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Sample records for nocardia rubra cell

  1. Hetero-oligomeric cell wall channels (porins) of Nocardia farcinica.

    PubMed

    Kläckta, Christian; Knörzer, Philipp; Riess, Franziska; Benz, Roland

    2011-06-01

    The cell wall of Nocardia farcinica contains a cation-selective cell wall channel, which may be responsible for the limited permeability of the cell wall of N. farcinica for negatively charged antibiotics. Based on partial sequencing of the protein responsible for channel formation derived from N. farcinica ATTC 3318 we were able to identify the corresponding genes (nfa15890 and nfa15900) within the known genome of N. farcinica IFM 10152. The corresponding genes of N. farcinica ATTC 3318 were separately expressed in the Escherichia coli BL21DE3Omp8 strain and the N-terminal His10-tagged proteins were purified to homogeneity using immobilized metal affinity chromatography. The pure proteins were designated NfpANHis and NfpBNHis, for N. farcinica porin A and N. farcinica porin B. The two proteins were checked separately for channel formation in lipid bilayers. Our results clearly indicate that the proteins NfpANHis and NfpBNHis expressed in E. coli could only together form a channel in lipid bilayer membranes. This means that the cell wall channel of N. farcinica is formed by a heterooligomer. NfpA and NfpB form together a channel that may structurally be related to MspA of Mycobacterium smegmatis based on amino acid comparison and renaturation procedure.

  2. Hetero-oligomeric cell wall channels (porins) of Nocardia farcinica.

    PubMed

    Kläckta, Christian; Knörzer, Philipp; Riess, Franziska; Benz, Roland

    2011-06-01

    The cell wall of Nocardia farcinica contains a cation-selective cell wall channel, which may be responsible for the limited permeability of the cell wall of N. farcinica for negatively charged antibiotics. Based on partial sequencing of the protein responsible for channel formation derived from N. farcinica ATTC 3318 we were able to identify the corresponding genes (nfa15890 and nfa15900) within the known genome of N. farcinica IFM 10152. The corresponding genes of N. farcinica ATTC 3318 were separately expressed in the Escherichia coli BL21DE3Omp8 strain and the N-terminal His10-tagged proteins were purified to homogeneity using immobilized metal affinity chromatography. The pure proteins were designated NfpANHis and NfpBNHis, for N. farcinica porin A and N. farcinica porin B. The two proteins were checked separately for channel formation in lipid bilayers. Our results clearly indicate that the proteins NfpANHis and NfpBNHis expressed in E. coli could only together form a channel in lipid bilayer membranes. This means that the cell wall channel of N. farcinica is formed by a heterooligomer. NfpA and NfpB form together a channel that may structurally be related to MspA of Mycobacterium smegmatis based on amino acid comparison and renaturation procedure. PMID:21092733

  3. Nocardia infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... eyes, and bones. Nocardia bacteria are found in soil around the world. You can get the disease ... bacteria. You can also get the diseaseor if soil containing nocardia bacteria gets into an open wound. ...

  4. Essential Oil from Myrica rubra Leaves Potentiated Antiproliferative and Prooxidative Effect of Doxorubicin and its Accumulation in Intestinal Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Ambrož, Martin; Hanušová, Veronika; Skarka, Adam; Boušová, Iva; Králová, Věra; Langhasová, Lenka; Skálová, Lenka

    2016-01-01

    Essential oil from the leaves of Myrica rubra, a subtropical Asian fruit tree traditionally used in folk medicines, has a significant antiproliferative effect in several intestinal cancer cell lines. Doxorubicin belongs to the most important cytostatics used in cancer therapy. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of defined essential oil from M. rubra leaves on efficacy, prooxidative effect, and accumulation of doxorubicin in cancer cell lines and in non-cancerous cells. For this purpose, intestinal adenocarcinoma CaCo2 cells were used. Human fibroblasts (periodontal ligament) and a primary culture of rat hepatocytes served as models of non-cancerous cells. The results showed that the sole essential oil from M. rubra has a strong prooxidative effect in cancer cells while it acts as a mild antioxidant in hepatocytes. Combined with doxorubicin, the essential oil enhanced the antiproliferative and prooxidative effects of doxorubicin in cancer cells. At higher concentrations, synergism of doxorubicin and essential oil from M. rubra was proved. In non-cancerous cells, the essential oil did not affect the toxicity of doxorubicin and the doxorubicin-mediated reactive oxygen species formation. The essential oil increased the intracellular concentration of doxorubicin and enhanced selectively the doxorubicin accumulation in nuclei of cancer cells. Taken together, essential oil from M. rubra leaves could be able to improve the doxorubicin efficacy in cancer cells due to an increased reactive oxygen species production, and the doxorubicin accumulation in nuclei of cancer cells.

  5. Essential Oil from Myrica rubra Leaves Potentiated Antiproliferative and Prooxidative Effect of Doxorubicin and its Accumulation in Intestinal Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Ambrož, Martin; Hanušová, Veronika; Skarka, Adam; Boušová, Iva; Králová, Věra; Langhasová, Lenka; Skálová, Lenka

    2016-01-01

    Essential oil from the leaves of Myrica rubra, a subtropical Asian fruit tree traditionally used in folk medicines, has a significant antiproliferative effect in several intestinal cancer cell lines. Doxorubicin belongs to the most important cytostatics used in cancer therapy. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of defined essential oil from M. rubra leaves on efficacy, prooxidative effect, and accumulation of doxorubicin in cancer cell lines and in non-cancerous cells. For this purpose, intestinal adenocarcinoma CaCo2 cells were used. Human fibroblasts (periodontal ligament) and a primary culture of rat hepatocytes served as models of non-cancerous cells. The results showed that the sole essential oil from M. rubra has a strong prooxidative effect in cancer cells while it acts as a mild antioxidant in hepatocytes. Combined with doxorubicin, the essential oil enhanced the antiproliferative and prooxidative effects of doxorubicin in cancer cells. At higher concentrations, synergism of doxorubicin and essential oil from M. rubra was proved. In non-cancerous cells, the essential oil did not affect the toxicity of doxorubicin and the doxorubicin-mediated reactive oxygen species formation. The essential oil increased the intracellular concentration of doxorubicin and enhanced selectively the doxorubicin accumulation in nuclei of cancer cells. Taken together, essential oil from M. rubra leaves could be able to improve the doxorubicin efficacy in cancer cells due to an increased reactive oxygen species production, and the doxorubicin accumulation in nuclei of cancer cells. PMID:26485638

  6. Non-inducible, mainly cell-associated beta-lactamase from Nocardia asteroides strain 108.

    PubMed

    Scopetti, F; Fattorini, L; Franceschini, N; Amicosante, G; Orefici, G

    1997-07-01

    The beta-lactamase of the soil-borne strain 108 (parental strain) of Nocardia asteroides is a non-inducible enzyme mainly associated with the cells; it can be efficiently extracted by ultrasonication and SDS treatment. Crude enzyme preparations showed penicillinase and cephalosporinase activity. The kinetics of beta-lactamase production and in-vitro susceptibility to combinations of beta-lactam antibiotics plus beta-lactamase inhibitors have been studied in two stable overproducer mutants (A14 and B1) obtained by mutagenization of the parental strain with nitrosoguanidine. The cell-associated enzyme increased with bacterial growth in parental and mutant strains and was particularly abundant in stationary phase cells. The beta-lactamase inhibitors sulbactam and clavulanic acid decreased MIC values of penicillins more efficiently in the parental strain than in mutants, thus indicating some involvement of the enzyme in the resistance of N. asteroides strain 108 to beta-lactam antibiotics. PMID:9249198

  7. Aluminum and temperature alteration of cell membrane permeability of Quercus rubra

    SciTech Connect

    Junping Chen; Sucoff, E.I.; Stadelmann, E.J. )

    1991-06-01

    Al toxicity is the major factor limiting plant growth in acid soils. This report extends research on Al-induced changes in membrane behavior of intact root cortex cells of Northern red oak (Quercus rubra). Membrane permeability was determined by the plasmometric method for individual intact cells at temperatures from 2 or 4 to 35 C. Al (0.37 millimolar) significantly increased membrane permeability to urea and monoethyl urea and decreased permeability to water. Al significantly altered the activation energy required to transport water (+ 32%), urea (+ 9%), and monoethyl urea ({minus}7%) across cell membranes. Above 9 C, Al increased the lipid partiality of the cell membranes; below 7 C, Al decreased it. Al narrowed by 6 C the temperature range over which plasmolysis occurred without membrane damage. These changes in membrane behavior are explainable if Al reduced membrane lipid fluidity and kink frequency and increases packing density and the occurrence of straight lipid chains.

  8. Nocardia farcinica Activates Human Dendritic Cells and Induces Secretion of Interleukin-23 (IL-23) Rather than IL-12p70

    PubMed Central

    Eisenblätter, Martin; Buchal, Ariane; Gayum, Hermine; Jasny, Edith; Renner Viveros, Pablo; Ulrichs, Timo; Schneider, Thomas; Schumann, Ralf R.; Zweigner, Janine

    2012-01-01

    Studying the interaction of dendritic cells (DCs) with bacteria controlled by T-cell-mediated immune responses may reveal novel adjuvants for the induction of cellular immunity. Murine studies and the observation that nocardias infect predominantly immunosuppressed patients have suggested that these bacteria may possess an adjuvant potential. Moreover, adjuvants on the basis of the nocardial cell wall have been applied in clinical studies. Since the handling of adjuvants by DCs may determine the type of immune responses induced by a vaccine, the present study aimed at investigating the interaction of immature human monocyte-derived DCs with live or inactivated Nocardia farcinica in vitro and determining the cellular phenotypic changes as well as alterations in characteristic functions, such as phagocytosis, induction of T-cell proliferation, and cytokine secretion. Human DCs ingested N. farcinica and eradicated the bacterium intracellularly. DCs exposed to inactivated N. farcinica were activated, i.e., they developed a mature phenotype, downregulated their phagocytic capacity, and stimulated allogeneic T cells in mixed leukocyte reactions. Soluble factors were not involved in this process. To elucidate the potential adjuvant effect of N. farcinica on the induction of T-cell-mediated immune responses, we characterized the cytokines produced by nocardia-exposed DCs and detected substantial amounts of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-12 p40 (IL-12p40). However, nocardia-treated DCs secreted only small amounts of IL-12p70, which were significantly smaller than the amounts of IL-23. Thus, N. farcinica activates DCs, but adjuvants based on this bacterium may have only a limited capacity to induce Th1 immune responses. PMID:22988018

  9. Mechanism of angiogenic effects of saponin from ginseng Radix rubra in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Morisaki, N.; Watanabe, S.; Tezuka, M.; Zenibayashi, M.; Shiina, R.; Koyama, N.; Kanzaki, T.; Saito, Y.

    1995-01-01

    1. The effects of saponin from Ginseng Radix rubra on angiogenesis (tube formation) and its key steps (protease secretion, proliferation and migration) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were examined to elucidate the mechanism of the tissue repairing effects of Ginseng Radix rubra. The effect on a wound healing model was also studied. 2. Tube formation was measured by an in vitro system. The activity and immunoreactivity of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) as a protease for angiogenesis and the immunoreactivity of its inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), were measured in conditioned medium of HUVEC stimulated for 24 h with saponin. Cell proliferation was measured by counting the cell numbers at 2-7 days after seeding. Migration was measured by Boyden's chamber method. The effect on wound healing was studied in the skin of diabetic rats. 3. Saponin at 10-100 micrograms ml-1 significantly stimulated tube formation by HUVEC in a dose-dependent manner. Saponin in a similar concentration-range increased the secretion of tPA from HUVEC as estimated by immunoreactivity and enzyme activity. On the other hand, PAI-1 immunoreactivity was slightly increased at 10 micrograms ml-1 of saponin, but then was significantly decreased at 50 and 100 micrograms ml-1. Cell proliferation was only slightly enhanced by 1-100 micrograms ml-1 of saponin, but migration was significantly enhanced by 10-100 micrograms ml-1 in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, saponin stimulated wound healing with enhanced angiogenesis in vivo.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1 Figure 8 PMID:7582543

  10. Basella alba rubra spinach pigment-sensitized TiO2 thin film-based solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokilamani, N.; Muthukumarasamy, N.; Thambidurai, M.; Ranjitha, A.; Velauthapillai, Dhayalan

    2015-03-01

    Nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films have been prepared by sol-gel dip coating method. The X-ray diffraction results showed that TiO2 thin films annealed at 400, 450 and 500 °C are of anatase phase and the peak corresponding to the (101) plane is present in all the samples. The grain size of TiO2 thin films was found to increase with increasing annealing temperature. The grain size is found to be 20, 25 and 33 nm for the films annealed at 400, 450 and 500 °C. The structure of the TiO2 nanocrystalline thin films have been examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscope, Raman spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy. TiO2 thin films were sensitized by natural dyes extracted from basella alba rubra spinach. It was found that the absorption peak of basella alba rubra extract is at about 665 nm. The dye-sensitized TiO2-based solar cell sensitized using basella alba rubra exhibited a J sc of 4.35 mA cm-2, V oc of 0.48 V, FF of 0.35 and efficiency of 0.70 %. Natural dyes as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells are promising because of their environmental friendliness, low-cost production and fully biodegradable.

  11. Nocardia zapadnayensis sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir-Kocak, Fadime; Saygin, Hayrettin; Saricaoglu, Salih; Cetin, Demet; Pötter, Gabriele; Spröer, Cathrin; Guven, Kiymet; Isik, Kamil; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Sahin, Nevzat

    2016-01-01

    A novel Gram-stain positive, rod-shaped, non-motile and mycolic acid containing strain, FMN18(T), isolated from soil, was characterised using a polyphasic approach. The organism showed a combination of morphological, biochemical, physiological and chemotaxonomic properties that were consistent with its classification in the genus Nocardia and it formed a phyletic line in the Nocardia 16S rRNA gene tree. The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid (type IV) and whole cell sugars were galactose, glucose, arabinose and ribose. The predominant menaquinone was MK-8(H4ω-cyclo). The major phospholipids are diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannosides. Major fatty acids are C16:0, 10-methyl C18:0 (TBSA), C18:1 cis9 and C16:1 trans9. These chemotaxonomic traits are in good agreement with those known for representatives of the genus Nocardia. The phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain FMN18(T) showed it to be closely related to Nocardia grenadensis GW5-5797(T) (99.2 %), Nocardia speluncae N2-11(T) (99.1 %), Nocardia jinanensis 04-5195(T) (99.0 %) and Nocardia rhamnosiphila 202GMO(T) (98.3 %). The phylogenetic analysis based on the gyrB gene sequence of strain FMN18(T) showed it to be closely related to N. rhamnosiphila 202GMO(T) (99.0 %), N. grenadensis DSM 45869(T) (96.6 %), N. jinanensis DSM 45048(T) (93.1 %), N. carnea IFM 0237(T) (89.7 %) and N. speluncae DSM 45078(T) (89.1 %). A combination of DNA-DNA hybridization results and phenotypic properties demonstrated that strain FMN18(T) was clearly distinguished from all closely related Nocardia species. It is proposed that the organism be classified as representing a novel species of the genus Nocardia, for which the name Nocardia zapadnayensis (type strain FMN18(T) = DSM 45872(T) = KCTC 29234(T)) is proposed.

  12. Highly Enantioselective Production of (R)-Halohydrins with Whole Cells of Rhodotorula rubra KCh 82 Culture

    PubMed Central

    Janeczko, Tomasz; Dymarska, Monika; Kostrzewa-Susłow, Edyta

    2014-01-01

    Biotransformation of ten α-haloacetophenones in the growing culture of the strain Rhodotorula rubra KCh 82 has been carried out. Nine of the substrates underwent an effective enantioselective reduction to the respective (R)-alcohols according to Prelog’s rule, with the exception of 2-chloro-1,2-diphenylethan-1-one that was not transformed by this strain. The expected reduction proceeded without dehalogenation, leading to the respective (R)-halohydrins in high yields. The use of this biocatalyst yielded (R)-2-bromo-1-phenyl-ethan-1-ol (enantiomeric excess (ee) = 97%) and its derivatives: 4'-Bromo- (ee = 99%); 4'-Chloro- (ee > 99%); 4'-Methoxy- (ee = 96%); 3'-Methoxy- (ee = 93%); 2'-Methoxy- (ee = 98%). There were also obtained and characterized 2,4'-dichloro-, 2,2',4'-trichloro- and 2-chloro-4'-fluoro-phenyetan-1-ol with >99% of enantiomeric excesses. PMID:25486054

  13. Highly enantioselective production of (R)-halohydrins with whole cells of Rhodotorula rubra KCh 82 culture.

    PubMed

    Janeczko, Tomasz; Dymarska, Monika; Kostrzewa-Susłow, Edyta

    2014-12-04

    Biotransformation of ten α-haloacetophenones in the growing culture of the strain Rhodotorula rubra KCh 82 has been carried out. Nine of the substrates underwent an effective enantioselective reduction to the respective (R)-alcohols according to Prelog's rule, with the exception of 2-chloro-1,2-diphenylethan-1-one that was not transformed by this strain. The expected reduction proceeded without dehalogenation, leading to the respective (R)-halohydrins in high yields. The use of this biocatalyst yielded (R)-2-bromo-1-phenyl-ethan-1-ol (enantiomeric excess (ee) = 97%) and its derivatives: 4'-Bromo- (ee = 99%); 4'-Chloro- (ee > 99%); 4'-Methoxy- (ee = 96%); 3'-Methoxy- (ee = 93%); 2'-Methoxy- (ee = 98%). There were also obtained and characterized 2,4'-dichloro-, 2,2',4'-trichloro- and 2-chloro-4'-fluoro-phenyetan-1-ol with >99% of enantiomeric excesses.

  14. Nocardia species: host-parasite relationships.

    PubMed Central

    Beaman, B L; Beaman, L

    1994-01-01

    The nocardiae are bacteria belonging to the aerobic actinomycetes. They are an important part of the normal soil microflora worldwide. The type species, Nocardia asteroides, and N. brasiliensis, N. farcinica, N. otitidiscaviarum, N. nova, and N. transvalensis cause a variety of diseases in both normal and immunocompromised humans and animals. The mechanisms of pathogenesis are complex, not fully understood, and include the capacity to evade or neutralize the myriad microbicidal activities of the host. The relative virulence of N. asteroides correlates with the ability to inhibit phagosome-lysosome fusion in phagocytes; to neutralize phagosomal acidification; to detoxify the microbicidal products of oxidative metabolism; to modify phagocyte function; to grow within phagocytic cells; and to attach to, penetrate, and grow within host cells. Both activated macrophages and immunologically specific T lymphocytes constitute the major mechanisms for host resistance to nocardial infection, whereas B lymphocytes and humoral immunity do not appear to be as important in protecting the host. Thus, the nocardiae are facultative intracellular pathogens that can persist within the host, probably in a cryptic form (L-form), for life. Silent invasion of brain cells by some Nocardia strains can induce neurodegeneration in experimental animals; however, the role of nocardiae in neurodegenerative diseases in humans needs to be investigated. Images PMID:8055469

  15. Osmoregulation in the Hawaiian anchialine shrimp Halocaridina rubra (Crustacea: Atyidae): expression of ion transporters, mitochondria-rich cell proliferation and hemolymph osmolality during salinity transfers.

    PubMed

    Havird, Justin C; Santos, Scott R; Henry, Raymond P

    2014-07-01

    Studies of euryhaline crustaceans have identified conserved osmoregulatory adaptions allowing hyper-osmoregulation in dilute waters. However, previous studies have mainly examined decapod brachyurans with marine ancestries inhabiting estuaries or tidal creeks on a seasonal basis. Here, we describe osmoregulation in the atyid Halocaridina rubra, an endemic Hawaiian shrimp of freshwater ancestry from the islands' anchialine ecosystem (coastal ponds with subsurface freshwater and seawater connections) that encounters near-continuous spatial and temporal salinity changes. Given this, survival and osmoregulatory responses were examined over a wide salinity range. In the laboratory, H. rubra tolerated salinities of ~0-56‰, acting as both a hyper- and hypo-osmoregulator and maintaining a maximum osmotic gradient of ~868 mOsm kg(-1) H2O in freshwater. Furthermore, hemolymph osmolality was more stable during salinity transfers relative to other crustaceans. Silver nitrate and vital mitochondria-rich cell staining suggest all gills are osmoregulatory, with a large proportion of each individual gill functioning in ion transport (including when H. rubra acts as an osmoconformer in seawater). Additionally, expression of ion transporters and supporting enzymes that typically undergo upregulation during salinity transfer in osmoregulatory gills (i.e. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, carbonic anhydrase, Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter, V-type H(+)-ATPase and arginine kinase) were generally unaltered in H. rubra during similar transfers. These results suggest H. rubra (and possibly other anchialine species) maintains high, constitutive levels of gene expression and ion transport capability in the gills as a means of potentially coping with the fluctuating salinities that are encountered in anchialine habitats. Thus, anchialine taxa represent an interesting avenue for future physiological research.

  16. Nymphaea rubra ameliorates TNF-α-induced insulin resistance via suppression of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase and nuclear factor-κB in the rat skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Sudeep; Rahuja, Neha; Ishrat, Nayab; Asthana, R K; Mishra, D K; Maurya, Rakesh; Jain, Swatantra Kumar; Srivastava, Arvind Kumar

    2014-12-01

    In this work, we demonstrated insulin signaling and the anti-inflammatory effects by the chloroform fraction of ethanolic extract of Nymphaea rubra flowers in TNF-α-induced insulin resistance in the rat skeletal muscle cell line (L6 myotubes) to dissect out its anti-hyperglycemic mechanism. N. rubra enhances the GLUT4-mediated glucose transport in a dose dependent manner and also increases the tyrosine phosphorylation of both IR-β and IRS-1, and the IRS-1 associated PI-3 kinase activity in TNF-α-treated L6 myotubes. Moreover, N. rubra decreases Ser(307) phosphorylation of IRS-1 by the suppression of JNK and NF-κB activation. In conclusion, N. rubra reverses the insulin resistance by the inhibition of c-Jun NH2-Terminal Kinase and Nuclear-κB.

  17. Nymphaea rubra ameliorates TNF-α-induced insulin resistance via suppression of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase and nuclear factor-κB in the rat skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Sudeep; Rahuja, Neha; Ishrat, Nayab; Asthana, R K; Mishra, D K; Maurya, Rakesh; Jain, Swatantra Kumar; Srivastava, Arvind Kumar

    2014-12-01

    In this work, we demonstrated insulin signaling and the anti-inflammatory effects by the chloroform fraction of ethanolic extract of Nymphaea rubra flowers in TNF-α-induced insulin resistance in the rat skeletal muscle cell line (L6 myotubes) to dissect out its anti-hyperglycemic mechanism. N. rubra enhances the GLUT4-mediated glucose transport in a dose dependent manner and also increases the tyrosine phosphorylation of both IR-β and IRS-1, and the IRS-1 associated PI-3 kinase activity in TNF-α-treated L6 myotubes. Moreover, N. rubra decreases Ser(307) phosphorylation of IRS-1 by the suppression of JNK and NF-κB activation. In conclusion, N. rubra reverses the insulin resistance by the inhibition of c-Jun NH2-Terminal Kinase and Nuclear-κB. PMID:25234391

  18. Pityriasis rubra pilaris

    MedlinePlus

    ... PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 11. Tobin AM, Kirby B. Pityriasis rubra pilaris. In: Lebwohl MG, Heymann WR, Berth-Jones J, Coulson I, eds. Treatment of Skin Disease: Comprehensive Therapeutic Strategies . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap ...

  19. Immunomodulating Activity of Nymphaea rubra Roxb. Extracts: Activation of Rat Dendritic Cells and Improvement of the TH1 Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jai-Hong; Lee, Shau-Yu; Lien, Yi-Yang; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Sheu, Shyang-Chwen

    2012-01-01

    Polysaccharides play a key role in enhancing immune function and facilitating cellular communication. Here, we purified Nymphaea rubra Roxb. polysaccharides (NR-PS) by treating them with pullulanase. They were then cultured with immature dendritic cells (DCs) derived from rat bone marrow hematopoietic cells (BMHCs). After treatment with bioactive NR-PS with a degree of polymerization (DP) value of 359.8, we found that the DCs underwent morphological changes indicative of activation. CD80/86 (87.16% ± 8.49%) and MHC class II (52.01% ± 10.11%) expression levels were significantly up-regulated by this treatment compared to the controls (65.45% ± 0.97% and 34.87% ± 1.96%). In parallel, endocytosis was also reduced (167.94% ± 60.59%) after treatment with 25 μg/mL of NR-PS as measured by the medium fluorescence intensity compared to the control (261.67% ± 47.26%). Furthermore, the DCs after treatment with 25 μg/mL NR-PS showed increased IL-12 (102.09 ± 10.16 to 258.78 ± 25.26 pg/mL) and IFN-γ (11.76 ± 0.11 to 15.51 ± 1.66 pg/mL) secretion together with reduced IL-10 secretion (30.75 ± 3.35 to 15.37 ± 2.35 pg/mL), which indicates a TH1 immune response. In conclusion, NR-PS exhibits stimulatory effects on rat DCs and promotes the secretion of TH1 cytokines. Taken together, our studies are the first to show that NR-PS is an immunomodulator affecting the maturation and functioning of DCs. PMID:23109818

  20. Granulosis rubra nasi

    PubMed Central

    Sargunam, Cynthia; Thomas, Jayakar; Ahmed, N. Ashwak

    2013-01-01

    Granulosis rubra nasi is a rare disorder of the eccrine glands, inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. It is clinically characterized by hyperhidrosis of the central part of the face, most conspicuous on the tip of the nose, followed by appearance of diffuse erythema over the nose, cheeks, chin, and upper lip. It is commonly seen in childhood, but can also occur in adults. This is a case report of a 27-year-old male patient who presented with excessive sweating over the nose. Physical examination of the nose revealed erythema and multiple telangiectatic vesicles. Biopsy findings supported the diagnosis of granulosis rubra nasi. This case is being reported for its rarity since to the best of our knowledge, it has not been reported in Indian subjects so far. PMID:23984236

  1. Nocardia brasiliensis Cell Wall Lipids Modulate Macrophage and Dendritic Responses That Favor Development of Experimental Actinomycetoma in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Trevino-Villarreal, J. Humberto; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Valero-Guillén, Pedro L.

    2012-01-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is a Gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterium frequently isolated from human actinomycetoma. However, the pathogenesis of this infection remains unknown. Here, we used a model of bacterial delipidation with benzine to investigate the role of N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated lipids in experimental actinomycetoma. Delipidation of N. brasiliensis with benzine resulted in complete abolition of actinomycetoma without affecting bacterial viability. Chemical analyses revealed that trehalose dimycolate and an unidentified hydrophobic compound were the principal compounds extracted from N. brasiliensis with benzine. By electron microscopy, the extracted lipids were found to be located in the outermost membrane layer of the N. brasiliensis cell wall. They also appeared to confer acid-fastness. In vitro, the extractable lipids from the N. brasiliensis cell wall induced the production of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and CCL-2 in macrophages. The N. brasiliensis cell wall extractable lipids inhibited important macrophage microbicidal effects, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO) production, phagocytosis, bacterial killing, and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) expression in response to gamma interferon (IFN-γ). In dendritic cells (DCs), N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated extractable lipids suppressed MHC-II, CD80, and CD40 expression while inducing tumor growth factor β (TGF-β) production. Immunization with delipidated N. brasiliensis induced partial protection preventing actinomycetoma. These findings suggest that N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated lipids are important for actinomycetoma development by inducing inflammation and modulating the responses of macrophages and DCs to N. brasiliensis. PMID:22851755

  2. Cellular interactions of human T cell subsets defined by monoclonal antibodies in regulating B cell differentiation: a comparative study in Nocardia water-soluble mitogen- and pokeweed mitogen-stimulated culture systems

    SciTech Connect

    Miyawaki, T.; Nagaoki, T.; Yokoi, T.; Yachie, A.; Uwadana, N.; Taniguchi, N.

    1982-02-01

    Two distinct human T cell subsets, OKT4/sup +/ cellrich and OKT8/sup +/ cellrich populations, were negatively selected with reasonable purity by C-mediated cytolysis with the use of monoclonal OKT4 and OKT8 antibodies. B cells were purified by rigorous depletion of E rosetting cells. Purified B cells responded to pokeweed mitogen (PWM) to yield a negligible number of immunoglobulin-producing cells (lg-PC), which were identified by a direct immunofluorescence method, after 7 days of culture, and to Nocardia water-soluble mitogen (NWSM) with the generation of a few, but a significant number of, lg-PC. Helper function of each T cell subset was measured as the ability of added T cells to restore the generation of lg-PC by B cells after 7 days of culture with NWSM or PWM. Results indicate that although NWSM by itself did not activate suppressor T cells to become effector cells, OKT8/sup +/ cells in the NWSM-driven system were able to exert suppressor effect for B cell differentiation only when used in combination with PWM-prestimulated OKT4/sup +/ cells. PWM-prestimulated OKT4/sup +/ cells had a pivotal role for the expression of suppressor activity by OKT8/sup +/ cells in this system, and the ability of these OKT4/sup +/ cells to interact with OKT8/sup +/ cells appeared to be radiosensitive.

  3. Disseminated Nocardia farcinica in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Boamah, H; Puranam, P; Sandre, R M

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia farcinica is a gram-positive, partially acid-fast, methenamine silver-positive aerobic actinomycete that is infrequently associated with nocardiosis. The relative frequency of Nocardia farcinica isolates in nocardiosis is unknown but thought to be under diagnosis. It is increasingly been recognized in immunocompetent patients. We report a case of disseminated Nocardia farcinica causing brain abscess in 55 year old immunocompetent man who was successfully treated with long term antibiotics. The present report illustrates that early detection and treatment of disseminated Nocardia farcinica can lead to a good outcome. PMID:27617207

  4. Immunomodulating activity of Nymphaea rubra Roxb. extracts: activation of rat dendritic cells and improvement of the T(H)1 immune response.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jai-Hong; Lee, Shau-Yu; Lien, Yi-Yang; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Sheu, Shyang-Chwen

    2012-01-01

    Polysaccharides play a key role in enhancing immune function and facilitating cellular communication. Here, we purified Nymphaea rubra Roxb. polysaccharides (NR-PS) by treating them with pullulanase. They were then cultured with immature dendritic cells (DCs) derived from rat bone marrow hematopoietic cells (BMHCs). After treatment with bioactive NR-PS with a degree of polymerization (DP) value of 359.8, we found that the DCs underwent morphological changes indicative of activation. CD80/86 (87.16% ± 8.49%) and MHC class II (52.01% ± 10.11%) expression levels were significantly up-regulated by this treatment compared to the controls (65.45% ± 0.97% and 34.87% ± 1.96%). In parallel, endocytosis was also reduced (167.94% ± 60.59%) after treatment with 25 μg/mL of NR-PS as measured by the medium fluorescence intensity compared to the control (261.67% ± 47.26%). Furthermore, the DCs after treatment with 25 μg/mL NR-PS showed increased IL-12 (102.09 ± 10.16 to 258.78 ± 25.26 pg/mL) and IFN-γ (11.76 ± 0.11 to 15.51 ± 1.66 pg/mL) secretion together with reduced IL-10 secretion (30.75 ± 3.35 to 15.37 ± 2.35 pg/mL), which indicates a T(H)1 immune response. In conclusion, NR-PS exhibits stimulatory effects on rat DCs and promotes the secretion of T(H)1 cytokines. Taken together, our studies are the first to show that NR-PS is an immunomodulator affecting the maturation and functioning of DCs.

  5. Immunomodulating activity of Nymphaea rubra Roxb. extracts: activation of rat dendritic cells and improvement of the T(H)1 immune response.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jai-Hong; Lee, Shau-Yu; Lien, Yi-Yang; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Sheu, Shyang-Chwen

    2012-01-01

    Polysaccharides play a key role in enhancing immune function and facilitating cellular communication. Here, we purified Nymphaea rubra Roxb. polysaccharides (NR-PS) by treating them with pullulanase. They were then cultured with immature dendritic cells (DCs) derived from rat bone marrow hematopoietic cells (BMHCs). After treatment with bioactive NR-PS with a degree of polymerization (DP) value of 359.8, we found that the DCs underwent morphological changes indicative of activation. CD80/86 (87.16% ± 8.49%) and MHC class II (52.01% ± 10.11%) expression levels were significantly up-regulated by this treatment compared to the controls (65.45% ± 0.97% and 34.87% ± 1.96%). In parallel, endocytosis was also reduced (167.94% ± 60.59%) after treatment with 25 μg/mL of NR-PS as measured by the medium fluorescence intensity compared to the control (261.67% ± 47.26%). Furthermore, the DCs after treatment with 25 μg/mL NR-PS showed increased IL-12 (102.09 ± 10.16 to 258.78 ± 25.26 pg/mL) and IFN-γ (11.76 ± 0.11 to 15.51 ± 1.66 pg/mL) secretion together with reduced IL-10 secretion (30.75 ± 3.35 to 15.37 ± 2.35 pg/mL), which indicates a T(H)1 immune response. In conclusion, NR-PS exhibits stimulatory effects on rat DCs and promotes the secretion of T(H)1 cytokines. Taken together, our studies are the first to show that NR-PS is an immunomodulator affecting the maturation and functioning of DCs. PMID:23109818

  6. Nocardia Septic Arthritis Complicating an Anterior Cruciate Ligament Repair

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Elaine Y. L.; Boutlis, Craig S.; Chen, Darren B.; Liu, Eunice Y.-T.

    2015-01-01

    Nocardia infection following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) allograft reconstruction is a rare occurrence. We report a case of Nocardia infection of an allograft ACL reconstruction and septic arthritis of the knee joint due to an organism most similar to the novel Nocardia species Nocardia aobensis. PMID:26041900

  7. Nocardia Septic Arthritis Complicating an Anterior Cruciate Ligament Repair.

    PubMed

    Yong, Elaine X L; Cheong, Elaine Y L; Boutlis, Craig S; Chen, Darren B; Liu, Eunice Y-T; McKew, Genevieve L

    2015-08-01

    Nocardia infection following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) allograft reconstruction is a rare occurrence. We report a case of Nocardia infection of an allograft ACL reconstruction and septic arthritis of the knee joint due to an organism most similar to the novel Nocardia species Nocardia aobensis.

  8. Nocardia Septic Arthritis Complicating an Anterior Cruciate Ligament Repair.

    PubMed

    Yong, Elaine X L; Cheong, Elaine Y L; Boutlis, Craig S; Chen, Darren B; Liu, Eunice Y-T; McKew, Genevieve L

    2015-08-01

    Nocardia infection following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) allograft reconstruction is a rare occurrence. We report a case of Nocardia infection of an allograft ACL reconstruction and septic arthritis of the knee joint due to an organism most similar to the novel Nocardia species Nocardia aobensis. PMID:26041900

  9. Molecular identification and thermoresistance to boiling of Nocardia farcinica and Nocardia cyriacigeorgica from bovine bulk tank milk

    PubMed Central

    Condas, L.A.Z.; Ribeiro, M.G.; Gonoi, T.; Matsuzawa, T.; Yazawa, K.; Motta, R.G.; Franco, M.M.J.; Listoni, F.J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Two strains of Nocardia spp. were isolated from bovine milk of two individual bulk tank. Molecular identification classified the strains as Nocardia farcinica and Nocardia cyriacigeorgica. The thermorresistance to boiling of the isolates was carried out and was observed bacterial growth after boiling. Our findings indicate the potential risk of pathogen transmission to humans through contaminated milk with Nocardia spp. PMID:24031926

  10. Method for improved extraction of DNA from Nocardia asteroides.

    PubMed Central

    Loeffelholz, M J; Scholl, D R

    1989-01-01

    In a variation of standard DNA extraction methods, Nocardia asteroides was repeatedly exposed to sodium dodecyl sulfate at 60 degrees C for 30 min; each extraction was followed by centrifugation, removal of the nucleic acid-rich supernatant, and suspension of the cell pellet in fresh sodium dodecyl sulfate. The pooled supernatants contained a substantially higher amount of DNA than the first supernatant alone. The possible implications of this procedure on the development of DNA probes are discussed. Images PMID:2671036

  11. Bioconversion of steroid glycosides by Nocardia restricta.

    PubMed

    Belic, I; Kastelic-Suhadolc, T; Kralj, B

    1985-09-01

    The bioconversion of steroid alkaloid tomatine by Nocardia restricta yields the conjugate with lactic acid. We studied the bioconversion of some steroid glycosides without a nitrogen atom in the molecule to determine the effect of the nitrogen atom. The glycosides were of three different types: sterol glycosides, bufadienolide rhamnoside and steroid saponine. The results of bioconversions showed that Nocardia restricta converts steroid glycosides differently according to the sugar bound to the steroid aglycone. It can be concluded that in the absence of a nitrogen atom in the steroid molecule no conjugation with lactic acid by Nocardia restricta occurs. PMID:4046605

  12. Brain abscess caused by Nocardia asiatica

    PubMed Central

    Uneda, Atsuhito; Suzuki, Kenta; Okubo, Shuichi; Hirashita, Koji; Yunoki, Masatoshi; Yoshino, Kimihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nocardia infection of the central nervous system leading to brain abscess is a rare condition but has a high mortality rate. Among the species of Nocardia, only three cases of brain abscess due to Nocardia asiatica infection have been reported. Case Description: A 65-year-old man with a history of autoimmune hemolytic anemia treated with prednisolone presented to our hospital because of occipital headache. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral occipital lesions. The patient underwent craniotomy and resection of the left occipital lobe lesion. N. asiatica was identified by 16S rRNA sequencing of the resected specimen. Treatment with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole led to a complete resolution of the brain lesion. Conclusion: Because of the different antimicrobial sensitivity patterns among Nocardia species, both appropriate subtyping and susceptibility testing of uncommon species such as N. asiatica are required for the successful treatment of nocardial infections. PMID:27563485

  13. Nocardia rayongensis sp. nov., isolated from Thai peat swamp forest soil.

    PubMed

    Tanasupawat, Somboon; Phongsopitanun, Wongsakorn; Suwanborirux, Khanit; Ohkuma, Moriya; Kudo, Takuji

    2016-05-01

    An actinomycete strain, RY45-3T, isolated from a peat swamp forest soil in Rayong Province, Thailand, was characterized using a polyphasic approach. The strain belonged to the genus Nocardia on the basis of morphological, physiological, biochemical and chemotaxonomic properties. Cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The N-acyl group of muramic acid in the cell wall was glycolyl type. The diagnostic sugars in whole-cell hydrolysates were galactose and arabinose. MK-8 (H4ω-cycl) was the major menaquinone. The major fatty acids were C16 : 0 and C18 : 1ω9c. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannosides. The genomic DNA G+C content was 71 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity analysis, strain RY45-3T was closely related to Nocardia jiangxiensis JCM 12861T (98.9 %), Nocardia nova JCM 6044T (98.8 %) and Nocardia pseudobrasiliensis JCM 9894T (98.6 %). The strain showed low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness with N. jiangxiensis JCM 12861T, N. nova JCM 6044T and N. pseudobrasiliensis JCM 9894T (range from 3.6 to 55.3 %). On the basis of the phenotypic characteristics and the results mentioned, this strain could be differentiated from closely related type strains and represents a novel species of the genus Nocardia, for which the name Nocardia rayongensis sp. nov. (type strain RY45-3T = JCM 19832T = TISTR 2213T = PCU 334T) is proposed.

  14. Nocardia halotolerans sp. nov., a halotolerant actinomycete isolated from saline soil.

    PubMed

    Moshtaghi Nikou, Mahdi; Ramezani, Mohaddaseh; Ali Amoozegar, Mohammad; Rasooli, Mehrnoosh; Harirchi, Sharareh; Shahzadeh Fazeli, Seyed Abolhasan; Schumann, Peter; Spröer, Cathrin; Ventosa, Antonio

    2015-09-01

    A novel halotolerant actinomycete, strain Chem15(T), was isolated from soil around Inche-Broun hypersaline wetland; its taxonomic position was determined based on a polyphasic approach. Strain Chem15(T) was strictly aerobic and tolerated NaCl up to 12.5%. The optimum temperature and pH for growth were 28-30 °C and pH 7.0-7.5, respectively. The cell wall of strain Chem15(T) contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as diamino acid and galactose, arabinose and ribose as whole-cell sugars. The major phospholipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannosides. The cellular fatty acids profile consisted of C16 : 0, iso-C18 : 0, C18 : 0 10-methyl and C18 : 1ω9c, and the major respiratory quinone was MK-8(H4cycl). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 68.0 mol%. The novel strain constituted a distinct phyletic line within the genus Nocardia, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and was closely associated with Nocardia sungurluensis DSM 45714(T) and Nocardia alba DSM 44684(T) (98.2 and 98.1% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively). However DNA-DNA relatedness and phenotypic data demonstrated that strain Chem15(T) was clearly different from closely related species of the genus Nocardia. It is concluded that the organism should be classified as a representative of a novel species of the genus Nocardia, for which the name Nocardia halotolerans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Chem15(T) ( = IBRC-M 10490(T) = LMG 28544(T)). PMID:26297293

  15. Myrionecta Rubra Population Genetic Diversity and Its Cryptophyte Chloroplast Specificity in Recurrent Red Tides in the Columbia River Estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Herfort, Lydie; Peterson, Tawnya D.; McCue, Lee Ann; Crump, Byron C.; Prahl, Fredrick G.; Baptista, Antonio M.; Campbell, Victoria; Warnick, Rachel; Selby, Mikaela; Roegner, G. Curtis; Zuber, Peter A.

    2011-01-04

    For at least a decade, annually recurring blooms of the photosynthetic ciliate, Myrionecta rubra have been observed in the Columbia River estuary in late summer. In an effort to understand the dynamics of these blooms, we investigated the genetic variability of M. rubra and its cryptophyte plastids within three large estuarine blooms formed in consecutive years (2007-2009), and conducted a broader spatial survey along the coasts of Oregon/Washington. Analysis of the ‘18S-28S’ sequences specific for Mesodiniidae uncovered at least 7 variants of M. rubra within the Columbia River coastal margin in spring and summer, but only one of these M. rubra variants was implicated in estuary bloom formation. Using a multigene approach, we show that the bloom-forming variant of M. rubra appears to harbor the same cryptophyte chloroplast in recurring blooms. Analyses of chloroplast 16S rRNA, cryptophyte RuBisCO and Photosystem II D2 genes together suggest that the plastid is derived from Teleaulax amphioxeia. Free-living cells of this species and of other cryptophytes were practically absent from the bloom patches in the estuary main channels based on 18S rDNA sequence analyses. The respectively low and high proportions of T. amphioxeia nuclei and chloroplasts signals found in the M. rubra bloom of the Columbia River estuary in successive years supports the notion of a transient association between T. amphioxeia and the bloom-forming M. rubra variant, with loss of cryptophyte nuclei. The genetic variability of M. rubra uncovered here is relevant to the controversy in the literature regarding the cryptophyte /M. rubra association.

  16. Nocardia farcinica bacteraemia presenting as a prostate abscess.

    PubMed

    Scorey, Hana; Daniel, Santhosh

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia is characterised as a Gram positive filamentous rod and is found worldwide in soil, decaying vegetable matter and aquatic environments. Localised pulmonary infection is the most common clinical presentation. However, Nocardia can present in a wide variety of clinical manifestations, especially in the immunocompromised individual. We present the first case of a prostate abscess caused by Nocardia farcinica in a man with a history of severe psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. He had been on long term immunosuppression for this with prednisolone and etanercept. His Nocardia was likely contracted through direct skin inoculation while gardening with haematological dissemination to the prostate. He responded well to long term sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. PMID:27419070

  17. Nocardia brasiliensis: mycetoma induction and growth cycle.

    PubMed Central

    Conde, C; Melendro, E I; Fresán, M; Ortiz-Ortiz, L

    1982-01-01

    The capacity of Nocardia brasiliensis to induce mycetoma in BALB/c mice in the absence of adjuvants was studied. Whether the virulence of N. brasiliensis varied in the different phases of its growth cycle was also determined. The results showed that N. brasiliensis suspended in 0.15 M NaCl and injected into the footpads of mice were able to induce mycetoma after only 14 days of infection, as evidenced by histological studies. Data are also presented indicating that the virulence of N. brasiliensis did not vary during the different phases of its growth curve. The differences in virulence reported between N. brasiliensis and other nocardiae are discussed and explained in terms of several variables in the experimental designs used: among these variables are mouse genotype, route of inoculation, and model for determining virulence. Images PMID:7152671

  18. Nocardia veterana, a New Emerging Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Pottumarthy, Sudha; Limaye, Ajit P.; Prentice, Jennifer L.; Houze, Yolanda B.; Swanzy, Susan R.; Cookson, Brad T.

    2003-01-01

    Nocardia veterana is a newly described species named after the veteran's hospital where it was first isolated. This initial type strain was not thought to be clinically significant. We describe three cases of pulmonary disease attributable to N. veterana: two cases in patients presenting with multiple pulmonary nodules in a setting of immunocompromise and one case of exacerbation of chronic pulmonary disease. The isolates were susceptible to ampicillin, imipenem, gentamicin, amikacin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and had reduced susceptibilities to ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, minocycline, and ciprofloxacin. The MICs of amoxicillin-clavulanate were higher than that of ampicillin alone, and the bacteria produced a β-lactamase detectable only after induction with clavulanic acid. Phenotypically, the isolates could not be characterized beyond the Nocardia genus level. All three isolates were definitively identified as N. veterana by PCR and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. On the basis of their susceptibility and restriction enzyme analysis profiles, our findings indicate that they could potentially be misidentified as N. nova. These cases illustrate the pathogenic potential of this newly described species and emphasize the importance of accurate identification of Nocardia isolates to the species level by integrated use of phenotypic and genotypic methods. PMID:12682164

  19. Nocardia Arthritis: 3 Cases and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Chaussade, Hélène; Lebeaux, David; Gras, Guillaume; Catherinot, Emilie; Rammaert, Blandine; Poiree, Sylvain; Lecuyer, Hervé; Zeller, Valérie; Bernard, Louis; Lortholary, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Nocardia are Gram-positive filamentous bacteria responsible for infections ranging from opportunistic life-threatening disseminated diseases to chronic skin and soft-tissue infections. Even if virtually all organs can be infected, articular involvement is rare. Therefore, we report 3 recent cases and performed a literature review of cases of Nocardia arthritis in order to describe clinical features, therapeutic challenges, and outcome of these patients. Among 34 patients (31 in the literature plus our 3 cases), 21 (62%) were due to hematogenous dissemination, 9 (26%) were due to direct bacterial inoculation through the skin, and in 4 cases, the mechanism of infection was unknown. Four out of these 34 cases occurred on prosthetic joints. Whereas hematogenous infections mostly occurred in immunocompromised hosts (17 of 21, 81%), direct inoculation was mostly seen in immunocompetent patients. Eighty-two percent of patients (28 out of 34) received trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-containing regimens and median antibiotic treatment duration was 24 weeks (range, 12–120) for hematogenous infections and 12 weeks (range, 6–24) for direct inoculations. Outcome was favorable in 27 cases despite unsystematic surgical management (17 cases) without sequelae in 70% of the cases. Nocardia arthritis is rare but its management is complex and should rely on a combined approach with rheumatologist, infectious diseases expert, and surgeon. PMID:26496274

  20. First report of a brain abscess caused by Nocardia veterana.

    PubMed

    Arends, J E; Stemerding, A M; Vorst, S P; de Neeling, A J; Weersink, A J L

    2011-12-01

    Among Nocardia species causing infections, Nocardia veterana is rarely isolated and is mostly described as causing pulmonary infections. This is the first presentation of a case of brain abscess attributable to an N. veterana infection in a patient with type 2 diabetes. Prolonged antibiotic therapy with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole led to successful clinical recovery.

  1. Opacification of Middlebrook agar as an aid in distinguishing Nocardia farcinica within the Nocardia asteroides complex.

    PubMed Central

    Carson, M; Hellyar, A

    1994-01-01

    Among 58 aerobic actinomycetes isolated from different sources and geographical locations, none of 23 Nocardia asteroides isolates, at 18 N. farcinica isolates, 1 of 5 N. otitidiscaviarum isolates, and 1 of 4 Rhodococcus species isolates opacified Middlebrook 7H10 medium. Within the N. asteroides complex, this characteristic, together with growth at 45 degrees C and resistance to each of erythromycin, cefotaxime, and tobramycin, provides a simple means of distinguishing N. farcinica from N. asteroides. PMID:7814557

  2. [Isolation of Nocardia species in patients with cystic fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Barrio, M Isabel; Martínez, M Carmen; Prados, Concepción; Girón, Rosa M; Maiz, Luis; Martínez, M Teresa

    2008-02-01

    The isolation of Nocardia species from the respiratory secretions of patients with cystic fibrosis presents problems with important clinical implications. From the sputum culture of a total of 387 patients with cystic fibrosis, Nocardia species was isolated in 9 cases (2%; 8 females and 1 male) with a mean (SD) age of 17 (7) years. Sixty-seven percent of the patients were asymptomatic and no relevant radiographic or analytical changes were detected. In only 3 patients was of Nocardia species isolated again in successive samples. Two patients were not treated, 7 were treated with cotrimoxazole and 3 with minocycline; in 2 cases therapy was intravenous. After a mean follow-up of 48 (33) months, all patients had improved. Isolation of Nocardia species from the secretions of patients with cystic fibrosis does not necessarily imply infection and the need for treatment should be assessed on an individual basis. PMID:18361877

  3. New Nocardia taxon among isolates of Nocardia brasiliensis associated with invasive disease.

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, R J; Brown, B A; Blacklock, Z; Ulrich, R; Jost, K; Brown, J M; McNeil, M M; Onyi, G; Steingrube, V A; Gibson, J

    1995-01-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis, the second most frequently isolated aerobic actinomycete in the clinical laboratory, is usually associated with localized cutaneous infections. However, 22% of 238 N. brasiliensis isolates from the United States and 12% of 66 isolates from Queensland, Australia, which had been collected over a 17-year period, were associated with extracutaneous and/or disseminated diseases. Of the 62 invasive isolates, 37 (60%) were susceptible to ciprofloxacin and/or were susceptible to clarithromycin and resistant to minocycline, compared with only 6 (3%) of 242 localized cutaneous isolates. The 43 isolates with this susceptibility pattern appeared to define a new taxon. They were similar to Nocardia asteroides complex isolates clinically in proportions from persons with pulmonary (70%), central nervous system (23%), and/or disseminated diseases (37%) in the setting of corticosteroids (74%) or AIDS (14%). This putative new taxon differed from N. brasiliensis in the hydrolysis of adenine (92 versus 4%), beta-lactamase patterns on isoelectric focusing, and the presence of two early mycolic acid-ester peaks by high-performance liquid chromatography. Restriction analysis of a 439-bp fragment of the 65-kDa heat shock protein gene revealed that N. brasiliensis and the new taxon had different restriction patterns with 8 of the 11 enzymes tested. Screening of invasive isolates of N. brasiliensis for susceptibility to ciprofloxacin will identify most isolates of the new taxon, which likely represents a new Nocardia species. PMID:7650180

  4. Mechanism of Rifampicin Inactivation in Nocardia farcinica

    PubMed Central

    Abdelwahab, Heba; Martin Del Campo, Julia S.; Dai, Yumin; Adly, Camelia; El-Sohaimy, Sohby; Sobrado, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    A novel mechanism of rifampicin (Rif) resistance has recently been reported in Nocardia farcinica. This new mechanism involves the activity of rifampicin monooxygenase (RifMO), a flavin-dependent monooxygenase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of Rif, which is the first step in the degradation pathway. Recombinant RifMO was overexpressed and purified for biochemical analysis. Kinetic characterization revealed that Rif binding is necessary for effective FAD reduction. RifMO exhibits only a 3-fold coenzyme preference for NADPH over NADH. RifMO catalyzes the incorporation of a single oxygen atom forming an unstable intermediate that eventually is converted to 2′-N-hydroxy-4-oxo-Rif. Stable C4a-hydroperoxyflavin was not detected by rapid kinetics methods, which is consistent with only 30% of the activated oxygen leading to product formation. These findings represent the first reported detailed biochemical characterization of a flavin-monooxygenase involved in antibiotic resistance. PMID:27706151

  5. Molecular identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of Nocardia spp. isolated from bovine mastitis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Condas, Larissa A Z; Ribeiro, Márcio G; Yazawa, Katsukiyo; de Vargas, Agueda P Castagna; Salerno, Tatiana; Giuffrida, Rogério; Langoni, Hélio; Melville, Priscila A; Biesdorf, Sônia; Matsuzawa, Tetsuhiro; Gonoi, Tohru; Kastelic, John P; Barkema, Herman W

    2013-12-27

    Nocardia spp. infections can cause severe damage to the mammary gland due to suppurative pyogranulomatous lesions and lack of clinical cure in response to conventional antimicrobial therapy. Although Nocardia infections are considered relatively uncommon in cows, there has been an apparent worldwide increase in the incidence of bovine mastitis caused by Nocardia spp, perhaps due to environmental transmission of this ubiquitous pathogen. The objectives of present study were to determine: (i) species distribution of 80 Nocardia isolates involved in bovine mastitis (based on molecular methods); and (ii) antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of all isolates from three geographical areas in Brazil. In this study, Nocardia nova (80%) was the most frequently isolated species, followed by Nocardia farcinica (9%). Additionally, Nocardia puris, Nocardia cyriacigeorgica, Nocardia veterana, Nocardia africana, and Nocardia arthritidis were detected using 16S rRNA sequencing. This is apparently the first report of N. puris, N. veterana, N. cyriacigeorgica, N. arthritidis and N. africana in association with bovine mastitis. Based on the disk diffusion test, isolates were most frequently resistant to cloxacillin (75%), ampicillin (55%) and cefoperazone (47%), whereas few Nocardia spp. were resistant to amikacin, cefuroxime or gentamicin.

  6. Bevacizumab-induced pityriasis rubra pilaris-like eruption.

    PubMed

    Brown, Shannon; Fletcher, J Wesley; Fiala, Katherine H

    2016-07-01

    Pityriasis rubra pilaris is a rare inflammatory disorder characterized by follicular papules on an erythematous base often exhibiting islands of unaffected skin, follicular plugging, and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis. While vitamin A deficiency and autoimmune reactions have been hypothesized as possible etiologies of this condition, pityriasis rubra pilaris-like eruptions secondary to medications are extremely rare. To our knowledge, only three other cases have been reported, and pityriasis rubra pilaris has never been reported in association with bevacizumab. We present a 70-year-old man who developed erythroderma both clinically and histologically consistent with pityriasis rubra pilaris 10 days after intravitreal injection of bevacizumab for age-related macular degeneration. As immune-modulating drugs grow in their application for a host of diseases, recognition of associated medication complications is important. PMID:27365893

  7. Purification and partial characterization of a Nocardia brasiliensis extracellular protease.

    PubMed

    Zlotnik, H; Schramm, V L; Buckley, H R

    1984-02-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis possess proteolytic activities that can be readily detected in a variety of media. In a modified formulation of a growth medium originally used for Streptomyces aureofaciens, N. brasiliensis was found to secrete proteolytic enzymes, one of which was capable of hydrolyzing casein. This enzyme was purified to homogeneity from cell-free culture filtrates of N. brasiliensis. The purification procedure included ion-exchange chromatography on carboxymethyl-Sepharose, gel filtration on Sephadex G-100, and affinity chromatography, using a hemoglobin-Sepharose resin. The molecular weight of the N. brasiliensis protease was found to be 25,000 by gel filtration and 35,000 by sodium dodecyl sulfate-discontinuous gel electrophoresis. The enzyme is inhibited by o-phenanthroline and 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid but is not affected by EDTA. Average values for its kinetic parameters were 0.288 mumol of hemoglobin solubilized per min per mg of enzyme for Vmax and 0.76 mM for Km, using hemoglobin as the substrate.

  8. Purification and partial characterization of a Nocardia brasiliensis extracellular protease.

    PubMed Central

    Zlotnik, H; Schramm, V L; Buckley, H R

    1984-01-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis possess proteolytic activities that can be readily detected in a variety of media. In a modified formulation of a growth medium originally used for Streptomyces aureofaciens, N. brasiliensis was found to secrete proteolytic enzymes, one of which was capable of hydrolyzing casein. This enzyme was purified to homogeneity from cell-free culture filtrates of N. brasiliensis. The purification procedure included ion-exchange chromatography on carboxymethyl-Sepharose, gel filtration on Sephadex G-100, and affinity chromatography, using a hemoglobin-Sepharose resin. The molecular weight of the N. brasiliensis protease was found to be 25,000 by gel filtration and 35,000 by sodium dodecyl sulfate-discontinuous gel electrophoresis. The enzyme is inhibited by o-phenanthroline and 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid but is not affected by EDTA. Average values for its kinetic parameters were 0.288 mumol of hemoglobin solubilized per min per mg of enzyme for Vmax and 0.76 mM for Km, using hemoglobin as the substrate. Images PMID:6363390

  9. Miliaria rubra of the lower limbs in underground miners.

    PubMed

    Donoghue, A M; Sinclair, M J

    2000-08-01

    This report documents a case series of miliaria rubra of the lower limbs in miners at a deep underground metalliferous mine in tropical arid Australia. During the summer months of February and March 1999, all cases of miliaria rubra of the lower limbs in underground miners seen at the mine's medical centre were clinically examined and administered a questionnaire. Twenty-five patients were seen, an incidence of 56.4 cases per million man-hours. Miliaria rubra was most often located between the ankle and knee (88% of cases). Twenty-four percent had concurrent folliculitis and 20% had concurrent tinea. Thirty-two percent had a personal history of asthma. Walking through ground-water and splashing of the legs was common. Three to 4 weeks of sedentary duties in air conditioning was generally required to achieve resolution of miliaria rubra. The incidence of miliaria rubra of the lower limbs is 38% of the incidence of heat exhaustion at the same mine. The length of disablement is greater, however. Atopics may be at increased risk of miliaria rubra. Control measures are discussed.

  10. Transport across the outer membrane porin of mycolic acid containing actinomycetales: Nocardia farcinica.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pratik Raj; Bajaj, Harsha; Benz, Roland; Winterhalter, Mathias; Mahendran, Kozhinjampara R

    2015-02-01

    The role of the outer-membrane channel from a mycolic acid containing Gram-positive bacteria Nocardia farcinica, which forms a hydrophilic pathway across the cell wall, was characterized. Single channel electrophysiology measurements and liposome swelling assays revealed the permeation of hydrophilic solutes including sugars, amino acids and antibiotics. The cation selective N. farcinica channel exhibited strong interaction with the positively charged antibiotics; amikacin and kanamycin, and surprisingly also with the negatively charged ertapenem. Voltage dependent kinetics of amikacin and kanamycin interactions were studied to distinguish binding from translocation. Moreover, the importance of charged residues inside the channel was investigated using mutational studies that revealed rate limiting interactions during the permeation.

  11. Role of Nocardia in Activated Sludge.

    PubMed

    Bafghi, Mehdi Fatahi; Yousefi, Nader

    2016-05-01

    Activated sludge process is a biological process that is widely used in the domestic and industrial wastewater treatment in over the world. The foam formation is often reported in wastewater treatment plants which are related to this process. Some operational problems can be created by foaming, such as effluent quality deteriorates, the creation of malodorous, increased time requirements in order to plant maintenance, and in extreme cases, hazardous working conditions resulting from foam spilling out of the aeration basin and as well as increased in operational costs. There are different ways to overcome this problem, such as reduce air flows into the aeration basin, reduction in the grease and oil content of the wastewater, surface and return activated sludge (RAS) chlorination, anoxic and anaerobic selectors, solid retention time (SRT) control and antifoams and organic polymer addition. On the other hand, rapid and accurate identification of the foam causes is in the first step to control bulking and foaming. Foam problem is often created by filamentous bacteria, such as Nocardia and Gordonia species. This bacterium has a role important in activated sludge. PMID:27418874

  12. Role of Nocardia in Activated Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Bafghi, Mehdi Fatahi; Yousefi, Nader

    2016-01-01

    Activated sludge process is a biological process that is widely used in the domestic and industrial wastewater treatment in over the world. The foam formation is often reported in wastewater treatment plants which are related to this process. Some operational problems can be created by foaming, such as effluent quality deteriorates, the creation of malodorous, increased time requirements in order to plant maintenance, and in extreme cases, hazardous working conditions resulting from foam spilling out of the aeration basin and as well as increased in operational costs. There are different ways to overcome this problem, such as reduce air flows into the aeration basin, reduction in the grease and oil content of the wastewater, surface and return activated sludge (RAS) chlorination, anoxic and anaerobic selectors, solid retention time (SRT) control and antifoams and organic polymer addition. On the other hand, rapid and accurate identification of the foam causes is in the first step to control bulking and foaming. Foam problem is often created by filamentous bacteria, such as Nocardia and Gordonia species. This bacterium has a role important in activated sludge. PMID:27418874

  13. Pleurésie purulente à Nocardia asteroids

    PubMed Central

    Bopaka, Régis Gothard; Janah, Hind; El Khattabi, Wiam; Aichane, Abdelaziz; Afif, Hicham

    2014-01-01

    La pleurésie purulente à Nocardia asteroides est rare. Elle survient le plus souvent sur un terrain d'immunodépression. Nous rapportons une observation d'une pleurésie à Nocardia asteroides chez une patiente âgée de 60 ans, chez qui nous avons découvert un diabète. A travers ce travail les auteurs soulignent l'intérêt de la multiplication de prélèvements, de rechercher ce germe sur terrain d'immunodépression et en cas d'isolement, de rechercher la comorbidité. PMID:25574322

  14. In Vivo Activity of the Benzothiazinones PBTZ169 and BTZ043 against Nocardia brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    González-Martínez, Norma Alejandra; Lozano-Garza, Hector Gerardo; Castro-Garza, Jorge; De Osio-Cortez, Alexandra; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Cavazos-Rocha, Norma; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Makarov, Vadim; Cole, Stewart T.; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio

    2015-01-01

    Background Mycetoma is a neglected, chronic, and deforming infectious disease caused by fungi and actinomycetes. In Mexico, N. brasiliensis is the predominant etiologic agent. Therapeutic alternatives are necessary because the current drug regimens have several disadvantages. Benzothiazinones (BTZ) are a new class of candidate drugs that inhibit decaprenyl-phosphoribose-epimerase (DprE1), an essential enzyme involved in the cell wall biosynthesis of Corynebacterineae. Methodology/Principal findings In this study, the in vitro activity of the next generation BTZ, PBTZ169, was tested against thirty Nocardia brasiliensis isolates. The MIC50 and MIC90 values for PBTZ169 were 0.0075 and 0.03 μg/mL, respectively. Because Nocardia is a potential intracellular bacterium, a THP-1 macrophage monolayer was infected with N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 and then treated with PBTZ169, resulting in a decrease in the number of colony-forming units (CFUs) at a concentration of 0.25X the in vitro value. The in vivo activity was evaluated after infecting female BALB/c mice in the right hind food-pad. After 6 weeks, treatment was initiated with PBTZ169 and its activity was compared with the first generation compound, BTZ043. Both BTZ compounds were administered at 100 mg/kg twice daily by gavage, and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SXT), at 100 mg/kg sulfamethoxazole, was used as a positive control. After 22 weeks of therapy, only PBTZ169 and SXT displayed statistically significant activity. Conclusion These results indicate that DprE1 inhibitors may be useful for treating infections of Nocardia and may therefore be active against other actinomycetoma agents. We must test combinations of these compounds with other antimicrobial agents, such as linezolid, tedizolid or SXT, that have good to excellent in vivo activity, as well as new DprE1 inhibitors that can achieve higher plasma levels. PMID:26474057

  15. Autochthonous Nocardia cerradoensis Infection in Humans, Spain, 2011 and 2014

    PubMed Central

    Ercibengoa, Maria; Pérez-Trallero, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia cerradoensis was first isolated in 2003 in the El Cerrado region of Brazil; since then, only 2 human infections, in France and Spain, have been reported. We describe 3 autochthonous cases in residents of Spain during 2011 and 2014. Together these cases support the idea of an emerging global pathogenic microorganism. PMID:26691545

  16. Autochthonous Nocardia cerradoensis Infection in Humans, Spain, 2011 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Ercibengoa, Maria; Pérez-Trallero, Emilio; Marimón, José Maria

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia cerradoensis was first isolated in 2003 in the El Cerrado region of Brazil; since then, only 2 human infections, in France and Spain, have been reported. We describe 3 autochthonous cases in residents of Spain during 2011 and 2014. Together these cases support the idea of an emerging global pathogenic microorganism.

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Nocardia brasiliensis HUJEG-1

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Lopez, Rocio; Elizondo-Gonzalez, Ramiro; Perez-Maya, Antonio Ali; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    In Mexico, actinomycetoma is mainly caused by Nocardia brasiliensis, which is a soil inhabitant actinobacterium. Here, we report for the first time the draft genome of a strain isolated from a human case that has largely been found in in vitro and experimental models of actinomycetoma, N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1. PMID:22535940

  18. Nutritional and functional potential of Beta vulgaris cicla and rubra.

    PubMed

    Ninfali, Paolino; Angelino, Donato

    2013-09-01

    Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris cicla, BVc) and beetroot (Beta vulgaris rubra, BVr) are vegetables of the Chenopodiaceae family, widely consumed in traditional western cooking. These vegetables represent a highly renewable and cheap source of nutrients. They can be cultivated in soils with scarce organic material and little light and water. BVc and BVr have a long history of use in folk medicine. Modern pharmacology shows that BVc extracts possess antihypertensive and hypoglycaemic activity as well as excellent antioxidant activity. BVc contains apigenin flavonoids, namely vitexin, vitexin-2-O-rhamnoside and vitexin-2-O-xyloside, which show antiproliferative activity on cancer cell lines. BVr contains secondary metabolites, called betalains, which are used as natural dyes in food industry and show anticancer activity. In this light, BVc and BVr can be considered functional foods. Moreover, the promising results of their phytochemicals in health protection suggest the opportunity to take advantage of the large availability of this crop for purification of chemopreventive molecules to be used in functional foods and nutraceutical products.

  19. Nutritional and functional potential of Beta vulgaris cicla and rubra.

    PubMed

    Ninfali, Paolino; Angelino, Donato

    2013-09-01

    Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris cicla, BVc) and beetroot (Beta vulgaris rubra, BVr) are vegetables of the Chenopodiaceae family, widely consumed in traditional western cooking. These vegetables represent a highly renewable and cheap source of nutrients. They can be cultivated in soils with scarce organic material and little light and water. BVc and BVr have a long history of use in folk medicine. Modern pharmacology shows that BVc extracts possess antihypertensive and hypoglycaemic activity as well as excellent antioxidant activity. BVc contains apigenin flavonoids, namely vitexin, vitexin-2-O-rhamnoside and vitexin-2-O-xyloside, which show antiproliferative activity on cancer cell lines. BVr contains secondary metabolites, called betalains, which are used as natural dyes in food industry and show anticancer activity. In this light, BVc and BVr can be considered functional foods. Moreover, the promising results of their phytochemicals in health protection suggest the opportunity to take advantage of the large availability of this crop for purification of chemopreventive molecules to be used in functional foods and nutraceutical products. PMID:23751216

  20. Nocardia transvalensis Disseminated Infection in an Immunocompromised Patient with Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    PubMed Central

    García-Méndez, Jorge; Carrillo-Casas, Erika M.; Rangel-Cordero, Andrea; Leyva-Leyva, Margarita; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan; Arenas, Roberto; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia transvalensis complex includes a wide range of microorganisms with specific antimicrobial resistance patterns. N. transvalensis is an unusual Nocardia species. However, it must be differentiated due to its natural resistance to aminoglycosides while other Nocardia species are susceptible. The present report describes a Nocardia species involved in an uncommon clinical case of a patient with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and pulmonary nocardiosis. Microbiological and molecular techniques based on the sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene allowed diagnosis of Nocardia transvalensis sensu stricto. The successful treatment was based on trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and other drugs. We conclude that molecular identification of Nocardia species is a valuable technique to guide good treatment and prognosis and recommend its use for daily bases diagnosis. PMID:27313917

  1. Nocardia transvalensis Disseminated Infection in an Immunocompromised Patient with Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura.

    PubMed

    García-Méndez, Jorge; Carrillo-Casas, Erika M; Rangel-Cordero, Andrea; Leyva-Leyva, Margarita; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan; Arenas, Roberto; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia transvalensis complex includes a wide range of microorganisms with specific antimicrobial resistance patterns. N. transvalensis is an unusual Nocardia species. However, it must be differentiated due to its natural resistance to aminoglycosides while other Nocardia species are susceptible. The present report describes a Nocardia species involved in an uncommon clinical case of a patient with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and pulmonary nocardiosis. Microbiological and molecular techniques based on the sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene allowed diagnosis of Nocardia transvalensis sensu stricto. The successful treatment was based on trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and other drugs. We conclude that molecular identification of Nocardia species is a valuable technique to guide good treatment and prognosis and recommend its use for daily bases diagnosis.

  2. Nocardia transvalensis Disseminated Infection in an Immunocompromised Patient with Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura.

    PubMed

    García-Méndez, Jorge; Carrillo-Casas, Erika M; Rangel-Cordero, Andrea; Leyva-Leyva, Margarita; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan; Arenas, Roberto; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia transvalensis complex includes a wide range of microorganisms with specific antimicrobial resistance patterns. N. transvalensis is an unusual Nocardia species. However, it must be differentiated due to its natural resistance to aminoglycosides while other Nocardia species are susceptible. The present report describes a Nocardia species involved in an uncommon clinical case of a patient with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and pulmonary nocardiosis. Microbiological and molecular techniques based on the sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene allowed diagnosis of Nocardia transvalensis sensu stricto. The successful treatment was based on trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and other drugs. We conclude that molecular identification of Nocardia species is a valuable technique to guide good treatment and prognosis and recommend its use for daily bases diagnosis. PMID:27313917

  3. A 2-substituted prodiginine, 2-(p-hydroxybenzyl)prodigiosin, from Pseudoalteromonas rubra.

    PubMed

    Fehér, Domonkos; Barlow, Russell S; Lorenzo, Patricia S; Hemscheidt, Thomas K

    2008-11-01

    In the course of work aimed at the discovery of new pharmaceutical lead compounds from marine bacteria, a lipophilic extract of the bacterium Pseudoalteromonas rubra displayed significant cytotoxicity against SKOV-3, a human ovarian adenocarcinoma cell line. Bioassay-directed fractionation of this extract resulted in the isolation of a series of known and new prodiginine-type azafulvenes. The structure of the major metabolite was elucidated by interpretation of spectroscopic data as a 2-substituted prodigiosin, which we named 2-(p-hydroxybenzyl)prodigiosin (HBPG).

  4. Clinical significance, antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular identification of Nocardia species isolated from children with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Betrán, Ana; Villuendas, M Cruz; Rezusta, Antonio; Pereira, Javier; Revillo, M José; Rodríguez-Nava, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia is an opportunistic pathogen that causes respiratory infections in immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to analyze the epidemiology, clinical significance and antimicrobial susceptibility of Nocardia species isolated from eight children with cystic fibrosis. The isolated species were identified as Nocardia farcinica, Nocardia transvalensis, Nocardia pneumoniae, Nocardia veterana and Nocardia wallacei. N. farcinica was isolated in three patients and all of them presented lung affectation with a chronic colonization and pneumonia. N. farcinica showed resistance against gentamicin, tobramycin, cefotaxime, but was susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and amikacin. N. transvalensis, which was isolated from two patients, showed an association with chronic colonization. N. transvalensis was resistant to tobramycin and amikacin, but susceptible to ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and cefotaxime. N. veterana, N. pneumoniae and N. wallacei were isolated from three different patients and appeared in transitory lung colonization. N. veterana and N. pneumoniae were susceptible to imipenem, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, amikacin, tobramycin, and cefotaxime. N. wallacei was resistant to amikacin, tobramycin, imipenem, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and susceptible to ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime. All the isolates were identified up to species level by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The presence of Nocardia in the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis is not always an indication of an active infection; therefore, the need for a treatment should be evaluated on an individual basis. The detection of multidrug-resistant species needs molecular identification and susceptibility testing, and should be performed for all Nocardia infections. PMID:27155949

  5. Clinical significance, antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular identification of Nocardia species isolated from children with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Betrán, Ana; Villuendas, M Cruz; Rezusta, Antonio; Pereira, Javier; Revillo, M José; Rodríguez-Nava, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia is an opportunistic pathogen that causes respiratory infections in immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to analyze the epidemiology, clinical significance and antimicrobial susceptibility of Nocardia species isolated from eight children with cystic fibrosis. The isolated species were identified as Nocardia farcinica, Nocardia transvalensis, Nocardia pneumoniae, Nocardia veterana and Nocardia wallacei. N. farcinica was isolated in three patients and all of them presented lung affectation with a chronic colonization and pneumonia. N. farcinica showed resistance against gentamicin, tobramycin, cefotaxime, but was susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and amikacin. N. transvalensis, which was isolated from two patients, showed an association with chronic colonization. N. transvalensis was resistant to tobramycin and amikacin, but susceptible to ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and cefotaxime. N. veterana, N. pneumoniae and N. wallacei were isolated from three different patients and appeared in transitory lung colonization. N. veterana and N. pneumoniae were susceptible to imipenem, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, amikacin, tobramycin, and cefotaxime. N. wallacei was resistant to amikacin, tobramycin, imipenem, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and susceptible to ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime. All the isolates were identified up to species level by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The presence of Nocardia in the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis is not always an indication of an active infection; therefore, the need for a treatment should be evaluated on an individual basis. The detection of multidrug-resistant species needs molecular identification and susceptibility testing, and should be performed for all Nocardia infections.

  6. A Review of Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris and Rheumatologic Associations

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Happy; Liu, Fu Tong

    2004-01-01

    Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) is a rare group of hyperkeratotic, papulosquamous disease that can be acquired or inherited. There have been reported cases of rheumatologic associations, mainly arthritis and dermatomyositis. In this review article, we will explore the clinical presentation and classification, rheumatologic associations and treatment modalities of PRP. In addition, we will also report a case of PRP with seronegative arthritis. PMID:15154613

  7. Comparison of restriction enzyme pattern analysis and full gene sequencing of 16S rRNA gene for Nocardia species identification, the first report of Nocardia transvalensis isolated of sputum from Iran, and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Fatahi-Bafghi, Mehdi; Heidarieh, Parvin; Rasouli-Nasab, Masoumeh; Habibnia, Shadi; Hashemi-Shahraki, Abdorazagh; Eshraghi, Seyyed Saeed

    2016-10-01

    Nocardial infections occur in different organs of the body and are common in immune disorder diseases of individuals. The aim of this study was to assess Nocardia species identification by phenotypic tests and molecular techniques applied to nocardiosis in Iranian patients. In the current study, various clinical samples were collected and cultured on conventional media and using the paraffin baiting method. Various phenotypic tests were performed. For accurate identification at the species level, restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) in the hsp65 and partial 16S rRNA genes and full gene sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene were used. Twenty-seven Nocardia spp. were isolated and analysis of phenotypic tests results showed Nocardia asteroides complex, Nocardia otitidiscaviarum, Nocardia nova, and Nocardia spp. New RFLP patterns of Nocardia strains with hsp65 and partial 16S rRNA genes were obtained. Full gene sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene identified Nocardia cyriacigeorgica, N. otitidiscaviarum, Nocardia farcinica, Nocardia transvalensis, and N. nova. Nocardia infections are rarely reported and this genus is the cause of various illnesses. Accurate identification of Nocardia spp. is important for epidemiology studies and treatment. It should also be noted that some species may have similar RFLP patterns; therefore, full gene sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene is necessary for confirmation.

  8. Comparison of restriction enzyme pattern analysis and full gene sequencing of 16S rRNA gene for Nocardia species identification, the first report of Nocardia transvalensis isolated of sputum from Iran, and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Fatahi-Bafghi, Mehdi; Heidarieh, Parvin; Rasouli-Nasab, Masoumeh; Habibnia, Shadi; Hashemi-Shahraki, Abdorazagh; Eshraghi, Seyyed Saeed

    2016-10-01

    Nocardial infections occur in different organs of the body and are common in immune disorder diseases of individuals. The aim of this study was to assess Nocardia species identification by phenotypic tests and molecular techniques applied to nocardiosis in Iranian patients. In the current study, various clinical samples were collected and cultured on conventional media and using the paraffin baiting method. Various phenotypic tests were performed. For accurate identification at the species level, restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) in the hsp65 and partial 16S rRNA genes and full gene sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene were used. Twenty-seven Nocardia spp. were isolated and analysis of phenotypic tests results showed Nocardia asteroides complex, Nocardia otitidiscaviarum, Nocardia nova, and Nocardia spp. New RFLP patterns of Nocardia strains with hsp65 and partial 16S rRNA genes were obtained. Full gene sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene identified Nocardia cyriacigeorgica, N. otitidiscaviarum, Nocardia farcinica, Nocardia transvalensis, and N. nova. Nocardia infections are rarely reported and this genus is the cause of various illnesses. Accurate identification of Nocardia spp. is important for epidemiology studies and treatment. It should also be noted that some species may have similar RFLP patterns; therefore, full gene sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene is necessary for confirmation. PMID:27613736

  9. Actinomyces and nocardia infections in immunocompromised and nonimmunocompromised patients.

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, D. C.; Antony, S. J.

    1999-01-01

    A retrospective survey of nocardia and actinomyces infections in five local hospitals was conducted over a 3-year period in El Paso, Texas, a border city, in the southwestern United States. The medical records of 42 patients with suspected nocardiosis or actinomycosis were reviewed. One patient was diagnosed with actinomyces and 12 patients with nocardia. Microbiological data included morphologic characteristics, biochemical profile, and susceptibility testing. Predisposing factors included leukemia, renal insufficiency, renal transplant, and lymphoma. No predisposing factors were found in 67% (n = 8) of patients (including the patient with actinomycosis). Twenty-three percent (n = 3) of patients had disseminated disease without evidence of underlying disease or immunosuppression. The mortality and morbidity of these infections appeared to be low. PMID:10063786

  10. Nocardia nova mycetoma over forehead in a lepromatous leprosy patient.

    PubMed

    Dhingra, M; Kaistha, N; Bansal, N; Solanki, L S; Chander, J; Thami, G P; van de Sande, W W

    2012-07-01

    We present a case of a 31-year-old male, a known patient with lepromatous leprosy with a type 2 lepra reaction, who presented with a slowly growing asymptomatic swelling with multiple discharging sinuses over the forehead that developed over 6 months. Smears of the serosanguinous discharge on Gram staining showed Gram-positive branching filamentous bacilli, which on culture on blood agar showed chalky-white colonies. Histology of the lesion showed suppurative granulomas with polymorphs surrounding characteristic grains. The isolate was identified as Nocardia nova by gene sequencing and the patient was started on combined antibiotic therapy that resulted in complete resolution of the infection in six months. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of mycetoma related to Nocardia nova in association with leprosy. PMID:22863625

  11. Actinomycetoma by Nocardia brasiliensis in a girl with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Martha; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Valencia, Adriana; Araiza, Javier; Mejia, Silvia Anett; Mena-Cedillos, Carlos

    2008-08-15

    We describe the case of a 14-year-old girl with Down syndrome and a large cutaneous plaque localized to the right neck and shoulder that had enlarged over five years after a minor traumatic injury. The plaque was characterized by numerous inflammatory nodules and fistulae that secreted purulent discharge. Nocardia grains were identified and Nocardia brasiliensis was identified by culture. Histopathology examination showed a chronic inflammatory infiltrate with granuloma development. The treatment scheme was with Diaminodiphenylsulfone 50/mg/d and Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole 800/160 mg BID. Therapy was continued over 1(1/2) years, with a tapering dose. After 2(1/2) years of continuous treatment, clinical and microbiological healing was achieved.

  12. Fungal, Mycobacterial, and Nocardia infections and the eye: an update

    PubMed Central

    Garg, P

    2012-01-01

    Although relatively uncommon, fungi, atypical Mycobacteria, and Nocardia have been isolated from a variety of infections of eye including keratitis, scleritis, canaliculitis, dacryocystitis, endophthalmitis and orbital cellulites. The organisms typically cause a slowly progressive disease. The diseases caused by the organisms can pose both diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. In this manuscript we will describe updates on important aspects of the ocular infections caused by these organisms. PMID:22173077

  13. Immunoglobulin and complement in tissues of mice infected with Nocardia brasiliensis.

    PubMed Central

    Conde, C; Mancilla, R; Fresan, M; Ortiz-Ortiz, L

    1983-01-01

    Two weeks after mice had been infected in the footpad with cells of Nocardia brasiliensis, immunoglobulin and C3 deposits were observed in tissue from the inoculation site. Both immunoglobulin and C3 were found in the actinomycotic granules that characterize the mycetoma and in the surrounding inflammatory zones, in which plasma cells were also present. Although anti-N. brasiliensis specificity was evidenced at 14 days postinfection in an eluate of infected tissue by an immunoenzymatic assay, no such antibody was found in the serum until 45 days postinfection. Immune complexes in the lesions, as indicated by the presence of C3, may also contribute to the pathology of the disease. Images PMID:6852920

  14. Case report: nocardia infection associated with ectopic cushings

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cushing’s syndrome results from exposure to excess glucocorticoids. Ectopic Cushings is endogenous ACTH dependant form of Cushing’s associated with markedly raised ACTH and cortisol levels. This leads to an impaired immune response, setting the stage for occurrence of opportunistic infections. Nocardiosis is a gram positive bacterial infection caused by aerobic actinomycetes in genus Nocardia. We report a series of patients diagnosed with ectopic Cushings, having pneumonia with Nocardia spp. In one of these cases, the manifestations of Cushing’s disappeared with treatment for Nocardia. Case presentation Two middle aged men of Asian descent presented to the Endocrine clinic: the first with history of exertional shortness of breath, and weight loss for 1 year, the other with facial swelling, disturbed sleep and lethargy for a month. The third case was a young Asian male who presented with progressive weakness & weight loss for 2 months. All three patients had uncontrolled hypertension, high blood sugars & were hypokalemic (K: 2.52, 2.9, 1.5 mmol/l); 24 hour urine cortisol was elevated at 2000, 27216 and 9088 (32-243 ug/24 hours); ACTH 68.5, 159, 255 [0–48 pg/ml), respectively. Their MRI pituitary was normal, inferior petrosal sinus sampling revealed no central peripheral gradient. CT chest of these subjects demonstrated cavitatory lung lesions; microscopic analysis of respiratory samples was suggestive of infection with Nocardia spp. Histopathology of bronchoscopic-guided biopsy revealed no malignancy. Antihypertensives, insulin, potassium replacement, ketoconazole & trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (TS) were initiated. The patients’ symptomatology improved & cavitatory lesions resolved with treatment. The primary source for the ectopic cushings remained unknown. The first case required bilateral adrenalectomy. The second case followed a progressively downhill course leading to death. In the third case, we were able to completely taper off

  15. Nocardia thailandica Pulmonary Nocardiosis in a Post-Solid Organ Transplant Patient.

    PubMed

    Canterino, Joseph; Paniz-Mondolfi, Alberto; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Vientos, Wilson; Vasireddy, Ravikiran; Wallace, Richard J; Campbell, Sheldon

    2015-11-01

    Nocardia thailandica is a rare pathogen related to Nocardia asteroides, Nocardia neocaledoniensis, and Nocardia caishijiensis that, since its original description in 2004, has only been reported to cause wound and ocular infections in humans. We report a case of pulmonary nocardiosis caused by Nocardia thailandica in a 66-year-old solid organ transplant patient from Connecticut, which was identified at the molecular taxonomic level by secA1 analysis, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of N. thailandica in the United States and the first report of pulmonary infection by this pathogen in the literature.

  16. DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN Nocardia spp. AND Mycobacterium spp.: CRITICAL ASPECTS FOR BACTERIOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Muricy, Edna Cleide Mendes; Lemes, Romilda Aparecida; Bombarda, Sidney; Ferrazoli, Lucilaine; Chimara, Erica

    2014-01-01

    New methodologies were developed for the identification of Nocardia but the initial diagnosis still requires a fast and accurate method, mainly due to the similarity to Mycobacterium, both clinical and bacteriologically. Growth on Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium, presence of acid-fast bacilli through Ziehl-Neelsen staining, and colony morphology can be confusing aspects between Nocardia and Mycobacterium. This study describes the occurrence of Nocardia spp. in a mycobacterial-reference laboratory, observing the main difficulties in differentiating Nocardia spp. from Mycobacterium spp., and correlating isolates with nocardiosis cases. Laboratory records for the period between 2008 and 2012 were analyzed, and the isolates identified as Nocardia sp. or as non-acid-fast filamentous bacilli were selected. Epidemiological and bacteriological data were analyzed as well. Thirty-three isolates identified as Nocardia sp. and 22 as non-acid-fast bacilli were selected for this study, and represented 0.12% of isolates during the study period. The presumptive identification was based on macroscopic and microscopic morphology, resistance to lysozyme and restriction profiles using the PRA-hsp65 method. Nocardia spp. can grow on media for mycobacteria isolation (LJ and BBL MGIT™) and microscopy and colony morphology are very similar to some mycobacteria species. Seventeen patients (54.8%) were reported and treated for tuberculosis, but presented signs and symptoms of nocardiosis. It was concluded that the occurrence of Nocardia sp. during the study period was 0.12%. Isolates with characteristics of filamentous bacilli, forming aerial hyphae, with colonies that may be pigmented, rough and without the BstEII digestion pattern in PRA-hsp65 method are suggestive of Nocardia spp. For a mycobacterial routine laboratory, a flow for the presumptive identification of Nocardia is essential, allowing the use of more accurate techniques for the correct identification, proper treatment and

  17. A Study on L-Asparaginase of Nocardia levis MK-VL_113

    PubMed Central

    Kavitha, Alapati; Vijayalakshmi, Muvva

    2012-01-01

    An enzyme-based drug, L-asparaginase, was produced by Nocardia levis MK-VL_113 isolated from laterite soils of Guntur region. Cultural parameters affecting the production of L-asparaginase by the strain were optimized. Maximal yields of L-asparaginase were recorded from 3-day-old culture grown in modified asparagine-glycerol salts broth with initial pH 7.0 at temperature 30°C. Glycerol (2%) and yeast extract (1.5%) served as good carbon and nitrogen sources for L-asparaginase production, respectively. Cell-disrupting agents like EDTA slightly enhanced the productivity of L-asparaginase. Ours is the first paper on the production of L-asparaginase by N. levis. PMID:22619604

  18. A study on L-asparaginase of Nocardia levis MK-VL_113.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, Alapati; Vijayalakshmi, Muvva

    2012-01-01

    An enzyme-based drug, L-asparaginase, was produced by Nocardia levis MK-VL_113 isolated from laterite soils of Guntur region. Cultural parameters affecting the production of L-asparaginase by the strain were optimized. Maximal yields of L-asparaginase were recorded from 3-day-old culture grown in modified asparagine-glycerol salts broth with initial pH 7.0 at temperature 30°C. Glycerol (2%) and yeast extract (1.5%) served as good carbon and nitrogen sources for L-asparaginase production, respectively. Cell-disrupting agents like EDTA slightly enhanced the productivity of L-asparaginase. Ours is the first paper on the production of L-asparaginase by N. levis. PMID:22619604

  19. A study on L-asparaginase of Nocardia levis MK-VL_113.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, Alapati; Vijayalakshmi, Muvva

    2012-01-01

    An enzyme-based drug, L-asparaginase, was produced by Nocardia levis MK-VL_113 isolated from laterite soils of Guntur region. Cultural parameters affecting the production of L-asparaginase by the strain were optimized. Maximal yields of L-asparaginase were recorded from 3-day-old culture grown in modified asparagine-glycerol salts broth with initial pH 7.0 at temperature 30°C. Glycerol (2%) and yeast extract (1.5%) served as good carbon and nitrogen sources for L-asparaginase production, respectively. Cell-disrupting agents like EDTA slightly enhanced the productivity of L-asparaginase. Ours is the first paper on the production of L-asparaginase by N. levis.

  20. Antiscalant properties of Spergularia rubra and Parietaria officinalis aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheap-Charpentier, Hélène; Gelus, Dominique; Pécoul, Nathalie; Perrot, Hubert; Lédion, Jean; Horner, Olivier; Sadoun, Jonathan; Cachet, Xavier; Litaudon, Marc; Roussi, Fanny

    2016-06-01

    The formation of calcium carbonate in water has important implications in industry. Chemical antiscalant is usually used to control scale depositions. Plant extracts have been recently used as new green antiscalant agents, as they can be easily prepared and are environmentally friendly. In this study, stock aqueous solutions of Spergularia rubra and Parietaria officinalis, two plants used in traditional medicine to treat or prevent urolithiasis, were obtained by infusion. The antiscaling properties of these extracts towards CaCO3 formation were tested by using chronoamperometry and Fast Controlled Precipitation methods. The aqueous solution of S. rubra was further fractionated to isolate compounds of lower polarity. Their efficiency towards CaCO3 precipitation was characterized by Fast Controlled Precipitation method. The inhibiting efficiency of this fractionated solution was greater than that of the stock aqueous solution.

  1. Genomic Changes Associated with the Loss of Nocardia brasiliensis Virulence in Mice after 200 In Vitro Passages.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Carrillo, Carolina; Millan-Sauceda, Cassandra; Lozano-Garza, Hector Gerardo; Ortiz-Lopez, Rocio; Elizondo-Gonzalez, Ramiro; Welsh, Oliverio; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio

    2016-09-01

    Nocardia species, particularly Nocardia brasiliensis, are etiologic agents of mycetoma, a chronic subcutaneous infection. Until now, little has been known about the pathogenic mechanisms involved in nocardial infection. Traditionally, subculture in rich media has been a simple way to induce attenuation. In this work, we report the changes in virulence toward mice and in genomic constitution of N. brasiliensis produced after 200 continuous subcultures in brain heart infusion (BHI) medium (P-200 strain). The ability of the N. brasiliensis P-200 strain to produce experimental infection was tested using BALB/c mice. P-200 was also used to immunize mice to determine whether it could induce resistance against a challenge with a nonsubcultured isolate (P-0). Comparative proteomic analysis between N. brasiliensis P-0 and P-200 was performed by two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis, and the genome sequence was obtained through Roche 454 sequence analysis. Virulence in BALB/c mice was completely lost, and BALB/c mice immunized with P-200 bacterial cells were resistant to mycetoma production by the nonsubcultured strain. Whole-genome sequence analysis revealed that P-200 lost a total of 262,913 bp distributed in 19 deleted regions, involving a total of 213 open reading frames (ORFs). The deleted genes included those encoding bacterial virulence factors, e.g., catalase, nitrate reductase enzymes, and a group of mammalian cell entry (MCE) family proteins, which may explain the loss of virulence of the isolate. Thus, completely attenuated N. brasiliensis was obtained after 200 passages in BHI medium, and putative Nocardia virulence genes were identified for the first time. PMID:27354446

  2. Evaluation of Various Therapeutic Measures in Striae Rubra

    PubMed Central

    Karia, Umesh Karsandas; Padhiar, Bela Bhemabhai; Shah, Bela Jaswantbhai

    2016-01-01

    Background: Striae are linear atrophic depressions that form in areas of dermal damage in the skin. As on date, no consensus or protocol exists for the treatment of stria rubra. Topical retinoids, chemical peels, microdermabrasion, radiofrequency, photothermolysis, intense pulsed light and lasers are some of the modalities used. Aims and Objective: To compare the efficacy of various therapeutic modalities in striae rubra. Methods: This prospective cohort study comprised of a total of fifty patients from August-2012 to October-2013 in a tertiary care center in Western India, Gujarat having striae rubra. They were randomly divided into five groups of ten patients each. Patients were evaluated on the basis of visual assessment, both by doctor as well as the patient. Group I was given topical tretinoin (0.1% w/w) gel applied once at night, Group II-microdermabrasion (MDA) combined with trichloroacetic acid (TCA) (30%) peel, Group III-mesotherapy, Group IV-Q-switched Nd: YAG laser, and Group V-combination treatment of microdermabrasion, salicylic acid peel and retinol (yellow) peel. Patients were treated at an interval of 15 days for 2 months and then at monthly intervals. Objective assessment was done at 2nd month, 6th month, and at the end of 1st year. Results: Patients in Group I treated with topical tretinoin showed the least response with 80% (8) of them showing minimal clinical improvement (0–25%) as compared to patients in Group V in which 60% (6) patients showed moderate clinical improvement (50–75%). While majority of the patients in Group II, III, and IV showed mild clinical improvement (25–50%). Conclusions: Striae rubra is a common cause of concern for adolescent population. Combination treatment with microdermabrasion, salicylic acid and retinol yellow peel gave superior results as compared to other therapeutic options. Mild to moderate improvement was seen with Nd: YAG laser, mesotherapy and MDA + TCA whereas minimal improvement were seen with

  3. Advocacy and hope for the patient with pityriasis rubra pilaris.

    PubMed

    Nunemacher, Kathy J

    2008-10-01

    Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) is a rare skin disease that can cause severe physical and psychological manifestations. A short case study of an adult with PRP who was denied access to medications and his journey towards improved health is discussed. Through advocacy and support, health care providers can make a difference in the care of patients with PRP and improve their quality of life. PMID:19051784

  4. New prodigiosin-like pigment from Alteromonas rubra.

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, N N; Gauthier, M J

    1979-01-01

    The red prodigiosin-like pigment from Alteromonas rubra was shown to be a mixture of prodigiosin (pigment 1) and a new cyclic isomer (pigment 2). The new structure was elucidated by mass and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. Careful examinations of the prodigiosins produced by Serratia marcescens, Vibrio psychoerythrus, and an unidentified red bacterium (LL-100-6) failed to disclose any of the new pigment, pigment 2. PMID:384909

  5. A novel aryl acylamidase from Nocardia farcinica hydrolyses polyamide.

    PubMed

    Heumann, Sonja; Eberl, Anita; Fischer-Colbrie, Gudrun; Pobeheim, Herbert; Kaufmann, Franz; Ribitsch, Doris; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur; Guebitz, Georg M

    2009-03-01

    An alkali stable polyamidase was isolated from a new strain of Nocardia farcinica. The enzyme consists of four subunits with a total molecular weight of 190 kDa. The polyamidase cleaved amide and ester bonds of water insoluble model substrates like adipic acid bishexylamide and bis(benzoyloxyethyl)terephthalate and hydrolyzed different soluble amides to the corresponding acid. Treatment of polyamide 6 with this amidase led to an increased hydrophilicity based on rising height and tensiometry measurements and evidence of surface hydrolysis of polyamide 6 is shown. In addition to amidase activity, the enzyme showed activity on p-nitrophenylbutyrate. On hexanoamide the amidase exhibited a K(m) value of 5.5 mM compared to 0.07 mM for p-nitroacetanilide. The polyamidase belongs to the amidase signature family and is closely related to aryl acylamidases from different strains/species of Nocardia and to the 6-aminohexanoate-cyclic dimer hydrolase (EI) from Arthrobacter sp. KI72.

  6. Fatal nocardiosis in a dog caused by multiresistant Nocardia veterana.

    PubMed

    Uhde, Ann-Kathrin; Kilwinski, Jochen; Peters, Martin; Verspohl, Jutta; Feßler, Andrea T; Schwarz, Stefan; Wohlsein, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Among pathogenic Nocardia species in humans and animals, infections caused by Nocardia (N.) veterana have rarely been described and so far, all non-human cases are linked to bovine mastitis in Brazil. The aim of this study was to identify the causative microorganism involved in the death of a three-month-old dog suffering from dyspnea and neurological deficits ante mortem. Pathomorphological investigation revealed (pyo-)granulomatous lesions in various organs. Bacteriological examination was performed and the respective bacteria were subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), 16S rDNA sequencing, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing by broth microdilution. Gram-staining and colony morphology suggested the presence of an actinomycete which was identified as N. veterana by MALDI-TOF MS. This identification was confirmed by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Distemper-associated immunosuppression may have played a role in the pathogenesis of systemic nocardiosis in this dog. Retrospective analysis of the antimicrobial susceptibility status showed that the N. veterana isolate was multiresistant and displayed high minimal inhibitory concentrations to all antimicrobial agents used for the dog's therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a systemic nocardiosis caused by N. veterana in a dog with a concurrent canine distemper virus infection. PMID:26790938

  7. Fatal nocardiosis in a dog caused by multiresistant Nocardia veterana.

    PubMed

    Uhde, Ann-Kathrin; Kilwinski, Jochen; Peters, Martin; Verspohl, Jutta; Feßler, Andrea T; Schwarz, Stefan; Wohlsein, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Among pathogenic Nocardia species in humans and animals, infections caused by Nocardia (N.) veterana have rarely been described and so far, all non-human cases are linked to bovine mastitis in Brazil. The aim of this study was to identify the causative microorganism involved in the death of a three-month-old dog suffering from dyspnea and neurological deficits ante mortem. Pathomorphological investigation revealed (pyo-)granulomatous lesions in various organs. Bacteriological examination was performed and the respective bacteria were subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), 16S rDNA sequencing, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing by broth microdilution. Gram-staining and colony morphology suggested the presence of an actinomycete which was identified as N. veterana by MALDI-TOF MS. This identification was confirmed by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Distemper-associated immunosuppression may have played a role in the pathogenesis of systemic nocardiosis in this dog. Retrospective analysis of the antimicrobial susceptibility status showed that the N. veterana isolate was multiresistant and displayed high minimal inhibitory concentrations to all antimicrobial agents used for the dog's therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a systemic nocardiosis caused by N. veterana in a dog with a concurrent canine distemper virus infection.

  8. Mitochondrial protective effects of Myrica rubra extract against acetaminophen-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Gou, Wenwen; Xu, Lizhi; Wang, Yucai; Yu, Wen; Zhong, Zengtao; Gao, Jing; Chen, Huimei; Wang, Yaping

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the hepatoprotective activity of Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc. extract (MCE) against acetaminophen (AAP)-induced liver damage and elucidates the possible mechanisms behind the hepatoprotection observed. Serum alanine aminotransferase and serum aspartate aminotransferase activities were detected and liver histopathology was observed. Mitochondrial swelling, mitochondrial membrane potential, and voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) gene transcription were also investigated. The results showed that 50, 150, and 450 mg/kg MCE could restore AAP-induced changes in mice liver in a dose-dependent manner. The mechanisms behind the hepatoprotective effects of MCE may be related to the mitochondrial protection of liver cells, especially of VDAC, an important protein on the outer membrane of the mitochondria. PMID:24117068

  9. Granulosis rubra nasi: a rare condition treated successfully with topical tacrolimus

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Piyush; Gosai, Anubhav; Mondal, Ashim Kumar; Lal, Niharika Ranjan; Gharami, Ramesh Chandra

    2012-01-01

    A 20 years-old girl presented with multiple asymptomatic reddish vesicles on face for four years. It used to get worse in summer and was associated with localized hyperhidrosis. The lesions were notable for disappearance on diascopy. Histopathology from the vesicle showed mononuclear cell infiltration in the upper dermis, especially around eccrine sweat apparatus, along with dilatation of superficial capillaries and lymphatics. Based on clinical presentation and histopathology, diagnosis of Granulosis rubra nasi (GRN) was made. GRN usually resolves at puberty; however, rarely it may persist in adulthood. We here report a case of GRN having lesions persisting in adulthood. Moreover, she showed excellent response to topical tacrolimus, a finding not observed in literature. PMID:25386315

  10. Subergorgiaols A-L, 9,10-secosteroids from the South China Sea gorgonian Subergorgia rubra.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xue-Ping; Cao, Fei; Shao, Chang-Lun; Chen, Min; Liu, Hai-Juan; Zheng, Cai-Juan; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2015-02-01

    Twelve new 9,10-secosteroids designated as subergorgiaols A-L (1-12), along with four known analogues (13-16), were isolated from the gorgonian Subergorgia rubra collected from the South China Sea. Their planar structures and the relative configurations were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic methods including NOESY spectra. The absolute configuration of 1 was established by a dimolybdenum tetraacetate [Mo2(AcO)4] induced circular dichroism (ICD) procedure and the modified Mosher's method. Compounds 1-12 represent the first series of 9,10-secosteroids characterized with a hydroxy group at C-8, which are 8-OH derivatives of astrogorgiadiols/calicoferols. Compound 4 exhibited cytotoxicity against the cervical carcinoma cell line (CaSki) with an IC50 value of 2.4 μM, and 6 showed toxicity toward brine shrimp Artemia salina with an LC50 value of 2.0 μM.

  11. Permanent draft genome of Rhodopirellula rubra SWK7.

    PubMed

    Klindworth, Anna; Richter, Michael; Richter-Heitmann, Tim; Wegner, Carl-Eric; Frank, Carsten S; Harder, Jens; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2014-02-01

    The genome of Rhodopirellula rubra strain SWK7 was sequenced as a permanent draft to complement the full genome sequence of the type strain Rhodopirellula baltica SH1(T). This isolate is part of a larger study to infer the biogeography of Rhodopirellula species in European marine waters, as well as to amend the genus description of R. baltica. This genomics resource article is the fourth among a series of five publications reporting in a total of eight new permanent draft genomes of Rhodopirellula species.

  12. Permanent draft genome of Rhodopirellula rubra SWK7.

    PubMed

    Klindworth, Anna; Richter, Michael; Richter-Heitmann, Tim; Wegner, Carl-Eric; Frank, Carsten S; Harder, Jens; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2014-02-01

    The genome of Rhodopirellula rubra strain SWK7 was sequenced as a permanent draft to complement the full genome sequence of the type strain Rhodopirellula baltica SH1(T). This isolate is part of a larger study to infer the biogeography of Rhodopirellula species in European marine waters, as well as to amend the genus description of R. baltica. This genomics resource article is the fourth among a series of five publications reporting in a total of eight new permanent draft genomes of Rhodopirellula species. PMID:24291061

  13. gyrB Analysis as a Tool for Identifying Nocardia Species and Exploring Their Phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Gema; Garrido, Noelia; Medina-Pascual, María J.; Villalón, Pilar; Sáez-Nieto, Juan A.

    2014-01-01

    gyrB is used to improve the identification of the Nocardia species N. brasiliensis, N. higoensis, N. ignorata, N. otitidiscaviarum, N. paucivorans, N. pneumoniae, N. puris, N. takedensis, N. veterana, and N. vinacea, but it does not improve the identification of another 12 Nocardia studied species. gyrB provides typing and phylogenetic markers for N. carnea, N. transvalensis, N. brasiliensis, and N. otitidiscaviarum. PMID:25540402

  14. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serological diagnosis of Nocardia brasiliensis and clinical correlation with mycetoma infections.

    PubMed Central

    Salinas-Carmona, M C; Welsh, O; Casillas, S M

    1993-01-01

    We previously identified three immunodominant antigens obtained from a Nocardia brasiliensis cell extract and recognized by sera from mycetoma patients (M. C. Salinas-Carmona, L. Vera, O. Welsh, and M. Rodríguez, Zentralbl. Bakteriol. 276:390-397, 1992). In the present work, we obtained a crude extract from a mass culture of N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 and purified two immunodominant antigens, the 26- and 24-kDa proteins, by using simple physiochemical techniques. With these antigens, we developed a conventional solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and tested 30 serum samples from mycetoma patients, 29 from tuberculosis patients, 24 from a leprosy group, and 31 from healthy individuals. Our results show for the first time statistically significant differences in serology among these groups. All mycetoma patients with a positive culture for N. brasiliensis had absorbance values higher than 0.3. On the other hand, the mycobacterium-infected patients as well as the healthy individuals all had absorbance values below that level. Moreover, we found a close correlation between the clinical condition of the mycetoma patients and the anti-26- and anti-24-kDa protein antibody concentrations. We therefore propose the use of this assay in routine clinical laboratories to confirm the diagnosis of N. brasiliensis infection in human mycetoma cases. In addition, the possible application of this assay in the serodiagnosis of Nocardia asteroides infection is also discussed. Images PMID:8263174

  15. MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE PATTERN OF SEVEN CLINICAL ISOLATES OF Nocardia spp. IN BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Condas, Larissa Anuska Zeni; Ribeiro, Márcio Garcia; Muro, Marisol Domingues; de Vargas, Agueda Palmira Castagna; Matsuzawa, Tetsuhiro; Yazawa, Katsukiyo; Siqueira, Amanda Keller; Salerno, Tatiana; Lara, Gustavo Henrique Batista; Risseti, Rafaela Mastrangelo; Ferreira, Karen Spadari; Gonoi, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Nocardia is a ubiquitous microorganism related to pyogranulomatous infection, which is difficult to treat in humans and animals. The occurrence of the disease is on the rise in many countries due to an increase in immunosuppressive diseases and treatments. This report of cases from Brazil presents the genotypic characterization and the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern using the disk-diffusion method and inhibitory minimal concentration with E-test® strips. In summary, this report focuses on infections in young adult men, of which three cases were cutaneous, two pulmonary, one neurological and one systemic. The pulmonary, neurological and systemic cases were attributed to immunosuppressive diseases or treatments. Sequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA segments (1491 bp) identified four isolates of Nocardia farcinica, two isolates of Nocardia nova and one isolate of Nocardia asiatica. N. farcinica was involved in two cutaneous, one systemic and other pulmonary cases; N. nova was involved in one neurological and one pulmonary case; and Nocardia asiatica in one cutaneous case. The disk-diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility test showed that the most effective antimicrobials were amikacin (100%), amoxicillin/clavulanate (100%), cephalexin (100%) and ceftiofur (100%), while isolates had presented most resistance to gentamicin (43%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (43%) and ampicillin (29%). However, on the inhibitory minimal concentration test (MIC test), only one of the four isolates of Nocardia farcinica was resistant to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. PMID:26200967

  16. Hypolipidemic effects of Myrica rubra extracts and main compounds in C57BL/6j mice.

    PubMed

    He, Kai; Li, Xuegang; Xiao, Yubo; Yong, Yang; Zhang, Zaiqi; Li, Shuping; Zhou, Taimei; Yang, Daqing; Gao, Pincao; Xin, Xiaoliang

    2016-08-10

    The present study evaluated the antihyperlipidemic activity of myricetin, myricetrin, the alcohol fraction (AF) and the ethyl acetate fraction (EF) obtained from the bark of Myrica rubra (MR) in high-fat and high-cholesterol (HFHC) induced hyperlipidemic C57BL/6j mice. Mice were treated with myricetin, myricetrin, AF and EF with a dose of 130 mg per kg per day for 35 days. After treatment, serum parameters including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total bile acids (TBA), etc., were examined. The results revealed that EF showed the highest weight lowering activity (P < 0.01). All tested samples decreased the levels of the TC, TG, LDL-C, TBA and LPS (lipopolysaccharide) content in the serum of mice to different extents. Liver fat deposition was significantly reduced after myricetin, myricetrin, AF and EF therapy (P < 0.01). Additionally, the cell size of epididymal adipose tissue was also decreased in myricetin, AF and EF groups (P < 0.05). The antihyperlipidemic activity of these samples may be attributed to the inhibition of lipid synthesis via suppressing the expression of HMGCR (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase) and ACC1 (acetyl-CoA carboxylase), promoting the metabolism and excretion of lipids via up-regulating the expression of SREBP2 (sterol regulatory element binding proteins), LDLR (low density lipoprotein receptor), UCP2 (uncoupling protein 2) and CYP7A1 (cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase). These results may provide a powerful foundation for seeking and utilizing Myrica rubra bio-active compounds for the treatment of hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27459037

  17. The complete genomic sequence of Nocardia farcinica IFM 10152

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Jun; Yamashita, Atsushi; Mikami, Yuzuru; Hoshino, Yasutaka; Kurita, Haruyo; Hotta, Kunimoto; Shiba, Tadayoshi; Hattori, Masahira

    2004-01-01

    We determined the genomic sequence of Nocardia farcinica IFM 10152, a clinical isolate, and revealed the molecular basis of its versatility. The genome consists of a single circular chromosome of 6,021,225 bp with an average G+C content of 70.8% and two plasmids of 184,027 (pNF1) and 87,093 (pNF2) bp with average G+C contents of 67.2% and 68.4%, respectively. The chromosome encoded 5,674 putative protein-coding sequences, including many candidate genes for virulence and multidrug resistance as well as secondary metabolism. Analyses of paralogous protein families suggest that gene duplications have resulted in a bacterium that can survive not only in soil environments but also in animal tissues, resulting in disease. PMID:15466710

  18. [Primary cutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis cellulitis in immunocompetent child].

    PubMed

    Shachor-Meyouhas, Yael; Ravid, Sarit; Suhair, Hanna; Kassis, Imad

    2012-08-01

    Primary cutaneous nocardiosis is an infrequent infection among children, generally affecting immunocompromised hosts. It is caused by Gram positive bacteria, partially alcohol and acid resistant which are saprophytes of the soil, water and organic matter. In most cases the causal agent enters through inhalation, and hematogenous dissemination may occur mainly among the immune compromised patients. Direct cutaneous inoculation is less frequent, especially among children. We report an 8-year old female who lives in an urban house with a small garden, who presented with an ulcer on her right shin accompanied by surrounding cellulitis, pain, swelling and fever. The patient's medical history was unremarkable, with no exposure to animals or travelling, except for rafting on the Jordan River the previous week. Culture from the ulcer grew Nocardia brasiliensis, and she recovered after 8 weeks of therapy with trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole. PMID:23350294

  19. Colony mutants of compatible nocardiae displaying variations in recombining capacity.

    PubMed

    Brownell, G H; Walsh, R S

    1972-03-01

    Colonial morphology mutants of Nocardia erythropolis were isolated following ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The alleles rou-1/smo-1 were located by recombinant analysis and found to be linked to previously mapped characters. On the basis of recombinant class type patterns obtained from various selective characters it was postulated that the rou-1 allele may span a region of unique nucleotides in the Mat-Ce genome. Recombination frequencies of rou-1 and smo-2 bearing mutants of the Mat-Ce mating type were found to differ by over 1000 fold. Attempts to demonstrate that low recombination frequencies produced by the Smo mutants were due to Rec(-) genes were unsuccessful. No increased sensitivity to either UV or X irradiation was observed by the Smo mutants. Acriflavine treatment of either Rou or Smo colony mutants failed to accelerate reversion or to alter the recombining potentials of the mutants.

  20. Nocardia infections among immunomodulated inflammatory bowel disease patients: A review

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Cândida; Rocha-Pereira, Nuno; Sarmento, António; Magro, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Human nocardiosis, caused by Nocardia spp., an ubiquitous soil-borne bacteria, is a rare granulomatous disease close related to immune dysfunctions. Clinically can occur as an acute life-threatening disease, with lung, brain and skin being commonly affected. The infection was classically diagnosed in HIV infected persons, organ transplanted recipients and long term corticosteroid treated patients. Currently the widespread use of immunomodulators and immunossupressors in the treatment of inflammatory diseases changed this scenario. Our purpose is to review all published cases of nocardiosis in immunomodulated patients due to inflammatory diseases and describe clinical and laboratory findings. We reviewed the literature concerning human cases of nocardiosis published between 1980 and 2014 in peer reviewed journals. Eleven cases of nocardiosis associated with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) prescription (9 related with infliximab and 2 with adalimumab) were identified; 7 patients had inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), 4 had rheumatological conditions; nocardia infection presented as cutaneous involvement in 3 patients, lung disease in 4 patients, hepatic in one and disseminated disease in 3 patients. From the 10 cases described in IBD patients 7 were associated with anti-TNF and 3 with steroids and azathioprine. In conclusion, nocardiosis requires high levels of clinical suspicion and experience of laboratory staff, in order to establish a timely diagnosis and by doing so avoid worst outcomes. Treatment for long periods tailored by the susceptibility of the isolated species whenever possible is essential. The safety of restarting immunomodulators or anti-TNF after the disease or the value of prophylaxis with cotrimoxazole is still debated. PMID:26074688

  1. Cytokine production and lymphocyte proliferation in patients with Nocardia brasiliensis actinomycetoma.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Tovar, Luis J; Mondragón-González, Rafael; Vega-López, Francisco; Dockrell, Hazel M; Hay, Roderick; López-Martínez, Rubén; Manzano-Gayosso, Patricia; Hernández-Hernández, Francisca; Padilla-Desgarennes, Carmen; Bonifaz, Alexandro

    2004-11-01

    IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-12 concentrations in the supernatant of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures and the in vitro proliferation of PBMC were studied in 25 patients with actinomycetoma caused by Nocardia brasiliensis and in 10 healthy controls from endemic zones. Cell cultures were stimulated by a N. brasiliensis crude cytoplasmic antigen (NB) and five semi-purified protein fractions (NB2, NB4, NB6, NB8, and NB10) separated by isoelectric. Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and purified protein derivative (PPD) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were used as control antigens. Skin tests were performed by injecting 0.1 ml of candidin and PPD intradermally (ID). Patients showed a poor response to tuberculin, while their response to candidin was more than two fold greater than that observed in the controls. Cell proliferation showed no statistically significant differences in either group. IFN-gamma production was higher in the healthy controls than in the patients, whereas TNF-alpha secretion was slightly higher in the patients' cultures. IL-4 was detected in the patients' cultures but not in the controls. IL-10 and IL-12 were present at low concentrations in both groups. These results suggest that patients with actinomycetoma show normal antigen recognition, but with low IFN-gamma production, and higher concentrations of IL-4, IL-10 and TNF-alpha in the patients' PBMC cultures, indicating that they probably have a Th2 type of immune response.

  2. Broad Spectrum Antimicrobial Activity of Forest-Derived Soil Actinomycete, Nocardia sp. PB-52

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Priyanka; Kalita, Mohan C.; Thakur, Debajit

    2016-01-01

    A mesophilic actinomycete strain designated as PB-52 was isolated from soil samples of Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary of Assam, India. Based on phenotypic and molecular characteristics, the strain was identified as Nocardia sp. which shares 99.7% sequence similarity with Nocardia niigatensis IFM 0330 (NR_112195). The strain is a Gram-positive filamentous bacterium with rugose spore surface which exhibited a wide range of antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Gram-negative bacteria, and yeasts. Optimization for the growth and antimicrobial activity of the strain PB-52 was carried out in batch culture under shaking condition. The optimum growth and antimicrobial potential of the strain were recorded in GLM medium at 28°C, initial pH 7.4 of the medium and incubation period of 8 days. Based on polyketide synthases (PKS) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) gene-targeted PCR amplification, the occurrence of both of these biosynthetic pathways was detected which might be involved in the production of antimicrobial compounds in PB-52. Extract of the fermented broth culture of PB-52 was prepared with organic solvent extraction method using ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate extract of PB-52 (EA-PB-52) showed lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against S. aureus MTCC 96 (0.975 μg/mL) whereas highest was recorded against Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883 (62.5 μg/mL). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that treatment of the test microorganisms with EA-PB-52 destroyed the targeted cells with prominent loss of cell shape and integrity. In order to determine the constituents responsible for its antimicrobial activity, EA-PB-52 was subjected to chemical analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). GC-MS analysis showed the presence of twelve different chemical constituents in the extract, some of which are reported to possess diverse biological activity. These

  3. Distribution of a Nocardia brasiliensis catalase gene fragment in members of the genera Nocardia, Gordona, and Rhodococcus.

    PubMed

    Vera-Cabrera, L; Johnson, W M; Welsh, O; Resendiz-Uresti, F L; Salinas-Carmona, M C

    1999-06-01

    An immunodominant protein from Nocardia brasiliensis, P61, was subjected to amino-terminal and internal sequence analysis. Three sequences of 22, 17, and 38 residues, respectively, were obtained and compared with the protein database from GenBank by using the BLAST system. The sequences showed homology to some eukaryotic catalases and to a bromoperoxidase-catalase from Streptomyces violaceus. Its identity as a catalase was confirmed by analysis of its enzymatic activity on H2O2 and by a double-staining method on a nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel with 3,3'-diaminobenzidine and ferricyanide; the result showed only catalase activity, but no peroxidase. By using one of the internal amino acid sequences and a consensus catalase motif (VGNNTP), we were able to design a PCR assay that generated a 500-bp PCR product. The amplicon was analyzed, and the nucleotide sequence was compared to the GenBank database with the observation of high homology to other bacterial and eukaryotic catalases. A PCR assay based on this target sequence was performed with primers NB10 and NB11 to confirm the presence of the NB10-NB11 gene fragment in several N. brasiliensis strains isolated from mycetoma. The same assay was used to determine whether there were homologous sequences in several type strains from the genera Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Gordona, and Streptomyces. All of the N. brasiliensis strains presented a positive result but only some of the actinomycetes species tested were positive in the PCR assay. In order to confirm these findings, genomic DNA was subjected to Southern blot analysis. A 1.7-kbp band was observed in the N. brasiliensis strains, and bands of different molecular weight were observed in cross-reacting actinomycetes. Sequence analysis of the amplicons of selected actinomycetes showed high homology in this catalase fragment, thus demonstrating that this protein is highly conserved in this group of bacteria. PMID:10325357

  4. Anti-tumor effect of Radix Paeoniae Rubra extract on mice bladder tumors using intravesical therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mei-Yi; Chiang, Su-Yin; Li, Yi-Zhen; Chen, Mei-Fang; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Wu, Jin-Yi; Liu, Yi-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Radix Paeoniae Rubra (RPR) is the dried root of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas and Paeonia veitchii Lynch, and is a herbal medicine that is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of blood-heat and blood-stasis syndrome, similarly to Cortex Moutan. The present study identified the same three components in RPR and Cortex Moutan extracts. In addition, it has been reported that RPR has an anti-cancer effect. Bladder cancer is the seventh most common type of cancer worldwide. Due to the high recurrence rate, identifying novel drugs for bladder cancer therapy is essential. In the present study, RPR extract was evaluated as a bladder cancer therapy in vitro and in vivo. The present results revealed that RPR extract reduced the cell viability of bladder cancer cells with a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 1–3 mg/ml, and had an extremely low cytotoxic effect on normal urothelial cells. Additionally, RPR decreased certain cell cycle populations, predominantly cells in the G1 phase, and caused a clear sub-G increase. In a mouse orthotopic bladder tumor model, intravesical application of RPR extract decreased the bladder tumor size without altering the blood biochemical parameters of the mice. In summary, the present results demonstrate the anti-proliferative properties of RPR extract on bladder cancer cells, and its anti-bladder tumor effect in vivo. Compared to Cortex Moutan extract, RPR extract may provide a more effective alternative therapeutic strategy for the intravesical therapy of superficial bladder cancer. PMID:27446367

  5. The utilization of some halogenated aromatic acids by Nocardia. Oxidation and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Cain, R. B.; Tranter, E. Karen; Darrah, Josephine A.

    1968-01-01

    1. Halogen analogues of p-nitrobenzoate and benzoate were oxidized by washed cells of Nocardia erythropolis. 2. The oxidation of 2-fluoro-4-nitrobenzoate ceased at the level of acetate, and fluoroacetate was found in the incubation medium and particularly in hot-ethanolic extracts of the cells. 3. Several fluorine-containing intermediates were detected and 2-fluoroprotocatechuate was identified as one of them. 4. The nitro group was also reduced by the organism, as evidenced by the formation of 4-amino-2-fluorobenzoate. 5. Extracts of N. erythropolis activated fluoroacetate and condensed the resulting fluoroacetyl-CoA with oxaloacetate to form fluorocitrate. This product was a very powerful inhibitor of citrate metabolism by guinea-pig kidney homogenates and of the aconitase also present in the bacterial extracts. The inhibitions effected by synthetic fluorocitrate and the natural product were comparable. 6. 2-Fluoro-4-nitrobenzoate had negligible mammalian toxicity. 7. The isolation of fluoroacetate as a product of 2-fluoro-4-nitrobenzoate oxidation implies that the aromatic ring in this bacterium must be degraded via a γ-carboxymuconolactone; fluoroacetate cannot arise by metabolism through the isomeric β-carboxymuconolactone. PMID:5721459

  6. Thermoactinospora rubra gen. nov., sp. nov., a thermophilic actinomycete isolated from Tengchong, Yunnan province, south-west China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, En-Min; Tang, Shu-Kun; Sjøholm, Carsten; Song, Zhao-Qi; Yu, Tian-Tian; Yang, Ling-Ling; Ming, Hong; Nie, Guo-Xing; Li, Wen-Jun

    2012-06-01

    Two novel Gram-positive, spore-forming, thermophilic actinomycetes, designated as strain YIM 77501(T) and YIM 77570, were isolated from a sandy soil sample collected at Tengchong National Volcanic Geological Park, Yunnan province, south-west China. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences suggested that the two isolates fell within the family Streptosporangiaceae. The strains formed extensively branched substrate and aerial mycelia which carried masses of long, straight or irregular spore chains composed of warty ornamented spores. Cell walls of the two strains contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and glucose, galactose, mannose and ribose were detected as whole-cell sugars. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H(4)) and MK-9(H(6)). The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, N-acetylglucosamine-containing phospholipids and phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositolmannosides. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C(16:0) and 10-methyl C(17:0). The DNA G+C content was 74-76 mol%. On the basis of the morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics as well as the phylogenetic analysis, these strains represents a novel species of a new genus within the family Streptosporangiaceae, for which the name Thermoactinospora rubra gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of T. rubra is YIM 77501(T) (=DSM 45614(T) = CCTCC AA 2011014(T)).

  7. Permanent Draft Genome Sequence of Nocardia sp. BMG111209, an Actinobacterium Isolated from Nodules of Casuarina glauca

    PubMed Central

    Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten; Beauchemin, Nicholas; Gueddou, Abdellatif; Hezbri, Karima; Ktari, Amir; Louati, Moussa; Nouioui, Imen; Chen, Amy; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Markowitz, Victor; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Pagani, Ioanna; Sen, Arnab; Wall, Luis; Woyke, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia sp. strain BMG111209 is a non-Frankia actinobacterium isolated from root nodules of Casuarina glauca in Tunisia. Here, we report the 9.1-Mbp draft genome sequence of Nocardia sp. strain BMG111209 with a G + C content of 69.19% and 8,122 candidate protein-encoding genes. PMID:27491997

  8. Permanent Draft Genome Sequence of Nocardia sp. BMG111209, an Actinobacterium Isolated from Nodules of Casuarina glauca.

    PubMed

    Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten; Beauchemin, Nicholas; Gueddou, Abdellatif; Hezbri, Karima; Ktari, Amir; Louati, Moussa; Nouioui, Imen; Chen, Amy; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Markowitz, Victor; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Pagani, Ioanna; Sen, Arnab; Wall, Luis; Woyke, Tanja; Gtari, Maher; Tisa, Louis S

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia sp. strain BMG111209 is a non-Frankia actinobacterium isolated from root nodules of Casuarina glauca in Tunisia. Here, we report the 9.1-Mbp draft genome sequence of Nocardia sp. strain BMG111209 with a G + C content of 69.19% and 8,122 candidate protein-encoding genes. PMID:27491997

  9. Extracorporeal photochemotherapy for the treatment of exanthematic pityriasis rubra pilaris.

    PubMed

    Haenssle, H A; Bertsch, H P; Emmert, S; Wolf, C; Zutt, M

    2004-05-01

    Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) is a rare papulosquamous skin disease of unknown aetiology that has been categorized into five clinical types based on age at onset, cutaneous features and prognosis. We present a patient with chronic exanthematic type II atypical adult PRP, whose skin status was significantly improved with monthly extracorporeal photochemotherapy (ECP). Various therapeutic regimens including narrow-band UV-B, bath PUVA therapy, systemic fumaric acid esters and systemic cyclosporin had failed. Oral retinoids could not be administered due to a type IIa hyperlipoproteinemia with profound hepatic steatosis and elevated liver transaminases. The observed clinical benefit may encourage future clinical studies analysing the effectiveness of ECP in otherwise unresponsive cases of type II PRP.

  10. meta-Tyrosine in Festuca rubra ssp. commutata (Chewings fescue) is synthesized by hydroxylation of phenylalanine.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tengfang; Rehak, Ludmila; Jander, Georg

    2012-03-01

    m-Tyrosine is a non-protein amino acid that is structurally similar to the common protein amino acids p-tyrosine and phenylalanine. Copious amounts of m-tyrosine can be found in root exudates of the fine fescue cultivar, Festuca rubra L. ssp. commutata (Chewings fescue). The phytotoxicity of m-tyrosine may contribute to the allelopathic potential of F. rubra. m-Tyrosine in Euphorbia myrsinites (donkey-tail spurge), was previously shown to be synthesized via transamination of m-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. Here we show that m-tyrosine biosynthesis in F. rubra occurs through direct hydroxylation of phenylalanine in the root tips, perhaps through the activity of a cytochrome P450 enzyme. Hence, E. myrsinites and F. rubra, the only two plant species known to produce m-tyrosine, use distinct biosynthetic pathways that likely arose independently in evolutionary history.

  11. Mechanism of the isomerization of isopentenyl pyrophosphate in Rhodotorual rubra-1.

    PubMed

    Hayman, E P; Chichester, C O; Simpson, K L

    1975-07-01

    Stereospecifically labeled mevalonic acid was incorporated into the carotenoids of Rhodotorula. The randomized results are discussed in relation to mechanisms proposed for the conversion of isopentenyl pyrophosphate to dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and the prenol transferase enzyme system to Rhondotorula rubra.

  12. Predicted highly expressed genes in Nocardia farcinica and the implication to its primary metabolism and nocardial virulence

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Gang; Nie, Lei; Zhang, Weiwen

    2006-02-23

    Nocardia farcinica is a gram positive, filamentous bacterium, and is considered an opportunistic pathogen. In this study, the highly expressed genes in N. farcinica were predicted using the codon adaptation index (CAI) as a numerical estimator of gene expressivity. Using ribosomal protein (RP) genes as references, the top {approx}10% of the genes were predicted to be the predicted highly expressed (PHX) genes in N. farcinica using a CAI cutoff of greater than 0.73. Consistent with early analysis in Streptomyces genomes, most of the PHX genes in N. farcinica were involved in various ''house-keeping'' functions important for cell growth. However, fifteen genes putatively involved in no cardial virulence were predicted as PHX in N. farcinica, which included genes encoding four Mce virulence proteins, cyclopropane fatty acid synthase which is involved in the modification of cell wall important for nocardia virulence, polyketide synthase PKS13 for mycolic acid synthesis and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase involved in biosynthesis of a mycobactin-related siderophore. In addition, multiple genes involved in defense against reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by the phagocyte were predicted with high expressivity, which included alkylhydroperoxide reductase (ahpC), catalase (katG), superoxide dismutase (sodF), thioredoxin, thioredoxin reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase, suggesting that combating against ROS was essential for survival of N. farcinica in host cells. The study also showed that the distribution of PHX genes in the N. farcinica circular chromosome was uneven, with more PHX genes located in the regions close to replication initiation site. The results provided the first approximates of global gene expression patterns in N. farcinica, which will be useful in guiding experimental design for further investigation.

  13. Phosphate-limited continuous culture of Rhodotorula rubra: kinetics of transport, leakage, and growth.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, B R; Button, D K

    1979-01-01

    The phosphate-limited growth kinetics of Rhodotorula rubra, a small yeast of marine origin, were examined by analysis of 32P distributions in continuous cultures. Isotope relaxation procedures were used to identify unidirectional flows of Pi and organic phosphate among compartments modeled during growth. The concentrations of phosphates in these compartments at various growth rates were used, together with attendant flows, to produce a mathematical model of growth. Both Pi and phosphate-containing metabolic intermediates leaked from cells during growth. Total leakage ranged from 4 to 10% of influx and was comprised mostly of Pi. Transport capacity was at least 10 times that required for growth at saturating Pi concentrations, so that influx was linear with concentration during growth. This led to the realization that the curvature of Monod plots (Kmu = 12 nM mumax = 0.18/h, and the threshold At = 2.5 nM) is due to change in yield with growth rate. Growth rate related to Pi by the affinity, aA (= 0.43 liter/mg of cells.h) of cells for Pi and the growth rate-dependent yield. It was also specified by a series of kinetic constants that specified flow among the various compartments and equilibrium compartment concentrations as they were set by extracellular Pi. The importance of leakage by healthy cells to the organic chemistry of aquatic systems is noted. PMID:37231

  14. Identification of Nocobactin NA Biosynthetic Gene Clusters in Nocardia farcinica▿ §

    PubMed Central

    Hoshino, Yasutaka; Chiba, Kazuhiro; Ishino, Keiko; Fukai, Toshio; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Yazawa, Katsukiyo; Mikami, Yuzuru; Ishikawa, Jun

    2011-01-01

    We identified the biosynthetic gene clusters of the siderophore nocobactin NA. The nbt clusters, which were discovered as genes highly homologous to the mycobactin biosynthesis genes by the genomic sequencing of Nocardia farcinica IFM 10152, consist of 10 genes separately located at two genomic regions. The gene organization of the nbt clusters and the predicted functions of the nbt genes, particularly the cyclization and epimerization domains, were in good agreement with the chemical structure of nocobactin NA. Disruptions of the nbtA and nbtE genes, respectively, reduced and abolished the productivity of nocobactin NA. The heterologous expression of the nbtS gene revealed that this gene encoded a salicylate synthase. These results indicate that the nbt clusters are responsible for the biosynthesis of nocobactin NA. We also found putative IdeR-binding sequences upstream of the nbtA, -G, -H, -S, and -T genes, whose expression was more than 10-fold higher in the low-iron condition than in the high-iron condition. These results suggest that nbt genes are regulated coordinately by IdeR protein in an iron-dependent manner. The ΔnbtE mutant was found to be impaired in cytotoxicity against J774A.1 cells, suggesting that nocobactin NA production is required for virulence of N. farcinica. PMID:21097631

  15. Mechanisms of competitive displacement of native ant fauna by invading Myrmica rubra (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) populations.

    PubMed

    Garnas, Jeffrey; Groden, Eleanor; Drummond, Francis A

    2014-12-01

    Exotic ants have become invasive in many regions around the world, with variable ecological impacts. Postinvasion, native ant communities are often found to be depauperate, though the causes of this apparent lack of coexistence are rarely well known. Myrmica rubra (L.), a Palearctic Myrmecine ant, is currently expanding its range as an invasive in North America. This aggressive ant forms dense, patchy local infestations and appears to aggressively displace native ant fauna. We measured behavioral interactions and rates of recruitment in experimental field assays pitting native foragers against captive colonies of M. rubra at tuna-jelly or aphid baits in uninfested areas of Mt. Desert Island, ME. Behavioral interactions were idiosyncratic with respect to the native opponent, but M. rubra generally showed significantly higher levels of recruitment, aggression, and displacement of native foragers. As with other invasive ant species shown to have broken the "dominance-discovery trade-off," M. rubra was consistently faster to discover baits and disproportionately displaced native foragers, providing a plausible proximate mechanism for native ant exclusion. Finally, we surveyed ant recruitment at baits for 24 h in August 2004 at four sites with varying M. rubra abundance but found little evidence of temporal niche partitioning. Taken together, these results indicate competitive superiority by M. rubra with respect to native ant communities of the northeastern North America and suggest direct aggression and competitive exclusion at food resources can lead to local native displacement.

  16. Postoperative Nocardia Endophthalmitis and the Challenge of Managing with Intravitreal Amikacin

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, G. Ashok Kumar; Sunder, C. Aruna

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia is a rare cause of delayed onset postoperative endophthalmitis after cataract surgery and it usually carries a guarded visual prognosis. Purpose. To highlight the clinical presentation, microbiological profile, and treatment outcome in a case of nocardial endophthalmitis after manual small incision cataract surgery. Methods. This case report highlights the typical features of Nocardia endophthalmitis, which presented six weeks after undergoing small incision cataract surgery. The case was managed by pars plana vitrectomy with intravitreal antibiotics. Intravitreal amikacin was used based on microbiologic work-up. Results. The endophthalmitis part was controlled but the case developed amikacin induced macular infarction which jeopardized a good visual outcome. Conclusion. Nocardia endophthalmitis manifests late after cataract surgery in an aggressive manner and carries a poor visual prognosis. An early diagnosis and the use of correct antibiotic regimen may salvage the vision. But the present case shows that one should always be wary of potential retinal toxicity with intravitreal amikacin. PMID:27034869

  17. Nocardia mikamii a Novel Species Causing Disseminated Nocardiosis: A Literature Review of Disseminated Nocardiosis

    PubMed Central

    Adnan, Mohammed Muqeet; Mujeeb, Sufyan Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Nocardia is an uncommon Gram-positive organism. It typically appears as delicate filamentous Gram-positive branching rods. In the United States it was estimated to be approximately 500 to 1000 new cases per year. The organism causes disease in immunocompromised individuals with pulmonary infection representing the most common site of infection. Nocardia mikamii has been a recently isolated pathogen and not many cases of disseminated infection with this organism has been reported in the literature; we present a case of disseminated nocardiosis (mikamii sp.) in an immunocompromised patient. We also present a literature review on nocardiosis. PMID:27437492

  18. Nocardia nova causing empyema necessitatis afterlung re-transplantation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Severo, Cecília Bittencourt; Matter, Letícia Beatriz; Oliveira, Flávio de Mattos; Vargas, Agueda Palmira Castagna; Schio, Sadi Marcelo; Camargo, José de Jesus Peixoto; Hochhegger, Bruno; Severo, Luiz Carlos

    2016-01-01

    We report herein a case of thoracic infection due to Nocardia nova following lung re-transplantation performed for emphysema related to alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency. The infection extended from the lung into the pleural space, thoracic wall, and mediastinum, presenting as pericarditis and empyema necessitatis. Nocardia nova was identified by 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. According to a literature search of PubMed, LILACS and MEDLINE databases, we describe herein the first case of empyema necessitatis caused by N. nova species in a transplanted patient. PMID:27598645

  19. Nocardia harenae, an uncommon causative organism of mycetoma: report on two patients.

    PubMed

    Kresch-Tronik, Nicole S; Carrillo-Casas, Erika M; Arenas, Roberto; Atoche, Carlos; Ochoa-Carrera, Luis A; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan; Manjarrez-Hernández, Angel H; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto

    2012-08-01

    Mycetoma is the most frequently diagnosed deep mycosis in Mexico and is caused, in 86% of cases, by Nocardia brasiliensis. Worldwide, Nocardia harenae has not been previously reported as a causative agent of human mycetoma. Herein we report, to our knowledge, the first two human cases of mycetoma due to N. harenae in a clinical setting. The strains were identified by phenotypic and molecular techniques. Both cases were characterized by long-lasting mycetoma that had previously been failed to be cured and had shown resistance to therapy. However, in our hospital, a multidrug therapy proved to be effective in these cases.

  20. Phylogeography of the ant Myrmica rubra and its inquiline social parasite

    PubMed Central

    Leppänen, Jenni; Vepsäläinen, Kari; Savolainen, Riitta

    2011-01-01

    Widely distributed Palearctic insects are ideal to study phylogeographic patterns owing to their high potential to survive in many Pleistocene refugia and—after the glaciation—to recolonize vast, continuous areas. Nevertheless, such species have received little phylogeographic attention. Here, we investigated the Pleistocene refugia and subsequent postglacial colonization of the common, abundant, and widely distributed ant Myrmica rubra over most of its Palearctic area, using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The western and eastern populations of M. rubra belonged predominantly to separate haplogroups, which formed a broad secondary contact zone in Central Europe. The distribution of genetic diversity and haplogroups implied that M. rubra survived the last glaciation in multiple refugia located over an extensive area from Iberia in the west to Siberia in the east, and colonized its present areas of distribution along several routes. The matrilineal genetic structure of M. rubra was probably formed during the last glaciation and subsequent postglacial expansion. Additionally, because M. rubra has two queen morphs, the obligately socially parasitic microgyne and its macrogyne host, we tested the suggested speciation of the parasite. Locally, the parasite and host usually belonged to the same haplogroup but differed in haplotype frequencies. This indicates that genetic differentiation between the morphs is a universal pattern and thus incipient, sympatric speciation of the parasite from its host is possible. If speciation is taking place, however, it is not yet visible as lineage sorting of the mtDNA between the morphs. PMID:22393482

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Nocardia jinanensis, an Opportunistic Bacterial Pathogen That Causes Cellulitis.

    PubMed

    Chakrabortti, Alolika; Li, Jinming; Liang, Zhao-Xun

    2016-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of Nocardia jinanensis, an opportunistic pathogen that can cause skin infections, reveals genes that may contribute to the lifestyle and pathogenicity of N. jinanensis The genome also reveals the biosynthetic capacity of N. jinanensis in producing mycolic acids, siderophores, and other polyketide and nonribosomal peptide-derived secondary metabolites. PMID:27445366

  2. Actinomycetoma of the chest wall attributed to Nocardia nova after reconstructive surgery.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Joana; Pacheco, David; Travassos, Rita; Sequeira, Hortênsia; Filipe, Paulo; Marques, Manuel Sacramento

    2012-01-01

    A 29-year-old man, presented with multiple ulcers, nodules, abscesses, fistulae, and atrophic scars, over the right chest wall. Six years prior, the patient had a car accident, which resulted in skin loss of the right arm, shoulder, thoracic wall. In addition, he suffered a supracondylar fracture; orthopedic surgery and skin grafts were required. Material discharging from sinus tracts was obtained for mycological and bacteriological studies. Direct microscopic examination revealed small white grains. Cultures on Sabouraud and Lowenstein-Jensen media isolated orange-white colonies suggestive of Nocardia. PCR assay identified Nocardia nova. Thoracic and right upper limb CT showed signs of chronic osteomyelitis. Treatment with imipenem/cilastatin for 8 weeks, followed by amoxicillin clavulanate for 6 months, resulted in healing of lesions and improvement in the patient's general health. Primary cutaneous nocardiosis remains a diagnostic challenge. Nocardia are soil-borne filamentous gram-positive bacteria. Identification of characteristic granules on examination of discharge smears from discharge or tissue biopsy is essential for diagnosing mycetoma. Because grain discharge is discontinuous, multiple clinical specimens should be submitted for microscopic examination and culture. Sulfonamides have been the mainstay of Nocardia actinomycetoma treatment. However, our patient's strain was resistant to Co-trimoxazole. Therefore, treatment with imipenem followed by amoxicillin clavulanate was favored, with good clinical and analytical response. PMID:22301041

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Erythromycin- and Oxytetracycline-Sensitive Nocardia seriolae Strain U-1 (NBRC 110359)

    PubMed Central

    Sukeda, Masaki; Shimizu, Masato; Yamane, Jin; Ohnishi, Kouhei; Oshima, Syun-ichirou

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, the emergence of macrolide- and oxytetracycline-resistant strains of Nocardia seriolae has previously been reported. Here, we describe the draft genome sequence of N. seriolae strain U-1, isolated in 2011 from a diseased yellowtail in Kagoshima Prefecture. The draft genome does not have any genes responsible for macrolide and tetracycline resistance. PMID:26798107

  4. Genetic diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility of Nocardia species among patients with nocardiosis

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi-Shahraki, Abodolrazagh; Heidarieh, Parvin; Bostanabad, Saeed Zaker; Hashemzadeh, Mohamad; Feizabadi, Mohamad Mehdi; Schraufnagel, Dean; Mirsaeidi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this multicenter study was to determine the genetic diversity and antibiotic susceptibility of clinically isolated Nocardia species. One hundred twenty-seven patients with nocardiosis were randomly selected from 5 provinces of Iran. Molecular diagnosis of Nocardia species was performed using multilocus sequence analysis of gyrase B of the β subunit of DNA topoisomerase (gyrB), and 16S rRNA and subunit A of SecA preproteintranslocase (secA1). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed following the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations. Thirty-five N. cyriacigeorgica, 30 N. asteroides, 26 N. farcinica, 12 N. otitidiscaviarum, and 10 N. abscessus cultures were studied. All isolates were susceptible to linezolid. All isolates of N. cyriacigeorgica, N. asteroides, N. abscessus, and N. otitidiscaviarum were susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, while 8% of N. farcinica isolates were resistant to this drug. All N. otitidiscaviarum isolates were highly resistant to imipenem, but N. cyriacigeorgica, N. asteroides, N. farcinica, and N. abscessus were only moderate resistant. The susceptibility patterns vary with different species of Nocardia. Resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in Iran is low and this drug should be first line therapy, unless drug susceptibility testing shows resistance. Linezolid also covers Nocardia well and could be a second line agent. PMID:26638771

  5. Specific clinical manifestations of Nocardia: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Songsong; Wang, Jing; Fang, Qiuhong; Zhang, Jixin; Yan, Fengcai

    2016-01-01

    Nocardiosis is a rare bacterial infection of either the lungs (pulmonary) or body (systemic) that usually affects immunocompromised individuals. It is caused by Gram-positive, aerobic actinomycetes of the Nocardia genus. Multiple high-density sheet shadows in both lungs along with nodules or cavities are the most common presentations of nocardiosis, whereas a large pulmonary mass is considered to be rare. However, there is no specificity in the clinical manifestation of the disease. Therefore, isolation and identification of Nocardia strains is the only reliable diagnostic method. The present study describes the cases of two male patients of Asian descent with nocardiosis. Chest computed tomography scans showed a suspected tumor mass in both patients. Microscopic analysis and culturing of tissue samples obtained using a bronchoscope detected the presence of Nocardia wallacei. Neither patient showed signs of immunosuppression. The present study aimed to improve the understanding of lung nocardiosis and demonstrated that pulmonary nocardiosis should be suspected in the case of non-immunocompromised patients with a large mass in the lung. Furthermore, a review of the literature on infection with Nocardia was conducted. PMID:27698688

  6. Specific clinical manifestations of Nocardia: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Songsong; Wang, Jing; Fang, Qiuhong; Zhang, Jixin; Yan, Fengcai

    2016-01-01

    Nocardiosis is a rare bacterial infection of either the lungs (pulmonary) or body (systemic) that usually affects immunocompromised individuals. It is caused by Gram-positive, aerobic actinomycetes of the Nocardia genus. Multiple high-density sheet shadows in both lungs along with nodules or cavities are the most common presentations of nocardiosis, whereas a large pulmonary mass is considered to be rare. However, there is no specificity in the clinical manifestation of the disease. Therefore, isolation and identification of Nocardia strains is the only reliable diagnostic method. The present study describes the cases of two male patients of Asian descent with nocardiosis. Chest computed tomography scans showed a suspected tumor mass in both patients. Microscopic analysis and culturing of tissue samples obtained using a bronchoscope detected the presence of Nocardia wallacei. Neither patient showed signs of immunosuppression. The present study aimed to improve the understanding of lung nocardiosis and demonstrated that pulmonary nocardiosis should be suspected in the case of non-immunocompromised patients with a large mass in the lung. Furthermore, a review of the literature on infection with Nocardia was conducted.

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Nocardia jinanensis, an Opportunistic Bacterial Pathogen That Causes Cellulitis

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabortti, Alolika; Li, Jinming

    2016-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of Nocardia jinanensis, an opportunistic pathogen that can cause skin infections, reveals genes that may contribute to the lifestyle and pathogenicity of N. jinanensis. The genome also reveals the biosynthetic capacity of N. jinanensis in producing mycolic acids, siderophores, and other polyketide and nonribosomal peptide-derived secondary metabolites. PMID:27445366

  8. Comparison of three phenotypic and deoxyribonucleic acid extraction methods for isolation and Identification of Nocardia spp

    PubMed Central

    Faghri, Jamshid; Bourbour, Samane; Moghim, Sharare; Meidani, Mohsen; Safaei, Hajiye Ghasemian; Hosseini, Nafise; Esfahani, Bahram Nasr; Fazeli, Hussein; Sedighi, Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aerobic Actinomycetes are a large group of soil-indwelling bacteria that are distributed in world-wide. These Gram-positive bacteria are most commonly associated with opportunistic infections in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts. Materials and Methods: In this study, three phenotypic and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction methods for isolation and identification of Nocardia genus were compared. Samples were taken in five different locations of Isfahan's suburb from hospitals area, parks, agricultural lands, gardens, arid lands with different soil temperature and pH. Results: In this study, showed that slip-buried-method was better than two other phenotypic methods; 14 out of 70 soil samples (20%) were positive for Nocardia spp. DNA of positive samples were extracted with three techniques and DNA extraction by microwave technique was better than others. This technique was confirmed with observation of DNA bands on 1% agarose gel. Conclusions: These bacteria are important in immune deficient patients such as cancer patients, transplant recipients, tuberculosis; acquired immunodeficiency syndrome etc., Their affluence is unsteady in different zones of the world. In this study, among the three phenotypic methods for the isolation of Nocardia slip-buried method was better than other methods. Among DNA extraction techniques, DNA extraction by microwave method would be selective method for DNA extraction of Nocardia spp. compared with others techniques. PMID:25221754

  9. Insights into the microbial degradation of rubber and gutta-percha by analysis of the complete genome of Nocardia nova SH22a.

    PubMed

    Luo, Quan; Hiessl, Sebastian; Poehlein, Anja; Daniel, Rolf; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2014-07-01

    The complete genome sequence of Nocardia nova SH22a was determined in light of the remarkable ability of rubber and gutta-percha (GP) degradation of this strain. The genome consists of a circular chromosome of 8,348,532 bp with a G+C content of 67.77% and 7,583 predicted protein-encoding genes. Functions were assigned to 72.45% of the coding sequences. Among them, a large number of genes probably involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics and hardly degradable compounds, as well as genes that participate in the synthesis of polyketide- and/or nonribosomal peptide-type secondary metabolites, were detected. Based on in silico analyses and experimental studies, such as transposon mutagenesis and directed gene deletion studies, the pathways of rubber and GP degradation were proposed and the relationship between both pathways was unraveled. The genes involved include, inter alia, genes participating in cell envelope synthesis (long-chain-fatty-acid-AMP ligase and arabinofuranosyltransferase), β-oxidation (α-methylacyl-coenzyme A [α-methylacyl-CoA] racemase), propionate catabolism (acyl-CoA carboxylase), gluconeogenesis (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase), and transmembrane substrate uptake (Mce [mammalian cell entry] transporter). This study not only improves our insights into the mechanism of microbial degradation of rubber and GP but also expands our knowledge of the genus Nocardia regarding metabolic diversity.

  10. Insights into the Microbial Degradation of Rubber and Gutta-Percha by Analysis of the Complete Genome of Nocardia nova SH22a

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Quan; Hiessl, Sebastian; Poehlein, Anja; Daniel, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of Nocardia nova SH22a was determined in light of the remarkable ability of rubber and gutta-percha (GP) degradation of this strain. The genome consists of a circular chromosome of 8,348,532 bp with a G+C content of 67.77% and 7,583 predicted protein-encoding genes. Functions were assigned to 72.45% of the coding sequences. Among them, a large number of genes probably involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics and hardly degradable compounds, as well as genes that participate in the synthesis of polyketide- and/or nonribosomal peptide-type secondary metabolites, were detected. Based on in silico analyses and experimental studies, such as transposon mutagenesis and directed gene deletion studies, the pathways of rubber and GP degradation were proposed and the relationship between both pathways was unraveled. The genes involved include, inter alia, genes participating in cell envelope synthesis (long-chain-fatty-acid–AMP ligase and arabinofuranosyltransferase), β-oxidation (α-methylacyl-coenzyme A [α-methylacyl-CoA] racemase), propionate catabolism (acyl-CoA carboxylase), gluconeogenesis (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase), and transmembrane substrate uptake (Mce [mammalian cell entry] transporter). This study not only improves our insights into the mechanism of microbial degradation of rubber and GP but also expands our knowledge of the genus Nocardia regarding metabolic diversity. PMID:24747905

  11. Microsatellite loci development for red elm (Ulmus rubra Muhl.) and cross-species amplification with Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ulmus pumila is an elm species, non-native to the United States which hybridizes with Ulmus rubra. In order to study the genetic structure and hybridization patterns between these two elm species, we developed fifteen primer pairs for microsatellite loci in U. rubra and tested their cross-amplifica...

  12. In situ hybridization for the differentiation of Actinomyces and Nocardia in tissue sections.

    PubMed

    Isotalo, Phillip A; Qian, Xiang; Hayden, Randall T; Roberts, Glenn D; Lloyd, Ricardo V

    2009-09-01

    The specific identification of filamentous bacteria in tissue sections can be difficult. The filamentous bacteria Actinomyces and Nocardia often produce similar host responses and single bacterial organisms seem morphologically similar; however, their differentiation may be clinically significant. In situ hybridization (ISH) may assist in the rapid and accurate identification of these microorganisms. In this study, DNA probes were directed against the variable regions of 16S ribosomal RNA genes of multiple Actinomyces and Nocardia spp. Probes were tested on 26 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens, each of which contained diagnostic foci of filamentous bacteria confirmed by both Gram and Grocott methenamine silver stains. On the basis of histology and clinical features, cases were classified as Actinomyces-related, n = 13 with 6 culture-proven cases and Nocardia-related, n = 13 with 11 culture-proven cases. Using this classification, all cases were assessed for cross-reactivity using other species-specific probes and probe specificity was determined. Overall, Gram and Grocott methenamine silver histochemical stains (100% sensitivity) were more sensitive than ISH (77% sensitivity for both Actinomyces and Nocardia probes). The slender caliber of filamentous bacteria was a limitation for ISH interpretation and necessitated careful examination of some slides. Probes demonstrated 100% specificity for identifying both species, 100% positive predictive value and 81% negative predictive value. No mixed infections were observed. This study demonstrates that ISH is highly specific for distinguishing between Actinomyces and Nocardia spp. in tissue sections. Although histochemical stains demonstrate greater sensitivity for organism detection, ISH is a rapid and specific technique that is especially useful for evaluating culture-negative or clinically unsuspected cases of filamentous bacterial infection.

  13. Use of PCR-Restriction Enzyme Pattern Analysis and Sequencing Database for hsp65 Gene-Based Identification of Nocardia Species

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Nava, Verónica; Couble, Andrée; Devulder, Gregory; Flandrois, Jean-Pierre; Boiron, Patrick; Laurent, Frédéric

    2006-01-01

    Nocardia identification required laborious and time-consuming phenotypic and chemotaxonomic methods until molecular methods were developed in the mid-1990s. Here we reassessed the capacity of PCR-restriction enzyme pattern analysis (PRA) of the hsp65 gene to differentiate Nocardia species, including 36 new species. Our results confirm that hsp65 PRA must no longer be used for Nocardia species identification, as many species have the same restriction pattern. We then compared sequencing-based strategies using an hsp65 database and a 16S rRNA database and found that the hsp65 region contained sufficient polymorphisms for comprehensive Nocardia species identification. PMID:16455910

  14. Resistance gene pool to co-trimoxazole in non-susceptible Nocardia strains

    PubMed Central

    Valdezate, Sylvia; Garrido, Noelia; Carrasco, Gema; Villalón, Pilar; Medina-Pascual, María J.; Saéz-Nieto, Juan A.

    2015-01-01

    The soil-borne pathogen Nocardia sp. causes severe cutaneous, pulmonary, and central nervous system infections. Against them, co-trimoxazole (SXT) constitutes the mainstay of antimicrobial therapy. However, some Nocardia strains show resistance to SXT, but the underlying genetic basis is unknown. We investigated the presence of genetic resistance determinants and class 1–3 integrons in 76 SXT-resistant Nocardia strains by PCR and sequencing. By E test, these clinical strains showed SXT minimum inhibitory concentrations of ≥32:608 mg/L (ratio of 1:19 for trimethoprim: sulfamethoxazole). They belonged to 12 species, being the main representatives Nocardia farcinica (32%), followed by N. flavorosea (6.5%), N. nova (11.8%), N. carnea (10.5%), N. transvalensis (10.5%), and Nocardia sp. (6.5%). The prevalence of resistance genes in the SXT-resistant strains was as follows: sul1 and sul2 93.4 and 78.9%, respectively, dfrA(S1) 14.7%, blaTEM-1 and blaZ 2.6 and 2.6%, respectively, VIM-2 1.3%, aph(3′)-IIIa 40.8%, ermA, ermB, mefA, and msrD 2.6, 77.6, 14.4, and 5.2%, respectively, and tet(O), tet(M), and tet(L) 48.6, 25.0, and 3.9%, respectively. Detected amino acid changes in GyrA were not related to fluoroquinolone resistance, but probably linked to species polymorphism. Class 1 and 3 integrons were found in 93.42 and 56.57% strains, respectively. Class 2 integrons and sul3 genes were not detected. Other mechanisms, different than dfrA(S1), dfrD, dfrF, dfrG, and dfrK, could explain the strong trimethoprim resistance shown by the other 64 strains. For first time, resistance determinants commonly found in clinically important bacteria were detected in Nocardia sp. sul1, sul2, erm(B), and tet(O) were the most prevalent in the SXT-resistant strains. The similarity in their resistome could be due to a common genetic platform, in which these determinants are co-transferred. PMID:25972856

  15. Chloroplast DNA variation of Quercus rubra L. in North America and comparison with other Fagaceae.

    PubMed

    Magni, C R; Ducousso, A; Caron, H; Petit, R J; Kremer, A

    2005-02-01

    Quercus rubra is one of the most important timber and ornamental tree species from eastern North America. It is a widespread species growing under variable ecological conditions. Chloroplast DNA variation was studied by PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism) in 290 individuals from 66 populations sampled throughout the natural range. A total of 12 haplotypes were detected, with one found in 75% of the trees. Population differentiation is relatively low (G(ST) = 0.46), even when similarities between haplotypes are taken into account (N(ST) = 0.50), pointing to a weak phylogeographical structure. Furthermore, no spatial structure of genetic diversity could be detected. The genetic differentiation increased northwards, reflecting the postglacial history of Q. rubra. The unusual aspect of this study was the low level of chloroplast DNA genetic differentiation in Q. rubra compared to that typically observed in other oak species. Palynological evidence indicates that during the last glacial maximum, Q. rubra had one major distribution range with populations located relatively far to the north, resulting in only modest movement northwards when climate improved, whereas European white oaks were largely restricted to the southern European peninsulas and experienced extensive movements during the postglacial period. The contrasted geographical features and levels of tree species richness of both continents might further explain why congeneric species sharing similar life history traits have genetic structures that are so different. PMID:15660942

  16. Patterns of Hybridization and Introgression Between Invasive Ulmus Pumila (Ulmaceae) and Native U. Rubra

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ulmus pumila (Siberian elm) is an invasive elm species, non-native to the United States, which hybridizes with Ulmus rubra (red elm), a U.S. native. While Siberian elm is highly tolerant to Dutch elm disease (DED), red elm populations in North America have been strongly affected by DED. Putative p...

  17. KINETICS OF LEAF TEMPERATURE FLUCTUATION AFFECT ISOPRENE EMISSION FROM RED OAK (QUERCUS RUBRA) LEAVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because the rate of isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) emission from plants is highly temperature-dependent, we investigated the natural fluctuations on leaf temperature and the effects of rapid temperature change on isoprene emission of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) leaves at the to...

  18. Microbial conversion of ethylbenzene to 1-phenethanol and acetophenone by Nocardia tartaricans ATCC 31190.

    PubMed

    Cox, D P; Goldsmith, C D

    1979-09-01

    A culture of Nocardia tartaricans ATCC 31190 was capable of catalyzing the conversion of ethylbenzene to 1-phenethanol and acetophenone while growing in a shake flask culture with hexadecane as the source of carbon and energy. This subterminal oxidative reaction with ethylbenzene appears not to have been previously reported for Nocardia species. When N. tartaricans was grown on glucose as its source of carbon and energy and ethylbenzene was added, no subsequent production of 1-phenethanol or acetophenone was observed. The mechanisms of 1-phenethanol and acetophenone production from ethylbenzene are thought to involve a subterminal oxidation of the alpha-carbon of the alkyl group to 1-phenethanol followed by biological oxidation of the latter to acetophenone.

  19. Homopterans and an invasive red ant, Myrmica rubra (L.), in Maine.

    PubMed

    McPhee, Katherine; Garnas, Jeffrey; Drummond, Frank; Groden, Eleanor

    2012-02-01

    Myrmica rubra (L.), is an invasive ant that is spreading across eastern North America. It is presently found in over 40 communities in Maine and areas in Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, New York, and several provinces in the Canadian Maritimes and Ontario. In addition to disrupting native ant faunas, invasive ants also have been shown to influence homopteran abundance and species composition. We conducted surveys of Homoptera in infested and noninfested sites and conducted manipulative experiments to quantify the effects of M. rubra on homopteran abundance and composition in the summers of 2003, 2006, and 2007 on Mount Desert Island, ME. In 2003, Homoptera family-level richness was higher in infested sites compared with noninfested sites with two out of three sampling methods. Homopteran abundance in infested compared with noninfested sites depended upon the site. The sites with the highest population of M. rubra were associated with significant differences in Homoptera population abundance. In 2006 and 2007, two out of three host plants sampled had significantly higher abundances of the aphids, Aphis spiraephila Patch and Prociphilus tessellatus Fitch. An ant exclusion field experiment on the native plant, meadowsweet (Spiraea alba Du Roi), resulted in higher abundances of A. spiraephila with M. rubra tending compared with native ant tending. A predator exclusion field experiment was conducted on meadowsweet using adult ladybeetles, Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, larval green lacewings, Chyrsoperla carnea Stephens, and no predators. Predator impacts on aphid populations were reduced in the presence of M. rubra with C. carnea and moderately reduced with H. convergens.

  20. Disseminated Nocardia farcinica infection in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Hara, Hiroyuki; Wakui, Fuminori; Ochiai, Toyoko

    2011-06-01

    Here, we describe a patient with disseminated systemic nocardiosis. He had a history of systemic lupus erythematosus and had received oral prednisolone for 7 months. Nocardia farcinica was isolated from the pus. There were neither clinical nor radiologic features of pulmonary nocardiosis. The patient was treated with oral trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, intravenous imipenem and surgical drainage with a good clinical response, and there has been no recurrence of the infection. PMID:21372184

  1. [Nocardia farcinica lung infection in a patient with cystic fibrosis and a lung transplant].

    PubMed

    Chacón, C F; Vicente, R; Ramos, F; Porta, J; Lopez Maldonado, A; Ansotegui, E

    2015-03-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis have a higher risk of developing chronic respiratory infectious diseases. The Nocardia farcinica lung infection is rare in this group of patients, and there are limited publications about this topic. Its diagnosis is complex, due to the clinical and the radiology signs being non-specific. Identification of the agent responsible in the sputum culture is occasionally negative. It is a slow growing organism and for this reason treatment is delayed, which can lead to an increase in complications, hospitable stays, and mortality. A case is reported on a 26 year-old woman with cystic fibrosis and chronic lung colonization by Nocardia farcinica and Aspergillus fumigatus, on long-term treatment with ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and posaconazole, who was admitted to ICU after bilateral lung transplantation. The initial post-operative progress was satisfactory. After discharge, the patient showed a gradual respiratory insufficiency with new chest X-ray showing diffuse infiltrates. Initially, the agent was not seen in the sputum culture. Prompt and aggressive measures were taken, due to the high clinical suspicion of a Nocardia farcinica lung infection. Treatment with a combination of amikacin and meropenem, and later combined with linezolid, led to the disappearance of the lung infiltrates and a clinical improvement. In our case, we confirm the rapid introduction of Nocardia farcinica in the new lungs. The complex identification and the delay in treatment increased the morbimortality. There is a special need for its eradication in patients with lung transplant, due to the strong immunosuppressive treatment. PMID:25443661

  2. Rhodopirellula lusitana sp. nov. and Rhodopirellula rubra sp. nov., isolated from the surface of macroalgae.

    PubMed

    Bondoso, Joana; Albuquerque, Luciana; Lobo-da-Cunha, Alexandre; da Costa, Milton S; Harder, Jens; Lage, Olga Maria

    2014-05-01

    Twenty two strains of Rhodopirellula were isolated from the epiphytic community of several marine macroalgae and separated into two groups, designated as group B and group C. In this study, we characterized these groups as two novel species belonging to the genus Rhodopirellula. These strains were represented by pleomorphic cells that were arranged in rosettes and formed pink- or red-pigmented colonies. The organisms were chemoorganotrophic and required vitamin B12 for growth. Their optimal temperature for growth was around 25°C. Major fatty acids were C18:1 ω9c, C16:0 and C16:1 ω7c/C16:1 ω6c. Phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol were the major polar lipids. Unidentified phospholipids were also present. The 16S rDNA sequence analysis confirmed the affiliation of these organisms to the order Planctomycetales, genus Rhodopirellula, with R. baltica as the closest phylogenetic relative. The analysis of a partial sequence of the gene encoding the β-subunit of RNA polymerase (rpoB) confirmed the phylogenetic separation of the isolates into two different species of the genus Rhodopirellula. The 16S rRNA sequences from strains of group B revealed their widespread occurrence across the world, whereas strains of group C were not observed before. On the basis of physiological, biochemical, chemotaxonomic and genetic characteristics we propose that our isolates represent two new species of Rhodopirellula, Rhodopirellula rubra sp. nov. (type strain is LF2(T)=DSM 25,459=CECT 8075) and Rhodopirellula lusitana sp. nov. (type strain is UC17(T)=DSM 25,457=LMG 27,777). PMID:24631661

  3. Diagnosis of Nocardia paucivorans central nervous system infection by DNA sequencing from paraffin-embedded tissue.

    PubMed

    Schiaroli, Elisabetta; Pasticci, Maria Bruna; De Carolis, Elena; Mello, Enrica; Pallotto, Carlo; Leli, Christian; De Socio, Giuseppe Vittorio; Baldelli, Franco; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Mencacci, Antonella

    2016-06-01

    Infections by Nocardia spp. are generally regarded as opportunistic diseases in immunocompromised patients, but can also affect immunocompetent subjects. Such infections represent an important diagnostic challenge for clinicians and microbiologists, and diagnosis is frequently delayed or even conducted post mortem. A 54-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of ventriculitis and relapsing brain abscess. Five months prior, this patient had undergone external ventricular drain and surgery for a cerebellar abscess. Histopathology demonstrated pyogenic inflammatory reaction, microbiologic investigations proved negative and empiric antimicrobial therapy was administered for a total of eight weeks. Six weeks later, the patient developed relapsing neurologic manifestations. On reviewing the patient's clinical history it emerged that the patient had suffered pneumonia two months prior to neurosurgery, treated with amoxicillin/clavulanate 3g a day and levofloxacin 500mg a day for three weeks. On the CNS relapsing manifestations, nocardiosis was suspected and DNA sequencing from the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cerebellar tissue collected during neurosurgery allowed diagnosis of Nocardia paucivorans infection. The patient received medical therapy for 11 months. At follow-up, eight months after treatment was discontinued, the patient was aymptomatic. Nocardia spp. infections need to be suspected not only in immunocompromised, but also in immunocompetent patients. Proper samples need to be collected for proper microbiologic investigations. Paraffin-embedded tissue genomic sequencing can be a useful tool for diagnosis of nocardiosis. PMID:27367327

  4. Nocardia brasiliensis infection mimicking juvenile idiopathic arthritis in a 4-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Kapur, Nitin; Adib, Navid; Grimwood, Keith

    2013-11-01

    Nocardia are ubiquitous environmental saprophytes that cause pneumonia and disseminated disease in immunocompromised patients. They can also cause localized cutaneous and soft tissue infections in healthy people after direct percutaneous inoculation. Nocardia arthritis is rare in both forms of the disease. Here we present the first published case of a child with septic arthritis caused by N brasiliensis. Importantly, this otherwise well 4-year-old girl had no known history of trauma but presented with transient cutaneous lesions and a 6-week history of arthritis involving the right fourth digit proximal interphalangeal joint without accompanying fever or raised systemic inflammatory markers. She received a diagnosis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis and underwent antiinflammatory and immunosuppressant therapy. After 2 months she developed frank septic arthritis, which necessitated a surgical joint washout, from which an intraoperative swab grew N brasiliensis. The patient received 6 months of high-dose trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and remains well more than 4 years after treatment. This unusual case highlights the importance of considering an indolent infection from slow-growing organisms, including Nocardia, when diagnosing the oligoarthritis subtype of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. This is especially relevant when a single joint is involved and response to antiinflammatory therapy is suboptimal because antiinflammatory agents may mask evolving signs of infection.

  5. [Pulmonary Nocardiosis due to Nocardia asiatica in a Patient with ANCA-associated Vasculitis].

    PubMed

    Suemori, Koichiro; Miyamoto, Hitoshi; Murakami, Shinobu; Yamazaki, Hitoshi; Ishizaki, Jun; Matsumoto, Takuya; Murakami, Yuichi; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Yasukawa, Masaki

    2015-07-01

    Nocardia asiatica is a rare causative organism responsible for opportunistic infection, and was first reported by Kageyama et al. in 2004. We report herein on a very rare case of N. asiatica infection in a 76-year old male patient with ANCA-associated vasculitis and a history of pulmonary tuberculosis. The patient developed pulmonary nocardiosis due to N. asiatica while receiving glucocorticoid therapy. Chest computed tomography demonstrated multiple granules and cavity formation mainly in the left lower lobe. From the images, we suspected opportunistic infection, possibly pulmonary tuberculosis or pulmonary damage due to ANCA-associated vasculitis. Nocardia sp. was detected from a bronchoalveolar lavage culture and N. asiatica was identified by 16S ribosomal DNA gene sequencing. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging revealed no abnormality. Administration of Doripenem (1.5g/day) and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (4g/day) was started, and the patient's clinical and imaging findings promptly improved. Thereafter, he received sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (2g/day) and prednisolone (10 mg/day) as maintenance therapy for ANCA-associated vasculitis for more than one year, and there has since been no recurrence of the Nocardia infection. PMID:26554223

  6. A Case of Nocardia farcinica Pneumonia and Mediastinitis in an Immunocompetent Patient

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinyoung; Kang, Minkyu; Kim, Juri; Jung, Sohee; Park, Junhung; Lee, Dongkyu

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia species are aerobic, gram-positive pathogens found worldwide in soil. Nocardia is considered an opportunistic pathogen, and its infection mostly occurs in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of Nocardia farcinica induced mediastinitis and pneumonia that occurred in a 64-year-old male patient who had no significant medical history except for hypertension. He visited another hospital with a complaint of dyspnea and left chest wall pain. The symptoms arose 7 days ago without any trauma and they worsened. A mediastinal mass was found on computed tomography scan. After being transferred to our hospital for further evaluation, he was diagnosed with mediastinitis and pneumonia. As N. farcinica was found to be the causative organism by 16S rRNA sequencing, proper antibiotic therapy including trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was initiated immediately. After this, the patient improved and he was discharged. If an infection has a disseminating course, nocardiosis cannot be excluded even in immunocompetent patients. Once the diagnosis is established, prompt antibiotic therapy should be performed based on the severity. PMID:27066088

  7. [Effect of surface-active substances of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus IMV B-7241, Rhodococcus erythropolis IMV Ac-5017, and Nocardia vaccinii K-8 on phytopathogenic bacteria].

    PubMed

    Pirog, T P; Konon, A D; Sofilkanich, A P; Iutinskaia, G A

    2013-01-01

    The effect of surface-active substances (SAS's) of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus IMV B-7241, Rhodococcus erythropolis IMV Ac-5017, and Nocardia vaccinii K-8 on phytopathogenic bacteria has been studied. It was shown that the survival of cells (10(5)-10(7) in a milliliter) of the Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas phytopathogenic bacteria was found to be 0-33% after treatment with SAS preparations of the IMV Ac-5017 and IMV B-7241 strains for 2 h (0.15-0.4 mg/mL). In the presence of N. vaccinii K-8 SAS preparations (0.085-0.85 mg/mL), the number of cells of the majority of the studied phytopathogenic bacteria decreased by 95-100%. These data show prospects for using microbial SAS's for the construction of ecologically friendly drugs for regulating the number of phytopathogenic bacteria.

  8. Temperature effects on biomass, geosmin, and 2-methylisoborneol production and cellular activity by Nocardia spp. and Streptomyces spp. isolated from rainbow trout recirculating aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isolates of Nocardia cummidelens, Nocardia fluminea, Streptomyces albidoflavus, and Streptomyces luridiscabiei attributing to geosmin-related off-flavor in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) raised in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) were evaluated for the effect of temperature (10-30 degree...

  9. In Vitro Comparison of Ertapenem, Meropenem, and Imipenem against Isolates of Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria and Nocardia by Use of Broth Microdilution and Etest.

    PubMed

    Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Killingley, Jessica; Vasireddy, Sruthi; Bridge, Linda; Wallace, Richard J

    2016-06-01

    We compared the activities of the carbapenems ertapenem, meropenem, and imipenem against 180 isolates of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) and 170 isolates of Nocardia using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. A subset of isolates was tested using the Etest. The rate of susceptibility to ertapenem and meropenem was limited and less than that to imipenem for the RGM. Analysis of major and minor discrepancies revealed that >90% of the isolates of Nocardia had higher MICs by the broth microdilution method than by Etest, in contrast to the lower broth microdilution MICs seen for >80% of the RGM. Imipenem remains the most active carbapenem against RGM, including Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. abscessus For Nocardia, imipenem was significantly more active only against Nocardia farcinica Although there may be utility in testing the activities of the newer carbapenems against Nocardia, their activities against the RGM should not be routinely tested. Testing by Etest is not recommended by the CLSI. PMID:27053677

  10. Phylogeny of Morella rubra and Its Relatives (Myricaceae) and Genetic Resources of Chinese Bayberry Using RAD Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Luxian; Jin, Xinjie; Chen, Nan; Li, Xian; Li, Pan; Fu, Chengxin

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among Chinese species of Morella (Myricaceae) are unresolved. Here, we use restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) to identify candidate loci that will help in determining phylogenetic relationships among Morella rubra, M. adenophora, M. nana and M. esculenta. Three methods for inferring phylogeny, maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian concordance, were applied to data sets including as many as 4253 RAD loci with 8360 parsimony informative variable sites. All three methods significantly favored the topology of (((M. rubra, M. adenophora), M. nana), M. esculenta). Two species from North America (M. cerifera and M. pensylvanica) were placed as sister to the four Chinese species. According to BEAST analysis, we deduced speciation of M. rubra to be at about the Miocene-Pliocene boundary (5.28 Ma). Intraspecific divergence in M. rubra occurred in the late Pliocene (3.39 Ma). From pooled data, we assembled 29378, 21902 and 23552 de novo contigs with an average length of 229, 234 and 234 bp for M. rubra, M. nana and M. esculenta respectively. The contigs were used to investigate functional classification of RAD tags in a BLASTX search. Additionally, we identified 3808 unlinked SNP sites across the four populations of M. rubra and discovered genes associated with fruit ripening and senescence, fruit quality and disease/defense metabolism based on KEGG database. PMID:26431030

  11. Hemimandibulectomy and vascularized fibula flap in bisphosphonate-induced mandibular osteonecrosis with polycythaemia rubra vera.

    PubMed

    Ghazali, N; Collyer, J C; Tighe, J V

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the successful management of an advanced and refractory bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ) by hemimandibulectomy and an osteocutaneous fibula flap reconstruction in a patient with polycythaemia rubra vera, a rare haematological condition in which there is increased risk of thrombosis and haemorrhage. Union of the vascularized bone with the mandible depends on obtaining a BRONJ-free margin and rigid fixation of the bony ends. Magnetic resonance imaging can provide accurate delineation of necrotic bone and area of osteomyelitis. Placement of a 1cm margin beyond this can envisage a BRONJ-free margin. Aggressive medical management of polycythaemia rubra vera by venesection, asprin and cytoreduction therapy along with anticoagulant prophylaxis against thromboembolic events in the first 2 weeks following major surgery can provide the basis of a good surgical and flap outcome. Nevertheless, the possibility of unpredictable haemorrhage must be considered throughout. PMID:22520725

  12. Scaling foliar respiration to the stand level throughout the growing season in a Quercus rubra forest.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng-Yuan; Griffin, Kevin L

    2008-04-01

    Stand-level, canopy foliar carbon loss (R(can)) was modeled for a virtual Quercus rubra L. monoculture at two sites differing in soil water availability in a northeastern deciduous forest (USA) throughout the 2003 growing season. Previously reported foliar respiratory temperature responses of Q. rubra were used to parameterize a full distributed physiology model that estimates R(can) by integrating the effects of season, site and canopy position, and represents the best estimation of R(can). Model sensitivity to five simplified parameterization scenarios was tested, and a reasonable procedure of simplification was established. Neglecting effects of season, site or canopy position on respiration causes considerable relative error in R(can) estimation. By contrast, assuming a constant E(0) (a temperature response variable of the respiration model), or a constant night temperature (mean nighttime temperature) caused only a small relative error (< 10%) compared with the full model. From June 8 to October 28, 2003, modeled R(can) of the virtual Q. rubra monoculture was, on average, 45.3 mmol CO(2) m(-2) night(-1) on a ground-area basis (or 334 mmol CO(2) kg(-1) night(-1) on a biomass basis) and 101 mmol CO(2) m(-2) night(-1) (or 361 mmol CO(2) kg(-1) night(-1)) at the drier site and the more mesic site, respectively. To model R(can) of Q. rubra (or other Quercus species with similar respiratory properties), variations in the base respiration rate across season, site and canopy position need to be fully accounted for, but E(0) may be assumed constant. Modeling R(can) at the mean nighttime temperature would not strongly affect estimated canopy carbon loss.

  13. The intriguing complexity of parthenogenesis inheritance in Pilosella rubra (Asteraceae, Lactuceae).

    PubMed

    Rosenbaumová, Radka; Krahulcová, Anna; Krahulec, František

    2012-09-01

    Neither the genetic basis nor the inheritance of apomixis is fully understood in plants. The present study is focused on the inheritance of parthenogenesis, one of the basic elements of apomixis, in Pilosella (Asteraceae). A complex pattern of inheritance was recorded in the segregating F(1) progeny recovered from reciprocal crosses between the facultatively apomictic hexaploid P. rubra and the sexual tetraploid P. officinarum. Although both female and male reduced gametes of P. rubra transmitted parthenogenesis at the same rate in the reciprocal crosses, the resulting segregating F(1) progeny inherited parthenogenesis at different rates. The actual transmission rates of parthenogenesis were significantly correlated with the mode of origin of the respective F(1) progeny class. The inheritance of parthenogenesis was significantly reduced in F(1) n + n hybrid progeny from the cross where parthenogenesis was transmitted by female gametes. In F(1) n + 0 polyhaploid progeny from the same cross, however, the transmission rate of parthenogenesis was high; all fertile polyhaploids were parthenogenetic. It appeared that reduced female gametes transmitting parthenogenesis preferentially developed parthenogenetically and only rarely were fertilized in P. rubra. The fact that the determinant for parthenogenesis acts gametophytically in Pilosella and the precocious embryogenesis in parthenogenesis-transmitting megagametophytes was suggested as the most probable explanations for this observation. Furthermore, we observed the different expression of complete apomixis in the non-segregating F(1) 2n + n hybrids as compared to their apomictic maternal parent P. rubra. We suggest that this difference is a result of unspecified interactions between the parental genomes.

  14. Scaling foliar respiration to the stand level throughout the growing season in a Quercus rubra forest.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng-Yuan; Griffin, Kevin L

    2008-04-01

    Stand-level, canopy foliar carbon loss (R(can)) was modeled for a virtual Quercus rubra L. monoculture at two sites differing in soil water availability in a northeastern deciduous forest (USA) throughout the 2003 growing season. Previously reported foliar respiratory temperature responses of Q. rubra were used to parameterize a full distributed physiology model that estimates R(can) by integrating the effects of season, site and canopy position, and represents the best estimation of R(can). Model sensitivity to five simplified parameterization scenarios was tested, and a reasonable procedure of simplification was established. Neglecting effects of season, site or canopy position on respiration causes considerable relative error in R(can) estimation. By contrast, assuming a constant E(0) (a temperature response variable of the respiration model), or a constant night temperature (mean nighttime temperature) caused only a small relative error (< 10%) compared with the full model. From June 8 to October 28, 2003, modeled R(can) of the virtual Q. rubra monoculture was, on average, 45.3 mmol CO(2) m(-2) night(-1) on a ground-area basis (or 334 mmol CO(2) kg(-1) night(-1) on a biomass basis) and 101 mmol CO(2) m(-2) night(-1) (or 361 mmol CO(2) kg(-1) night(-1)) at the drier site and the more mesic site, respectively. To model R(can) of Q. rubra (or other Quercus species with similar respiratory properties), variations in the base respiration rate across season, site and canopy position need to be fully accounted for, but E(0) may be assumed constant. Modeling R(can) at the mean nighttime temperature would not strongly affect estimated canopy carbon loss. PMID:18244949

  15. Mitochondrial DNA sequence and gene organization in the [corrected] Australian blacklip [corrected] abalone Haliotis rubra (leach).

    PubMed

    Maynard, Ben T; Kerr, Lyndal J; McKiernan, Joanne M; Jansen, Eliza S; Hanna, Peter J

    2005-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial DNA of the blacklip abalone Haliotis rubra (Gastropoda: Mollusca) was cloned and 16,907 base pairs were sequenced. The sequence represents an estimated 99.85% of the mitochondrial genome, and contains 2 ribosomal RNA, 22 transfer RNA, and 13 protein-coding genes found in other metazoan mtDNA. An AT tandem repeat and a possible C-rich domain within the putative control region could not be fully sequenced. The H. rubra mtDNA gene order is novel for mollusks, separated from the black chiton Katharina tunicata by the individual translocations of 3 tRNAs. Compared with other mtDNA regions, sequences from the ATP8, NAD2, NAD4L, NAD6, and 12S rRNA genes, as well as the control region, are the most variable among representatives from Mollusca, Arthropoda, and Rhynchonelliformea, with similar mtDNA arrangements to H. rubra. These sequences are being evaluated as genetic markers within commercially important Haliotis species, and some applications and considerations for their use are discussed. PMID:16206015

  16. Late onset pityriasis rubra pilaris type IV treated with low-dose acitretin.

    PubMed

    Mota, Fernando; Carvalho, Sandrina; Sanches, Madalena; Selores, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Pityriasis rubra pilaris is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis of unknown etiology and great clinical variability. It has been divided into six categories. Types III, IV, and V occur in childhood and are distinguished by their clinical presentation, age of onset, and course. We report a 19-year-old male patient with a 2-week history of pruritic, scaling dermatosis of the hands, feet, elbows, and knees. He had no family history of skin disease. On physical examination, we observed circumscribed, reddish-orange, scaling plaques affecting the elbows and knees and a waxy palmoplantar keratoderma. The skin biopsy showed acanthosis, alternating orthokeratosis, parakeratosis, and follicular plugging suggestive of pityriasis rubra pilaris. The patient started treatment with oral acitretin, 25 mg every other day. The treatment was tolerated well, and after 6 months the lesions had resolved completely. Pityriasis rubra pilaris is a chronic papulosquamous disorder of unknown pathogenesis, characterized by reddish-orange scaly plaques, palmoplantar keratoderma, and keratotic follicular papules. There is still no consensus regarding the treatment, but therapeutic options include systemic retinoids, particularly acitretin in the recommended dose of 0.5 to 0.75 mg/kg/day. In our case, the patient was treated with a low-dose regimen of acitretin, which was effective and well tolerated. PMID:27014774

  17. Cytomegalovirus pneumonia in a patient with interstitial pneumonia and Nocardia asiatica presenting as cavitary lung lesions.

    PubMed

    Saraya, Takeshi; Ohkuma, Kosuke; Kikuchi, Ken; Tamura, Masaki; Honda, Kojiro; Yamada, Atsuko; Araki, Koji; Ishii, Haruyuki; Makino, Hiroshi; Takei, Hidefumi; Karita, Shin; Fujiwara, Masachika; Takizawa, Hajime; Goto, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    A 66-year-old man who suffered from an acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia developed a cavitary lesion after taking immunosuppressive drugs. He was diagnosed with cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia. CMV was not thought to be the underlying cause of the cavitary lung lesions, as only six cases have been described thus far. However, this case clearly demonstrates that the development of cavitary lung lesions can be caused by CMV. Following CMV pneumonia, cavitary lesions again occurred in the patient's lungs that were thought to be the first case of cavitary lesions caused by Nocardia asiatica infection. PMID:23448771

  18. Potential for phytoextraction of copper by Sinapis alba and Festuca rubra cv. Merlin grown hydroponically and in vineyard soils.

    PubMed

    Malagoli, Mario; Rossignolo, Virginia; Salvalaggio, Nico; Schiavon, Michela

    2014-03-01

    The extensive use of copper-bearing fungicides in vineyards is responsible for the accumulation of copper (Cu) in soils. Grass species able to accumulate Cu could be cultivated in the vineyard inter-rows for copper phytoextraction. In this study, the capacity of Festuca rubra cv Merlin and Sinapis alba to tolerate and accumulate copper (Cu) was first investigated in a hydroponic system without the interference of soil chemical-physical properties. After the amendment of Cu (5 or 10 mg Cu l-(1)) to nutrient solution, shoot Cu concentration in F. rubra increased up to 108.63 mg Cu kg(-1) DW, more than three times higher than in S. alba (31.56 mg Cu kg(-1) DW). The relationship between Cu concentration in plants and external Cu was dose-dependent and species specific. Results obtained from the hydroponic experiment were confirmed by growing plants in pots containing soil collected from six Italian vineyards. The content of soil organic matter was crucial to enhance Cu tolerance and accumulation in the shoot tissues of both plant species. Although S. alba produced more biomass than F. rubra in most soils, F. rubra accumulated significantly more Cu (up to threefold to fourfold) in the shoots. Given these results, we recommended that F. rubra cv Merlin could be cultivated in the vineyard rows to reduce excess Cu in vineyard soils. PMID:24234763

  19. Potential for phytoextraction of copper by Sinapis alba and Festuca rubra cv. Merlin grown hydroponically and in vineyard soils.

    PubMed

    Malagoli, Mario; Rossignolo, Virginia; Salvalaggio, Nico; Schiavon, Michela

    2014-03-01

    The extensive use of copper-bearing fungicides in vineyards is responsible for the accumulation of copper (Cu) in soils. Grass species able to accumulate Cu could be cultivated in the vineyard inter-rows for copper phytoextraction. In this study, the capacity of Festuca rubra cv Merlin and Sinapis alba to tolerate and accumulate copper (Cu) was first investigated in a hydroponic system without the interference of soil chemical-physical properties. After the amendment of Cu (5 or 10 mg Cu l-(1)) to nutrient solution, shoot Cu concentration in F. rubra increased up to 108.63 mg Cu kg(-1) DW, more than three times higher than in S. alba (31.56 mg Cu kg(-1) DW). The relationship between Cu concentration in plants and external Cu was dose-dependent and species specific. Results obtained from the hydroponic experiment were confirmed by growing plants in pots containing soil collected from six Italian vineyards. The content of soil organic matter was crucial to enhance Cu tolerance and accumulation in the shoot tissues of both plant species. Although S. alba produced more biomass than F. rubra in most soils, F. rubra accumulated significantly more Cu (up to threefold to fourfold) in the shoots. Given these results, we recommended that F. rubra cv Merlin could be cultivated in the vineyard rows to reduce excess Cu in vineyard soils.

  20. Genome shuffling of marine derived bacterium Nocardia sp. ALAA 2000 for improved ayamycin production.

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, Mervat M A; El-Bondkly, Ahmed M A

    2011-05-01

    Genome shuffling is a recent development in microbiology. The advantage of this technique is that genetic changes can be made in a microorganism without knowing its genetic background. Genome shuffling was applied to the marine derived bacterium Nocardia sp. ALAA 2000 to achieve rapid improvement of ayamycin production. The initial mutant population was generated by treatment with ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) combined with UV irradiation of the spores, resulting in an improved population (AL/11, AL/136, AL/213 and AL/277) producing tenfold (150 μg/ml) more ayamycin than the original strain. These mutants were used as the starting strains for three rounds of genome shuffling and after each round improved strains were screened and selected based on their ayamycin productivity. The population after three rounds of genome shuffling exhibited an improved ayamycin yield. Strain F3/22 yielded 285 μg/ml of ayamycin, which was 19-fold higher than that of the initial strain and 1.9-fold higher than the mutants used as the starting point for genome shuffling. We evaluated the genetic effect of UV + EMS-mutagenesis and three rounds of genome shuffling on the nucleotide sequence by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Many differences were noticed in mutant and recombinant strains compared to the wild type strain. These differences in RAPD profiles confirmed the presence of genetic variations in the Nocardia genome after mutagenesis and genome shuffling. PMID:21240675

  1. Trehangelins A, B and C, novel photo-oxidative hemolysis inhibitors produced by an endophytic actinomycete, Polymorphospora rubra K07-0510.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Takuji; Okuyama, Ryuki; Kamiya, Yoshiyuki; Matsumoto, Atsuko; Iwatsuki, Masato; Inahashi, Yuki; Yamaji, Kenzaburo; Takahashi, Yōko; Ōmura, Satoshi

    2013-06-01

    Three new natural products, designated trehangelins A, B and C, were isolated by solvent extraction, silica gel and octadecylsilyl silica gel column chromatographies and subsequent preparative HPLC from the cultured broth of an endophytic actinomycete strain, Polymorphospora rubra K07-0510. The trehangelins consisted of a trehalose moiety and two angelic acid moieties. Trehangelins A (IC50 value, 0.1 mg ml(-1)) and C (IC50 value, 0.4 mg ml(-1)), with symmetric structures, showed potent inhibitory activity against hemolysis of red blood cells induced by light-activated pheophorbide a. However, trehangelin B, with an asymmetric structure, displayed only a slight inhibition (IC50 value, 1.0 mg ml(-1)). PMID:23591606

  2. The Nocardia cyriacigeorgica GUH-2 genome shows ongoing adaptation of an environmental Actinobacteria to a pathogen’s lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nocardia cyriacigeorgica is recognized as one of the most prevalent etiological agents of human nocardiosis. Human exposure to these Actinobacteria stems from direct contact with contaminated environmental matrices. The full genome sequence of N. cyriacigeorgica strain GUH-2 was studied to infer major trends in its evolution, including the acquisition of novel genetic elements that could explain its ability to thrive in multiple habitats. Results N. cyriacigeorgica strain GUH-2 genome size is 6.19 Mb-long, 82.7% of its CDS have homologs in at least another actinobacterial genome, and 74.5% of these are found in N. farcinica. Among N. cyriacigeorgica specific CDS, some are likely implicated in niche specialization such as those involved in denitrification and RuBisCO production, and are found in regions of genomic plasticity (RGP). Overall, 22 RGP were identified in this genome, representing 11.4% of its content. Some of these RGP encode a recombinase and IS elements which are indicative of genomic instability. CDS playing part in virulence were identified in this genome such as those involved in mammalian cell entry or encoding a superoxide dismutase. CDS encoding non ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) and polyketide synthases (PKS) were identified, with some being likely involved in the synthesis of siderophores and toxins. COG analyses showed this genome to have an organization similar to environmental Actinobacteria. Conclusion N. cyriacigeorgica GUH-2 genome shows features suggesting a diversification from an ancestral saprophytic state. GUH-2 ability at acquiring foreign DNA was found significant and to have led to functional changes likely beneficial for its environmental cycle and opportunistic colonization of a human host. PMID:23622346

  3. Microbial Gutta-Percha Degradation Shares Common Steps with Rubber Degradation by Nocardia nova SH22a

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Quan; Hiessl, Sebastian; Poehlein, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Nocardia nova SH22a, a bacterium capable of degrading gutta-percha (GP) and natural rubber (NR), was used to investigate the GP degradation mechanism and the relations between the GP and NR degradation pathways. For this strain, a protocol of electroporation was systematically optimized, and an efficiency of up to 4.3 × 107 CFU per μg of plasmid DNA was achieved. By applying this optimized protocol to N. nova SH22a, a Tn5096-based transposon mutagenesis library of this bacterium was constructed. Among about 12,000 apramycin-resistant transformants, we identified 76 stable mutants defective in GP or NR utilization. Whereas 10 mutants were specifically defective in GP utilization, the growth of the other 66 mutants was affected on both GP and NR. This indicated that the two degradation pathways are quite similar and share many common steps. The larger number of GP-degrading defective mutants could be explained in one of two ways: either (i) the GP pathway is more complex and harbors more specific steps or (ii) the steps for both pathways are almost identical, but in the case of GP degradation there are fewer enzymes involved in each step. The analysis of transposition loci and genetic studies on interesting genes confirmed the crucial role of an α-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase in the degradation of both GP and NR. We also demonstrated the probable involvement of enzymes participating in oxidoreduction reactions, β-oxidation, and the synthesis of complex cell envelope lipids in the degradation of GP. PMID:23220954

  4. Fulminant Budd-Chiari syndrome associated with polycythemia rubra vera and factor V Leiden mutation.

    PubMed

    Akyildiz, Murat; Karasu, Zeki; Dheir, Hamad; Osmanoglu, Necla; Akay, Sinan; Ilter, Tankut

    2006-01-01

    Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) is a severe disorder characterized by hepatic venous outflow obstruction. Hypercoagulable states are the major etiological factors for the development of BCS and can be identified in about 75% of patients. Multiple etiological factors can be found in the same patient. Hematologic abnormalities, especially myeloproliferative disorders, are the most common causes of BCS. Furthermore, the prevalence of factor V Leiden mutation is three times greater in patients with BCS. Although the clinical course tends to be chronic, BCS may, on rare occasions, cause acute liver failure. Herein, we report a patient who had factor V Leiden mutation and polycythemia rubra vera, presented as fulminant BCS. PMID:16378893

  5. Sofosbuvir-Induced Erythrodermic Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris-Like Drug Eruption.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Evelyn J; Jedrych, Jaroslaw J; English, Joseph C

    2015-10-01

    Until 2011, the standard-of-care therapy for patients with hepatitis C consisted of interferon and ribavirin. The recent advent of new targeted therapies against this virus has provided more options of treatment for infected patients. Sofosbuvir, a nucleotide inhibitor of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA polymerase, was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2013. Various Phase 3 trials with sofosbuvir combination therapy have reported an incidence of rash between 7% and 18%. We here describe a case of sofosbuvir-induced erythrodermic pityriasis rubra pilaris-like drug eruption.

  6. The breeding system of wild red ruffed lemurs (Varecia rubra): a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Vasey, Natalie

    2007-01-01

    Captive studies have shown that ruffed lemurs (Varecia) have an unusual suite of reproductive traits combined with extremely high maternal reproductive costs. These traits include the bearing of litters, nesting of altricial young, and absentee parenting. To characterize the breeding system of this enigmatic lemur, reproductive traits must be contextualized in the wild. Here, I provide a preliminary report of mating and infant care in one community of wild red ruffed lemurs (Varecia rubra). Observations span a 15-month period covering two birth seasons and one mating season on the Masoala Peninsula, Madagascar. Factors that are not possible to replicate in captivity are reported, such as mating pattern, natality and mortality rates, the location of nests within the home range, and the structuring of infant care within a natural community. V. rubra at Andranobe have a fission-fusion, multifemale-multimale grouping pattern and a polygamous mating system. They do not mate monogamously or live strictly in family-based groups as suggested by previous workers. During the first 2 months of life, nests and infant stashing localities are situated within each mother's respective core area, and inhabitants of each core area within the communal home range provide care for young. As part of their absentee parenting system, infants are left in concealed, protected, and supportive spots high in the canopy, while mothers travel distantly. This practice is termed 'infant stashing'. Alloparenting appears to be an integral part of V. rubra's overall reproductive strategy in the wild, as it was performed by all age-sex classes. Among the alloparental behaviors observed were infant guarding, co-stashing, infant transport, and allonursing. Alloparenting and absentee parenting may mitigate high maternal reproductive costs. Furthermore, V. rubra may have a breeding system in which genetic partners (i.e., mating partners) do not always correspond to infant care-providers. Combined with

  7. Antibacterial Δ(1) -3-ketosteroids from the South China Sea gorgonian coral Subergorgia rubra.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xue-Ping; Cao, Fei; Shao, Chang-Lun; Wang, Mei; Zhang, Xiu-Li; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2015-07-01

    Three new Δ(1) -3-ketosteroids characterized with a 9-OH, subergosterones A-C (1-3), together with five known analogs 4-8, were obtained from the gorgonian coral Subergorgia rubra collected from the South China Sea. The structures of 1-3, including their absolute configurations, were determined by comprehensive spectroscopic methods and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) experiments. Compounds 2 and 3 exhibited inhibitory antibacterial activities against Bacillus cereus with MIC values of 1.56 μM.

  8. Complete genome sequence of Pseudoalteromonas rubra SCSIO 6842, harboring a putative conjugative plasmid pMBL6842.

    PubMed

    Li, Baiyuan; Wang, Pengxia; Zeng, Zhenshun; Cai, Xingsheng; Wang, Guanghua; Wang, Xiaoxue

    2016-04-20

    Pseudoalteromonas is a genus of Gram-negative and is ubiquitously distributed in the ocean. Many Pseudoalteromonas species are capable of producing pigments, which can serve as an alternative source to replace synthetic pigments used in the food industry. Prodigiosins belong to a family of secondary metabolite characterized by a common pyrrolyl pyrromethane skeleton, and have been successfully applied to yogurt, milk and carbonated drinks as substitutes for synthetic additives. The strain Pseudoalteromonas rubra SCSIO 6842 can produce cycloprodigiosin and harbors a conjugative plasmid. Here we report the complete genome of P. rubra SCSIO 6842 for a better understanding of the molecular basis of cycloprodigiosin production and regulation. PMID:26970053

  9. Complete genome sequence of Pseudoalteromonas rubra SCSIO 6842, harboring a putative conjugative plasmid pMBL6842.

    PubMed

    Li, Baiyuan; Wang, Pengxia; Zeng, Zhenshun; Cai, Xingsheng; Wang, Guanghua; Wang, Xiaoxue

    2016-04-20

    Pseudoalteromonas is a genus of Gram-negative and is ubiquitously distributed in the ocean. Many Pseudoalteromonas species are capable of producing pigments, which can serve as an alternative source to replace synthetic pigments used in the food industry. Prodigiosins belong to a family of secondary metabolite characterized by a common pyrrolyl pyrromethane skeleton, and have been successfully applied to yogurt, milk and carbonated drinks as substitutes for synthetic additives. The strain Pseudoalteromonas rubra SCSIO 6842 can produce cycloprodigiosin and harbors a conjugative plasmid. Here we report the complete genome of P. rubra SCSIO 6842 for a better understanding of the molecular basis of cycloprodigiosin production and regulation.

  10. Nocardia abscessus-related intracranial aneurysm of the internal carotid artery with associated brain abscess: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Farran, Yvette; Antony, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia infections primarily begin in the lungs and spread hematogenously to other sites in the body. Thus, a Nocardia brain abscess is not a completely uncommon occurrence. However, a Nocardia brain abscess complicated by a middle cerebral artery and infectious intracranial aneurysm is a very rare clinical entity. We present a case of an infectious intracranial aneurysm with an associated Nocardia brain abscess that required surgical intervention and resection. The patient was an immunocompetent 60-year-old male who presented with a chief complaint of headache and was found to have an infected intracranial aneurysm and cerebral abscess. He underwent drainage of the abscess with subsequent resection of the infected aneurysm. Cultures from both the blood vessel and brain tissue grew Nocardia abscessus. He was successfully treated with 6 weeks of ceftriaxone and high-dose trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Infectious intracranial aneurysms of the brain caused by Nocardia are rare occurrences, and only a single previous case has been described in the literature. The outcomes of this condition can be catastrophic if it is not treated with a combination of surgery and intravenous antibiotics. The guidelines for the management of this infection are not well defined at this time. PMID:26724261

  11. Nocardia abscessus-related intracranial aneurysm of the internal carotid artery with associated brain abscess: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Farran, Yvette; Antony, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia infections primarily begin in the lungs and spread hematogenously to other sites in the body. Thus, a Nocardia brain abscess is not a completely uncommon occurrence. However, a Nocardia brain abscess complicated by a middle cerebral artery and infectious intracranial aneurysm is a very rare clinical entity. We present a case of an infectious intracranial aneurysm with an associated Nocardia brain abscess that required surgical intervention and resection. The patient was an immunocompetent 60-year-old male who presented with a chief complaint of headache and was found to have an infected intracranial aneurysm and cerebral abscess. He underwent drainage of the abscess with subsequent resection of the infected aneurysm. Cultures from both the blood vessel and brain tissue grew Nocardia abscessus. He was successfully treated with 6 weeks of ceftriaxone and high-dose trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Infectious intracranial aneurysms of the brain caused by Nocardia are rare occurrences, and only a single previous case has been described in the literature. The outcomes of this condition can be catastrophic if it is not treated with a combination of surgery and intravenous antibiotics. The guidelines for the management of this infection are not well defined at this time.

  12. Collagen fiber immobilized Myrica rubra tannin and its adsorption to UO2(2+).

    PubMed

    Liao, Xuepin; Lu, Zhongbi; Du, Xiao; Liu, Xin; Shi, Bi

    2004-01-01

    Tannins, which are rich in ortho-hydroxyl groups, have a high affinity for UO2(2+). In this paper, Myrica rubra tannin was immobilized on collagen fiber by an aldehydic cross-linking reaction to prepare a novel adsorbent for uranium (UO2(2+)) recovery from wastewater. The adsorption equilibrium, the adsorption kinetics, and the effects of temperature and pH on the adsorption equilibrium were investigated in detail. It was found that the Myrica rubra tannin immobilized on collagen fiber exhibits an excellent adsorption capacity for UO2(2+). The adsorption capacity at 293 K and pH 5.0 was as high as 1.19 mmol UO2(2+)/g (283.3 mgU/g) when the initial concentration of UO2(2+) in solution was 7.5 mmol/L. The adsorption isotherms could be described by the Freundlich equation, and the increase of temperature promoted the adsorption to UO2(2+) . The adsorption kinetics data were fitted very well by the pseudosecond-order rate model, and the equilibrium adsorption capacity calculated by the pseudo-second-order rate model was almost the same as that determined by the actual measurement with the error < or = 4%. The pH has a significant effect on the adsorption process. According to our experiments, the suitable pH scope should be 5-8.

  13. The first report of disseminated Nocardia concava infection, in an immunocompromised patient, in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Hoon; Sung, Heungseop; Lee, Sang-Oh; Choi, Sang-Ho; Kim, Yang-Soo; Woo, Jun-Hee; Kim, Sung-Han

    2012-10-01

    A new Nocardia species, N. concava, was first reported in Japan in 2005. To date, there have been only 3 case reports of N. concava infection worldwide (2 in Japan and 1 in China), and only 1 of these reports has detailed the clinical characteristics of N. concava, in China. Here we report the first case of disseminated infection caused by N. concava- in a patient with a history of glucocorticoid use-in South Korea. Species identification of N. concava was done with 16S rRNA sequencing and was confirmed by biochemical tests using urea, xanthine, tyrosine, and hypoxanthine decomposition. The patient was successfully treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. PMID:22526383

  14. Identification and Functional Analysis of the Nocardithiocin Gene Cluster in Nocardia pseudobrasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Kanae; Komaki, Hisayuki; Gonoi, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Nocardithiocin is a thiopeptide compound isolated from the opportunistic pathogen Nocardia pseudobrasiliensis. It shows a strong activity against acid-fast bacteria and is also active against rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Here, we report the identification of the nocardithiocin gene cluster in N. pseudobrasiliensis IFM 0761 based on conserved thiopeptide biosynthesis gene sequence and the whole genome sequence. The predicted gene cluster was confirmed by gene disruption and complementation. As expected, strains containing the disrupted gene did not produce nocardithiocin while gene complementation restored nocardithiocin production in these strains. The predicted cluster was further analyzed using RNA-seq which showed that the nocardithiocin gene cluster contains 12 genes within a 15.2-kb region. This finding will promote the improvement of nocardithiocin productivity and its derivatives production. PMID:26588225

  15. Isolation and genetic characterization of Nocardia seriolae from snubnose pompano Trachinotus blochii in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Vu-Khac, Hung; Duong, Van Quy; Chen, Shih-Chu; Pham, Trung Hieu; Nguyen, Thi Thu; Trinh, Thi Thu

    2016-07-01

    A total of 480 cage-cultured fish were collected from 4 coastal provinces in central Vietnam to investigate the causative agent of nocardiosis. Fish displayed unique characteristics such as paleness and lethargy and exhibited haemorrhages and ulcers on the skin. Prominent white nodules varying in size were observed in the spleen, kidney, and liver. Furthermore, histopathological sections showed typical granulomatous lesions in these organs. Using the Ziehl-Neelsen staining method, isolated bacteria exhibited acid-fast, bead-like filament morphology when cultured in brain-heart infusion medium or Ogawa medium. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA confirmed that the isolated bacterium was Nocardia seriolae. This study demonstrates for the first time an outbreak of N. seriolae in snubnose pompano in central Vietnam.

  16. Unusual presentation of disseminated Nocardia abscessus infection in a patient with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Sherbuk, Jacqueline; Saly, Danielle; Barakat, Lydia; Ogbuagu, Onyema

    2016-01-01

    A 40-year-old man with AIDS presented with symptoms of a chronic cough, subacute headache, generalised weakness with falls, urinary and faecal incontinence, and acute onset subcutaneous nodules. A chest CT scan showed multiple cavitary and nodular pulmonary infiltrates. MRI of his brain and spinal cord revealed innumerable ring-enhancing lesions. Pathological examination of the purulent material obtained from his subcutaneous lesions, as well as transbronchial tissue specimens obtained by biopsy, revealed beaded and branching Gram-positive rods, subsequently identified by 16S RNA sequencing to be Nocardia abscessus species. We observed an excellent therapeutic response to a combination antimicrobial therapy with resolution of the subcutaneous, pulmonary and central nervous system (CNS) lesions. Infections caused by N. abscessus are rare and typically occur in immunocompromised patients. In this article, we will review the presentation, diagnosis and treatment of N. abscessus infection. PMID:27440848

  17. Antagonistic Activity of Nocardia brasiliensis PTCC 1422 Against Isolated Enterobacteriaceae from Urinary Tract Infections.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Hossnieh Kafshdar; Salamatzadeh, Abdolreza; Jalali, Arezou Kafshdar; Kashani, Hamed Haddad; Asbchin, Salman Ahmadi; Issazadeh, Khosro

    2016-03-01

    The main drawback of current antibiotic therapies is the emergence and rapid increase in antibiotic resistance. Nocardiae are aerobic, Gram-positive, catalase-positive, non-motile actinomycetes. Nocardia brasiliensis was reported as antibiotic producer. The purpose of the study was to determine antibacterial activity of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 against isolated Enterobacteriaceae from urinary tract infections (UTIs). The common bacteria from UTIs were isolated from hospital samples. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed for the isolated pathogens using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method according to clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guideline. Antagonistic activity of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 was examined with well diffusion methods. Supernatant of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 by submerged culture was analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Isolated strains included Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens and Proteus mirabilis. The most common pathogen isolated was E. coli (72.5%). Bacterial isolates revealed the presence of high levels of antimicrobial resistances to ceftriaxone and low levels of resistance to cephalexin. Supernatant of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 showed antibacterial activity against all of the isolated microorganisms in well diffusion method. The antibiotic resistance among the uropathogens is an evolving process, so a routine surveillance to monitor the etiologic agents of UTI and the resistance pattern should be carried out timely to choose the most effective empirical treatment by the physicians. Our present investigation indicates that the substances present in the N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 could be used to inhibit the growth of human pathogen. Antibacterial resistance among bacterial uropathogen is an evolving process. Therefore, in the field on the need of re-evaluation of empirical treatment of UTIs, our present. The study has demonstrated that N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 has a high potential

  18. Hybridization between red elm (Ulmus rubra Muhl.) and Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L.) confirmed using microsatellite markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ulmus pumila (Siberian elm) is an invasive elm species, non-native to the United States, which hybridizes with Ulmus rubra (red elm), a U.S. native. In order to study the population genetic structure of each species and the genetic hybridization patterns between the two species, we developed fiftee...

  19. PSI photoinhibition is more related to electron transfer from PSII to PSI rather than PSI redox state in Psychotria rubra.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Yang, Ying-Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Lin; Hu, Hong; Zhang, Shi-Bao

    2016-07-01

    Although it has been believed that wild-type plants are capable of protecting photosystem I (PSI) under high light, our previous study indicates that PSI is sensitive to high light in the shade-established tree species Psychotria rubra. However, the underlying physiological mechanisms are unclear. In this study, we examined the roles of electron transfer from PSII to PSI and PSI redox state in PSI photoinhibition in P. rubra by treatments with lincomycin (Lin), diuron (DCMU), and methyl viologen (MV). After exposure to 2000 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) for 2 h, PSI activity decreased by 35, 29, 3, and 49 % in samples treated with H2O, Lin, DCMU, and MV, respectively. Meanwhile, the MV-treated samples showed higher P700 oxidation ratio than the H2O-treated samples, suggesting the PSI photoinhibition under high light was accompanied by high levels of P700 oxidation ratio. PSI photoinhibition was alleviated in the DCMU-treated samples but was accelerated in the MV-treated samples, suggesting that PSI photoinhibition in P. rubra was mainly controlled by electron transfer from PSII to PSI. Taking together, PSI photoinhibition is more related to electron transfer from PSII to PSI rather than PSI redox state in P. rubra, which is different from the mechanisms of PSI photoinhibition in Arabidopsis thaliana and cucumber.

  20. Dry deposition of sulfate to Quercus rubra and Liriodendron tulipifera foliage

    SciTech Connect

    Vandenberg, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Estimates were made of the rate of dry deposition to red oak (Quercus rubra) and tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) foliage. In the laboratory, radioactive ammonium sulfate aerosols were generated in an exposure chamber. These aerosols were dry deposited onto leaves that were sequentially washed to examine the efficacy of washing procedures in removal of surface deposits. Over 90% of dry deposited sulfate was removed after a 30 second wash duration. Laboratory procedures also estimated the magnitude of foliar sulfur that leached into leaf wash solutions. The majority of laboratory leaves demonstrated no leaching of sulfur from the internal pool. However, some leaves showed significant sulfur leaching. It was concluded that leaching of internal sulfur was highly leaf specific. This indicated that each leaf used in field experiments needed to be individually examined for leaching.

  1. [Recent progress in taxonomic studies on pathogenic nocardia and usefulness of the bacteria for the studies on secondary metabolites and antibiotic resistant mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Mikami, Yuzuru

    2010-01-01

    The present taxonomic situation of pathogenic actinomycetes including Nocardia was clarified, and the impact of genomic sequence information of Nocardia farcinica IFM 10152 on taxonomic work is introduced. The number of cases of nocardiosis is on the rise along with the increasing number of immunocompromised patients in Japan. From 1999 to 2007, 718 strains of pathogenic actinomycetes were received for identification by Medical Mycology Research Center (MMRC), Chiba University. About 75% of these were classified into Nocardia, major species being N. farcinica, N. nova, and N. brasiliensis. Among the strains classified as Nocardia species, there were some unclassifiable strains and taxonomic studies on these led to the proposal of more than 18 new species, resulting in more than 1/4 of all Nocardia species having been proposed by our group. Recently a new Nocardia species, Nocardia mikamii was proposed by American researchers. A new phylogenetic analysis method using gryB and secA1 genes was proposed for the Nocardia and Gordonia strains.Our whole genome analysis of N. farcinica suggests that the bacterium has unique and characteristic gene profiles, and also suggests that N. farcinica is similar to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. N. farcinica also has siderophore (nocobactin) and mce genes which are similar to mycobactin (siderophore) of M. tuberculosis as virulence factors. Nocardia strains were found to be producers of new secondary metabolites including antifungal, antitumor and immunosuppressive activities.We reported novel antibiotic resistance mechanisms such as ribosylation, glucosylation, phosphorylation and degradation of rifampicin, phosphorylation of aminoglycosides, and glucosylation of macrolide antibiotics. Among rifampicin inactivation mechanisms, ribosylation was found to be through the Arr enzyme that catalyzes ADP-ribosylation of rifampicin in a fast-growing Mycobacterium smegmatis. This unique mechanism has also been reported as an antibiotic

  2. [Antiadhesive properties of the surfactants of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus IMB B-7241, Rhodococcus erythropolis IMB Ac-5017, and Nocardia vaccinii IMB B-7405].

    PubMed

    Pirog, T P; Konon, A D; Beregovaya, K A; Shulyakova, M A

    2014-01-01

    Attachment of the cells of some bacteria, yeasts, and micromycetes to various surfaces (catheters, dentures, plastic, polyvinyl chloride, tiles, and steel) treated with the surfactants fromAcinetobacter calcoace- ticus IMB B-7241, Rhodococcus erythropolis IMB Ac-5017, and Nocardia vaccinii IMB B-7405 was studied. Adhesion of microorganisms to all the studied surfaces depended on the surfactant concentration and purity, kind of surface, and the test culture. Treatment with the surfactants from N. vaccinii IMB B-7405 (0.005- 0.05 mg/mL), A. calcoaceticus IMB B-7241 (0.003-0.036 mg/mL), and R. erythropolis IMB Ac-5017 (0.03- 0.12 mg/mL) resulted in adhesion decreased respectively by 35-75, 60-75, and 25-90% for bacteria (Es- cherichia coli IEM-1, Bacillus subtilis BT-2, etc.), by 80-85, 55-90, and 15-60% for yeasts Candida albicans D-6, and by 40-50, 35-45, and 10-20% for micromycetes (Aspergillus niger P-3 and Fusarium culmorum T-7).

  3. Endobronchial Enigma: A Clinically Rare Presentation of Nocardia beijingensis in an Immunocompetent Patient

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Rahman, Nader; Izhakain, Shimon; Wasser, Walter G.; Fruchter, Oren; Kramer, Mordechai R.

    2015-01-01

    Nocardiosis is an opportunistic infection caused by the Gram-positive weakly acid-fast, filamentous aerobic Actinomycetes. The lungs are the primary site of infection mainly affecting immunocompromised patients. In rare circumstances even immunocompetent hosts may also develop infection. Diagnosis of pulmonary nocardiosis is usually delayed due to nonspecific clinical and radiological presentations which mimic fungal, tuberculous, or neoplastic processes. The present report describes a rare bronchoscopic presentation of an endobronchial nocardial mass in a 55-year-old immunocompetent woman without underlying lung disease. The patient exhibited signs and symptoms of unresolving community-acquired pneumonia with a computed tomography (CT) scan that showed a space-occupying lesion and enlarged paratracheal lymph node. This patient represents the unusual presentation of pulmonary Nocardia beijingensis as an endobronchial mass. Pathology obtained during bronchoscopy demonstrated polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmation of nocardiosis. Symptoms and clinical findings improved with antibiotic treatment. This patient emphasizes the challenge in making the diagnosis of pulmonary nocardiosis, especially in a low risk host. A literature review presents the difficulties and pitfalls in the clinical assessment of such an individual. PMID:26819795

  4. Endobronchial Enigma: A Clinically Rare Presentation of Nocardia beijingensis in an Immunocompetent Patient.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Nader; Izhakian, Shimon; Wasser, Walter G; Fruchter, Oren; Kramer, Mordechai R

    2015-01-01

    Nocardiosis is an opportunistic infection caused by the Gram-positive weakly acid-fast, filamentous aerobic Actinomycetes. The lungs are the primary site of infection mainly affecting immunocompromised patients. In rare circumstances even immunocompetent hosts may also develop infection. Diagnosis of pulmonary nocardiosis is usually delayed due to nonspecific clinical and radiological presentations which mimic fungal, tuberculous, or neoplastic processes. The present report describes a rare bronchoscopic presentation of an endobronchial nocardial mass in a 55-year-old immunocompetent woman without underlying lung disease. The patient exhibited signs and symptoms of unresolving community-acquired pneumonia with a computed tomography (CT) scan that showed a space-occupying lesion and enlarged paratracheal lymph node. This patient represents the unusual presentation of pulmonary Nocardia beijingensis as an endobronchial mass. Pathology obtained during bronchoscopy demonstrated polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmation of nocardiosis. Symptoms and clinical findings improved with antibiotic treatment. This patient emphasizes the challenge in making the diagnosis of pulmonary nocardiosis, especially in a low risk host. A literature review presents the difficulties and pitfalls in the clinical assessment of such an individual.

  5. Nocardia asteroides recovery from a dog with steroid- and antibiotic-unresponsive idiopathic polyarthritis.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, A M; Beaman, B L; Pedersen, N C; Anderson, M; Scott, J L

    1983-09-01

    This report describes a fatal case of idiopathic polyarthritis in a dog that was partially responsive to vigorous immunosuppressive treatment. Synovial fluids were cultured for L-forms at the following stages of disease: (i) acute arthritic relapse, (ii) incomplete remission, and (iii) death. Nocardia asteroides UCD 1-581 was recovered from the L-form broth culture of the specimen taken during acute relapse, 5 weeks after inoculation, but not at any other stage of disease. Numerous conventional microbiological cultures were unproductive during all phases. Changes occurring in L-form plates included the formation of large irregular mineral deposits and many transferable bodies resembling pseudocolonies. Microscopic examination revealed the presence of many intracellular golden-brown granules and acid-fast bodies in macrophages of the lung and bronchial lymph node tissues. The granules are believed to be the variants embedded in calcium deposits similar to those which developed in the L-form cultures in vitro. Fluorescence of these acid-fast bodies with antibody specific for superoxide dismutase of N. asteroides GUH-2 and labeled anti-immunoglobulin G established their relationship to the isolate. The unrelenting course of disease and the persistence of N. asteroides as an L-form in this animal despite vigorous immunosuppression suggest that this organism plays a direct role in the etiology of this disease. PMID:6355155

  6. Lymphocutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis infection acquired from a cat scratch: case report and review.

    PubMed

    Sachs, M K

    1992-10-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is a bacterium that is most commonly found in the soil. Traumatic inoculation of N. brasiliensis into the skin is the most typical mode of acquisition of infection due to this organism. To the best of my knowledge, I report the first case of lymphocutaneous N. brasiliensis disease from a penetrating cat scratch of the skin, thereby establishing cats as vehicles for the transmission of this infection. Treatment with penicillin produced a rapid resolution of all signs and symptoms of infection. The efficacy of penicillin against the N. brasiliensis isolate recovered from this patient was highly unusual. In general, penicillin has limited therapeutic value since these organisms elaborate beta-lactamase. Sulfonamides remain the drugs of choice for the treatment of these infections. These soil-borne organisms are most likely carried on the claws of cats and may establish infection after percutaneous inoculation. A high index of suspicion for N. brasiliensis soft-tissue infection is required since a delayed or missed diagnosis may be associated with progressive local disease and/or widespread disseminated infection. PMID:1420688

  7. Endobronchial Enigma: A Clinically Rare Presentation of Nocardia beijingensis in an Immunocompetent Patient.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Nader; Izhakian, Shimon; Wasser, Walter G; Fruchter, Oren; Kramer, Mordechai R

    2015-01-01

    Nocardiosis is an opportunistic infection caused by the Gram-positive weakly acid-fast, filamentous aerobic Actinomycetes. The lungs are the primary site of infection mainly affecting immunocompromised patients. In rare circumstances even immunocompetent hosts may also develop infection. Diagnosis of pulmonary nocardiosis is usually delayed due to nonspecific clinical and radiological presentations which mimic fungal, tuberculous, or neoplastic processes. The present report describes a rare bronchoscopic presentation of an endobronchial nocardial mass in a 55-year-old immunocompetent woman without underlying lung disease. The patient exhibited signs and symptoms of unresolving community-acquired pneumonia with a computed tomography (CT) scan that showed a space-occupying lesion and enlarged paratracheal lymph node. This patient represents the unusual presentation of pulmonary Nocardia beijingensis as an endobronchial mass. Pathology obtained during bronchoscopy demonstrated polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmation of nocardiosis. Symptoms and clinical findings improved with antibiotic treatment. This patient emphasizes the challenge in making the diagnosis of pulmonary nocardiosis, especially in a low risk host. A literature review presents the difficulties and pitfalls in the clinical assessment of such an individual. PMID:26819795

  8. Alteration of Acrylonitrile-Methylacrylate-Butadiene Terpolymer by Nocardia rhodochrous and Penicillium notatum†

    PubMed Central

    Antoine, A. D.; Dean, A. V.; Gilbert, S. G.

    1980-01-01

    [14C]Barex-210, a terpolymer of acrylonitrile, methylacrylate, and butadiene, was tested for bioconversion. Powdered samples of polymer, each specifically 14C labeled at different carbon atoms of the polymer, were incubated with either Nocardia rhodochrous or Penicillium notatum in an enriched growth medium for various periods of time. After 6 months of incubation, the 14C-labeled polymer was transformed from a high-molecular-weight material completely soluble in dimethyl formamide (DMF) into both a lower-molecular-weight form still soluble in DMF and a second form that was no longer soluble in DMF. The amount of 14C-labeled carbon atoms converted into DMF-insoluble material was 8% of the backbone carbon-carbon atoms and 12% of the side-chain nitrile and acrylate atoms from the acrylonitrile-methylacrylate copolymer and 60% of the elastomer (acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer) atoms. Metabolism of the polymer was not established from measurements of metabolic 14CO2. Evolution of 14CO2 amounted to only 0.3, 0.6, 1.8, and 3.3% of these four fractions, respectively. Although the transformation of high-molecular-weight polymer into DMF-insoluble material was rapid in the early stages of microbial growth, the accompanying CO2 evolution was much slower. Further evidence of polymer alteration was indicated by the infrared spectrum of the insoluble material, which showed a disappearance of the nitrile and methylacrylate peaks. PMID:16345541

  9. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole-resistant Nocardia asteroides causing multiple hepatic abscesses. Successful treatment with ampicillin, amikacin, and limited computed tomography-guided needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Cockerill, F R; Edson, R S; Roberts, G D; Waldorf, J C

    1984-09-01

    Hepatic abscesses are rarely encountered in disseminated Nocardia infections. Sulfonamides alone or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole is often efficacious in treating infections caused by Nocardia asteroides. In vitro resistance of N. asteroides to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole is occasionally present. The patient described in this report had disseminated nocardiosis initially manifesting as multiple subcapsular hepatic abscesses. In vitro susceptibility studies demonstrated resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Subsequent treatment with ampicillin and amikacin in conjunction with computed tomography-guided needle aspiration of several of the hepatic abscesses, surgical drainage of a right pleural empyema, and eventual discontinuation of use of corticosteroids resulted in cure of the infection.

  10. Case Report: Actinomycetoma Caused by Nocardia aobensis from Lao PDR with Favourable Outcome after Short-Term Antibiotic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Vongphoumy, Inthanomchanh; Dance, David A. B.; Dittrich, Sabine; Logan, Julie; Davong, Viengmon; Rattanavong, Sayaphet; Blessmann, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    Background Mycetoma is a neglected, chronic, localized, progressively destructive, granulomatous infection caused either by fungi (eumycetoma) or by aerobic actinomycetes (actinomycetoma). It is characterized by a triad of painless subcutaneous mass, multiple sinuses and discharge containing grains. Mycetoma commonly affects young men aged between 20 and 40 years with low socioeconomic status, particularly farmers and herdsmen. Methodology / Principal Findings A 30 year-old male farmer from an ethnic minority in Phin District, Savannakhet Province, Lao PDR (Laos) developed a painless swelling with multiple draining sinuses of his right foot over a period of approximately 3 years. X-ray of the right foot showed osteolysis of tarsals and metatarsals. Aerobic culture of sinus discharge yielded large numbers of Staphylococcus aureus and a slow growing Gram-positive rod. The organism was subsequently identified as Nocardia aobensis by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. The patient received antimicrobial treatment with amikacin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole according to consensus treatment guidelines. Although slight improvement was noted the patient left the hospital after 14 days and did not take any more antibiotics. Over the following 22 weeks the swelling of his foot subsequently diminished together with healing of discharging sinuses. Conclusion This is the first published case of Actinomycetoma caused by Nocardia aobensis and the second case of Actinomycetoma from Laos. A treatment course of only 14 days with amikacin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was apparently sufficient to cure the infection, although long-term treatment up to one year is currently recommended. Treatment trials or prospective descriptions of outcome for actinomycetoma should investigate treatment efficacy for the different members of Actinomycetales, particularly Nocardia spp., with short-term and long-term treatment courses. PMID:25879445

  11. New-onset vitiligo during long-term, stable infliximab treatment of pityriasis rubra pilaris.

    PubMed

    Mattox, Adam R; Chappell, Jeaneen A; Hurley, M Yadira

    2013-02-01

    Incidents of new-onset vitiligo attributed to infliximab therapy for rheumatoid arthritis and ulcerative colitis have been reported. Reported cases share a common theme in that symptoms manifested in close proximity to the initiation or significant dose increase of the medication. This case describes the presentation of infliximab-induced vitiligo in a patient using it for long-term treatment of stable pityriasis rubra pilaris. The patient was initiated and titrated to a stable dose of infliximab totaling 27 months' duration. He was able to achieve near-complete resolution of symptoms before developing depigmented patches consistent with vitiligo. Infliximab was discontinued. Tacrolimus 0.1% ointment and narrow-band ultraviolet B light successfully repigmented the patches. The association of discontinuing infliximab and resolution of vitiligo suggests infliximab had a role in this case. Though the mechanism of involvement is undetermined, infliximab may have induced an autoimmune process by paradoxically activating lymphocytes. Alternatively, infliximab antibodies may have led to the process by disrupting the normal balance of cytokines.

  12. Hydraulic conductivity of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) leaf tissue does not respond to light.

    PubMed

    Rockwell, F E; Holbrook, N M; Zwieniecki, M A

    2011-04-01

    The permeability of leaf tissue to water has been reported to increase under illumination, a response reputed to involve aquaporins. We studied this 'light response' in red oak (Quercus rubra L.), the species in which the phenomenon was first detected during measurements of leaf hydraulic conductance with the high-pressure flow meter (HPFM). In our HPFM measurements, we found that pre-conditioning leaves in darkness was not sufficient to bring them to their minimum conductance, which was attained only after an hour of submersion and pressurization. However, pre-conditioning leaves under anoxic conditions resulted in an immediate reduction in conductance. Leaves light- and dark-acclimated while on the tree showed no differences in the time course of HPFM measurement under illumination. We also studied the effect of light level and anoxia on rehydration kinetics, finding that anoxia slowed rehydration, but light had no effect either in the lab (rehydration under low light, high humidity) or on the tree (acclimation under high light, 10 min of dark prior to rehydration). We conclude that the declines in conductance observed in the HPFM must involve a resistance downstream of the extracellular air space, and that in red oak the hydraulic conductivity of leaf tissue is insensitive to light. PMID:21309791

  13. Sublethal toxicity of trace metals to larvae of the blacklip abalone, Haliotis rubra.

    PubMed

    Gorski, Jacquelle; Nugegoda, Dayanthi

    2006-05-01

    The availability of literature regarding sublethal and chronic toxicity of heavy metals to early life stages of marine species is restricted to a few species of invertebrate mollusks. The early life stage of abalone, an important gastropod both environmentally and commercially, has been involved in limited research investigating the effects of heavy metal toxicity. Fertilized eggs of Haliotis rubra were exposed to a range of dissolved nominal concentrations of cadmium, copper, iron, lead, mercury, and zinc in individual solutions for 48 h. After 48 h of exposure, the test was completed by recording survival success and morphological abnormalities of veliger larvae in each heavy metal treatment. The mean 48-h median effective concentrations affecting normal morphological development of veliger larvae determined in this test shows a decreasing order of toxicity of copper (7 mg/L), mercury (21 mg/L), zinc (35 mg/L), iron (4102 mg/L), cadmium (4515 mg/L), and lead (5111 mg/L). PMID:16704070

  14. [Effects of simulated acid rain on water physiological characteristics of Myrica rubra seedlings].

    PubMed

    Yaho, Zhao-bin; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Shu-quan; Lu, Mei-juan

    2011-08-01

    Taking the seedlings of typical subtropical economic tree species Myrica rubra in Zhejiang Province as test materials, a pot experiment was conducted to study their water physiological characteristics under effects of simulated acid rain (pH 2.5 and pH 4.0), with water (pH 5.6) as the control. Season, year, and acid rain all had significant effects on the photosynthetic rate (Pn). Among the treatments, the Pn had a greater difference in summer than in spring and autumn, and was higher in treatment acid rain (pH 4.0). Season, year, acid rain, and the interactions of season and year and of the three factors had significant effects on the stomata conductance (Gs), and also, the Gs had a greater difference among the treatments in summer than in spring and autumn. Acid rain had inhibitory effect on Gs. Season, year, acid rain, and the interactions of season and year and of season and acid rain affected the transpiration rate (Tr) significantly. Same as Pn and Gs, the Tr had a greater difference among the treatments in summer than in spring and autumn. Acid rain (pH 2.5) had the strongest inhibitory effect on Tr. Acid rain and the interactions of season and year and of season and acid rain had significant effects on the water use efficiency (WUE), and acid rain (pH 2.5) had definitely positive effect on the WUE.

  15. Effects of Invasive European Fire Ants (Myrmica rubra) on Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    DeFisher, Luke E.; Bonter, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Various invasive ant species have negatively affected reproductive success in birds by disrupting nest site selection, incubation patterns, food supply, and by direct predation on nestlings. Impacts can be particularly severe when non-native ants colonize seabird nesting islands where thousands of birds may nest in high densities on the ground or in burrows or crevices. Here we report on the first documented effects of Myrmica rubra, the European fire ant, on the reproduction of birds in its non-native range. We documented herring gulls (Larus argentatus) on Appledore Island, Maine, engaging in more erratic incubation behaviors at nests infested by the ants. Newly-hatched chicks in some nests were swarmed by ants, leading to rapid chick death. Due to high overall rates of chick mortality, survival probabilities did not vary between nests with and without ant activity, however chick growth rates were slower at nests with ants than at ant-free nests. Ant infestation likely leads to longer-term fitness consequences because slower growth rates early in life may ultimately lead to lower post-fledging survival probabilities. PMID:23691168

  16. Quercus rubra-associated ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of disturbed urban sites and mature forests.

    PubMed

    Karpati, Amy S; Handel, Steven N; Dighton, John; Horton, Thomas R

    2011-08-01

    The presence and quality of the belowground mycorrhizal fungal community could greatly influence plant community structure and host species response. This study tests whether mycorrhizal fungal communities in areas highly impacted by anthropogenic disturbance and urbanization are less species rich or exhibit lower host root colonization rates when compared to those of less disturbed systems. Using a soil bioassay, we sampled the ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) communities associating with Quercus rubra (northern red oak) seedlings in soil collected from seven sites: two mature forest reference sites and five urban sites of varying levels of disturbance. Morphological and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of fungi colonizing root tips revealed that colonization rates and fungal species richness were significantly lower on root systems of seedlings grown in disturbed site soils. Analysis of similarity showed that EMF community composition was not significantly different among several urban site soils but did differ significantly between mature forest sites and all but one urban site. We identified a suite of fungal species that occurred across several urban sites. Lack of a diverse community of belowground mutualists could be a constraint on urban plant community development, especially of late-successional woodlands. Analysis of urban EMF communities can add to our understanding of urban plant community structure and should be addressed during ecological assessment before pragmatic decisions to restore habitats are framed.

  17. Purification of peroxidase from red cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. rubra) by affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Somtürk, Burcu; Kalın, Ramazan; Özdemir, Nalan

    2014-08-01

    Peroxidase was purified in a single step using 4-amino benzohydrazide affinity chromatography from red cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. rubra), and some important biochemical characteristics of the purified enzyme were determined. The enzyme, with a specific activity of 3,550 EU/mg protein, was purified 120.6-fold with a yield of 2.9% from the synthesized affinity matrix. The molecular weight of the enzyme was found to be 69.3 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The enzyme exhibited maximum activity at pH 7.0 and 30 °C. For guaiacol substrate, the K m and V max values were found as 0.048 mM and 1.46 EU/mL/min, respectively. Additionally, the IC50 and K i values for 4-amino benzohydrazide were calculated to be 1.047 and 0.702±0.05 mM, respectively, and 4-amino benzohydrazide showed noncompetitive inhibition.

  18. Extreme consumption of Beta vulgaris var. rubra can cause metal ion accumulation in the liver.

    PubMed

    Blázovics, Anna; Sárdi, Eva; Szentmihályi, Klára; Váli, L; Takács-Hájos, Mária; Stefanovits-Bányai, Eva

    2007-09-01

    Redox homeostasis can be considered as the cumulative action of all free radical reactions and antioxidant defences in different tissues, which provide suitable conditions for life. Transition metal ions are ubiquitous in biological systems. Beta vulgaris var. rubra (table beet root) contains several bioactive agents (e.g. betain, betanin, vulgaxanthine, polyphenols, folic acid) and different metal elements (e.g. Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Zn), which act on the various physiological routes. Therefore we studied the effect of this metal rich vegetable on element content of the liver in healthy rats. Male Wistar rats (n = 7) (200 +/- 20 g) were treated with lyophilised powder of table beet root (2 g/kg b.w.) added into the rat chow for 10 days. Five healthy animals served as control. We found significant accumulation of Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Zn and P in the liver, which was proved by ICP-AES measurements. We suppose that the extreme consumption of table beet root can cause several disturbances not only in cases of healthy patients but, e.g. in patients suffering with metal accumulating diseases, e.g. porphyria cutanea tarda, haemochromatosis or Wilson disease-although moderate consumption may be beneficial in iron-deficiency anaemia and inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:17899785

  19. Polymorphisms in different EST-SSR types derived from the Chinese bayberry Myrica rubra, Myricaceae) transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S Y; Feng, C; Xu, C J; Zhu, C Q; Chen, K S

    2015-06-01

    Most plant expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeats (EST-SSRs) are not polymorphic, and it is important to learn the characteristics of highly polymorphic EST-SSRs. In this study, 357 compound and 5557 non-compound EST-SSRs, identified from the transcriptome of the Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra 'Biqi'), were divided into 11 types based on their characteristics. Polymorphisms in all 11 EST-SSR types were investigated in 10 cultivars. The percentages of polymorphic loci ranged from 12.9 to 87.5%, with 2-ntL having the highest, followed by 3-ntL, Compound B, and Compound A. The number of alleles and the polymorphic information content of 2-ntL and Compound B were the highest, followed by 2-ntM and Compound A. Therefore, we recommend that 2-ntL, Compound B, and Compound A EST-SSRs should be preferentially selected for the screening of polymorphic EST-SSRs in the Chinese bayberry. Our results should facilitate genetic and breeding studies of this species, and provide a reference for similar study in other plant species.

  20. Paralytic shellfish toxins, including deoxydecarbamoyl-STX, in wild-caught Tasmanian abalone (Haliotis rubra).

    PubMed

    Harwood, D Tim; Selwood, Andrew I; van Ginkel, Roel; Waugh, Craig; McNabb, Paul S; Munday, Rex; Hay, Brenda; Thomas, Krista; Quilliam, Michael A; Malhi, Navreet; Dowsett, Natalie; McLeod, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    For the first time wild-caught Tasmanian abalone, Haliotis rubra, have been reported to contain paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs). This observation followed blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum. No illnesses were reported, but harvesting restrictions were enforced in commercial areas. Abalone were assayed using HPLC-FLD methodology based on AOAC official method 2005.06. An uncommon congener, deoxydecarbamoyl-STX (doSTX), was observed in addition to regulated PSTs as unassigned chromatographic peaks. A quantitative reference material was prepared from contaminated Tasmanian abalone viscera and ampouled at 54.2 μmol/L. The LD50 of doSTX via intraperitoneal injection was 1069 nmol/kg (95% confidence limits 983-1100 nmol/kg), indicating it is nearly 40 times less toxic than STX. A toxicity equivalence factor of 0.042 was generated using the mouse bioassay. Levels of PSTs varied among individuals from the same site, although the toxin profile remained relatively consistent. In the foot tissue, STX, decarbamoyl-STX and doSTX were identified. On a molar basis doSTX was the dominant congener in both foot and viscera samples. The viscera toxin profile was more complex, with other less toxic PST congeners observed and was similar to mussels from the same site. This finding implicates localised dinoflagellate blooms as the PST source in Tasmanian abalone.

  1. New-onset vitiligo during long-term, stable infliximab treatment of pityriasis rubra pilaris.

    PubMed

    Mattox, Adam R; Chappell, Jeaneen A; Hurley, M Yadira

    2013-02-01

    Incidents of new-onset vitiligo attributed to infliximab therapy for rheumatoid arthritis and ulcerative colitis have been reported. Reported cases share a common theme in that symptoms manifested in close proximity to the initiation or significant dose increase of the medication. This case describes the presentation of infliximab-induced vitiligo in a patient using it for long-term treatment of stable pityriasis rubra pilaris. The patient was initiated and titrated to a stable dose of infliximab totaling 27 months' duration. He was able to achieve near-complete resolution of symptoms before developing depigmented patches consistent with vitiligo. Infliximab was discontinued. Tacrolimus 0.1% ointment and narrow-band ultraviolet B light successfully repigmented the patches. The association of discontinuing infliximab and resolution of vitiligo suggests infliximab had a role in this case. Though the mechanism of involvement is undetermined, infliximab may have induced an autoimmune process by paradoxically activating lymphocytes. Alternatively, infliximab antibodies may have led to the process by disrupting the normal balance of cytokines. PMID:23377397

  2. Ustekinumab as an Alternative Treatment Option for Chronic Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhary, Mudit; Davila, Ulysses; Cohen, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) is an exceptionally rare, chronic inflammatory dermatosis of unknown etiology. Patients classically present with small, follicular keratosis and salmon-colored plaques that begin at the head and neck and slowly progress to widespread erythroderma including the palms and soles. It is difficult to distinguish PRP from other inflammatory dermatoses; however, features that help aid in the diagnosis include ‘islands’ of spared skin, orangish hue and typical findings on biopsy. There are no specific guidelines on therapy and treatment options include corticosteroids, vitamin D analogs, retinoids, methotrexate, cyclosporine, azathioprine and tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonists. Unfortunately options are limited for patients when these drugs do not work. We report a case of chronic PRP, refractory to conventional treatment, successfully treated with ustekinumab monotherapy. The patient was treated with 90 mg subcutaneous ustekinumab injections and began to show improvement within only 8 weeks. Long-term control of the disease has been attained without any significant side effects. We report this case to show that ustekinumab can be used as an alternative treatment method for patients with chronic, unremitting PRP. Treatment response is remarkably rapid and the infrequent dosing leads to patient compliance and a significantly improved quality of life. PMID:25969677

  3. Pulmonary nocardiosis caused by Nocardia exalbida complicating Pneumocystis pneumonia in an HIV-infected patient.

    PubMed

    Imai, Kentaro; Koibuchi, Tomohiko; Kikuchi, Tadashi; Koga, Michiko; Nakamura, Hitomi; Miura, Toshiyuki; Gonoi, Tohru; Yazawa, Katsukiyo; Iwamoto, Aikichi; Fujii, Takeshi

    2011-08-01

    A 47-year-old man with optimally controlled type-2 diabetes mellitus and chronic hepatitis B was admitted to a local hospital because of a 1-week history of cough and high-grade fever. He was diagnosed with Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) and Klebsiella pneumonia from a chest radiograph and sputum. Simultaneously, he was found to have HIV infection with a CD4 count of 76/μl. Despite alteration of treatment secondary to the development of allergic reaction to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), the patient was able to complete a 3-week therapy for PCP after being switched to pentamidine isetionate. After the treatment of PCP, he was referred to our hospital for the initiation of anti-HIV therapy. He presented with recurrent high-grade fever of a few days' duration prior to his initial visit, which subsequently led to his admission. Chest computed tomography (CT) showed the enlargement of a previously identified infiltrate in the left upper lung field, and the sputum culture upon admission was positive for Gram-positive branching rods; the organism was later identified as Nocardia exalbida. Due to his allergy to sulfonamide, the patient was treated with imipenem (IMP) and amikacin (AMK) given intravenously for 17 days, followed by garenoxacin (GRNX) taken orally for 6 months, without any adverse effects. The chest infiltrate resolved completely, and he remains stable without relapse 8 months after the completion of the therapy. Pulmonary nocardiosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis of recurring pneumonia in immunocompromised patients, especially in HIV-infected individuals. Oral administration of GRNX following IMP and AMK can be used as an alternative to TMP-SMX therapy in cases of pulmonary nocardiosis caused by N. exalbida. PMID:21249414

  4. Isolation, characterization and biological evaluation of bioactive metabolites from Nocardia levis MK-VL_113.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, Alapati; Prabhakar, Peddikotla; Narasimhulu, Manchala; Vijayalakshmi, Muvva; Venkateswarlu, Yenamandra; Rao, Karanam Venkateswara; Raju, Venkata Balaraju Subba

    2010-03-31

    An Actinomycete isolate found to be prominent in the laterite soils of Acharya Nagarjuna University (ANU) Campus, Guntur was identified as Nocardia levis MK-VL_113 by 16S rRNA analysis. Cultural, morphological and physiological characteristics of the strain were recorded. Screening of secondary metabolites obtained from 4-day old culture broth of the strain led to the isolation of two fractions active against a wide variety of Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. The structure of the first active fraction was elucidated using FT-IR, EI-MS, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectra and identified as 1-phenylbut-3-ene-2-ol which is first time reported as a natural product. The compound exhibited good antimicrobial potential against the opportunistic and pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The antifungal activity of the strain and its metabolite were further confirmed with in vitro and in vivo studies. Evidence for the antagonism of the strain against Fusarium oxysporum, causing wilt disease in sorghum was demonstrated by the formation of inhibition zone in in vitro plate assay and reduction in the incidence of wilt of sorghum plants by using a green house trial. Analysis of the rhizosphere soil extracts by high performance liquid chromatography also demonstrated the production of the compound by the strain under in vivo conditions. As compared to the commercial fungicide mancozeb, the bioactive compound, 1-phenylbut-3-ene-2-ol was highly effective in controlling wilt of sorghum. Besides, the partially purified second fraction (PPF) subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of phenylethyl alcohol, dibutyl phthalate and 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 3-nitro. PMID:19577444

  5. Rare actinomycetes Nocardia caishijiensis and Pseudonocardia carboxydivorans as endophytes, their bioactivity and metabolites evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tanvir, Rabia; Sajid, Imran; Hasnain, Shahida; Kulik, Andreas; Grond, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    Two strains identified as Nocardia caishijiensis (SORS 64b) and Pseudonocardia carboxydivorans (AGLS 2) were isolated as endophytes from Sonchus oleraceus and Ageratum conyzoides respectively. The analysis of their extracts revealed them to be strongly bioactive. The N. caishijiensis extract gave an LC50 of 570 μg/ml(-1) in the brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay and an EC50 of 0.552 μg/ml(-1) in the DPPH antioxidant assay. Antimicrobial activity was observed against Methicillin resistant Staphlococcus aureus (MRSA) and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (14 mm), Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 706003 (13 mm), S. aureus ATCC 25923 (11 mm) and Candida tropicalis (20 mm). For the extract of P. carboxydivorans the EC50 was 0.670 μg/ml(-1) and it was observed to be more bioactive against Bacillus subtilis DSM 10 ATCC 6051 (21 mm), C. tropicalis (20 mm), S. aureus ATCC 25923 (17 mm), MRSA (17 mm), E. coli K12 (W1130) (16 mm) and Chlorella vulgaris (10 mm). The genotoxicity testing revealed a 20 mm zone of inhibition against the polA mutant strain E. coli K-12 AB 3027 suggesting damage to the DNA and polA genes. The TLC and bioautography screening revealed a diversity of active bands of medium polar and nonpolar compounds. Metabolite analysis by HPLC-DAD via UV/vis spectral screening suggested the possibility of stenothricin and bagremycin A in the mycelium extract of N. caishijiensis respectively. In the broth and mycelium extract of P. carboxydivorans borrelidin was suggested along with α-pyrone. The HPLC-MS revealed bioactive long chained amide derivatives such as 7-Octadecenamide, 9, 12 octadecandienamide. This study reports the rare actinomycetes N. caishijiensis and P. carboxydivorans as endophytes and evaluates their bioactive metabolites.

  6. Purification, characterization, and properties of an aryl aldehyde oxidoreductase from Nocardia sp. strain NRRL 5646.

    PubMed

    Li, T; Rosazza, J P

    1997-06-01

    An aryl aldehyde oxidoreductase from Nocardia sp. strain NRRL 5646 was purified 196-fold by a combination of Mono-Q, Reactive Green 19 agarose affinity, and hydroxyapatite chromatographies. The purified enzyme runs as a single band of 140 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The molecular mass was estimated to be 163 +/- 3.8 kDa by gel filtration, indicating that this enzyme is a monomeric protein. The binding of the enzyme to Reactive Green 19 agarose was Mg2+ dependent. The binding capacity was estimated to be about 0.2 mg of Reactive Green agarose per ml in the presence of 10 mM MgCl2. This enzyme can catalyze the reduction of a wide range of aryl carboxylic acids, including substituted benzoic acids, phenyl-substituted aliphatic acids, heterocyclic carboxylic acids, and polyaromatic ring carboxylic acids, to produce the corresponding aldehydes. The Km values for benzoate, ATP, and NADPH were determined to be 645 +/- 75, 29.3 +/- 3.1, and 57.3 +/- 12.5 microM, respectively. The Vmax was determined to be 0.902 +/- 0.04 micromol/min/mg of protein. Km values for (S)-(+)-alpha-methyl-4-(2-methylpropyl)-benzeneacetic acid (ibuprofen) and its (R)-(-) isomer were determined to be 155 +/- 18 and 34.5 +/- 2.5 microM, respectively. The Vmax for the (S)-(+) and (R)-(-) isomers were 1.33 and 0.15 micromol/min/mg of protein, respectively. Anthranilic acid is a competitive inhibitor with benzoic acid as a substrate, with a Ki of 261 +/- 30 microM. The N-terminal and internal amino acid sequences of a 76-kDa peptide from limited alpha-chymotrypsin digestion were determined.

  7. Rare actinomycetes Nocardia caishijiensis and Pseudonocardia carboxydivorans as endophytes, their bioactivity and metabolites evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tanvir, Rabia; Sajid, Imran; Hasnain, Shahida; Kulik, Andreas; Grond, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    Two strains identified as Nocardia caishijiensis (SORS 64b) and Pseudonocardia carboxydivorans (AGLS 2) were isolated as endophytes from Sonchus oleraceus and Ageratum conyzoides respectively. The analysis of their extracts revealed them to be strongly bioactive. The N. caishijiensis extract gave an LC50 of 570 μg/ml(-1) in the brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay and an EC50 of 0.552 μg/ml(-1) in the DPPH antioxidant assay. Antimicrobial activity was observed against Methicillin resistant Staphlococcus aureus (MRSA) and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (14 mm), Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 706003 (13 mm), S. aureus ATCC 25923 (11 mm) and Candida tropicalis (20 mm). For the extract of P. carboxydivorans the EC50 was 0.670 μg/ml(-1) and it was observed to be more bioactive against Bacillus subtilis DSM 10 ATCC 6051 (21 mm), C. tropicalis (20 mm), S. aureus ATCC 25923 (17 mm), MRSA (17 mm), E. coli K12 (W1130) (16 mm) and Chlorella vulgaris (10 mm). The genotoxicity testing revealed a 20 mm zone of inhibition against the polA mutant strain E. coli K-12 AB 3027 suggesting damage to the DNA and polA genes. The TLC and bioautography screening revealed a diversity of active bands of medium polar and nonpolar compounds. Metabolite analysis by HPLC-DAD via UV/vis spectral screening suggested the possibility of stenothricin and bagremycin A in the mycelium extract of N. caishijiensis respectively. In the broth and mycelium extract of P. carboxydivorans borrelidin was suggested along with α-pyrone. The HPLC-MS revealed bioactive long chained amide derivatives such as 7-Octadecenamide, 9, 12 octadecandienamide. This study reports the rare actinomycetes N. caishijiensis and P. carboxydivorans as endophytes and evaluates their bioactive metabolites. PMID:26946375

  8. Isolation, characterization and biological evaluation of bioactive metabolites from Nocardia levis MK-VL_113.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, Alapati; Prabhakar, Peddikotla; Narasimhulu, Manchala; Vijayalakshmi, Muvva; Venkateswarlu, Yenamandra; Rao, Karanam Venkateswara; Raju, Venkata Balaraju Subba

    2010-03-31

    An Actinomycete isolate found to be prominent in the laterite soils of Acharya Nagarjuna University (ANU) Campus, Guntur was identified as Nocardia levis MK-VL_113 by 16S rRNA analysis. Cultural, morphological and physiological characteristics of the strain were recorded. Screening of secondary metabolites obtained from 4-day old culture broth of the strain led to the isolation of two fractions active against a wide variety of Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. The structure of the first active fraction was elucidated using FT-IR, EI-MS, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectra and identified as 1-phenylbut-3-ene-2-ol which is first time reported as a natural product. The compound exhibited good antimicrobial potential against the opportunistic and pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The antifungal activity of the strain and its metabolite were further confirmed with in vitro and in vivo studies. Evidence for the antagonism of the strain against Fusarium oxysporum, causing wilt disease in sorghum was demonstrated by the formation of inhibition zone in in vitro plate assay and reduction in the incidence of wilt of sorghum plants by using a green house trial. Analysis of the rhizosphere soil extracts by high performance liquid chromatography also demonstrated the production of the compound by the strain under in vivo conditions. As compared to the commercial fungicide mancozeb, the bioactive compound, 1-phenylbut-3-ene-2-ol was highly effective in controlling wilt of sorghum. Besides, the partially purified second fraction (PPF) subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of phenylethyl alcohol, dibutyl phthalate and 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 3-nitro.

  9. Red waters of Myrionecta rubra are biogeochemical hotspots for the Columbia River estuary with impacts on primary/secondary productions and nutrient cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Herfort, Lydie; Peterson, Tawnya D.; Prahl, Fredrick G.; McCue, Lee Ann; Needoba, Joe A.; Crump, Byron C.; Roegner, G. Curtis; Campbell, Victoria; Zuber, Peter A.

    2012-02-29

    The localized impact of blooms of the mixotrophic ciliate Myrionecta rubra in the Columbia River estuary during 2007-2010 was evaluated with biogeochemical, light microscopy, physiological and molecular data. M. rubra affected surrounding estuarine nutrient cycles, as indicated by high and low concentrations of organic nutrients and inorganic nitrogen, respectively, associated with red waters. M. rubra blooms also altered the energy transfer pattern in patches of the estuarine water that contain the ciliate by creating areas characterized by high primary production and elevated levels of fresh autochthonous particulate organic matter, therefore shifting the trophic status in emergent red water areas of the estuary from net heterotrophy towards autotrophy. The pelagic estuarine bacterial community structure was unaffected by M. rubra abundance, but red waters of the ciliate do offer a possible link between autotrophic and heterotrophic processes since they were associated with elevated dissolved organic matter and enhanced microbial secondary production. Taken together these findings suggest that M. rubra red waters are biogeochemical hotspots of the Columbia River estuary.

  10. Centrifugal partition extraction, a new method for direct metabolites recovery from culture broth: case study of torularhodin recovery from Rhodotorula rubra.

    PubMed

    Ungureanu, Camelia; Marchal, Luc; Chirvase, Ana Aurelia; Foucault, Alain

    2013-03-01

    Centrifugal partition extraction (CPE), close to centrifugal partition chromatography, put in contact in a continuous way two immiscible liquid phases. This work presents early experiments on CPE use for solid-liquid-liquid extraction. It was applied to the direct treatment of culture broth for metabolites recovery. Torularhodin is one of the carotenoid pigments produced by the yeast Rhodotorula sp., with a terminal carboxylic group considered nowadays as a powerful antioxidant to be included in food and drugs formulations. Torularhodin was extracted from Rhodotorula rubra ICCF 209 cells by CPE. The recovery of torularhodin reaches 74 μg/g of biomass i.e. 294 μg/L of culture medium. The efficiency of the extraction step increased with the operating flow rate. The extraction yield could reach 91% with a contact time lower than 2 min. A 300 mL apparatus allowed a feed at 90 mL/min. The technique is proposed for extraction or sample preparation before analysis.

  11. Anti-inflammatory properties of red ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Rubra) extract and suppression of nitric oxide production by its constituents.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Hiroshi; Shan, Shao-Jie; Tanaka, Junji; Seki, Azusa; Seo, Joung-Wook; Kasajima, Naoki; Tamura, Satoru; Ke, Yan; Murakami, Nobutoshi

    2010-02-01

    Red ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Rubra) has been prescribed as an analgesic for arthritis pain in Indonesian traditional medicine. The surface color of the rhizome is purple because of the anthocyanidins in its peel. We prepared 40% ethanolic extract from dried red ginger (red ginger extract [RGE]) and evaluated its anti-inflammatory activity using acute and chronic inflammation models. In an acetic acid-induced mouse writhing model, RGE (10-100 mg/kg) suppressed both the frequency of writhing and the increase in permeability of abdominal capillaries. On the other hand, continuous treatment with RGE (10 mg/kg) significantly (P < .05) suppressed footpad edema in a rat adjuvant arthritis model. To clarify the anti-inflammatory mechanism of RGE, we examined the effect on prostaglandin (PG) and nitric oxide (NO) production from mouse leukemic monocytes (RAW264 cells) stimulated by lipopolysaccharide. RGE (3 and 10 microg/mL) significantly (P < .05) suppressed PGE(2) production, while it also suppressed NO production at 100 microg/mL. After bioassay-guided separation of RGE, we found that [6]-shogaol and gingerdiols suppressed NO production. Red dye fractions presumed to be proanthocyanidins also suppressed NO production at 100 microg/mL. Consequently, we found a potent suppressive effect of RGE on acute and chronic inflammation, and inhibition of macrophage activation seems to be involved in this anti-inflammatory effect. [6]-Shogaol, gingerdiols, and proanthocyanidins were identified as constituents that inhibited NO production.

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Nocardia seriolae Strain N-2927 (NBRC 110360), Isolated as the Causal Agent of Nocardiosis of Yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) in Kochi Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Imajoh, Masayuki; Fukumoto, Yoichi; Yamane, Jin; Sukeda, Masaki; Shimizu, Masato; Ohnishi, Kouhei; Oshima, Syun-Ichirou

    2015-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Nocardia seriolae strain N-2927 (NBRC 110360), isolated from cultured yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata. RAST annotation of the genome revealed 117 genes involved in the virulence, disease, and defense subsystem. Eleven of these genes were predicted as antibiotic resistance genes. PMID:25767227

  13. Permanent Improved High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Nocardia casuarinae Strain BMG51109, an Endophyte of Actinorhizal Root Nodules of Casuarina glauca

    PubMed Central

    Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten; Beauchemin, Nicholas; Louati, Moussa; Nouioui, Imen; Ktari, Amir; Hezbri, Karima; Gueddou, Abdellatif; Chen, Amy; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Markowitz, Victor; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Pagani, Ioanna; Sen, Arnab; Wall, Luis; Woyke, Tanja; Gtari, Maher

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the first genome sequence of a Nocardia plant endophyte, N. casuarinae strain BMG51109, isolated from Casuarina glauca root nodules. The improved high-quality draft genome sequence contains 8,787,999 bp with a 68.90% GC content and 7,307 predicted protein-coding genes. PMID:27491980

  14. Permanent Improved High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Nocardia casuarinae Strain BMG51109, an Endophyte of Actinorhizal Root Nodules of Casuarina glauca.

    PubMed

    Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten; Beauchemin, Nicholas; Louati, Moussa; Nouioui, Imen; Ktari, Amir; Hezbri, Karima; Gueddou, Abdellatif; Chen, Amy; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Markowitz, Victor; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Pagani, Ioanna; Sen, Arnab; Wall, Luis; Woyke, Tanja; Gtari, Maher; Tisa, Louis S

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the first genome sequence of a Nocardia plant endophyte, N. casuarinae strain BMG51109, isolated from Casuarina glauca root nodules. The improved high-quality draft genome sequence contains 8,787,999 bp with a 68.90% GC content and 7,307 predicted protein-coding genes. PMID:27491980

  15. Shortcomings of the Commercial MALDI-TOF MS Database and Use of MLSA as an Arbiter in the Identification of Nocardia Species.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Gema; de Dios Caballero, Juan; Garrido, Noelia; Valdezate, Sylvia; Cantón, Rafael; Sáez-Nieto, Juan A

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia species are difficult to identify, a consequence of the ever increasing number of species known and their homogeneous genetic characteristics. 16S rRNA analysis has been the gold standard for identifying these organisms, but proteomic techniques such as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF MS) and housekeeping gene analysis, have also been explored. One hundred high (n = 25), intermediate (n = 20), and low (n = 55) prevalence (for Spain) Nocardia strains belonging to 30 species were identified via 16S rRNA and MALDI-TOF MS analysis. The manufacturer-provided database MALDI Biotyper library v4.0 (5.627 entries, Bruker Daltonik) was employed. In the high prevalence group (Nocardia farcinica, N. abscessus, N. cyriacigeorgica and N. nova), the 16S rRNA and MALDI-TOF MS methods provided the same identification for 76% of the strains examined. For the intermediate prevalence group (N. brasiliensis, N. carnea, N. otitidiscaviarum and N. transvalensis complex), this figure fell to 45%. In the low-prevalence group (22 species), these two methods were concordant only in six strains at the species level. Tetra-gene multi-locus sequencing analysis (MLSA) involving the concatemer gyrB-16S rRNA-hsp65-secA1 was used to arbitrate between discrepant identifications (n = 67). Overall, the MLSA confirmed the results provided at species level by 16S rRNA analysis in 34.3% of discrepancies, and those provided by MALDI-TOF MS in 13.4%. MALDI-TOF MS could be a strong candidate for the identification of Nocardia species, but only if its reference spectrum database improves, especially with respect to unusual, recently described species and species included in the described Nocardia complexes.

  16. Shortcomings of the Commercial MALDI-TOF MS Database and Use of MLSA as an Arbiter in the Identification of Nocardia Species

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Gema; de Dios Caballero, Juan; Garrido, Noelia; Valdezate, Sylvia; Cantón, Rafael; Sáez-Nieto, Juan A.

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia species are difficult to identify, a consequence of the ever increasing number of species known and their homogeneous genetic characteristics. 16S rRNA analysis has been the gold standard for identifying these organisms, but proteomic techniques such as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF MS) and housekeeping gene analysis, have also been explored. One hundred high (n = 25), intermediate (n = 20), and low (n = 55) prevalence (for Spain) Nocardia strains belonging to 30 species were identified via 16S rRNA and MALDI-TOF MS analysis. The manufacturer-provided database MALDI Biotyper library v4.0 (5.627 entries, Bruker Daltonik) was employed. In the high prevalence group (Nocardia farcinica, N. abscessus, N. cyriacigeorgica and N. nova), the 16S rRNA and MALDI-TOF MS methods provided the same identification for 76% of the strains examined. For the intermediate prevalence group (N. brasiliensis, N. carnea, N. otitidiscaviarum and N. transvalensis complex), this figure fell to 45%. In the low-prevalence group (22 species), these two methods were concordant only in six strains at the species level. Tetra-gene multi-locus sequencing analysis (MLSA) involving the concatemer gyrB-16S rRNA-hsp65-secA1 was used to arbitrate between discrepant identifications (n = 67). Overall, the MLSA confirmed the results provided at species level by 16S rRNA analysis in 34.3% of discrepancies, and those provided by MALDI-TOF MS in 13.4%. MALDI-TOF MS could be a strong candidate for the identification of Nocardia species, but only if its reference spectrum database improves, especially with respect to unusual, recently described species and species included in the described Nocardia complexes. PMID:27148228

  17. Reproduction and development in Halocaridina rubra Holthuis, 1963 (Crustacea: Atyidae) clarifies larval ecology in the Hawaiian anchialine ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Havird, Justin C; Vaught, Rebecca C; Weese, David A; Santos, Scott R

    2015-10-01

    Larvae in aquatic habitats often develop in environments different from those they inhabit as adults. Shrimp in the Atyidae exemplify this trend, as larvae of many species require salt or brackish water for development, while adults are freshwater-adapted. An exception within the Atyidae family is the "anchialine clade," which are euryhaline as adults and endemic to habitats with subterranean fresh and marine water influences. Although the Hawaiian anchialine atyid Halocaridina rubra is a strong osmoregulator, its larvae have never been observed in nature. Moreover, larval development in anchialine species is poorly studied. Here, reproductive trends in laboratory colonies over a 5-y period are presented from seven genetic lineages and one mixed population of H. rubra; larval survivorship under varying salinities is also discussed. The presence and number of larvae differed significantly among lineages, with the mixed population being the most prolific. Statistical differences in reproduction attributable to seasonality also were identified. Larval survivorship was lowest (12% settlement rate) at a salinity approaching fresh water and significantly higher in brackish and seawater (88% and 72%, respectively). Correlated with this finding, identifiable gills capable of ion transport did not develop until metamorphosis into juveniles. Thus, early life stages of H. rubra are apparently excluded from surface waters, which are characterized by lower and fluctuating salinities. Instead, these stages are restricted to the subterranean (where there is higher and more stable salinity) portion of Hawaii's anchialine habitats due to their inability to tolerate low salinities. Taken together, these data contribute to the understudied area of larval ecology in the anchialine ecosystem.

  18. Reproduction and development in Halocaridina rubra Holthuis, 1963 (Crustacea: Atyidae) clarifies larval ecology in the Hawaiian anchialine ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Havird, Justin C; Vaught, Rebecca C; Weese, David A; Santos, Scott R

    2015-10-01

    Larvae in aquatic habitats often develop in environments different from those they inhabit as adults. Shrimp in the Atyidae exemplify this trend, as larvae of many species require salt or brackish water for development, while adults are freshwater-adapted. An exception within the Atyidae family is the "anchialine clade," which are euryhaline as adults and endemic to habitats with subterranean fresh and marine water influences. Although the Hawaiian anchialine atyid Halocaridina rubra is a strong osmoregulator, its larvae have never been observed in nature. Moreover, larval development in anchialine species is poorly studied. Here, reproductive trends in laboratory colonies over a 5-y period are presented from seven genetic lineages and one mixed population of H. rubra; larval survivorship under varying salinities is also discussed. The presence and number of larvae differed significantly among lineages, with the mixed population being the most prolific. Statistical differences in reproduction attributable to seasonality also were identified. Larval survivorship was lowest (12% settlement rate) at a salinity approaching fresh water and significantly higher in brackish and seawater (88% and 72%, respectively). Correlated with this finding, identifiable gills capable of ion transport did not develop until metamorphosis into juveniles. Thus, early life stages of H. rubra are apparently excluded from surface waters, which are characterized by lower and fluctuating salinities. Instead, these stages are restricted to the subterranean (where there is higher and more stable salinity) portion of Hawaii's anchialine habitats due to their inability to tolerate low salinities. Taken together, these data contribute to the understudied area of larval ecology in the anchialine ecosystem. PMID:26504154

  19. Topical management of striae distensae (stretch marks): prevention and therapy of striae rubrae and albae.

    PubMed

    Ud-Din, S; McGeorge, D; Bayat, A

    2016-02-01

    Striae distensae (SD) are common dermal lesions, with significant physical and psychological impact. Many therapeutic modalities are available but none can completely eradicate SD. The most common therapy is the application of topicals used both therapeutically and prophylactically. Even though there are many commercially available topical products, not all have sufficient level of evidence to support their continued use in SD. The aim here was to assess the evidence for the use of topicals in SD and to propose a structured approach in managing SD. A systematic search of published literature and manufacturer website information for topicals in SD was carried out. The results showed that there are few studies (n = 11) which investigate the efficacy of topicals in management of SD. Trofolastin and Alphastria creams demonstrated level-2 evidence of positive results for their prophylactic use in SD. Additionally, tretinoin used therapeutically showed varying results whilst cocoa butter and olive oil did not demonstrate any effect. Overall, there is a distinct lack of evidence for each topical formulation. The majority of topicals failed to mention their effect on early vs. later stages of SD (striae rubrae compared to striae albae) and their role in both prevention and treatment. In conclusion, there is no topical formulation, which is shown to be most effective in eradicating or improving SD. A structured approach in identification and targeted management of symptoms and signs with the appropriate topical is required. Randomized controlled trials are necessary to assess the efficacy of topical products for treatment and prevention of different stages of SD. PMID:26486318

  20. Steep Decline and Cessation in Seed Dispersal by Myrmica rubra Ants.

    PubMed

    Bologna, Audrey; Detrain, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Myrmecochorous diaspores bear a nutrient-rich appendage, the elaiosome, attractive to ant workers that retrieve them into the nest, detach the elaiosome and reject the seed intact. While this interaction is beneficial for the plant partner by ensuring its seed dispersal, elaiosome consumption has various effects -positive, negative or none - on ants' demography and survival, depending on both the ant/plant species involved. In this context, the contribution of ants to seed dispersal strongly varies according to the ant/plant pairs considered. In this paper, we investigate whether the dynamics of myrmecochory also vary on a temporal scale, for a given pair of partners: Myrmica rubra ants and Viola odorata seeds. During their first encounter with seeds, ants collect all the diaspores and eat the majority of elaiosomes. Both the harvesting effort and the elaiosome consumption decline when seeds are offered on the next week and completely cease for the following weeks. This is related to a decrease in the number of foragers reaching the food source, as well as to a reduced probability for an ant contacting a seed to retrieve it. Seed retrieval is not reactivated after seven weeks without any encounter with V. odorata seeds. By contrast, naive ant colonies only fed with fruit flies do not show a decline of prey harvesting of which the speed of retrieval even increases over the successive weeks. Myrmecochory may thus be labile at the scale of a fruiting season due to the ability of ants to steeply tune and cease for several months the harvesting of these seemingly poorly rewarding items and to maintain cessation of seed exploitation. The present study emphasizes the importance of a long-lasting follow up of the myrmecochory process, to assess the stability of this ant-plant partnership and to identify mechanisms of adaptive harvesting in ants.

  1. Steep Decline and Cessation in Seed Dispersal by Myrmica rubra Ants

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Myrmecochorous diaspores bear a nutrient-rich appendage, the elaiosome, attractive to ant workers that retrieve them into the nest, detach the elaiosome and reject the seed intact. While this interaction is beneficial for the plant partner by ensuring its seed dispersal, elaiosome consumption has various effects −positive, negative or none − on ants’ demography and survival, depending on both the ant/plant species involved. In this context, the contribution of ants to seed dispersal strongly varies according to the ant/plant pairs considered. In this paper, we investigate whether the dynamics of myrmecochory also vary on a temporal scale, for a given pair of partners: Myrmica rubra ants and Viola odorata seeds. During their first encounter with seeds, ants collect all the diaspores and eat the majority of elaiosomes. Both the harvesting effort and the elaiosome consumption decline when seeds are offered on the next week and completely cease for the following weeks. This is related to a decrease in the number of foragers reaching the food source, as well as to a reduced probability for an ant contacting a seed to retrieve it. Seed retrieval is not reactivated after seven weeks without any encounter with V. odorata seeds. By contrast, naive ant colonies only fed with fruit flies do not show a decline of prey harvesting of which the speed of retrieval even increases over the successive weeks. Myrmecochory may thus be labile at the scale of a fruiting season due to the ability of ants to steeply tune and cease for several months the harvesting of these seemingly poorly rewarding items and to maintain cessation of seed exploitation. The present study emphasizes the importance of a long-lasting follow up of the myrmecochory process, to assess the stability of this ant-plant partnership and to identify mechanisms of adaptive harvesting in ants. PMID:26414161

  2. Cecembia rubra sp. nov., a thermophilic bacterium isolated from a hot spring sediment.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yan-Yan; Ming, Hong; Dong, Lei; Yin, Yi-Rui; Meng, Xiao-Lin; Zhou, En-Min; Zhang, Jian-Xin; Nie, Guo-Xing; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-07-01

    A Gram-staining negative, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain YIM 78110(T), was isolated from a sediment sample collected from Hehua hot spring in Tengchong, Yunnan province, south-west China. The taxonomic status of strain YIM 78110(T) was confirmed by a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain YIM 78110(T) belongs to the genus Cecembia, displaying 96.8% and 94.7% sequence similarity with the two most closely related type strains, Cecembia calidifontis RQ-33(T) and Cecembia lonarensis LW9T, respectively. The low value of DNA-DNA hybridization (52.3 ± 2.3%) between strain YIM 78110(T) and its closest neighbour, Cecembia calidifontis RQ-33(T), indicated that this new isolate represented a different genomic species in the genus Cecembia. The temperature for growth ranged from 30 to 50 °C. The pH for growth ranged from pH 4.0 to 10.0, with NaCl tolerance of 0.5-6.0% (w/v). The predominant menaquinone of strain YIM 78110(T) was MK-7 and the major polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine. The major fatty acids were iso-C15:0 and C15:0. The DNA G+C content was 47.1 mol%. On the basis of physiological, biochemical and phylogenetic analyses, it is proposed that strain YIM 78110(T) represents a novel species of the genus Cecembia, for which the name Cecembia rubra sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 78110(T) ( = CCTCC AB2013287(T) = DSM 28057(T)).

  3. Steep Decline and Cessation in Seed Dispersal by Myrmica rubra Ants.

    PubMed

    Bologna, Audrey; Detrain, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Myrmecochorous diaspores bear a nutrient-rich appendage, the elaiosome, attractive to ant workers that retrieve them into the nest, detach the elaiosome and reject the seed intact. While this interaction is beneficial for the plant partner by ensuring its seed dispersal, elaiosome consumption has various effects -positive, negative or none - on ants' demography and survival, depending on both the ant/plant species involved. In this context, the contribution of ants to seed dispersal strongly varies according to the ant/plant pairs considered. In this paper, we investigate whether the dynamics of myrmecochory also vary on a temporal scale, for a given pair of partners: Myrmica rubra ants and Viola odorata seeds. During their first encounter with seeds, ants collect all the diaspores and eat the majority of elaiosomes. Both the harvesting effort and the elaiosome consumption decline when seeds are offered on the next week and completely cease for the following weeks. This is related to a decrease in the number of foragers reaching the food source, as well as to a reduced probability for an ant contacting a seed to retrieve it. Seed retrieval is not reactivated after seven weeks without any encounter with V. odorata seeds. By contrast, naive ant colonies only fed with fruit flies do not show a decline of prey harvesting of which the speed of retrieval even increases over the successive weeks. Myrmecochory may thus be labile at the scale of a fruiting season due to the ability of ants to steeply tune and cease for several months the harvesting of these seemingly poorly rewarding items and to maintain cessation of seed exploitation. The present study emphasizes the importance of a long-lasting follow up of the myrmecochory process, to assess the stability of this ant-plant partnership and to identify mechanisms of adaptive harvesting in ants. PMID:26414161

  4. Physiological Adjustments of Leaf Respiration to Atmospheric Warming in Betula alleghaniensis and Quercus rubra

    SciTech Connect

    Vollmar, A.; Gunderson, C.

    2006-01-01

    Global air temperatures are predicted to rise 1° to 4.5° Celsius by the year 2100. This climatic change is expected to have a great effect on the succession and migration of temperate deciduous forest species. Most physiologically based models of forest response to climatic change focus on the ecosystems as a whole instead of on individual tree species, assuming that the effects of warming on respiration are generally the same for each species, and that processes can not adjust to a changing climate. Experimental data suggest that physiological adjustments are possible, but there is a lack of data in deciduous species. In order to correctly model the effects of climate change on temperate species, species-specific respiration acclimation (adjustment) to rising temperatures is being determined in this experiment. Two temperate deciduous tree species Betula alleghaniensis (BA) and Quercus rubra (QR) were grown over a span of four years in open-top chambers and subjected to two different temperature treatments; ambient and ambient plus 4° Celsius (E4). Between 0530 hours and 1100 hours, respiration was measured over a range of leaf temperatures on several comparable, fully expanded leaves in each treatment. Circular punches were taken from the leaves and dried at 60°C to determine leaf mass per area (LMA). Respiration rates at a common temperature decreased by 15-18% in both species, and the entire resperation versus temperature curve shifted by at least 4°C, indicating a large degree of physiological acclimation. Foliar mass per area decreased with increasing growth temperature for both species. It can be concluded that there is a relationship between leaf respiration and foliar mass as it relates to respiratory acclimation, and that these two species had similar patterns of adjustment to warming.

  5. Activities of the glycylcyclines N,N-dimethylglycylamido-minocycline and N,N-dimethylglycylamido-6-demethyl-6-deoxytetracycline against Nocardia spp. and tetracycline-resistant isolates of rapidly growing mycobacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, B A; Wallace, R J; Onyi, G

    1996-01-01

    Susceptibilities to the new semisynthetic tetracycline (Tet) compounds N,N-dimethylglycylamido-minocycline (DMG-MINO) and N,N-dimethylglycylamido-6-demethyl-6-deoxytetracycline (DMG-DMDOT) were compared with those to doxycycline, minocycline, and Tet for 198 Tet-resistant (Tetr) and 33 Tet-susceptible (Tets) clinical isolates of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) including the Mycobacterium fortuitum group, Mycobacterium abscessus, Mycobacterium chelonae, and Mycobacterium mucogenicum and 68 isolates belonging to six taxa of Nocardia spp. All Tetr RGM were highly susceptible to the glycylcyclines. The MICs at which 50 and 90% of isolates are inhibited were < or = 0.125 and < or = 0.25 microgram/ml, respectively, for DMG-DMDOT and < or = 0.25 and 1 microgram/ml, respectively, for DMG-MINO. The MIC of DMG-DMDOT at which 50% of Tetr strains are inhibited was the same as that for Tets strains for each of the four taxa of RGM. The new agents were less active against Nocardia spp. MICs of DMG-DMDOT were comparable to those of minocycline except for the MICs for Nocardia brasiliensis sensu stricto, the new taxon Nocardia pseudobrasiliensis, and some isolates of Nocardia nova, against which they were four- to eightfold more active. The MICs of DMG-DMDOT were consistently lower than those of DMG-MINO for RGM. This class of drugs offers exciting therapeutic potential for RGM and for selected species of Nocardia. PMID:8849243

  6. Intrapleural therapy of malignant pleurisy in patients with neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Ha, K; Tawa, A; Ikeda, T; Tanaka, J; Okada, A; Yabuuchi, H

    1981-01-01

    Three children with advanced neuroblastoma developed pleural effusion in the course of their disease. This unusual complication was successfully treated with intrapleural administration of a nonspecific "immunostimulatory" agent; cell wall skeleton of Nocardia rubra (N-cws). The side effects of this procedure were mild and well tolerated even in infants in spite of their terminal stage. Intrapleural therapy in this study seemed to be useful for the treatment of pediatric malignant pleurisy.

  7. Chronic Conjunctivitis due to Nocardia nova Complex Formation on a Silicone Stent: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Micheletti, John M; Agrawal, Megha; Matoba, Alice Y; Marx, Douglas P

    2015-01-01

    Nocardial conjunctivitis associated with silicone tubing is an extremely rare finding. The authors present a case of a 52-year-old woman with previous dacryocystorhinostomy and silicone tube placement 3 years prior who presented with OD redness and discharge for 1 week. On examination, the patient was noted to have mucoid discharge and crusting surrounding the silicone tube. The tube debris was sampled, and the culture was positive for Nocardia nova complex sensitive to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and amikacin. Silicone tube colonization and N. nova complex conjunctivitis are both rare but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with indwelling silicone tubes presenting with chronic conjunctivitis resistant to fluoroquinolones and tobramycin.

  8. Nocardia farcinica abscess of the cerebellum in an immunocompetent patient: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Pascual-Gallego, María; Alonso-Lera, Pedro; Arribi, Ana; Barcia, Juan A.; Marco, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Nocardial brain abscesses are uncommon and rarely occur in patients without predisposing factors. They may be mistaken for gliomas or necrotic metastases, and surgical intervention may be required to make the diagnosis. We report the first case of Nocardia farcinica cerebellar abscess in a patient without immunosuppression. He presented to us with headache and instability beginning a week before. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a cystic lesion located at the right cerebellar hemisphere, hypointense in T1 and hyperintense in T2, with a fine wall that enhanced after injection of gadolinium. Image tests also showed a cavitated lesion at the upper lobule of the right lung. The patient underwent craniotomy and drainage of the cerebellar abscess. Initial post-operative treatment with linezolid produced a limited response. He was re-operated and vancomycin, imipenem and ciprofloxacin were added with an excellent outcome of the cerebellar and lung lesions.

  9. In Vitro Activities of Tigecycline and Eight Other Antimicrobials against Different Nocardia Species Identified by Molecular Methods▿

    PubMed Central

    Cercenado, Emilia; Marín, Mercedes; Sánchez-Martínez, Mónica; Cuevas, Oscar; Martínez-Alarcón, José; Bouza, Emilio

    2007-01-01

    The in vitro activities of tigecycline and other antimicrobials against 51 isolates of Nocardia spp. were evaluated. MIC90s and MIC ranges were as follows: tigecycline, 4 and ≤0.06 to 8 mg/liter, respectively; minocycline, 2 and ≤0.06 to 2 mg/liter, respectively; linezolid, 1 and ≤0.06 to 2 mg/liter, respectively; moxifloxacin, 2 and ≤0.06 to >64 mg/liter, respectively; ertapenem, 32 and ≤0.06->64 mg/liter, respectively; imipenem, 2 and ≤0.06 to >64 mg/liter, respectively; meropenem, 8 and ≤0.06 to >64 mg/liter, respectively; amikacin, 1 and ≤0.06 to 32 mg/liter, respectively; and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 1/19 and ≤0.5/9.5 to >2/38 mg/liter, respectively. PMID:17194827

  10. Nocardia farcinica abscess of the cerebellum in an immunocompetent patient: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Pascual-Gallego, María; Alonso-Lera, Pedro; Arribi, Ana; Barcia, Juan A.; Marco, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Nocardial brain abscesses are uncommon and rarely occur in patients without predisposing factors. They may be mistaken for gliomas or necrotic metastases, and surgical intervention may be required to make the diagnosis. We report the first case of Nocardia farcinica cerebellar abscess in a patient without immunosuppression. He presented to us with headache and instability beginning a week before. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a cystic lesion located at the right cerebellar hemisphere, hypointense in T1 and hyperintense in T2, with a fine wall that enhanced after injection of gadolinium. Image tests also showed a cavitated lesion at the upper lobule of the right lung. The patient underwent craniotomy and drainage of the cerebellar abscess. Initial post-operative treatment with linezolid produced a limited response. He was re-operated and vancomycin, imipenem and ciprofloxacin were added with an excellent outcome of the cerebellar and lung lesions. PMID:27695569

  11. No sympatric speciation here: multiple data sources show that the ant Myrmica microrubra is not a separate species but an alternate reproductive morph of Myrmica rubra.

    PubMed

    Steiner, F M; Schlick-Steiner, B C; Konrad, H; Moder, K; Christian, E; Seifert, B; Crozier, R H; Stauffer, C; Buschinger, A

    2006-05-01

    No aspect of speciation is as controversial as the view that new species can evolve sympatrically, among populations in close physical contact. Social parasitism has been suggested to yield necessary disruptive selection for sympatric speciation. Recently, mitochondrial DNA phylogeography has shown that the ant Myrmica microrubra is closely related to its host, Myrmica rubra, leading to the suggestion that sympatric speciation has occurred. We investigated the relationships between the two ant forms using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences, microsatellite genotyping and morphometrics. Molecular phylogenetic and population structure analyses showed that M. microrubra does not evolve separately to its host but rather shares a gene pool with it. Probability analysis showed that mitochondrial DNA data previously adduced in favour of sympatric speciation do not in fact do so. Morphometrically, M. microrubra is most readily interpreted as a miniature queen form of M. rubra, not a separate species. Myrmica microrubra is not an example of speciation. The large (typical M. rubra) and small (M. microrubra) queen forms are alternative reproductive strategies of the same species. Myrmica microrubraSeifert 1993 is consequently synonymized here with M. rubra Linnaeus, 1758.

  12. Hybridization and introgression patterns between native red elm (Ulmus rubra Muhl.) and exotic, invasive Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L.) examined using species-specific microsatellite markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ulmus pumila (Siberian elm) is an invasive elm species, non-native to the United States, which hybridizes with Ulmus rubra (red elm), a U.S. native. While Siberian elm is highly tolerant to Dutch elm disease (DED), red elm populations in North America have been decimated by DED. In order to study ...

  13. Evaluation of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization−Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for Identification of Mycobacterium species, Nocardia species, and Other Aerobic Actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Buckwalter, S. P.; Olson, S. L.; Connelly, B. J.; Lucas, B. C.; Rodning, A. A.; Walchak, R. C.; Deml, S. M.; Wohlfiel, S. L.

    2015-01-01

    The value of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization−time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the identification of bacteria and yeasts is well documented in the literature. Its utility for the identification of mycobacteria and Nocardia spp. has also been reported in a limited scope. In this work, we report the specificity of MALDI-TOF MS for the identification of 162 Mycobacterium species and subspecies, 53 Nocardia species, and 13 genera (totaling 43 species) of other aerobic actinomycetes using both the MALDI-TOF MS manufacturer's supplied database(s) and a custom database generated in our laboratory. The performance of a simplified processing and extraction procedure was also evaluated, and, similar to the results in an earlier literature report, our viability studies confirmed the ability of this process to inactivate Mycobacterium tuberculosis prior to analysis. Following library construction and the specificity study, the performance of MALDI-TOF MS was directly compared with that of 16S rRNA gene sequencing for the evaluation of 297 mycobacteria isolates, 148 Nocardia species isolates, and 61 other aerobic actinomycetes isolates under routine clinical laboratory working conditions over a 6-month period. MALDI-TOF MS is a valuable tool for the identification of these groups of organisms. Limitations in the databases and in the ability of MALDI-TOF MS to rapidly identify slowly growing mycobacteria are discussed. PMID:26637381

  14. Sensory evaluation, physicochemical properties and aroma-active profiles in a diverse collection of Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Huan; Chen, Jianle; Chen, Shiguo; Xia, Qile; Liu, Donghong; Ye, Xingqian

    2016-12-01

    The present study aimed to differentiate the flavor (taste and odor) profiles of 11 Chinese bayberry cultivars (Myrica rubra). The physicochemical analysis for taste indicated the bayberry cultivars were quite different in soluble sugars, organic acids, color, total phenolics and anthocyanin contents. Sucrose was the main soluble sugar in bayberry fruit. Principal component analysis (PCA) of physicochemical properties indicated bayberries could be divided into 5 groups, and the Bi qi cultivar contained the highest brix/acid ratio demonstrating the sweetest taste. PCA of aroma-active profile for odor (analyzed by SPME-GC-MS-O) indicated bayberries could be divided into 3 groups: α-pinene ("pine" odor) for group 1 (four cultivars), β-caryophyllene and isocaryophyllene ("woody" odor) for group 2 (six cultivars), and ethyl acetate ("overripe" odor) for group 3 (one cultivar). Our research on the physicochemical and active-aroma of 11 bayberry cultivars will help to select suitable cultivars to increase consumer satisfaction. PMID:27374545

  15. Functional analysis of differentially expressed proteins in Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) fruits during ripening.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Yong; Zhang, Ze-Huang; Zhong, Can-Yu; Song, Xiao-Min; Lin, Qi-Hua; Huang, Chun-Mei; Huang, Rong-Hui; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    This study developed a proteome reference map of Myrica rubra fruits at the green, pink and red stages during ripening using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Forty-six differentially expressed proteins were detected in the gel, of which 43 were successfully identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry and protein database searching. We found that malic enzyme related to the decrease of organic acid acidity was up-regulated. The high abundance of pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase may contribute to fruit peculiar fragrant characteristics. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, chalcone synthase 11, UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase, and anthocyanidin synthase, enzymes involved in the anthocyanin metabolic pathway, were all up-regulated. The physiological data agree with fruit proteome results. These findings provided insights into the metabolic processes and regulatory mechanisms during Chinese bayberry fruit ripening. PMID:26213036

  16. Isospora cardellinae n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the red warbler Cardellina rubra (Swainson) (Passeriformes: Parulidae) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Salgado-Miranda, Celene; Medina, Juan Pablo; Zepeda-Velázquez, Andrea Paloma; García-Conejo, Michele; Galindo-Sánchez, Karla Patricia; Janczur, Mariusz Krzysztof; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo

    2016-10-01

    A new coccidian species (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) collected from the red warbler Cardellina rubra (Swainson) is reported from the Nevado de Toluca National Park, Mexico. Isospora cardellinae n. sp. has subspherical oöcysts, measuring on average 26.6 × 25.4 μm, with smooth, bi-layered wall, c.1.3 μm thick. Micropyle, oöcyst residuum, and polar granule are absent. Sporocysts are ovoidal, measuring on average 19.0 × 12.0 µm, with a knob-like Stieda body, a trapezoidal sub-Stieda body and sporocyst residuum composed of scattered spherules of different sizes. Sporozoites are vermiform with one refractile body and a nucleus. This is the fourth description of an isosporoid coccidian infecting a New World warbler.

  17. Isospora cardellinae n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the red warbler Cardellina rubra (Swainson) (Passeriformes: Parulidae) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Salgado-Miranda, Celene; Medina, Juan Pablo; Zepeda-Velázquez, Andrea Paloma; García-Conejo, Michele; Galindo-Sánchez, Karla Patricia; Janczur, Mariusz Krzysztof; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo

    2016-10-01

    A new coccidian species (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) collected from the red warbler Cardellina rubra (Swainson) is reported from the Nevado de Toluca National Park, Mexico. Isospora cardellinae n. sp. has subspherical oöcysts, measuring on average 26.6 × 25.4 μm, with smooth, bi-layered wall, c.1.3 μm thick. Micropyle, oöcyst residuum, and polar granule are absent. Sporocysts are ovoidal, measuring on average 19.0 × 12.0 µm, with a knob-like Stieda body, a trapezoidal sub-Stieda body and sporocyst residuum composed of scattered spherules of different sizes. Sporozoites are vermiform with one refractile body and a nucleus. This is the fourth description of an isosporoid coccidian infecting a New World warbler. PMID:27638736

  18. Evaluation of an onion extract, Centella asiatica, and hyaluronic acid cream in the appearance of striae rubra.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe Diana; Gold, Michael H; Kaur, Mandeep; Olayinka, Babajide; Grundy, Starr L; Pappert, Eric J; Hardas, Bhushan

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of an onion extract cream with Centella asiatica and hyaluronic acid in improving the appearance of striae rubra (SR). Women participants with bilateral, outer aspect of the thigh SR were randomized to apply a quarter-sized amount of the onion extract cream twice daily for 12 weeks to the randomized left or right, outer aspect of the thigh. No treatment was administered to the contralateral side. Participants were evaluated at weeks 2, 4, 8, and 12. Primary efficacy endpoints included color, texture, softness, and overall appearance of SR by the participant and investigator at week 12. The treated thigh demonstrated a statistically significant difference in the mean change in participant and investigator evaluations in overall appearance, texture, color, and softness compared with the untreated thigh at week 12. No adverse events occurred during the study. The onion extract cream was well tolerated and significantly improved the appearance of SR in women. PMID:20527138

  19. Fungal Endophyte (Epichloë festucae) Alters the Nutrient Content of Festuca rubra Regardless of Water Availability

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-de-Aldana, Beatriz R.; García-Ciudad, Antonia; García-Criado, Balbino; Vicente-Tavera, Santiago; Zabalgogeazcoa, Iñigo

    2013-01-01

    Festuca rubra plants maintain associations with the vertically transmitted fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae. A high prevalence of infected host plants in semiarid grasslands suggests that this association could be mutualistic. We investigated if the Epichloë-endophyte affects the growth and nutrient content of F. rubra plants subjected to drought. Endophyte-infected (E+) and non-infected (E−) plants of two half-sib lines (PEN and RAB) were subjected to three water availability treatments. Shoot and root biomass, nutrient content, proline, phenolic compounds and fungal alkaloids were measured after the treatments. The effect of the endophyte on shoot and root biomass and dead leaves depended on the plant line. In the PEN line, E+ plants had a greater S:R ratio than E-, but the opposite occurred in RAB. In both plant lines and all water treatments, endophyte-infected plants had greater concentrations of N, P and Zn in shoots and Ca, Mg and Zn in roots than E- plants. On average, E+ plants contained in their shoots more P (62%), Zn (58%) and N (19%) than E- plants. While the proline in shoots increased in response to water stress, the endophyte did not affect this response. A multivariate analysis showed that endophyte status and plant line impose stronger differences in the performance of the plants than the water stress treatments. Furthermore, differences between PEN and RAB lines seemed to be greater in E- than in E+ plants, suggesting that E+ plants of both lines are more similar than those of their non-infected version. This is probably due to the endophyte producing a similar effect in both plant lines, such as the increase in N, P and Zn in shoots. The remarkable effect of the endophyte in the nutrient balance of the plants could help to explain the high prevalence of infected plants in natural grasslands. PMID:24367672

  20. Screening the wetland plant species Alisma plantago-aquatica, Carex rostrata and Phalaris arundinacea for innate tolerance to zinc and comparison with Eriophorum angustifolium and Festuca rubra Merlin.

    PubMed

    Matthews, David J; Moran, Bridget M; Otte, Marinus L

    2005-03-01

    Several wetland plant species appear to have constitutive metal tolerance. In previous studies, populations from contaminated and non-contaminated sites of the wetland plants Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, Glyceria fluitans and Eriophorum angustifolium were found to be tolerant to high concentrations of metals. This study screened three other species of wetland plants: Alisma plantago-aquatica, Carex rostrata and Phalaris arundinacea for innate tolerance to zinc. The degree of tolerance was compared to known zinc-tolerant E. angustifolium and Festuca rubra Merlin. It was found that A. plantago-aquatica and P. arundinacea did not posses innate tolerance to zinc, but that C. rostrata was able to tolerate elevated levels of zinc, at levels comparable to those tolerated by E. angustifolium and F. rubra Merlin. The findings support the theory that some wetland angiosperm species tend to be tolerant to exposure to high levels of metals, regardless of their origin. PMID:15589661

  1. Screening the wetland plant species Alisma plantago-aquatica, Carex rostrata and Phalaris arundinacea for innate tolerance to zinc and comparison with Eriophorum angustifolium and Festuca rubra Merlin.

    PubMed

    Matthews, David J; Moran, Bridget M; Otte, Marinus L

    2005-03-01

    Several wetland plant species appear to have constitutive metal tolerance. In previous studies, populations from contaminated and non-contaminated sites of the wetland plants Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, Glyceria fluitans and Eriophorum angustifolium were found to be tolerant to high concentrations of metals. This study screened three other species of wetland plants: Alisma plantago-aquatica, Carex rostrata and Phalaris arundinacea for innate tolerance to zinc. The degree of tolerance was compared to known zinc-tolerant E. angustifolium and Festuca rubra Merlin. It was found that A. plantago-aquatica and P. arundinacea did not posses innate tolerance to zinc, but that C. rostrata was able to tolerate elevated levels of zinc, at levels comparable to those tolerated by E. angustifolium and F. rubra Merlin. The findings support the theory that some wetland angiosperm species tend to be tolerant to exposure to high levels of metals, regardless of their origin.

  2. Mixed Nocardia cyriacigeorgica and Staphylococcus aureus infection in the periocular skin and orbit in an immunocompetent adult.

    PubMed

    Rath, Suryasnata; Sharma, Savitri; Mohapatra, Samir; Roy, Aravind; Vemuganti, Geeta K; Balne, Praveen; Reddy, Ashok

    2012-12-01

    A 32-year-old non-alcoholic, immunocompetent male with history of prior trauma presented with pain and protrusion of the left eye of 8 months' duration. A firm nontender mass could be palpated in the superomedial orbit and the periocular skin had multiple discharging nodules. Computed tomography of the orbit showed an ill-defined lesion in the left orbit with preseptal soft tissue thickening, lacrimal gland infiltration and a moth eaten appearance of the left orbital roof. Tissue sampling from discharging cutaneous sinuses grew confluent colonies of Staphylococcus aureus and Nocardia cyriacigeorgica (16S rRNA gene sequencing; GQ376180). Histopathological examination showed mixed inflammatory infiltrates and eosinophilic granules showing Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon. Despite an early response to treatment with intravenous amikacin, reactivation of left orbital inflammation led to eventual loss of vision. A prolonged treatment course with intravenous amikacin and oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole over a period of 1 year showed clinical resolution with periocular scarring, hypoglobus, and sensory exotropia. PMID:22715939

  3. Two different primary oxidation mechanisms during biotransformation of thymol by gram-positive bacteria of the genera Nocardia and Mycobacterium.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Veronika; Sünwoldt, Katharina; Mikolasch, Annett; Schauer, Frieder

    2013-02-01

    Thymol has antibacterial, antifungal, insecticidal, and antioxidative properties which are the basis for the wide use of this compound in the cosmetic, food, and pharmaceutical industries. Although thymol is a ubiquitously occurring substance in the environment, data about its degradation and detoxification by bacteria are sparse. Here, we show the existence of two different pathways for the biotransformation of thymol by Nocardia cyriacigeorgica and Mycobacterium neoaurum which were described for the first time for gram-positive bacteria. The first pathway starts with hydroxylation of thymol to thymohydroquinone (2-isopropyl-5-methylbenzene-1,4-diol) with subsequent oxidation to thymobenzoquinone (2-isopropyl-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone). The second pathway involves hydroxylation of the methyl group followed by oxidation to 3-hydroxy-4-isopropylbenzoic acid, possibly via the aldehyde 3-hydroxy-4-isopropylbenzaldehyde. It is noteworthy that the branched side chain of thymol was not oxidized. Similarities and differences of these oxidation processes with those of the gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas putida, fungi, and plants are discussed and, in addition, the toxicity of thymol towards N. cyriacigeorgica and M. neoaurum was tested. The experiments showed a temporary growth inhibition with 0.025 % thymol. This was explained by degradation of thymol and the formation of products which are less toxic than thymol itself. PMID:22828982

  4. Pulling peptides across nanochannels: resolving peptide binding and translocation through the hetero-oligomeric channel from Nocardia farcinica.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pratik Raj; Bárcena-Uribarri, Iván; Modi, Niraj; Kleinekathöfer, Ulrich; Benz, Roland; Winterhalter, Mathias; Mahendran, Kozhinjampara R

    2012-12-21

    We investigated translocation of cationic peptides through nanochannels derived from the Gram-positive bacterium Nocardia farcinica at the single-molecule level. The two subunits NfpA and NfpB form a hetero-oligomeric cation selective channel. On the basis of amino acid comparison we performed homology modeling and obtained a channel structurally related to MspA of Mycobacterium smegmatis. The quantitative single-molecule measurements provide an insight into transport processes of solutes through nanochannels. High-resolution ion conductance measurements in the presence of peptides of different charge and length revealed the kinetics of peptide binding. The observed asymmetry in peptide binding kinetics indicated a unidirectional channel insertion in the lipid bilayer. In the case of cationic peptides, the external voltage acts as a driving force that promotes the interaction of the peptide with the channel surface. At low voltage, the peptide just binds to the channel, whereas at higher voltage, the force is strong enough to pull the peptide across the channel. This allows distinguishing quantitatively between peptide binding and translocation through the channel. PMID:23121560

  5. Identification, Molecular Cloning of IL-1β and Its Expression Profile during Nocardia seriolae Infection in Largemouth Bass, Micropterus salmoides

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Ping-Yueh; Byadgi, Omkar; Wang, Pei-Chyi; Tsai, Ming-An; Liaw, Li-Ling; Chen, Shih-Chu

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, IL-1β cDNA was identified and analyzed from largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Full length IL-1β mRNA was obtained using Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE), which contains 78 bp 3′-UTR, a 455 bp 5′-UTR, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 702 bp coding for 233 amino acid residues. The molecular weight and theoretical isoelectric point of largemouth bass IL-1β protein was predicted to be 26.7 kDa and 6.08 respectively. A largemouth bass IL-1β phylogenetic analysis showed a close relation to the IL-1βs of striped trumpeter (Latris lineata), Chinese perch (Siniperca chuatsi), and Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus). Peptidoglycan upregulated IL-1β in the spleen and head kidney, while lipopolysaccharide upregulated detectable levels of IL-1β in the spleen only. Largemouth bass, challenged with Nocardia seriolae (1.0 × 106 cfu/mL), showed a significant increase in IL-1β at 3 and 5 days post infection (dpi) in the spleen, while in the head kidney significant expression was found at 2 and 3 dpi, peaking at 3 dpi. Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) showed significantly higher expression in the spleen at 3 and 5 dpi, and in the head kidney at 1 and 3 dpi, with expression decreasing at 5 dpi in both tissues. PMID:27706080

  6. Complete Genome Sequence Analysis of Nocardia brasiliensis HUJEG-1 Reveals a Saprobic Lifestyle and the Genes Needed for Human Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Ortiz-Lopez, Rocio; Elizondo-Gonzalez, Ramiro; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is an important etiologic agent of mycetoma. These bacteria live as a saprobe in soil or organic material and enter the tissue via minor trauma. Mycetoma is characterized by tumefaction and the production of fistula and abscesses, with no spontaneous cure. By using mass sequencing, we determined the complete genomic nucleotide sequence of the bacteria. According to our data, the genome is a circular chromosome 9,436,348-bp long with 68% G+C content that encodes 8,414 proteins. We observed orthologs for virulence factors, a higher number of genes involved in lipid biosynthesis and catabolism, and gene clusters for the synthesis of bioactive compounds, such as antibiotics, terpenes, and polyketides. An in silico analysis of the sequence supports the conclusion that the bacteria acquired diverse genes by horizontal transfer from other soil bacteria, even from eukaryotic organisms. The genome composition reflects the evolution of bacteria via the acquisition of a large amount of DNA, which allows it to survive in new ecological niches, including humans. PMID:23755230

  7. Improved Rifamycin B Production by Nocardia mediterranei MTCC 14 under Solid-State Fermentation through Process Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Vastrad, Basavaraj M.; Neelagund, Shivayogeshwar E.; Iiger, Sudhir R.; Godbole, Ajeet M.; Kulkarni, Venkatrao

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of various production parameters using response surface methodology (RSM) was performed to assess maximum yield of rifamycin B from Nocardia mediterranei MTCC 14. Plackett-Burman design test was applied to determine the significant effects of various production parameters such as glucose, maltose, ribose, galactose, beef extract, peanut meal, ammonium chloride, ammonium sulphate, barbital, pH, and moisture content on production of rifamycin B. Among the eleven variables tested, galactose, ribose, glucose, and pH were found to have significant effect on rifamycin B production. Optimum levels of the significant variables were decided by using a central composite design. The most appropriate condition for production of rifamycin B was found to be a single step production at galactose (8% w/w), ribose (3% w/w), glucose (9% w/w), and pH (7.0). At these optimum production parameters, the maximum yield of rifamycin B obtained experimentally (9.87 g/kgds dry sunflower oil cake) was found to be very close to its predicted value of 10.35 g/kgds dry sunflower oil cake. The mathematical model developed was found to fit greatly with the experimental data of rifamycin B production. PMID:25371823

  8. Anxiolytic effects of Plumeria rubra var. acutifolia (Poiret) L. flower extracts in the elevated plus-maze model of anxiety in mice.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Manavi; Verma, Rajkumar; Lakshmi, Vijai; Sengupta, Shibani; Verma, Anil Kumar; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Palit, Gautam

    2013-04-01

    Interest in alternative medicine and plant-derived medications that affect the "mind" is growing rapidly since last two decades. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of ethanolic extract of flower of Plumeria rubra (PR) along with its fractions in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) model of anxiety. The P. rubra extract or its fractions was administered orally to male Swiss mice, at graded doses, 1h prior to behavioural assessment. The PR extract at the dose of 100mg/kg p.o., significantly increased the time spent in the open arms of the EPM. Further, the anxiolytic properties of hexane, chloroform and butanolic soluble and insoluble fractions at one-fifth of the original dose were also observed in the EPM task. Out of which butanol insoluble fraction showed significant anxiolytic activity comparable to standard anxiolytic drug, diazepam. Further, pretreatment with crude ethanolic extract and butane insoluble fraction showed no significant effects in the horizontal activity, total distance travelled and stereotypy count in the animal activity monitor and had no motor in-coordination side effects in the rotarod test in mice. These observations suggest that the flower extract of P. rubra and its insoluble butanolic fraction might possess significant anxiolytic potential to be pursued further for drug development process.

  9. Bruker Biotyper Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry System for Identification of Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Kocuria, Gordonia, Tsukamurella, and Listeria Species

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tai-Fen; Du, Shin-Hei; Teng, Shih-Hua; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Sheng, Wang-Hui; Teng, Lee-Jene

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated whether the Bruker Biotyper matrix-associated laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) system provides accurate species-level identifications of 147 isolates of aerobically growing Gram-positive rods (GPRs). The bacterial isolates included Nocardia (n = 74), Listeria (n = 39), Kocuria (n = 15), Rhodococcus (n = 10), Gordonia (n = 7), and Tsukamurella (n = 2) species, which had all been identified by conventional methods, molecular methods, or both. In total, 89.7% of Listeria monocytogenes, 80% of Rhodococcus species, 26.7% of Kocuria species, and 14.9% of Nocardia species (n = 11, all N. nova and N. otitidiscaviarum) were correctly identified to the species level (score values, ≥2.0). A clustering analysis of spectra generated by the Bruker Biotyper identified six clusters of Nocardia species, i.e., cluster 1 (N. cyriacigeorgica), cluster 2 (N. brasiliensis), cluster 3 (N. farcinica), cluster 4 (N. puris), cluster 5 (N. asiatica), and cluster 6 (N. beijingensis), based on the six peaks generated by ClinProTools with the genetic algorithm, i.e., m/z 2,774.477 (cluster 1), m/z 5,389.792 (cluster 2), m/z 6,505.720 (cluster 3), m/z 5,428.795 (cluster 4), m/z 6,525.326 (cluster 5), and m/z 16,085.216 (cluster 6). Two clusters of L. monocytogenes spectra were also found according to the five peaks, i.e., m/z 5,594.85, m/z 6,184.39, and m/z 11,187.31, for cluster 1 (serotype 1/2a) and m/z 5,601.21 and m/z 11,199.33 for cluster 2 (serotypes 1/2b and 4b). The Bruker Biotyper system was unable to accurately identify Nocardia (except for N. nova and N. otitidiscaviarum), Tsukamurella, or Gordonia species. Continuous expansion of the MALDI-TOF MS databases to include more GPRs is necessary. PMID:24759706

  10. Gas exchange in Quercus rubra (northern red oak) during a drought: analysis of relations among photosynthesis, transpiration, and leaf conductance.

    PubMed

    Weber, J. A.; Gates, D. M.

    1990-12-01

    Development of water stress in leaves of mature Quercus rubra L. caused a marked midday depression in photosynthesis (A) and transpiration (E). At external CO(2) partial pressures of 100-110 Pa, a constant temperature of 30 degrees C and a constant photosynthetic photon flux density of about 1000 micromol m(-2) s(-1), A was 8 micromol m(-2) at low leaf water potentials (-1.5 to -2.0 MPa), whereas it was 20 micromol m(-2) s(-1) in non-stressed leaves (-1.0 MPa). At lower external CO(2) partial pressures, the effect of low leaf water potential on A was less. The midday depression in gas exchange was relieved by an overnight rain of 2.5 cm. No difference in carboxylation efficiency or CO(2) compensation point was found between leaves before and after rain, The relationship between A and E was linear for a given external CO(2) partial pressure, but the slope varied with CO(2) concentration. Modification of the model of stomatal response proposed by Ball et al. (1987) produced a linear relationship between leaf conductance and a factor incorporating A, relative humidity, and CO(2). The data indicate that gas exchange in leaves of mature northern red oak respond rapidly to relief of drought with no indication of long-term photoinhibition. PMID:14972919

  11. Severe, Disfiguring, Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris in a Woman in the Dominican Republic: Histopathologic Diagnosis and Response to Antiretroviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Lerebours-Nadal, Leonel; Beck-Sague, Consuelo M; Parker, Douglas; Gosman, Amanda; Saavedra, Arturo; Engel, Kristy; Dean, Andrew G

    2016-01-01

    Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) is a poorly understood dermatologic condition usually accompanied by keratoderma and intense erythroderma with islands of unaffected skin. The PRP categories include HIV-associated PRP VI. A 23-year-old HIV-infected, dark-skinned woman in the Dominican Republic developed an extremely severe, disfiguring process characterized first by a dry scaly rash involving her face, trunk, and extremities with hyperpigmentation and islands of spared skin and minimal erythroderma, followed by alopecia and development of a thick horny layer on the scalp and face. The condition, histologically proven to be PRP, was accompanied by fever, wasting, and decline in CD4 count. Initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) was followed by rapid and sustained resolution of PRP. Nine years after ART initiation, she remains well, with viral suppression and immune recovery, without PRP recurrence but with sparse hair regrowth and facial scarring. In some dark-skinned patients, severe PRP may not feature characteristic erythroderma but will respond to combination ART.

  12. Spatial heterogeneity in the relative impacts of foliar quality and predation pressure on red oak, Quercus rubra, arthropod communities.

    PubMed

    Zehnder, Caralyn B; Stodola, Kirk W; Cooper, Robert J; Hunter, Mark D

    2010-12-01

    Predation pressure and resource availability often interact in structuring herbivore communities, with their relative influence varying in space and time. The operation of multiple ecological pressures and guild-specific herbivore responses may combine to override simple predictions of how the roles of plant quality and predation pressure vary in space. For 2 years at the Coweeta LTER in the Southern Appalachian Mountains, we conducted a bird exclosure experiment on red oak (Quercus rubra) saplings to investigate the effects of bird predation on red oak arthropod communities. We established bird exclosures at six sites along an elevational gradient and estimated variation in foliar nitrogen and bird predation pressure along this gradient. Foliar nitrogen concentrations increased with elevation while our index of bird predation pressure was variable across sites. Greater arthropod densities were detected inside exclosures; however, this result was mainly driven by the response of phloem feeders which were much more prevalent inside exclosures than on control trees. There was little evidence for an effect of bird predation on the other arthropod guilds. Consequently, there was no evidence of a trophic cascade either in terms of leaf damage or tree growth. Finally, we found more variation in arthropod density among trees within sites than variation in arthropod density among sites, indicating the importance of micro-site variation in structuring arthropod communities. PMID:20711610

  13. Reduced translocation of current photosynthate precedes changes in gas exchange for Quercus rubra seedlings under flooding stress.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Joshua L; Islam, M Anisul; Jacobs, Douglass F

    2016-01-01

    Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings are frequently planted on suboptimal sites in their native range in North America, subjecting them to environmental stresses, such as flooding, for which they may not be well adapted. Members of the genus Quercus exhibit a wide range of responses to flooding, and responses of northern red oak to flooding remain inadequately described. To better understand the physiological effects of root system inundation in post-transplant northern red oak seedlings and the effects of flooding on endogenous patterns of resource allocation within the plant, we observed the effects of short-term flooding initiated at the linear shoot growth stage on net photosynthetic rates, dark respiration, chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) and translocation of (13)C-labeled current photosynthate. Downward translocation of current photosynthate declined after 4 days of flooding and was the first measured physiological response to flooding; net photosynthetic rates decreased and dark respiration rates increased after 7 days of flooding. Short-term flooding did not affect maximal potential efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm). The finding that decreased downward translocation of (13)C-labeled current photosynthate preceded reduced net photosynthesis and increased dark respiration during flooding suggests the occurrence of sink-limited photosynthesis under these conditions.

  14. Severe, Disfiguring, Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris in a Woman in the Dominican Republic: Histopathologic Diagnosis and Response to Antiretroviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Lerebours-Nadal, Leonel; Beck-Sague, Consuelo M; Parker, Douglas; Gosman, Amanda; Saavedra, Arturo; Engel, Kristy; Dean, Andrew G

    2016-01-01

    Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) is a poorly understood dermatologic condition usually accompanied by keratoderma and intense erythroderma with islands of unaffected skin. The PRP categories include HIV-associated PRP VI. A 23-year-old HIV-infected, dark-skinned woman in the Dominican Republic developed an extremely severe, disfiguring process characterized first by a dry scaly rash involving her face, trunk, and extremities with hyperpigmentation and islands of spared skin and minimal erythroderma, followed by alopecia and development of a thick horny layer on the scalp and face. The condition, histologically proven to be PRP, was accompanied by fever, wasting, and decline in CD4 count. Initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) was followed by rapid and sustained resolution of PRP. Nine years after ART initiation, she remains well, with viral suppression and immune recovery, without PRP recurrence but with sparse hair regrowth and facial scarring. In some dark-skinned patients, severe PRP may not feature characteristic erythroderma but will respond to combination ART. PMID:26514629

  15. Pseudorhabdosynochus regius n. sp. (Monogenea, Diplectanidae) from the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra (Teleostei) in the Mediterranean Sea and Eastern Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Chaabane, Amira; Neifar, Lassad; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2015-01-01

    Pseudorhabdosynochus regius n. sp. is described from the gills of the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra caught off Senegal, Tunisia and Libya (type-locality: off Dakar, Senegal). The species is distinguished from its congeners by the structure of its sclerotised vagina (length 26-35 μm), which exhibits a trumpet in continuity with the primary canal, a straight primary canal, and primary and secondary chambers included in a common sclerotised mass along the primary canal. The species is also characterised by small squamodiscs (length 20-40 μm) with 10-11 rows of rodlets. Its closest relatives (based on the structure of the sclerotised vagina) are species mostly found in the Mediterranean Sea and parasites on species of Mycteroperca. A second species of Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958 is reported from the same host and localities but not described. A list of diplectanids from groupers in the Mediterranean Sea is provided. We point out that a recent article was not compliant with the new Article 8.5.3 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature; for this reason, three species, P. nhatrangensis Dang, Bristow, Schander & Berland, 2013, P. vietnamensis Dang et al., 2013 and P. brunei Dang et al., 2013, are invalid. PMID:25674913

  16. Shade, leaf growth and crown development of Quercus rubra, Quercus velutina, Prunus serotina and Acer rubrum seedlings.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, Kurt W.

    1994-01-01

    The study was conducted in an open field to determine the optimum irradiance for establishment and growth of two oak species and two major associated woody species. Half-sib seedlings of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and black oak (Q. velutina Lam.) were grown for two years under shade-cloth tents. Eight shade treatments (94, 70, 57, 45, 37, 27, 20 and 8% of full sunlight) with three replications each were used. Measurements were made on seedlings harvested at the end of the first and second growing seasons. In the second year, shading significantly decreased the number of leaves for all species except black cherry, but only significantly decreased leaf area in northern red oak. Shading significantly decreased average leaf size of red maple. Average leaf size of black cherry was largest in the intermediate shade treatments and decreased significantly with increased and decreased shade. Leaf weight/leaf area (mg cm(-2)) increased significantly in a quadratic pattern with decreasing shade for all four species. Leaf area ratio (cm(2) g(-1)) decreased significantly with decreasing shade for all species except red maple in the first year and black oak in the second year. Total branch development increased significantly with decreasing shade in red maple and northern red oak, whereas indeterminate branches increased significantly with decreasing shade only in black cherry, and short branches increased significantly with decreasing shade only in red maple. PMID:14967644

  17. Pseudorhabdosynochus regius n. sp. (Monogenea, Diplectanidae) from the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra (Teleostei) in the Mediterranean Sea and Eastern Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Chaabane, Amira; Neifar, Lassad; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2015-01-01

    Pseudorhabdosynochus regius n. sp. is described from the gills of the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra caught off Senegal, Tunisia and Libya (type-locality: off Dakar, Senegal). The species is distinguished from its congeners by the structure of its sclerotised vagina (length 26–35 μm), which exhibits a trumpet in continuity with the primary canal, a straight primary canal, and primary and secondary chambers included in a common sclerotised mass along the primary canal. The species is also characterised by small squamodiscs (length 20–40 μm) with 10–11 rows of rodlets. Its closest relatives (based on the structure of the sclerotised vagina) are species mostly found in the Mediterranean Sea and parasites on species of Mycteroperca. A second species of Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958 is reported from the same host and localities but not described. A list of diplectanids from groupers in the Mediterranean Sea is provided. We point out that a recent article was not compliant with the new Article 8.5.3 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature; for this reason, three species, P. nhatrangensis Dang, Bristow, Schander & Berland, 2013, P. vietnamensis Dang et al., 2013 and P. brunei Dang et al., 2013, are invalid. PMID:25674913

  18. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Differential Functional Gene Expression in Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides) after Challenge with Nocardia seriolae.

    PubMed

    Byadgi, Omkar; Chen, Chi-Wen; Wang, Pei-Chyi; Tsai, Ming-An; Chen, Shih-Chu

    2016-01-01

    Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) are common hosts of an epizootic bacterial infection by Nocardia seriolae. We conducted transcriptome profiling of M. salmoides to understand the host immune response to N. seriolae infection, using the Illumina sequencing platform. De novo assembly of paired-end reads yielded 47,881 unigenes, the total length, average length, N50, and GC content of which were 49,734,288, 1038, 1983 bp, and 45.94%, respectively. Annotation was performed by comparison against non-redundant protein sequence (NR), non-redundant nucleotide (NT), Swiss-Prot, Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG), Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), Gene Ontology (GO), and Interpro databases, yielding 28,964 (NR: 60.49%), 36,686 (NT: 76.62%), 24,830 (Swissprot: 51.86%), 8913 (COG: 18.61%), 20,329 (KEGG: 42.46%), 835 (GO: 1.74%), and 22,194 (Interpro: 46.35%) unigenes. Additionally, 8913 unigenes were classified into 25 Clusters of Orthologous Groups (KOGs) categories, and 20,329 unigenes were assigned to 244 specific signalling pathways. RNA-Seq by Expectation Maximization (RSEM) and PossionDis were used to determine significantly differentially expressed genes (False Discovery Rate (FDR) < 0.05) and we found that 1384 were upregulated genes and 1542 were downregulated genes, and further confirmed their regulations using reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Altogether, these results provide information on immune mechanisms induced during bacterial infection in largemouth bass, which may facilitate the prevention of nocardiosis. PMID:27529219

  19. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Differential Functional Gene Expression in Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides) after Challenge with Nocardia seriolae.

    PubMed

    Byadgi, Omkar; Chen, Chi-Wen; Wang, Pei-Chyi; Tsai, Ming-An; Chen, Shih-Chu

    2016-01-01

    Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) are common hosts of an epizootic bacterial infection by Nocardia seriolae. We conducted transcriptome profiling of M. salmoides to understand the host immune response to N. seriolae infection, using the Illumina sequencing platform. De novo assembly of paired-end reads yielded 47,881 unigenes, the total length, average length, N50, and GC content of which were 49,734,288, 1038, 1983 bp, and 45.94%, respectively. Annotation was performed by comparison against non-redundant protein sequence (NR), non-redundant nucleotide (NT), Swiss-Prot, Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG), Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), Gene Ontology (GO), and Interpro databases, yielding 28,964 (NR: 60.49%), 36,686 (NT: 76.62%), 24,830 (Swissprot: 51.86%), 8913 (COG: 18.61%), 20,329 (KEGG: 42.46%), 835 (GO: 1.74%), and 22,194 (Interpro: 46.35%) unigenes. Additionally, 8913 unigenes were classified into 25 Clusters of Orthologous Groups (KOGs) categories, and 20,329 unigenes were assigned to 244 specific signalling pathways. RNA-Seq by Expectation Maximization (RSEM) and PossionDis were used to determine significantly differentially expressed genes (False Discovery Rate (FDR) < 0.05) and we found that 1384 were upregulated genes and 1542 were downregulated genes, and further confirmed their regulations using reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Altogether, these results provide information on immune mechanisms induced during bacterial infection in largemouth bass, which may facilitate the prevention of nocardiosis.

  20. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Differential Functional Gene Expression in Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides) after Challenge with Nocardia seriolae

    PubMed Central

    Byadgi, Omkar; Chen, Chi-Wen; Wang, Pei-Chyi; Tsai, Ming-An; Chen, Shih-Chu

    2016-01-01

    Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) are common hosts of an epizootic bacterial infection by Nocardia seriolae. We conducted transcriptome profiling of M. salmoides to understand the host immune response to N. seriolae infection, using the Illumina sequencing platform. De novo assembly of paired-end reads yielded 47,881 unigenes, the total length, average length, N50, and GC content of which were 49,734,288, 1038, 1983 bp, and 45.94%, respectively. Annotation was performed by comparison against non-redundant protein sequence (NR), non-redundant nucleotide (NT), Swiss-Prot, Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG), Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), Gene Ontology (GO), and Interpro databases, yielding 28,964 (NR: 60.49%), 36,686 (NT: 76.62%), 24,830 (Swissprot: 51.86%), 8913 (COG: 18.61%), 20,329 (KEGG: 42.46%), 835 (GO: 1.74%), and 22,194 (Interpro: 46.35%) unigenes. Additionally, 8913 unigenes were classified into 25 Clusters of Orthologous Groups (KOGs) categories, and 20,329 unigenes were assigned to 244 specific signalling pathways. RNA-Seq by Expectation Maximization (RSEM) and PossionDis were used to determine significantly differentially expressed genes (False Discovery Rate (FDR) < 0.05) and we found that 1384 were upregulated genes and 1542 were downregulated genes, and further confirmed their regulations using reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Altogether, these results provide information on immune mechanisms induced during bacterial infection in largemouth bass, which may facilitate the prevention of nocardiosis. PMID:27529219

  1. Fatal Nocardia farcinica Bacteremia Diagnosed by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry in a Patient with Myelodysplastic Syndrome Treated with Corticosteroids

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, Amedeo; Guercini, Francesco; Cardaccia, Angela; Furbetta, Leone; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Bistoni, Francesco; Mencacci, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Nocardia farcinica is a Gram-positive weakly acid-fast filamentous saprophytic bacterium, an uncommon cause of human infections, acquired usually through the respiratory tract, often life-threatening, and associated with different clinical presentations. Predisposing conditions for N. farcinica infections include hematologic malignancies, treatment with corticosteroids, and any other condition of immunosuppression. Clinical and microbiological diagnoses of N. farcinica infections are troublesome, and the isolation and identification of the etiologic agent are difficult and time-consuming processes. We describe a case of fatal disseminated infection in a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome, treated with corticosteroids, in which N. farcinica has been isolated from blood culture and identified by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry. The patient died after 18 days of hospitalization in spite of triple antimicrobial therapy. Nocardia farcinica infection should be suspected in patients with history of malignancy, under corticosteroid therapy, suffering from subacute pulmonary infection,and who do not respond to conventional antimicrobial therapy. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry can be a valuable tool for rapid diagnosis of nocardiosis. PMID:23690786

  2. The Preventive Effect on Ethanol-Induced Gastric Lesions of the Medicinal Plant Plumeria rubra: Involvement of the Latex Proteins in the NO/cGMP/K ATP Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    de Alencar, Nylane Maria Nunes; Pinheiro, Rachel Sindeaux Paiva; de Figueiredo, Ingrid Samantha Tavares; Luz, Patrícia Bastos; Freitas, Lyara Barbosa Nogueira; de Souza, Tamiris de Fátima Goebel; do Carmo, Luana David; Marques, Larisse Mota; Ramos, Marcio Viana

    2015-01-01

    Plumeria rubra (Apocynaceae) is frequently used in folk medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, hepatitis, and tracheitis, among other infirmities. The aim of this study was to investigate the gastroprotective potential of a protein fraction isolated from the latex of Plumeria rubra (PrLP) against ethanol-induced gastric lesions and describe the underlying mechanisms. In a dose-dependent manner, the pretreatment with PrLP prevented ethanol-induced gastric lesions in mice after single intravenous administration. The gastroprotective mechanism of PrLP was associated with the involvement of prostaglandins and balance of oxidant/antioxidant factors. Secondarily, the NO/cGMP/KATP pathway and activation of capsaicin-sensitive primary afferents were also demonstrated as part of the mechanism. This study shows that proteins extracted from the latex of P. rubra prevent gastric lesions induced in experimental animals. Also, the results support the use of the plant in folk medicine. PMID:26788111

  3. The Preventive Effect on Ethanol-Induced Gastric Lesions of the Medicinal Plant Plumeria rubra: Involvement of the Latex Proteins in the NO/cGMP/KATP Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    de Alencar, Nylane Maria Nunes; Pinheiro, Rachel Sindeaux Paiva; de Figueiredo, Ingrid Samantha Tavares; Luz, Patrícia Bastos; Freitas, Lyara Barbosa Nogueira; de Souza, Tamiris de Fátima Goebel; do Carmo, Luana David; Marques, Larisse Mota; Ramos, Marcio Viana

    2015-01-01

    Plumeria rubra (Apocynaceae) is frequently used in folk medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, hepatitis, and tracheitis, among other infirmities. The aim of this study was to investigate the gastroprotective potential of a protein fraction isolated from the latex of Plumeria rubra (PrLP) against ethanol-induced gastric lesions and describe the underlying mechanisms. In a dose-dependent manner, the pretreatment with PrLP prevented ethanol-induced gastric lesions in mice after single intravenous administration. The gastroprotective mechanism of PrLP was associated with the involvement of prostaglandins and balance of oxidant/antioxidant factors. Secondarily, the NO/cGMP/KATP pathway and activation of capsaicin-sensitive primary afferents were also demonstrated as part of the mechanism. This study shows that proteins extracted from the latex of P. rubra prevent gastric lesions induced in experimental animals. Also, the results support the use of the plant in folk medicine. PMID:26788111

  4. Characterization of major betalain pigments -gomphrenin, betanin and isobetanin from Basella rubra L. fruit and evaluation of efficacy as a natural colourant in product (ice cream) development.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S Sravan; Manoj, P; Shetty, N P; Prakash, Maya; Giridhar, P

    2015-08-01

    Basella rubra L. (Basellaceae) commonly known as Malabar spinach is a leafy vegetable which accumulates pigments in its fruits. To find out the feasibility of utilizing pigment rich extracts of its fruit as natural food colourant, fruits at different stages were analysed for pigment profiling, carbohydrate content, physical dimensions and weight. Total betalains content increased rapidly from early (green) through intermediate (half-done red-violet) to matured stage (red-violet). Maximum pigment content was observed in ripened fruits (143.76 mg/100 g fresh weight). The major betalain pigment characterized was gomphrenin I in ripened fruits (26.06 mg), followed by intermediate fruits (2.15 mg) and least in early fruits (0.23 mg) in 100 g of fresh deseeded fruits. Total carbohydrates content and the chroma values (redness) were also increased during ontogeny of B. rubra fruits. The textural characters of developing fruits showed the smoothness of green fruits with lower rupture force (0.16 N/s) than ripe ones (0.38 N/s). The pigment-rich fruit extract was used as natural colourant in ice-cream, to evaluate its effect on physicochemical properties and acceptability of the product. After six months of storage at -20 °C, 86.63 % colour was retained in ice-cream. The ice-cream had good overall sensorial quality and was liked by consumers indicating that addition of B. rubra fruit extract did not alter the sensory quality of the product. The colour values also indicate that there was no significant decrease of this pigment-rich extracts of fruits for its incorporation in food products.

  5. Phytochemical Characterization of Chinese Bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) of 17 Cultivars and Their Antioxidant Properties

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xianan; Huang, Huizhong; Zhang, Qiaoli; Fan, Fangjuan; Xu, Changjie; Sun, Chongde; Li, Xian; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-01-01

    In order to fully understand the variations of fruit quality-related phytochemical composition in Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.), mature fruit of 17 cultivars from Zhejiang and Jiangsu provinces was used for the investigation of fruit quality attributes, including fruit color, soluble sugars, organic acids, total phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant capacity, etc. Sucrose was the main soluble sugar, while citric acid was the main organic acid in bayberry fruit. The content of total phenolics and total flavonoids were positively correlated with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) antioxidant activity and 2,2ʹ-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity. Five anthocyanidins, i.e., delphinidin–hexoside (Dp–Hex), cyanidin-3–O-galactoside (C-3–Gal), cyanidin-3–O-glucoside (C-3–Glu), pelargonidin-3–O-glucoside (Pg-3–Glu) and peonidin-3-O-glucoside (Pn-3–Glu), and seven flavonols compounds, i.e., myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside (M-3–Rha), myricetin deoxyhexoside–gallate (M-DH–G), quercetin-3-O-galactoside (Q-3–Gal), quercetin-3–O-glucoside (Q-3–Glu), quercetin-3–O-rhamnoside (Q-3–Rha), kaempferol-3–O-galactoside (K-3–Gal) and kaempferol-3–O-glucoside (K-3–Glu), were identified and characterized among the cultivars. The significant differences in phytochemical compositions among cultivars reflect the diversity in bayberry germplasm, and cultivars of good flavor and/or rich in various health-promoting phytochemicals are good candidates for future genetic breeding of bayberry fruit of high quality. In conclusion, our results may provide important information for further breeding or industrial utilization of different bayberry resources. PMID:26042467

  6. The effect of red beet (Beta vulgaris var. rubra) fiber on alimentary hypercholesterolemia and chemically induced colon carcinogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Bobek, P; Galbavý, S; Mariássyová, M

    2000-06-01

    The effect of diet supplemented with 5% and 15% cellulose or with 15% fiber isolated from red beet (Beta vulgaris var. rubra) on the development of alimentary hypercholesterolemia and chemically induced colon carcinoma was studied in male Wistar rats. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by a diet containing 0.3% of cholesterol and colon carcinoma was induced by treatment with dimethylhydrazine (20 mg/kg, 12 doses applied s.c. in one-week intervals). Fibrous matter isolated from red beet contained 89% fiber, of which 9% was in water soluble form. Animals were killed 14 weeks after the application of dimethylhydrazine (i.e. 26 weeks after starting on the diets). Red beet fiber diet (and not the increased cellulose intake) caused a reduction of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels (by 30 and 40%, respectively) and a significant increase in the fraction of cholesterol carried in HDL. This diet induced also a significant decrease (almost by 30%) of cholesterol content in aorta. Higher cellulose content in the diet and even more so the administration of red beet fiber caused a significant reduction of conjugated dienes content in plasma, erythrocytes and in liver. Also observed were increases in the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in erythrocytes and in colon and activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase in liver. The presence of both higher cellulose content and red beet fiber in the diet significantly reduced the incidence of precancerous lesions--aberrant crypt foci--in the colon. The diet containing red beet fiber did not affect significantly the incidence of colon tumours although the number of animals bearing tumours was reduced by 30%.

  7. Characterizing Ipomopsis rubra (Polemoniaceae) germination under various thermal scenarios with non-parametric and semi-parametric statistical methods.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Hector E; Kettner, Keith

    2013-10-01

    Time-to-event analysis represents a collection of relatively new, flexible, and robust statistical techniques for investigating the incidence and timing of transitions from one discrete condition to another. Plant biology is replete with examples of such transitions occurring from the cellular to population levels. However, application of these statistical methods has been rare in botanical research. Here, we demonstrate the use of non- and semi-parametric time-to-event and categorical data analyses to address questions regarding seed to seedling transitions of Ipomopsis rubra propagules exposed to various doses of constant or simulated seasonal diel temperatures. Seeds were capable of germinating rapidly to >90 % at 15-25 or 22/11-29/19 °C. Optimum temperatures for germination occurred at 25 or 29/19 °C. Germination was inhibited and seed viability decreased at temperatures ≥30 or 33/24 °C. Kaplan-Meier estimates of survivor functions indicated highly significant differences in temporal germination patterns for seeds exposed to fluctuating or constant temperatures. Extended Cox regression models specified an inverse relationship between temperature and the hazard of germination. Moreover, temperature and the temperature × day interaction had significant effects on germination response. Comparisons to reference temperatures and linear contrasts suggest that summer temperatures (33/24 °C) play a significant role in differential germination responses. Similarly, simple and complex comparisons revealed that the effects of elevated temperatures predominate in terms of components of seed viability. In summary, the application of non- and semi-parametric analyses provides appropriate, powerful data analysis procedures to address various topics in seed biology and more widespread use is encouraged.

  8. A new genus and species of fish leeches Dolichobdella rubra, gen. n., sp. n., (Clitellata, Hirudinida, Piscicolidae) from the northern Sea ofJapan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utevsky, Serge Y.; Chernyshev, Alexei V.

    2013-02-01

    A new species of fish leeches, Dolichobdella rubra gen. n., sp. n., was found in samples collected by RV Akademik M.A. Lavrentyev in the northern Sea of Japan from 470-528 m during the joint Russian-German expedition SoJaBio (Sea of Japan Biodiversity Studies) in August 2010. The leech does not exceed 13 mm in length and has the following morphological characteristics: body elongated, smooth, lacking gills and pulsatile vesicles; eyes and ocelli absent; coloration reddish; female gonopore larger than male one; 6pairs of testisacs; accessory glands, conductive tissue and copulatory area present; ovisacs short; bursa long; coelomic system reduced.

  9. NOCARDIA BEIJINGENSIS PSOAS ABSCESS AND SUBCUTANEOUS PHAEOHYPHOMYCOSIS CAUSED BY PHAEOACREMONIUM PARASITICUM IN A RENAL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENT: THE FIRST CASE REPORT IN THAILAND.

    PubMed

    Palavutitotai, Nattawan; Chongtrakoo, Piriyaporn; Ngamskulrungroj, Popchai; Chayakulkeeree, Methee

    2015-11-01

    We describe the first case of a psoas muscle abscess caused by Nocardia beijingensis and subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Phaeoacremonium parasiticum in a renal transplant recipient. The patient was treated for nocardiosis with percutaneous drainage and intravenous trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) combined with imipenem for 2 weeks, followed by a 4-week course of intravenous TMP/SMX and then oral TMP/SMX. During hospitalization for the psoas muscle abscess the patient developed cellulitis with subcutaneous nodules of his right leg. Skin biopsy and cultures revealed a dematiaceous mold, subsequently identified as P. parasiticum by DNA sequencing. The subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis was treated with surgical drainage and liposomal amphotericin B for 4 weeks followed by a combination of itraconazole and terbinafine. The patient gradually improved and was discharged home after 18 weeks of hospitalization. PMID:26867363

  10. Rapid inactivation of Mycobacterium and nocardia species before identification using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dunne, W Michael; Doing, Kirk; Miller, Elizabeth; Miller, Eric; Moreno, Erik; Baghli, Mehdi; Mailler, Sandrine; Girard, Victoria; van Belkum, Alex; Deol, Parampal

    2014-10-01

    The identification of mycobacteria outside biocontainment facilities requires that the organisms first be rendered inactive. Exposure to 70% ethanol (EtOH) either before or after mechanical disruption was evaluated in order to establish a safe, effective, and rapid inactivation protocol that is compatible with identification of Mycobacterium and Nocardia species using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). A combination of 5 min of bead beating in 70% EtOH followed by a 10-min room temperature incubation period was found to be rapidly bactericidal and provided high-quality spectra compared to spectra obtained directly from growth on solid media. The age of the culture, the stability of the refrigerated or frozen lysates, and freeze-thaw cycles did not adversely impact the quality of the spectra or the identification obtained.

  11. [Synthesis of surfactants by Rhodococcus erythropolis IMV Ac-5017, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus IMV B-7241 and Nocardia vaccinii IMV B-7405 on industrial waste].

    PubMed

    Pirog, T P; Sofilkanich, A P; Pokora, K A; Shevchuk, T A; Iutinskaia, G A

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of surfactants by Rhodococcus erythropolis IMV Ac-5017, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus IMV B-7241 and Nocardia vaccinii IMV B-7405 on industrial waste (food and oil-processing industry, production of biodiesel) was investigated. The possibility of replacing the expensive substrates (n-hexadecane and ethanol) by industrial waste (oil and fat industry, fried sunflower oil, glycerol, liquid paraffin) for the surfactant biosynthesis was established. The conditional concentration of surfactants was maximal on oil containing substrates and exceeded those on n-hexadecane and ethanol 2-3 times. The highest rates of surfactants synthesis were observed on fried sunflower oil with the use of inoculum grown on carbohydrate substrates (glucose, molasses). It was established that the addition of glucose (0.1%) was accompanied by 2-4-fold intensification of surfactants synthesis by R. erythropolis IMV Ac-5017 and N. vaccinii IMV B-7405 on fried sunflower oil (2%).

  12. Warming and drought differentially influence the production and resorption of elemental and metabolic nitrogen pools in Quercus rubra.

    PubMed

    Suseela, Vidya; Tharayil, Nishanth; Xing, Baoshan; Dukes, Jeffrey S

    2015-11-01

    The process of nutrient retranslocation from plant leaves during senescence subsequently affects both plant growth and soil nutrient cycling; changes in either of these could potentially feed back to climate change. Although elemental nutrient resorption has been shown to respond modestly to temperature and precipitation, we know remarkably little about the influence of increasing intensities of drought and warming on the resorption of different classes of plant metabolites. We studied the effect of warming and altered precipitation on the production and resorption of metabolites in Quercus rubra. The combination of warming and drought produced a higher abundance of compounds that can help to mitigate climatic stress by functioning as osmoregulators and antioxidants, including important intermediaries of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, amino acids including proline and citrulline, and polyamines such as putrescine. Resorption efficiencies (REs) of extractable metabolites surprisingly had opposite responses to drought and warming; drought treatments generally increased RE of metabolites compared to ambient and wet treatments, while warming decreased RE. However, RE of total N differed markedly from that of extractable metabolites such as amino acids; for instance, droughted plants resorbed a smaller fraction of elemental N from their leaves than plants exposed to the ambient control. In contrast, plants in drought treatment resorbed amino acids more efficiently (>90%) than those in ambient (65-77%) or wet (42-58%) treatments. Across the climate treatments, the RE of elemental N correlated negatively with tissue tannin concentration, indicating that polyphenols produced in leaves under climatic stress could interfere with N resorption. Thus, senesced leaves from drier conditions might have a lower nutritive value to soil heterotrophs during the initial stages of litter decomposition despite a higher elemental N content of these tissues. Our results suggest that N

  13. Warming and drought differentially influence the production and resorption of elemental and metabolic nitrogen pools in Quercus rubra.

    PubMed

    Suseela, Vidya; Tharayil, Nishanth; Xing, Baoshan; Dukes, Jeffrey S

    2015-11-01

    The process of nutrient retranslocation from plant leaves during senescence subsequently affects both plant growth and soil nutrient cycling; changes in either of these could potentially feed back to climate change. Although elemental nutrient resorption has been shown to respond modestly to temperature and precipitation, we know remarkably little about the influence of increasing intensities of drought and warming on the resorption of different classes of plant metabolites. We studied the effect of warming and altered precipitation on the production and resorption of metabolites in Quercus rubra. The combination of warming and drought produced a higher abundance of compounds that can help to mitigate climatic stress by functioning as osmoregulators and antioxidants, including important intermediaries of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, amino acids including proline and citrulline, and polyamines such as putrescine. Resorption efficiencies (REs) of extractable metabolites surprisingly had opposite responses to drought and warming; drought treatments generally increased RE of metabolites compared to ambient and wet treatments, while warming decreased RE. However, RE of total N differed markedly from that of extractable metabolites such as amino acids; for instance, droughted plants resorbed a smaller fraction of elemental N from their leaves than plants exposed to the ambient control. In contrast, plants in drought treatment resorbed amino acids more efficiently (>90%) than those in ambient (65-77%) or wet (42-58%) treatments. Across the climate treatments, the RE of elemental N correlated negatively with tissue tannin concentration, indicating that polyphenols produced in leaves under climatic stress could interfere with N resorption. Thus, senesced leaves from drier conditions might have a lower nutritive value to soil heterotrophs during the initial stages of litter decomposition despite a higher elemental N content of these tissues. Our results suggest that N

  14. Therapeutic Efficacy and Safety of Paeoniae Radix Rubra Formulae in Relieving Hyperbilirubinemia Induced by Viral Hepatitis: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yin-Qiu; Ma, Xiao; Wang, Jian; Zhao, Yan-Ling; Wang, Jia-Bo; Chen, Zhe; Zhu, Yun; Shan, Li-Mei; Wei, Shi-Zhang; Wang, Ji; Xiao, Xiao-He

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Hyperbilirubinemia is one of the most devastating pathologies induced by various liver diseases. Formulae related to Paeoniae Radix Rubra (PRR) at high doses have been applied to treat hyperbilirubinemia in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to assess the efficacy and safety of formulae relevant to high-dose PRR in patients suffering from hyperbilirubinemia induced by viral hepatitis. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis of randomized-controlled clinical trials to evaluate the efficacy and safety of formulae that apply a high dose of PRR for hyperbilirubinemia. Seven databases were searched until April, 2015. All studies were included according to detailed criteria and assessed for methodological quality. The outcome measurements were recorded for further analysis using the RevMan 5.2.11 software. Results: Fifteen articles involving 1323 patients with hyperbilirubinemia were included. Formulae with high-dose PRR might promote the efficacy of either a combined application ([OR: 3.98, 95% CI (2.91, 5.43)]; P < 0.01) or a single application ([OR: 4.00, 95% CI (1.50, 10.68)]; P < 0.01) for hyperbilirubinemia. The indices of TBIL, ALT, and AST significantly decreased ([MD: –75.57, 95% CI (−94.88, −56.26)], [MD: −26.54, 95% CI (−36.19, −16.88)], and ([MD: −28.94, 95% CI (−46.26, −11.61)]; P < 0.01), respectively. In addition, formulae with high-dose PRR could enhance the treatment efficacy of hyperbilirubinemia triggered by hepatitis B ([OR: 2.98, 95% CI (1.75, 5.05)]; P < 0.01). Furthermore, the efficacy was enhanced with an increasing dosage of PRR. Two articles reported that no side effects occurred in clinical trials, and three studies noted that patients presented light digestive tract symptoms. Conclusion: Formulae relevant to high-dose PRR ameliorate hyperbilirubinemia and might constitute a promising therapeutic approach. For widespread acceptance by practitioners, more

  15. First description of the gravid female of Philometra rubra (Leidy, 1856) (Nematoda: Philometridae), a parasite of the abdominal cavity of temperate basses Morone Spp. (Moronidae: Perciformes) in North America.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; de Buron, Isaure; Measures, Lena

    2013-06-01

    Gravid females of the little-known nematode species Philometra rubra ( Leidy, 1856 ) (Philometridae) are described from specimens from the abdominal cavity of the striped bass, Morone saxatilis (Walbaum), in South Carolina and Canada. The specimens were studied with the use of light and scanning electron microscopy. This species is mainly characterized by the distribution and different sizes of cephalic papillae from the external circle, which is a unique feature compared to other philometrids. Other characteristic features are the shape of the posterior end of body, size and location of caudal projections, and the presence of a well-developed anterior esophageal inflation. The morphology of the male of P. rubra and the life cycle of this nematode are still unknown. PMID:23327466

  16. First description of the gravid female of Philometra rubra (Leidy, 1856) (Nematoda: Philometridae), a parasite of the abdominal cavity of temperate basses Morone Spp. (Moronidae: Perciformes) in North America.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; de Buron, Isaure; Measures, Lena

    2013-06-01

    Gravid females of the little-known nematode species Philometra rubra ( Leidy, 1856 ) (Philometridae) are described from specimens from the abdominal cavity of the striped bass, Morone saxatilis (Walbaum), in South Carolina and Canada. The specimens were studied with the use of light and scanning electron microscopy. This species is mainly characterized by the distribution and different sizes of cephalic papillae from the external circle, which is a unique feature compared to other philometrids. Other characteristic features are the shape of the posterior end of body, size and location of caudal projections, and the presence of a well-developed anterior esophageal inflation. The morphology of the male of P. rubra and the life cycle of this nematode are still unknown.

  17. Characterization of a SAM-dependent fluorinase from a latent biosynthetic pathway for fluoroacetate and 4-fluorothreonine formation in Nocardia brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Xudong

    2014-01-01

    Fluorination has been widely used in chemical synthesis, but is rare in nature. The only known biological fluorination scope is represented by the fl pathway from Streptomyces cattleya that produces fluoroacetate (FAc) and 4-fluorothreonine (4-FT). Here we report the identification of a novel pathway for FAc and 4-FT biosynthesis from the actinomycetoma-causing pathogen Nocardia brasiliensis ATCC 700358. The new pathway shares overall conservation with the fl pathway in S. cattleya. Biochemical characterization of the conserved domains revealed a novel fluorinase NobA that can biosynthesize 5’-fluoro-5’-deoxyadenosine (5’-FDA) from inorganic fluoride and S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM). The NobA shows similar halide specificity and characteristics to the fluorination enzyme FlA of the fl pathway. Kinetic parameters for fluoride ( K m 4153 μM, k cat 0.073 min -1) and SAM ( K m 416 μM, k cat 0.139 min -1) have been determined, revealing that NobA is slightly (2.3 fold) slower than FlA. Upon sequence comparison, we finally identified a distinct loop region in the fluorinases that probably accounts for the disparity of fluorination activity. PMID:24795808

  18. Metabolic pathway for poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) formation in Nocardia corallina: inactivation of mutB by chromosomal integration of a kanamycin resistance gene.

    PubMed Central

    Valentin, H F; Dennis, D

    1996-01-01

    The gene encoding the large subunit of the methylmalonyl-coenzyme A (CoA) mutase in Nocardia corallina (mutBNc) was cloned. A 4.3-kbp BamHI fragment containing almost the entire mutBNc was identified by Southern hybridization experiments employing a digoxigenin-labeled probe deduced from mutB of Streptomyces cinnamonensis, mutBNc was interrupted by insertion of a kanamycin resistance gene block (mutB::kan or mutB::neo) and introduced into N. corallina to obtain mutB-negative strains by homologous recombination. Four of sixteen kanamycin-resistant clones occurred via double-crossover events and harbored only the interrupted mutBNc. These exhibited no growth on odd-chain fatty acids in the presence of kanamycin but exhibited wild-type growth on even-chain fatty acids, glucose, and succinate. Whereas the wild type of N. corallina accumulates a copolyester of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) containing more than 60 mol% 3HV from most carbon sources, mutB-negative strains accumulated poly(3HB-co-3HV) containing only 2 to 6 mol% 3HV. Methylmalonyl-CoA mutase activity was not found in these clones. Therefore, this study provides strong evidence that the majority of 3HV units in poly(3HB-co-3HV) accumulated by N. corallina are synthesized via the methylmalonyl-CoA pathway. PMID:8593043

  19. Cloning of the Nocardia corallina polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase gene and production of poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) and poly-(3-hydroxyvalerate-co-3-hydroxyheptanoate).

    PubMed

    Hall, B; Baldwin, J; Rhie, H G; Dennis, D

    1998-07-01

    The polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase gene (phaCNc) from Nocardia corallina was identified in a lambda library on a 6-kb BamHI fragment. A 2.8-kb XhoII subfragment was found to contain the intact PHA synthase. This 2.8-kb fragment was subjected to DNA sequencing and was found to contain the coding region for the PHA synthase and a small downstream open reading frame of unknown function. On the basis of DNA sequence, phaCNc is closest in homology to the PHA synthases (phaCPaI and phaCPaII) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (approximately 41% identity and 55% similarity). The 2.8-kb XhoII fragment containing phaCNc was subcloned into broad host range mobilizable plasmids and transferred into Escherichia coli, Klebsiella aerogenes (both containing a plasmid bearing phaA and phaB from Ralstonia eutropha), and PHA-negative strains of R. eutropha and Pseudomonas putida. The recombinant strains were grown on various carbon sources and the resulting polymers were analyzed. In these strains, the PHA synthase from N. corallina was able to mediate the production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) containing high levels of 3-hydroxyhexanoate when grown on hexanoate and larger even-chain fatty acids and poly(3-hydroxyvalerate-co-3-hydroxyheptanoate) containing high levels of 3-hydroxyheptanoate when grown on heptanoate or larger odd-chain fatty acids.

  20. [Destruction of oil in the presence of Cu2+ and surfactants of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus IMV B-7241, Rhodococcus erythropolis IMV Ac-5017 and Nocardia vaccinii IMV B-7405].

    PubMed

    Pirog, T P; Konon, A D; Sofilkanich, A P; Shevchuk, T A; Iutinska, G O

    2015-01-01

    The effect of copper cations (0.01-1.0 mM) and surface-active agents (surfactants) of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus IMV B-7241, Rhodococcus erythropolis IMV Alc-5017 and Nocardia vaccinii IMV B-7405 in the form of culture liquid on the destruction of oil in water (3.0-6.0 g/L) and soil (20 g/kg), including in the presence of Cd2+ and Pb2+ (0.01-0.5 mM), was investigated. It was shown that the degree of oil degradation in water and soil after 20 days in the presence of low concentrations of Cu2+ (0.01-0.05 mM) and culture liquid of strains IMV B-7241, IMV Ac-5017, and IMV B-7405 was 15 - 25% higher than without copper cations. The activating effect of Cu2+ on the decomposition of complex oil and Cd2+ and Pb2+ pollution was established: after treatment with surfactant of A. calcoacelicus IMV B-7241 and R. erythropolis IMV Ac-5017 destruction of oil in water and soil was 85-95%, and after removal of the copper cations decreased to 45-70%. Intensification of oil destruction in the presence of copper cations may be due to their stimulating effect on the activity of alkane hydroxylases as in surfactant-producing strains, and natural (autochthonous) oxidizing microbiota.

  1. In Vitro Activity of ACH-702, a New Isothiazoloquinolone, against Nocardia brasiliensis Compared with Econazole and the Carbapenems Imipenem and Meropenem Alone or in Combination with Clavulanic Acid ▿

    PubMed Central

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Campos-Rivera, Mayra Paola; Escalante-Fuentes, Wendy G.; Pucci, Michael J.; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Welsh, Oliverio

    2010-01-01

    The in vitro activities of ACH-702 and other antimicrobials against 30 Nocardia brasiliensis isolates were tested. The MIC50 (MIC for 50% of the strains tested) and MIC90 values of ACH-702 were 0.125 and 0.5 μg/ml. The same values for econazole were 2 and 4 μg/ml. The MIC50 and MIC90 values of imipenem and meropenem were 64 and >64 μg/ml and 2 and 8 μg/ml, respectively; the addition of clavulanic acid to the carbapenems had no effect. PMID:20308390

  2. Occurrence of Encephalitozoon intestinalis in the Red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra) and the Ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) housed in the Poznan Zoological Garden, Poland.

    PubMed

    Słodkowicz-Kowalska, Anna; Majewska, Anna C; Trzesowska, Ewa; Skrzypczak, Łukasz

    2012-01-01

    Encephalitozoon intestinalis is one of the most common microsporidial species found in humans worldwide but it has rarely been identified in animals. The presence of this pathogen has been detected in a few species of domestic, captive and wild mammals as well as in three species of birds. The aim of the present study was to examine fecal samples obtained from mammals housed in the Poznan Zoological Garden, Poland, for the presence of potentially human-infectious microsporidia. A total of 339 fresh fecal samples collected from 75 species of mammals belonging to 27 families and 8 orders were examined for the presence of microsporidian spores. Microsporidian spores were identified in 3 out of 339 (0.9%) examined fecal samples. All samples identified as positive by chromotrope 2R and calcofluor white M2R were also positive by the FISH assay. Using multiplex FISH in all 3 fecal samples, only spores of E. intestinalis were identified in 2 out of 14 Ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) and in one out of 17 Red ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata rubra). To our knowledge this is the first diagnosis of E. intestinalis in Ring-tailed and Red ruffed lemurs. It should be mentioned that both lemur species are listed by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Although the lemurs were asymptomatically infected, the possibility of widespread infection or death of these animals remains in the event of an elevated stress or a decrease in their immunological functions.

  3. Occurrence of Encephalitozoon intestinalis in the Red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra) and the Ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) housed in the Poznan Zoological Garden, Poland.

    PubMed

    Słodkowicz-Kowalska, Anna; Majewska, Anna C; Trzesowska, Ewa; Skrzypczak, Łukasz

    2012-01-01

    Encephalitozoon intestinalis is one of the most common microsporidial species found in humans worldwide but it has rarely been identified in animals. The presence of this pathogen has been detected in a few species of domestic, captive and wild mammals as well as in three species of birds. The aim of the present study was to examine fecal samples obtained from mammals housed in the Poznan Zoological Garden, Poland, for the presence of potentially human-infectious microsporidia. A total of 339 fresh fecal samples collected from 75 species of mammals belonging to 27 families and 8 orders were examined for the presence of microsporidian spores. Microsporidian spores were identified in 3 out of 339 (0.9%) examined fecal samples. All samples identified as positive by chromotrope 2R and calcofluor white M2R were also positive by the FISH assay. Using multiplex FISH in all 3 fecal samples, only spores of E. intestinalis were identified in 2 out of 14 Ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) and in one out of 17 Red ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata rubra). To our knowledge this is the first diagnosis of E. intestinalis in Ring-tailed and Red ruffed lemurs. It should be mentioned that both lemur species are listed by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Although the lemurs were asymptomatically infected, the possibility of widespread infection or death of these animals remains in the event of an elevated stress or a decrease in their immunological functions. PMID:23094336

  4. Contrasting patterns of population connectivity between regions in a commercially important mollusc Haliotis rubra: integrating population genetics, genomics and marine LiDAR data.

    PubMed

    Miller, A D; van Rooyen, A; Rašić, G; Ierodiaconou, D A; Gorfine, H K; Day, R; Wong, C; Hoffmann, A A; Weeks, A R

    2016-08-01

    Estimating contemporary genetic structure and population connectivity in marine species is challenging, often compromised by genetic markers that lack adequate sensitivity, and unstructured sampling regimes. We show how these limitations can be overcome via the integration of modern genotyping methods and sampling designs guided by LiDAR and SONAR data sets. Here we explore patterns of gene flow and local genetic structure in a commercially harvested abalone species (Haliotis rubra) from southeastern Australia, where the viability of fishing stocks is believed to be dictated by recruitment from local sources. Using a panel of microsatellite and genomewide SNP markers, we compare allele frequencies across a replicated hierarchical sampling area guided by bathymetric LiDAR imagery. Results indicate high levels of gene flow and no significant genetic structure within or between benthic reef habitats across 1400 km of coastline. These findings differ to those reported for other regions of the fishery indicating that larval supply is likely to be spatially variable, with implications for management and long-term recovery from stock depletion. The study highlights the utility of suitably designed genetic markers and spatially informed sampling strategies for gaining insights into recruitment patterns in benthic marine species, assisting in conservation planning and sustainable management of fisheries. PMID:27322873

  5. Contrasting patterns of population connectivity between regions in a commercially important mollusc Haliotis rubra: integrating population genetics, genomics and marine LiDAR data.

    PubMed

    Miller, A D; van Rooyen, A; Rašić, G; Ierodiaconou, D A; Gorfine, H K; Day, R; Wong, C; Hoffmann, A A; Weeks, A R

    2016-08-01

    Estimating contemporary genetic structure and population connectivity in marine species is challenging, often compromised by genetic markers that lack adequate sensitivity, and unstructured sampling regimes. We show how these limitations can be overcome via the integration of modern genotyping methods and sampling designs guided by LiDAR and SONAR data sets. Here we explore patterns of gene flow and local genetic structure in a commercially harvested abalone species (Haliotis rubra) from southeastern Australia, where the viability of fishing stocks is believed to be dictated by recruitment from local sources. Using a panel of microsatellite and genomewide SNP markers, we compare allele frequencies across a replicated hierarchical sampling area guided by bathymetric LiDAR imagery. Results indicate high levels of gene flow and no significant genetic structure within or between benthic reef habitats across 1400 km of coastline. These findings differ to those reported for other regions of the fishery indicating that larval supply is likely to be spatially variable, with implications for management and long-term recovery from stock depletion. The study highlights the utility of suitably designed genetic markers and spatially informed sampling strategies for gaining insights into recruitment patterns in benthic marine species, assisting in conservation planning and sustainable management of fisheries.

  6. Effects of temperature and light on photosynthesis of dominant species of a northern hardwood forest. [Populus grandidentata, Quercus rubra, Betula papyrifera

    SciTech Connect

    Jurik, T.W. ); Weber, J.A. ); Gates, D.M. )

    1988-06-01

    The response of CO{sub 2} exchange rate (CER) to temperature and light was determined for 14 dominant plant species of a northern deciduous hardwood forest in northern lower Michigan. Leaves at the top of the canopy had temperature optima near 25 C for CER, whereas leaves in the understory had optima near 20 C. There was no change in optimum temperature over the growing season, and overall shapes of response curves were similar among species. The lack of change in temperature optima may be a result of little change in growing conditions rather than a lack of ability to acclimatize. Nine of 11 species in the understory had no significant differences in light-saturated, maximum CERs, whereas at the top of the canopy Populus grandidentata had a higher maximum CER than Quercus rubra and Betula papyrifera. The species in the understory also differed little in light-saturation points for CER. Species at the top of the canopy had higher values for maximum CER, light-saturation point for CER, and maximum conductance than did species in the understory.

  7. Growth response of four species of Eastern hardwood tree seedlings exposed to ozone, acidic precipitation, and sulfur dioxide. [Prunus serotina, Acer rubrum, Quercus rubra, Liriodendron tulipifera

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, D.D. Skelly, J.M. )

    1992-03-01

    In 1987 a study was conducted in controlled environment chambers to determine the foliar sensitivity of tree seedlings of eight species to ozone and acidic precipitation, and to determine the influence of leaf position on symptom severity. Jensen and Dochinger conducted concurrent similar studies in Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) chambers with ten species of forest trees. Based on the results of these initial studies, four species representing a range in foliar sensitivity to ozone were chosen: black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.). These species were also chosen because of their ecological and/or commercial importance in Pennsylvania. Seedlings were exposed in growth chambers simulated acid rain. In addition acute exposures to sulfur dioxide were conducted in a regime based on unpublished monitoring data collected near coal-fired power plants. The objective of this study was to determine if the pollutant treatments influenced the growth and productivity of seedlings of these four species. This information will help researchers and foresters understand the role of air pollution in productivity of eastern forests.

  8. Purification of Flavonoids from Chinese Bayberry (Morella rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) Fruit Extracts and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities of Different Fractionations.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuxia; Zhang, Xianan; Wen, Xin; Lv, Qiang; Xu, Changjie; Sun, Chongde; Li, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Chinese bayberry (Morella rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) fruit have a diverse flavonoid composition responsible for the various medicinal activities, including anti-diabetes. In the present study, efficient simultaneous purification of four flavonoid glycosides, i.e., cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (1), myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside (2), quercetin-3-O-galactoside (3), quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (4), from Chinese bayberry pulp was established by the combination of solid phase extract (SPE) by C18 Sep-Pak(®) cartridge column chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC (Prep-HPLC), which was followed by HPLC and LC-MS identification. The purified flavonoid glycosides, as well as different fractions of fruit extracts of six bayberry cultivars, were investigated for α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. The flavonol extracts (50% methanol elution fraction) of six cultivars showed strong α-glucosidase inhibitory activities (IC50 = 15.4-69.5 μg/mL), which were higher than that of positive control acarbose (IC50 = 383.2 μg/mL). Four purified compounds 1-4 exerted α-glucosidase inhibitory activities, with IC50 values of 1444.3 μg/mL, 418.8 μg/mL, 556.4 μg/mL, and 491.8 μg/mL, respectively. Such results may provide important evidence for the potential anti-diabetic activity of different cultivars of Chinese bayberry fruit and the possible bioactive compounds involved. PMID:27589714

  9. Discrimination and chemical characterization of different Paeonia lactifloras (Radix Paeoniae Alba and Radix Paeoniae Rubra) by infrared macro-fingerprint analysis-through-separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Wang, Ping; Xu, Changhua; Sun, Suqin; Zhou, Qun; Shi, Zhe; Li, Jin; Chen, Tao; Li, Zheng; Cui, Weili

    2015-11-01

    Paeonia lactiflora, a commonly used herbal medicine (HM) in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), mainly has two species, Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA) and Radix Paeoniae Rubra (RPR), for different clinical applications in TCM. For expounding the chemical profile of RPA and RPR and ensuring the clinical efficacy and safety, an infrared macro-fingerprint analysis-through-separation method integrated with statistical pattern recognition was developed to analyze and discriminate the two Paeonia lactifloras. In IR spectra, the major difference between the two was in the range of 1200-900 cm-1: the strongest peak of RPA was at 1024 cm-1, while that of RPR was 1049 cm-1. The difference was magnified in second derivative spectra. The findings were further verified by investigating the separation process of total glucosides, stepwisely monitored by both of IR and UPLC-MS/MS. Simultaneously, the aqueous extracts of RPA and RPR had been separated continuously to acquire the comprehensively hierarchical chemical characteristics for undoubtedly identification and subsequently discrimination of the two herbs. Moreover, 60 batches of the two HMs (30 for each) were objectively classified by principal component regression (PCR) model based on IR macro-fingerprints.

  10. Acquired resistance of Nocardia brasiliensis to clavulanic acid related to a change in beta-lactamase following therapy with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Steingrube, V A; Wallace, R J; Brown, B A; Pang, Y; Zeluff, B; Steele, L C; Zhang, Y

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Nocardia brasiliensis is susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and that its beta-lactamases are inhibited in vitro by clavulanic acid. A cardiac transplant patient with disseminated infection caused by N. brasiliensis was treated with this drug combination with good response, but relapsed while still on therapy. The relapse isolate was found to be identical to the initial isolate by using genomic DNA restriction fragment patterns obtained by pulsed field gel electrophoresis, but it was resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. On isoelectric focusing, the beta-lactamase from the relapse isolate exhibited a shift in the isoelectric point (pI) of its major band from 5.10 to 5.04 compared with the enzyme from the pretreatment isolate. As determined by using values of the amount of beta-lactamase inhibitor necessary to give 50 +/- 5% inhibition of beta-lactamase-mediated hydrolysis of 50 microM nitrocefin, the beta-lactamase of the relapse isolate was also 200-fold more resistant than the enzyme from the pretreatment isolate to clavulanic acid and was more resistant to sulbactam, tazobactam, cloxacillin, and imipenem. The beta-lactamase of the relapse isolate exhibited a 10-fold decrease in hydrolytic activity for cephaloridine and other hydrolyzable cephalosporins compared with that for nitrocefin. Acquired resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid in this isolate of N. brasiliensis appears to have resulted from a mutational change affecting the inhibitor and active site(s) in the beta-lactamase. Images PMID:2039203

  11. Temperature effects on biomass, geosmin, and 2-methylisoborneol production and cellular activity by Nocardia spp. and Streptomyces spp. isolated from rainbow trout recirculating aquaculture systems.

    PubMed

    Schrader, Kevin K; Harries, Marcuslene D; Page, Phaedra N

    2015-05-01

    Isolates of Nocardia cummidelens, Nocard ia fluminea, Streptomyces albidoflavus, and Streptomyces luridiscabiei attributed as the cause of "earthy-musty" off-flavor in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) raised in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) were evaluated for the effect of temperature (10-30 °C) on biomass, geosmin, and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) production and cellular activity. Cultures of these isolates were monitored over 7 days by measuring culture dry weight, geosmin, and MIB production using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS), and ATP production via a luminometer. Compared to the other isolates, S. luridiscabiei had significantly (P < 0.05) higher biomass (8.17 ± 0.35 mg/mL) at 15 °C (water temperature in the RAS) after 7 days incubation. In addition, S. luridiscabiei produced significantly (P < 0.05) higher geosmin (69,976 ± 15,733 ng/L) at 15 °C. At 25 °C and 30 °C, S. albidoflavus produced significantly (P < 0.05) higher geosmin (182,074 ± 60,272 ng/L and 399,991 ± 102,262 ng/L, respectively). All isolates produced MIB at 15 °C, but S. luridiscabiei produced significantly (P < 0.05) higher MIB (97,143 ± 28,972 ng/L) and ATP after 7 days. Therefore, S. luridiscabiei appears to be a likely contributor of geosmin and MIB in the RAS.

  12. A comparative study of physiological and morphological seedling traits associated with shade tolerance in introduced red oak (Quercus rubra) and native hardwood tree species in southwestern Germany.

    PubMed

    Kuehne, Christian; Nosko, Peter; Horwath, Tobias; Bauhus, Jürgen

    2014-02-01

    Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), a moderately shade-tolerant tree species, is failing to regenerate throughout its native North American range, while successful recruitment in Central Europe has been observed since its introduction. To examine whether comparative photosynthetic performance could explain the regeneration success of this non-native species in Central Europe, we compared the physiological and morphological seedling traits of red oak with three co-occurring tree species under three canopy types in southwestern Germany. Native species included a moderately shade-tolerant native oak (Quercus robur L.) and two shade-tolerant species (Acer pseudoplatanus L. and Carpinus betulus L.). The photosynthetic traits of non-native red oak seedlings were similar to those reported for this species in the native range, where shade-tolerant competitors readily outperform red oak under low light conditions. However, compared with native shade-tolerant species in Europe, red oak seedlings photosynthesized efficiently, especially under closed canopies and in small canopy gaps, exhibiting high photosynthetic capacity, low leaf dark respiration and leaf-level light compensation points that were similar to the more shade-tolerant species. The superior net carbon gain of red oak seedlings at low and moderate light levels was likely facilitated by high leaf areas and reflected by seedling dry masses that were greater than the observed native European species. A competitive advantage for red oak was not evident because relative height growth was inferior to seedlings of co-occurring species. In North America, the inability of seedlings to compete with shade-tolerant tree species in deeply shaded understories is central to the problem of poor oak recruitment. Our study suggests that the ability of non-native red oak to perform equally well to native shade-tolerant species under a variety of light conditions could contribute to the consistent success of red oak regeneration

  13. Antioxidant and inhibitory effect of red ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Rubra) and white ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on Fe(2+) induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain in vitro.

    PubMed

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Akinyemi, Ayodele J; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O

    2012-01-01

    Neurodegerative diseases have been linked to oxidative stress arising from peroxidation of membrane biomolecules and high levels of Fe have been reported to play an important role in neurodegenerative diseases and other brain disorder. Malondialdehyde (MDA) is the end-product of lipid peroxidation and the production of this aldehyde is used as a biomarker to measure the level of oxidative stress in an organism. The present study compares the protective properties of two varieties of ginger [red ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Rubra) and white ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)] on Fe(2+) induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain in vitro. Incubation of the brain tissue homogenate in the presence of Fe caused a significant increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) contents of the brain. However, the aqueous extract from both varieties of ginger caused a significant decrease in the MDA contents of the brain in a dose-dependent manner. However, the aqueous extract of red ginger had a significantly higher inhibitory effect on both Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation in the rat brain homogenates than that of white ginger. This higher inhibitory effect of red ginger could be attributed to its significantly higher phytochemical content, Fe(2+) chelating ability, OH scavenging ability and reducing power. However, part of the mechanisms through which the extractable phytochemicals in ginger (red and white) protect the brain may be through their antioxidant activity, Fe(2+) chelating and OH scavenging ability. Therefore, oxidative stress in the brain could be potentially managed/prevented by dietary intake of ginger varieties (red ginger and white ginger rhizomes). PMID:20598871

  14. A comparative study of physiological and morphological seedling traits associated with shade tolerance in introduced red oak (Quercus rubra) and native hardwood tree species in southwestern Germany.

    PubMed

    Kuehne, Christian; Nosko, Peter; Horwath, Tobias; Bauhus, Jürgen

    2014-02-01

    Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), a moderately shade-tolerant tree species, is failing to regenerate throughout its native North American range, while successful recruitment in Central Europe has been observed since its introduction. To examine whether comparative photosynthetic performance could explain the regeneration success of this non-native species in Central Europe, we compared the physiological and morphological seedling traits of red oak with three co-occurring tree species under three canopy types in southwestern Germany. Native species included a moderately shade-tolerant native oak (Quercus robur L.) and two shade-tolerant species (Acer pseudoplatanus L. and Carpinus betulus L.). The photosynthetic traits of non-native red oak seedlings were similar to those reported for this species in the native range, where shade-tolerant competitors readily outperform red oak under low light conditions. However, compared with native shade-tolerant species in Europe, red oak seedlings photosynthesized efficiently, especially under closed canopies and in small canopy gaps, exhibiting high photosynthetic capacity, low leaf dark respiration and leaf-level light compensation points that were similar to the more shade-tolerant species. The superior net carbon gain of red oak seedlings at low and moderate light levels was likely facilitated by high leaf areas and reflected by seedling dry masses that were greater than the observed native European species. A competitive advantage for red oak was not evident because relative height growth was inferior to seedlings of co-occurring species. In North America, the inability of seedlings to compete with shade-tolerant tree species in deeply shaded understories is central to the problem of poor oak recruitment. Our study suggests that the ability of non-native red oak to perform equally well to native shade-tolerant species under a variety of light conditions could contribute to the consistent success of red oak regeneration

  15. Influence of overstory density on ecophysiology of red oak (Quercus rubra) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum) seedlings in central Ontario shelterwoods.

    PubMed

    Parker, William C; Dey, Daniel C

    2008-05-01

    A field experiment was established in a second-growth hardwood forest dominated by red oak (Quercus rubra L.) to examine the effects of shelterwood overstory density on leaf gas exchange and seedling water status of planted red oak, naturally regenerated red oak and sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) seedlings during the first growing season following harvest. Canopy cover of uncut control stands and moderate and light shelterwoods averaged 97, 80 and 49%, respectively. Understory light and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) strongly influenced gas exchange responses to overstory reduction. Increased irradiance beneath the shelterwoods significantly increased net photosynthesis (P(n)) and leaf conductance to water vapor (G(wv)) of red oak and maple seedlings; however, P(n) and G(wv) of planted and naturally regenerated red oak seedlings were two to three times higher than those of sugar maple seedlings in both partial harvest treatments, due in large part to decreased stomatal limitation of gas exchange in red oak as a result of increased VPD in the shelterwoods. In both species, seedling water status was higher in the partial harvest treatments, as reflected by the higher predawn leaf water potential and seedling water-use efficiency in seedlings in shelterwoods than in uncut stands. Within a treatment, planted and natural red oak seedlings exhibited similar leaf gas exchange rates and water status, indicating little adverse physiological effect of transplanting. We conclude that the use of shelterwoods favors photosynthetic potential of red oak over sugar maple, and should improve red oak regeneration in Ontario.

  16. The properties given at the time of publication for the designated type strain of Leifsonia rubra Reddy et al. 2003, CMS 76r, do not correspond with those of MTCC 4210, DSM 15304, CIP 107783 and JCM 12471 that are deposited as representing the type strain: Opinion 96. Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Tindall, B J

    2014-10-01

    The Judicial Commission affirms that, according to information presented to it, the type strain of Leifsonia rubra Reddy et al. 2003 designated in the original publication as strain CMS 76r and deposited as MTCC 4210, DSM 15304, CIP 107783 and JCM 12471 does not have properties corresponding with those of the strains held in those collections under those accession numbers. The species Leifsonia rubra Reddy et al. 2003 was not represented by an authentic deposit of a type strain at the time of effective publication in the pages of the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology.

  17. Astragalus and Paeoniae radix rubra extract inhibits liver fibrosis by modulating the transforming growth factor‑β/Smad pathway in rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weijuan; Li, Lin; Tian, Xiaopeng; Yan, Jinjin; Yang, Xinzheng; Wang, Xinlong; Liao, Guozhen; Qiu, Genquan

    2015-02-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that Astragalus and Paeoniae radix rubra extract (APE) had a protective effect against liver fibrosis in mice. The present study aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of APE on CCl4‑induced hepatic fibrosis in rats. Liver fibrosis was induced in male Sprague‑Dawley rats by intraperitoneal injection of 50% CCl4 twice a week for eight weeks. Organ coefficients, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), hexadecenoic acid (HA), laminin (LN), procollagen type III (PCIII), hydroxyproline (Hyp), glutathione (GSH‑Px), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF‑β1) levels were measured in rats with hepatic fibrosis. Histopathological changes in affected livers were studied using hematoxylin‑eosin and Masson's trichrome staining. The expression of transforming growth factor‑β/Smad pathway proteins, α‑smooth muscle actin (α‑SMA), collagen I and collagen III was observed in fibrotic livers using western blot analysis. The present study observed significant reductions in serum levels of AST, ALT, HA, LN, PCIII and Hyp in APE‑treated (2.6 and 5.2 g/kg) rats, indicating the significant hepatoprotective effects of APE. Furthermore, the depletion of GSH‑Px and SOD, in addition to the accumulation of MDA in liver tissue was suppressed by APE (2.6 and 5.2 g/kg). Pathological assessment of CCl4‑induced fibrotic livers revealed a significant reduction of liver injury and development of hepatic fibrosis in rats treated with APE (2.6 and 5.2 g/kg). Moreover, APE (2.6 and 5.2 g/kg) decreased the elevation of TGF‑β1, α‑SMA, collagen I and collagen III expression, inhibited Smad2/3 phosphorylation as well as elevated the expression of the TGF‑β1 inhibitor Smad7. These results suggested that APE may protect against liver damage and inhibit the progression of CCl4‑induced hepatic fibrosis. The mechanism of action of APE is

  18. The effect of heat waves, elevated [CO2 ] and low soil water availability on northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Bauweraerts, Ingvar; Wertin, Timothy M; Ameye, Maarten; McGuire, Mary Anne; Teskey, Robert O; Steppe, Kathy

    2013-02-01

    The frequency and intensity of heat waves are predicted to increase. This study investigates whether heat waves would have the same impact as a constant increase in temperature with the same heat sum, and whether there would be any interactive effects of elevated [CO2 ] and soil moisture content. We grew Quercus rubra seedlings in treatment chambers maintained at either ambient or elevated [CO2 ] (380 or 700 μmol CO2 mol(-1) ) with temperature treatments of ambient, ambient +3 °C, moderate heat wave (+6 °C every other week) or severe heat wave (+12 °C every fourth week) temperatures. Averaged over a 4-week period, and the entire growing season, the three elevated temperature treatments had the same average temperature and heat sum. Half the seedlings were watered to a soil water content near field capacity, half to about 50% of this value. Foliar gas exchange measurements were performed morning and afternoon (9:00 and 15:00 hours) before, during and after an applied heat wave in August 2010. Biomass accumulation was measured after five heat wave cycles. Under ambient [CO2 ] and well-watered conditions, biomass accumulation was highest in the +3 °C treatment, intermediate in the +6 °C heat wave and lowest in the +12 °C heat wave treatment. This response was mitigated by elevated [CO2 ]. Low soil moisture significantly decreased net photosynthesis (Anet ) and biomass in all [CO2 ] and temperature treatments. The +12 °C heat wave reduced afternoon Anet by 23% in ambient [CO2 ]. Although this reduction was relatively greater under elevated [CO2 ], Anet values during this heat wave were still 34% higher than under ambient [CO2 ]. We concluded that heat waves affected biomass growth differently than the same amount of heat applied uniformly over the growing season, and that the plant response to heat waves also depends on [CO2 ] and soil moisture conditions.

  19. Efficient preparation of pseudoalteromone A from marine Pseudoalteromonas rubra QD1-2 by combination of response surface methodology and high-speed counter-current chromatography: a comparison with high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ding, Lijian; He, Shan; Yan, Xiaojun

    2014-05-01

    Pseudoalteromone A (PA) is a cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory ubiquinone discovered recently from a marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. CGH2XX. In order to meet its sample supply for further in vivo pharmacological investigation, an efficient method was developed for the preparation of PA by combination of response surface methodology (RSM) and high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) from marine bacterium P. rubra QD1-2. First, optimization of culture conditions was studied by the RSM to enhance PA production. The results indicated that the optimal cultivation condition was peptone (2.21 g/l), yeast extract (3.125 g/l), glucose (0.125 g/l), KBr (0.02 g/l), inoculum size (6.5 %), medium volume (595 ml), initial pH value (7.0), temperature (28 °C). Under the optimized fermentation condition, PA production was 1.04 mg/l with 14.8-fold increase comparing to 0.07 mg/l under original standard fermentation condition. The PA production was further investigated using a 14-l jar fermenter. Compared to the flask culture, P. rubra QD1-2 offered 45 % increase of PA production at 1.51 mg/l. Then, a rapid and efficient method for the separation and purification of PA from crude culture extract was developed using HSCCC. The two-phase solvent system used for HSCCC separation was composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (5:5:9:5, v/v/v/v). The isolation was accomplished within 100 min, and the purity of PA was over 95 %. The recovery of the process was 93 %.

  20. Taxonomy and evolution of bacteriochlorophyll a-containing members of the OM60/NOR5 clade of marine gammaproteobacteria: description of Luminiphilus syltensis gen. nov., sp. nov., reclassification of Haliea rubra as Pseudohaliea rubra gen. nov., comb. nov., and emendation of Chromatocurvus halotolerans

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aerobic gammaproteobacteria affiliated to the OM60/NOR5 clade are widespread in saline environments and of ecological importance in several marine ecosystems, especially the euphotic zone of coastal areas. Within this group a close relationship between aerobic anoxygenic photoheterotrophs and non-phototrophic members has been found. Results Several strains of aerobic red-pigmented bacteria affiliated to the OM60/NOR5 clade were obtained from tidal flat sediment samples at the island of Sylt (North Sea, Germany). Two of the novel isolates, Rap1red and Ivo14T, were chosen for an analysis in detail. Strain Rap1red shared a 16S rRNA sequence identity of 99% with the type strain of Congregibacter litoralis and was genome-sequenced to reveal the extent of genetic microheterogeneity among closely related strains within this clade. In addition, a draft genome sequence was obtained from the isolate Ivo14T, which belongs to the environmental important NOR5-1 lineage that contains so far no cultured representative with a comprehensive description. Strain Ivo14T was characterized using a polyphasic approach and compared with other red-pigmented members of the OM60/NOR5 clade, including Congregibacter litoralis DSM 17192T, Haliea rubra DSM 19751T and Chromatocurvus halotolerans DSM 23344T. All analyzed strains contained bacteriochlorophyll a and spirilloxanthin as photosynthetic pigments. Besides a detailed phenotypic characterization including physiological and chemotaxonomic traits, sequence information based on protein-coding genes and a comparison of draft genome data sets were used to identify possible features characteristic for distinct taxa within this clade. Conclusions Comparative sequence analyses of the pufLM genes of genome-sequenced representatives of the OM60/NOR5 clade indicated that the photosynthetic apparatus of these species was derived from a common ancestor and not acquired by multiple horizontal gene transfer from phylogenetically distant

  1. Osmotic adjustment in five tree species under elevated CO sub 2 and water stress. [Platanus occidentalis L. ; Liquidambar styraciflua L. ; Quercus rubra L. ; Acer saccharum Marsh; Liriodendron tulipifera L

    SciTech Connect

    Tschaplinski, T.J.; Hanson, P.J.; Norby, R.J. ); Stewart, D.B. )

    1991-05-01

    Since osmotic adjustment to water stress requires carbon assimilation during stress, the stimulation of photosynthesis by elevated CO{sub 2} may enhance osmotic adjustment. Osmotic adjustment of American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), and northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) to water stress was assessed under ambient and elevated CO{sub 2} (ambient +300 {mu}L L{sup {minus}1}), with seedlings grown in 8-L pots in four open-top chambers, fitted with rain exclusion canopies. Trees were subjected to repeated water stress cycles over a six-week period. Well-watered trees were watered daily to maintain a soil matric potential > {minus}0.3 MPa, whereas stressed trees were watered when soil matric potential declined to < {minus}0.9 MPa. Gas exchange and water relations were monitored at the depth of stress and after rewatering. All species displayed an increase in leaf-level water-use efficiency (net photosynthesis/transpiration). Leaves of sycamore and sweetgum displayed an adjustment in osmotic potential at saturation (pressure-volume analysis) of 0.3 MPa and 0.6 MPa, respectively. Elevated CO{sub 2} did not enhance osmotic adjustment in leaves of any of the species studied. Studies to characterize organic solute concentrations in roots are ongoing to determine if osmotic adjustment occurred in the roots.

  2. [The role of motivation in the performance of a conditioned switching-over of the maze habit in ants Myrmica rubra after a change in the quality of the food reinforcement].

    PubMed

    Udalova, G P; Karas', A Ia

    2005-01-01

    Active foragers Myrmica rubra were trained in a maze under conditions of different levels of colony need in food with carbohydrate (sugar syrup) or protein (ants Lasius niger pupae) reinforcement. Acquisition of the maze habit was better under conditions of reinforcement with pupae, especially by its time indices. Ants were able to modify the acquired habit when the reinforcement quality was changed. It was shown that learning was possible only when the colony and after a change pupae for the syrup was "hungry". Under these conditions, after a change of the syrup for pupae or visa versa the previously acquired optimum habit was transferred. Several hours later, with satiation of the colony, food reactions learned with protein reinforcement switched-over to "stochastic" non-optimized behavior with the dominance of exploratory reactions. Thus, it was shown that higher social insects ants were capable for conditioned switching-over. Different forms of this phenomenon depended on the level of the colony need in food and, consequently, on the level of the social food motivation of foragers ants.

  3. The role of motivation in the performance of conditioned reflex switching of a maze skill in response to substitution of food reward quality in ants of the species Myrmica rubra.

    PubMed

    Udalova, G P; Karas', A Ya

    2006-11-01

    The characteristics of learning in ants - active Myrmica rubra foragers - were studied in a maze at different levels of colony carbohydrate food need with reinforcement consisting of carbohydrate (sugar syrup) or protein (pupae of Lasius niger ants). Measures of the maze skill during learning reinforced with syrup were somewhat worse than those during learning reinforced with pupae, especially in terms of time-based measures. Ants were able to modify the acquired conditioned reflex reaction when the quality of reinforcement changed. At high levels of food need (" hungry" colony), substitution of syrup with larvae and vice versa was followed by transformation of the previously formed skill; this occurred at both experimental periods (training and testing). At low levels of motivation ("sated colony"), the optimized maze habit formed with protein reinforcement was replaced in the test with carbohydrate reinforcement by a "stochastic," unoptimized behavior with a dominance of investigative activity. These experiments demonstrated that conditioned reflex switching can occur in higher social insects - ants - in which the different forms depend on the level of colony need for food and, respectively, on the level of social food-related motivation of forager ants. The special importance of using the switch activating the corresponding motivational system before changing the reinforcement food quality is emphasized.

  4. Heat Rash or Prickly Heat (Miliaria Rubra)

    MedlinePlus

    ... which can be a causative agent in the development of the rash. Remove any occlusive clothing, limit activity, and seek air conditioning or any cooler environment. Cool compresses can also help with the discomfort. ...

  5. Heat Rash or Prickly Heat (Miliaria Rubra)

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2006-2013 Logical Images, Inc. All rights reserved. Advertising Notice This Site and third parties who place ... would like to obtain more information about these advertising practices and to make choices about online behavioral ...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: familial pityriasis rubra pilaris

    MedlinePlus

    ... redness; and "pilaris" suggests the involvement of hair follicles in this disorder. Affected individuals have a salmon- ... bumps called follicular keratoses that occur around hair follicles. The skin on the palms of the hands ...

  7. Parenchyma cell respiration and survival in secondary xylem: does metabolic activity decline with cell age?

    PubMed

    Spicer, R; Holbrook, N M

    2007-08-01

    Sapwood respiration often declines towards the sapwood/heartwood boundary, but it is not known if parenchyma metabolic activity declines with cell age. We measured sapwood respiration in five temperate species (sapwood age range of 5-64 years) and expressed respiration on a live cell basis by quantifying living parenchyma. We found no effect of parenchyma age on respiration in two conifers (Pinus strobus, Tsuga canadensis), both of which had significant amounts of dead parenchyma in the sapwood. In angiosperms (Acer rubrum, Fraxinus americana, Quercus rubra), both bulk tissue and live cell respiration were reduced by about one-half in the oldest relative to the youngest sapwood, and all sapwood parenchyma remained alive. Conifers and angiosperms had similar bulk tissue respiration despite a smaller proportion of parenchyma in conifers (5% versus 15-25% in angiosperms), such that conifer parenchyma respired at rates about three times those of angiosperms. The fact that 5-year-old parenchyma cells respired at the same rate as 25-year-old cells in conifers suggests that there is no inherent or intrinsic decline in respiration as a result of cellular ageing. In contrast, it is not known whether differences observed in cellular respiration rates of angiosperms are a function of age per se, or whether active regulation of metabolic rate or positional effects (e.g. proximity to resources and/or hormones) could be the cause of reduced respiration in older sapwood.

  8. Microbial Aromatization of Steroids into Equilin

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, S. N.; Vézina, Claude

    1970-01-01

    This report describes the bioconversion of 19-hydroxy-androsta-4, 7-diene-3, 17-dione into equilin with Nocardia rubra. Through mutation and improvement of medium and of conditions, the bioconversion could be improved to yield 40% equilin for a substrate concentration of 1 g/liter. Aromatization of several other 19-hydroxy and 19-nor substrates of the androstene series is reported, and the influence of various substitutions of the substrate molecule on aromatization is discussed. PMID:5492438

  9. Therapeutic efficacy of sequential therapy with OK-432, cyclophosphamide, IL2-cultured lymphocytes and in vivo IL2 against advanced murine plasmacytoma.

    PubMed

    Kan, N; Okino, T; Nakanishi, M; Sato, K; Mise, K; Yamasaki, S; Teramura, Y; Ohgaki, K; Tobe, T

    1989-01-01

    BALB/c mice inoculated IP with a syngeneic plasmacytoma MOPC104E were treated with a combination of a streptococcal preparation, OK-432 (1 KE, 0.1 mg/mouse), low-dose of cyclophosphamide (CPA, 1 mg/kg) and adoptive transfer of tumor-bearer-spleen cells (2 x 10(7) cells) cultured with IL2 and sonicated tumor extract (adoptive immunotherapy; AIT). The consecutive protocol of OK-432 (day 8, 9 post inoculation) - CPA (day 10) - AIT (day 11) was the most effective. Rate of complete remission was highest when recombinant (r-) IL2 was injected to the mice after AIT. Moreover, another bacterial preparation, Nocardia rubra cell wall skeleton and another low-dose chemotherapy, Mitomycin C could be used successfully instead of OK-432 or CPA. Transfer test of intraperitoneal cells (tumor cells plus host cells) of mice on day 11 post inoculation (on the day of AIT) revealed that OK-432 augmented the susceptibility of peritoneal cells to cultured lymphocytes in inhibition of transplantability, and that CPA after OK-432 augmented the anti-tumor effect of tumor-bearer-spleen cells which act synergistically with cultured lymphocytes. This therapy schedule seems to be the best model to augment the effect of AIT with minimal side effect.

  10. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa catheter-related fungemia in a patient with sickle cell disease: case presentation and literature review.

    PubMed

    Neofytos, Dionissios; Horn, David; De Simone, Joseph A

    2007-02-01

    Rhodotorula mucilaginosa (formerly Rhodotorula rubra) is a ubiquitous, environmental, urease-positive yeast that does not ferment sugars and can assimilate various carbohydrates. Characterized by the salmon-pink to coral-red color of its colonies, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa can disseminate and cause significant disease. We present a case of sustained Rhodotorula mucilaginosa catheter-related fungemia in a patient with sickle cell anemia who refused removal of the implanted port. The patient remained clinically stable, with blood cultures persistently growing Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, despite appropriate antifungal therapy. An extensive literature review revealed a wide range of clinical manifestations in immunocompromised patients. Susceptibility patterns to different antifungal agents and therapeutic considerations are thoroughly discussed. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa can be a significant, recalcitrant pathogen in immunocompromised patients and prompt treatment should be instituted. PMID:17330692

  11. Former poison gas workers and cancer: incidence and inhibition of tumor formation by treatment with biological response modifier N-CWS.

    PubMed

    Yamakido, M; Ishioka, S; Hiyama, K; Maeda, A

    1996-05-01

    Mustard gas is known to have mutagenic and carcinogenic effects on animal and human cells. In this report, 1,632 male Japanese who worked in poison gas factories at some time between the years 1927 and 1945 were studied to determine comparative risk for development of cancer, the reference population being data on Japanese males overall. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for lung cancer in workers directly and indirectly involved in the production of mustard gas was significantly elevated. In addition, SMR for lung cancer in worker who had worked for more than 5 years was also significantly elevated. Thus, poison gas workers who had engaged in the production of mustard gas or related work for more than 5 years are a high-risk group for lung cancer. Under the cancer preventive program, Nocardia rubra cell-wall skeleton (N-CWS) was administered to 146 former poison gas workers. During a 4.5 year observation period, development of cancers was found in 7 treated workers and 17 untreated controls. After elimination of the influence of smoking level, a significant suppression of development of cancers was noted in the N-CWS-treated workers as compared to the untreated controls. Although the molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis in former poison gas workers remains unclear, our study proposes the possible effect of biological response modifiers in the prevention of cancer development in high-risk human subjects.

  12. Disorders of B cells and helper T cells in the pathogenesis of the immunoglobulin deficiency of patients with ataxia telangiectasia.

    PubMed Central

    Waldmann, T A; Broder, S; Goldman, C K; Frost, K; Korsmeyer, S J; Medici, M A

    1983-01-01

    activators, Nocardia water soluble mitogen or Epstein-Barr virus. Taken together these data support the view that the reduced immunoglobulin synthesis of these patients is due to defects of both B cells and helper T cells. Such a broad defect in lymphocyte maturation taken in conjunction with our demonstration of persistent alpha fetoprotein production by ataxia telangiectasia patients provides support for the proposal that these patients exhibit a generalized defect in tissue differentiation. PMID:6822665

  13. DNA damage and apoptosis in blood neutrophils of inflammatory bowel disease patients and in Caco-2 cells in vitro exposed to betanin.

    PubMed

    Zielińska-Przyjemska, Małgorzata; Olejnik, Anna; Dobrowolska-Zachwieja, Agnieszka; Łuczak, Michał; Baer-Dubowska, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic, relapsing, inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, and continuing colonic inflammation is considered an important risk factor in the development of colorectal cancer. Our previous studies showed that beetroot (Beta vulgaris var. rubra) products and their major component betanin modulate the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and DNA damage in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) stimulated human polymorphonuclear neutrophils of healthy volunteers. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of betanin on the oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis in neutrophils isolated from blood of patients with inflammatory bowel disease--ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). The results were compared with those obtained in colon carcinoma-derived Caco-2 cells. Betanin treatment at the concentration of 100 μM for 24 h increased DNA damage assessed by comet assay in IBD patients' neutrophils. A similar effect although less pronounced was observed in Caco-2 cells. Treatment of Caco-2 cells with H2O2 caused a 4-fold increase of DNA strand breaks in comparison to untreated cells, but pre-treatment with betanin reduced DNA damage in these cells. Betanin also induced procaspase-3 cleavage and caspase-3 activity accompanied by the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, indicating its pro-apoptotic activity. These results suggest that betanin may support mechanisms that lead to the release of ROS and apoptotic cell death. In this way betanin may exert anti-inflammatory and potentially cancer preventive activity. PMID:27117102

  14. DNA damage and apoptosis in blood neutrophils of inflammatory bowel disease patients and in Caco-2 cells in vitro exposed to betanin.

    PubMed

    Zielińska-Przyjemska, Małgorzata; Olejnik, Anna; Dobrowolska-Zachwieja, Agnieszka; Łuczak, Michał; Baer-Dubowska, Wanda

    2016-04-06

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic, relapsing, inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, and continuing colonic inflammation is considered an important risk factor in the development of colorectal cancer. Our previous studies showed that beetroot (Beta vulgaris var. rubra) products and their major component betanin modulate the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and DNA damage in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) stimulated human polymorphonuclear neutrophils of healthy volunteers. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of betanin on the oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis in neutrophils isolated from blood of patients with inflammatory bowel disease--ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). The results were compared with those obtained in colon carcinoma-derived Caco-2 cells. Betanin treatment at the concentration of 100 μM for 24 h increased DNA damage assessed by comet assay in IBD patients' neutrophils. A similar effect although less pronounced was observed in Caco-2 cells. Treatment of Caco-2 cells with H2O2 caused a 4-fold increase of DNA strand breaks in comparison to untreated cells, but pre-treatment with betanin reduced DNA damage in these cells. Betanin also induced procaspase-3 cleavage and caspase-3 activity accompanied by the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, indicating its pro-apoptotic activity. These results suggest that betanin may support mechanisms that lead to the release of ROS and apoptotic cell death. In this way betanin may exert anti-inflammatory and potentially cancer preventive activity.

  15. [Lung cavities caused by Nocardia cyriacigeorgica in an immunosuppressed boy].

    PubMed

    Berring, Dahlia Caroline; Nygaard, Ulrikka

    2014-09-29

    The identification of nodules and/or cavitations in the chest X-ray of a chronically or acute ill patient will rise the suspicion of tuberculosis. However, it is important to be aware of pulmonary nocardiosis as a rare but important differential diagnosis, especially in case of no hilar adenitis. In this case report, we describe a six-year-old boy receiving prednisolone due to nephrotic syndrome, who developed pneumothorax because of pulmonal nocardiosis. The prognosis is good in case of early diagnosis and antibiotic treatment. PMID:25294520

  16. Biocatalytic Synthesis of Vanillin

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Rosazza, John P. N.

    2000-01-01

    The conversions of vanillic acid and O-benzylvanillic acid to vanillin were examined by using whole cells and enzyme preparations of Nocardia sp. strain NRRL 5646. With growing cultures, vanillic acid was decarboxylated (69% yield) to guaiacol and reduced (11% yield) to vanillyl alcohol. In resting Nocardia cells in buffer, 4-O-benzylvanillic acid was converted to the corresponding alcohol product without decarboxylation. Purified Nocardia carboxylic acid reductase, an ATP and NADPH-dependent enzyme, quantitatively reduced vanillic acid to vanillin. Structures of metabolites were established by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectral analyses. PMID:10653736

  17. Abalone Hemocyanin Blocks the Entry of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 into Cells: a Potential New Antiviral Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Talaei Zanjani, Negar; Miranda-Saksena, Monica; Valtchev, Peter; Hueston, Linda; Diefenbach, Eve; Sairi, Fareed; Gomes, Vincent G.

    2015-01-01

    A marine-derived compound, abalone hemocyanin, from Haliotis rubra was shown to have a unique mechanism of antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infections. In vitro assays demonstrated the dose-dependent and inhibitory effect of purified hemocyanin against HSV-1 infection in Vero cells with a 50% effective dose (ED50) of 40 to 50 nM and no significant toxicity. In addition, hemocyanin specifically inhibited viral attachment and entry by binding selectively to the viral surface glycoproteins gD, gB, and gC, probably by mimicking their receptors. However, hemocyanin had no effect on postentry events and did not block infection by binding to cellular receptors for HSV. By the use of different mutants of gD and gB and a competitive heparin binding assay, both protein charge and conformation were shown to be the driving forces of the interaction between hemocyanin and viral glycoproteins. These findings also suggested that hemocyanin may have different motifs for binding to each of the viral glycoproteins B and D. The dimer subunit of hemocyanin with a 10-fold-smaller molecular mass exhibited similar binding to viral surface glycoproteins, showing that the observed inhibition did not require the entire multimer. Therefore, a small hemocyanin analogue could serve as a new antiviral candidate for HSV infections. PMID:26643336

  18. Abalone Hemocyanin Blocks the Entry of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 into Cells: a Potential New Antiviral Strategy.

    PubMed

    Talaei Zanjani, Negar; Miranda-Saksena, Monica; Valtchev, Peter; Diefenbach, Russell J; Hueston, Linda; Diefenbach, Eve; Sairi, Fareed; Gomes, Vincent G; Cunningham, Anthony L; Dehghani, Fariba

    2016-02-01

    A marine-derived compound, abalone hemocyanin, from Haliotis rubra was shown to have a unique mechanism of antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infections. In vitro assays demonstrated the dose-dependent and inhibitory effect of purified hemocyanin against HSV-1 infection in Vero cells with a 50% effective dose (ED50) of 40 to 50 nM and no significant toxicity. In addition, hemocyanin specifically inhibited viral attachment and entry by binding selectively to the viral surface glycoproteins gD, gB, and gC, probably by mimicking their receptors. However, hemocyanin had no effect on postentry events and did not block infection by binding to cellular receptors for HSV. By the use of different mutants of gD and gB and a competitive heparin binding assay, both protein charge and conformation were shown to be the driving forces of the interaction between hemocyanin and viral glycoproteins. These findings also suggested that hemocyanin may have different motifs for binding to each of the viral glycoproteins B and D. The dimer subunit of hemocyanin with a 10-fold-smaller molecular mass exhibited similar binding to viral surface glycoproteins, showing that the observed inhibition did not require the entire multimer. Therefore, a small hemocyanin analogue could serve as a new antiviral candidate for HSV infections. PMID:26643336

  19. In vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model to estimate cadmium and lead bioaccessibility/bioavailability in two vegetables: the influence of cooking and additives.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jin; Cui, Yanshan

    2013-09-01

    The estimation of heavy metal bioaccessibility and bioavailability in vegetables is helpful for human health risk assessment. Using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model, the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in raw/cooked pakchoi (Brassica rapa L., Chinensis Group) and Malabar spinach (Basella rubra L.) were studied. The effect of the addition of iron, calcium and acetic acid to the samples was also determined. The results indicated that Cd bioaccessibility was higher in the gastric phase and Pb bioaccessibility was higher in the small intestinal phase. Cadmium and Pb bioavailability were 11.2% and 9.4% in the raw vegetables, respectively, and found to be higher significantly than the cooked vegetables with 6.1% for Cd and 3.2% for Pb. The results showed that it will be overestimating the risk of Pb and Cd based on the data of raw vegetables ingestion. Using bioavailability values, average Cd and Pb daily intake by adult were 23% and 28% respectively, of the base bioaccessibility values. Our study will be better understanding the possible health risks of some vegetables base on the bioaccessibility or bioavailability.

  20. Stem Cells

    MedlinePlus

    Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. They serve as a repair ... body. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem ...

  1. Cell Structure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cells, Tissues, & Membranes Cell Structure & Function Cell Structure Cell Function Body Tissues Epithelial Tissue Connective Tissue Muscle Tissue ... apparatus , and lysosomes . « Previous (Cell Structure & Function) Next (Cell Function) » Contact Us | Privacy Policy | Accessibility | FOIA | File Formats ...

  2. T Cells

    MedlinePlus

    ... or turn off the immune response. Cytotoxic or “killer” T cells directly attack and destroy cells bearing ... involve selective activation of helper T cells and killer T cells, with a corresponding decrease in regulatory ...

  3. Cell division

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... hours after conception, the fertilized egg cell remains a single cell. After approximately 30 hours, it divides ... 3 days, the fertilized egg cell has become a berry-like structure made up of 16 cells. ...

  4. Cell counting.

    PubMed

    Phelan, M C; Lawler, G

    2001-05-01

    This unit presents protocols for counting cells using either a hemacytometer or electronically using a Coulter counter. Cell counting with a hemacytometer permits effective discrimination of live from dead cells using trypan blue exclusion. In addition, the procedure is less subject to errors arising from cell clumping or size heterogeneity. Counting cells is more quickly and easily performed using an electronic counter, but live-dead discrimination is unreliable. Cell populations containing large numbers of dead cells and/or cell clumps are difficult to count accurately. In addition, electronic counting requires resetting of the instrument for cell populations of different sizes; heterogeneous populations can give rise to inaccurate counts, and resting and activated cells may require counting at separate settings. In general, electronic cell counting is best performed on fresh peripheral blood cells. PMID:18770655

  5. Disseminated Nocardia asteroides presenting as pulmonary non-caseating granulomas in a patient with Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia.

    PubMed

    Apisarnthanarak, A; Razavi, B; Bailey, T

    2002-01-01

    Disseminated nocardiosis has never been described before in a patient with Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia. We report an unusual case of disseminated nocardiosis in a patient with Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia who presented with pulmonary non-caseating granulomas. The patient was successfully treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) for 1 year.

  6. Galvanic Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, I. G.

    1973-01-01

    Many standard physical chemistry textbooks contain ambiguities which lead to confusion about standard electrode potentials, calculating cell voltages, and writing reactions for galvanic cells. This article shows how standard electrode potentials can be used to calculate cell voltages and deduce cell reactions. (Author/RH)

  7. Cell Biochips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pioufle, B. Le; Picollet-D'Hahan, N.

    A cell biochip is a microsystem, equipped with electronic and microfluidic functions, designed to manipulate or analyse living cells. The first publications in this emerging area of research appeared toward the end of the 1980s. In 1989 Washizu described a biochip designed to fuse two cells by electropermeabilisation of the cytoplasmic membrane [1]. Research centers have devised a whole range of cell chip structures, for simultaneous or sequential analysis of single cells, cell groups, or cell tissues reconstituted on the chip. The cells are arranged in a square array on a parallel cell chip for parallel analysis, while they are examined and processed one by one in a microchannel in the case of a series cell chip. In contrast to these biochips for high-throughput analysis of a large number of cells, single-cell chips focus on the analysis of a single isolated cell. As in DNA microarrays, where a large number of oligonucleotides are ordered in a matrix array, parallel cell chips order living cells in a similar way. At each point of the array, the cells can be isolated, provided that the cell type allows this, e.g., blood cells, or cultivated in groups (most adhesion cells can only survive in groups). The aim is to allow massively parallel analysis or processing. Le Pioufle et al. describe a microdevice for the culture of single cells or small groups of cells in a micropit array [2]. Each pit is equipped to stimulate the cell or group of cells either electrically or fluidically. Among the applications envisaged are gene transfer, cell sorting, and screening in pharmacology. A complementary approach, combining the DNA microarray and cell biochip ideas, has been put forward by Bailey et al. [3]. Genes previously arrayed on the chip transfect the cultured cells on the substrate depending on their position in the array (see Fig. 19.1). This way of achieving differential lipofection on a chip was then taken up again by Yoshikawa et al. [4] with primary cells, more

  8. Phenology, dichogamy, and floral synchronization in a northern red oak (Quercus Rubra L.) seed orchard

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We developed a novel scoring system to assess spring phenology in a northern red oak clonal seed orchard. The system was used to score between 304 and 364 ramets for three reproductive seasons and place clones into early, middle, and late phenology groups. While the absolute number of clones in ea...

  9. Captive breeding and rearing of critically endangered Mauritius fodies Foudia rubra for reintroduction.

    PubMed

    Cristinacce, Andrew; Ladkoo, Amanda; Switzer, Richard; Jordan, Lara; Vencatasamy, Vanessa; de Ravel Koenig, Frederique; Jones, Carl; Bell, Diana

    2008-07-01

    In-situ captive rearing of endangered passerines for reintroduction has rarely been used as a conservation tool. Nests of Mauritius fodies threatened with predation by introduced mammalian predators were harvested from the wild, and chicks were reared to independence for release onto an offshore, predator-free island. The daily probability of the survival was higher in captivity than in the wild, and 69 chicks were reared to fledging of which 47 would have been expected to fledge in the wild. Harvesting of nests probably had little impact on the wild population. Captive breeding trials on Mauritius fodies showed that large numbers of individuals could be produced for a release program from a small number of pairs if enough space was provided. Artificial incubation of passerine eggs and rearing of chicks can be used to increase the productivity of endangered taxa. Zoos can play an important role in in-situ conservation programs through provision of avicultural expertise and training of local staff. Zoo Biol 27:255-268, 2008. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Red Alder (Alnus rubra) Distribution Influences Nitrate Discharge to Coastal Estuaries: Comparison of Two Oregon Watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    We determined nutrient export from the Yaquina and Alsea Rivers as part of a larger program for evaluating nutrient sources to coastal waters. The Yaquina and Alsea data indicated that one river typically contained twice the amount of dissolved nitrate-N, although temperature, co...

  11. Codon usage patterns in Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra) based on RNA-Seq data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Codon usage analysis has been a classical topic for decades and has significances for studies of evolution, mRNA translation, and new gene discovery, etc. While the codon usage varies among different members of the plant kingdom, indicating the necessity for species-specific study, this work has mostly been limited to model organisms. Recently, the development of deep sequencing, especial RNA-Seq, has made it possible to carry out studies in non-model species. Result RNA-Seq data of Chinese bayberry was analyzed to investigate the bias of codon usage and codon pairs. High frequency codons (AGG, GCU, AAG and GAU), as well as low frequency ones (NCG and NUA codons) were identified, and 397 high frequency codon pairs were observed. Meanwhile, 26 preferred and 141 avoided neighboring codon pairs were also identified, which showed more significant bias than the same pairs with one or more intervening codons. Codon patterns were also analyzed at the plant kingdom, organism and gene levels. Changes during plant evolution were evident using RSCU (relative synonymous codon usage), which was even more significant than GC3s (GC content of 3rd synonymous codons). Nine GO categories were differentially and independently influenced by CAI (codon adaptation index) or GC3s, especially in 'Molecular function’ category. Within a gene, the average CAI increased from 0.720 to 0.785 in the first 50 codons, and then more slowly thereafter. Furthermore, the preferred as well as avoided codons at the position just following the start codon AUG were identified and discussed in relation to the key positions in Kozak sequences. Conclusion A comprehensive codon usage Table and number of high-frequency codon pairs were established. Bias in codon usage as well as in neighboring codon pairs was observed, and the significance of this in avoiding DNA mutation, increasing protein production and regulating protein synthesis rate was proposed. Codon usage patterns at three levels were revealed and the significance in plant evolution analysis, gene function classification, and protein translation start site predication were discussed. This work promotes the study of codon biology, and provides some reference for analysis and comprehensive application of RNA-Seq data from other non-model species. PMID:24160180

  12. Structural Elucidation and Antioxidant Activities of Proanthocyanidins from Chinese Bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yu; Qiao, Liping; Cao, Yuming; Zhou, Xiaozhou; Liu, Yu; Ye, Xingqian

    2014-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins in Chinese bayberry leaves (PCBLs) were qualitatively analyzed. NMR data suggest that PCBLs are mostly composed of (epi)gallocatechin gallate units. Matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight MS data indicate 95 possible prodelphinidin structures, ranging from dimers to tridecamers. Preparative normal-phase HPLC and further analysis by reverse-phase HPLC together with electrospray ionization MS enabled detection of 20 compounds, including seven newly identified compounds in Chinese bayberry leaves. The antioxidant capacity of PCBLs was evaluated by (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl), ferric-reducing antioxidant power, and oxygen radical absorption capacity assays. The EC50 of DPPH radical scavenging activities (as 50% decrease in the initial DPPH concentration) were 7.60 µg. The FRAP and ORAC values were 8859.33±978.39 and 12991.61±1553.34 µmol Trolox equivalents per gram, respectively. The results indicate the high antioxidant potency of PCBLs. PMID:24805126

  13. Engineering cell-cell signaling.

    PubMed

    Blagovic, Katarina; Gong, Emily S; Milano, Daniel F; Natividad, Robert J; Asthagiri, Anand R

    2013-10-01

    Juxtacrine cell-cell signaling mediated by the direct interaction of adjoining mammalian cells is arguably the mode of cell communication that is most recalcitrant to engineering. Overcoming this challenge is crucial for progress in biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, immune system engineering and therapeutic design. Here, we describe the significant advances that have been made in developing synthetic platforms (materials and devices) and synthetic cells (cell surface engineering and synthetic gene circuits) to modulate juxtacrine cell-cell signaling. In addition, significant progress has been made in elucidating design rules and strategies to modulate juxtacrine signaling on the basis of quantitative, engineering analysis of the mechanical and regulatory role of juxtacrine signals in the context of other cues and physical constraints in the microenvironment. These advances in engineering juxtacrine signaling lay a strong foundation for an integrative approach to utilize synthetic cells, advanced 'chassis' and predictive modeling to engineer the form and function of living tissues.

  14. Fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, has supported and managed a fuel cell research and development (R and D) program since 1976. Responsibility for implementing DOE's fuel cell program, which includes activities related to both fuel cells and fuel cell systems, has been assigned to the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. The total United States effort of the private and public sectors in developing fuel cell technology is referred to as the National Fuel Cell Program (NFCP). The goal of the NFCP is to develop fuel cell power plants for base-load and dispersed electric utility systems, industrial cogeneration, and on-site applications. To achieve this goal, the fuel cell developers, electric and gas utilities, research institutes, and Government agencies are working together. Four organized groups are coordinating the diversified activities of the NFCP. The status of the overall program is reviewed in detail.

  15. Types of Stem Cells

    MedlinePlus

    ... PDF) Download an introduction to stem cells and stem cell research. Stem Cell Glossary Stem cell terms to know. ... stem cells blog from the International Society for Stem Cell Research. Learn About Stem Cells From Lab to You ...

  16. Electrolytic cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullock, J. S.; Hale, B. D.

    1984-09-01

    An apparatus is described for the separation of the anolyte and the catholyte during electrolysis. The electrolyte flows through an electrolytic cell between the oppositely charged electrodes. The cell is equipped with a wedge-shaped device, the tapered end is located between the electrodes on the effluent side of the cell. The wedge diverts the flow of the electrolyte to either side of the wedge, substantially separating the anolyte and the catholyte.

  17. Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Trepat, Xavier; Chen, Zaozao; Jacobson, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Cell migration is fundamental to establishing and maintaining the proper organization of multicellular organisms. Morphogenesis can be viewed as a consequence, in part, of cell locomotion, from large-scale migrations of epithelial sheets during gastrulation, to the movement of individual cells during development of the nervous system. In an adult organism, cell migration is essential for proper immune response, wound repair, and tissue homeostasis, while aberrant cell migration is found in various pathologies. Indeed, as our knowledge of migration increases, we can look forward to, for example, abating the spread of highly malignant cancer cells, retarding the invasion of white cells in the inflammatory process, or enhancing the healing of wounds. This article is organized in two main sections. The first section is devoted to the single-cell migrating in isolation such as occurs when leukocytes migrate during the immune response or when fibroblasts squeeze through connective tissue. The second section is devoted to cells collectively migrating as part of multicellular clusters or sheets. This second type of migration is prevalent in development, wound healing, and in some forms of cancer metastasis. PMID:23720251

  18. Cell Chauvinism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Dolores Elaine

    1972-01-01

    Indicates that biological terminology, such as mother cell'' and labels of sex factors in bacteria, reflect discrimination against females by reinforcing perpetuation of stereotyped gender roles. (AL)

  19. Cell Trivision of Hyperploid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Gabor; Kiraly, Gabor; Turani, Melinda

    2013-01-01

    Malignant transformation is likely to render cells hyperploid, primarily tetraploid. We have measured the frequency of division into three rather than two daughter cells as a function of ploidy. Such trivisions were followed in near-tetraploid uveal melanoma (UM), hypotetraploid HaCaT (<4 N), hypertriploid HeLa (>3 N), and in near-diploid (∼2 N) lung epithelial cell lines by time-lapse image analyses. A stepwise analysis of cytokinesis revealed higher frequency of cell trivisions relative to divisions in hyperploid HeLa (1:24, 4%), HaCaT (1:126, 8%), and UM (1:186, 0.5%) cells. The occurrence of trivision was significantly lower in near-diploid endothelial cells (1:1400, 0.07%). We have previously observed the phenomenon of trivision in HaCaT cells treated with heavy metal lead, and here we describe that trivision is a spontaneous process taking place without genotoxic treatment. Beside re-diploidization by trivision, the hyperploid state decreases the cell size of the daughter cells and is likely to increase the time of cytokinesis. On the basis of the results, it is hypothesized that among other cancer-related causes, hyperploidy could be related to cell trivision, could cause random aneuploidy, and could generate new cancer-specific karyotypes. PMID:24093497

  20. Unit Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Robert C.; Tobiason, Fred L.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the construction of unit cells using clear plastic cubes which can be disassembled, and one inch cork balls of various colors, which can be cut in halves, quarters, or eighths, and glued on the inside face of the cube, thus simulating a unit cell. (MLH)

  1. Photovoltaic cell

    SciTech Connect

    Bronstein-Bonte, I.Y.; Fischer, A.B.

    1986-12-16

    This patent describes a product comprising a photovoltaic cell including a luminescent dye which will absorb radiation at a wavelength to which the cell is not significantly responsive and emit radiation at a higher wavelength at which it is responsive. The improvement described here is wherein the dye comprises a lepidopterene.

  2. Fuel Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, M. D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the theories, construction, operation, types, and advantages of fuel cells developed by the American space programs. Indicates that the cell is an ideal small-scale power source characterized by its compactness, high efficiency, reliability, and freedom from polluting fumes. (CC)

  3. Cell polarity

    PubMed Central

    Romereim, Sarah M

    2011-01-01

    Despite extensive genetic analysis of the dynamic multi-phase process that transforms a small population of lateral plate mesoderm into the mature limb skeleton, the mechanisms by which signaling pathways regulate cellular behaviors to generate morphogenetic forces are not known. Recently, a series of papers have offered the intriguing possibility that regulated cell polarity fine-tunes the morphogenetic process via orienting cell axes, division planes and cell movements. Wnt5a-mediated non-canonical signaling, which may include planar cell polarity, has emerged as a common thread in the otherwise distinct signaling networks that regulate morphogenesis in each phase of limb development. These findings position the limb as a key model to elucidate how global tissue patterning pathways direct local differences in cell behavior that, in turn, generate growth and form. PMID:22064549

  4. Fuel cells 101

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschenhofer, J.H.

    1999-07-01

    This paper discusses the various types of fuel cells, the importance of cell voltage, fuel processing for natural gas, cell stacking, fuel cell plant description, advantages and disadvantages of the types of fuel cells, and applications. The types covered include: polymer electrolyte fuel cell, alkaline fuel cell, phosphoric acid fuel cell; molten carbonate fuel cell, and solid oxide fuel cell.

  5. 9. ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING INTERIOR. CELL ACCESS ELEVATOR, CELLS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING INTERIOR. CELL ACCESS ELEVATOR, CELLS 2 AND 4, BASEMENT LEVEL. LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Fairchild Air Force Base, Engine Test Cell Building, Near intersection of Arnold Street & George Avenue, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  6. Electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Redey, Laszlo I.; Vissers, Donald R.; Prakash, Jai

    1994-01-01

    An electrochemical cell having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm.sup.3 ; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160.degree. C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6.times.10.sup.4 cm.sup.2 /g of Ni.

  7. Electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Redey, Laszlo I.; Vissers, Donald R.; Prakash, Jai

    1996-01-01

    An electrochemical cell having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm.sup.3 ; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160.degree. C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6.times.10.sup.4 cm.sup.2 /g of Ni.

  8. Solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, R.I.; Kaplow, R.

    1980-08-26

    An improved solar cell designed for optimum efficiency is comprised of a plurality of series connected unit solar cells formed from a common substrate of semiconductor material. Each unit solar cell has spaced elongate sidewalls, and a ''dead space'' area between adjoining sidewalls of adjacent units is made substantially smaller than an active, light receiving area, extending between the opposite sidewalls of each individual unit. In addition, the width of the active area is concisely limited to ensure that radiation incident on the active area is incident at a point which is spaced from the p-n junction of each unit by no more than a predetermined optimum distance. Reducing the ''dead space'' area while concisely limiting the width of the active area provides improved solar cell performance without requiring focusing lenses.

  9. Electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Redey, L.I.; Vissers, D.R.; Prakash, J.

    1996-07-16

    An electrochemical cell is described having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm{sup 3}; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160 C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6{times}10{sup 4}cm{sup 2}/g of Ni. 6 figs.

  10. [Cell cultures].

    PubMed

    Cipro, Simon; Groh, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Cell or tissue cultures (both terms are interchangeable) represent a complex process by which eukaryotic cells are maintained in vitro outside their natural environment. They have a broad usage covering not only scientific field but also diagnostic one since they represent the most important way of monoclonal antibodies production which are used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Cell cultures are also used as a "cultivation medium" in virology and for establishing proliferating cells in cytodiagnostics. They are well-established and easy-to-handle models in the area of research, e.g. as a precious source of nucleic acids or proteins. This paper briefly summarizes their importance and methods as well as the pitfalls of the cultivation and new trends in this field. PMID:24624984

  11. Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The Heat Exchanger Method (HEM) produces high efficiency crystal ingots in an automated well-insulated furnace offering low equipment, labor and energy costs. The "grown" silicon crystals are used to make solar cells, or photovoltaic cells which convert sunlight directly into electricity. The HEM method is used by Crystal Systems, Inc. and was developed under a NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory contract. The square wafers which are the result of the process are sold to companies manufacturing solar panels.

  12. Electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Redey, Laszlo I.; Vissers, Donald R.; Prakash, Jai

    1994-01-01

    An electrochemical cell having an alkali metal negative electrode such as sodium and a positive electrode including Ni or transition metals, separated by a .beta." alumina electrolyte and NaAlCl.sub.4 or other compatible material. Various concentrations of a bromine, iodine and/or sulfur containing additive and pore formers are disclosed, which enhance cell capacity and power. The pore formers may be the ammonium salts of carbonic acid or a weak organic acid or oxamide or methylcellulose.

  13. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, B.L.

    1998-12-15

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components. 16 figs.

  14. Electrochemical cell

    SciTech Connect

    Maloney, D.E.

    1984-04-24

    A process and cell for electrolysis of alkali metal halides, especially sodium chloride, are described, wherein the anolyte and catholyte compartments are separated by a fluorinated ion-exchange membrane whose surface facing the catholyte compartment is of a polymer having carboxylic functionality and which has a roughness which does not exceed 1.5 microns. Such a cell and process operate at high current efficiency, low voltage and low power consumption.

  15. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    2001-01-01

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs which can be combined to determine any one of the six general load components.

  16. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    1998-01-01

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components.

  17. Dry cell battery poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  18. Electrochemical cell

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, Z.; Yonco, R.M.; You, Hoydoo; Melendres, C.A.

    1991-04-23

    This invention is comprised of an electrochemical cell has a layer-type or sandwich configuration with a Teflon center section that houses working, reference and counter electrodes and defines a relatively narrow electrolyte cavity. The center section is surrounded on both sides with thin Teflon membranes. The membranes are pressed in place by a pair of Teflon inner frames which are in turn supported by a pair of outer metal frames. The pair of inner and outer frames are provided with corresponding, appropriately shaped slits that are in plane generally transverse to the plane of the working electrode and permit X-ray beams to enter and exit the cell through the Teflon membranes that cover the slits so that the interface between the working electrode and the electrolyte within the cell may be analyzed by transmission geometry. In one embodiment, the center section consists of two parts, one on top of the other. Alternatively, the center section of the electrochemical cell may consist of two intersliding pieces or may be made of a single piece of Teflon sheet material. The electrolyte cavity is shaped so that the electrochemical cell can be rotated 900 in either direction while maintaining the working-and counter electrodes submerged in the electrolyte.

  19. Electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Redey, Laszlo I.; Myles, Kevin M.; Vissers, Donald R.; Prakash, Jai

    1996-01-01

    An electrochemical cell with a positive electrode having an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride. A negative electrode of an alkali metal and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at cell operating temperature is included in the cell. The electrolyte is present at least partially as a corrugated .beta." alumina tube surrounding the negative electrode interior to the positive electrode. The ratio of the volume of liquid electrolyte to the volume of the positive electrode is in the range of from about 0.1 to about 3. A plurality of stacked electrochemical cells is disclosed each having a positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal molten at cell operating temperature, and a compatible electrolyte. The electrolyte is at least partially present as a corrugated .beta." alumina sheet separating the negative electrode and interior to the positive electrodes. The alkali metal is retained in a porous electrically conductive ceramic, and seals for sealing the junctures of the electrolyte and the adjacent electrodes at the peripheries thereof.

  20. Electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Nagy, Z.; Yonco, R.M.; You, H.; Melendres, C.A.

    1992-08-25

    An electrochemical cell has a layer-type or sandwich configuration with a Teflon center section that houses working, reference and counter electrodes and defines a relatively narrow electrolyte cavity. The center section is surrounded on both sides with thin Teflon membranes. The membranes are pressed in place by a pair of Teflon inner frames which are in turn supported by a pair of outer metal frames. The pair of inner and outer frames are provided with corresponding, appropriately shaped slits that are in plane generally transverse to the plane of the working electrode and permit X-ray beams to enter and exit the cell through the Teflon membranes that cover the slits so that the interface between the working electrode and the electrolyte within the cell may be analyzed by transmission geometry. In one embodiment, the center section consists of two parts, one on top of the other. Alternatively, the center section of the electrochemical cell may consist of two intersliding pieces or may be made of a single piece of Teflon sheet material. The electrolyte cavity is shaped so that the electrochemical cell can be rotated 90[degree] in either direction while maintaining the working and counter electrodes submerged in the electrolyte. 5 figs.

  1. Electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Nagy, Zoltan; Yonco, Robert M.; You, Hoydoo; Melendres, Carlos A.

    1992-01-01

    An electrochemical cell has a layer-type or sandwich configuration with a Teflon center section that houses working, reference and counter electrodes and defines a relatively narrow electrolyte cavity. The center section is surrounded on both sides with thin Teflon membranes. The membranes are pressed in place by a pair of Teflon inner frames which are in turn supported by a pair of outer metal frames. The pair of inner and outer frames are provided with corresponding, appropriately shaped slits that are in plane generally transverse to the plane of the working electrode and permit X-ray beams to enter and exit the cell through the Teflon membranes that cover the slits so that the interface between the working electrode and the electrolyte within the cell may be analyzed by transmission geometry. In one embodiment, the center section consists of two parts, one on top of the other. Alternatively, the center section of the electrochemical cell may consist of two intersliding pieces or may be made of a single piece of Teflon sheet material. The electrolyte cavity is shaped so that the electrochemical cell can be rotated 90.degree. in either direction while maintaining the working and counter electrodes submerged in the electrolyte.

  2. Air cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, Okiyoshi; Wakasa, Masayuki; Tamanoi, Yoshihito

    1991-04-01

    The present invention relates to an air cell. This air cell provides a compact light-weight power source for model aircraft permitting them to fly for an extended period so that they may be used for such practical purposes as crop dusting, surveying, and photographing. The cell is comprised of a current collector so disposed between a magnesium, zinc, or aluminum alloy cathode and a petroleum graphite anode that it is in contact with the anode. The anode is formed by adding polytetrafluoroethylene dispersion liquid in a mixture of active carbon and graphite powder, pouring the mixture into a mold and heating it to form the anode. It is fabricated by a plurality of anode sections and is formed with at least one hole so that it can provide a cell which is compact in size and light in weight yet is capable of generating a high output. The anode, the cathode, and a separator are wetted by an electrolytic liquid. The electrolyte is continuously supplied through the life of the cell.

  3. Cell sealant

    SciTech Connect

    Markin, C.; Book, R.J.; James, D.A.

    1988-04-26

    An electrochemical cell is described comprising an anode, a cathode and an electrolyte disposed within an open ended cylindrical metallic cell container, with an insulative cell top member being positioned within the open end of a sealant at the interface between the cell top member and the metallic cell container. The sealant is a mixture of a Type 2 BUR asphalt and an elastomeric material selected from the group consisting of (cis-1,4-polyisoprene), styrene-butadiene copolymer (SBR), cis-1,4-polybutadiene and styrene butadiene styrene (SBS), styrene isoprene styrene (SIS), neoprene (poly-chloprene), acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer (NBR), ethylene-propylene elastomers (EPR), butyl rubber (copolymers of isobutylene), urethane, nitrile (polymers of butadiene and acrylonitrile), polysulfide, polyacrylate, silicone, chlorosulfonated polyethylene, and EPDM (terpolymers of ethylene, propylene and diene monomers), and mixtures thereof, and wherein the elastomeric material is substantially inert to the electrolyte and is present in an amount between 0.5% to 10% by weight of the asphalt.

  4. Electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Redey, L.I.; Myles, K.M.; Vissers, D.R.; Prakash, J.

    1996-07-02

    An electrochemical cell is described with a positive electrode having an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride. A negative electrode of an alkali metal and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at cell operating temperature is included in the cell. The electrolyte is present at least partially as a corrugated {beta}{double_prime} alumina tube surrounding the negative electrode interior to the positive electrode. The ratio of the volume of liquid electrolyte to the volume of the positive electrode is in the range of from about 0.1 to about 3. A plurality of stacked electrochemical cells is disclosed each having a positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal molten at cell operating temperature, and a compatible electrolyte. The electrolyte is at least partially present as a corrugated {beta}{double_prime} alumina sheet separating the negative electrode and interior to the positive electrodes. The alkali metal is retained in a porous electrically conductive ceramic, and seals for sealing the junctures of the electrolyte and the adjacent electrodes at the peripheries thereof. 8 figs.

  5. Solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treble, F. C.

    1980-11-01

    The history, state of the art, and future prospects of solar cells are reviewed. Solar cells are already competitive in a wide range of low-power applications, and during the 1980's they are expected to become cheaper to run than diesel or gasoline generators, the present mainstay of isolated communities. At this stage they will become attractive for water pumping, irrigation, and rural electrification, particularly in developing countries. With further cost reduction, they may be used to augment grid supplies in domestic, commercial, institutional, and industrial premises. Cost reduction to the stage where photovoltaics becomes economic for large-scale power generation in central stations depends on a technological breakthrough in the development of thin-film cells. DOE aims to reach this goal by 1990, so that by the end of the century about 20% of the estimated annual additions to their electrical generating capacity will be photovoltaic.

  6. Cell Phones

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2013-01-01

    Cell phones are a relatively novel and evolving technology. While the potential benefits of this technology continue to emerge, so do the potential psychosocial risks. For example, one psychosocial risk is user stress, which appears to be related to feeling compelled to promptly respond to cell-phone activity in order to maintain spontaneity and access with others. Other potential psychosocial risks include disruptions in sleep; the user’s risk of exposure to cyberbullying, particularly the unwanted exposure of photographs and/or videos of the victim; and overuse, particularly among adolescents. With regard to the latter phenomenon, the boundaries among overuse, misuse, dependence, and addiction are not scientifically clear. Therefore, while cell phones are a convenient and expedient technology, they are not without their potential psychosocial hazards. PMID:23439568

  7. Electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Redey, L.I.; Vissers, D.R.; Prakash, J.

    1994-08-23

    An electrochemical cell is described having an alkali metal negative electrode such as sodium and a positive electrode including Ni or transition metals, separated by a [beta] alumina electrolyte and NaAlCl[sub 4] or other compatible material. Various concentrations of a bromine, iodine and/or sulfur containing additive and pore formers are disclosed, which enhance cell capacity and power. The pore formers may be the ammonium salts of carbonic acid or a weak organic acid or oxamide or methylcellulose. 6 figs.

  8. Electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1984-01-01

    An improved secondary electrochemical cell is disclosed having a negative electrode of lithium aluminum, a positive electrode of iron sulfide, a molten electrolyte of lithium chloride and potassium chloride, and the combination that the fully charged theoretical capacity of the negative electrode is in the range of 0.5-1.0 that of the positive electrode. The cell thus is negative electrode limiting during discharge cycling. Preferably, the negative electrode contains therein, in the approximate range of 1-10 volume % of the electrode, an additive from the materials of graphitized carbon, aluminum-iron alloy, and/or magnesium oxide.

  9. Cell Libraries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A NASA contract led to the development of faster and more energy efficient semiconductor materials for digital integrated circuits. Gallium arsenide (GaAs) conducts electrons 4-6 times faster than silicon and uses less power at frequencies above 100-150 megahertz. However, the material is expensive, brittle, fragile and has lacked computer automated engineering tools to solve this problem. Systems & Processes Engineering Corporation (SPEC) developed a series of GaAs cell libraries for cell layout, design rule checking, logic synthesis, placement and routing, simulation and chip assembly. The system is marketed by Compare Design Automation.

  10. Stem Cell Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... stem cells? What are the potential uses of human stem cells and the obstacles that must be overcome before ... two kinds of stem cells from animals and humans: embryonic stem cells and non-embryonic "somatic" or "adult" stem cells . ...

  11. Stem Cell Information: Glossary

    MedlinePlus

    ... based therapies Cell culture Cell division Chromosome Clone Cloning Cord blood stem cells Culture medium Differentiation Directed ... Pluripotent Polar body Preimplantation Proliferation Regenerative medicine Reproductive cloning Signals Somatic cell Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) ...

  12. Learn About Stem Cells

    MedlinePlus

    ... PDF) Download an introduction to stem cells and stem cell research. Stem Cell Glossary Stem cell terms to know. ... ISSCR Get Involved Media © 2015 International Society for Stem Cell Research Terms of Use Disclaimer Privacy Policy

  13. Potent Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    It seems hard to believe that Dolly the cloned sheep was born 10 years ago, kindling furious arguments over the prospects and ethics of cloning a human. Today, the controversy over cloning is entwined, often confused, with concerns over the use of human embryonic stem cells. Most people are unclear what cloning is, and they know even less when it…

  14. Photovoltaic cell

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Roy G.; Kurtz, Sarah

    1984-11-27

    In a photovoltaic cell structure containing a visibly transparent, electrically conductive first layer of metal oxide, and a light-absorbing semiconductive photovoltaic second layer, the improvement comprising a thin layer of transition metal nitride, carbide or boride interposed between said first and second layers.

  15. Photoelectrodialytic cell

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, G.W.

    1983-09-13

    A multicompartment photoelectrodialytic demineralization cell is provided with a buffer compartment interposed between the product compartment and a compartment containing an electrolyte solution. Semipermeable membranes separate the buffer compartment from the product and electrolyte compartments. The buffer compartment is flushed to prevent leakage of the electrolyte compartment from entering the product compartment. 3 figs.

  16. Photoelectrodialytic cell

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, George W.

    1983-01-01

    A multicompartment photoelectrodialytic demineralization cell is provided with a buffer compartment interposed between the product compartment and a compartment containing an electrolyte solution. Semipermeable membranes separate the buffer compartment from the product and electrolyte compartments. The buffer compartment is flushed to prevent leakage of the electrolyte compartment from entering the product compartment.

  17. 19. Oblique, typical cell (south cells) from rear of cell; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Oblique, typical cell (south cells) from rear of cell; view to north, 65mm lens with electronic flash illumination. - Tule Lake Project Jail, Post Mile 44.85, State Route 139, Newell, Modoc County, CA

  18. Stem Cells, Retinal Ganglion Cells, and Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Sluch, Valentin M.; Zack, Donald J.

    2015-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cells represent an essential neuronal cell type for vision. These cells receive inputs from light-sensing photoreceptors via retinal interneurons and then relay these signals to the brain for further processing. Retinal ganglion cell diseases that result in cell death, e.g. glaucoma, often lead to permanent damage since mammalian nerves do not regenerate. Stem cell differentiation can generate cells needed for replacement or can be used to generate cells capable of secreting protective factors to promote survival. In addition, stem cell-derived cells can be used in drug screening research. Here, we discuss the current state of stem cell research potential for interference in glaucoma and other optic nerve diseases with a focus on stem cell differentiation to retinal ganglion cells. PMID:24732765

  19. Cell division intersects with cell geometry.

    PubMed

    Moseley, James B; Nurse, Paul

    2010-07-23

    Single-celled organisms monitor cell geometry and use this information to control cell division. Such geometry-sensing mechanisms control both the decision to enter into cell division and the physical orientation of the chromosome segregation machinery, suggesting that signals controlling cell division may be linked to the mechanisms that ensure proper chromosome segregation.

  20. Ghost cell lesions

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, E.; Jimson, Sudha; Masthan, K. M. K.; Balachander, N.

    2015-01-01

    Ghost cells have been a controversy for a long time. Ghost cell is a swollen/enlarged epithelial cell with eosnophilic cytoplasm, but without a nucleus. In routine H and E staining these cells give a shadowy appearance. Hence these cells are also called as shadow cells or translucent cells. The appearance of these cells varies from lesion to lesion involving odontogenic and nonodontogenic lesions. This article review about the origin, nature and significance of ghost cells in different neoplasms. PMID:26015694

  1. Red blood cells, sickle cells (image)

    MedlinePlus

    These crescent or sickle-shaped red blood cells (RBCs) are present with Sickle cell anemia, and stand out clearly against the normal round RBCs. These abnormally shaped cells may become entangled and ...

  2. Red blood cells, multiple sickle cells (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disorder in which abnormal hemoglobin (the red pigment inside red blood cells) is produced. The abnormal hemoglobin causes red blood cells to assume a sickle shape, like the ones seen in this photomicrograph.

  3. Sickle Cell Information Center

    MedlinePlus

    ... change Sickle Cell News from Around the Web Google Custom Search – sickle cell Cure for sickle cell ... from healthy, ... NYT, Nature, Wash Post, SciAm, CNN - Google Custom Search Genetic Treatments for Sickle Cell - Scientific ...

  4. Murine Mueller cells are progenitor cells for neuronal cells and fibrous tissue cells

    SciTech Connect

    Florian, Christian; Langmann, Thomas; Weber, Bernhard H.F.; Morsczeck, Christian

    2008-09-19

    Mammalian Mueller cells have been reported to possess retinal progenitor cell properties and generate new neurons after injury. This study investigates murine Mueller cells under in vitro conditions for their capability of dedifferentiation into retinal progenitor cells. Mueller cells were isolated from mouse retina, and proliferating cells were expanded in serum-containing medium. For dedifferentiation, the cultured cells were transferred to serum-replacement medium (SRM) at different points in time after their isolation. Interestingly, early cell passages produced fibrous tissue in which extracellular matrix proteins and connective tissue markers were differentially expressed. In contrast, aged Mueller cell cultures formed neurospheres in SRM that are characteristic for neuronal progenitor cells. These neurospheres differentiated into neuron-like cells after cultivation on laminin/ornithine cell culture substrate. Here, we report for the first time that murine Mueller cells can be progenitors for both, fibrous tissue cells and neuronal cells, depending on the age of the cell culture.

  5. T-cell count

    MedlinePlus

    Thymus derived lymphocyte count; T-lymphocyte count; T cell count ... T cells are a type of lymphocyte. Lymphocytes are white blood cells. They make up part of the immune system. T cells help the body fight diseases or harmful ...

  6. Antiparietal cell antibody test

    MedlinePlus

    APCA; Anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Atrophic gastritis - anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Gastric ulcer - anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Pernicious anemia - anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Vitamin B12 - anti- ...

  7. Sickle cell anemia

    MedlinePlus

    Anemia - sickle cell; Hemoglobin SS disease (Hb SS); Sickle cell disease ... Sickle cell anemia is caused by an abnormal type of hemoglobin called hemoglobin S. Hemoglobin is a protein inside red blood cells ...

  8. CORONAL CELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Sheeley, N. R. Jr.; Warren, H. P. E-mail: harry.warren@nrl.navy.mil

    2012-04-10

    We have recently noticed cellular features in Fe XII 193 A images of the 1.2 MK corona. They occur in regions bounded by a coronal hole and a filament channel, and are centered on flux elements of the photospheric magnetic network. Like their neighboring coronal holes, these regions have minority-polarity flux that is {approx}0.1-0.3 times their flux of majority polarity. Consequently, the minority-polarity flux is 'grabbed' by the majority-polarity flux to form low-lying loops, and the remainder of the network flux escapes to connect with its opposite-polarity counterpart in distant active regions of the Sun. As these regions are carried toward the limb by solar rotation, the cells disappear and are replaced by linear plumes projecting toward the limb. In simultaneous views from the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory and Solar Dynamics Observatory spacecraft, these plumes project in opposite directions, extending away from the coronal hole in one view and toward the hole in the other view, suggesting that they are sky-plane projections of the same radial structures. We conclude that these regions are composed of closely spaced radial plumes, extending upward like candles on a birthday cake and visible as cells when seen from above. We suppose that a coronal hole has this same discrete, cellular magnetic structure, but that it is not seen until the encroachment of opposite-polarity flux closes part or all of the hole.

  9. Molluscan cells in culture: primary cell cultures and cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Yoshino, T. P.; Bickham, U.; Bayne, C. J.

    2013-01-01

    In vitro cell culture systems from molluscs have significantly contributed to our basic understanding of complex physiological processes occurring within or between tissue-specific cells, yielding information unattainable using intact animal models. In vitro cultures of neuronal cells from gastropods show how simplified cell models can inform our understanding of complex networks in intact organisms. Primary cell cultures from marine and freshwater bivalve and gastropod species are used as biomonitors for environmental contaminants, as models for gene transfer technologies, and for studies of innate immunity and neoplastic disease. Despite efforts to isolate proliferative cell lines from molluscs, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818 embryonic (Bge) cell line is the only existing cell line originating from any molluscan species. Taking an organ systems approach, this review summarizes efforts to establish molluscan cell cultures and describes the varied applications of primary cell cultures in research. Because of the unique status of the Bge cell line, an account is presented of the establishment of this cell line, and of how these cells have contributed to our understanding of snail host-parasite interactions. Finally, we detail the difficulties commonly encountered in efforts to establish cell lines from molluscs and discuss how these difficulties might be overcome. PMID:24198436

  10. DNA-cell conjugates

    DOEpatents

    Hsiao, Shih-Chia; Francis, Matthew B.; Bertozzi, Carolyn; Mathies, Richard; Chandra, Ravi; Douglas, Erik; Twite, Amy; Toriello, Nicholas; Onoe, Hiroaki

    2016-05-03

    The present invention provides conjugates of DNA and cells by linking the DNA to a native functional group on the cell surface. The cells can be without cell walls or can have cell walls. The modified cells can be linked to a substrate surface and used in assay or bioreactors.

  11. Indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Irving

    1991-01-01

    The direction for InP solar cell research; reduction of cell cost; increase of cell efficiency; measurements needed to better understand cell performance; n/p versus p/n; radiation effects; major problems in cell contacting; and whether the present level of InP solar cell research in the USA should be maintained, decreased, or increased were considered.

  12. Photovoltaic cell

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, J.F.; Lampkin, C.M.

    1981-12-08

    A photovoltaic cell has: an electrically conductive substrate, which may be glass having a film of conductive tin oxide; a first layer containing a suitable semiconductor, which layer has a first component film with an amorphous structure and a second component film with a polycrystalline structure; a second layer forming a heterojunction with the first layer; and suitable electrodes where the heterojunction is formed from a solution containing copper, the amorphous film component is superposed above an electrically conductive substrate to resist permeation of the copper-containing material to shorting electrical contact with the substrate. The penetration resistant amporphous layer permits a variety of processes to be used in forming the heterojunction with even very thin layers (1-6 mu thick) of underlying polycrystalline semi-conductor materials. In some embodiments, the amorphous-like structure may be formed by the addition of aluminum or zirconium compounds to a solution of cadmium salts sprayed over a heated substrate.

  13. Photoelectrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Rauh, R. David; Boudreau, Robert A.

    1983-06-14

    A photoelectrochemical cell comprising a sealed container having a light-transmitting window for admitting light into the container across a light-admitting plane, an electrolyte in the container, a photoelectrode in the container having a light-absorbing surface arranged to receive light from the window and in contact with the electrolyte, the surface having a plurality of spaced portions oblique to the plane, each portion having dimensions at least an order of magnitude larger than the maximum wavelength of incident sunlight, the total surface area of the surface being larger than the area of the plane bounded by the container, and a counter electrode in the container in contact with the electrolyte.

  14. Fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Struthers, R.C.

    1983-06-28

    An improved fuel cell comprising an anode section including an anode terminal, an anode fuel, and an anolyte electrolyte, a cathode section including a cathode terminal, an electron distributor and a catholyte electrolyte, an ion exchange section between the anode and cathode sections and including an ionolyte electrolyte, ion transfer membranes separating the ionolyte from the anolyte and the catholyte and an electric circuit connected with and between the terminals conducting free electrons from the anode section and delivering free electrons to the cathode section, said ionolyte receives ions of one polarity moving from the anolyte through the membrane related thereto preventing chemical equilibrium in the anode section and sustaining chemical reaction and the generating of free electrons therein, said ions received by the ionolyte from the anolyte release different ions from the ionolyte which move through the membrane between the ionolyte and catholyte and which add to the catholyte.

  15. Renal trematode infection due to Paratanaisia bragai in zoo housed Columbiformes and a red bird-of-paradise (Paradisaea rubra).

    PubMed

    Unwin, Steve; Chantrey, Julian; Chatterton, James; Aldhoun, Jitka A; Littlewood, D Timothy J

    2013-12-01

    Trematode infections affect a diverse range of avian species and the organs that are parasitised are also very varied. The family Eucotylidae contains seven genera of renal flukes that parasitise various birds. In birds, mild to severe lesions have been reported for species of the genus Paratanaisia, which was originally described from columbiform and galliform specimens collected in South America and has been identified in a number of wild avian species. This paper investigates eight cases of renal trematode infection at Chester Zoo in the UK due to Paratanaisia bragai in five previously unreported species: red bird-of-paradise, Socorro dove, Mindanao bleeding heart dove, laughing dove and emerald dove. Pathological changes, which varied between species, are discussed. A known intermediate snail host Allopeas clavulinum was present in the enclosures but there was no direct evidence of trematode infection. The size of the snails, possible low prevalence and the difficulty of visualising sporocysts contributed to this. Thus the development and application of further molecular diagnostic markers that can be applied to snail tissues is warranted. Parasite identification was confirmed utilizing DNA amplification from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues using PCR and trematode specific primers. Sequencing full ssrDNA and D1-D3 lsrDNA confirmed the identity in all cases as P. bragai. However, the short 310 bp fragment used provides insufficient variation or sequence length for wider application. The epidemiology, pathology and consequences for the management of these endangered species are discussed. Preliminary work on developing an effective ante mortem diagnostic PCR test kit is also highlighted. PMID:24533313

  16. Conservation of genetic diversity in slippery elm (Ulmus rubra) in Wisconsin despite the devastating impact of Dutch elm disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forest trees tend to be genetically diverse, a condition related to their longevity, outcrossing mating system and extensive gene flow that maintains high levels of genetic diversity within populations. Forest pest epidemics are responsible for many historic and contemporary population declines repo...

  17. Australian abalone (Haliotis laevigata, H. rubra and H. conicopora) are susceptible to infection by multiple abalone herpesvirus genotypes.

    PubMed

    Corbeil, Serge; Williams, Lynette M; McColl, Kenneth A; Crane, Mark St J

    2016-05-01

    From 2006 to 2012, acute mortalities occurred in farmed and wild abalone (Haliotis spp.) along the coast of Victoria, Australia. The disease (abalone viral ganglioneuritis; AVG) is associated with infection by an abalone herpesvirus (AbHV). The relative pathogenicity of 5 known variants of AbHV was evaluated on abalone stocks from different states in Australia. Results indicated that all virus variants (Vic1, Tas1, Tas2, Tas3 and Tas4) cause disease and mortality in all abalone stocks tested (greenlip, blacklip and brownlip). In order to avoid further AVG outbreaks in Australian wild abalone, strict regulations on the transfer of abalone stocks must be implemented. PMID:27137068

  18. Integrated circuit cell library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Sterling R. (Inventor); Miles, Lowell H. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    According to the invention, an ASIC cell library for use in creation of custom integrated circuits is disclosed. The ASIC cell library includes some first cells and some second cells. Each of the second cells includes two or more kernel cells. The ASIC cell library is at least 5% comprised of second cells. In various embodiments, the ASIC cell library could be 10% or more, 20% or more, 30% or more, 40% or more, 50% or more, 60% or more, 70% or more, 80% or more, 90% or more, or 95% or more comprised of second cells.

  19. Monitoring cell growth.

    PubMed

    Strober, W

    2001-05-01

    This appendix provides two protocols for monitoring cell growth. Counting cells using a hemacytometer is tedious but it allows one to effectively distinguish live cells from dead cells (using Trypan Blue exclusion). In addition, this procedure is less subject to errors due to cell clumping or heterogeneity of cell size. The use of an electronic cell counter is quicker and easier than counting cells using a hemacytometer. However, an electronic cell counter as currently constructed does not distinguish live from dead cells in a reliable fashion and is subject to error due to the presence of cell clumps. Overall, the electronic cell counter is best reserved for repetitive and rapid counting of fresh peripheral blood cells and should be used with caution when counting cell populations derived from tissues. PMID:18432653

  20. Automated Cell-Cutting for Cell Cloning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, Akihiko; Tanikawa, Tamio; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Takahashi, Seiya; Ohba, Kohtaro

    We develop an automated cell-cutting technique for cell cloning. Animal cells softened by the cytochalasin treatment are injected into a microfluidic chip. The microfluidic chip contains two orthogonal channels: one microchannel is wide, used to transport cells, and generates the cutting flow; the other is thin and used for aspiration, fixing, and stretching of the cell. The injected cell is aspirated and stretched in the thin microchannel. Simultaneously, the volumes of the cell before and after aspiration are calculated; the volumes are used to calculate the fluid flow required to aspirate half the volume of the cell into the thin microchannel. Finally, we apply a high-speed flow in the orthogonal microchannel to bisect the cell. This paper reports the cutting process, the cutting system, and the results of the experiment.

  1. Photovoltaic cell

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, J. F.; Lampkin, C. M.

    1981-02-03

    A photovoltaic cell is disclosed having an electrically conductive substrate, which may be glass having a film of conductive tin oxide. A first layer contains a suitable semiconductor, which layer has a first component film with an amorphous structure and a second component film with a polycrystalline structure a second layer forms a heterojunction with the first layer suitable electrodes are provided where the heterojunction is formed from a solution containing copper, and the amorphous film component is superposed above an electrically conductive substrate to resist permeation of the copper-containing material to shorting electrical contact with the substrate. The penetration resistant amorphous layer permits a variety of processes to be used in forming the heterojunction with even very thin layers (1-6 mu thick) of underlying polycrystalline semi-conductor materials. In some embodiments, the amorphous-like structure may be formed by the addition of aluminum or zirconium compounds to a solution of cadmium salts sprayed over a heated substrate.

  2. Eukaryotic Cells and their Cell Bodies: Cell Theory Revised

    PubMed Central

    BALUŠKA, FRANTIŠEK; VOLKMANN, DIETER; BARLOW, PETER W.

    2004-01-01

    • Background Cell Theory, also known as cell doctrine, states that all eukaryotic organisms are composed of cells, and that cells are the smallest independent units of life. This Cell Theory has been influential in shaping the biological sciences ever since, in 1838/1839, the botanist Matthias Schleiden and the zoologist Theodore Schwann stated the principle that cells represent the elements from which all plant and animal tissues are constructed. Some 20 years later, in a famous aphorism Omnis cellula e cellula, Rudolf Virchow annunciated that all cells arise only from pre‐existing cells. General acceptance of Cell Theory was finally possible only when the cellular nature of brain tissues was confirmed at the end of the 20th century. Cell Theory then rapidly turned into a more dogmatic cell doctrine, and in this form survives up to the present day. In its current version, however, the generalized Cell Theory developed for both animals and plants is unable to accommodate the supracellular nature of higher plants, which is founded upon a super‐symplasm of interconnected cells into which is woven apoplasm, symplasm and super‐apoplasm. Furthermore, there are numerous examples of multinucleate coenocytes and syncytia found throughout the eukaryote superkingdom posing serious problems for the current version of Cell Theory. • Scope To cope with these problems, we here review data which conform to the original proposal of Daniel Mazia that the eukaryotic cell is composed of an elemental Cell Body whose structure is smaller than the cell and which is endowed with all the basic attributes of a living entity. A complement to the Cell Body is the Cell Periphery Apparatus, which consists of the plasma membrane associated with other periphery structures. Importantly, boundary stuctures of the Cell Periphery Apparatus, although capable of some self‐assembly, are largely produced and maintained by Cell Body activities and can be produced from it de novo. These

  3. Fuel cell arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Isenberg, A.O.

    1987-05-12

    A fuel cell arrangement is provided wherein cylindrical cells of the solid oxide electrolyte type are arranged in planar arrays where the cells within a plane are parallel. Planes of cells are stacked with cells of adjacent planes perpendicular to one another. Air is provided to the interior of the cells through feed tubes which pass through a preheat chamber. Fuel is provided to the fuel cells through a channel in the center of the cell stack; the fuel then passes the exterior of the cells and combines with the oxygen-depleted air in the preheat chamber. 3 figs.

  4. Fuel cell arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Isenberg, Arnold O.

    1987-05-12

    A fuel cell arrangement is provided wherein cylindrical cells of the solid oxide electrolyte type are arranged in planar arrays where the cells within a plane are parallel. Planes of cells are stacked with cells of adjacent planes perpendicular to one another. Air is provided to the interior of the cells through feed tubes which pass through a preheat chamber. Fuel is provided to the fuel cells through a channel in the center of the cell stack; the fuel then passes the exterior of the cells and combines with the oxygen-depleted air in the preheat chamber.

  5. Squamous cell carcinoma —

    Cancer.gov

    The hallmarks of squamous cell carcinoma are the differentiation features of the squamous epithelium: keratinization and intercellular bridges. Large central masses of keratin, individual cell keratinization, and/or keratin pearls may form. Necrosis of tumor cell nests and accumulation of acute inflammatory cells are frequent features of poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma.

  6. Sickle Cell Anemia

    MedlinePlus

    Sickle cell anemia is a disease in which your body produces abnormally shaped red blood cells. The cells are shaped like a crescent or sickle. They ... last as long as normal, round red blood cells. This leads to anemia. The sickle cells also ...

  7. Cell culture purity issues and DFAT cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Shengjuan; Bergen, Werner G.; Zan, Linsen; Dodson, Michael V.

    2013-04-12

    Highlights: •DFAT cells are progeny cells derived from dedifferentiated mature adipocytes. •Common problems in this research is potential cell contamination of initial cultures. •The initial cell culture purity is crucial in DFAT cell research field. -- Abstract: Dedifferentiation of mature adipocytes, in vitro, has been pursued/documented for over forty years. The subsequent progeny cells are named dedifferentiated adipocyte-derived progeny cells (DFAT cells). DFAT cells are proliferative and likely to possess mutilineage potential. As a consequence, DFAT cells and their progeny/daughter cells may be useful as a potential tool for various aspects of tissue engineering and as potential vectors for the alleviation of several disease states. Publications in this area have been increasing annually, but the purity of the initial culture of mature adipocytes has seldom been documented. Consequently, it is not always clear whether DFAT cells are derived from dedifferentiated mature (lipid filled) adipocytes or from contaminating cells that reside in an impure culture.

  8. Deformability of Tumor Cells versus Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shaw Bagnall, Josephine; Byun, Sangwon; Begum, Shahinoor; Miyamoto, David T.; Hecht, Vivian C.; Maheswaran, Shyamala; Stott, Shannon L.; Toner, Mehmet; Hynes, Richard O.; Manalis, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    The potential for circulating tumor cells (CTCs) to elucidate the process of cancer metastasis and inform clinical decision-making has made their isolation of great importance. However, CTCs are rare in the blood, and universal properties with which to identify them remain elusive. As technological advancements have made single-cell deformability measurements increasingly routine, the assessment of physical distinctions between tumor cells and blood cells may provide insight into the feasibility of deformability-based methods for identifying CTCs in patient blood. To this end, we present an initial study assessing deformability differences between tumor cells and blood cells, indicated by the length of time required for them to pass through a microfluidic constriction. Here, we demonstrate that deformability changes in tumor cells that have undergone phenotypic shifts are small compared to differences between tumor cell lines and blood cells. Additionally, in a syngeneic mouse tumor model, cells that are able to exit a tumor and enter circulation are not required to be more deformable than the cells that were first injected into the mouse. However, a limited study of metastatic prostate cancer patients provides evidence that some CTCs may be more mechanically similar to blood cells than to typical tumor cell lines. PMID:26679988

  9. Virus Cell-to-Cell Transmission▿

    PubMed Central

    Mothes, Walther; Sherer, Nathan M.; Jin, Jing; Zhong, Peng

    2010-01-01

    Viral infections spread based on the ability of viruses to overcome multiple barriers and move from cell to cell, tissue to tissue, and person to person and even across species. While there are fundamental differences between these types of transmissions, it has emerged that the ability of viruses to utilize and manipulate cell-cell contact contributes to the success of viral infections. Central to the excitement in the field of virus cell-to-cell transmission is the idea that cell-to-cell spread is more than the sum of the processes of virus release and entry. This implies that virus release and entry are efficiently coordinated to sites of cell-cell contact, resulting in a process that is distinct from its individual components. In this review, we will present support for this model, illustrate the ability of viruses to utilize and manipulate cell adhesion molecules, and discuss the mechanism and driving forces of directional spreading. An understanding of viral cell-to-cell spreading will enhance our ability to intervene in the efficient spreading of viral infections. PMID:20375157

  10. Fuel cell-fuel cell hybrid system

    DOEpatents

    Geisbrecht, Rodney A.; Williams, Mark C.

    2003-09-23

    A device for converting chemical energy to electricity is provided, the device comprising a high temperature fuel cell with the ability for partially oxidizing and completely reforming fuel, and a low temperature fuel cell juxtaposed to said high temperature fuel cell so as to utilize remaining reformed fuel from the high temperature fuel cell. Also provided is a method for producing electricity comprising directing fuel to a first fuel cell, completely oxidizing a first portion of the fuel and partially oxidizing a second portion of the fuel, directing the second fuel portion to a second fuel cell, allowing the first fuel cell to utilize the first portion of the fuel to produce electricity; and allowing the second fuel cell to utilize the second portion of the fuel to produce electricity.

  11. Mammary stem cells have myoepithelial cell properties

    PubMed Central

    Prater, Michael D.; Petit, Valérie; Russell, I. Alasdair; Giraddi, Rajshekhar; Shehata, Mona; Menon, Suraj; Schulte, Reiner; Kalajzic, Ivo; Rath, Nicola; Olson, Michael F.; Metzger, Daniel; Faraldo, Marisa M.; Deugnier, Marie-Ange; Glukhova, Marina A.; Stingl, John

    2014-01-01

    Contractile myoepithelial cells dominate the basal layer of the mammary epithelium and are considered to be differentiated cells. However, we observe that up to 54% of single basal cells can form colonies when seeded into adherent culture in the presence of agents that disrupt acin-myosin interactions, and on average, 65% of the single-cell-derived basal colonies can repopulate a mammary gland when transplanted in vivo. This indicates that a high proportion of basal myoepithelial cells can give rise to a mammary repopulating unit (MRU). We demonstrate that myoepithelial cells, flow-sorted using 2 independent myoepithelial-specific reporter strategies, have MRU capacity. Using an inducible lineage tracing approach we follow the progeny of α-smooth muscle actin-expressing myoepithelial cells and show that they function as long-lived lineage-restricted stem cells in the virgin state and during pregnancy. PMID:25173976

  12. Cell Membrane Softening in Cancer Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Sebastian; Händel, Chris; Käs, Josef

    Biomechanical properties are useful characteristics and regulators of the cell's state. Current research connects mechanical properties of the cytoskeleton to many cellular processes but does not investigate the biomechanics of the plasma membrane. We evaluated thermal fluctuations of giant plasma membrane vesicles, directly derived from the plasma membranes of primary breast and cervical cells and observed a lowered rigidity in the plasma membrane of malignant cells compared to non-malignant cells. To investigate the specific role of membrane rigidity changes, we treated two cell lines with the Acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitor Soraphen A. It changed the lipidome of cells and drastically increased membrane stiffness by up regulating short chained membrane lipids. These altered cells had a decreased motility in Boyden chamber assays. Our results indicate that the thermal fluctuations of the membrane, which are much smaller than the fluctuations driven by the cytoskeleton, can be modulated by the cell and have an impact on adhesion and motility.

  13. Red blood cells, sickle cell (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... is an inherited blood disease in which the red blood cells produce abnormal pigment (hemoglobin). The abnormal hemoglobin causes deformity of the red blood cells into crescent or sickle-shapes, as ...

  14. Sickle Cell Disease Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... False: People with sickle cell disease cannot get malaria. A True B False 4. True or False: ... False: People with sickle cell disease cannot get malaria. False People with sickle cell disease can get ...

  15. Kidney cell electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P.

    1980-01-01

    The following aspects of kidney cell electrophoresis are discussed: (1) the development and testing of electrophoresis solutions; (2) optimization of freezing and thawing; (3) procedures for evaluation of separated kidney cells; and (4) electrophoretic mobility characterization of kidney cells.

  16. Kidney cell electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P.

    1979-01-01

    A kidney cell electrophoresis technique is described in four parts: (1) the development and testing of electrophoresis solutions; (2) optimization of freezing and thawing; (3) procedures for evaluation of separated kidney cells; and (4) electrophoretic mobility characteristics of kidney cells.

  17. Fuel cells: A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowe, B. J.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of fuel cell technology and applications is presented. The operating principles, performance capabilities, and limitations of fuel cells are discussed. Diagrams of fuel cell construction and operating characteristics are provided. Photographs of typical installations are included.

  18. Advances in cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Maramorosch, K. )

    1987-01-01

    This book presents papers on advances in cell culture. Topics covered include: Genetic changes in the influenza viruses during growth in cultured cells; The biochemistry and genetics of mosquito cells in culture; and Tree tissue culture applications.

  19. Closed Large Cell Clouds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  Closed Large Cell Clouds in the South Pacific     ... unperturbed by cyclonic or frontal activity. When the cell centers are cloudy and the main sinking motion is concentrated at cell ...

  20. Sickle cell anemia - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - sickle cell anemia ... The following organizations are good resources for information on sickle cell anemia : American Sickle Cell Anemia Association -- www.ascaa.org National Heart, Blood, and Lung Institute -- www. ...

  1. Reprogramming of somatic cells.

    PubMed

    Rajasingh, Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Reprogramming of adult somatic cells into pluripotent stem cells may provide an attractive source of stem cells for regenerative medicine. It has emerged as an invaluable method for generating patient-specific stem cells of any cell lineage without the use of embryonic stem cells. A revolutionary study in 2006 showed that it is possible to convert adult somatic cells directly into pluripotent stem cells by using a limited number of pluripotent transcription factors and is called as iPS cells. Currently, both genomic integrating viral and nonintegrating nonviral methods are used to generate iPS cells. However, the viral-based technology poses increased risk of safety, and more studies are now focused on nonviral-based technology to obtain autologous stem cells for clinical therapy. In this review, the pros and cons of the present iPS cell technology and the future direction for the successful translation of this technology into the clinic are discussed.

  2. Lung cancer - small cell

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  3. Cell rheology: Stressed-out stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holle, Andrew W.; Engler, Adam J.

    2010-01-01

    Experiments have shown that the physical characteristics of the matrix surrounding a stem cell can affect its behaviour. This picture gets further complicated by studies of stem cells and their differentiated counterparts that show that the cells' own softness also has a clear role in how they respond to stress.

  4. Glial cells: Old cells with new twists

    PubMed Central

    Ndubaku, Ugo; de Bellard, Maria Elena

    2008-01-01

    Summary Based on their characteristics and function – migration, neural protection, proliferation, axonal guidance and trophic effects – glial cells may be regarded as probably the most versatile cells in our body. For many years, these cells were considered as simply support cells for neurons. Recently, it has been shown that they are more versatile than previously believed – as true stem cells in the nervous system – and are important players in neural function and development. There are several glial cell types in the nervous system: the two most abundant are oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system. Although both of these cells are responsible for myelination, their developmental origins are quite different. Oligodendrocytes originate from small niche populations from different regions of the central nervous system, while Schwann cells develop from a stem cell population (the neural crest) that gives rise to many cell derivatives besides glia and which is a highly migratory group of cells. PMID:18068219

  5. CellFinder: a cell data repository

    PubMed Central

    Stachelscheid, Harald; Seltmann, Stefanie; Lekschas, Fritz; Fontaine, Jean-Fred; Mah, Nancy; Neves, Mariana; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A.; Leser, Ulf; Kurtz, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    CellFinder (http://www.cellfinder.org) is a comprehensive one-stop resource for molecular data characterizing mammalian cells in different tissues and in different development stages. It is built from carefully selected data sets stemming from other curated databases and the biomedical literature. To date, CellFinder describes 3394 cell types and 50 951 cell lines. The database currently contains 3055 microscopic and anatomical images, 205 whole-genome expression profiles of 194 cell/tissue types from RNA-seq and microarrays and 553 905 protein expressions for 535 cells/tissues. Text mining of a corpus of >2000 publications followed by manual curation confirmed expression information on ∼900 proteins and genes. CellFinder’s data model is capable to seamlessly represent entities from single cells to the organ level, to incorporate mappings between homologous entities in different species and to describe processes of cell development and differentiation. Its ontological backbone currently consists of 204 741 ontology terms incorporated from 10 different ontologies unified under the novel CELDA ontology. CellFinder’s web portal allows searching, browsing and comparing the stored data, interactive construction of developmental trees and navigating the partonomic hierarchy of cells and tissues through a unique body browser designed for life scientists and clinicians. PMID:24304896

  6. Snail modulates cell metabolism in MDCK cells

    SciTech Connect

    Haraguchi, Misako; Indo, Hiroko P.; Iwasaki, Yasumasa; Iwashita, Yoichiro; Fukushige, Tomoko; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Izumo, Kimiko; Horiuchi, Masahisa; Kanekura, Takuro; Furukawa, Tatsuhiko; Ozawa, Masayuki

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► MDCK/snail cells were more sensitive to glucose deprivation than MDCK/neo cells. ► MDCK/snail cells had decreased oxidative phosphorylation, O{sub 2} consumption and ATP content. ► TCA cycle enzyme activity, but not expression, was lower in MDCK/snail cells. ► MDCK/snail cells showed reduced PDH activity and increased PDK1 expression. ► MDCK/snail cells showed reduced expression of GLS2 and ACLY. -- Abstract: Snail, a repressor of E-cadherin gene transcription, induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and is involved in tumor progression. Snail also mediates resistance to cell death induced by serum depletion. By contrast, we observed that snail-expressing MDCK (MDCK/snail) cells undergo cell death at a higher rate than control (MDCK/neo) cells in low-glucose medium. Therefore, we investigated whether snail expression influences cell metabolism in MDCK cells. Although gylcolysis was not affected in MDCK/snail cells, they did exhibit reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity, which controls pyruvate entry into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Indeed, the activity of multiple enzymes involved in the TCA cycle was decreased in MDCK/snail cells, including that of mitochondrial NADP{sup +}-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH2), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and electron transport Complex II and Complex IV. Consequently, lower ATP content, lower oxygen consumption and increased survival under hypoxic conditions was also observed in MDCK/snail cells compared to MDCK/neo cells. In addition, the expression and promoter activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1), which phosphorylates and inhibits the activity of PDH, was increased in MDCK/snail cells, while expression levels of glutaminase 2 (GLS2) and ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY), which are involved in glutaminolysis and fatty acid synthesis, were decreased in MDCK/snail cells. These results suggest that snail modulates cell metabolism by altering the expression and activity of

  7. Cell aggregation and sedimentation.

    PubMed

    Davis, R H

    1995-01-01

    The aggregation of cells into clumps or flocs has been exploited for decades in such applications as biological wastewater treatment, beer brewing, antibiotic fermentation, and enhanced sedimentation to aid in cell recovery or retention. More recent research has included the use of cell aggregation and sedimentation to selectively separate subpopulations of cells. Potential biotechnological applications include overcoming contamination, maintaining plasmid-bearing cells in continuous fermentors, and selectively removing nonviable hybridoma cells from perfusion cultures.

  8. IAPs and cell migration.

    PubMed

    Dubrez, Laurence; Rajalingam, Krishnaraj

    2015-03-01

    Inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs) constitute a family of cell signaling regulators controlling several fundamental biological processes such as innate immunity, inflammation, cell death, cell proliferation, and cell differentiation. Increasing evidence from in vivo and in vitro studies indicate a function for IAPs in the modulation of invasive and migratory properties of cells. Here, we present and discuss the mechanisms whereby IAPs can control cell migration.

  9. Sertoli cells as biochambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Don F. (Inventor); Sanberg, Paul R. (Inventor); Saporta, Samuel (Inventor); Hushen, Joelle J. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    According to the present invention, there is provided a biological chamber system having a biochamber defined by outer walls of Sertoli cells. Also provided is a transplantation facilitator including a biochamber. A method of making biochambers by co-culturing facilitator cells and therapeutic cells and then aggregating the facilitator celes is also provided. Also provided is a method of transplanting cells by incorporating transplant cells into a biochamber and transplanting the biochamber containing the transplant cells.

  10. Stem Cell Sciences plc.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Sebnem

    2006-09-01

    Stem Cell Sciences' core objective is to develop safe and effective stem cell-based therapies for currently incurable diseases. In order to achieve this goal, Stem Cell Sciences recognizes the need for multiple technologies and a globally integrated stem cell initiative. The key challenges for the successful application of stem cells in the clinic is the need for a reproducible supply of pure, fully characterized stem cells that have been grown in suitable conditions for use in the clinic.

  11. Stem Cell Research

    SciTech Connect

    Verfaillie, Catherine

    2009-01-23

    We have identified a population of primitive cells in normal human post-natal bone marrow that can, at the single cell level, differentiate in many ways and also proliferate extensively. These cells can differentiate in vitro into most mesodermal cell types (for example, bone cells, and others), as well as cells into cells of the nervous system. The finding that stem cells exist in post-natal tissues with previously unknown proliferation and differentiation potential opens up the possibility of using them to treat a host of degenerative, traumatic or congenital diseases.

  12. Stem Cell Research

    SciTech Connect

    Verfaillie, Catherine

    2002-01-23

    We have identified a population of primitive cells in normal human post-natal bone marrow that can, at the single cell level, differentiate in many ways and also proliferate extensively. These cells can differentiate in vitro into most mesodermal cell types (for example, bone cells, and others), as well as cells into cells of the nervous system. The finding that stem cells exist in post-natal tissues with previously unknown proliferation and differentiation potential opens up the possibility of using them to treat a host of degenerative, traumatic or congenital diseases.

  13. Gaucher cell, photomicrograph (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Gaucher's disease is called a "lipid storage disease" where abnormal amounts of lipids called "glycosphingolipids" are stored in special cells called reticuloendothelial cells. Classically, the nucleus is ...

  14. Pluripotent stem cells from germ cells.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Candace L; Shamblott, Michael J; Gearhart, John D

    2006-01-01

    To date, stem cells have been derived from three sources of germ cells. These include embryonic germ cells (EGCs), embryonal carcinoma cells (ECCs), and multipotent germ line stem cells (GSCs). EGCs are derived from primordial germ cells that arise in the late embryonic and early fetal period of development. ECCs are derived from adult testicular tumors whereas GSCs have been derived by culturing spermatogonial stem cells from mouse neonates and adults. For each of these lines, their pluripotency has been demonstrated by their ability to differentiate into cell types derived from the three germ layers in vitro and in vivo and in chimeric animals, including germ line transmission. These germ line-derived stem cells have been generated from many species including human, mice, porcine, and chicken albeit with only slight modifications. This chapter describes general considerations regarding critical aspects of their derivation compared with their counterpart, embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Detailed protocols for EGC derivation and maintenance from human and mouse primordial germ cells (PGCs) will be presented.

  15. Stem cells supporting other stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Leatherman, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Adult stem cell therapies are increasingly prevalent for the treatment of damaged or diseased tissues, but most of the improvements observed to date are attributed to the ability of stem cells to produce paracrine factors that have a trophic effect on existing tissue cells, improving their functional capacity. It is now clear that this ability to produce trophic factors is a normal and necessary function for some stem cell populations. In vivo adult stem cells are thought to self-renew due to local signals from the microenvironment where they live, the niche. Several niches have now been identified which harbor multiple stem cell populations. In three of these niches – the Drosophila testis, the bulge of the mammalian hair follicle, and the mammalian bone marrow – one type of stem cell has been found to produce factors that contribute to the maintenance of a second stem cell population in the shared niche. In this review, I will examine the architecture of these three niches and discuss the molecular signals involved. Together, these examples establish a new paradigm for stem cell behavior, that stem cells can promote the maintenance of other stem cells. PMID:24348512

  16. Artificial cells for cell and organ replacements.

    PubMed

    Chang, Thomas Ming Swi

    2004-03-01

    The artificial cell is a Canadian invention (Chang, Science, 1964). This principle is being actively investigated for use in cell and organ replacements. The earliest routine clinical use of artificial cells is in the form of coated activated charcoal for hemoperfusion for use in the removal of drugs, and toxins and waste in uremia and liver failure. Encapsulated cells are being studied for the treatment of diabetes, liver failure, and kidney failure, and the use of encapsulated genetically-engineered cells is being investigated for gene therapy. Blood substitutes based on modified hemoglobin are already in Phase III clinical trials in patients, with as much as 20 units being infused into each patient during trauma surgery. Artificial cells containing enzymes are being developed for clinical trial in hereditary enzyme deficiency diseases and other diseases. The artificial cell is also being investigated for drug delivery and for other uses in biotechnology, chemical engineering, and medicine.

  17. Cancer stem cell-like cells from a single cell of oral squamous carcinoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Felthaus, O.; Ettl, T.; Gosau, M.; Driemel, O.; Brockhoff, G.; Reck, A.; Zeitler, K.; Hautmann, M.; Reichert, T.E.; Schmalz, G.; Morsczeck, C.

    2011-04-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Four oral squamous cancer cell lines (OSCCL) were analyzed for cancer stem cells (CSCs). {yields} Single cell derived colonies of OSCCL express CSC-marker CD133 differentially. {yields} Monoclonal cell lines showed reduced sensitivity for Paclitaxel. {yields} In situ CD133{sup +} cells are slow cycling (Ki67-) indicating a reduced drug sensitivity. {yields} CD133{sup +} and CSC-like cells can be obtained from single colony forming cells of OSCCL. -- Abstract: Resistance of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) to conventional chemotherapy or radiation therapy might be due to cancer stem cells (CSCs). The development of novel anticancer drugs requires a simple method for the enrichment of CSCs. CSCs can be enriched from OSCC cell lines, for example, after cultivation in serum-free cell culture medium (SFM). In our study, we analyzed four OSCC cell lines for the presence of CSCs. CSC-like cells could not be enriched with SFM. However, cell lines obtained from holoclone colonies showed CSC-like properties such as a reduced rate of cell proliferation and a reduced sensitivity to Paclitaxel in comparison to cells from the parental lineage. Moreover, these cell lines differentially expressed the CSC-marker CD133, which is also upregulated in OSCC tissues. Interestingly, CD133{sup +} cells in OSCC tissues expressed little to no Ki67, the cell proliferation marker that also indicates reduced drug sensitivity. Our study shows a method for the isolation of CSC-like cell lines from OSCC cell lines. These CSC-like cell lines could be new targets for the development of anticancer drugs under in vitro conditions.

  18. Dummy Cell Would Improve Performance Of Fuel-Cell Stack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suljak, G. T.

    1993-01-01

    Interposition of dummy cell between stack of alkaline fuel cells and accessory section of fuel-cell powerplant proposed to overcome operational deficiencies plaguing end-most active cell. Cell in combination with additional hydrogen/coolant separator plate keeps end cell warmer and drier. End cell 96th in stack of fuel cells.

  19. Stem cell therapy without the cells

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Greg

    2013-01-01

    As an example of the burgeoning importance of stem cell therapy, this past month the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM) has approved $70 million to create a new network of stem cell clinical trial centers. Much work in the last decade has been devoted to developing the use of autologous and allogeneic adult stem cell transplants to treat a number of conditions, including heart attack, dementia, wounds, and immune system-related diseases. The standard model teaches us that adult stem cells exists throughout most of the body and provide a means to regenerate and repair most tissues through replication and differentiation. Although we have often witnessed the medical cart placed in front of the scientific horse in the development of stem cell therapies outside of academic circles, great strides have been made, such as the use of purified stem cells1 instead of whole bone marrow transplants in cancer patients, where physicians avoid re-injecting the patients with their own cancer cells.2 We most often think of stem cell therapy acting to regenerate tissue through replication and then differentiation, but recent studies point to the dramatic effects adult stem cells exert in the repair of various tissues through the release of paracrine and autocrine substances, and not simply through differentiation. Indeed, up to 80% of the therapeutic effect of adult stem cells has been shown to be through paracrine mediated actions.3 That is, the collected types of molecules released by the stem cells, called the secretome, or stem cell released molecules (SRM), number in the 100s, including proteins, microRNA, growth factors, antioxidants, proteasomes, and exosomes, and target a multitude of biological pathways through paracrine actions. The composition of the different molecule types in SRM is state dependent, and varies with cell type and conditions such as age and environment. PMID:24567776

  20. Sickle Cell Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... sickle cell disease? Sickle cell disease, also called sickle cell anemia, is a hereditary condition (which means it runs ... or blocks blood and oxygen reaching nearby tissues. Sickle cell disease ... the whites of the eyes) Anemia (the decreased ability of the blood to carry ...

  1. Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells generated from human embryonic stem cells support pluripotent cell growth

    SciTech Connect

    Varga, Nora; Vereb, Zoltan; Rajnavoelgyi, Eva; Nemet, Katalin; Uher, Ferenc; Sarkadi, Balazs; Apati, Agota

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSC like cells were derived from hESC by a simple and reproducible method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differentiation and immunosuppressive features of MSCl cells were similar to bmMSC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSCl cells as feeder cells support the undifferentiated growth of hESC. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells were generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) through embryoid body formation, and isolated by adherence to plastic surface. MSCl cell lines could be propagated without changes in morphological or functional characteristics for more than 15 passages. These cells, as well as their fluorescent protein expressing stable derivatives, efficiently supported the growth of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells as feeder cells. The MSCl cells did not express the embryonic (Oct4, Nanog, ABCG2, PODXL, or SSEA4), or hematopoietic (CD34, CD45, CD14, CD133, HLA-DR) stem cell markers, while were positive for the characteristic cell surface markers of MSCs (CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105). MSCl cells could be differentiated toward osteogenic, chondrogenic or adipogenic directions and exhibited significant inhibition of mitogen-activated lymphocyte proliferation, and thus presented immunosuppressive features. We suggest that cultured MSCl cells can properly model human MSCs and be applied as efficient feeders in hESC cultures.

  2. Nanocomposite Photoelectrochemical Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayan, Sri R.; Kindler, Andrew; Whitacre, Jay F.

    2007-01-01

    Improved, solid-state photoelectrochemical cells for converting solar radiation to electricity have been proposed. (In general, photoelectrochemical cells convert incident light to electricity through electrochemical reactions.) It is predicted that in comparison with state-of-the-art photoelectrochemical cells, these cells will be found to operate with greater solar-to-electric energy-conversion efficiencies.

  3. SMOOTH MUSCLE STEM CELLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) originate from multiple types of progenitor cells. In the embryo, the most well-studied SMC progenitor is the cardiac neural crest stem cell. Smooth muscle differentiation in the neural crest lineage is controlled by a combination of cell intrinsic factors, includ...

  4. Molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.; Smith, J.L.

    1986-07-08

    A molten electrolyte fuel cell is disclosed with an array of stacked cells and cell enclosures isolating each cell except for access to gas manifolds for the supply of fuel or oxidant gas or the removal of waste gas. The cell enclosures collectively provide an enclosure for the array and effectively avoid the problems of electrolyte migration and the previous need for compression of stack components. The fuel cell further includes an inner housing about and in cooperation with the array enclosure to provide a manifold system with isolated chambers for the supply and removal of gases. An external insulated housing about the inner housing provides thermal isolation to the cell components.

  5. Molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Smith, James L.

    1987-01-01

    A molten electrolyte fuel cell with an array of stacked cells and cell enclosures isolating each cell except for access to gas manifolds for the supply of fuel or oxidant gas or the removal of waste gas, the cell enclosures collectively providing an enclosure for the array and effectively avoiding the problems of electrolyte migration and the previous need for compression of stack components, the fuel cell further including an inner housing about and in cooperation with the array enclosure to provide a manifold system with isolated chambers for the supply and removal of gases. An external insulated housing about the inner housing provides thermal isolation to the cell components.

  6. Cytokinesis in animal cells.

    PubMed

    D'Avino, Pier Paolo; Giansanti, Maria Grazia; Petronczki, Mark

    2015-02-13

    Cell division ends with the physical separation of the two daughter cells, a process known as cytokinesis. This final event ensures that nuclear and cytoplasmic contents are accurately partitioned between the two nascent cells. Cytokinesis is one of the most dramatic changes in cell shape and requires an extensive reorganization of the cell's cytoskeleton. Here, we describe the cytoskeletal structures, factors, and signaling pathways that orchestrate this robust and yet highly dynamic process in animal cells. Finally, we discuss possible future directions in this growing area of cell division research and its implications in human diseases, including cancer.

  7. Modeling collective cell motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappel, Wouter-Jan

    Eukaryotic cells often move in groups, a critical aspect of many biological and medical processes including wound healing, morphogenesis and cancer metastasis. Modeling can provide useful insights into the fundamental mechanisms of collective cell motility. Constructing models that incorporate the physical properties of the cells, however, is challenging. Here, I discuss our efforts to build a comprehensive cell motility model that includes cell membrane properties, cell-substrate interactions, cell polarity, and cell-cell interaction. The model will be applied to a variety of systems, including motion on micropatterned substrates and the migration of border cells in Drosophila. This work was supported by NIH Grant No. P01 GM078586 and NSF Grant No. 1068869.

  8. Fuel cells seminar

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This year`s meeting highlights the fact that fuel cells for both stationary and transportation applications have reached the dawn of commercialization. Sales of stationary fuel cells have grown steadily over the past 2 years. Phosphoric acid fuel cell buses have been demonstrated in urban areas. Proton-exchange membrane fuel cells are on the verge of revolutionizing the transportation industry. These activities and many more are discussed during this seminar, which provides a forum for people from the international fuel cell community engaged in a wide spectrum of fuel cell activities. Discussions addressing R&D of fuel cell technologies, manufacturing and marketing of fuel cells, and experiences of fuel cell users took place through oral and poster presentations. For the first time, the seminar included commercial exhibits, further evidence that commercial fuel cell technology has arrived. A total of 205 papers is included in this volume.

  9. Kidney cell electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    Tasks were undertaken in support of two objectives. They are: (1) to carry out electrophoresis experiments on cells in microgravity; and (2) assess the feasibility of using purified kidney cells from embryonic kidney cultures as a source of important cell products. Investigations were carried out in the following areas: (1) ground based electrophoresis technology; (2) cell culture technology; (3) electrophoresis of cells; (4) urokinase assay research; (5) zero-g electrophoresis; and (6) flow cytometry.

  10. Stem cell biobanks.

    PubMed

    Bardelli, Silvana

    2010-04-01

    Stem cells contribute to innate healing and harbor a promising role for regenerative medicine. Stem cell banking through long-term storage of different stem cell platforms represents a fundamental source to preserve original features of stem cells for patient-specific clinical applications. Stem cell research and clinical translation constitute fundamental and indivisible modules catalyzed through biobanking activity, generating a return of investment. PMID:20560026

  11. Generation of iPS Cells from Granulosa Cells.

    PubMed

    Mao, Jian; Liu, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Various types of somatic cells can be reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Somatic stem cells may generate iPS cells more efficiently than do differentiated cells. We show that granulosa cells exhibit characteristic of somatic stem cells and can be reprogrammed to iPS cells more efficiently or with few factors. Here, we describe generation of mouse and pig iPS cells from granulosa cells with high efficiency.

  12. Screening of solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Appelbaum, J.; Chait, A.; Thompson, D.A.

    1993-07-01

    Because solar cells in a production batch are not identical, screening is performed to obtain similar cells for aggregation into arrays. A common technique for screening is based on a single operating point of the I-V characteristic of the cell, usually the maximum power point. As a result, inferior cell matching may occur at the actual operating points. Screening solar cells based on the entire I-V characteristic will inherently result in more similar cells in the array. An array consisting of more similar cells is likely to have better overall characteristics and more predictable performance. Solar cell screening methods and cell ranking are discussed. The concept of a mean cell is defined as a cell 'best' representing all the cells in the production batch. The screening and ranking of all cells are performed with respect to the mean cell. The comparative results of different screening methods are illustrated on a batch of 50 silicon cells of the Space Station Freedom.

  13. Screening of solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appelbaum, J.; Chait, A.; Thompson, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    Because solar cells in a production batch are not identical, screening is performed to obtain similar cells for aggregation into arrays. A common technique for screening is based on a single operating point of the I-V characteristic of the cell, usually the maximum power point. As a result, inferior cell matching may occur at the actual operating points. Screening solar cells based on the entire I-V characteristic will inherently result in more similar cells in the array. An array consisting of more similar cells is likely to have better overall characteristics and more predictable performance. Solar cell screening methods and cell ranking are discussed. The concept of a mean cell is defined as a cell 'best' representing all the cells in the production batch. The screening and ranking of all cells are performed with respect to the mean cell. The comparative results of different screening methods are illustrated on a batch of 50 silicon cells of the Space Station Freedom.

  14. Analytical pyrolysis of cells and cell fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Faix, O.; Bertelt, E.

    1995-12-01

    Wood of spruce, beech and birch was disintegrated without chemical pretreatment after 10 minutes of steaming at 110{degrees}C in a laboratory defibrator. Fibers, vessels, and fragments of secondary wall were separated by wet screening. A hydrocylon was used for separation of middle lamellae. By using analytical pyrolysis-GC/MS, parenchymatic cells were found to be richer in lignin than the other cells. The lignin content of middle lamellae was 35% (beech, spruce) and 39% (birch). In agreement with the literature, the S/G ratios of the vessels and middle lamellae was lower than those of the other cells and cell fragments.

  15. The cell biology of planar cell polarity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) refers to the coordinated alignment of cell polarity across the tissue plane. Key to the establishment of PCP is asymmetric partitioning of cortical PCP components and intercellular communication to coordinate polarity between neighboring cells. Recent progress has been made toward understanding how protein transport, endocytosis, and intercellular interactions contribute to asymmetric PCP protein localization. Additionally, the functions of gradients and mechanical forces as global cues that bias PCP orientation are beginning to be elucidated. Together, these findings are shedding light on how global cues integrate with local cell interactions to organize cellular polarity at the tissue level. PMID:25349257

  16. Single cell mechanics of keratinocyte cells.

    PubMed

    Lulevich, Valentin; Yang, Hsin-ya; Isseroff, R Rivkah; Liu, Gang-yu

    2010-11-01

    Keratinocytes represent the major cell type of the uppermost layer of human skin, the epidermis. Using AFM-based single cell compression, the ability of individual keratinocytes to resist external pressure and global rupturing forces is investigated and compared with various cell types. Keratinocytes are found to be 6-70 times stiffer than other cell types, such as white blood, breast epithelial, fibroblast, or neuronal cells, and in contrast to other cell types they retain high mechanic strength even after the cell's death. The absence of membrane rupturing peaks in the force-deformation profiles of keratinocytes and their high stiffness during a second load cycle suggests that their unique mechanical resistance is dictated by the cytoskeleton. A simple analytical model enables the quantification of Young's modulus of keratinocyte cytoskeleton, as high as 120-340 Pa. Selective disruption of the two major cytoskeletal networks, actin filaments and microtubules, does not significantly affect keratinocyte mechanics. F-actin is found to impact cell deformation under pressure. During keratinocyte compression, the plasma membrane stretches to form peripheral blebs. Instead of blebbing, cells with depolymerized F-actin respond to pressure by detaching the plasma membrane from the cytoskeleton underneath. On the other hand, the compression force of keratinocytes expressing a mutated keratin (cell line, KEB-7) is 1.6-2.2 times less than that for the control cell line that has normal keratin networks. Therefore, we infer that the keratin intermediate filament network is responsible for the extremely high keratinocyte stiffness and resilience. This could manifest into the rugged protective nature of the human epidermis. PMID:20728993

  17. Microscale Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Holladay, Jamie D.; Viswanathan, Vish V.

    2005-11-03

    Perhaprs some of the most innovative work on fuel cells has been the research dedicated to applying silicon fabrication techniques to fuel cells technology creating low power microscale fuel cells applicable to microelectro mechanical systems (MEMS), microsensors, cell phones, PDA’s, and other low power (0.001 to 5 We) applications. In this small power range, fuel cells offer the decoupling of the energy converter from the energy storage which may enable longer operating times and instant or near instant charging. To date, most of the microscale fuel cells being developed have been based on proton exchange membrane fuel cell technology (PEMFC) or direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) technology. This section will discuss requirements and considerations that need to be addressed in the development of microscale fuel cells, as well as some proposed designs and fabrication strategies.

  18. Bacterial Cell Wall Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginsberg, Cynthia; Brown, Stephanie; Walker, Suzanne

    Bacterial cell-surface polysaccharides cells are surrounded by a variety of cell-surface structures that allow them to thrive in extreme environments. Components of the cell envelope and extracellular matrix are responsible for providing the cells with structural support, mediating intercellular communication, allowing the cells to move or to adhere to surfaces, protecting the cells from attack by antibiotics or the immune system, and facilitating the uptake of nutrients. Some of the most important cell wall components are polysaccharide structures. This review discusses the occurrence, structure, function, and biosynthesis of the most prevalent bacterial cell surface polysaccharides: peptidoglycan, lipopolysaccharide, arabinogalactan, and lipoarabinomannan, and capsular and extracellular polysaccharides. The roles of these polysaccharides in medicine, both as drug targets and as therapeutic agents, are also described.

  19. Plant stem cell niches.

    PubMed

    Aichinger, Ernst; Kornet, Noortje; Friedrich, Thomas; Laux, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Multicellular organisms possess pluripotent stem cells to form new organs, replenish the daily loss of cells, or regenerate organs after injury. Stem cells are maintained in specific environments, the stem cell niches, that provide signals to block differentiation. In plants, stem cell niches are situated in the shoot, root, and vascular meristems-self-perpetuating units of organ formation. Plants' lifelong activity-which, as in the case of trees, can extend over more than a thousand years-requires that a robust regulatory network keep the balance between pluripotent stem cells and differentiating descendants. In this review, we focus on current models in plant stem cell research elaborated during the past two decades, mainly in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We address the roles of mobile signals on transcriptional modules involved in balancing cell fates. In addition, we discuss shared features of and differences between the distinct stem cell niches of Arabidopsis.

  20. Artificial Stem Cell Niches

    PubMed Central

    Lutolf, Matthias P.; Blau, Helen M.

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells are characterized by their dual ability to reproduce themselves (self-renew) and specialize (differentiate), yielding a plethora of daughter cells that maintain and regenerate tissues. In contrast to their embryonic counterparts, adult stem cells retain their unique functions only if they are in intimate contact with an instructive microenvironment, termed stem cell niche. In these niches, stem cells integrate a complex array of molecular signals that, in concert with induced cell-intrinsic regulatory networks, control their function and balance their numbers in response to physiologic demands. This progress report provides a perspective on how advanced materials technologies could be used (i) to engineer and systematically analyze specific aspects of functional stem cells niches in a controlled fashion in vitro and (ii) to target stem cell niches in vivo. Such “artificial niches” constitute potent tools for elucidating stem cell regulatory mechanisms with the capacity to directly impact the development of novel therapeutic strategies for tissue regeneration. PMID:20882496

  1. Aquaporins and cell migration.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, M C; Saadoun, S; Verkman, A S

    2008-07-01

    Aquaporin (AQP) water channels are expressed primarily in cell plasma membranes. In this paper, we review recent evidence that AQPs facilitate cell migration. AQP-dependent cell migration has been found in a variety of cell types in vitro and in mice in vivo. AQP1 deletion reduces endothelial cell migration, limiting tumor angiogenesis and growth. AQP4 deletion slows the migration of reactive astrocytes, impairing glial scarring after brain stab injury. AQP1-expressing tumor cells have enhanced metastatic potential and local infiltration. Impaired cell migration has also been seen in AQP1-deficient proximal tubule epithelial cells, and AQP3-deficient corneal epithelial cells, enterocytes, and skin keratinocytes. The mechanisms by which AQPs enhance cell migration are under investigation. We propose that, as a consequence of actin polymerization/depolymerization and transmembrane ionic fluxes, the cytoplasm adjacent to the leading edge of migrating cells undergoes rapid changes in osmolality. AQPs could thus facilitate osmotic water flow across the plasma membrane in cell protrusions that form during migration. AQP-dependent cell migration has potentially broad implications in angiogenesis, tumor metastasis, wound healing, glial scarring, and other events requiring rapid, directed cell movement. AQP inhibitors may thus have therapeutic potential in modulating these events, such as slowing tumor growth and spread, and reducing glial scarring after injury to allow neuronal regeneration. PMID:17968585

  2. Stem cells in urology.

    PubMed

    Aboushwareb, Tamer; Atala, Anthony

    2008-11-01

    The shortage of donors for organ transplantation has stimulated research on stem cells as a potential resource for cell-based therapy in all human tissues. Stem cells have been used for regenerative medicine applications in many organ systems, including the genitourinary system. The potential applications for stem cell therapy have, however, been restricted by the ethical issues associated with embryonic stem cell research. Instead, scientists have explored other cell sources, including progenitor and stem cells derived from adult tissues and stem cells derived from the amniotic fluid and placenta. In addition, novel techniques for generating stem cells in the laboratory are being developed. These techniques include somatic cell nuclear transfer, in which the nucleus of an adult somatic cell is placed into an oocyte, and reprogramming of adult cells to induce stem-cell-like behavior. Such techniques are now being used in tissue engineering applications, and some of the most successful experiments have been in the field of urology. Techniques to regenerate bladder tissue have reached the clinic, and exciting progress is being made in other areas, such as regeneration of the kidney and urethra. Cell therapy as a treatment for incontinence and infertility might soon become a reality. Physicians should be optimistic that regenerative medicine and tissue engineering will one day provide mainstream treatment options for urologic disorders.

  3. Induction of Functional Hair-Cell-Like Cells from Mouse Cochlear Multipotent Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Quanwen; Shen, Yi; Chen, Jiarong; Ding, Jie; Tang, Zihua; Zhang, Cui; Chen, Jianling; Li, Liang; Chen, Ping; Wang, Jinfu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we developed a two-step-induction method of generating functional hair cells from inner ear multipotent cells. Multipotent cells from the inner ear were established and induced initially into progenitor cells committed to the inner ear cell lineage on the poly-L-lysine substratum. Subsequently, the committed progenitor cells were cultured on the mitotically inactivated chicken utricle stromal cells and induced into hair-cell-like cells containing characteristic stereocilia bundles. The hair-cell-like cells exhibited rapid permeation of FM1-43FX. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to measure the membrane currents of cells differentiated for 7 days on chicken utricle stromal cells and analyze the biophysical properties of the hair-cell-like cells by recording membrane properties of cells. The results suggested that the hair-cell-like cells derived from inner ear multipotent cells were functional following differentiation in an enabling environment.

  4. Induction of Functional Hair-Cell-Like Cells from Mouse Cochlear Multipotent Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Quanwen; Shen, Yi; Chen, Jiarong; Ding, Jie; Tang, Zihua; Zhang, Cui; Chen, Jianling; Li, Liang; Chen, Ping; Wang, Jinfu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we developed a two-step-induction method of generating functional hair cells from inner ear multipotent cells. Multipotent cells from the inner ear were established and induced initially into progenitor cells committed to the inner ear cell lineage on the poly-L-lysine substratum. Subsequently, the committed progenitor cells were cultured on the mitotically inactivated chicken utricle stromal cells and induced into hair-cell-like cells containing characteristic stereocilia bundles. The hair-cell-like cells exhibited rapid permeation of FM1-43FX. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to measure the membrane currents of cells differentiated for 7 days on chicken utricle stromal cells and analyze the biophysical properties of the hair-cell-like cells by recording membrane properties of cells. The results suggested that the hair-cell-like cells derived from inner ear multipotent cells were functional following differentiation in an enabling environment. PMID:27057177

  5. Lithium cell test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, B. J.

    1977-01-01

    Three lithium SO2 cells, two lithium CF cells, and a vinyl chloride cell, all with crimped seals, and all strictly experimental, were independently discharged on resistors. Three temperatures were used and several different storage temperatures. Discharge rate generally on the nominal discharges were 0.1 amp, 0.5 amp, and 1 amp. Tests results show that the crimp seals are inadequate, especially for the SO2 cells. Normal discharges present no hazards. All cells discharge to zero. The problem of lithium cell explosions, such as occurred during off-limits testing, is discussed.

  6. Natural Killer Cell Memory.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Timothy E; Sun, Joseph C; Lanier, Lewis L

    2015-10-20

    Natural killer (NK) cells have historically been considered short-lived cytolytic cells that can rapidly respond against pathogens and tumors in an antigen-independent manner and then undergo cell death. Recently, however, NK cells have been shown to possess traits of adaptive immunity and can acquire immunological memory in a manner similar to that of T and B cells. In this review, we discuss evidence of NK cell memory and the mechanisms involved in the generation and survival of these innate lymphocytes.

  7. Cell adhesion force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sagvolden, G.; Giaever, I.; Pettersen, E. O.; Feder, J.

    1999-01-01

    The adhesion forces of cervical carcinoma cells in tissue culture were measured by using the manipulation force microscope, a novel atomic force microscope. The forces were studied as a function of time and temperature for cells cultured on hydrophilic and hydrophobic polystyrene substrates with preadsorbed proteins. The cells attached faster and stronger at 37°C than at 23°C and better on hydrophilic than on hydrophobic substrates, even though proteins adsorb much better to the hydrophobic substrates. Because cell adhesion serves to control several stages in the cell cycle, we anticipate that the manipulation force microscope can help clarify some cell-adhesion related issues. PMID:9892657

  8. Assessment of pancreas cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanoss, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Pancreatic islets were obtained from guinea pig pancreas by the collagenase method and kept alive in tissue culture prior to further studies. Pancreas cell morphology was studied by standard histochemical techniques using light microscopy. Preparative vertical electrophoresis-levitation of dispersed fetal guinea pig pancreas cells was conducted in phosphate buffer containing a heavy water (D20) gradient which does not cause clumping of cells or alter the osmolarity of the buffers. The faster migrating fractions tended to be enriched in beta-cell content. Alpha and delta cells were found to some degree in most fractions. A histogram showing the cell count distribution is included.

  9. Microfluidics for manipulating cells.

    PubMed

    Mu, Xuan; Zheng, Wenfu; Sun, Jiashu; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Xingyu

    2013-01-14

    Microfluidics, a toolbox comprising methods for precise manipulation of fluids at small length scales (micrometers to millimeters), has become useful for manipulating cells. Its uses range from dynamic management of cellular interactions to high-throughput screening of cells, and to precise analysis of chemical contents in single cells. Microfluidics demonstrates a completely new perspective and an excellent practical way to manipulate cells for solving various needs in biology and medicine. This review introduces and comments on recent achievements and challenges of using microfluidics to manipulate and analyze cells. It is believed that microfluidics will assume an even greater role in the mechanistic understanding of cell biology and, eventually, in clinical applications.

  10. The cell cycle as a brake for β-cell regeneration from embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    El-Badawy, Ahmed; El-Badri, Nagwa

    2016-01-13

    The generation of insulin-producing β cells from stem cells in vitro provides a promising source of cells for cell transplantation therapy in diabetes. However, insulin-producing cells generated from human stem cells show deficiency in many functional characteristics compared with pancreatic β cells. Recent reports have shown molecular ties between the cell cycle and the differentiation mechanism of embryonic stem (ES) cells, assuming that cell fate decisions are controlled by the cell cycle machinery. Both β cells and ES cells possess unique cell cycle machinery yet with significant contrasts. In this review, we compare the cell cycle control mechanisms in both ES cells and β cells, and highlight the fundamental differences between pluripotent cells of embryonic origin and differentiated β cells. Through critical analysis of the differences of the cell cycle between these two cell types, we propose that the cell cycle of ES cells may act as a brake for β-cell regeneration. Based on these differences, we discuss the potential of modulating the cell cycle of ES cells for the large-scale generation of functionally mature β cells in vitro. Further understanding of the factors that modulate the ES cell cycle will lead to new approaches to enhance the production of functional mature insulin-producing cells, and yield a reliable system to generate bona fide β cells in vitro.

  11. What Are Islet Cells?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Derived Stem Cells MichCanSka 2010 Benefits DRI Wounded Soldier Gets Standing Ovation Video New Website Launches Journal ... Derived Stem Cells MichCanSka 2010 Benefits DRI Wounded Soldier Gets Standing Ovation Video New Website Launches Journal ...

  12. Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC)

    MedlinePlus

    ... carcinomas: Infiltrating basal cell carcinomas can be more aggressive and locally destructive than other types of basal ... to treat them early and with slightly more aggressive techniques. Excision – The basal cell carcinoma is cut ...

  13. Giant Cell Arteritis

    MedlinePlus

    Giant cell arteritis is a disorder that causes inflammation of your arteries, usually in the scalp, neck, and arms. ... arteries, which keeps blood from flowing well. Giant cell arteritis often occurs with another disorder called polymyalgia ...

  14. Amphibia Kupffer cells.

    PubMed

    Sichel, Giovanni; Scalia, Marina; Corsaro, Concetta

    2002-06-15

    Amphibia Kupffer cells (i.e., liver resident macrophages) show many common characteristics when compared with Mammalia Kupffer cells: filopodia, microvillous-like structures, lamellipodia, fuzzy coat, coated vesicles, bristled vacuoles, nonspecific esterase activity, and pinocytotic and phagocytic activity are present both in Amphibia and Mammalia Kupffer cells. On the other hand, some differences are present between Kupffer cells of both zoological classes: phagocytosed red cells and their derivatives, iron-protein complexes, and lipofuscin bodies are normally present in Amphibia Kupffer cells, but absent in the same cells of healthy mammals. Worm-like structures are not seen in Amphibia and endogenous peroxidase activity is very weak in these animals compared with Mammalia. The most important difference lies in the ability of Amphibia Kupffer cells to produce melanins: in fact the tyrosinase gene is expressed, "melanosome centers" are present, and dopa oxidase activity is demonstrable.

  15. Fluorescence Live Cell Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ettinger, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy of live cells has become an integral part of modern cell biology. Fluorescent protein tags, live cell dyes, and other methods to fluorescently label proteins of interest provide a range of tools to investigate virtually any cellular process under the microscope. The two main experimental challenges in collecting meaningful live cell microscopy data are to minimize photodamage while retaining a useful signal-to-noise ratio, and to provide a suitable environment for cells or tissues to replicate physiological cell dynamics. This chapter aims to give a general overview on microscope design choices critical for fluorescence live cell imaging that apply to most fluorescence microscopy modalities, and on environmental control with a focus on mammalian tissue culture cells. In addition, we provide guidance on how to design and evaluate fluorescent protein constructs by spinning disk confocal microscopy. PMID:24974023

  16. Islet Cell Transplantation

    MedlinePlus

    ... the body use glucose for energy. Islet cell transplantation transfers cells from an organ donor into the ... to make and release insulin. Researchers hope islet transplantation will help people with type 1 diabetes live ...

  17. Sickle Cell Trait

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Sickle Cell Trait Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... the trait on to their children. How Sickle Cell Trait is Inherited If both parents have SCT, ...

  18. Galvanic cell separator

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, K.; Osawa, K.; Takeda, Y.; Yabumoto, T.

    1981-07-07

    A galvanic cell separator is disclosed that is composed of polyvinyl alcohol having a crystallinity of 0.4 or more to be used with a galvanic cell containing alkaline electrolyte, and a method of manufacturing the same.

  19. Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC)

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Squamous cell carcinoma typically develops in sun-damaged skin in fair-skinned patients. Overview Squamous ... skin cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma usually occurs on sun-damaged skin, especially in light-skinned individuals with ...

  20. White Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? White Blood Cell Count Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White Blood Cell Count Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , White ...

  1. Sickle Cell Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview of CDC’s work. Advancements in Sickle Cell Disease New supplement from the American Journal of Preventive Medicine describes the state of sickle cell disease related care in the United States. Read Supplement ...

  2. Isolation of dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Inaba, K; Swiggard, W J; Steinman, R M; Romani, N; Schuler, G

    2001-05-01

    This unit presents two methods for preparing dendritic cells (DCs), a highly specialized type of antigen-presenting cell (APC). The first method involves the isolation of DCs from mouse spleen, resulting in a cell population that is highly enriched in accessory cell and APC function. A support protocol for collagenase digestion of splenocyte suspensions is described to increase the yield of dendritic cells. The second method involves generating large numbers of DCs from mouse bone marrow progenitor cells. In that technique, bone marrow cells are cultured in the presence of granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to yield 5-10 10(6) cells, 60% of which express DC surface markers (e.g., B-7-2/CD86). Additional techniques for isolating DCs from mouse spleens or other mouse tissues, as well as from human tissues, are also discussed.

  3. Isolation of dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Kayo; Swiggard, William J; Steinman, Ralph M; Romani, Nikolaus; Schuler, Gerold; Brinster, Carine

    2009-08-01

    This unit presents two methods for preparing dendritic cells (DCs), a highly specialized type of antigen-presenting cell (APC). The first method involves the isolation of DCs from mouse spleen, resulting in a cell population that is highly enriched in accessory cell and APC function. A support protocol for collagenase digestion of splenocyte suspensions is described to increase the yield of dendritic cells. The second method involves generating large numbers of DCs from mouse bone marrow progenitor cells. In that technique, bone marrow cells are cultured in the presence of granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to yield 5-10 x 10(6) cells, 60% of which express DC surface markers (e.g., B-7-2/CD86). Additional techniques for isolating DCs from mouse spleens or other mouse tissues, as well as from human tissues, are also discussed.

  4. Renal cell carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    Renal cancer; Kidney cancer; Hypernephroma; Adenocarcinoma of renal cells; Cancer - kidney ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 57. National Cancer Institute: PDQ renal cell cancer treatment. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. ...

  5. Diagram of Cell to Cell Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Diagram depicts the importance of cell-cell communication as central to the understanding of cancer growth and progression, the focus of the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05) investigation. Microgravity studies will allow us to unravel the signaling and communication between these cells with the host and potential development of therapies for the treatment of cancer metastasis. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

  6. Increased voltage photovoltaic cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, B.; Bickler, D. B.; Gallagher, B. D. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell, such as a solar cell, is provided which has a higher output voltage than prior cells. The improved cell includes a substrate of doped silicon, a first layer of silicon disposed on the substrate and having opposite doping, and a second layer of silicon carbide disposed on the first layer. The silicon carbide preferably has the same type of doping as the first layer.

  7. Single cell heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Batoul Y; Horne, Steven D; Stevens, Joshua B; Liu, Guo; Ying, Andrew Y; Vanderhyden, Barbara; Krawetz, Stephen A; Gorelick, Root; Heng, Henry HQ

    2013-01-01

    Multi-level heterogeneity is a fundamental but underappreciated feature of cancer. Most technical and analytical methods either completely ignore heterogeneity or do not fully account for it, as heterogeneity has been considered noise that needs to be eliminated. We have used single-cell and population-based assays to describe an instability-mediated mechanism where genome heterogeneity drastically affects cell growth and cannot be accurately measured using conventional averages. First, we show that most unstable cancer cell populations exhibit high levels of karyotype heterogeneity, where it is difficult, if not impossible, to karyotypically clone cells. Second, by comparing stable and unstable cell populations, we show that instability-mediated karyotype heterogeneity leads to growth heterogeneity, where outliers dominantly contribute to population growth and exhibit shorter cell cycles. Predictability of population growth is more difficult for heterogeneous cell populations than for homogenous cell populations. Since “outliers” play an important role in cancer evolution, where genome instability is the key feature, averaging methods used to characterize cell populations are misleading. Variances quantify heterogeneity; means (averages) smooth heterogeneity, invariably hiding it. Cell populations of pathological conditions with high genome instability, like cancer, behave differently than karyotypically homogeneous cell populations. Single-cell analysis is thus needed when cells are not genomically identical. Despite increased attention given to single-cell variation mediated heterogeneity of cancer cells, continued use of average-based methods is not only inaccurate but deceptive, as the “average” cancer cell clearly does not exist. Genome-level heterogeneity also may explain population heterogeneity, drug resistance, and cancer evolution. PMID:24091732

  8. Fuel cells feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonfeld, D.; Charng, T.

    1981-01-01

    The technical and economic status of fuel cells is assessed with emphasis on their potential benefits to the Deep Space Network. The fuel cell, what it is, how it operates, and what its outputs are, is reviewed. Major technical problems of the fuel cell and its components are highlighted. Due to these problems and economic considerations it is concluded that fuel cells will not become commercially viable until the early 1990s.

  9. Fish stem cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ni; Li, Zhendong; Hong, Yunhan

    2011-04-13

    Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is the second organism that generated ES cells and the first that gave rise to a spermatogonial stem cell line capable of test-tube sperm production. Most recently, the first haploid stem cells capable of producing whole animals have also been generated from medaka. ES-like cells have been reported also in zebrafish and several marine species. Attempts for germline transmission of ES cell cultures and gene targeting have been reported in zebrafish. Recent years have witnessed the progress in markers and procedures for ES cell characterization. These include the identification of fish homologs/paralogs of mammalian pluripotency genes and parameters for optimal chimera formation. In addition, fish germ cell cultures and transplantation have attracted considerable interest for germline transmission and surrogate production. Haploid ES cell nuclear transfer has proven in medaka the feasibility of semi-cloning as a novel assisted reproductive technology. In this special issue on "Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer", we will focus our review on medaka to illustrate the current status and perspective of fish stem cells in research and application. We will also mention semi-cloning as a new development to conventional nuclear transfer.

  10. Kidney Cell Electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P.

    1985-01-01

    Materials and procedures for microgravity electrophoresis of living human embryonic kidney cells were evaluated, ground support in the form of analytical cell electrophoresis and flow cytometry was provided and cells returned from space flight were analyzed. Preflight culture media, electrophoresis buffer, fraction collection media, temperature profiles, and urokinase assay procedures were tested prior to flight. Electrophoretic mobility distributions of aliquots of the cell population to be fractionated in flight were obtained. The protocol established and utilized is given.

  11. Stem Cell Research.

    PubMed

    Trounson, Alan; Kolaja, Kyle; Petersen, Thomas; Weber, Klaus; McVean, Maralee; Funk, Kathleen A

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells have great potential in basic research and are being slowly integrated into toxicological research. This symposium provided an overview of the state of the field, stem cell models, described allogenic stem cell treatments and issues of immunogenicity associated with protein therapeutics, and tehn concentrated on stem cell uses in regenerative medicine focusing on lung and testing strategies on engineered tissues from a pathologist's perspective.

  12. Cross Cell Sandwich Core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, Donald B. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A sandwich core comprises two faceplates separated by a plurality of cells. The cells are comprised of walls positioned at oblique angles relative to a perpendicular axis extending through the faceplates. The walls preferably form open cells and are constructed from open cells and are constructed from rows of ribbons. The walls may be obliquely angled relative to more than one plane extending through the perpendicular axis.

  13. Endothelial cells enhance migration of meniscus cells

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xiaoning; Eng, George M.; Arkonac, Derya E.; Chao, Pen-hsiu Grace; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the interactions between vascular endothelial cells and meniscal fibrochondrocytes from the inner avascular and outer vascular regions of the meniscus, and identify angiogenic factors that enhance cell migration and integrative repair. Methods Bovine meniscal fibrochondrocytes (bMFCs) from the inner and outer regions of meniscus were cultured for seven days with and without human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in a micropatterned three-dimensional hydrogel system for cell migration. Angiogenic factors secreted by HUVECs were probed for their role in paracrine mechanisms governing bMFC migration, and applied to a full-thickness defect model of meniscal repair in explants from the inner and outer regions over four weeks. Results Endothelial cells enhanced migration of inner and outer bMFCs in the micropatterned system via endothelin-1 (ET-1) signaling. Supplementation of ET-1 significantly enhanced integration strength of full-thickness defects in inner and outer explants, and cell migration at the macro-scale, compared to controls without ET-1 treatment. Conclusion We report for the first time that bMFCs from both the avascular and vascular regions respond to the presence of endothelial cells with increased migration. Paracrine signaling by endothelial cells regulates the bMFCs differentially by region, but we identify ET-1 as an angiogenic factor that stimulates migration of inner and outer cells at the micro-scale, and integrative repair of inner and outer explants at the macro-scale. These findings reveal the regional interactions between vasculature and MFCs, and suggest ET-1 as a potential new treatment modality for avascular meniscal injuries, in order to prevent the development of osteoarthritis. PMID:25307081

  14. Solar cell device

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiura, M.; Haruki, H.; Miyagi, M.; Sakai, H.; Uchida, Y.

    1984-06-26

    A solar cell array is equipped with serially or parallel connected reverse polarity diodes formed simultaneously with the array. The diodes are constituted by one or more solar cells of the array which may be shaded to prevent photoelectric conversion, and which are electrically connected in reverse polarity with respect to the remaining cells.

  15. The Langerhans cell

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, K.; Stingl, G.

    1983-06-01

    Langerhans cells are the bone-marrow-derived immune cells of the epidermis; they express Ia antigens and receptors for the Fc portion of IgG and complement components and are required for epidermal-cell-induced antigen-specific, syngeneic and allogeneic T-cell activitation and the generation of epidermal-cell-induced cytotoxic T cells. Their presence within the epidermis and functional integrity determine whether topical application of haptens leads to specific sensitization or unresponsiveness, and in skin grafts of only I region disparate donors, they represent the cells responsible for the critical allosensitizing signal. UV radiation abrogates most of Langerhans cell functions in vitro; under certain conditions in vivo, it prevents contact sensitization favoring the development of specific unresponsiveness. UV radiation abrogates antigen-presenting capacities of epidermal cells by interfering both with the processing of antigen by Langerhans cells and the production of the epidermal-cell-derived thymocyte activating factor required for optimal T-cell responses.

  16. Photoelectrochemical Solar Cells.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDevitt, John T.

    1984-01-01

    This introduction to photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells reviews topics pertaining to solar energy conversion and demonstrates the ease with which a working PEC cell can be prepared with n-type silicon as the photoanode and a platinum counter electrode (both immersed in ethanolic ferrocene/ferricenium solutions). Experiments using the cell are…

  17. Biomarkers of cell senescence

    DOEpatents

    Dirmi, G.P.; Campisi, J.; Peacocke, M.

    1996-02-13

    The present invention provides a biomarker system for the in vivo and in vitro assessment of cell senescence. In the method of the present invention, {beta}-galactosidase activity is utilized as a means by which cell senescence may be assessed either in in vitro cell cultures or in vivo. 1 fig.

  18. Biomarkers of cell senescence

    DOEpatents

    Dimri, G.P.; Campisi, J.; Peacocke, M.

    1998-08-18

    The present invention provides a biomarker system for the in vivo and in vitro assessment of cell senescence. In the method of the present invention, {beta}-galactosidase activity is utilized as a means by which cell senescence may be assessed either in vitro cell cultures or in vivo. 1 fig.

  19. Advanced Cell Technology, Inc.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, William M

    2007-03-01

    Advanced Cell Technology, Inc. (OTCBB: ACTC) is a biotechnology company applying novel human embryonic stem cell technologies in the emerging field of regenerative medicine. We believe that regenerative medicine has the potential to revolutionize the field by enabling scientists to produce human cells of any kind for use in a wide array of therapies.

  20. Adventures with Cell Phones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Liz

    2011-01-01

    Teachers are finding creative ways to turn the basic cell phone from a digital distraction into a versatile learning tool. In this article, the author explains why cell phones are important in learning and suggests rather than banning them that they be integrated into learning. She presents activities that can be done on a basic cell phone with a…