization of Typical Gram Negative and Positive Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong Wook; Yoon, Hyung Do; Park, Jae-Hyoun; Ryu, Uh-Chan

    2018-05-01

    UV LED lightings have been displacing conventional UV lamps due to their high efficiency, long lifetime, etc. A sterilizing lighting was prepared by assembling a UV LED module composed of 265-nm UVC LEDs and a silica lens array with a driver module comprised of a driver IC controlling pulse width modulation and constant current. The silica lens array was designed and fabricated to focus UV beam and simultaneously to give a uniform light distribution over specimens. Then pasteurizing effect of the lighting was analyzed for four kinds of bacteria and one yeast which are dangerous to people with low immunity. Sterilizing tests on these germs were carried out at the both exposure distances of 10 and 100 mm for various exposure durations up to 600 s.

  17. A frequency-stabilized light source at 399 nm using an Yb hollow-cathode lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Takehiko; Akamatsu, Daisuke; Inaba, Hajime; Okubo, Sho; Kobayashi, Takumi; Yasuda, Masami; Hosaka, Kazumoto; Hong, Feng-Lei

    2018-06-01

    We demonstrate a diode laser system operating at 399 nm that is stabilized to the 6s2 1S0–6s6p 1P1 electric dipole transition in ytterbium (Yb) atoms in a hollow-cathode lamp. The frequency stability of the laser reached 1.1 × 10‑11 at an averaging time of τ = 1 s. We performed an absolute frequency measurement using an optical frequency comb and determined that the absolute frequency of the laser stabilized to the 1S0–1P1 transition in 174Yb was 751 526 522.26(9) MHz. We also investigated several systematic frequency shifts while changing some of the light source parameters and measured several isotope shifts. The measured laser frequency will provide useful information regarding the practical use of the frequency-stabilized light source at 399 nm.

  18. Penetration of UV-A, UV-B, blue, and red light into leaf tissues of pecan measured by a fiber optic microprobe system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yadong; Bai, Shuju; Vogelmann, Thomas C.; Heisler, Gordon M.

    2003-11-01

    The depth of light penetration from the adaxial surfaces of the mature leaves of pecan (Carya illinoensis) was measured using a fiber optic microprobe system at four wavelengths: UV-B (310nm), UV-A (360 nm), blue light (430nm), and red light (680nm). The average thickness of the leaf adaxial epidermal layer was 15um and the total leaf thickness was 219um. The patterns of the light attenuation by the leaf tissues exhibited strong wavelength dependence. The leaf adaxial epidermal layer was chiefly responsible for absorbing the UV-A UV-B radiation. About 98% of 310 nm light was steeply attenuated within the first 5 um of the adaxial epidermis; thus, very little UV-B radiation was transmitted to the mesophyll tissues where contain photosynthetically sensitive sites. The adaxial epidermis also attenuated 96% of the UV-A radiation. In contrast, the blue and red light penetrated much deeper and was gradually attenutated by the leaves. The mesophyll tissues attenuated 17% of the blue light and 42% of the red light, which were available for photosynthesis use. Since the epidermal layer absorbed nearly all UV-B light, it acted as an effective filter screening out the harmful radiation and protecting photosynthetically sensitive tissues from the UV-B damage. Therefore, the epidermal function of the UV-B screening effectiveness can be regarded as one of the UV-B protection mechanisms in pecan.

  19. Blue light (470 nm) effectively inhibits bacterial and fungal growth.

    PubMed

    De Lucca, A J; Carter-Wientjes, C; Williams, K A; Bhatnagar, D

    2012-12-01

    Blue light (470 nm) LED antimicrobial properties were studied alone against bacteria and with or without the food grade photosensitizer, erythrosine (ERY) against filamentous fungi. Leuconostoc mesenteroides (LM), Bacillus atrophaeus (BA) or Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) aliquots were exposed on nutrient agar plates to Array 1 (AR1, 0·2 mW cm(-2)) or Array 2 (AR2, 80 mW cm(-2)), which emitted impure or pure blue light (0-300 J cm(-2)), respectively. Inoculated control (room light only) plates were incubated (48 h) and colonies enumerated. The antifungal properties of blue light combined with ERY (11·4 and 22·8 μmol l(-1)) on Penicillium digitatum (PD) and Fusarium graminearum (FG) conidia were determined. Conidial controls consisted of: no light, room light-treated conidia and ERY plus room light. Light-treated (ERY + blue light) conidial samples were exposed only to AR2 (0-100 J cm(-2)), aliquots spread on potato dextrose agar plates, incubated (48 h, 30°C) and colonies counted. Blue light alone significantly reduced bacterial and FG viability. Combined with ERY, it significantly reduced PD viability. Blue light is lethal to bacteria and filamentous fungi although effectiveness is dependent on light purity, energy levels and microbial genus. Light from two arrays of different blue LEDs significantly reduced bacterial (Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Bacillus atrophaeus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) viabilities. Significant in vitro viability loss was observed for the filamentous fungi, Penicillium digitatum and Fusarium graminearum when exposed to pure blue light only plus a photosensitizer. F. graminearum viability was significantly reduced by blue light alone. Results suggest that (i) the amount of significant loss in bacterial viability observed for blue light that is pure or with traces of other wavelengths is genus dependent and (ii) depending on fungal genera, pure blue light is fungicidal with or without a photosensitizer. © 2012 The Society for

  20. A red and far-red light receptor mutation confers resistance to the herbicide glyphosate

    PubMed Central

    Sharkhuu, Altanbadralt; Narasimhan, Meena L; Merzaban, Jasmeen S; Bressan, Ray A; Weller, Steve; Gehring, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Glyphosate is a widely applied broad-spectrum systemic herbicide that inhibits competitively the penultimate enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) from the shikimate pathway, thereby causing deleterious effects. A glyphosate-resistant Arabidopsis mutant (gre1) was isolated and genetic analyses indicated that a dysfunctional red (R) and far-red (FR) light receptor, phytochrome B (phyB), caused this phenotype. This finding is consistent with increased glyphosate sensitivity and glyphosate-induced shikimate accumulation in low R:FR light, and the induction of genes encoding enzymes of the shikimate pathway in high R:FR light. Expression of the shikimate pathway genes exhibited diurnal oscillation and this oscillation was altered in the phyB mutant. Furthermore, transcript analysis suggested that this diurnal oscillation was not only dependent on phyB but was also due to circadian regulatory mechanisms. Our data offer an explanation of the well documented observation that glyphosate treatment at various times throughout the day, with their specific composition of light quality and intensity, results in different efficiencies of the herbicide. PMID:24654847

  1. Red and NIR light dosimetry in the human deep brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitzschke, A.; Lovisa, B.; Seydoux, O.; Zellweger, M.; Pfleiderer, M.; Tardy, Y.; Wagnières, G.

    2015-04-01

    Photobiomodulation (PBM) appears promising to treat the hallmarks of Parkinson’s Disease (PD) in cellular or animal models. We measured light propagation in different areas of PD-relevant deep brain tissue during transcranial, transsphenoidal illumination (at 671 and 808 nm) of a cadaver head and modeled optical parameters of human brain tissue using Monte-Carlo simulations. Gray matter, white matter, cerebrospinal fluid, ventricles, thalamus, pons, cerebellum and skull bone were processed into a mesh of the skull (158 × 201 × 211 voxels; voxel side length: 1 mm). Optical parameters were optimized from simulated and measured fluence rate distributions. The estimated μeff for the different tissues was in all cases larger at 671 than at 808 nm, making latter a better choice for light delivery in the deep brain. Absolute values were comparable to those found in the literature or slightly smaller. The effective attenuation in the ventricles was considerably larger than literature values. Optimization yields a new set of optical parameters better reproducing the experimental data. A combination of PBM via the sphenoid sinus and oral cavity could be beneficial. A 20-fold higher efficiency of light delivery to the deep brain was achieved with ventricular instead of transcranial illumination. Our study demonstrates that it is possible to illuminate deep brain tissues transcranially, transsphenoidally and via different application routes. This opens therapeutic options for sufferers of PD or other cerebral diseases necessitating light therapy.

  2. 300 mW of coherent light at 488 nm using a generic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamehmedović, Emir; Pedersen, Christian; Andersen, Martin T.; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2008-02-01

    We present a generic approach for efficient generation of CW light with a predetermined wavelength within the visible or UV spectrum. Based on sum-frequency generation (SFG), the circulating intra-cavity field of a high-finesse diode pumped CW solid-state laser (DPSSL) and the output from a tapered, single-frequency external cavity diode laser (ECDL) are mixed inside a 10 mm periodically poled KTP crstal (pp-KTP). The pp-KTP is situated inside the DPSSL cavity to enhance conversion efficiency of the nonlinear mixing process. This approach combines different solid state technologies; the tuneability of ECDLs, the high intra-cavity filed of DPSSLs and flexible quasi phase matching in pp-tapered ECDL with a center wavelength of 766 nm in combination with a high finesse Nd:YVo4 laser at 1342 nm. Up to 308 mW of light at 488nm was measured in our experiments. The conversion of te ECDL beam was up to 47% after it was transmitted through a PM fiber, and up to 32% without fiber coupling. Replacing the seed laser and the nonlinear crystal makes it possible to generate light at virtually any desired wavelength withing the visible spectrum.

  3. Low temperature solution process-based defect-induced orange-red light emitting diode

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Pranab; Baek, Sung-Doo; Hoon Lee, Sang; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Jeong Lee, Su; Il Lee, Tae; Myoung, Jae-Min

    2015-01-01

    We report low-temperature solution-processed p-CuO nanorods (NRs)/n-ZnO NRs heterojunction light emitting diode (LED), exploiting the native point defects of ZnO NRs. ZnO NRs were synthesized at 90 °C by using hydrothermal method while CuO NRs were synthesized at 100 °C by using microwave reaction system. The electrical properties of newly synthesized CuO NRs revealed a promising p-type nature with a hole concentration of 9.64 × 1018 cm−3. The current-voltage characteristic of the heterojunction showed a significantly high rectification ratio of 105 at 4 V with a stable current flow. A broad orange-red emission was obtained from the forward biased LED with a major peak at 610 nm which was attributed to the electron transition from interstitial zinc to interstitial oxygen point defects in ZnO. A minor shoulder peak was also observed at 710 nm, corresponding to red emission which was ascribed to the transition from conduction band of ZnO to oxygen vacancies in ZnO lattice. This study demonstrates a significant progress toward oxide materials based, defect-induced light emitting device with low-cost, low-temperature methods. PMID:26648420

  4. The utilization of nonthermal blue (405-425 nm) and near infrared (850-890 nm) light in aesthetic dermatology and surgery-a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Lask, Gary; Fournier, Nathalie; Trelles, Mario; Elman, Monica; Scheflan, Michael; Slatkine, Michael; Naimark, Jenny; Harth, Yoram

    2005-12-01

    A major cause of skin aging is a chronic micro-inflammation triggered by UV radiation and external pollutants. It has been demonstrated that blue light diminishes inflammatory conditions and near infrared light enhances circulation. To assess the effectiveness of a non thermal dual wavelength -- blue (405 - 420 nm) and near infrared (850 - 900 nm) -- light source in skin rejuvenation, in the reduction of the duration of post skin resurfacing erythema and in the acceleration of healing of post surgical conditions (face lift and breast augmentation). We have utilized a non contact, hand free dual wavelength light source (iClearXL and Clear100XL, Curelight Ltd) to treat over 60 patients and perform three controlled studies in four centers. Follow up duration was three months. Control group for photo-rejuvenation consisted of patients treated with Glycolic peeling and daily appliance of vitamin C Control group for post skin resurfacing erythema duration consisted of patients untreated by the light source and control group for post surgical healing consisted of patients untreated by the light source or treated by the light source on one side only. Post skin resurfacing erythema duration is reduced by 90%. The healing of post surgical conditions is substantially accelerated and discomfort is reduced. The anti aging effect of the light source includes: reduction of pore size in 90% of patients with stable results at three months follow up, enhanced skin radiance in 90% of patients with stable results at three months follow up and smoothing of fine wrinkles in 45% of patients with stable results at three months follow up. The control group showed poor results which were stable for a duration of less than one month. A non thermal, non contact / hand free light source emitting at 405-420 nm and 850-900 nm considerably enhances aesthetic and surgical aesthetic procedures without consuming user time.

  5. Optimization of Semitransparent Anode Electrode for Flexible Green and Red Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho Won; Park, Jaehoon; Yang, Hyung Jin; Lee, Song Eun; Lee, Seok Jae; Koo, Ja Ryong; Kim, Hye Jeong; Yoon, Seung Soo; Kim, Young Kwan

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we demonstrated thin film semitransparent anode electrode using Ni/Ag/Ni (3/6/3 nm) on green and red phosphorescent OLEDs, which have basically high efficiency and good optical characteristics. Moreover, we applied this semitransparent anode on flexible green and red phosphorescent OLEDs, which were then optimized for possible applications on flexible substrates. First, we studied optimization using various conditions of Ni/Ag/Ni electrodes via transmittance and sheet resistance. We then fabricated the devices on a glass substrate with ITO or Ni/Ag/Ni electrodes as well as on a flexible substrate with a Ni/Ag/Ni electrode for green and red phosphorescent OLEDs. Consequently, we could be proposed that the potential of our semitransparent anode electrode is demonstrated. Green phosphorescent OLEDs characteristics using ITO or Ni/Ag/Ni anode electrodes were coincided and those of the red phosphorescent OLEDs were improved by semitransparent electrodes at 10,000 cd/m2 criterion. Therefore, this research suggests for additional studies to be conducted on flexible and high-performance phosphorescent OLED displays and light applications for ITO-free processes.

  6. Enhanced red emission of 808 nm excited upconversion nanoparticles by optimizing the composition of shell for efficient generation of singlet oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinxue; Zhang, Tingbin; Song, Xiaoyan; Xing, Jinfeng

    2018-01-01

    With the aim to enhance the upconversion luminescence (UCL) intensity, much attention was paid to reduce the energy-back transfer from Er3+ ions to Nd3+ ions by constructing various kinds of multilayer upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs). However, the energy-back transfer was difficult to be completely eliminated. Also, the thick shell of multilayer UCNPs is not favourable for effective Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) in photodynamic therapy (PDT) system. Herein, an effective and facile method was applied to prepare UCNPs by optimizing the composition to largely enhance the red emission (at 660 nm) for efficient generation of singlet oxygen (1O2). In detail, the concentrations of Nd3+ ions and Yb3+ ions doped in the sensitizing shell were systematically researched to balance the energy back-transfer and the light harvest ability. The optimal emission and a relatively high Red/Green (R/G) ratio of NaYF4:Yb,Er,Nd@NaYF4:Yb0.1Nd0.2 UCNPs were obtained simultaneously. Furthermore, the emission under 980 nm excitation demonstrated the energy back-transfer from Er3+ to Yb3+ ions was also notable which was largely ignored previously. Then, UCNPs were encapsulated into mesoporous silica shell, and the photosensitizer Chlorin e6 (Ce6) was covalently conjugated to form a non-leaking nanoplatform. The efficiency of 1O2 generation obviously increased with the enhanced emission of UCNPs.

  7. Red laser-diode pumped 806 nm Tm3+: ZBLAN fibre laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juárez-Hernández, M.; Mejía, E. B.

    2017-06-01

    A Tm3+-doped fluorozirconate (ZBLAN) fibre laser operating CW at 806 nm when diode-pumped at 687 nm is described for the first time. This device is based on the 3F4  →  3H6 transition, and is suitable for first telecom window and sensing applications. A slope efficiency of 50.3% and low threshold pump-power of 11.6 mW were obtained. Maximum output power of 15 mW for 40 mW coupled pump was achieved.

  8. Complementation of a red-light-indifferent cyanobacterial mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, G G; Schaefer, M R; Grossman, A R

    1992-01-01

    Many cyanobacteria alter their phycobilisome composition in response to changes in light wavelength in a process termed complementary chromatic adaptation. Mutant strains FdR1 and FdR2 of the filamentous cyanobacterium Fremyella diplosiphon are characterized by aberrant chromatic adaptation. Instead of adjusting to different wavelengths of light, FdR1 and FdR2 behave as if they are always in green light; they do not respond to red light. We have previously reported complementation of FdR1 by conjugal transfer of a wild-type genomic library. The complementing DNA has now been localized by genetic analysis to a region on the rescued genomic subclone that contains a gene designated rcaC. This region of DNA is also able to complement FdR2. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA from FdR1 and FdR2 indicates that these strains harbor DNA insertions within the rcaC sequence that may have resulted from the activity of transposable genetic elements. The predicted amino acid sequence of RcaC shares strong identity to response regulators of bacterial two-component regulatory systems. This relationship is discussed in the context of the signal-transduction pathway mediating regulation of genes encoding phycobilisome polypeptides during chromatic adaptation. Images PMID:1409650

  9. Photodegradation of methyl red under visible light by mesoporous carbon nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yueyue; Zhang, Min; Xiao, Zaozao; Jiang, Tao; Yan, Bing; Li, Jian

    2018-02-01

    Mesoporous carbon nitride (mpg-C3N4) with tunable microstructure has been successfully prepared through a simple polymerization reaction of cyanamide by a nano hard-templating approach. The obtained materials have been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results show that the pore diameter of the mpg-C3N4 materials can be easily tuned from 3.8 to 10.5 nm. The mpg-C3N4 materials are demonstrated to exhibit much higher visible light photocatalytic activity than that of g-C3N4 for the degradation of aqueous methyl red (MR). The high surface areas and large pore volume contributed to the efficient visible light photocatalytic activity.

  10. Efficient generation of 509 nm light by sum-frequency mixing between two tapered diode lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawfieq, Mahmoud; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Hansen, Anders Kragh; Sumpf, Bernd; Paschke, Katrin; Andersen, Peter E.

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate a concept for visible laser sources based on sum-frequency generation of beam combined tapered diode lasers. In this specific case, a 1.7 W sum-frequency generated green laser at 509 nm is obtained, by frequency adding of 6.17 W from a 978 nm tapered diode laser with 8.06 W from a 1063 nm tapered diode laser, inside a periodically poled MgO doped lithium niobate crystal. This corresponds to an optical to optical conversion efficiency of 12.1%. As an example of potential applications, the generated nearly diffraction-limited green light is used for pumping a Ti:sapphire laser, thus demonstrating good beam quality and power stability. The maximum output powers achieved when pumping the Ti:sapphire laser are 226 mW (CW) and 185 mW (mode-locked) at 1.7 W green pump power. The optical spectrum emitted by the mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser shows a spectral width of about 54 nm (FWHM), indicating less than 20 fs pulse width.

  11. Pulpal blood flow recorded from exposed dentine with a laser Doppler flow meter using red or infrared light.

    PubMed

    Kijsamanmith, Kanittha; Vongsavan, Noppakun; Matthews, Bruce

    2018-03-01

    To determine the percentage of the blood flow signal that is derived from dental pulp when recording from exposed dentine in a human premolar. Recordings were made from 7 healthy teeth in 5 subjects (aged 22-33 yr.) with a laser Doppler flow meter (Periflux 4001) using either a red (635 nm) or an infrared (780 nm) laser. After exposing dentine above the buccal pulpal horn (cavity diam. 1.6 mm, depth 3 mm) and isolating the crown with opaque rubber dam, blood flow was recorded alternately with infrared or red light from the exposed dentine under four conditions: before and after injecting local anaesthetic (3% Mepivacaine without vasoconstrictor) (LA) over the apex of the root of the tooth; after exposing the pulp by cutting a buccal, class V cavity in the tooth; and after sectioning the coronal pulp transversely through the exposure. There was no significant change in mean blood flow recorded with either light source when the tooth was anaesthetized or when the pulp was exposed. After the pulp had been sectioned, the blood flow recorded with infrared light fell by 67.8% and with red light, by 68.4%. The difference between these effects was not significant. When recording blood flow from exposed coronal dentine with either infrared or red light in a tooth isolated with opaque rubber dam, about 68% to the signal was contributed by the pulp. The signal:noise ratio was better with infrared than red light, and when recording from dentine than enamel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Northern Red Oak Seedling Growth Varies by Light Intensity and Seed Source

    Treesearch

    Charles E. McGee

    1968-01-01

    Northern red oak seedlings from each of three seed sources were subjected for one growing season to one of four intensities of light: full light, 70 percent light, 37 percent light, and 8 percent light. Seedlings grown in the open were taller than those grown in the shade and had more, generally heavier leaves. Height and leaf growth decreased as the amount of light...

  13. Growth of cress seedlings and morphogenesis of root Gravisensors under clino-rotation and in unidirectional red or blue light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakleviciene, D.; Svegzdiene, D.; Tamulaitis, G.; Zukauskas, A.

    2005-08-01

    The growth rate and orientation of cress seedlings in response to the direction of illumination under clino- rotation were investigated at the initial stage of intensive hypocotyl elongation. Roots and hypocotyls growing in normal gravity conditions (1 g) and under clino-rotation at 3 rpm were illuminated with red (660 nm) or blue (450 nm) light from light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Unidirectional illumination in the direction opposite to the gravity vector promoted the growth rate of roots. Inhibition of gravitropism by clino-rotation reduced the growth of roots and stimulated the elongation of hypocotyls in both red and blue light. Illumination of roots invoked changes in the formation of gravisensing cells in the columella. Illumination under clino-rotation stimulated root statocyte growth and increased the number of amyloplasts in cells of the 3rd-6th columella rows. Also, an increase in the columella cell area, mainly caused by cell elongation in blue light and by enhanced radial growth in red light, was observed.

  14. Analysis of optical transmission by 400-500 nm visible light into aesthetic dental biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Watts, D C; Cash, A J

    1994-04-01

    The penetration of visible light into dental biomaterials is an essential factor in photoinitiation of setting reactions and in the optical aspects of dental aesthetics. Light of visible blue wavelengths, 400-500 nm, has been applied at normal angles to 0.2-5.0 mm sections of human dentine and representative ceramic, polymerceramic composites and hybrid glass-polyalkenoate materials. The integrated optical transmission has been determined for each material section. The data have been converted to absorbance values and analysed to check for mathematical conformity to the Beer-Lambert Law. It is found that conformity (typically, P < 0.01) to the linear Beer-Lambert Law is only attained by making a substantial correction for the intensity of light reflected from the surface of aesthetic biomaterials. This is otherwise expressed by distinguishing between true and apparent absorbance. From linear regression of apparent absorbance with section thickness, the intercept depends upon the logarithm of the surface-reflection ratio. This factor ranges from 30% to 90% in the materials investigated. It follows that there is a high degree of inefficiency in the transmission of visible light into and through aesthetic biomaterials for the purposes of photoactivation using existing technology. Means by which this limitation and inefficiency may be reduced are discussed. While the reflectivity of aesthetic biomaterials has been perceived by dental practitioners, the magnitude of this effect and its implications in connection with light-cured materials have not been analysed and emphasized hitherto.

  15. Attenuation of near-IR light through dentin at wavelengths from 1300–1650-nm

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Andrew C.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Chan, Kenneth H.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Light scattering in dental enamel decreases markedly from the UV to the near-IR and recent studies employing near-IR transillumination and reflectance imaging including optical coherence tomography indicate that this wavelength region is ideally suited for imaging dental caries due to the high transparency of enamel. The opacity of dentin is an important factor in optimizing the contrast of demineralization in reflectance measurements. It also influences the contrast of occlusal lesions in transillumination. Light scattering in dentin is an order of magnitude larger than in enamel, it is highly anisotropic and has a different spectral light scattering dependence than enamel. The objective of this study was to measure the optical attenuation of near-IR light through dentin at near-IR wavelengths from 1300–1650-nm. In this study the collimated transmission of near-IR light through polished thin sections of dentin of 0.05 to 0.6 mm thickness was measured. Beer-Lambert plots show that the attenuation coefficients range in magnitude from 20 to 40 cm−1. Attenuation increased significantly with increasing wavelength and the increases were not entirely consistent with increased water absorption. PMID:24839373

  16. A Preliminary Study of the Safety of Red Light Phototherapy of Tissues Harboring Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stadler, Istvan; Brondon, Philip; Axe, David R.; Friedman, Mark; Nardia, Frances Barg; Lanzafame, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Red light phototherapy is known to stimulate cell proliferation in wound healing. This study investigated whether low-level light therapy (LLLT) would promote tumor growth when pre-existing malignancy is present. Background data: LLLT has been increasingly used for numerous conditions, but its use in cancer patients, including the treatment of lymphedema or various unrelated comorbidities, has been withheld by practitioners because of the fear that LLLT might result in initiation or promotion of metastatic lesions or new primary tumors. There has been little scientific study of oncologic outcomes after use of LLLT in cancer patients. Methods: A standard SKH mouse nonmelanoma UV-induced skin cancer model was used after visible squamous cell carcinomas were present, to study the effects of LLLT on tumor growth. The red light group (n=8) received automated full body 670 nm LLLT delivered twice a day at 5 J/cm2 using an LED source. The control group (n=8) was handled similarly, but did not receive LLLT. Measurements on 330 tumors were conducted for 37 consecutive days, while the animals received daily LLLT. Results: Daily tumor measurements demonstrated no measurable effect of LLLT on tumor growth. Conclusions: This experiment suggests that LLLT at these parameters may be safe even when malignant lesions are present. Further studies on the effects of photoirradiation on neoplasms are warranted. PMID:22853435

  17. Red/near-infrared light-emitting diode therapy for traumatic brain injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naeser, Margaret A.; Martin, Paula I.; Ho, Michael D.; Krengel, Maxine H.; Bogdanova, Yelena; Knight, Jeffrey A.; Yee, Megan K.; Zafonte, Ross; Frazier, Judith; Hamblin, Michael R.; Koo, Bang-Bon

    2015-05-01

    This invited paper reviews our research with scalp application of red/near-infrared (NIR) light-emitting diodes (LED) to improve cognition in chronic, traumatic brain injury 1. Application of red/NIR light improves mitochondrial function (especially hypoxic/compromised cells) promoting increased ATP, important for cellular metabolism. Nitric oxide is released locally, increasing regional cerebral blood flow. Eleven chronic, mTBI participants with closed-head injury and cognitive dysfunction received 18 outpatient treatments (MWF, 6 Wks) starting at 10 Mo. to 8 Yr. post-mTBI (MVA, sports-related, IED blast injury). LED therapy is non-invasive, painless, non-thermal (FDA-cleared, non-significant risk device). Each LED cluster head (2.1" diameter, 500mW, 22.2mW/cm2) was applied 10 min (13J/cm2) to 11 scalp placements: midline, from front-to-back hairline; and bilaterally on dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, temporal, and parietal areas. Testing performed pre- and post-LED (+1 Wk, 1 and 2 Mo post- 18th treatment) showed significant linear trend for LED effect over time, on improved executive function and verbal memory. Fewer PTSD symptoms were reported. New studies at VA Boston include TBI patients treated with transcranial LED (26J/cm2); or treated with only intranasal red, 633nm and NIR, 810nm diodes placed into the nostrils (25 min, 6.5mW, 11.4J/cm2). Intranasal LEDs are hypothesized to deliver photons to hippocampus. Results are similar to Naeser et al. (2014). Actigraphy sleep data show increased sleep time (average, +1 Hr/night) post-18th transcranial or intranasal LED treatment. LED treatments may be self-administered at home (Naeser et al., 2011). A shamcontrolled study with Gulf War Illness Veterans is underway.

  18. Red Light Combined with Blue Light Irradiation Regulates Proliferation and Apoptosis in Skin Keratinocytes in Combination with Low Concentrations of Curcumin

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Qing; Ren, Qu; Wei, Lizhao

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin is a widely known natural phytochemical from plant Curcuma longa. In recent years, curcumin has received increasing attention because of its capability to induce apoptosis and inhibit cell proliferation as well as its anti-inflammatory properties in different cancer cells. However, the therapeutic benefits of curcumin are severely hampered due to its particularly low absorption via trans-dermal or oral bioavailability. Phototherapy with visible light is gaining more and more support in dermatological therapy. Red light is part of the visible light spectrum, which is able to deeply penetrate the skin to about 6 mm, and directly affect the fibroblast of the skin dermis. Blue light is UV-free irradiation which is fit for treating chronic inflammation diseases. In this study, we show that curcumin at low concentrations (1.25–3.12 μM) has a strong anti-proliferative effect on TNF-α-induced psoriasis-like inflammation when applied in combination with light-emitting-diode devices. The treatment was especially effective when LED blue light at 405 nm was combined with red light at 630 or 660 nm, which markedly amplified the anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects of curcumin. The experimental results demonstrated that this treatment reduced the viability of human skin keratinocytes, decreased cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, inhibited NF-κB activity and activated caspase-8 and caspase-9 while preserving the cell membrane integrity. Moreover, the combined treatment also down-regulated the phosphorylation level of Akt and ERK. Taken together, our results indicated that the combination of curcumin with LED blue light united red light irradiation can attain a higher efficiency of regulating proliferation and apoptosis in skin keratinocytes. PMID:26382065

  19. Cytokinin, acting through ethylene, restores gravitropism to Arabidopsis seedlings grown under red light.

    PubMed Central

    Golan, A; Tepper, M; Soudry, E; Horwitz, B A; Gepstein, S

    1996-01-01

    Cytokinin replaces light in several aspects of the photomorphogenesis of dicot seedlings. Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings grown under red light have been shown to become disoriented, losing the negative hypocotyl gravitropism that has been observed in seedlings grown in darkness or white light. We report here that cytokinin at micromolar concentrations restores gravitropism to seedlings grown under red light. Cytokinin cancels the effect of red light on the gravity-sensing system and at the same time replaces light in the inhibition of hypocotyl elongation. Furthermore, application of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid acts similarly to cytokinin. Cytokinin cannot restore gravitropism under red light to an ethylene-insensitive mutant that is defective at the EIN2 locus. Stimulation of ethylene production, therefore, can explain the action of cytokinin in restoring negative gravitropism to the hypocotyls of Arabidopsis seedlings grown under continuous red light. PMID:8938401

  20. Transmission of light in the visible spectrum (400-700 nm) and blue spectrum (360-540 nm) through CAD/CAM polymers.

    PubMed

    Güth, Jan-Frederik; Kauling, Ana Elisa Colle; Ueda, Kazuhiko; Florian, Beuer; Stimmelmayr, Michael

    2016-12-01

    CAD/CAM-fabricated long-term temporary restorations from high-density polymers can be applied for a wide range of indications. Milled from monolithic, mono-colored polymer blocks, the translucency of the material plays an important role for an esthetically acceptable result. The aim of this study was to compare the transmittance through visible light and blue light of CAD CAM polymers to a glass-ceramic material of the same color. Ambarino High-Class (AM), Telio-CAD (TC), Zenotec PMMA (ZT), Cercon base PMMA (CB), CAD Temp (CT), Artbloc Temp (AT), Polycon ae (PS), New Outline CAD (NC), QUATTRO DISK Eco PMMA (GQ), Lava Ultimate (LU), and Paradigm MZ 100 (PA) were employed in this study using the feldspathic glass-ceramic Vita Mark II (MK) as control group. Using a spectrophotometer, the overall light transmittance was measured for each material (n = 40) and was calculated as the integration (t c (λ) dλ [10 -5 ]) of all t c values for the wavelengths of blue light (360-540 nm). Results were compared to previous data of the authors for visible light (400 to 700 nm). Wilcoxon test showed significant differences between the light transmittance of visible and blue light for all materials. CAD/CAM polymers showed different translucency for blue and visible light. This means clinicians may not conclude from the visible translucency of a material to its permeability for blue light. This influences considerations regarding light curing. CAD/CAM polymers need to be luted adhesively; therefore, clinicians should be aware about the amount of blue light passing through a restoration.

  1. A study of 173 nm light emission from discharge cells in plasma display panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhm, Han S.; Choi, Eun H.; Jung, Kyu B.

    2005-03-01

    Emission properties of the 173nm lights from the electrical discharge cells of the plasma display panel are investigated. The dimer formation and a theoretical model of 173nm emission are presented. It is shown that the diffusion loss of the excited xenon atoms in the metastable level is one of the most important population depreciation factor of excited xenon atoms. The decay time τd of excited atom number increases from zero, reaches its peak, and then decreases to zero, as the gas pressure p increases from zero, agreeing well with experimental data. A simple analytical expression Y of the total emission intensity is described in terms of the diffusion loss df, the three-body collision η, the gas pressure p, and the xenon mole fraction χ. The emission intensity Y of 173nm photon decreases with an increasing value of parameter df. Moreover, the emission intensity Y increases drastically with an increasing value of the gas pressure p and the xenon mole fraction χ. Results from the theoretical model agree remarkably well with experimental data.

  2. The impact of red light cameras on safety in Arizona.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kangwon; Washington, Simon

    2007-11-01

    Red light cameras (RLCs) have been used in a number of US cities to yield a demonstrable reduction in red light violations; however, evaluating their impact on safety (crashes) has been relatively more difficult. Accurately estimating the safety impacts of RLCs is challenging for several reasons. First, many safety related factors are uncontrolled and/or confounded during the periods of observation. Second, "spillover" effects caused by drivers reacting to non-RLC equipped intersections and approaches can make the selection of comparison sites difficult. Third, sites selected for RLC installation may not be selected randomly, and as a result may suffer from the regression to the mean bias. Finally, crash severity and resulting costs need to be considered in order to fully understand the safety impacts of RLCs. Recognizing these challenges, a study was conducted to estimate the safety impacts of RLCs on traffic crashes at signalized intersections in the cities of Phoenix and Scottsdale, Arizona. Twenty-four RLC equipped intersections in both cities are examined in detail and conclusions are drawn. Four different evaluation methodologies were employed to cope with the technical challenges described in this paper and to assess the sensitivity of results based on analytical assumptions. The evaluation results indicated that both Phoenix and Scottsdale are operating cost-effective installations of RLCs: however, the variability in RLC effectiveness within jurisdictions is larger in Phoenix. Consistent with findings in other regions, angle and left-turn crashes are reduced in general, while rear-end crashes tend to increase as a result of RLCs.

  3. Swept source optical coherence microscopy using a 1310 nm VCSEL light source

    PubMed Central

    Ahsen, Osman O.; Tao, Yuankai K.; Potsaid, Benjamin M.; Sheikine, Yuri; Jiang, James; Grulkowski, Ireneusz; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Kraus, Martin F.; Connolly, James L.; Hornegger, Joachim; Cable, Alex; Fujimoto, James G.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate high speed, swept source optical coherence microscopy (OCM) using a MEMS tunable vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) light source. The light source had a sweep rate of 280 kHz, providing a bidirectional axial scan rate of 560 kHz. The sweep bandwidth was 117 nm centered at 1310 nm, corresponding to an axial resolution of 13.1 µm in air, corresponding to 8.1 µm (9.6 µm spectrally shaped) in tissue. Dispersion mismatch from different objectives was compensated numerically, enabling magnification and field of view to be easily changed. OCM images were acquired with transverse resolutions between 0.86 µm - 3.42 µm using interchangeable 40X, 20X and 10X objectives with ~600 µm x 600 µm, ~1 mm x 1 mm and ~2 mm x 2 mm field-of-view (FOV), respectively. Parasitic variations in path length with beam scanning were corrected numerically. These features enable swept source OCM to be integrated with a wide range of existing scanning microscopes. Large FOV mosaics were generated by serially acquiring adjacent overlapping microscopic fields and combining them in post-processing. Fresh human colon, thyroid and kidney specimens were imaged ex vivo and compared to matching histology sections, demonstrating the ability of OCM to image tissue specimens. PMID:23938673

  4. Degradation of blue and red inks by Ag/AgCl photocatalyst under UV light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daupor, Hasan; Chenea, Asmat

    2017-08-01

    Objective of this research, cubic Ag/AgCl photocatalysts with an average particle size of 500 nm has been successfully synthesized via a modified precipitation reaction between ZrCl4 and AgNO3. Method for analysis, the crystal structure of the product was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The morphology and composition were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-vis diffuse-reflection spectra (DRS) and so on. The result showed that the optical absorption spectrum exhibited strong absorption in the visible region around 500-600 nm due to surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of metallic silver nanoparticles. SEM micrographs showed that the obtained Ag/AgCl had cubic morphology and appeared on the porous surface as the cubic cage morphology. As a result, this porous surface also positively affected the photocatalytic reaction. The photocatalytic activity of the obtained product was evaluated by the photodegradation of blue and red ink solutions under UV light irradiation, and it was interestingly, discovered that AgCl could degrade 0.25% and 0.10% in 7 hours for blue and red inks solution respectively, Which were higher than of commercial AgCl. The result suggested that the morphology of Ag/AgCl strongly affected their photocatalytic activities. O2-, OH- reaction. radicals and Cl° atom are main species during photocatalytic reaction.

  5. Visible red and infrared light alters gene expression in human marrow stromal fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, J; Wang, Q; Wai, D; Zhang, Q Z; Shi, S H; Le, A D; Shi, S T; Yen, S L-K

    2015-04-01

    This study tested whether or not gene expression in human marrow stromal fibroblast (MSF) cells depends on light wavelength and energy density. Primary cultures of isolated human bone marrow stem cells (hBMSC) were exposed to visible red (VR, 633 nm) and infrared (IR, 830 nm) radiation wavelengths from a light emitting diode (LED) over a range of energy densities (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 Joules/cm2) Cultured cells were assayed for cell proliferation, osteogenic potential, adipogenesis, mRNA and protein content. mRNA was analyzed by microarray and compared among different wavelengths and energy densities. Mesenchymal and epithelial cell responses were compared to determine whether responses were cell type specific. Protein array analysis was used to further analyze key pathways identified by microarrays. Different wavelengths and energy densities produced unique sets of genes identified by microarray analysis. Pathway analysis pointed to TGF-beta 1 in the visible red and Akt 1 in the infrared wavelengths as key pathways to study. TGF-beta protein arrays suggested switching from canonical to non-canonical TGF-beta pathways with increases to longer IR wavelengths. Microarrays suggest RANKL and MMP 10 followed IR energy density dose-response curves. Epithelial and mesenchymal cells respond differently to stimulation by light suggesting cell type-specific response is possible. These studies demonstrate differential gene expression with different wavelengths, energy densities and cell types. These differences in gene expression have the potential to be exploited for therapeutic purposes and can help explain contradictory results in the literature when wavelengths, energy densities and cell types differ. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Single-mode 140 nm swept light source realized by using SSG-DBR lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, N.; Yoshimura, R.; Kato, K.; Ishii, H.; Kano, F.; Kawaguchi, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Ohbayashi, K.; Oohashi, H.

    2008-02-01

    We demonstrate a single-mode and fast wavelength swept light source by using Superestrucuture grating distributed Bragg reflector (SSG-DBR) lasers for use in optical frequency-domain reflectometry optical coherence tomography. The SSG-DBR lasers provide single-mode operation resulting in high coherency. Response of the wavelength tuning is very fast; several nanoseconds, but there was an unintentional wavelength drift resulting from a thermal drift due to injecting tuning current. The dri1ft unfortunately requires long time to converge; more than a few milliseconds. For suppressing the wavelength drift, we introduced Thermal Drift Compensation mesa (TDC) parallel to the laser mesa with the spacing of 20 μm. By controlling TDC current to satisfy the total electric power injected into both the laser mesa and the TDC mesa, the thermal drift can be suppressed. In the present work, we fabricated 4 wavelength's kinds of SSG-DBR laser, which covers respective wavelength band; S-band (1496-1529 nm), C-band (1529-1564 nm), L --band (1564-1601 nm), and L +-band (1601-1639). We set the frequency channel of each laser with the spacing 6.25 GHz and 700 channels. The total frequency channel number is 2800 channels (700 ch × 4 lasers). We simultaneously operated the 4 lasers with a time interval of 500 ns/channel. A wavelength tuning range of more than 140 nm was achieved within 350 μs. The output power was controlled to be 10 mW for all channels. A single-mode, accurate, wide, and fast wavelength sweep was demonstrated with the SSG-DBR lasers having TDC mesa structure for the first time.

  7. Opening of brain blood barrier induced by red light and central analgesic improvement of cobra neurotoxin.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yong; Li, Yue; Fang, Fei

    2014-05-05

    Cobra neurotoxin (NT) has central analgesic effects, but it is difficult to pass through brain blood barrier (BBB). A novel method of red light induction is designed to help NT across BBB, which is based on photosensitizer activation by red light to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) to open BBB. The effects were evaluated on cell models and animals in vivo with illumination by semiconductor laser at 670nm on photosensitizer pheophorbide isolated from silkworm excrement. Brain microvascular endothelial cells and astrocytes were co-cultured to build up BBB cell model. The radioactivity of (125)I-NT was measured in cells and tissues for NT permeation. Three ways of cranial irradiation, nasal cavity and intravascular irradiation were tested with combined injection of (125)I-NT 20μg/kg and pheophorbide 100μg/kg to rats, and organs of rats were separated and determined the radioactivity. Paw pressure test in rats, hot plate and writhing test in mice were applied to appraise the analgesic effects. NT across BBB cell model increased with time of illumination, and reached stable level after 60min. So did ROS in cells. NT mainly distributed in liver and kidney of rats, significantly increased in brain after illumination, and improved analgesic effects. Excitation of pheophorbide at red light produces ROS to open BBB, help NT enter brain, and enhance its central action. This research provides a new method for drug across BBB to improve its central role. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A Red-Light Running Prevention System Based on Artificial Neural Network and Vehicle Trajectory Data

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pengfei; Li, Yan; Guo, Xiucheng

    2014-01-01

    The high frequency of red-light running and complex driving behaviors at the yellow onset at intersections cannot be explained solely by the dilemma zone and vehicle kinematics. In this paper, the author presented a red-light running prevention system which was based on artificial neural networks (ANNs) to approximate the complex driver behaviors during yellow and all-red clearance and serve as the basis of an innovative red-light running prevention system. The artificial neural network and vehicle trajectory are applied to identify the potential red-light runners. The ANN training time was also acceptable and its predicting accurate rate was over 80%. Lastly, a prototype red-light running prevention system with the trained ANN model was described. This new system can be directly retrofitted into the existing traffic signal systems. PMID:25435870

  9. A red-light running prevention system based on artificial neural network and vehicle trajectory data.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengfei; Li, Yan; Guo, Xiucheng

    2014-01-01

    The high frequency of red-light running and complex driving behaviors at the yellow onset at intersections cannot be explained solely by the dilemma zone and vehicle kinematics. In this paper, the author presented a red-light running prevention system which was based on artificial neural networks (ANNs) to approximate the complex driver behaviors during yellow and all-red clearance and serve as the basis of an innovative red-light running prevention system. The artificial neural network and vehicle trajectory are applied to identify the potential red-light runners. The ANN training time was also acceptable and its predicting accurate rate was over 80%. Lastly, a prototype red-light running prevention system with the trained ANN model was described. This new system can be directly retrofitted into the existing traffic signal systems.

  10. Fining of Red Wine Monitored by Multiple Light Scattering.

    PubMed

    Ferrentino, Giovanna; Ramezani, Mohsen; Morozova, Ksenia; Hafner, Daniela; Pedri, Ulrich; Pixner, Konrad; Scampicchio, Matteo

    2017-07-12

    This work describes a new approach based on multiple light scattering to study red wine clarification processes. The whole spectral signal (1933 backscattering points along the length of each sample vial) were fitted by a multivariate kinetic model that was built with a three-step mechanism, implying (1) adsorption of wine colloids to fining agents, (2) aggregation into larger particles, and (3) sedimentation. Each step is characterized by a reaction rate constant. According to the first reaction, the results showed that gelatin was the most efficient fining agent, concerning the main objective, which was the clarification of the wine, and consequently the increase in its limpidity. Such a trend was also discussed in relation to the results achieved by nephelometry, total phenols, ζ-potential, color, sensory, and electronic nose analyses. Also, higher concentrations of the fining agent (from 5 to 30 g/100 L) or higher temperatures (from 10 to 20 °C) sped up the process. Finally, the advantage of using the whole spectral signal vs classical univariate approaches was demonstrated by comparing the uncertainty associated with the rate constants of the proposed kinetic model. Overall, multiple light scattering technique showed a great potential for studying fining processes compared to classical univariate approaches.

  11. Integrated High Resolution Digital Color Light Sensor in 130 nm CMOS Technology

    PubMed Central

    Strle, Drago; Nahtigal, Uroš; Batistell, Graciele; Zhang, Vincent Chi; Ofner, Erwin; Fant, Andrea; Sturm, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a color light detection system integrated in 130 nm CMOS technology. The sensors and corresponding electronics detect light in a CIE XYZ color luminosity space using on-chip integrated sensors without any additional process steps, high-resolution analog-to-digital converter, and dedicated DSP algorithm. The sensor consists of a set of laterally arranged integrated photodiodes that are partly covered by metal, where color separation between the photodiodes is achieved by lateral carrier diffusion together with wavelength-dependent absorption. A high resolution, hybrid, ∑∆ ADC converts each photo diode’s current into a 22-bit digital result, canceling the dark current of the photo diodes. The digital results are further processed by the DSP, which calculates normalized XYZ or RGB color and intensity parameters using linear transformations of the three photo diode responses by multiplication of the data with a transformation matrix, where the coefficients are extracted by training in combination with a pseudo-inverse operation and the least-mean square approximation. The sensor system detects the color light parameters with 22-bit accuracy, consumes less than 60 μA on average at 10 readings per second, and occupies approx. 0.8 mm2 of silicon area (including three photodiodes and the analog part of the ADC). The DSP is currently implemented on FPGA. PMID:26205275

  12. Integrated High Resolution Digital Color Light Sensor in 130 nm CMOS Technology.

    PubMed

    Strle, Drago; Nahtigal, Uroš; Batistell, Graciele; Zhang, Vincent Chi; Ofner, Erwin; Fant, Andrea; Sturm, Johannes

    2015-07-22

    This article presents a color light detection system integrated in 130 nm CMOS technology. The sensors and corresponding electronics detect light in a CIE XYZ color luminosity space using on-chip integrated sensors without any additional process steps, high-resolution analog-to-digital converter, and dedicated DSP algorithm. The sensor consists of a set of laterally arranged integrated photodiodes that are partly covered by metal, where color separation between the photodiodes is achieved by lateral carrier diffusion together with wavelength-dependent absorption. A high resolution, hybrid, ∑∆ ADC converts each photo diode's current into a 22-bit digital result, canceling the dark current of the photo diodes. The digital results are further processed by the DSP, which calculates normalized XYZ or RGB color and intensity parameters using linear transformations of the three photo diode responses by multiplication of the data with a transformation matrix, where the coefficients are extracted by training in combination with a pseudo-inverse operation and the least-mean square approximation. The sensor system detects the color light parameters with 22-bit accuracy, consumes less than 60 μA on average at 10 readings per second, and occupies approx. 0.8 mm(2) of silicon area (including three photodiodes and the analog part of the ADC). The DSP is currently implemented on FPGA.

  13. Seed-to-seed growth of superdwarf wheat and arabidopsis using red light-emitting diodes (LED's): A report on baseline tests conducted for NASA's proposed Plant Research Unit (PRU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goins, G. D.; Yorio, N. C.; Sanwo, M. M.; Brown, C. S.

    1996-01-01

    To determine the influence of narrow-spectrum red light-emitting diodes (LED's) on plant growth and seed production, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.cv Superdwarf) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh, race Columbia) plants were grown under red LED's (peak emission 660 nm) and compared to plants grown under daylight fluorescent (white) light and red LED's supplemented with either 1 percent or 10 percent blue fluorescent (BF) light. Wheat growth under red LED's alone appeared normal, whereas Arabidopsis under red LED's alone developed curled leaf margins and a spiraling growth pattern. Both wheat and Arabidopsis under red LED's alone or red LED's + 1 percent BF light had significantly lower seed yield than plants grown under white light. However, the addition of 10 percent BF light to red LED's partially alleviated the adverse effect of red LED's on yield. Irrespective of the light treatment, viable seeds were produced by wheat(75-92 percent germination rate) and Arabidopsis (85-100 percent germination rate). These results indicate that wheat, and to a lesser extent Arabidopsis, can be successfully grown under red LED's alone, but supplemental blue light is required with red LED's to sufficiently match the growth characteristics and seed yield associated with plants grown under white light.

  14. Red versus blue light illumination in hexyl 5-aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy: the influence of light color and irradiance on the treatment outcome in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helander, Linda; Krokan, Hans E.; Johnsson, Anders; Gederaas, Odrun A.; Plaetzer, Kristjan

    2014-08-01

    Hexyl 5-aminolevulinate (HAL) is a lipophilic derivative of 5-aminolevulinate, a key intermediate in biosynthesis of the photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). The photodynamic efficacy and cell death mode after red versus blue light illumination of HAL-induced PpIX have been examined and compared using five different cancer cell lines. LED arrays emitting at 410 and 624 nm served as homogenous and adjustable light sources. Our results show that the response after HAL-PDT is cell line specific, both regarding the shape of the dose-survival curve, the overall dose required for efficient cell killing, and the relative amount of apoptosis. The ratio between 410 and 624 nm in absorption coefficient correlates well with the difference in cell killing at the same wavelengths. In general, the PDT efficacy was several folds higher for blue light as compared with red light, as expected. However, HAL-PDT624 induced more apoptosis than HAL-PDT410 and illumination with low irradiance resulted in more apoptosis than high irradiance at the same lethal dose. This indicates differences in death modes after low and high irradiance after similar total light doses. From a treatment perspective, these differences may be important.

  15. Red versus blue light illumination in hexyl 5-aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy: the influence of light color and irradiance on the treatment outcome in vitro.

    PubMed

    Helander, Linda; Krokan, Hans E; Johnsson, Anders; Gederaas, Odrun A; Plaetzer, Kristjan

    2014-08-01

    Hexyl 5-aminolevulinate (HAL) is a lipophilic derivative of 5-aminolevulinate, a key intermediate in biosynthesis of the photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). The photodynamic efficacy and cell death mode after red versus blue light illumination of HAL-induced PpIX have been examined and compared using five different cancer cell lines. LED arrays emitting at 410 and 624 nm served as homogenous and adjustable light sources. Our results show that the response after HAL-PDT is cell line specific, both regarding the shape of the dose-survival curve, the overall dose required for efficient cell killing, and the relative amount of apoptosis. The ratio between 410 and 624 nm in absorption coefficient correlates well with the difference in cell killing at the same wavelengths. In general, the PDT efficacy was several folds higher for blue light as compared with red light, as expected. However, HAL-PDT₆₂₄ induced more apoptosis than HAL-PDT₄₁₀ and illumination with low irradiance resulted in more apoptosis than high irradiance at the same lethal dose. This indicates differences in death modes after low and high irradiance after similar total light doses. From a treatment perspective, these differences may be important.

  16. Exposure to lower red to far-red light ratios improve tomato tolerance to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Cao, Kai; Yu, Jie; Xu, Dawei; Ai, Kaiqi; Bao, Encai; Zou, Zhirong

    2018-05-24

    Red (R) and far-red (FR) light distinctly influence phytochrome-mediated initial tomato growth and development, and more recent evidence indicates that these spectra also modulate responses to a multitude of abiotic and biotic stresses. This research investigated whether different R: FR values affect tomato growth response and salinity tolerance. Tomato seedlings were exposed to different R: FR conditions (7.4, 1.2 and 0.8) under salinity stress (100 mM NaCl), and evaluated for their growth, biochemical changes, active reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ROS scavenging enzymes, pigments, rate of photosynthesis, and chlorophyll fluorescence. The results showed that under conditions of salinity, tomato seedlings subjected to a lower R: FR value (0.8) significantly increased both their growth, proline content, chlorophyll content and net photosynthesis rate (Pn), while they decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) compared to the higher R: FR value (7.4). Under conditions of salinity, the lower R: FR value caused a decrease in both the superoxide anion (O 2 •- ) and in hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) generation, an increase in the activities of superoxidase dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) and catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.7). Tomato seedlings grown under the lower R: FR value and conditions of salinity showed a higher actual quantum yield of photosynthesis (ΦPSII), electron transport rate (ETR), and photochemical quenching (qP) than those exposed to a higher R: FR, indicating overall healthier growth. However, the salinity tolerance induced at the lower R: FR condition disappeared in the tomato phyB1 mutant. These results suggest that growing tomato with a lower R: FR value could improve seedlings' salinity tolerance, and phytochrome B1 play an very important role in this process. Therefore, different qualities of light can be used to efficiently develop abiotic stress tolerance in tomato cultivation.

  17. shl, a New set of Arabidopsis mutants with exaggerated developmental responses to available red, far-red, and blue light.

    PubMed

    Pepper, A E; Seong-Kim, M; Hebst, S M; Ivey, K N; Kwak, S J; Broyles, D E

    2001-09-01

    The interaction of light perception with development is the subject of intensive genetic analysis in the model plant Arabidopsis. We performed genetic screens in low white light-a threshold condition in which photomorphogenetic signaling pathways are only partially active-for ethyl methane sulfonate-generated mutants with altered developmental phenotypes. Recessive mutants with exaggerated developmental responses were obtained in eight complementation groups designated shl for seedlings hyperresponsive to light. shl1, shl2, shl5, and shl3 shl4 (double mutant) seedlings showed limited or no phenotypic effects in darkness, but showed significantly enhanced inhibition of hypocotyl elongation in low-white, red, far-red, blue, and green light across a range of fluences. These results reflect developmental hyper-responsiveness to signals generated by both phytochrome and cryptochrome photoreceptors. The shl11 mutant retained significant phenotypic effects on hypocotyl length in both the phyA mutant and phyB mutant backgrounds but may be dependent on CRY1 for phenotypic expression in blue light. The shl2 phenotype was partially dependent on PHYB, PHYA, and CRY1 in red, far-red, and blue light, respectively. shl2 and, in particular, shl1 were partially dependent on HY5 activity for their light-hyperresponsive phenotypes. The SHL genes act (genetically) as light-dependent negative regulators of photomorphogenesis, possibly in a downstream signaling or developmental pathway that is shared by CRY1, PHYA, and PHYB and other photoreceptors (CRY2, PHYC, PHYD, and PHYE).

  18. 830 nm light-emitting diode low level light therapy (LED-LLLT) enhances wound healing: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Min, Pok Kee; Goo, Boncheol Leo

    2013-01-01

    The application of light-emitting diodes in a number of clinical fields is expanding rapidly since the development in the late 1990s of the NASA LED. Wound healing is one field where low level light therapy with LEDs (LED-LLLT) has attracted attention for both accelerating wound healing and controlling sequelae. The present study evaluated LED-LLLT in 5 wounds of various etiologies. There were 5 patients with ages ranging from 7 to 54 years, comprising 2 males and 3 females. The study followed 5 wounds, namely 2 acute excoriation wounds; 1 acute/subacute dog bite with infection; 1 subacute post-filler ulcerated wound with necrotic ischemic tissue and secondary infection; and 1 subacute case of edema and infection of the lips with herpes simplex involvement after an illegal cosmetic tattoo operation. All patients were in varying degrees of pain. All wounds were treated with multiple sessions (daily, every other day or twice weekly) using an LED-LLLT system (830 nm, CW, irradiance of 100 mW/cm(2) and fluence of 60 J/cm(2)) till improvement was achieved. Full wound healing and control of infection and discomfort were achieved in all patients, with wound condition-mediated treatment periods ranging from 1 to 8 weeks. No recurrence of the herpes simplex case was seen in a 4-month follow-up. 830 nm LED-LLLT successfully brought about accelerated healing in wounds of different etiologies and at different stages, and successfully controlled secondary infection. LED-LLLT was easy and pain-free to apply, and was well-tolerated by all patients. The good results warrant the design of controlled studies with a larger patient population.

  19. 830 nm light-emitting diode low level light therapy (LED-LLLT) enhances wound healing: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Min, Pok Kee; Goo, Boncheol Leo

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: The application of light-emitting diodes in a number of clinical fields is expanding rapidly since the development in the late 1990s of the NASA LED. Wound healing is one field where low level light therapy with LEDs (LED-LLLT) has attracted attention for both accelerating wound healing and controlling sequelae. The present study evaluated LED-LLLT in 5 wounds of various etiologies. Subjects and methods: There were 5 patients with ages ranging from 7 to 54 years, comprising 2 males and 3 females. The study followed 5 wounds, namely 2 acute excoriation wounds; 1 acute/subacute dog bite with infection; 1 subacute post-filler ulcerated wound with necrotic ischemic tissue and secondary infection; and 1 subacute case of edema and infection of the lips with herpes simplex involvement after an illegal cosmetic tattoo operation. All patients were in varying degrees of pain. All wounds were treated with multiple sessions (daily, every other day or twice weekly) using an LED-LLLT system (830 nm, CW, irradiance of 100 mW/cm2 and fluence of 60 J/cm2) till improvement was achieved. Results: Full wound healing and control of infection and discomfort were achieved in all patients, with wound condition-mediated treatment periods ranging from 1 to 8 weeks. No recurrence of the herpes simplex case was seen in a 4-month follow-up. Conclusions: 830 nm LED-LLLT successfully brought about accelerated healing in wounds of different etiologies and at different stages, and successfully controlled secondary infection. LED-LLLT was easy and pain-free to apply, and was well-tolerated by all patients. The good results warrant the design of controlled studies with a larger patient population. PMID:24155549

  20. 276 nm Substrate-Free Flip-Chip AlGaN Light-Emitting Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Seongmo; Morgan, Daniel; Kesler, Amanda; Lachab, Mohamed; Zhang, Bin; Heidari, Ahmad; Nazir, Haseeb; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Dion, Joe; Fareed, Qhalid; Adivarahan, Vinod; Islam, Monirul; Khan, Asif

    2011-03-01

    Lateral-conduction, substrate-free flip-chip (SFFC) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with peak emission at 276 nm are demonstrated for the first time. The AlGaN multiple quantum well LED structures were grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on thick-AlN laterally overgrown on sapphire substrates. To fabricate the SFFC LEDs, a newly-developed laser-assisted ablation process was employed to separate the substrate from the LED chips. The chips had physical dimensions of 1100×900 µm2, and were comprised of four devices each with a 100×100 µm2 junction area. Electrical and optical characterization of the devices revealed no noticeable degradation to their performance due to the laser-lift-off process.

  1. Non-invasive red light optogenetic pacing and optical coherence microscopy (OCM) imaging for drosophila melanogaster (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Men, Jing; Li, Airong; Jerwick, Jason; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Zhou, Chao

    2017-02-01

    Cardiac pacing could be a powerful tool for investigating mammalian cardiac electrical conduction systems as well as for treatment of certain cardiac pathologies. However, traditional electrical pacing using pacemaker requires an invasive surgical procedure. Electrical currents from the implanted electrodes can also cause damage to heart tissue, further restricting its utility. Optogenetic pacing has been developed as a promising, non-invasive alternative to electrical stimulation for controlling animal heart rhythms. It induces heart contractions by shining pulsed light on transgene-generated microbial opsins, which in turn activate the light gated ion channels in animal hearts. However, commonly used opsins in optogenetic pacing, such as channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), require short light wavelength stimulation (475 nm), which is strongly absorbed and scattered by tissue. Here, we performed optogenetic pacing by expression of recently engineered red-shifted microbial opsins, ReaChR and CsChrimson, in a well-established animal model, Drosophila melanogaster, using the 617 nm stimulation light pulses. The OCM technique enables non-invasive optical imaging of animal hearts with high speed and ultrahigh axial and transverse resolutions. We integrated a customized OCM system with the optical stimulation system to monitor the optogenetic pacing noninvasively. The use of red-sifted opsins enabled deeper penetration of simulating light at lower power, which is promising for applications of optogenetic pacing in mammalian cardiac pathology studies or clinical treatments in the future.

  2. Evaluating the Impacts of Red Light Camera Deployment on Intersection Traffic Safety

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2018-06-01

    Red-light cameras (RLC) are a popular countermeasure to reduce red-light running and improve intersection safety. Studies show that the reduction in side impact crashes at RLC intersections are often accompanied by no-change or an increase in the num...

  3. Topical methyl-aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy using red light-emitting diode light for treatment of multiple actinic keratoses: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Pariser, David; Loss, Robert; Jarratt, Michael; Abramovits, William; Spencer, James; Geronemus, Roy; Bailin, Philip; Bruce, Suzanne

    2008-10-01

    The use of light-emitting diode light offers practical advantages in photodynamic therapy (PDT) with topical methyl-aminolevulinate (MAL) for management of actinic keratoses (AK). We sought to evaluate the efficacy of MAL PDT using red light-emitting diode light. We conducted a multicenter, double-blind, randomized study. A total of 49 patients with 363 AK lesions had 16.8% MAL cream applied under occlusion for 3 hours, and 47 patients with 360 AK lesions had vehicle cream similarly applied. The lesions were then illuminated (630 nm, light dose 37 J/cm2) with repeated treatment 1 week later. Complete lesion and patient (all lesions showing complete response) response rates were evaluated 3 months after last treatment. MAL PDT was superior (P<.0001) to vehicle PDT with respect to lesion complete response (86.2% vs 52.2%, odds ratio 6.9 [95% confidence interval 4.7-10.3]) and patient complete response (59.2% vs 14.9%, odds ratio 13.2 [95% confidence interval 4.1-43.1]). The study population may not be representative of all patients with AK. MAL PDT using red light-emitting diode light is an appropriate treatment alternative for multiple AK lesions.

  4. Increased fibroblast proliferation and activity after applying intense pulsed light 800-1200 nm.

    PubMed

    Cuerda-Galindo, E; Díaz-Gil, G; Palomar-Gallego, M A; Linares-GarcíaValdecasas, R

    2015-03-01

    Light devices emitting near infrared have been shown to be highly effective for the skin rejuvenation but biochemical and molecular mechanism or optimum dose treatment are not well-known. In our study we try to elucidate why systems emitting near infrared produce skin improvement such as fibroblasts proliferation, increase in gene expression or extracellular matrix (ECM) protein production. 1BR3G human skin fibroblasts were used to test the effects of an intense pulsed light device emitting with an 800-1200 nm filter (MiniSilk FT manufactured by Deka(®)). In our protocol, fibroblasts were irradiated twice successively with a 10 Hz frequency, with a total fluence up to 60 J/cm(2) for 15s each pass. After incubating for 48 h, fibroblasts were harvested from the culture plates to test cell proliferation by flow cytometer. To determine changes in gene expression (mRNA levels for collagen types I and III and metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1)) and protein production (hyaluronic acid, versican and decorin) tests were performed after irradiation. After 48 h irradiation, 1BR3G human skin fibroblasts were observed to proliferate at a fast rate. The study of ECM macromolecules production using ELISA showed an increase of hyaluronic acid and versican production but no changes were observed for decorin. With RT-PCR assays, an increase in mRNA for collagen type I, type III and MMP-1 were observed. Intense pulsed light emitting near infrared applied in vitro cultured cells increases fibroblasts proliferation and activity, which can be a possible mechanism of action for these devices in aging skin treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. The origin of the red emission in n-ZnO nanotubes/p-GaN white light emitting diodes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the electroluminescence (EL) spectra of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanotubes/p-GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) annealed in different ambients (argon, air, oxygen, and nitrogen) have been investigated. The ZnO nanotubes by aqueous chemical growth (ACG) technique on p-GaN substrates were obtained. The as-grown ZnO nanotubes were annealed in different ambients at 600°C for 30 min. The EL investigations showed that air, oxygen, and nitrogen annealing ambients have strongly affected the deep level emission bands in ZnO. It was concluded from the EL investigation that more than one deep level defect is involved in the red emission appearing between 620 and 750 nm and that the red emission in ZnO can be attributed to oxygen interstitials (Oi) appearing in the range from 620 nm (1.99 eV) to 690 nm (1.79 eV), and to oxygen vacancies (Vo) appearing in the range from 690 nm (1.79 eV) to 750 nm (1.65 eV). The annealing ambients, especially the nitrogen ambient, were also found to greatly influence the color-rendering properties and increase the CRI of the as - grown LEDs from 87 to 96. PMID:21711671

  6. The origin of the red emission in n-ZnO nanotubes/p-GaN white light emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Alvi, N H; Ul Hasan, Kamran; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus

    2011-02-10

    In this article, the electroluminescence (EL) spectra of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanotubes/p-GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) annealed in different ambients (argon, air, oxygen, and nitrogen) have been investigated. The ZnO nanotubes by aqueous chemical growth (ACG) technique on p-GaN substrates were obtained. The as-grown ZnO nanotubes were annealed in different ambients at 600°C for 30 min. The EL investigations showed that air, oxygen, and nitrogen annealing ambients have strongly affected the deep level emission bands in ZnO. It was concluded from the EL investigation that more than one deep level defect is involved in the red emission appearing between 620 and 750 nm and that the red emission in ZnO can be attributed to oxygen interstitials (Oi) appearing in the range from 620 nm (1.99 eV) to 690 nm (1.79 eV), and to oxygen vacancies (Vo) appearing in the range from 690 nm (1.79 eV) to 750 nm (1.65 eV). The annealing ambients, especially the nitrogen ambient, were also found to greatly influence the color-rendering properties and increase the CRI of the as - grown LEDs from 87 to 96.

  7. Subcellular pigment distribution is altered under far-red light acclimation in cyanobacteria that contain chlorophyll f.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Erica L-W; Wolf, Benjamin M; Liu, Haijun; Berg, R Howard; Timlin, Jerilyn A; Chen, Min; Blankenship, Robert E

    2017-11-01

    Far-Red Light (FRL) acclimation is a process that has been observed in cyanobacteria and algae that can grow solely on light above 700 nm. The acclimation to FRL results in rearrangement and synthesis of new pigments and pigment-protein complexes. In this study, cyanobacteria containing chlorophyll f, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7335 and Halomicronema hongdechloris, were imaged as live cells with confocal microscopy. H. hongdechloris was further studied with hyperspectral confocal fluorescence microscopy (HCFM) and freeze-substituted thin-section transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Under FRL, phycocyanin-containing complexes and chlorophyll-containing complexes were determined to be physically separated and the synthesis of red-form phycobilisome and Chl f was increased. The timing of these responses was observed. The heterogeneity and eco-physiological response of the cells was noted. Additionally, a gliding motility for H. hongdechloris is reported.

  8. A promising red-emitting phosphor for white-light-emitting diodes prepared by a modified solid-state reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Fuqiang; Chen, Donghua

    2010-02-01

    Using urea, boric acid and polyethylene glycol (PEG) as auxiliary reagents, the novel red-emitting phosphors Ca 19Zn 2 (PO 4) 14:Eu 3+ have been successfully synthesized by a modified solid-state reaction. Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra were used to characterize the resulting phosphors. The dependence of the photoluminescence properties of Ca 19Zn 2 (PO 4) 14:Eu 3+ phosphors upon urea, boric acid and PEG concentration and the quadric-sintered temperature were investigated. Luminescent measurements showed that the phosphors can be efficiently excited by ultraviolet (UV) to visible region, emitting a red light with a peak wavelength of 616 nm. The material has potential application as a fluorescent material for ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs).

  9. In Vitro Effect of Bleaching With 810 nm and 980 nm Diode Laser on Microhardness of Self-cure and Light-Cure Glass Ionomer Cements.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar Omrani, Ladan; Khoshamad, Sara; Tabatabaei Ghomshe, Elham; Chiniforush, Nasim; Hashemi Kamangar, Sedighe Sadat

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study sought to assess the effect of bleaching combined with irradiation of 810 nm and 980 nm diode laser on microhardness of 2 commonly used self-cure and light-cure glass ionomer cements (GICs) in comparison with conventional bleaching (without laser). Methods: In this in vitro, experimental study, 60 samples were fabricated of A2 shade of Fuji IX and Fuji II LC GICs (n=30) and each group was divided into 3 subgroups (n=10). The first subgroups were subjected to bleaching with Opalescence Xtra Boost plus 980 nm diode laser irradiation. The second subgroups were subjected to bleaching with Opalescence Boost plus 810 nm diode laser irradiation and the third subgroups were subjected to bleaching with Opalescence Xtra Boost without laser. Microhardness was measured at baseline and after the intervention using Vickers hardness tester. The data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) ( P <0.05). Results: Microhardness decreased in all subgroups after the intervention (P<0.001) irrespective of the type of GIC ( P =0.201) or surface treatment ( P =0.570). The baseline microhardness of the three subgroups within each group of GIC was not significantly different ( P =0.456), but the baseline microhardness of conventional GIC was significantly higher than that of resin modified GIC ( P =0.004). Conclusion: Bleaching with/without laser irradiation decreases the microhardness of GICs. The baseline microhardness of conventional GIC is higher than that of resin modified GIC.

  10. Evaluation of blue confirmation lights at signalized intersections in Overland Park, Kansas, to reduce red light running violations : [technical summary].

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-10-01

    Red Light Running (RLR) is a safety concern for communities nationwide. The : Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) reported that a total of 676 fatalities : in 2009 were due to RLR. There are many strategies to mitigate RLR violations : that fall in...

  11. Effects of red, far-red and blue light in maintaining growth in latitudinal populations of Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Mølmann, Jørgen Alexander; Junttila, Olavi; Johnsen, Oystein; Olsen, Jorunn Elisabeth

    2006-02-01

    Seedlings of trees with a free growth pattern cease growth when night-lengths become shorter than a critical value, and this critical night-length (CNL) decreases with increasing latitude of origin. In northern populations, the light quality also appears to play an important role and a clinal variation in requirement for far-red (FR) light has been documented. In this study we dissected the light quality requirements for maintaining growth in different latitudinal populations of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) using light emitting diodes for red (R), FR and blue (B) light, as 12 h day extension to provide 24 h photoperiod. At equal spectral photon flux, FR light was more effective than R light in maintaining growth, and the requirement of both R and FR increased with northern latitude of origin. One-to-one mixtures of R and FR light were more effective in maintaining growth than either FR or R light alone, indicating a possible interaction between R and FR light maintaining growth. Using the blue light as day extension could not prevent growth cessation in any of the populations, but delayed the bud set slightly in all populations. Our results suggest that phytochrome(s) are the primary photoreceptors in high irradiance responses maintaining growth in Norway spruce seedlings.

  12. Red light and the sleep quality and endurance performance of Chinese female basketball players.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiexiu; Tian, Ye; Nie, Jinlei; Xu, Jincheng; Liu, Dongsen

    2012-01-01

    Good sleep is an important recovery method for prevention and treatment of overtraining in sport practice. Whether sleep is regulated by melatonin after red-light irradiation in athletes is unknown. To determine the effect of red light on sleep quality and endurance performance of Chinese female basketball players. Cohort study. Athletic training facility of the Chinese People's Liberation Army and research laboratory of the China Institute of Sport Science. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty athletes of the Chinese People's Liberation Army team (age = 18.60 6 3.60 years) took part in the study. Participants were divided into red-light treatment (n = 10) and placebo (n = 10) groups. The red-light treatment participants received 30 minutes of irradiation from a red-light therapy instrument every night for 14 days. The placebo group did not receive light illumination. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire was completed, serum melatonin was assessed, and 12-minute run was performed at preintervention (baseline) and postintervention (14 days). The 14-day whole-body irradiation with red-light treatment improved the sleep, serum melatonin level, and endurance performance of the elite female basketball players (P < .05). We found a correlation between changes in global Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and serum melatonin levels (r = -0.695, P = .006). Our study confirmed the effectiveness of body irradiation with red light in improving the quality of sleep of elite female basketball players and offered a nonpharmacologic and noninvasive therapy to prevent sleep disorders after training.

  13. 46 CFR 113.25-10 - Emergency red-flashing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency red-flashing lights. 113.25-10 Section 113.25... lights. (a) In a space described in § 113.25-9(a), where the general emergency alarm signal cannot be heard over the background noise, there must be a red-flashing light or rotating beacon, in addition to...

  14. 46 CFR 113.25-10 - Emergency red-flashing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Emergency red-flashing lights. 113.25-10 Section 113.25... lights. (a) In a space described in § 113.25-9(a), where the general emergency alarm signal cannot be heard over the background noise, there must be a red-flashing light or rotating beacon, in addition to...

  15. 46 CFR 113.25-10 - Emergency red-flashing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency red-flashing lights. 113.25-10 Section 113.25... lights. (a) In a space described in § 113.25-9(a), where the general emergency alarm signal cannot be heard over the background noise, there must be a red-flashing light or rotating beacon, in addition to...

  16. 46 CFR 113.25-10 - Emergency red-flashing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Emergency red-flashing lights. 113.25-10 Section 113.25... lights. (a) In a space described in § 113.25-9(a), where the general emergency alarm signal cannot be heard over the background noise, there must be a red-flashing light or rotating beacon, in addition to...

  17. 46 CFR 113.25-10 - Emergency red-flashing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Emergency red-flashing lights. 113.25-10 Section 113.25... lights. (a) In a space described in § 113.25-9(a), where the general emergency alarm signal cannot be heard over the background noise, there must be a red-flashing light or rotating beacon, in addition to...

  18. Photodynamic tumor therapy and on-line fluorescence spectroscopy after aminolevulinic acid administration using 633-nm light as therapeutic and fluorescence excitation radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Karsten; Kienle, Alwin; Boehncke, Wolf-Henning; Kaufmann, Roland; Rueck, Angelika C.; Meier, Thomas H.; Steiner, Rudolf W.

    1994-03-01

    PDT and on-line fluorescence spectroscopy were carried out on human tumors after ALA- administration using 633 nm-light of a dye laser as therapeutic radiation and as fluorescence excitation radiation. This has the following advantages: (1) use of one laser for PDT and fluorescence diagnosis only, (2) the possibility of on-line fluorescence measurements, and (3) excitation of protoporphyrin molecules in deep tissue layers. Monte Carlo calculations were carried out to determine the excitation and fluorescence photon distribution in the case of red and violet excitation radiation. The results show the possibility of depth-resolved measurements on the fluorophore distribution by variation of the excitation wavelength. The influence of remitted excitation light and of the spontaneous radiation from the laser as well as the possible excitation of food-based degradation products of chlorophyll has to be considered in high-sensitive fluorescence measurements.

  19. Laboratory measurement of the absorption coefficient of riboflavin for ultraviolet light (365 nm).

    PubMed

    Iseli, Hans Peter; Popp, Max; Seiler, Theo; Spoerl, Eberhard; Mrochen, Michael

    2011-03-01

    Corneal cross-linking (CXL) is an increasingly used treatment technique for stabilizing the cornea in keratoconus. Cross-linking (polymerization) between collagen fibrils is induced by riboflavin (vitamin B2) and ultraviolet light (365 nm). Although reported to reach a constant value at higher riboflavin concentrations, the Lambert-Beer law predicts a linear increase in the absorption coefficient. This work was carried out to determine absorption behavior at different riboflavin concentrations and to further investigate the purported plateau absorption coefficient value of riboflavin and to identify possible bleaching effects. The Lambert-Beer law was used to calculate the absorption coefficient at various riboflavin concentrations. The following investigated concentrations of riboflavin solutions were prepared using a mixture of 0.5% riboflavin and 20% Dextran T500 dissolved in 0.9% sodium chloride solution: 0%, 0.02%, 0.03%, 0.04%, 0.05%, 0.06%, 0.08%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, and 0.5%, and were investigated with and without aperture plate implementation. An additional test series measured the transmitted power at selected riboflavin concentrations over time. In diluted solutions, a linear correlation exists between the absorption coefficient and riboflavin concentration. The absorption coefficient reaches a plateau, but this occurs at a higher riboflavin concentration (0.1%) than previously reported (just above 0.04%). Transmitted light power increases over time, indicating a bleaching effect of riboflavin. The riboflavin concentration can be effectively varied as a treatment parameter in a considerably broader range than previously thought. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Evaluation of low-cost intersection countermeasures to reduce red-light-running violations : retro-reflective signal back plates.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-11-01

    Red light running has become a serious safety issue at signalized intersections throughout the : United States. One objective of this study was to identify the characteristics of red-light-running (RLR) : crashes and the drivers involved in those cra...

  1. Light Absorption by Suspended Particles in the Red Sea: Effect of Phytoplankton Community Size Structure and Pigment Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheireddine, Malika; Ouhssain, Mustapha; Organelli, Emanuele; Bricaud, Annick; Jones, Burton H.

    2018-02-01

    The light absorption properties of phytoplankton (aph(λ)) and nonalgal particles (anap(λ)) associated with phytoplankton pigments were analyzed across the Red Sea, in the upper 200 m depth, between October 2014 and August 2016. The contribution by nonalgal particles to the total particulate light absorption (aph(λ) + anap(λ)) was highly variable (23 ± 17% at 440 nm) and no relationship between anap(440) and chlorophyll a concentration, [TChl a], was observed. Phytoplankton-specific phytoplankton absorption coefficients at 440 and 676 nm for a given [TChl a], aph*(440), and aph∗(676) were slightly higher than those derived from average relationships for open ocean waters within the surface layer as well as along the water column. Variations in the concentration of photosynthetic and photoprotective pigments were noticeable by changes in phytoplankton community size structure as well as in aph∗(λ). This study revealed that a higher proportion of picophytoplankton and an increase in photoprotective pigments (mainly driven by zeaxanthin) tended to be responsible for the higher aph∗(λ) values found in the Red Sea as compared to other oligotrophic regions with similar [TChl a]. Understanding this variability across the Red Sea may help improve the accuracy of biogeochemical parameters, such as [TChl a], derived from in situ measurements and ocean color remote sensing at a regional scale.

  2. Electrical 2π phase control of infrared light in a 350-nm footprint using graphene plasmons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woessner, Achim; Gao, Yuanda; Torre, Iacopo; Lundeberg, Mark B.; Tan, Cheng; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Hillenbrand, Rainer; Hone, James; Polini, Marco; Koppens, Frank H. L.

    2017-07-01

    Modulating the amplitude and phase of light is at the heart of many applications such as wavefront shaping, transformation optics, phased arrays, modulators and sensors. Performing this task with high efficiency and small footprint is a formidable challenge. Metasurfaces and plasmonics are promising, but metals exhibit weak electro-optic effects. Two-dimensional materials, such as graphene, have shown great performance as modulators with small drive voltages. Here, we show a graphene plasmonic phase modulator that is capable of tuning the phase between 0 and 2π in situ. The device length of 350 nm is more than 30 times shorter than the 10.6 μm free-space wavelength. The modulation is achieved by spatially controlling the plasmon phase velocity in a device where the spatial carrier density profile is tunable. We provide a scattering theory for plasmons propagating through spatial density profiles. This work constitutes a first step towards two-dimensional transformation optics for ultracompact modulators and biosensing.

  3. Effect of red dyes on blue light phototoxicity against VSC producing bacteria in an experimental oral biofilm.

    PubMed

    Jeffet, U; Nasrallah, R; Sterer, N

    2016-11-21

    Oral malodour is considered to be caused mainly by the production of volatile sulfide compounds (VSC) by anaerobic Gram-negative oral bacteria. Previous study showed that these bacteria were susceptible to blue light (wavelengths of 400-500 nm). In the present study, we tested the effect of blue light in the presence of red dyes on malodour production in an experimental oral biofilm. Biofilms were exposed to a plasma-arc light source for 30, 60, and 120 s (i.e. fluences of 41, 82, and 164 J cm -2 , respectively) with the addition of erythrosine, natural red and rose bengal (0.01, 0.1 and 1% w/v). Following light exposure biofilm samples were examined for malodour production (Odour judge), VSC production (Halimeter ™ ), VSC producing bacteria quantification using microscopy sulfide assay (MSA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Results showed that the exposure of experimental oral biofilm to blue light in the presence of rose bengal caused an increased reduction in VSC and malodour production concomitant with an increase in ROS production. These results suggest that rose bengal might be effective as a blue light photosensitizer against VSC producing bacteria.

  4. Disinfection and healing effects of 222-nm UVC light on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in mouse wounds.

    PubMed

    Narita, Kouji; Asano, Krisana; Morimoto, Yukihiro; Igarashi, Tatsushi; Hamblin, Michael R; Dai, Tianhong; Nakane, Akio

    2018-01-01

    UVC radiation is known to be highly germicidal. However, exposure to 254-nm-UVC light causes DNA lesions such as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) in human cells, and can induce skin cancer after long-term repeated exposures. It has been reported that short wavelength UVC is absorbed by proteins in the membrane and cytosol, and fails to reach the nucleus of human cells. Hence, irradiation with 222-nm UVC might be an optimum combination of effective disinfection and biological safety to human cells. In this study, the biological effectiveness of 222-nm UVC was investigated using a mouse model of a skin wound infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Irradiation with 222-nm UVC significantly reduced bacterial numbers on the skin surface compared with non-irradiated skin. Bacterial counts in wounds evaluated on days 3, 5, 8 and 12 after irradiation demonstrated that the bactericidal effect of 222-nm UVC was equal to or more effective than 254-nm UVC. Histological analysis revealed that migration of keratinocytes which is essential for the wound healing process was impaired in wounds irradiated with 254-nm UVC, but was unaffected in 222-nm UVC irradiated wounds. No CPD-expressing cells were detected in either epidermis or dermis of wounds irradiated with 222-nm UVC, whereas CPD-expressing cells were found in both epidermis and dermis irradiation with 254-nm UVC. These results suggest that 222-nm UVC light may be a safe and effective way to reduce the rate of surgical site and other wound infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A comparison between red and infrared light for recording pulpal blood flow from human anterior teeth with a laser Doppler flow meter.

    PubMed

    Kijsamanmith, Kanittha; Timpawat, Siriporn; Vongsavan, Noppakun; Matthews, Bruce

    2011-06-01

    To compare red (635 nm) and infrared (780 nm) light for recording pulpal blood flow from human anterior teeth with a laser Doppler flow meter. Recordings were made from 7 healthy teeth in 5 subjects (aged 22-55 years) using a laser Doppler flow meter (Periflux 4001) equipped with both red and infrared lasers. Average blood flow signals were obtained with both light sources alternately from each tooth under five conditions: intact tooth without opaque rubber dam, intact tooth with dam, after injecting local anaesthetic (3% Mepivacaine) (LA) over the apex of the tooth and cavity preparation to almost expose the pulp, after removal and replacement of the pulp, and with the root canal empty. With infrared light, because of technical limitations, data were obtained for the first three conditions only. The dam significantly decreased the mean blood flow by 82%. Injecting LA and cavity preparation had no significant effect. With red light, dam produced a decrease of 56%, and the resulting signal was reduced by 33% after LA and cavity preparation. The remaining signal fell by 46% after pulp removal and replacement. This contribution of the pulp is similar to that recorded previously with infrared light. There was no significant further change when the pulp was finally removed. The importance of using opaque rubber dam is confirmed. With dam, there is no advantage to using red rather than infrared light, and in each case the pulp contributes less than 50% to the blood flow signal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Long term stable deep red light-emitting electrochemical cells based on an emissive, rigid cationic Ir(iii) complex

    DOE PAGES

    Namanga, Jude E.; Ruhr-Univ. Bochum, Bochum; Gerlitzki, Niels; ...

    2017-02-17

    Here, the new cationic iridium complex [Ir(bzq) 2(biq)][PF 6] (bzq = benzo[ h]quinolinato and biq = 2,2'-biquinoline) has been synthesized for application as an emitter in light emitting electrochemical cells (LECs). The molecular structure and crystal packing of this complex were established by single X-ray diffraction (SXRD). The electrochemical and photophysical properties of the complex were examined to determine the frontier orbital energies as well as the optical transitions that led to photoemission. The complex was found to emit at 644 nm and 662 nm for powder and thin films, respectively. A high powder photoluminescence quantum yield of 25% wasmore » determined, which is attributed to a reduction in vibrational modes of the complex due to the use of the rigid cyclometalated (C^N) bzq ligand. A LEC with [Ir(bzq) 2(biq)][PF 6] as the emitter was fabricated which showed a deep red emission (662 nm) with a luminance of 33.65 cd m –2, yielding a current efficiency of 0.33 cd A –1 and a power efficiency of 0.2 lm W –1. Most importantly, the LEC based on [Ir(bzq) 2(biq)][PF 6] demonstrated a lifetime of 280 hours which is among the longest device lifetimes reported for any deep red light emitting LEC.« less

  7. Long term stable deep red light-emitting electrochemical cells based on an emissive, rigid cationic Ir(iii) complex

    SciTech Connect

    Namanga, Jude E.; Ruhr-Univ. Bochum, Bochum; Gerlitzki, Niels

    Here, the new cationic iridium complex [Ir(bzq) 2(biq)][PF 6] (bzq = benzo[ h]quinolinato and biq = 2,2'-biquinoline) has been synthesized for application as an emitter in light emitting electrochemical cells (LECs). The molecular structure and crystal packing of this complex were established by single X-ray diffraction (SXRD). The electrochemical and photophysical properties of the complex were examined to determine the frontier orbital energies as well as the optical transitions that led to photoemission. The complex was found to emit at 644 nm and 662 nm for powder and thin films, respectively. A high powder photoluminescence quantum yield of 25% wasmore » determined, which is attributed to a reduction in vibrational modes of the complex due to the use of the rigid cyclometalated (C^N) bzq ligand. A LEC with [Ir(bzq) 2(biq)][PF 6] as the emitter was fabricated which showed a deep red emission (662 nm) with a luminance of 33.65 cd m –2, yielding a current efficiency of 0.33 cd A –1 and a power efficiency of 0.2 lm W –1. Most importantly, the LEC based on [Ir(bzq) 2(biq)][PF 6] demonstrated a lifetime of 280 hours which is among the longest device lifetimes reported for any deep red light emitting LEC.« less

  8. The Influence of Red Light Exposure at Night on Circadian Metabolism and Physiology in Sprague–Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dauchy, Robert T; Wren, Melissa A; Dauchy, Erin M; Hoffman, Aaron E; Hanifin, John P; Warfield, Benjamin; Jablonski, Michael R; Brainard, George C; Hill, Steven M; Mao, Lulu; Dobek, Georgina L; Dupepe, Lynell M; Blask, David E

    2015-01-01

    Early studies on rodents showed that short-term exposure to high-intensity light (> 70 lx) above 600 nm (red-appearing) influences circadian neuroendocrine and metabolic physiology. Here we addressed the hypothesis that long-term, low-intensity red light exposure at night (rLEN) from a ‘safelight’ emitting no light below approximately 620 nm disrupts the nocturnal circadian melatonin signal as well as circadian rhythms in circulating metabolites, related regulatory hormones, and physiologic parameters. Male Sprague–Dawley rats (n = 12 per group) were maintained on control 12:12-h light:dark (300 lx; lights on, 0600) or experimental 12:12 rLEN (8.1 lx) lighting regimens. After 1 wk, rats underwent 6 low-volume blood draws via cardiocentesis (0400, 0800, 1200, 1600, 2000, and 2400) over a 4-wk period to assess arterial plasma melatonin, total fatty acid, glucose, lactic acid, pO2, pCO2, insulin, leptin and corticosterone concentrations. Results revealed plasma melatonin levels (mean ± 1 SD) were high in the dark phase (197.5 ± 4.6 pg/mL) and low in the light phase (2.6 ± 1.2 pg/mL) of control conditions and significantly lower than controls under experimental conditions throughout the 24-h period (P < 0.001). Prominent circadian rhythms of plasma levels of total fatty acid, glucose, lactic acid, pO2, pCO2, insulin, leptin, and corticosterone were significantly (P < 0.05) disrupted under experimental conditions as compared with the corresponding entrained rhythms under control conditions. Therefore, chronic use of low-intensity rLEN from a common safelight disrupts the circadian organization of neuroendocrine, metabolic, and physiologic parameters indicative of animal health and wellbeing. PMID:25651090

  9. Particle detection for patterned wafers of 100nm design rule by evanescent light illumination: analysis of evanescent light scattering using Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshioka, Toshie; Miyoshi, Takashi; Takaya, Yasuhiro

    2005-12-01

    To realize high productivity and reliability of the semiconductor, patterned wafers inspection technology to maintain high yield becomes essential in modern semiconductor manufacturing processes. As circuit feature is scaled below 100nm, the conventional imaging and light scattering methods are impossible to apply to the patterned wafers inspection technique, because of diffraction limit and lower S/N ratio. So, we propose a new particle detection method using annular evanescent light illumination. In this method, a converging annular light used as a light source is incident on a micro-hemispherical lens. When the converging angle is larger than critical angle, annular evanescent light is generated under the bottom surface of the hemispherical lens. Evanescent light is localized near by the bottom surface and decays exponentially away from the bottom surface. So, the evanescent light selectively illuminates the particles on the patterned wafer surface, because it can't illuminate the patterned wafer surface. The proposed method evaluates particles on a patterned wafer surface by detecting scattered evanescent light distribution from particles. To analyze the fundamental characteristics of the proposed method, the computer simulation was performed using FDTD method. The simulation results show that the proposed method is effective for detecting 100nm size particle on patterned wafer of 100nm lines and spaces, particularly under the condition that the evanescent light illumination with p-polarization and parallel incident to the line orientation. Finally, the experiment results suggest that 220nm size particle on patterned wafer of about 200nm lines and spaces can be detected.

  10. Light adaptation of the unicellular red alga, Cyanidioschyzon merolae, probed by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Yoshifumi; Aikawa, Shimpei; Kondo, Akihiko; Akimoto, Seiji

    2015-08-01

    Photosynthetic organisms change the quantity and/or quality of their pigment-protein complexes and the interactions among these complexes in response to light conditions. In the present study, we analyzed light adaptation of the unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae, whose pigment composition is similar to that of cyanobacteria because its phycobilisomes (PBS) lack phycoerythrin. C. merolae were grown under different light qualities, and their responses were measured by steady-state absorption, steady-state fluorescence, and picosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopies. Cells were cultivated under four monochromatic light-emitting diodes (blue, green, yellow, and red), and changes in pigment composition and energy transfer were observed. Cells grown under blue and green light increased their relative phycocyanin levels compared with cells cultured under white light. Energy-transfer processes to photosystem I (PSI) were sensitive to yellow and red light. The contribution of direct energy transfer from PBS to PSI increased only under yellow light, while red light induced a reduction in energy transfer from photosystem II to PSI and an increase in energy transfer from light-harvesting chlorophyll protein complex I to PSI. Differences in pigment composition, growth, and energy transfer under different light qualities are discussed.

  11. Red light running in Iowa : the scope, impact, and possible implications.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-01-01

    Crashes related to red light running account for more than 800 deaths and thousands : of injuries each year in the United States. Many states and local jurisdictions : have undertaken studies and enacted programs in reaction to this major transportat...

  12. Feasibility of Using Video Cameras for Automated Enforcement on Red-Light Running and Managed Lanes.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-12-01

    The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility, effectiveness, legality, and public acceptance aspects of automated enforcement on red light running and high occupancy vehicle (HOV) occupancy requirement using video cameras in Nev...

  13. Feasibility of Using Video Camera for Automated Enforcement on Red-Light Running and Managed Lanes.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-12-25

    The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility, effectiveness, legality, and public acceptance aspects of automated enforcement on red light running and HOV occupancy requirement using video cameras in Nevada. This objective was a...

  14. Association of Selected Intersection Factors with Red-Light-Running Crashes

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-05-01

    Red-Light-Running (RLR) crashes represent a significant safety problem that warrants attention. It can be hypothesized that the majority of these crashes result from inadvertent driver error or intentional violation. However, very little is known abo...

  15. Using Meta Analysis Techniques to Assess the Safety Effect of Red Light Running Cameras

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-02-01

    Automated enforcement programs, including automated systems that are used to enforce red light running violations, have recently come under scrutiny regarding their value in terms of improving safety, their primary purpose. One of the major hurdles t...

  16. Red light running in Iowa : the scope, impact, and possible implications.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-12-01

    Crashes related to traffic signal violations, or red light running, account for more than 800 deaths : and thousands of injuries each year in the United States. Many states and local jurisdictions have : undertaken studies and enacted programs in rea...

  17. Considerations on the relationship between white and red centerline runway lights and RVR (Runway Visual Range).

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1972-01-01

    The runway visual range (RVR) for a Type L-850 bidirectional centerline runway light has been calculated for the red and white output ports at three different current settings for both day and night illuminance thresholds. The calculations are based ...

  18. Green light drives leaf photosynthesis more efficiently than red light in strong white light: revisiting the enigmatic question of why leaves are green.

    PubMed

    Terashima, Ichiro; Fujita, Takashi; Inoue, Takeshi; Chow, Wah Soon; Oguchi, Riichi

    2009-04-01

    The literature and our present examinations indicate that the intra-leaf light absorption profile is in most cases steeper than the photosynthetic capacity profile. In strong white light, therefore, the quantum yield of photosynthesis would be lower in the upper chloroplasts, located near the illuminated surface, than that in the lower chloroplasts. Because green light can penetrate further into the leaf than red or blue light, in strong white light, any additional green light absorbed by the lower chloroplasts would increase leaf photosynthesis to a greater extent than would additional red or blue light. Based on the assessment of effects of the additional monochromatic light on leaf photosynthesis, we developed the differential quantum yield method that quantifies efficiency of any monochromatic light in white light. Application of this method to sunflower leaves clearly showed that, in moderate to strong white light, green light drove photosynthesis more effectively than red light. The green leaf should have a considerable volume of chloroplasts to accommodate the inefficient carboxylation enzyme, Rubisco, and deliver appropriate light to all the chloroplasts. By using chlorophylls that absorb green light weakly, modifying mesophyll structure and adjusting the Rubisco/chlorophyll ratio, the leaf appears to satisfy two somewhat conflicting requirements: to increase the absorptance of photosynthetically active radiation, and to drive photosynthesis efficiently in all the chloroplasts. We also discuss some serious problems that are caused by neglecting these intra-leaf profiles when estimating whole leaf electron transport rates and assessing photoinhibition by fluorescence techniques.

  19. A conceptual framework for dynamic extension of the red clearance interval as a countermeasure for red-light-running.

    PubMed

    Gates, Timothy J; Noyce, David A

    2016-11-01

    This manuscript describes the development and evaluation of a conceptual framework for real-time operation of dynamic on-demand extension of the red clearance interval as a countermeasure for red-light-running. The framework includes a decision process for determining, based on the real-time status of vehicles arriving at the intersection, when extension of the red clearance interval should occur and the duration of each extension. A zonal classification scheme was devised to assess whether an approaching vehicle requires additional time to safely clear the intersection based on the remaining phase time, type of vehicle, current speed, and current distance from the intersection. Expected performance of the conceptual framework was evaluated through modeling of replicated field operations using vehicular event data collected as part of this research. The results showed highly accurate classification of red-light-running vehicles needing additional clearance time and relatively few false extension calls from stopping vehicles, thereby minimizing the expected impacts to signal and traffic operations. Based on the recommended parameters, extension calls were predicted to occur once every 26.5cycles. Assuming a 90scycle, 1.5 extensions per hour were expected per approach, with an estimated extension time of 2.30s/h. Although field implementation was not performed, it is anticipated that long-term reductions in targeted red-light-running conflicts and crashes will likely occur if red clearance interval extension systems are implemented at locations where start-up delay on the conflicting approach is generally minimal, such as intersections with lag left-turn phasing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Phytochrome mediates red-light-based positive phototropism in Arabidopsis roots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correll, M.; Mullen, J.; Hangarter, R.; Kiss, J.

    Plants rely on sophisticated mechanisms to interpret the constant bombardment of incoming signals so they can adjust their growth accordingly. The environmental cues of gravity and light are particularly important for plant growth and development. While gravitropism has been extensively studied in roots, there has been increased emphasis on understanding the cellular and molecular basis of root phototropism. In addition to the blue-light-based negative phototropism, roots also exhibit a recently discovered positive phototropism in response to red light. In this paper, we characterize this red-light-based phototropism in roots of Arabidopsis.

  1. Exposing broiler eggs to green, red and white light during incubation.

    PubMed

    Archer, G S

    2017-07-01

    Previous work has shown that exposing broiler eggs to white light during incubation can improve hatchability and post-hatch animal welfare. It was hypothesized that due to how different wavelengths of light can affect avian physiology differently, and how pigmented eggshells filter light that different monochromatic wavelengths would have differential effects on hatchability and post-hatch animal welfare indicators. To determine, we incubated chicken eggs (n=6912) under either no light (dark), green light, red light or white light; the light level was 250 lux. White and red light were observed to increase hatch of fertile (P0.05). Fear response of during isolation and tonic immobility was reduced (P0.05) from dark incubated broilers. All light incubated broilers had lower (P<0.05) plasma corticosterone and higher (P<0.05) plasma serotonin concentrations than dark incubated broilers. These results indicate that white light and red light that is a component of it are possibly the key spectrum to improving hatchability and lower fear and stress susceptibility, whereas green light is not as effective. Incubating broiler eggs under these spectrums could be used to improve hatchery efficiency and post-hatch animal welfare at the same time.

  2. Design and optimization of a volume-phase holographic grating for simultaneous use with red, green, and blue light using unpolarized light.

    PubMed

    Mahamat, Adoum H; Narducci, Frank A; Schwiegerling, James

    2016-03-01

    Volume-phase holographic (VPH) gratings have been designed for use in many areas of science and technology, such as optical communication, optical imaging, and astronomy. In this paper, the design of a volume-phase holographic grating, simultaneously optimized to operate in the red, green, and blue wavelengths, is presented along with a study of its fabrication tolerances. The grating is optimized to produce 98% efficiency at λ=532  nm and at least 75% efficiency in the region between 400 and 700 nm, when the incident light is unpolarized. The optimization is done for recording in dichromated gelatin with a thickness of 12 μm, an average refractive index of 1.5, and a refractive index modulation of 0.022.

  3. Far Red and White Light-promoted Utilization of Calcium by Seedlings of Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    PubMed

    Helms, K; David, D J

    1973-01-01

    The cotyledons and embryo axes of seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Pinto contained 16% of the total calcium in the seed. The remaining 84% was in the testas. There was no evidence that calcium in testas was used in seedling growth or that calcium was leached from seedlings during growth.An external supply of calcium decreased the incidence of hypocotyl collapse (a severe symptom of calcium deficiency), increased the calcium content of all organs, and increased the dry weight of all organs except cotyledons. Light treatments decreased the incidence of hypocotyl collapse and increased the calcium content and dry weight of all organs except cotyledons and hypocotyls.White light was more effective than far red light for decreasing incidence of hypocotyl collapse. Usually the effects of white light and far red light on the calcium content and dry weight of organs were similar, and usually those of white light were quantitatively greater than those of far red light. It is suggested that the light-promoted effects were associated with photomorphogenesis and that differences in data obtained with white light and far red light could be associated with photosynthesis.

  4. Exploring unobserved heterogeneity in bicyclists' red-light running behaviors at different crossing facilities.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yanyong; Li, Zhibin; Wu, Yao; Xu, Chengcheng

    2018-06-01

    Bicyclists running the red light at crossing facilities increase the potential of colliding with motor vehicles. Exploring the contributing factors could improve the prediction of running red-light probability and develop countermeasures to reduce such behaviors. However, individuals could have unobserved heterogeneities in running a red light, which make the accurate prediction more challenging. Traditional models assume that factor parameters are fixed and cannot capture the varying impacts on red-light running behaviors. In this study, we employed the full Bayesian random parameters logistic regression approach to account for the unobserved heterogeneous effects. Two types of crossing facilities were considered which were the signalized intersection crosswalks and the road segment crosswalks. Electric and conventional bikes were distinguished in the modeling. Data were collected from 16 crosswalks in urban area of Nanjing, China. Factors such as individual characteristics, road geometric design, environmental features, and traffic variables were examined. Model comparison indicates that the full Bayesian random parameters logistic regression approach is statistically superior to the standard logistic regression model. More red-light runners are predicted at signalized intersection crosswalks than at road segment crosswalks. Factors affecting red-light running behaviors are gender, age, bike type, road width, presence of raised median, separation width, signal type, green ratio, bike and vehicle volume, and average vehicle speed. Factors associated with the unobserved heterogeneity are gender, bike type, signal type, separation width, and bike volume. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of 405nm CW visible blue light as a means of inactivating Tulane Virus on Blueberries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction: Visible blue light (405nm) is effective against bacteria but its potential as a nonthermal intervention for viruses on foods, such as berries that are prone to norovirus contamination has not been evaluated. Tulane virus (TV) is now a common human norovirus surrogate that can be propa...

  6. 4 Gbps direct modulation of 450 nm GaN laser for high-speed visible light communication.

    PubMed

    Lee, Changmin; Zhang, Chong; Cantore, Michael; Farrell, Robert M; Oh, Sang Ho; Margalith, Tal; Speck, James S; Nakamura, Shuji; Bowers, John E; DenBaars, Steven P

    2015-06-15

    We demonstrate high-speed data transmission with a commercial high power GaN laser diode at 450 nm. 2.6 GHz bandwidth was achieved at an injection current of 500 mA using a high-speed visible light communication setup. Record high 4 Gbps free-space data transmission rate was achieved at room temperature.

  7. Squeezed light at 1550 nm with a quantum noise reduction of 12.3 dB.

    PubMed

    Mehmet, Moritz; Ast, Stefan; Eberle, Tobias; Steinlechner, Sebastian; Vahlbruch, Henning; Schnabel, Roman

    2011-12-05

    Continuous-wave squeezed states of light at the wavelength of 1550 nm have recently been demonstrated, but so far the obtained factors of noise suppression still lag behind today's best squeezing values demonstrated at 1064 nm. Here we report on the realization of a half-monolithic nonlinear resonator based on periodically-poled potassium titanyl phosphate which enabled the direct detection of up to 12.3 dB of squeezing at 5 MHz. Squeezing was observed down to a frequency of 2 kHz which is well within the detection band of gravitational wave interferometers. Our results suggest that a long-term stable 1550 nm squeezed light source can be realized with strong squeezing covering the entire detection band of a 3rd generation gravitational-wave detector such as the Einstein Telescope.

  8. Spectral cola or how to turn green laser light red

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forró, Csaba; Mettan, Xavier; Humair, Thibaud

    2014-11-01

    A green laser pointer shone through a glass of cola will appear red when looking from above the glass. Lowering the laser so that it is deeper in the cola, the colour will vary from orange to deep red. Fluorescence and absorption spectra were recorded consistent with the reddening of the laser. The depth dependence of the colour of the immersed laser is attributed to a more significant absorption of the short wavelengths by the cola, making the laser look redder as it is lowered deeper into the cola. To confirm this hypothesis, we simulated the fluorescence spectrum we would get at various depths by applying the Lambert law on our measured fluorescence spectrum. These spectra were then converted into red, green and blue (RGB) values. These values were compared to those measured on images of the immersed laser beam at corresponding depths.

  9. Red and orange laser operation of Pr:KYF4 pumped by a Nd:YAG/LBO laser at 469.1 nm and a InGaN laser diode at 444 nm.

    PubMed

    Xu, B; Starecki, F; Pabœuf, D; Camy, P; Doualan, J L; Cai, Z P; Braud, A; Moncorgé, R; Goldner, Ph; Bretenaker, F

    2013-03-11

    We report the basic luminescence properties and the continuous-wave (CW) laser operation of a Pr(3+)-doped KYF(4) single crystal in the Red and Orange spectral regions by using a new pumping scheme. The pump source is an especially developed, compact, slightly tunable and intra-cavity frequency-doubled diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser delivering a CW output power up to about 1.4 W around 469.1 nm. At this pump wavelength, red and orange laser emissions are obtained at about 642.3 and 605.5 nm, with maximum output powers of 11.3 and 1 mW and associated slope efficiencies of 9.3% and 3.4%, with respect to absorbed pump powers, respectively. For comparison, the Pr:KYF(4) crystal is also pumped by a InGaN blue laser diode operating around 444 nm. In this case, the same red and orange lasers are obtained, but with maximum output powers of 7.8 and 2 mW and the associated slope efficiencies of 7 and 5.8%, respectively. Wavelength tuning for the two lasers is demonstrated by slightly tilting the crystal. Orange laser operation and laser wavelength tuning are reported for the first time.

  10. Evaluating the effectiveness of red light running camera enforcement in Cedar Rapids and developing guidelines for selection and use of red light running countermeasures.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-11-01

    Red light running (RLR) is a problem in the US that has resulted in 165,000 injuries and 907 fatalities annually. In Iowa, RLR-related crashes make up 24.5 percent of all crashes and account for 31.7 percent of fatal and major injury crashes at signa...

  11. Effects of red light camera enforcement on fatal crashes in large U.S. cities.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wen; McCartt, Anne T; Teoh, Eric R

    2011-08-01

    To estimate the effects of red light camera enforcement on per capita fatal crash rates at intersections with signal lights. From the 99 large U.S. cities with more than 200,000 residents in 2008, 14 cities were identified with red light camera enforcement programs for all of 2004-2008 but not at any time during 1992-1996, and 48 cities were identified without camera programs during either period. Analyses compared the citywide per capita rate of fatal red light running crashes and the citywide per capita rate of all fatal crashes at signalized intersections during the two study periods, and rate changes then were compared for cities with and without cameras programs. Poisson regression was used to model crash rates as a function of red light camera enforcement, land area, and population density. The average annual rate of fatal red light running crashes declined for both study groups, but the decline was larger for cities with red light camera enforcement programs than for cities without camera programs (35% vs. 14%). The average annual rate of all fatal crashes at signalized intersections decreased by 14% for cities with camera programs and increased slightly (2%) for cities without cameras. After controlling for population density and land area, the rate of fatal red light running crashes during 2004-2008 for cities with camera programs was an estimated 24% lower than what would have been expected without cameras. The rate of all fatal crashes at signalized intersections during 2004-2008 for cities with camera programs was an estimated 17% lower than what would have been expected without cameras. Red light camera enforcement programs were associated with a statistically significant reduction in the citywide rate of fatal red light running crashes and a smaller but still significant reduction in the rate of all fatal crashes at signalized intersections. The study adds to the large body of evidence that red light camera enforcement can prevent the most serious

  12. Root-shoot interaction in the greening of wheat seedlings grown under red light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathy, B. C.; Brown, C. S.

    1995-01-01

    Wheat seedlings grown with roots exposed to constant red light (300-500 micromoles m-2 s-1) did not accumulate chlorophyll in the leaves. In contrast, seedlings grown with their roots shielded from light accumulated chlorophylls. Chlorophyll biosynthesis could be induced in red-light-grown chlorophyll-deficient yellow plants by either reducing the red-light intensity at the root surface to 100 micromoles m-1 s-1 or supplementing with 6% blue light. The inhibition of chlorophyll biosynthesis was due to impairment of the Mg-chelatase enzyme working at the origin of the Mg-tetrapyrrole pathway. The root-perceived photomorphogenic inhibition of shoot greening demonstrates root-shoot interaction in the greening process.

  13. A Temporarily Red Light-Insensitive Mutant of Tomato Lacks a Light-Stable, B-Like Phytochrome.

    PubMed Central

    Van Tuinen, A.; Kerckhoffs, LHJ.; Nagatani, A.; Kendrick, R. E.; Koornneef, M.

    1995-01-01

    We have selected four recessive mutants in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) that, under continuous red light (R), have long hypocotyls and small cotyledons compared to wild type (WT), a phenotype typical of phytochrome B (phyB) mutants of other species. These mutants, which are allelic, are only insensitive to R during the first 2 days upon transition from darkness to R, and therefore we propose the gene symbol tri (temporarily red light insensitive). White light-grown mutant plants have a more elongated growth habit than that of the WT. An immunochemically and spectrophotometrically detectable phyB-like polypeptide detectable in the WT is absent or below detection limits in the tri1 mutant. In contrast to the absence of an elongation growth response to far-red light (FR) given at the end of the daily photoperiod (EODFR) in all phyB-deficient mutants so far characterized, the tri1 mutant responds to EODFR treatment. The tri1 mutant also shows a strong response to supplementary daytime far-red light. We propose that the phyB-like phytochrome deficient in the tri mutants plays a major role during de-etiolation and that other light-stable phytochromes can regulate the EODFR and shade-avoidance responses in tomato. PMID:12228517

  14. Dead Star Warps Light of Red Star Artist Animation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-04

    This artist concept depicts an ultra-dense dead star, called a white dwarf, passing in front of a small red star. NASA planet-hunting Kepler was able to detect gravitational lensing by measuring a strangely subtle dip in the star brightness.

  15. Photomorphogenesis, photosynthesis, and seed yield of wheat plants grown under red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with and without supplemental blue lighting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goins, G. D.; Yorio, N. C.; Sanwo, M. M.; Brown, C. S.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are a potential light source for growing plants in spaceflight systems because of their safety, small mass and volume, wavelength specificity, and longevity. Despite these attractive features, red LEDs must satisfy requirements for plant photosynthesis and photomorphogenesis for successful growth and seed yield. To determine the influence of gallium aluminium arsenide (GaAlAs) red LEDs on wheat photomorphogenesis, photosynthesis, and seed yield, wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. 'USU-Super Dwarf') plants were grown under red LEDs and compared to plants grown under daylight fluorescent (white) lamps and red LEDs supplemented with either 1% or 10% blue light from blue fluorescent (BF) lamps. Compared to white light-grown plants, wheat grown under red LEDs alone demonstrated less main culm development during vegetative growth through preanthesis, while showing a longer flag leaf at 40 DAP and greater main culm length at final harvest (70 DAP). As supplemental BF light was increased with red LEDs, shoot dry matter and net leaf photosynthesis rate increased. At final harvest, wheat grown under red LEDs alone displayed fewer subtillers and a lower seed yield compared to plants grown under white light. Wheat grown under red LEDs+10% BF light had comparable shoot dry matter accumulation and seed yield relative to wheat grown under white light. These results indicate that wheat can complete its life cycle under red LEDs alone, but larger plants and greater amounts of seed are produced in the presence of red LEDs supplemented with a quantity of blue light.

  16. Response of bats to light with different spectra: light-shy and agile bat presence is affected by white and green, but not red light

    PubMed Central

    van Grunsven, Roy H. A.; Ramakers, Jip J. C.; Ferguson, Kim B.; Raap, Thomas; Donners, Maurice; Veenendaal, Elmar M.; Visser, Marcel E.

    2017-01-01

    Artificial light at night has shown a remarkable increase over the past decades. Effects are reported for many species groups, and include changes in presence, behaviour, physiology and life-history traits. Among these, bats are strongly affected, and how bat species react to light is likely to vary with light colour. Different spectra may therefore be applied to reduce negative impacts. We used a unique set-up of eight field sites to study the response of bats to three different experimental light spectra in an otherwise dark and undisturbed natural habitat. We measured activity of three bat species groups around transects with light posts emitting white, green and red light with an intensity commonly used to illuminate countryside roads. The results reveal a strong and spectrum-dependent response for the slow-flying Myotis and Plecotus and more agile Pipistrellus species, but not for Nyctalus and Eptesicus species. Plecotus and Myotis species avoided white and green light, but were equally abundant in red light and darkness. The agile, opportunistically feeding Pipistrellus species were significantly more abundant around white and green light, most likely because of accumulation of insects, but equally abundant in red illuminated transects compared to dark control. Forest-dwelling Myotis and Plecotus species and more synanthropic Pipistrellus species are thus least disturbed by red light. Hence, in order to limit the negative impact of light at night on bats, white and green light should be avoided in or close to natural habitat, but red lights may be used if illumination is needed. PMID:28566484

  17. Response of bats to light with different spectra: light-shy and agile bat presence is affected by white and green, but not red light.

    PubMed

    Spoelstra, Kamiel; van Grunsven, Roy H A; Ramakers, Jip J C; Ferguson, Kim B; Raap, Thomas; Donners, Maurice; Veenendaal, Elmar M; Visser, Marcel E

    2017-05-31

    Artificial light at night has shown a remarkable increase over the past decades. Effects are reported for many species groups, and include changes in presence, behaviour, physiology and life-history traits. Among these, bats are strongly affected, and how bat species react to light is likely to vary with light colour. Different spectra may therefore be applied to reduce negative impacts. We used a unique set-up of eight field sites to study the response of bats to three different experimental light spectra in an otherwise dark and undisturbed natural habitat. We measured activity of three bat species groups around transects with light posts emitting white, green and red light with an intensity commonly used to illuminate countryside roads. The results reveal a strong and spectrum-dependent response for the slow-flying Myotis and Plecotus and more agile Pipistrellus species, but not for Nyctalus and Eptesicus species. Plecotus and Myotis species avoided white and green light, but were equally abundant in red light and darkness. The agile, opportunistically feeding Pipistrellus species were significantly more abundant around white and green light, most likely because of accumulation of insects, but equally abundant in red illuminated transects compared to dark control. Forest-dwelling Myotis and Plecotus species and more synanthropic Pipistrellus species are thus least disturbed by red light. Hence, in order to limit the negative impact of light at night on bats, white and green light should be avoided in or close to natural habitat, but red lights may be used if illumination is needed. © 2017 The Author(s).

  18. Increased Expression of CCN2 in the Red Flashing Light-Induced Myopia in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong; Zhuang, Kang; Gao, Lei; Zhang, Linna; Yang, Hongling

    2013-01-01

    Visual environment plays an important role in the occurrence of myopia. We previously showed that the different flashing lights could result in distinct effects on the ocular growth and development of myopia. CCN2 has been reported to regulate various cellular functions and biological processes. However, whether CCN2 signaling was involved in the red flashing light-induced myopia still remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the red flashing lights exposure on the refraction and axial length of the eyes in vivo and then evaluated their effects on the expression of CCN2 and TGF-β in sclera tissues. Our data showed that the eyes exposed to the red flashing light became more myopic with a significant increase of the axial length and decrease of the refraction. Both CCN2 and TGF-β, as well as p38 MAPK and PI3K, were highly expressed in the sclera tissues exposed to the red flashing light. Both CCN2 and TGF-β were found to have the same gene expression profile in vivo. In conclusion, our findings found that CCN2 signaling pathway plays an important role in the red flashing light-induced myopia in vivo. Moreover, our study establishes a useful animal model for experimental myopia research. PMID:23936844

  19. Differential sensitivity of osteoblasts and bacterial pathogens to 405-nm light highlighting potential for decontamination applications in orthopedic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishnan, Praveen; Maclean, Michelle; MacGregor, Scott J.; Anderson, John G.; Grant, M. Helen

    2014-10-01

    Healthcare associated infections pose a major threat to patients admitted to hospitals and infection rates following orthopedic arthroplasty surgery are as high as 4%. A 405-nm high-intensity narrow spectrum light has been proven to reduce environmental contamination in hospital isolation rooms, and there is potential to develop this technology for application in arthroplasty surgery. Cultured rat osteoblasts were exposed to varying light intensities and it was found that exposures of up to a dose of 36 J/cm2 had no significant effect on cell viability [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay], function (alkaline phosphatase activity), and proliferation rate (BrdU cell proliferation assay). High irradiance exposures (54 J/cm2) significantly affected the cell viability indicating that the effects of 405-nm light on osteoblasts are dose dependent. Additionally, exposure of a variety of clinically related bacteria to a dose of 36 J/cm2 resulted in up to 100% kill. These results demonstrating the differential sensitivity of osteoblasts and bacteria to 405-nm light are an essential step toward developing the technique for decontamination in orthopedic surgery.

  20. Far red/near infrared light-induced cardioprotection under normal and diabetic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keszler, Agnes; Baumgardt, Shelley; Hwe, Christopher; Bienengraeber, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Far red/near infrared light (NIR) is beneficial against cardiac ischemia and reperfusion injury (I/R), although the exact underlying mechanism is unknown. Previously we established that NIR enhanced the cardioprotective effect of nitrite in the rabbit heart. Furthermore, we observed that the nitrosyl myoglobin (MbNO) level in ischemic tissue decreased upon irradiation of the heart. Our hypothesis was that protection against I/R is dependent on nitric oxide (NO)-release from heme-proteins, and remains present during diabetes. When mice were subjected to I/R NIR (660 nm) applied during the beginning of reperfusion reduced infarct size dose dependently compared to untreated animals. Similarly, the isolated (Langendorff) heart model resulted in sustained left ventricular diastolic pressure after I/R in NIR-treated hearts. NIRinduced protection was preserved in a diabetic mouse model (db/db) and during acute hyperglycemia. NIR liberated NO from nitrosyl hemoglobin (HbNO) and MbNO as well as from HbNO isolated from the blood of diabetic animals. In the Langendorff model, after application of the nitrosylated form of a hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier as an NO donor NIR induced an increase in NADH level, suggesting a mild inhibition of mitochondrial respiration by NO during reperfusion. Taken together, NIR applied during reperfusion protects the myocardium against I/R in a NO-dependent and mitochondrion-targeted manner. This unique mechanism is conserved under diabetic conditions where other protective strategies fail.

  1. Far-red light photoactivatable near-infrared fluorescent proteins engineered from a bacterial phytochrome.

    PubMed

    Piatkevich, Kiryl D; Subach, Fedor V; Verkhusha, Vladislav V

    2013-01-01

    The ability to modulate the fluorescence of optical probes can be used to enhance signal-to-noise ratios for imaging within highly autofluorescent environments, such as intact tissues and living organisms. Here, we report two bacteriophytochrome-based photoactivatable near-infrared fluorescent proteins, named PAiRFP1 and PAiRFP2. PAiRFPs utilize haem-derived biliverdin, ubiquitous in mammalian tissues, as the chromophore. Initially weakly fluorescent PAiRFPs undergo photoconversion into a highly fluorescent state with excitation/emission at 690/717 nm following a brief irradiation with far-red light. After photoactivation, PAiRFPs slowly revert back to initial state, enabling multiple photoactivation-relaxation cycles. Low-temperature optical spectroscopy reveals several intermediates involved in PAiRFP photocycles, which all differ from that of the bacteriophytochrome precursor. PAiRFPs can be photoactivated in a spatially selective manner in mouse tissues, and optical modulation of their fluorescence allows for substantial contrast enhancement, making PAiRFPs advantageous over permanently fluorescent probes for in vivo imaging conditions of high autofluorescence and low signal levels.

  2. Controllable red, green, blue (RGB) and bright white upconversion luminescence of Lu2O3:Yb3+/Er3+/Tm3+ nanocrystals through single laser excitation at 980 nm.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Zhang, Cuimiao; Peng, Chong; Li, Chunxia; Wang, Lili; Chai, Ruitao; Lin, Jun

    2009-01-01

    Light fantastic! Lu(2)O(3):Yb(3+)/Er(3+)/Tm(3+) nanocrystals with controllable red, green, blue (RGB) and bright white upconversion luminescence by a single laser excitation of 980 nm have been successfully synthesized (see picture). Due to abundant UC PL colors, it can potentially be used as fluorophores in the field of color displays, back light, UC lasers, photonics, and biomedicine.Lu(2)O(3):Yb(3+)/Er(3+)/Tm(3+) nanocrystals have been successfully synthesized by a solvothermal process followed by a subsequent heat treatment at 800 degrees C. Powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, upconversion photoluminescence spectra, and kinetic decay were used to characterize the samples. Under single-wavelength diode laser excitation of 980 nm, the bright blue emissions of Lu(2)O(3):Yb(3+), Tm(3+) nanocrystals near 477 and 490 nm were observed due to the (1)G(4)-->(3)H(6) transition of Tm(3+). The bright green UC emissions of Lu(2)O(3):Er(3+) nanocrystals appeared near 540 and 565 nm were observed and assigned to the (2)H(11/2)-->(4)I(15/2) and (4)S(3/2)-->(4)I(15/2) transitions, respectively, of Er(3+). The ratio of the intensity of green luminescence to that of red luminescence decreases with an increase of concentration of Yb(3+) in Lu(2)O(3):Er(3+) nanocrystals. In sufficient quantities of Yb(3+) with resprct to Er(3+), the bright red UC emission of Lu(2)O(3):Yb(3+)/Er(3+) centered at 662 nm was predominant, due to the (4)F(9/2)-->(4)I(15/2) transition of Er(3+). Based on the generation of red, green, and blue emissions in the different doped Lu(2)O(3):RE(3+) nanocrystals, it is possible to produce the luminescence with a wide spectrum of colors, including white, by the appropriate doping of Yb(3+), Tm(3+), and Er(3+) in the present Lu(2)O(3) nanocrystals. Namely, Lu(2)O(3):3 %Yb(3+)/0.2 %Tm(3+)/0.4 %Er(3+) nanocrystals show suitable intensities of blue, green, and red (RGB) emission, resulting in the production of perfect and bright white light

  3. In vitro bactericidal activity of 465-470 nm blue light phototherapy and aminolevulinic acid on Staphylococcus pseudintermedius.

    PubMed

    Bae, Seulgi; Oh, Taeho

    2018-05-30

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is the principal pathogen causing bacterial skin infections in dogs. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involving the combination of light and a topical photosensitizer is used to treat human skin infections. Although the antimicrobial effects of PDT have been demonstrated using in vivo and in vitro studies in humans, its effects on dogs and their pathogens are unclear. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the in vitro efficacy of PDT over a 465-470 nm spectrum to kill S. pseudintermedius using δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) as the photosensitizer. Six S. pseudintermedius isolates from canine skin were exposed to blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) at 465-470 nm, with or without ALA. The light doses were 18.4, 36.8 and 55.2 J/cm 2 . The number of colony-forming units and optical densities of broth cultures were measured and then compared with Dunnett's test. Bacterial viability was monitored using fluorescence microscopy and the fluorescence intensity values were compared with a paired Student's t-test. Blue light inhibited the growth of S. pseudintermedius; the effect significantly increased with the addition of ALA as a photosensitizer and with increasing light doses. Live/dead staining confirmed that PDT reduced bacterial viability and exerted an antibacterial effect. Blue light has a strong antibacterial effect on S. pseudintermedius in a light dose-dependent manner. ALA alone did not exhibit bactericidal action, but its combination with blue light increased the effect of PDT compared to blue light alone. © 2018 ESVD and ACVD.

  4. White light supercontinuum generation in a Y-shaped microstructured tapered fiber pumped at 1064 nm.

    PubMed

    Cascante-Vindas, J; Díez, A; Cruz, J L; Andrés, M V

    2010-07-05

    We report the generation of supercontinuum in a Ge-doped Y-shape tapered fiber pumped at 1064 nm in the ns pump regime. The taper was designed to have long taper transitions and a taper waist with a core diameter of 0.9 mum. The large air-filling fraction and diameter of the air-hole microstructure reduces the confinement loss at long wavelengths so, enabling the extension of the spectrum to longer wavelengths. Along the taper transition the zero-dispersion wavelength decreases as the diameter of the taper becomes smaller. The spectral components generated along the taper transition pump the taper waist, enhancing the generation of short wavelengths. A flat spectrum spanning from 420 nm to 1850 nm is reported.

  5. Differential response of Scots pine seedlings to variable intensity and ratio of red and far-red light.

    PubMed

    Razzak, Abdur; Ranade, Sonali Sachin; Strand, Åsa; García-Gil, M R

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the response to increasing intensity of red (R) and far-R (FR) light and to a decrease in R:FR ratio in Pinus sylvestris L. (Scots pine) seedling. The results showed that FR high-irradiance response for hypocotyl elongation may be present in Scots pine and that this response is enhanced by increasing light intensity. However, both hypocotyl inhibition and pigment accumulation were more strongly affected by the R light compared with FR light. This is in contrast to previous reports in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. In the angiosperm, A. thaliana R light shows an overall milder effect on inhibition of hypocotyl elongation and on pigment biosynthesis compared with FR suggesting conifers and angiosperms respond very differently to the different light regimes. Scots pine shade avoidance syndrome with longer hypocotyls, shorter cotyledons and lower chlorophyll content in response to shade conditions resembles the response observed in A. thaliana. However, anthocyanin accumulation increased with shade in Scots pine, which again differs from what is known in angiosperms. Overall, the response of seedling development and physiology to R and FR light in Scots pine indicates that the regulatory mechanism for light response may differ between gymnosperms and angiosperms. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Red fluorescence of the triplefin Tripterygion delaisi is increasingly visible against background light with increasing depth.

    PubMed

    Bitton, Pierre-Paul; Harant, Ulrike K; Fritsch, Roland; Champ, Connor M; Temple, Shelby E; Michiels, Nico K

    2017-03-01

    The light environment in water bodies changes with depth due to the absorption of short and long wavelengths. Below 10 m depth, red wavelengths are almost completely absent rendering any red-reflecting animal dark and achromatic. However, fluorescence may produce red coloration even when red light is not available for reflection. A large number of marine taxa including over 270 fish species are known to produce red fluorescence, yet it is unclear under which natural light environment fluorescence contributes perceptively to their colours. To address this question we: (i) characterized the visual system of Tripterygion delaisi, which possesses fluorescent irides, (ii) separated the colour of the irides into its reflectance and fluorescence components and (iii) combined these data with field measurements of the ambient light environment to calculate depth-dependent perceptual chromatic and achromatic contrasts using visual modelling. We found that triplefins have cones with at least three different spectral sensitivities, including differences between the two members of the double cones, giving them the potential for trichromatic colour vision. We also show that fluorescence contributes increasingly to the radiance of the irides with increasing depth. Our results support the potential functionality of red fluorescence, including communicative roles such as species and sex identity, and non-communicative roles such as camouflage.

  7. Phytochromes A and B Mediate Red-Light-Induced Positive Phototropism in Roots1

    PubMed Central

    Kiss, John Z.; Mullen, Jack L.; Correll, Melanie J.; Hangarter, Roger P.

    2003-01-01

    The interaction of tropisms is important in determining the final growth form of the plant body. In roots, gravitropism is the predominant tropistic response, but phototropism also plays a role in the oriented growth of roots in flowering plants. In blue or white light, roots exhibit negative phototropism that is mediated by the phototropin family of photoreceptors. In contrast, red light induces a positive phototropism in Arabidopsis roots. Because this red-light-induced response is weak relative to both gravitropism and negative phototropism, we used a novel device to study phototropism without the complications of a counteracting gravitational stimulus. This device is based on a computer-controlled system using real-time image analysis of root growth and a feedback-regulated rotatable stage. Our data show that this system is useful to study root phototropism in response to red light, because in wild-type roots, the maximal curvature detected with this apparatus is 30° to 40°, compared with 5° to 10° without the feedback system. In positive root phototropism, sensing of red light occurs in the root itself and is not dependent on shoot-derived signals resulting from light perception. Phytochrome (Phy)A and phyB were severely impaired in red-light-induced phototropism, whereas the phyD and phyE mutants were normal in this response. Thus, PHYA and PHYB play a key role in mediating red-light-dependent positive phototropism in roots. Although phytochrome has been shown to mediate phototropism in some lower plant groups, this is one of the few reports indicating a phytochrome-dependent phototropism in flowering plants. PMID:12644690

  8. Phytochromes A and B mediate red-light-induced positive phototropism in roots.

    PubMed

    Kiss, John Z; Mullen, Jack L; Correll, Melanie J; Hangarter, Roger P

    2003-03-01

    The interaction of tropisms is important in determining the final growth form of the plant body. In roots, gravitropism is the predominant tropistic response, but phototropism also plays a role in the oriented growth of roots in flowering plants. In blue or white light, roots exhibit negative phototropism that is mediated by the phototropin family of photoreceptors. In contrast, red light induces a positive phototropism in Arabidopsis roots. Because this red-light-induced response is weak relative to both gravitropism and negative phototropism, we used a novel device to study phototropism without the complications of a counteracting gravitational stimulus. This device is based on a computer-controlled system using real-time image analysis of root growth and a feedback-regulated rotatable stage. Our data show that this system is useful to study root phototropism in response to red light, because in wild-type roots, the maximal curvature detected with this apparatus is 30 degrees to 40 degrees, compared with 5 degrees to 10 degrees without the feedback system. In positive root phototropism, sensing of red light occurs in the root itself and is not dependent on shoot-derived signals resulting from light perception. Phytochrome (Phy)A and phyB were severely impaired in red-light-induced phototropism, whereas the phyD and phyE mutants were normal in this response. Thus, PHYA and PHYB play a key role in mediating red-light-dependent positive phototropism in roots. Although phytochrome has been shown to mediate phototropism in some lower plant groups, this is one of the few reports indicating a phytochrome-dependent phototropism in flowering plants.

  9. Phytochromes A and B mediate red-light-induced positive phototropism in roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiss, John Z.; Mullen, Jack L.; Correll, Melanie J.; Hangarter, Roger P.

    2003-01-01

    The interaction of tropisms is important in determining the final growth form of the plant body. In roots, gravitropism is the predominant tropistic response, but phototropism also plays a role in the oriented growth of roots in flowering plants. In blue or white light, roots exhibit negative phototropism that is mediated by the phototropin family of photoreceptors. In contrast, red light induces a positive phototropism in Arabidopsis roots. Because this red-light-induced response is weak relative to both gravitropism and negative phototropism, we used a novel device to study phototropism without the complications of a counteracting gravitational stimulus. This device is based on a computer-controlled system using real-time image analysis of root growth and a feedback-regulated rotatable stage. Our data show that this system is useful to study root phototropism in response to red light, because in wild-type roots, the maximal curvature detected with this apparatus is 30 degrees to 40 degrees, compared with 5 degrees to 10 degrees without the feedback system. In positive root phototropism, sensing of red light occurs in the root itself and is not dependent on shoot-derived signals resulting from light perception. Phytochrome (Phy)A and phyB were severely impaired in red-light-induced phototropism, whereas the phyD and phyE mutants were normal in this response. Thus, PHYA and PHYB play a key role in mediating red-light-dependent positive phototropism in roots. Although phytochrome has been shown to mediate phototropism in some lower plant groups, this is one of the few reports indicating a phytochrome-dependent phototropism in flowering plants.

  10. Red-band holographic storage in azo dye sensitized by noncoherent light.

    PubMed

    Wu, P; Chen, W; Gong, X; Zhang, G; Tang, G

    1996-03-15

    Biphoton holographic storage recorded with 633-nm He-Ne beams has been investigated in Methyl Yellowdoped polystyrene film sensitized by weak noncoherent light from a low-pressure Hg lamp. It is demonstrated that the holography in the sample is erasable without fading. The dynamic behavior of the hologram is dependent on the cis-trans isomerization by noncoherent light and 633-nm beams and photoinduced heat.

  11. Innovative UVC light (185 nm) and radio-frequency-plasma pretreatment of Nylon surfaces at atmospheric pressure and their implications in photocatalytic processes.

    PubMed

    Mejía, M I; Marín, J M; Restrepo, G; Pulgarín, C; Mielczarski, E; Mielczarski, J; Stolitchnov, I; Kiwi, J

    2009-10-01

    Innovative pretreatment by UVC light (185 nm) and by radio-frequency (RF) plasma at atmospheric pressure to functionalize the Nylon surface, increasing its bondability toward TiO(2), is reported in this study. In the case of UVC light pretreatment in air, the molar absorption coefficient of O(2)/N(2) at 185 nm is very low and the air in the chamber absorbs very little light from the UVC source before reaching the Nylon sample. Nylon fabrics under RF plasma were also functionalized at atmospheric pressure because of the marked heating effect introduced in the Nylon by the RF plasma. This effect leads to intermolecular bond breaking and oxygenated surface groups in the topmost Nylon layers. Both pretreatments enhanced significantly the photocatalytic discoloration of the red-wine stain in Nylon-TiO(2) compared with samples without pretreatment. The UVC and RF methods in the absence of vacuum imply a considerable cost reduction to functionalize textile surfaces, suggesting a potential industrial application. Red-wine-stain discoloration under simulated sunlight was monitored quantitatively by diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy and by CO(2) evolution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to monitor the changes of the C, N, and S species on the Nylon topmost layers during the discoloration process. Significant changes in the XPS spectra of Ti 2p peaks were observed during discoloration of the wine spots. Wine stains attenuated the signal of the Ti 2p (458.4 eV) peak in the Nylon-TiO(2)-stained wine sample at time zero (from now on, the time before the discoloration process). Furthermore, a decrease of the wine-related O 1s signal at 529.7 eV and N 1s signal at 399.5 eV was observed during the discoloration process, indicating an efficient catalytic decomposition of the wine pigment on Nylon-TiO(2). X-ray diffraction detected the formation of anatase on the Nylon fibers. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy shows the formation of anatase particles

  12. Digital photogrammetry and histomorphometric assessment of the effect of non-coherent light (light-emitting diode) therapy (λ640 ± 20 nm) on the repair of third-degree burns in rats.

    PubMed

    Neves, Silvana Maria Véras; Nicolau, Renata Amadei; Filho, Antônio Luiz Martins Maia; Mendes, Lianna Martha Soares; Veloso, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the efficacy of coherent light therapy from the red region of the electromagnetic spectrum on the tissue-healing process. This study analysed the effect of non-coherent light therapy (light-emitting diode-LED) with or without silver sulfadiazine (sulpha) on the healing process of third-degree burns. In this study, 72 rats with third-degree burns were randomly divided into six groups (n = 12): Gr1 (control), Gr2 (non-contact LED), Gr3 (contact LED), Gr4 (sulfadiazine), Gr5 (sulfadiazine + non-contact LED) and Gr6 (sulfadiazine + contact LED). The groups treated with LED therapy received treatment every 48 h (λ = 640 ± 20 nm, 110 mW, 16 J/cm(2); 41 s with contact and 680 s without contact). The digital photometric and histomorphometric analyses were conducted after the burn occurred. The combination of sulpha and LED (contact or non-contact) improved the healing of burn wounds. These results demonstrate that the combination of silver sulfadiazine with LED therapy (λ = 640 ± 20 nm, 4 J/cm(2), without contact) improves healing of third-degree burn wounds, significantly reduces the lesion area and increases the granulation tissue, increases the number of fibroblasts, promotes collagen synthesis and prevents burn infections by accelerating recovery.

  13. A novel phototropic response to red light is revealed in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Millar, Katherine D L; Kumar, Prem; Correll, Melanie J; Mullen, Jack L; Hangarter, Roger P; Edelmann, Richard E; Kiss, John Z

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate phototropism in plants grown in microgravity conditions without the complications of a 1-g environment. Experiments performed on the International Space Station (ISS) were used to explore the mechanisms of both blue-light- and red-light-induced phototropism in plants. This project utilized the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS), which has environmental controls for plant growth as well as centrifuges for gravity treatments used as a 1-g control. Images captured from video tapes were used to analyze the growth, development, and curvature of Arabidopsis thaliana plants that developed from seed in space. A novel positive phototropic response to red light was observed in hypocotyls of seedlings that developed in microgravity. This response was not apparent in seedlings grown on Earth or in the 1-g control during the space flight. In addition, blue-light-based phototropism had a greater response in microgravity compared with the 1-g control. Although flowering plants are generally thought to lack red light phototropism, our data suggest that at least some flowering plants may have retained a red light sensory system for phototropism. Thus, this discovery may have important implications for understanding the evolution of light sensory systems in plants.

  14. Red-free light for measurement of intraocular pressure using Goldmann applanation tonometer without fluorescein.

    PubMed

    Ghoneim, Ehab M

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the use of red-free light for the measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP) using a Goldmann applanation tonometer without fluorescein. This cross-sectional study was carried out on 500 eyes in 250 patients attending the Ophthalmology Outpatient Clinic at Suez Canal University Hospital. The IOP was measured using a Goldmann applanation tonometer mounted on a Haag-Streit slit-lamp. The measurements were performed first using red-free light without fluorescein. Then the measurements were repeated with cobalt blue light and topical fluorescein on the same eyes. The mean IOP was 15.23 ± 3.3 (SD) mm Hg using the red-free light without fluorescein, whereas it was 15.78 ± 3.7 (SD) mm Hg when measured using cobalt blue light after the application of fluorescein to the conjunctival sac. This difference was not statistically significant. Measurement of IOP with a Goldmann applanationtonometer with red-free light and without the use of fluorescein is simple, saves time, and gives an accurate IOP measurement relative to the traditional measurement technique with cobalt blue light and topical fluorescein.

  15. Polarization of edge emission from III-nitride light emitting diodes of emission wavelength from 395 to 455 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Chuanyu; Yu, Tongjun; Mu, Sen; Pan, Yaobo; Yang, Zhijian; Chen, Zhizhong; Qin, Zhixin; Zhang, Guoyi

    2007-05-01

    Polarization-resolved edge-emitting electroluminescence of InGaN /GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) light emitting diodes (LEDs) from 395to455nm was measured. Polarization ratio decreased from 3.2 of near-ultraviolet LEDs (395nm) to 1.9 of blue LEDs (455nm). Based on TE mode dominant emissions in InGaN /GaN MQWs, compressive strain in well region favors TE mode, indium induced quantum-dot-like behavior leads to an increased TM component. As wavelength increased, indium enhanced quantum-dot-like behavior became obvious and E ‖C electroluminescence signal increased thus lower polarization ratio. Electroluminescence spectrum shifts confirmed that quantum dotlike behaviors rather than strain might be dominant in modifying luminescence mode of InGaN /GaN MQWs from near ultraviolet to blue.

  16. Cooling atomic ions with visible and infra-red light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindenfelser, F.; Marinelli, M.; Negnevitsky, V.; Ragg, S.; Home, J. P.

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate the ability to load, cool and detect singly charged calcium ions in a surface electrode trap using only visible and infrared lasers for the trapped-ion control. As opposed to the standard methods of cooling using dipole-allowed transitions, we combine power broadening of a quadrupole transition at 729 nm with quenching of the upper level using a dipole allowed transition at 854 nm. By observing the resulting 393 nm fluorescence we are able to perform background-free detection of the ion. We show that this system can be used to smoothly transition between the Doppler cooling and sideband cooling regimes, and verify theoretical predictions throughout this range. We achieve scattering rates which reliably allow recooling after collision events and allow ions to be loaded from a thermal atomic beam. This work is compatible with recent advances in optical waveguides, and thus opens a path in current technologies for large-scale quantum information processing. In situations where dielectric materials are placed close to trapped ions, it carries the additional advantage of using wavelengths which do not lead to significant charging, which should facilitate high rate optical interfaces between remotely held ions.

  17. Evaluation of blue confirmation lights at signalized intersections in Overland Park, Kansas, to reduce red light running violations.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-10-01

    Red Light Running (RLR) is a safety concern for communities nationwide. The Federal Highway : Administration (FHWA) reported that a total of 676 fatalities in 2009 were due to RLR. There are many : strategies to mitigate RLR violations that fall in t...

  18. Enhanced red fluorescence in Sr2Si1-xGexO4:Eu3+ phosphors by the substitution of Si by Ge for white light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lihui; Xu, Shiqing; Guo, Meiquan; Wang, Chenyue; Hua, Youjie; Zhao, Shilong; Deng, Degang; Wang, Huanping; Jia, Guohua

    2012-07-01

    Eu3+-doped Sr2Si1-xGexO4 (x=0-1) phosphors have been prepared by the high temperature solid-state reaction method. The luminescent properties of these phosphors were investigated. Red fluorescence of Eu3+ is enhanced gradually in the samples with increasing substitution of Si by Ge upon the excitation of 393 nm light. The intensity is increased by 50% with full substitution of Si by Ge. These results are originated from the structural changes and the phonon energy reduction in the samples due to the substitution of Si by Ge. The CIE chromaticity coordinates of the phosphors vary slightly around (0.62, 0.37) and all are in the red color region. The results indicate that these phosphors could be promising red phosphors for white light emitting diodes.

  19. Suppression of cucumber powdery mildew by UV-B is affected by background light quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brief (5-10 min) exposure to UV-B radiation (280-300 nm) suppressed powdery mildew (Podosphaera xanthii) on Cucumis sativus. The effect was enhanced by red light (600-660 nm), but offset by blue light (420-500 nm) and UV-A (300-420 nm). Compared to untreated controls, 2 h red light from specific lig...

  20. Highly Efficient Red and White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with External Quantum Efficiency beyond 20% by Employing Pyridylimidazole-Based Metallophosphors.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yanqin; Tao, Peng; Wang, Kexiang; Li, Hongxin; Zhao, Bo; Gao, Long; Wang, Hua; Xu, Bingshe; Zhao, Qiang

    2017-11-01

    Two highly efficient red neutral iridium(III) complexes, Ir1 and Ir2, were rationally designed and synthesized by selecting two pyridylimidazole derivatives as the ancillary ligands. Both Ir1 and Ir2 show nearly the same photoluminescence emission with the maximum peak at 595 nm (shoulder band at about 638 nm) and achieve high solution quantum yields of up to 0.47 for Ir1 and 0.57 for Ir2. Employing Ir1 and Ir2 as emitters, the fabricated red organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) show outstanding performance with the maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE), current efficiency (CE), and power efficiency (PE) of 20.98%, 33.04 cd/A, and 33.08 lm/W for the Ir1-based device and 22.15%, 36.89 cd/A, and 35.85 lm/W for the Ir2-based device, respectively. Furthermore, using Ir2 as red emitter, a trichromatic hybrid white OLED, showing good warm white emission with low correlated color temperature of <2200 K under the voltage of 4-6 V, was fabricated successfully. The white device also realizes excellent device efficiencies with the maximum EQE, CE, and PE reaching 22.74%, 44.77 cd/A, and 46.89 lm/W, respectively. Such high electroluminescence performance for red and white OLEDs indicates that Ir1 and Ir2 as efficient red phosphors have great potential for future OLED displays and lightings applications.

  1. Color stable white phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes with red emissive electron transport layer

    SciTech Connect

    Wook Kim, Jin; Yoo, Seung Il; Sung Kang, Jin

    2015-06-28

    We analyzed the performance of multi-emissive white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) in relation to various red emitting sites of hole and electron transport layers (HTL and ETL). The shift of the recombination zone producing stable white emission in PHOLEDs was utilized as luminance was increased with red emission in its electron transport layer. Multi-emissive white PHOLEDs including the red light emitting electron transport layer yielded maximum external quantum efficiency of 17.4% with CIE color coordinates (−0.030, +0.001) shifting only from 1000 to 10 000 cd/m{sup 2}. Additionally, we observed a reduction of energy loss in the white PHOLED via Ir(piq){submore » 3} as phosphorescent red dopant in electron transport layer.« less

  2. Impact of blue, red, and far-red light treatments on gene expression and steviol glycoside accumulation in Stevia rebaudiana.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Yuki; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Miyasaka, Juro; Ohdoi, Katsuaki; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2017-05-01

    Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni is a plant that biosynthesizes a group of natural sweeteners that are up to approximately 400 times sweeter than sucrose. The sweetening components of S. rebaudiana are steviol glycosides (SGs) that partially share their biosynthesis pathway with gibberellins (GAs). However, the molecular mechanisms through which SGs levels can be improved have not been studied. Therefore, transcription levels of several SG biosynthesis-related genes were analyzed under several light treatments involved in GA biosynthesis. We detected higher transcription of UGT85C2, which is one of the UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) involved in catalyzing the sugar-transfer reaction, under red/far-red (R/FR) 1.22 light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and blue LEDs treatment. In this study, it was demonstrated that transcription levels of SG-related genes and the SGs content are affected by light treatments known to affect the GA contents. It is expected that this approach could serve as a practical way to increase SG contents using specific light treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A novel type of light-harvesting antenna protein of red algal origin in algae with secondary plastids.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Sabine; Engelken, Johannes; Gruber, Ansgar; Vugrinec, Sascha; Kroth, Peter G; Adamska, Iwona; Lavaud, Johann

    2013-07-30

    Light, the driving force of photosynthesis, can be harmful when present in excess; therefore, any light harvesting system requires photoprotection. Members of the extended light-harvesting complex (LHC) protein superfamily are involved in light harvesting as well as in photoprotection and are found in the red and green plant lineages, with a complex distribution pattern of subfamilies in the different algal lineages. Here, we demonstrate that the recently discovered "red lineage chlorophyll a/b-binding-like proteins" (RedCAPs) form a monophyletic family within this protein superfamily. The occurrence of RedCAPs was found to be restricted to the red algal lineage, including red algae (with primary plastids) as well as cryptophytes, haptophytes and heterokontophytes (with secondary plastids of red algal origin). Expression of a full-length RedCAP:GFP fusion construct in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum confirmed the predicted plastid localisation of RedCAPs. Furthermore, we observed that similarly to the fucoxanthin chlorophyll a/c-binding light-harvesting antenna proteins also RedCAP transcripts in diatoms were regulated in a diurnal way at standard light conditions and strongly repressed at high light intensities. The absence of RedCAPs from the green lineage implies that RedCAPs evolved in the red lineage after separation from the the green lineage. During the evolution of secondary plastids, RedCAP genes therefore must have been transferred from the nucleus of the endocytobiotic alga to the nucleus of the host cell, a process that involved complementation with pre-sequences allowing import of the gene product into the secondary plastid bound by four membranes. Based on light-dependent transcription and on localisation data, we propose that RedCAPs might participate in the light (intensity and quality)-dependent structural or functional reorganisation of the light-harvesting antennae of the photosystems upon dark to light shifts as regularly experienced by

  4. Red light regulation of ethylene biosynthesis and gravitropism in etiolated pea stems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steed, C. L.; Taylor, L. K.; Harrison, M. A.

    2004-01-01

    During gravitropism, the accumulation of auxin in the lower side of the stem causes increased growth and the subsequent curvature, while the gaseous hormone ethylene plays a modulating role in regulating the kinetics of growth asymmetries. Light also contributes to the control of gravitropic curvature, potentially through its interaction with ethylene biosynthesis. In this study, red-light pulse treatment of etiolated pea epicotyls was evaluated for its effect on ethylene biosynthesis during gravitropic curvature. Ethylene biosynthesis analysis included measurements of ethylene; the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC); malonyl-conjugated ACC (MACC); and expression levels of pea ACC oxidase (Ps-ACO1) and ACC synthase (Ps-ACS1, Ps-ACS2) genes by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Red-pulsed seedlings were given a 6 min pulse of 11 micromoles m-2 s-1 red-light 15 h prior to horizontal reorientation for consistency with the timeline of red-light inhibition of ethylene production. Red-pulse treatment significantly reduced ethylene production and MACC levels in epicotyl tissue. However, there was no effect of red-pulse treatment on ACC level, or expression of ACS or ACO genes. During gravitropic curvature, ethylene production increased from 60 to 120 min after horizontal placement in both control and red-pulsed epicotyls. In red-pulsed tissues, ACC levels increased by 120 min after horizontal reorientation, accompanied by decreased MACC levels in the lower portion of the epicotyl. Overall, our results demonstrate that ethylene production in etiolated epicotyls increases after the initiation of curvature. This ethylene increase may inhibit cell growth in the lower portion of the epicotyl and contribute to tip straightening and reduced overall curvature observed after the initial 60 min of curvature in etiolated pea epicotyls.

  5. Influence of pre-harvest red light irradiation on main phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of Chinese kale sprouts.

    PubMed

    Deng, Mingdan; Qian, Hongmei; Chen, Lili; Sun, Bo; Chang, Jiaqi; Miao, Huiying; Cai, Congxi; Wang, Qiaomei

    2017-05-01

    The effects of pre-harvest red light irradiation on main healthy phytochemicals as well as antioxidant activity of Chinese kale sprouts during postharvest storage were investigated. 6-day-old sprouts were treated by red light for 24h before harvest and sampled for further analysis of nutritional quality on the first, second and third day after harvest. The results indicated that red light exposure notably postponed the degradation of aliphatic, indole, and total glucosinolates during postharvest storage. The vitamin C level was remarkably higher in red light treated sprouts on the first and second day after harvest when compared with the control. In addition, red light treatment also enhanced the accumulation of total phenolics and maintained higher level of antioxidant activity than the control. All above results suggested that pre-harvest red light treatment might provide a new strategy to maintain the nutritive value of Chinese kale sprouts during postharvest storage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. In vitro bactericidal activity of blue light (465 nm) phototherapy on meticillin-susceptible and meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius.

    PubMed

    Schnedeker, Amy H; Cole, Lynette K; Lorch, Gwendolen; Diaz, Sandra F; Bonagura, John; Daniels, Joshua B

    2017-10-01

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is the most common cause of bacterial skin infections in dogs. Meticillin-resistant infections have become more common and are challenging to treat. Blue light phototherapy may be an option for treating these infections. The objective of this study was to measure the in vitro bactericidal activity of 465 nm blue light on meticillin-susceptible Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MSSP) and meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP). We hypothesized that irradiation with blue light would kill MSSP and MRSP in a dose-dependent fashion in vitro as previously reported for meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In six replicate experiments, each strain [MSSP, n = 1; MRSP ST-71 (KM1381) n = 1; and MRSA (BAA-1680) n = 1] were cultivated on semisolid media, irradiated using a 465 nm blue light phototherapeutic device at the cumulative doses of 56.25, 112.5 and 225 J/cm 2 and incubated overnight at 35°C. Controls were not irradiated. Colony counts (CC) were performed manually. Descriptive statistics were performed and treatment effects assessed using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney rank-sum test. Bonferroni-corrected rank-sum tests were performed for post hoc analysis when significant differences were identified. There was a significant decrease in CC with blue light irradiation at all doses for MRSA (P = 0.0006) but not for MSSP (P = 0.131) or MRSP (P = 0.589). Blue light phototherapy significantly reduced CC of MRSA, but not of MSSP or MRSP. The mechanism for the relative photosensitivity of the MRSA isolate is unknown, but is hypothesized to be due to an increased concentration of porphyrin in S. aureus relative to S. pseudintermedius, which would modulate blue light absorption. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  7. Reductions in injury crashes associated with red light camera enforcement in oxnard, california.

    PubMed

    Retting, Richard A; Kyrychenko, Sergey Y

    2002-11-01

    This study estimated the impact of red light camera enforcement on motor vehicle crashes in one of the first US communities to employ such cameras-Oxnard, California. Crash data were analyzed for Oxnard and for 3 comparison cities. Changes in crash frequencies were compared for Oxnard and control cities and for signalized and nonsignalized intersections by means of a generalized linear regression model. Overall, crashes at signalized intersections throughout Oxnard were reduced by 7% and injury crashes were reduced by 29%. Right-angle crashes, those most associated with red light violations, were reduced by 32%; right-angle crashes involving injuries were reduced by 68%. Because red light cameras can be a permanent component of the transportation infrastructure, crash reductions attributed to camera enforcement should be sustainable.

  8. Detection of Silver Nanoparticles in Cells by Flow Cytometry Using Light Scattering and Far-red Fluorescence

    EPA Science Inventory

    The cellular uptake of different sized silver nanoparticles (l0 nm, 50 nm, and 75nm) coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) or citrate in ARPE-19 cells following 24 hour incubation was detected by side scatter through the use of a flow cytometer. A large far red fluorescence sign...

  9. Tuning Ag29 nanocluster light emission from red to blue with one and two-photon excitation.

    PubMed

    Russier-Antoine, Isabelle; Bertorelle, Franck; Hamouda, Ramzi; Rayane, Driss; Dugourd, Philippe; Sanader, Željka; Bonačić-Koutecký, Vlasta; Brevet, Pierre-François; Antoine, Rodolphe

    2016-02-07

    We demonstrate that the tuning of the light emission from red to blue in dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) capped Ag29 nanoclusters can be trigged with one and two photon excitations. The cluster stoichiometry was determined with mass spectrometry and found to be Ag29(DHLA)12. In a detailed optical investigation, we show that these silver nanoclusters exhibit a strong red photoluminescence visible to the naked eye and characterized by a quantum yield of nearly ∼2% upon one-photon excitation. In the nonlinear optical (NLO) study of the properties of the clusters, the two-photon excited fluorescence spectra were recorded and their first hyperpolarizability obtained. The two-photon absorption cross-section at ∼800 nm for Ag29(DHLA)12 is higher than 10(4) GM and the hyperpolarizability is 106 × 10(-30) esu at the same excitation wavelength. The two-photon excited fluorescence spectrum appears strongly blue-shifted as compared to the one-photon excited spectrum, displaying a broad band between 400 and 700 nm. The density functional theory (DFT) provides insight into the structural and electronic properties of Ag29(DHLA)12 as well as into interplay between metallic subunit or core and ligands which is responsible for unique optical properties.

  10. Generation of polarization squeezed light with an optical parametric amplifier at 795 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yashuai; Wen, Xin; Liu, Jinyu; He, Jun; Wang, Junmin

    2018-06-01

    We report the experimental demonstration of polarization squeezed beam at 795 nm by combining a quadrature amplitude squeezed beam with an in-phase bright coherent beam. The quadrature amplitude squeezed beam is generated by a degenerate optical parametric amplifier based on a PPKTP crystal. Stokes operators Sˆ2 squeezing of -3.8 dB and Sˆ3 anti-squeezing of +5.0 dB have been observed. This polarization squeezed beam resonant to rubidium D1 line has potential applications in quantum information networks and precision measurement beyond the shot noise limit.

  11. Blue light hazard performance comparison of phosphor-converted LED sources with red quantum dots and red phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Xie, Bin; Yu, Xingjian; Luo, Xiaobing; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Shishen; Yu, Zhihua; Liu, Li; Jin, Xing

    2017-07-01

    In this study, the blue light hazard performances of phosphor converted-light-emitting diodes (pc-LEDs) with red phosphor and red quantum dots (QDs) were compared and analyzed by spectral optimization, which boosts the minimum attainable blue light hazard efficiency of radiation (BLHER) at high values of color rendering index (CRI) and luminous efficacy of radiation (LER) when the correlated color temperature (CCT) value changes from 1800 to 7800 K. It is found that the minimal BLHER value increases with the increase in the CCT value, and the minimal BLHER values of the two spectral models are nearly the same. Note that the QDs' model has advantages at CCT coverage under the same constraints of CRI and LER. Then, the relationships between minimal BLHER, CRI, CCT, and LER of pc-LEDs with QDs' model were analyzed. It is found that the minimal BLHER values are nearly the same when the CRI value changes from 50 to 90. Therefore, the influence of CRI on minimal BLHER is insignificant. Minimal BLHER increases with the increase in the LER value from 240 to 360 lm/W.

  12. Impact of red versus blue light on tolerability and efficacy of PDT: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gholam, Patrick; Bosselmann, Ina; Enk, Alexander; Fink, Christine

    2018-06-01

    Various light sources may be used for photodynamic therapy of actinic keratosis since photosensitizing agents are activated by different wavelengths. However, the relative impact of red and blue light irradiation on the efficacy and tolerability of therapy is controversial. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy and tolerability of therapy with red versus blue light sources, as well as the patients' evaluation of cosmetic results, clinical response, painfulness and preferred light source for future photodynamic treatments. This is a prospective, single-center, randomized, controlled, open-label study with 28 patients undergoing elective photodynamic therapy. Red and blue light sources both showed very good results with a complete response rate of 84 % and 85 % respectively. Pain during photodynamic therapy was 6.1 vs. 5.4 (and 2.1 vs. 1.5 eight hours after therapy) on the visual analogue scale. Although these differences were statistically significant, the clinical relevance is low, since the number of therapy interruptions were equally distributed in both groups, and patients' subjective evaluation of the treatment showed no personal preference towards the light sources. Both light sources showed very good clinical results and satisfactory tolerability in this study. © 2018 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Static and dynamic light scattering of healthy and malaria-parasite invaded red blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yongkeun; Diez-Silva, Monica; Fu, Dan; Popescu, Gabriel; Choi, Wonshik; Barman, Ishan; Suresh, Subra; Feld, Michael S.

    2010-03-01

    We present the light scattering of individual Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized human red blood cells (Pf-RBCs), and demonstrate progressive alterations to the scattering signal arising from the development of malaria-inducing parasites. By selectively imaging the electric fields using quantitative phase microscopy and a Fourier transform light scattering technique, we calculate the light scattering maps of individual Pf-RBCs. We show that the onset and progression of pathological states of the Pf-RBCs can be clearly identified by the static scattering maps. Progressive changes to the biophysical properties of the Pf-RBC membrane are captured from dynamic light scattering.

  14. Development of 1300 nm GaAs-Based Microcavity Light-Emitting Diodes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    vertical - cavity surface emitting lasers ( VCSEL ) and micro- cavity light- emitting diodes (MC-LED) for short-to-medium... epitaxial growth run [1 ]. Self-organized In(Ga)As quantum dot (QD) heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy ( MBE ) are promising candidates as...successfully grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs substrates without the need to rely on any in-situ calibration technique. Fabricated

  15. Bactericidal effects of a high-power, red light-emitting diode on two periodontopathic bacteria in antimicrobial photodynamic therapy in vitro.

    PubMed

    Umeda, Makoto; Tsuno, Akiko; Okagami, Yoshihide; Tsuchiya, Fumito; Izumi, Yuichi; Ishikawa, Isao

    2011-11-01

    Light-emitting diodes have been investigated as new light activators for photodynamic therapy. We investigated the bactericidal effects of high-power, red light-emitting diodes on two periodontopathic bacteria in vitro.   A light-emitting diode (intensity: 1100 mW/cm(2) , peak wavelength: 650 nm) was used to irradiate a bacterial solution for either 10 or 20 s. Bacterial solutions (Porphyromonas gingivalis or Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans) at a concentration of 2.5 × 10(6) c.f.u./mL were mixed with an equal volume of either methylene blue or toluidine blue O (0-20 μg/mL) and added to titer plate wells. The plate wells were irradiated with red light-emitting diode light from a distance of 22 or 40 mm. The contents were diluted, and 50 μL was smeared onto blood agar plates. After 1 week of culturing, bacterial c.f.u. were counted.   The light-emitting diode energy density was estimated to be approximately 4 and 8 J/cm(2) after 10 and 20 s of irradiation, respectively. Red light-emitting diode irradiation for 10 s from a distance of 22 mm, combined with methylene blue at concentrations >10 μg/mL, completely killed Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.   High-power, red light-emitting diode irradiation with a low concentration of dye showed effective bactericidal effects against two periodontopathic bacteria. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Interaction of 308-nm excimer laser light with temporomandibular joint related structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liesenhoff, Tim; Funk, Armin

    1994-02-01

    Arthroscopy of TMJ has become a clinically important and more and more accepted method for diagnosis and treatment of TMJ alteration. This minimal invasive method is clearly limited by the anatomical dimensions of the TMJ. A 308 nm excimer laserlight has already found clinical applications in angioplasty, ophthalmology, and dentistry. The aim of the presented study was to find out if it is possible to ablate TMJ related structures under arthroscopic conditions. It also aims to evaluate the energy-threshold for ablation and the maximal possible rate of ablation. Contrary to other laser systems it offers a unique combination of minimal tissue alteration, precise tissue ablation guidability through optical fibers, and a good transmission through water.

  17. Light-scattering measurements of optical thin-film components at 157 and 193 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gliech, Stefan; Steinert, Jorg; Duparre, Angela

    2002-06-01

    An instrument for total backscattering and forward-scattering measurements of optical coating components at 157 and 193 nm is described. The system is operated in both vacuum and nitrogen purge gas. An excimer laser as well as a deuterium lamp can be used as a radiation source. Suppression of the background signal level to 1 part in 106 permits measurements even of low-scatter samples such as superpolished substrates and antireflection coatings. Results of investigations of antireflective and highly reflective multilayers and CaF2 substrates reveal scattering from surface and interface roughness as well as from the volume of the substrate material. First steps to extend the instrument for angle-resolved scatter, transmittance, and reflectance measurements are described.

  18. Tunnel-injected sub 290 nm ultra-violet light emitting diodes with 2.8% external quantum efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuewei; Jamal-Eddine, Zane; Akyol, Fatih; Bajaj, Sanyam; Johnson, Jared M.; Calderon, Gabriel; Allerman, Andrew A.; Moseley, Michael W.; Armstrong, Andrew M.; Hwang, Jinwoo; Rajan, Siddharth

    2018-02-01

    We report on the high efficiency tunnel-injected ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) emitting at 287 nm. Deep UV LED performance has been limited by the severe internal light absorption in the p-type contact layers and low electrical injection efficiency due to poor p-type conduction. In this work, a polarization engineered Al0.65Ga0.35N/In0.2Ga0.8N tunnel junction layer is adopted for non-equilibrium hole injection to replace the conventionally used direct p-type contact. A reverse-graded AlGaN contact layer is further introduced to realize a low resistance contact to the top n-AlGaN layer. This led to the demonstration of a low tunnel junction resistance of 1.9 × 10-3 Ω cm2 obtained at 1 kA/cm2. Light emission at 287 nm with an on-wafer peak external quantum efficiency of 2.8% and a wall-plug efficiency of 1.1% was achieved. The measured power density at 1 kA/cm2 was 54.4 W/cm2, confirming the efficient hole injection through interband tunneling. With the benefits of the minimized internal absorption and efficient hole injection, a tunnel-injected UV LED structure could enable future high efficiency UV emitters.

  19. Influences of motorcycle rider and driver characteristics and road environment on red light running behavior at signalized intersections.

    PubMed

    Jensupakarn, Auearree; Kanitpong, Kunnawee

    2018-04-01

    In Thailand, red light running is considered as one of the most dangerous behaviors at intersection. Red light running (RLR) behavior is the failure to obey the traffic control signal. However, motorcycle riders and car drivers who are running through red lights could be influenced by human factors or road environment at intersection. RLR could be advertent or inadvertent behavior influenced by many factors. Little research study has been done to evaluate the contributing factors influencing the red-light violation behavior. This study aims to determine the factors influencing the red light running behavior including human characteristics, physical condition of intersection, traffic signal operation, and traffic condition. A total of 92 intersections were observed in Chiang Mai, Nakhon Ratchasima, and Chonburi, the major provinces in each region of Thailand. In addition, the socio-economic characteristics of red light runners were obtained from self-reported questionnaire survey. The Binary Logistic Regression and the Multiple Linear Regression models were used to determine the characteristics of red light runners and the factors influencing rates of red light running respectively. The results from this study can help to understand the characteristics of red light runners and factors affecting them to run red lights. For motorcycle riders and car drivers, age, gender, occupation, driving license, helmet/seatbelt use, and the probability to be penalized when running the red light significantly affect RLR behavior. In addition, the results indicated that vehicle travelling direction, time of day, existence of turning lane, number of lanes, lane width, intersection sight distance, type of traffic signal pole, type of traffic signal operation, length of yellow time interval, approaching speed, distance from intersection warning sign to stop line, and pavement roughness significantly affect RLR rates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Organic light-emitting diodes with direct contact-printed red, green, blue, and white light-emitting layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sun-Zen; Peng, Shiang-Hau; Ting, Tzu-Yu; Wu, Po-Shien; Lin, Chun-Hao; Chang, Chin-Yeh; Shyue, Jing-Jong; Jou, Jwo-Huei

    2012-10-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of using direct contact-printing in the fabrication of monochromatic and polychromatic organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Bright devices with red, green, blue, and white contact-printed light-emitting layers with a respective maximum luminance of 29 000, 29 000, 4000, and 18 000 cd/m2 were obtained with sound film integrity by blending a polymeric host into a molecular host. For the red OLED as example, the maximum luminance was decreased from 29 000 to 5000 cd/m2 as only the polymeric host was used, or decreased to 7000 cd/m2 as only the molecular host was used. The markedly improved device performance achieved in the devices with blended hosts may be attributed to the employed polymeric host that contributed a good film-forming character, and the molecular host that contributed a good electroluminescence character.

  1. Traffic signal safety : analysis of red-light running in Maine.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2004-05-01

    The aim of this report is to suggest how to make signalized intersections safer, in particular in respect to crashes caused by red-light violations. The report includes a review of literature, analysis of crashes, and interviews with Maine drivers. O...

  2. Growth in relation to canopy light interception in a red pine (Pinus resinosa) thinning study

    Treesearch

    Beverly E. Law; Kurt H. Riitters; Lewis F. Ohmann

    1992-01-01

    Growth data from the most recent 5 years of a 40-year thinning study in an even-aged red pine (Pinus resinosa) forest in cutfoot sioux experimental forest, Minnesota, were used with intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (IPAR) data to determine the relationship between light interception and growth for a range ofstand densities. Stand basal...

  3. Field response of red oak, pin cherry and black cherry seedlings to a light gradient

    Treesearch

    M.R. Roberts

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the relationship between light conditions and the growth of natural seedlings of red oak (Quercus rubra L.), pin cherry (Prunus pensylvanica L.) and black cherry (P. serotina Ehrh.) growing under a range of canopy densities in northwestern Pennsylvania.

  4. Current treatments of acne: Medications, lights, lasers, and a novel 650-μs 1064-nm Nd: YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Gold, Michael H; Goldberg, David J; Nestor, Mark S

    2017-09-01

    The treatment of acne, especially severe acne, remains a challenge to dermatologists. Therapies include retinoids, antibiotics, hormones, lights, lasers, and various combinations of these modalities. Acne is currently considered a chronic rather than an adolescent condition. The appropriate treatment depends on the patient and the severity of disease. The purpose of this study was to review current therapies for acne of all severities and to introduce the 650-μs 1064-nm laser for the treatment of acne. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Effect of 710 nm visible light irradiation on neurite outgrowth in primary rat cortical neurons following ischemic insult

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Dong-Hee; Department of Medical Science, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul; Lee, Kyoung-Hee

    2012-06-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 710 nm wavelength light (LED) has a protective effect in the stroke animal model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We determined the effects of LED irradiation in vitro stroke model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LED treatment promotes the neurite outgrowth through MAPK activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The level of synaptic markers significantly increased with LED treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LED treatment protects cell death in the in vitro stroke model. -- Abstract: Objective: We previously reported that 710 nm Light-emitting Diode (LED) has a protective effect through cellular immunity activation in the stroke animal model. However, whether LED directly protects neurons suffering from neurodegeneration was entirely unknown. Therefore, wemore » sought to determine the effects of 710 nm visible light irradiation on neuronal protection and neuronal outgrowth in an in vitro stroke model. Materials and methods: Primary cultured rat cortical neurons were exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and reoxygenation and normal conditions. An LED array with a peak wavelength of 710 nm was placed beneath the covered culture dishes with the room light turned off and were irradiated accordingly. LED treatments (4 min at 4 J/cm{sup 2} and 50 mW/cm{sup 2}) were given once to four times within 8 h at 2 h intervals for 7 days. Mean neurite density, mean neurite diameter, and total fiber length were also measured after microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP2) immunostaining using the Axio Vision program. Synaptic marker expression and MAPK activation were confirmed by Western blotting. Results: Images captured after MAP2 immunocytochemistry showed significant (p < 0.05) enhancement of post-ischemic neurite outgrowth with LED treatment once and twice a day. MAPK activation was enhanced by LED treatment in both OGD-exposed and normal cells. The levels of synaptic markers such as PSD 95, GAP 43, and synaptophysin

  6. Long-wavelength (red) light produces hyperopia in juvenile and adolescent tree shrews.

    PubMed

    Gawne, Timothy J; Ward, Alexander H; Norton, Thomas T

    2017-11-01

    In infant tree shrews, exposure to narrow-band long-wavelength (red) light, that stimulates long-wavelength sensitive cones almost exclusively, slows axial elongation and produces hyperopia. We asked if red light produces hyperopia in juvenile and adolescent animals, ages when plus lenses are ineffective. Animals were raised in fluorescent colony lighting (100-300 lux) until they began 13days of red-light treatment at 11 (n=5, "infant"), 35 (n=5, "juvenile") or 95 (n=5, "adolescent") days of visual experience (DVE). LEDs provided 527-749 lux on the cage floor. To control for the higher red illuminance, a fluorescent control group (n=5) of juvenile (35 DVE) animals was exposed to ∼975 lux. Refractions were measured daily; ocular component dimensions at the start and end of treatment and end of recovery in colony lighting. These groups were compared with normals (n=7). In red light, the refractive state of both juvenile and adolescent animals became significantly (P<0.05) hyperopic: juvenile 3.9±1.0 diopters (D, mean±SEM) vs. normal 0.8±0.1D; adolescent 1.6±0.2D vs. normal 0.4±0.1D. The fluorescent control group refractions (0.6±0.3D) were normal. In red-treated juveniles the vitreous chamber was significantly smaller than normal (P<0.05): juvenile 2.67±0.03mmvs. normal 2.75±0.02mm. The choroid was also significantly thicker: juvenile 77±4μmvs. normal 57±3μm (P<0.05). Although plus lenses do not restrain eye growth in juvenile tree shrews, the red light-induced slowed growth and hyperopia in juvenile and adolescent tree shrews demonstrates that the emmetropization mechanism is still capable of restraining eye growth at these ages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Photo-degradation of clofibric acid by ultraviolet light irradiation at 185 nm.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenzhen; Lu, Shuguang; Chen, Nuo; Gu, Xiaogang; Qiu, Zhaofu; Fan, Ji; Lin, Kuangfei

    2009-01-01

    As a metabolite of lipid regulators, clofibric acid (CA) was investigated in this study for its ultraviolet (UV) degradation at monochromatic wavelength of 185 nm using Milli-Q water and sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent. The effects of CA initial concentration, solution pH, humic acid (HA), nitrate and bicarbonate anions on CA degradation performances were evaluated. All CA degradation patterns well fitted the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. The results showed that OH generated from water photolysis by UV185 irradiation was involved, resulting in indirect CA photolysis but contributed less to the whole CA removal when compared to the main direct photolysis process. Acid condition favored slightly to CA degradation and other constituents in solution, such as HA (5.0-100.0 mg L(-1)), nitrate and bicarbonate anions (1.0x10(-3) mol L(-1) and 0.1 mol L(-1)), had negative effects on CA degradation. When using real STP effluent CA degradation could reach 97.4% (without filtration) and 99.3% (with filtration) after 1 hr irradiation, showing its potential mean in pharmaceuticals removal in UV disinfection unit. Mineralization tests showed that rapid chloride ion release happened, resulting in no chlorinated intermediates accumulation, and those non-chlorinated intermediate products could further be nearly completely degraded to CO2 and H2O after 6 hrs.

  8. Solid state direct bonding of polymers by vacuum ultraviolet light below 160 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Yuki; Yamamoto, Takatoki

    2017-10-01

    This work investigated the application of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation to the bonding of various substrates, including glass, polycarbonate (PC), cyclic olefin polymer (COP), polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). This method has the advantage of being able to bond various substrates without the application of heat or adhesives, and therefore may be very useful in the fabrication of micro/nanoscale structures composed of polymers. In contrast to previous applications of this technique, the present study used VUV radiation at wavelengths at and below 160 nm so as to take advantage of the higher energy in this range. Bonding was assessed based on measuring the shear stress of various test specimens subjected to VUV irradiation and then pressed together, and a number of analytical methods were also employed to examine the irradiated surfaces in order to elucidate the morphological and chemical changes following VUV treatment. These analyses included water contact angle measurements, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Poor bonding was identified between combinations consisting of PMMA/PC, PMMA/COP, PMMA/PMMA, PMMA/glass, and PC/COP, whereas all other combinations resulted in successful bonding with the bonding stress values such as PC/PC = 2.0 MPa, PC/glass = 10.7 MPa and COP/COP = 1.7 MPa, respectively.

  9. An evaluation of red light camera (photo-red) enforcement programs in Virginia : a report in response to a request by Virginia's Secretary of Transportation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-01-01

    Red light running, which is defined as the act of a motorist entering an intersection after the traffic signal has turned red, caused almost 5,000 crashes in Virginia in 2003, resulting in at least 18 deaths and more than 3,800 injuries. In response ...

  10. Asymmetric activation mechanism of a homodimeric red light regulated photoreceptor.

    PubMed

    Gourinchas, Geoffrey; Heintz, Udo; Winkler, Andreas

    2018-06-05

    Organisms adapt to environmental cues using diverse signaling networks. In order to sense and integrate light for regulating various biological functions, photoreceptor proteins have evolved in a modular way. This modularity is targeted in the development of optogenetic tools enabling the control of cellular events with high spatiotemporal precision. However, the limited understanding of signaling mechanisms impedes the rational design of innovative photoreceptor-effector couples. Here we reveal molecular details of signal transduction in phytochrome-regulated diguanylyl-cyclases. Asymmetric structural changes of the full-length homodimer result in a functional heterodimer featuring two different photoactivation states. Structural changes around the cofactors result in a quasi-translational rearrangement of the distant coiled-coil sensor-effector linker. Eventually, this regulates enzymatic activity by modulating the dimer interface of the output domains. Considering the importance of phytochrome heterodimerization in plant signaling, our mechanistic details of asymmetric photoactivation in a bacterial system reveal novel aspects of the evolutionary adaptation of phytochromes. © 2018, Gourinchas et al.

  11. White organic light-emitting diodes with 4 nm metal electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenk, Simone; Schwab, Tobias; Schubert, Sylvio; Müller-Meskamp, Lars; Leo, Karl; Gather, Malte C.; Reineke, Sebastian

    2015-10-01

    We investigate metal layers with a thickness of only a few nanometers as anode replacement for indium tin oxide (ITO) in white organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The ultrathin metal electrodes prove to be an excellent alternative that can, with regard to the angular dependence and efficiency of the OLED devices, outperform the ITO reference. Furthermore, unlike ITO, the thin composite metal electrodes are readily compatible with demanding architectures (e.g., top-emission or transparent OLEDs, device unit stacking, etc.) and flexible substrates. Here, we compare the sheet resistance of both types of electrodes on polyethylene terephthalate for different bending radii. The electrical performance of ITO breaks down at a radius of 10 mm, while the metal electrode remains intact even at radii smaller than 1 mm.

  12. The growth of human scalp hair in females using visible red light laser and LED sources

    PubMed Central

    Lanzafame, Raymond J; Blanche, Raymond R; Chiacchierini, Richard P; Kazmirek, Eric R; Sklar, Jeffrey A

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Low level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) has been demonstrated to promote hair growth in males. A double-blind randomized controlled trial was undertaken to define the safety and physiologic effects of LLLT on females with androgenic alopecia. Methods Forty-seven females (18–60 years old, Fitzpatrick I–IV, and Ludwig–Savin Baldness Scale I-2, I-3, I-4, II-1, II-2 baldness patterns) were recruited. A transition zone scalp site was selected; hairs were trimmed to 3 mm height; the area was tattooed and photographed. The active group received a “TOPHAT655” unit containing 21, 5 mW diode lasers (655 ± 5 nm) and 30 LEDS (655 ± 20 nm), in a bicycle-helmet like apparatus. The placebo group unit appeared identical, containing incandescent red lights. Patients treated at home every other day × 16 weeks (60 treatments, 67 J/cm2 irradiance/25 minute treatment, 2.9 J dose), with follow up and photography at 16 weeks. A masked 2.85 cm2 photographic area was evaluated by another blinded investigator. The primary endpoint was the percent increase in hair counts from baseline. Results Forty-two patients completed the study (24 active, 18 sham). No adverse events or side effects were reported. Baseline hair counts were 228.2 ± 133.4 (N = 18) in the sham and 209.6 ± 118.5 (N = 24) in the active group (P = 0.642). Post Treatment hair counts were 252.1 ± 143.3 (N = 18) in the sham group and 309.9 ± 166.6 (N = 24) in the active group (P = 0.235). The change in hair counts over baseline was 23.9 ± 30.1 (N = 18) in the sham group and 100.3 ± 53.4 (N = 24) in the active group (P < 0.0001). The percent hair increase over the duration of the study was 11.05 ± 48.30 (N = 18) for the sham group and 48.07 ± 17.61 (N = 24) for the active group (P < 0.001). This demonstrates a 37% increase in hair growth in the active treatment group as compared

  13. The growth of human scalp hair in females using visible red light laser and LED sources.

    PubMed

    Lanzafame, Raymond J; Blanche, Raymond R; Chiacchierini, Richard P; Kazmirek, Eric R; Sklar, Jeffrey A

    2014-10-01

    Low level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) has been demonstrated to promote hair growth in males. A double-blind randomized controlled trial was undertaken to define the safety and physiologic effects of LLLT on females with androgenic alopecia. Forty-seven females (18-60 years old, Fitzpatrick I-IV, and Ludwig-Savin Baldness Scale I-2, I-3, I-4, II-1, II-2 baldness patterns) were recruited. A transition zone scalp site was selected; hairs were trimmed to 3 mm height; the area was tattooed and photographed. The active group received a "TOPHAT655" unit containing 21, 5 mW diode lasers (655 ± 5 nm) and 30 LEDS (655 ± 20 nm), in a bicycle-helmet like apparatus. The placebo group unit appeared identical, containing incandescent red lights. Patients treated at home every other day × 16 weeks (60 treatments, 67 J/cm(2) irradiance/25 minute treatment, 2.9 J dose), with follow up and photography at 16 weeks. A masked 2.85 cm(2) photographic area was evaluated by another blinded investigator. The primary endpoint was the percent increase in hair counts from baseline. Forty-two patients completed the study (24 active, 18 sham). No adverse events or side effects were reported. Baseline hair counts were 228.2 ± 133.4 (N = 18) in the sham and 209.6 ± 118.5 (N = 24) in the active group (P = 0.642). Post Treatment hair counts were 252.1 ± 143.3 (N = 18) in the sham group and 309.9 ± 166.6 (N = 24) in the active group (P = 0.235). The change in hair counts over baseline was 23.9 ± 30.1 (N = 18) in the sham group and 100.3 ± 53.4 (N = 24) in the active group (P < 0.0001). The percent hair increase over the duration of the study was 11.05 ± 48.30 (N = 18) for the sham group and 48.07 ± 17.61 (N = 24) for the active group (P < 0.001). This demonstrates a 37% increase in hair growth in the active treatment group as compared to the placebo group. LLLT of the scalp at 655 nm

  14. Evaluation of the use of strobe lights in the red lens of traffic signals : technical assistance report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1994-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using strobe lights in the red lens of traffic signals and, if appropriate, to recommend guidelines for their use. Strobe lights are used as a supplement to the red lens to draw the att...

  15. Facilitation of creative performance by using blue and red accent lighting in work and learning areas.

    PubMed

    Kombeiz, Olga; Steidle, Anna

    2018-03-01

    Research has shown that colours influence motivation and cognitive performance. In achievement contexts, red evokes avoidance motivation that hinders creativity, while blue elicits an approach motivation that facilitates creativity. However, due to their position and mode of presentation, colours may convey a different message. Red accent lighting creates a cosy, friendly room atmosphere that may, even in an achievement context, elicit an approach rather than an avoidance motivation. Results (N = 146) showed that both blue and red accent light increased strategic approach motivation compared to white accent light. Moreover, through the heightened approach motivation, colourful accent light indirectly improved creative performance. Implications for future research on colour and practical implications for colour usage are discussed. Practitioner Summary: Designing work environments for creativity is a new topic in ergonomics research and practice. The present study demonstrates indirect effects of coloured accent light on creativity providing interesting possibilities for the design of workplaces for knowledge workers, classrooms and all other rooms in which people work on new ideas.

  16. Gravity-dependent regulation of red light induced moss protonemata branching and gametophore bud formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripetskyj, R. T.; Kit, N. A.

    Isolated leafy shoots of the moss Pottia intermedia positioned horizontally on the agar surface in vertically oriented petri dishes regenerate unbranching negatively gravitropic protonemata on upper side of the regenerant. Gravity determines the site of regeneration not the process itself. White light of low intensity unsufficient to induce positive phototropism of dark-grown protonemata can, however, provoke their branching and gametophore bud formation (Ripetskyj et al., 1998; 1999). The presented experiments have been carried out with red light in Biological Research in Canisters/Light Emitting Diode (BRIC/LED) hardware developed at Kennedy Space Center, USA. Seven-day-old dark-grown negatively gravitropic secondary P. intermedia protonemata were positioned differently with respect to gravity vector and to the source of red light of low, 1 or 2 μ mol\\cdot m-2\\cdot s-1, intensities. The light induced intensive branching of the protonemata and gametophore bud formation initiation site of both processes as well as the direction of growth of branches and buds being depent on the position of protonemata with respect to gravity and light vectors. Vertically positioned, i.e. ungravistimulated, dark grown protonemata illuminated from one side with red light of 2 μ mol\\cdot m-2\\cdot s-1 intensity produced 96,9 ± 2,2% of side branches and buds growing directly towards the light source from the lit protonema side. Horizontally disposed protonemata irradiated from below with red light of the same intensity regenerate 31,7 ± 3,9% of branches and buds on the upper, i.e. shaded protonemata side, the upward growth of which should undoubtedly be determined by gravity. In vertically disposed protonemata illuminated with red light of 1 μ mol\\cdot m-2\\cdot s-1 intensity from aside 31,9 ± 5,5% of side branches and buds arised on shaded protonema side and grew away from the light. Illumination of the protonemata in horizontal position from below increased the number of

  17. Effects of 530 nm green light on refractive status, melatonin, MT1 receptor, and melanopsin in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Zhou, Jiaqi; Lu, Yi; Chu, Renyuan

    2011-02-01

    To investigate (i) the effect of monochromatic light on inhibiting induction of light-induced melatonin and (ii) the roles of melanopsin and MT1 receptor in light-induced myopia in the guinea pig. Forty-eight guinea pigs were randomly distributed into three treatment groups: white-light (control), green-light (530 nm), and blue-light (480 nm) groups. Levels of pineal gland melatonin were measured twice daily--10:00 a.m. and 10:00 p.m.--10 days after initial light treatment. Thirty additional guinea pigs were also assigned to these groups and treated similarly. For these latter animals, refractive status, ocular length, and vitreous depth were measured before and after light treatment. Eight weeks after light treatment, retinal and sceral levels of melanopsin, melatonin receptor type (MT) 1, and mRNA protein were determined by Western blotting, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and immunohistochemistry. The level of pineal gland melatonin in the green-light group was significantly higher than that in the blue-light group. Biometric measurements showed that guinea pigs in the green-light group had a somewhat myopic refractive status. Expressions of retinal melanopsin mRNA and protein were significantly higher in the blue-light group and lower in the green-light group when compared to controls. Conversely, expressions of MT1 receptor mRNA and protein in retina and sclera were significantly higher in the green-light group and lower in the blue-light group when compared to controls. Green light appears to suppress induction of melatonin production. In addition, 530 nm of green light is involved in the development of myopia. In the guinea pig, MT1 receptor and melanopsin appear to play roles in the development of myopia induced by 530 nm of light.

  18. 207-nm UV Light-A Promising Tool for Safe Low-Cost Reduction of Surgical Site Infections. II: In-Vivo Safety Studies.

    PubMed

    Buonanno, Manuela; Stanislauskas, Milda; Ponnaiya, Brian; Bigelow, Alan W; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Xu, Yanping; Shuryak, Igor; Smilenov, Lubomir; Owens, David M; Brenner, David J

    2016-01-01

    UVC light generated by conventional germicidal lamps is a well-established anti-microbial modality, effective against both bacteria and viruses. However, it is a human health hazard, being both carcinogenic and cataractogenic. Earlier studies showed that single-wavelength far-UVC light (207 nm) generated by excimer lamps kills bacteria without apparent harm to human skin tissue in vitro. The biophysical explanation is that, due to its extremely short range in biological material, 207 nm UV light cannot penetrate the human stratum corneum (the outer dead-cell skin layer, thickness 5-20 μm) nor even the cytoplasm of individual human cells. By contrast, 207 nm UV light can penetrate bacteria and viruses because these cells are physically much smaller. To test the biophysically-based hypothesis that 207 nm UV light is not cytotoxic to exposed mammalian skin in vivo. Hairless mice were exposed to a bactericidal UV fluence of 157 mJ/cm2 delivered by a filtered Kr-Br excimer lamp producing monoenergetic 207-nm UV light, or delivered by a conventional 254-nm UV germicidal lamp. Sham irradiations constituted the negative control. Eight relevant cellular and molecular damage endpoints including epidermal hyperplasia, pre-mutagenic UV-associated DNA lesions, skin inflammation, and normal cell proliferation and differentiation were evaluated in mice dorsal skin harvested 48 h after UV exposure. While conventional germicidal UV (254 nm) exposure produced significant effects for all the studied skin damage endpoints, the same fluence of 207 nm UV light produced results that were not statistically distinguishable from the zero exposure controls. As predicted by biophysical considerations and in agreement with earlier in vitro studies, 207-nm light does not appear to be significantly cytotoxic to mouse skin. These results suggest that excimer-based far-UVC light could potentially be used for its anti-microbial properties, but without the associated hazards to skin of conventional

  19. Successful treatment with 308-nm monochromatic excimer light and subsequent tacrolimus 0.03% ointment in refractory plasma cell cheilitis.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Kazuhiro; Nakano, Shunji; Tsuruta, Daisuke; Ohata, Chika; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2013-06-01

    Plasma cell cheilitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that presents with erythema, erosions, ulcers and occasional nodules within the mucosa, including the lips. It is histopathologically characterized by dense plasma cell infiltration in the lamina propria of the mucous membranes. Several treatments for plasma cell cheilitis have been reported, including topical steroids, topical antibiotics or topical tacrolimus. However, 308-nm monochromatic excimer light (MEL) has never been reported as a treatment option, while it was reported to be very effective in treating erosive oral lichen planus. We report a 62-year-old man who had chronic plasma cell cheilitis on the lower lip, which was refractory to topical and systemic corticosteroid. The lesion and severe pain were significantly improved by the treatment with nine sessions of 308-nm MEL twice per week with a total dose of 1120 mJ/cm(2). However, the lesion gradually worsened after treatment frequency was reduced to once per month. Subsequent tacrolimus 0.03% ointment cleared the lesion completely in a month and no recurrence was observed a year later. Refractory plasma cell cheilitis and concomitant severe pain quickly responded to 308-nm MEL when administrated twice per week. Because the long interval between each MEL treatment seemed ineffective to improve the lesion, appropriate frequency and adequate total dose of MEL treatment may be necessary for a successful treatment. © 2013 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  20. Absorbance detector for high performance liquid chromatography based on a deep-UV light-emitting diode at 235nm.

    PubMed

    da Silveira Petruci, João Flavio; Liebetanz, Michael G; Cardoso, Arnaldo Alves; Hauser, Peter C

    2017-08-25

    In this communication, we describe a flow-through optical absorption detector for HPLC using for the first time a deep-UV light-emitting diode with an emission band at 235nm as light source. The detector is also comprised of a UV-sensitive photodiode positioned to enable measurement of radiation through a flow-through cuvette with round aperture of 1mm diameter and optical path length of 10mm, and a second one positioned as reference photodiode; a beam splitter and a power supply. The absorbance was measured and related to the analyte concentration by emulating the Lambert-Beer law with a log-ratio amplifier circuitry. This detector showed noise levels of 0.30mAU, which is comparable with our previous LED-based detectors employing LEDs at 280 and 255nm. The detector was coupled to a HPLC system and successfully evaluated for the determination of the anti-diabetic drugs pioglitazone and glimepiride in an isocratic separation and the benzodiazepines flurazepam, oxazepam and clobazam in a gradient elution. Good linearities (r>0.99), a precision better than 0.85% and limits of detection at sub-ppm levels were achieved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Polychromatic Light (480-3400 nm) Upregulates Sensitivity of Tumor Cells to Lysis by Natural Killers.

    PubMed

    Knyazev, Nickolay A; Samoilova, Kira A; Abrahamse, Heidi; Filatova, Natalia A

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluates the participation of immunological mechanisms of downregulation of murine hepatoma cells MH22a after direct exposure to polychromatic polarized light. Previous studies have shown that exposure to a combination of visible (VIS) and infrared (IR) light leads to decreased tumorigenicity of the murine hepatoma cells MH22a, which correlated with an increase in the amount of cells with reorganized cytoskeleton in the submembrane region. The mechanism of tumor inhibition and elimination has not been determined. Polychromatic light (480-3400 nm) has been used at doses of 4.8 and 9.6 J/cm(2) to determine the sensitivity of murine MH22a cells and human erythroleukemia cells K562 exposed to this light, to lysis by effector cells of innate immunity (NK cells), and enhancement of the glycocalyx of the studied tumor cells. This was determined using flow cytometry, the H(3)-uridine cytotoxic test followed by spectrophotometry. VIS-IR light increases the sensitivity of MH-22a cells at a dose 4.8 J/cm(2) and K562 cells at 9.6 J/cm(2). The enhancement of sensitivity of tumor cells to NK lysis changed their ability to absorb alcian blue, reflecting a change in the expression of the glycocalyx. Increasing the sensitivity of the murine tumor cells MH22a and human K562 irradiated VIS-IR light correlated with a change in the expression of their glycocalyx. The results of the present study demonstrate that the reduction of tumorigenicity of irradiated tumor cells is due to their sensitivity to lysis by NK cells of the immune system.

  2. Phytochromes A and C cooperatively regulate early and transient gene expression after red-light irradiation in rice seedlings.

    PubMed

    Kiyota, Seiichiro; Xie, Xianzhi; Takano, Makoto

    2012-02-01

    Phytochromes are red/far-red photoreceptors encoded by a small gene family in higher plants. Differences in phenotype among mutants suggest distinct functions among phytochrome subfamilies. We attempted to find distinct functions among phytochromes by oligo-microarray analysis of single, double, and triple mutants in rice. In most cases, gene expression was redundantly regulated by phytochromes A and B after irradiation by a red light pulse in etiolated rice shoots. However, we found that several genes were specifically regulated by phytochromes A and C. Most of them were expressed immediately after the red light pulse in a transient manner. They are stress-related genes that may be involved in resistance to light stress when etiolated seedlings are exposed to light. These genes were not expressed in green leaves after the red light pulse, suggesting that they have a function specific to etiolated seedlings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Red shift in the spectrum of a chlorophyll species is essential for the drought-induced dissipation of excess light energy in a poikilohydric moss, Bryum argenteum.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Yutaka; Mohamed, Ahmed; Taniyama, Koichiro; Kanatani, Kentaro; Kosugi, Makiko; Fukumura, Hiroshi

    2018-05-01

    Some mosses are extremely tolerant of drought stress. Their high drought tolerance relies on their ability to effectively dissipate absorbed light energy to heat under dry conditions. The energy dissipation mechanism in a drought-tolerant moss, Bryum argenteum, has been investigated using low-temperature picosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The results are compared between moss thalli samples harvested in Antarctica and in Japan. Both samples show almost the same quenching properties, suggesting an identical drought tolerance mechanism for the same species with two completely different habitats. A global target analysis was applied to a large set of data on the fluorescence-quenching dynamics for the 430-nm (chlorophyll-a selective) and 460-nm (chlorophyll-b and carotenoid selective) excitations in the temperature region from 5 to 77 K. This analysis strongly suggested that the quencher is formed in the major peripheral antenna of photosystem II, whose emission spectrum is significantly broadened and red-shifted in its quenched form. Two emission components at around 717 and 725 nm were assigned to photosystem I (PS I). The former component at around 717 nm is mildly quenched and probably bound to the PS I core complex, while the latter at around 725 nm is probably bound to the light-harvesting complex. The dehydration treatment caused a blue shift of the PS I emission peak via reduction of the exciton energy flow to the pigment responsible for the 725 nm band.

  4. Long-pulsed Nd: YAG Laser and Intense Pulse Light-755 nm for Idiopathic Facial Hirsutism: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Shrimal, Arpit; Sardar, Souvik; Roychoudhury, Soumyajit; Sarkar, Somenath

    2017-01-01

    Hirsutism means excessive terminal hair growth in a female in male pattern distribution. Perception of hirsutism is subjective. Permanent laser hair reduction is a slow process taking many sessions and tracking of improvement parameters is tedious. Hence, a lot of confusion still exists regarding the type of laser most beneficial for treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness and safety profile of long-pulsed Nd: YAG laser (1064 nm) and intense pulse light (IPL)-755 nm in management of idiopathic facial hirsutism. Open-labelled, randomly allocated experimental study. The study included 33 cases of idiopathic facial hirsutism. Patients were randomly divided into Group A, treated with long-pulsed Nd: YAG laser and Group B, treated with IPL-755 for a total of six sessions at 1 month interval. Chi-square test was used in Medcalc ® version 9.0 and the test of significance was taken to be P < 0.05. Average percentage of improvement in Group A, according to patients at each sessions were 46.33%, 70.66%, 81.66%, 84.67%, 85.33%, 87.33% and that in Group B were 28.06%, 39.72%, 52.22%, 64.72%, 67.78%, 71.11%, respectively. Excellent response (>75% reduction in hair) after six sessions in Group A was seen in fourteen (93.33%) out of fifteen patients, whereas in Group B, it was seen only in three (16.66%) out of eighteen patients. In Group A, erythema was seen in 26.67%, perifollicular edema and hyperpigmentation in 13.33% each. In Group B, erythema was seen in 50% patients, perifollicular edema in 16.67% and hyperpigmentation in 38.89% patients. Long-pulsed Nd: YAG Laser (1064 nm) is better than IPL-755 nm in terms of safety and effectiveness in the management of idiopathic facial hirsutism.

  5. Far-red light-mediated programmable anti-cancer gene delivery in cooperation with photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinhui; He, Hua; Xu, Xin; Wang, Xiao; Chen, Yongbing; Yin, Lichen

    2018-07-01

    Effective anti-cancer therapy is hurdled by the complicated extracellular and intracellular barriers, and thus a smart gene vector that can enable programmable gene delivery is highly demanded. Photo-manipulation of gene delivery processes features spatial and temporal precision, while majority of current strategies utilizes short-wavelength UV/visible light with poor tissue penetration or high-power-density near-infrared (NIR) light that would cause undesired heat damage. Herein, an ROS-degradable polycation was designed and co-delivered with a photosensitizer (PS), thus realizing photo-programmable gene delivery using far-red light (661 nm) at low optical power density (down to 5 mW cm -2 ). Thioketal-crosslinked polyethylenimine (TK-PEI) was synthesized to condense p53 gene to form nanocomplexes (NCs), and hyaluronic acid (HA) modified with pheophytin a (Pha) was coated onto NCs to enhance their colloidal stability and enable cancer cell targeting. Short-time (8-min) light irradiation produced non-lethal amount of ROS to disrupt the endosomal membranes and facilitate p53 gene release via degradation of TK-PEI, which collectively enhanced p53 expression levels toward anti-cancer gene therapy. Long-time (30-min) light irradiation at the post-transfection state generated lethal amount of ROS, which cooperatively killed cancer cells to strengthen p53 gene therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first example of an "one stone, three birds" approach to realize cooperative anti-cancer gene therapy using low-power-density, long-wavelength visible light as a single stimulus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of green and red light in βL-crystallin and ovalbumin

    PubMed Central

    Espinoza, J. Horacio; Reynaga-Hernández, Elizabeth; Ruiz-García, Jaime; Montero-Morán, Gabriela; Sanchez-Dominguez, Margarita; Mercado-Uribe, Hilda

    2015-01-01

    The effects of visible light on biological systems have been widely studied. In particular, the alterations of blue light on the ocular lens have recently attracted much attention. Here, we present a study about the effects produced by green and red light on two different proteins: βL-crystallin and ovalbumin. Based on differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), circular dichroism (CD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and fluorescence emission measurements, we found that both wavelengths induce structural changes in these proteins. We also observed that βL-crystallin aggregates. Our work may advance our understanding about conformational and aggregation processes in proteins subjected to visible radiation and the possible relationship with cataracts. While blue light has been considered the only harmful component in the visible espectrum, our findings show the possibility that lower energy components may be also of some concern. PMID:26656181

  7. A Flavin Binding Cryptochrome Photoreceptor Responds to Both Blue and Red Light in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii[W

    PubMed Central

    Beel, Benedikt; Prager, Katja; Spexard, Meike; Sasso, Severin; Weiss, Daniel; Müller, Nico; Heinnickel, Mark; Dewez, David; Ikoma, Danielle; Grossman, Arthur R.; Kottke, Tilman; Mittag, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Cryptochromes are flavoproteins that act as sensory blue light receptors in insects, plants, fungi, and bacteria. We have investigated a cryptochrome from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with sequence homology to animal cryptochromes and (6-4) photolyases. In response to blue and red light exposure, this animal-like cryptochrome (aCRY) alters the light-dependent expression of various genes encoding proteins involved in chlorophyll and carotenoid biosynthesis, light-harvesting complexes, nitrogen metabolism, cell cycle control, and the circadian clock. Additionally, exposure to yellow but not far-red light leads to comparable increases in the expression of specific genes; this expression is significantly reduced in an acry insertional mutant. These in vivo effects are congruent with in vitro data showing that blue, yellow, and red light, but not far-red light, are absorbed by the neutral radical state of flavin in aCRY. The aCRY neutral radical is formed following blue light absorption of the oxidized flavin. Red illumination leads to conversion to the fully reduced state. Our data suggest that aCRY is a functionally important blue and red light–activated flavoprotein. The broad spectral response implies that the neutral radical state functions as a dark form in aCRY and expands the paradigm of flavoproteins and cryptochromes as blue light sensors to include other light qualities. PMID:22773746

  8. Irradiance-dependent regulation of gravitropism by red light in protonemata of the moss Ceratodon purpureus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, V. D.; Sack, F. D.

    1999-01-01

    Apical cells of protonemata of the moss Ceratodon purpureus (Hedw.) Brid. are negatively gravitropic in the dark and positively phototropic in red light. Various fluence rates of unilateral red light were tested to determine whether both tropisms operate simultaneously. At irradiances > or = 140 nmol m-2 s-1 no gravitropism could be detected and phototropism predominated, despite the presence of amyloplast sedimentation. Gravitropism occurred at irradiances lower than 140 nmol m-1 s-1 with most cells oriented above the horizontal but not upright. At these low fluence rates, phototropism was indistinct at 1 g but apparent in microgravity, indicating that gravitropism and phototropism compete at 1 g. The frequency of protonemata that were negatively phototropic varied with the fluence rate and the duration of illumination, as well as with the position of the apical cell before illumination. These data show that the fluence rate of red light regulates whether gravitropism is allowed or completely repressed, and that it influences the polarity of phototropism and the extent to which apical cells are aligned in the light path.

  9. Effect of Red and Blue Light on Anthocyanin Accumulation and Differential Gene Expression in Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunting; Jiang, Leiyu; Li, Yali; Chen, Qing; Ye, Yuntian; Zhang, Yong; Luo, Ya; Sun, Bo; Wang, Xiaorong; Tang, Haoru

    2018-04-03

    Light conditions can cause quantitative and qualitative changes in anthocyanin. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism of light quality-regulated anthocyanin accumulation in fruits. In this study, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were applied to explore the effect of red and blue light on strawberry coloration. The results showed contents of total anthocyanins (TA), pelargonidin 3-glucoside (Pg3G) and pelargonidin 3-malonylglucoside (Pg3MG) significantly increased after blue and red light treatment. Pg3G was the major anthocyanin component in strawberry fruits, accounting for more than 80% of TA, whereas Pg3MG accounted for a smaller proportion. Comparative transcriptome analysis was conducted using libraries from the treated strawberries. A total of 1402, 5034, and 3764 differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in three pairwise comparisons (red light versus white light, RL-VS-WL; blue light versus white light, BL-VS-WL; blue light versus red light, BL-VS-RL), respectively. Photoreceptors and light transduction components remained dynamic to up-regulate the expression of regulatory factors and structural genes related to anthocyanin biosynthesis under red and white light, whereas most genes had low expression levels that were not consistent with the highest total anthocyanin content under blue light. Therefore, the results indicated that light was an essential environmental factor for anthocyanin biosynthesis before the anthocyanin concentration reached saturation in strawberry fruits, and blue light could quickly stimulate the accumulation of anthocyanin in the fruit. In addition, red light might contribute to the synthesis of proanthocyanidins by inducing LAR and ANR .

  10. Perspective: Toward efficient GaN-based red light emitting diodes using europium doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Brandon; Dierolf, Volkmar; Gregorkiewicz, Tom; Fujiwara, Yasufumi

    2018-04-01

    While InGaN/GaN blue and green light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are commercially available, the search for an efficient red LED based on GaN is ongoing. The realization of this LED is crucial for the monolithic integration of the three primary colors and the development of nitride-based full-color high-resolution displays. In this perspective, we will address the challenges of attaining red luminescence from GaN under current injection and the methods that have been developed to circumvent them. While several approaches will be mentioned, a large emphasis will be placed on the recent developments of doping GaN with Eu3+ to achieve an efficient red GaN-based LED. Finally, we will provide an outlook to the future of this material as a candidate for small scale displays such as mobile device screens or micro-LED displays.

  11. Argorejo ‘red-light district’ student perceptions on sexual behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayat, M. T.; Prasetyo, A. P. B.; Anas, M.; Lisdiana

    2018-03-01

    Argorejo ‘Red-light District’ environment (Sunan Kuning), prostitution area in Semarang, Indonesia support the highly sexual behaviors among Junior High School (JHS) students. The aim of this study was to describe the perceptions of JHS students on sexual behaviors. The method used was that of a qualitative and descriptive phenomenological approaches. The data were collected, from four JHS students as key informants, and their neigbours as the supporting informants, by observation, interviews, and documentation study, then analyzed with the Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The findings showed that (1) JHS students from ‘Red-light District’ of Argorejo showed they had more negative views of sexual behavior (behavioral beliefs), (2) they believed that other reference parties did not agree with this sexual behaviors, and consequently they would prohibit them to do sexual behavior (normative beliefs), and (3) assumed there were equal conditions that would fasilitate or hinder them to do sexual behavior (control beliefs).

  12. Squarylium-triazine dyad as a highly sensitive photoradical generator for red light.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Koichi; Schmitt, Julien; Barnet, Maxime; Salmi, Hanene; Ley, Christian; Allonas, Xavier

    2013-09-16

    New dyads, based on squarylium dye and substituted-triazine, were synthesized that exhibit an intramolecular photodissociative electron-transfer reaction. The compounds were used as a red-light photoradical generator. The photochemical activity of the dyad was compared to the corresponding unlinked systems (S+T) by determining the rate constant of electron transfer. The efficiency of the radical generation from the dyad compared to the unlinked system was demonstrated by measuring the maximum rate of free radical polymerization of acrylates in film. An excellent relationship between the rate of electron transfer and the rate of polymerization was found, evidencing the interest of this new approach to efficiently produce radicals under red light. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Near-infrared light-activated red-emitting upconverting nanoplatform for T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiang-Long; Wu, Jun; Lin, Ben-Lan; Cui, Sheng; Liu, Hong-Mei; Yu, Ru-Tong; Shen, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Ting-Wei; Xia, Wei

    2018-05-12

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has increasingly become an efficient and attractive cancer treatment modality based on reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can induce tumor death after irradiation with ultraviolet or visible light. Herein, to overcome the limited tissue penetration in traditional PDT, a novel near-infrared (NIR) light-activated NaScF 4 : 40% Yb, 2% Er@CaF 2 upconversion nanoparticle (rUCNP) is successfully designed and synthesized. Chlorin e6, a photosensitizer and a chelating agent for Mn 2+ , is loaded into human serum albumin (HSA) that further conjugates onto rUCNPs. To increase the ability to target glioma tumor, an acyclic Arg-Gly-Asp peptide (cRGDyK) is linked to rUCNPs@HSA(Ce6-Mn). This nanoplatform enables efficient adsorption and conversion of NIR light (980 nm) into bright red emission (660 nm), which can trigger the photosensitizer Ce6-Mn complex for PDT and T 1 -weighted magnetic resonance imaging (T 1 -weighted MRI) for glioma diagnosis. Our in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrate that NIR light-activated and glioma tumor-targeted PDT can generate large amounts of intracellular ROS that induce U87 cell apoptosis and suppress glioma tumor growth owing to the deep tissue penetration of irradiated light and excellent tumor-targeting ability. Thus, this nanoplatform holds potential for applications in T 1 -weighted MRI diagnosis and PDT of glioma for antitumor therapy. A near-infrared (NIR) light-activated nanoplatform for photodynamic therapy (PDT) was designed and synthesized. The Red-to-Green (R/G) ratio of NaScF 4 : 40% Yb, 2% Er almost reached 9, a value that was much higher than that of a traditional Yb/Er-codoped upconversion nanoparticle (rUCNP). By depositing a CaF 2 shell, the red-emission intensities of the rUCNPs were seven times strong as that of NaScF 4 : 40% Yb, 2% Er. The enhanced red-emitting rUCNPs could be applied in many fields such as bioimaging, controlled release, and real-time diagnosis. The nanoplatform had a

  14. Simultaneous optical coherence tomography and lipofuscin autofluorescence imaging of the retina with a single broadband light source at 480nm.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Minshan; Liu, Tan; Liu, Xiaojing; Jiao, Shuliang

    2014-12-01

    We accomplished spectral domain optical coherence tomography and auto-fluorescence microscopy for imaging the retina with a single broadband light source centered at 480 nm. This technique is able to provide simultaneous structural imaging and lipofuscin molecular contrast of the retina. Since the two imaging modalities are provided by the same group of photons, their images are intrinsically registered. To test the capabilities of the technique we periodically imaged the retinas of the same rats for four weeks. The images successfully demonstrated lipofuscin accumulation in the retinal pigment epithelium with aging. The experimental results showed that the dual-modal imaging system can be a potentially powerful tool in the study of age-related degenerative retinal diseases.

  15. [Action of red polarized light on the acupuncture point E-36 increases analgesic effect of corvitin].

    PubMed

    Tamarova, Z A; Lymans'kyĭ, Iu P; Kostiuk, O I; Mitruzaeva, V A; Lymans'ka, L I

    2010-01-01

    In experiments on mice of lines C57BL/6J and CBA/CaLac, the possibility of strengthening of analgesic effect of corvitin by the action of red polarized light (PL) on the acupoint (AP) E-36 was studied. The pain behavioral response (licking of the painful area) was caused by injection of 5% formalin in hind limb (0.25 microl subcutaneously). The duration of pain response was studied before and after systemic introduction of corvitin (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) or joint use of corvitin and red PL (10 minute session). It is established, that after application of red PL on the antinociceptive AP E-36 in all animals an authentic strengthening of antinociceptive effect of corvitin takes place. In C57BL/6J mice, application of corvitin alone weakened the pain response by 29.7% and during combined use of red PL and corvitin, it grew up to 53.1%. Mice of line CBA/CaLac were less sensitive both to corvitin, and PL. In this line, corvitin used alone reduced the duration of pain response by 14%, and by 32.4% during combined use with red PL. Non-traumatic, without side effects, the method of influence by low-intensive PL can be recommended to patients accepting corvitin for strengthening its efficiency.

  16. Enhanced visible light photocatalytic property of red phosphorus via surface roughening

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Weibing, E-mail: lwbing@qust.edu.cn; Yue, Jiguang; Hua, Fangxia

    Highlights: • Photocatalytic RhB degradation of red phosphorus was studied for the first time. • Surface rough can increase the photocatalysis reaction active sites. • Surface rough red phosphorus possesses high photocatalytic performance. • Surface rough red phosphorus has high industrial application value. - Abstract: Red phosphorus with rough surface (SRP) was prepared by catalyst-assisted hydrothermal synthesis using Co{sup 2+} catalyst. The photocatalytic Rhodamine B (RhB) degradation of red phosphorus (RP) and SRP was studied for the first time in this work. Rough surface can enhance the dye adsorption ability of RP. About 75% RhB was absorbed by SRP aftermore » 30-min adsorption in 100 ml RhB solution with concentration of 10 mg l{sup −1} in dark. After only 10 min of illumination by visible light, more than 95% RhB was degraded, indicating that SRP has a great application potential in the area of photocatalysis. The photocatalytic RhB degradation properties of RP are much weaker than those of SRP. The increase of the number of the active sites for the photocatalytic reactions, the electron mobility and the lifetime of the photogenerated electrons cause the significant improvement of the photocatalytic performance of SRP based on the experimental results obtained.« less

  17. Characteristics of GaN-based 500 nm light-emitting diodes with embedded hemispherical air-cavity structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Minyan; Li, Yufeng; Li, Qiang; Su, Xilin; Wang, Shuai; Feng, Lungang; Tian, Zhenhuan; Guo, Maofeng; Zhang, Guowei; Ding, Wen; Yun, Feng

    2018-03-01

    GaN-based 500 nm light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with an air-cavity formed on a laser-drilled hemispherical patterned sapphire substrate (HPSS) were investigated. The cross-section transmission electron microscopy image of the HPSS-LED epilayer indicated that most of the threading dislocations were bent towards the lateral directions. It was found that in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) of HPSS-LEDs, there were fewer V-pits and lower surface roughness than those of conventional LEDs which were grown on flat sapphire substrates (FSSs). The high-resolution x-ray diffraction showed that the LED grown on a HPSS has better crystal quality than that grown on a FSS. Compared to FSS-LEDs, the photoluminescence (PL) intensity, the light output power, and the external quantum efficiency at an injected current of 20 mA for the HPSS-LED were enhanced by 81%, 65%, and 62%, respectively, such enhancements can be attributed to better GaN epitaxial quality and higher light extraction. The slightly peak wavelength blueshift of electroluminescence for the HPSS-LED indicated that the quantum confined Stark effect in the InGaN/GaN MQWs has been reduced. Furthermore, it was found that the far-field radiation patterns of the HPSS-LED have smaller view angles than that of the FSS-LED. In addition, the scanning near field optical microscope results revealed that the area above the air-cavity has a larger PL intensity than that without an air-cavity, and the closer to the middle of the air-cavity the stronger the PL intensity. These nano-light distribution findings were in good agreement with the simulation results obtained by the finite difference time domain method.

  18. Red light is necessary to activate the reproductive axis in chickens independently of the retina of the eye.

    PubMed

    Baxter, M; Joseph, N; Osborne, V R; Bédécarrats, G Y

    2014-05-01

    Photoperiod is essential in manipulating sexual maturity and reproductive performance in avian species. Light can be perceived by photoreceptors in the retina of the eye, pineal gland, and hypothalamus. However, the relative sensitivity and specificity of each organ to wavelength, and consequently the physiological effects, may differ. The purpose of this experiment was to test the impacts of light wavelengths on reproduction, growth, and stress in laying hens maintained in cages and to determine whether the retina of the eye is necessary. Individual cages in 3 optically isolated sections of a single room were equipped with LED strips providing either pure green, pure red or white light (red, green, and blue) set to 10 lx (hens levels). The involvement of the retina on mediating the effects of light wavelength was assessed by using a naturally blind line (Smoky Joe) of chickens. Red and white lights resulted in higher estradiol concentrations after photostimulation, indicating stronger ovarian activation, which translated into a significantly lower age at first egg when compared with the green light. Similarly, hens maintained under red and white lights had a longer and higher peak production and higher cumulative egg number than hens under green light. No significant difference in BW gain was observed until sexual maturation. However, from 23 wk of age onward, birds exposed to green light showed higher body growth, which may be the result of their lower egg production. Although corticosterone levels were higher at 20 wk of age in hens under red light, concentrations were below levels that can be considered indicative of stress. Because no significant differences were observed between blind and sighted birds maintained under red and white light, the retina of the eye did not participate in the activation of reproduction. In summary, red light was required to stimulate the reproductive axis whereas green light was ineffective, and the effects of stimulatory

  19. An efficient continuous-wave 591 nm light source based on sum-frequency mixing of a diode pumped Nd:GdVO4-Nd:CNGG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y. D.; Liu, J. H.

    2013-08-01

    We report a laser architecture to obtain continuous-wave (CW) yellow-orange light sources at the 591 nm wavelength. An 808 nm diode pumped a Nd:GdVO4 crystal emitting at 1063 nm. A part of the pump power was then absorbed by the Nd:CNGG crystal. The remaining pump power was used to pump a Nd:CNGG crystal emitting at 1329 nm. Intracavity sum-frequency mixing at 1063 and 1329 nm was then realized in a LiB3O5 (LBO) crystal to reach the yellow-orange radiation. We obtained a CW output power of 494 mW at 591 nm with a pump laser diode emitting 17.8 W at 808 nm.

  20. Red and Blue Light Promote the Accumulation of Artemisinin in Artemisia Annua L.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong; Sun, Wei; Shi, Yuhua; Wu, Lan; Zhang, Tianyuan; Xiang, Li

    2018-05-31

    Artemisinin, which has been isolated from Artemisia annua L., is the most effective antimalarial drug and has saved millions of lives. In addition, artemisinin and its derivatives have anti-tumor, anti-parasitic, anti-fibrosis, and anti-arrhythmic properties, which enhances the demand for these compounds. Improving the content of artemisinin in A. annua is therefore becoming an increasing research interest, as the chemical synthesis of this metabolite is not viable. Ultraviolet B and C irradiation have been reported to improve the artemisinin content in A. annua , but they are harmful to plant growth and development. Therefore, we screened other light sources to examine if they could promote artemisinin content without affecting plant growth and development. We found that red and blue light could enhance artemisinin accumulation by promoting the expression of the genes that were involved in artemisinin biosynthesis, such as amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS) and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP71AV1) genes. Thus, in addition to being the main light sources for photosynthesis, red and blue light play a key role in plant secondary metabolism, and optimizing the combination of these light might allow for the productionof artemisinin-rich A. annua .

  1. Gigabit-per-second white light-based visible light communication using near-ultraviolet laser diode and red-, green-, and blue-emitting phosphors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Changmin; Shen, Chao; Cozzan, Clayton; Farrell, Robert M; Speck, James S; Nakamura, Shuji; Ooi, Boon S; DenBaars, Steven P

    2017-07-24

    Data communication based on white light generated using a near-ultraviolet (NUV) laser diode (LD) pumping red-, green-, and blue-emitting (RGB) phosphors was demonstrated for the first time. A III-nitride laser diode (LD) on a semipolar (2021¯)  substrate emitting at 410 nm was used for the transmitter. The measured modulation bandwidth of the LD was 1 GHz, which was limited by the avalanche photodetector. The emission from the NUV LD and the RGB phosphor combination measured a color rendering index (CRI) of 79 and correlated color temperature (CCT) of 4050 K, indicating promise of this approach for creating high quality white lighting. Using this configuration, data was successfully transmitted at a rate of more than 1 Gbps. This NUV laser-based system is expected to have lower background noise from sunlight at the LD emission wavelength than a system that uses a blue LD due to the rapid fall off in intensity of the solar spectrum in the NUV spectral region.

  2. Red light emitting nano-PVP fibers that hybrid with Ag@SiO2@Eu(tta)3phen-NPs by electrostatic spinning method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaolin; Tang, Jianguo; Li, Haidong; Wang, Yao; Wang, Xinzhi; Wang, Yanxin; Huang, Linjun; Belfiore, Laurence A.

    2018-04-01

    This work demonstrated red light emitting nano-PVP fibers that incorporated with novel three-layer nanostructure of Ag@SiO2@Eu(tta)3phen nanoparticles (Ag@SiO2@Eu(tta)3phen-NPs), and the hybrid nano-PVP fibers were fabricated via a remarkably simple electrostatic spinning method. For Ag@SiO2@Eu(tta)3phen-NPs, the thickness of SiO2 is optimized to obtain the maximum luminescent intensity, as results, the optimized thickness of SiO2 is 20 nm. And the corresponding luminescent intensity (612 nm) of the Ag@SiO2@Eu(tta)3phen-NPs is enhanced up to 10 times compared with the pure Eu(tta)3phen complex, which indicates that with 20 nm SiO2 thickness, the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect of Ag@SiO2 exhibits highest performance for enhancing luminescence. Moreover, the luminescent PVP fibers emit bright red light under the fluorescence microscope, which definitely confirms that the microenvironment provided by PVP polymer is absolutely suitable for the fluorescent composites.

  3. Bacteriostatic influence of red laser light on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and photodynamic enhancement of this effect with Photoditazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorova, A. V.; Brill, G. E.; Bugaeva, I. O.; Tuchina, E. S.; Ponomaryov, G. V.; Ushakova, O. V.

    2018-04-01

    The influence of red laser irradiation on the growth of colonies of Staphylococcus aureus and photodynamic effect of the photosensitizer Photoditazine were performed. It was established that the emission of red laser light caused an inhibition of bacterial growth. This effect on standard strain of Staphylococcus aureus was evident only when relatively high doses of radiation (180 j/cm2). Photosensitivity of the methicillin-resistant strains was much higher: bacteriostatic effect of red light was observed already at the dose of 60 j/cm2 . Pre-treatment of bacterial cells by Photoditazine significantly enhances the inhibitory effect of the laser light.

  4. Quantitative phase imaging of human red blood cells using phase-shifting white light interference microscopy with colour fringe analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh Mehta, Dalip; Srivastava, Vishal

    2012-11-01

    We report quantitative phase imaging of human red blood cells (RBCs) using phase-shifting interference microscopy. Five phase-shifted white light interferograms are recorded using colour charge coupled device camera. White light interferograms were decomposed into red, green, and blue colour components. The phase-shifted interferograms of each colour were then processed by phase-shifting analysis and phase maps for red, green, and blue colours were reconstructed. Wavelength dependent refractive index profiles of RBCs were computed from the single set of white light interferogram. The present technique has great potential for non-invasive determination of refractive index variation and morphological features of cells and tissues.

  5. Boron-Containing Red Light-Emitting Phosphors And Light Sources Incorporating The Same

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, Alok Mani; Comanzo, Holly Ann; Manivannan, Venkatesan

    2006-03-28

    A boron-containing phosphor comprises a material having a formula of AD1-xEuxB9O16, wherein A is an element selected from the group consisting of Ba, Sr, Ca, Mg, and combinations thereof; D is at least an element selected from the group consisting of rare-earth metals other than europium; and x is in the range from about 0.005 to about 0.5. The phosphor is used in a blend with other phosphors in a light source for generating visible light with a high color rendering index.

  6. High-power, red-light-emitting diode irradiation enhances proliferation, osteogenic differentiation, and mineralization of human periodontal ligament stem cells via ERK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Nobuhiro; Taguchi, Yoichiro; Kato, Hirohito; Umeda, Makoto

    2018-03-01

    Light-emitting diode (LED) is attracting attention as a new light source for phototherapy. However, its effects on periodontal tissue regeneration remain unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of high-power, red LED irradiation on human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), which play an important role in periodontal tissue regeneration. PDLSCs were derived from adult human third molars. The light source was red LED (peak wavelength: 650 nm). Energy densities ranging from 0 to 10 J/cm 2 were tested to determine the optimal dose. PDLSC proliferation was measured using two parameters: live cell protease and ATP levels. After the cells were induced to differentiate, the effect of LED irradiation on osteogenic differentiation and mineralization was examined, with particular focus on the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 signaling pathway using an ERK inhibitor (PD98059). LED irradiation at 8 J/cm 2 led to a significant increase in PDLSC proliferation and enhanced Runx2 and Osterix mRNA expression, Alkaline phosphatase activity, procollagen type I C-peptide and osteocalcin production, calcium deposition, and alizarin red S staining. In addition, LED induced the activation of ERK1/2, and the effects of LED on PDLSC proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization could be suppressed by treatment with PD98059. The results of this study show that 650-nm high-power, red, LED irradiation increases PDLSCs proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation and mineralization, mediated by ERK1/2 activation. These findings suggest that LED may be a useful tool for periodontal tissue regeneration. © 2018 American Academy of Periodontology.

  7. Numerical Analysis of the Temperature Impact on Performance of GaN-Based 460-nm Light-Emitting Diode.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, Wael Z; Lee, June Key

    2018-03-01

    The influence of temperature on the characteristics of a GaN-based 460-nm light-emitting diode (LED) prepared on sapphire substrate was simulated using the SiLENSe and SpeCLED software programs. High temperatures impose negative effects on the performance of GaN-based LEDs. As the temperature increases, electrons acquire higher thermal energies, and therefore LEDs may suffer more from high-current loss mechanisms, which in turn causes a reduction in the radiative recombination rate in the active region. The internal quantum efficiency was reduced by about 24% at a current density of 35 A/cm2, and the electroluminescence spectral peak wavelength was redshifted. The LED operated at 260 K and exhibited its highest light output power of ~317.5 mW at a maximum injection current of 350 mA, compared to 212.2 mW for an LED operated at 400 K. However, increasing temperature does not cause a droop in efficiency under high injection conditions. The peak efficiency at 1 mA of injection current decreases more rapidly by ~15% with increasing temperature from 260 to 400 K than the efficiency at high injection current of 350 mA by ~11%.

  8. The ratio of red light to far red light alters Arabidopsis axillary bud growth and abscisic acid signalling before stem auxin changes.

    PubMed

    Holalu, Srinidhi V; Finlayson, Scott A

    2017-02-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana shoot branching is inhibited by a low red light to far red light ratio (R:FR, an indicator of competition), and by loss of phytochrome B function. Prior studies have shown that phytochrome B deficiency suppresses bud growth by elevating systemic auxin signalling, and that increasing the R:FR promotes the growth of buds suppressed by low R:FR by inhibiting bud abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation and signalling. Here, systemic auxin signalling and bud ABA signalling were examined in the context of rapid bud responses to an increased R:FR. Increasing the R:FR promoted the growth of buds inhibited by a low R:FR within 6 h. Relative to a low R:FR, bud ABA accumulation and signalling in plants given a high R:FR showed a sustained decline within 3 h, prior to increased growth. Main stem auxin levels and signalling showed a weak, transient response. Systemic effects and those localised to the bud were further examined by decapitating plants maintained either under a low R:FR or provided with a high R:FR. Increasing the R:FR promoted bud growth before decapitation, but decapitated plants eventually formed longer branches. The data suggest that rapid responses to an increased R:FR may be mediated by changes in bud ABA physiology, although systemic auxin signalling is necessary for sustained bud repression under a low R:FR. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  9. Estimation of red-light running frequency using high-resolution traffic and signal data.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng; Yu, Guizhen; Wu, Xinkai; Ren, Yilong; Li, Yueguang

    2017-05-01

    Red-light-running (RLR) emerges as a major cause that may lead to intersection-related crashes and endanger intersection safety. To reduce RLR violations, it's critical to identify the influential factors associated with RLR and estimate RLR frequency. Without resorting to video camera recordings, this study investigates this important issue by utilizing high-resolution traffic and signal event data collected from loop detectors at five intersections on Trunk Highway 55, Minneapolis, MN. First, a simple method is proposed to identify RLR by fully utilizing the information obtained from stop bar detectors, downstream entrance detectors and advance detectors. Using 12 months of event data, a total of 6550 RLR cases were identified. According to a definition of RLR frequency as the conditional probability of RLR on a certain traffic or signal condition (veh/1000veh), the relationships between RLR frequency and some influential factors including arriving time at advance detector, approaching speed, headway, gap to the preceding vehicle on adjacent lane, cycle length, geometric characteristics and even snowing weather were empirically investigated. Statistical analysis shows good agreement with the traffic engineering practice, e.g., RLR is most likely to occur on weekdays during peak periods under large traffic demands and longer signal cycles, and a total of 95.24% RLR events occurred within the first 1.5s after the onset of red phase. The findings confirmed that vehicles tend to run the red light when they are close to intersection during phase transition, and the vehicles following the leading vehicle with short headways also likely run the red light. Last, a simplified nonlinear regression model is proposed to estimate RLR frequency based on the data from advance detector. The study is expected to helpbetter understand RLR occurrence and further contribute to the future improvement of intersection safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fish with red fluorescent eyes forage more efficiently under dim, blue-green light conditions.

    PubMed

    Harant, Ulrike Katharina; Michiels, Nicolaas Karel

    2017-04-20

    Natural red fluorescence is particularly conspicuous in the eyes of some small, benthic, predatory fishes. Fluorescence also increases in relative efficiency with increasing depth, which has generated speculation about its possible function as a "light organ" to detect cryptic organisms under bluish light. Here we investigate whether foraging success is improved under ambient conditions that make red fluorescence stand out more, using the triplefin Tripterygion delaisi as a model system. We repeatedly presented 10 copepods to individual fish (n = 40) kept under a narrow blue-green spectrum and compared their performance with that under a broad spectrum with the same overall brightness. The experiment was repeated for two levels of brightness, a shaded one representing 0.4% of the light present at the surface and a heavily shaded one with about 0.01% of the surface brightness. Fish were 7% more successful at catching copepods under the narrow, fluorescence-friendly spectrum than under the broad spectrum. However, this effect was significant under the heavily shaded light treatment only. This outcome corroborates previous predictions that fluorescence may be an adaptation to blue-green, heavily shaded environments, which coincides with the opportunistic biology of this species that lives in the transition zone between exposed and heavily shaded microhabitats.

  11. New Proof-of-Concept in Viral Inactivation: Virucidal Efficacy of 405 nm Light Against Feline Calicivirus as a Model for Norovirus Decontamination.

    PubMed

    Tomb, Rachael M; Maclean, Michelle; Coia, John E; Graham, Elizabeth; McDonald, Michael; Atreya, Chintamani D; MacGregor, Scott J; Anderson, John G

    2017-06-01

    The requirement for novel decontamination technologies for use in hospitals is ever present. One such system uses 405 nm visible light to inactivate microorganisms via ROS-generated oxidative damage. Although effective for bacterial and fungal inactivation, little is known about the virucidal effects of 405 nm light. Norovirus (NoV) gastroenteritis outbreaks often occur in the clinical setting, and this study was designed to investigate potential inactivation effects of 405 nm light on the NoV surrogate, feline calicivirus (FCV). FCV was exposed to 405 nm light whilst suspended in minimal and organically-rich media to establish the virucidal efficacy and the effect biologically-relevant material may play in viral susceptibility. Antiviral activity was successfully demonstrated with a 4 Log 10 (99.99%) reduction in infectivity when suspended in minimal media evident after a dose of 2.8 kJ cm -2 . FCV exposed in artificial faeces, artificial saliva, blood plasma and other organically rich media exhibited an equivalent level of inactivation using between 50-85% less dose of the light, indicating enhanced inactivation when the virus is present in organically-rich biologically-relevant media. Further research in this area could aid in the development of 405 nm light technology for effective NoV decontamination within the hospital environment.

  12. Static and dynamic light scattering by red blood cells: A numerical study

    PubMed Central

    Mauer, Johannes; Peltomäki, Matti; Poblete, Simón; Gompper, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Light scattering is a well-established experimental technique, which gains more and more popularity in the biological field because it offers the means for non-invasive imaging and detection. However, the interpretation of light-scattering signals remains challenging due to the complexity of most biological systems. Here, we investigate static and dynamic scattering properties of red blood cells (RBCs) using two mesoscopic hydrodynamics simulation methods—multi-particle collision dynamics and dissipative particle dynamics. Light scattering is studied for various membrane shear elasticities, bending rigidities, and RBC shapes (e.g., biconcave and stomatocyte). Simulation results from the two simulation methods show good agreement, and demonstrate that the static light scattering of a diffusing RBC is not very sensitive to the changes in membrane properties and moderate alterations in cell shapes. We also compute dynamic light scattering of a diffusing RBC, from which dynamic properties of RBCs such as diffusion coefficients can be accessed. In contrast to static light scattering, the dynamic measurements can be employed to differentiate between the biconcave and stomatocytic RBC shapes and generally allow the differentiation based on the membrane properties. Our simulation results can be used for better understanding of light scattering by RBCs and the development of new non-invasive methods for blood-flow monitoring. PMID:28472125

  13. Static and dynamic light scattering by red blood cells: A numerical study.

    PubMed

    Mauer, Johannes; Peltomäki, Matti; Poblete, Simón; Gompper, Gerhard; Fedosov, Dmitry A

    2017-01-01

    Light scattering is a well-established experimental technique, which gains more and more popularity in the biological field because it offers the means for non-invasive imaging and detection. However, the interpretation of light-scattering signals remains challenging due to the complexity of most biological systems. Here, we investigate static and dynamic scattering properties of red blood cells (RBCs) using two mesoscopic hydrodynamics simulation methods-multi-particle collision dynamics and dissipative particle dynamics. Light scattering is studied for various membrane shear elasticities, bending rigidities, and RBC shapes (e.g., biconcave and stomatocyte). Simulation results from the two simulation methods show good agreement, and demonstrate that the static light scattering of a diffusing RBC is not very sensitive to the changes in membrane properties and moderate alterations in cell shapes. We also compute dynamic light scattering of a diffusing RBC, from which dynamic properties of RBCs such as diffusion coefficients can be accessed. In contrast to static light scattering, the dynamic measurements can be employed to differentiate between the biconcave and stomatocytic RBC shapes and generally allow the differentiation based on the membrane properties. Our simulation results can be used for better understanding of light scattering by RBCs and the development of new non-invasive methods for blood-flow monitoring.

  14. The short-term response of Arabidopsis thaliana (C3) and Zea mays (C4) chloroplasts to red and far red light.

    PubMed

    Zienkiewicz, Maksymilian; Drożak, Anna; Wasilewska, Wioleta; Bacławska, Ilona; Przedpełska-Wąsowicz, Ewa; Romanowska, Elżbieta

    2015-12-01

    Light quality has various effects on photochemistry and protein phosphorylation in Zea mays and Arabidopsis thaliana thylakoids due to different degrees of light penetration across leaves and redox status in chloroplasts. The effect of the spectral quality of light (red, R and far red, FR) on the function of thylakoid proteins in Zea mays and Arabidopsis thaliana was investigated. It was concluded that red light stimulates PSII activity in A. thaliana thylakoids and in maize bundle sheath (BS) thylakoids, but not in mesophyll (M) thylakoids. The light quality did not change PSI activity in M thylakoids of maize. FR used after a white light period increased PSI activity significantly in maize BS and only slightly in A. thaliana thylakoids. As shown by blue native (BN)-PAGE followed by SDS-PAGE, proteins were differently phosphorylated in the thylakoids, indicating their different functions. FR light increased dephosphorylation of LHCII proteins in A. thaliana thylakoids, whereas in maize, dephosphorylation did not occur at all. The rate of phosphorylation was higher in maize BS than in M thylakoids. D1 protein phosphorylation increased in maize and decreased in A. thaliana upon irradiation with both R and growth light (white light, W). Light variations did not change the level of proteins in thylakoids. Our data strongly suggest that response to light quality is a species-dependent phenomenon. We concluded that the maize chloroplasts were differently stimulated, probably due to different degrees of light penetration across the leaf and thereby the redox status in the chloroplasts. These acclimation changes induced by light quality are important in the regulation of chloroplast membrane flexibility and thus its function.

  15. Effects of late rotation thinning on light availability and red oak regeneration within a minor stream bottom in Mississippi

    Treesearch

    Ellen M. Boerger; Brent R. Frey; Andrew W. Ezell; Tracy Hawkins

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest a troubling decline in the abundance of red oak species (Quercus spp., Section Erythrobalanus) in bottomland forests of the southeastern United States. We assessed red oak advance regeneration and associated tree species in relation to light availability in a 77-year-old oak-dominated stand 5 years after late rotation thinning. Residual basal...

  16. Evaluation of spectral light management on growth of container-grown willow oak, nuttall oak and summer red maple

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant response to blue, red, gray or black shade cloth was evaluated with willow oak (Quercus phellos L.), Nuttall oak (Quercus nuttallii Palmer, Nuttall) and Summer Red maple (Acer rubrum L. ‘Summer Red’) liners. Light transmitted through the colored shade cloth had no influence on germination of ...

  17. Making intersections safer : a toolbox of engineering countermeasures to reduce red-light running : an informational report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-01-01

    The Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) formed a panel of experts from federal, state and local governments, as well as academia and the private sector, to share knowledge and experiences in addressing red-light running using engineering coun...

  18. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals that Red and Blue Light Regulate Growth and Phytohormone Metabolism in Norway Spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst].

    PubMed

    OuYang, Fangqun; Mao, Jian-Feng; Wang, Junhui; Zhang, Shougong; Li, Yue

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms by which different light spectra regulate plant shoot elongation vary, and phytohormones respond differently to such spectrum-associated regulatory effects. Light supplementation can effectively control seedling growth in Norway spruce. However, knowledge of the effective spectrum for promoting growth and phytohormone metabolism in this species is lacking. In this study, 3-year-old Norway spruce clones were illuminated for 12 h after sunset under blue or red light-emitting diode (LED) light for 90 d, and stem increments and other growth traits were determined. Endogenous hormone levels and transcriptome differences in the current needles were assessed to identify genes related to the red and blue light regulatory responses. The results showed that the stem increment and gibberellin (GA) levels of the seedlings illuminated by red light were 8.6% and 29.0% higher, respectively, than those of the seedlings illuminated by blue light. The indoleacetic acid (IAA) level of the seedlings illuminated by red light was 54.6% lower than that of the seedlings illuminated by blue light, and there were no significant differences in abscisic acid (ABA) or zeatin riboside [ZR] between the two groups of seedlings. The transcriptome results revealed 58,736,166 and 60,555,192 clean reads for the blue-light- and red-light-illuminated samples, respectively. Illumina sequencing revealed 21,923 unigenes, and 2744 (approximately 93.8%) out of 2926 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found to be upregulated under blue light. The main KEGG classifications of the DEGs were metabolic pathway (29%), biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (20.49%) and hormone signal transduction (8.39%). With regard to hormone signal transduction, AUXIN-RESISTANT1 (AUX1), AUX/IAA genes, auxin-inducible genes, and early auxin-responsive genes [(auxin response factor (ARF) and small auxin-up RNA (SAUR)] were all upregulated under blue light compared with red light, which might have yielded the

  19. Novel application of red-light runner proneness theory within traffic microsimulation to an actual signal junction.

    PubMed

    Bell, Margaret Carol; Galatioto, Fabio; Giuffrè, Tullio; Tesoriere, Giovanni

    2012-05-01

    Building on previous research a conceptual framework, based on potential conflicts analysis, has provided a quantitative evaluation of 'proneness' to red-light running behaviour at urban signalised intersections of different geometric, flow and driver characteristics. The results provided evidence that commonly used violation rates could cause inappropriate evaluation of the extent of the red-light running phenomenon. Initially, an in-depth investigation of the functional form of the mathematical relationship between the potential and actual red-light runners was carried out. The application of the conceptual framework was tested on a signalised intersection in order to quantify the proneness to red-light running. For the particular junction studied proneness for daytime was found to be 0.17 north and 0.16 south for opposing main road approaches and 0.42 east and 0.59 west for the secondary approaches. Further investigations were carried out using a traffic microsimulation model, to explore those geometric features and traffic volumes (arrival patterns at the stop-line) that significantly affect red-light running. In this way the prediction capability of the proposed potential conflict model was improved. A degree of consistency in the measured and simulated red-light running was observed and the conceptual framework was tested through a sensitivity analysis applied to different stop-line positions and traffic volume variations. The microsimulation, although at its early stages of development, has shown promise in its ability to model unintentional red light running behaviour and following further work through application to other junctions, potentially provides a tool for evaluation of alternative junction designs on proneness. In brief, this paper proposes and applies a novel approach to model red-light running using a microsimulation and demonstrates consistency with the observed and theoretical results. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes based on the simple structure.

    PubMed

    Seo, Ji Hyun; Lee, Seok Jae; Kim, Bo Young; Choi, Eun Young; Han, Wone Keun; Lee, Kum Hee; Yoon, Seung Soo; Kim, Young Kwan

    2012-05-01

    We demonstrated that the simple layered red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are possible to have high efficiency, low driving voltage, stable roll-off efficiency, and pure emission color without hole injection and transport layers. We fabricated the OLEDs with a structure of ITO/CBP doped with Ir(pq)2(acac)/BPhen/Liq/Al, where the doping concentration of red dopant, Ir(pq)2(acac), was varied from 4% to 20%. As a result, the quantum efficiencies of 13.4, 11.2, 16.7, 10.8 and 9.8% were observed in devices with doping concentrations of 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20%, respectively. Despite of absence of the hole injection and transport layers, these efficiencies are superior to efficiencies of device with hole transporting layer due to direct hole injection from anode to dopant in emission layer.

  1. Employing exciton transfer molecules to increase the lifetime of phosphorescent red organic light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindla, Florian; Boesing, Manuel; van Gemmern, Philipp; Bertram, Dietrich; Keiper, Dietmar; Heuken, Michael; Kalisch, Holger; Jansen, Rolf H.

    2011-04-01

    The lifetime of phosphorescent red organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) is investigated employing either N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis(1-naphthylphenyl)-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (NPB), TMM117, or 4,4',4″-tris(N-carbazolyl)-triphenylamine (TCTA) as hole-conducting host material (mixed with an electron conductor). All OLED (organic vapor phase deposition-processed) show similar efficiencies around 30 lm/W but strongly different lifetimes. Quickly degrading OLED based on TCTA can be stabilized by doping exciton transfer molecules [tris-(phenyl-pyridyl)-Ir (Ir(ppy)3)] to the emission layer. At a current density of 50 mA/cm2 (12 800 cd/m2), a lifetime of 387 h can be achieved. Employing exciton transfer molecules is suggested to prevent the degradation of the red emission layer in phosphorescent white OLED.

  2. Low-fluence Q-switched Nd: YAG 1064-nm laser and intense pulsed light for the treatment of melasma.

    PubMed

    Vachiramon, V; Sirithanabadeekul, P; Sahawatwong, S

    2015-07-01

    Low-fluence Q-switched Nd:YAG 1064 nm laser (LFQS) and intense pulsed light (IPL) have been shown to be effective in the treatment of melasma. LFQS can target deeper pigment, while IPL can target a wide range of cutaneous structures. However, there is limited information on efficacy and side-effects of the combined treatment. To compare the efficacy and safety of combined LFQS and IPL therapy with LFQS monotherapy in the treatment of melasma. Twenty female patients with mixed-type melasma on both cheeks were treated with LFQS on full face for five sessions at 1-week intervals. One side of the face was randomly assigned to receive additional three sessions of IPL treatments at 2-week intervals. Patients were evaluated 12 weeks after the last treatment. Outcome measures include the assessment by colorimeter and calculated as relative lightness index (R*LI), modified Melasma Area and Severity Index (mMASI), patient satisfaction and adverse effects. Eighteen patients completed the study. Both sides of the face showed significant improvement of R*LI and mMASI. A more rapid improvement of R*LI and mMASI was observed on combined side. At the end of treatment, 55% improvement and 37% improvement of R*LI was observed on combined side and monotherapy side respectively. The overall patients' satisfaction was in favour of the combined side. Recurrence occurred on both sides but there was still a significant decrease compared to baseline. No serious side effect was noted. The combination of LFQS and IPL results in faster clearance of melasma and is more effective than LFQS alone for melasma treatment. However, recurrence is still inevitable. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  3. Variation of the external quantum efficiency with temperature and current density in red, blue, and deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jun Hyuk; Lee, Jong Won; Kim, Dong Yeong

    The temperature-dependent external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) were investigated for a 620 nm AlGaInP red light-emitting diodes (LEDs), a 450 nm GaInN blue LED, and a 285 nm AlGaN deep-ultraviolet (DUV) LED. We observed distinct differences in the variation of the EQE with temperature and current density for the three types of LEDs. Whereas the EQE of the AlGaInP red LED increases as temperature decreases below room temperature, the EQEs of GaInN blue and AlGaN DUV LEDs decrease for the same change in temperature in a low-current density regime. The free carrier concentration, as determined from the dopant ionization energy, shows a strong material-system-specificmore » dependence, leading to different degrees of asymmetry in carrier concentration for the three types of LEDs. We attribute the EQE variation of the red, blue, and DUV LEDs to the different degrees of asymmetry in carrier concentration, which can be exacerbated at cryogenic temperatures. As for the EQE variation with temperature in a high-current density regime, the efficiency droop for the AlGaInP red and GaInN blue LEDs becomes more apparent as temperature decreases, due to the deterioration of the asymmetry in carrier concentration. However, the EQE of the AlGaN DUV LED initially decreases, then reaches an EQE minimum point, and then increases again due to the field-ionization of acceptors by the Poole-Frenkel effect. The results elucidate that carrier transport phenomena allow for the understanding of the droop phenomenon across different material systems, temperatures, and current densities.« less

  4. A quantum light-emitting diode for the standard telecom window around 1,550 nm.

    PubMed

    Müller, T; Skiba-Szymanska, J; Krysa, A B; Huwer, J; Felle, M; Anderson, M; Stevenson, R M; Heffernan, J; Ritchie, D A; Shields, A J

    2018-02-28

    Single photons and entangled photon pairs are a key resource of many quantum secure communication and quantum computation protocols, and non-Poissonian sources emitting in the low-loss wavelength region around 1,550 nm are essential for the development of fibre-based quantum network infrastructure. However, reaching this wavelength window has been challenging for semiconductor-based quantum light sources. Here we show that quantum dot devices based on indium phosphide are capable of electrically injected single photon emission in this wavelength region. Using the biexciton cascade mechanism, they also produce entangled photons with a fidelity of 87 ± 4%, sufficient for the application of one-way error correction protocols. The material system further allows for entangled photon generation up to an operating temperature of 93 K. Our quantum photon source can be directly integrated with existing long distance quantum communication and cryptography systems, and provides a promising material platform for developing future quantum network hardware.

  5. SWCNT Photocatalyst for Hydrogen Production from Water upon Photoexcitation of (8, 3) SWCNT at 680-nm Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Noritake; Tango, Yuto; Miyake, Hideaki; Tajima, Tomoyuki; Nishina, Yuta; Kurashige, Wataru; Negishi, Yuichi; Takaguchi, Yutaka

    2017-03-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are potentially strong optical absorbers with tunable absorption bands depending on their chiral indices (n, m). Their application for solar energy conversion is difficult because of the large binding energy (>100 meV) of electron-hole pairs, known as excitons, produced by optical absorption. Recent development of photovoltaic devices based on SWCNTs as light-absorbing components have shown that the creation of heterojunctions by pairing chirality-controlled SWCNTs with C60 is the key for high power conversion efficiency. In contrast to thin film devices, photocatalytic reactions in a dispersion/solution system triggered by the photoexcitation of SWCNTs have never been reported due to the difficulty of the construction of a well-ordered surface on SWCNTs. Here, we show a clear-cut example of a SWCNT photocatalyst producing H2 from water. Self-organization of a fullerodendron on the SWCNT core affords water-dispersible coaxial nanowires possessing SWCNT/C60 heterojunctions, of which a dendron shell can act as support of a co-catalyst for H2 evolution. Because the band offset between the LUMO levels of (8, 3)SWCNT and C60 satisfactorily exceeds the exciton binding energy to allow efficient exciton dissociation, the (8, 3)SWCNT/fullerodendron coaxial photocatalyst shows H2-evolving activity (QY = 0.015) upon 680-nm illumination, which is E22 absorption of (8, 3) SWCNT.

  6. Tanning and Increased Nevus Development in Very-Light-Skinned Children Without Red Hair

    PubMed Central

    Aalborg, Jenny; Morelli, Joseph G.; Mokrohisky, Stefan T.; Asdigian, Nancy L.; Byers, Tim E.; Dellavalle, Robert P.; Box, Neil F.; Crane, Lori A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between tanning and nevus development in very-light-skinned children. Design Prospective cohort nested within a randomized controlled trial. Skin examinations in 3 consecutive years (2004, 2005, and 2006) included full-body counts of nevi, skin color and tanning measurement using colorimetry, and hair and eye color evaluation by comparison with charts. Telephone interviews of parents provided sun exposure, sun protection, and sunburn history. Setting Large managed-care organization and private pediatric offices in the Denver, Colorado, metropolitan area. Participants A total of 131 very-light-skinned white children without red hair and 444 darker-skinned white children without red hair born in Colorado in 1998. Main Outcome Measures Full-body nevus counts at ages 6 to 8 years. Results Among very-light-skinned white children, geometric mean numbers of nevi for minimally tanned children were 14.8 at age 6 years; 18.8 at age 7 years; and 22.3 at age 8 years. Mean numbers of nevi for tanned children were 21.2 at age 6 years; 27.9 at age 7 years; and 31.9 at age 8 years. Differences in nevus counts between untanned and tanned children were statistically significant at all ages (P < .05 for all comparisons). The relationship between tanning and number of nevi was independent of the child’s hair and eye color, parent-reported sun exposure, and skin phototype. Among darker-skinned white children, there was no relationship between tanning and nevi. Conclusions Very-light-skinned children who tan (based on objective measurement) develop more nevi than children who do not tan. These results suggest that light-skinned children who develop tans may be increasing their risk for developing melanoma later in life. PMID:19770437

  7. Type IIP supernova light curves affected by the acceleration of red supergiant winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, Takashi J.; Förster, Francisco; Yoon, Sung-Chul; Gräfener, Götz; Blinnikov, Sergei I.

    2018-05-01

    We introduce the first synthetic light-curve model set of Type IIP supernovae exploded within circumstellar media in which the acceleration of the red supergiant winds is taken into account. Because wind acceleration makes the wind velocities near the progenitors low, the density of the immediate vicinity of the red supergiant supernova progenitors can be higher than that extrapolated by using a constant terminal wind velocity. Therefore, even if the mass-loss rate of the progenitor is relatively low, it can have a dense circumstellar medium at the immediate stellar vicinity and the early light curves of Type IIP supernovae are significantly affected by it. We adopt a simple β velocity law to formulate the wind acceleration. We provide bolometric and multicolour light curves of Type IIP supernovae exploding within such accelerated winds from the combinations of three progenitors, 12-16 M⊙; five β, 1-5; seven mass-loss rates, 10-5-10-2 M⊙ yr-1; and four explosion energies, (0.5-2) × 1051 erg. All the light-curve models are available at https://goo.gl/o5phYb. When the circumstellar density is sufficiently high, our models do not show a classical shock breakout as a consequence of the interaction with the dense and optically thick circumstellar media. Instead, they show a delayed `wind breakout', substantially affecting early light curves of Type IIP supernovae. We find that the mass-loss rates of the progenitors need to be 10-3-10-2 M⊙ yr-1 to explain typical rise times of 5-10 d in Type IIP supernovae assuming a dense circumstellar radius of 1015 cm.

  8. Tanning and increased nevus development in very-light-skinned children without red hair.

    PubMed

    Aalborg, Jenny; Morelli, Joseph G; Mokrohisky, Stefan T; Asdigian, Nancy L; Byers, Tim E; Dellavalle, Robert P; Box, Neil F; Crane, Lori A

    2009-09-01

    To examine the relationship between tanning and nevus development in very-light-skinned children. Prospective cohort nested within a randomized controlled trial. Skin examinations in 3 consecutive years (2004, 2005, and 2006) included full-body counts of nevi, skin color and tanning measurement using colorimetry, and hair and eye color evaluation by comparison with charts. Telephone interviews of parents provided sun exposure, sun protection, and sunburn history. Large managed-care organization and private pediatric offices in the Denver, Colorado, metropolitan area. A total of 131 very-light-skinned white children without red hair and 444 darker-skinned white children without red hair born in Colorado in 1998. Full-body nevus counts at ages 6 to 8 years. Among very-light-skinned white children, geometric mean numbers of nevi for minimally tanned children were 14.8 at age 6 years; 18.8 at age 7 years; and 22.3 at age 8 years. Mean numbers of nevi for tanned children were 21.2 at age 6 years; 27.9 at age 7 years; and 31.9 at age 8 years. Differences in nevus counts between untanned and tanned children were statistically significant at all ages (P < .05 for all comparisons). The relationship between tanning and number of nevi was independent of the child's hair and eye color, parent-reported sun exposure, and skin phototype. Among darker-skinned white children, there was no relationship between tanning and nevi. Very-light-skinned children who tan (based on objective measurement) develop more nevi than children who do not tan. These results suggest that light-skinned children who develop tans may be increasing their risk for developing melanoma later in life.

  9. Microcavity organic light-emitting diodes for strongly directed pure red, green, and blue emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokito, Shizuo; Tsutsui, Tetsuo; Taga, Yasunori

    1999-09-01

    In this article we demonstrate strongly directed pure red, green, and blue emissions in the organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with a planar microcavity defined by a pair of dielectric mirror and a metal mirror. By careful control of the cavity mode and the position of the resonance wavelength, the strong directionality in the forward direction as well as the spectral narrowing and the intensity enhancement are realized in the microcavity OLEDs. The intensity enhancements at the resonance wavelength are 1.5-5 compared to the noncavity OLEDs, and the chromaticity coordinates of the emission colors are the ideal primary colors. The experimental results are compared to theoretically calculated ones.

  10. Visible optical radiation generates bactericidal effect applicable for inactivation of health care associated germs demonstrated by inactivation of E. coli and B. subtilis using 405-nm and 460-nm light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hönes, Katharina; Stangl, Felix; Sift, Michael; Hessling, Martin

    2015-07-01

    The Ulm University of Applied Sciences is investigating a technique using visible optical radiation (405 nm and 460 nm) to inactivate health-hazardous bacteria in water. A conceivable application could be point-of-use disinfection implementations in developing countries for safe drinking water supply. Another possible application field could be to provide sterile water in medical institutions like hospitals or dental surgeries where contaminated pipework or long-term disuse often results in higher germ concentrations. Optical radiation for disinfection is presently mostly used in UV wavelength ranges but the possibility of bacterial inactivation with visible light was so far generally disregarded. One of the advantages of visible light is, that instead of mercury arc lamps, light emitting diodes could be used, which are commercially available and therefore cost-efficient concerning the visible light spectrum. Furthermore they inherit a considerable longer life span than UV-C LEDs and are non-hazardous in contrast to mercury arc lamps. Above all there are specific germs, like Bacillus subtilis, which show an inactivation resistance to UV-C wavelengths. Due to the totally different deactivation mechanism even higher disinfection rates are reached, compared to Escherichia coli as a standard laboratory germ. By 460 nm a reduction of three log-levels appeared with Bacillus subtilis and a half log-level with Escherichia coli both at a dose of about 300 J/cm². By the more efficient wavelength of 405 nm four and a half log-levels are reached with Bacillus subtilis and one and a half log-level with Escherichia coli also both at a dose of about 300 J/cm². In addition the employed optical setup, which delivered a homogeneous illumination and skirts the need of a stirring technique to compensate irregularities, was an important improvement compared to previous published setups. Evaluated by optical simulation in ZEMAX® the designed optical element provided proven

  11. Optimizing LED lighting for space plant growth unit: Joint effects of photon flux density, red to white ratios and intermittent light pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avercheva, O. V.; Berkovich, Yu. A.; Konovalova, I. O.; Radchenko, S. G.; Lapach, S. N.; Bassarskaya, E. M.; Kochetova, G. V.; Zhigalova, T. V.; Yakovleva, O. S.; Tarakanov, I. G.

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work were to choose a quantitative optimality criterion for estimating the quality of plant LED lighting regimes inside space greenhouses and to construct regression models of crop productivity and the optimality criterion depending on the level of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), the proportion of the red component in the light spectrum and the duration of the duty cycle (Chinese cabbage Brassica chinensis L. as an example). The properties of the obtained models were described in the context of predicting crop dry weight and the optimality criterion behavior when varying plant lighting parameters. Results of the fractional 3-factor experiment demonstrated the share of the PPFD level participation in the crop dry weight accumulation was 84.4% at almost any combination of other lighting parameters, but when PPFD value increased up to 500 μmol m-2 s-1 the pulse light and supplemental light from red LEDs could additionally increase crop productivity. Analysis of the optimality criterion response to variation of lighting parameters showed that the maximum coordinates were the following: PPFD = 500 μmol m-2 s-1, about 70%-proportion of the red component of the light spectrum (PPFDLEDred/PPFDLEDwhite = 1.5) and the duty cycle with a period of 501 μs. Thus, LED crop lighting with these parameters was optimal for achieving high crop productivity and for efficient use of energy in the given range of lighting parameter values.

  12. Effect of low-power gallium-aluminum-arsenium noncoherent light (640 nm) on muscle activity: a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Kelencz, Carlos A; Muñoz, Ingrid S S; Amorim, César F; Nicolau, Renata A

    2010-10-01

    Studies have shown the significant effects of electromagnetic irradiation in the visible region, with laser as an irradiation source. However, the effect of LEDs (light-emitting diodes) irradiation in similar wavelengths is not known. The purpose of this clinical study was to verify the effects of the LED (640 nm with 40 nm full bandwidth at half maximum) on muscle activity. The study was done with 30 test subjects, of both genders, aged 23 ± 3 years, with a mean weight of 60 kg, divided into three groups (n = 10). Fatigue was induced through the maximum power of a bite, for 60 s in two overlaid occlusal platforms, coupled to a load cell and to a biologic signal-acquisition device. LED irradiation of the right masseter muscle was applied to all subjects. The left muscle received placebo treatment. Irradiation was applied in eight points on the right masseter muscle (transcutaneous), 1.044 J per point, 2.088 J per point, or 3.132 J per point, 0.116 W, 0.522 cm(2) spot size, 0.816 cm spot Ø, continuous wave, perpendicular to the skin. An increase in muscle activity was observed after irradiation with 1.044 J per point (p < 0.05). A significant increase (p < 0.01) in the time before fatigue was observed in the irradiated muscle with 2.088 J per point, without a change in the force of contraction (p > 0.05). This change was not observed with 1.044 J per point and 3.132 J per point. The results suggest a dose-dependent relation with this kind of noncoherent irradiation in the red region of the electromagnetic spectrum in the muscle-fatigue process. It was concluded that LED can be used as a clinical tool to increase muscle activity (1.044 J per point) and to prevent fatigue (2.088 J per point), without change in the muscle force.

  13. The promoter structure differentiation of a MYB transcription factor RLC1 causes red leaf coloration in Empire Red Leaf Cotton under light.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhenrui; Liu, Chuanliang; Zhang, Yanzhao; Li, Ying; Yi, Keke; Zhao, Xinhua; Cui, Min-Long

    2013-01-01

    The red leaf coloration of Empire Red Leaf Cotton (ERLC) (Gossypium hirsutum L.), resulted from anthocyanin accumulation in light, is a well known dominant agricultural trait. However, the underpin molecular mechanism remains elusive. To explore this, we compared the molecular biological basis of anthocyanin accumulation in both ERLC and the green leaf cotton variety CCRI 24 (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Introduction of R2R3-MYB transcription factor Rosea1, the master regulator anthocyanin biosynthesis in Antirrhinum majus, into CCRI 24 induced anthocyanin accumulation, indicating structural genes for anthocyanin biosynthesis are not defected and the leaf coloration might be caused by variation of regulatory genes expression. Expression analysis found that a transcription factor RLC1 (Red Leaf Cotton 1) which encodes the ortholog of PAP1/Rosea1 was highly expressed in leaves of ERLC but barely expressed in CCRI 24 in light. Ectopic expression of RLC1 from ERLC and CCRI 24 in hairy roots of Antirrhinum majus and CCRI 24 significantly enhanced anthocyanin accumulation. Comparison of RLC1 promoter sequences between ERLC and CCRI 24 revealed two 228-bp tandem repeats presented in ERLC with only one repeat in CCRI 24. Transient assays in cotton leave tissue evidenced that the tandem repeats in ERLC is responsible for light-induced RLC1 expression and therefore anthocyanin accumulation. Taken together, our results in this article strongly support an important step toward understanding the role of R2R3-MYB transcription factors in the regulatory menchanisms of anthocyanin accumulation in red leaf cotton under light.

  14. 207-nm UV light - a promising tool for safe low-cost reduction of surgical site infections. I: in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Buonanno, Manuela; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Bigelow, Alan W; Trivedi, Sheetal; Lowy, Franklin D; Spotnitz, Henry M; Hammer, Scott M; Brenner, David J

    2013-01-01

    0.5% to 10% of clean surgeries result in surgical-site infections, and attempts to reduce this rate have had limited success. Germicidal UV lamps, with a broad wavelength spectrum from 200 to 400 nm are an effective bactericidal option against drug-resistant and drug-sensitive bacteria, but represent a health hazard to patient and staff. By contrast, because of its limited penetration, ~200 nm far-UVC light is predicted to be effective in killing bacteria, but without the human health hazards to skin and eyes associated with conventional germicidal UV exposure. The aim of this work was to test the biophysically-based hypothesis that ~200 nm UV light is significantly cytotoxic to bacteria, but minimally cytotoxic or mutagenic to human cells either isolated or within tissues. A Kr-Br excimer lamp was used, which produces 207-nm UV light, with a filter to remove higher-wavelength components. Comparisons were made with results from a conventional broad spectrum 254-nm UV germicidal lamp. First, cell inactivation vs. UV fluence data were generated for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) bacteria and also for normal human fibroblasts. Second, yields of the main UV-associated pre-mutagenic DNA lesions (cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 6-4 photoproducts) were measured, for both UV radiations incident on 3-D human skin tissue. We found that 207-nm UV light kills MRSA efficiently but, unlike conventional germicidal UV lamps, produces little cell killing in human cells. In a 3-D human skin model, 207-nm UV light produced almost no pre-mutagenic UV-associated DNA lesions, in contrast to significant yields induced by a conventional germicidal UV lamp. As predicted based on biophysical considerations, 207-nm light kills bacteria efficiently but does not appear to be significantly cytotoxic or mutagenic to human cells. Used appropriately, 207-nm light may have the potential for safely and inexpensively reducing surgical-site infection rates, including those of drug

  15. 207-nm UV Light - A Promising Tool for Safe Low-Cost Reduction of Surgical Site Infections. I: In Vitro Studies

    PubMed Central

    Buonanno, Manuela; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Bigelow, Alan W.; Trivedi, Sheetal; Lowy, Franklin D.; Spotnitz, Henry M.; Hammer, Scott M.; Brenner, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Background 0.5% to 10% of clean surgeries result in surgical-site infections, and attempts to reduce this rate have had limited success. Germicidal UV lamps, with a broad wavelength spectrum from 200 to 400 nm are an effective bactericidal option against drug-resistant and drug-sensitive bacteria, but represent a health hazard to patient and staff. By contrast, because of its limited penetration, ∼200 nm far-UVC light is predicted to be effective in killing bacteria, but without the human health hazards to skin and eyes associated with conventional germicidal UV exposure. Aims The aim of this work was to test the biophysically-based hypothesis that ∼200 nm UV light is significantly cytotoxic to bacteria, but minimally cytotoxic or mutagenic to human cells either isolated or within tissues. Methods A Kr-Br excimer lamp was used, which produces 207-nm UV light, with a filter to remove higher-wavelength components. Comparisons were made with results from a conventional broad spectrum 254-nm UV germicidal lamp. First, cell inactivation vs. UV fluence data were generated for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) bacteria and also for normal human fibroblasts. Second, yields of the main UV-associated pre-mutagenic DNA lesions (cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 6-4 photoproducts) were measured, for both UV radiations incident on 3-D human skin tissue. Results We found that 207-nm UV light kills MRSA efficiently but, unlike conventional germicidal UV lamps, produces little cell killing in human cells. In a 3-D human skin model, 207-nm UV light produced almost no pre-mutagenic UV-associated DNA lesions, in contrast to significant yields induced by a conventional germicidal UV lamp. Conclusions As predicted based on biophysical considerations, 207-nm light kills bacteria efficiently but does not appear to be significantly cytotoxic or mutagenic to human cells. Used appropriately, 207-nm light may have the potential for safely and inexpensively reducing surgical

  16. Mature red blood cells: from optical model to inverse light-scattering problem.

    PubMed

    Gilev, Konstantin V; Yurkin, Maxim A; Chernyshova, Ekaterina S; Strokotov, Dmitry I; Chernyshev, Andrei V; Maltsev, Valeri P

    2016-04-01

    We propose a method for characterization of mature red blood cells (RBCs) morphology, based on measurement of light-scattering patterns (LSPs) of individual RBCs with the scanning flow cytometer and on solution of the inverse light-scattering (ILS) problem for each LSP. We considered a RBC shape model, corresponding to the minimal bending energy of the membrane with isotropic elasticity, and constructed an analytical approximation, which allows rapid simulation of the shape, given the diameter and minimal and maximal thicknesses. The ILS problem was solved by the nearest-neighbor interpolation using a preliminary calculated database of 250,000 theoretical LSPs. For each RBC in blood sample we determined three abovementioned shape characteristics and refractive index, which also allows us to calculate volume, surface area, sphericity index, spontaneous curvature, hemoglobin concentration and content.

  17. Mature red blood cells: from optical model to inverse light-scattering problem

    PubMed Central

    Gilev, Konstantin V.; Yurkin, Maxim A.; Chernyshova, Ekaterina S.; Strokotov, Dmitry I.; Chernyshev, Andrei V.; Maltsev, Valeri P.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method for characterization of mature red blood cells (RBCs) morphology, based on measurement of light-scattering patterns (LSPs) of individual RBCs with the scanning flow cytometer and on solution of the inverse light-scattering (ILS) problem for each LSP. We considered a RBC shape model, corresponding to the minimal bending energy of the membrane with isotropic elasticity, and constructed an analytical approximation, which allows rapid simulation of the shape, given the diameter and minimal and maximal thicknesses. The ILS problem was solved by the nearest-neighbor interpolation using a preliminary calculated database of 250,000 theoretical LSPs. For each RBC in blood sample we determined three abovementioned shape characteristics and refractive index, which also allows us to calculate volume, surface area, sphericity index, spontaneous curvature, hemoglobin concentration and content. PMID:27446656

  18. Far-Red Light Activatable, Multifunctional Prodrug for Fluorescence Optical Imaging and Combinational Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We recently developed “photo-unclick chemistry”, a novel chemical tool involving the cleavage of aminoacrylate by singlet oxygen, and demonstrated its application to visible light-activatable prodrugs. In this study, we prepared an advanced multifunctional prodrug, Pc-(L-CA4)2, composed of the fluorescent photosensitizer phthalocyanine (Pc), an SO-labile aminoacrylate linker (L), and a cytotoxic drug combretastatin A-4 (CA4). Pc-(L-CA4)2 had reduced dark toxicity compared with CA4. However, once illuminated, it showed improved toxicity similar to CA4 and displayed bystander effects in vitro. We monitored the time-dependent distribution of Pc-(L-CA4)2 using optical imaging with live mice. We also effectively ablated tumors by the illumination with far-red light to the mice, presumably through the combined effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) and released chemotherapy drug, without any sign of acute systemic toxicity. PMID:24694092

  19. Transfer of chirality from light to a Disperse Red 1 molecular glass surface.

    PubMed

    Mazaheri, Leila; Lebel, Olivier; Nunzi, Jean-Michel

    2017-12-01

    Chiral structures and materials interact with light in well-documented ways, but light can also interact with achiral materials to generate chirality by inscribing its asymmetric configuration on photoresponsive materials, such as azobenzene derivatives. While it is thus possible to generate both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) chirality, 2D chirality is especially attractive because of its non-reciprocity. Herein, 2D chirality is induced on the surface of a glass-forming Disperse Red 1 derivative by irradiation with a single laser beam, yielding crossed spontaneous surface relief gratings with different pitches. Azimuth rotations up to 10° have been observed, and the absence of 3D chirality has been confirmed. This method thus allows generating non-reciprocal planar chiral objects by a simple, single irradiation process on a thin film of a material that can easily be processed over large areas or onto small objects.

  20. PKS1 plays a role in red-light-based positive phototropism in roots.

    PubMed

    Molas, Maria Lia; Kiss, John Z

    2008-06-01

    Aerial parts of plants curve towards the light (i.e. positive phototropism), and roots typically grow away from the light (i.e. negative phototropism). In addition, Arabidopsis roots exhibit positive phototropism relative to red light (RL), and this response is mediated by phytochromes A and B (phyA and phyB). Upon light stimulation, phyA and phyB interact with the phytochrome kinase substrate (PKS1) in the cytoplasm. In this study, we investigated the role of PKS1, along with phyA and phyB, in the positive phototropic responses to RL in roots. Using a high-resolution feedback system, we studied the phenotypic responses of roots of phyA, phyB, pks1, phyA pks1 and phyB pks1 null mutants as well as the PKS1-overexpressing line in response to RL. PKS1 emerged as an intermediary in the signalling pathways and appears to promote a negative curvature to RL in roots. In addition, phyA and phyB were both essential for a positive response to RL and act in a complementary fashion. However, either photoreceptor acting without the other results in negative curvature in response to red illumination so that the mode of action differs depending on whether phyA and phyB act independently or together. Our results suggest that PKS1 is part of a signalling pathway independent of phyA and phyB and that PKS1 modulates RL-based root phototropism.

  1. A New Proof of Concept in Bacterial Reduction: Antimicrobial Action of Violet-Blue Light (405 nm) in Ex Vivo Stored Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Maclean, Michelle; Anderson, John G.; MacGregor, Scott J.; White, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial contamination of injectable stored biological fluids such as blood plasma and platelet concentrates preserved in plasma at room temperature is a major health risk. Current pathogen reduction technologies (PRT) rely on the use of chemicals and/or ultraviolet light, which affects product quality and can be associated with adverse events in recipients. 405 nm violet-blue light is antibacterial without the use of photosensitizers and can be applied at levels safe for human exposure, making it of potential interest for decontamination of biological fluids such as plasma. As a pilot study to test whether 405 nm light is capable of inactivating bacteria in biological fluids, rabbit plasma and human plasma were seeded with bacteria and treated with a 405 nm light emitting diode (LED) exposure system (patent pending). Inactivation was achieved in all tested samples, ranging from low volumes to prebagged plasma. 99.9% reduction of low density bacterial populations (≤103 CFU mL−1), selected to represent typical “natural” contamination levels, was achieved using doses of 144 Jcm−2. The penetrability of 405 nm light, permitting decontamination of prebagged plasma, and the nonrequirement for photosensitizing agents provide a new proof of concept in bacterial reduction in biological fluids, especially injectable fluids relevant to transfusion medicine. PMID:27774337

  2. Highly Efficient Solution-Processed Deep-Red Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Based on an Exciplex Host Composed of a Hole Transporter and a Bipolar Host.

    PubMed

    Huang, Manli; Jiang, Bei; Xie, Guohua; Yang, Chuluo

    2017-10-19

    With the aim to achieve highly efficient deep-red emission, we introduced an exciplex forming cohost, 4,4',4″-tris(3-methylphenylphenylamino)triphenylamine (m-MTDATA): 2,5-bis(2-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)phenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (o-CzOXD) (1:1). Due to the efficient triplet up-conversion processes upon the exciplex forming cohost, excellent performances of the devices were achieved with deep-red emission. Using the heteroleptic iridium complexes as the guest dopants, the solution-processed deep-red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs) with the iridium(III) bis(6-(4-(tert-butyl)phenyl)phenanthridine)acetylacetonate [(TP-BQ) 2 Ir(acac)]-based phosphorescent emitter exhibited an electroluminescent peak at 656 nm and a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 11.9%, which is 6.6 times that of the device based on the guest emitter doped in the polymer-based cohost. The unique exciplex with a typical hole transporter and a bipolar material is ideal and universal for hosting the red PhOLEDs and tremendously improves the device performances.

  3. Skin photorejuvenation effects of light-emitting diodes (LEDs): a comparative study of yellow and red LEDs in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kim, S K; You, H R; Kim, S H; Yun, S J; Lee, S C; Lee, J B

    2016-10-01

    Red-coloured light-emitting diodes (LEDs) can improve skin photorejuvenation and regeneration by increasing cellular metabolic activity. To evaluate the effectiveness of visible LEDs with specific wavelengths for skin photorejuvenation in vitro and in vivo. Normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) from neonatal foreskin were cultured and irradiated in vitro by LEDs at different wavelengths (410-850 nm) and doses (0-10 J/cm(2) ). In vivo experiments were performed on the skin of hairless mice. Expression of collagen (COL) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) was evaluated by semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR (semi-qRT-PCR), western blotting and a procollagen type I C-peptide enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Haematoxylin and eosin and Masson trichrome stains were performed to evaluate histological changes. In HDFs, COL I was upregulated and MMP-1 was downregulated in response to LED irradiation at 595 ± 2 and 630 ± 8 nm. In the EIA, a peak result was achieved at a dose of 5 J/cm(2) with LED at 595 ± 2 nm. In vivo, COL I synthesis was upregulated in a dose-dependent manner to both 595 and 630 nm LED irradiation, and this effect was prolonged to 21 days after a single irradiation with a dose of 100 J/cm(2) . These histological changes were consistent with the results of semi-qRT-PCR and western blots. Specific LED treatment with 595 ± 2 and 630 ± 8 nm irradiation was able to modulate COL and MMPs in skin, with the effects persisting for at least 21 days after irradiation. These findings suggest that yellow and red LEDs might be useful tools for skin photorejuvenation. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  4. A Possible Phenomenon of Persistence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Treated with Methylene Blue and Red Light.

    PubMed

    Forte Giacobone, Ana Florencia; Ruiz Gale, Maria Fernanda; Hogert, Elsa Noemí; Oppezzo, Oscar Juan

    2016-09-01

    Planktonic Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells harvested in stationary phase were exposed to red light in the presence of methylene blue to study the potential occurrence of persistence in bacterial populations submitted to photodynamic antimicrobial therapy. Survival curves revealed the existence of small subpopulations of cells exhibiting increased ability to tolerate the treatment. These subpopulations were detected even using high concentrations of photosensitizer, whether added in a single step or following a fractionated scheme, and when the irradiation medium was modified to delay the photodecomposition of methylene blue. When cells grown from survivors to the treatment were cultured and exposed to red light and dye, their responses were similar to that of the original strain. These results exclude exhaustion of the photosensitizer and selection of resistant mutants as explanations for the features of the survival curves. Cells able to tolerate the treatment were found even when radiation was imparted at a high-dose rate. They exhibit a response typical of persisters, which tolerate antimicrobial agents due to transient and reversible changes in their phenotype, suggesting that persistence is a factor to consider upon evaluating the efficacy of photodynamic antimicrobial therapy. © 2016 The American Society of Photobiology.

  5. To brake or to accelerate? Safety effects of combined speed and red light cameras.

    PubMed

    De Pauw, Ellen; Daniels, Stijn; Brijs, Tom; Hermans, Elke; Wets, Geert

    2014-09-01

    The present study evaluates the traffic safety effect of combined speed and red light cameras at 253 signalized intersections in Flanders, Belgium that were installed between 2002 and 2007. The adopted approach is a before-and-after study with control for the trend. The analyses showed a non-significant increase of 5% in the number of injury crashes. An almost significant decrease of 14% was found for the more severe crashes. The number of rear-end crashes turned out to have increased significantly (+44%), whereas a non-significant decrease (-6%) was found in the number of side crashes. The decrease for the severe crashes was mainly attributable to the effect on side crashes, for which a significant decrease of 24% was found. It is concluded that combined speed and red light cameras have a favorable effect on traffic safety, in particular on severe crashes. However, future research should examine the circumstances of rear-end crashes and how this increase can be managed. Copyright © 2014 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of nonthermal blue (405- to 420-nm) and near-infrared light (850- to 900-nm) dual-wavelength system in combination with glycolic acid peels and topical vitamin C for skin photorejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Nathalie; Fritz, Klaus; Mordon, Serge

    2006-09-01

    A major cause of skin aging is a chronic microinflammation created by environmental conditions and ultraviolet exposures. The hand-free application on the skin of a new intense light combining a narrowband blue-light (405- to 420-nm) antiinflammatory emission and a near-infrared (850- to 890-nm) emission inducing self-defense mechanisms provides a new component to photorejuvenation and antiaging treatment protocols. An innovative skin rejuvenation schedule is presented in this study. It includes skin exposure to the light, with concomitant glycolic peels and daily vitamin C cream regimen for group A and only topical vitamin C cream and glycolic peels for control group B. Results show a significant improvement on pore size, rhytids, and radiance in group A. Conversely no improvement is noticed in group B except for a brief increase of skin radiance. Mechanisms of action of that specific light source are discussed. The exposure to this device can clinically enhance conventional antiaging protocols in skin rejuvenation.

  7. Astrobiological implications of dim light phototrophy in deep-sea red clays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Anindita; Singh, Tanya; LokaBharathi, P. A.; Dhakephalkar, Prashant K.; Mallik, Sweta; Kshirsagar, Pranav R.; Khadge, N. H.; Nath, B. Nagender; Bhattacharya, Satadru; Dagar, Aditya Kumar; Kaur, Prabhjot; Ray, Dwijesh; Shukla, Anil D.; Fernandes, Christabelle E. G.; Fernandes, Sheryl O.; Thomas, Tresa Remya A.; Mamatha, S. S.; Mourya, Babu Shashikant; Meena, Ram Murti

    2017-02-01

    Red clays of Central Indian Basin (CIB) under influence of trace of Rodriguez Triple Junction exhibited chemoautotrophy, low temperature hydrothermal alterations and photoautotrophic potential. Seamount flank TVBC-08, hosting such signatures revealed dominance of aerobic anoxygenic phototroph Erythrobacter, with 93% of total 454 pyrosequencing tags. Subsequently, enrichments for both aerobic (Erythrobacter) and anaerobic anoxygenic phototrophs (green and purple sulphur bacteria) under red and white LED light illumination, with average irradiance 30.66 W m-2, were attempted for three red-clay sediment cores. Successful enrichments were obtained after incubation for c.a. 120 days at 4°± 2 °C and 25°± 2 °C, representing ambient psychrophilic and low temperature hydrothermal alteration conditions respectively. During hydrothermal cooling, a microbial succession from anaerobic chemolithotrophy to oxygenic photoautotrophy through anaerobic/aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic microbes is indicated. Spectral absorbance patterns of the methanol extracted cell pellets showed peaks corresponding to metal sulphide precipitations, the Soret band of chlorosome absorbance by photosystem II and absence of peaks at Qy transition band. Dendritic nano-structures of metal sulphides are common in these sediments and are comparable with other sulphidic paleo-marine Martian analogues. Significant blue and redshifts have been observed for the experimental samples relative to the un-inoculated medium. These observations indicate the propensity of metal-sulphide deposits contributing to chemiluminiscence supporting the growth of phototrophs at least partially, in the otherwise dark abyss. The effects of other geothermal heat and light sources are also under further consideration. The potential of phototrophic microbial cells to exhibit Doppler shift in absorbance patterns is significant towards understanding planetary microbial habitability. Planetary desiccation could considerably

  8. Astrobiological implications of dim light phototrophy in deep-sea red clays.

    PubMed

    Das, Anindita; Singh, Tanya; LokaBharathi, P A; Dhakephalkar, Prashant K; Mallik, Sweta; Kshirsagar, Pranav R; Khadge, N H; Nath, B Nagender; Bhattacharya, Satadru; Dagar, Aditya Kumar; Kaur, Prabhjot; Ray, Dwijesh; Shukla, Anil D; Fernandes, Christabelle E G; Fernandes, Sheryl O; Thomas, Tresa Remya A; S S, Mamatha; Mourya, Babu Shashikant; Meena, Ram Murti

    2017-02-01

    Red clays of Central Indian Basin (CIB) under influence of trace of Rodriguez Triple Junction exhibited chemoautotrophy, low temperature hydrothermal alterations and photoautotrophic potential. Seamount flank TVBC-08, hosting such signatures revealed dominance of aerobic anoxygenic phototroph Erythrobacter, with 93% of total 454 pyrosequencing tags. Subsequently, enrichments for both aerobic (Erythrobacter) and anaerobic anoxygenic phototrophs (green and purple sulphur bacteria) under red and white LED light illumination, with average irradiance 30.66Wm -2 , were attempted for three red-clay sediment cores. Successful enrichments were obtained after incubation for c.a. 120 days at 4°± 2°C and 25°± 2°C, representing ambient psychrophilic and low temperature hydrothermal alteration conditions respectively. During hydrothermal cooling, a microbial succession from anaerobic chemolithotrophy to oxygenic photoautotrophy through anaerobic/aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic microbes is indicated. Spectral absorbance patterns of the methanol extracted cell pellets showed peaks corresponding to metal sulphide precipitations, the Soret band of chlorosome absorbance by photosystem II and absence of peaks at Qy transition band. Dendritic nano-structures of metal sulphides are common in these sediments and are comparable with other sulphidic paleo-marine Martian analogues. Significant blue and redshifts have been observed for the experimental samples relative to the un-inoculated medium. These observations indicate the propensity of metal-sulphide deposits contributing to chemiluminiscence supporting the growth of phototrophs at least partially, in the otherwise dark abyss. The effects of other geothermal heat and light sources are also under further consideration. The potential of phototrophic microbial cells to exhibit Doppler shift in absorbance patterns is significant towards understanding planetary microbial habitability. Planetary desiccation could considerably

  9. UV light induced red emission in Eu3+-doped zincborophosphate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hima Bindu, S.; Siva Raju, D.; Vinay Krishna, V.; Rajavardhana Rao, T.; Veerabrahmam, K.; Linga Raju, Ch.

    2016-12-01

    This paper reports the preparation of transparent zincborophosphate (ZBP) glasses doped with Eu3+ ions by the conventional melt quenching technique. The prepared glasses were characterized using powder XRD, FTIR, optical absorption, photoluminescence and decay curves. Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters calculated under various constraints using absorption and emission spectra. These JO intensity parameters have been used to predict the radiative properties such as radiative life time, branching ratios and stimulated emission cross section of the 5D0→7FJ (J = 0-4) transitions. Decay curves for the 5D0 level of Eu3+ ions shows single exponential for all concentrations. Luminescence properties of 5D0→7F2 transitions of Eu3+ions have revealed that the present ZBP:Eu3+ glasses have significant in optical applications at around 613 nm. An intense red luminescence has been observed due to 5D0→7F2 transition of Eu3+ ion in these glasses. From the CIE color coordinate diagram, it is observed that the present glass system is prominent material for red emission.

  10. Red light emission from europium doped zinc sodium bismuth borate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegde, Vinod; Viswanath, C. S. Dwaraka; Upadhyaya, Vyasa; Mahato, K. K.; Kamath, Sudha D.

    2017-12-01

    Zinc sodium bismuth borate (ZNBB) glasses doped with different concentrations of europium were prepared by conventional melt quenching method and characterized through the measurements of density, refractive index, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra, optical absorption, luminescence and radiative lifetimes. FTIR spectra showed seven characteristic peaks of bismuth and borate functional groups in the range of 400-1600 cm-1. The optical band gap and bonding parameters have been calculated from absorption spectra. Photoluminescence spectra recorded in the visible region with 394 nm excitation are used to calculate the Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters (Ω2 and Ω4). The JO intensity parameters have been used to calculate the radiative parameters such as branching ratio (β), stimulated emission cross-section (σse), transition probability (A) for the fluorescent level of 5D0→7F2. Decay rates through single exponential are used to calculate the lifetime (τm) of the meta-stable state 5D0 of (Eu3+ ion) these glasses. The radiative parameters measured for all these glasses show 0.7 mol% europium doped zinc sodium bismuth borate glass 5D0→7F2 transition has the potential for red laser applications. The quality of the colour emitted by the present glasses are estimated quantitatively by CIE chromaticity coordinates, which confirms the suitability of these glasses as a red emitting material for field emission technologies and LEDs.

  11. Near infrared light induces post-translational modifications of human red blood cell proteins.

    PubMed

    Walski, Tomasz; Dyrda, Agnieszka; Dzik, Małgorzata; Chludzińska, Ludmiła; Tomków, Tomasz; Mehl, Joanna; Detyna, Jerzy; Gałecka, Katarzyna; Witkiewicz, Wojciech; Komorowska, Małgorzata

    2015-11-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that near infrared (NIR) light exerts beneficial effects on cells. Its usefulness in the treatment of cancer, acute brain injuries, strokes and neurodegenerative disorders has been proposed. The mechanism of the NIR action is probably of photochemical nature, however it is not fully understood. Here, using a relatively simple biological model, human red blood cells (RBCs), and a polychromatic non-polarized light source, we investigate the impact of NIR radiation on the oxygen carrier, hemoglobin (Hb), and anion exchanger (AE1, Band 3). The exposure of intact RBCs to NIR light causes quaternary transitions in Hb, dehydration of proteins and decreases the amount of physiologically inactive methemoglobin, as detected by Raman spectroscopy. These effects are accompanied by a lowering of the intracellular pH (pHi) and changes in the cell membrane topography, as documented by atomic force microscopy (AFM). All those changes are in line with our previous studies where alterations of the membrane fluidity and membrane potential were attributed to NIR action on RBCs. The rate of the above listed changes depends strictly on the dose of NIR light that the cells receive, nonetheless it should not be considered as a thermal effect.

  12. The combined effects of real or simulated microgravity and red-light photoactivation on plant root meristematic cells.

    PubMed

    Valbuena, Miguel A; Manzano, Aránzazu; Vandenbrink, Joshua P; Pereda-Loth, Veronica; Carnero-Diaz, Eugénie; Edelmann, Richard E; Kiss, John Z; Herranz, Raúl; Medina, F Javier

    2018-06-08

    Red light is able to compensate for deleterious effects of microgravity on root cell growth and proliferation. Partial gravity combined with red light produces differential signals during the early plant development. Light and gravity are environmental cues used by plants throughout evolution to guide their development. We have investigated the cross-talk between phototropism and gravitropism under altered gravity in space. The focus was on the effects on the meristematic balance between cell growth and proliferation, which is disrupted under microgravity in the dark. In our spaceflight experiments, seedlings of three Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes, namely the wild type and mutants of phytochrome A and B, were grown for 6 days, including red-light photoactivation for the last 2 days. Apart from the microgravity and the 1g on-board control conditions, fractional gravity (nominally 0.1g, 0.3g, and 0.5g) was created with on-board centrifuges. In addition, a simulated microgravity (random positioning machine, RPM) experiment was performed on ground, including both dark-grown and photostimulated samples. Photoactivated samples in spaceflight and RPM experiments showed an increase in the root length consistent with phototropic response to red light, but, as gravity increased, a gradual decrease in this response was observed. Uncoupling of cell growth and proliferation was detected under microgravity in darkness by transcriptomic and microscopic methods, but red-light photoactivation produced a significant reversion. In contrast, the combination of red light and partial gravity produced small but consistent variations in the molecular markers of cell growth and proliferation, suggesting an antagonistic effect between light and gravity signals at the early plant development. Understanding these parameters of plant growth and development in microgravity will be important as bioregenerative life support systems for the colonization of the Moon and Mars.

  13. Red:far-red light conditions affect the emission of volatile organic compounds from barley (Hordeum vulgare), leading to altered biomass allocation in neighbouring plants

    PubMed Central

    Kegge, Wouter; Ninkovic, Velemir; Glinwood, Robert; Welschen, Rob A. M.; Voesenek, Laurentius A. C. J.; Pierik, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play various roles in plant–plant interactions, and constitutively produced VOCs might act as a cue to sense neighbouring plants. Previous studies have shown that VOCs emitted from the barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar ‘Alva’ cause changes in biomass allocation in plants of the cultivar ‘Kara’. Other studies have shown that shading and the low red:far-red (R:FR) conditions that prevail at high plant densities can reduce the quantity and alter the composition of the VOCs emitted by Arabidopsis thaliana, but whether this affects plant–plant signalling remains unknown. This study therefore examines the effects of far-red light enrichment on VOC emissions and plant–plant signalling between ‘Alva’ and ‘Kara’. Methods The proximity of neighbouring plants was mimicked by supplemental far-red light treatment of VOC emitter plants of barley grown in growth chambers. Volatiles emitted by ‘Alva’ under control and far-red light-enriched conditions were analysed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). ‘Kara’ plants were exposed to the VOC blend emitted by the ‘Alva’ plants that were subjected to either of the light treatments. Dry matter partitioning, leaf area, stem and total root length were determined for ‘Kara’ plants exposed to ‘Alva’ VOCs, and also for ‘Alva’ plants exposed to either control or far-red-enriched light treatments. Key Results Total VOC emissions by ‘Alva’ were reduced under low R:FR conditions compared with control light conditions, although individual volatile compounds were found to be either suppressed, induced or not affected by R:FR. The altered composition of the VOC blend emitted by ‘Alva’ plants exposed to low R:FR was found to affect carbon allocation in receiver plants of ‘Kara’. Conclusions The results indicate that changes in R:FR light conditions influence the emissions of VOCs in barley, and that these altered emissions

  14. Red:far-red light conditions affect the emission of volatile organic compounds from barley (Hordeum vulgare), leading to altered biomass allocation in neighbouring plants.

    PubMed

    Kegge, Wouter; Ninkovic, Velemir; Glinwood, Robert; Welschen, Rob A M; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Pierik, Ronald

    2015-05-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play various roles in plant-plant interactions, and constitutively produced VOCs might act as a cue to sense neighbouring plants. Previous studies have shown that VOCs emitted from the barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar 'Alva' cause changes in biomass allocation in plants of the cultivar 'Kara'. Other studies have shown that shading and the low red:far-red (R:FR) conditions that prevail at high plant densities can reduce the quantity and alter the composition of the VOCs emitted by Arabidopsis thaliana, but whether this affects plant-plant signalling remains unknown. This study therefore examines the effects of far-red light enrichment on VOC emissions and plant-plant signalling between 'Alva' and 'Kara'. The proximity of neighbouring plants was mimicked by supplemental far-red light treatment of VOC emitter plants of barley grown in growth chambers. Volatiles emitted by 'Alva' under control and far-red light-enriched conditions were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 'Kara' plants were exposed to the VOC blend emitted by the 'Alva' plants that were subjected to either of the light treatments. Dry matter partitioning, leaf area, stem and total root length were determined for 'Kara' plants exposed to 'Alva' VOCs, and also for 'Alva' plants exposed to either control or far-red-enriched light treatments. Total VOC emissions by 'Alva' were reduced under low R:FR conditions compared with control light conditions, although individual volatile compounds were found to be either suppressed, induced or not affected by R:FR. The altered composition of the VOC blend emitted by 'Alva' plants exposed to low R:FR was found to affect carbon allocation in receiver plants of 'Kara'. The results indicate that changes in R:FR light conditions influence the emissions of VOCs in barley, and that these altered emissions affect VOC-mediated plant-plant interactions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on

  15. Red light and carbon dioxide differentially affect growth, lipid production, and quality in the microalga, Ettlia oleoabundans.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying; Weathers, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Ettlia oleoabundans, a freshwater unicellular green microalga, was grown under different light qualities ± carbon dioxide-enriched air to determine the combined effects on growth and lipid production of this oleaginous species. Keeping total light intensity constant, when a portion of the cool white was replaced by red, volumetric lipid yield increased 2.8-fold mainly due to the greater yield of oleic acid, a desirable biodiesel precursor. Only 30 min of red light treatment was sufficient to increase lipid yield and quality to the same level as cultures provided red light for >14 days, indicating the potential role of red light in stimulating lipid production of this species. Carbon dioxide enrichment via air sparging enhanced exponential growth, carbon conversion efficiency, and nutrient consumption. Together, these results showed that light quality plays an important role in microalgal lipid production. Adjustment in light quality and gas delivery efficiency with carbon dioxide enrichment improved lipid yield and quality in this and possibly other oleaginous algal species.

  16. Quantity over quality: light intensity, but not red/far-red ratio, affects extrafloral nectar production in Senna mexicana var. chapmanii.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ian M; Koptur, Suzanne

    2015-09-01

    Extrafloral nectar (EFN) mediates food-for-protection mutualisms between plants and insects and provides plants with a form of indirect defense against herbivory. Understanding sources of variation in EFN production is important because such variations affect the number and identity of insect visitors and the effectiveness of plant defense. Light represents a potentially crucial tool for regulating resource allocation to defense, as it not only contributes energy but may help plants to anticipate future conditions. Low red/far-red (R/FR) light ratios can act as a signal of the proximity of competing plants. Exposure to such light ratios has been shown to promote competitive behaviors that coincide with reduced resource allocation to direct chemical defenses. Little is known, however, about how such informational light signals might affect indirect defenses such as EFN, and the interactions that they mediate. Through controlled glasshouse experiments, we investigated the effects of light intensity, and R/FR light ratios, on EFN production in Senna mexicana var. chapmanii. Plants in light-limited conditions produced significantly less EFN, and leaf damage elicited increased EFN production regardless of light conditions. Ratios of R/FR light, however, did not appear to affect EFN production in either damaged or undamaged plants. Understanding the effects of light on indirect defenses is of particular importance for plants in the threatened pine rockland habitats of south Florida, where light conditions are changing in predictable ways following extensive fragmentation and subsequent mismanagement. Around 27% of species in these habitats produce EFN and may rely on insect communities for defense.

  17. High power diode lasers emitting from 639 nm to 690 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, L.; Grimshaw, M.; DeVito, M.; Kanskar, M.; Dong, W.; Guan, X.; Zhang, S.; Patterson, J.; Dickerson, P.; Kennedy, K.; Li, S.; Haden, J.; Martinsen, R.

    2014-03-01

    There is increasing market demand for high power reliable red lasers for display and cinema applications. Due to the fundamental material system limit at this wavelength range, red diode lasers have lower efficiency and are more temperature sensitive, compared to 790-980 nm diode lasers. In terms of reliability, red lasers are also more sensitive to catastrophic optical mirror damage (COMD) due to the higher photon energy. Thus developing higher power-reliable red lasers is very challenging. This paper will present nLIGHT's released red products from 639 nm to 690nm, with established high performance and long-term reliability. These single emitter diode lasers can work as stand-alone singleemitter units or efficiently integrate into our compact, passively-cooled Pearl™ fiber-coupled module architectures for higher output power and improved reliability. In order to further improve power and reliability, new chip optimizations have been focused on improving epitaxial design/growth, chip configuration/processing and optical facet passivation. Initial optimization has demonstrated promising results for 639 nm diode lasers to be reliably rated at 1.5 W and 690nm diode lasers to be reliably rated at 4.0 W. Accelerated life-test has started and further design optimization are underway.

  18. Design and fabrication of adjustable red-green-blue LED light arrays for plant research

    PubMed Central

    Folta, Kevin M; Koss, Lawrence L; McMorrow, Ryan; Kim, Hyeon-Hye; Kenitz, J Dustin; Wheeler, Raymond; Sager, John C

    2005-01-01

    Background Although specific light attributes, such as color and fluence rate, influence plant growth and development, researchers generally cannot control the fine spectral conditions of artificial plant-growth environments. Plant growth chambers are typically outfitted with fluorescent and/or incandescent fixtures that provide a general spectrum that is accommodating to the human eye and not necessarily supportive to plant development. Many studies over the last several decades, primarily in Arabidopsis thaliana, have clearly shown that variation in light quantity, quality and photoperiod can be manipulated to affect growth and control developmental transitions. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) has been used for decades to test plant responses to narrow-bandwidth light. LEDs are particularly well suited for plant growth chambers, as they have an extraordinary life (about 100,000 hours), require little maintenance, and use negligible energy. These factors render LED-based light strategies particularly appropriate for space-biology as well as terrestrial applications. However, there is a need for a versatile and inexpensive LED array platform where individual wavebands can be specifically tuned to produce a series of light combinations consisting of various quantities and qualities of individual wavelengths. Two plans are presented in this report. Results In this technical report we describe the practical construction of tunable red-green-blue LED arrays to support research in plant growth and development. Two light fixture designs and corresponding circuitry are presented. The first is well suited for a laboratory environment for use in a finite area with small plants, such as Arabidopsis. The second is expandable and appropriate for growth chambers. The application of these arrays to early plant developmental studies has been validated with assays of hypocotyl growth inhibition/promotion and phototropic curvature in Arabidopsis seedlings. Conclusion The presentation

  19. A novel red phosphor Ca{sub 12}Al{sub 14}O{sub 32}Cl{sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+} for near UV white light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhigang; Zhao, Zhengyan; Shi, Yurong

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Novel red phosphor Ca{sub 12}Al{sub 14}O{sub 32}Cl{sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+} was prepared by solid-state reaction. • Excitation spectra suggested an obvious absorption in near-ultraviolet region. • Under 392 nm excitation, the phosphors exhibited a red emission at 614 nm. • Ca{sub 12}Al{sub 14}O{sub 32}Cl{sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+} could be potentially applied in near UV white LEDs. - Abstract: A novel red phosphor Ca{sub 12}Al{sub 14}O{sub 32}Cl{sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+} was synthesized using a solid-state reaction method, and its luminescence characteristics and charge compensators effect (Li{sup +}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}) were investigated. The excitation spectra showed a obviousmore » absorption in near-ultraviolet region. Under 392 nm excitation, the phosphors exhibited an intense red emission at 614 nm. The Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates and quantum efficiency (QE) were (0.65, 0.35) and 62.3%, respectively. The good color saturation, high quantum efficiency and small thermal-quenching properties indicate that Ca{sub 12}Al{sub 14}O{sub 32}Cl{sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+} could be potentially applied in near UV white light-emitting diodes.« less

  20. Evaluation of countermeasures for red light running by traffic simulator-based surrogate safety measures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Changju; So, Jaehyun Jason; Ma, Jiaqi

    2018-01-02

    The conflicts among motorists entering a signalized intersection with the red light indication have become a national safety issue. Because of its sensitivity, efforts have been made to investigate the possible causes and effectiveness of countermeasures using comparison sites and/or before-and-after studies. Nevertheless, these approaches are ineffective when comparison sites cannot be found, or crash data sets are not readily available or not reliable for statistical analysis. Considering the random nature of red light running (RLR) crashes, an inventive approach regardless of data availability is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of each countermeasure face to face. The aims of this research are to (1) review erstwhile literature related to red light running and traffic safety models; (2) propose a practical methodology for evaluation of RLR countermeasures with a microscopic traffic simulation model and surrogate safety assessment model (SSAM); (3) apply the proposed methodology to actual signalized intersection in Virginia, with the most prevalent scenarios-increasing the yellow signal interval duration, installing an advance warning sign, and an RLR camera; and (4) analyze the relative effectiveness by RLR frequency and the number of conflicts (rear-end and crossing). All scenarios show a reduction in RLR frequency (-7.8, -45.5, and -52.4%, respectively), but only increasing the yellow signal interval duration results in a reduced total number of conflicts (-11.3%; a surrogate safety measure of possible RLR-related crashes). An RLR camera makes the greatest reduction (-60.9%) in crossing conflicts (a surrogate safety measure of possible angle crashes), whereas increasing the yellow signal interval duration results in only a 12.8% reduction of rear-end conflicts (a surrogate safety measure of possible rear-end crash). Although increasing the yellow signal interval duration is advantageous because this reduces the total conflicts (a possibility of total

  1. Red-light running violation prediction using observational and simulator data.

    PubMed

    Jahangiri, Arash; Rakha, Hesham; Dingus, Thomas A

    2016-11-01

    In the United States, 683 people were killed and an estimated 133,000 were injured in crashes due to running red lights in 2012. To help prevent/mitigate crashes caused by running red lights, these violations need to be identified before they occur, so both the road users (i.e., drivers, pedestrians, etc.) in potential danger and the infrastructure can be notified and actions can be taken accordingly. Two different data sets were used to assess the feasibility of developing red-light running (RLR) violation prediction models: (1) observational data and (2) driver simulator data. Both data sets included common factors, such as time to intersection (TTI), distance to intersection (DTI), and velocity at the onset of the yellow indication. However, the observational data set provided additional factors that the simulator data set did not, and vice versa. The observational data included vehicle information (e.g., speed, acceleration, etc.) for several different time frames. For each vehicle approaching an intersection in the observational data set, required data were extracted from several time frames as the vehicle drew closer to the intersection. However, since the observational data were inherently anonymous, driver factors such as age and gender were unavailable in the observational data set. Conversely, the simulator data set contained age and gender. In addition, the simulator data included a secondary (non-driving) task factor and a treatment factor (i.e., incoming/outgoing calls while driving). The simulator data only included vehicle information for certain time frames (e.g., yellow onset); the data did not provide vehicle information for several different time frames while vehicles were approaching an intersection. In this study, the random forest (RF) machine-learning technique was adopted to develop RLR violation prediction models. Factor importance was obtained for different models and different data sets to show how differently the factors influence the

  2. Confinement of holes and electrons in blue organic light-emitting diodes with additional red emissive layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jin Sung; Yoo, Seung Il; Kim, Jin Wook; Yoon, Geum Jae; Yi, Seungjun; Kim, Woo Young

    2016-02-01

    We used various emissive layer (EML) structures with ultrathin red EMLs to enhance the charge carrier balance and carrier recombination rate in blue PHOLED devices. These EML materials have different energy gaps between highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy levels. The ultrathin red EMLs, which were inserted in between the blue EMLs, effectively confined the charge carriers in EML, and increased the carrier recombination rate. The thickness of the individual EML was optimized, under 30 nm of the total thickness of EML. The blue PHOLEDs with ultrathin red EMLs achieved a luminous efficiency of 19.24 cd/A, which was 28.7% higher than those without ultrathin red EMLs, and the maximum external quantum efficiency was 11.81% at 500 cd/m2.

  3. Arabidopsis thaliana FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYLS3 (FHY3) and FAR-RED-IMPAIRED RESPONSE1 (FAR1) modulate starch synthesis in response to light and sugar.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lin; Xue, Na; Fu, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Haisen; Li, Gang

    2017-03-01

    In living organisms, daily light/dark cycles profoundly affect cellular processes. In plants, optimal growth and development, and adaptation to daily light-dark cycles, require starch synthesis and turnover. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms coordinating daily starch metabolism remain poorly understood. To explore the roles of Arabidopsis thaliana light signal transduction proteins FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYLS3 (FHY3) and FAR-RED-IMPAIRED RESPONSE1 (FAR1) in starch metabolism, the contents of starch and water-soluble polysaccharides, and the structure of starch granules were investigated in fhy3, far1 and fhy3 far1 mutant plants. Disruption of FHY3 or FAR1 reduced starch accumulation and altered starch granule structure in the fhy3-4, far1-2, and fhy3-4 far1-2 mutant plants. Furthermore, molecular and genetic evidence revealed that the gene encoding the starch-debranching enzyme ISOAMYLASE2 (ISA2) is a direct target of FHY3 and FAR1, and functions in light-induced starch synthesis. Our data establish the first molecular link between light signal transduction and starch synthesis, suggesting that the light-signaling proteins FHY3 and FAR1 influence starch synthesis and starch granule formation through transcriptional activation of ISA2. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. The effect of noncoherent red light irradiation on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Peng, Fei; Wu, Hua; Zheng, Yadong; Xu, Xiqiang; Yu, Jizhe

    2012-05-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising for use in regenerative medicine. Low-level light irradiation (LLLI) has been shown to modulate various processes in different biological systems. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of red light emitted from a light-emitting diode (LED) on bone marrow MSCs with or without osteogenic supplements. MSCs both with and without osteogenic supplements were divided into four groups, and each group was irradiated at doses of 0, 1, 2 and 4 J/cm(2). Cellular proliferation was evaluated using WST-8 and 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) fluorescence staining. The alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralization, and expression of osteoblast master genes (Col1α1, Alpl, Bglap and Runx2) were monitored as indicators of MSC differentiation towards osteoblasts. In groups without osteogenic supplements, red light at all doses significantly stimulated cellular proliferation, whereas the osteogenic phenotype of the MSCs was not enhanced. In groups with osteogenic supplements, red light increased alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralized nodule formation, and stimulated the expression of Bglap and Runx2, but decreased cellular proliferation. In conclusion, nonconherent red light can promote proliferation but cannot induce osteogenic differentiation of MSCs in normal media, while it enhances osteogenic differentiation and decreases proliferation of MSCs in media with osteogenic supplements.

  5. Mutants of phospholipase A (pPLA-I) have a red light and auxin phenotype.

    PubMed

    Effendi, Yunus; Radatz, Katrin; Labusch, Corinna; Rietz, Steffen; Wimalasekera, Rinukshi; Helizon, Hanna; Zeidler, Mathias; Scherer, Günther F E

    2014-07-01

    pPLA-I is the evolutionarily oldest patatin-related phospholipase A (pPLA) in plants, which have previously been implicated to function in auxin and defence signalling. Molecular and physiological analysis of two allelic null mutants for pPLA-I [ppla-I-1 in Wassilewskija (Ws) and ppla-I-3 in Columbia (Col) ] revealed pPLA-I functions in auxin and light signalling. The enzyme is localized in the cytosol and to membranes. After auxin application expression of early auxin-induced genes is significantly slower compared with wild type and both alleles show a slower gravitropic response of hypocotyls, indicating compromised auxin signalling. Additionally, phytochrome-modulated responses like abrogation of gravitropism, enhancement of phototropism and growth in far red-enriched light are decreased in both alleles. While early flowering, root coils and delayed phototropism are only observed in the Ws mutant devoid of phyD, the light-related phenotypes observed in both alleles point to an involvement of pPLA-I in phytochrome signalling. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Comparative Study of Lettuce and Radish Grown Under Red and Blue Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) and White Fluorescent Lamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickens, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Growing vegetable crops in space will be an essential part of sustaining astronauts during long-term missions. To drive photosynthesis, red and blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have attracted attention because of their efficiency, longevity, small size, and safety. In efforts to optimize crop production, there have also been recent interests in analyzing the subtle effects of green light on plant growth, and to determine if it serves as a source of growth enhancement or suppression. A comparative study was performed on two short cycle crops of lettuce (Outredgeous) and radish (Cherry Bomb) grown under two light treatments. The first treatment being red and blue LEDs, and the second treatment consisting of white fluorescent lamps which contain a portion of green light. In addition to comparing biomass production, physiological characterizations were conducted on how the light treatments influence morphology, water use, chlorophyll content, and the production of A TP within plant tissues.

  7. Strongly Coupled Tin-Halide Perovskites to Modulate Light Emission: Tunable 550-640 nm Light Emission (FWHM 36-80 nm) with a Quantum Yield of up to 6.4.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min-Yi; Lin, Jin-Tai; Hsu, Chia-Shuo; Chang, Chung-Kai; Chiu, Ching-Wen; Chen, Hao Ming; Chou, Pi-Tai

    2018-05-01

    Colloidal perovskite quantum dots represent one of the most promising materials for applications in solar cells and photoluminescences. These devices require a low density of crystal defects and a high yield of photogenerated carriers, which are difficult to realize in tin-halide perovskite because of the intrinsic instability of tin during nucleation. Here, an enhancement in the luminescent property of tin-halide perovskite nanoplates (TPNPs) that are composed of strongly coupled layered structures with the chemical formula of PEA 2 SnX 4 (PEA = C 6 H 5 (CH 2 ) 2 NH 3 , X = Br, I) is reported. TPNPs (X = I) show an emission at a wavelength of 640 nm, with high quantum yield of 6.40 ± 0.14% and full width at half maximum (FWHM) as small as 36 nm. The presence of aliphatic carboxylic acid is found to play a key role in reducing the tin perovskite defect density, which significantly improves the emission intensity and stability of TPNPs. Upon mixing iodo- and bromo- precursors, the emission wavelength is successfully tuned from 640 nm (PEA 2 SnI 4 ) to 550 nm (PEA 2 SnBr 4 ), with a corresponding emission quantum yield and FWHM of 0.16-6.40% and 36-80 nm, respectively. The results demonstrate a major advance for the emission yield and tunability of tin-halide perovskites. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. The growth of human scalp hair mediated by visible red light laser and LED sources in males.

    PubMed

    Lanzafame, Raymond J; Blanche, Raymond R; Bodian, Adam B; Chiacchierini, Richard P; Fernandez-Obregon, Adolfo; Kazmirek, Eric R

    2013-10-01

    Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used to promote hair growth. A double-blind randomized controlled trial was undertaken to define the safety and physiologic effects of LLLT on males with androgenic alopecia. Forty-four males (18-48 yo, Fitzpatrick I-IV, Hamilton-Norwood IIa-V) were recruited. A transition zone scalp site was selected; hairs were trimmed to 3 mm height; the area was tattooed and photographed. The active group received a "TOPHAT655" unit containing 21, 5 mW lasers (655 ± 5 nm), and 30 LEDS (655 ± 20 nm), in a bicycle-helmet like apparatus. The placebo group unit appeared identical, containing incandescent red lights. Patients treated at home every other day × 16 weeks (60 treatments, 67.3 J/cm(2) irradiance/25 minute treatment), with follow up and photography at 16 weeks. A masked 2.85 cm(2) photographic area was evaluated by another blinded investigator. The primary endpoint was the percent increase in hair counts from baseline. Forty-one patients completed the study (22 active, 19 placebo). No adverse events or side effects were reported. Baseline hair counts were 162.7 ± 95.9 (N = 22) in placebo and 142.0 ± 73.0 (N = 22) and active groups respectively (P = 0.426). Post Treatment hair counts were 162.4 ± 62.5 (N = 19) and 228.7 ± 102.8 (N = 22), respectively (P = 0.0161). A 39% percent hair increase was demonstrated (28.4 ± 46.2 placebo, N = 19; 67.2 ± 33.4, active, N = 22) (P = 0.001) Deleting one placebo group subject with a very high baseline count and a very large decrease, resulted in baseline hair counts of 151.1 ± 81.0 (N = 21) and 142.0 ± 73.0 (N = 22), respectively (P = 0.680). Post treatment hair counts were 158.2 ± 61.5 (N = 18) and 228.7 ± 102.8 (N = 22) (P = 0.011), resulting in a 35% percent increase in hair growth (32.3 ± 44.2, placebo, N = 18; 67.2 ± 33.4, active, N = 22) (P = 0.003). LLLT of the scalp at 655 nm significantly improved hair counts in males with androgenetic alopecia. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals

  9. A heterojunction photocatalyst composed of zinc rhodium oxide, single crystal-derived bismuth vanadium oxide, and silver for overall pure-water splitting under visible light up to 740 nm.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Ryoya; Takashima, Toshihiro; Tanigawa, Satoshi; Takeuchi, Shugo; Ohtani, Bunsho; Irie, Hiroshi

    2016-10-12

    We recently reported the synthesis of a solid-state heterojunction photocatalyst consisting of zinc rhodium oxide (ZnRh 2 O 4 ) and bismuth vanadium oxide (Bi 4 V 2 O 11 ), which functioned as hydrogen (H 2 ) and oxygen (O 2 ) evolution photocatalysts, respectively, connected with silver (Ag). Polycrystalline Bi 4 V 2 O 11 (p-Bi 4 V 2 O 11 ) powders were utilized to form ZnRh 2 O 4 /Ag/p-Bi 4 V 2 O 11 , which was able to photocatalyze overall pure-water splitting under red-light irradiation with a wavelength of 700 nm (R. Kobayashi et al., J. Mater. Chem. A, 2016, 4, 3061). In the present study, we replaced p-Bi 4 V 2 O 11 with a powder obtained by pulverizing single crystals of Bi 4 V 2 O 11 (s-Bi 4 V 2 O 11 ) to form ZnRh 2 O 4 /Ag/s-Bi 4 V 2 O 11 , and demonstrated that this heterojunction photocatalyst had enhanced water-splitting activity. In addition, ZnRh 2 O 4 /Ag/s-Bi 4 V 2 O 11 was able to utilize nearly the entire range of visible light up to a wavelength of 740 nm. These properties were attributable to the higher O 2 evolution activity of s-Bi 4 V 2 O 11 .

  10. Highly efficient red fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes by sorbitol-doped PEDOT:PSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yan-Qiong; Yu, Jun-Le; Wang, Chao; Yang, Fang; Wei, Bin; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Zeng, Cheng-Hui; Yang, Yang

    2018-06-01

    This work shows a promising approach to improve device performance by optimizing the electron transport and hole injection layers for tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthene (DBP):rubrene-based red fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). We compared the effect of two electron transport layers (ETLs), and found that the rubrene/bathophenanthroline (Bphen) ETL-based OLED showed a much higher external quantum efficiency (EQE) (4.67%) than the Alq3 ETL-based OLED (EQE of 3.08%). The doping ratio of DBP in rubrene was tuned from 1.0 wt% to 4.5 wt%, and the 1.5 wt%-DBP:rubrene-based OLED demonstrated the highest EQE of 5.24% and lowest turn-on voltage of 2.2 V. Atomic force microscopy images indicated that 1.5 wt% DBP-doped rubrene film exhibited a regular strip shape, and this regular surface was favorable to the hole and electron recombination in the emitting layer. Finally, the sorbitol-doped poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) was used to further improve the EQE; doping with 6 wt% sorbitol achieved the highest current efficiency of 7.03 cd A‑1 and an EQE of 7.50%. The significantly enhanced performance implies that the hole injection is a limiting factor for DBP:rubrene-based red fluorescent OLEDs.

  11. Salvia miltiorrhiza: A Potential Red Light to the Development of Cardiovascular 
Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lili; Ma, Rufeng; Liu, Chenyue; Liu, Haixia; Zhu, Ruyuan; Guo, Shuzhen; Tang, Minke; Li, Yu; Niu, Jianzhao; Fu, Min; Gao, Sihua; Zhang, Dongwei

    2017-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, also known as Danshen in Chinese, has been widely used to treat cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in China and other Asia countries. Here, we summarize literatures of the historical traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) interpretation of the action of Salvia miltiorrhiza, its use in current clinical trials, its main phytochemical constituents and its pharmacological findings by consulting Pubmed, China Knowledge Resource Integrated, China Science and Technology Journal, and the Web of Science Databases. Since 2000, 39 clinical trials have been identified that used S. miltiorrhiza in TCM prescriptions alone or with other herbs for the treatment of patients with CVD. More than 200 individual compounds have been isolated and characterized from S. miltiorrhiza, which exhibited various pharmacological activities targeting different pathways for the treatment of CVD in various animal and cell models. The isolated compounds may provide new perspectives in alternative treatment regimes and reveal novel chemical scaffolds for the development of anti-CVD drugs. Meanwhile, there are also some rising concerns of the potential side effects and drug-drug interactions of this plant. The insights gained from this study will help us to better understanding of the actions of this herb for management of cardiovascular disorders. As an herb of red root, S. miltiorrhiza will act as a potential red light to prevent the development of CVD. PMID:27748194

  12. Safety impacts of red light cameras at signalized intersections based on cellular automata models.

    PubMed

    Chai, C; Wong, Y D; Lum, K M

    2015-01-01

    This study applies a simulation technique to evaluate the hypothesis that red light cameras (RLCs) exert important effects on accident risks. Conflict occurrences are generated by simulation and compared at intersections with and without RLCs to assess the impact of RLCs on several conflict types under various traffic conditions. Conflict occurrences are generated through simulating vehicular interactions based on an improved cellular automata (CA) model. The CA model is calibrated and validated against field observations at approaches with and without RLCs. Simulation experiments are conducted for RLC and non-RLC intersections with different geometric layouts and traffic demands to generate conflict occurrences that are analyzed to evaluate the hypothesis that RLCs exert important effects on road safety. The comparison of simulated conflict occurrences show favorable safety impacts of RLCs on crossing conflicts and unfavorable impacts for rear-end conflicts during red/amber phases. Corroborative results are found from broad analysis of accident occurrence. RLCs are found to have a mixed effect on accident risk at signalized intersections: crossing collisions are reduced, whereas rear-end collisions may increase. The specially developed CA model is found to be a feasible safety assessment tool.

  13. Effects of Light Intensity and Color on the Biomass, Extracellular Red Pigment, and Citrinin Production of Monascus ruber.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liling; Dai, Yang; Chen, Wanping; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng

    2016-12-21

    Light is a crucial environmental signal for fungi. In this work, the effects of different light intensities and colors on biomass, Monascus pigments (MPs) and citrinin production of Monascus ruber M7 were investigated. We have demonstrated that low intensity of blue light (500 lx) decreased Monascus biomass, increased MPs accumulation via upregulation of MpigA, MpigB, and MpigJ genes expression, but had no significant influence on citrinin production. High intensity of blue light (1500 lx) decreased citrinin accumulation but had no significant influence on biomass and MPs production after 14 days cultivation. Low intensity of green light (500 lx) stimulated citrinin production via upregulation of pksCT, mrl1, mrl2, and ctnA genes expression. One putative red light photoreceptor and two putative green light photoreceptors were identified in M. ruber M7. These observations will not only guide the practical production of Monascus but also contribute to our understanding light effects on Monascus.

  14. Development of an antimicrobial blended white LED system containing pulsed 405nm LEDs for decontamination applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, Jonathan B.; Maclean, Michelle; Wilson, Mark P.; Given, Martin J.; MacGregor, Scott J.

    2017-03-01

    This study details the design, build and testing of a prototype antimicrobial blended white light unit containing pulsed red, yellow, green and 405nm LEDs. With a push for alternative methods of disinfection, optical methods have become a topic of interest. Ultra-violet (UV) light is widely known for its antimicrobial properties however; 405nm light has demonstrated significant antimicrobial properties against many common hospital acquired pathogens. In this study, a pulsed, blended, white-light prototype with a high content of 405 nm antimicrobial light, was designed, built and tested. Antimicrobial efficacy testing of the prototype was conducted using Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas. aeruginosa, two bacteria which are common causes of hospital acquired infections. These were exposure to 3 different light outputs from the prototype and the surviving bacteria enumerated. Results showed that the mixed light output provided a much better CRI and light output under which to work. Also, the light output containing 405 nm light provided an antimicrobial effect, with decontamination of 103 CFUml-1 populations of both bacterial species. The other light content (red, yellow, green) had no beneficial or adverse effects on the antimicrobial properties of the 405nm light. The results suggest that with further development, it could be possible to produce an antimicrobial blended white light containing pulsed 405nm light that could supplement or even replace standard white lighting in certain environments.

  15. Efficient red, green, blue and white organic light-emitting diodes with same exciplex host

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chih-Hao; Wu, Szu-Wei; Huang, Chih-Wei; Hsieh, Chung-Tsung; Lin, Sung-En; Chen, Nien-Po; Chang, Hsin-Hua

    2016-03-01

    Recently, exciplex had drawn attention because of its potential for efficient electroluminescence or for use as a host in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). In this study, four kinds of hole transport material/electron transport material combinations were examined to verify the formation of exciplex and the corresponding energy bandgaps. We successfully demonstrated that the combination of tris(4-carbazoyl-9-ylphenyl)amine (TCTA) and 3,5,3‧,5‧-tetra(m-pyrid-3-yl)phenyl[1,1‧]biphenyl (BP4mPy) could form a stable exciplex emission with an adequate energy gap. Using exciplex as a host in red, green, and blue phosphorescent OLEDs with an identical trilayer architecture enabled effective energy transfer from exciplex to emitters, achieving corresponding efficiencies of 8.8, 14.1, and 15.8%. A maximum efficiency of 11.3% and stable emission was obtained in white OLEDs.

  16. Micro lens design for efficiency improvement of red organic light-emitting diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ki, Hyun-Chul; Kim, Doo-Gun; Kim, Seon-Hoon; Jung, U.-Ra; Kim, Sang-Gi; Hong, Kyung-Jin

    2012-11-01

    We have proposed a micro lens to improve the luminance of red organic light-emitting devices (ROLEDs). The micro lenses were applied on the glass/indium tin oxide (ITO)/OLED. The size, thickness and diameter of micro lenses were calculated by using FDTD (finite-difference timedomain) method. Simulations were performed for 5 µm and 10 µm sized. The thickness and the gap of the micro lens were both 1 µm. The material of the micro lenses was silicon dioxide. The highest luminance of an OLED applied with a micro lens was 11,185 cd/m2, at on approval voltage of 14.5 V, The efficiency of the device with a micro lens increased by 3 times compared to that of the device with no micro lens.

  17. Solution-processable red-emission organic materials containing triphenylamine and benzothiodiazole units: synthesis and applications in organic light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Zhou, Yi; He, Qingguo; He, Chang; Yang, Chunhe; Bai, Fenglian; Li, Yongfang

    2009-06-04

    Three solution-processable red-emissive organic materials with a hole-transporting unit triphenylamine (TPA) as the core part and a D-pi-A bipolar structure as the branch part, TPA-BT (single-branched molecule), b-TPA-BT (bibranched molecule), and t-TPA-BT (tribranched molecule), were synthesized by the Heck coupling reaction. Herein, for the D-pi-A push-pull structure, we use TPA as the electron donor, benzothiodiazole (BT) as the electron acceptor, and the vinylene bond as the pi-bridge connecting the TPA and BT units. The compounds exhibit good solubility in common organic solvents, benefited from the three-dimensional spatial configuration of TPA units and the branch structure of the molecules. TPA-BT, b-TPA-BT, and t-TPA-BT show excellent photoluminescent properties with maximum emission peaks at ca. 630 nm. High-performance red-emission organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) were fabricated with the active layer spin coated from a solution of these compounds. The OLED based on TPA-BT displayed a low turn-on voltage of 2.0 V, a maximum luminance of 12192 cd/m2, and a maximum current efficiency of 1.66 cd/A, which is among the highest values for the solution-processed red-emission OLEDs. In addition, high-performance white-light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) with maximum luminance around 4400 cd/m2 and maximum current efficiencies above 4.5 cd/A were realized by separately doping the three TPA-BT-containing molecules as red emitter and poly(6,6'-bi-(9,9'-dihexylfluorene)- co-(9,9'-dihexylfluorene-3-thiophene-5'-yl)) as green emitter into blue poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-2,7-diyl) host material with suitable weight ratios.

  18. Europium containing red light-emitting fibers made by electrohydrodynamic casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Yong X.; Panahi, Niousha; Yu, Christina; Gan, Jeremy B.; Cheng, Wanli

    2018-05-01

    Red light-emitting polymeric micro- and nanofibers were made by electrohydrodynamic co-casting of two fluids. One fluid contains a 10 wt% concentration europium (III) complex dissolved in a dimethylformamide (DMF) solvent. The europium complex, an Eu3+ compound with the nominal formula of Eu(BA)3phen/PAN, consists of polyacrylonitrile (PAN), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), and benzoic acid (BA). The other fluid consists of iron metal oxide nanoparticles dispersed in a solution containing 10 wt% polyacrylonitrile polymer in DMF solvent. The two fluids were electrohydrodynamically co-cast onto a soft tissue paper using a stainless steel coaxial nozzle. The intensity of the electric field used for the co-casting was 1.5 kV/cm. Scanning electron microscopic observation on the fibers obtained from the co-casting was made. The size of the fibers ranges from several hundreds of nanometers to several microns. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis of the fibers confirmed that the major elements included C, O, Fe, and Eu. The fluorescence of the two types of fibers was tested under the excitation of a UV light source. It was found that when the europium complex-containing solution was the sheath fluid and the iron-containing solution was the core, the prepared fibers showed red light-emitting behavior under ultraviolet light. Time-dependent fluorescence shows the two-stage decaying behavior. The first stage lasts about 2000 s and the intensity of fluorescence decreases linearly. The second stage reveals the slow decaying behavior and it lasts longer than 3 h. Based on the bi-exponential data fitting using a processing MATLAB code, the fluorescence-related constants were extracted. A bi-exponential formula was proposed to describe the time-dependent fluorescence behavior of the fiber made by the europium complex-containing solution as the sheath fluid. The decaying in the fluorescence shows two different stages. The first stage lasts about 2000 s and it is characterized

  19. Far-red Sensitive Dark Processes Essential for Light- and Gibberellin-induced Germination of Lettuce Seed

    PubMed Central

    Negbi, M.; Black, M.; Bewley, J. D.

    1968-01-01

    The action of prolonged far-red on seed germination was studied in Lactuca sativa L. var. Grand Rapids. Exposure of imbibed seeds to 6 hours far-red before the application of gibberellic acid (GA3) and thiourea completely prevented germination. Using GA3, this far-red was effective after the sixth hour of imbibition. At 6, 12, and 18 hours of imbibition equal durations of far-red had equal effects. The kinetics of far-red action was investigated: it was found that although far-red for several hours, irrespective of the energy level, was needed for maximum inhibition, shorter durations (15 and 30 mins) were also appreciably effective provided they were followed by several hours darkness before the supply of GA3. This is taken to indicate the existence of labile product(s) of the action of a far-red sensitive pigment. Evidence is provided for the existence of promotive dark processes controlled by this pigment, which are essential for germination whether triggered by GA3, thiourea or red-light. A model for the operation of the pigment system is proposed and its role in the germination mechanism of this seed is discussed. PMID:16656733

  20. High-Fluence Light-Emitting Diode-Generated Red Light Modulates the Transforming Growth Factor-Beta Pathway in Human Skin Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Mamalis, Andrew; Jagdeo, Jared

    2018-05-24

    Skin fibrosis is a significant medical problem with limited available treatment modalities. The key cellular characteristics include increased fibroblast proliferation, collagen production, and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-B)/SMAD pathway signaling. The authors have previously shown that high-fluence light-emitting diode red light (HF-LED-RL) decreases cellular proliferation and collagen production. Herein, the authors investigate the ability of HF-LED-RL to modulate the TGF-B/SMAD pathway. Normal human dermal fibroblasts were cultured and irradiated with a commercially available hand-held LED array. After irradiation, cell lysates were collected and levels of pSMAD2, TGF-Beta 1, and TGF-Beta I receptor were measured using Western blot. High-fluence light-emitting diode red light decreased TGF-Beta 1 ligand (TGF-B1) levels after irradiation. 320 J/cm HF-LED-RL resulted in 59% TGF-B1 and 640 J/cm HF-LED-RL resulted in 54% TGF-B1, relative to controls. 640 J/cm HF-LED-RL resulted in 62% pSMAD2 0 hours after irradiation, 65% pSMAD2 2 hours after irradiation, and 95% 4 hours after irradiation, compared with matched controls. High-fluence light-emitting diode red light resulted in no significant difference in transforming growth factor-beta receptor I levels compared with matched controls. Skin fibrosis is a significant medical problem with limited available treatment modalities. Light-emitting diode-generated red light is a safe, economic, and noninvasive modality that has a body of in vitro evidence supporting the reduction of key cellular characteristics associated with skin fibrosis.

  1. Development of all-solid-state coherent 589 nm light source: toward the realization of sodium lidar and laser guide star adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Norihito; Akagawa, Kazuyuki; Kato, Mayumi; Takazawa, Akira; Hayano, Yutaka; Saito, Yoshihiko; Ito, Meguru; Takami, Hideki; Iye, Masanori; Wada, Satoshi

    2006-12-01

    We report an all-solid-state coherent 589 nm light source in single-pass sum-frequency generation (SFG) with actively mode-locked Nd:YAG lasers for the realization of sodium lidar and laser guide star adaptive optics. The Nd:YAG lasers are constructed as a LD-side-pumped configuration and are operated at 1064 and 1319 nm for 589 nm light generation in SFG. Output powers of 16.5 and 5.3 W at 1064 and 1319 nm are obtained with two pumping chambers. Each chamber consisted of three 80-W-LD arrays. Single transverse mode TEM 00; M2 ~1.1 is achieved with adjustment of cavity length considering thermal lens effect with increase of input LD power. The cavity length is set to approximately 1 m. Accordingly the mode-locked lasers are operated at a repetition rate of approximately 150 MHz. Synchronization of two pulse trains at 1064 and 1319 nm is accomplished by control of phase difference between two radio frequencies input in acousto-optic mode-lockers. Then temporal delay is controlled with a resolution of 37 ps/degree. Pump beams are mixed in periodically poled stoichiometric lithium tantalate (PPSLT) without an antireflection coating. The effective aperture and length of the crystal are 0.5 × 2 mm2 and 15 mm. When input intensity is set at 5.6 MW/cm , an average output power of 4.6 W is obtained at 589.159 nm. Precise tuning to the sodium D II line is accomplished by thermal control of etalons set in the Nd:YAG lasers. The output power at 589.159 nm is stably maintained within +/-1.2% for 8 hours.

  2. Nitric oxide measurements in hTERT-RPE cells and subcellular fractions exposed to low levels of red light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wigle, Jeffrey C.; Castellanos, Cherry C.; Denton, Michael L.; Holwitt, Eric A.

    2014-02-01

    Cells in a tissue culture model for laser eye injury exhibit increased resistance to a lethal pulse of 2.0-μm laser radiation if the cells are first exposed to 2.88 J/cm2 of red light 24 hr prior to the lethal laser exposure. Changes in expression of various genes associated with apoptosis have been observed, but the biochemical link between light absorption and gene expression remains unknown. Cytochome c oxidase (CCOX), in the electron transport chain, is the currentlyhypothesized absorber. Absorption of the red light by CCOX is thought to facilitate displacement of nitric oxide (NO) by O2 in the active site, increasing cellular respiration and intracellular ATP. However, NO is also an important regulator and mediator of numerous physiological processes in a variety of cell and tissue types that is synthesized from l-arginine by NO synthases. In an effort to determine the relative NO contributions from these competing pathways, we measured NO levels in whole cells and subcellular fractions, with and without exposure to red light, using DAF-FM, a fluorescent dye that stoichiometrically reacts with NO. Red light induced a small, but consistently reproducible, increase in fluorescence intensity in whole cells and some subcellular fractions. Whole cells exhibited the highest overall fluorescence intensity followed by (in order) cytosolic proteins, microsomes, then nuclei and mitochondria.

  3. Spectrally resolved infrared microscopy and chemometric tools to reveal the interaction between blue light (470nm) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Bumah, Violet V; Aboualizadeh, Ebrahim; Masson-Meyers, Daniela S; Eells, Janis T; Enwemeka, Chukuka S; Hirschmugl, Carol J

    2017-02-01

    Blue light inactivates methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a Gram-positive antibiotic resistant bacterium that leads to fatal infections; however, the mechanism of bacterial death remains unclear. In this paper, to uncover the mechanism underlying the bactericidal effect of blue light, a combination of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and chemometric tools is employed to detect the photoreactivity of MRSA and its distinctive pathway toward apoptosis after treatment. The mechanism of action of UV light and vancomycin against MRSA is also investigated to support the findings. Principal component analysis followed by linear discriminant analysis (PCA- LDA) is employed to reveal clustering of five groups of MRSA samples, namely untreated (control I), untreated and incubated at ambient air (control II), irradiated with 470nm blue light, irradiated with 253.5 UV light, and vancomycin-treated MRSA. Loadings plot from PCA-LDA analysis reveals important functional groups in proteins (1683, 1656, 1596, 1542cm -1 ), lipids (1743, 1409cm -1 ), and nucleic acids region of the spectrum (1060, 1087cm -1 ) that are responsible for the classification of blue light irradiated spectra and control spectra. Cluster vector plots and scores plot reveals that UV light-irradiated spectra are the most biochemically similar to blue light- irradiated spectra; however, some wavenumbers experience a shift. The shifts between blue light and UV light irradiated loadings plot at ν asym PO 2- band (from 1228 to 1238cm -1 ), DNA backbone (from 970 to 966cm -1 ) and base pairing vibration of DNA (from 1717 to 1712cm -1 ) suggest distinctive changes in DNA conformation in response to irradiation. Our findings indicate that irradiation of MRSA with 470nm light induces A-DNA cleavage and that B-DNA is more resistant to damage by blue light. Blue light and UV light treatment of MRSA are complementary and distinct from the known antimicrobial effect of vancomycin. Moreover

  4. Red-light-controllable liquid-crystal soft actuators via low-power excited upconversion based on triplet-triplet annihilation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhen; Xu, Ming; Li, Fuyou; Yu, Yanlei

    2013-11-06

    A red-light-controllable soft actuator has been achieved, driven by low-power excited triplet-triplet annihilation-based upconversion luminescence (TTA-UCL). First, a red-to-blue TTA-based upconversion system with a high absolute quantum yield of 9.3 ± 0.5% was prepared by utilizing platinum(II) tetraphenyltetrabenzoporphyrin (PtTPBP) as the sensitizer and 9,10-bis(diphenylphosphoryl)anthracene (BDPPA) as the annihilator. In order to be employed as a highly effective phototrigger of photodeformable cross-linked liquid-crystal polymers (CLCPs), the PtTPBP&BDPPA system was incorporated into a rubbery polyurethane film and then assembled with an azotolane-containing CLCP film. The generating assembly film bent toward the light source when irradiated with a 635 nm laser at low power density of 200 mW cm(-2) because the TTA-UCL was effectively utilized by the azotolane moieties in the CLCP film, inducing their trans-cis photoisomerization and an alignment change of the mesogens via an emission-reabsorption process. It is the first example of a soft actuator in which the TTA-UCL is trapped and utilized to create photomechanical effect. Such advantages of using this novel red-light-controllable soft actuator in potential biological applications have also been demonstrated as negligible thermal effect and its excellent penetration ability into tissues. This work not only provides a novel photomanipulated soft actuation material system based on the TTA-UCL technology but also introduces a new technological application of the TTA-based upconversion system in photonic devices.

  5. Optimizing LED lighting for space plant growth unit: Joint effects of photon flux density, red to white ratios and intermittent light pulses.

    PubMed

    Avercheva, O V; Berkovich, Yu A; Konovalova, I O; Radchenko, S G; Lapach, S N; Bassarskaya, E M; Kochetova, G V; Zhigalova, T V; Yakovleva, O S; Tarakanov, I G

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work were to choose a quantitative optimality criterion for estimating the quality of plant LED lighting regimes inside space greenhouses and to construct regression models of crop productivity and the optimality criterion depending on the level of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), the proportion of the red component in the light spectrum and the duration of the duty cycle (Chinese cabbage Brassica сhinensis L. as an example). The properties of the obtained models were described in the context of predicting crop dry weight and the optimality criterion behavior when varying plant lighting parameters. Results of the fractional 3-factor experiment demonstrated the share of the PPFD level participation in the crop dry weight accumulation was 84.4% at almost any combination of other lighting parameters, but when PPFD value increased up to 500µmol m -2 s -1 the pulse light and supplemental light from red LEDs could additionally increase crop productivity. Analysis of the optimality criterion response to variation of lighting parameters showed that the maximum coordinates were the following: PPFD = 500µmol m -2 s -1 , about 70%-proportion of the red component of the light spectrum (PPFD LEDred /PPFD LEDwhite = 1.5) and the duty cycle with a period of 501µs. Thus, LED crop lighting with these parameters was optimal for achieving high crop productivity and for efficient use of energy in the given range of lighting parameter values. Copyright © 2016 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An RNA-Seq Analysis of Grape Plantlets Grown in vitro Reveals Different Responses to Blue, Green, Red LED Light, and White Fluorescent Light

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun-Xia; Xu, Zhi-Gang; Dong, Rui-Qi; Chang, Sheng-Xin; Wang, Lian-Zhen; Khalil-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Tao, Jian-Min

    2017-01-01

    Using an RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) approach, we analyzed the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and physiological behaviors of “Manicure Finger” grape plantlets grown in vitro under white, blue, green, and red light. A total of 670, 1601, and 746 DEGs were identified in plants exposed to blue, green, and red light, respectively, compared to the control (white light). By comparing the gene expression patterns with the growth and physiological responses of the grape plantlets, we were able to link the responses of the plants to light of different spectral wavelengths and the expression of particular sets of genes. Exposure to red and green light primarily triggered responses associated with the shade-avoidance syndrome (SAS), such as enhanced elongation of stems, reduced investment in leaf growth, and decreased chlorophyll levels accompanied by the expression of genes encoding histone H3, auxin repressed protein, xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase, the ELIP protein, and microtubule proteins. Furthermore, specific light treatments were associated with the expression of a large number of genes, including those involved in the glucan metabolic pathway and the starch and sucrose metabolic pathways; these genes were up/down-regulated in ways that may explain the increase in the starch, sucrose, and total sugar contents in the plants. Moreover, the enhanced root growth and up-regulation of the expression of defense genes accompanied with SAS after exposure to red and green light may be related to the addition of 30 g/L sucrose to the culture medium of plantlets grown in vitro. In contrast, blue light induced the up-regulation of genes related to microtubules, serine carboxypeptidase, chlorophyll synthesis, and sugar degradation and the down-regulation of auxin-repressed protein as well as a large number of resistance-related genes that may promote leaf growth, improve chlorophyll synthesis and chloroplast development, increase the ratio of chlorophyll a (chla

  7. Use of polarization to separate on-axis scattered and unscattered light in red blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardar, Dhiraj K.; Nemati, Babak; Barrera, Frederick J.

    1991-06-01

    The separation of on-axis scattered and unscattered transmission through turbid media has been a difficult experimental task in recent years. This study suggests the use of a polarimeter to filter out the contribution of scattered light to the net on-axis transmission. Red blood cells (RBC) were used to produce the scattering effect. The scattering level was varied by: (1) altering the distance of the detector from the sample, (2) using erythrocytes from three different species, e.g., the dog, goat, and human, which are know to have different RBC sizes, and (3) allowing the RBCs from each species to shrink and swell osmotically. An He-Ne laser was used as the source of the radiation so that data were obtained at a wavelength in the spectral region used in oximetry and hemoglobinometry. In each case, the difference in the scattering cross sections obtained for each sample, with and without polarization filtering, gave us a measure of the filtered scattered light. The results obtained were in close agreement with the expected contribution of scattered radiation to the net axial transmission. This method may be used effectively for all studies involving measurements of on-axis transmission through turbid media, such as biological tissue.

  8. Kinetics of red blood cell rouleaux formation studied by light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szołna-Chodór, Alicja; Bosek, Maciej; Grzegorzewski, Bronisław

    2015-02-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) rouleaux formation was experimentally studied using a light scattering technique. The suspensions of RBCs were obtained from the blood of healthy donors. Hematocrit of the samples was adjusted ranging from 1% to 4%. Measurements of the intensity of the coherent component of light scattered by the suspensions were performed and the scattering coefficient of the suspensions was determined. The number of RBCs per rouleaux was obtained using anomalous diffraction theory. The technique was used to show the effect of time, hematocrit, and sample thickness on the process. The number of cells per rouleaux first increases linearly, reaches a critical value at ˜3 cells per rouleaux, and then a further increase in the rouleaux size is observed. The kinetic constant of the rouleaux growth in the linear region is found to be independent of hematocrit. The aggregation rate increases as the sample thickness increases. The time at which the critical region appears strongly decreases as the hematocrit of the suspension increases.

  9. Kinetics of red blood cell rouleaux formation studied by light scattering.

    PubMed

    Szolna-Chodór, Alicja; Bosek, Maciej; Grzegorzewski, Bronislaw

    2015-02-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) rouleaux formation was experimentally studied using a light scattering technique. The suspensions of RBCs were obtained from the blood of healthy donors. Hematocrit of the samples was adjusted ranging from 1% to 4%. Measurements of the intensity of the coherent component of light scattered by the suspensions were performed and the scattering coefficient of the suspensions was determined. The number of RBCs per rouleaux was obtained using anomalous diffraction theory. The technique was used to show the effect of time, hematocrit, and sample thickness on the process. The number of cells per rouleaux first increases linearly, reaches a critical value at ∼3 cells per rouleaux, and then a further increase in the rouleaux size is observed. The kinetic constant of the rouleaux growth in the linear region is found to be independent of hematocrit. The aggregation rate increases as the sample thickness increases. The time at which the critical region appears strongly decreases as the hematocrit of the suspension increases. © 2015 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)

  10. AZO/Ag/AZO anode for resonant cavity red, blue, and yellow organic light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Gentle, A. R., E-mail: angus.gentle@uts.edu.au; Smith, G. B.; Yambem, S. D.

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) is the transparent electrode of choice for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Replacing ITO for cost and performance reasons is a major drive across optoelectronics. In this work, we show that changing the transparent electrode on red, blue, and yellow OLEDs from ITO to a multilayer buffered aluminium zinc oxide/silver/aluminium zinc oxide (AZO/Ag/AZO) substantially enhances total output intensity, with better control of colour, its constancy, and intensity over the full exit hemisphere. The thin Ag containing layer induces a resonant cavity optical response of the complete device. This is tuned to the emission spectra of the emissivemore » material while minimizing internally trapped light. A complete set of spectral intensity data is presented across the full exit hemisphere for each electrode type and each OLED colour. Emission zone modelling of output spectra at a wide range of exit angles to the normal was in excellent agreement with the experimental data and hence could, in principle, be used to check and adjust production settings. These multilayer transparent electrodes show significant potential for both eliminating indium from OLEDs and spectrally shaping the emission.« less

  11. A webcam in Bayer-mode as a light beam profiler for the near infra-red

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Gregor; Hochreiner, Armin; Burgholzer, Peter; Berer, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Beam profiles are commonly measured with complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS) or charge coupled devices (CCD). The devices are fast and reliable but expensive. By making use of the fact that the Bayer-filter in commercial webcams is transparent in the near infra-red (>800 nm) and their CCD chips are sensitive up to about 1100 nm, we demonstrate a cheap and simple way to measure laser beam profiles with a resolution down to around ±1 μm, which is close to the resolution of the knife-edge technique. PMID:23645943

  12. A webcam in Bayer-mode as a light beam profiler for the near infra-red.

    PubMed

    Langer, Gregor; Hochreiner, Armin; Burgholzer, Peter; Berer, Thomas

    2013-05-01

    Beam profiles are commonly measured with complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS) or charge coupled devices (CCD). The devices are fast and reliable but expensive. By making use of the fact that the Bayer-filter in commercial webcams is transparent in the near infra-red (>800 nm) and their CCD chips are sensitive up to about 1100 nm, we demonstrate a cheap and simple way to measure laser beam profiles with a resolution down to around ±1 μm, which is close to the resolution of the knife-edge technique.

  13. 300-mW narrow-linewidth deep-ultraviolet light generation at 193 nm by frequency mixing between Yb-hybrid and Er-fiber lasers.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Hongwen; Zhao, Zhigang; Igarashi, Hironori; Ito, Shinji; Kakizaki, Kouji; Kobayashi, Yohei

    2015-04-20

    A narrow-linewidth, high average power deep-ultraviolet (DUV) coherent laser emitting at 193 nm is demonstrated by frequency mixing a Yb-hybrid laser with an Er-fiber laser. The Yb-hybrid laser consists of Yb-fiber lasers and an Yb:YAG amplifier. The average output power of the 193 nm laser is 310 mW at 6 kHz, which corresponds to a pulse energy of 51 μJ. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest average power and pulse energy ever reported for a narrow-linewidth 193 nm light generated by a combination of solid-state and fiber lasers with frequency mixing. We believe this laser will be beneficial for the application of interference lithography by seeding an injection-locking ArF eximer laser.

  14. Red carbon dots-based phosphors for white light-emitting diodes with color rendering index of 92.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yuechen; Wang, Yi; Li, Di; Zhou, Ding; Jing, Pengtao; Shen, Dezhen; Qu, Songnan

    2018-05-29

    Exploration of solid-state efficient red emissive carbon dots (CDs) phosphors is strongly desired for the development of high performance CDs-based white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs). In this work, enhanced red emissive CDs-based phosphors with photoluminescence quantum yields (PLQYs) of 25% were prepared by embedding red emissive CDs (PLQYs of 23%) into polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP). Because of the protection of PVP, the phosphors could preserve strong luminescence under long-term UV excitation or being mixed with conventional packaging materials. By applying the red emissive phosphors as the color conversion layer, WLEDs with high color rendering index of 92 and color coordinate of (0.33, 0.33) are fabricated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Treatment Results of Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking Combined with Riboflavin and 440 Nm Blue Light for Bacterial Corneal Ulcer in Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shufang; Zhang, Cuiying; Zhang, Shaoru; Xu, Yanyun; Mu, Guoying

    2017-10-01

    To study the treatment effect of corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) combined with 440 nm blue light and riboflavin on bacterial corneal ulcer using animal experiments. A total of 21 New Zealand white rabbits that developed Staphylococcus aureus corneal ulcer were randomly divided into three groups. Seven rabbits were used as blank control groups; seven rabbits were treated with CXL combined with riboflavin and 440 nm blue light; and seven rabbits were treated with CXL combined with riboflavin and 370 nm ultraviolet A light. Necrotic tissues or secretions from the ulcer surface, eye secretions, conjunctival hyperemia, hypopyon, corneal infiltration, and pathological changes of the cornea were all observed. The 1st, 3th, and 7th day after CXL treatment, a statistically significant difference was found among the inflammation scores of the three groups. The scores of 440 and 370 groups decreased gradually, significantly lower than that of the control group. Bacterial cultures of 440 and 370 groups turned to be negative while that of the control group remained positive. After 1 day of CXL treatment, pathology pictures of the three groups all showed loss of corneal epithelia with many inflammatory cells in deep stroma. After 7 days of CXL treatment, abscess formed in almost all corneal area in the control group, while in 440 and 370 groups, multilayer healing of corneal epithelia, neovascularization, and many inflammatory cells within ulcers and proliferation of a small amount of fibroblast were seen. CXL combined with riboflavin and 440 nm blue light is effective in treating S. aureus corneal ulcer.

  16. Do chestnut, northern red, and white oak germinant seedlings respond similary to light treatments? II. Gas exchange and chlorophyll responses

    Treesearch

    Joanne Rebbeck; Amy Scherzer; Kurt Gottschalk

    2012-01-01

    Understanding differences in physiological and growth strategies in low-light environments among upland oak species may help managers address the challenges of oaks' poor regeneration. Gas exchange and chlorophyll content were measured for northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), chestnut oak (Quercus prinus L.), and white oak (...

  17. Characterization of light absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the upper layer of the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheireddine, Malika; Ouhssain, Mustapha; Calleja, Maria Ll.; Morán, Xosé Anxelu G.; Sarma, Y. V. B.; Tiwari, Surya P.; Jones, Burton H.

    2018-03-01

    The absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is a major variable used in developing robust bio-optical models and understanding biogeochemical processes. Over the last decade, the optical properties of CDOM in the open sea have been intensely studied. However, their variations in clear water are poorly documented, particularly in the Red Sea, owing to the absence of in situ measurements. We performed several cruises in the Red Sea to investigate the spatial distribution of the absorption coefficient of CDOM. The spectral absorption coefficients were determined from 400 nm to 740 nm using a WETLabs ac-s hyper-spectral spectrophotometer. In general, we found a latitudinal gradient in the CDOM absorption coefficient at 443 nm (aCDOM(443)) from south to north that is likely influenced by the exchange of water through the strait of Bab-el-Mandeb and the thermohaline circulation of the Red Sea. However, high aCDOM(443) values were observed in the northern Red Sea due to the existence of a sub-mesoscale feature that may induce an increase in phytoplankton production and lead to CDOM production. The aCDOM(443) covaried with the chlorophyll a concentration ([Chl a],) despite a high scatter. Furthermore, the aCDOM(443) for a given [Chl a] concentration was higher than those predicted by global ocean bio-optical models. This study advances our understanding of CDOM concentration in the Red Sea and may help improve the accuracy of the algorithms used to obtain CDOM absorption from ocean color.

  18. Light scattering method to measure red blood cell aggregation during incubation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzegorzewski, B.; Szołna-Chodór, A.; Baryła, J.; DreŻek, D.

    2018-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) aggregation can be observed both in vivo as well as in vitro. This process is a cause of alterations of blood flow in microvascular network. Enhanced RBC aggregation makes oxygen and nutrients delivery difficult. Measurements of RBC aggregation usually give a description of the process for a sample where the state of a solution and cells is well-defined and the system reached an equilibrium. Incubation of RBCs in various solutions is frequently used to study the effects of the solutions on the RBC aggregation. The aggregation parameters are compared before and after incubation while the detailed changes of the parameters during incubation remain unknown. In this paper we have proposed a method to measure red blood cell aggregation during incubation based on the well-known technique where backscattered light is used to assess the parameters of the RBC aggregation. Couette system consisting of two cylinders is adopted in the method. The incubation is observed in the Couette system. In the proposed method following sequence of rotations is adapted. Two minutes rotation is followed by two minutes stop. In this way we have obtained a time series of back scattered intensity consisting of signals respective for disaggregation and aggregation. It is shown that the temporal changes of the intensity manifest changes of RBC aggregation during incubation. To show the ability of the method to assess the effect of incubation time on RBC aggregation the results are shown for solutions that cause an increase of RBC aggregation as well as for the case where the aggregation is decreased.

  19. Drivers' phone use at red traffic lights: a roadside observation study comparing calls and visual-manual interactions.

    PubMed

    Huth, Véronique; Sanchez, Yann; Brusque, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    Phone use while driving has become one of the priority issues in road safety, given that it may lead to decreased situation awareness and deteriorated driving performance. It has been suggested that drivers can regulate their exposure to secondary tasks and seek for compatibility of phone use and driving. Phone use strategies include the choice of driving situations with low demands and interruptions of the interaction when the context changes. Traffic light situations at urban intersections imply both a temptation to use the phone while waiting at the red traffic light and a potential threat due to the incompatibility of phone use and driving when the traffic light turns green. These two situations were targeted in a roadside observation study, with the aim to investigate the existence of a phone use strategy at the red traffic light and to test its effectiveness. N=124 phone users and a corresponding control group of non-users were observed. Strategic phone use behaviour was detected for visual-manual interactions, which are more likely to be initiated at the red traffic light and tend to be stopped before the vehicle moves off, while calls are less likely to be limited to the red traffic light situation. As an indicator of impaired situation awareness, delayed start was associated to phone use and in particular to visual-manual interactions, whether phone use was interrupted before moving off or not. Traffic light situations do not seem to allow effective application of phone use strategies, although drivers attempt to do so for the most demanding phone use mode. The underlying factors of phone use need to be studied so as to reduce the temptation of phone use and facilitate exposure regulation strategies. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. A Novel Visual Psychometric Test for Light-Induced Discomfort Using Red and Blue Light Stimuli Under Binocular and Monocular Viewing Conditions.

    PubMed

    Zivcevska, Marija; Lei, Shaobo; Blakeman, Alan; Goltz, Herbert C; Wong, Agnes M F

    2018-03-01

    To develop an objective psychophysical method to quantify light-induced visual discomfort, and to measure the effects of viewing condition and stimulus wavelength. Eleven visually normal subjects participated in the study. Their pupils were dilated (2.5% phenylephrine) before the experiment. A Ganzfeld system presented either red (1.5, 19.1, 38.2, 57.3, 76.3, 152.7, 305.3 cd/m2) or blue (1.4, 7.1, 14.3, 28.6, 42.9, 57.1, 71.4 cd/m2) randomized light intensities (1 s each) in four blocks. Constant white-light stimuli (3 cd/m2, 4 s duration) were interleaved with the chromatic trials. Participants reported each stimulus as either "uncomfortably bright" or "not uncomfortably bright." The experiment was done binocularly and monocularly in separate sessions, and the order of color/viewing condition sequence was randomized across participants. The proportion of "uncomfortable" responses was used to generate individual psychometric functions, from which 50% discomfort thresholds were calculated. Light-induced discomfort was higher under blue compared with red light stimulation, both during binocular (t(10) = 3.58, P < 0.01) and monocular viewing (t(10) = 3.15, P = 0.01). There was also a significant difference in discomfort between viewing conditions, with binocular viewing inducing more discomfort than monocular viewing for blue (P < 0.001), but not for red light stimulation. The light-induced discomfort characteristics reported here are consistent with features of the melanopsin-containing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cell light irradiance pathway, which may mediate photophobia, a prominent feature in many clinical disorders. This is the first psychometric assessment designed around melanopsin spectral properties that can be customized further to assess photophobia in different clinical populations.

  1. Photoprotection of PSI by Far-Red Light Against the Fluctuating Light-Induced Photoinhibition in Arabidopsis thaliana and Field-Grown Plants.

    PubMed

    Kono, Masaru; Yamori, Wataru; Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Terashima, Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    It has been reported that PSI photoinhibition is induced even in wild-type plants of Arabidopsis thaliana, rice and other species by exposure of leaves to fluctuating light (FL) for a few hours. Because plants are exposed to FL in nature, they must possess protective mechanisms against the FL-induced photodamage. Here, using A. thaliana grown at various irradiances, we examined PSI photoprotection by far-red (FR) light at intensities comparable with those observed in nature. Dark-treated leaves were illuminated by red FL alternating high/low light at 1,200/30 µmol m-2 s-1 for 800 ms/10 s. By this FL treatment without FR light for 120 min, the level of photo-oxidizable P700 was decreased by 30% even in the plants grown at high irradiances. The addition of continuous FR light during the FL suppressed this damage almost completely. With FR light, P700 was kept in a more oxidized state in both low- and high-light phases. The protective effect of FR light was diminished more in mutants of the NADH dehydrogenase-like complex (NDH)-mediated cyclic electron flow around PSI (CEF-PSI) than in the PGR5 (proton gradient regulation 5)-mediated CEF-PSI, indicating that the NDH-mediated CEF-PSI would be a major contributor to PSI photoprotection in the presence of FR light. We also confirmed that PSI photoinhibition decreased with the increase in growth irradiance in A. thaliana and field-grown plants, and that this PSI photodamage was largely suppressed by addition of FR light. These results clearly indicate that the most effective PSI protection is realized in the presence of FR light. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Transcriptome analysis of the exocarp of apple fruit identifies light-induced genes involved in red color pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Vimolmangkang, Sornkanok; Zheng, Danman; Han, Yuepeng; Khan, M Awais; Soria-Guerra, Ruth Elena; Korban, Schuyler S

    2014-01-15

    Although the mechanism of light regulation of color pigmentation of apple fruit is not fully understood, it has been shown that light can regulate expression of genes in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway by inducing transcription factors (TFs). Moreover, expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in this pathway may be coordinately regulated by multiple TFs. In this study, fruits on trees of apple cv. Red Delicious were covered with paper bags during early stages of fruit development and then removed prior to maturation to analyze the transcriptome in the exocarp of apple fruit. Comparisons of gene expression profiles of fruit covered with paper bags (dark-grown treatment) and those subjected to 14 h light treatment, following removal of paper bags, were investigated using an apple microarray of 40,000 sequences. Expression profiles were investigated over three time points, at one week intervals, during fruit development. Overall, 736 genes with expression values greater than two-fold were found to be modulated by light treatment. Light-induced products were classified into 19 categories with highest scores in primary metabolism (17%) and transcription (12%). Based on the Arabidopsis gene ontology annotation, 18 genes were identified as TFs. To further confirm expression patterns of flavonoid-related genes, these were subjected to quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) using fruit of red-skinned apple cv. Red Delicious and yellow-skinned apple cv. Golden Delicious. Of these, two genes showed higher levels of expression in 'Red Delicious' than in 'Golden Delicious', and were likely involved in the regulation of fruit red color pigmentation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Protective Mechanism of Visible Red Light in Normal Human Dermal Fibroblasts: Enhancement of GADD45A-Mediated DNA Repair Activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeo Jin; Kim, Hyoung-June; Kim, Hye Lim; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Kim, Hyun Soo; Lee, Tae Ryong; Shin, Dong Wook; Seo, Young Rok

    2017-02-01

    The phototherapeutic effects of visible red light on skin have been extensively investigated, but the underlying biological mechanisms remain poorly understood. We aimed to elucidate the protective mechanism of visible red light in terms of DNA repair of UV-induced oxidative damage in normal human dermal fibroblasts. The protective effect of visible red light on UV-induced DNA damage was identified by several assays in both two-dimensional and three-dimensional cell culture systems. With regard to the protective mechanism of visible red light, our data showed alterations in base excision repair mediated by growth arrest and DNA damage inducible, alpha (GADD45A). We also observed an enhancement of the physical activity of GADD45A and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) by visible red light. Moreover, UV-induced DNA damages were diminished by visible red light in an APE1-dependent manner. On the basis of the decrease in GADD45A-APE1 interaction in the activating transcription factor-2 (ATF2)-knockdown system, we suggest a role for ATF2 modulation in GADD45A-mediated DNA repair upon visible red light exposure. Thus, the enhancement of GADD45A-mediated base excision repair modulated by ATF2 might be a potential protective mechanism of visible red light. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Efficient rare-earth free red-emitting Ca2YSbO6:Mn4+,M(M = Li+, Na+, K+, Mg2+) phosphors for white light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jiasong; Chen, Daqin; Chen, Xiao; Wang, Keyuan; Li, Xinyue; Zhu, Yiwen; Ji, Zhenguo

    2018-05-08

    Owing to its low-cost and satisfactory luminescent-emission performance in warm white light-emitting diodes (w-LEDs), the non-rare-earth Mn4+-activated red phosphor has become a promising competitor of commercial rare-earth doped phosphor. In this study, a series of novel red-light emitting phosphors based on Ca2YSbO6:Mn4+ have been developed successfully by a conventional solid-state reaction. The structural and luminescent properties of these phosphors are systematically investigated. The as-prepared Ca2YSbO6:Mn4+ product exhibits a broad excitation band ranging from 250 to 600 nm and an abnormal intense deep-red emission centered at 680 nm with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of ∼46 nm. The optimal Mn4+ doping concentration is about 0.3 mol%, and the concentration quenching mechanism is determined to be a dipole-dipole interaction. Impressively, the Ca2YSbO6:0.003Mn4+ phosphor shows an outstanding quantum efficiency of 62.6% and an excellent thermal stability. In addition, the effect of Li+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+ dopants on the luminescent properties of Mn4+-doped Ca2YSbO6 phosphors is elucidated. Furthermore, by employing the as-prepared Ca2YSbO6:Mn4+ as a red component, a warm w-LED with high color rendering index (Ra = 87.5) and low correlated color temperature (CCT = 3255 K) can be acquired. It is believed that the present phosphor has a potential application as a supplement of the red component for warm w-LEDs.

  5. Regulation of Carbon Flow by Nitrogen and Light in the Red Alga, Gelidium coulteri.

    PubMed

    Macler, B A

    1986-09-01

    The red alga Gelidium coulteri Harv. photosynthetically fixed [(14)C] bicarbonate at high rates under defined conditions in unialgal laboratory culture. The fixation rate and flow of photosynthate into various end products were dependent on the nitrogen status of the tissue. Plants fed luxury levels of nitrogen (approximately 340 micromolar) showed fixation rates several-fold higher than those seen for plants starved for nitrogen. The addition of NO(3) (-) or NH(4) (+) to such starved plants further inhibited fixation over at least the first several hours after addition. The majority of (14)C after incubations of 30 minutes to 8 hours was found in the compounds floridoside, agar and floridean starch. In addition, amino acids and intermediate compounds of the reductive pentose phosphate pathway, glycolytic pathway and tricarboxylic acid cycle were detected. Nitrogen affected the partitioning of labeled carbon into these compounds. Plants under luxury nitrogen conditions had higher floridoside levels and markedly lower amounts of agar and starch than found in plants limited for nitrogen. Amino acid, phycobiliprotein and chlorophyll levels were also significantly higher in nitrogen-enriched plants. Addition of NO(3) (-) to starved plants led to an increase in floridoside, tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates and amino acids within 1 hour and inhibited carbon flow into agar and starch. Carbon fixation in the dark was only 1 to 7% of that seen in the light. Dark fixation of [(14)C]bicarbonate yielded label primarily in tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, amino acids and polysaccharides. Nitrogen stimulated amino acid synthesis at the expense of agar and starch. Floridoside was only a minor component in the dark. Pulse-chase experiments, designed to show carbon turnover, indicated a 2-fold increase in labeling of agar over 96 hours of chase in the light. No increases were seen in the dark. Low molecular weight pools, including floridoside, decreased 2- to 5-fold

  6. Regulation of Carbon Flow by Nitrogen and Light in the Red Alga, Gelidium coulteri1

    PubMed Central

    Macler, Bruce A.

    1986-01-01

    The red alga Gelidium coulteri Harv. photosynthetically fixed [14C] bicarbonate at high rates under defined conditions in unialgal laboratory culture. The fixation rate and flow of photosynthate into various end products were dependent on the nitrogen status of the tissue. Plants fed luxury levels of nitrogen (approximately 340 micromolar) showed fixation rates several-fold higher than those seen for plants starved for nitrogen. The addition of NO3− or NH4+ to such starved plants further inhibited fixation over at least the first several hours after addition. The majority of 14C after incubations of 30 minutes to 8 hours was found in the compounds floridoside, agar and floridean starch. In addition, amino acids and intermediate compounds of the reductive pentose phosphate pathway, glycolytic pathway and tricarboxylic acid cycle were detected. Nitrogen affected the partitioning of labeled carbon into these compounds. Plants under luxury nitrogen conditions had higher floridoside levels and markedly lower amounts of agar and starch than found in plants limited for nitrogen. Amino acid, phycobiliprotein and chlorophyll levels were also significantly higher in nitrogen-enriched plants. Addition of NO3− to starved plants led to an increase in floridoside, tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates and amino acids within 1 hour and inhibited carbon flow into agar and starch. Carbon fixation in the dark was only 1 to 7% of that seen in the light. Dark fixation of [14C]bicarbonate yielded label primarily in tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, amino acids and polysaccharides. Nitrogen stimulated amino acid synthesis at the expense of agar and starch. Floridoside was only a minor component in the dark. Pulse-chase experiments, designed to show carbon turnover, indicated a 2-fold increase in labeling of agar over 96 hours of chase in the light. No increases were seen in the dark. Low molecular weight pools, including floridoside, decreased 2- to 5-fold over this period

  7. Measurement of elastic light scattering from two optically trapped microspheres and red blood cells in a transparent medium.

    PubMed

    Kinnunen, Matti; Kauppila, Antti; Karmenyan, Artashes; Myllylä, Risto

    2011-09-15

    Optical tweezers can be used to manipulate small objects and cells. A trap can be used to fix the position of a particle during light scattering measurements. The places of two separately trapped particles can also be changed. In this Letter we present elastic light scattering measurements as a function of scattering angle when two trapped spheres are illuminated with a He-Ne laser. This setup is suitable for trapping noncharged homogeneous spheres. We also demonstrate measurement of light scattering patterns from two separately trapped red blood cells. Two different illumination schemes are used for both samples.

  8. Luminescent properties of MAl(SO4)2 Br:Eu(3+) (M = Sr or Mg) red phosphors for near-UV light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Priti B; Puppalwar, S P; Dhoble, N S; Dhoble, S J

    2015-02-01

    Eu(3+) -activated MAl(SO4 )2 Br phosphors (where M = Mg or Sr) are successfully prepared using a wet chemical reaction technique. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies. The XRD pattern revealed that both the samples are microcrystalline in nature. PL of Eu(3+) -doped SrAl(SO4 )2 Br and MgAl(SO4 )2 Br phosphors exhibited characteristic red emission coming from the (5) D0  → (7) F2 (616 nm) electron transition, when excited by 396 nm wavelength of light. The maximum intensity of luminescence was observed at a concentration of 1 mol% Eu(3+) . The intensity of the electric dipole transition at 616 nm is greater than that of the magnetic dipole transition at 594 nm. The results showed that MAl(SO4 )2 Br:Eu(3+) , (M = Mg, Sr) phosphors have potential application in near-UV light-emitting diodes as efficient red-emitting phosphor. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Red-emitting phosphor Rb2TiF6:Mn4+ with high thermal-quenching resistance for wide color-gamut white light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhengliang; Yang, Zhiyu; Tan, Huiying; Brik, Mikhail G.; Zhou, Qiang; Chen, Guo; Liang, Hongbin

    2017-10-01

    Red-emitting phosphor plays a critical role in improving performance of the phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes (pc-WLEDs). Herein, a red-emitting phosphor, Rb2TiF6:Mn4+, was synthesized via the ion exchange method under mild condition. The crystal structure and morphology were characterized by the powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The Rietveld refinements of Rb2TiF6:Mn4+ indicate that this sample is of single phase with hexagonal crystal structure. The as-prepared Rb2TiF6:Mn4+ has sharp red emissions with broad excitation band at ∼460 nm. The luminescent behavior of Mn4+ was discussed in detail. The temperature-dependent emission spectra of Rb2TiF6:Mn4+ indicate that this phosphor shares high thermal quenching resistance and excellent color stability. A series of WLEDs with tunable color rendering index and color temperature were fabricated by combining commercial Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ and Rb2TiF6:Mn4+ on blue GaN-LED chips. With the addition of Rb2TiF6:Mn4+, WLED with wide gamut was obtained with low color temperature (3123 K), high color rendering index (91.5) and high luminous efficacy (187.9 lm/W). These findings show this phosphor could be a promising commercial red phosphor in wide color-gamut WLEDs.

  10. Atomic force microscopy of red-light photoreceptors using peakforce quantitative nanomechanical property mapping.

    PubMed

    Kroeger, Marie E; Sorenson, Blaire A; Thomas, J Santoro; Stojković, Emina A; Tsonchev, Stefan; Nicholson, Kenneth T

    2014-10-24

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) uses a pyramidal tip attached to a cantilever to probe the force response of a surface. The deflections of the tip can be measured to ~10 pN by a laser and sectored detector, which can be converted to image topography. Amplitude modulation or "tapping mode" AFM involves the probe making intermittent contact with the surface while oscillating at its resonant frequency to produce an image. Used in conjunction with a fluid cell, tapping-mode AFM enables the imaging of biological macromolecules such as proteins in physiologically relevant conditions. Tapping-mode AFM requires manual tuning of the probe and frequent adjustments of a multitude of scanning parameters which can be challenging for inexperienced users. To obtain high-quality images, these adjustments are the most time consuming. PeakForce Quantitative Nanomechanical Property Mapping (PF-QNM) produces an image by measuring a force response curve for every point of contact with the sample. With ScanAsyst software, PF-QNM can be automated. This software adjusts the set-point, drive frequency, scan rate, gains, and other important scanning parameters automatically for a given sample. Not only does this process protect both fragile probes and samples, it significantly reduces the time required to obtain high resolution images. PF-QNM is compatible for AFM imaging in fluid; therefore, it has extensive application for imaging biologically relevant materials. The method presented in this paper describes the application of PF-QNM to obtain images of a bacterial red-light photoreceptor, RpBphP3 (P3), from photosynthetic R. palustris in its light-adapted state. Using this method, individual protein dimers of P3 and aggregates of dimers have been observed on a mica surface in the presence of an imaging buffer. With appropriate adjustments to surface and/or solution concentration, this method may be generally applied to other biologically relevant macromolecules and soft materials.

  11. 282-nm AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with improved performance on nano-patterned sapphire substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Peng; Yan, Jianchang; Wang, Junxi; Zhang, Yun; Geng, Chong; Wei, Tongbo; Cong, Peipei; Zhang, Yiyun; Zeng, Jianping; Tian, Yingdong; Sun, Lili; Yan, Qingfeng; Li, Jinmin; Fan, Shunfei; Qin, Zhixin

    2013-06-01

    We first report AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) grown on nano-patterned sapphire substrates (NPSS) prepared through a nanosphere lithography technique. The AlN coalescence thickness on NPSS is only 3 μm due to AlN's nano-scaled lateral growth, which also leads to low dislocation densities in AlN and epi-layers above. On NPSS, the light-output power of a 282-nm UV-LED reaches 3.03 mW at 20 mA with external quantum efficiency of 3.45%, exhibiting 98% better performance than that on flat sapphire. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence reveals this significant enhancement to be a combination of higher internal quantum efficiency and higher light extraction efficiency.

  12. III-nitride nanowire LEDs and diode lasers: monolithic light sources on (001) Si emitting in the 600-1300nm range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, P.; Hazari, A.; Jahangir, S.

    2018-02-01

    GaN-based nanowire heterostructure arrays epitaxially grown on (001)Si substrates have unique properties and present the potential to realize useful devices. The active light-emitting region in the nanowire heterostructures are usually InGaN disks, whose composition can be varied to tune the emission wavelength. We have demonstrated light emitting diodes and edgeemitting diode lasers with power outputs 10mW with emission in the 600-1300nm wavelength range. These light sources are therefore useful for a variety of applications, including silicon photonics. Molecular beam epitaxial growth of the nanowire heterostructure arrays on (001)Si substrates and the characteristics of 1.3μm nanowire array edge emitting lasers, guided wave photodiodes and a monolithic photonic integrated circuit designed for 1.3μm operation are described.

  13. Leaf Morphology, Photosynthetic Performance, Chlorophyll Fluorescence, Stomatal Development of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Exposed to Different Ratios of Red Light to Blue Light.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Lu, Wei; Tong, Yuxin; Yang, Qichang

    2016-01-01

    Red and blue light are both vital factors for plant growth and development. We examined how different ratios of red light to blue light (R/B) provided by light-emitting diodes affected photosynthetic performance by investigating parameters related to photosynthesis, including leaf morphology, photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll fluorescence, stomatal development, light response curve, and nitrogen content. In this study, lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L.) were exposed to 200 μmol⋅m(-2)⋅s(-1) irradiance for a 16 h⋅d(-1) photoperiod under the following six treatments: monochromatic red light (R), monochromatic blue light (B) and the mixture of R and B with different R/B ratios of 12, 8, 4, and 1. Leaf photosynthetic capacity (A max) and photosynthetic rate (P n) increased with decreasing R/B ratio until 1, associated with increased stomatal conductance, along with significant increase in stomatal density and slight decrease in stomatal size. P n and A max under B treatment had 7.6 and 11.8% reduction in comparison with those under R/B = 1 treatment, respectively. The effective quantum yield of PSII and the efficiency of excitation captured by open PSII center were also significantly lower under B treatment than those under the other treatments. However, shoot dry weight increased with increasing R/B ratio with the greatest value under R/B = 12 treatment. The increase of shoot dry weight was mainly caused by increasing leaf area and leaf number, but no significant difference was observed between R and R/B = 12 treatments. Based on the above results, we conclude that quantitative B could promote photosynthetic performance or growth by stimulating morphological and physiological responses, yet there was no positive correlation between P n and shoot dry weight accumulation.

  14. Leaf Morphology, Photosynthetic Performance, Chlorophyll Fluorescence, Stomatal Development of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Exposed to Different Ratios of Red Light to Blue Light

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Lu, Wei; Tong, Yuxin; Yang, Qichang

    2016-01-01

    Red and blue light are both vital factors for plant growth and development. We examined how different ratios of red light to blue light (R/B) provided by light-emitting diodes affected photosynthetic performance by investigating parameters related to photosynthesis, including leaf morphology, photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll fluorescence, stomatal development, light response curve, and nitrogen content. In this study, lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L.) were exposed to 200 μmol⋅m−2⋅s−1 irradiance for a 16 h⋅d−1 photoperiod under the following six treatments: monochromatic red light (R), monochromatic blue light (B) and the mixture of R and B with different R/B ratios of 12, 8, 4, and 1. Leaf photosynthetic capacity (Amax) and photosynthetic rate (Pn) increased with decreasing R/B ratio until 1, associated with increased stomatal conductance, along with significant increase in stomatal density and slight decrease in stomatal size. Pn and Amax under B treatment had 7.6 and 11.8% reduction in comparison with those under R/B = 1 treatment, respectively. The effective quantum yield of PSII and the efficiency of excitation captured by open PSII center were also significantly lower under B treatment than those under the other treatments. However, shoot dry weight increased with increasing R/B ratio with the greatest value under R/B = 12 treatment. The increase of shoot dry weight was mainly caused by increasing leaf area and leaf number, but no significant difference was observed between R and R/B = 12 treatments. Based on the above results, we conclude that quantitative B could promote photosynthetic performance or growth by stimulating morphological and physiological responses, yet there was no positive correlation between Pn and shoot dry weight accumulation. PMID:27014285

  15. Riding through red lights: the rate, characteristics and risk factors of non-compliant urban commuter cyclists.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Marilyn; Newstead, Stuart; Charlton, Judith; Oxley, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This study determined the rate and associated factors of red light infringement among urban commuter cyclists. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted using a covert video camera to record cyclists at 10 sites across metropolitan Melbourne, Australia from October 2008 to April 2009. In total, 4225 cyclists faced a red light and 6.9% were non-compliant. The main predictive factor for infringement was direction of travel, cyclists turning left (traffic travels on the left-side in Australia) had 28.3 times the relative odds of infringement compared to cyclists who continued straight through the intersection. Presence of other road users had a deterrent effect with the odds of infringement lower when a vehicle travelling in the same direction was present (OR=0.39, 95% CI 0.28-0.53) or when other cyclists were present (OR=0.26, 95% CI 0.19-0.36). Findings suggest that some cyclists do not perceive turning left against a red signal to be unsafe and the opportunity to ride through the red light during low cross traffic times influences the likelihood of infringement. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Photosystem II Photochemistry and Phycobiliprotein of the Red Algae Kappaphycus alvarezii and Their Implications for Light Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinfeng; Zhu, Jianyi; Yao, Chunyan; Liu, Jianguo; Qin, Song; Jiang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Photosystem II photochemistry and phycobiliprotein (PBP) genes of red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii, raw material of κ-carrageenan used in food and pharmaceutical industries, were analyzed in this study. Minimum saturating irradiance (I k) of this algal species was less than 115 μmol m−2 s−1. Its actual PSII efficiency (yield II) increased when light intensity enhanced and decreased when light intensity reached 200 μmol m−2 s−1. Under dim light, yield II declined at first and then increased on the fourth day. Under high light, yield II retained a stable value. These results indicate that K. alvarezii is a low-light-adapted species but possesses regulative mechanisms in response to both excessive and deficient light. Based on the PBP gene sequences, K. alvarezii, together with other red algae, assembled faster and showed a closer relationship with LL-Prochlorococcus compared to HL-Prochlorococcus. Many amino acid loci in PBP sequences of K. alvarezii were conserved with those of LL-Prochlorococcus. However, loci conserved with HL-Prochlorococcus but divergent with LL-Prochlorococcus were also found. The diversities of PE and PC are proposed to have played some roles during the algal evolution and divergence of light adaption. PMID:24380080

  17. Photosystem II photochemistry and phycobiliprotein of the red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii and their implications for light adaptation.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xiangyu; Wang, Jinfeng; Zhu, Jianyi; Yao, Chunyan; Liu, Jianguo; Qin, Song; Jiang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Photosystem II photochemistry and phycobiliprotein (PBP) genes of red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii, raw material of κ -carrageenan used in food and pharmaceutical industries, were analyzed in this study. Minimum saturating irradiance (I k) of this algal species was less than 115 μmol m(-2) s(-1). Its actual PSII efficiency (yield II) increased when light intensity enhanced and decreased when light intensity reached 200 μmol m(-2) s(-1). Under dim light, yield II declined at first and then increased on the fourth day. Under high light, yield II retained a stable value. These results indicate that K. alvarezii is a low-light-adapted species but possesses regulative mechanisms in response to both excessive and deficient light. Based on the PBP gene sequences, K. alvarezii, together with other red algae, assembled faster and showed a closer relationship with LL-Prochlorococcus compared to HL-Prochlorococcus. Many amino acid loci in PBP sequences of K. alvarezii were conserved with those of LL-Prochlorococcus. However, loci conserved with HL-Prochlorococcus but divergent with LL-Prochlorococcus were also found. The diversities of PE and PC are proposed to have played some roles during the algal evolution and divergence of light adaption.

  18. Radioprotective Action of Low-Intensity Light into the Red Absorption Band of Endogenous Molecular Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A. V.; Mashalov, A. A.; Zakharov, S. D.

    2016-08-01

    Application of ionizing radiation in oncology (radiation therapy) is a widespread way to eliminate malignant tumors. Normal tissues are inevitable included in any radiation field, and their reliable protection is actual till now. All attempts to solve the problem are based on search of effective radioprotectors, i.e. chemical compounds of various classes, which should be entered into the patient. To date about 50,000 compounds with some radioprotection properties had been tested, but the most effective of them have been simultaneously the most toxic. Here the preliminary results of researches devoted to development of an optical technique on basis of the light-oxygen effect for the protection of women with breast cancer from side effects of the radiation therapy are presented. A low intensity emission of the semiconductor laser in a red spectral interval was used to excite a very small quantity of endogenous molecular oxygen in O2(1Δg) state. It is shown, that application of the method at occurrence of earliest signs of radiation injury allows notably reducing dangerous breaks in radiation therapy course.

  19. Photoinhibition of stem elongation by blue and red light: effects on hydraulic and cell wall properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kigel, J.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    The underlying mechanism of photoinhibition of stem elongation by blue (BL) and red light (RL) was studied in etiolated seedlings of pea (Pisum sativum L. cv Alaska). Brief BL irradiations resulted in fast transient inhibition of elongation, while a delayed (lag approximately 60 minutes) but prolonged inhibition was observed after brief RL. Possible changes in the hydraulic and wall properties of the growing cells during photoinhibition were examined. Cell sap osmotic pressure was unaffected by BL and RL, but both irradiations increased turgor pressure by approximately 0.05 megapascal (pressure-probe technique). Cell wall yielding was analyzed by in vivo stress relaxation (pressure-block technique). BL and RL reduced the initial rate of relaxation by 38 and 54%, while the final amount of relaxation was decreased by 48 and 10%, respectively. These results indicate that RL inhibits elongation mainly by lowering the wall yield coefficient, while most of the inhibitory effect of BL was due to an increase of the yield threshold. Mechanical extensibility of cell walls (Instron technique) was decreased by BL and RL, mainly due to a reduction in the plastic component of extensibility. Thus, photoinhibitions of elongation by both BL and RL are achieved through changes in cell wall properties, and are not due to effects on the hydraulic properties of the cell.

  20. How counterfactuals of Red-Queen theory shed light on science and its historiography.

    PubMed

    Dagg, Joachim L

    2017-08-01

    A historical episode of evolutionary theory, which has lead to the Red Queen theory of the evolutionary maintenance of sex, includes two striking contingencies. These are used to explore alternative what-if scenarios, in order to test some common opinions about such counterfactuals. This sheds new light on the nature of science and its historiography. One counterfactual leads to an unexpected convergence of its result to that of the actual science but, nevertheless, differs in its causal structure. The other diverges towards an incompatible alternative, but this requires further contingent choices that also diverge from actual science. The convergence in the first counterfactual is due to a horizontal transfer of knowledge. Similar transfers of knowledge are typical for innovations of actual science. This suggests that contingent choices can merge as well as fork research traditions both in actual research and counterfactual history. Neither the paths of the actual history of science nor those of its counterfactual alternatives will form a tree of exclusively diverging bifurcations, but a network instead. Convergencies in counterfactuals may, therefore, be due to the web-structure of science as much as to the aims of the historians in question. Furthermore, the difference in causal structure between the actual science and its convergent counterfactual might become diagnostic for external factors rather than internal aims forcing a historian towards convergence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Zinc Incorporation on the Performance of Red Light Emitting InP Core Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Xi, Lifei; Cho, Deok-Yong; Besmehn, Astrid; Duchamp, Martial; Grützmacher, Detlev; Lam, Yeng Ming; Kardynał, Beata E

    2016-09-06

    This report presents a systematic study on the effect of zinc (Zn) carboxylate precursor on the structural and optical properties of red light emitting InP nanocrystals (NCs). NC cores were assessed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). When moderate Zn:In ratios in the reaction pot were used, the incorporation of Zn in InP was insufficient to change the crystal structure or band gap of the NCs, but photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) increased dramatically compared with pure InP NCs. Zn was found to incorporate mostly in the phosphate layer on the NCs. PL, PLQY, and time-resolved PL (TRPL) show that Zn carboxylates added to the precursors during NC cores facilitate the synthesis of high-quality InP NCs by suppressing nonradiative and sub-band-gap recombination, and the effect is visible also after a ZnS shell is grown on the cores.

  2. High efficient white organic light-emitting diodes with single emissive layer using phosphorescent red, green, and blue dopants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, You-Hyun; Wai Cheah, Kok; Young Kim, Woo

    2013-07-01

    Phosphorescent white organic light-emitting diodes (PHWOLEDs) with single emissive layer were fabricated by co-doping phosphorescent blue, green, and red emitters with different concentrations. WOLEDs using Ir(piq)3 and Ir(ppy)3 as red and green dopants along with 8% of Firpic as blue dopant with host materials of 4CzPBP in the emissive layer were compared under various doping ratio between Ir(piq)3 and Ir(ppy)3. Triplet-triplet Dexter energy transfer in single emissive PHWOLEDs including three primary colors was saturated from higher triplet energy levels to lower triplet energy levels directly.

  3. Ultrafast primary processes of an iron-(III) azido complex in solution induced with 266 nm light.

    PubMed

    Vennekate, Hendrik; Schwarzer, Dirk; Torres-Alacan, Joel; Krahe, Oliver; Filippou, Alexander C; Neese, Frank; Vöhringer, Peter

    2012-05-14

    The ultrafast photo-induced primary processes of the iron-(III) azido complex, [Fe(III)N(3)(cyclam-acetato)] PF(6) (1), in acetonitrile solution at room temperature were studied using femtosecond spectroscopy with ultraviolet (UV) excitation and mid-infrared (MIR) detection. Following the absorption of a 266 nm photon, the complex undergoes an internal conversion back to the electronic doublet ground state at a time scale below 2 ps. Subsequently, the electronic ground state vibrationally cools with a characteristic time constant of 13 ps. A homolytic bond cleavage was also observed by the appearance of ground state azide radicals, which were identified by their asymmetric stretching vibration at 1659 cm(-1). The azide radical recombines in a geminate fashion with the iron containing fragment within 20 ps. The cage escape leading to well separated fragments after homolytic Fe-N bond breakage was found to occur with a quantum yield of 35%. Finally, non-geminate recombination at nanosecond time scales was seen to further reduce the photolytic quantum yield to below 20% at a wavelength of 266 nm. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2012

  4. Direct transparent electrode patterning on layered GaN substrate by screen printing of indium tin oxide nanoparticle ink for Eu-doped GaN red light-emitting diode

    SciTech Connect

    Kashiwagi, Y., E-mail: kasiwagi@omtri.or.jp; Yamamoto, M.; Saitoh, M.

    2014-12-01

    Transparent electrodes were formed on Eu-doped GaN-based red-light-emitting diode (GaN:Eu LED) substrates by the screen printing of indium tin oxide nanoparticle (ITO np) inks as a wet process. The ITO nps with a mean diameter of 25 nm were synthesized by the controlled thermolysis of a mixture of indium complexes and tin complexes. After the direct screen printing of ITO np inks on GaN:Eu LED substrates and sintering at 850 °C for 10 min under atmospheric conditions, the resistivity of the ITO film was 5.2 mΩ cm. The fabricated LED up to 3 mm square surface emitted red light when the on-voltage was exceeded.

  5. Direct transparent electrode patterning on layered GaN substrate by screen printing of indium tin oxide nanoparticle ink for Eu-doped GaN red light-emitting diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashiwagi, Y.; Koizumi, A.; Takemura, Y.; Furuta, S.; Yamamoto, M.; Saitoh, M.; Takahashi, M.; Ohno, T.; Fujiwara, Y.; Murahashi, K.; Ohtsuka, K.; Nakamoto, M.

    2014-12-01

    Transparent electrodes were formed on Eu-doped GaN-based red-light-emitting diode (GaN:Eu LED) substrates by the screen printing of indium tin oxide nanoparticle (ITO np) inks as a wet process. The ITO nps with a mean diameter of 25 nm were synthesized by the controlled thermolysis of a mixture of indium complexes and tin complexes. After the direct screen printing of ITO np inks on GaN:Eu LED substrates and sintering at 850 °C for 10 min under atmospheric conditions, the resistivity of the ITO film was 5.2 mΩ cm. The fabricated LED up to 3 mm square surface emitted red light when the on-voltage was exceeded.

  6. Blue light dose–responses of leaf photosynthesis, morphology, and chemical composition of Cucumis sativus grown under different combinations of red and blue light

    PubMed Central

    Hogewoning, Sander W.; Trouwborst, Govert; Maljaars, Hans; Poorter, Hendrik; van Ieperen, Wim; Harbinson, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    The blue part of the light spectrum has been associated with leaf characteristics which also develop under high irradiances. In this study blue light dose–response curves were made for the photosynthetic properties and related developmental characteristics of cucumber leaves that were grown at an equal irradiance under seven different combinations of red and blue light provided by light-emitting diodes. Only the leaves developed under red light alone (0% blue) displayed dysfunctional photosynthetic operation, characterized by a suboptimal and heterogeneously distributed dark-adapted Fv/Fm, a stomatal conductance unresponsive to irradiance, and a relatively low light-limited quantum yield for CO2 fixation. Only 7% blue light was sufficient to prevent any overt dysfunctional photosynthesis, which can be considered a qualitatively blue light effect. The photosynthetic capacity (Amax) was twice as high for leaves grown at 7% blue compared with 0% blue, and continued to increase with increasing blue percentage during growth measured up to 50% blue. At 100% blue, Amax was lower but photosynthetic functioning was normal. The increase in Amax with blue percentage (0–50%) was associated with an increase in leaf mass per unit leaf area (LMA), nitrogen (N) content per area, chlorophyll (Chl) content per area, and stomatal conductance. Above 15% blue, the parameters Amax, LMA, Chl content, photosynthetic N use efficiency, and the Chl:N ratio had a comparable relationship as reported for leaf responses to irradiance intensity. It is concluded that blue light during growth is qualitatively required for normal photosynthetic functioning and quantitatively mediates leaf responses resembling those to irradiance intensity. PMID:20504875

  7. Influence of high power 405 nm multi-mode and single-mode diode laser light on the long-term stability of fused silica fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonschior, C. P.; Klein, K.-F.; Sun, T.; Grattan, K. T. V.

    2012-04-01

    As the demand for high power fiber-coupled violet laser systems increases existing problems remain. The typical power of commercially available diode lasers around 400 nm is in the order of 100 to 300 mW, depending on the type of laser. But in combination with the small core of single-mode fibers reduced spot sizes are needed for good coupling efficiencies, leading to power densities in the MW/cm2 range. We investigated the influence of 405 nm laser light irradiation on different fused silica fibers and differently treated end-faces. The effect of glued-and-polished, cleaved-and-clamped and of cleaved-and-fusion-arc-treated fiber end-faces on the damage rate and behavior are presented. In addition, effects in the deep ultra-violet were determined spectrally using newest spectrometer technology, allowing the measurement of color centers around 200 nm in small core fibers. Periodic surface structures were found on the proximal end-faces and were investigated concerning generation control parameters and composition. The used fiber types range from low-mode fiber to single-mode and polarization-maintaining fiber. For this investigation 405 nm single-mode or multi-mode diode lasers with 150 mW or 300 mW, respectively, were employed.

  8. Structure–Function Analysis of the Non-Muscle Myosin Light Chain Kinase (nmMLCK) Isoform by NMR Spectroscopy and Molecular Modeling: Influence of MYLK Variants

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Kui; Ramirez, Benjamin; Mapes, Brandon; Shen, Grace R.; Gokhale, Vijay; Brown, Mary E.; Santarsiero, Bernard; Ishii, Yoshitaka; Dudek, Steven M.; Wang, Ting; Garcia, Joe G. N.

    2015-01-01

    The MYLK gene encodes the multifunctional enzyme, myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), involved in isoform-specific non-muscle and smooth muscle contraction and regulation of vascular permeability during inflammation. Three MYLK SNPs (P21H, S147P, V261A) alter the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the non-muscle isoform of MLCK (nmMLCK) and are highly associated with susceptibility to acute lung injury (ALI) and asthma, especially in individuals of African descent. To understand the functional effects of SNP associations, we examined the N-terminal segments of nmMLCK by 1H-15N heteronuclear single quantum correlation (HSQC) spectroscopy, a 2-D NMR technique, and by in silico molecular modeling. Both NMR analysis and molecular modeling indicated SNP localization to loops that connect the immunoglobulin-like domains of nmMLCK, consistent with minimal structural changes evoked by these SNPs. Molecular modeling analysis identified protein-protein interaction motifs adversely affected by these MYLK SNPs including binding by the scaffold protein 14-3-3, results confirmed by immunoprecipitation and western blot studies. These structure-function studies suggest novel mechanisms for nmMLCK regulation, which may confirm MYLK as a candidate gene in inflammatory lung disease and advance knowledge of the genetic underpinning of lung-related health disparities. PMID:26111161

  9. Influence of red light on reproductive performance, eggshell ultrastructure, and eye morphology in Thai-native hens.

    PubMed

    Gongruttananun, N

    2011-12-01

    In total, 120 Thai-native pullets (Gallus domesticus) aged 18 wk were housed in floor pens, located in a conventional open-sided shed under natural daylight (12L:12D) and randomly divided into 3 groups; Groups 1 (DF) and 2 (DR) were reared under natural daylight and supplemented with fluorescent or red light, respectively, whereas group 3 (R) was maintained in light-controlled pens and exposed only to red light. The red light was produced by light-emitting diodes. All treatments were provided with 16 h of light per day (16L:8D) during a 26-wk egg-laying period, and there were 4 replicate pens of 10 hens for each treatment. Photostimulation of these light sources was initiated at 18 wk of age and subsequent effects on reproductive performance were observed during the experimental period. Morphological characteristics of the eyes and eggshell microstructure were examined at the end of the study. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. There were no significant differences in BW, feed intake, egg weight, egg quality, or mortality rate due to the treatment. Pullets in the R and DR treatment groups commenced egg production significantly earlier than those in the DF treatment group. In early-season egg production (0-8 wk), cumulative egg number was significantly (P < 0.05) higher for the R treatment (25.9 eggs/hen) than for the DR (20.9) and DF (19.5) treatment groups. No significant differences in total egg production per hen occurred among the treatment groups. At 2 wk following photostimulation, hens in the R treatment group had significantly (P < 0.05) higher serum estradiol concentrations compared with hens in the other treatment groups. Neither eggshell structure nor eye morphology was affected by the treatments. It was concluded that the spectrum of red light did not affect live performance, egg production, egg quality, eggshell microstructure, or eye morphology of Thai-native hens, except for in accelerating sexual development. The light-emitting diode lighting

  10. Using digital inpainting to estimate incident light intensity for the calculation of red blood cell oxygen saturation from microscopy images.

    PubMed

    Sové, Richard J; Drakos, Nicole E; Fraser, Graham M; Ellis, Christopher G

    2018-05-25

    Red blood cell oxygen saturation is an important indicator of oxygen supply to tissues in the body. Oxygen saturation can be measured by taking advantage of spectroscopic properties of hemoglobin. When this technique is applied to transmission microscopy, the calculation of saturation requires determination of incident light intensity at each pixel occupied by the red blood cell; this value is often approximated from a sequence of images as the maximum intensity over time. This method often fails when the red blood cells are moving too slowly, or if hematocrit is too large since there is not a large enough gap between the cells to accurately calculate the incident intensity value. A new method of approximating incident light intensity is proposed using digital inpainting. This novel approach estimates incident light intensity with an average percent error of approximately 3%, which exceeds the accuracy of the maximum intensity based method in most cases. The error in incident light intensity corresponds to a maximum error of approximately 2% saturation. Therefore, though this new method is computationally more demanding than the traditional technique, it can be used in cases where the maximum intensity-based method fails (e.g. stationary cells), or when higher accuracy is required. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantitative analysis of optical properties of flowing blood using a photon-cell interactive Monte Carlo code: effects of red blood cells' orientation on light scattering.

    PubMed

    Sakota, Daisuke; Takatani, Setsuo

    2012-05-01

    Optical properties of flowing blood were analyzed using a photon-cell interactive Monte Carlo (pciMC) model with the physical properties of the flowing red blood cells (RBCs) such as cell size, shape, refractive index, distribution, and orientation as the parameters. The scattering of light by flowing blood at the He-Ne laser wavelength of 632.8 nm was significantly affected by the shear rate. The light was scattered more in the direction of flow as the flow rate increased. Therefore, the light intensity transmitted forward in the direction perpendicular to flow axis decreased. The pciMC model can duplicate the changes in the photon propagation due to moving RBCs with various orientations. The resulting RBC's orientation that best simulated the experimental results was with their long axis perpendicular to the direction of blood flow. Moreover, the scattering probability was dependent on the orientation of the RBCs. Finally, the pciMC code was used to predict the hematocrit of flowing blood with accuracy of approximately 1.0 HCT%. The photon-cell interactive Monte Carlo (pciMC) model can provide optical properties of flowing blood and will facilitate the development of the non-invasive monitoring of blood in extra corporeal circulatory systems.

  12. Effect of Casino-Related Sound, Red Light and Pairs on Decision-Making During the Iowa Gambling Task

    PubMed Central

    Noël, Xavier; Bechara, Antoine; Vanavermaete, Nora; Verbanck, Paul; Kornreich, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Casino venues are often characterized by “warm” colors, reward-related sounds, and the presence of others. These factors have always been identified as a key factor in energizing gambling. However, few empirical studies have examined their impact on gambling behaviors. Here, we aimed to explore the impact of combined red light and casino-related sounds, with or without the presence of another participant, on gambling-related behaviors. Gambling behavior was estimated with the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Eighty non-gamblers participants took part in one of four experimental conditions (20 participants in each condition); (1) IGT without casino-related sound and under normal (white) light (control), (2) IGT with combined casino-related sound and red light (casino alone), (3) IGT with combined casino-related sound, red light and in front of another participant (casino competition—implicit), and (4) IGT with combined casino-related sound, red light and against another participant (casino competition—explicit). Results showed that, in contrast to the control condition, participants in the three “casino” conditions did not exhibit slower deck selection reaction time after losses than after rewards. Moreover, participants in the two “competition” conditions displayed lowered deck selection reaction time after losses and rewards, as compared with the control and the “casino alone” conditions. These findings suggest that casino environment may diminish the time used for reflecting and thinking before acting after losses. These findings are discussed along with the methodological limitations, potential directions for future studies, as well as implications to enhance prevention strategies of abnormal gambling. PMID:24414096

  13. Effect of casino-related sound, red light and pairs on decision-making during the Iowa gambling task.

    PubMed

    Brevers, Damien; Noël, Xavier; Bechara, Antoine; Vanavermaete, Nora; Verbanck, Paul; Kornreich, Charles

    2015-06-01

    Casino venues are often characterized by "warm" colors, reward-related sounds, and the presence of others. These factors have always been identified as a key factor in energizing gambling. However, few empirical studies have examined their impact on gambling behaviors. Here, we aimed to explore the impact of combined red light and casino-related sounds, with or without the presence of another participant, on gambling-related behaviors. Gambling behavior was estimated with the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Eighty non-gamblers participants took part in one of four experimental conditions (20 participants in each condition); (1) IGT without casino-related sound and under normal (white) light (control), (2) IGT with combined casino-related sound and red light (casino alone), (3) IGT with combined casino-related sound, red light and in front of another participant (casino competition-implicit), and (4) IGT with combined casino-related sound, red light and against another participant (casino competition-explicit). Results showed that, in contrast to the control condition, participants in the three "casino" conditions did not exhibit slower deck selection reaction time after losses than after rewards. Moreover, participants in the two "competition" conditions displayed lowered deck selection reaction time after losses and rewards, as compared with the control and the "casino alone" conditions. These findings suggest that casino environment may diminish the time used for reflecting and thinking before acting after losses. These findings are discussed along with the methodological limitations, potential directions for future studies, as well as implications to enhance prevention strategies of abnormal gambling.

  14. Effect of radiant heat on conventional glass ionomer cements during setting by using a blue light diode laser system (445 nm).

    PubMed

    Dionysopoulos, Dimitrios; Tolidis, Kosmas; Strakas, Dimitrios; Gerasimou, Paris; Sfeikos, Thrasyvoulos; Gutknecht, Norbert

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of radiant heat on surface hardness of three conventional glass ionomer cements (GICs) by using a blue diode laser system (445 nm) and a light-emitting diode (LED) unit. Additionally, the safety of the laser treatment was evaluated. Thirty disk-shaped specimens were prepared of each tested GIC (Equia Fil, Ketac Universal Aplicap and Riva Self Cure). The experimental groups (n = 10) of the study were as follows: group 1 was the control group of the study; in group 2, the specimens were irradiated for 60 s at the top surface using a LED light-curing unit; and in group 3, the specimens were irradiated for 60 s at the top surface using a blue light diode laser system (445 nm). Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests at a level of significance of a = 0.05. Radiant heat treatments, with both laser and LED devices, increased surface hardness (p < 0.05) but in different extent. Blue diode laser treatment was seemed to be more effective compared to LED treatment. There were no alterations in surface morphology or chemical composition after laser treatment. The tested radiant heat treatment with a blue diode laser may be advantageous for the longevity of GIC restorations. The safety of the use of blue diode laser for this application was confirmed.

  15. Resveratrol Prevents High Fluence Red Light-Emitting Diode Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Photoinhibition of Human Skin Fibroblast Migration.

    PubMed

    Mamalis, Andrew; Koo, Eugene; Isseroff, R Rivkah; Murphy, William; Jagdeo, Jared

    2015-01-01

    Skin fibrosis is a significant medical problem that leads to a functional, aesthetic, and psychosocial impact on quality-of-life. Light-emitting diode-generated 633-nm red light (LED-RL) is part of the visible light spectrum that is not known to cause DNA damage and is considered a safe, non-invasive, inexpensive, and portable potential alternative to ultraviolet phototherapy that may change the treatment paradigm of fibrotic skin disease. The goal of our study was to investigate the how reactive oxygen species (ROS) free radicals generated by high fluence LED-RL inhibit the migration of skin fibroblasts, the main cell type involved in skin fibrosis. Fibroblast migration speed is increased in skin fibrosis, and we studied cellular migration speed of cultured human skin fibroblasts as a surrogate measure of high fluence LED-RL effect on fibroblast function. To ascertain the inhibitory role of LED-RL generated ROS on migration speed, we hypothesized that resveratrol, a potent antioxidant, could prevent the photoinhibitory effects of high fluence LED-RL on fibroblast migration speed. High fluence LED-RL generated ROS were measured by flow cytometry analysis using dihydrorhodamine (DHR). For purposes of comparison, we assessed the effects of ROS generated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on fibroblast migration speed and the ability of resveratrol, a well known antioxidant, to prevent LED-RL and H2O2 generated ROS-associated changes in fibroblast migration speed. To determine whether resveratrol could prevent the high fluence LED-RL ROS-mediated photoinhibition of human skin fibroblast migration, treated cells were incubated with resveratrol at concentrations of 0.0001% and 0.001% for 24 hours, irradiated with high fluences LED-RL of 480, 640, and 800 J/cm2. High fluence LED-RL increases intracellular fibroblast ROS and decreases fibroblast migration speed. LED-RL at 480, 640 and 800 J/cm2 increased ROS levels to 132.8%, 151.0%, and 158.4% relative to matched controls

  16. Tuning the light emission of novel donor-acceptor phenoxazine dye-based materials towards the red spectral range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damaceanu, Mariana-Dana; Constantin, Catalin-Paul

    2018-04-01

    A novel red fluorescent push-pull system able to generate an intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) complex was synthesized. The novel dye (R-POX) combines some structural features which are rarely encountered in the design of other push-pull systems: hexyl-substituted phenoxazine as donor moiety, divinylketone as π-linker, and p-fluorobenzene as electron acceptor group. The relationship between the structural motif, photo-physical and electrochemical properties by UV-Vis absorption, photoluminescence and cyclic voltammetry was thoroughly investigated both as red dopant in poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) or polyimide (PI) matrix, and non-doped host emitter. The molecular rigid cores of the synthesized dye formed supramolecular rod-like structures in condensed phase with a strong impact on the emissive centers. The aggregation was totally suppressed when the dye was used as dopant in an amorphous polymeric matrix, such as PMMA or PI. Electrochemical measurements revealed the dye ability for both hole and electron injection and transport. The fluorescence emission was found to be highly sensitive to solvent polarity, rendering blue-green, yellow, orange and red light emission in different organic solvents. The absolute fluorescence quantum yield reached 39.57% in solution, and dropped to 1.2% in solid state and to 14.01% when the dye was used as dopant in PMMA matrix. According to the available CIE 1931 standard, R-POX emitted pure and saturated red light of single wavelength with chromaticity coordinates very close to those of National Television System Committee (NTSC) standard red colour. The R-POX photo-optical features were compared to those of the commercial red emitter 6, 13-diphenylpentacene.

  17. Light-extraction enhancement of GaN-based 395  nm flip-chip light-emitting diodes by an Al-doped ITO transparent conductive electrode.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin; Zhang, Wei; Peng, Meng; Dai, Jiangnan; Chen, Changqing

    2018-06-01

    The distinct ultraviolet (UV) light absorption of indium tin oxide (ITO) limits the performance of GaN-based near-UV light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Herein, we report an Al-doped ITO with enhanced UV transmittance and low sheet resistance as the transparent conductive electrode for GaN-based 395 nm flip-chip near-UV LEDs. The thickness dependence of optical and electrical properties of Al-doped ITO films is investigated. The optimal Al-doped ITO film exhibited a transmittance of 93.2% at 395 nm and an average sheet resistance of 30.1  Ω/sq. Meanwhile, at an injection current of 300 mA, the forward voltage decreased from 3.14 to 3.11 V, and the light output power increased by 13% for the 395 nm near-UV flip-chip LEDs with the optimal Al-doped ITO over those with pure ITO. This Letter provides a simple and repeatable approach to further improve the light extraction efficiency of GaN-based near-UV LEDs.

  18. Highly efficient organic light emitting diodes formed by solution processed red emitters with evaporated blue common layer structure.

    PubMed

    Cho, Ye Ram; Kim, Hyung Suk; Yu, Young-Jun; Suh, Min Chul

    2015-10-30

    We prepared highly-efficient solution-processed red phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) with a blue common layer structure that can reasonably confine the triplet excitons inside of the red emission layer (EML) with the assistance of a bipolar exciton blocking layer. The red PHOLEDs containing EML with a 7 : 3 ratio of 11-(4,6-diphenyl-[1,3,5]triazin-2-yl)-12-phenyl-11,12-dihydro-11,12-diaza-indeno[2,1-a]fluorene (n-type host, NH) : 4-(3-(triphenylen-2-yl)phenyl)dibenzo[b,d]thiophene (p-type host, PH) doped with 5% Iridium(III) bis(2-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)quinolinato-N,C2')tetramethylheptadionate (Red Dopant, RD) produced the highest current and power efficiencies at 23.4 cd/A and 13.6 lm/W, with a 19% external quantum efficiency at 1000 cd/m(2). To the best of our knowledge, such efficiency was the best among those that have been obtained from solution-processed small molecular red PHOLEDs. In addition, the host molecules utilized in this study have no flexible spacers, such as an alkyl chain, which normally deteriorate the stability of the device.

  19. Highly efficient organic light emitting diodes formed by solution processed red emitters with evaporated blue common layer structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Ye Ram; Kim, Hyung Suk; Yu, Young-Jun; Suh, Min Chul

    2015-10-01

    We prepared highly-efficient solution-processed red phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) with a blue common layer structure that can reasonably confine the triplet excitons inside of the red emission layer (EML) with the assistance of a bipolar exciton blocking layer. The red PHOLEDs containing EML with a 7 : 3 ratio of 11-(4,6-diphenyl-[1,3,5]triazin-2-yl)-12-phenyl-11,12-dihydro-11,12-diaza-indeno[2,1-a]fluorene (n-type host, NH) : 4-(3-(triphenylen-2-yl)phenyl)dibenzo[b,d]thiophene (p-type host, PH) doped with 5% Iridium(III) bis(2-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)quinolinato-N,C2’)tetramethylheptadionate (Red Dopant, RD) produced the highest current and power efficiencies at 23.4 cd/A and 13.6 lm/W, with a 19% external quantum efficiency at 1000 cd/m2. To the best of our knowledge, such efficiency was the best among those that have been obtained from solution-processed small molecular red PHOLEDs. In addition, the host molecules utilized in this study have no flexible spacers, such as an alkyl chain, which normally deteriorate the stability of the device.

  20. Highly efficient organic light emitting diodes formed by solution processed red emitters with evaporated blue common layer structure

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Ye Ram; Kim, Hyung Suk; Yu, Young-Jun; Suh, Min Chul

    2015-01-01

    We prepared highly-efficient solution-processed red phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) with a blue common layer structure that can reasonably confine the triplet excitons inside of the red emission layer (EML) with the assistance of a bipolar exciton blocking layer. The red PHOLEDs containing EML with a 7 : 3 ratio of 11-(4,6-diphenyl-[1,3,5]triazin-2-yl)-12-phenyl-11,12-dihydro-11,12-diaza-indeno[2,1-a]fluorene (n-type host, NH) : 4-(3-(triphenylen-2-yl)phenyl)dibenzo[b,d]thiophene (p-type host, PH) doped with 5% Iridium(III) bis(2-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)quinolinato-N,C2’)tetramethylheptadionate (Red Dopant, RD) produced the highest current and power efficiencies at 23.4 cd/A and 13.6 lm/W, with a 19% external quantum efficiency at 1000 cd/m2. To the best of our knowledge, such efficiency was the best among those that have been obtained from solution-processed small molecular red PHOLEDs. In addition, the host molecules utilized in this study have no flexible spacers, such as an alkyl chain, which normally deteriorate the stability of the device. PMID:26514274

  1. [Research of spectrum characteristics for light conversion agricultural films].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Song-pei; Li, Jian-yu; Chen, Juan; Xiao, Yang; Sun, Yu-e

    2004-10-01

    The solar spectrum and the function spectrum in chrysanthemum and tomato were determined in this paper. The research for a relation plant growth to solar spectrum showed that the efficiency of plant making use of ultraviolet light of 280-380 nm and yellow-green light of 500-600 nm and near IR spectra over 720 nm are lower, that the blue-purple light of 430-480 nm and red light of 630-690 nm are beneficial to enhancing photosynthesis and promoting plant growth. According to plant photosynthesis and solar spectrum characteristic, the author developed CaS:Cu+, Cl- blue light film, and red light film added with CaS:Eu2+, Mn2+, Cl- to convert green light into red light, and discussed the spectrum characteristic of red-blue double peak in agricultural film and rare earth organic complex which could convert ultraviolet light into red light. Just now, the study on light conversion regents in farm films is going to face new breakthrough and the technology of anti-stocks displacement to study red film which can convert near infrared light are worth to attention.

  2. Suppression of electron overflow in 370-nm InGaN/AlGaN ultraviolet light emitting diodes with different insertion layer thicknesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. K.; Wang, Y. W.; Chiou, Y. Z.; Chang, S. H.; Jheng, J. S.; Chang, S. P.; Chang, S. J.

    2017-06-01

    In this study, the properties of 370-nm InGaN/AlGaN ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) with different thicknesses of un-doped Al0.3Ga0.7N insertion layer (IL) between the last quantum barrier and electron blocking layer (EBL) have been numerically simulated by Advance Physical Model of Semiconductor Devices (APSYS). The results show that the LEDs using the high Al composition IL can effectively improve the efficiency droop, light output power, and internal quantum efficiency (IQE) compared to the original structure. The improvements of the optical properties are mainly attributed to the energy band discontinuity and offset created by IL, which increase the potential barrier height of conduction band to suppress the electron overflow from the active region to the p-side layer.

  3. The effects of temperature, relative humidity, light, and resource quality on flight initiation in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum

    PubMed Central

    Drury, Douglas W.; Whitesell, Matthew E.; Wade, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the environmental conditions that induce a flight response in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), including resource quality, temperature, relative humidity, and light. Over 72-h trial periods, we observed the proportion of individuals emigrating by flight to range from 0.0 in extreme heat or cold to 0.82 with starvation. Resource quality, presence of a light source, and temperature all directly influenced the initiation of the flight response. We did not detect any effect of relative humidity or sudden change in temperature on the incidence of flight. We discuss our findings in the context of Tribolium ecology and evolution. PMID:27087697

  4. The effects of temperature, relative humidity, light, and resource quality on flight initiation in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Drury, Douglas W; Whitesell, Matthew E; Wade, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the environmental conditions that induce a flight response in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), including resource quality, temperature, relative humidity, and light. Over 72-h trial periods, we observed the proportion of individuals emigrating by flight to range from 0.0 in extreme heat or cold to 0.82 with starvation. Resource quality, presence of a light source, and temperature all directly influenced the initiation of the flight response. We did not detect any effect of relative humidity or sudden change in temperature on the incidence of flight. We discuss our findings in the context of Tribolium ecology and evolution.

  5. Role of space charges on light-induced effects in nematic liquid crystals doped by methyl red.

    PubMed

    Lucchetti, L; Simoni, F

    2014-03-01

    We show that both the extraordinarily large nonlinear response and the light-induced permanent reorientation in liquid crystals doped by the azo dye methyl red originates from the same phenomenon of modification of the charge density on the irradiated surface. The demonstration is done by applying ac voltage to the samples, showing that in this case no permanent anchoring is possible. The measurements confirm the role of photoisomerization that gives a transient contribution to the actual reorientation process only in the high dose regime. This result allows us to draw a picture for light-induced effects that might be applied to a large class of compounds.

  6. A phytochrome/phototropin chimeric photoreceptor of fern functions as a blue/far-red light-dependent photoreceptor for phototropism in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kanegae, Takeshi; Kimura, Izumi

    2015-08-01

    In the fern Adiantum capillus-veneris, the phototropic response of the protonemal cells is induced by blue light and partially inhibited by subsequent irradiation with far-red light. This observation strongly suggests the existence of a phytochrome that mediates this blue/far-red reversible response; however, the phytochrome responsible for this response has not been identified. PHY3/NEO1, one of the three phytochrome genes identified in Adiantum, encodes a chimeric photoreceptor composed of both a phytochrome and a phototropin domain. It was demonstrated that phy3 mediates the red light-dependent phototropic response of Adiantum, and that phy3 potentially functions as a phototropin. These findings suggest that phy3 is the phytochrome that mediates the blue/far-red response in Adiantum protonemata. In the present study, we expressed Adiantum phy3 in a phot1 phot2 phototropin-deficient Arabidopsis line, and investigated the ability of phy3 to induce phototropic responses under various light conditions. Blue light irradiation clearly induced a phototropic response in the phy3-expressing transgenic seedlings, and this effect was fully inhibited by simultaneous irradiation with far-red light. In addition, experiments using amino acid-substituted phy3 indicated that FMN-cysteinyl adduct formation in the light, oxygen, voltage (LOV) domain was not necessary for the induction of blue light-dependent phototropism by phy3. We thus demonstrate that phy3 is the phytochrome that mediates the blue/far-red reversible phototropic response in Adiantum. Furthermore, our results imply that phy3 can function as a phototropin, but that it acts principally as a phytochrome that mediates both the red/far-red and blue/far-red light responses. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Highly Efficient Carbon Dots with Reversibly Switchable Green-Red Emissions for Trichromatic White Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Biao; Guan, Shanyue; Sun, Xingming; Li, Xiaoming; Zeng, Haibo; Xie, Zheng; Chen, Ping; Zhou, Shuyun

    2018-05-09

    Carbon dots (CDs) have potentials to be utilized in optoelectronic devices, bioimaging, and photocatalysis. The majority of the current CDs with high quantum yield to date were limited in the blue light emission region. Herein, on the basis of surface electron-state engineering, we report a kind of CDs with reversible switching ability between green and red photoluminescence with a quantum yield (QY) of both up to 80%. Highly efficient green and red solid-state luminescence is realized by doping CDs into a highly transparent matrix of methyltriethoxysilane and 3-triethoxysilylpropylamine to form CDs/gel glasses composites with QYs of 80 and 78%. The CDs/gel glasses show better transmittance in visible light bands and excellent thermal stability. A blue-pumped CDs/gel glasses phosphor-based trichromatic white light-emitting diode (WLED) is realized, whose color rendering index is 92.9. The WLED gets the highest luminous efficiency of 71.75 lm W -1 in CDs-based trichromatic WLEDs. This work opens a door for developing highly efficient green- and red-emissive switching CDs which were used as phosphors for WLEDs and have the tendency for applications in other fields, such as sensing, bioimaging, and photocatalysis.

  8. The effect of 580 nm-based-LED mixed light on growth, adipose deposition, skeletal development, and body temperature of chickens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yefeng; Zhen, Chenghuang; Yang, Bo; Yu, Yonghua; Pan, Jinming

    2018-06-01

    Though previous study indicated that the 580 nm-yellow-LED-light showed an stimulating effect on growth of chickens, the low luminous efficiency of the yellow LED light cannot reflect the advantage of energy saving. In present study, the cool white LED chips and yellow LED chips have been combined to fabricate the white × yellow mixed LED light, with an enhanced luminous efficiency. A total 300 newly hatched chickens were reared under various mixed LED light. The results indicated that the white × yellow mixed LED light had "double-edged sword" effects on bird's body weight, bone development, adipose deposition, and body temperature, depending on variations in ratios of yellow component. Low yellow ratio of mixed LED light (Low group) inhibited body weight, whereas medium and high yellow ratio of mixed LED light (Medium and High groups) promoted body weight, compared with white LED light (White group). A progressive change in yellow component gave rise to consistent changes in body weight over the entire experiment. Moreover, a positive relationship was observed between yellow component and feed conversion ratio. High group-treated birds had greater relative abdominal adipose weight than Medium group-treated birds (P = 0.048), whereas Medium group-treated birds had greater relative abdominal adipose weight than Low group-treated birds (P = 0.044). We found that mixed light improved body weight by enhancing skeletal development (R 2  = 0.5023, P = 0.0001) and adipose deposition (R 2  = 0.6012, P = 0.0001). Birds in the Medium, High and Yellow groups attained significantly higher surface temperatures compared with the White group (P = 0.010). The results suggest that the application of the mixed light with high level of yellow component can be used successfully to improve growth and productive performance in broilers. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Compact high-power red-green-blue laser light source generation from a single lithium tantalate with cascaded domain modulation.

    PubMed

    Xu, P; Zhao, L N; Lv, X J; Lu, J; Yuan, Y; Zhao, G; Zhu, S N

    2009-06-08

    1W quasi-white-light source has been generated from a single lithium tantalate with cascaded domain modulation. The quasi-white-light is combined by proper proportion of the red, green and blue laser light. The red and the blue result from a compact self-sum frequency optical parametric oscillation when pumped by a single green laser. The efficiency of quasi-white-light from the green pump reaches 27%. This compact design can be employed not only as a stable and powerful RGB light source but also an effective blue laser generator.

  10. Effect of extending the photoperiod with low-intensity red or far-red light on the timing of shoot elongation and flower-bud formation of 1-year-old Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia).

    PubMed

    Ito, Akiko; Saito, Takanori; Nishijima, Takaaki; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the effects of light quality (wavelength) on shoot elongation and flower-bud formation in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm. f.) Nakai), we treated 1-year-old trees with the following: (i) 8 h sunlight + 16 h dark (SD); (ii) 8 h sunlight + 16 h red light (LD(SD + R)); or (iii) 8 h sunlight + 16 h far-red (FR) light (LD(SD + FR)) daily for 4 months from early April (before the spring flush) until early August in 2009 and 2010. In both years, shoot elongation stopped earlier in the LD(SD + FR) treatment than in the SD and LD(SD + R) treatments. After 4 months of treatments, 21% (2009) or 40% (2010) of LD(SD + FR)-treated trees formed flower buds in the shoot apices, whereas all the shoot apices from SD or LD(SD + R)-treated plants remained vegetative. With an additional experiment conducted in 2012, we confirmed that FR light at 730 nm was the most efficacious wavelength to induce flower-bud formation. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that the expression of two floral meristem identity gene orthologues, LEAFY (PpLFY2a) and APETALA1 (PpMADS2-1a), were up-regulated in the shoot apex of LD(SD + FR). In contrast, the expression of a flowering repressor gene, TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (PpTFL1-1a, PpTFL1-2a), was down-regulated. In addition, expression of an orthologue of the flower-promoting gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (PpFT1a) was positively correlated with flower-bud formation, although the expression of another orthologue, PpFT2a, was negatively correlated with shoot growth. Biologically active cytokinin and gibberellic acid concentrations in shoot apices were reduced with LD(SD + FR) treatment. Taken together, our results indicate that pear plants are able to regulate flowering in response to the R : FR ratio. Furthermore, LD(SD + FR) treatment terminated shoot elongation and subsequent flower-bud formation in the shoot apex at an earlier time, possibly by influencing the expression of flowering-related genes and modifying

  11. The absence of attenuating effect of red light exposure on pre-existing melanopsin-driven post-illumination pupil response.

    PubMed

    Lei, Shaobo; Goltz, Herbert C; Sklar, Jaime C; Wong, Agnes M F

    2016-07-01

    It has been proposed that after activation by blue light, activated melanopsin is converted back to its resting state by long wavelength red light exposure, a putative mechanism of melanopsin chromophore recovery in vivo. We tested this hypothesis by investigating whether red light attenuates the ongoing post-illumination pupil response (PIPR) induced by melanopsin-activating blue light. Pupillary light responses were tested using "Blue+Red" double flashes and "Blue Only" single flash stimuli in 10 visually normal subjects. For "Blue+Red" conditions, PIPR was induced with an intense blue flash, followed by experimental red light exposure of variable intensity and duration (Experiment 1) immediately or 9s after the offset of the blue flash (Experiment 2). For "Blue Only" conditions, only the PIPR-inducing blue stimuli were presented (reference condition). PIPR was defined as the mean pupil size from 10 to 30s (Experiment 1) and from 25 to 60s (Experiment 2) after the offset of blue light stimuli. The results showed that PIPR from "Blue+Red" conditions did not differ significantly from those of "Blue Only" conditions (p=0.55) in Experiment 1. The two stimulation conditions also did not differ in Experiment 2 (p=0.38). We therefore conclude that red light exposure does not alter the time course of PIPR induced by blue light. This finding does not support the hypothesis that long wavelength red light reverses activated melanopsin; rather it lends support to the hypothesis that the wavelengths of stimuli driving both the forward and backward reactions of melanopsin may be similar. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Effect of the combination of white and red LED lighting during incubation on layer, broiler, and Pekin duck hatchability.

    PubMed

    Archer, G S; Jeffrey, D; Tucker, Z

    2017-08-01

    Previous research has shown that providing light during incubation can have positive effects on hatchability and chick quality; however, white light alone has been observed to improve these factors only in pigmented broiler eggs and non-pigmented white layer eggs. Monochromatic red light has been shown to improve hatchability in layer eggs. Therefore the objective of this study was to utilize one light fixture that emitted both white and monochromatic red light to determine if this one light source could improve hatchability in both types of chicken eggs and pigmented Pekin duck egg. To determine this, 3 experiments were conducted, the first using White Leghorn eggs (N = 6912), the second using commercial broiler eggs (N = 4608), and the third using commercial Pekin duck eggs (N = 3564) in which eggs were incubated with 12 h of light and 12 h of darkness (LED) or complete darkness (DARK); the light level was 250 lux. Hatchability, embryo mortality, and hatchling quality were measured. In Experiment 1, LED had fewer early dead embryos (P = 0.03), less overall embryo mortality (P = 0.05), fewer chicks with unhealed navels (P < 0.001), fewer chicks with defects (P < 0.001), and a higher percentage of fertile eggs that hatched (P = 0.05) than DARK. In Experiment 2, LED had fewer chicks with unhealed navels (P = 0.003), fewer chicks with defects (P = 0.001), and a higher percentage of fertile eggs that hatched (P = 0.04) than DARK. In Experiment 3, LED had fewer early dead embryos (P = 0.05), lower overall embryo mortality (P = 0.04), and a higher percentage of fertile eggs that hatched (P = 0.05), and had ducklings with lower bodyweights at hatch (P = 0.04) than DARK. These results indicate that providing both white and red light during incubation can improve chick quality across poultry varieties. This type of fixture could be used to improve commercial hatchery efficiency and chick quality. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. 450-nm GaN laser diode enables high-speed visible light communication with 9-Gbps QAM-OFDM.

    PubMed

    Chi, Yu-Chieh; Hsieh, Dan-Hua; Tsai, Cheng-Ting; Chen, Hsiang-Yu; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2015-05-18

    A TO-38-can packaged Gallium nitride (GaN) blue laser diode (LD) based free-space visible light communication (VLC) with 64-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) and 32-subcarrier orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission at 9 Gbps is preliminarily demonstrated over a 5-m free-space link. The 3-dB analog modulation bandwidth of the TO-38-can packaged GaN blue LD biased at 65 mA and controlled at 25°C is only 900 MHz, which can be extended to 1.5 GHz for OFDM encoding after throughput intensity optimization. When delivering the 4-Gbps 16-QAM OFDM data within 1-GHz bandwidth, the error vector magnitude (EVM), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and bit-error-rate (BER) of the received data are observed as 8.4%, 22.4 dB and 3.5 × 10(-8), respectively. By increasing the encoded bandwidth to 1.5 GHz, the TO-38-can packaged GaN blue LD enlarges its transmission capacity to 6 Gbps but degrades its transmitted BER to 1.7 × 10(-3). The same transmission capacity of 6 Gbps can also be achieved with a BER of 1 × 10(-6) by encoding 64-QAM OFDM data within 1-GHz bandwidth. Using the 1.5-GHz full bandwidth of the TO-38-can packaged GaN blue LD provides the 64-QAM OFDM transmission up to 9 Gbps, which successfully delivers data with an EVM of 5.1%, an SNR of 22 dB and a BER of 3.6 × 10(-3) passed the forward error correction (FEC) criterion.

  14. Dominant transverse-electric polarized emission from 298 nm MBE-grown AlN-delta-GaN quantum well ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cheng; Ooi, Yu Kee; Islam, S. M.; Xing, Huili Grace; Jena, Debdeep; Zhang, Jing

    2017-02-01

    III-nitride based ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diodes (LEDs) are of considerable interest in replacing gas lasers and mercury lamps for numerous applications. Specifically, AlGaN quantum well (QW) based LEDs have been developed extensively but the external quantum efficiencies of which remain less than 10% for wavelengths <300 nm due to high dislocation density, difficult p-type doping and most importantly, the physics and band structure from the three degeneration valence subbands. One solution to address this issue at deep UV wavelengths is by the use of the AlGaN-delta-GaN QW where the insertion of the delta-GaN layer can ensure the dominant conduction band (C) - heavyhole (HH) transition, leading to large transverse-electric (TE) optical output. Here, we proposed and investigated the physics and polarization-dependent optical characterizations of AlN-delta- GaN QW UV LED at 300 nm. The LED structure is grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) where the delta-GaN layer is 3-4 monolayer (QW-like) sandwiched by 2.5-nm AlN sub-QW layers. The physics analysis shows that the use of AlN-delta-GaN QW ensures a larger separation between the top HH subband and lower-energy bands, and strongly localizes the electron and HH wave functions toward the QW center and hence resulting in 30-time enhancement in TEpolarized spontaneous emission rate, compared to that of a conventional Al0.35Ga0.65N QW. The polarization-dependent electroluminescence measurements confirm our theoretical analysis; a dominant TE-polarized emission was obtained at 298 nm with a minimum transverse-magnetic (TM) polarized emission, indicating the feasibility of high-efficiency TEpolarized UV emitters based on our proposed QW structure.

  15. Transcriptome profiling of anthocyanin-related genes reveals effects of light intensity on anthocyanin biosynthesis in red leaf lettuce.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanzhao; Xu, Shuzhen; Cheng, Yanwei; Peng, Zhengfeng; Han, Jianming

    2018-01-01

    Red leaf lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.) is popular due to its high anthocyanin content, but poor leaf coloring often occurs under low light intensity. In order to reveal the mechanisms of anthocyanins affected by light intensity, we compared the transcriptome of L. sativa L. var. capitata under light intensities of 40 and 100 μmol m -2 s -1 . A total of 62,111 unigenes were de novo assembled with an N50 of 1,681 bp, and 48,435 unigenes were functionally annotated in public databases. A total of 3,899 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected, of which 1,377 unigenes were up-regulated and 2,552 unigenes were down-regulated in the high light samples. By Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analysis, the DEGs were significantly enriched in 14 pathways. Using gene annotation and phylogenetic analysis, we identified seven anthocyanin structural genes, including CHS , CHI , F3H , F3'H , DFR , ANS , and 3GT , and two anthocyanin transport genes, GST and MATE . In terms of anthocyanin regulatory genes, five MYBs and one bHLH gene were identified. An HY5 gene was discovered, which may respond to light-signaling and regulate anthocyanin structural genes. These genes showed a log2FC of 2.7-9.0 under high irradiance, and were validated using quantitative real-time-PCR. In conclusion, our results indicated transcriptome variance in red leaf lettuce under low and high light intensity, and observed a anthocyanin biosynthesis and regulation pattern. The data should further help to unravel the molecular mechanisms of anthocyanins influenced by light intensity.

  16. Patient perspectives on low level light therapy and laser therapies for rosacea-associated persistent facial redness.

    PubMed

    McGinley, Meagan; Alinia, Hossein; Kuo, Sandy; Huang, Karen E; Feldman, Steven R

    2014-12-13

    There are no definitive treatments of facial redness for rosacea. All treatments aim to alleviate symptoms. Patients' perspectives of two emerging modalities, Low level light therapy and laser treatments are not well characterized. The purpose is to further understand rosacea patients unmet needs about these modalities, Methods: The publicly accessible, online rosacea forum was accessed at august 2013. Stratified random sampling method has done to identify a 10% sample of total 27,051 posts. The Posts were published in the "Laser and IPL therapy" and "Low level light therapy" forums were qualitatively analyzed. Patients discussed a variety of topics, but most commonly discussed effectiveness (34.2%), treatment education (19.3%), and adverse effects (18%). Relationship with the health care provider (9.9%), cost (8.1%), execution of treatments (8.1%) and convenience of treatments (2.5%) were less commonly discussed, but contributed to patients' decisions about utilizing laser and light therapies. Online forums are utilized to fulfill patients' desire for educational, empathic and collaborative relationship. Patients' adherence to laser and light therapies will likely increase if costs are reduced, reduction in redness is consistent with their expectations, and if physicians empower them through education on device choices and managing adverse effects.

  17. Low driving voltage blue, green, yellow, red and white organic light-emitting diodes with a simply double light-emitting structure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhensong; Yue, Shouzhen; Wu, Yukun; Yan, Pingrui; Wu, Qingyang; Qu, Dalong; Liu, Shiyong; Zhao, Yi

    2014-01-27

    Low driving voltage blue, green, yellow, red and white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with a common simply double emitting layer (D-EML) structure are investigated. Our OLEDs without any out-coupling schemes as well as n-doping strategies show low driving voltage, e.g. < 2.4 V for onset and < 3 V for 1000 cd/m2, and high efficiency of 32.5 lm/W (13.3%), 58.8 lm/W (14.3%), 55.1 lm/W (14.6%), 24.9 lm/W (13.7%) and 45.1 lm/W (13.5%) for blue, green, yellow, red and white OLED, respectively. This work demonstrates that the low driving voltages and high efficiencies can be simultaneously realized with a common simply D-EML structure.

  18. The Acclimation of Phaeodactylum tricornutum to Blue and Red Light Does Not Influence the Photosynthetic Light Reaction but Strongly Disturbs the Carbon Allocation Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Jungandreas, Anne; Schellenberger Costa, Benjamin; Jakob, Torsten; von Bergen, Martin; Baumann, Sven; Wilhelm, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Diatoms are major contributors to the aquatic primary productivity and show an efficient acclimation ability to changing light intensities. Here, we investigated the acclimation of Phaeodactylum tricornutum to different light quality with respect to growth rate, photosynthesis rate, macromolecular composition and the metabolic profile by shifting the light quality from red light (RL) to blue light (BL) and vice versa. Our results show that cultures pre-acclimated to BL and RL exhibited similar growth performance, photosynthesis rates and metabolite profiles. However, light shift experiments revealed rapid and severe changes in the metabolite profile within 15 min as the initial reaction of light acclimation. Thus, during the shift from RL to BL, increased concentrations of amino acids and TCA cycle intermediates were observed whereas during the BL to RL shift the levels of amino acids were decreased and intermediates of glycolysis accumulated. Accordingly, on the time scale of hours the RL to BL shift led to a redirection of carbon into the synthesis of proteins, whereas during the BL to RL shift an accumulation of carbohydrates occurred. Thus, a vast metabolic reorganization of the cells was observed as the initial reaction to changes in light quality. The results are discussed with respect to a putative direct regulation of cellular enzymes by light quality and by transcriptional regulation. Interestingly, the short-term changes in the metabolome were accompanied by changes in the degree of reduction of the plastoquinone pool. Surprisingly, the RL to BL shift led to a severe inhibition of growth within the first 48 h which was not observed during the BL to RL shift. Furthermore, during the phase of growth arrest the photosynthetic performance did not change. We propose arguments that the growth arrest could have been caused by the reorganization of intracellular carbon partitioning. PMID:25111046

  19. Morphological, Photosynthetic, and Physiological Responses of Rapeseed Leaf to Different Combinations of Red and Blue Lights at the Rosette Stage

    PubMed Central

    Shengxin, Chang; Chunxia, Li; Xuyang, Yao; Song, Chen; Xuelei, Jiao; Xiaoying, Liu; Zhigang, Xu; Rongzhan, Guan

    2016-01-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is sensitive to light quality. The factory production of rapeseed seedlings for vegetable use and for transplanting in the field requires an investigation of the responses of rapeseed to light quality. This study evaluated the responses of the leaf of rapeseed (cv. “Zhongshuang 11”) to different ratios of red-photonflux (RPF) and blue-photonflux (BPF) from light emitting diodes (LEDs). The treatments were set as monochromatic lights, including 100R:0B% and 0R:100B%, and compound lights (CLs), including 75R:25B%, 50R:50B%, and 25R:75B%. The total photonflux in all of the treatments was set as 550 μmolm−2s−1. With an increase of BPF, the rapeseed leaves changed from wrinkled blades and down-rolled margins to flat blades and slightly up-rolled margins, and the compact degree of palisade tissue increased. One layer of the cells of palisade tissue was present under 100R:0B%, whereas two layers were present under the other treatments. Compared to 100R:0B%, 0R:100B% enhanced the indexes of leaf thickness, leaf mass per area (LMA), stomatal density, chlorophyll (Chl) content per weight and photosynthetic capacity (Pmax), and the CLs with high BPF ratios enhanced these indexes. However, the 100R:0B% and CLs with high RPF ratios enhanced the net photosynthetic rate (Pn). The leaves under the CLs showed growth vigor, whereas the leaves under 100R:0B% or 0R:100B% were stressed with a low Fv/Fm (photosynthetic maximum quantum yield) and a high content of O2.- and H2O2. The top second leaves under 100R:0B% or 0R:100B% showed stress resistance responses with a high activity of antioxidase, but the top third leaves showed irreversible damage and inactivity of antioxidase. Our results showed that the rapeseed leaves grown under 0R:100B% or CLs with a high BPF ratio showed higher ability to utilize high photonflux, while the leaves grown under 100R:0B% or CLs with a low BPF ratio showed higher efficiency in utilizing low photonflux. Under

  20. Red to Far-Red Light Ratio Modulates Hormonal and Genetic Control of Axillary bud Outgrowth in Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum 'Jinba').

    PubMed

    Yuan, Cunquan; Ahmad, Sagheer; Cheng, Tangren; Wang, Jia; Pan, Huitang; Zhao, Liangjun; Zhang, Qixiang

    2018-05-28

    Single-flower cut Chrysanthemum ( Dendranthema grandiflorum 'Jinba') holds a unique status in global floriculture industry. However, the extensive axillary bud outgrowth presents a major drawback. Shade is an environment cue that inhibits shoot branching. Present study was aimed at investigating the effect of ratio of red to far-red light (R:FR) in regulating the lateral bud outgrowth of Chrysanthemum and the detailed mechanism. Results showed that the fate of axillary buds at specific positions in stem exhibited difference in response to R:FR. Decreasing R:FR resulted in elevation of abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation in axillary buds. Expression of ABA, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and strigolactones (SL) -related metabolism and signal transduction genes was significantly changed in response to low R:FR. In addition, low R:FR caused the re-distribution of sucrose across the whole plant, driving more sucrose towards bottom buds. Our results indicate that low R:FR not always inhibits bud outgrowth, rather its influence depends on the bud position in the stem. ABA, SL and auxin pathways were involved in the process. Interestingly, sucrose also appears to be involved in the process which is necessary to pay attention in the further studies. The present study also lays the foundation for developing methods to regulate axillary bud outgrowth in Chrysanthemum.

  1. Photocatalytic decomposition of Congo red under visible light irradiation using MgZnCr-TiO2 layered double hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chi; Wang, Fenghua; Zhang, Chang; Yu, Zhigang; Wei, Jingjing; Yang, Zhongzhu; Li, Yongqiu; Li, Zihao; Zhu, Mengying; Shen, Liuqing; Zeng, Guangming

    2017-02-01

    The new nanophotocatalyst MgZnCr-TiO 2 was prepared by co-precipitation under different molar ratio of metals (Zn:Cr) and the loaded amount of TiO 2 . And it was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy et al. Langmuir model fitted well the adsorption isotherm with the value of R 2 0.9765, the maximum adsorption capacity was 526.32 mg g -1 , the adsorption followed pseudo second order kinetic by MgZnCr-TiO 2 (1:1:2-0.05). The photocatalytic oxidation of Congo red was used to determine the photocatalytic performance of MgZnCr-TiO 2 (1:1:2-0.05) under visible light irradiation, and the removal rate reached 98% after reaction for 40 min. The degradation mechanism of Congo red also was proposed, and the MgZnCr-TiO 2 (1:1:2-0.05) was stable after five cycles. Compared to the adsorption, Congo red was removed fundamentally by photocatalysis and it is expected to be an effective way to eliminate Congo red. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Multiple phytochromes are involved in red-light-induced enhancement of first-positive phototropism in arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Janoudi, A.K.; Gordon, W.R.; Poff, K.L.

    1997-03-01

    The amplitude of phototropic curvature to blue light is enhanced by a prior exposure of seedlings to red light. This enhancement is mediated by phytochrome. Fluence-response relationships have been constructed for red-light-induced enhancement in the phytochrome A (phyA) null mutant, the phytochrome B- (phyB) deficient mutant, and in two transgenic lines of Arabidopsis thaliana that overexpress either phyA or phyB. These fluence-response relationships demonstrate the existence of two responses in enhancement, a response in the very-low-to-low-fluence range, and a response in the high-fluence range. Only the response in the high-fluence range is present in the phyA null mutant. In contrast,more » the phyB-deficient mutant is indistinguishable from the wild-type parent in red-light responsiveness. These data indicate that phyA is necessary for the very-low-to-low but not the high-fluence response, and that phyB is not necessary for either response range. Based on these results, the high-fluence response, if controlled by a single phytochrome, must be controlled by a phytochrome other than phyA or phyB. Overexpression of phyA has a negative effect and overexpression of phyB has an enhancing effect in the high fluence range. These results suggest that overexpression of either phytochrome perturbs the function of the endogenous photoreceptor system in unpreditable fashion. 25 refs., 3 figs.« less

  3. Improved color stability of white organic light-emitting diodes without interlayer between red, orange and blue emission layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Kaiwen; Chen, Ping; Duan, Yu; Sheng, Ren; Han, Guangguang; Zhao, Yi

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrated color stability improved white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) based on red, orange and blue emission layers. Iridium(III) Bis(3,5-diflouro)-2-(2-pyridyl)phenyl-(2-carboxypyridyl) was doped into red emission layer (R-EML) and orange emission layer (O-EML) to lower the electrons injection barrier and facilitate the ambipolar charge carriers balance. Consequently, the recombination region was extended to the R-EML and O-EML, leading to the excellently stable spectra and the reduction of triplet-triplet annihilation. Then the resulting device with a negligible Commission International de L'Eclairage coordinates shift of (0.003, 0.007) within a wide luminance range as well as a high color rendering index of 90 was gained, which was comparable to the profit caused by the conventional method of introducing the interlayer. And the emission mechanism of the WOLEDs was also discussed.

  4. Comparison of gene expression levels of appA, ppsR, and EL368 in Erythrobacter litoralis spheroplasts under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and under blue light, red light, and dark conditions.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Koki; Takahashi, Sawako; Nishida, Hiromi

    2018-03-31

    We compared the gene expression levels of the blue-light-responsive genes, appA (encoding photosynthesis promoting protein AppA), ppsR (encoding photosynthesis suppressing protein PpsR), and EL368 (encoding a blue-light-activated histidine kinase with a light, oxygen, or voltage domain) between aerobic and anaerobic conditions in spheroplasts of the aerobic photosynthetic bacterium Erythrobacter litoralis. The spheroplasts conducted photosynthesis under red light but not under blue light. All three blue-light-responsive genes showed higher expression under aerobic conditions than under anaerobic conditions under blue light. In contrast, under red light, although the expression level of appA was higher in the presence of oxygen than in the absence of oxygen, the expression levels of ppsR and EL368 were similar in the presence and absence of oxygen. Our findings demonstrate that the expression of blue-light-responsive genes is strongly affected by oxygen in E. litoralis spheroplasts.

  5. The Histopathological Investigation of Red and Blue Light Emitting Diode on Treating Skin Wounds in Japanese Big-Ear White Rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yanfeng; Han, Yunlin; Jiang, Binbin; Huang, Lan; Zhu, Hua; Xu, Yuhuan; Yang, Weiling; Qin, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    The biological effects of different wavelengths of light emitting diode (LED) light tend to vary from each other. Research into use of photobiomodulation for treatment of skin wounds and the underlying mechanisms has been largely lacking. We explored the histopathological basis of the therapeutic effect of photobiomodulation and the relation between duration of exposure and photobiomodulation effect of different wavelengths of LED in a Japanese big-ear white rabbit skin-wound model. Skin wound model was established in 16 rabbit