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Sample records for nocardia rubra cell

  1. Amino acids of the cell wall of Nocardia rubra.

    PubMed

    Beaman, B L; Kim, K S; Salton, M R; Barksdale, L

    1971-11-01

    Two classes of preparations of cell walls of Nocardia rubra strain 721-A, digested by trypsin and pepsin with or without subsequent extraction in alkaline ethanol, when examined by electron microscope and analyzed quantitatively for amino acid content differ in ultrastructure and constituent amino acids. Evidence suggests that the lipid-associated amino acids (as peptide or protein) occupy a location superficial to the basal peptido-glycan layer of this nocardia. Their removal is associated with the loss of a characteristic pattern of the outer envelope.

  2. Nocardia rubra cell-wall skeleton promotes CD4(+) T cell activation and drives Th1 immune response.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangchuan; Wu, Jie; Miao, Miao; Dou, Heng; Nan, Ning; Shi, Mingsheng; Yu, Guang; Shan, Fengping

    2017-03-15

    Several lines of evidences have shown that Nocardia rubra cell wall skeleton (Nr-CWS) has immunoregulatory and anti-tumor activities. However, there is no information about the effect of Nr-CWS on CD4(+) T cells. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of Nr-CWS on the phenotype and function of CD4(+) T cells. Our results of in vitro experiments showed that Nr-CWS could significantly up-regulate the expression of CD69 and CD25 on CD4(+) T cells, promote the proliferation of CD4(+) T cells, increase the production of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 in the supernatants, but has no significant effect on the apoptosis and death of CD4(+) T cells. Results of in vivo experiments showed that Nr-CWS could promote the proliferation of CD4(+) T cells, and increase the production of IL-2, IFN-γ and TNF-α (Th1 type cytokines). These data suggest that Nr-CWS can enhance the activation of CD4(+) T cells, promote the proliferation of CD4(+) T cells and the differentiation of CD4(+) T cells to Th1 cells.

  3. [Distribution of pyrimidine blocks in the DNA of Brevibacterium linens, Arthrobacter globiformis, Nocardia corallina and Nocardia rubra].

    PubMed

    Eroshina, N V; Golovlev, E L; Geĭdarov, T G; Bur'ianov, Ia I

    1975-01-01

    The nucleotide composition and the frequency of pyrimidine blocks were studied in DNA of the following bacteria: Brevibacterium linens (Weignamm, 1910) Breed, 1953; Arthrobacter globiformis (Conn, 1928) Conn et Dimmick, 1947; Nocardia corallina (Bergey et al., 1923) Waksman et Henrici, 1948; Nocardia rubra (Krassilnikov, 1949) Waksman et Henrici, 1948. These organisms are classed by some microbiologists as mycobacteria (the Mycobacteriaceae family) while other authors regard them as representatives of three families belonging to two orders. About 60 percent of all pyrimidines in DNA of these bacteria are found in the sequences pur-pyr-pur and pur-pyr-pyr-pur, the number of dipyrimidines being higher than the amount of monopyrimidine nucleotides. The content of dipyrimidine nucleotides in DNA of Nocardia corallina and Nocardia rubra is higher (16.8 mole %) than the content of dipyrimidine blocks in DNA of Brevibacterium linens and Arthrobacter globiformis, in which the quantity of dipyrimidines is almost the same (13.9 and 14.4 mole %). A new characteristic, the selected mean value, is suggested to evaluate differences in the distribution of pyrimidines in DNA.

  4. [Effect of Nocardia rubra cell wall skeleton (Nr-CWS) on oncogenicity of TC-1 cells and anti-human papillomavirus effect of Nr-CWS in lower genital tract of women].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Zhan, Shao-bing; Li, Xue-qian; Zhou, Ling; Yang, Ying-jie; Liao, Qin-ping

    2007-12-01

    To detect the effect of Nocardia rubra cell wall skeleton (Nr-CWS) on tumorigenicity induced by TC-1 cells and to clinically study anti-human papillomavirus effect of Nr-CWS in lower genital tract of women. Tumor model was established by injecting TC-1 cells subcutaneously in SCID mice, then divided them into 3 groups randomly and injected with isovolumetric physiological saline, 60 micrograms/ml Nr-CWS and 120 micrograms/ml Nr-CWS respectively, the growth of tumors was measured one week later. Nr-CWS was applied on 45 HPV positive women whose TCT test was normal and without cervical erosion 2-3 days after menstruation. HPV was detected again 3 months later to explore the effect of Nr-CWS on HPV infection in female lower genital tract. The animal experiment showed the weight of transplanted tumors in treated group was less than that of control group (chi2=12.5, P= 0.002). The tumor inhibition rate was 59.1 percent and 84.2 percent in the groups treated with Nr-CWS 60 and 120 micrograms/ml Nr-CWS; the results of HPV detection in 23 out of the 45 cases (51.1 percent) became negative after the 3-month treatment; the viral load was reduced in 9, and there was no change in viral load in 13 cases. Significant difference was found between the rates of undetectable viral load and the natural viral disappearance rate (P less than 0.05). Nr-CWS has an inhibitory effect to TC-1 cell tumorigenesis and clinical application of Nr-CWS may eliminate the HPV infection in lower genital tract of a considerable proportion of women with HPV infection.

  5. Mitogenic activity of the cell walls of mycobacteria, nocardia, corynebacteria and anaerobic coryneforms.

    PubMed

    Azuma, I; Taniyama, T; Sugimura, K; Aladin, A; Yamamura, Y

    1976-08-01

    The mitogenic activity of the cell walls prepared from Mycobacterium bovis BCG, Nocardia rubra, Corynebacterium diphtheriae PW8, and four species of Propionibacterium, Corynebacterium parvum ATCC 11829, Propionibacterium acnes C7, Propionibacterium granulosum ATCC 25564 and Propionibacterium avidum ATCC 25577, were investigated. These cell walls were active as mitogens on normal spleen cells, anti-O sera-treated spleen cells, macrophage-depleted spleen cells of C57BL/6J mice and cortisone-treated thymocytes of C57BL/6J mice. It was also shown that these cell walls were mitogenic on spleen cells and macrophage-depleted spleen cells of congenitally athymic (nude) mice. The above results suggest that the cell walls investigated in this study act as mitogens on both thymus-derived lymphocytes (T-cells) and bone marrow-derived lymphocytes (B-cells).

  6. Nocardia pseudobrasiliensis as an Emerging Cause of Opportunistic Infection after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation▿

    PubMed Central

    Lebeaux, David; Lanternier, Fanny; Degand, Nicolas; Catherinot, Emilie; Podglajen, Isabelle; Rubio, Marie-Thérèse; Suarez, Felipe; Lecuit, Marc; Mainardi, Jean-Luc; Lortholary, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    We report the case of a 55-year-old man who exhibited a nodular pneumonia 4 months after an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Culture of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid revealed Nocardia pseudobrasiliensis. This recently described carbapenem-resistant species should be included in the differential diagnosis of fungal infection in this setting. PMID:19940053

  7. Nocardia infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... eyes, and bones. Nocardia bacteria are found in soil around the world. You can get the disease ... bacteria. You can also get the disease if soil containing nocardia bacteria gets into an open wound. ...

  8. Anti-influenza virus activity of Myrica rubra leaf ethanol extract evaluated using Madino-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells.

    PubMed

    Mochida, Kyo

    2008-11-01

    Myrica rubra leaf ethanol extract was added to culture medium of Madino-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells inoculated with influenza virus, and the inhibition of influenza virus replication was measured. Myrica rubra leaf ethanol extract showed anti-influenza virus activity irrespective of the hemagglutinin antigen type in the influenza virus type A (H1N1), its subtype (H3N2), and type B.

  9. Paraneoplastic pityriasis rubra pilaris as the presenting manifestation of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Remedios, Isabel M; Jensen, J Daniel; Beckum, Kathleen; McKay, Kristopher; Kissel, Rebecca

    2014-05-01

    Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) is a rare idiopathic papulosquamous eruption. Few cases of PRP have been reported in association with malignancies. We report a case of an 83-year-old Caucasian male who presented with recalcitrant paraneoplastic PRP as the presenting manifestation of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma with unknown primary. Treatment with chemotherapy and radiation led to temporary radiologic and symptomatic regression of the cancer as well as resolution of cutaneous findings. This suggests a direct relationship between the PRP and the underlying malignancy in this patient. This case highlights a rare, but important phenomenon in which PRP may act as a harbinger for underlying malignancy.

  10. Nocardia brasiliensis Induces Formation of Foamy Macrophages and Dendritic Cells In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Meester, Irene; Rosas-Taraco, Adrian Geovanni; Salinas-Carmona, Mario Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Foamy cells have been described in various infectious diseases, for example in actinomycetoma induced by Nocardia brasiliensis. These cells are generally considered to be macrophages, although they present dendritic cell (DC)-specific surface markers. In this study, we determined and confirmed the lineage of possible precursors of foamy cells in vitro and in vivo using an experimental actinomycetoma model in BALB/c mice. Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) or DC (BMDC) were infected in vitro with N. brasiliensis or labeled with carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE). Both, macrophages and DC, differentiated into foamy cells after in vitro infection. CFSE-labeled BMDM or BMDC were tested for phagocytosis and CD11c/CD11b receptors markers expression before being transferred into the actinomycetoma lesion site of infected mice. In vivo studies showed that BMDM and BMDC were traced at the site where foamy cells are present in the experimental actinomycetoma. Interestingly, many of the transferred BMDM and BMDC were stained with the lipid-droplet fluorophore Nile Red. In conclusion, macrophages and DC cells can be differentiated into foamy cells in vitro and in vivo during N. brasiliensis infection. PMID:24936860

  11. Essential Oil from Myrica rubra Leaves Potentiated Antiproliferative and Prooxidative Effect of Doxorubicin and its Accumulation in Intestinal Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Ambrož, Martin; Hanušová, Veronika; Skarka, Adam; Boušová, Iva; Králová, Věra; Langhasová, Lenka; Skálová, Lenka

    2016-01-01

    Essential oil from the leaves of Myrica rubra, a subtropical Asian fruit tree traditionally used in folk medicines, has a significant antiproliferative effect in several intestinal cancer cell lines. Doxorubicin belongs to the most important cytostatics used in cancer therapy. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of defined essential oil from M. rubra leaves on efficacy, prooxidative effect, and accumulation of doxorubicin in cancer cell lines and in non-cancerous cells. For this purpose, intestinal adenocarcinoma CaCo2 cells were used. Human fibroblasts (periodontal ligament) and a primary culture of rat hepatocytes served as models of non-cancerous cells. The results showed that the sole essential oil from M. rubra has a strong prooxidative effect in cancer cells while it acts as a mild antioxidant in hepatocytes. Combined with doxorubicin, the essential oil enhanced the antiproliferative and prooxidative effects of doxorubicin in cancer cells. At higher concentrations, synergism of doxorubicin and essential oil from M. rubra was proved. In non-cancerous cells, the essential oil did not affect the toxicity of doxorubicin and the doxorubicin-mediated reactive oxygen species formation. The essential oil increased the intracellular concentration of doxorubicin and enhanced selectively the doxorubicin accumulation in nuclei of cancer cells. Taken together, essential oil from M. rubra leaves could be able to improve the doxorubicin efficacy in cancer cells due to an increased reactive oxygen species production, and the doxorubicin accumulation in nuclei of cancer cells. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Aluminum and temperature alteration of cell membrane permeability of Quercus rubra

    SciTech Connect

    Junping Chen; Sucoff, E.I.; Stadelmann, E.J. )

    1991-06-01

    Al toxicity is the major factor limiting plant growth in acid soils. This report extends research on Al-induced changes in membrane behavior of intact root cortex cells of Northern red oak (Quercus rubra). Membrane permeability was determined by the plasmometric method for individual intact cells at temperatures from 2 or 4 to 35 C. Al (0.37 millimolar) significantly increased membrane permeability to urea and monoethyl urea and decreased permeability to water. Al significantly altered the activation energy required to transport water (+ 32%), urea (+ 9%), and monoethyl urea ({minus}7%) across cell membranes. Above 9 C, Al increased the lipid partiality of the cell membranes; below 7 C, Al decreased it. Al narrowed by 6 C the temperature range over which plasmolysis occurred without membrane damage. These changes in membrane behavior are explainable if Al reduced membrane lipid fluidity and kink frequency and increases packing density and the occurrence of straight lipid chains.

  13. The effects of ginseng radix rubra on human vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, S; Uchiyama, Y; Yoshida, K; Mizukawa, H; Haruki, E

    1998-01-01

    The effect of Ginseng Radix Rubra (Red ginseng) on human vascular endothelial cells was examined. Red ginseng was found to promote the proliferation of vascular endothelial cells, inhibit the production but promote the decomposition of endothelin, which is known to constrict blood vessels and raise blood pressure as well as accelerated the synthesis of nitric oxide, which is known to have an angio-tonic effect. Furthermore, Red ginseng was observed to increase the production of Interleukin 1 beta, which is known to play important roles in the homeostatic activities of the human body such as immunity and inflammation as well as increasing the production of tissue plasminogen activators, which suppress the formation of thrombin in the blood coagulation and fibrinolysis mechanisms. It is suggested that Red ginseng has the effect of accelerating endothelial cells proliferation and of promoting physiological activities.

  14. Effect of growth stage on mycolic acid structure in cell walls of Nocardia asteroides GUH-2.

    PubMed Central

    Beaman, B L; Moring, S E; Ioneda, T

    1988-01-01

    Mycolic acids were extracted from the cell walls of Nocardia asteroides GUH-2 during different phases of growth at 37 degrees C. These were subjected to structural analysis by combining thin-layer chromatography and gas-liquid chromatography with UV and infrared spectrophotometry and mass spectroscopy of both methyl esters and trimethyl silyl derivatives. By analyzing the fragmentation patterns of these derivatives by three different methods of mass spectroscopy combined with gas-liquid chromatographic separation, the different structural subclasses of mycolic acids were quantitated. Significant qualitative and quantitative modifications of specific mycolic acid subclasses occurred in the cell walls of N. asteroides GUH-2 that were growth stage dependent. The mycolic acids that were predominant in the log phase were polyunsaturated (greater than 2 double bonds per molecule), with long chain lengths and even carbon atom numbers (i.e., C54, C56). In contrast, those that were prominent in the stationary phase were more saturated (few or no double bonds) and of shorter overall carbon chain length (less than or equal to C52). Furthermore, stationary-phase cells had significantly increased amounts of mycolic acids with odd-numbered carbon chain lengths (i.e., C49, C51, C53). Images PMID:3277946

  15. Basella alba rubra spinach pigment-sensitized TiO2 thin film-based solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokilamani, N.; Muthukumarasamy, N.; Thambidurai, M.; Ranjitha, A.; Velauthapillai, Dhayalan

    2015-03-01

    Nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films have been prepared by sol-gel dip coating method. The X-ray diffraction results showed that TiO2 thin films annealed at 400, 450 and 500 °C are of anatase phase and the peak corresponding to the (101) plane is present in all the samples. The grain size of TiO2 thin films was found to increase with increasing annealing temperature. The grain size is found to be 20, 25 and 33 nm for the films annealed at 400, 450 and 500 °C. The structure of the TiO2 nanocrystalline thin films have been examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscope, Raman spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy. TiO2 thin films were sensitized by natural dyes extracted from basella alba rubra spinach. It was found that the absorption peak of basella alba rubra extract is at about 665 nm. The dye-sensitized TiO2-based solar cell sensitized using basella alba rubra exhibited a J sc of 4.35 mA cm-2, V oc of 0.48 V, FF of 0.35 and efficiency of 0.70 %. Natural dyes as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells are promising because of their environmental friendliness, low-cost production and fully biodegradable.

  16. Pityriasis rubra pilaris

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pityriasis rubra pilaris - close-up References James WD, Berger TG, Elston DM. Pityriasis rosea, pityriasis rubra pilaris, ... other papulosquamous and hyperkeratotic diseases. In: James WD, Berger TG, Elston DM, eds. Andrews' Diseases of the ...

  17. Interleukin 23-Helper T Cell 17 Axis as a Treatment Target for Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris.

    PubMed

    Feldmeyer, Laurence; Mylonas, Alessio; Demaria, Olivier; Mennella, Anna; Yawalkar, Nikhil; Laffitte, Emmanuel; Hohl, Daniel; Gilliet, Michel; Conrad, Curdin

    2017-04-01

    Treatment of pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) is solely based on its resemblance to psoriasis rather than any knowledge of its pathomechanism. Insight into pathogenic mediators of inflammation is essential for targeted and valid treatment options that could replace previous serendipitous therapeutic approaches in refractory PRP. To determine whether blockade of the interleukin 23-helper T cell 17 (IL-23-TH17) pathway with ustekinumab represents an efficacious and, based on its proinflammatory cytokine profile, targeted treatment option in PRP. In this case report, a patient with PRP received outpatient treatment at a university hospital department of dermatology with ustekinumab according to the dosing regimen approved for psoriasis. Lesional skin biopsy samples were taken from this patient and 2 others with refractory PRP. Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of proinflammatory innate and T-cell-derived cytokines were measured and compared with skin samples from patients with psoriasis and healthy donors. From 1 patient, lesional skin samples were taken before ustekinumab treatment and 4 and 28 weeks after treatment initiation. Follow-up was completed after 6 months. Subcutaneous ustekinumab, 45 mg, at weeks 0 and 4 and quarterly thereafter. The primary outcome was to determine the changes in expression of proinflammatory innate and T-cell-derived cytokines during ustekinumab therapy. The secondary objective was to evaluate the clinical and histopathologic phenotype in relation to the mRNA expression profile of proinflammatory cytokines. In lesional PRP skin samples from a single patient, upregulated expression levels were found for most proinflammatory innate cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF), IL-6, IL-12, IL-23, and IL-1β. Among adaptive T-cell cytokines, an increase of TH1 cytokines and, in particular, TH17 cytokines IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22 was seen in PRP. The patient with PRP who received ustekinumab showed regression of skin lesions after 2 weeks

  18. COMPARISON OF THE DEVELOPMENTAL CYCLES OF SOME MEMBERS OF THE GENUS NOCARDIA1

    PubMed Central

    Adams, James N.; McClung, Norvel M.

    1962-01-01

    Adams, James N. (University of Georgia, Athens) and Norvel M. McClung. Comparison of the developmental cycles of some members of the genus Nocardia. J. Bacteriol. 84:206–216. 1962.—A staining technique specific for cell walls was used to determine the characteristic development of Nocardia rubra, N. erythropolis, N. asteroides, and N. canicruria comb. nov. When inoculated on a fresh medium, these organisms were observed to germinate, with the production of one or more germ tubes from coccoid, ovoid, and short bacillary cells. Upon continued incubation, the germ tubes elongated to form filaments from which branches could be formed. Two other mechanisms of branching were noted. One was a result of multiple germination of cells and the other a result of single or multiple germination of short chains of cells. Both of these mechanisms could be readily differentiated from true branching. Mycelial formation varied in extent among the species studied and was governed, in part, by the types of branching which an organism exhibited. After the phase of branching development has been completed, fragmentation of the filaments and branches occurred as a result of the separation of the corresponding filament fragments following the random deposition of septa along the lengths of the cells. As the culture age increased, the separating filament fragments became shorter until they ultimately reached sizes like those of cells found in the inoculum. The observed developmental cycles of the genus Nocardia were compared to those which have been described for the genera Mycobacterium and Streptomyces, and the taxonomic implications of the differences between these developmental cycles was discussed. Images PMID:13859341

  19. Effects of Activated Macrophages on Nocardia asteroides

    PubMed Central

    Filice, Gregory A.; Beaman, Blaine L.; Remington, Jack S.

    1980-01-01

    The mechanism(s) of host resistance against Nocardia asteroides has not been well defined. Since disease due to N. asteroides frequently occurs in patients with impaired cell-mediated immunity, we studied the interaction of N. asteroides with activated and control mouse peritoneal macrophages. Activated macrophages were from mice infected with Toxoplasma gondii or injected with Corynebacterium parvum. N. asteroides in the early stationary phase (>99% in the coccobacillary form) was used for challenge of macrophage monolayers. Growth of two strains of N. asteroides was markedly inhibited in activated macrophages, whereas N. asteroides grew well in control macrophages. Quantitation of macrophage-associated N. asteroides indicated that activated macrophages killed 40 to 50% of N. asteroides within 6 h (P < 0.002). In control macrophage preparations, it appeared as if Nocardia filaments extended from within macrophages to the outside, and many of these filaments appeared to have extended to and then grown through neighboring macrophages. In activated macrophage preparations, Nocardia remained in the coccobacillary form in most macrophages. Control macrophage monolayers were almost completely overgrown with and destroyed by Nocardia 20 h after challenge, whereas activated macrophage monolayers remained intact. Nocardia that grew in control macrophages were not acid-alcohol fast or only weakly so, whereas the few Nocardia that grew in activated macrophages were strongly acid-alcohol fast. Our results indicate that activated macrophages may be important in host defense against N. asteroides. Images Fig. 1 PMID:6991421

  20. Nocardia species: host-parasite relationships.

    PubMed Central

    Beaman, B L; Beaman, L

    1994-01-01

    The nocardiae are bacteria belonging to the aerobic actinomycetes. They are an important part of the normal soil microflora worldwide. The type species, Nocardia asteroides, and N. brasiliensis, N. farcinica, N. otitidiscaviarum, N. nova, and N. transvalensis cause a variety of diseases in both normal and immunocompromised humans and animals. The mechanisms of pathogenesis are complex, not fully understood, and include the capacity to evade or neutralize the myriad microbicidal activities of the host. The relative virulence of N. asteroides correlates with the ability to inhibit phagosome-lysosome fusion in phagocytes; to neutralize phagosomal acidification; to detoxify the microbicidal products of oxidative metabolism; to modify phagocyte function; to grow within phagocytic cells; and to attach to, penetrate, and grow within host cells. Both activated macrophages and immunologically specific T lymphocytes constitute the major mechanisms for host resistance to nocardial infection, whereas B lymphocytes and humoral immunity do not appear to be as important in protecting the host. Thus, the nocardiae are facultative intracellular pathogens that can persist within the host, probably in a cryptic form (L-form), for life. Silent invasion of brain cells by some Nocardia strains can induce neurodegeneration in experimental animals; however, the role of nocardiae in neurodegenerative diseases in humans needs to be investigated. Images PMID:8055469

  1. Highly Enantioselective Production of (R)-Halohydrins with Whole Cells of Rhodotorula rubra KCh 82 Culture

    PubMed Central

    Janeczko, Tomasz; Dymarska, Monika; Kostrzewa-Susłow, Edyta

    2014-01-01

    Biotransformation of ten α-haloacetophenones in the growing culture of the strain Rhodotorula rubra KCh 82 has been carried out. Nine of the substrates underwent an effective enantioselective reduction to the respective (R)-alcohols according to Prelog’s rule, with the exception of 2-chloro-1,2-diphenylethan-1-one that was not transformed by this strain. The expected reduction proceeded without dehalogenation, leading to the respective (R)-halohydrins in high yields. The use of this biocatalyst yielded (R)-2-bromo-1-phenyl-ethan-1-ol (enantiomeric excess (ee) = 97%) and its derivatives: 4'-Bromo- (ee = 99%); 4'-Chloro- (ee > 99%); 4'-Methoxy- (ee = 96%); 3'-Methoxy- (ee = 93%); 2'-Methoxy- (ee = 98%). There were also obtained and characterized 2,4'-dichloro-, 2,2',4'-trichloro- and 2-chloro-4'-fluoro-phenyetan-1-ol with >99% of enantiomeric excesses. PMID:25486054

  2. Modelling and simulation of steady-state phenol degradation in a pulsed plate bioreactor with immobilised cells of Nocardia hydrocarbonoxydans.

    PubMed

    Shetty, K Vidya; Verma, Dheeraj Kumar; Srinikethan, G

    2011-01-01

    A novel bioreactor called pulsed plate bioreactor (PPBR) with cell immobilised glass particles in the interplate spaces was used for continuous aerobic biodegradation of phenol present in wastewater. A mathematical model consisting of mass balance equations and accounting for simultaneous external film mass transfer, internal diffusion and reaction is presented to describe the steady-state degradation of phenol by Nocardia hydrocarbonoxydans (Nch.) in this bioreactor. The growth of Nch. on phenol was found to follow Haldane substrate inhibition model. The biokinetic parameters at a temperature of 30 ± 1 °C and pH at 7.0 ± 0.1 are μ (m) = 0.5397 h(-1), K (S) = 6.445 mg/L and K (I) = 855.7 mg/L. The mathematical model was able to predict the reactor performance, with a maximum error of 2% between the predicted and experimental percentage degradations of phenol. The biofilm internal diffusion rate was found to be the slowest step in biodegradation of phenol in a PPBR.

  3. Osmoregulation in the Hawaiian anchialine shrimp Halocaridina rubra (Crustacea: Atyidae): expression of ion transporters, mitochondria-rich cell proliferation and hemolymph osmolality during salinity transfers.

    PubMed

    Havird, Justin C; Santos, Scott R; Henry, Raymond P

    2014-07-01

    Studies of euryhaline crustaceans have identified conserved osmoregulatory adaptions allowing hyper-osmoregulation in dilute waters. However, previous studies have mainly examined decapod brachyurans with marine ancestries inhabiting estuaries or tidal creeks on a seasonal basis. Here, we describe osmoregulation in the atyid Halocaridina rubra, an endemic Hawaiian shrimp of freshwater ancestry from the islands' anchialine ecosystem (coastal ponds with subsurface freshwater and seawater connections) that encounters near-continuous spatial and temporal salinity changes. Given this, survival and osmoregulatory responses were examined over a wide salinity range. In the laboratory, H. rubra tolerated salinities of ~0-56‰, acting as both a hyper- and hypo-osmoregulator and maintaining a maximum osmotic gradient of ~868 mOsm kg(-1) H2O in freshwater. Furthermore, hemolymph osmolality was more stable during salinity transfers relative to other crustaceans. Silver nitrate and vital mitochondria-rich cell staining suggest all gills are osmoregulatory, with a large proportion of each individual gill functioning in ion transport (including when H. rubra acts as an osmoconformer in seawater). Additionally, expression of ion transporters and supporting enzymes that typically undergo upregulation during salinity transfer in osmoregulatory gills (i.e. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, carbonic anhydrase, Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter, V-type H(+)-ATPase and arginine kinase) were generally unaltered in H. rubra during similar transfers. These results suggest H. rubra (and possibly other anchialine species) maintains high, constitutive levels of gene expression and ion transport capability in the gills as a means of potentially coping with the fluctuating salinities that are encountered in anchialine habitats. Thus, anchialine taxa represent an interesting avenue for future physiological research. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Nymphaea rubra ameliorates TNF-α-induced insulin resistance via suppression of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase and nuclear factor-κB in the rat skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Sudeep; Rahuja, Neha; Ishrat, Nayab; Asthana, R K; Mishra, D K; Maurya, Rakesh; Jain, Swatantra Kumar; Srivastava, Arvind Kumar

    2014-12-01

    In this work, we demonstrated insulin signaling and the anti-inflammatory effects by the chloroform fraction of ethanolic extract of Nymphaea rubra flowers in TNF-α-induced insulin resistance in the rat skeletal muscle cell line (L6 myotubes) to dissect out its anti-hyperglycemic mechanism. N. rubra enhances the GLUT4-mediated glucose transport in a dose dependent manner and also increases the tyrosine phosphorylation of both IR-β and IRS-1, and the IRS-1 associated PI-3 kinase activity in TNF-α-treated L6 myotubes. Moreover, N. rubra decreases Ser(307) phosphorylation of IRS-1 by the suppression of JNK and NF-κB activation. In conclusion, N. rubra reverses the insulin resistance by the inhibition of c-Jun NH2-Terminal Kinase and Nuclear-κB.

  5. [Pityriasis rubra pilaris].

    PubMed

    Wollina, U

    2012-08-01

    Pityriasis rubra pilaris is an inflammatory papulosquamous skin disease of unknown etiology. Incidence rates vary between 1:5,000-1:50,000. Six subtypes are differentiated on clinical background. The juvenile circumscribed subtype has best prognosis. Generalized disease impairs quality of life of patients. It is associated with various complications and comorbidities. Treatment of pityriasis rubra pilaris is challenging. Retinoids are first line drugs. In recalcitrant cases, tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors have been used successfully.

  6. Cloning, Expression, Invasion, and Immunological Reactivity of a Mammalian Cell Entry Protein Encoded by the mce1 Operon of Nocardia farcinica

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Xingzhao; Tan, Xiaoluo; Hou, Xuexin; Si, Chenchen; Xu, Shuai; Tang, Lu; Yuan, Xiuqin; Li, Zhenjun

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial mammalian cell entry (Mce) proteins have been implicated in pathogen invasion of mammalian host cells. The aim of this study was to examine the invasion-conferring ability of mce1E operon-encoded proteins, in vivo expression of Mce1E in cells from infected mice and rabbits, and Mce1E immunogenicity. Nocardia farcinica mce1E was cloned into pet30a(+) vectors, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified. Invasion assays, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), immunoblots, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) detection of cytokines were conducted. TEM confirmed the invasion of HeLa cells by Mce1E-coated beads. The antigenicity of E. coli-expressed recombinant Mce1E was confirmed in immunoblots with sera from N. farcinica-infected mouse and rabbit sera. Co-incubation of Mce1E with splenocytes of N. farcinica-infected mice demonstrated upregulation of interferon (IFN-γ), but not interleukin (IL)-4 or IL-10, in the cultural supernatant. These findings demonstrate that Mce1E may facilitate N. farcinica interactions with and invasion of mammalian cells. Notably, Mce1E are expressed and elicited antibody responses in mice and rabbits during infection. Besides, it may play a role in cell-mediated immune reactions and cause host inflammation responses to N. farcinica infection. PMID:28275374

  7. Nocardia brasiliensis Cell Wall Lipids Modulate Macrophage and Dendritic Responses That Favor Development of Experimental Actinomycetoma in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Trevino-Villarreal, J. Humberto; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Valero-Guillén, Pedro L.

    2012-01-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is a Gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterium frequently isolated from human actinomycetoma. However, the pathogenesis of this infection remains unknown. Here, we used a model of bacterial delipidation with benzine to investigate the role of N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated lipids in experimental actinomycetoma. Delipidation of N. brasiliensis with benzine resulted in complete abolition of actinomycetoma without affecting bacterial viability. Chemical analyses revealed that trehalose dimycolate and an unidentified hydrophobic compound were the principal compounds extracted from N. brasiliensis with benzine. By electron microscopy, the extracted lipids were found to be located in the outermost membrane layer of the N. brasiliensis cell wall. They also appeared to confer acid-fastness. In vitro, the extractable lipids from the N. brasiliensis cell wall induced the production of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and CCL-2 in macrophages. The N. brasiliensis cell wall extractable lipids inhibited important macrophage microbicidal effects, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO) production, phagocytosis, bacterial killing, and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) expression in response to gamma interferon (IFN-γ). In dendritic cells (DCs), N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated extractable lipids suppressed MHC-II, CD80, and CD40 expression while inducing tumor growth factor β (TGF-β) production. Immunization with delipidated N. brasiliensis induced partial protection preventing actinomycetoma. These findings suggest that N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated lipids are important for actinomycetoma development by inducing inflammation and modulating the responses of macrophages and DCs to N. brasiliensis. PMID:22851755

  8. The Influence of Sesquiterpenes from Myrica rubra on the Antiproliferative and Pro-Oxidative Effects of Doxorubicin and Its Accumulation in Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Ambrož, Martin; Boušová, Iva; Skarka, Adam; Hanušová, Veronika; Králová, Věra; Matoušková, Petra; Szotáková, Barbora; Skálová, Lenka

    2015-08-21

    The sesquiterpenes β-caryophyllene, β-caryophyllene oxide (CAO), α-humulene (HUM), trans-nerolidol (NER), and valencene (VAL) are substantial components of the essential oil from Myrica rubra leaves which has exhibited significant antiproliferative effects in several intestinal cancer cell lines, with CaCo-2 cells being the most sensitive. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of these sesquiterpenes on the efficacy and toxicity of the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) in CaCo-2 cancer cells and in primary culture of rat hepatocytes. Our results showed that HUM, NER, VAL and CAO inhibited proliferation of CaCo-2 cancer cells but they did not affect the viability of hepatocytes. CAO, NER and VAL synergistically potentiated the efficacy of DOX in cancer cells killing. All sesquiterpenes exhibited the ability to selectively increase DOX accumulation in cancer cells and did not affect DOX concentration in hepatocytes. Additionally, CAO and VAL were able to increase the pro-oxidative effect of DOX in CaCo-2 cells. Moreover, CAO mildly ameliorated DOX toxicity in hepatocytes. Based on all results, CAO seems to be the most promising compound for further testing.

  9. Pityriasis Rubra Pilar and hypothyroidism*

    PubMed Central

    Franzotti, Aline Martinez; Avelar, Juliana Centofanti Dentello; Cardoso, Thaís Abrão; Pires, Mario Cesar; Vidigal, Maria do Rosário

    2014-01-01

    Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris (PRP) is a chronic and rare papulosquamous disorder. Treatment of Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris is based on empiric evidence because of several doubts regarding its etiology and also because of its relative rarity, making randomized studies difficult to perform. Some factors suggest that the metabolism of vitamin A is involved in pathogenesis. We report a case of Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris associated with autoimmune hypothyroidism which presented rapid and complete response after thyroid hormone replacement, without any association with other systemic treatment. In literature there are only three other reports of significant improvement of the lesions after hormonal correction. Deficiency of thyroid hormone inhibits the conversion of carotene into vitamin A, which would be responsible for the occurrence of Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris in this patient. PMID:24937828

  10. The effects of zinc on cell viability and on mitochondrial structure in contrasting cultivars of Festuca rubra L. - a rapid test for zinc tolerance.

    PubMed

    Davies, K L; Davies, M S; Francis, D

    1995-01-01

    A 20-min exposure to 5.0 microg Zn cm(-3) reduced the percentage of viable root meristematic cells in three cultivars of Festuca rubra L.: Merlin (Zn-tolerant), Hawk (salt-tolerant but with a degree of Zn tolerance) and S59 (Zn-sensitive). The Zn-induced cell mortality in S59 was approximately twice that of the tolerant cultivars. The mean area of mitochondrial profiles in root meristematic cells of Zn-untreated roots was similar in S59 and Merlin but that of Hawk was smaller. A 4-day exposure to 0.2 microg Zn cm(-3) resulted in mitochondrial swelling in the Zn-sensitive cultivar; there was a 25% increase in the mean area of mitochondrial profiles in this cultivar, but no significant increase occurred in Hawk or Merlin. Zn treatment caused a collapse of the cristae and a localized condensation of the mitochondrial matrix in S59, but not in Hawk or Merlin. The marked increase in cell mortality after only a 20-min Zn exposure and the relative simplicity of the technique, indicates that this procedure could be used as a rapid and independent measure of Zn tolerance.

  11. Lymphocutaneous nocardiosis due to Nocardia brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Maraki, Sofia; Scoulica, Efstathia; Alpantaki, Kalliopi; Dialynas, Michael; Tselentis, Yannis

    2003-09-01

    Nocardia species are Gram-positive bacteria responsible for systemic or cutaneous infections in humans. Nocardia brasiliensis is the most common infective agent in the cutaneous form of nocardiosis. We describe a case of a previously healthy man, who presented with lymphocutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis infection, and was successfully treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The identification of the isolate was confirmed by nucleotide sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene.

  12. Pityriasis rubra pilaris on the chest (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This person has pityriasis rubra pilaris on the chest, an uncommon skin condition characterized by salmon-colored patches with scaling (palmoplantar keratoderma). A characteristic sign of pityriasis rubra pilaris is plugging ...

  13. Bioconversion of fumaric acid to L-malic acid by the bacteria of the genus Nocardia.

    PubMed

    Hronská, Helena; Tokošová, Silvia; Pilniková, Anna; Krištofíková, Ľudmila; Rosenberg, Michal

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial strains of the genus Nocardia were used for the bioconversion of fumaric acid to L-malic acid. The ability of the bacterial strain Nocardia sp. CCM 4837/A to produce L-malic acid from fumaric acid was investigated under various conditions. The optimal temperature for the bioconversion was approximately 37 °C, and the optimal pH was around 8.0. The addition of an inductor (fumarate salt) to the fermentation medium was necessary to enhance enzyme activity. The presence of detergent Triton X-100 (0.02-0.1 %) in the reaction mixture rapidly increased the enzyme activity of fumarase. The specific fumarase activity of intact cells Nocardia sp. CCM 4837/A increased from 2.8 to 75 U/mg after optimising the experimental conditions described here. Pretreatment of the Nocardia cells with malonate was not necessary because succinate was not detected as a by-product under our experimental conditions.

  14. Evaluation of the In Vivo Therapeutic Effects of Radix Paeoniae Rubra Ethanol Extract with the Hypoglycemic Activities Measured from Multiple Cell-Based Assays

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chia-Chuan; Yuan, Wei; Lin, Yun-Lian; Liu, Ren-Shyan; Juan, Yi-Chen; Sun, Wan-Hua; Tsay, Huey Jen; Lee, Yu-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Background. Radix Paeoniae Rubra (Chi Shao) contains several phytochemicals with hypoglycemic actions. Current research aims to explore potential insulinotropic effects and long-term therapeutic efficacy of such herb against type 2 diabetes. Methods. Composition analysis for the ethanol extract (PRExt) was executed by high performance liquid chromatography. Polyphenol-enriched fraction was characterized by high pressure size exclusion chromatography. Multiple cell platforms were employed to evaluate hypoglycemic bioactivities. In animal experiments, blood glucose, the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-index assessment, glucose tolerance test, and in vivo glucose uptake were all measured. Additional effects of PRExt on obesity and hepatic steatosis were evaluated by serum and histological analysis. Results. PRExt provides multiple hypoglycemic effects including the enhancement of glucose-mediated insulin secretion. Pentagalloylglucose and polyphenol-enriched fraction are two insulinotropic constituents. Moreover, PRExt intraperitoneal injection causes acute hypoglycemic effects on fasted db/db mice. Oral administration of PRExt (200 mg/kg b.w.) gradually reduces blood glucose in db/db mice to the level similar to that in C57J/B6 mice after 30 days. The improvement of glucose intolerance, HOMA-index, and in vivo glucose uptake is evident in addition to the weight loss effect and attenuation of hepatic steatosis. Conclusion. PRExt is an effective antidiabetic herbal extract with multiple hypoglycemic bioactivities. PMID:28018473

  15. Beta-Lactamase Production and Resistance to Beta-Lactam Antibiotics in Nocardia

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Richard J.; Vance, Paula; Weissfeld, Alice; Martin, R. Russell

    1978-01-01

    Although ampicillin has been suggested as a useful agent for the treatment of nocardiosis in man, little is known regarding the presence of beta-lactamase in Nocardia or its possible role in determining resistance to ampicillin and the other beta-lactam antibiotics. We have evaluated 55 isolates of Nocardia for susceptibility to five beta-lactam antibiotics and for the presence of beta-lactamase. Nocardia were resistant to penicillin G, cloxacillin, and cefazolin, but 27 and 62% were susceptible to 3.1 and 25 μg of ampicillin per ml, respectively. Almost 90% of these ampicillin-susceptible or intermediate strains were also susceptible to carbenicillin. The combination of ampicillin and cloxacillin was synergistic against many ampicillin-resistant strains. Beta-lactamase was detected in 89% of Nocardia isolates when intact cells were used and in six of six strains after cell fractionation. This beta-lactamase was most active against penicillin G and ampicillin, with lesser activity against carbenicillin and cephaloridine. These studies suggest that beta-lactamase may be present in all clinical isolates of Nocardia and that mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance other than or in addition to beta-lactamase are responsible for resistance of Nocardia to ampicillin and carbenicillin. PMID:310280

  16. An Ultrastructural Analysis of Nocardia During Experimental Infections in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Beaman, Blaine L.

    1973-01-01

    Several strains of Nocardia that varied from virulent to avirulent were injected intraperitoneally into young mice. Histological and ultrastructural analysis of the resultant infections revealed that the bacteria and the lesions they induced were different depending upon the strain of organism used. Further, the morphological and tinctorial characteristics of the bacteria grown in vitro changes during growth in vivo. These observations strongly suggested that chemical and physical alterations occurred in the cell envelope of the Nocardia when grown in mice. Electron microscopy confirmed that significant structural modification occurred, especially in the cell envelope, when the nocardial cells established themselves within the host tissue. It was shown that the least virulent strain exhibited the most dramatic changes whereas the most virulent organism appeared to be affected the least. Images PMID:4584055

  17. Astragalus and Paeoniae Radix Rubra extract (APE) inhibits hepatic stellate cell activation by modulating transforming growth factor-β/smad pathway

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, WEIJUAN; LI, LIN; TIAN, XIAOPENG; YAN, JINJIN; YANG, XINZHENG; WANG, XINLONG; LIAO, GUOZHEN; QIU, GENQUAN

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that Astragalus and Paeoniae Radix Rubra extract (APE) is capable of protecting against liver fibrosis in rats. The hypothesis of the present study was that APE exerts its anti-fibrotic effect by mediating the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling pathway. In order to investigate this hypothesis, a series of assays were designed to detect the effects of APE on cell proliferation, cell invasion and the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). In addition, the effects of APE on the TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway were explored, with the aim of elucidating the underlying mechanisms. HSCs were initially isolated from normal rat liver. A number of assays were then employed in order to evaluate the effects of APE on the function of these cells. Cell proliferation was investigated using an MTT assay and cell invasion was observed with the use of transwell invasion chambers. Collagen synthesis was measured with a 3H-proline incorporation assay and expression of α-smooth muscle actin was used to determine the extent of HSC activation. Protein expression induced by TGF-β1 in HSCs was investigated by western blot and immunofluorescence analyses. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type1 (PAI-1) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) transcriptional activity was measured using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results demonstrated that APE (5–80 μg/ml) significantly inhibited fetal bovine serum-induced cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Cell invasion and activation of HSCs induced by TGF-β1 were disrupted by treatment with APE in a dose-dependent manner. TGF-β1 was observed to increase the phosphorylation of Smad2/3, while APE administered at higher doses produced inhibitory effects on Smad2/3 phosphorylation. In addition, administration of APE abrogated the TGF-β1-induced reduction in Smad-7 expression in a dose-dependent manner. The results further indicated that APE treatment not only

  18. Molecular identification and thermoresistance to boiling of Nocardia farcinica and Nocardia cyriacigeorgica from bovine bulk tank milk

    PubMed Central

    Condas, L.A.Z.; Ribeiro, M.G.; Gonoi, T.; Matsuzawa, T.; Yazawa, K.; Motta, R.G.; Franco, M.M.J.; Listoni, F.J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Two strains of Nocardia spp. were isolated from bovine milk of two individual bulk tank. Molecular identification classified the strains as Nocardia farcinica and Nocardia cyriacigeorgica. The thermorresistance to boiling of the isolates was carried out and was observed bacterial growth after boiling. Our findings indicate the potential risk of pathogen transmission to humans through contaminated milk with Nocardia spp. PMID:24031926

  19. Microbial Transformation of Ibuprofen by a Nocardia Species

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yijun; Rosazza, John P. N.

    1994-01-01

    The carboxylic acid functional group of ibuprofen [α-methyl-4-(2-methylpropyl) benzene acetic acid] is reduced to the corresponding alcohol and subsequently esterified to the acetate derivative by cultures of Nocardia species strain NRRL 5646. The alcohol and ester microbial transformation products were isolated, and their structures were determined by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. By derivatization of synthetic and microbiologically produced ibuprofen alcohols with S(+)-O-acetylmandelic acid, nuclear magnetic resonance analysis indicated that the carboxylic acid reductase of Nocardia sp. is R enantioselective, giving alcohol products with an enantiomeric excess of 61.2%. The R enantioselectivity of the carboxylic acid reductase enzyme system was confirmed by using cell extracts together with ATP and NADPH in the reduction of isomeric ibuprofens. PMID:16349237

  20. Bioconversion of steroid glycosides by Nocardia restricta.

    PubMed

    Belic, I; Kastelic-Suhadolc, T; Kralj, B

    1985-09-01

    The bioconversion of steroid alkaloid tomatine by Nocardia restricta yields the conjugate with lactic acid. We studied the bioconversion of some steroid glycosides without a nitrogen atom in the molecule to determine the effect of the nitrogen atom. The glycosides were of three different types: sterol glycosides, bufadienolide rhamnoside and steroid saponine. The results of bioconversions showed that Nocardia restricta converts steroid glycosides differently according to the sugar bound to the steroid aglycone. It can be concluded that in the absence of a nitrogen atom in the steroid molecule no conjugation with lactic acid by Nocardia restricta occurs.

  1. Nocardia brasiliensis Infection Complicating Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Alison M.; Sluzevich, Jason C.

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary nocardiosis is a severe and uncommon opportunistic infection caused by Nocardia species. We present a patient with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia who was receiving long-term immunosuppressive therapy, whose treatment course was complicated by cutaneous and pulmonary nocardiosis. Tissue cultures confirmed Nocardia brasiliensis. Nocardiosis should be a diagnostic consideration for patients treated with long-term immunosuppression who have worsening pulmonary symptoms and relapsing pustular skin lesions. PMID:28348912

  2. Nocardia brasiliensis Infection Complicating Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Alison M; Sluzevich, Jason C; Mira-Avendano, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary nocardiosis is a severe and uncommon opportunistic infection caused by Nocardia species. We present a patient with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia who was receiving long-term immunosuppressive therapy, whose treatment course was complicated by cutaneous and pulmonary nocardiosis. Tissue cultures confirmed Nocardia brasiliensis. Nocardiosis should be a diagnostic consideration for patients treated with long-term immunosuppression who have worsening pulmonary symptoms and relapsing pustular skin lesions.

  3. Growth of Nocardia rhodochrous on acetylene gas.

    PubMed Central

    Kanner, D; Bartha, R

    1979-01-01

    Soil sediment enrichment cultures yielded a coryneform bacterium capable of growing in a mineral salts solution with acetylene gas as its only source of carbon and energy. Based on morphological and physiological traits as well as on cell wall analysis, the bacterium was characterized as a strain of Nocardia rhodochrous. Maximal growth rates (generation time 2.7 to 3.0 h) on acetylene were obtained at 5 to 20% acetylene, 25 to 40% oxygen, pH 7.0 and 26 to 28 degrees C. Yields (grams of dry cells produced per gram of acetylene consumed) ranged between 90 and 110%. N. rhodochrous exhibits a growth factor requirement for the pyrimidine moiety of thiamine. Acetylene utilization is not an obligate trait, and a wide range of alternate carbon sources is utilized. Ethylene is neither produced nor consumed. The only previous report on acetylene utilization appeared in 1932. The Mycobacterium lacticola strain described in that report strongly resembles N. rhodochrous. PMID:37235

  4. Nocardia rayongensis sp. nov., isolated from Thai peat swamp forest soil.

    PubMed

    Tanasupawat, Somboon; Phongsopitanun, Wongsakorn; Suwanborirux, Khanit; Ohkuma, Moriya; Kudo, Takuji

    2016-05-01

    An actinomycete strain, RY45-3T, isolated from a peat swamp forest soil in Rayong Province, Thailand, was characterized using a polyphasic approach. The strain belonged to the genus Nocardia on the basis of morphological, physiological, biochemical and chemotaxonomic properties. Cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The N-acyl group of muramic acid in the cell wall was glycolyl type. The diagnostic sugars in whole-cell hydrolysates were galactose and arabinose. MK-8 (H4ω-cycl) was the major menaquinone. The major fatty acids were C16 : 0 and C18 : 1ω9c. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannosides. The genomic DNA G+C content was 71 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity analysis, strain RY45-3T was closely related to Nocardia jiangxiensis JCM 12861T (98.9 %), Nocardia nova JCM 6044T (98.8 %) and Nocardia pseudobrasiliensis JCM 9894T (98.6 %). The strain showed low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness with N. jiangxiensis JCM 12861T, N. nova JCM 6044T and N. pseudobrasiliensis JCM 9894T (range from 3.6 to 55.3 %). On the basis of the phenotypic characteristics and the results mentioned, this strain could be differentiated from closely related type strains and represents a novel species of the genus Nocardia, for which the name Nocardia rayongensis sp. nov. (type strain RY45-3T = JCM 19832T = TISTR 2213T = PCU 334T) is proposed.

  5. Clinical and laboratory features of Nocardia nova.

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, R J; Brown, B A; Tsukamura, M; Brown, J M; Onyi, G O

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that Nocardia asteroides isolates have five major antibiotic resistance patterns; one of these patterns identifies isolates of Nocardia farcinica. In the current study, we investigated a second pattern characterized by susceptibility to ampicillin and erythromycin. This pattern was seen in 17% of 223 clinical isolates identified by standard techniques as N. asteroides and associated with diseases typical for nocardiae. Biochemically, isolates with this drug pattern were relatively homogeneous and identical to the type strain and previous descriptions of Nocardia nova. The strains studied were unique among nocardiae in having both alpha- and beta-esterase activity (85 and 95%, respectively). However, the arylsulfatase activity at 14 days (75%) and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, including susceptibility to erythromycin (100%), were the only routinely available methods that would separate N. nova strains from other members of N. asteroides. N. asteroides should be considered a complex because current clinical identification schemes include isolates of N. farcinica and N. nova and may well include additional species. This is the first detailed description of N. nova as a pathogen in humans. PMID:1774244

  6. Isolation of both Pseudozyma aphidis and Nocardia otitidiscaviarum from a mycetoma on the leg.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; Zhu, Lin-yu; Xuan, Xuan; Wu, Ling-jian; Zhou, Tie-li; Zhang, Xue-qi; Li, Bing-xu

    2011-06-01

    We describe a case of mycetoma which typified the classic presentation of the disease: a male farmer with affection of the lower limbs and a history of trauma. The patient presented with a swollen right lower limb showing multiple discharging sinuses for 25 years. Histopathologically, grains were found by HE stain, and clustered yeast-like cells were observed by PAS stain. The distinctive 'dot-in-circle' sign was found through MRI. Besides Nocardia otitidiscaviarum, Pseudozyma aphidis was isolated from deep tissue culture, and the identification of the etiologic species was ascertained by DNA sequencing. Generally speaking, Nocardia otitidiscaviarum is an infrequent cause of mycetoma, and Pseudozyma species are usually isolated from plant material rather than clinical specimens. This is the first case of mycetoma from which both Nocardia otitidiscaviarum and Pseudozyma aphidis were isolated. © 2011 The International Society of Dermatology.

  7. Nocardia halotolerans sp. nov., a halotolerant actinomycete isolated from saline soil.

    PubMed

    Moshtaghi Nikou, Mahdi; Ramezani, Mohaddaseh; Ali Amoozegar, Mohammad; Rasooli, Mehrnoosh; Harirchi, Sharareh; Shahzadeh Fazeli, Seyed Abolhasan; Schumann, Peter; Spröer, Cathrin; Ventosa, Antonio

    2015-09-01

    A novel halotolerant actinomycete, strain Chem15(T), was isolated from soil around Inche-Broun hypersaline wetland; its taxonomic position was determined based on a polyphasic approach. Strain Chem15(T) was strictly aerobic and tolerated NaCl up to 12.5%. The optimum temperature and pH for growth were 28-30 °C and pH 7.0-7.5, respectively. The cell wall of strain Chem15(T) contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as diamino acid and galactose, arabinose and ribose as whole-cell sugars. The major phospholipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannosides. The cellular fatty acids profile consisted of C16 : 0, iso-C18 : 0, C18 : 0 10-methyl and C18 : 1ω9c, and the major respiratory quinone was MK-8(H4cycl). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 68.0 mol%. The novel strain constituted a distinct phyletic line within the genus Nocardia, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and was closely associated with Nocardia sungurluensis DSM 45714(T) and Nocardia alba DSM 44684(T) (98.2 and 98.1% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively). However DNA-DNA relatedness and phenotypic data demonstrated that strain Chem15(T) was clearly different from closely related species of the genus Nocardia. It is concluded that the organism should be classified as a representative of a novel species of the genus Nocardia, for which the name Nocardia halotolerans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Chem15(T) ( = IBRC-M 10490(T) = LMG 28544(T)).

  8. Pityriasis rubra pilaris following exposure to dolomite.

    PubMed

    Iraji, Fariba; Siadat, Amir H

    2013-07-01

    In this case report, we present a 30-year-old man who developed pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) following exposure to Dolomite. The diagnosis of PRP was confirmed histologically and the patient was successfully treated with acitretin and cyclosporine.

  9. Analysis of the complete genome sequence of Nocardia seriolae UTF1, the causative agent of fish nocardiosis: The first reference genome sequence of the fish pathogenic Nocardia species

    PubMed Central

    Yasuike, Motoshige; Nishiki, Issei; Iwasaki, Yuki; Nakamura, Yoji; Fujiwara, Atushi; Shimahara, Yoshiko; Kamaishi, Takashi; Yoshida, Terutoyo; Nagai, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Takanori; Katoh, Masaya

    2017-01-01

    Nocardiosis caused by Nocardia seriolae is one of the major threats in the aquaculture of Seriola species (yellowtail; S. quinqueradiata, amberjack; S. dumerili and kingfish; S. lalandi) in Japan. Here, we report the complete nucleotide genome sequence of N. seriolae UTF1, isolated from a cultured yellowtail. The genome is a circular chromosome of 8,121,733 bp with a G+C content of 68.1% that encodes 7,697 predicted proteins. In the N. seriolae UTF1 predicted genes, we found orthologs of virulence factors of pathogenic mycobacteria and human clinical Nocardia isolates involved in host cell invasion, modulation of phagocyte function and survival inside the macrophages. The virulence factor candidates provide an essential basis for understanding their pathogenic mechanisms at the molecular level by the fish nocardiosis research community in future studies. We also found many potential antibiotic resistance genes on the N. seriolae UTF1 chromosome. Comparative analysis with the four existing complete genomes, N. farcinica IFM 10152, N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 and N. cyriacigeorgica GUH-2 and N. nova SH22a, revealed that 2,745 orthologous genes were present in all five Nocardia genomes (core genes) and 1,982 genes were unique to N. seriolae UTF1. In particular, the N. seriolae UTF1 genome contains a greater number of mobile elements and genes of unknown function that comprise the differences in structure and gene content from the other Nocardia genomes. In addition, a lot of the N. seriolae UTF1-specific genes were assigned to the ABC transport system. Because of limited resources in ocean environments, these N. seriolae UTF1 specific ABC transporters might facilitate adaptation strategies essential for marine environment survival. Thus, the availability of the complete N. seriolae UTF1 genome sequence will provide a valuable resource for comparative genomic studies of N. seriolae isolates, as well as provide new insights into the ecological and functional diversity of

  10. Nocardiosis in Mediterranean bivalves: first detection of Nocardia crassostreae in a new host Mytilus galloprovincialis and in Ostrea edulis from the Gulf of Naples (Italy).

    PubMed

    Carella, Francesca; Carrasco, Noelia; Andree, Karl B; Lacuesta, Beatriz; Furones, Dolors; De Vico, Gionata

    2013-11-01

    In this work M. galloprovincialis and O. edulis specimens were surveyed for a pathological study in the Gulf of Naples (Mediterranean sea, Campania Region, southern Italy). Clusters of Nocardia sp.-like cells were observed in histological slides. PCR amplification, sequencing and in situ hybridization were carried out in order to corroborate Nocardia species identification for both hosts. Blast results showed a 99% of maximum identity with Nocardia crassostreae sequences in Genbank. This is the first report of N. crassostreae in the new host M. galloprovincialis and, in a new area, the Mediterranean Sea.

  11. Myrionecta Rubra Population Genetic Diversity and Its Cryptophyte Chloroplast Specificity in Recurrent Red Tides in the Columbia River Estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Herfort, Lydie; Peterson, Tawnya D.; McCue, Lee Ann; Crump, Byron C.; Prahl, Fredrick G.; Baptista, Antonio M.; Campbell, Victoria; Warnick, Rachel; Selby, Mikaela; Roegner, G. Curtis; Zuber, Peter A.

    2011-01-04

    For at least a decade, annually recurring blooms of the photosynthetic ciliate, Myrionecta rubra have been observed in the Columbia River estuary in late summer. In an effort to understand the dynamics of these blooms, we investigated the genetic variability of M. rubra and its cryptophyte plastids within three large estuarine blooms formed in consecutive years (2007-2009), and conducted a broader spatial survey along the coasts of Oregon/Washington. Analysis of the ‘18S-28S’ sequences specific for Mesodiniidae uncovered at least 7 variants of M. rubra within the Columbia River coastal margin in spring and summer, but only one of these M. rubra variants was implicated in estuary bloom formation. Using a multigene approach, we show that the bloom-forming variant of M. rubra appears to harbor the same cryptophyte chloroplast in recurring blooms. Analyses of chloroplast 16S rRNA, cryptophyte RuBisCO and Photosystem II D2 genes together suggest that the plastid is derived from Teleaulax amphioxeia. Free-living cells of this species and of other cryptophytes were practically absent from the bloom patches in the estuary main channels based on 18S rDNA sequence analyses. The respectively low and high proportions of T. amphioxeia nuclei and chloroplasts signals found in the M. rubra bloom of the Columbia River estuary in successive years supports the notion of a transient association between T. amphioxeia and the bloom-forming M. rubra variant, with loss of cryptophyte nuclei. The genetic variability of M. rubra uncovered here is relevant to the controversy in the literature regarding the cryptophyte /M. rubra association.

  12. Oxidation of Alkanes to Internal Monoalkenes by a Nocardia1

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Bernard J.; Casida, L. E.

    1968-01-01

    A suspension of glucose-grown resting cells of Nocardia salmonicolor PSU-N-18 oxidized hexadecane to a mixture of internal monohexadecenes. The latter exhibited a cis configuration, and the mixture consisted of the following: 7-hexadecene, 80%; 8-hexadecene, 18%; and 6-hexadecene, 2%. Alkanes other than hexadecane also were unsaturated by the resting cells, and the composition of the monoalkenes resulting from octadecane dehydrogenation was 9-octadecene, 91%; 8-octadecene, 2 to 3%; 7-octadecene, 1 to 2%; and 6- and 5-octadecenes, trace amounts. Only minute quantities of unsaturated hydrocarbons accumulated during growth on hexadecane and during resting-cell incubation of hexadecane-grown cells with hexadecane. The dehydrogenation of hydrocarbons did not appear to be related to the formation of unsaturated fatty acids. It is postulated that double bond insertion may represent an early step in a new pathway of aliphatic hydrocarbon degradation. PMID:5686017

  13. Nonconventional Remission of Miliaria rubra during Heat Acclimation: Case Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    red papules on a mildly erythunatous skin. Although usually classfied as a minor skin disorder, miliaria rubra may be the precursor of impetigo...miliaria rubra from miliaria crystillina, miliaria pustulosa and miliaria profunda (3). Most reports of miliaria rubra originated in the Pacific

  14. Nocardia brasiliensis: mycetoma induction and growth cycle.

    PubMed Central

    Conde, C; Melendro, E I; Fresán, M; Ortiz-Ortiz, L

    1982-01-01

    The capacity of Nocardia brasiliensis to induce mycetoma in BALB/c mice in the absence of adjuvants was studied. Whether the virulence of N. brasiliensis varied in the different phases of its growth cycle was also determined. The results showed that N. brasiliensis suspended in 0.15 M NaCl and injected into the footpads of mice were able to induce mycetoma after only 14 days of infection, as evidenced by histological studies. Data are also presented indicating that the virulence of N. brasiliensis did not vary during the different phases of its growth curve. The differences in virulence reported between N. brasiliensis and other nocardiae are discussed and explained in terms of several variables in the experimental designs used: among these variables are mouse genotype, route of inoculation, and model for determining virulence. Images PMID:7152671

  15. Nocardia Arthritis: 3 Cases and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Chaussade, Hélène; Lebeaux, David; Gras, Guillaume; Catherinot, Emilie; Rammaert, Blandine; Poiree, Sylvain; Lecuyer, Hervé; Zeller, Valérie; Bernard, Louis; Lortholary, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Nocardia are Gram-positive filamentous bacteria responsible for infections ranging from opportunistic life-threatening disseminated diseases to chronic skin and soft-tissue infections. Even if virtually all organs can be infected, articular involvement is rare. Therefore, we report 3 recent cases and performed a literature review of cases of Nocardia arthritis in order to describe clinical features, therapeutic challenges, and outcome of these patients. Among 34 patients (31 in the literature plus our 3 cases), 21 (62%) were due to hematogenous dissemination, 9 (26%) were due to direct bacterial inoculation through the skin, and in 4 cases, the mechanism of infection was unknown. Four out of these 34 cases occurred on prosthetic joints. Whereas hematogenous infections mostly occurred in immunocompromised hosts (17 of 21, 81%), direct inoculation was mostly seen in immunocompetent patients. Eighty-two percent of patients (28 out of 34) received trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-containing regimens and median antibiotic treatment duration was 24 weeks (range, 12–120) for hematogenous infections and 12 weeks (range, 6–24) for direct inoculations. Outcome was favorable in 27 cases despite unsystematic surgical management (17 cases) without sequelae in 70% of the cases. Nocardia arthritis is rare but its management is complex and should rely on a combined approach with rheumatologist, infectious diseases expert, and surgeon. PMID:26496274

  16. Pulmonary Nocardiosis due to Nocardia asiatica in an Immunocompetent Host.

    PubMed

    Okawa, Sakina; Sonobe, Kazunari; Nakamura, Yuzo; Nei, Takahito; Kamio, Koichiro; Gemma, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case of pulmonary nocardiosis due to Nocardia asiatica in an immunocompent 64-year-old-female. Wadowsky-Yee-Okuda-α-ketoglutarate (WYOα) agar, a selective media for Legionella species, was useful for the detection based on the growth-inhibition of normal oral flora and growth-promotion of Nocardia species.

  17. First report of a brain abscess caused by Nocardia veterana.

    PubMed

    Arends, J E; Stemerding, A M; Vorst, S P; de Neeling, A J; Weersink, A J L

    2011-12-01

    Among Nocardia species causing infections, Nocardia veterana is rarely isolated and is mostly described as causing pulmonary infections. This is the first presentation of a case of brain abscess attributable to an N. veterana infection in a patient with type 2 diabetes. Prolonged antibiotic therapy with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole led to successful clinical recovery.

  18. Nocardia liver abscess post liver transplantation - a rare presentation.

    PubMed

    Hanchnale, Pavan; Jain, Mayank; Vargese, Joy; V, Jayanthi; Rela, Mohamed

    2017-02-01

    Nocardiosis is usually a disseminated disease seen in immunocompromised individuals. We herein present a rare case of isolated Nocardia liver abscess post liver transplantation. The patient responded well to treatment and is on long-term antibiotics for Nocardia infection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. [Nocardia endocarditis in aortic and tricuspid native valves].

    PubMed

    Chain, Sergio; Luciardi, Hector; Feldman, Gabriela; Berman, Sofia; Estrella, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    Nocardia endocarditis in native valve is an uncommon infection that usually arises in immunodepressed patients. We report a 51-year-old man diagnosed as having Nocardia endocarditis in aortic and tricuspid native valves, which received antimicrobial therapy and required aortic valve replacement. In 6 month follow up the patient remained asymptomatic with good clinical evolution.

  20. Nocardia aciditolerans sp. nov., isolated from a spruce forest soil.

    PubMed

    Golinska, Patrycja; Wang, Dylan; Goodfellow, Michael

    2013-05-01

    Actinomycetes growing on acidified starch-casein agar seeded with suspensions of litter and mineral soil from a spruce forest were provisionally assigned to the genus Nocardia based upon colonial properties. Representative isolates were found to grow optimally at pH 5.5, have chemotaxonomic and morphological features consistent with their assignment to the genus Nocardia and formed two closely related subclades in the Nocardia 16S rRNA gene tree. DNA:DNA relatedness assays showed that representatives of the subclades belong to a single genomic species. The isolates were distantly associated with their nearest phylogenetic neighbour, the type strain of Nocardia kruczakiae, and were distinguished readily from the latter based on phenotypic properties. On the basis of these data it is proposed that the isolates merit recognition as a new species, Nocardia aciditolerans sp. nov. The type strain is isolate CSCA68(T) (=KACC 17155(T) = NCIMB 14829(T) = DSM 45801(T)).

  1. First Case of Actinomycetoma in France Due to a Novel Nocardia Species, Nocardia boironii sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Gilquin, Jacques M; Riviere, Brigitte; Jurado, Valme; Audouy, Bernard; Kouatche, Jean-Baptiste; Bergeron, Emmanuelle; Mouniée, Delphine; Molina, Thierry; Faure, Philippe; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesáreo; Rodríguez-Nava, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial mycetoma is a neglected disease mainly observed in tropical area countries and typically associated with rural conditions, making its presence in developed countries of temperate climate areas rare. However, we report the first case of an autochthonous mycetoma case in continental France that originated from a new Nocardia species. A Gram-positive filamentous bacterium (OFN 14.177(T)) was isolated from a pus sample from the mycetoma of a male French patient 92 years old suffering from chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The isolate was analyzed by a polyphasic taxonomic approach by coupling morphological, biochemical, physiological, and chemotaxonomic aspects to genomic and phylogenetic analyses. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) using four housekeeping genes (16S rRNA gene, secA1, hsp65, and sod) combined with phylogenetic analysis revealed that the strain OFN 14.177(T) is phylogenetically closer not only to Nocardia altamirensis but also to all other species comprising the Nocardia brasiliensis clade (i.e., N. brasiliensis, N. altamirensis, N. vulneris, N. iowensis, and N. tenerifensis), some of which present cutaneous tropism. The G+C content of isolate OFN 14.177(T) was 68.2 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization analyses demonstrated 38.25% relative reassociation with N. altamirensis. The strain OFN 14.177(T) is different from the closest species at genetic and phenotypical levels, and the data obtained indicate that it should be recognized as a new species, for which the name of Nocardia boironii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is OFN 14.177(T) (= EML 1451 = DSM 101696). IMPORTANCE Bacterial mycetoma is an endemic infection in areas with tropical and subtropical climates. Thus, its presence in temperate climate areas remains rare. We report here the first case of autochthonous actinomycetoma in continental France originating from a Nocardia species other than N. brasiliensis, namely, Nocardia boironii. Considering the history of the patient, the

  2. First Case of Actinomycetoma in France Due to a Novel Nocardia Species, Nocardia boironii sp. nov.

    PubMed Central

    Gilquin, Jacques M.; Riviere, Brigitte; Jurado, Valme; Audouy, Bernard; Kouatche, Jean-Baptiste; Bergeron, Emmanuelle; Mouniée, Delphine; Molina, Thierry; Faure, Philippe; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesáreo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial mycetoma is a neglected disease mainly observed in tropical area countries and typically associated with rural conditions, making its presence in developed countries of temperate climate areas rare. However, we report the first case of an autochthonous mycetoma case in continental France that originated from a new Nocardia species. A Gram-positive filamentous bacterium (OFN 14.177T) was isolated from a pus sample from the mycetoma of a male French patient 92 years old suffering from chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The isolate was analyzed by a polyphasic taxonomic approach by coupling morphological, biochemical, physiological, and chemotaxonomic aspects to genomic and phylogenetic analyses. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) using four housekeeping genes (16S rRNA gene, secA1, hsp65, and sod) combined with phylogenetic analysis revealed that the strain OFN 14.177T is phylogenetically closer not only to Nocardia altamirensis but also to all other species comprising the Nocardia brasiliensis clade (i.e., N. brasiliensis, N. altamirensis, N. vulneris, N. iowensis, and N. tenerifensis), some of which present cutaneous tropism. The G+C content of isolate OFN 14.177T was 68.2 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization analyses demonstrated 38.25% relative reassociation with N. altamirensis. The strain OFN 14.177T is different from the closest species at genetic and phenotypical levels, and the data obtained indicate that it should be recognized as a new species, for which the name of Nocardia boironii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is OFN 14.177T (= EML 1451 = DSM 101696). IMPORTANCE Bacterial mycetoma is an endemic infection in areas with tropical and subtropical climates. Thus, its presence in temperate climate areas remains rare. We report here the first case of autochthonous actinomycetoma in continental France originating from a Nocardia species other than N. brasiliensis, namely, Nocardia boironii. Considering the history of the patient, the

  3. Arthritis associated with pityriasis rubra pilaris

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Paul Y; Prete, Pamela E

    2010-01-01

    Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) is a rare papulosquamous disease of unknown aetiology, with an estimated prevalence of 2.5 per million.1 It is clinically characterised by the presence of follicular hyperkeratotic papules, but the histopathology is usually non-specific. An interesting case of asymmetric, inflammatory arthritis of the hand in a patient who also presented with PRP is presented, along with a review of the few previously reported cases the literature. PMID:22766575

  4. Opacification of Middlebrook agar as an aid in distinguishing Nocardia farcinica within the Nocardia asteroides complex.

    PubMed Central

    Carson, M; Hellyar, A

    1994-01-01

    Among 58 aerobic actinomycetes isolated from different sources and geographical locations, none of 23 Nocardia asteroides isolates, at 18 N. farcinica isolates, 1 of 5 N. otitidiscaviarum isolates, and 1 of 4 Rhodococcus species isolates opacified Middlebrook 7H10 medium. Within the N. asteroides complex, this characteristic, together with growth at 45 degrees C and resistance to each of erythromycin, cefotaxime, and tobramycin, provides a simple means of distinguishing N. farcinica from N. asteroides. PMID:7814557

  5. [Isolation of Nocardia species in patients with cystic fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Barrio, M Isabel; Martínez, M Carmen; Prados, Concepción; Girón, Rosa M; Maiz, Luis; Martínez, M Teresa

    2008-02-01

    The isolation of Nocardia species from the respiratory secretions of patients with cystic fibrosis presents problems with important clinical implications. From the sputum culture of a total of 387 patients with cystic fibrosis, Nocardia species was isolated in 9 cases (2%; 8 females and 1 male) with a mean (SD) age of 17 (7) years. Sixty-seven percent of the patients were asymptomatic and no relevant radiographic or analytical changes were detected. In only 3 patients was of Nocardia species isolated again in successive samples. Two patients were not treated, 7 were treated with cotrimoxazole and 3 with minocycline; in 2 cases therapy was intravenous. After a mean follow-up of 48 (33) months, all patients had improved. Isolation of Nocardia species from the secretions of patients with cystic fibrosis does not necessarily imply infection and the need for treatment should be assessed on an individual basis.

  6. Nocardia isolation from clinical samples with the paraffin baiting technique

    PubMed Central

    Bafghi, Mehdi Fatahi; Heidarieh, Parvin; Soori, Tahereh; Saber, Sasan; Meysamie, Alipasha; Gheitoli, Khavar; Habibnia, Shadi; Rasouli Nasab, Masoumeh; Eshraghi, Seyyed Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Background The genus Nocardia is a cause of infection in the lungs, skin, brain, cerebrospinal fluid, eyes, joints and kidneys. Nocardia isolation from polymicrobial specimens is difficult due to its slow growth. Several methods have been reported for Nocardia isolation from clinical samples. In the current study, we used three methods: paraffin baiting technique, paraffin agar, and conventional media for Nocardia isolation from various clinical specimens from Iranian patients. Methods In this study, we examined 517 samples from various clinical specimens such as: sputum of patients with suspected tuberculosis, bronchoalveolar lavage, sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis, tracheal aspirate, cutaneous and subcutaneous abscesses, cerebrospinal fluid, dental abscess, mycetoma, wound, bone marrow biopsy, and gastric lavage. All collected specimens were cultured on carbon-free broth tubes (paraffin baiting technique), paraffin agar, Sabouraud dextrose agar, and Sabouraud dextrose agar with cycloheximide and were incubated at 35°C for one month. Results Seven Nocardia spp. were isolated with paraffin baiting technique, compared with 5 positive results with the paraffin agar technique and 3 positive results with Sabouraud dextrose agar with and without cycloheximide. The prevalence of nocardial infections in our specimens was 5.28%. Conclusion In the present study, the use of the paraffin baiting technique appeared to be more effective than other methods for Nocardia isolation from various clinical specimens. PMID:25763363

  7. Mechanism of Rifampicin Inactivation in Nocardia farcinica

    PubMed Central

    Abdelwahab, Heba; Martin Del Campo, Julia S.; Dai, Yumin; Adly, Camelia; El-Sohaimy, Sohby; Sobrado, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    A novel mechanism of rifampicin (Rif) resistance has recently been reported in Nocardia farcinica. This new mechanism involves the activity of rifampicin monooxygenase (RifMO), a flavin-dependent monooxygenase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of Rif, which is the first step in the degradation pathway. Recombinant RifMO was overexpressed and purified for biochemical analysis. Kinetic characterization revealed that Rif binding is necessary for effective FAD reduction. RifMO exhibits only a 3-fold coenzyme preference for NADPH over NADH. RifMO catalyzes the incorporation of a single oxygen atom forming an unstable intermediate that eventually is converted to 2′-N-hydroxy-4-oxo-Rif. Stable C4a-hydroperoxyflavin was not detected by rapid kinetics methods, which is consistent with only 30% of the activated oxygen leading to product formation. These findings represent the first reported detailed biochemical characterization of a flavin-monooxygenase involved in antibiotic resistance. PMID:27706151

  8. Surgical Management of Cicatricial Ectropion in Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris.

    PubMed

    Haridas, Anjana S; Sullivan, Timothy J

    2016-01-01

    Pityriasis rubra pilaris is an idiopathic, papulosquamous dermatological disease. It is clinically and histologically distinct from, but may resemble, psoriasis. Pityriasis rubra pilaris can be self-limiting but may also run a protracted, relapsing course. Medical treatment may involve topical emollients, systemic retinoids, methotrexate, and/or tumor necrosis factor antagonists. Ocular complications include cicatricial ectropion. The authors describe the surgical management of 3 patients with cicatricial ectropion secondary to pityriasis rubra pilaris. All patients had procedures involving skin grafts; 1 patient required multiple operations. The management principles are discussed, including the role and timing of surgery, within the context of emerging treatments for pityriasis rubra pilaris. Patients with pityriasis rubra pilaris and cicatricial ectropion should be closely managed by both ophthalmologist and dermatologist. The eyelid position may improve with conservative or surgical measures. If surgery is required, the limitations of skin grafting under these circumstances should be anticipated and patients counseled appropriately.

  9. Acute and sub-acute toxicological evaluation of lyophilized Nymphaea x rubra Roxb. ex Andrews rhizome extract.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kushal; Sharma, Sabeena; Kumar, Ashish; Bhardwaj, Pushpender; Barhwal, Kalpana; Hota, Sunil Kumar

    2017-08-01

    Nymphaea x rubra Roxb. ex Andrews (N. rubra) has been widely reported for immunomodulatory properties and treatment of piles, bleeding nose and dysentery in traditional medicinal systems. However, its in-vitro and in-vivo toxicity studies have never been investigated. So, the present study was designed to investigate in-vitro and in-vivo toxicity of methanolic extract of N. rubra rhizome in rats. In-vitro cytotoxicity studies were conducted for different doses of extract in N2a cell lines. For in-vivo toxicity studies, SD rats were divided into three groups and administered with 0, 300 and 2000 mg/kg b. w., p. o., of N. rubra extract respectively. In acute toxicity studies, female animals after extract administration animals were sacrificed for hematological profiling and gross necropsy. In sub-acute toxicity studies, both male and female animals were administered with extract daily for 14 days and were sacrificed for hematological, biochemical and histological examination. Body weight and food water intake was measured daily and animals were observed for visual toxic effects, behavioral changes and mortality. During in-vivo toxicity studies, none of the animals showed signs of toxicity and mortality during toxicity studies. The present findings suggest its safety and NOAEL of N. rubra rhizome extract to be > 2000 mg/kg b. w. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. First report of Nocardia asiatica olecranon bursitis in an immunocompetent traveler returning to Austria.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Eva; Valentin, Thomas; Hoenigl, Martin; Lanz, Philipp; Flick, Holger; Zollner-Schwetz, Ines; Grisold, Andrea J; Feierl, Gebhard; Krause, Robert

    2013-07-01

    Nocardia spp. are rarely isolated in extrapulmonary clinical specimens. We describe the first case of olecranon bursitis caused by Nocardia asiatica. The patient, a traveler returning from Thailand, was successfully treated with linezolid.

  11. First Report of Nocardia asiatica Olecranon Bursitis in an Immunocompetent Traveler Returning to Austria

    PubMed Central

    Leitner, Eva; Valentin, Thomas; Lanz, Philipp; Flick, Holger; Zollner-Schwetz, Ines; Grisold, Andrea J.; Feierl, Gebhard; Krause, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Nocardia spp. are rarely isolated in extrapulmonary clinical specimens. We describe the first case of olecranon bursitis caused by Nocardia asiatica. The patient, a traveler returning from Thailand, was successfully treated with linezolid. PMID:23637291

  12. Nocardia-induced granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor is neutralized by autoantibodies in disseminated/extrapulmonary nocardiosis.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Lindsey B; Rocha Pereira, Nuno; Figueiredo, Cristóvão; Fiske, Lauren C; Ressner, Roseanne A; Hong, Julie C; Gregg, Kevin S; Henry, Tracey L; Pak, Kirk J; Baumgarten, Katherine L; Seoane, Leonardo; Garcia-Diaz, Julia; Olivier, Kenneth N; Zelazny, Adrian M; Holland, Steven M; Browne, Sarah K

    2015-04-01

    Nocardia species cause infections in both immunocompromised and otherwise immunocompetent patients, although the mechanisms defining susceptibility in the latter group are elusive. Anticytokine autoantibodies are an emerging cause of pathogen-specific susceptibility in previously healthy human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected adults, including anti-granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) autoantibodies with cryptococcal meningitis. Plasma from patients with disseminated/extrapulmonary nocardiosis and healthy controls was screened for anticytokine autoantibodies using a particle-based approach. Autoantibody function was assessed by intranuclear staining for GM-CSF-induced STAT5 phosphorylation in normal cells incubated with either patient or normal plasma. GM-CSF-mediated cellular activation by Nocardia was assessed by staining for intracellular cytokine production and intranuclear STAT5 phosphorylation. We identified neutralizing anti-GM-CSF autoantibodies in 5 of 7 patients studied with central nervous system nocardiosis and in no healthy controls (n = 14). GM-CSF production was induced by Nocardia in vitro, suggesting a causative role for anti-GM-CSF autoantibodies in Nocardia susceptibility and dissemination. In previously healthy adults with otherwise unexplained disseminated/extrapulmonary Nocardia infections, anti-GM-CSF autoantibodies should be considered. Their presence may suggest that these patients may be at risk for later development of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis or other opportunistic infections, and that patients may benefit from therapeutic GM-CSF administration. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  13. Transcript profiling of the salt-tolerant Festuca rubra ssp. litoralis reveals a regulatory network controlling salt acclimatization.

    PubMed

    Diédhiou, Calliste J; Popova, Olga V; Golldack, Dortje

    2009-05-01

    We report an analysis of salt-stress responses in the monocotyledonous halophyte Festuca rubra ssp. litoralis. Salt-dependent expression of transcripts encoding a PIP2;1 aquaporin, V-ATPase subunit B, and the Na+/H+ antiporter NHX was characterized. Transcription of FrPIP2;1, FrVHA-B, and FrNHX1 was induced in root tissue of F. rubra ssp. litoralis by salt treatment, and during salt-stress F. rubra ssp. litoralis accumulated sodium in leaves and roots. Cell specificity of FrPIP2;1, FrVHA-B, and FrNHX1 transcription was analyzed by in situ PCR in roots of F. rubra ssp. litoralis. Expression of the genes was localized to the root epidermis, cortex cells, endodermis, and the vascular tissue. In plants treated with 500 mM NaCl, transcripts were repressed in the epidermis and the outer cortex cells, whereas endodermis and vasculature showed strong signals. These data demonstrate that transcriptional regulation of the aquaporin PIP2;1, V-ATPase, and the Na+/H+ antiporter NHX is correlated with salt tolerance in F. rubra ssp. litoralis and suggests coordinated control of ion homeostasis and water status at high salinity in plants. Salt-induced transcript accumulation in F. rubra ssp. litoralis was further monitored by cDNA-arrays with expressed sequence tags derived from a cDNA subtraction library. The salt-regulated transcripts included those involved in the control of gene expression and signal transduction elements such as a serine/threonine protein kinase, an SNF1-related protein kinase, and a WRKY-type transcription factor. Other ESTs with salt-dependent regulation included transcripts encoding proteins that function in metabolism, general stress responses, and defense and transport proteins.

  14. [Nocardia brain abscess: features, therapeutic strategies and outcome].

    PubMed

    Marnet, D; Brasme, L; Peruzzi, P; Bazin, A; Diallo, R; Servettaz, A; Bernard, M-H; Rousseaux, P; de Champs, C; Jaussaud, R; Scherpereel, B

    2009-01-01

    Nocardia species is an aerobic soil-saprophyte bacterium, responsible for rare opportunistic infections, mainly reported in immunocompromised patients. Nocardia brain abscess accounts for 1 to 2% of cerebral abscesses. Prognosis is poor. We describe clinical, radiological and bacteriological findings along with therapeutic aspects for five patients and review the literature on Nocardia cerebral abscess. The clinical features of Nocardia brain abscess are insidious and nonspecific, occurring frequently with a medical background of obvious or latent immunodeficiency; fever, if any, is observed subordinate to extracerebral nocardiosis. Computerized tomography scan and conventional magnetic resonance (MR) scan show lesions with a necrotic core and multilobed thick walls enhancing after injection of gadolinium or iodine. Abscesses are mainly located in the brain stem, basal ganglia and cerebral cortex of the frontal, parietal and occipital lobes; cerebellar and spinal locations are uncommon. MR diffusion-weighted imaging with calculation of apparent diffusion coefficient and proton MR spectroscopy can provide additional data for accurate differential diagnosis between abscess and other necrotic lesions, such as tumor and cyst formations. Bacteriological identification has progressed with advances in molecular microbiology: 16S rRNA sequencing, allowing a more rapid routine identification of Nocardia strains from clinical samples. Clinical management of patients with a Nocardia brain abscess relies upon early use of intravenous antibiotics adapted to the strains identified and their susceptibility. Most Nocardia strains display susceptibility to cotrimoxazol, amikacin and linezolid, but develop beta-lactamase activity. Early pus samples, obtained by biopsy or surgical resection, are needed to establish a certain bacteriological diagnosis and initiate appropriate intravenous antibiotics.

  15. Molecular Identification of Nocardia Isolates from Clinical Samples and an Overview of Human Nocardiosis in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Baio, Paulo Victor Pereira; Ramos, Juliana Nunes; dos Santos, Louisy Sanches; Soriano, Morgana Fonseca; Ladeira, Elisa Martins; Souza, Mônica Cristina; Camello, Thereza Cristina Ferreira; Ribeiro, Marcio Garcia; Hirata Junior, Raphael; Vieira, Verônica Viana; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luíza

    2013-01-01

    Background Nocardia sp. causes a variety of clinical presentations. The incidence of nocardiosis varies geographically according to several factors, such as the prevalence of HIV infections, transplants, neoplastic and rheumatic diseases, as well as climate, socio-economic conditions and laboratory procedures for Nocardia detection and identification. In Brazil the paucity of clinical reports of Nocardia infections suggests that this genus may be underestimated as a cause of human diseases and/or either neglected or misidentified in laboratory specimens. Accurate identification of Nocardia species has become increasingly important for clinical and epidemiological investigations. In this study, seven clinical Nocardia isolates were identified by multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) and their antimicrobial susceptibility was also determined. Most Nocardia isolates were associated to pulmonary disease. Methodology/Principal Findings The majority of Brazilian human isolates in cases reported in literature were identified as Nocardia sp. Molecular characterization was used for species identification of Nocardia nova, Nocardia cyriacigeorgica, Nocardia asiatica and Nocardia exalbida/gamkensis. Data indicated that molecular analysis provided a different Nocardia speciation than the initial biochemical identification for most Brazilian isolates. All Nocardia isolates showed susceptibility to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, the antimicrobial of choice in the treatment nocardiosis. N. nova isolated from different clinical specimens from one patient showed identical antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and two distinct clones. Conclusions/Significance Although Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country in terms of land mass and population, pulmonary, extrapulmonary and systemic forms of nocardiosis were reported in only 6 of the 26 Brazilian states from 1970 to 2013. A least 33.8% of these 46 cases of nocardiosis proved fatal. Interestingly, coinfection by two clones may

  16. Systemic sclerosis in a patient with pityriasis rubra pilaris.

    PubMed

    Frikha, Faten; Frigui, Makram; Masmoudi, Hatem; Turki, Hamida; Bahloul, Zouhir

    2010-08-09

    Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) is a rare, chronic erythematous squamous disorder of unknown etiology. It has been found in association with several autoimmune diseases, including thyroiditis, myositis, myasthenia gravis and vitiligo. Herein we report a case of systemic sclerosis in a patient with classic adult pityriasis rubra pilaris. A 38 year old woman with classic adult type 1 pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) developed progressive skin thickening of the trunk, face, upper and lower extremities after 2 years of PRP treatment with topical emollients and steroids. Clinical examination and immunological findings were consistent with SSc. Co-existence of these two rare conditions is documented for the first time.

  17. Metal cotolerance to copper, lead, and zinc in Festuca rubra

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, M.H.

    1982-10-01

    Tillers of red fescue (Festuca rubra) were collected from three copper-contaminated sites: Prescot (Lancashire, near the copper refinery factory), Great Orme (Clwyd, copper mine), and Ecton (Staffordshire, copper mine), as well as from an uncontaminated area (Festuca rubra S59). By comparing their indexes of tolerance, it was discovered that tillers from Ecton which contained a rather high level of copper, lead, and zinc were tolerant to all three metals. This variety of F. rubra would be useful for reclaiming nonferrous mine spoils which contain a high level of the three commonly occurring heavy metals, i.e., copper, lead and zinc.

  18. [ANTIMICROBIAL ACTION OF NOCARDIA VACCINII IMV B-7405 SURFACTANTS].

    PubMed

    Pirog, T P; Beregova, K A; Savenko, I V; Shevchuk, T A; Iutynska, G O

    2015-01-01

    To study the effect of Nocardia vaccinii IMV B-7405 surfactants on some bacteria (including pathogens of genera Proteus, Staphylococcus, Enterobacter), yeast of Candida species and fungi (Aspergillus niger R-3, Fusarium culmorum T-7). The antimi- crobial properties of surfactant were determined in suspension culture by Koch method and also by index of the minimum inhibitory concentration. Surfactants were extracted from supernatant of cultural liquid by mixture of chloroform and methanol (2:1). It is shown that the antimicrobial properties of N. vaccinii IMV B-7405 surfactant depended on the degree of purification (supernatant, solution of surfactant), concentration and exposure. Survival of Escherichia coli IEM-1 and Bacillus subtilis BT-2 (both vegetative cells and spores) after treatment for 1-2 hours with surfactants solution and the supernatant (the surfactant concentration 21 µg/ml) was 3-28%. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of N. vaccinii IMV B-7405 surfactants on studied bacteria, yeast and micromycetes were 11.5-85.0; 11.5-22.5 and 165.0-325.0 µ/ml respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of N. vaccinii IMV B-7405 surfactants are comparable to those of the known microbial surfactants. The possibility of using the supernatant of culture liquid as an effective antimicrobial agent noticeably simplifies and reduces the cost of the technology of its obtaining.

  19. Role of Nocardia in Activated Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Bafghi, Mehdi Fatahi; Yousefi, Nader

    2016-01-01

    Activated sludge process is a biological process that is widely used in the domestic and industrial wastewater treatment in over the world. The foam formation is often reported in wastewater treatment plants which are related to this process. Some operational problems can be created by foaming, such as effluent quality deteriorates, the creation of malodorous, increased time requirements in order to plant maintenance, and in extreme cases, hazardous working conditions resulting from foam spilling out of the aeration basin and as well as increased in operational costs. There are different ways to overcome this problem, such as reduce air flows into the aeration basin, reduction in the grease and oil content of the wastewater, surface and return activated sludge (RAS) chlorination, anoxic and anaerobic selectors, solid retention time (SRT) control and antifoams and organic polymer addition. On the other hand, rapid and accurate identification of the foam causes is in the first step to control bulking and foaming. Foam problem is often created by filamentous bacteria, such as Nocardia and Gordonia species. This bacterium has a role important in activated sludge. PMID:27418874

  20. Role of Nocardia in Activated Sludge.

    PubMed

    Bafghi, Mehdi Fatahi; Yousefi, Nader

    2016-05-01

    Activated sludge process is a biological process that is widely used in the domestic and industrial wastewater treatment in over the world. The foam formation is often reported in wastewater treatment plants which are related to this process. Some operational problems can be created by foaming, such as effluent quality deteriorates, the creation of malodorous, increased time requirements in order to plant maintenance, and in extreme cases, hazardous working conditions resulting from foam spilling out of the aeration basin and as well as increased in operational costs. There are different ways to overcome this problem, such as reduce air flows into the aeration basin, reduction in the grease and oil content of the wastewater, surface and return activated sludge (RAS) chlorination, anoxic and anaerobic selectors, solid retention time (SRT) control and antifoams and organic polymer addition. On the other hand, rapid and accurate identification of the foam causes is in the first step to control bulking and foaming. Foam problem is often created by filamentous bacteria, such as Nocardia and Gordonia species. This bacterium has a role important in activated sludge.

  1. Intracranial Nocardia recurrence during fluorinated quinolones therapy.

    PubMed

    Dahan, K; El Kabbaj, D; Venditto, M; Pastural, M; Delahousse, M

    2006-09-01

    Nocardia infection is a well-recognized complication in renal transplant recipients and other immunocompromised hosts. It is mostly a primary pulmonary infection, which can disseminate to other organs in half of the cases. Nocardiosis is a life-threatening infection. Therefore, an efficient long-lasting treatment must be rapidly administered. We report 1 case of disseminated nocardiosis with pulmonary involvement, brain lesions, and bone lesions in a renal transplant patient, who was treated with stereotactic aspiration in association with high dose of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) and imipenem, changed, after 3 weeks to moxifloxacin. First, clinical manifestations decreased after surgical drainage and combination therapy with the 2 antimicrobial agents, but later the patient developed a recurrence of brain lesions during treatment with quinolones. Consequently, the patient was again treated with TMP/SMX and imipenem, after which the patient recovered. It is surprising that moxifloxacin was efficient in vitro and the antimicrobial concentration in the central nervous system was high, yet the nocardial abscess recurred under this therapy.

  2. [Immunoglobulins in patients with Nocardia brasiliensis actinomycetoma].

    PubMed

    Méndez-Tovar, L J; Mondragón-González, R; Manzano-Gayosso, P; López-Martínez, R; Hernández-Hernández, F; Bonifaz, A; Anides Fonseca, A; Araiza, J; Vega-López, F

    2004-01-01

    Considering that some authors have reported an increasing of some immunoglobulins in actinomycetoma patients, in this study we propose to determine differential production of IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4 and IgGM in 25 patients with actinomycetoma and 25 healthy individuals from a mycetoma endemic area. Immunoglobulins were determined by ELISA technique. To sensibilize the plates, six Nocardia brasiliensis antigens were used: a crude antigen denominated NB and five derivatives (NB2, NB4, NB6, NB8 and NB10) obtained by their isoelectric point. Results showed that all IgG subclasses were higher in the patients' sera than in control sera, with a maximal difference to IgG3 and IgG4. To the latter subclass, six antigens were highly reactives. IgM levels were similar in both groups. As it occurs in other infections, in the actinomycetoma pathogenesis probably participate the increase or deficiency of a determined immunoglobulin class, as well as the relationship between different subclasses.

  3. Nocardia endophthalmitis after cataract surgery: clinicomicrobiological study.

    PubMed

    Haripriya, Aravind; Lalitha, Prajna; Mathen, Minu; Prajna, Namperumalsamy Venkatesh; Kim, Ramasamy; Shukla, Dhananjay; Natchiar, Govindappa; Srinivasan, Muthiah

    2005-05-01

    To analyze the clinical presentation, microbiological profile, and treatment outcome in cases of nocardial endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. Retrospective, observational case series. setting: Tertiary referral hospital. patients: Retrospective analysis of 24 cases of culture-proven exogenous nocardial endophthalmitis following cataract surgery between January 2000 and December 2003. main outcome measures: Visual acuity and anatomic outcome. Visual outcome was poor in most patients, with 79% (19/24) of patients obtaining a final visual acuity of hand motions or worse and 46% (11/24) of patients with no light perception. Initial presenting visual acuity was strongly associated with final visual outcome (P = .0026). There was a statistically significant trend favoring better visual outcome in patients who presented early after the onset of symptoms (P = .01). The majority of the eyes (23/24) had an early onset with predominantly anterior segment involvement. Wound infection was noted in 46% (11/24) of the patients at presentation. Clinical features included scleral abscess, cotton ball exudates in the anterior chamber, fluffy exudates on the corneal endothelium, nodular exudates on the iris, and hypopyon. Among the specimens cultured, the highest positivity was seen with the anterior chamber aspirate (15/16 = 93.75%), which was significantly higher than the vitreous aspirate cultured (1/22 = 4.54%) (P = .001). Nocardia endophthalmitis after cataract surgery is an aggressive disease with poor visual prognosis. Early diagnosis and treatment with good visual acuity at presentation may be associated with better visual outcome.

  4. Bevacizumab-induced pityriasis rubra pilaris-like eruption

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Shannon; Fletcher, J. Wesley

    2016-01-01

    Pityriasis rubra pilaris is a rare inflammatory disorder characterized by follicular papules on an erythematous base often exhibiting islands of unaffected skin, follicular plugging, and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis. While vitamin A deficiency and autoimmune reactions have been hypothesized as possible etiologies of this condition, pityriasis rubra pilaris-like eruptions secondary to medications are extremely rare. To our knowledge, only three other cases have been reported, and pityriasis rubra pilaris has never been reported in association with bevacizumab. We present a 70-year-old man who developed erythroderma both clinically and histologically consistent with pityriasis rubra pilaris 10 days after intravitreal injection of bevacizumab for age-related macular degeneration. As immune-modulating drugs grow in their application for a host of diseases, recognition of associated medication complications is important. PMID:27365893

  5. Pleurésie purulente à Nocardia asteroids

    PubMed Central

    Bopaka, Régis Gothard; Janah, Hind; El Khattabi, Wiam; Aichane, Abdelaziz; Afif, Hicham

    2014-01-01

    La pleurésie purulente à Nocardia asteroides est rare. Elle survient le plus souvent sur un terrain d'immunodépression. Nous rapportons une observation d'une pleurésie à Nocardia asteroides chez une patiente âgée de 60 ans, chez qui nous avons découvert un diabète. A travers ce travail les auteurs soulignent l'intérêt de la multiplication de prélèvements, de rechercher ce germe sur terrain d'immunodépression et en cas d'isolement, de rechercher la comorbidité. PMID:25574322

  6. Mycetoma caused by Nocardia yamanashiensis, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Mitjà, Oriol; Hays, Russell; Van Straten, Christian; Robson, Jenny; Koka, Murray; Bassat, Quique

    2012-06-01

    We report the first documented case of a mycetoma caused by Nocardia yamanashiensis after the initial description of this species. The 16S-rRNA gene sequence analysis was used to identify the novel species, which showed a similarity of 99.9% to the gene sequence of the type strain. The case showed both clinical non-response and reduced susceptibility in vitro to amoxicillin plus clavulanate, and it was treated successfully with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and doxycycline. Given antibiotic resistance concerns, we suggest that antimicrobial susceptibility testing should be done for the majority of Nocardia species without well-established resistance patterns.

  7. Mycetoma Caused by Nocardia yamanashiensis, Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Mitjà, Oriol; Hays, Russell; Van Straten, Christian; Robson, Jenny; Koka, Murray; Bassat, Quique

    2012-01-01

    We report the first documented case of a mycetoma caused by Nocardia yamanashiensis after the initial description of this species. The 16S-rRNA gene sequence analysis was used to identify the novel species, which showed a similarity of 99.9% to the gene sequence of the type strain. The case showed both clinical non-response and reduced susceptibility in vitro to amoxicillin plus clavulanate, and it was treated successfully with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and doxycycline. Given antibiotic resistance concerns, we suggest that antimicrobial susceptibility testing should be done for the majority of Nocardia species without well-established resistance patterns. PMID:22665615

  8. In Vivo Activity of the Benzothiazinones PBTZ169 and BTZ043 against Nocardia brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    González-Martínez, Norma Alejandra; Lozano-Garza, Hector Gerardo; Castro-Garza, Jorge; De Osio-Cortez, Alexandra; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Cavazos-Rocha, Norma; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Makarov, Vadim; Cole, Stewart T.; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio

    2015-01-01

    Background Mycetoma is a neglected, chronic, and deforming infectious disease caused by fungi and actinomycetes. In Mexico, N. brasiliensis is the predominant etiologic agent. Therapeutic alternatives are necessary because the current drug regimens have several disadvantages. Benzothiazinones (BTZ) are a new class of candidate drugs that inhibit decaprenyl-phosphoribose-epimerase (DprE1), an essential enzyme involved in the cell wall biosynthesis of Corynebacterineae. Methodology/Principal findings In this study, the in vitro activity of the next generation BTZ, PBTZ169, was tested against thirty Nocardia brasiliensis isolates. The MIC50 and MIC90 values for PBTZ169 were 0.0075 and 0.03 μg/mL, respectively. Because Nocardia is a potential intracellular bacterium, a THP-1 macrophage monolayer was infected with N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 and then treated with PBTZ169, resulting in a decrease in the number of colony-forming units (CFUs) at a concentration of 0.25X the in vitro value. The in vivo activity was evaluated after infecting female BALB/c mice in the right hind food-pad. After 6 weeks, treatment was initiated with PBTZ169 and its activity was compared with the first generation compound, BTZ043. Both BTZ compounds were administered at 100 mg/kg twice daily by gavage, and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SXT), at 100 mg/kg sulfamethoxazole, was used as a positive control. After 22 weeks of therapy, only PBTZ169 and SXT displayed statistically significant activity. Conclusion These results indicate that DprE1 inhibitors may be useful for treating infections of Nocardia and may therefore be active against other actinomycetoma agents. We must test combinations of these compounds with other antimicrobial agents, such as linezolid, tedizolid or SXT, that have good to excellent in vivo activity, as well as new DprE1 inhibitors that can achieve higher plasma levels. PMID:26474057

  9. Characterization of a moderate thermophilic Nocardia species able to grow on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Zeinali, M; Vossoughi, M; Ardestani, S K

    2007-12-01

    Our goal was the characterization of a new moderate thermophilic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-utilizing Nocardia strain. A thermophilic bacterium, strain TSH1, was isolated from a contaminated soil. The macroscopic and microscopic features fit well with the description of Nocardia species. The results of 16S rRNA gene analysis showed 100% match to the type strain of N. otitidiscaviarum DSM 43242(T). Strain TSH1 showed the same mycolic acid pattern as the type strain of N. otitidiscaviarum but its fatty acid profile did not permit identification to the species level. The carbon utilization profile of strain TSH1 was different from N. otitidiscaviarum. The results of hydrophobicity measurements showed that PAHs-grown cells were significantly more hydrophobic than LB-grown cells. Furthermore, biosurfactant production was detected during bacterial growth on different culture media. Strain TSH1 is capable of growing on a range of PAHs. When grown in PAHs-supplemented media, strain TSH1 showed a high affinity for the organic phase, suggesting that it can develop a hydrophobic surface. High cell surface hydrophobicity and capability of strain TSH1 to degrade different PAHs at 50 degrees C may make it an ideal candidate to treat PAH-contaminated desert soils.

  10. The metabolism of cyclohexanol by Nocardia globerula CL1

    PubMed Central

    Norris, D. B.; Trudgill, P. W.

    1971-01-01

    1. Nocardia globerula CL1, isolated by enrichment on cyclohexanol and grown with it as carbon source, oxidized it with a Qo2 of 39μl/h per mg dry wt. and the overall consumption of 2.2μmol of oxygen/mol of substrate. Cyclohexanone, 2-hydroxycyclohexan-1-one dimer and cyclohexane-1,2-dione were oxidized with Qo2 values similar to that for cyclohexanol whereas ∈-caprolactone and 6-hydroxycaproate were oxidized very slowly and adipate not all. 2. Disrupted cell suspensions could not be shown to catalyse the conversion of cyclohexanol into cyclohexanone. 3. A cyclohexanol-induced cyclohexanone oxygenase (specific activity 0.55μmol of NADPH oxidized/min per mg of protein) catalysed the consumption of 1mol of NADPH and 1mol of O2 in the presence of 1mol of cyclohexanone. NADPH oxidation did not occur under anaerobic conditions. The only detected reaction product with 25000g supernatant was 6-hydroxycaproate. 4. Extracts of cyclohexanol-grown cells contained a lactone hydrolase (specific activity 15.6μmol hydrolysed/min per mg of protein), which converted ∈-caprolactone into 6-hydroxycaproate. 5. Incubation of 6-hydroxycaproate with 25000g supernatant in the presence of NAD+ resulted in NAD+ reduction under anaerobic conditions, oxygen consumption under aerobic conditions and the conversion of 6-hydroxycaproate into adipate. 6. Cyclohexanone oxygenase fractions devoid of ∈-caprolactone hydrolase catalysed the stoicheiometric formation of ∈-caprolactone from cyclohexanone in the presence of excess of NADPH. 7. The reaction sequence for the oxidation of cyclohexanone by N. globerula CL1 is: cyclohexanol → cyclohexanone → ∈-caprolactone → 6-hydroxycaproate → adipate. 8. It is suggested that the adipate may be further dissimilated by β-oxidation. PMID:5119767

  11. Nocardia spinal epidural abscess: 14-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    West, Kristoffer R; Mason, Robert C; Sun, Mike

    2012-01-16

    This article describes an immunocompetent patient with a spinal abscess that developed from Nocardia asteroides. Nocardia is a rare etiology for spinal abscesses, especially in immunocompetent patients. Nocardia usually affects the lungs and brain of immunocompromised individuals. Few reports of Nocardia involving bones or the spine have been published.The patient had a history of chronic back pain and had several procedures to alleviate the pain. In August 1997, the patient had an epidural block and a subsequent infection that was treated with antibiotics. In October 1997, she developed increasing back pain greater than her baseline chronic low back pain. Additional presenting symptoms were fever, chills, and nausea. On admission, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an epidural abscess. The patient underwent irrigation and debridement. Postoperatively, the patient was initially placed on broad-spectrum antibiotics. After 38 days, the culture was identified as N asteroides, and the patient was placed on appropriate antibiotics. The patient has been followed with MRI prior to the discovery of the abscess and annually since the abscess due to her baseline chronic low back pain. No residual abscess was discovered. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of Nocardia brasiliensis HUJEG-1

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Lopez, Rocio; Elizondo-Gonzalez, Ramiro; Perez-Maya, Antonio Ali; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    In Mexico, actinomycetoma is mainly caused by Nocardia brasiliensis, which is a soil inhabitant actinobacterium. Here, we report for the first time the draft genome of a strain isolated from a human case that has largely been found in in vitro and experimental models of actinomycetoma, N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1. PMID:22535940

  13. First case report of pulmonary nocardiosis caused by Nocardia mexicana

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Takeshi; Nakanishi, Hirotaka; Morishita, Yukiko; Houdai, Katsuyuki; Ito, Junko; Gonoi, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Nocardia species usually cause opportunistic infections, and the frequency of these infections is increasing owing to the growing population of immunocompromised hosts. However, Nocardia species may sometimes cause an infection disease in immunocompetent hosts. Nocardia mexicana infections are the least common and are very rare. Case presentation: Herein, we report the first case of a pulmonary infection with N. mexicana in a 61-year-old Japanese woman with a history of hyperlipidaemia and bronchiectasis and a 6-month history of non-productive hacking cough. A sample of bronchial lavage fluid obtained by bronchofiberscopy showed filamentous branching gram-positive rods and acid-fast filamentous branching rods, and a colony of suspected Nocardia was cultured. Based on 16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB, secA1 and hsp65 gene sequence analyses and biochemical and physiological properties, the strain was identified as N. mexicana. The strain was resistant to the antimicrobial agents amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, clarithromycin, minocycline, gentamycin, tobramycin, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The patient was treated with biapenem followed by intravenous amikacin and oral linezolid. Conclusion: Despite its rarity, the species require attention owing to the existence of multidrug-resistant strains. PMID:28348776

  14. Nocardia brasiliensis: from microbe to human and experimental infections.

    PubMed

    Salinas-Carmona, M C

    2000-09-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is a Gram-positive bacterium that lives as a saprophyte in soil. In this article the physical properties, chemical composition and taxonomic position of this species is reviewed. Human infections and an experimental model of actinomycetoma in BALB/c mice as well as the host-immune response is described.

  15. Positive indium-111 leukocyte scan in Nocardia brain abscess

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, J.M.; Osenbach, R.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Youngblood, L.; Crooks, L.; Landry, A.J.; Cawthon, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    We report a case of clinically unsuspected nocardia brain abscess detected by /sup 111/In-labeled autologous leukocytes. Clinical and computed tomographic findings supported the diagnosis of primary or metastatic tumor and the patient was treated with dexamethasone for 30 days prior to the leukocyte scan. Labeled leukocytes may provide a sensitive discriminator for brain abscess despite previous therapy with steroids.

  16. Induction of L-phase variants of Nocardia caviae within intact murine lungs.

    PubMed Central

    Beaman, B L

    1980-01-01

    The data presented show that cells of Nocardia caviae 112 were converted to cell wall-deficient microbial variants within the intact murine lung after intranasal administration. At the time that these L-phase variants were recovered in large numbers from the lung, there was a correspondingly enhanced inflammation leading to alveolar consolidation and animal death. During the peak of this response (at 1 week after infection), normal nocardial cells were neither isolated from nor seen within the lung. It is suggested that the conversion of these normal nocardial cells to their L-phase variant leads to this extensive pulmonary damage. Furthermore, the L-phase organisms appear to play an active role in this pathological effect since introduction of similar amounts of killed nocardial cells into the lungs of the mice failed to produce a similar response. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7399704

  17. Nocardia transvalensis Disseminated Infection in an Immunocompromised Patient with Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    PubMed Central

    García-Méndez, Jorge; Carrillo-Casas, Erika M.; Rangel-Cordero, Andrea; Leyva-Leyva, Margarita; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan; Arenas, Roberto; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia transvalensis complex includes a wide range of microorganisms with specific antimicrobial resistance patterns. N. transvalensis is an unusual Nocardia species. However, it must be differentiated due to its natural resistance to aminoglycosides while other Nocardia species are susceptible. The present report describes a Nocardia species involved in an uncommon clinical case of a patient with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and pulmonary nocardiosis. Microbiological and molecular techniques based on the sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene allowed diagnosis of Nocardia transvalensis sensu stricto. The successful treatment was based on trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and other drugs. We conclude that molecular identification of Nocardia species is a valuable technique to guide good treatment and prognosis and recommend its use for daily bases diagnosis. PMID:27313917

  18. Nocardia transvalensis Disseminated Infection in an Immunocompromised Patient with Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura.

    PubMed

    García-Méndez, Jorge; Carrillo-Casas, Erika M; Rangel-Cordero, Andrea; Leyva-Leyva, Margarita; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan; Arenas, Roberto; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia transvalensis complex includes a wide range of microorganisms with specific antimicrobial resistance patterns. N. transvalensis is an unusual Nocardia species. However, it must be differentiated due to its natural resistance to aminoglycosides while other Nocardia species are susceptible. The present report describes a Nocardia species involved in an uncommon clinical case of a patient with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and pulmonary nocardiosis. Microbiological and molecular techniques based on the sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene allowed diagnosis of Nocardia transvalensis sensu stricto. The successful treatment was based on trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and other drugs. We conclude that molecular identification of Nocardia species is a valuable technique to guide good treatment and prognosis and recommend its use for daily bases diagnosis.

  19. Nocardia kroppenstedtii sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from a lung transplant patient with a pulmonary infection.

    PubMed

    Jones, Amanda L; Fisher, Andrew J; Mahida, Rahul; Gould, Kate; Perry, John D; Hannan, Margaret M; Judge, Eoin P; Brown, Ros; Boagey, Kimberley; Goodfellow, Michael

    2014-03-01

    A novel actinomycete, strain N1286(T), isolated from a lung transplant patient with a pulmonary infection, was provisionally assigned to the genus Nocardia. The strain had chemotaxonomic and morphological properties typical of members of the genus Nocardia and formed a distinct phyletic line in the Nocardia 16S rRNA gene tree. Isolate N1286(T) was most closely related to Nocardia farcinica DSM 43665(T) (99.8% gene sequence similarity) but could be distinguished from the latter by the low level of DNA-DNA relatedness. These strains were also distinguishable on the basis of a broad range of phenotypic properties. It is concluded that strain N1286(T) represents a novel species of the genus Nocardia for which the name Nocardia kroppenstedtii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is N1286(T) ( = DSM 45810(T) = NCTC 13617(T)).

  20. Nutritional and functional potential of Beta vulgaris cicla and rubra.

    PubMed

    Ninfali, Paolino; Angelino, Donato

    2013-09-01

    Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris cicla, BVc) and beetroot (Beta vulgaris rubra, BVr) are vegetables of the Chenopodiaceae family, widely consumed in traditional western cooking. These vegetables represent a highly renewable and cheap source of nutrients. They can be cultivated in soils with scarce organic material and little light and water. BVc and BVr have a long history of use in folk medicine. Modern pharmacology shows that BVc extracts possess antihypertensive and hypoglycaemic activity as well as excellent antioxidant activity. BVc contains apigenin flavonoids, namely vitexin, vitexin-2-O-rhamnoside and vitexin-2-O-xyloside, which show antiproliferative activity on cancer cell lines. BVr contains secondary metabolites, called betalains, which are used as natural dyes in food industry and show anticancer activity. In this light, BVc and BVr can be considered functional foods. Moreover, the promising results of their phytochemicals in health protection suggest the opportunity to take advantage of the large availability of this crop for purification of chemopreventive molecules to be used in functional foods and nutraceutical products.

  1. Expression of Nocardia brasiliensis superoxide dismutase during the early infection of murine peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Revol, Agnès; Espinoza-Ruiz, Marisol; Medina-Villanueva, Igor; Salinas-Carmona, Mario Cesar

    2006-12-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is the main agent of actinomycetoma in Mexico, but little is known about its virulence and molecular pathogenic pathways. These facultative intracellular bacteria are able to survive and divide within the host phagocytic cells, in part by neutralizing the reactive oxygen intermediates. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) participates in the intracellular survival of several bacterial species and, in particular, constitutes one of Nocardia asteroides virulence factors. To clarify SOD participation in the N. brasiliensis early infective process, we report its isolation and the consequent comparison of its transcript level. A 630 bp polymerase chain reaction fragment that included most of the coding sequence of N. brasiliensis sodA was cloned. A competitive assay was developed, allowing comparison of bacterial sod expression in exponential culture and 1 h after infecting peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice. At that time, there were viable bacteria in the macrophages. The intracellular bacteria presented a clear decrease in their sod transcript amount, although their 16S rRNA (used as an internal control) and hsp levels were maintained or slightly increased, respectively. These results indicate that sodA transcription is not maintained within the SOS bacterial response induced by phagosomal conditions. Further kinetics will be necessary to precisely define sod transcriptional regulation during N. brasiliensis intra-macrophage growth.

  2. Severe pneumonia due to Nocardia otitidiscaviarum identified by mass spectroscopy in a cotton farmer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chen; Feng, Mei; Zhu, Jing; Tao, Ye; Kang, Mei; Chen, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Nocardia species are aerobic saprophytic bacilli. Among Nocardia species, Nocardia otitidiscaviarum (N otitidiscaviarum) is rarely reported in pulmonary infection. Patient concerns: We reported a case of N otitidiscaviarum pneumonia in a cotton farmer. Diagnoses: N otitidiscaviarum pneumonia was identified by mass spectroscopy. Interventions: Combined treatments (amikacin, imipenem and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) were administered after identification of N otitidiscaviarum. Outcomes: The patient eventually died from severe respiratory insufficiency in the hospital. Lessons: Early precise diagnosis and prompt combined therapy are of vital importance in severe Nocardia pulmonary infection. PMID:28353613

  3. Pityriasis rubra pilaris: evolution of challenges in promising treatment options.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Srivastava, Govind; Verma, Prashant

    2012-01-01

    Pityriasis rubra pilaris is an uncommon inflammatory dermatosis that is well recognized across the globe. Erythroderma is a common presentation. A precise diagnosis of pityriasis rubra pilaris is based on morphologic features and is classified into 6 types: classic adult onset (type I), atypical adult (type II), classic juvenile (type III), circumscribed juvenile (type IV), atypical juvenile (type V), and human immunodeficiency virus-associated (type VI). Several conventional systemic and/or topical treatments are currently in use. Largely, their results are unsatisfactory and limited by long-term toxicity. The authors investigate the efficacy of a wide spectrum of drugs by examining historical (archive) and promising (modern) treatment modalities for the treatment of pityriasis rubra pilaris.

  4. Association pityriasis rubra pilaire et myasthénie

    PubMed Central

    Agharbi, Fatima Zahra; Elbekkal, Amal; Baybay, Hanane; Meziane, Mariame; Mikou, Ouafae; Mernissi, Fatima Zahra

    2011-01-01

    Le pityriasis rubra pilaire est un trouble de kératinisation rare dont l’étiopathogénie reste inconnue mais dont l'association avec autres pathologies a été déjà rapportée. Nous rapportons l'observation d'une jeune patiente qui présente un pityriasis rubra pilaire associé à une myasthénie. Traitée par Néostigmine et thymectomie avec bonne évolution sur le plan neurologique. Vu son désir de grossesse un traitement systémique de son pityriasis rubra pilaire n'a pas pu être instauré et l’évolution sous dermocorticoïdes n’était pas très favorable. PMID:22187589

  5. Monoclonal antibodies to P24 and P61 immunodominant antigens from Nocardia brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Salinas-Carmona, M C; Castro-Corona, M A; Sepúlveda-Saavedra, J; Perez, L I

    1997-03-01

    We prepared a Nocardia brasiliensis cell extract and purified two immunodominant antigens with molecular weights of 61,000 and 24,000. The isolated proteins were shown to be reasonably pure when analyzed with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (8 to 18% polyacrylamide gradient) and stained with Coomassie blue and silver nitrate. By using an immunoelectrotransfer blot method (Western blotting), we demonstrated that these two purified proteins reacted strongly with serum from N. brasiliensis-infected mycetoma patients. To obtain anti-P61 and anti-P24 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), we used an N. brasiliensis cell extract as the antigen for the first immunization; 2 weeks later female mice were reimmunized with a semipurified antigen containing the P24 or P61 fraction. A booster injection was given 3 days before the fusion was carried out. Two hybrids that reacted strongly with P24 were cloned by limiting dilution, the generated MAbs were analyzed for isotyping, and their specificity was tested in a Western blot assay with cell extracts from Nocardia asteroides and Mycobacterium tuberculosis cultures. Anti-P24 MAbs were shown to be specific for N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 and did not cross-react with either the N. asteroides or M. tuberculosis strains used. However, additional studies with several N. asteroides and N. brasiliensis strains are needed to investigate whether there are cross-reactions between strains or species when these MAbs are used. The anti-P61 and anti-24 MAbs were used to locate the antigen in N. brasiliensis cells by immunofluorescence. The lack of reaction with intact cells suggests that the P24 and P61 antigens are not exposed in the complete bacterial cell surface or that the recognized epitopes are different. Only one anti-P61 MAb that reacted specifically with the N. brasiliensis cell extract was obtained.

  6. Monoclonal antibodies to P24 and P61 immunodominant antigens from Nocardia brasiliensis.

    PubMed Central

    Salinas-Carmona, M C; Castro-Corona, M A; Sepúlveda-Saavedra, J; Perez, L I

    1997-01-01

    We prepared a Nocardia brasiliensis cell extract and purified two immunodominant antigens with molecular weights of 61,000 and 24,000. The isolated proteins were shown to be reasonably pure when analyzed with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (8 to 18% polyacrylamide gradient) and stained with Coomassie blue and silver nitrate. By using an immunoelectrotransfer blot method (Western blotting), we demonstrated that these two purified proteins reacted strongly with serum from N. brasiliensis-infected mycetoma patients. To obtain anti-P61 and anti-P24 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), we used an N. brasiliensis cell extract as the antigen for the first immunization; 2 weeks later female mice were reimmunized with a semipurified antigen containing the P24 or P61 fraction. A booster injection was given 3 days before the fusion was carried out. Two hybrids that reacted strongly with P24 were cloned by limiting dilution, the generated MAbs were analyzed for isotyping, and their specificity was tested in a Western blot assay with cell extracts from Nocardia asteroides and Mycobacterium tuberculosis cultures. Anti-P24 MAbs were shown to be specific for N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 and did not cross-react with either the N. asteroides or M. tuberculosis strains used. However, additional studies with several N. asteroides and N. brasiliensis strains are needed to investigate whether there are cross-reactions between strains or species when these MAbs are used. The anti-P61 and anti-24 MAbs were used to locate the antigen in N. brasiliensis cells by immunofluorescence. The lack of reaction with intact cells suggests that the P24 and P61 antigens are not exposed in the complete bacterial cell surface or that the recognized epitopes are different. Only one anti-P61 MAb that reacted specifically with the N. brasiliensis cell extract was obtained. PMID:9067645

  7. Systemic nocardiosis caused by Nocardia concava in China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yongxuan; Zheng, Donghui; Takizawa, Kayoko; Mikami, Yuzuru; Dai, Lie; Yazawa, Katsukiyo; Fukushima, Kazutaka; Lu, Changming; Xi, Liyan

    2011-08-01

    A 42-year-old man with polychondritis and a 2-year history of using low-dose prednisone and other immunosuppressive drugs was admitted to our hospital due to persistent high fever of 10 days duration. A strain of Nocardia was twice isolated from his blood and subsequently identified to be N. concava. The patient was initially treated with sulphadiazine sodium, vancomycin and imipenema for 7 days but the symptoms persisted. Consequently, the regimen was changed to sulphadiazine sodium, ciprofloxacin and amikacin sulfate based on the antibiotic susceptibility tests of the Nocardia isolate. The fever disappeared and the patient's condition improved after 10 days of this treatment to the extent that he was discharged. However, 7 days later, the patient's condition deteriorated and he died due to multiple organ failure. This is the first report of N. concava causing systemic nocardiosis in China.

  8. Actinomycetoma by Nocardia brasiliensis in a girl with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Martha; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Valencia, Adriana; Araiza, Javier; Mejia, Silvia Anett; Mena-Cedillos, Carlos

    2008-08-15

    We describe the case of a 14-year-old girl with Down syndrome and a large cutaneous plaque localized to the right neck and shoulder that had enlarged over five years after a minor traumatic injury. The plaque was characterized by numerous inflammatory nodules and fistulae that secreted purulent discharge. Nocardia grains were identified and Nocardia brasiliensis was identified by culture. Histopathology examination showed a chronic inflammatory infiltrate with granuloma development. The treatment scheme was with Diaminodiphenylsulfone 50/mg/d and Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole 800/160 mg BID. Therapy was continued over 1(1/2) years, with a tapering dose. After 2(1/2) years of continuous treatment, clinical and microbiological healing was achieved.

  9. Actinomyces and nocardia infections in immunocompromised and nonimmunocompromised patients.

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, D. C.; Antony, S. J.

    1999-01-01

    A retrospective survey of nocardia and actinomyces infections in five local hospitals was conducted over a 3-year period in El Paso, Texas, a border city, in the southwestern United States. The medical records of 42 patients with suspected nocardiosis or actinomycosis were reviewed. One patient was diagnosed with actinomyces and 12 patients with nocardia. Microbiological data included morphologic characteristics, biochemical profile, and susceptibility testing. Predisposing factors included leukemia, renal insufficiency, renal transplant, and lymphoma. No predisposing factors were found in 67% (n = 8) of patients (including the patient with actinomycosis). Twenty-three percent (n = 3) of patients had disseminated disease without evidence of underlying disease or immunosuppression. The mortality and morbidity of these infections appeared to be low. PMID:10063786

  10. Nocardia nova mycetoma over forehead in a lepromatous leprosy patient.

    PubMed

    Dhingra, M; Kaistha, N; Bansal, N; Solanki, L S; Chander, J; Thami, G P; van de Sande, W W

    2012-07-15

    We present a case of a 31-year-old male, a known patient with lepromatous leprosy with a type 2 lepra reaction, who presented with a slowly growing asymptomatic swelling with multiple discharging sinuses over the forehead that developed over 6 months. Smears of the serosanguinous discharge on Gram staining showed Gram-positive branching filamentous bacilli, which on culture on blood agar showed chalky-white colonies. Histology of the lesion showed suppurative granulomas with polymorphs surrounding characteristic grains. The isolate was identified as Nocardia nova by gene sequencing and the patient was started on combined antibiotic therapy that resulted in complete resolution of the infection in six months. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of mycetoma related to Nocardia nova in association with leprosy.

  11. [Postoperative nocardiosis caused by Nocardia otitidiscaviarum: pitfalls and delayed diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Bonnet, F; Donay, J-L; Fieux, F; Marie, O; de Kerviler, E; Jacob, L

    2007-01-01

    Nocardiosis is an uncommon infection, which is exceptionally present as a postoperative event. A case of postoperative pulmonary and cerebro-meningeal infection caused by Nocardia otitidiscaviarum after a leg amputation in a diabetic patient is reported. Diagnosis has been delayed and the clinical, radiological and microbiological causes of this delay are assessed from a quality of care management point of view. Recommendations are proposed regarding physicians' role and optimized microbiological procedures for recognition of slowly growing nocardial strains.

  12. Comparison of restriction enzyme pattern analysis and full gene sequencing of 16S rRNA gene for Nocardia species identification, the first report of Nocardia transvalensis isolated of sputum from Iran, and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Fatahi-Bafghi, Mehdi; Heidarieh, Parvin; Rasouli-Nasab, Masoumeh; Habibnia, Shadi; Hashemi-Shahraki, Abdorazagh; Eshraghi, Seyyed Saeed

    2016-10-01

    Nocardial infections occur in different organs of the body and are common in immune disorder diseases of individuals. The aim of this study was to assess Nocardia species identification by phenotypic tests and molecular techniques applied to nocardiosis in Iranian patients. In the current study, various clinical samples were collected and cultured on conventional media and using the paraffin baiting method. Various phenotypic tests were performed. For accurate identification at the species level, restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) in the hsp65 and partial 16S rRNA genes and full gene sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene were used. Twenty-seven Nocardia spp. were isolated and analysis of phenotypic tests results showed Nocardia asteroides complex, Nocardia otitidiscaviarum, Nocardia nova, and Nocardia spp. New RFLP patterns of Nocardia strains with hsp65 and partial 16S rRNA genes were obtained. Full gene sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene identified Nocardia cyriacigeorgica, N. otitidiscaviarum, Nocardia farcinica, Nocardia transvalensis, and N. nova. Nocardia infections are rarely reported and this genus is the cause of various illnesses. Accurate identification of Nocardia spp. is important for epidemiology studies and treatment. It should also be noted that some species may have similar RFLP patterns; therefore, full gene sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene is necessary for confirmation.

  13. Acute cutaneous graft-versus-host disease resembling type II (atypical adult) pityriasis rubra pilaris.

    PubMed

    Surjana, Devita; Robertson, Ivan; Kennedy, Glen; James, Daniel; Weedon, David

    2015-02-01

    We present a case of cutaneous acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) with confluent erythematous perifollicular hyperkeratosis and ichthyosiform scale in the clinical pattern of type II (atypical adult) pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP), which developed 26 days after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplant. Skin histology confirmed features of both aGVHD and PRP. The skin lesions were refractory to oral prednisolone and cyclosporine and only partially responsive to a combination of i.v. methylprednisolone, oral tacrolimus, oral mycophenolate mofetil, and infusions of anti-thymocyte globulin and the tumour necrosis factor-α inhibitor, etanercept. © 2013 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  14. Halovenus rubra sp. nov., isolated from salted brown alga Laminaria.

    PubMed

    Han, Dong; Zhang, Wen-Jiao; Cui, Heng-Lin; Li, Zheng-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Halophilic archaeal strain R28(T) was isolated from the brown alga Laminaria produced at Dalian, Liaoning Province, China. The cells of the strain were pleomorphic and lysed in distilled water, stained Gram-negative, and formed red-pigmented colonies. Strain R28(T) was able to grow at 25-50 °C (optimum 42 °C), in the presence of 3.1-5.1 M NaCl (optimum 3.9 M NaCl), with 0.005-1.0 M MgCl(2) (optimum 0.01 M MgCl(2)) and at pH 6.0-9.5 (optimum pH 7.0-7.5). The minimal NaCl concentration to prevent cell lysis was 15 % (w/v). The major polar lipids of the strain were identified as phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, and two glycolipids chromatographically identical to those of Halovenus aranensis CGMCC 1.11001(T). The 16S rRNA gene and rpoB' gene of strain R28(T) were phylogenetically related to the corresponding genes of Hvn. aranensis CGMCC 1.11001(T) (91.9-97.2 and 82.9 % nucleotide identity, respectively). The DNA G+C content of strain R28(T) was determined to be 56.3 mol%. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic properties suggest that strain R28(T) (=CGMCC 1.10592(T) = JCM 17269(T)) represents a novel species of the genus Halovenus, for which the name Halovenus rubra sp. nov. is proposed.

  15. Nocardia cyriacigeorgica as the causative agent of mandibular osteomyelitis (lumpy jaw) in a cat.

    PubMed

    Soto, Esteban; Arauz, Maziel; Gallagher, Christa Ann; Illanes, Oscar

    2014-07-01

    An unusual case of osteomyelitis caused by Nocardia cyriacigeorgica infection and resulting in mandibular osteomyelitis and cellulitis (lumpy jaw) is described in a young cat. A 1-cm hard nodular mass was an incidental finding in the right mandible of a 14-month-old cat during routine physical examination. The lesion was fast growing, reaching up to 6 cm in its largest dimension over a 5-week period. A core biopsy of the affected mandible revealed foci of osteolysis, woven bone formation, and a few large clusters of filamentous bacteria surrounded by fine eosinophilic amorphous material bordered by neutrophils, plasma cells, macrophages, and occasional multinucleated giant cells. Pure cultures of acid-fast variable, Gram-positive filamentous bacteria were recovered on blood and chocolate agar plates at 48-hr postinoculation. On amplification and sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA and 65-kDa heat shock protein genes, the microorganisms were identified as N. cyriacigeorgica, within the actinomycetes.

  16. Immunoglobulin and complement in tissues of mice infected with Nocardia brasiliensis.

    PubMed Central

    Conde, C; Mancilla, R; Fresan, M; Ortiz-Ortiz, L

    1983-01-01

    Two weeks after mice had been infected in the footpad with cells of Nocardia brasiliensis, immunoglobulin and C3 deposits were observed in tissue from the inoculation site. Both immunoglobulin and C3 were found in the actinomycotic granules that characterize the mycetoma and in the surrounding inflammatory zones, in which plasma cells were also present. Although anti-N. brasiliensis specificity was evidenced at 14 days postinfection in an eluate of infected tissue by an immunoenzymatic assay, no such antibody was found in the serum until 45 days postinfection. Immune complexes in the lesions, as indicated by the presence of C3, may also contribute to the pathology of the disease. Images PMID:6852920

  17. In vitro propagation of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.)

    Treesearch

    G. Vengadesan; Paula M. Pijut

    2009-01-01

    In vitro propagation of northern red oak (Quercus rubra) shoots was successful from cotyledonary node explants excised from 8-wk-old in vitro grown seedlings. Initially, four shoots per explant were obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 4.4 µM 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), 0.45 ...

  18. A study on L-asparaginase of Nocardia levis MK-VL_113.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, Alapati; Vijayalakshmi, Muvva

    2012-01-01

    An enzyme-based drug, L-asparaginase, was produced by Nocardia levis MK-VL_113 isolated from laterite soils of Guntur region. Cultural parameters affecting the production of L-asparaginase by the strain were optimized. Maximal yields of L-asparaginase were recorded from 3-day-old culture grown in modified asparagine-glycerol salts broth with initial pH 7.0 at temperature 30°C. Glycerol (2%) and yeast extract (1.5%) served as good carbon and nitrogen sources for L-asparaginase production, respectively. Cell-disrupting agents like EDTA slightly enhanced the productivity of L-asparaginase. Ours is the first paper on the production of L-asparaginase by N. levis.

  19. A Study on L-Asparaginase of Nocardia levis MK-VL_113

    PubMed Central

    Kavitha, Alapati; Vijayalakshmi, Muvva

    2012-01-01

    An enzyme-based drug, L-asparaginase, was produced by Nocardia levis MK-VL_113 isolated from laterite soils of Guntur region. Cultural parameters affecting the production of L-asparaginase by the strain were optimized. Maximal yields of L-asparaginase were recorded from 3-day-old culture grown in modified asparagine-glycerol salts broth with initial pH 7.0 at temperature 30°C. Glycerol (2%) and yeast extract (1.5%) served as good carbon and nitrogen sources for L-asparaginase production, respectively. Cell-disrupting agents like EDTA slightly enhanced the productivity of L-asparaginase. Ours is the first paper on the production of L-asparaginase by N. levis. PMID:22619604

  20. Role of L-forms of Nocardia caviae in the development of chronic mycetomas in normal and immunodeficient murine models.

    PubMed Central

    Beaman, B L; Scates, S M

    1981-01-01

    Single-cell suspensions of Nocardia caviae 112 were injected into normal, athymic, and asplenic mice by several different routes. The 50% lethal dose values, kill curve characteristics, histological and electron microscopic properties, organ clearance patterns, and induction of L-forms during the acute and chronic phase of disease were determined in groups of mice for up to 2 years after infection. From these data we concluded the following. (i) Athymic and asplenic animals were significantly more susceptible to N. caviae than their littermate controls regardless of inoculation route. (ii) All mice were most susceptible to lethal infection after intranasal administration and least affected when the organisms were injected into the peritoneal cavity. (iii) Chronic, progressive disease leading to the formation of mycetomas occurred only in mice injected intravenously. (iv) T-cell-deficient animals were impaired in the development of typical mycetomas. (v) L-forms of N. caviae were induced within immunocompetent hosts, whereas the cell wall-less state of the bacteria was not observed in the immunodeficient animals. (vi) Two colony types of the cell wall-deficient state were isolated from infected animals. (vii) These cell wall-deficient organisms were intimately involved in the pathogenesis of disease and bacterial persistence within the host. Finally (viii), with this strain of Nocardia, cell wall-deficient organisms played a major role in the development of the characteristic bacterial granule formed within the mycetomatous lesions 6 months to 1 year after intravenous inoculation. Images PMID:7287189

  1. Cytotoxic constituents of the bark of Plumeria rubra collected in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Kardono, L B; Tsauri, S; Padmawinata, K; Pezzuto, J M; Kinghorn, A D

    1990-01-01

    By bioactivity-directed fractionation, six cytotoxic constituents have been characterized from the bark of Plumeria rubra collected in Indonesia. Three iridoids, fulvoplumierin [1], allamcin [2], and allamandin [3], as well as 2,5-dimethoxy-p-benzoquinone [4], were found to be active constituents of the P. rubra petroleum-ether- and CHCl3-soluble extracts. Cytotoxic compounds isolated from the H2O-soluble extract of the bark were the iridoid plumericin [5], and the lignan liriodendrin [6]. Each of these substances was found to demonstrate general cytotoxic activity when evaluated with a panel of cell lines composed of murine lymphocytic leukemia (P-388) and a number of human cancer cell-types (breast, colon, fibrosarcoma, lung, melanoma, KB). Five additional iridoids, 15-demethylplumieride [7], plumieride [8], alpha-allamcidin [9], beta-allamcidin [10], and 13-O-trans-p-coumaroylplumieride [11], were obtained as inactive constituents. Compound 7 was found to be a novel natural product, and its structure was determined by spectroscopic methods and by conversion to plumieride [8]. The configuration of the C-4 stereocenter was unambiguously assigned for compounds 9 and 10, and certain nmr reassignments have been provided for compound 1.

  2. PC-766B, a new macrolide antibiotic produced by Nocardia brasiliensis. II. Isolation, physico-chemical properties and structure elucidation.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, K; Fukui, A; Tanaka, S; Ikemoto, M; Moriguchi, K; Nabeshima, S

    1993-07-01

    A new macrolide antibiotic, PC-766B, was isolated from the cells of Nocardia brasiliensis SC-4710 by acetone extraction, and purified by gel filtration, silica gel chromatography, HPLC and TLC. The structure of PC-766B was determined by NMR spectral analysis to be a new class of the hygrolidin family antibiotics. PC-766B had a 16-membered macrocyclic lactone ring, a 6-membered hemiketal ring and a 2-deoxy-D-rhamnose moiety. DL-alpha-Tocopherol, known as an antioxidant agent, significantly improved the stability of PC-766B and prevented the decomposition of PC-766B during the storage of the antibiotic.

  3. Genomic Changes Associated with the Loss of Nocardia brasiliensis Virulence in Mice after 200 In Vitro Passages

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Carrillo, Carolina; Millan-Sauceda, Cassandra; Lozano-Garza, Hector Gerardo; Ortiz-Lopez, Rocio; Elizondo-Gonzalez, Ramiro; Welsh, Oliverio; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia species, particularly Nocardia brasiliensis, are etiologic agents of mycetoma, a chronic subcutaneous infection. Until now, little has been known about the pathogenic mechanisms involved in nocardial infection. Traditionally, subculture in rich media has been a simple way to induce attenuation. In this work, we report the changes in virulence toward mice and in genomic constitution of N. brasiliensis produced after 200 continuous subcultures in brain heart infusion (BHI) medium (P-200 strain). The ability of the N. brasiliensis P-200 strain to produce experimental infection was tested using BALB/c mice. P-200 was also used to immunize mice to determine whether it could induce resistance against a challenge with a nonsubcultured isolate (P-0). Comparative proteomic analysis between N. brasiliensis P-0 and P-200 was performed by two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis, and the genome sequence was obtained through Roche 454 sequence analysis. Virulence in BALB/c mice was completely lost, and BALB/c mice immunized with P-200 bacterial cells were resistant to mycetoma production by the nonsubcultured strain. Whole-genome sequence analysis revealed that P-200 lost a total of 262,913 bp distributed in 19 deleted regions, involving a total of 213 open reading frames (ORFs). The deleted genes included those encoding bacterial virulence factors, e.g., catalase, nitrate reductase enzymes, and a group of mammalian cell entry (MCE) family proteins, which may explain the loss of virulence of the isolate. Thus, completely attenuated N. brasiliensis was obtained after 200 passages in BHI medium, and putative Nocardia virulence genes were identified for the first time. PMID:27354446

  4. Meningitis and Ventriculitis due to Nocardia araoensis Infection.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Fumio; Yamashita, Satoshi; Kawano, Hiroyuki; Tanigawa, Tomio; Mihara, Yosuke; Gonoi, Toru; Ando, Yukio

    2017-01-01

    A 73-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with disturbance of consciousness, fever and headache. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed pleocytosis with neutrophil predominance, increased protein and low glucose. CSF and blood cultures yielded negative results. Antibiotics and antituberculous drugs were started for meningitis. An antimycotic was also added. The patient died from transtentorial hernia 99 days after admission. Autopsy revealed meningitis, ventriculitis and brain abscess, and Nocardia araoensis was detected in pus from the left lateral ventricle. This appears to represent the first report of N. araoensis meningitis complicated by ventriculitis and brain abscess.

  5. Decrease of virulence for BALB/c mice produced by continuous subculturing of Nocardia brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Subculturing has been extensively used to attenuate human pathogens. In this work we studied the effect of continuous subculturing of Nocardia brasiliensis HUJEG-1 on virulence in a murine model. Methods Nocardia brasiliensis HUJEG-1 was subcultured up to 130 times on brain heart infusion over four years. BALB/c mice were inoculated in the right foot pad with the bacteria subcultured 0, 40, 80, 100 and 130 times (T0, T40, T80 T100 and T130). The induction of resistance was tested by using T130 to inoculate a group of mice followed by challenge with T0 12 weeks later. Biopsies were taken from the newly infected foot-pad and immunostained with antibodies against CD4, CD8 and CD14 in order to analyze the in situ immunological changes. Results When using T40, T80 T100 and T130 as inoculums we observed lesions in 10, 5, 0 and 0 percent of the animals, respectively, at the end of 12 weeks. In contrast, their controls produced mycetoma in 80, 80, 70 and 60% of the inoculated animals. When studying the protection of T130, we observed a partial resistance to the infection. Immunostaining revealed an intense CD4+ lymphocytic and macrophage infiltrate in healing lesions. Conclusions After 130 in vitro passages of N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 a severe decrease in its virulence was observed. Immunization of BALB/c mice, with these attenuated cells, produced a state of partial resistance to infection with the non-subcultured isolate. PMID:22029431

  6. Antiscalant properties of Spergularia rubra and Parietaria officinalis aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheap-Charpentier, Hélène; Gelus, Dominique; Pécoul, Nathalie; Perrot, Hubert; Lédion, Jean; Horner, Olivier; Sadoun, Jonathan; Cachet, Xavier; Litaudon, Marc; Roussi, Fanny

    2016-06-01

    The formation of calcium carbonate in water has important implications in industry. Chemical antiscalant is usually used to control scale depositions. Plant extracts have been recently used as new green antiscalant agents, as they can be easily prepared and are environmentally friendly. In this study, stock aqueous solutions of Spergularia rubra and Parietaria officinalis, two plants used in traditional medicine to treat or prevent urolithiasis, were obtained by infusion. The antiscaling properties of these extracts towards CaCO3 formation were tested by using chronoamperometry and Fast Controlled Precipitation methods. The aqueous solution of S. rubra was further fractionated to isolate compounds of lower polarity. Their efficiency towards CaCO3 precipitation was characterized by Fast Controlled Precipitation method. The inhibiting efficiency of this fractionated solution was greater than that of the stock aqueous solution.

  7. Follicular Psoriasis: Differentiation from Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris-An Illustrative Case and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Cuong V; Farah, Ronda S; Maguiness, Sheilagh M; Miller, Daniel D

    2017-01-01

    The follicular presentation of psoriasis is a well-described but uncommon variant. In some cases, follicular psoriasis may clinically and histopathologically mimic pityriasis rubra pilaris. There are several reports discussing the resemblance of widespread follicular psoriasis in children to pityriasis rubra pilaris. We describe a case of follicular psoriasis in a 16-year-old black girl with acrally distributed follicular hyperkeratotic papules with associated keratoderma of her plantar surfaces resembling pityriasis rubra pilaris. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Successful treatment of pityriasis rubra pilaris with adalimumab - case report.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Erick A; Carrion, Leonidas; Paucar, Silvia M; Mendoza, Rossana; Rivera, Carlos

    2014-04-16

    Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris (PRP) is an uncommon skin disorder characterized by follicular keratosis, palmoplantar keratoderma, and erythroderma. The traditional preferred treatment is oral retinoids, but over the last decade, biologic therapy with anti-TNF agents has been used with success. We report the case of a 51 year- old man with a clinical and histopathological diagnosis of PRP. He underwent therapy with adalimumab and showed clearance of skin lesions within the fourth week of treatment.

  9. Evaluation of Various Therapeutic Measures in Striae Rubra

    PubMed Central

    Karia, Umesh Karsandas; Padhiar, Bela Bhemabhai; Shah, Bela Jaswantbhai

    2016-01-01

    Background: Striae are linear atrophic depressions that form in areas of dermal damage in the skin. As on date, no consensus or protocol exists for the treatment of stria rubra. Topical retinoids, chemical peels, microdermabrasion, radiofrequency, photothermolysis, intense pulsed light and lasers are some of the modalities used. Aims and Objective: To compare the efficacy of various therapeutic modalities in striae rubra. Methods: This prospective cohort study comprised of a total of fifty patients from August-2012 to October-2013 in a tertiary care center in Western India, Gujarat having striae rubra. They were randomly divided into five groups of ten patients each. Patients were evaluated on the basis of visual assessment, both by doctor as well as the patient. Group I was given topical tretinoin (0.1% w/w) gel applied once at night, Group II-microdermabrasion (MDA) combined with trichloroacetic acid (TCA) (30%) peel, Group III-mesotherapy, Group IV-Q-switched Nd: YAG laser, and Group V-combination treatment of microdermabrasion, salicylic acid peel and retinol (yellow) peel. Patients were treated at an interval of 15 days for 2 months and then at monthly intervals. Objective assessment was done at 2nd month, 6th month, and at the end of 1st year. Results: Patients in Group I treated with topical tretinoin showed the least response with 80% (8) of them showing minimal clinical improvement (0–25%) as compared to patients in Group V in which 60% (6) patients showed moderate clinical improvement (50–75%). While majority of the patients in Group II, III, and IV showed mild clinical improvement (25–50%). Conclusions: Striae rubra is a common cause of concern for adolescent population. Combination treatment with microdermabrasion, salicylic acid and retinol yellow peel gave superior results as compared to other therapeutic options. Mild to moderate improvement was seen with Nd: YAG laser, mesotherapy and MDA + TCA whereas minimal improvement were seen with

  10. Taxonomic implications of Rhodotorula rubra isolates from polluted sea water in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hagler, A N; Mendonça-Hagler, L C

    1979-04-01

    Sixty two strains of Rhodotorula rubra which were all isolated from marine and estuarine waters of Rio de Janeiro were found variable for 19 to 32 carbon assimilation tests used in yeast taxonomy. Two R. rubra strains which had latent assimilation of maltose and melizitose appeared to be intermediate with R. pilimanae. Strains of R. glutinis var dairenensis which differed from R. rubra only by weak assimilation of nitrate appeared to be intermediated between these two species. Our physiological tests suggested that R. rubra, R. pilimanae, and part of R. glutinis should be combined and this was supported by DNA base composition and coezyme Q data existing in the literature.

  11. Fatal nocardiosis in a dog caused by multiresistant Nocardia veterana.

    PubMed

    Uhde, Ann-Kathrin; Kilwinski, Jochen; Peters, Martin; Verspohl, Jutta; Feßler, Andrea T; Schwarz, Stefan; Wohlsein, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Among pathogenic Nocardia species in humans and animals, infections caused by Nocardia (N.) veterana have rarely been described and so far, all non-human cases are linked to bovine mastitis in Brazil. The aim of this study was to identify the causative microorganism involved in the death of a three-month-old dog suffering from dyspnea and neurological deficits ante mortem. Pathomorphological investigation revealed (pyo-)granulomatous lesions in various organs. Bacteriological examination was performed and the respective bacteria were subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), 16S rDNA sequencing, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing by broth microdilution. Gram-staining and colony morphology suggested the presence of an actinomycete which was identified as N. veterana by MALDI-TOF MS. This identification was confirmed by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Distemper-associated immunosuppression may have played a role in the pathogenesis of systemic nocardiosis in this dog. Retrospective analysis of the antimicrobial susceptibility status showed that the N. veterana isolate was multiresistant and displayed high minimal inhibitory concentrations to all antimicrobial agents used for the dog's therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a systemic nocardiosis caused by N. veterana in a dog with a concurrent canine distemper virus infection.

  12. Application of Paraffin Bait Technique to the Isolation of Nocardia asteroides from Clinical Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, S. K.; Randhawa, H. S.

    1969-01-01

    The principal findings of a study for further evaluating paraffin baiting as a routine laboratory diagnostic procedure in the isolation of Nocardia asteroides, the etiological agent of nocardiosis, are reported. PMID:4905040

  13. Nocardia scleritis-clinical presentation and management: a report of three cases and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Srikant Kumar; Sharma, Savitri; Das, Sujata

    2012-03-01

    This study aims to describe the clinical features and management of Nocardia scleritis. The authors retrospectively reviewed medical charts of three patients with microbiologically proven Nocardia scleritis and reviewed literature. All the patients presented with areas of well-demarcated, circumscribed abscess. No specific clinical feature could be attributed to the causative organism. Nocardia was identified by smear and culture from the scleral exudates. The medical management was based on the antibiotic sensitivity. Surgical exploration of the suppurated area along with the healthy margins was done on all patients. Two patients required multiple explorations. All three patients resolved with a good visual and tectonic outcome. The literature review also suggests a good outcome with prolonged medical management though the preferred antibiotic has changed over the years. Though the prevalence of a disease like Nocardia scleritis is low, the results suggest that specific diagnosis and appropriate management can lead to a good outcome.

  14. Nocardia asteroides peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis: First case in pediatrics, treated with protracted linezolid.

    PubMed

    El-Naggari, Mohamed; El Nour, Ibtisam; Al-Nabhani, Dana; Al Muharrmi, Zakaria; Gaafar, Heba; Abdelmogheth, Anas A W

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia asteroides is a rare pathogen in peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis. We report on a 13-year-old female with Nocardia asteroides peritonitis complicated by an intra-abdominal abscess. Linezolid was administered intravenously for 3 months and followed by oral therapy for an additional 5 months with close monitoring for adverse effects. The patient was discharged after 3 months of hospitalization on hemodialysis. The diagnosis and management of such cases can be problematic due to the slow growth and difficulty of identifying Nocardia species. The optimal duration of treatment for Nocardia peritonitis is not known. Linezolid can be used for prolonged periods in cases of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole-resistant cases with close monitoring for adverse effects. Copyright © 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nocardia grenadensis sp. nov., isolated from sand of the Caribbean Sea.

    PubMed

    Kämpfer, Peter; Lodders, Nicole; Grün-Wollny, Iris; Martin, Karin; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2012-03-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, non-spore-forming bacterium (GW5-5797(T)) was isolated on soil extract agar from sand collected at a depth of 5 m in the Caribbean Sea near Grenada. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and similarity studies showed that strain GW5-5797(T) belongs to the genus Nocardia, and is most closely related to Nocardia speluncae N2-11(T) (99.2% similarity) and Nocardia jinanensis 04-5195(T) (99.2%) and more distantly related to Nocardia rhamnosiphila 202GMO(T) (98.6%) and other Nocardia species. Strain GW5-5797(T) could be distinguished from all other recognized Nocardia species by sequence similarity values less than 98.5%. The peptidoglycan diamino acid was meso-diaminopimelic acid. Strain GW5-5797(T) exhibited a quinone system with the predominant compounds MK-8(H(4)ω-cyclo) and MK-8(H(2)). The polar lipid profile of GW5-5797(T) consisted of the major compounds diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and an unidentified glycolipid, moderate amounts of phosphatidylinositol and a phosphatidylinositol mannoside and minor amounts of several lipids including a second phosphatidylinositol mannoside. The polyamine pattern contained the major compound spermine and moderate amounts of spermidine. The major fatty acids were C(16:0,) C(18:1)ω9c and 10-methyl C(18:0). These chemotaxonomic traits are in excellent agreement with those of other Nocardia species. The results of DNA-DNA hybridizations and physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain GW5-5797(T) from the most closely related species, showing 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities >98.5%. Strain GW5-5797(T) therefore merits separate species status, and we propose the name Nocardia grenadensis sp. nov., with the type strain GW5-5797(T) (=CCUG 60970(T) =CIP 110294(T)).

  16. gyrB Analysis as a Tool for Identifying Nocardia Species and Exploring Their Phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Gema; Garrido, Noelia; Medina-Pascual, María J.; Villalón, Pilar; Sáez-Nieto, Juan A.

    2014-01-01

    gyrB is used to improve the identification of the Nocardia species N. brasiliensis, N. higoensis, N. ignorata, N. otitidiscaviarum, N. paucivorans, N. pneumoniae, N. puris, N. takedensis, N. veterana, and N. vinacea, but it does not improve the identification of another 12 Nocardia studied species. gyrB provides typing and phylogenetic markers for N. carnea, N. transvalensis, N. brasiliensis, and N. otitidiscaviarum. PMID:25540402

  17. Brasilinolide A, a new macrolide antibiotic produced by Nocardia brasiliensis: producing strain, isolation and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Y; Komaki, H; Yazawa, K; Mikami, Y; Nemoto, A; Tojyo, T; Kadowaki, K; Shigemori, H; Kobayashi, J

    1997-12-01

    A new 32-membered macrolide antibiotic, brasilinolide A was isolated from the fermentation broth of Nocardia sp. IFM 0406. The producer was identified as Nocardia brasiliensis. The antibiotic was only active against Aspergillus niger, but not active against other fungi including yeasts as well as other filamentous like fungi and bacteria. Brasilinolide A exerted an immunosuppressive activity in the assay system of a mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR).

  18. gyrB analysis as a tool for identifying Nocardia species and exploring their phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Gema; Valdezate, Sylvia; Garrido, Noelia; Medina-Pascual, María J; Villalón, Pilar; Sáez-Nieto, Juan A

    2015-03-01

    gyrB is used to improve the identification of the Nocardia species N. brasiliensis, N. higoensis, N. ignorata, N. otitidiscaviarum, N. paucivorans, N. pneumoniae, N. puris, N. takedensis, N. veterana, and N. vinacea, but it does not improve the identification of another 12 Nocardia studied species. gyrB provides typing and phylogenetic markers for N. carnea, N. transvalensis, N. brasiliensis, and N. otitidiscaviarum.

  19. Genetics Home Reference: familial pityriasis rubra pilaris

    MedlinePlus

    ... the activity of multiple genes, including genes that control the body's immune responses and inflammatory reactions. It also protects cells from certain signals that would otherwise cause them to self-destruct (undergo apoptosis ). The CARD14 protein is found ...

  20. Nocardia africana sp. nov., a New Pathogen Isolated from Patients with Pulmonary Infections

    PubMed Central

    Hamid, Mohamed E.; Maldonado, Luis; Sharaf Eldin, Ghada S.; Mohamed, Maha F.; Saeed, Nageeb S.; Goodfellow, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Eight actinomycete strains, isolated from 8 out of 400 sputum samples examined, taken from patients with pulmonary diseases at the Chest Unit of Khartoum Teaching Hospital in the Sudan, were provisionally assigned to the genus Nocardia according to morphological criteria. These isolates were studied further in order to establish their taxonomic status. They were found to have morphological and chemical properties typical of nocardiae and formed a monophyletic clade in the 16S ribosomal DNA tree together with Nocardia vaccinii. The strains showed a unique pattern of phenotypic properties that distinguished them from representatives of recognized Nocardia species, including Nocardia vaccinii. The strains were considered to merit species status and were designated Nocardia africana sp. nov. The findings of the present study are consistent with the view that pulmonary nocardiosis may occur in a substantial proportion of patients who exhibit chronic lung diseases in African countries. It is important, therefore, that clinicians in such countries consider this condition, especially when patients with respiratory infections fail to respond to antitubercular therapy. PMID:11158119

  1. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serological diagnosis of Nocardia brasiliensis and clinical correlation with mycetoma infections.

    PubMed

    Salinas-Carmona, M C; Welsh, O; Casillas, S M

    1993-11-01

    We previously identified three immunodominant antigens obtained from a Nocardia brasiliensis cell extract and recognized by sera from mycetoma patients (M. C. Salinas-Carmona, L. Vera, O. Welsh, and M. Rodríguez, Zentralbl. Bakteriol. 276:390-397, 1992). In the present work, we obtained a crude extract from a mass culture of N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 and purified two immunodominant antigens, the 26- and 24-kDa proteins, by using simple physiochemical techniques. With these antigens, we developed a conventional solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and tested 30 serum samples from mycetoma patients, 29 from tuberculosis patients, 24 from a leprosy group, and 31 from healthy individuals. Our results show for the first time statistically significant differences in serology among these groups. All mycetoma patients with a positive culture for N. brasiliensis had absorbance values higher than 0.3. On the other hand, the mycobacterium-infected patients as well as the healthy individuals all had absorbance values below that level. Moreover, we found a close correlation between the clinical condition of the mycetoma patients and the anti-26- and anti-24-kDa protein antibody concentrations. We therefore propose the use of this assay in routine clinical laboratories to confirm the diagnosis of N. brasiliensis infection in human mycetoma cases. In addition, the possible application of this assay in the serodiagnosis of Nocardia asteroides infection is also discussed.

  2. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serological diagnosis of Nocardia brasiliensis and clinical correlation with mycetoma infections.

    PubMed Central

    Salinas-Carmona, M C; Welsh, O; Casillas, S M

    1993-01-01

    We previously identified three immunodominant antigens obtained from a Nocardia brasiliensis cell extract and recognized by sera from mycetoma patients (M. C. Salinas-Carmona, L. Vera, O. Welsh, and M. Rodríguez, Zentralbl. Bakteriol. 276:390-397, 1992). In the present work, we obtained a crude extract from a mass culture of N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 and purified two immunodominant antigens, the 26- and 24-kDa proteins, by using simple physiochemical techniques. With these antigens, we developed a conventional solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and tested 30 serum samples from mycetoma patients, 29 from tuberculosis patients, 24 from a leprosy group, and 31 from healthy individuals. Our results show for the first time statistically significant differences in serology among these groups. All mycetoma patients with a positive culture for N. brasiliensis had absorbance values higher than 0.3. On the other hand, the mycobacterium-infected patients as well as the healthy individuals all had absorbance values below that level. Moreover, we found a close correlation between the clinical condition of the mycetoma patients and the anti-26- and anti-24-kDa protein antibody concentrations. We therefore propose the use of this assay in routine clinical laboratories to confirm the diagnosis of N. brasiliensis infection in human mycetoma cases. In addition, the possible application of this assay in the serodiagnosis of Nocardia asteroides infection is also discussed. Images PMID:8263174

  3. Nocardia and Lungs in COPD: Beyond Immuno-deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Maggiorelli, Claudia; Di Pierro, Irene; Manta, Carmen; Maccari, Uberto; Galanti, Irene; Scala, Raffaele

    2015-06-01

    Nocardia is an opportunistic pathogen and Pulmonary Nocardiosis (PN) occurred in more than half of the cases in subjects with immuno-suppressed status. COPD is one of the most common comorbidity observed in immuno-competent patients with PN. In this perspective study, we report the clinical patterns, the outcomes and the comorbidities of all cases of PN admitted in our Unit in the years 1999-2012. Among 6545 patients admitted in our Unit during the study time, we identified PN in 4 patients. COPD was coexistent in 3 out of 4 cases. A delayed time for the diagnosis was observed. Clinical-radiological improvement was detected in all cases after one month of specific anti-PN therapy. According to our experience, PN is a rare disease that should be suspected also in immuno-competent patients. COPD is confirmed to be a risk factor for the development of PN, probably due to reduced respiratory defenses and prolonged steroid therapy.

  4. Immunochemistry of the Group-Specific Polysaccharide of Nocardia brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Zamora, Abel; Bojalil, L. F.

    1965-01-01

    Estrada-Parra, Sergio (Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, México, D.F., México), Abel Zamora, and L. F. Bojalil. Immunochemistry of the group-specific polysaccharide of Nocardia brasiliensis. J. Bacteriol. 90:571–574. 1965.—The group-specific polysaccharide of Nocardia brasiliensis was further purified, yielding an amorphous white material with the following characteristics: [α]D20 = + 48; nitrogen, 0.5%; phosphorus, 0.1%; and ash as sodium, 0.8%. The polymer is made of d-arabinose and d-galactose in a molar ratio of 3:1, and no other sugars were detected. Mild hydrolysis liberates mainly arabinose. The polysaccharide consumes 3.46 μmoles of periodate per mg of polymer in 15 days at 4 C (this value remains constant after 4 more days). Oxidation results in destruction of two of the arabinose, with the formation of two glycerols after borohydride reduction and hydrolysis. The polysaccharide oxidized by periodate and reduced under mild acid hydrolysis at 20 C yields glycerol and a polymer formed by galactose and arabinose (in a ratio of 1:1) which is resistant to a second oxidation. Therefore, the polysaccharide is probably formed by a main chain of glactose linked 1,3 and arabinose linked 1,2 or 1,3 or both, and nonreducing side chains of arabofuranose residues. The intact polysaccharide cross-reacts with sera from patients with active tuberculosis, and this, as well as the homologous reaction, is abolished by oxidation with periodate. PMID:16562050

  5. Nocardia infections among immunomodulated inflammatory bowel disease patients: A review

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Cândida; Rocha-Pereira, Nuno; Sarmento, António; Magro, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Human nocardiosis, caused by Nocardia spp., an ubiquitous soil-borne bacteria, is a rare granulomatous disease close related to immune dysfunctions. Clinically can occur as an acute life-threatening disease, with lung, brain and skin being commonly affected. The infection was classically diagnosed in HIV infected persons, organ transplanted recipients and long term corticosteroid treated patients. Currently the widespread use of immunomodulators and immunossupressors in the treatment of inflammatory diseases changed this scenario. Our purpose is to review all published cases of nocardiosis in immunomodulated patients due to inflammatory diseases and describe clinical and laboratory findings. We reviewed the literature concerning human cases of nocardiosis published between 1980 and 2014 in peer reviewed journals. Eleven cases of nocardiosis associated with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) prescription (9 related with infliximab and 2 with adalimumab) were identified; 7 patients had inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), 4 had rheumatological conditions; nocardia infection presented as cutaneous involvement in 3 patients, lung disease in 4 patients, hepatic in one and disseminated disease in 3 patients. From the 10 cases described in IBD patients 7 were associated with anti-TNF and 3 with steroids and azathioprine. In conclusion, nocardiosis requires high levels of clinical suspicion and experience of laboratory staff, in order to establish a timely diagnosis and by doing so avoid worst outcomes. Treatment for long periods tailored by the susceptibility of the isolated species whenever possible is essential. The safety of restarting immunomodulators or anti-TNF after the disease or the value of prophylaxis with cotrimoxazole is still debated. PMID:26074688

  6. Pityriasis rubra pilaris: treatment with biologics - a new promising therapy?

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Katja; Itin, Peter; Haeusermann, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) includes a spectrum of rare chronic inflammatory disorders with papulosquamous eruptions of unknown cause. Different etiologies have been proposed such as vitamin A metabolism dysfunction, association with autoimmune disorders, infection or malignancies. However, PRP seems to be a polygenic skin disorder. Classical systemic treatment is empirical and includes retinoids and methotrexate; however, only few series on treatments exist. Recently there has been an increasing number of reports documenting that new biologicals and in particular TNF-α blockers are safe and effective. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Reduced atmospheric CO2 inhibits nitrogen mobilization in Festuca rubra.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Barry; Paterson, Eric; Kingston-Smith, Alison H; Bollard, Andrea L; Pratt, Shona M; Sim, Allan

    2002-09-01

    In defoliated grasses, where photosynthesis is reduced due to removal of leaf material, it is well established that remobilization of nitrogen occurs from both older remaining leaves and roots towards the younger growing leaves. In contrast, little is known about the movement of nitrogen within intact grass plants experiencing prolonged inhibition of photosynthesis. We tested the following hypotheses in Festuca rubra L. ssp. rubra cv. Boreal: that both reduction of the atmospheric CO2 concentration and defoliation (1) induce mobilization of nitrogen from roots and older leaves towards growing leaves and (2) elicit similar directional change in the abundance of proteins in roots and older leaves relevant to the process of nitrogen mobilization including, glutamine synthetase (GS), EC 6.3.1.2; papain, EC 3.4.22.2; chymopapain, EC 3.4.22.6; ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), EC 4.1.1.39; and the light harvesting complex of photosystem II (LHCPII). After growth at ambient atmospheric CO2 concentration, plants of F. rubra were subject to atmospheres containing either ambient (350 micro l l-1) or deplete (< 20 micro l l-1) CO2. Concurrently, plants were either left intact or defoliated on one occasion. Steady state 15N labelling coupled with a series of destructive harvests over a 7-day period enabled changes in the nitrogen dynamics of the plants to be established. Proteins pertinent to the process of nitrogen mobilization were quantified by immunoblotting. Irrespective of defoliation, plants in ambient CO2 mobilized nitrogen from older to growing leaves. This mobilization was inhibited by deplete CO2. Greater concentration of Rubisco and reduced chymopapain abundance in older remaining leaves of intact plants, in deplete compared with ambient CO2, suggested the inhibition of mobilization was due to inhibition of protein degradation, rather than to the export of degradation products. Both deplete CO2 and defoliation induced nitrogen mobilization from

  8. Cytokine production and lymphocyte proliferation in patients with Nocardia brasiliensis actinomycetoma.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Tovar, Luis J; Mondragón-González, Rafael; Vega-López, Francisco; Dockrell, Hazel M; Hay, Roderick; López-Martínez, Rubén; Manzano-Gayosso, Patricia; Hernández-Hernández, Francisca; Padilla-Desgarennes, Carmen; Bonifaz, Alexandro

    2004-11-01

    IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-12 concentrations in the supernatant of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures and the in vitro proliferation of PBMC were studied in 25 patients with actinomycetoma caused by Nocardia brasiliensis and in 10 healthy controls from endemic zones. Cell cultures were stimulated by a N. brasiliensis crude cytoplasmic antigen (NB) and five semi-purified protein fractions (NB2, NB4, NB6, NB8, and NB10) separated by isoelectric. Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and purified protein derivative (PPD) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were used as control antigens. Skin tests were performed by injecting 0.1 ml of candidin and PPD intradermally (ID). Patients showed a poor response to tuberculin, while their response to candidin was more than two fold greater than that observed in the controls. Cell proliferation showed no statistically significant differences in either group. IFN-gamma production was higher in the healthy controls than in the patients, whereas TNF-alpha secretion was slightly higher in the patients' cultures. IL-4 was detected in the patients' cultures but not in the controls. IL-10 and IL-12 were present at low concentrations in both groups. These results suggest that patients with actinomycetoma show normal antigen recognition, but with low IFN-gamma production, and higher concentrations of IL-4, IL-10 and TNF-alpha in the patients' PBMC cultures, indicating that they probably have a Th2 type of immune response.

  9. Distribution of a Nocardia brasiliensis Catalase Gene Fragment in Members of the Genera Nocardia, Gordona, and Rhodococcus

    PubMed Central

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Johnson, Wendy M.; Welsh, Oliverio; Resendiz-Uresti, Francisco L.; Salinas-Carmona, Mario C.

    1999-01-01

    An immunodominant protein from Nocardia brasiliensis, P61, was subjected to amino-terminal and internal sequence analysis. Three sequences of 22, 17, and 38 residues, respectively, were obtained and compared with the protein database from GenBank by using the BLAST system. The sequences showed homology to some eukaryotic catalases and to a bromoperoxidase-catalase from Streptomyces violaceus. Its identity as a catalase was confirmed by analysis of its enzymatic activity on H2O2 and by a double-staining method on a nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel with 3,3′-diaminobenzidine and ferricyanide; the result showed only catalase activity, but no peroxidase. By using one of the internal amino acid sequences and a consensus catalase motif (VGNNTP), we were able to design a PCR assay that generated a 500-bp PCR product. The amplicon was analyzed, and the nucleotide sequence was compared to the GenBank database with the observation of high homology to other bacterial and eukaryotic catalases. A PCR assay based on this target sequence was performed with primers NB10 and NB11 to confirm the presence of the NB10-NB11 gene fragment in several N. brasiliensis strains isolated from mycetoma. The same assay was used to determine whether there were homologous sequences in several type strains from the genera Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Gordona, and Streptomyces. All of the N. brasiliensis strains presented a positive result but only some of the actinomycetes species tested were positive in the PCR assay. In order to confirm these findings, genomic DNA was subjected to Southern blot analysis. A 1.7-kbp band was observed in the N. brasiliensis strains, and bands of different molecular weight were observed in cross-reacting actinomycetes. Sequence analysis of the amplicons of selected actinomycetes showed high homology in this catalase fragment, thus demonstrating that this protein is highly conserved in this group of bacteria. PMID:10325357

  10. Broad Spectrum Antimicrobial Activity of Forest-Derived Soil Actinomycete, Nocardia sp. PB-52

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Priyanka; Kalita, Mohan C.; Thakur, Debajit

    2016-01-01

    A mesophilic actinomycete strain designated as PB-52 was isolated from soil samples of Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary of Assam, India. Based on phenotypic and molecular characteristics, the strain was identified as Nocardia sp. which shares 99.7% sequence similarity with Nocardia niigatensis IFM 0330 (NR_112195). The strain is a Gram-positive filamentous bacterium with rugose spore surface which exhibited a wide range of antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Gram-negative bacteria, and yeasts. Optimization for the growth and antimicrobial activity of the strain PB-52 was carried out in batch culture under shaking condition. The optimum growth and antimicrobial potential of the strain were recorded in GLM medium at 28°C, initial pH 7.4 of the medium and incubation period of 8 days. Based on polyketide synthases (PKS) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) gene-targeted PCR amplification, the occurrence of both of these biosynthetic pathways was detected which might be involved in the production of antimicrobial compounds in PB-52. Extract of the fermented broth culture of PB-52 was prepared with organic solvent extraction method using ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate extract of PB-52 (EA-PB-52) showed lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against S. aureus MTCC 96 (0.975 μg/mL) whereas highest was recorded against Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883 (62.5 μg/mL). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that treatment of the test microorganisms with EA-PB-52 destroyed the targeted cells with prominent loss of cell shape and integrity. In order to determine the constituents responsible for its antimicrobial activity, EA-PB-52 was subjected to chemical analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). GC-MS analysis showed the presence of twelve different chemical constituents in the extract, some of which are reported to possess diverse biological activity. These

  11. Identifying, cloning and structural analysis of differentially expressed genes upon Puccinia infection of Festuca rubra var. rubra.

    PubMed

    Ergen, Neslihan Z; Dinler, Gizem; Shearman, Robert C; Budak, Hikmet

    2007-05-15

    Differentially expressed genes in response to rust infection (Puccinia sp.) in creeping red fescue (Festuca rubra var. rubra) were identified and quantified using the mRNA differential display technique. The differentially induced genes were identified as homologs of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) 3 of Arabidopsis thaliana, stem rust resistance protein Rpg1 of barley and Hsp70 of Spinacia oleracea. The change in the steady state expression levels of these genes in response to rust infection was tested by Northern blot analysis and further quantified by real-time PCR. A steady accumulation of transcripts in the course of rust infection was observed. Full-length transcript of a fescue MPK-3 was obtained by RACE PCR. Its corresponding cDNA encodes a protein with a predicted MW of 42.5 kDa which was mapped onto the structural model of homologs MAPK to illustrate the corresponding MAPK signature motifs. This study, for the first time, presents evidence on the rust infection dependent metabolic pathways in creeping red fescue.

  12. Molecular identification of Nocardia species using the sodA gene: Identificación molecular de especies de Nocardia utilizando el gen sodA.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Herrera, K; Sandoval, H; Mouniee, D; Ramírez-Durán, N; Bergeron, E; Boiron, P; Sánchez-Saucedo, N; Rodríguez-Nava, V

    2017-09-01

    Currently for bacterial identification and classification the rrs gene encoding 16S rRNA is used as a reference method for the analysis of strains of the genus Nocardia. However, it does not have enough polymorphism to differentiate them at the species level. This fact makes it necessary to search for molecular targets that can provide better identification. The sodA gene (encoding the enzyme superoxide dismutase) has had good results in identifying species of other Actinomycetes. In this study the sodA gene is proposed for the identification and differentiation at the species level of the genus Nocardia. We used 41 type species of various collections; a 386 bp fragment of the sodA gene was amplified and sequenced, and a phylogenetic analysis was performed comparing the genes rrs (1171 bp), hsp65 (401 bp), secA1 (494 bp), gyrB (1195 bp) and rpoB (401 bp). The sequences were aligned using the Clustal X program. Evolutionary trees according to the neighbour-joining method were created with the programs Phylo_win and MEGA 6. The specific variability of the sodA genus of the genus Nocardia was analysed. A high phylogenetic resolution, significant genetic variability, and specificity and reliability were observed for the differentiation of the isolates at the species level. The polymorphism observed in the sodA gene sequence contains variable regions that allow the discrimination of closely related Nocardia species. The clear specificity, despite its small size, proves to be of great advantage for use in taxonomic studies and clinical diagnosis of the genus Nocardia.

  13. Permanent Draft Genome Sequence of Nocardia sp. BMG111209, an Actinobacterium Isolated from Nodules of Casuarina glauca

    PubMed Central

    Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten; Beauchemin, Nicholas; Gueddou, Abdellatif; Hezbri, Karima; Ktari, Amir; Louati, Moussa; Nouioui, Imen; Chen, Amy; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Markowitz, Victor; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Pagani, Ioanna; Sen, Arnab; Wall, Luis; Woyke, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia sp. strain BMG111209 is a non-Frankia actinobacterium isolated from root nodules of Casuarina glauca in Tunisia. Here, we report the 9.1-Mbp draft genome sequence of Nocardia sp. strain BMG111209 with a G + C content of 69.19% and 8,122 candidate protein-encoding genes. PMID:27491997

  14. Permanent Draft Genome Sequence of Nocardia sp. BMG111209, an Actinobacterium Isolated from Nodules of Casuarina glauca.

    PubMed

    Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten; Beauchemin, Nicholas; Gueddou, Abdellatif; Hezbri, Karima; Ktari, Amir; Louati, Moussa; Nouioui, Imen; Chen, Amy; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Markowitz, Victor; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Pagani, Ioanna; Sen, Arnab; Wall, Luis; Woyke, Tanja; Gtari, Maher; Tisa, Louis S

    2016-08-04

    Nocardia sp. strain BMG111209 is a non-Frankia actinobacterium isolated from root nodules of Casuarina glauca in Tunisia. Here, we report the 9.1-Mbp draft genome sequence of Nocardia sp. strain BMG111209 with a G + C content of 69.19% and 8,122 candidate protein-encoding genes.

  15. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical Nocardia species in a tertiary hospital.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ming; Wang, Peng; Qu, Jiuxin; Li, Ran; Liu, Yongzhe; Gu, Li; Yang, Chunxia

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility of 28 clinical isolates of Nocardia species isolated from Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, for reducing the insufficiency of information on antimicrobial activities of Nocardia clinical isolates in specific species in China. Molecular diagnosis of Nocardia species was performed using partial 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequences. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing by broth microdilution was performed according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations. The species distribution (n) was N. cyriacigeorgica (13), N. farcinica (6), N. beijingensis (3), N. abscessus (2), N. wallacei (2), N. otitidiscaviarum (1), N. nova (1). The susceptibility rates to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, linezolid, amikacin, imipenem, tobramycin, ceftriaxone and cefotaxime were100%, 100%, 92.86%, 75.00%, 67.86%, 67.86% and 64.29% respectively, while the resistance rates to both ciprofloxacin and clarithromycin were 71.43%. N. cyriacigeorgica was the most frequently isolated Nocardia species. All clinical isolates showed very low susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and clarithromycin, and complete susceptibility to both trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, linezolid, which can be the primary choice for the treatment of Nocardia infections in China. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Application of sucrose-gradient centrifugation for selective isolation of Nocardia spp. from soil.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, H; Hayakawa, M; Iimura, Y

    2003-01-01

    To devise and evaluate a method for selective isolation of the less abundant actinomycetes, Nocardia spp. in soil. This newly developed method is based on differentiating Nocardia from other actinomycete taxa by centrifugation. A water suspension of air-dried soil is centrifuged through a gradient consisting of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% sucrose at 240 x g for 30 min. The 20% sucrose layer, which is enriched with Nocardia spp., is then diluted and plated on humic acid-vitamin agar supplemented with antibacterial agents. The proposed method consistently achieved selective isolation of Nocardia spp. in all 14 soil samples tested, which accounted for 5-89% of the total microbial population recovered. Tentative taxonomic characterization based on a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the 16S ribosomal DNA suggested that many of the soil isolates could belong to N. asteroides, N. salmonicida or N. uniformis. Differential centrifugation can successfully and efficiently isolate soil Nocardia populations that are suppressed by conventional dilution plating approaches. The development and application of new methodologies with which to isolate less-explored actinomycete taxa is important for improving our knowledge about their taxonomy, ecology and industrial applications.

  17. Clinical and Laboratory Features of the Nocardia spp. Based on Current Molecular Taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    Brown-Elliott, Barbara A.; Brown, June M.; Conville, Patricia S.; Wallace, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    The recent explosion of newly described species of Nocardia results from the impact in the last decade of newer molecular technology, including PCR restriction enzyme analysis and 16S rRNA sequencing. These molecular techniques have revolutionized the identification of the nocardiae by providing rapid and accurate identification of recognized nocardiae and, at the same time, revealing new species and a number of yet-to-be-described species. There are currently more than 30 species of nocardiae of human clinical significance, with the majority of isolates being N. nova complex, N. abscessus, N. transvalensis complex, N. farcinica, N. asteroides type VI (N. cyriacigeorgica), and N. brasiliensis. These species cause a wide variety of diseases and have variable drug susceptibilities. Accurate identification often requires referral to a reference laboratory with molecular capabilities, as many newer species are genetically distinct from established species yet have few or no distinguishing phenotypic characteristics. Correct identification is important in deciding the clinical relevance of a species and in the clinical management and treatment of patients with nocardial disease. This review characterizes the currently known pathogenic species of Nocardia, including clinical disease, drug susceptibility, and methods of identification. PMID:16614249

  18. [Studies of Nocardia pellegrino SN 5108 pigment mutants: reasons for differences in pigmentation (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Wenzel, U; Tárnok, I

    1976-01-01

    Yellow and white mutants of the strains Nocardia pellegrino SN 5108 R have been isolated. Regarding their morphological and physiological properties, the mutants are identical with the wild type bacteria with the exception of their pigmentation and lipid composition. However, the pigment composition (number, Rf-values and spectra of the pigment components) of the yellow mutant is identical with that of the wild type; as a consequence, the modified pigmentation of the yellow mutant cannot be explained by an altered pigment synthesis. The wild type cells and the mutant SN 5108 G contain three main pigment components designated as I, II and III. Components II and III posses a marked indicator character and show a bathochromic shift in solutions of pH 12 or higher. Components II and III contain functional groups which are able to react with acetic acid yielding acetylated products; after acetylating, no bathochromic shift in alkali occurs. Intact cells of the wild type retain their orange-red pigmentation in buffer solution with a pH-value of 12 or higher. Cells of the yellow mutant, however, change the yellow color immediately after the alkali treatment to orange-red; this new color is identical with that of the wild type and can be changed to yellow by placing the cells into 1 N HCl. Regarding these facts it seems to be very probable that the functional groups of the pigment components II and III are differently bound in the wild type and mutant cells. In the mutant, they are accessible to OH- ions yielding a bathochromic shift while in the wild type cells, OH- ions are unable to provoke this shift. It seems to be also probable that different lipids in the two strains are responsible for the binding of the pigments. So far known, this is the first observation about the occurence of pigment mutants with an altered pigment binding site in the cells.

  19. Climate Influences the Content and Chemical Composition of Foliar Tannins in Green and Senesced Tissues of Quercus rubra

    PubMed Central

    Top, Sara M.; Preston, Caroline M.; Dukes, Jeffrey S.; Tharayil, Nishanth

    2017-01-01

    Environmental stresses not only influence production of plant metabolites but could also modify their resorption during leaf senescence. The production-resorption dynamics of polyphenolic tannins, a class of defense compound whose ecological role extends beyond tissue senescence, could amplify the influence of climate on ecosystem processes. We studied the quantity, chemical composition, and tissue-association of tannins in green and freshly-senesced leaves of Quercus rubra exposed to different temperature (Warming and No Warming) and precipitation treatments (Dry, Ambient, Wet) at the Boston-Area Climate Experiment (BACE) in Massachusetts, USA. Climate influenced not only the quantity of tannins, but also their molecular composition and cell-wall associations. Irrespective of climatic treatments, tannin composition in Q. rubra was dominated by condensed tannins (CTs, proanthocyanidins). When exposed to Dry and Ambient*Warm conditions, Q. rubra produced higher quantities of tannins that were less polymerized. In contrast, under favorable conditions (Wet), tannins were produced in lower quantities, but the CTs were more polymerized. Further, even as the overall tissue tannin content declined, the content of hydrolysable tannins (HTs) increased under Wet treatments. The molecular composition of tannins influenced their content in senesced litter. Compared to the green leaves, the content of HTs decreased in senesced leaves across treatments, whereas the CT content was similar between green and senesced leaves in Wet treatments that produced more polymerized tannins. The content of total tannins in senesced leaves was higher in Warming treatments under both dry and ambient precipitation treatments. Our results suggest that, though climate directly influenced the production of tannins in green tissues (and similar patterns were observed in the senesced tissue), the influence of climate on tannin content of senesced tissue was partly mediated by the effect on the

  20. Identification of Nocobactin NA Biosynthetic Gene Clusters in Nocardia farcinica▿ §

    PubMed Central

    Hoshino, Yasutaka; Chiba, Kazuhiro; Ishino, Keiko; Fukai, Toshio; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Yazawa, Katsukiyo; Mikami, Yuzuru; Ishikawa, Jun

    2011-01-01

    We identified the biosynthetic gene clusters of the siderophore nocobactin NA. The nbt clusters, which were discovered as genes highly homologous to the mycobactin biosynthesis genes by the genomic sequencing of Nocardia farcinica IFM 10152, consist of 10 genes separately located at two genomic regions. The gene organization of the nbt clusters and the predicted functions of the nbt genes, particularly the cyclization and epimerization domains, were in good agreement with the chemical structure of nocobactin NA. Disruptions of the nbtA and nbtE genes, respectively, reduced and abolished the productivity of nocobactin NA. The heterologous expression of the nbtS gene revealed that this gene encoded a salicylate synthase. These results indicate that the nbt clusters are responsible for the biosynthesis of nocobactin NA. We also found putative IdeR-binding sequences upstream of the nbtA, -G, -H, -S, and -T genes, whose expression was more than 10-fold higher in the low-iron condition than in the high-iron condition. These results suggest that nbt genes are regulated coordinately by IdeR protein in an iron-dependent manner. The ΔnbtE mutant was found to be impaired in cytotoxicity against J774A.1 cells, suggesting that nocobactin NA production is required for virulence of N. farcinica. PMID:21097631

  1. Anti-tumor effect of Radix Paeoniae Rubra extract on mice bladder tumors using intravesical therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mei-Yi; Chiang, Su-Yin; Li, Yi-Zhen; Chen, Mei-Fang; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Wu, Jin-Yi; Liu, Yi-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Radix Paeoniae Rubra (RPR) is the dried root of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas and Paeonia veitchii Lynch, and is a herbal medicine that is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of blood-heat and blood-stasis syndrome, similarly to Cortex Moutan. The present study identified the same three components in RPR and Cortex Moutan extracts. In addition, it has been reported that RPR has an anti-cancer effect. Bladder cancer is the seventh most common type of cancer worldwide. Due to the high recurrence rate, identifying novel drugs for bladder cancer therapy is essential. In the present study, RPR extract was evaluated as a bladder cancer therapy in vitro and in vivo. The present results revealed that RPR extract reduced the cell viability of bladder cancer cells with a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 1–3 mg/ml, and had an extremely low cytotoxic effect on normal urothelial cells. Additionally, RPR decreased certain cell cycle populations, predominantly cells in the G1 phase, and caused a clear sub-G increase. In a mouse orthotopic bladder tumor model, intravesical application of RPR extract decreased the bladder tumor size without altering the blood biochemical parameters of the mice. In summary, the present results demonstrate the anti-proliferative properties of RPR extract on bladder cancer cells, and its anti-bladder tumor effect in vivo. Compared to Cortex Moutan extract, RPR extract may provide a more effective alternative therapeutic strategy for the intravesical therapy of superficial bladder cancer. PMID:27446367

  2. Predicted highly expressed genes in Nocardia farcinica and the implication to its primary metabolism and nocardial virulence

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Gang; Nie, Lei; Zhang, Weiwen

    2006-02-23

    Nocardia farcinica is a gram positive, filamentous bacterium, and is considered an opportunistic pathogen. In this study, the highly expressed genes in N. farcinica were predicted using the codon adaptation index (CAI) as a numerical estimator of gene expressivity. Using ribosomal protein (RP) genes as references, the top {approx}10% of the genes were predicted to be the predicted highly expressed (PHX) genes in N. farcinica using a CAI cutoff of greater than 0.73. Consistent with early analysis in Streptomyces genomes, most of the PHX genes in N. farcinica were involved in various ''house-keeping'' functions important for cell growth. However, fifteen genes putatively involved in no cardial virulence were predicted as PHX in N. farcinica, which included genes encoding four Mce virulence proteins, cyclopropane fatty acid synthase which is involved in the modification of cell wall important for nocardia virulence, polyketide synthase PKS13 for mycolic acid synthesis and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase involved in biosynthesis of a mycobactin-related siderophore. In addition, multiple genes involved in defense against reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by the phagocyte were predicted with high expressivity, which included alkylhydroperoxide reductase (ahpC), catalase (katG), superoxide dismutase (sodF), thioredoxin, thioredoxin reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase, suggesting that combating against ROS was essential for survival of N. farcinica in host cells. The study also showed that the distribution of PHX genes in the N. farcinica circular chromosome was uneven, with more PHX genes located in the regions close to replication initiation site. The results provided the first approximates of global gene expression patterns in N. farcinica, which will be useful in guiding experimental design for further investigation.

  3. Surface-Active Lipids from Nocardia erythropolis Grown on Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, Colin R.; Cooper, David G.; Zajic, James E.

    1981-01-01

    Nocardia erythropolis (ATCC 4277) was grown in a 28-liter fermentor on mineral salts medium and 4% hydrocarbon. Extraction of the neutral lipids with pentane removed approximately 90% of the surface activity of the culture medium. The residual surface activity of the culture medium was attributed to the polar lipid fraction which was not extracted with pentane. Analysis of the pentane extracts with thin-layer chromatography showed the presence of four major compounds. A fatty alcohol reached a maximum concentration in the early log phase of growth and then decreased to the end of the fermentation. A monoglyceride, an ester, and a fatty acid appeared during the log phase of growth and continued to increase until the end of the fermentation. The fatty acids isolated from the culture grown on hexadecane had a carbon skeleton with the same length as the substrate, with 70% of the component as the saturated acid and 30% as a monounsaturated homolog. When isolated from a kerosene culture, the fatty acids consisted of a number of homologs from C18 to C20, including branched-chain and unsaturated acids, reflecting the distribution of the branched-chain isomers in the substrate. Images PMID:16345679

  4. Isolation and purification of two immunodominant antigens from Nocardia brasiliensis.

    PubMed Central

    Vera-Cabrera, L; Salinas-Carmona, M C; Welsh, O; Rodriguez, M A

    1992-01-01

    Two immunogenic proteins from a crude extract of Nocardia brasiliensis were purified to homogeneity. A 61-kDa protein (P61) was isolated from a 50% ammonium sulfate precipitate in two steps. Initially, P61 was obtained by electroelution in a 10% nondenatured preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). In a second step, the eluate from the nondenatured gel was run in a 12% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) preparative polyacrylamide gel. After elution, a single band was demonstrated by SDS-PAGE and Western blot (immunoblot). Also, a 24-kDa immunogenic protein (P24) was isolated by gel filtration in a Sephadex G-100 column and then by electroelution in a 12% nondenatured polyacrylamide gel. In a previous paper, we showed by Western blot assays that these proteins are recognized by the sera of mycetoma patients and not by sera from mycobacterial-infected or healthy individuals. We consider these proteins to be good candidates for the study of the host-parasite relationship in nocardial infections. The possible clinical application of these purified antigens in a serological diagnosis is discussed. Images PMID:1583118

  5. Mycetoma caused by Nocardia caviae in the first Brazilian patient.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Geraldo Magela; Oliveira, Sílvia Cristina de Castro; Soares, Ana Cláudia de Brito; Machado-Pinto, Jackson; de Resende, Maria Aparecida

    2010-01-01

    Mycetoma is a chronic subcutaneous mycosis caused by exogenous fungi or actinomycetes. This infection has a progressive course and shows a typical clinical characteristic of tumefaction, draining sinuses, and grains. Infection initiation is related to local trauma and can spread to muscle, underlying bone, and adjacent organs. Nocardia brasiliensis is the most frequent actinomycete isolated, while N. caviae is a rare agent. We present a case of mycetoma in a 37-year-old African-American man on the right hand. The infection had been apparent for four years prior to the consultation. When the infection did not respond to antibiotic therapy, the patient was referred to the Dermatology department. Routine laboratory studies were normal. X-ray examination of the hand showed an osteolytic lesion on the hand bones. On skin biopsy culture, on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar at 28 degrees C, a colony was isolated which was further identified as N. caviae by biochemical and hydrolysis testing. The patient was treated with oral trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMZ) 160/800 mg twice a day for 10 months. Four months after the beginning of the therapy, the subject exhibited clinical improvement and functional recovery of the hand. Five-year follow-up X-ray examination of the hand showed no osteolytic lesion on the hand bones. We report the first mycetoma case caused by N. caviae in our country with an unusual location on the hand. The patient showed clinical improvement with oral TMP/SMZ.

  6. Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris in a 3-Year-Old Male.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Stephen K; Novek, Steven J; Maddox, Craig L

    2016-03-01

    A 3-year-old male presented with progressive pruritic red-orange plaques across most of his body with erythema, desquamation, and fissuring of the hands and feet. He was diagnosed with classic juvenile (type III) pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) and treated with oral isotretinoin for 6 months. His skin findings resolved quickly during the treatment period, with residual postinflammatory hypopigmentation resolving within a year. PRP is rare in pediatric patients and standard recommended treatment algorithms for this population are not currently available. Diagnostic and treatment guidelines for PRP are based almost exclusively on case reports or case series, most of which focus on adult patients. The presentation, evaluation, and management of PRP are discussed. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  7. SYSTEMIC BLASTOMYCOSIS IN A CAPTIVE RED RUFFED LEMUR (VARECIA RUBRA).

    PubMed

    Rosser, Michael F; Lindemann, Dana M; Barger, Anne M; Allender, Matthew C; Hsiao, Shih-Hsuan; Howes, Mark E

    2016-09-01

    A 5-yr-old, intact male red ruffed lemur ( Varecia rubra ) presented for evaluation as the result of a 1-wk history of lethargy and hyporexia. Physical examination findings included thin body condition, muffled heart sounds, harsh lung sounds, and liquid brown diarrhea. Complete blood count and serum biochemistry showed an inflammatory leukogram, mild hyponatremia, and mild hypochloremia. Orthogonal trunk radiographs revealed a severe alveolar pattern in the right cranial lung lobes with cardiac silhouette effacement. Thoracic ultrasound confirmed a large, hypoechoic mass in the right lung lobes. Fine-needle aspiration of the lung mass and cytology revealed fungal yeast organisms, consistent with Blastomyces dermatitidis. Blastomyces Quantitative EIA Test on urine was positive. Postmortem examination confirmed systemic blastomycosis involving the lung, tracheobronchial lymph nodes, spleen, kidney, liver, cerebrum, and eye. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of blastomycosis in a prosimian species.

  8. Pityriasis rubra pilaris-like eruption following insulin therapy initiation

    PubMed Central

    Badri, Talel; Zaouak, Anissa; Lakhoua, Ghozlane; Koubaa, Wafaa; Fennich, Sami; Zaiem, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) is a chronic disorder of keratinization of unclear pathogenesis. PRP-like eruptions induced by drugs have rarely been described. A previously healthy 29-year-old man presented with a generalized, rapidly spreading, erythematosquamous dermatosis, that started three days after initiation of subcutaneous insulin therapy for diabetes mellitus type 1. Clinical and histopathological features were consistent with a PRP-like eruption, possibly due to insulin therapy. The patient was switched to insulin analogue therapy and a complete healing of all lesions was achieved after two months. No recurrence was seen after one year of follow-up. Other possible etiologies of PRP were excluded. The mechanism leading to the occurrence of drug-induced PRP-like eruptions are not clear. Since PRP may occur in the context of immunological anomalies, it is possible that diabetes mellitus type 1 may have been a predisposing condition for the development of PRP in this case. PMID:27867741

  9. An improved nitrilase-mediated bioprocess for synthesis of nicotinic acid from 3-cyanopyridine with hyperinduced Nocardia globerula NHB-2.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Nitya Nand; Sharma, Monica; Bhalla, Tek Chand

    2011-09-01

    Nitrilase of Nocardia globerula NHB-2 was induced by short-chain aliphatic nitriles (valeronitrile > isobutyronitrile > butyronitrile > propionitrile) and exhibited activity towards aromatic nitriles (benzonitrile > 3-cyanopyridine > 4-cyanopyridine > m-tolunitrile > p-tolunitrile). Hyperinduction of nitrilase (6.67 U mg (DCW) (-1), 18.7 U mL(-1)) was achieved in short incubation time (30 h, 30°C) through multiple feeding of isobutyronitrile in the growth medium. The nitrilase of this organism exhibits both substrate and product inhibition effects. In a fed batch reaction at 1 L scale using hyperinduced resting cells corresponding to 10 U mL(-1) nitrilase activity (1.5 mg(DCW) mL(-1)), a total of 123.11 g nicotinic acid was produced at a rate of 24 g h(-1) g (DCW) (-1).

  10. Nocardia cyriacigeorgica: a case of endocarditis with disseminated soft-tissue infection.

    PubMed

    Cargill, James S; Boyd, Gavin J; Weightman, Nigel C

    2010-02-01

    Nocardia cyriacigeorgica is a common environmental organism. It has been isolated from clinical samples in Europe, Asia and North America, predominantly from respiratory samples but also from samples from several other sites. We present a case report of an 85-year-old female patient in the UK who was found to have a multi-focal soft-tissue infection from which N. cyriacigeorgica was isolated. She had a background history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and corticosteroid use for polymyalgia rheumatica. During the course of her treatment echocardiography showed the presence of a mobile heart mass attached to a valve leaflet, a major Dukes criterion for endocarditis. We suggest that in cases of disseminated Nocardia infection, endocarditis should be tested for, particularly in cases failing to respond to treatment. We also review previous reports of both N. cyriacigeorgica infection, and of endocarditis due to Nocardia species and related genera.

  11. A case-control study of Nocardia mastitis in Nova Scotia dairy herds

    PubMed Central

    Ferns, Lyn; Dohoo, Ian; Donald, Alan

    1991-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted to identify herd production, housing, and hygienic and therapeutic factors associated with a diagnosis of Nocardia mastitis in dairy herds in Nova Scotia. The data were collected by on-farm interviews with owners of 54 case and 54 control herds. Logistic regression was used to study risk factors. The use of dry cow products containing neomycin, including two specific dry cow products, was strongly associated with a diagnosis of Nocardia mastitis in a herd. Other factors which increased the risk of Nocardia mastitis were higher levels of production, larger herd size, and a large percentage of cows treated with dry cow products. These results are compared to results from a similar study carried out in Ontario. PMID:17423896

  12. New ribosome-inactivating proteins with polynucleotide:adenosine glycosidase and antiviral activities from Basella rubra L. and bougainvillea spectabilis Willd.

    PubMed

    Bolognesi, A; Polito, L; Olivieri, F; Valbonesi, P; Barbieri, L; Battelli, M G; Carusi, M V; Benvenuto, E; Del Vecchio Blanco, F; Di Maro, A; Parente, A; Di Loreto, M; Stirpe, F

    1997-12-01

    New single-chain (type 1) ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) were isolated from the seeds of Basella rubra L. (two proteins) and from the leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (one protein). These RIPs inhibit protein synthesis both in a cell-free system, with an IC50 (concentration causing 50% inhibition) in the 10(-10) M range, and by various cell lines, with IC50S in the 10(-8)-10(-6) M range. All three RIPs released adenine not only from rat liver ribosomes but also from Escherichia coli rRNA, polyadenylic acid, herring sperm DNA, and artichoke mottled crinkle virus (AMCV) genomic RNA, thus being polynucleotide:adenosine glycosidases. The proteins from Basella rubra had toxicity to mice similar to that of most type 1 RIPs (Barbieri et al., 1993, Biochim Biophys Acta 1154: 237-282) with an LD50 (concentration that is 50% lethal) < or = 8 mg.kg-1 body weight, whilst the RIP from Bougainvillea spectabilis had an LD50 > 32 mg.kg-1. The N-terminal sequence of the two RIPs from Basella rubra had 80-93% identity, whereas it differed from the sequence of the RIP from Bougainvillea spectabilis. When tested with antibodies against various RIPs, the RIPs from Basella gave some cross-reactivity with sera against dianthin 32, and weak cross-reactivity with momordin I and momorcochin-S, whilst the RIP from Bougainvillea did not cross-react with any antiserum tested. An RIP from Basella rubra and one from Bougainvillea spectabilis were tested for antiviral activity, and both inhibited infection of Nicotiana benthamiana by AMCV.

  13. meta-Tyrosine in Festuca rubra ssp. commutata (Chewings fescue) is synthesized by hydroxylation of phenylalanine.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tengfang; Rehak, Ludmila; Jander, Georg

    2012-03-01

    m-Tyrosine is a non-protein amino acid that is structurally similar to the common protein amino acids p-tyrosine and phenylalanine. Copious amounts of m-tyrosine can be found in root exudates of the fine fescue cultivar, Festuca rubra L. ssp. commutata (Chewings fescue). The phytotoxicity of m-tyrosine may contribute to the allelopathic potential of F. rubra. m-Tyrosine in Euphorbia myrsinites (donkey-tail spurge), was previously shown to be synthesized via transamination of m-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. Here we show that m-tyrosine biosynthesis in F. rubra occurs through direct hydroxylation of phenylalanine in the root tips, perhaps through the activity of a cytochrome P450 enzyme. Hence, E. myrsinites and F. rubra, the only two plant species known to produce m-tyrosine, use distinct biosynthetic pathways that likely arose independently in evolutionary history.

  14. Construction of a pair of practical Nocardia-Escherichia coli shuttle vectors.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Kazuhiro; Hoshino, Yasutaka; Ishino, Keiko; Kogure, Takahisa; Mikami, Yuzuru; Uehara, Yoshimasa; Ishikawa, Jun

    2007-02-01

    We constructed a pair of Nocardia-Escherichia coli shuttle vectors, pNV18 and pNV19, by combining the mycobacterial plasmid pAL5000 with the E. coli vector pK18 or pK19. These vectors have a number of useful features, including small size (4.4 kb), a multiple cloning site, and blue/white selection. To our knowledge, pNV18 and pNV19 are the first cloning vectors for practical use in Nocardia spp.

  15. Nocardia mexicana sp. nov., a New Pathogen Isolated from Human Mycetomas

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Nava, Verónica; Couble, Andrée; Molinard, Claudie; Sandoval, Horacio; Boiron, Patrick; Laurent, Frédéric

    2004-01-01

    Three isolates collected from human mycetomas and showing an unusual brownish purple pigmentation on Bennett agar plates were analyzed by a polyphasic taxonomic approach, including morphological, biochemical, physiological, and chemotaxonomic properties coupled with genomic and phylogenetic analysis. It clearly appeared that these microorganisms were distinct from their closest phenotypic and genetic match, the most related species according to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis being Nocardia pseudobrasiliensis. The data obtained indicated that the three clinical strains should be recognized as a new species for which the name Nocardia mexicana sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:15472305

  16. Nocardia harenae, an uncommon causative organism of mycetoma: report on two patients.

    PubMed

    Kresch-Tronik, Nicole S; Carrillo-Casas, Erika M; Arenas, Roberto; Atoche, Carlos; Ochoa-Carrera, Luis A; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan; Manjarrez-Hernández, Angel H; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto

    2012-08-01

    Mycetoma is the most frequently diagnosed deep mycosis in Mexico and is caused, in 86% of cases, by Nocardia brasiliensis. Worldwide, Nocardia harenae has not been previously reported as a causative agent of human mycetoma. Herein we report, to our knowledge, the first two human cases of mycetoma due to N. harenae in a clinical setting. The strains were identified by phenotypic and molecular techniques. Both cases were characterized by long-lasting mycetoma that had previously been failed to be cured and had shown resistance to therapy. However, in our hospital, a multidrug therapy proved to be effective in these cases.

  17. Prevention of Gordonia and Nocardia Stabilized Foam Formation by Using Bacteriophage GTE7▿†

    PubMed Central

    Petrovski, Steve; Seviour, Robert J.; Tillett, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Most activated sludge treatment plants suffer from the presence of foams on the surfaces of their aeration reactors. These are often stabilized by hydrophobic mycolic acid-synthesizing actinobacterial species. A polyvalent Siphoviridae phage, GTE7, which lysed several Gordonia and Nocardia species, is described here. Its genome has a modular structure similar to that described for Rhodococcus phage ReqiDocB7. In laboratory-scale experiments, we showed that GTE7 prevents stabilization of foams by these Gordonia and Nocardia species. PMID:21926218

  18. Routine identification of Nocardia species by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Girard, Victoria; Mailler, Sandrine; Polsinelli, Sophie; Jacob, Delphine; Saccomani, Marie Christine; Celliere, Beatrice; Monnin, Valerie; van Belkum, Alex; Hagen, Ferry; Meis, Jacques F; Durand, Géraldine

    2017-01-01

    We here show adequate species identification for bacterial isolates of the genus Nocardia spp. through VITEK mass spectrometry. Application of a specific sample preparation method in combination with a robust matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) database leads to 94% accurate identification to the species level on a set of 164 isolates. The possibility to identify Nocardia spp. using MALDI-TOF MS will be available in the next release of VITEK MS update (IVD Version 3.0).

  19. Nocardia Brain Abscess and CD4+ Lymphocytopenia in a Previously Healthy Individual

    PubMed Central

    Adjamian, Norair; Kikam, Adeline; Wessell, Kathryn Ruda; Casselman, Jason; Toller-Artis, Erin; Olasokan, Olapeju; Hostoffer, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Nocardia brain abscesses are a known occurrence in patients with immunocompromised conditions. Nocardial infection is commonly an unfortunate sequela to other complications which these patients are being followed up and treated for. The incidence of nocardial brain abscess in an otherwise healthy patient is extremely rare. We present a case of Nocardia brain abscess in a previously healthy individual, who, upon workup for vision and gait abnormalities, was shown to have multiple brain abscesses and a decreased absolute CD4+ lymphocyte count. Adding to the rarity of our case, the finding of lymphocytopenia in our patient was unrelated to any known predisposing condition or infectious state. PMID:26448886

  20. Nocardia mikamii a Novel Species Causing Disseminated Nocardiosis: A Literature Review of Disseminated Nocardiosis

    PubMed Central

    Adnan, Mohammed Muqeet; Mujeeb, Sufyan Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Nocardia is an uncommon Gram-positive organism. It typically appears as delicate filamentous Gram-positive branching rods. In the United States it was estimated to be approximately 500 to 1000 new cases per year. The organism causes disease in immunocompromised individuals with pulmonary infection representing the most common site of infection. Nocardia mikamii has been a recently isolated pathogen and not many cases of disseminated infection with this organism has been reported in the literature; we present a case of disseminated nocardiosis (mikamii sp.) in an immunocompromised patient. We also present a literature review on nocardiosis. PMID:27437492

  1. In vitro activity of TP-271 against Mycobacterium abscessus, Mycobacterium fortuitum, and Nocardia species.

    PubMed

    Cynamon, Michael; Jureller, Jeff; Desai, Balaji; Ramachandran, Krithika; Sklaney, Mary; Grossman, Trudy H

    2012-07-01

    The in vitro activities of TP-271, a novel fluorocycline antimicrobial, against 22 isolates of Mycobacterium abscessus, 22 isolates of Mycobacterium fortuitum, and 19 isolates of Nocardia spp. were studied by a microtiter broth dilution method. The MIC(90)s for M. abscessus, M. fortuitum, and Nocardia spp. were 0.5 μg/ml, 0.03 μg/ml, and 8 μg/ml, respectively. TP-271 was significantly more active than the respective control drug in virtually all tests.

  2. Nocardia brasiliensis induces an immunosuppressive microenvironment that favors chronic infection in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Taraco, Adrian G; Perez-Liñan, Amira R; Bocanegra-Ibarias, Paola; Perez-Rivera, Luz I; Salinas-Carmona, Mario C

    2012-07-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is an intracellular microorganism and the most common etiologic agent of actinomycetoma in the Americas. Several intracellular pathogens induce an immunosuppressive microenvironment through increases in CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg), thus downregulating other T-cell subpopulations and assuring survival in the host. In this study, we determined whether N. brasiliensis modulates T-lymphocyte responses and their related cytokine profiles in a murine experimental model. We also examined the relationship between N. brasiliensis immunomodulation and pathogenesis and bacterial survival. In early infection, Th17/Tc17 cells were increased at day 3 (P < 0.05) in footpad tissue and spleen. Treg subpopulations peaked at days 7 and 15 (P < 0.01) in the footpad and spleen, respectively. Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and interleuki-10 (IL-10) are cytokines known for their immunosuppressive effects. During early and chronic infections, these cytokines were elevated with increased TGF-β1 levels from days 3 to 30 (P < 0.01) and sustained IL-10 expression throughout infection compared to uninfected mice. IL-6 production was increased at day 3 (P < 0.01), whereas gamma interferon (IFN-γ), IL-17A, and IL-23 levels were highest at day 15 postinfection (P < 0.01) when a decrease in the bacterial load (>1 log) was also observed (P < 0.05). After these changes, at 30 to 60 days postinfection, IFN-γ production was decreased, whereas the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines and the bacterial load again increased (P < 0.05). The increment in Treg cells and the related cytokine profile correlated with reduced inflammation at day 15 (P < 0.05) in the footpad. We conclude that N. brasiliensis modulates the immune system to induce an immunosuppressive microenvironment that benefits its survival during the chronic stage of infection.

  3. Nocardia brasiliensis Induces an Immunosuppressive Microenvironment That Favors Chronic Infection in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rosas-Taraco, Adrian G.; Perez-Liñan, Amira R.; Bocanegra-Ibarias, Paola; Perez-Rivera, Luz I.

    2012-01-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is an intracellular microorganism and the most common etiologic agent of actinomycetoma in the Americas. Several intracellular pathogens induce an immunosuppressive microenvironment through increases in CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg), thus downregulating other T-cell subpopulations and assuring survival in the host. In this study, we determined whether N. brasiliensis modulates T-lymphocyte responses and their related cytokine profiles in a murine experimental model. We also examined the relationship between N. brasiliensis immunomodulation and pathogenesis and bacterial survival. In early infection, Th17/Tc17 cells were increased at day 3 (P < 0.05) in footpad tissue and spleen. Treg subpopulations peaked at days 7 and 15 (P < 0.01) in the footpad and spleen, respectively. Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and interleuki-10 (IL-10) are cytokines known for their immunosuppressive effects. During early and chronic infections, these cytokines were elevated with increased TGF-β1 levels from days 3 to 30 (P < 0.01) and sustained IL-10 expression throughout infection compared to uninfected mice. IL-6 production was increased at day 3 (P < 0.01), whereas gamma interferon (IFN-γ), IL-17A, and IL-23 levels were highest at day 15 postinfection (P < 0.01) when a decrease in the bacterial load (>1 log) was also observed (P < 0.05). After these changes, at 30 to 60 days postinfection, IFN-γ production was decreased, whereas the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines and the bacterial load again increased (P < 0.05). The increment in Treg cells and the related cytokine profile correlated with reduced inflammation at day 15 (P < 0.05) in the footpad. We conclude that N. brasiliensis modulates the immune system to induce an immunosuppressive microenvironment that benefits its survival during the chronic stage of infection. PMID:22547544

  4. Phosphate-limited continuous culture of Rhodotorula rubra: kinetics of transport, leakage, and growth.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, B R; Button, D K

    1979-01-01

    The phosphate-limited growth kinetics of Rhodotorula rubra, a small yeast of marine origin, were examined by analysis of 32P distributions in continuous cultures. Isotope relaxation procedures were used to identify unidirectional flows of Pi and organic phosphate among compartments modeled during growth. The concentrations of phosphates in these compartments at various growth rates were used, together with attendant flows, to produce a mathematical model of growth. Both Pi and phosphate-containing metabolic intermediates leaked from cells during growth. Total leakage ranged from 4 to 10% of influx and was comprised mostly of Pi. Transport capacity was at least 10 times that required for growth at saturating Pi concentrations, so that influx was linear with concentration during growth. This led to the realization that the curvature of Monod plots (Kmu = 12 nM mumax = 0.18/h, and the threshold At = 2.5 nM) is due to change in yield with growth rate. Growth rate related to Pi by the affinity, aA (= 0.43 liter/mg of cells.h) of cells for Pi and the growth rate-dependent yield. It was also specified by a series of kinetic constants that specified flow among the various compartments and equilibrium compartment concentrations as they were set by extracellular Pi. The importance of leakage by healthy cells to the organic chemistry of aquatic systems is noted. PMID:37231

  5. Immunomodulatory effect of diethylcarbamazine in mice infected with Nocardia brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    García-Hernández, M; Castro-Corona, M A; Segoviano-Ramírez, J C; Brattig, N W; Medina-De la Garza, C E

    2014-11-01

    We tested whether diethylcarbamazine (DEC) or ivermectin (IVM), both antiparasitic drugs with reported immunomodulatory properties, were able to affect the immune system to potentiate host defense mechanisms and protect against actinomycetoma in a mouse model. Male BALB/c mice of 10-12 weeks of age were injected with either Nocardia brasiliensis or saline solution. Recorded were the effects of a treatment by DEC (6 mg/kg per os daily for one week) or IVM (200 μg/kg subcutaneously on days 1 and 3) on (i) the development of mycetoma lesion, (ii) the expression of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) by phagocytes, (iii) the proliferation index of lymphocytes and (iv) antibody production of IgG and IgM. After an initial lesion in all mice, DEC inhibited a full development and progression of actinomycetoma resulting in a reduced lesion size (p < 0.001). IVM had no inhibitory effect on the development of mycetoma. Furthermore, DEC treatment was associated with a significant enhancement of ROI expression (p < 0.05) by polymorphonuclear neutrophils at day 3 after infection. Lymphocyte proliferation in response to N. brasiliensis antigens and concanavalin A in DEC-treated group was higher than in non-treated group at day 21 and 28 postinfection (p < 0.01). Significant changes in antibody response were not observed. By all parameters tested, DEC was superior to IVM regarding immunostimulatory potency. In conclusion, DEC expressed an in vivo influence on the immune status during the infection by N. brasiliensis leading to retrogression of the mycetoma and increasing cellular immune responses. Our findings may indicate a potential use of DEC as a putative adjuvant in infectious disease or vaccination.

  6. Nocardia transvalensis keratitis: an emerging pathology among travelers returning from Asia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The incidence rate of Nocardia keratitis is increasing, with new species identified thanks to molecular methods. We herein report a case of Nocardia transvalensis keratitis, illustrating this emerging pathology among travellers returning from Asia. Case presentation A 23-year-old man presented with a 10-week history of ocular pain, redness, and blurred vision in his right eye following a projectile foreign body impacting the cornea while motor biking in Thaïland. At presentation, a central epithelial defect with a central whitish stromal infiltrate associated with pinhead satellite infiltrates was observed. Identification with 16S rRNA PCR sequencing and microbiological culture of corneal scraping and revealed N. transvalensis as the causative organism. Treatment was initiated with intensive topical amikacin, oral ketoconazole and oral doxycycline. After a four-week treatment period, the corneal infiltrate decreased so that only a faint subepithelial opacity remained. Conclusion Nocardia organisms should be suspected as the causative agent of any case of keratitis in travelers returning from Asia. With appropriate therapy, Nocardia keratitis resolves, resulting in good visual outcome. PMID:22040176

  7. Identification of Nocardia, Streptomyces, and Tsukamurella using MALDI-TOF MS with the Bruker Biotyper.

    PubMed

    Yarbrough, Melanie L; Lainhart, William; Burnham, Carey-Ann D

    2017-10-01

    Nocardia species are the most commonly isolated aerobic actinomycetes from human clinical specimens. Our objective was to assess the identification of clinically relevant actinomycetes using the Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF system, including comparison of extraction methods, Biotyper library versions, score cutoffs, and media. Banked Streptomyces (n=10), Tsukamurella (n=2), and Nocardia isolates (n=60) were cultured and extracted using three methods: mycobacterial extraction, ethanol formic acid extraction, or direct on-target extraction. Following MALDI-TOF analysis, spectra were analyzed using versions 5 and 6 of the BDAL Biotyper library. Optimal species-level identifications for Nocardia were achieved using BDAL v6 at a score cutoff of ≥1.8 after direct extraction (49/60, 82%). Overall, the Biotyper platform with BDAL v6 accurately identified 12/16 species of Nocardia, demonstrating the utility of MALDI-TOF for identification of clinically relevant actinomycetes without the need for supplementation of the database. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Genome sequence of the human- and animal-pathogenic strain Nocardia cyriacigeorgica GUH-2.

    PubMed

    Zoropogui, Anthony; Pujic, Petar; Normand, Philippe; Barbe, Valérie; Beaman, Blaine; Beaman, LoVelle; Boiron, Patrick; Colinon, Céline; Deredjian, Amélie; Graindorge, Arnault; Mangenot, Sophie; Nazaret, Sylvie; Neto, Manuelle; Petit, Stéphanie; Roche, David; Vallenet, David; Rodríguez-Nava, Veronica; Richard, Yves; Cournoyer, Benoit; Blaha, Didier

    2012-04-01

    The pathogenic strain Nocardia cyriacigeorgica GUH-2 was isolated from a fatal human nocardiosis case, and its genome was sequenced. The complete genomic sequence of this strain contains 6,194,645 bp, an average G+C content of 68.37%, and no plasmids. We also identified several protein-coding genes to which N. cyriacigeorgica's virulence can potentially be attributed.

  9. A fatal case of Nocardia otitidiscaviarum pulmonary infection and brain abscess: taxonomic characterization by molecular techniques

    PubMed Central

    Pelaez, Ana Isabel; del Mar Garcia-Suarez, Maria; Manteca, Angel; Melon, Ovidio; Aranaz, Carlos; Cimadevilla, Rafael; Mendez, Francisco Javier; Vazquez, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    We report on a rare case of pulmonary Nocardiosis and brain abscess caused by Nocardia otitidiscaviarum in an elderly woman with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Taxonomic identification involved phenotypic testing, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and complete 16S rRNA gene sequencing. PMID:19366439

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Erythromycin- and Oxytetracycline-Sensitive Nocardia seriolae Strain U-1 (NBRC 110359)

    PubMed Central

    Sukeda, Masaki; Shimizu, Masato; Yamane, Jin; Ohnishi, Kouhei; Oshima, Syun-ichirou

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, the emergence of macrolide- and oxytetracycline-resistant strains of Nocardia seriolae has previously been reported. Here, we describe the draft genome sequence of N. seriolae strain U-1, isolated in 2011 from a diseased yellowtail in Kagoshima Prefecture. The draft genome does not have any genes responsible for macrolide and tetracycline resistance. PMID:26798107

  11. Specific clinical manifestations of Nocardia: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Songsong; Wang, Jing; Fang, Qiuhong; Zhang, Jixin; Yan, Fengcai

    2016-01-01

    Nocardiosis is a rare bacterial infection of either the lungs (pulmonary) or body (systemic) that usually affects immunocompromised individuals. It is caused by Gram-positive, aerobic actinomycetes of the Nocardia genus. Multiple high-density sheet shadows in both lungs along with nodules or cavities are the most common presentations of nocardiosis, whereas a large pulmonary mass is considered to be rare. However, there is no specificity in the clinical manifestation of the disease. Therefore, isolation and identification of Nocardia strains is the only reliable diagnostic method. The present study describes the cases of two male patients of Asian descent with nocardiosis. Chest computed tomography scans showed a suspected tumor mass in both patients. Microscopic analysis and culturing of tissue samples obtained using a bronchoscope detected the presence of Nocardia wallacei. Neither patient showed signs of immunosuppression. The present study aimed to improve the understanding of lung nocardiosis and demonstrated that pulmonary nocardiosis should be suspected in the case of non-immunocompromised patients with a large mass in the lung. Furthermore, a review of the literature on infection with Nocardia was conducted. PMID:27698688

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Nocardia jinanensis, an Opportunistic Bacterial Pathogen That Causes Cellulitis.

    PubMed

    Chakrabortti, Alolika; Li, Jinming; Liang, Zhao-Xun

    2016-07-21

    The draft genome sequence of Nocardia jinanensis, an opportunistic pathogen that can cause skin infections, reveals genes that may contribute to the lifestyle and pathogenicity of N. jinanensis The genome also reveals the biosynthetic capacity of N. jinanensis in producing mycolic acids, siderophores, and other polyketide and nonribosomal peptide-derived secondary metabolites.

  13. Colonization and disintegration of tire rubber by a colonial mutant of Nocardia.

    PubMed

    Tsuchii, A; Tokiwa, Y

    1999-01-01

    Forty-seven percent of a tire tread strip with a natural rubber content of 100 phr (parts per hundred of rubber) was completely mineralized by a mutant strain, Rc, of the rubber-degrading organism, Nocardia sp. strain 835A, while 34% was disintegrated into very small particles after a cultivation period of 8 weeks.

  14. A fatal case of Nocardia otitidiscaviarum pulmonary infection and brain abscess: taxonomic characterization by molecular techniques.

    PubMed

    Pelaez, Ana Isabel; Garcia-Suarez, Maria del Mar; Manteca, Angel; Melon, Ovidio; Aranaz, Carlos; Cimadevilla, Rafael; Mendez, Francisco Javier; Vazquez, Fernando

    2009-04-14

    We report on a rare case of pulmonary Nocardiosis and brain abscess caused by Nocardia otitidiscaviarum in an elderly woman with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Taxonomic identification involved phenotypic testing, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and complete 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

  15. Genetic diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility of Nocardia species among patients with nocardiosis.

    PubMed

    Hashemi-Shahraki, Abodolrazagh; Heidarieh, Parvin; Bostanabad, Saeed Zaker; Hashemzadeh, Mohamad; Feizabadi, Mohamad Mehdi; Schraufnagel, Dean; Mirsaeidi, Mehdi

    2015-12-07

    The aim of this multicenter study was to determine the genetic diversity and antibiotic susceptibility of clinically isolated Nocardia species. One hundred twenty-seven patients with nocardiosis were randomly selected from 5 provinces of Iran. Molecular diagnosis of Nocardia species was performed using multilocus sequence analysis of gyrase B of the β subunit of DNA topoisomerase (gyrB), and 16S rRNA and subunit A of SecA preproteintranslocase (secA1). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed following the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations. Thirty-five N. cyriacigeorgica, 30 N. asteroides, 26 N. farcinica, 12 N. otitidiscaviarum, and 10 N. abscessus cultures were studied. All isolates were susceptible to linezolid. All isolates of N. cyriacigeorgica, N. asteroides, N. abscessus, and N. otitidiscaviarum were susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, while 8% of N. farcinica isolates were resistant to this drug. All N. otitidiscaviarum isolates were highly resistant to imipenem, but N. cyriacigeorgica, N. asteroides, N. farcinica, and N. abscessus were only moderate resistant. The susceptibility patterns vary with different species of Nocardia. Resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in Iran is low and this drug should be first line therapy, unless drug susceptibility testing shows resistance. Linezolid also covers Nocardia well and could be a second line agent.

  16. [Nocardia farcinica lung infection in a patient with cystic fibrosis and a lung transplant].

    PubMed

    Chacón, C F; Vicente, R; Ramos, F; Porta, J; Lopez Maldonado, A; Ansotegui, E

    2015-03-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis have a higher risk of developing chronic respiratory infectious diseases. The Nocardia farcinica lung infection is rare in this group of patients, and there are limited publications about this topic. Its diagnosis is complex, due to the clinical and the radiology signs being non-specific. Identification of the agent responsible in the sputum culture is occasionally negative. It is a slow growing organism and for this reason treatment is delayed, which can lead to an increase in complications, hospitable stays, and mortality. A case is reported on a 26 year-old woman with cystic fibrosis and chronic lung colonization by Nocardia farcinica and Aspergillus fumigatus, on long-term treatment with ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and posaconazole, who was admitted to ICU after bilateral lung transplantation. The initial post-operative progress was satisfactory. After discharge, the patient showed a gradual respiratory insufficiency with new chest X-ray showing diffuse infiltrates. Initially, the agent was not seen in the sputum culture. Prompt and aggressive measures were taken, due to the high clinical suspicion of a Nocardia farcinica lung infection. Treatment with a combination of amikacin and meropenem, and later combined with linezolid, led to the disappearance of the lung infiltrates and a clinical improvement. In our case, we confirm the rapid introduction of Nocardia farcinica in the new lungs. The complex identification and the delay in treatment increased the morbimortality. There is a special need for its eradication in patients with lung transplant, due to the strong immunosuppressive treatment.

  17. Disseminated nocardiosis caused by Nocardia otitidiscaviarum in an immunocompetent host: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yanwen; Huang, Aiben; Fang, Qiuhong

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to summarize the clinical characteristics of nocardiosis caused by Nocardia otitidiscaviarum in order to improve the knowledge of nocardiosis. A case of dissemination nocardiosis caused by N. otitidiscaviarum in an immunocompetent host is reported and the associated literature reviewed. Informed consent for publication of this case report was provided by the patient. The present patient was a young immunocompetent man suffering from disseminated nocardiosis induced by infection with N. otitidiscaviarum. Following a poor response to β-lactam antibiotic, a combination of sulfonamide with minocycline was administered, which successfully ameliorated the symptoms. Previous studies published in English were retrieved from PubMed with ‘Nocardia otitidiscaviarum’ used as the search keyword. A total of 23 articles were retrieved from the PubMed database, supporting the assertion that N. otitidiscaviarum is a rare Nocardia species. Among these 23 cases, there were 11 cases of lymphocutaneous (48%), 5 of pulmonary (22%), 2 of brain (9%) and 1 of pyothorax (4%) infection, and 4 cases of disseminated infections (17%). Analysis of the immune state of these patients demonstrated that 9 were immunocompetent (39%), 7 of whom had cutaneous infections (30%) with a predominant history of trauma (6/7), and 14 were immunosuppressed, 9 of whom were treated with prednisolone. Microbiology and histopathology were necessary in all cases for definite diagnosis. Among the 13 cases who underwent drug susceptibility testing, 10 cases were sensitive to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and 12 cases were sensitive to aminoglycoside. In conclusion, although N. otitidiscaviarum is one of the less commonly isolated species of Nocardia, it is capable of inducing localized or disseminated infection, even in an immunocompetent host. The majority of cases respond well to TMP-SMX and aminoglycoside, but the therapeutic action of cephalosporin is weak

  18. Differentiation of pityriasis rubra pilaris from plaque psoriasis by dermoscopy.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Azim, N E; Ismail, S A; Fathy, E

    2017-05-01

    Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) and plaque psoriasis (PP) are two distinctive erythemato-squamous skin diseases that often have to be differentiated from each other and from other similar dermatoses. Dermoscopy has been proven to aid the clinical diagnosis of several inflammatory disorders, minimizing the need for skin biopsy. Our aim was to determine the dermoscopic patterns of PRP compared to PP and to assess the significance of certain dermoscopic criteria in the diagnosis of PRP. This case-control study included 11 patients with biopsy proven PRP and 25 patients with biopsy proven plaque psoriasis. The most recently developed lesion of each patient was examined by non-contact dermoscopy. Whitish keratotic plugs and linear vessels in yellowish background are significant dermoscopic features of PRP compared to white diffuse scales and dotted vessels in a light red background in PP. In conclusion, PRP and PP reveal specific distinguishing dermoscopic patterns that may assist in their clinical diagnosis and may also be useful for the differential diagnosis from other resembling dermatoses.

  19. Therapeutic hotline. Treatment of pityriasis rubra pilaris with etanercept.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Rita; Leite, Luiz

    2011-01-01

    Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) or Devergie's disease is a chronic and rare papulosquamous disorder of unknown etiology characterized by reddish orange scaly plaques, palmoplantar keratoderma, and keratotic follicular papules. The present authors report a case of a 30-year-old woman with clinical and histologic signs of PRP (type I adult onset, Griffith's classification). After a few unsuccessful treatments, the present authors chose to start etanercept. Total clearing of the lesions was achieved 5 months after starting the drug. Etanercept is a TNF-α inhibitor, and today it is largely used in the treatment of several dermatological diseases through blockage of the inflammatory cytokine. The true mechanism of action in PRP remains to be explained; however, the favorable results in our case raise new questions about TNF-α's role in PRP and suggest a therapeutic alternative for resistant cases to classic treatments. To date, there are only three case reports of PRP treated with etanercept in the literature. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Drug-related pityriasis rubra pilaris with acantholysis.

    PubMed

    Gajinov, Zorica T; Matić, Milan B; Duran, Verica D; Vucković, Nada; Prcić, Sonja T; Vujanović, Ljuba M

    2013-09-01

    Acantholysis is rarely reported histological feature of Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP), recently recognized as having diagnostic specificity for differentiating PRP from psoriasis. Adult male patient one week after the introduction of simvastatin had experienced pruritic erythemo-squamous eruption on head and upper trunk that in a month progressed to erythrodermia, with islands of sparing. Histological picture combined pemphigus-like acantholysis with alternating hyper- and parakeratosis, follicular plugs and dermal inflammation, and confirmed the clinical diagnosis of classic adult type 1 PRP. Acitretin therapy resulted in a resolution of skin disease. Patch test with simvastatin was negative, scratch test was positive, and it was estimated that potential risk of oral challenge with simvastatin outweighed actual need for it. Drug triggering PRP episode is the most likely explanation for temporal relation between the start of simvastatin treatment and skin eruption. In management of rare inflammatory skin disease, such as PRP, we have to carefully observe and evaluate not only diagnostic features but possible external influences on its course also.

  1. An unusual cluster of circumscribed juvenile pityriasis rubra pilaris cases.

    PubMed

    Martin, Kari L; Holland, Kristen E; Lyon, Valerie; Chiu, Yvonne E

    2014-01-01

    Circumscribed juvenile pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) is an uncommon dermatosis. We describe the unusual clustering of circumscribed juvenile PRP cases in our pediatric dermatology clinic in 2011. A retrospective chart review was done of patients presenting during the summer of 2011 with classic findings of circumscribed juvenile PRP. Clinical data including past medical and family history, presenting symptoms, infectious disease history and evaluation, biopsy results, and management were recorded. Seven patients, ages 5 to 19 years, all had strikingly similar skin findings of pink to hyperpigmented, well-defined, scaly papules and plaques on their elbows, knees, dorsal hands, ankles, and Achilles tendons. Four of the seven also had palmoplantar involvement. Four were sibling pairs and the other three were unrelated. Streptococcus pyogenes infection was suspected as a trigger in four of the patients. The unusual clustering of this uncommon disease, along with the occurrence in two sibling pairs, suggests that a genetic susceptibility unmasked by an infectious agent may play a role in its pathogenesis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Antithrombotic Effect and Mechanism of Radix Paeoniae Rubra

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Pingyao; Cui, Lili; Shan, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    The compounds of Radix Paeoniae Rubra (RPR) were isolated and identified by bioassay-guided method, and antithrombotic effects and mechanism were investigated by the acute blood stasis rat model. The RPR extract was evaluated by APTT, TT, PT, and FIB assays in vitro. Results indicated that RPR extract exhibited the anticoagulant activity. In order to find active compounds, six compounds were isolated and identified, and four compounds, paeoniflorin (Pae), pentagalloylglucose (Pen), albiflorin (Ali), and protocatechuic acid (Pro), exhibited the anticoagulant activity in vitro. Therefore, the antithrombosis effects of RPR extract and four active compounds were investigated in vivo by measuring whole blood viscosity (WBV), plasma viscosity (PV), APTT, PT, TT, and FIB. Meanwhile, the levels of TXB2, 6-Keto-PGF1α, eNOS, and ET-1 were detected. Results suggested that RPR extract and four active compounds had the inhibition effect on thrombus formation, and the antithrombotic effects were associated with the regulation of vascular endothelium active substance, activating blood flow and anticoagulation effect. PMID:28299338

  3. Insights into the Microbial Degradation of Rubber and Gutta-Percha by Analysis of the Complete Genome of Nocardia nova SH22a

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Quan; Hiessl, Sebastian; Poehlein, Anja; Daniel, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of Nocardia nova SH22a was determined in light of the remarkable ability of rubber and gutta-percha (GP) degradation of this strain. The genome consists of a circular chromosome of 8,348,532 bp with a G+C content of 67.77% and 7,583 predicted protein-encoding genes. Functions were assigned to 72.45% of the coding sequences. Among them, a large number of genes probably involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics and hardly degradable compounds, as well as genes that participate in the synthesis of polyketide- and/or nonribosomal peptide-type secondary metabolites, were detected. Based on in silico analyses and experimental studies, such as transposon mutagenesis and directed gene deletion studies, the pathways of rubber and GP degradation were proposed and the relationship between both pathways was unraveled. The genes involved include, inter alia, genes participating in cell envelope synthesis (long-chain-fatty-acid–AMP ligase and arabinofuranosyltransferase), β-oxidation (α-methylacyl-coenzyme A [α-methylacyl-CoA] racemase), propionate catabolism (acyl-CoA carboxylase), gluconeogenesis (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase), and transmembrane substrate uptake (Mce [mammalian cell entry] transporter). This study not only improves our insights into the mechanism of microbial degradation of rubber and GP but also expands our knowledge of the genus Nocardia regarding metabolic diversity. PMID:24747905

  4. Insights into the microbial degradation of rubber and gutta-percha by analysis of the complete genome of Nocardia nova SH22a.

    PubMed

    Luo, Quan; Hiessl, Sebastian; Poehlein, Anja; Daniel, Rolf; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2014-07-01

    The complete genome sequence of Nocardia nova SH22a was determined in light of the remarkable ability of rubber and gutta-percha (GP) degradation of this strain. The genome consists of a circular chromosome of 8,348,532 bp with a G+C content of 67.77% and 7,583 predicted protein-encoding genes. Functions were assigned to 72.45% of the coding sequences. Among them, a large number of genes probably involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics and hardly degradable compounds, as well as genes that participate in the synthesis of polyketide- and/or nonribosomal peptide-type secondary metabolites, were detected. Based on in silico analyses and experimental studies, such as transposon mutagenesis and directed gene deletion studies, the pathways of rubber and GP degradation were proposed and the relationship between both pathways was unraveled. The genes involved include, inter alia, genes participating in cell envelope synthesis (long-chain-fatty-acid-AMP ligase and arabinofuranosyltransferase), β-oxidation (α-methylacyl-coenzyme A [α-methylacyl-CoA] racemase), propionate catabolism (acyl-CoA carboxylase), gluconeogenesis (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase), and transmembrane substrate uptake (Mce [mammalian cell entry] transporter). This study not only improves our insights into the mechanism of microbial degradation of rubber and GP but also expands our knowledge of the genus Nocardia regarding metabolic diversity. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Rapid Identification of Clinically Relevant Nocardia Species to Genus Level by 16S rRNA Gene PCR

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Frederic J.; Provost, Frederique; Boiron, Patrick

    1999-01-01

    Two regions of the gene coding for 16S rRNA in Nocardia species were selected as genus-specific primer sequences for a PCR assay. The PCR protocol was tested with 60 strains of clinically relevant Nocardia isolates and type strains. It gave positive results for all strains tested. Conversely, the PCR assay was negative for all tested species belonging to the most closely related genera, including Dietzia, Gordona, Mycobacterium, Rhodococcus, Streptomyces, and Tsukamurella. Besides, unlike the latter group of isolates, all Nocardia strains exhibited one MlnI recognition site but no SacI restriction site. This assay offers a specific and rapid alternative to chemotaxonomic methods for the identification of Nocardia spp. isolated from pathogenic samples. PMID:9854071

  6. Phylogeography of the ant Myrmica rubra and its inquiline social parasite

    PubMed Central

    Leppänen, Jenni; Vepsäläinen, Kari; Savolainen, Riitta

    2011-01-01

    Widely distributed Palearctic insects are ideal to study phylogeographic patterns owing to their high potential to survive in many Pleistocene refugia and—after the glaciation—to recolonize vast, continuous areas. Nevertheless, such species have received little phylogeographic attention. Here, we investigated the Pleistocene refugia and subsequent postglacial colonization of the common, abundant, and widely distributed ant Myrmica rubra over most of its Palearctic area, using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The western and eastern populations of M. rubra belonged predominantly to separate haplogroups, which formed a broad secondary contact zone in Central Europe. The distribution of genetic diversity and haplogroups implied that M. rubra survived the last glaciation in multiple refugia located over an extensive area from Iberia in the west to Siberia in the east, and colonized its present areas of distribution along several routes. The matrilineal genetic structure of M. rubra was probably formed during the last glaciation and subsequent postglacial expansion. Additionally, because M. rubra has two queen morphs, the obligately socially parasitic microgyne and its macrogyne host, we tested the suggested speciation of the parasite. Locally, the parasite and host usually belonged to the same haplogroup but differed in haplotype frequencies. This indicates that genetic differentiation between the morphs is a universal pattern and thus incipient, sympatric speciation of the parasite from its host is possible. If speciation is taking place, however, it is not yet visible as lineage sorting of the mtDNA between the morphs. PMID:22393482

  7. Recognition of a Nocardia transvalensis complex by resistance to aminoglycosides, including amikacin, and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    PubMed

    Wilson, R W; Steingrube, V A; Brown, B A; Blacklock, Z; Jost, K C; McNabb, A; Colby, W D; Biehle, J R; Gibson, J L; Wallace, R J

    1997-09-01

    Amikacin resistance, rare among nocardiae, was observed in 58 clinical isolates of nocardiae. All of these isolates hydrolyzed hypoxanthine, and 75 to 100% utilized citrate, D-galactose, and D-trehalose as sole carbon sources. Based on utilization of I-erythritol, D-glucitol, i-myo-inositol, D-mannitol, and ribitol and susceptibility to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, the 58 isolates were separable into four groups. One group was negative for I-erythritol and ribitol and included all the isolates belonging to Nocardia asteroides complex antibiogram type IV. The remaining three groups were positive for I-erythritol and ribitol and were grouped within Nocardia transvalensis. The group that included the type strain was designated N. transvalensis sensu stricto, and the other two groups were designated new taxons 1 and 2. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of a 439-bp segment of the 65-kDa heat shock protein gene with XhoI and HinfI produced identical patterns for 53 (91%) and 58 (100%) isolates, respectively, and differentiated them from all other Nocardia taxa. NarI- and HaeIII-derived RFLP patterns clearly differentiated each of the four biochemically defined taxa. These four groups were also distinguishable by using the chromogenic substrates in Dade MicroScan test panels. By high-performance liquid chromatography, these isolates exhibited the same unique mycolic acid-ester elution patterns that differed from those of all other clinically significant nocardiae. Gas-liquid chromatographic analysis of fatty acids also produced similar patterns for all isolates that distinguished them from all other Nocardia taxa, but did not differentiate the four taxa within the complex. We propose the designation N. transvalensis complex for these four groups of nocardiae, pending further genetic evaluation.

  8. Pyrosequencing of the northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) chloroplast genome reveals high quality polymorphisms for population management

    Treesearch

    Lisa W. Alexander; Keith E. Woeste

    2014-01-01

    Given the low intraspecific chloroplast diversity detected in northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), more powerful genetic tools are necessary to accurately characterize Q. rubra chloroplast diversity and structure. We report the sequencing, assembly, and annotation of the chloroplast genome of northern red oak via pyrosequencing and...

  9. Susceptibility profiles of Nocardia spp. to antimicrobial and antituberculotic agents detected by a microplate Alamar Blue assay

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Pan; Zhang, Xiujuan; Du, Pengcheng; Li, Guilian; Li, Luxi; Li, Zhenjun

    2017-01-01

    Nocardia species are ubiquitous in natural environments and can cause nocardiosis. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole has long been the monotherapy treatment of choice, but resistance to this treatment has recently emerged. In this study, we used microplate Alamar Blue assays to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of 65 standard Nocardia isolates, including 28 type strains and 20 clinical Nocardia isolates, to 32 antimicrobial agents, including 13 little studied drugs. Susceptibility to the most commonly used drug, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, was observed in 98% of the isolates. Linezolid, meropenem, and amikacin were also highly effective, with 98%, 95%, and 90% susceptibility, respectively, among the isolates. The isolates showed a high percentage of resistance or nonsusceptibility to isoniazid, rifampicin, and ethambutol. For the remaining antimicrobials, resistance was species-specific among isolates and was observed in traditional drug pattern types. In addition, the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of a variety of rarely encountered standard Nocardia species are reported, as are the results for rarely reported clinical antibiotics. We also provide a timely update of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns that includes three new drug pattern types. The data from this study provide information on antimicrobial activity against specific Nocardia species and yield important clues for the optimization of species-specific Nocardia therapies. PMID:28252662

  10. Resistance gene pool to co-trimoxazole in non-susceptible Nocardia strains

    PubMed Central

    Valdezate, Sylvia; Garrido, Noelia; Carrasco, Gema; Villalón, Pilar; Medina-Pascual, María J.; Saéz-Nieto, Juan A.

    2015-01-01

    The soil-borne pathogen Nocardia sp. causes severe cutaneous, pulmonary, and central nervous system infections. Against them, co-trimoxazole (SXT) constitutes the mainstay of antimicrobial therapy. However, some Nocardia strains show resistance to SXT, but the underlying genetic basis is unknown. We investigated the presence of genetic resistance determinants and class 1–3 integrons in 76 SXT-resistant Nocardia strains by PCR and sequencing. By E test, these clinical strains showed SXT minimum inhibitory concentrations of ≥32:608 mg/L (ratio of 1:19 for trimethoprim: sulfamethoxazole). They belonged to 12 species, being the main representatives Nocardia farcinica (32%), followed by N. flavorosea (6.5%), N. nova (11.8%), N. carnea (10.5%), N. transvalensis (10.5%), and Nocardia sp. (6.5%). The prevalence of resistance genes in the SXT-resistant strains was as follows: sul1 and sul2 93.4 and 78.9%, respectively, dfrA(S1) 14.7%, blaTEM-1 and blaZ 2.6 and 2.6%, respectively, VIM-2 1.3%, aph(3′)-IIIa 40.8%, ermA, ermB, mefA, and msrD 2.6, 77.6, 14.4, and 5.2%, respectively, and tet(O), tet(M), and tet(L) 48.6, 25.0, and 3.9%, respectively. Detected amino acid changes in GyrA were not related to fluoroquinolone resistance, but probably linked to species polymorphism. Class 1 and 3 integrons were found in 93.42 and 56.57% strains, respectively. Class 2 integrons and sul3 genes were not detected. Other mechanisms, different than dfrA(S1), dfrD, dfrF, dfrG, and dfrK, could explain the strong trimethoprim resistance shown by the other 64 strains. For first time, resistance determinants commonly found in clinically important bacteria were detected in Nocardia sp. sul1, sul2, erm(B), and tet(O) were the most prevalent in the SXT-resistant strains. The similarity in their resistome could be due to a common genetic platform, in which these determinants are co-transferred. PMID:25972856

  11. Resistance gene pool to co-trimoxazole in non-susceptible Nocardia strains.

    PubMed

    Valdezate, Sylvia; Garrido, Noelia; Carrasco, Gema; Villalón, Pilar; Medina-Pascual, María J; Saéz-Nieto, Juan A

    2015-01-01

    The soil-borne pathogen Nocardia sp. causes severe cutaneous, pulmonary, and central nervous system infections. Against them, co-trimoxazole (SXT) constitutes the mainstay of antimicrobial therapy. However, some Nocardia strains show resistance to SXT, but the underlying genetic basis is unknown. We investigated the presence of genetic resistance determinants and class 1-3 integrons in 76 SXT-resistant Nocardia strains by PCR and sequencing. By E test, these clinical strains showed SXT minimum inhibitory concentrations of ≥32:608 mg/L (ratio of 1:19 for trimethoprim: sulfamethoxazole). They belonged to 12 species, being the main representatives Nocardia farcinica (32%), followed by N. flavorosea (6.5%), N. nova (11.8%), N. carnea (10.5%), N. transvalensis (10.5%), and Nocardia sp. (6.5%). The prevalence of resistance genes in the SXT-resistant strains was as follows: sul1 and sul2 93.4 and 78.9%, respectively, dfrA(S1) 14.7%, blaTEM-1 and blaZ 2.6 and 2.6%, respectively, VIM-2 1.3%, aph(3')-IIIa 40.8%, ermA, ermB, mefA, and msrD 2.6, 77.6, 14.4, and 5.2%, respectively, and tet(O), tet(M), and tet(L) 48.6, 25.0, and 3.9%, respectively. Detected amino acid changes in GyrA were not related to fluoroquinolone resistance, but probably linked to species polymorphism. Class 1 and 3 integrons were found in 93.42 and 56.57% strains, respectively. Class 2 integrons and sul3 genes were not detected. Other mechanisms, different than dfrA(S1), dfrD, dfrF, dfrG, and dfrK, could explain the strong trimethoprim resistance shown by the other 64 strains. For first time, resistance determinants commonly found in clinically important bacteria were detected in Nocardia sp. sul1, sul2, erm(B), and tet(O) were the most prevalent in the SXT-resistant strains. The similarity in their resistome could be due to a common genetic platform, in which these determinants are co-transferred.

  12. Pityriasis rubra pilaris: a review of diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Klein, Annette; Landthaler, Michael; Karrer, Sigrid

    2010-01-01

    Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) is a rare inflammatory dermatosis of unknown etiology, and finding a successful therapy can be challenging. PRP occurs equally in men and women. In some patients, associated autoimmune diseases, infections, or malignancies are possible trigger factors. PRP shows a bimodal age distribution, peaking in the first as well as in the fifth to sixth decade. Its classification into five subgroups is based on age at onset, clinical course, morphologic features, and prognosis. More than 50% of patients are best classified as type I with adult-onset PRP. This form is also characterized by high spontaneous remission rates (80%) within 1-3 years. Clinically, the classical adult (type I) and classical juvenile (type III) forms appear to be the same except for the patient's age. Recently, the designation of a new category of PRP (type VI) has been proposed that is characterized by the presence of HIV infection with different clinical features and a poorer prognosis. Typical morphologic features of PRP are erythematosquamous salmon-colored plaques with well demarcated islands of unaffected skin. Often, keratoderma of the palms and soles is present. In patients with extensive disease, ectropion is a dreaded complication. Histology shows hyperkeratosis, alternating orthokeratosis and parakeratosis in a checkerboard pattern, and focal acantholytic dyskeratosis. Descriptions and therapeutic experiences are mainly based on case reports. Mostly, systemic retinoids, methotrexate, and other immunosuppressive agents as well as UV light therapy are applied, with varying response rates. In recent years, treatment with so-called 'biologics' is becoming more and more popular for treating recalcitrant PRP. We present a review of the clinical features, histopathologic findings, classification, differential diagnoses, and treatment of PRP.

  13. Immune Response to Nocardia brasiliensis Antigens in an Experimental Model of Actinomycetoma in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Salinas-Carmona, Mario C.; Torres-Lopez, Ernesto; Ramos, Alma I.; Licon-Trillo, Angel; Gonzalez-Spencer, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    Nine- to twelve-week-old BALB/c mice were injected in footpads with 107 CFU of a Nocardia brasiliensis cell suspension. Typical actinomycetoma lesions, characterized by severe local inflammation with abscess and fistula formation, were fully established by day 28 after infection. These changes presented for 90 days, and then tissue repair with scar formation slowly appeared, with complete healing after 150 days of infection. Some animals developed bone destruction in the affected area. Histopathology showed an intense inflammatory response, with polymorphonuclear cells and hyaloid material around the colonies of the bacteria, some of which were discharged from draining abscesses. Sera from experimental animals were analyzed by Western blotting, and immunodominant antigens P61 and P24 were found as major targets for antibody response. Anti-P24 immunoglobulin M (IgM) isotype antibodies were present as early as 7 days, IgG peaking 45 days after infection. Lymphocyte proliferation with spleen and popliteal lymph node cells demonstrated thymidine incorporation at 7 days after infection, the stimulation index decreasing by day 60. Levels of interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the sera of infected animals. The circulating levels of IFN-γ increased more than 10 times the basal levels; levels of IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 also increased during the first 4 days of infection. PMID:10225905

  14. In situ TLR2 and TLR4 expression in a murine model of mycetoma caused by Nocardia brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Millán-Chiu, Blanca Edith; Hernández-Hernández, Francisca; Pérez-Torres, Armando; Méndez-Tovar, Luis Javier; López-Martínez, Rubén

    2011-04-01

    Actinomycetoma caused by Nocardia brasiliensis is a common disease in tropical regions. This ailment is characterized by a localized chronic inflammation that mainly affects the lower limbs. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns, inducing the production of proinflammatory mediators. The role of TLRs in the immune response against N. brasiliensis is unknown. The aim of this work was to locate and quantify in a murine model the expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in the infection site using reverse transcription-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The results showed that TLR2 expression increased in the infected tissue, whereas TLR4 expression decreased. The presence of TLR2 and TLR4 was demonstrated in different cell populations throughout the chronic infectious process. In the early stages of this process, TLR2 was expressed in neutrophils and macrophages in direct contact with the inoculum, whereas TLR4 was observed in mast cells. In the advanced stages of the infection, TLR2 was expressed in foam cells and fibroblasts and was likely associated with bacterial containment, while TLR4 was downregulated, probably resulting in an imbalance between the host immune response and the bacterial load that favoured chronic disease. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinical demonstration of isolation of Nocardia asteroides on buffered charcoal-yeast extract media.

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, R M; Rihs, J D; Yu, V L

    1992-01-01

    Nocardia asteroides was isolated only from sputum samples, obtained from three patients with pulmonary nocardiosis, that had been cultured onto buffered charcoal-yeast extract (BCYE) and selective BCYE media as part of laboratory workups for Legionella species. A decontamination procedure with low-pH pretreatment (KCl-HCl solution) had been performed on the sputa prior to culture onto the BCYE media because direct cultures on the media were overgrown with commensal microflora. Chalky white colonies, 0.5 to 1.0 mm in diameter, that were subsequently identified as N. asteroides grew well on the BCYE media. Thus, the techniques and the selective media used for Legionella species were useful for isolating Nocardia species from sputum. PMID:1734058

  16. Nocardia farcinica lung infection in a patient with cystic fibrosis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Respiratory tract infections are the major causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis. Nocardia are rarely implicated in these infections and few reports of the involvement of this species are found in the literature. Case presentation We describe a case of lung infection followed by chronic colonization of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole resistant Nocardia farcinica in a patient with cystic fibrosis. The chronic colonization of this uncommon bacterium in patients with cystic fibrosis was proved using a newly developed real-time polymerase chain reaction assay, which indicates that this bacterium, despite treatment, is difficult to eradicate. Conclusion Our case report confirms that this organism can be recovered in persons with cystic fibrosis. Its eradication is necessary especially if the patient is to undergo lung transplantation. PMID:20211000

  17. A proposal to reclassify Nocardia pinensis Blackall et al. as Skermania piniformis gen. nov., comb. nov.

    PubMed

    Chun, J; Blackall, L L; Kang, S O; Hah, Y C; Goodfellow, M

    1997-01-01

    The type strain of Nocardia pinensis was the subject of chemotaxonomic and 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing studies. The resultant nucleotide sequence was aligned with the sequences of representatives of the genera Corynebacterium, Dietzia, Gordona, Mycobacterium, Nocardia, Rhodococcus, and Tsukamurella, and phylogenetic trees were generated by using the Fitch-Margoliash, maximum-parsimony, maximum-likelihood, and neighbor-joining methods. It was evident from the phylogenetic analyses that N. pinensis represents a distinct phyletic line that is most closely associated with the Gordona clade. This genealogical evidence, together with chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data derived from this and previous studies, indicates that N. pinensis merits generic status within the family Nocardiaceae. Therefore, we propose that N. pinensis Blackall et al. 1989 be reclassified as Skermania piniformis gen. nov., comb. nov. The type strain of Skermania piniformis cleaved an array of conjugated substrates based on the fluorophores 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin and 4-methylumbelliferone.

  18. Reclassification of Nocardia corynebacterioides Serrano et al. 1972 (Approved Lists 1980) as Rhodococcus corynebacterioides comb. nov.

    PubMed

    Yassin, A F; Schaal, K P

    2005-05-01

    The type strain of Nocardia corynebacterioides was the subject of a polyphasic taxonomic study. The 16S rRNA gene sequence was aligned with the sequences of representatives of the genera Corynebacterium, Dietzia, Gordonia, Mycobacterium, Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Skermania, Tsukamurella and Williamsia, and phylogenetic trees were constructed by using maximum-parsimony, maximum-likelihood and neighbour-joining methods. It was evident from the phylogenetic analysis that N. corynebacterioides represents a distinct phyletic line within the genus Rhodococcus. Menaquinone analysis showed that the organism contained dihydrogenated menaquinone with eight isoprene units, MK-8(H(2)), as the major isoprenologue. The genealogical evidence, together with chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data from this and previous studies, indicates that N. corynebacterioides DSM 20151(T) (= CIP 104510(T)) should be reclassified in the genus Rhodococcus as Rhodococcus corynebacterioides comb. nov.

  19. Pathogenic Nocardia isolated from clinical specimens including those of AIDS patients in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Poonwan, N; Kusum, M; Mikami, Y; Yazawa, K; Tanaka, Y; Gonoi, T; Hasegawa, S; Konyama, K

    1995-10-01

    Forty strains of nocardioform microorganisms were isolated as clinical specimens including several from AIDS patients in Thailand. Among them, 37 strains were found to belong to the genus Nocardia. Our identification studies revealed that most of the strains (25 strains) belong to the N. asteroides group, i.e., N. asteroides sensu stricto and N. farcinica. Three strains were identified as N. otitidiscaviarum and two strains N. brasiliensis. In addition, 7 strains of rare pathogenic N. transvalensis were also isolated.

  20. Primary cutaneous nocardiosis caused by Nocardia nova in a kidney transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Keun; Oh, Jin-Rok; Choi, Hee Kyoung; Kim, Hyo Youl; Park, Soon Deok; Uh, Young

    2014-01-01

    Nocardia nova is a rare aetiological pathogen for cutaneous nocardiosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of N. nova primary cutaneous infection in a kidney transplant recipient. Identification was performed using 16S rRNA and secA1 gene sequence analyses. The patient was not treated successfully by antibiotics alone. Surgical debridement was required for successful treatment.

  1. Identification of medically relevant Nocardia species with an abbreviated battery of tests.

    PubMed

    Kiska, Deanna L; Hicks, Karen; Pettit, David J

    2002-04-01

    Identification of Nocardia to the species level is useful for predicting antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and defining the pathogenicity and geographic distribution of these organisms. We sought to develop an identification method which was accurate, timely, and employed tests which would be readily available in most clinical laboratories. We evaluated the API 20C AUX yeast identification system as well as several biochemical tests and Kirby-Bauer susceptibility patterns for the identification of 75 isolates encompassing the 8 medically relevant Nocardia species. There were few biochemical reactions that were sufficiently unique for species identification; of note, N. nova were positive for arylsulfatase, N. farcinica were positive for opacification of Middlebrook 7H11 agar, and N. brasiliensis and N. pseudobrasiliensis were the only species capable of liquefying gelatin. API 20C sugar assimilation patterns were unique for N. transvalensis, N. asteroides IV, and N. brevicatena. There was overlap among the assimilation patterns for the other species. Species-specific patterns of susceptibility to gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin, and erythromycin were obtained for N. nova, N. farcinica, and N. brevicatena, while there was overlap among the susceptibility patterns for the other isolates. No single method could identify all Nocardia isolates to the species level; therefore, a combination of methods was necessary. An algorithm utilizing antibiotic susceptibility patterns, citrate utilization, acetamide utilization, and assimilation of inositol and adonitol accurately identified all isolates. The algorithm was expanded to include infrequent drug susceptibility patterns which have been reported in the literature but which were not seen in this study.

  2. Non-Coding RNAs are Differentially Expressed by Nocardia brasiliensis in Vitro and in Experimental Actinomycetoma.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Rabadán, Josué S; Miranda-Ríos, Juan; Espín-Ocampo, Guadalupe; Méndez-Tovar, Luis J; Maya-Pineda, Héctor Rubén; Hernández-Hernández, Francisca

    2017-01-01

    Nocardia spp. are common soil-inhabiting bacteria that frequently infect humans through traumatic injuries or inhalation routes and cause infections, such as actinomycetoma and nocardiosis, respectively. Nocardia brasiliensis is the main aetiological agent of actinomycetoma in various countries. Many bacterial non-coding RNAs are regulators of genes associated with virulence factors. The aim of this work was to identify non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) expressed during infection conditions and in free-living form (in vitro) in Nocardia brasiliensis. The N. brasiliensis transcriptome (predominately < 200 nucleotides) was determined by RNA next-generation sequencing in both conditions. A total of seventy ncRNAs were identified in both conditions. Among these ncRNAs, 18 were differentially expressed, 12 were located within intergenic regions, and 2 were encoded as antisense of 2 different genes. Finally, 10 of these ncRNAs were studied by rapid amplification of cDNA ends and/or quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Interestingly, 3 transcripts corresponded to tRNA-derived fragments (tRNAs(Cys, Met, Thr)), and one transcript was overlapped between an intergenic region and the 5´end of the 23S rRNA. Expression of these last four transcripts was increased during N. brasiliensis infection compared with the in vitro conditions. The results of this work suggest a possible role for these transcripts in the regulation of virulence genes in actinomycetoma pathogenesis.

  3. Effects of moisture and nitrogen stress on gas exchange and nutrient resorption in Quercus rubra seedlings

    Treesearch

    K. Francis Salifu; Douglass F. Jacobs

    2008-01-01

    The effects of simulated soil fertility at three levels (poor, medium, and rich soils) and moisture stress at two levels (well watered versus moisture stressed) on gas exchange and foliar nutrient resorption in 1+0 bareroot northern red oak (Quercus rubra) seedlings were evaluated. Current nitrogen (N) uptake was labeled with the stable isotope

  4. Chloroplast DNA variation of Quercus rubra L. in North America and comparison with other Fagaceae.

    PubMed

    Magni, C R; Ducousso, A; Caron, H; Petit, R J; Kremer, A

    2005-02-01

    Quercus rubra is one of the most important timber and ornamental tree species from eastern North America. It is a widespread species growing under variable ecological conditions. Chloroplast DNA variation was studied by PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism) in 290 individuals from 66 populations sampled throughout the natural range. A total of 12 haplotypes were detected, with one found in 75% of the trees. Population differentiation is relatively low (G(ST) = 0.46), even when similarities between haplotypes are taken into account (N(ST) = 0.50), pointing to a weak phylogeographical structure. Furthermore, no spatial structure of genetic diversity could be detected. The genetic differentiation increased northwards, reflecting the postglacial history of Q. rubra. The unusual aspect of this study was the low level of chloroplast DNA genetic differentiation in Q. rubra compared to that typically observed in other oak species. Palynological evidence indicates that during the last glacial maximum, Q. rubra had one major distribution range with populations located relatively far to the north, resulting in only modest movement northwards when climate improved, whereas European white oaks were largely restricted to the southern European peninsulas and experienced extensive movements during the postglacial period. The contrasted geographical features and levels of tree species richness of both continents might further explain why congeneric species sharing similar life history traits have genetic structures that are so different.

  5. An analysis of phenotypic selection in natural stands of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.)

    Treesearch

    Jeffery W. Stringer; David B. Wagner; Scott E. Schlarbaum; Daniel B. Houston

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of growth and stem quality parameters of 19-year-old progeny from superior and comparison trees indicates that rigorous phenotypic selection of trees in natural stands may not be an efficient method of parent tree selection for Quercus rubra L. Total tree height, dbh, number of branches in the butt log, fork height, and number of mainstem...

  6. Throughfall chemistry beneath Quercus rubra: atmospheric, foliar, and soil chemistry considerations

    Treesearch

    Theodor D. Leininger; W.E. Winner

    1988-01-01

    Concentrations of inorganic ions were measured in bulk rainfall and bulk throughfall collected beneath northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) trees growing in fertile, limestone-derived soil and less fertile sandstone/shale-derived soil. Rainfall passing through the crowns at both sites was enriched with SO2-4...

  7. KINETICS OF LEAF TEMPERATURE FLUCTUATION AFFECT ISOPRENE EMISSION FROM RED OAK (QUERCUS RUBRA) LEAVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because the rate of isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) emission from plants is highly temperature-dependent, we investigated the natural fluctuations on leaf temperature and the effects of rapid temperature change on isoprene emission of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) leaves at the to...

  8. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.)

    Treesearch

    G. Vengadesan; Paula M. Pijut

    2009-01-01

    A somatic embryogenesis protocol for plant regeneration of northern red oak (Quercus rubra) was established from immature cotyledon explants. Embryogenic callus cultures were induced on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) containing 3% sucrose, 0.24% Phytagel™, and various concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) after 4 weeks of...

  9. Patterns of Hybridization and Introgression Between Invasive Ulmus Pumila (Ulmaceae) and Native U. Rubra

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ulmus pumila (Siberian elm) is an invasive elm species, non-native to the United States, which hybridizes with Ulmus rubra (red elm), a U.S. native. While Siberian elm is highly tolerant to Dutch elm disease (DED), red elm populations in North America have been strongly affected by DED. Putative p...

  10. Regeneration of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) using shelterwood systems: Ecophysiology, silviculture and management recommendations

    Treesearch

    Daniel C. Dey; William C. parker

    1996-01-01

    There is considerable interest in developing relaible methods for regenerating red oak (Quercus rubra) in Ontario. Traditional silviculture methods have not been successful in maintaining the curent levels of oak growing stock. In this paper, we review the ecology, physiology and reproductive biology of red oak. This discussion stresses the...

  11. Application of near-infrared spectroscopy for the rapid quality assessment of Radix Paeoniae Rubra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Hao; Fang, Jing; Tang, Liying; Yang, Hongjun; Li, Hua; Wang, Zhuju; Yang, Bin; Wu, Hongwei; Fu, Meihong

    2017-08-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with multivariate analysis was used to quantify gallic acid, catechin, albiflorin, and paeoniflorin in Radix Paeoniae Rubra, and the feasibility to classify the samples originating from different areas was investigated. A new high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated to analyze gallic acid, catechin, albiflorin, and paeoniflorin in Radix Paeoniae Rubra as the reference. Partial least squares (PLS), principal component regression (PCR), and stepwise multivariate linear regression (SMLR) were performed to calibrate the regression model. Different data pretreatments such as derivatives (1st and 2nd), multiplicative scatter correction, standard normal variate, Savitzky-Golay filter, and Norris derivative filter were applied to remove the systematic errors. The performance of the model was evaluated according to the root mean square of calibration (RMSEC), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP), root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV), and correlation coefficient (r). The results show that compared to PCR and SMLR, PLS had a lower RMSEC, RMSECV, and RMSEP and higher r for all the four analytes. PLS coupled with proper pretreatments showed good performance in both the fitting and predicting results. Furthermore, the original areas of Radix Paeoniae Rubra samples were partly distinguished by principal component analysis. This study shows that NIR with PLS is a reliable, inexpensive, and rapid tool for the quality assessment of Radix Paeoniae Rubra.

  12. KINETICS OF LEAF TEMPERATURE FLUCTUATION AFFECT ISOPRENE EMISSION FROM RED OAK (QUERCUS RUBRA) LEAVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because the rate of isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) emission from plants is highly temperature-dependent, we investigated the natural fluctuations on leaf temperature and the effects of rapid temperature change on isoprene emission of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) leaves at the to...

  13. Competitive capacity of Quercus rubra L. planted in Arkansas' Boston Mountains

    Treesearch

    Martin A. Spetich; Daniel C. Dey; Paul S. Johnson; David L. Graney

    2002-01-01

    Results of an 11 yr study of the growth and survival of planted northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings (2-0 bare-root) are presented. More than 4,000 seedlings were planted under shelterwood overstories that were harvested 3 yr after planting. Results are expressed as planted-tree dominance probabilities. Dominance probability is the...

  14. Competitive Capacity of Quercus rubra L. Planted in Arkansas' Boston Mountains

    Treesearch

    Martin A. Spetich; Daniel C. Dey; Paul S. Johnson; David L. Graney

    2002-01-01

    Abstract. Results of an 11 yr study of the growth and survival of planted northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings (2-0 bare-root) are presented. More than 4,000 seedlings were planted under shelterwood overstories that were harvested 3 yr after planting. Results are expressed as planted-tree dominance probabilities. Dominance...

  15. Draft genome sequence of Xylella fastidiosa supsp. multiplex strain Griffin-1 from Quercus rubra in Georgia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The draft genome sequence of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. multiplex Strain Griffin-1 isolated from a red oak tree (Quercus rubra) in Georgia, U.S.A. is reported. The bacterium has a genome size of 2,387,314 bp with 51.7% G+C content and comprises 2,903 predicted open reading frames (ORFs), and 50 RNA g...

  16. Niche separation in Varecia variegata rubra and Eulemur fulvus albifrons: II. Intraspecific patterns.

    PubMed

    Vasey, Natalie

    2002-06-01

    Based on a year-long field study in northeastern Madagascar, I summarize annual patterns of niche use (food patch size, diet, forest height, and forest site) in two sympatric lemurs, Varecia variegata rubra and Eulemur fulvus albifrons. Furthermore, I examine intraspecific patterns of niche use according to sex, season, and reproductive stage in these two lemurs that differ in terms of energetic investment in reproduction. Lemurs as a group provide a special opportunity to test hypotheses concerning sex differences in niche use. Due to their body size monomorphism and seasonal, synchronous pattern of breeding, it is possible to directly evaluate whether sex differences in diet reflect high energetic investment in reproduction by females. Results confirm the hypothesis that intraspecific variation in niche use (e.g., sex differences, seasonal differences) would be more pronounced in V. v. rubra than in E. f. albifrons, due in large measure to the former's relatively high energetic investment in reproduction: 1a) Dietary sex differences in V. v. rubra are most pronounced during costly reproductive stages and involve acquisition of low-fiber, high-protein plant foods. Females of both species consume more seasonally available low-fiber protein (young leaves, flowers) relative to conspecific males during the hot dry season, but only in V. v. rubra females is this pattern also evident during gestation and lactation. 1b) The diets of female V. v. rubra and female E. f. albifrons are more similar to each other than are the diets of conspecific males and females in the case of V. v. rubra. This is not uniformly the case for female E. f. albifrons. This finding confirms a hypothesis put forward in Vasey ([2000] Am J Phys Anthropol 112:411-431) that energetic requirements of reproductive females drive niche separation more than do the energetic requirements of males. 1c) Both species synchronize most or all of lactation with seasonal food abundance and diversity. E. f

  17. Homopterans and an invasive red ant, Myrmica rubra (L.), in Maine.

    PubMed

    McPhee, Katherine; Garnas, Jeffrey; Drummond, Frank; Groden, Eleanor

    2012-02-01

    Myrmica rubra (L.), is an invasive ant that is spreading across eastern North America. It is presently found in over 40 communities in Maine and areas in Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, New York, and several provinces in the Canadian Maritimes and Ontario. In addition to disrupting native ant faunas, invasive ants also have been shown to influence homopteran abundance and species composition. We conducted surveys of Homoptera in infested and noninfested sites and conducted manipulative experiments to quantify the effects of M. rubra on homopteran abundance and composition in the summers of 2003, 2006, and 2007 on Mount Desert Island, ME. In 2003, Homoptera family-level richness was higher in infested sites compared with noninfested sites with two out of three sampling methods. Homopteran abundance in infested compared with noninfested sites depended upon the site. The sites with the highest population of M. rubra were associated with significant differences in Homoptera population abundance. In 2006 and 2007, two out of three host plants sampled had significantly higher abundances of the aphids, Aphis spiraephila Patch and Prociphilus tessellatus Fitch. An ant exclusion field experiment on the native plant, meadowsweet (Spiraea alba Du Roi), resulted in higher abundances of A. spiraephila with M. rubra tending compared with native ant tending. A predator exclusion field experiment was conducted on meadowsweet using adult ladybeetles, Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, larval green lacewings, Chyrsoperla carnea Stephens, and no predators. Predator impacts on aphid populations were reduced in the presence of M. rubra with C. carnea and moderately reduced with H. convergens.

  18. Temperature effects on biomass, geosmin, and 2-methylisoborneol production and cellular activity by Nocardia spp. and Streptomyces spp. isolated from rainbow trout recirculating aquaculture systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Isolates of Nocardia cummidelens, Nocardia fluminea, Streptomyces albidoflavus, and Streptomyces luridiscabiei attributing to geosmin-related off-flavor in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) raised in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) were evaluated for the effect of temperature (10-30 degree...

  19. Beta-carotene-rich carotenoid-protein preparation and exopolysaccharide production by Rhodotorula rubra GED8 grown with a yogurt starter culture.

    PubMed

    Frengova, Ginka I; Simova, Emilina D; Beshkova, Dora M

    2006-01-01

    The underlying method for obtaining a beta-carotene-rich carotenoid-protein preparation and exopolysaccharides is the associated cultivation of the carotenoid-synthesizing lactose-negative yeast strain Rhodotorula rubra GED8 with the yogurt starter culture (Lactobacillus bulgaricus 2-11 + Streptococcus thermophilus 15HA) in whey ultrafiltrate (45 g lactose/l) with a maximum carotenoid yield of 13.37 mg/l culture fluid on the 4.5th day. The chemical composition of the carotenoid-protein preparation has been identified. The respective carotenoid and protein content is 497.4 microg/g dry cells and 50.3% per dry weight, respectively. An important characteristic of the carotenoid composition is the high percentage (51.1%) of beta-carotene (a carotenoid pigment with the highest provitamin A activity) as compared to 12.9% and 33.7%, respectively, for the other two individual pigments--torulene and torularhodin. Exopolysaccharides (12.8 g/l) synthesized by the yeast and lactic acid cultures, identified as acid biopolymers containing 7.2% glucuronic acid, were isolated in the cell-free supernatant. Mannose, produced exclusively by the yeast, predominated in the neutral carbohydrate biopolymer component (76%). The mixed cultivation of R. rubra GED8 with the yogurt starter (L. bulgaricus 2-11 + S. thermophilus 15HA) in ultrafiltrate under conditions of intracellular production of maximum amount of carotenoids and exopolysaccharides synthesis enables combined utilization of the culture fluid from the fermentation process.

  20. Photoinhibition of photosystem I under high light in the shade-established tropical tree species Psychotria rubra.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Zhang, Shi-Bao; Zhang, Jiao-Lin; Hu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The photosynthetic sensitivity to high light differs among understory plants of shade- and sun- established tree species. Shade-established tree species are sensitive to high light but the underlying photosynthetic mechanism has not been fully resolved. In the present study, we examined the responses of photosystem I (PSI) and photosystem II (PSII) to high light in shade leaves of a shade-established tree species Psychotria rubra and a sun-established tree species Pometia tomentosa. After exposure to 2000 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) for 2 h, the maximum photo-oxidizable P700 (Pm ) decreased by 40 and 9% in P. rubra and P. tomentosa, respectively. These results indicate that the shade-established species P. rubra is incapable of protecting PSI under high light. Strong photoinhibition of PSII under high light led to large depression of electron transfer from PSII to PSI and then prevented further photodamage to PSI. During the high light treatment of 2000 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1), PSI photoinhibition in P. rubra was accompanied with high levels of cyclic electron flow (CEF) and P700 oxidation ratio. Therefore, we propose that PSI photoinhibition under high light in P. rubra is dependent on electron transfer from PSII to PSI, and CEF is unlikely to play a major role in photoprotection for PSI in P. rubra. These findings suggest that photoinhibition of PSI is another important mechanism underlying why shade-established species cannot survive under high light.

  1. Phylogeny of Morella rubra and Its Relatives (Myricaceae) and Genetic Resources of Chinese Bayberry Using RAD Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Luxian; Jin, Xinjie; Chen, Nan; Li, Xian; Li, Pan; Fu, Chengxin

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among Chinese species of Morella (Myricaceae) are unresolved. Here, we use restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) to identify candidate loci that will help in determining phylogenetic relationships among Morella rubra, M. adenophora, M. nana and M. esculenta. Three methods for inferring phylogeny, maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian concordance, were applied to data sets including as many as 4253 RAD loci with 8360 parsimony informative variable sites. All three methods significantly favored the topology of (((M. rubra, M. adenophora), M. nana), M. esculenta). Two species from North America (M. cerifera and M. pensylvanica) were placed as sister to the four Chinese species. According to BEAST analysis, we deduced speciation of M. rubra to be at about the Miocene-Pliocene boundary (5.28 Ma). Intraspecific divergence in M. rubra occurred in the late Pliocene (3.39 Ma). From pooled data, we assembled 29378, 21902 and 23552 de novo contigs with an average length of 229, 234 and 234 bp for M. rubra, M. nana and M. esculenta respectively. The contigs were used to investigate functional classification of RAD tags in a BLASTX search. Additionally, we identified 3808 unlinked SNP sites across the four populations of M. rubra and discovered genes associated with fruit ripening and senescence, fruit quality and disease/defense metabolism based on KEGG database. PMID:26431030

  2. Activation and IL-1β secretion of human peripheral phagocytes infected with Actinomadura madurae, Nocardia asteroides and Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Palma-Ramos, Alejandro; Casillas-Pétriz, Gilberto; Castrillón-Rivera, Laura Estela; Castañeda-Sánchez, Jorge Ismael; Arenas-Guzmán, Roberto; Drago-Serrano, Maria Elisa; Sainz-Espuñes, Teresita

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the ability of Actinomadura madurae (A. madurae) and Nocardia asteroides (N. asteroides), using Candida albicans (C. albicans) as prototypic control, to elicit the activation and IL-1β secretion of blood phagocytic cells from healthy donors. Microscopic evaluation of phagocytosis/activation, cell viability and spectrophotometric quantitation of endocytosis/activation, were assessed by using formazan blue test in human blood phagocytes infected with C. albicans, A. madurae or N. asteroides treated with either normal human serum (NHS) or with decomplemented NHS. Interlukin-1β from culture supernatants of infected polymorphonuclear was tested by ELISA kit assay. Microscopic assay showed that phagocytosis and activation of adherent mononuclear phagocytes were greater with C. albicans followed by A. madurae and then by N. asteroides. Spectrophotometric assay in polymorphonuclear phagocytes infected with NHS-treated pathogens indicated that activation was similarly higher by C. albicans and A. madurae and lower by N. asteroides. Kinetic assays in infected polymorphonuclear cells showed that viability was decreased by C. albicans and N. asteroides or unaffected with A. madurae. Levels of IL-1β at 8 h of incubation were higher with C. albicans followed by A. madurae whereas lower levels were found with N. asteroides. The extent of cell-viability and activation as well IL-1β secretion may be related with the virulence of C. albicans and N. asteroides and other parameters remain to be explored for assessing the virulence of A. madurae. Copyright © 2016 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Phenotypic and genotypic evaluation of 18 Nocardia isolates from human clinical samples in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Herrera, K; Sandoval, H; Couble, A; Mouniee, D; Ramírez-Durán, N; Uzcategui de Morillo, M; Serrano, J A; Bergeron, E; Boiron, P; Rodríguez-Nava, V

    2012-03-01

    Mexico has the largest number of clinical cases of actinomycetoma in North and South America. Species originally identified by less specific methods have been recently reclassified as other known species or as new species. To assess, by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phenotypic methods, the species distribution of 18 human clinical isolates originally identified as N. brasiliensis, some of them isolated between 1947 and 1959 in Mexico City. Clinical isolates came from the Hospital General, "Dr. Manuel Gea Gonzalez", and Instituto Nacional de Diagnóstico y Referencia Epidemiológica (INDRE) in Mexico, D.F. The strains used in this study included 15 clinical strains isolated between 1947 and 1959 that were originally identified as N. brasiliensis and three more strains obtained in 2007 identified as Nocardia spp. The isolates were identified genotypically by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene, and their phenotypic profiles were obtained with the API Coryne(®) system. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns were tested according to the protocol of the Comité de l'antibiogramme de la Société française de microbiologie[4]. According to 16S rRNA gene, sequencing were identified among 18 human clinical isolates as Nocardia farcinica (n=11) and Nocardia brasiliensis (n=7). A high number of the strains were susceptible to the majority of the antibiotics tested. The phenotypic profiles of the strains were quite uniform for N. farcinica and some variability was observed for N. brasiliensis strains. N. farcinica was the most prevalent species identified. Modern methodologies should be applied in clinical laboratories to accurately identify etiological agents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. In vitro activity of JPC 2067 alone and in combination with sulfamethoxazole against nocardia species.

    PubMed

    Mookherjee, Swagatam; Shoen, Carolyn; Cynamon, Michael

    2012-02-01

    JPC 2067 is a novel dihydrotriazine dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor that is being developed as an antimalarial therapeutic. We evaluated the in vitro activity of JPC 2067 alone and in combination with sulfamethoxazole (SMX) against a panel of nocardia isolates. The MIC(50)s and MIC(90)s for JPC 2067, SMX, and the combination were 0.125 μg/ml and 4 μg/ml, 16 μg/ml and 32 μg/ml, and 0.03 μg/ml and 2 μg/ml, respectively. JPC 2067 alone and in combination with SMX should be evaluated further to understand its clinical potential.

  5. Nocardia Infection in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients: A Multicenter European Case-control Study.

    PubMed

    Coussement, Julien; Lebeaux, David; van Delden, Christian; Guillot, Hélène; Freund, Romain; Marbus, Sierk; Melica, Giovanna; Van Wijngaerden, Eric; Douvry, Benoit; Van Laecke, Steven; Vuotto, Fanny; Tricot, Leïla; Fernández-Ruiz, Mario; Dantal, Jacques; Hirzel, Cédric; Jais, Jean-Philippe; Rodriguez-Nava, Veronica; Lortholary, Olivier; Jacobs, Frédérique

    2016-08-01

    Nocardiosis is a rare, life-threatening opportunistic infection, affecting 0.04% to 3.5% of patients after solid organ transplant (SOT). The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for Nocardia infection after SOT and to describe the presentation of nocardiosis in these patients. We performed a retrospective case-control study of adult patients diagnosed with nocardiosis after SOT between 2000 and 2014 in 36 European (France, Belgium, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Spain) centers. Two control subjects per case were matched by institution, transplant date, and transplanted organ. A multivariable analysis was performed using conditional logistic regression to identify risk factors for nocardiosis. One hundred and seventeen cases of nocardiosis and 234 control patients were included. Nocardiosis occurred at a median of 17.5 (range, 2-244) months after transplant. In multivariable analysis, high calcineurin inhibitor trough levels in the month before diagnosis (odds ratio [OR], 6.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.58-14.51), use of tacrolimus (OR, 2.65; 95% CI, 1.17-6.00) and corticosteroid dose (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.03-1.22) at the time of diagnosis, patient age (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.07), and length of stay in the intensive care unit after SOT (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.00-1.09) were independently associated with development of nocardiosis; low-dose cotrimoxazole prophylaxis was not found to prevent nocardiosis. Nocardia farcinica was more frequently associated with brain, skin, and subcutaneous tissue infections than were other Nocardia species. Among the 30 cases with central nervous system nocardiosis, 13 (43.3%) had no neurological symptoms. We identified 5 risk factors for nocardiosis after SOT. Low-dose cotrimoxazole was not found to prevent Nocardia infection. These findings may help improve management of transplant recipients. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For

  6. [Comparative evaluation of e-test and disk diffusion methods for susceptibility testing of Nocardia species].

    PubMed

    Perçin, Duygu; Sümerkan, Bülent; Inci, Ramazan

    2011-04-01

    Variations in antimicrobial susceptibility among different Nocardia species limit the options for therapy. It is very difficult to perform antimicrobial susceptibility testing of these bacteria due to their slow growth rate and problems in inoculum preparation. The aim of this study was to compare E-test and disk diffusion methods for the determination of antimicrobial susceptibilities of Nocardia isolates. Since E-test is considered as 90% consistent with the gold standard microdilution method recommended by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), it was chosen for comparison with disk diffusion and in order to determine the use of disk diffusion in routine practice. A total of 21 Nocardia strains isolated from clinical specimens (12 lung, 7 brain and 2 skin/soft tissue samples) were included in the study. Six of the isolates were identified as N.asteroides, six were N.farcinica, five were N.cyriacigeorgica and four were Nocardia spp. By conventional methods. Susceptibilities of strains to ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftazidime, sefepime, imipenem, gentamicin, erythromycin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, trimethoprim- sulfamethoxazole, piperacillin-tazobactam, tigecycline, and linezolid were investigated by using E-test and/or disk diffusion methods. The results were interpreted according to the CLSI breakpoints for Staphylococcus spp. All of the strains were found to be resistant to ceftazidime, piperacillin-tazobactam and ampicillin, however susceptible to levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole tigecycline, and linezolid. The concordance between the methods in terms of susceptibility testing were 100% for ampicillin, ceftazidime, imipenem, gentamicin and linezolid; 85.7% for erythromycin, 76.2% for sefepime, 73.7% for moxifloxacin, 71.4% for piperacillin-tazobactam, 70% for ampicillin-sulbactam and 46.2% for amoxicillin- clavulanic acid. In conclusion, the therapy must be planned according to the

  7. In Vitro Activity of JPC 2067 Alone and in Combination with Sulfamethoxazole against Nocardia Species

    PubMed Central

    Mookherjee, Swagatam; Shoen, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    JPC 2067 is a novel dihydrotriazine dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor that is being developed as an antimalarial therapeutic. We evaluated the in vitro activity of JPC 2067 alone and in combination with sulfamethoxazole (SMX) against a panel of nocardia isolates. The MIC50s and MIC90s for JPC 2067, SMX, and the combination were 0.125 μg/ml and 4 μg/ml, 16 μg/ml and 32 μg/ml, and 0.03 μg/ml and 2 μg/ml, respectively. JPC 2067 alone and in combination with SMX should be evaluated further to understand its clinical potential. PMID:22106219

  8. Prodigiosin-like Pigments from Actinomadura (Nocardia) pelletieri and Actinomadura madurae

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Nancy N.

    1969-01-01

    Thirteen red strains of Actinomadura (Nocardia) pelletieri and three of A. madurae were shown to produce prodigiosin-like pigments. Both of the two major pigments which were observed on thin-layer chromatograms had RF values significantly greater than prodigiosin. The main pigment from A. madurae 953 was shown by mass and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies to be nonylprodigiosin. The major pigment from A. pellitieri had a C11H22 side chain in a ring form, but it was distinctly different from metacycloprodigiosin. “Prodiginine” was proposed as a name for the invariant aromatic portion of the prodigiosin structure. PMID:5803627

  9. Siderochelin, a new ferrous-ion chelating agent produced by Nocardia.

    PubMed

    Liu, W C; Fisher, S M; Wells, J S; Ricca, C S; Principe, P A; Trejo, W H; Bonner, D P; Gougoutos, J Z; Toeplitz, B K; Sykes, R B

    1981-07-01

    A new ferrous-ion chelating agent, siderochelin, was isolated from fermentation broths of Nocardia sp. SC 11,340. Siderochelin was produced by conventional submerged culture and purified by solvent extraction and recrystallization. The antibiotic was crystallized from acetonitrile as a mixture of diastereoisomers. The molecular formula of siderochelin was determined as C11H13N3O3 on the basis of elemental analysis and mass spectrometry, and the structure was elucidated by X-ray crystallography. The compound shows a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, being active against bacteria, fungi and protozoa.

  10. [Development cycles of coryneform and Nocardia-like bacteria].

    PubMed

    Nesterenko, O A; Nogina, T M; Kvasnikov, E I

    1980-01-01

    The growth cycles and the types of cell separation were studied in a microchamber with the collection strains of Brevibacterium ammoniagenes ATTC 6871, B. helvolum ATCC 19239, B. linens CCM 47 and ATCC 9174, B. maris VKM B-464 and B. stationis ATCC 14403, as well as with the strains of the genus Rhodococcus isolated from soils, viz. R. maris sp. nov. IMB 283 and R. luteus sp. nov. IMB 385. According to the increasing complexity of cellular morphological transformation in the life cycle, the organisms may be arranged in a series: R. maris -- B. ammoniagenes -- B. stationis -- B. linens -- B. helvolum -- R. luteus. The first three organisms are characterized by the snapping type of separation of short rod-like daughter cells. The cells of B. linens separate by both the snapping and bending types. The coccoid cells of B. helvolum ATCC 19239 produce many buds which are transformed into rod-like cells in the course of growth. In the log phase of growth, both true and false branching of the cells is observed; the latter is the result of a peculiar growth of the ends in the separated cells of B. helvolum. The cells of R. luteus form a rudimentary, rapidly fragmenting mycelium whose rod-like elements divide then by binary fission; the daughter cells separate the bending and snapping types.

  11. Long-term ustekinumab treatment for refractory type I pityriasis rubra pilaris.

    PubMed

    Di Stefani, Alessandro; Galluzzo, Marco; Talamonti, Marina; Chiricozzi, Andrea; Costanzo, Antonio; Chimenti, Sergio

    2013-03-30

    Pityriasis rubra pilaris is a rare, chronic erythematous squamous disorder of unknown etiology. The disease is characterized initially by small follicular papules that coalesce into yellowish pink scaly plaques, palmoplantar keratoderma, diffuse furfuraceous scale of the scalp, and frequent progression to exfoliative erythroderma. Generally it is difficult to discern pityriasis rubra pilaris from other skin conditions but key-clinical features help in the diagnosis such as "islands" of spared skin within generalized erythroderma, follicular keratotic plugs, and an orange hue of the involved skin. Treatment options include topical vitamin D analogues, keratolytics, systemic acitretin, methotrexate, cyclosporine, azathioprine, fumaric acid esters, phototherapy, and anti-TNFα agents. Cases, of pityriasis rubra pilaris, successfully treated with a short-course ustekinumab therapy, have been reported. We report a 31-year-old man with pityriasis rubra pilaris, refractory to conventional treatments, successfully treated with ustekinumab monotherapy for over 64 weeks. After failing conventional systemic agents (cyclosporine, aciretin and methotrexate), ustekinumab 45 mg has been prescribed, with the same dosing regimen as in psoriasis. The patient improved dramatically within 4 weeks of the first injection, with markedly less erythema and pruritus. Long-term control of the disease of the disease was achieved (64 weeks of treatment). We report this case in order to show the striking and rapid efficacy of ustekinumab in reducing the signs and symptoms of the disease. Complete remission was achieved after the third injection, but also a long-term control of the disease. The therapy was well-tolerated in our patient and no adverse events occurred.

  12. The potential of Festuca rubra and Calamagrostis epigejos for the revegetation of fly ash deposits.

    PubMed

    Mitrović, Miroslava; Pavlović, Pavle; Lakusić, Dmitar; Djurdjević, Lola; Stevanović, Branka; Kostić, Olga; Gajić, Gordana

    2008-12-15

    Two grass species, Festuca rubra (sown) and Calamagrostis epigejos (naturally recolonised), were studied at two fly ash deposit lagoons, weathered 5 (L1) and 13 years (L2). Both species were assessed in terms of their invasive ability, photosynthetic efficiency, trace elements accumulation, and damage symptoms, while the characteristics of the habitat were assessed in terms of trace element content, and the pH and EC of the ash. In the ash weathered for 5 and 13 years, B and Mn concentrations fell within the normal range for soils, while there was an As, Mo and Cu excess, and Se and Zn deficit. There was no difference in the photosynthetic efficiency (ns) of the C. epigejos populations at the different-aged ash lagoons, but differences were found between the populations of F. rubra (P<0.001). F. rubra displayed damage symptoms, in the form of leaf tip chlorosis and necrosis, and wilting seedlings--a result of B accumulation in toxic concentrations and a Cu and Mn deficit. After 13 years the sown F. rubra remained over 9.5% of the ash lagoon's area (L2), while over the same period the naturally recolonised C. epigejos had overgrown 87.5% of the area. The greater colonisation and survival potential of C. epigejos is a result of multiple tolerance to the conditions at ash deposits and of the competitive ability of this species to dominate the colonised habitat. Therefore, characteristics of naturally colonised species can be used for modelling future actions of biological restoration of fly ash deposits aimed at binding the ash with minimal investment (the short-term aim), and for providing conditions for revegetation, and shortening the successive phases in the revegetation of ash deposits after the closure of thermal plants (the long-term aim).

  13. Niche separation in Varecia variegata rubra and Eulemur fulvus albifrons: I. Interspecific patterns.

    PubMed

    Vasey, N

    2000-07-01

    Niche separation was documented in a year-long study of Varecia variegata rubra and Eulemur fulvus albifrons on the Masoala Peninsula, Madagascar. Feeding trees were measured, and diet, forest height, and forest site were recorded at 5-min time points on focal animals. For time point data, multivariate and bivariate analysis of frequencies was employed to examine how niche dimensions vary between species according to sex, season, and reproductive stage. V. v. rubra feeds in larger trees than E. f. albifrons. V. v. rubra has a diet consisting mainly of fruit, whereas E. f. lbifrons has a more varied diet. V. v. ubra ranges mainly above 15 m in tree crowns, whereas E. f. albifrons ranges mainly below 15 m in a wide array of forest sites. Both species are largely frugivorous, but they harvest fruit in different-sized trees, in different quantities, and in different forest strata. Niche partitioning varies in tandem with seasonal shifts in climate and food availability and with reproductive stages. Seasonal shifts in forest site and forest height use are largely attributed to species-specific tactics for behavioral thermoregulation and predator avoidance. The diet of E. f. albifrons is diverse whether examined by season or reproductive stage. However, females of both species diversify their diets with more low-fiber protein than males during gestation, lactation, and the hot seasons. This pattern is most pronounced for V. v. rubra females and may be directly attributed to high energetic investment in reproduction. These results suggest that niche partitioning may be driven more by the energetic requirements of reproductive females than males.

  14. The intriguing complexity of parthenogenesis inheritance in Pilosella rubra (Asteraceae, Lactuceae).

    PubMed

    Rosenbaumová, Radka; Krahulcová, Anna; Krahulec, František

    2012-09-01

    Neither the genetic basis nor the inheritance of apomixis is fully understood in plants. The present study is focused on the inheritance of parthenogenesis, one of the basic elements of apomixis, in Pilosella (Asteraceae). A complex pattern of inheritance was recorded in the segregating F(1) progeny recovered from reciprocal crosses between the facultatively apomictic hexaploid P. rubra and the sexual tetraploid P. officinarum. Although both female and male reduced gametes of P. rubra transmitted parthenogenesis at the same rate in the reciprocal crosses, the resulting segregating F(1) progeny inherited parthenogenesis at different rates. The actual transmission rates of parthenogenesis were significantly correlated with the mode of origin of the respective F(1) progeny class. The inheritance of parthenogenesis was significantly reduced in F(1) n + n hybrid progeny from the cross where parthenogenesis was transmitted by female gametes. In F(1) n + 0 polyhaploid progeny from the same cross, however, the transmission rate of parthenogenesis was high; all fertile polyhaploids were parthenogenetic. It appeared that reduced female gametes transmitting parthenogenesis preferentially developed parthenogenetically and only rarely were fertilized in P. rubra. The fact that the determinant for parthenogenesis acts gametophytically in Pilosella and the precocious embryogenesis in parthenogenesis-transmitting megagametophytes was suggested as the most probable explanations for this observation. Furthermore, we observed the different expression of complete apomixis in the non-segregating F(1) 2n + n hybrids as compared to their apomictic maternal parent P. rubra. We suggest that this difference is a result of unspecified interactions between the parental genomes.

  15. Pityriasis rubra pilaris in a HIV-positive patient (Type 6 PRP).

    PubMed

    De, Dipankar; Dogra, Sunil; Narang, Tarun; Radotra, Bishan Dass; Kanwar, Amrinder Jit

    2008-01-01

    A 45-year-old previously healthy man presented with minimally itchy spiny papular lesions of 3 years' duration and discharging nodular cystic lesions for the past 2 years. Initially, lesions appeared on his ears, followed by the gradual appearance of similar lesions over his face, back, and extremities. The lesions were not associated with photosensitivity. Over the years, the patient continued to have similar lesions without any significant response to various topical medications and oral antibiotics. There was no history of fever or any other systemic complaints and the patient denied any other significant medical problems in the past. Cutaneous examination revealed multiple, grouped, spiny papular lesions coalescing to form plaques at places over the ears, extremities, and trunk (Figure 1). Elongated, horny, follicular spires were noted on the top of the papular lesions. Multiple discharging nodular lesions with crusting were seen predominantly over the chest, abdomen, and back (Figure 2), and closed comedonal lesions were noted on the face and trunk. Multiple orange-brown scaly plaques were seen over the extensor aspect of the patient's thighs (Figure 1, inset). A few nails showed wedge-shaped thickening without subungual hyperkeratosis or other nail changes. Palms, soles, and oral mucosa were normal. Considering the atypical cutaneous findings, the clinical possibility of pityriasis rubra pilaris (human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]-associated type 6 PRP) was considered. Hematoxylin and eosin stain of skin biopsy specimens taken from the spiny papular and plaque lesions revealed marked hyperkeratosis with alternating orthokeratosis and parakeratosis with follicular keratotic plugging (Figure 3; Figure 3, inset). Irregular broad acanthosis was also detected in the epidermis. Dermis showed moderate perivascular lymphomononuclear inflammatory infiltrate. Thus, the skin biopsy was consistent with PRP. HIV serology by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with 3

  16. [High-spectral responses of Myrica rubra seedlings to UV-B radiation stress].

    PubMed

    Jin, Xin-Jie; Jiang, Hong; Chen, Jian; Shi, Qi-Long; Zhang, Qian-Qian

    2012-12-01

    A simulated field experiment with three treatments, i. e., ambient light (control), reduced UV-B radiation, and enhanced UV-B radiation, was conducted to evaluate the effects of solar ultraviolet (UV-B) radiation on the seedlings of Myrica rubra, a typical woody species in subtropical region. The leaf chlorophyll content, spectral reflectance and spectral characteristic parameters were measured and analyzed. As compared with the control, enhanced UV-B radiation decreased the seedling chlorophyll content while reduced UV-B radiation significantly increased the chlorophyll content, and these effects reflected in the spectral reflectance. Under the effects of the three gradients of UV-B radiation, the differences in the reflectance at visible region mainly occurred around the green peak and red edge on the reflectance curve, and the peak wavelength of the red edge shifted to longer wavelength. Enhanced UV-B radiation had an accumulated temporal effect on M. rubra. The inverted-Gaussian model parameters R0, lambda0, lambda(p), Rs, and 6 were the useful guides to reveal the spectral responses of M. rubra seedlings under UV-B radiation stress, among which, Rs performed the best. The differences in the spectral reflectance under different UV-B radiation levels could be effectively distinguished with the vegetation indices composed of the spectral reflectance of narrow wave bands or the reflectance at specific wavelengths.

  17. Anti-inflammatory activity of myricetin isolated from Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc. leaves.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu-Jun; Tong, Yan; Lu, Shuang; Yang, Rui; Liao, Xu; Xu, Ying-Feng; Li, Xun

    2010-10-01

    MYRICA RUBRA Sieb. et Zucc. leaves are commonly used in folk medicine to treat inflammatory disorders in China. Present studies on the anti-inflammatory effect of myricetin from MYRICA RUBRA Sieb. et Zucc. leaves was evaluated with various IN VIVO models of both acute and chronic inflammations such as xylene-induced ear edema, acetic acid-induced vascular permeability, carrageenan-induced paw edema, leukocyte migration assay, and cotton pellet granuloma models. Myricetin showed a significant inhibition on ear edema and hind paw edema caused by xylene and carrageenan, respectively. Furthermore, it also inhibited the increase in capillary permeability induced by the production of acetic acid in the human body. Myricetin significantly decreased the serum levels of MDA and, in turn, increased the serum levels of SOD in the carrageenan-induced paw edema model. Concurrently, myricetin also significantly decreased leukocyte count. During chronic inflammation, myricetin inhibited the formation of granuloma tissue. These results, collectively, demonstrate that myricetin possesses a potent anti-inflammatory function on acute and chronic inflammation. Its anti-inflammatory mechanisms are probably associated with the inhibition of antioxidant activity. These results also support the claims of traditional Chinese medicine practitioners about the use of MYRICA RUBRA Sieb. et Zucc. leaves in the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

  18. Factors affecting suitability of Quercus rubra as hosts for Enaphalodes rufulus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Haavik, L J; Fierke, M K; Stephen, F M

    2010-04-01

    Epidemic populations of Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman), red oak borer, a native longhorned wood boring beetle, were implicated as a major contributor to a recent widespread oak mortality event in the Ozark National Forest of Arkansas. We assessed potential factors affecting suitability of a primary host Quercus rubra L., northern red oak, which experienced dieback and mortality throughout two successive borer cohorts. We sampled trees with various E. rufulus infestation levels during 2001-2003 when populations were at outbreak levels and 2003-2005 when borer numbers were declining. We measured phloem thickness and calculated a vigor index; the ratio of the past 5-yr basal area increment to sapwood area. We also counted established first year larval feeding galleries and outer-bark adult emergence holes and measured surface area of feeding galleries on a subset of Q. rubra to assess the importance of host susceptibility versus suitability. Phloem thickness did not exhibit any patterns among hosts of varying infestation levels and was therefore not likely an important factor limiting larval success. Less vigorous Q. rubra appeared to be the most suitable hosts, although it is unclear whether reduced vigor was initially caused by stress of E. rufulus infestation or environmental factors. Host suitability seems to be more important than host susceptibility, as numbers of initiated galleries were not consistently different among host infestation classes and between both cohorts, whereas numbers of emerging adults did differ predictably among host infestation classes.

  19. Late onset pityriasis rubra pilaris type IV treated with low-dose acitretin.

    PubMed

    Mota, Fernando; Carvalho, Sandrina; Sanches, Madalena; Selores, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Pityriasis rubra pilaris is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis of unknown etiology and great clinical variability. It has been divided into six categories. Types III, IV, and V occur in childhood and are distinguished by their clinical presentation, age of onset, and course. We report a 19-year-old male patient with a 2-week history of pruritic, scaling dermatosis of the hands, feet, elbows, and knees. He had no family history of skin disease. On physical examination, we observed circumscribed, reddish-orange, scaling plaques affecting the elbows and knees and a waxy palmoplantar keratoderma. The skin biopsy showed acanthosis, alternating orthokeratosis, parakeratosis, and follicular plugging suggestive of pityriasis rubra pilaris. The patient started treatment with oral acitretin, 25 mg every other day. The treatment was tolerated well, and after 6 months the lesions had resolved completely. Pityriasis rubra pilaris is a chronic papulosquamous disorder of unknown pathogenesis, characterized by reddish-orange scaly plaques, palmoplantar keratoderma, and keratotic follicular papules. There is still no consensus regarding the treatment, but therapeutic options include systemic retinoids, particularly acitretin in the recommended dose of 0.5 to 0.75 mg/kg/day. In our case, the patient was treated with a low-dose regimen of acitretin, which was effective and well tolerated.

  20. Flavonoid constituents in the leaves of Myrica rubra sieb. et zucc. with anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han Hyuk; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Manh Heun; Oh, Myoeng Hwan; Kim, So Ra; Park, Kwang Jun; Lee, Min Won

    2013-12-01

    The leaves of Myrica rubra sieb. et zucc. have been used in oriental traditional medicine for the treatment of burns, skin diseases, and as an antidiarrheal in China, Japan, and Korea. Activity guided isolation of the leaves of M. rubra has led to the isolation of five flavonoid: myricetin (1), myricitrin (2), myricetin 3-O-(2″-O-galloyl)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (3), myricetin 3-O-(2″-O-galloyl)-β-D-galactopyranoside (4), and quercetin 3-O-(2″-O-galloyl)-β-D-galactopyranoside (5). All isolates were evaluated for their antioxidant potency against the superoxide anion (O2 (-)), and compounds 3-5 showed potent scavenging activities with 50 % inhibition concentration (IC50) values compared to the positive control, allopurinol. Compounds 1-5 were evaluated as inhibitors of various macrophage functions involved in the inflammatory process. These five compounds significantly and dose dependently inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated nitric oxide (NO), pro-inflammatory cytokines, and the protein levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Our results suggest that galloyl flavonol glycosides (3-5) isolated from M. rubra might be beneficial for the treatment of inflammation-related diseases.

  1. A new genus of the family Micromonosporaceae, Polymorphospora gen. nov., with description of Polymorphospora rubra sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Tomohiko; Hatano, Kazunori; Suzuki, Ken-Ichiro

    2006-08-01

    Two actinomycete strains were isolated from soil surrounding mangrove roots. The isolates formed short spore chains with spores showing diverse shapes. The isolates contained glutamic acid, glycine, alanine and meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell wall, 3-O-methylmannose, mannose, galactose and glucose as the whole-cell sugars and MK-10(H(6)), MK-10(H(4)), MK-9(H(6)) and MK-9(H(4)) as the predominant isoprenoid quinones. The isolates formed a distinct taxon in the phylogenetic tree of the Micromonosporaceae based on analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences and showed chemical and phenotypic properties that were different from members of all of the other genera of this family. Based on these observations, it is proposed that the novel isolates belong to a new genus, Polymorphospora gen. nov. The type species of the genus is proposed as Polymorphospora rubra sp. nov., with strain TT 97-42(T) (=NBRC 101157(T)=DSM 44947(T)) as the type strain.

  2. Systemic increased immune response to Nocardia brasiliensis co-exists with local immunosuppressive microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Salinas-Carmona, Mario Cesar; Rosas-Taraco, Adrian Geovanni; Welsh, Oliverio

    2012-10-01

    Human diseases produced by pathogenic actinomycetes are increasing because they may be present as opportunistic infections. Some of these microbes cause systemic infections associated with immunosuppressive conditions, such as chemotherapy for cancer, immunosuppressive therapy for transplant, autoimmune conditions, and AIDS; while others usually cause localized infection in immunocompetent individuals. Other factors related to this increase in incidence are: antibiotic resistance, not well defined taxonomy, and a delay in isolation and identification of the offending microbe. Examples of these infections are systemic disease and brain abscesses produced by Nocardia asteroides or the located disease by Nocardia brasiliensis, named actinomycetoma. During the Pathogenic Actinomycetes Symposium of the 16th International Symposium on Biology of Actinomycetes (ISBA), held in Puerto Vallarta, Mexico, several authors presented recent research on the mechanisms by which N. brasiliensis modulates the immune system to survive in the host and advances in medical treatment of human actinomycetoma. Antibiotics and antimicrobials that are effective against severe actinomycetoma infections with an excellent therapeutic outcome and experimental studies of drugs that show promising bacterial inhibition in vivo and in vitro were presented. Here we demonstrate a systemic strong acquired immune response in humans and experimental mice at the same time of a local dominance of anti inflammatory cytokines environment. The pathogenic mechanisms of some actinomycetes include generation of an immunosuppressive micro environment to evade the protective immune response. This information will be helpful in understanding pathogenesis and to design new drugs for treatment of actinomycetoma.

  3. Genome shuffling of marine derived bacterium Nocardia sp. ALAA 2000 for improved ayamycin production.

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, Mervat M A; El-Bondkly, Ahmed M A

    2011-05-01

    Genome shuffling is a recent development in microbiology. The advantage of this technique is that genetic changes can be made in a microorganism without knowing its genetic background. Genome shuffling was applied to the marine derived bacterium Nocardia sp. ALAA 2000 to achieve rapid improvement of ayamycin production. The initial mutant population was generated by treatment with ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) combined with UV irradiation of the spores, resulting in an improved population (AL/11, AL/136, AL/213 and AL/277) producing tenfold (150 μg/ml) more ayamycin than the original strain. These mutants were used as the starting strains for three rounds of genome shuffling and after each round improved strains were screened and selected based on their ayamycin productivity. The population after three rounds of genome shuffling exhibited an improved ayamycin yield. Strain F3/22 yielded 285 μg/ml of ayamycin, which was 19-fold higher than that of the initial strain and 1.9-fold higher than the mutants used as the starting point for genome shuffling. We evaluated the genetic effect of UV + EMS-mutagenesis and three rounds of genome shuffling on the nucleotide sequence by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Many differences were noticed in mutant and recombinant strains compared to the wild type strain. These differences in RAPD profiles confirmed the presence of genetic variations in the Nocardia genome after mutagenesis and genome shuffling.

  4. [Respiratory infections caused by slow-growing bacteria: Nocardia, Actinomyces, Rhodococcus].

    PubMed

    Eschapasse, E; Hussenet, C; Bergeron, A; Lebeaux, D

    2017-06-01

    Pneumonia caused by slow-growing bacteria is rare but sometimes severe. These infections share many similarities such as several differential diagnoses, difficulties to identify the pathogen, the importance of involving the microbiologist in the diagnostic investigation and the need for prolonged antibiotic treatment. However, major differences distinguish them: Nocardia and Rhodococcus infect mainly immunocompromised patients while actinomycosis also concerns immunocompetent patients; the severity of nocardioses is related to their hematogenous spread while locoregional extension by contiguity makes the gravity of actinomycosis. For these diseases, molecular diagnostic tools are essential, either to obtain a species identification and guide treatment in the case of nocardiosis or to confirm the diagnosis from a biological sample. Treatment of these infections is complex due to: (1) the limited data in the literature; (2) the need for prolonged treatment of several months; (3) the management of toxicities and drug interactions for the treatment of Nocardia and Rhodococcus. Close cooperation between pneumonologists, infectious disease specialists and microbiologists is essential for the management of these patients. Copyright © 2017 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for Identification of Nocardia Species▿

    PubMed Central

    Verroken, A.; Janssens, M.; Berhin, C.; Bogaerts, P.; Huang, T.-D.; Wauters, G.; Glupczynski, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The identification of Nocardia species, usually based on biochemical tests together with phenotypic in vitro susceptibility and resistance patterns, is a difficult and lengthy process owing to the slow growth and limited reactivity of these bacteria. In this study, a panel of 153 clinical and reference strains of Nocardia spp., altogether representing 19 different species, were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). As reference methods for species identification, full-length 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phenotypical biochemical and enzymatic tests were used. In a first step, a complementary homemade reference database was established by the analysis of 110 Nocardia isolates (pretreated with 30 min of boiling and extraction) in the MALDI BioTyper software according to the manufacturer's recommendations for microflex measurement (Bruker Daltonik GmbH, Leipzig, Germany), generating a dendrogram with species-specific cluster patterns. In a second step, the MALDI BioTyper database and the generated database were challenged with 43 blind-coded clinical isolates of Nocardia spp. Following addition of the homemade database in the BioTyper software, MALDI-TOF MS provided reliable identification to the species level for five species of which more than a single isolate was analyzed. Correct identification was achieved for 38 of the 43 isolates (88%), including 34 strains identified to the species level and 4 strains identified to the genus level according to the manufacturer's log score specifications. These data suggest that MALDI-TOF MS has potential for use as a rapid (<1 h) and reliable method for the identification of Nocardia species without any substantial costs for consumables. PMID:20861335

  6. Microbial gutta-percha degradation shares common steps with rubber degradation by Nocardia nova SH22a.

    PubMed

    Luo, Quan; Hiessl, Sebastian; Poehlein, Anja; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2013-02-01

    Nocardia nova SH22a, a bacterium capable of degrading gutta-percha (GP) and natural rubber (NR), was used to investigate the GP degradation mechanism and the relations between the GP and NR degradation pathways. For this strain, a protocol of electroporation was systematically optimized, and an efficiency of up to 4.3 × 10(7) CFU per μg of plasmid DNA was achieved. By applying this optimized protocol to N. nova SH22a, a Tn5096-based transposon mutagenesis library of this bacterium was constructed. Among about 12,000 apramycin-resistant transformants, we identified 76 stable mutants defective in GP or NR utilization. Whereas 10 mutants were specifically defective in GP utilization, the growth of the other 66 mutants was affected on both GP and NR. This indicated that the two degradation pathways are quite similar and share many common steps. The larger number of GP-degrading defective mutants could be explained in one of two ways: either (i) the GP pathway is more complex and harbors more specific steps or (ii) the steps for both pathways are almost identical, but in the case of GP degradation there are fewer enzymes involved in each step. The analysis of transposition loci and genetic studies on interesting genes confirmed the crucial role of an α-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase in the degradation of both GP and NR. We also demonstrated the probable involvement of enzymes participating in oxidoreduction reactions, β-oxidation, and the synthesis of complex cell envelope lipids in the degradation of GP.

  7. The Nocardia cyriacigeorgica GUH-2 genome shows ongoing adaptation of an environmental Actinobacteria to a pathogen’s lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nocardia cyriacigeorgica is recognized as one of the most prevalent etiological agents of human nocardiosis. Human exposure to these Actinobacteria stems from direct contact with contaminated environmental matrices. The full genome sequence of N. cyriacigeorgica strain GUH-2 was studied to infer major trends in its evolution, including the acquisition of novel genetic elements that could explain its ability to thrive in multiple habitats. Results N. cyriacigeorgica strain GUH-2 genome size is 6.19 Mb-long, 82.7% of its CDS have homologs in at least another actinobacterial genome, and 74.5% of these are found in N. farcinica. Among N. cyriacigeorgica specific CDS, some are likely implicated in niche specialization such as those involved in denitrification and RuBisCO production, and are found in regions of genomic plasticity (RGP). Overall, 22 RGP were identified in this genome, representing 11.4% of its content. Some of these RGP encode a recombinase and IS elements which are indicative of genomic instability. CDS playing part in virulence were identified in this genome such as those involved in mammalian cell entry or encoding a superoxide dismutase. CDS encoding non ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) and polyketide synthases (PKS) were identified, with some being likely involved in the synthesis of siderophores and toxins. COG analyses showed this genome to have an organization similar to environmental Actinobacteria. Conclusion N. cyriacigeorgica GUH-2 genome shows features suggesting a diversification from an ancestral saprophytic state. GUH-2 ability at acquiring foreign DNA was found significant and to have led to functional changes likely beneficial for its environmental cycle and opportunistic colonization of a human host. PMID:23622346

  8. [Metabolomics study of anti-platelet effect of Radix Paeoniae Rubra and Radix Paeoniae Alba by UPLC-MS].

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiwei; Yang, Li; Xiong, Aizhen; Wang, Rui; Wang, Zhengtao

    2011-03-01

    To study the anti-platelet effect and influence of Radix Paeoniae Rubra and Radix Paeoniae Alba on rat's endogenous metabolites by animal experiment and UPLC-MS based metabolomic method. After administration of 80% ethanol extracts of Radix Paeoniae Rubra and Radix Paeoniae Alba for 6 d, the serum samples were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography- mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) to find out the potential biomarker. Both of the extracts of Radix Paeoniae Rubra and Radix Paeoniae Alba have good effects of inhibition on platelet coacervation, and the effect of Radix Paeoniae Alba is better than that of Radix Paeoniae Rubra. Malic acid, alpha-acetone dicarboxylic acid, leukotrieneA4 (LTA4), prostaglandinE2 (PGE2) and prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha) are proved to be significant expressed biomarkers. Metabolomics is helpful for the further research of the mechanism of anti-platelet action of Radix Paeoniae Rubra and Radix Paeoniae Alba.

  9. Potential for phytoextraction of copper by Sinapis alba and Festuca rubra cv. Merlin grown hydroponically and in vineyard soils.

    PubMed

    Malagoli, Mario; Rossignolo, Virginia; Salvalaggio, Nico; Schiavon, Michela

    2014-03-01

    The extensive use of copper-bearing fungicides in vineyards is responsible for the accumulation of copper (Cu) in soils. Grass species able to accumulate Cu could be cultivated in the vineyard inter-rows for copper phytoextraction. In this study, the capacity of Festuca rubra cv Merlin and Sinapis alba to tolerate and accumulate copper (Cu) was first investigated in a hydroponic system without the interference of soil chemical-physical properties. After the amendment of Cu (5 or 10 mg Cu l-(1)) to nutrient solution, shoot Cu concentration in F. rubra increased up to 108.63 mg Cu kg(-1) DW, more than three times higher than in S. alba (31.56 mg Cu kg(-1) DW). The relationship between Cu concentration in plants and external Cu was dose-dependent and species specific. Results obtained from the hydroponic experiment were confirmed by growing plants in pots containing soil collected from six Italian vineyards. The content of soil organic matter was crucial to enhance Cu tolerance and accumulation in the shoot tissues of both plant species. Although S. alba produced more biomass than F. rubra in most soils, F. rubra accumulated significantly more Cu (up to threefold to fourfold) in the shoots. Given these results, we recommended that F. rubra cv Merlin could be cultivated in the vineyard rows to reduce excess Cu in vineyard soils.

  10. Expression and function analysis of the metallothionein-like (MT-like) gene from Festuca rubra in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast.

    PubMed

    Han, SiHai; Hu, ZhangLi; Lei, AnPing

    2008-12-01

    The cDNA of the metallothionein-like (MT-like) gene from Festuca rubra cv. Merlin was optimized with bias codon of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast genome. The optimized MT-like gene was delivered into C. reinhardtii chloroplast and the transgenic strains expressing MT-like gene was obtained. PCR-Southern blot and RT-PCR-Southern blot analysis demonstrated that the MT-like gene was integrated into chloroplast genome of C. reinhardtii and expressed at the transcriptional level. The cadmium binding capacity of the transgenic C. reinhardtii was determined by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) and the binding properties were analyzed. Results showed that the transgenic C. reinhardtii expressing the MT-like gene exhibited remarkably higher Cd(2+) binding capacity and grew to higher densities at toxic Cd(2+) concentrations (40-100 micromol/L) than the wild type strain, and that the IC(50) of Cd(2+) (3-d treating) to algal cell growth of transgenic strain was 55.43% higher than that of the wild type strain, indicating that the Cd(2+) binding capacity and Cd(2+) tolerance of C. reinhardtii was enhanced through the expression of the foreign MT-like gene in chloroplast.

  11. Restoration of regeneration potential of long-term cultures of red fescue (Festuca rubra L.) by elevated sucrose levels.

    PubMed

    Zaghmout, O M; Torello, W A

    1992-04-01

    A tissue culture protocol for restoring embryogenic ability and increasing green plant regeneration from long-term callus (5-year old) and suspension cultures of "Dawson" red fescue (Festuca rubra var trichyoplylla Gaud) was developed. Pretreatment with elevated levels of sucrose over the standard level (60 mM) enhanced regeneration capacity and decreased the number of albino plants. The highest degree of embryogenesis and green shoot number occurred when calli were pre-treated on MS basal medium supplemented with 120 mM sucrose. Mannitol caused callus discoloration and death if added to pre-treatment media at 60, 90, 120, 150 or 180 mM. Cell suspension growth was greatest when 135 mM sucrose was added to the pre-treatment growth media. High concentrations of sucrose (135 and 180 mM) were necessary for plant regeneration from suspension aggregates pretreated with 135 or 180 mM sucrose and then plated on a growth regulator-free regeneration medium composed of half-strength MS salts and B5 vitamins.

  12. Permanent Draft Genome Sequence of Nocardia sp. BMG111209, an Actinobacterium Isolated from Nodules of Casuarina glauca

    SciTech Connect

    Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten; Beauchemin, Nicholas; Gueddou, Abdellatif; Hezbri, Karima; Ktari, Amir; Louati, Moussa; Nouioui, Imen; Chen, Amy; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Markowitz, Victor; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Pagani, Ioanna; Sen, Arnab; Wall, Luis; Woyke, Tanja; Gtari, Maher; Tisa, Louis S.

    2016-08-04

    Nocardiasp. strain BMG111209 is a non-Frankiaactinobacterium isolated from root nodules ofCasuarina glaucain Tunisia. Here, we report the 9.1-Mbp draft genome sequence ofNocardiasp. strain BMG111209 with a G + C content of 69.19% and 8,122 candidate protein-encoding genes.

  13. Gordonia (nocardia) amarae foaming due to biosurfactant production.

    PubMed

    Pagilla, K R; Sood, A; Kim, H

    2002-01-01

    Gordonia amarae, a filamentous actinomycete, commonly found in foaming activated sludge wastewater treatment plants was investigated for its biosurfactant production capability. Soluble acetate and paringly soluble hexadecane were used as carbon sources for G. amarae growth and biosurfactant production in laboratory scale batch reactors. The lowest surface tension (critical micelle concentration, CMC) of the cell-free culture broth was 55 dynes/cm when 1,900 mg/L acetate was used as the sole carbon source. The lowest surface tension was less than 40 dynes/cm when either 1% (v/v) hexadecane or a mixture of 1% (v/v) hexadecane and 0.5% (w/v) acetate was used as the carbon source. The maximum biomass concentration (the stationary phase) was achieved after 4 days when acetate was used along with hexadecane, whereas it took about 8 days to achieve the stationary phase with hexadecane alone. The maximum biosurfactant production was 3 x CMC with hexadecane as the sole carbon source, and it was 5 x CMC with the mixture of hexadecane and acetate. Longer term growth studies (approximately 35 days of culture growth) indicated that G. amarae produces biosurfactant in order to solubilize hexadecane, and that adding acetate improves its biosurfactant production by providing readily degradable substrate for initial biomass growth. This research confirms that the foaming problems in activated sludge containing G. amarae in the activated sludge are due to the biosurfactant production by G. amarae when hydrophobic substrates such as hexadecane are present.

  14. Nocardia abscessus-related intracranial aneurysm of the internal carotid artery with associated brain abscess: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Farran, Yvette; Antony, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia infections primarily begin in the lungs and spread hematogenously to other sites in the body. Thus, a Nocardia brain abscess is not a completely uncommon occurrence. However, a Nocardia brain abscess complicated by a middle cerebral artery and infectious intracranial aneurysm is a very rare clinical entity. We present a case of an infectious intracranial aneurysm with an associated Nocardia brain abscess that required surgical intervention and resection. The patient was an immunocompetent 60-year-old male who presented with a chief complaint of headache and was found to have an infected intracranial aneurysm and cerebral abscess. He underwent drainage of the abscess with subsequent resection of the infected aneurysm. Cultures from both the blood vessel and brain tissue grew Nocardia abscessus. He was successfully treated with 6 weeks of ceftriaxone and high-dose trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Infectious intracranial aneurysms of the brain caused by Nocardia are rare occurrences, and only a single previous case has been described in the literature. The outcomes of this condition can be catastrophic if it is not treated with a combination of surgery and intravenous antibiotics. The guidelines for the management of this infection are not well defined at this time. Copyright © 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Morphology and ecology of the kalyptorhynch Typhlopolycystis rubra (Plathelminthes), an inmate of lugworm burrows in the Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noldt, U.; Reise, K.

    1987-06-01

    Typhlopolycystis rubra, a new species of the taxon Polycystididae (Plathelminthes, Kalyptorhynchia), is described. The red species is characterized by copulatory hard structures which consist of a proximal girdle and 2 similar sized stylets. T. rubra occurs in intertidal sand near the island of Sylt in the North Sea. Here, it is virtually confined to the lowest parts of lugworm ( Arenicola marina) burrows, where it aggregates in the coarse grained sand around the feeding pocket areas. This is an extremely narrow spatial niche within the sulfide layer of sediment. Population size over a period of 7 years is the most constant one among all species of Plathelminthes living on the tidal flat. The ability of T. rubra to endure unsuitable conditions inside a cyst may contribute to this remarkably low population variability.

  16. The termiticidal activity of Sextonia rubra (Mez) van der Werff (Lauraceae) extract and its active constituent rubrynolide.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Alice M S; Amusant, Nadine; Beauchêne, Jacques; Eparvier, Véronique; Leménager, Nicolas; Baudassé, Christine; Espindola, Laila S; Stien, Didier

    2011-11-01

    Termites are degradation agents that inflict severe damage on wood. Some long-lasting Amazonian trees can resist these insects by producing toxic secondary metabolites. These metabolites could potentially replace synthetic termiticidal products which are becoming more restricted to use. Sextonia rubra is resistant to termite-induced degradation. It has been demonstrated that this species naturally produces an ethyl-acetate-soluble termiticidal metabolite, rubrynolide, to protect its wood. Assays in the presence of tropical and invasive termites established that both rubrynolide and crude ethyl acetate extract from S. rubra wood can be used as a treatment for the protection of sensitive woods against termites. Rubrynolide and S. rubra extract are promising candidates for the replacement of synthetic termiticides. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Effect of fertiliser application and abandonment on plant species composition of Festuca rubra grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlů, Vilém; Gaisler, Jan; Pavlů, Lenka; Hejcman, Michal; Ludvíková, Vendula

    2012-11-01

    Little is known about the effects of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) application on soil chemical properties and plant species composition of mountain Festuca rubra grasslands. In this study, we aimed to determine whether fertiliser application affects plant species composition and soil properties during periods of management, and whether residual after-effects of fertiliser application can be detected eight years after its use is abandoned. The experiment with unfertilised control, PK treatment and treatments with low and higher level of NPK application under three (intensive management from 1993 to 1997) and two cut management (moderate management from 1997 to 1999) was established in the Jizera Mts. (Czech Republic) on F. rubra meadow and then the experiment was eight years abandoned. Immediately after the introduction of intensive management, a decrease in species richness and diversification of plant species composition occurred. Plant communities which had diversified in different fertiliser treatments persisted under moderately intensive management. The cover of Alopecurus pratensis increased to >50% while the cover of Agrostis capillaris decreased to <5% in NPK treatments during the period of intensive management. Trifolium repens became the dominant species in the PK treatment. Within eight years, under no management, the differences in plant species composition disappeared, species richness decreased and F. rubra, followed by Hypericum maculatum, became dominant in all treatments. The differences in biomass P concentration and plant available P and K concentrations in the soil were still detectable eight years after the last fertiliser application. As shown in this study, moderate application of NPK and consequent abandonment need not generate irreversible changes in species composition of mountain grassland.

  18. Identification and Functional Analysis of the Nocardithiocin Gene Cluster in Nocardia pseudobrasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Kanae; Komaki, Hisayuki; Gonoi, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Nocardithiocin is a thiopeptide compound isolated from the opportunistic pathogen Nocardia pseudobrasiliensis. It shows a strong activity against acid-fast bacteria and is also active against rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Here, we report the identification of the nocardithiocin gene cluster in N. pseudobrasiliensis IFM 0761 based on conserved thiopeptide biosynthesis gene sequence and the whole genome sequence. The predicted gene cluster was confirmed by gene disruption and complementation. As expected, strains containing the disrupted gene did not produce nocardithiocin while gene complementation restored nocardithiocin production in these strains. The predicted cluster was further analyzed using RNA-seq which showed that the nocardithiocin gene cluster contains 12 genes within a 15.2-kb region. This finding will promote the improvement of nocardithiocin productivity and its derivatives production. PMID:26588225

  19. Isolation and genetic characterization of Nocardia seriolae from snubnose pompano Trachinotus blochii in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Vu-Khac, Hung; Duong, Van Quy; Chen, Shih-Chu; Pham, Trung Hieu; Nguyen, Thi Thu; Trinh, Thi Thu

    2016-07-07

    A total of 480 cage-cultured fish were collected from 4 coastal provinces in central Vietnam to investigate the causative agent of nocardiosis. Fish displayed unique characteristics such as paleness and lethargy and exhibited haemorrhages and ulcers on the skin. Prominent white nodules varying in size were observed in the spleen, kidney, and liver. Furthermore, histopathological sections showed typical granulomatous lesions in these organs. Using the Ziehl-Neelsen staining method, isolated bacteria exhibited acid-fast, bead-like filament morphology when cultured in brain-heart infusion medium or Ogawa medium. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA confirmed that the isolated bacterium was Nocardia seriolae. This study demonstrates for the first time an outbreak of N. seriolae in snubnose pompano in central Vietnam.

  20. Nocardia prosthetic knee infection successfully treated by one-stage exchange: case report and review.

    PubMed

    Laurent, F; Rodriguez-Villalobos, H; Cornu, O; Vandercam, B; Yombi, J C

    2015-08-01

    A 64-year-old man with a history of sarcoidosis on corticosteroids and azathioprine was admitted to our hospital with complaints of worsening left knee pain and swelling for the past 3 weeks. His past medical history is also significant for severe osteoarthritis requiring a cemented total left knee arthroplasty 1 year ago. Diagnostic investigation during his hospital admission eventually led to the diagnosis of Nocardia nova knee prosthetic joint infection in the setting of a disseminated nocardiosis. He was successful treated by one-stage complete hardware exchange in conjunction with an adapted antibiotic therapy regimen (meropenem and doxycycline followed by ceftriaxone and doxycycline). Two years later, his recovery was deemed excellent.

  1. Identification and Functional Analysis of the Nocardithiocin Gene Cluster in Nocardia pseudobrasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kanae; Komaki, Hisayuki; Gonoi, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Nocardithiocin is a thiopeptide compound isolated from the opportunistic pathogen Nocardia pseudobrasiliensis. It shows a strong activity against acid-fast bacteria and is also active against rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Here, we report the identification of the nocardithiocin gene cluster in N. pseudobrasiliensis IFM 0761 based on conserved thiopeptide biosynthesis gene sequence and the whole genome sequence. The predicted gene cluster was confirmed by gene disruption and complementation. As expected, strains containing the disrupted gene did not produce nocardithiocin while gene complementation restored nocardithiocin production in these strains. The predicted cluster was further analyzed using RNA-seq which showed that the nocardithiocin gene cluster contains 12 genes within a 15.2-kb region. This finding will promote the improvement of nocardithiocin productivity and its derivatives production.

  2. Antagonistic Activity of Nocardia brasiliensis PTCC 1422 Against Isolated Enterobacteriaceae from Urinary Tract Infections.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Hossnieh Kafshdar; Salamatzadeh, Abdolreza; Jalali, Arezou Kafshdar; Kashani, Hamed Haddad; Asbchin, Salman Ahmadi; Issazadeh, Khosro

    2016-03-01

    The main drawback of current antibiotic therapies is the emergence and rapid increase in antibiotic resistance. Nocardiae are aerobic, Gram-positive, catalase-positive, non-motile actinomycetes. Nocardia brasiliensis was reported as antibiotic producer. The purpose of the study was to determine antibacterial activity of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 against isolated Enterobacteriaceae from urinary tract infections (UTIs). The common bacteria from UTIs were isolated from hospital samples. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed for the isolated pathogens using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method according to clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guideline. Antagonistic activity of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 was examined with well diffusion methods. Supernatant of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 by submerged culture was analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Isolated strains included Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens and Proteus mirabilis. The most common pathogen isolated was E. coli (72.5%). Bacterial isolates revealed the presence of high levels of antimicrobial resistances to ceftriaxone and low levels of resistance to cephalexin. Supernatant of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 showed antibacterial activity against all of the isolated microorganisms in well diffusion method. The antibiotic resistance among the uropathogens is an evolving process, so a routine surveillance to monitor the etiologic agents of UTI and the resistance pattern should be carried out timely to choose the most effective empirical treatment by the physicians. Our present investigation indicates that the substances present in the N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 could be used to inhibit the growth of human pathogen. Antibacterial resistance among bacterial uropathogen is an evolving process. Therefore, in the field on the need of re-evaluation of empirical treatment of UTIs, our present. The study has demonstrated that N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 has a high potential

  3. Production of bioactive metabolites by Nocardia levis MK-VL_113.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, A; Prabhakar, P; Vijayalakshmi, M; Venkateswarlu, Y

    2009-10-01

    To isolate and identify the bioactive compounds produced by Nocardia levis MK-VL_113. Cultural characteristics of Noc. levis isolated from laterite soils of Guntur region were recorded on International Streptomyces Project media. Morphological studies of the strain through scanning electron microscopy revealed the clear pattern of its hyphal fragmentation into rod-shaped bacilli. Chemical examination of the secondary metabolites of the strain grown on sucrose-tryptone broth led to the isolation of three fractions active against Bacillus cereus. Further analysis of second fraction resulted in the isolation of two active subfractions. Two different phthalate esters, namely, bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and bis-(5-ethylheptyl) phthalate, were purified from the first active subfraction, and the structural elucidation of these compounds was confirmed on the basis of FT-IR, mass and NMR spectroscopy. The partially purified second subfraction subjected to Gas Chromatography-Mass spectroscopy contained nine components: decanedioic acid; 2,6-piperdione monooxime; 1-eicosanol; beta-1-arabinopyranoside, methyl; cyclopentaneundecanoic acid; hexadecanoic acid; silane, trichloro eicosyl; 1-hexacosanol; and 1,2-dodecanediol. The antimicrobial activity of the bioactive compounds produced by Noc. levis was expressed in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration. The present study clearly revealed that the metabolites of Noc. levis act as bioactive compounds against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, yeast and filamentous fungi. It also supports the idea that there are a number of rare actinomycetes remained to be explored for new bioactive compounds. Metabolites of Noc. levis exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activities. This is the first report of bis-(5-ethylheptyl) phthalate as well as the nine partially purified compounds from actinomycetes. In addition, this is also the first report of bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate from the genus Nocardia.

  4. Phylogeny of the Genus Nocardia Based on Reassessed 16S rRNA Gene Sequences Reveals Underspeciation and Division of Strains Classified as Nocardia asteroides into Three Established Species and Two Unnamed Taxons

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Andreas; Andrees, Sebastian; Kroppenstedt, Reiner M.; Harmsen, Dag; Mauch, Harald

    2003-01-01

    Conventional identification of Nocardia in the routine laboratory remains problematic due to a paucity of reliable phenotypic tests and due to the yet-unresolved taxonomy of strains classified as belonging to the species Nocardia asteroides, which comprises the type strain and isolates with drug pattern types II and VI. The 16S rRNA gene of 74 representative strains of the genus Nocardia, encompassing 25 established species, was sequenced in order to provide a molecular basis for accurate species identification and with the aim of reassessing the phylogeny of taxons assigned to the species N. asteroides. The result of this phylogenetic analysis confirms that the interspecies heterogeneity of closely related nocardial species can be considerably low (a sequence divergence of only 0.5% was found between N. paucivorans and N. brevicatena). We observed a sequence microheterogeneity (sequence divergence of fewer than five bases) in 8 of 11 species of which more than one strain in the species was studied. At least 10 taxons were found that merit description as new species. Strains previously classified as N. asteroides fell into five distinct phylogenetic groups: the type strain cluster (N. asteroides sensu strictu), N. abscessus, N. cyriacigeorgica, and two clusters closely related to N. carnea or N. flavorosea. The strains within the latter two groups probably represent new species, pending further genetic and phenotypic evaluation. Restricted phenotypic data revealed that N. abscessus, N. cyriacigeorgica, and the two Nocardia species taxons are equivalent to drug patterns I, VI, and II, respectively. In the future, these data will help in finding species-specific markers after adoption of a more precise nomenclature for isolates closely related to N. asteroides and unravel confusing phenotypic data obtained in the past for unresolved groups of strains that definitely belong to separate taxons from a phylogenetic point of view. PMID:12574299

  5. Bacterial metabolism of alpha-pinene: pathway from alpha-pinene oxide to acyclic metabolites in Nocardia sp. strain P18.3.

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, E T; Bociek, S M; Harries, P C; Jeffcoat, R; Sissons, D J; Trudgill, P W

    1987-01-01

    Over 20 gram-positive bacteria were isolated by elective culture with (+/-)-alpha-pinene as the sole carbon source. One of these strains, Nocardia sp. strain P18.3, was selected for detailed study. alpha-Pinene-grown cells oxidized, without lag, alpha-pinene, alpha-pinene oxide (epoxide), and the cis and trans isomers of 2-methyl-5-isopropylhexa-2,5-dienal. No other tested terpene was oxidized at a significant rate. alpha-Pinene was not metabolized by cell extracts in the presence or absence of NADH or NADPH. Cell extracts catalyzed a rapid decyclization of alpha-pinene oxide, in the absence of added cofactors, with the formation of cis-2-methyl-5-isopropylhexa-2,5-dienal. Further oxidation of the aldehyde to the corresponding acid occurred in the presence of NAD. Both activities were induced by growth with alpha-pinene. A rapid, nonenzymic transformation of the cis aldehyde into the trans isomer occurred in glycine buffer. The trans isomer was also a substrate for the NAD-linked aldehyde dehydrogenase. The distribution of the alpha-pinene oxide lyase in alpha-pinene-utilizing Pseudomonas spp. was also investigated and was compatible with the two alternative ring-cleavage sequences that have been proposed on the basis of accumulated metabolites. PMID:3667521

  6. Efficacy of DA-7218, a new oxazolidinone prodrug, in the treatment of experimental actinomycetoma produced by Nocardia brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Espinoza-González, Nelly Alejandra; Welsh, Oliverio; de Torres, Noemi Waksman; Cavazos-Rocha, Norma; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Said-Fernandez, Salvador; Lozano-Garza, Gerardo; Choi, Sung-Hak; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio

    2008-01-11

    Two recently synthesized oxazolidinones: (R)-3-(4-(2-(2-methyltetrazol-5-yl)-pyridin-5-yl)-3-fluorophenyl)-5-hydroxymethyloxazolidin-2-one (DA-7157) and its corresponding pro-drug (R)-3-(4-(2-(2-methyltetrazol-5-yl)-pyridin-5-yl)-3-fluorophenyl)-2-oxo-5-oxazolidinyl) methyl disodium phosphate (DA-7218), have shown very good activity against several Gram positive bacteria, including Nocardia and Mycobacterium. In the present work we evaluated the therapeutic in vivo effects of DA-7218 on Nocardia brasiliensis. We first determined the plasma concentration of the prodrug in BALB/c mice using several doses and then tested its activity in an in vivo experimental actinomycetoma murine model. At the end of treatment, there was a statistically significant difference between the three drug receiving groups (25, 12.5 and 5 mg/kg) and the control group(saline solution) (p=0.001), proving that DA-7218 is effective for the treatment of experimental murine actinomycetoma. This compound could be a potential option for patients affected with mycetoma by Nocardia brasiliensis.

  7. Morphology and molecular phylogeny of Paragorgia rubra sp. nov. (Cnidaria: Octocorallia), a new bubblegum coral species from a seamount in the tropical Western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Zhan, Zifeng; Xu, Kuidong

    2017-07-01

    A new species of bubblegum coral, Paragorgia rubra sp. nov., discovered from a seamount at a water depth of 373 m near the Yap Trench is studied using morphological and molecular approaches. Paragorgia rubra sp. nov. is the fourth species of the genus found in the tropical Western Pacific. The new gorgonian is red-colored, uniplanar, and measures approximately 530 mm high and 440 mm wide, with autozooids distributed only on one side of the colony. Paragorgia rubra sp. nov. is most similar to P. kaupeka Sánchez, 2005, but differs distinctly in the polyp ovals with large and compound protuberances (vs. small and simple conical protuberances) and the medullar spindles possessing simple conical protuberances (vs. compound protuberances). Moreover, P. rubra sp. nov. differs from P. kaupeka in the smaller length/width ratio of surface radiates (1.53 vs. 1.75). The genetic distance of the mtMutS gene between P. rubra sp. nov. and P. kaupeka is 0.66%, while the intraspecific distances within Paragorgia Milne-Edwards & Haime, 1857 except the species P. regalis complex are no more than 0.5%, further supporting the establishment of the new species. Furthermore, the ITS2 secondary structure of P. rubra sp. nov. is also different from those of congeners. Phylogenetic analyses indicate Paragorgia rubra sp. nov. and P. kaupeka form a clade, which branched early within Paragorgia and diversified approximately 15 Mya.

  8. Red alder, Alnus rubra, as a potential mitigating factor for wildlife habitat following clearcut logging in southeastern Alaska.

    Treesearch

    T.A. Hanley; J.C. Barnard

    1998-01-01

    Within-stand variation in understory species composition and biomass was studied in 16 even-aged stands of mixed red alder-Sitka spruce-western hemlcock (Alnus rubra-Picea sitchensis-Tsuga heterophylla) forest. The sites were upland sites, and the stands were 28-39 years old. We compared understory within...

  9. The major veins of mesomorphic leaves revisited: tests for conductive overload in Acer saccharum (Aceraceae) and Quercus rubra (Fagaceae).

    PubMed

    Sack, Lawren; Cowan, Peter D; Holbrook, N Michele

    2003-01-01

    Many leaves survive the severing of their major veins in apparently excellent health. According to the classical explanation, the leaf minor veins provide "conductive overload," an excess of parallel conductive paths, rendering the major veins hydraulically dispensable. Whether such an excess of conductive paths exists has important implications for vascular design and for leaf response to vascular damage. We subjected leaves of Acer saccharum and Quercus rubra to cutting treatments that disrupted the major vein system and determined leaf survival, stomatal conductance (g), quantum yield of photosystem II (Φ(PSII)), and leaf hydraulic conductance (K(leaf)). For A. saccharum, the cuts led to the death of distal lamina. For Q. rubra, however, the treated leaves typically remained apparently healthy. Despite their appearance, the treated Q. rubra leaves had a strongly reduced K(leaf), relative to control leaves, and g and Φ(PSII) were reduced distal to the cuts, respectively, by 75-97% and 48-76%. Gas exchange proximal to the cuts was unaffected, indicating the independence of lamina regions and their local stomata. Analogous results were obtained with excised Q. rubra leaves. These studies demonstrate an indispensable, vital role of the major veins in conducting water throughout the lamina.

  10. Photosynthesis and xanthophyll cycle-mediated photoprotection in leaves of Quercus rubra and Q. alba seedlings of different light environments

    Treesearch

    Shi-Jean S. Sung; Dianpeng Xu; Paul P. Kormanik; Clanton C. Black

    1997-01-01

    Two and three years after the outplanting of 1-0 northern red oak (Quercus rubra, NRO) and white oak (Q. alba, WO) nursery stocks, the highest net photosynthetic rates (Amax) were observed from seedlings growing on a clearcut site, followed by those under a pine stand. Both NRO and WO...

  11. The influence of cultural treatments of the long-term survival and growth of planted Quercus rubra

    Treesearch

    James J. Zaczek; Kim C. Steiner

    2011-01-01

    A northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) plantation testing 20 nursery stock and planting methods was used to evaluate treatments 3, 6, 10, and 17 years after planting. Survival over all treatments was 92 percent at age 3 and declined to 74 percent, 56 percent, and 39 percent at ages 6, 10, and 17, respectively. At age 17, survival was highest for...

  12. Improving germination of red elm (Ulmus rubra), gray alder (Alnus incana), and buffaloberry (Shepherdia canadensis) seeds with gibberellic acid

    Treesearch

    Brenda Morales; Charles Barden; Cheryl Boyer; Jason Griffin; Lillian Fisher; Joni Thompson

    2012-01-01

    Red elm (Ulmus rubra), gray alder (Alnus incana), and buffaloberry (Shepherdia canadensis) are considered important plants for many Native American tribes in the United States. Native Americans use these 3 species for a variety of traditional and medicinal purposes. For example, red elm is still the preferred firewood for the cultural ceremonies of several tribes....

  13. Shade, leaf growth, and crown development of Quercus rubra, Q. velutina, Prunus serotina, and Acer rubrum seedlings

    Treesearch

    Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1994-01-01

    The study was conducted in an open field to detennine the optimum irradiance for establishment and growth of two oak species and two major associated woody species. Half-sib seedlings of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and black oak (Q. velutina Lam.) were grown for two years under shade-clotht...

  14. Effect of simulated insect damage on growth and survival of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings

    Treesearch

    Susan L. Wright; Richard W. Hall; John W. Peacock

    1989-01-01

    Effects of simulated insect damage—artificial defoliation and root damage in combination with two levels of watering—were studied to determine the potential effect on northern red oak seedlings (Quercus rubra L.). Treatments and treatment combinations caused significant differences in stem diameter, percentage of stem dieback, and mortality....

  15. Root desiccation and drought stress responses of bareroot Quercus rubra seedlings treated with a hydrophilic polymer root dip

    Treesearch

    Kent G. Apostol; Douglass F. Jacobs; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2009-01-01

    Root hydrogel, a hydrophilic polymer, has been used to improve transplanting success of bareroot conifer seedlings through effects on water holding capacity. We examined mechanisms by which Terra-sorb Fine Hydrogel reduces damage that occurs when roots of 1-year old, dormant northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) were subjected to shortterm (1, 3, and 5...

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas putida Strain GM4FR, an Endophytic Bacterium Isolated from Festuca rubra L.

    PubMed Central

    Hollensteiner, Jacqueline; Granzow, Sandra; Daniel, Rolf; Vidal, Stefan; Wemheuer, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pseudomonas putida GM4FR is an endophytic bacterium isolated from aerial plant tissues of Festuca rubra L. Functional annotation of the draft genome (7.1 Mb) revealed 6,272 predicted protein-encoding genes. The genome provides insights into the biocontrol and plant growth-promoting potential of P. putida GM4FR. PMID:28360162

  17. Composition and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Kernel Oil from Torreya grandis, Carya Cathayensis, and Myrica Rubra

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Liang; Shi, Wei-Yong

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we measured the composition and free radical scavenging activity of several species of nuts, namely, Torreya grandis, Carya cathayensis, and Myrica rubra. The nut kernels of the aforementioned species are rich in fatty acids, particularly in unsaturated fatty acids, and have 51% oil content. T. grandis and C. cathayensis are mostly produced in ZheJiang province. The trace elements in the kernels of T. grandis and C. cathayensis were generally higher than those in M. rubra, except for Fe with a value of 64.41 mg/Kg. T. grandis is rich in selenium (52.91−68.71 mg/Kg). All three kernel oils have a certain free radical scavenging capacity, with the highest value in M. rubra. In the DPPH assay, the IC50 of M. rubra kernel oil was 60 μg/mL, and OH was 100 μg/mL. The results of this study provide basic data for the future development of the edible nut resources in ZheJiang province. PMID:24734074

  18. Rooting stem cuttings of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) utilizing hedged stump sprouts formed on recently felled trees

    Treesearch

    Matthew H. Gocke; Daniel J. Robinson

    2010-01-01

    The ability to root stem cuttings collected from hedged stump sprouts formed on recently felled trees was evaluated for 26 codominant northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) trees growing in Durham County, NC. Sprouting occurred, the same year as felling, on 23 of the 26 tree stumps and sprout number was significantly and positively correlated with stump diameter. The...

  19. Photosynthetic characteristics in canopies of Quercus rubra, Quercus prinus and Acer rubrum differ in response to soil water availability.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Matthew H; Whitehead, David; Tissue, David T; Schuster, William S; Brown, Kim J; Engel, Victor C; Griffin, Kevin L

    2002-02-01

    Photosynthesis and related leaf characteristics were measured in canopies of co-occurring Quercus rubra L. (red oak), Quercus prinus L. (chestnut oak) and Acer rubrum L. (red maple) trees. Mature (20+ m tall) trees were investigated at sites of differing soil water availability within a catchment (a drier upper site and a wetter lower site). Leaf photosynthetic characteristics differed significantly between species and in response to site and position in the canopy. Photosynthetic capacity (A max) was significantly greater at the wetter site in all canopy strata in A. rubrum but not in Q. rubra or Q. prinus. Our findings for A. rubrum are generally consistent with those predicting that species with higher specific leaf area (SLA) will have higher A max per unit leaf nitrogen (N) and that species with leaves with lower SLA (e.g. Q. rubra and Q. prinus) will have shallower slopes of the A max-N relationship. Importantly, the relationships between A max and N area (and by implication photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency, PNUE) differed in A. rubrum between the sites, with PNUE significantly lower at the drier site. The lower photosynthetic capacity and PNUE must substantially reduce carbon acquisition capacity in A. rubrum under these field conditions. Maximum stomatal conductance (g smax) differed significantly between species, with g smax greatest in Q. rubra and Q. prinus. In Q. rubra and Q. prinus, g smax was significantly lower at the upper site than the lower site. There was no significant response of g smax to site in A. rubrum. These stomatal responses were consistent with the C i/C a ratio, which was significantly lower in leaves of Q. rubra and Q. prinus at the upper site, but did not differ between sites in A. rubrum. Leaf δ(13)C was significantly lower in A. rubrum than in either Q. rubra or Q. prinus at both sites. These findings indicate differences in stomatal behaviour in A. rubrum which are likely to contribute to lower water use efficiency at

  20. Activity budgets and activity rhythms in red ruffed lemurs (Varecia rubra) on the Masoala Peninsula, Madagascar: seasonality and reproductive energetics.

    PubMed

    Vasey, Natalie

    2005-05-01

    The activity budgets and daily activity rhythms of Varecia rubra were examined over an annual cycle according to season and reproductive stage. Given the relatively high reproductive costs and patchy food resources of this species, I predicted that V. rubra would 1) travel less and feed more during seasonal resource scarcity in an attempt to maintain energy balance, and 2) show sex differences in activity budgets due to differing reproductive investment. Contrary to the first prediction, V. rubra does not increase feeding time during seasonal food scarcity; rather, females feed for a consistent amount of time in every season, whereas males feed most during the resource-rich, hot dry season. The results are consistent with other predictions: V. rubra travels less in the resource-scarce cold rainy season, and there are some pronounced sex differences, with females feeding more and resting less than males in every season and in every reproductive stage except gestation. However, there are also some provocative similarities between the sexes when activity budgets are examined by reproductive stage. During gestation, female and male activity budgets do not differ and appear geared toward energy accumulation: both sexes feed and rest extensively and travel least during this stage. During lactation, activity budgets are geared toward high energy expenditure: both sexes travel most and in equal measure, and rest least, although it remains the case that females feed more and rest less than males. These similarities between female and male activity budgets appear related to cooperative infant care. The high energetic costs of reproduction in V. rubra females may require that they allot more time to feeding year round, and that their overall activity budget be more directly responsive to seasonal climate change, seasonal food distribution, and reproductive schedules.

  1. Rapid temperature acclimation of leaf respiration rates in Quercus alba and Quercus rubra.

    PubMed

    Bostad, Paul V; Reich, Peter; Lee, Tali

    2003-10-01

    We conducted controlled (chamber) and natural (field) environment experiments on the acclimation of respiration in Quercus alba L. and Quercus rubra L. Three-year-old Louisiana, Indiana and Wisconsin populations of Q. alba were placed in growth chambers and exposed to alternating 5-week periods of cool (20 degrees C mean) and warm (26 degrees C mean) temperatures. We measured respiration rates on fully expanded leaves immediately before and approximately every 2 days after a switch in mean temperature. In a second chamber experiment, 3-year-old potted Q. alba seedlings were exposed to alternating warm (26 degrees C mean) and cool (16 degrees C mean) temperatures at 4-day intervals. Leaf dark respiration rates were measured on days 2, 3 and 4 after each change in temperature. In a third, field-based study, we measured leaf respiration rates in the same three sources of Q. alba and in Arkansas, Indiana and Minnesota sources of Q. rubra before and after a natural 16 degrees C change in mean daily ambient temperature. We observed rapid, significant and similar acclimation of leaf respiration rates in all populations of Q. alba and Q. rubra. Cold-origin populations were no more plastic in their acclimation responses than populations from warmer sites. All geographic sources showed lower respiration rates when measured at 24 degrees C after exposure to higher mean temperatures. Respiration rates decreased 13% with a 6 degrees C increase in mean temperature in the first chamber study, and almost 40% with a 10 degrees C increase in temperature in the second chamber study. Acclimation was rapid in all three studies, occurring after 2 days of exposure to changed temperature regimes. Acclimation was reversible when changes in ambient temperature occurred at 4-day intervals. Respiration response functions, ln(R) = ln(beta0) + beta1T, were statistically different among treatments (cool versus warm, first chamber study) and among sources in a pooled comparison. Pair

  2. [Antiadhesive properties of the surfactants of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus IMB B-7241, Rhodococcus erythropolis IMB Ac-5017, and Nocardia vaccinii IMB B-7405].

    PubMed

    Pirog, T P; Konon, A D; Beregovaya, K A; Shulyakova, M A

    2014-01-01

    Attachment of the cells of some bacteria, yeasts, and micromycetes to various surfaces (catheters, dentures, plastic, polyvinyl chloride, tiles, and steel) treated with the surfactants fromAcinetobacter calcoace- ticus IMB B-7241, Rhodococcus erythropolis IMB Ac-5017, and Nocardia vaccinii IMB B-7405 was studied. Adhesion of microorganisms to all the studied surfaces depended on the surfactant concentration and purity, kind of surface, and the test culture. Treatment with the surfactants from N. vaccinii IMB B-7405 (0.005- 0.05 mg/mL), A. calcoaceticus IMB B-7241 (0.003-0.036 mg/mL), and R. erythropolis IMB Ac-5017 (0.03- 0.12 mg/mL) resulted in adhesion decreased respectively by 35-75, 60-75, and 25-90% for bacteria (Es- cherichia coli IEM-1, Bacillus subtilis BT-2, etc.), by 80-85, 55-90, and 15-60% for yeasts Candida albicans D-6, and by 40-50, 35-45, and 10-20% for micromycetes (Aspergillus niger P-3 and Fusarium culmorum T-7).

  3. Oxidation of aliphatic, branched chain, and aromatic hydrocarbons by Nocardia cyriacigeorgica isolated from oil-polluted sand samples collected in the Saudi Arabian Desert.

    PubMed

    Le, Thi Nhi-Cong; Mikolasch, Annett; Awe, Susanne; Sheikhany, Halah; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Schauer, Frieder

    2010-06-01

    A soil bacterium isolated from oil-polluted sand samples collected in the Saudi Arabian Desert has been determined as Nocardia cyriacigeorgica, which has a high capacity of degrading and utilizing a broad range of hydrocarbons. The metabolic pathways of three classes of hydrocarbons were elucidated by identifying metabolites in cell-free extracts analyzed by GC/MS and HPLC/UV-Vis in comparison with standard compounds. During tetradecane oxidation, tetradecanol; tetradecanoic acid; dodecanoic acid; decanoic acid could be found as metabolites, indicating a monoterminal degradation pathway of n -alkanes. The oxidation of pristane resulted in the presence of pristanoic acid; 2-methylglutaric acid; 4,8-dimethylnonanoic acid; and 2,6-dimethylheptanoic acid, which give rise to a possible mono- and di-terminal oxidation. In case of sec -octylbenzene, eight metabolites were detected including 5-phenylhexanoic acid; 3-phenylbutyric acid; 2-phenylpropionic acid; beta -methylcinnamic acid; acetophenone; beta -hydroxy acetophenone; 2,3-dihydroxy benzoic acid and succinic acid. From these intermediates a new degradation pathway for sec -octylbenzene was investigated. Our results indicate that N. cyriacigeorgica has the ability to degrade aliphatic and branched chain alkanes as well as alkylbenzene effectively and, therefore, N. cyriacigeorgica is probably a suitable bacterium for biodegradation of oil or petroleum products in contaminated soils.

  4. Type I pityriasis rubra pilaris: upregulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha and response to adalimumab therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yao-Hua; Zhou, Youwen; Ball, Nigel; Su, Ming-Wan; Xu, Jin-Hua; Zheng, Zhi-Zhong

    2010-01-01

    pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) has unknown etiology and is often refractory to conventional therapies. to document a PRP patient's response to adalimumab therapy and to highlight the potential role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in the development of PRP skin lesions. a patient received adalimumab therapy at standard dosing intervals. In addition, the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) of TNF in the lesional and perilesional normal skin was quantified in two patients with PRP. the patient responded to adalimumab therapy and achieved clinical remission by 4 months. There was a significant elevation of TNF mRNA in the lesional skin of PRP. TNF upregulation is detected in PRP lesional skin, consistent with the observed clinical efficacy of TNF blockade for the treatment of PRP.

  5. A case of pityriasis rubra pilaris with associated focal acantholytic dyskeratosis complicated by Kaposi's varicelliform eruption.

    PubMed

    Erdag, Gulsun; Lockman, Deborah; Tromberg, Jennifer; Cropley, Thomas; Patterson, James W

    2011-11-01

    The clinical and histopathological diagnosis of pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) can be difficult because clinical findings are often subtle in early stages, and microscopic findings can overlap with those of other skin diseases. Focal acantholytic dyskeratosis (FAD) can rarely be seen in PRP and can mimic Darier's disease, Grover's disease or other disorders characterized by these histopathologic features. Kaposi's varicelliform eruption is a widespread infection due to herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2, coxsackievirus A16 or vaccinia virus, occurring in a preexisting dermatosis; only one case has been reported in PRP. We report a patient with PRP whose biopsies showed both herpes simplex infection and FAD. A complete understanding of the mechanism behind this eruption evolved gradually, aided in great measure by the histopathologic findings. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Minor secondary metabolic products from the stem bark of Plumeria rubra Linn. displaying antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Kuigoua, Guy Merlin; Kouam, Simeon F; Ngadjui, Bonaventure T; Schulz, Barbara; Green, Ivan R; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Krohn, Karsten

    2010-04-01

    Four new iridoids viz., plumeridoids A, B, and C and epiplumeridoid C were isolated from the stem bark of Plumeria rubra Linn. together with twenty-four known compounds viz., 1-( P-hydroxyphenyl)propan-1-one, isoplumericin, plumericin, dihydroplumericin, allamcin, fulvoplumerin, allamandin, plumieride, P- E-coumaric acid, 2,6-dimethoxy- P-benzoquinone, scopoletin, cycloart-25-en-3 beta,24-diol, 2,4,6-trimethoxyaniline, ajunolic acid, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, beta-amyrin acetate, betulinic acid, lupeol and its acetate, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl octacosanoate, glucoside of beta-sitosterol, and a mixture of common sterols (stigmasterol and beta-sitosterol). Their structures were determined by means of spectroscopic data including HREIMS, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 2D NMR (HMQC, HMBC, NOESY) and by comparison with published data. All but one of thirteen tested compounds exhibited antifungal, antialgal, and/or antibacterial activities.

  7. Pityriasis rubra pilaris sensitive to narrow band-ultraviolet B light therapy.

    PubMed

    Vergilis-Kalner, Irene J; Mann, David J; Wasserman, Justin; Petronic-Rosic, Vesna; Tsoukas, Maria M

    2009-03-01

    Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) is a rare skin condition which typically presents in adults as red-orange plaques with islands of sparing, perifollicular keratotic papules, waxy palmoplantar keratoderma, and erythema with fine, diffuse scale. Currently, there are no well-established treatment guidelines for this condition. This is party due to a lack of universally effective treatments for PRP, with some cases being resistant to multiple topical and systemic therapies. Systemic retinoids have been used with some success. Several phototherapy regimens have lead to variable results. The authors present a case of PRP, unresponsive to 6 month treatment of isotretinoin, that was subsequently treated with narrow-band ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) light therapy with complete resolution after four months of light treatment. The observed clinical benefit may encourage future phototesting and consideration of NB-UVB light therapy in recalcitrant PRP cases.

  8. Dry deposition of sulfate to Quercus rubra and Liriodendron tulipifera foliage

    SciTech Connect

    Vandenberg, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Estimates were made of the rate of dry deposition to red oak (Quercus rubra) and tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) foliage. In the laboratory, radioactive ammonium sulfate aerosols were generated in an exposure chamber. These aerosols were dry deposited onto leaves that were sequentially washed to examine the efficacy of washing procedures in removal of surface deposits. Over 90% of dry deposited sulfate was removed after a 30 second wash duration. Laboratory procedures also estimated the magnitude of foliar sulfur that leached into leaf wash solutions. The majority of laboratory leaves demonstrated no leaching of sulfur from the internal pool. However, some leaves showed significant sulfur leaching. It was concluded that leaching of internal sulfur was highly leaf specific. This indicated that each leaf used in field experiments needed to be individually examined for leaching.

  9. Epidemiologic, Clinicopathologic, Diagnostic, and Management Challenges of Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris: A Case Series of 100 Patients.

    PubMed

    Ross, Nicholas A; Chung, Hye-Jin; Li, Qiaoli; Andrews, Jonathan P; Keller, Matthew S; Uitto, Jouni

    2016-06-01

    Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) is a rare papulosquamous disorder with limited epidemiologic and clinicopathologic data. Little information is available on long-term outcomes, comorbidities, and treatment efficacy. To evaluate objective and subjective disease experience metrics from the perspectives of patients and clinicians. One hundred patients with a putative diagnosis of PRP and who elected to participate completed a comprehensive survey, followed by acquisition of their medical records, including histopathology slides and reports. The data were analyzed separately from the health care clinician and the patient perspectives. Two academic dermatologists examined clinical notes, pathology reports, and photographs, confirming diagnoses via predetermined criteria. Patients were categorized into 4 levels of diagnostic certainty to allow stratification of the findings for subgroup analysis. Patients with a diagnosis of PRP were solicited through patient support organization websites. Clinical outcomes, unexpected association of comorbidities, and efficacy (or lack of it) of various treatment modalities. Among the 100 patients, 50 were diagnosed as having classic, unquestionable PRP. The patients were a median of 61 years old (range, 5-87 years), and 46% were female. Fifty were categorized as level 1 diagnostic certainty, 15 as level 2, 30 as level 3, and 5 as level 4. Of the level 1 patients, 13 (26%) were correctly diagnosed at initial presentation; diagnosis was delayed, on average, by 29 months (range, 0.25-288 months; median, 2 months); and 27 (54%) having undergone 2 or more biopsies. At enrollment, PRP symptoms had persisted in 36 patients (72%) for an average of 58 months (range, 1-300 months; median, 30 months). Thirty-one patients (62%) had comorbidities, including hypothyroidism (20%). Nearly all patients (98%) received some form of therapy. Patients cited topical emollients, corticosteroids, and salicylic acid along with oral retinoids, methotrexate, and

  10. Geographic Variation in Festuca rubra L. Ploidy Levels and Systemic Fungal Endophyte Frequencies.

    PubMed

    Dirihan, Serdar; Helander, Marjo; Väre, Henry; Gundel, Pedro E; Garibaldi, Lucas A; Irisarri, J Gonzalo N; Saloniemi, Irma; Saikkonen, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Polyploidy and symbiotic Epichloë fungal endophytes are common and heritable characteristics that can facilitate environmental range expansion in grasses. Here we examined geographic patterns of polyploidy and the frequency of fungal endophyte colonized plants in 29 Festuca rubra L. populations from eight geographic sites across latitudes from Spain to northernmost Finland and Greenland. Ploidy seemed to be positively and negatively correlated with latitude and productivity, respectively. However, the correlations were nonlinear; 84% of the plants were hexaploids (2n = 6x = 42), and the positive correlation between ploidy level and latitude is the result of only four populations skewing the data. In the southernmost end of the gradient 86% of the plants were tetraploids (2n = 4x = 28), whereas in the northernmost end of the gradient one population had only octoploid plants (2n = 8x = 56). Endophytes were detected in 22 out of the 29 populations. Endophyte frequencies varied among geographic sites, and populations and habitats within geographic sites irrespective of ploidy, latitude or productivity. The highest overall endophyte frequencies were found in the southernmost end of the gradient, Spain, where 69% of plants harbored endophytes. In northern Finland, endophytes were detected in 30% of grasses but endophyte frequencies varied among populations from 0% to 75%, being higher in meadows compared to riverbanks. The endophytes were detected in 36%, 30% and 27% of the plants in Faroe Islands, Iceland and Switzerland, respectively. Practically all examined plants collected from southern Finland and Greenland were endophyte-free, whereas in other geographic sites endophyte frequencies were highly variable among populations. Common to all populations with high endophyte frequencies is heavy vertebrate grazing. We propose that the detected endophyte frequencies and ploidy levels mirror past distribution history of F. rubra after the last glaciation period, and local

  11. Effect of nitrogen supply and defoliation on loss of organic compounds from roots of Festuca rubra.

    PubMed

    Paterson, E; Sim, A

    2000-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of N-supply and defoliation on rhizodeposition from Festuca rubra, in the context of whole-plant C- partitioning and root morphology. Plants were grown for 36 d in axenic sand microcosms continuously percolated with nutrient solutions of either high or low N concentration (2 mM or 0.01 mM NH(4)NO(3), respectively). The effects of partial defoliation at weekly intervals were determined at high and low N. At low N, dry matter accumulation in roots and shoots was reduced significantly (P<0.001), with proportionately increased partitioning to roots, in comparison with the high N treatment. Root morphology was also affected by N-treatment; at low N, lower biomass production was offset by increased specific root length (P<0.001), reducing the magnitude of the significant (P=0.002) increase in total root length at high N. Cumulative release of organic C from roots of F: rubra over the experimental period was not altered significantly by N-treatment. However, as a proportion of net C-assimilation, rhizodeposition was significantly (P<0.001) greater at low N than at high N. Defoliation transiently (3-5 d) increased the release of soluble organic compounds from roots at each N-supply rate, and increased significantly (P<0.001) cumulative rhizodeposition over the experimental period. These effects of N-supply and defoliation on rhizodeposition are of importance in understanding interactions between plant and microbial productivity in grazed grasslands, and in interpretation of concurrent effects on microbially driven nutrient cycling processes in these systems.

  12. Geographic Variation in Festuca rubra L. Ploidy Levels and Systemic Fungal Endophyte Frequencies

    PubMed Central

    Dirihan, Serdar; Helander, Marjo; Väre, Henry; Gundel, Pedro E.; Garibaldi, Lucas A.; Irisarri, J. Gonzalo N.; Saloniemi, Irma; Saikkonen, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Polyploidy and symbiotic Epichloë fungal endophytes are common and heritable characteristics that can facilitate environmental range expansion in grasses. Here we examined geographic patterns of polyploidy and the frequency of fungal endophyte colonized plants in 29 Festuca rubra L. populations from eight geographic sites across latitudes from Spain to northernmost Finland and Greenland. Ploidy seemed to be positively and negatively correlated with latitude and productivity, respectively. However, the correlations were nonlinear; 84% of the plants were hexaploids (2n = 6x = 42), and the positive correlation between ploidy level and latitude is the result of only four populations skewing the data. In the southernmost end of the gradient 86% of the plants were tetraploids (2n = 4x = 28), whereas in the northernmost end of the gradient one population had only octoploid plants (2n = 8x = 56). Endophytes were detected in 22 out of the 29 populations. Endophyte frequencies varied among geographic sites, and populations and habitats within geographic sites irrespective of ploidy, latitude or productivity. The highest overall endophyte frequencies were found in the southernmost end of the gradient, Spain, where 69% of plants harbored endophytes. In northern Finland, endophytes were detected in 30% of grasses but endophyte frequencies varied among populations from 0% to 75%, being higher in meadows compared to riverbanks. The endophytes were detected in 36%, 30% and 27% of the plants in Faroe Islands, Iceland and Switzerland, respectively. Practically all examined plants collected from southern Finland and Greenland were endophyte-free, whereas in other geographic sites endophyte frequencies were highly variable among populations. Common to all populations with high endophyte frequencies is heavy vertebrate grazing. We propose that the detected endophyte frequencies and ploidy levels mirror past distribution history of F. rubra after the last glaciation period, and local

  13. Alteration of Acrylonitrile-Methylacrylate-Butadiene Terpolymer by Nocardia rhodochrous and Penicillium notatum†

    PubMed Central

    Antoine, A. D.; Dean, A. V.; Gilbert, S. G.

    1980-01-01

    [14C]Barex-210, a terpolymer of acrylonitrile, methylacrylate, and butadiene, was tested for bioconversion. Powdered samples of polymer, each specifically 14C labeled at different carbon atoms of the polymer, were incubated with either Nocardia rhodochrous or Penicillium notatum in an enriched growth medium for various periods of time. After 6 months of incubation, the 14C-labeled polymer was transformed from a high-molecular-weight material completely soluble in dimethyl formamide (DMF) into both a lower-molecular-weight form still soluble in DMF and a second form that was no longer soluble in DMF. The amount of 14C-labeled carbon atoms converted into DMF-insoluble material was 8% of the backbone carbon-carbon atoms and 12% of the side-chain nitrile and acrylate atoms from the acrylonitrile-methylacrylate copolymer and 60% of the elastomer (acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer) atoms. Metabolism of the polymer was not established from measurements of metabolic 14CO2. Evolution of 14CO2 amounted to only 0.3, 0.6, 1.8, and 3.3% of these four fractions, respectively. Although the transformation of high-molecular-weight polymer into DMF-insoluble material was rapid in the early stages of microbial growth, the accompanying CO2 evolution was much slower. Further evidence of polymer alteration was indicated by the infrared spectrum of the insoluble material, which showed a disappearance of the nitrile and methylacrylate peaks. PMID:16345541

  14. [BIOCONVERSION OF CRUDE GLYCEROL AND MOLASSES MIXTURE IN BIOSURFACTANTS OF NOCARDIA VACCINII IMB B-7405].

    PubMed

    Pirog, T P; Kudrya, N V; Shevchuk, T A; Beregova, K A; Iutynska, G O

    2015-01-01

    The possibility of replacing glucose and pure glycerol in mixed substrates for surtace-active substances (SAS, biosurfactants) biosynthesis of Nocardia vaccinii IMB B-7405 on molasses (sugar production waste) and crude glycerol (by-product of biodiesel production) was established. It was established that the increasing concentration of crude glycerol to 6% in mixture with 1.0% molasses was accompanied by increase of amount of SAS synthesized more than twice, and the increasing content of molasses to 3.0% in mixture with 1.0% crude glycerol--by some decrease in the level of surfactant as compared to that in a medium containing 1.0% monosubstrates. It was shown that the increasing concentration of sodium nitrate to 2-fold in medium cultivation of N. vaccinii IMB B-7405 allowed to increase to 7.0% content of grude glycerol in mixture with 1.0% molasses. Under such conditions of cultivation concentration of exocellular SAS synthesized was 7,5 g/l, that to 1,3 fold higher than in basic medium with a lower content of nitrogen source.

  15. Endobronchial Enigma: A Clinically Rare Presentation of Nocardia beijingensis in an Immunocompetent Patient

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Rahman, Nader; Izhakain, Shimon; Wasser, Walter G.; Fruchter, Oren; Kramer, Mordechai R.

    2015-01-01

    Nocardiosis is an opportunistic infection caused by the Gram-positive weakly acid-fast, filamentous aerobic Actinomycetes. The lungs are the primary site of infection mainly affecting immunocompromised patients. In rare circumstances even immunocompetent hosts may also develop infection. Diagnosis of pulmonary nocardiosis is usually delayed due to nonspecific clinical and radiological presentations which mimic fungal, tuberculous, or neoplastic processes. The present report describes a rare bronchoscopic presentation of an endobronchial nocardial mass in a 55-year-old immunocompetent woman without underlying lung disease. The patient exhibited signs and symptoms of unresolving community-acquired pneumonia with a computed tomography (CT) scan that showed a space-occupying lesion and enlarged paratracheal lymph node. This patient represents the unusual presentation of pulmonary Nocardia beijingensis as an endobronchial mass. Pathology obtained during bronchoscopy demonstrated polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmation of nocardiosis. Symptoms and clinical findings improved with antibiotic treatment. This patient emphasizes the challenge in making the diagnosis of pulmonary nocardiosis, especially in a low risk host. A literature review presents the difficulties and pitfalls in the clinical assessment of such an individual. PMID:26819795

  16. Electron transfer reactions in the alkene mono-oxygenase complex from Nocardia corallina B-276.

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, S C; Cammack, R; Dalton, H

    1999-01-01

    Nocardia corallina B-276 possesses a multi-component enzyme, alkene mono-oxygenase (AMO), that catalyses the stereoselective epoxygenation of alkenes. The reductase component of this system has been shown by EPR and fluorescence spectroscopy to contain two prosthetic groups, an FAD centre and a [2Fe-2S] cluster. The role of these centres in the epoxygenation reaction was determined by midpoint potential measurements and electron transfer kinetics. The order of potentials of the prosthetic groups of the reductase were FAD/FAD.=-216 mV, [2Fe-2S]/[2Fe-2S].=-160 mV and FAD./FAD.=-134 mV. Combined, these data implied that the reductase component supplied the energy required for the epoxygenation reaction and allowed a prediction of the mechanism of electron transfer within the AMO complex. The FAD moiety was reduced by bound NADH in a two-electron reaction. The electrons were then transported to the [2Fe-2S] centre one at a time, which in turn reduced the di-iron centre of the epoxygenase. Reduction of the di-iron centre is required for oxygen binding and substrate oxidation. PMID:10085230

  17. Nocardia caviae: a Report of 13 New Isolations with Clinical Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Causey, William A.

    1974-01-01

    Thirteen isolates of Nocardia caviae from 12 different clinical sources were received and identified over a 5½-year period by the Mycology Division of the Center for Disease Control. The results of morphological, biochemical, and physiological studies on these isolates were compared with those obtained with four reference cultures of N. caviae received from the Institute of Microbiology, Rutgers University. Comparison showed that N. caviae isolates form a homogeneous group that is usually easily distinguished from N. asteroides, N. brasiliensis, and other pathogenic aerobic actinomycetes. The clinical sources included nine human and two animal infections and one human isolate apparently not associated with disease. Previous reports of N. caviae infections in man have been limited to rare cases of actinomycotic mycetoma. Among the human infections reported in this series are one case of mycetoma, one case of “mycotic” keratitis, one case of skin abscess, two cases of osteomyelitis, and four cases of serious pulmonary infection caused by N. caviae. PMID:4604822

  18. Nocardia brain abscess mimicking high-grade necrotic tumor on perfusion MRI.

    PubMed

    Cianfoni, Alessandro; Calandrelli, Rosalinda; De Bonis, Pasquale; Pompucci, Angelo; Lauriola, Libero; Colosimo, Cesare

    2010-08-01

    Differentiating a pyogenic cerebral abscess from a cystic brain tumor can be a challenge when using morphological and functional imaging techniques. Several studies on MRI perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) have demonstrated that enhancing abscess capsules have lower cerebral blood volume ratios (rCBV) than the enhancing rims of necrotic tumors. We report a 67-year-old male with a Nocardia cerebral abscess showing restricted diffusion in the necrotic center, but high values for rCBV in the enhancing capsule on PWI, therefore mimicking a high-grade necrotic tumor. Differential diagnosis between cerebral abscesses and necrotic tumors is greatly improved by the adjunct of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and PWI to the morphological magnetic resonance findings; yet there is still overlap. That an abscess may show increased rCBV along the capsule, therefore mimicking a hypervascular brain tumor on PWI, should be considered when attempting a radiological diagnosis of a ring-enhancing brain lesion. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Metabolism of acetonitrile and propionitrile by Nocardia rhodochrous LL100-21.

    PubMed Central

    DiGeronimo, M J; Antoine, A D

    1976-01-01

    Six nitrile compounds and two amide derivatives were degraded by Nocardia rhodochrous LL100-21. Acetonitrile, hydroacrylonitrile, and propionitrile were the best sources of carbon and nitrogen for growth, whereas butenenitrile, succinonitrile, and acetamide supported less growth. Acrylonitrile and acrylamide supported growth but only as a source of nitrogen. Gas chromatography of the culture medium revealed a decrease in acetonitrile with the sequential formation of acetamide and acetic acid. Ammonia was also detected by colorimetric procedures. The enzyme system responsible for the hydrolysis of acetonitrile was shown to be intracellular and inducible. The breakdown of acetonitrile by a crude bacterial extract was a two-step enzymatic hydrolysis with acetamide as the intermediate product and acetic acid and ammonia as the final products. Product formation was stoichiometric with substrate disappearance. When propionitrile was the growth substrate, there was complete conversion of the nitrile to propionic acid and ammonia as the major products. The enzymatic breakdown of the propionitrile, although slower than acetonitrile, yielded the corresponding carboxylic acid and ammonia. Propionamide was produced in very small amounts as an intermediate product. PMID:938041

  20. [Effect of various carbon and nitrogen sources on the biosynthesis of ristomycin, protease and pigments by a culture of Nocardia fructiferi var. ristomycini].

    PubMed

    Toropova, E G; Egorov, N S; Tkhaker, V; Burakaeva, A D

    1982-10-01

    The effect of various sources of carbon and nitrogen on the biosynthesis of ristomycin, protease and pigments by Nocardia fructiferi was studied. It was shown that the carbon sources had the most significant effect on the biosynthesis of the antibiotic. The maximum biosynthetic activity of the Nocardia was observed in the medium containing 1-2 per cent of soybean meal and 2 per cent of glycerol. Under such conditions all the three biologically active substances formed. The contents of ristomycin, protease and pigments amounted to 562-649 microgram/ml, 26-30 PU/ml and 0.45-0.63 conditional units, respectively.

  1. Solitary Nocardia farcinica brain abscess in an immunocompetent adult mimicking metastatic brain tumor: rapid diagnosis by pyrosequencing and successful treatment.

    PubMed

    Iannotti, Christopher A; Hall, Geraldine S; Procop, Gary W; Tuohy, Marion J; Staugaitis, Susan M; Weil, Robert J

    2009-07-01

    Nocardia brain abscess carries a higher morbidity and mortality rate than other bacterial cerebral abscesses, with reported mortality rates of 55% and 20% in immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients, respectively. To prevent a delay in diagnosis and treatment, an aggressive therapeutic approach is required. In the present study, a rapid and accurate molecular diagnostic approach using pyrosequencing (PS), a semiautomated molecular genotyping method of nucleotide sequencing-by-synthesis, was performed. A 53-year-old man developed word-finding difficulties, followed by confusion and disorientation. On examination, the patient had a mixed aphasia; the receptive component was greater than the expressive component. The remainder of his neurologic examination findings was normal. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a 2.0-cm multilobular, partially cystic, peripheral-enhancing mass in the posterior left temporal-parietal region with significant vasogenic edema and localized mass effect. A detailed laboratory investigation revealed that this patient was immunocompetent. An awake left posterior temporal-parietal craniotomy with cortical motor and speech mapping, using frameless stereotactic image guidance and intraoperative real-time ultrasound, was performed. Frozen section was consistent with cerebral abscess and methenamine silver staining revealed many beaded, thin-branching gram-positive bacilli. Colonies suspicious for Nocardia sp were seen within 2 days, and PCR followed by pyrosequencing (PS) identified Nocardia farcinica. We report a nocardial cerebral abscess mimicking a metastatic brain tumor, and we demonstrate that PS technology can be used for the accurate and rapid identification of N farcinica isolated from a brain abscess -- facilitating a rapid diagnosis and successful, durable treatment.

  2. C-Glycosyl Flavonoids from Beta vulgaris Cicla and Betalains from Beta vulgaris rubra: Antioxidant, Anticancer and Antiinflammatory Activities-A Review.

    PubMed

    Ninfali, Paolino; Antonini, Elena; Frati, Alessandra; Scarpa, Emanuele-Salvatore

    2017-06-01

    The green beet (Beta vulgaris var. cicla L.) and red beetroot (B. vulgaris var. rubra L.) contain phytochemicals that have beneficial effects on human health. Specifically, the green beet contains apigenin, vitexin, vitexin-2-O-xyloside and vitexin-2-O-rhamnoside, while the red beetroot is a source of betaxanthins and betacyanins. These phytochemicals show considerable antioxidant activity, as well as antiinflammatory and antiproliferative activities. Vitexin-2-O-xyloside, in combination with betaxanthins and betacyanins, exerts antiproliferative activity in breast, liver, colon and bladder cancer cell lines, through the induction of both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. A significant body of evidence also points to the role of these phytochemicals in the downregulation of the pro-survival genes, baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat-containing 5 and catenin beta-1, as well as the genes controlling angiogenesis, hypoxia inducible factor 1A and vascular endothelial growth factor A. The multi-target action of these phytochemicals enhances their anticancer activity. Vitexin-2-O-xyloside, betaxanthins and betacyanins can be used in combination with conventional anticancer drugs to reduce their toxicity and overcome the multidrug resistance of cancer cells. In this review, we describe the molecular mechanisms that enable these dietary phytochemicals to block the proliferation of tumor cells and inhibit their pro-survival pathways. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Pityriasis rubra pilaris in the setting of HIV infection: clinical behaviour and association with explosive cystic acne.

    PubMed

    Martin, A G; Weaver, C C; Cockerell, C J; Berger, T G

    1992-06-01

    The development of pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) in three patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is described. Two of the patients had onset of severe generalized cystic acne concomitant with their development of PRP. PRP and acne conglobata should be added to the group of cutaneous disorders that can present in a more virulent manner in the setting of HIV infection. The association of cystic acne with PRP and their response to treatment are discussed.

  4. Intercolony aggression within and among local populations of the invasive ant, Myrmica rubra (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), in coastal Maine.

    PubMed

    Garnas, Jeffrey R; Drummond, Francis A; Groden, Eleanor

    2007-02-01

    Myrmica rubra L. was introduced into New England in the early 20th century, and at present, has a patchy distribution in parts of northeastern North America, including records from 31 communities in Maine. M. rubra is highly polygynous, and colonies reproduce vegetatively, forming dense local populations where conditions are favorable. Using mobile nests and baited arenas in a series of field aggression bioassays, we tested patterns of internest tolerance within and among local populations on Mt. Desert Island, ME. We found that foragers originating from fragments of the same colony or from neighboring nests retained a high level of intraspecific tolerance over several months, whereas significant intercolony aggression among workers was present between colonies within the same local patch separated by approximately 10 m. Within populations, aggression score values were found to increase linearly with internest distance within a site. Aggression was highest between colonies from spatially different populations on the island and was higher still when nests were assayed against colonies at an off-island site 70 km away in Castine, ME. These data strongly suggest a multicolonial organization within and among local populations of M. rubra in parts of its introduced range. These findings contradict the loss of intraspecific aggression and unicolonial social structure over large geographic areas that have previously been observed in other invasive ant species, particularly Linepithema humile Mayr.

  5. Rare actinomycetes Nocardia caishijiensis and Pseudonocardia carboxydivorans as endophytes, their bioactivity and metabolites evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tanvir, Rabia; Sajid, Imran; Hasnain, Shahida; Kulik, Andreas; Grond, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    Two strains identified as Nocardia caishijiensis (SORS 64b) and Pseudonocardia carboxydivorans (AGLS 2) were isolated as endophytes from Sonchus oleraceus and Ageratum conyzoides respectively. The analysis of their extracts revealed them to be strongly bioactive. The N. caishijiensis extract gave an LC50 of 570 μg/ml(-1) in the brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay and an EC50 of 0.552 μg/ml(-1) in the DPPH antioxidant assay. Antimicrobial activity was observed against Methicillin resistant Staphlococcus aureus (MRSA) and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (14 mm), Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 706003 (13 mm), S. aureus ATCC 25923 (11 mm) and Candida tropicalis (20 mm). For the extract of P. carboxydivorans the EC50 was 0.670 μg/ml(-1) and it was observed to be more bioactive against Bacillus subtilis DSM 10 ATCC 6051 (21 mm), C. tropicalis (20 mm), S. aureus ATCC 25923 (17 mm), MRSA (17 mm), E. coli K12 (W1130) (16 mm) and Chlorella vulgaris (10 mm). The genotoxicity testing revealed a 20 mm zone of inhibition against the polA mutant strain E. coli K-12 AB 3027 suggesting damage to the DNA and polA genes. The TLC and bioautography screening revealed a diversity of active bands of medium polar and nonpolar compounds. Metabolite analysis by HPLC-DAD via UV/vis spectral screening suggested the possibility of stenothricin and bagremycin A in the mycelium extract of N. caishijiensis respectively. In the broth and mycelium extract of P. carboxydivorans borrelidin was suggested along with α-pyrone. The HPLC-MS revealed bioactive long chained amide derivatives such as 7-Octadecenamide, 9, 12 octadecandienamide. This study reports the rare actinomycetes N. caishijiensis and P. carboxydivorans as endophytes and evaluates their bioactive metabolites.

  6. Isolation, characterization and biological evaluation of bioactive metabolites from Nocardia levis MK-VL_113.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, Alapati; Prabhakar, Peddikotla; Narasimhulu, Manchala; Vijayalakshmi, Muvva; Venkateswarlu, Yenamandra; Rao, Karanam Venkateswara; Raju, Venkata Balaraju Subba

    2010-03-31

    An Actinomycete isolate found to be prominent in the laterite soils of Acharya Nagarjuna University (ANU) Campus, Guntur was identified as Nocardia levis MK-VL_113 by 16S rRNA analysis. Cultural, morphological and physiological characteristics of the strain were recorded. Screening of secondary metabolites obtained from 4-day old culture broth of the strain led to the isolation of two fractions active against a wide variety of Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. The structure of the first active fraction was elucidated using FT-IR, EI-MS, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectra and identified as 1-phenylbut-3-ene-2-ol which is first time reported as a natural product. The compound exhibited good antimicrobial potential against the opportunistic and pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The antifungal activity of the strain and its metabolite were further confirmed with in vitro and in vivo studies. Evidence for the antagonism of the strain against Fusarium oxysporum, causing wilt disease in sorghum was demonstrated by the formation of inhibition zone in in vitro plate assay and reduction in the incidence of wilt of sorghum plants by using a green house trial. Analysis of the rhizosphere soil extracts by high performance liquid chromatography also demonstrated the production of the compound by the strain under in vivo conditions. As compared to the commercial fungicide mancozeb, the bioactive compound, 1-phenylbut-3-ene-2-ol was highly effective in controlling wilt of sorghum. Besides, the partially purified second fraction (PPF) subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of phenylethyl alcohol, dibutyl phthalate and 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 3-nitro.

  7. Humoral Immunity through Immunoglobulin M Protects Mice from an Experimental Actinomycetoma Infection by Nocardia brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Salinas-Carmona, Mario C.; Pérez-Rivera, Isabel

    2004-01-01

    An experimental model of infection with Nocardia brasiliensis, used as an example of a facultative intracellular pathogen, was tested. N. brasiliensis was injected into the rear foot pads of BALB/c mice to establish an infection. Within 30 days, infected animals developed a chronic actinomycetoma infection. Batch cultures of N. brasiliensis were used to purify P61, P38, and P24 antigens; P61 is a catalase, and P38 is a protease with strong caseinolytic activity. Active and passive immunizations of BALB/c mice with these three purified soluble antigens were studied. Protection was demonstrated for actively immunized mice. However, immunity lasted only 30 days. Other groups of immunized mice were bled at different times, and their sera were passively transferred to naive recipients that were then infected with N. brasiliensis. Sera collected 5, 6, and 7 days after donor immunization conferred complete, long-lasting protection. The protective effect of passive immunity decreased when sera were collected 2 weeks after donor immunization. However, neither the early sera (1-, 2-, and 3-day sera) nor the later sera (30- or 45-day sera) prevented the infection. Hyperimmune sera with the highest levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) to N. brasiliensis antigens did not protect at all. The antigens tested induced two IgM peaks. The first peak was present 3 days after immunization but was not antigen specific and did not transfer protection. The second peak was evident 7 days after immunization, was an IgM response, was antigen specific, and conferred protection. This results clearly demonstrate that IgM antibodies protect the host against a facultative intracellular bacterium. PMID:15385456

  8. Effects of Cornus mas L. and Morus rubra L. extracts on penicillin-induced epileptiform activity: an electrophysiological and biochemical study.

    PubMed

    Tubaş, Filiz; Per, Sedat; Taşdemir, Abdulkadir; Bayram, Ayşe Kaçar; Yıldırım, Mehmet; Uzun, Aydın; Saraymen, Recep; Gümüş, Hakan; Elmalı, Ferhan; Per, Hüseyin

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, Morus rubra L. (Moraceae) (red mulberry) and Cornus mas L. (Cornacea) (cornelian cherry) fruits are eaten fresh and are also used in marmalades, juices, jam, natural dyes in Turkey and are believed to have beneficial effects in case of multiple health issues such as antipyretic, diarrhea and intestinal parasites. However, the effects of M. rubra and C. mas on epilepsy has not been known. This study evaluates the effects of M. rubra and C. mas extracts on penicillin-induced epileptiform activity. Sixty Wistar rats randomly divided into ten groups (n=6): control, sham, penicillin, penicillin+M. rubra extract (2.5, 5, 10, 20 mg/kg) and penicillin+C. mas extract (2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg). Epileptiform activity was induced by using penicillin (500 IU, i.c.) and electrocorticogram records (150 min) were obtained. Also, biochemical analysis in blood samples were evaluated. According to the electrocorticogram analysis, the effective dose was detected as 10 mg/kg for both C. mas and M. rubra. This dose decreased the spike frequencies of convulsions while amplitude wasn't changed by both substances. In erythrocyte studies, there were significant differences regarding nitric oxide in the control, sham and penicillin groups. There were significant differences regarding malondialdehyde in all groups. In the plasma, there were significant differences among groups regarding xanthine oxidase in the penicillin‑C. mas and penicillin‑M. rubra groups. There were differences regarding malondialdehyde in the penicillin-C. mas and M. rubra-C. mas groups. Both extracts reduced the frequency of epileptiform activity. After administration of the extracts malondialdehyde levels decreased also in both erythrocytes and plasma.

  9. High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of the Actinobacterium Nocardia terpenica IFM 0406, Producer of the Immunosuppressant Brasilicardins, Using Illumina and PacBio Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Buchmann, Anina; Eitel, Michael; Koch, Pierre; Schwarz, Paul N.; Stegmann, Evi; Wohlleben, Wolfgang; Wolański, Marcin; Krawiec, Michał; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta; Méndez, Carmen; Botas, Alma; Núñez, Luz Elena; Morís, Francisco; Cortés, Jesus

    2016-01-01

    The bacterium Nocardia terpenica IFM 0406 is known as the producer of the immunosuppressant brasilicardin A. Here, we report the completely sequenced genome of strain IFM 0406, which facilitates the heterologous expression of the brasilicardin biosynthetic gene cluster but also unveils the intriguing biosynthetic capacity of the strain to produce secondary metabolites. PMID:27979943

  10. Draft genome of Nocardia farcinica TRH1, a linear and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium isolated from the coast of Trindade Island, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Edmo M; Vidigal, Pedro Marcus P; Pylro, Victor S; Morais, Daniel K; Leite, Laura Rabelo; Roesch, Luiz F W; Tótola, Marcos R

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence and annotation of Nocardia farcinica TRH1, a petroleum hydrocarbons degrading Actinobacteria isolated from the coastal water of Trindade Island, Brazil. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Permanent Improved High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Nocardia casuarinae Strain BMG51109, an Endophyte of Actinorhizal Root Nodules of Casuarina glauca.

    PubMed

    Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten; Beauchemin, Nicholas; Louati, Moussa; Nouioui, Imen; Ktari, Amir; Hezbri, Karima; Gueddou, Abdellatif; Chen, Amy; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Markowitz, Victor; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Pagani, Ioanna; Sen, Arnab; Wall, Luis; Woyke, Tanja; Gtari, Maher; Tisa, Louis S

    2016-08-04

    Here, we report the first genome sequence of a Nocardia plant endophyte, N. casuarinae strain BMG51109, isolated from Casuarina glauca root nodules. The improved high-quality draft genome sequence contains 8,787,999 bp with a 68.90% GC content and 7,307 predicted protein-coding genes.

  12. Permanent Improved High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Nocardia casuarinae Strain BMG51109, an Endophyte of Actinorhizal Root Nodules of Casuarina glauca

    PubMed Central

    Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten; Beauchemin, Nicholas; Louati, Moussa; Nouioui, Imen; Ktari, Amir; Hezbri, Karima; Gueddou, Abdellatif; Chen, Amy; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Markowitz, Victor; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Pagani, Ioanna; Sen, Arnab; Wall, Luis; Woyke, Tanja; Gtari, Maher

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the first genome sequence of a Nocardia plant endophyte, N. casuarinae strain BMG51109, isolated from Casuarina glauca root nodules. The improved high-quality draft genome sequence contains 8,787,999 bp with a 68.90% GC content and 7,307 predicted protein-coding genes. PMID:27491980

  13. Permanent Improved High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Nocardia casuarinae Strain BMG51109, an Endophyte of Actinorhizal Root Nodules of Casuarina glauca

    DOE PAGES

    Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten; Beauchemin, Nicholas; Louati, Moussa; ...

    2016-08-04

    Here, we report the first genome sequence of a Nocardia plant endophyte, N. casuarinae strain BMG51109, isolated from Casuarina glauca root nodules. The improved high-quality draft genome sequence contains 8,787,999 bp with a 68.90% GC content and 7,307 predicted protein-coding genes.

  14. Purification of peroxidase from red cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. rubra) by affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Somtürk, Burcu; Kalın, Ramazan; Özdemir, Nalan

    2014-08-01

    Peroxidase was purified in a single step using 4-amino benzohydrazide affinity chromatography from red cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. rubra), and some important biochemical characteristics of the purified enzyme were determined. The enzyme, with a specific activity of 3,550 EU/mg protein, was purified 120.6-fold with a yield of 2.9% from the synthesized affinity matrix. The molecular weight of the enzyme was found to be 69.3 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The enzyme exhibited maximum activity at pH 7.0 and 30 °C. For guaiacol substrate, the K m and V max values were found as 0.048 mM and 1.46 EU/mL/min, respectively. Additionally, the IC50 and K i values for 4-amino benzohydrazide were calculated to be 1.047 and 0.702±0.05 mM, respectively, and 4-amino benzohydrazide showed noncompetitive inhibition.

  15. Familial Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris Is Caused by Mutations in CARD14

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs-Telem, Dana; Sarig, Ofer; van Steensel, Maurice A.M.; Isakov, Ofer; Israeli, Shirli; Nousbeck, Janna; Richard, Katharina; Winnepenninckx, Veronique; Vernooij, Marigje; Shomron, Noam; Uitto, Jouni; Fleckman, Philip; Richard, Gabriele; Sprecher, Eli

    2012-01-01

    Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) is a papulosquamous disorder phenotypically related to psoriasis. The disease has been occasionally shown to be inherited in an autosomal-dominant fashion. To identify the genetic cause of familial PRP, we ascertained four unrelated families affected by autosomal-dominant PRP. We initially mapped PRP to 17q25.3, a region overlapping with psoriasis susceptibility locus 2 (PSORS2 [MIM 602723]). Using a combination of linkage analysis followed by targeted whole-exome sequencing and candidate-gene screening, we identified three different heterozygous mutations in CARD14, which encodes caspase recruitment domain family, member 14. CARD14 was found to be specifically expressed in the skin. CARD14 is a known activator of nuclear factor kappa B signaling, which has been implicated in inflammatory disorders. Accordingly, CARD14 levels were increased, and p65 was found to be activated in the skin of PRP-affected individuals. The present data demonstrate that autosomal-dominant PRP is allelic to familial psoriasis, which was recently shown to also be caused by mutations in CARD14. PMID:22703878

  16. Effects of Invasive European Fire Ants (Myrmica rubra) on Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    DeFisher, Luke E.; Bonter, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Various invasive ant species have negatively affected reproductive success in birds by disrupting nest site selection, incubation patterns, food supply, and by direct predation on nestlings. Impacts can be particularly severe when non-native ants colonize seabird nesting islands where thousands of birds may nest in high densities on the ground or in burrows or crevices. Here we report on the first documented effects of Myrmica rubra, the European fire ant, on the reproduction of birds in its non-native range. We documented herring gulls (Larus argentatus) on Appledore Island, Maine, engaging in more erratic incubation behaviors at nests infested by the ants. Newly-hatched chicks in some nests were swarmed by ants, leading to rapid chick death. Due to high overall rates of chick mortality, survival probabilities did not vary between nests with and without ant activity, however chick growth rates were slower at nests with ants than at ant-free nests. Ant infestation likely leads to longer-term fitness consequences because slower growth rates early in life may ultimately lead to lower post-fledging survival probabilities. PMID:23691168

  17. [Effects of simulated acid rain on water physiological characteristics of Myrica rubra seedlings].

    PubMed

    Yaho, Zhao-bin; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Shu-quan; Lu, Mei-juan

    2011-08-01

    Taking the seedlings of typical subtropical economic tree species Myrica rubra in Zhejiang Province as test materials, a pot experiment was conducted to study their water physiological characteristics under effects of simulated acid rain (pH 2.5 and pH 4.0), with water (pH 5.6) as the control. Season, year, and acid rain all had significant effects on the photosynthetic rate (Pn). Among the treatments, the Pn had a greater difference in summer than in spring and autumn, and was higher in treatment acid rain (pH 4.0). Season, year, acid rain, and the interactions of season and year and of the three factors had significant effects on the stomata conductance (Gs), and also, the Gs had a greater difference among the treatments in summer than in spring and autumn. Acid rain had inhibitory effect on Gs. Season, year, acid rain, and the interactions of season and year and of season and acid rain affected the transpiration rate (Tr) significantly. Same as Pn and Gs, the Tr had a greater difference among the treatments in summer than in spring and autumn. Acid rain (pH 2.5) had the strongest inhibitory effect on Tr. Acid rain and the interactions of season and year and of season and acid rain had significant effects on the water use efficiency (WUE), and acid rain (pH 2.5) had definitely positive effect on the WUE.

  18. In vitro Anti-Thrombotic Activity of Extracts from Blacklip Abalone (Haliotis rubra) Processing Waste

    PubMed Central

    Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul; Hines, Barney M.; Addepalli, Rama; Chen, Wei; Masci, Paul; Gobe, Glenda; Osborne, Simone A.

    2016-01-01

    Waste generated from the processing of marine organisms for food represents an underutilized resource that has the potential to provide bioactive molecules with pharmaceutical applications. Some of these molecules have known anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant activities and are being investigated as alternatives to common anti-thrombotic drugs, like heparin and warfarin that have serious side effects. In the current study, extracts prepared from blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra) processing waste, using food grade enzymes papain and bromelain, were found to contain sulphated polysaccharide with anti-thrombotic activity. Extracts were found to be enriched with sulphated polysaccharides and assessed for anti-thrombotic activity in vitro through heparin cofactor-II (HCII)-mediated inhibition of thrombin. More than 60% thrombin inhibition was observed in response to 100 μg/mL sulphated polysaccharides. Anti-thrombotic potential was further assessed as anti-coagulant activity in plasma and blood, using prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and thromboelastography (TEG). All abalone extracts had significant activity compared with saline control. Anion exchange chromatography was used to separate extracts into fractions with enhanced anti-thrombotic activity, improving HCII-mediated thrombin inhibition, PT and aPTT almost 2-fold. Overall this study identifies an alternative source of anti-thrombotic molecules that can be easily processed offering alternatives to current anti-thrombotic agents like heparin. PMID:28042854

  19. Quercus rubra-associated ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of disturbed urban sites and mature forests.

    PubMed

    Karpati, Amy S; Handel, Steven N; Dighton, John; Horton, Thomas R

    2011-08-01

    The presence and quality of the belowground mycorrhizal fungal community could greatly influence plant community structure and host species response. This study tests whether mycorrhizal fungal communities in areas highly impacted by anthropogenic disturbance and urbanization are less species rich or exhibit lower host root colonization rates when compared to those of less disturbed systems. Using a soil bioassay, we sampled the ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) communities associating with Quercus rubra (northern red oak) seedlings in soil collected from seven sites: two mature forest reference sites and five urban sites of varying levels of disturbance. Morphological and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of fungi colonizing root tips revealed that colonization rates and fungal species richness were significantly lower on root systems of seedlings grown in disturbed site soils. Analysis of similarity showed that EMF community composition was not significantly different among several urban site soils but did differ significantly between mature forest sites and all but one urban site. We identified a suite of fungal species that occurred across several urban sites. Lack of a diverse community of belowground mutualists could be a constraint on urban plant community development, especially of late-successional woodlands. Analysis of urban EMF communities can add to our understanding of urban plant community structure and should be addressed during ecological assessment before pragmatic decisions to restore habitats are framed.

  20. Paralytic shellfish toxins, including deoxydecarbamoyl-STX, in wild-caught Tasmanian abalone (Haliotis rubra).

    PubMed

    Harwood, D Tim; Selwood, Andrew I; van Ginkel, Roel; Waugh, Craig; McNabb, Paul S; Munday, Rex; Hay, Brenda; Thomas, Krista; Quilliam, Michael A; Malhi, Navreet; Dowsett, Natalie; McLeod, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    For the first time wild-caught Tasmanian abalone, Haliotis rubra, have been reported to contain paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs). This observation followed blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum. No illnesses were reported, but harvesting restrictions were enforced in commercial areas. Abalone were assayed using HPLC-FLD methodology based on AOAC official method 2005.06. An uncommon congener, deoxydecarbamoyl-STX (doSTX), was observed in addition to regulated PSTs as unassigned chromatographic peaks. A quantitative reference material was prepared from contaminated Tasmanian abalone viscera and ampouled at 54.2 μmol/L. The LD50 of doSTX via intraperitoneal injection was 1069 nmol/kg (95% confidence limits 983-1100 nmol/kg), indicating it is nearly 40 times less toxic than STX. A toxicity equivalence factor of 0.042 was generated using the mouse bioassay. Levels of PSTs varied among individuals from the same site, although the toxin profile remained relatively consistent. In the foot tissue, STX, decarbamoyl-STX and doSTX were identified. On a molar basis doSTX was the dominant congener in both foot and viscera samples. The viscera toxin profile was more complex, with other less toxic PST congeners observed and was similar to mussels from the same site. This finding implicates localised dinoflagellate blooms as the PST source in Tasmanian abalone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. In vitro Anti-Thrombotic Activity of Extracts from Blacklip Abalone (Haliotis rubra) Processing Waste.

    PubMed

    Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul; Hines, Barney M; Addepalli, Rama; Chen, Wei; Masci, Paul; Gobe, Glenda; Osborne, Simone A

    2016-12-31

    Waste generated from the processing of marine organisms for food represents an underutilized resource that has the potential to provide bioactive molecules with pharmaceutical applications. Some of these molecules have known anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant activities and are being investigated as alternatives to common anti-thrombotic drugs, like heparin and warfarin that have serious side effects. In the current study, extracts prepared from blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra) processing waste, using food grade enzymes papain and bromelain, were found to contain sulphated polysaccharide with anti-thrombotic activity. Extracts were found to be enriched with sulphated polysaccharides and assessed for anti-thrombotic activity in vitro through heparin cofactor-II (HCII)-mediated inhibition of thrombin. More than 60% thrombin inhibition was observed in response to 100 μg/mL sulphated polysaccharides. Anti-thrombotic potential was further assessed as anti-coagulant activity in plasma and blood, using prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and thromboelastography (TEG). All abalone extracts had significant activity compared with saline control. Anion exchange chromatography was used to separate extracts into fractions with enhanced anti-thrombotic activity, improving HCII-mediated thrombin inhibition, PT and aPTT almost 2-fold. Overall this study identifies an alternative source of anti-thrombotic molecules that can be easily processed offering alternatives to current anti-thrombotic agents like heparin.

  2. New-onset vitiligo during long-term, stable infliximab treatment of pityriasis rubra pilaris.

    PubMed

    Mattox, Adam R; Chappell, Jeaneen A; Hurley, M Yadira

    2013-02-01

    Incidents of new-onset vitiligo attributed to infliximab therapy for rheumatoid arthritis and ulcerative colitis have been reported. Reported cases share a common theme in that symptoms manifested in close proximity to the initiation or significant dose increase of the medication. This case describes the presentation of infliximab-induced vitiligo in a patient using it for long-term treatment of stable pityriasis rubra pilaris. The patient was initiated and titrated to a stable dose of infliximab totaling 27 months' duration. He was able to achieve near-complete resolution of symptoms before developing depigmented patches consistent with vitiligo. Infliximab was discontinued. Tacrolimus 0.1% ointment and narrow-band ultraviolet B light successfully repigmented the patches. The association of discontinuing infliximab and resolution of vitiligo suggests infliximab had a role in this case. Though the mechanism of involvement is undetermined, infliximab may have induced an autoimmune process by paradoxically activating lymphocytes. Alternatively, infliximab antibodies may have led to the process by disrupting the normal balance of cytokines.

  3. Back to America: tracking the origin of European introduced populations of Quercus rubra L.

    PubMed

    Merceron, Nastasia R; Leroy, Thibault; Chancerel, Emilie; Romero-Severson, Jeanne; Borkowski, Daniel S; Ducousso, Alexis; Monty, Arnaud; Porté, Annabel J; Kremer, Antoine

    2017-09-01

    Quercus rubra has been introduced in Europe since the end of the 17th century. It is widely distributed today across this continent and considered invasive in some countries. Here, we investigated the distribution of genetic diversity of both native and introduced populations with the aim of tracing the origin of introduced populations. A large sampling of 883 individuals from 73 native and 38 European locations were genotyped at 69 SNPs. In the natural range, we found a continuous geographic gradient of variation with a predominant latitudinal component. We explored the existence of ancestral populations by performing Bayesian clustering analysis and found support for two or three ancestral genetic clusters. Approximate Bayesian Computations analyses based on these two or three clusters support recent extensive secondary contacts between them, suggesting that present-day continuous genetic variation resulted from recent admixture. In the introduced range, one main genetic cluster was not recovered in Europe, suggesting that source populations were preferentially located in the northern part of the natural distribution. However, our results cannot refute the introduction of populations from the southern states that did not survive in Europe.

  4. Familial pityriasis rubra pilaris is caused by mutations in CARD14.

    PubMed

    Fuchs-Telem, Dana; Sarig, Ofer; van Steensel, Maurice A M; Isakov, Ofer; Israeli, Shirli; Nousbeck, Janna; Richard, Katharina; Winnepenninckx, Veronique; Vernooij, Marigje; Shomron, Noam; Uitto, Jouni; Fleckman, Philip; Richard, Gabriele; Sprecher, Eli

    2012-07-13

    Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) is a papulosquamous disorder phenotypically related to psoriasis. The disease has been occasionally shown to be inherited in an autosomal-dominant fashion. To identify the genetic cause of familial PRP, we ascertained four unrelated families affected by autosomal-dominant PRP. We initially mapped PRP to 17q25.3, a region overlapping with psoriasis susceptibility locus 2 (PSORS2 [MIM 602723]). Using a combination of linkage analysis followed by targeted whole-exome sequencing and candidate-gene screening, we identified three different heterozygous mutations in CARD14, which encodes caspase recruitment domain family, member 14. CARD14 was found to be specifically expressed in the skin. CARD14 is a known activator of nuclear factor kappa B signaling, which has been implicated in inflammatory disorders. Accordingly, CARD14 levels were increased, and p65 was found to be activated in the skin of PRP-affected individuals. The present data demonstrate that autosomal-dominant PRP is allelic to familial psoriasis, which was recently shown to also be caused by mutations in CARD14.

  5. Shortcomings of the Commercial MALDI-TOF MS Database and Use of MLSA as an Arbiter in the Identification of Nocardia Species.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Gema; de Dios Caballero, Juan; Garrido, Noelia; Valdezate, Sylvia; Cantón, Rafael; Sáez-Nieto, Juan A

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia species are difficult to identify, a consequence of the ever increasing number of species known and their homogeneous genetic characteristics. 16S rRNA analysis has been the gold standard for identifying these organisms, but proteomic techniques such as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF MS) and housekeeping gene analysis, have also been explored. One hundred high (n = 25), intermediate (n = 20), and low (n = 55) prevalence (for Spain) Nocardia strains belonging to 30 species were identified via 16S rRNA and MALDI-TOF MS analysis. The manufacturer-provided database MALDI Biotyper library v4.0 (5.627 entries, Bruker Daltonik) was employed. In the high prevalence group (Nocardia farcinica, N. abscessus, N. cyriacigeorgica and N. nova), the 16S rRNA and MALDI-TOF MS methods provided the same identification for 76% of the strains examined. For the intermediate prevalence group (N. brasiliensis, N. carnea, N. otitidiscaviarum and N. transvalensis complex), this figure fell to 45%. In the low-prevalence group (22 species), these two methods were concordant only in six strains at the species level. Tetra-gene multi-locus sequencing analysis (MLSA) involving the concatemer gyrB-16S rRNA-hsp65-secA1 was used to arbitrate between discrepant identifications (n = 67). Overall, the MLSA confirmed the results provided at species level by 16S rRNA analysis in 34.3% of discrepancies, and those provided by MALDI-TOF MS in 13.4%. MALDI-TOF MS could be a strong candidate for the identification of Nocardia species, but only if its reference spectrum database improves, especially with respect to unusual, recently described species and species included in the described Nocardia complexes.

  6. [Qualitative and quantitative analysis of major constituents of Paeoniae Radix Alba and Paeoniae Radix Rubra by HPLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS/MS].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Chen, Lin; Fan, Cai-rong; Li, Huang; Huang, Ming-qing; Xiang, Qing; Xu, Wen; Xu, Wei; Chu, Ke-dan; Lin, Yu

    2015-05-01

    In order to explore the differences of chemical constituents of Paeoniae Radix Alba and Paeoniae Radix Rubra, a qualitative analytical method of liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) was developed for identification of multi-constituents and an HPLC-DAD analytical method was developed for simultaneously determining 14 major compounds (gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, paeoniflorin sulfonate, protocatechuic aldehyde, methyl gallate, oxypaeoniflorin, catechin, albiflorin, and paeoniflorin, ethyl gallate, benzoic acid, pentagaloylglucose, benzoyl-paeoniflorin, and paeonol) in Paeoniae Radix Alba and Paeoniae Radix Rubra. Q-TOF/MS qualitative analysis was performed under negative ion mode and inferred 38 components of Paeoniae Radix Alba and 30 components of Paeoniae Radix Rubra. HPLC-DAD quantitative method result showed the contents of 8 ingredients were different between Paeoniae Radix Alba and Paeoniae Radix Rubra. The results indicated that the new approach was applicable in qualitative and quantitative quality control of Paeoniae Radix Alba and Paeoniae Radix Rubra.

  7. Red waters of Myrionecta rubra are biogeochemical hotspots for the Columbia River estuary with impacts on primary/secondary productions and nutrient cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Herfort, Lydie; Peterson, Tawnya D.; Prahl, Fredrick G.; McCue, Lee Ann; Needoba, Joe A.; Crump, Byron C.; Roegner, G. Curtis; Campbell, Victoria; Zuber, Peter A.

    2012-02-29

    The localized impact of blooms of the mixotrophic ciliate Myrionecta rubra in the Columbia River estuary during 2007-2010 was evaluated with biogeochemical, light microscopy, physiological and molecular data. M. rubra affected surrounding estuarine nutrient cycles, as indicated by high and low concentrations of organic nutrients and inorganic nitrogen, respectively, associated with red waters. M. rubra blooms also altered the energy transfer pattern in patches of the estuarine water that contain the ciliate by creating areas characterized by high primary production and elevated levels of fresh autochthonous particulate organic matter, therefore shifting the trophic status in emergent red water areas of the estuary from net heterotrophy towards autotrophy. The pelagic estuarine bacterial community structure was unaffected by M. rubra abundance, but red waters of the ciliate do offer a possible link between autotrophic and heterotrophic processes since they were associated with elevated dissolved organic matter and enhanced microbial secondary production. Taken together these findings suggest that M. rubra red waters are biogeochemical hotspots of the Columbia River estuary.

  8. Centrifugal partition extraction, a new method for direct metabolites recovery from culture broth: case study of torularhodin recovery from Rhodotorula rubra.

    PubMed

    Ungureanu, Camelia; Marchal, Luc; Chirvase, Ana Aurelia; Foucault, Alain

    2013-03-01

    Centrifugal partition extraction (CPE), close to centrifugal partition chromatography, put in contact in a continuous way two immiscible liquid phases. This work presents early experiments on CPE use for solid-liquid-liquid extraction. It was applied to the direct treatment of culture broth for metabolites recovery. Torularhodin is one of the carotenoid pigments produced by the yeast Rhodotorula sp., with a terminal carboxylic group considered nowadays as a powerful antioxidant to be included in food and drugs formulations. Torularhodin was extracted from Rhodotorula rubra ICCF 209 cells by CPE. The recovery of torularhodin reaches 74 μg/g of biomass i.e. 294 μg/L of culture medium. The efficiency of the extraction step increased with the operating flow rate. The extraction yield could reach 91% with a contact time lower than 2 min. A 300 mL apparatus allowed a feed at 90 mL/min. The technique is proposed for extraction or sample preparation before analysis.

  9. Anti-inflammatory properties of red ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Rubra) extract and suppression of nitric oxide production by its constituents.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Hiroshi; Shan, Shao-Jie; Tanaka, Junji; Seki, Azusa; Seo, Joung-Wook; Kasajima, Naoki; Tamura, Satoru; Ke, Yan; Murakami, Nobutoshi

    2010-02-01

    Red ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Rubra) has been prescribed as an analgesic for arthritis pain in Indonesian traditional medicine. The surface color of the rhizome is purple because of the anthocyanidins in its peel. We prepared 40% ethanolic extract from dried red ginger (red ginger extract [RGE]) and evaluated its anti-inflammatory activity using acute and chronic inflammation models. In an acetic acid-induced mouse writhing model, RGE (10-100 mg/kg) suppressed both the frequency of writhing and the increase in permeability of abdominal capillaries. On the other hand, continuous treatment with RGE (10 mg/kg) significantly (P < .05) suppressed footpad edema in a rat adjuvant arthritis model. To clarify the anti-inflammatory mechanism of RGE, we examined the effect on prostaglandin (PG) and nitric oxide (NO) production from mouse leukemic monocytes (RAW264 cells) stimulated by lipopolysaccharide. RGE (3 and 10 microg/mL) significantly (P < .05) suppressed PGE(2) production, while it also suppressed NO production at 100 microg/mL. After bioassay-guided separation of RGE, we found that [6]-shogaol and gingerdiols suppressed NO production. Red dye fractions presumed to be proanthocyanidins also suppressed NO production at 100 microg/mL. Consequently, we found a potent suppressive effect of RGE on acute and chronic inflammation, and inhibition of macrophage activation seems to be involved in this anti-inflammatory effect. [6]-Shogaol, gingerdiols, and proanthocyanidins were identified as constituents that inhibited NO production.

  10. Influence of papermill sludge on growth of Medicago sativa, Festuca rubra and Agropyron trachycaulum in gold mine tailings: a greenhouse study.

    PubMed

    Green, Scott; Renault, Sylvie

    2008-02-01

    A greenhouse study was undertaken to determine the suitability of adding papermill sludge to neutral/alkaline gold mine tailings to improve the establishment of Festuca rubra, Agropyron trachycaulum and Medicago sativa. Festuca rubra root and shoot biomass and A. Trachycaulum shoot biomass were increased with papermill sludge amendment. The addition of papermill sludge and fertilizer drastically increased the shoot and root biomass of M. sativa (20-30 times) while A. trachycaulum and F. rubra showed a more moderate increase in growth. Photosynthetic pigment content of the leaves was higher in papermill sludge treatments than in the treatments without papermill sludge. The organic carbon content, macro-aggregate content and field capacity of the gold mine tailings were increased while the bulk density was decreased by the addition of papermill sludge. This study suggests that addition of papermill sludge and adequate fertilization can alleviate some of the adverse conditions of neutral/alkaline gold mine tailings.

  11. The Hybrid Strategy of Thermoactinospora rubra YIM 77501T for Utilizing Cellulose as a Carbon Source at Different Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yi-Rui; Meng, Zhao-Hui; Hu, Qing-Wen; Jiang, Zhao; Xian, Wen-Dong; Li, Lin-Hua; Hu, Wei; Zhang, Feng; Zhou, En-Min; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Li, Wen-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Thermoactinospora rubra YIM 77501T is an aerobic, Gram-positive, spore-forming and cellulose degrading thermophilic actinomycete isolated from a sandy soil sample of a volcano. Its growth temperature range is 28–60°C. The genomic sequence of this strain revealed that there are 27 cellulase genes belonging to six glycoside hydrolase families. To understand the strategy that this strain uses to utilize carbon sources such as cellulose at different temperatures, comparative transcriptomics analysis of T. rubra YIM 77501T was performed by growing it with cellulose (CMC) and without cellulose (replaced with glucose) at 30, 40, and 50°C, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses showed four cellulase genes (TrBG2, TrBG3, TrBG4, and ThrCel6B) were up-regulated at 30, 40, and 50°C. The rate of gene expression of TrBG2, TrBG3, TrBG4, and ThrCel6B were 50°C > 30°C > 40°C. One cellulase gene (TrBG1) and two cellulase genes (TrBG5 and ThrCel6A) were up-regulated only at 30 and 50°C, respectively. These up-regulated cellulase genes were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The enzymatic properties of up-regulated cellulases showed a variety of responses to temperature. Special up-regulated cellulases TrBG1 and ThrCel6A displayed temperature acclimation for each growth condition. These expression patterns revealed that a hybrid strategy was used by T. rubra to utilize carbon sources at different temperatures. This study provides genomic, transcriptomics, and experimental data useful for understanding how microorganisms respond to environmental changes and their application in enhancing cellulose hydrolysis for animal feed and bioenergy production. PMID:28611745

  12. Reproduction and development in Halocaridina rubra Holthuis, 1963 (Crustacea: Atyidae) clarifies larval ecology in the Hawaiian anchialine ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Havird, Justin C; Vaught, Rebecca C; Weese, David A; Santos, Scott R

    2015-10-01

    Larvae in aquatic habitats often develop in environments different from those they inhabit as adults. Shrimp in the Atyidae exemplify this trend, as larvae of many species require salt or brackish water for development, while adults are freshwater-adapted. An exception within the Atyidae family is the "anchialine clade," which are euryhaline as adults and endemic to habitats with subterranean fresh and marine water influences. Although the Hawaiian anchialine atyid Halocaridina rubra is a strong osmoregulator, its larvae have never been observed in nature. Moreover, larval development in anchialine species is poorly studied. Here, reproductive trends in laboratory colonies over a 5-y period are presented from seven genetic lineages and one mixed population of H. rubra; larval survivorship under varying salinities is also discussed. The presence and number of larvae differed significantly among lineages, with the mixed population being the most prolific. Statistical differences in reproduction attributable to seasonality also were identified. Larval survivorship was lowest (12% settlement rate) at a salinity approaching fresh water and significantly higher in brackish and seawater (88% and 72%, respectively). Correlated with this finding, identifiable gills capable of ion transport did not develop until metamorphosis into juveniles. Thus, early life stages of H. rubra are apparently excluded from surface waters, which are characterized by lower and fluctuating salinities. Instead, these stages are restricted to the subterranean (where there is higher and more stable salinity) portion of Hawaii's anchialine habitats due to their inability to tolerate low salinities. Taken together, these data contribute to the understudied area of larval ecology in the anchialine ecosystem. © 2015 Marine Biological Laboratory.

  13. Physiological Adjustments of Leaf Respiration to Atmospheric Warming in Betula alleghaniensis and Quercus rubra

    SciTech Connect

    Vollmar, A.; Gunderson, C.

    2006-01-01

    Global air temperatures are predicted to rise 1° to 4.5° Celsius by the year 2100. This climatic change is expected to have a great effect on the succession and migration of temperate deciduous forest species. Most physiologically based models of forest response to climatic change focus on the ecosystems as a whole instead of on individual tree species, assuming that the effects of warming on respiration are generally the same for each species, and that processes can not adjust to a changing climate. Experimental data suggest that physiological adjustments are possible, but there is a lack of data in deciduous species. In order to correctly model the effects of climate change on temperate species, species-specific respiration acclimation (adjustment) to rising temperatures is being determined in this experiment. Two temperate deciduous tree species Betula alleghaniensis (BA) and Quercus rubra (QR) were grown over a span of four years in open-top chambers and subjected to two different temperature treatments; ambient and ambient plus 4° Celsius (E4). Between 0530 hours and 1100 hours, respiration was measured over a range of leaf temperatures on several comparable, fully expanded leaves in each treatment. Circular punches were taken from the leaves and dried at 60°C to determine leaf mass per area (LMA). Respiration rates at a common temperature decreased by 15-18% in both species, and the entire resperation versus temperature curve shifted by at least 4°C, indicating a large degree of physiological acclimation. Foliar mass per area decreased with increasing growth temperature for both species. It can be concluded that there is a relationship between leaf respiration and foliar mass as it relates to respiratory acclimation, and that these two species had similar patterns of adjustment to warming.

  14. Steep Decline and Cessation in Seed Dispersal by Myrmica rubra Ants.

    PubMed

    Bologna, Audrey; Detrain, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Myrmecochorous diaspores bear a nutrient-rich appendage, the elaiosome, attractive to ant workers that retrieve them into the nest, detach the elaiosome and reject the seed intact. While this interaction is beneficial for the plant partner by ensuring its seed dispersal, elaiosome consumption has various effects -positive, negative or none - on ants' demography and survival, depending on both the ant/plant species involved. In this context, the contribution of ants to seed dispersal strongly varies according to the ant/plant pairs considered. In this paper, we investigate whether the dynamics of myrmecochory also vary on a temporal scale, for a given pair of partners: Myrmica rubra ants and Viola odorata seeds. During their first encounter with seeds, ants collect all the diaspores and eat the majority of elaiosomes. Both the harvesting effort and the elaiosome consumption decline when seeds are offered on the next week and completely cease for the following weeks. This is related to a decrease in the number of foragers reaching the food source, as well as to a reduced probability for an ant contacting a seed to retrieve it. Seed retrieval is not reactivated after seven weeks without any encounter with V. odorata seeds. By contrast, naive ant colonies only fed with fruit flies do not show a decline of prey harvesting of which the speed of retrieval even increases over the successive weeks. Myrmecochory may thus be labile at the scale of a fruiting season due to the ability of ants to steeply tune and cease for several months the harvesting of these seemingly poorly rewarding items and to maintain cessation of seed exploitation. The present study emphasizes the importance of a long-lasting follow up of the myrmecochory process, to assess the stability of this ant-plant partnership and to identify mechanisms of adaptive harvesting in ants.

  15. Steep Decline and Cessation in Seed Dispersal by Myrmica rubra Ants

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Myrmecochorous diaspores bear a nutrient-rich appendage, the elaiosome, attractive to ant workers that retrieve them into the nest, detach the elaiosome and reject the seed intact. While this interaction is beneficial for the plant partner by ensuring its seed dispersal, elaiosome consumption has various effects −positive, negative or none − on ants’ demography and survival, depending on both the ant/plant species involved. In this context, the contribution of ants to seed dispersal strongly varies according to the ant/plant pairs considered. In this paper, we investigate whether the dynamics of myrmecochory also vary on a temporal scale, for a given pair of partners: Myrmica rubra ants and Viola odorata seeds. During their first encounter with seeds, ants collect all the diaspores and eat the majority of elaiosomes. Both the harvesting effort and the elaiosome consumption decline when seeds are offered on the next week and completely cease for the following weeks. This is related to a decrease in the number of foragers reaching the food source, as well as to a reduced probability for an ant contacting a seed to retrieve it. Seed retrieval is not reactivated after seven weeks without any encounter with V. odorata seeds. By contrast, naive ant colonies only fed with fruit flies do not show a decline of prey harvesting of which the speed of retrieval even increases over the successive weeks. Myrmecochory may thus be labile at the scale of a fruiting season due to the ability of ants to steeply tune and cease for several months the harvesting of these seemingly poorly rewarding items and to maintain cessation of seed exploitation. The present study emphasizes the importance of a long-lasting follow up of the myrmecochory process, to assess the stability of this ant-plant partnership and to identify mechanisms of adaptive harvesting in ants. PMID:26414161

  16. Topical management of striae distensae (stretch marks): prevention and therapy of striae rubrae and albae.

    PubMed

    Ud-Din, S; McGeorge, D; Bayat, A

    2016-02-01

    Striae distensae (SD) are common dermal lesions, with significant physical and psychological impact. Many therapeutic modalities are available but none can completely eradicate SD. The most common therapy is the application of topicals used both therapeutically and prophylactically. Even though there are many commercially available topical products, not all have sufficient level of evidence to support their continued use in SD. The aim here was to assess the evidence for the use of topicals in SD and to propose a structured approach in managing SD. A systematic search of published literature and manufacturer website information for topicals in SD was carried out. The results showed that there are few studies (n = 11) which investigate the efficacy of topicals in management of SD. Trofolastin and Alphastria creams demonstrated level-2 evidence of positive results for their prophylactic use in SD. Additionally, tretinoin used therapeutically showed varying results whilst cocoa butter and olive oil did not demonstrate any effect. Overall, there is a distinct lack of evidence for each topical formulation. The majority of topicals failed to mention their effect on early vs. later stages of SD (striae rubrae compared to striae albae) and their role in both prevention and treatment. In conclusion, there is no topical formulation, which is shown to be most effective in eradicating or improving SD. A structured approach in identification and targeted management of symptoms and signs with the appropriate topical is required. Randomized controlled trials are necessary to assess the efficacy of topical products for treatment and prevention of different stages of SD.

  17. Transcriptomic analysis of Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra) fruit development and ripening using RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. and Zucc.) is an important subtropical fruit crop and an ideal species for fruit quality research due to the rapid and substantial changes that occur during development and ripening, including changes in fruit color and taste. However, research at the molecular level is limited by a lack of sequence data. The present study was designed to obtain transcript sequence data and examine gene expression in bayberry developing fruit based on RNA-Seq and bioinformatic analysis, to provide a foundation for understanding the molecular mechanisms controlling fruit quality changes during ripening. Results RNA-Seq generated 1.92 G raw data, which was then de novo assembled into 41,239 UniGenes with a mean length of 531 bp. Approximately 80% of the UniGenes (32,805) were annotated against public protein databases, and coding sequences (CDS) of 31,665 UniGenes were determined. Over 3,600 UniGenes were differentially expressed during fruit ripening, with 826 up-regulated and 1,407 down-regulated. GO comparisons between the UniGenes of these two types and interactive pathways (Ipath) analysis found that energy-related metabolism was enhanced, and catalytic activity was increased. All genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were up-regulated during the fruit ripening processes, concurrent with color change. Important changes in carbohydrate and acid metabolism in the ripening fruit are likely associated with expression of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD). Conclusions Mass sequence data of Chinese bayberry was obtained and the expression profiles were examined during fruit ripening. The UniGenes were annotated, providing a platform for functional genomic research with this species. Using pathway mapping and expression profiles, the molecular mechanisms for changes in fruit color and taste during ripening were examined. This provides a reference for the study of complicated metabolism in non

  18. Liver-protecting effects of table beet (Beta vulgaris var. rubra) during ischemia-reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Váli, László; Stefanovits-Bányai, Eva; Szentmihályi, Klára; Fébel, Hedvig; Sárdi, Eva; Lugasi, Andrea; Kocsis, Ibolya; Blázovics, Anna

    2007-02-01

    Table beet (Beta vulgaris var. rubra) contains important bioactive agents (betaine and polyphenols), which have a wide range of physiologic effects. Because nutritive antioxidants may reduce the occurrence of complications and postoperative mortality, dietary intake of polyphenols and vitamins before surgery may greatly contribute to the survival of patients. Our aim was to determine the liver-protecting properties of bioactive substances of table beet in a model of ischemia-reperfusion injury of the rat. Wistar rats were divided into two groups: non-treated (n = 24) and fed with table beet (n = 8). For 10 days the second group was treated with lyophilized table beet (2 g/kg body weight daily) mixed into the rat chow. Hepatic ischemia was maintained for 45 min, followed by 15 min of reperfusion. Ischemia-reperfusion was carried out on animals from both groups. Chemiluminescent intensity, H-donating ability, reducing power, free SH group concentration, Randox-total antioxidant status, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities were determined by luminometry and spectrophotometry. Fatty acid (Shimadzu GC) and metal ion (inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry) concentrations were observed in the liver. As a result of feeding, global parameters (H-donating ability, reducing power, free SH group concentration) and enzymatic antioxidants (glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase) of the liver were found to increase significantly, which indicated that the treatment had a positive effect on its redox state. The increase found in zinc and copper content may protect the hepatocytes against oxidative stress because these elements are required for the function of superoxide dismutase enzymes. In the table beet group the concentration of short-chain fatty acids decreased, whereas that of long-chain fatty acids increased. The changes in metal element and fatty acid concentrations confirmed that these elements have an essential function

  19. Dankookia rubra gen. nov., sp. nov., an alphaproteobacterium isolated from sediment of a shallow stream.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wan-Hoe; Kim, Do-Hak; Kang, Keunsoo; Ahn, Tae-Young

    2016-06-01

    WS-10(T)-a Gram-negative, non-motile, and aerobic bacterial strain-was isolated from the sediment of a shallow stream in Korea. The optimum ranges of temperature and pH for growth were 20-40°C (optimum 28°C) and pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum pH 7.0), respectively. The DNA G+C content of strain WS-10(T) was 72.7 mol%. The major fatty acids (>5%) were summed feature 8 (C18:1 ω7c), summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c and/or C16:1 ω6c), C16:0, and C18:1 2-OH. The major polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and unidentified aminolipids. Q-10 was the predominant respiratory quinone. The highest similarities in the 16S rRNA gene sequence were shown with Paracraurococcus ruber (95.3%), Belnapia soli (95.3%), B. moabensis (95.1%), and B. rosea (95.0%). A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons showed that strain WS-10T formed a distinct line within a clade containing the genera Paracraurococcus, Craurococcus, and Belnapia in the family Acetobacteraceae. On the basis of polyphasic evidence, strain WS-10(T) represents a novel species of a new genus in the family Acetobacteraceae, for which the name Dankookia rubra gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is WS-10(T) (= KACC 18533(T) = JCM 30602(T)).

  20. Cecembia rubra sp. nov., a thermophilic bacterium isolated from a hot spring sediment.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yan-Yan; Ming, Hong; Dong, Lei; Yin, Yi-Rui; Meng, Xiao-Lin; Zhou, En-Min; Zhang, Jian-Xin; Nie, Guo-Xing; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-07-01

    A Gram-staining negative, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain YIM 78110(T), was isolated from a sediment sample collected from Hehua hot spring in Tengchong, Yunnan province, south-west China. The taxonomic status of strain YIM 78110(T) was confirmed by a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain YIM 78110(T) belongs to the genus Cecembia, displaying 96.8% and 94.7% sequence similarity with the two most closely related type strains, Cecembia calidifontis RQ-33(T) and Cecembia lonarensis LW9T, respectively. The low value of DNA-DNA hybridization (52.3 ± 2.3%) between strain YIM 78110(T) and its closest neighbour, Cecembia calidifontis RQ-33(T), indicated that this new isolate represented a different genomic species in the genus Cecembia. The temperature for growth ranged from 30 to 50 °C. The pH for growth ranged from pH 4.0 to 10.0, with NaCl tolerance of 0.5-6.0% (w/v). The predominant menaquinone of strain YIM 78110(T) was MK-7 and the major polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine. The major fatty acids were iso-C15:0 and C15:0. The DNA G+C content was 47.1 mol%. On the basis of physiological, biochemical and phylogenetic analyses, it is proposed that strain YIM 78110(T) represents a novel species of the genus Cecembia, for which the name Cecembia rubra sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 78110(T) ( = CCTCC AB2013287(T) = DSM 28057(T)).

  1. Rathayibacter caricis sp. nov. and Rathayibacter festucae sp. nov., isolated from the phyllosphere of Carex sp. and the leaf gall induced by the nematode Anguina graminis on Festuca rubra L., respectively.

    PubMed

    Dorofeeva, Lubov V; Evtushenko, Lyudmila I; Krausova, Valentina I; Karpov, Alexander V; Subbotin, Sergey A; Tiedje, James M

    2002-11-01

    Two novel species, Rathayibacter caricis sp. nov. (type strain VKM Ac-1799T = UCM Ac-618T) and Rathayibacter festucae sp. nov. (type strain VKM Ac-1390T UCM Ac-619T), are proposed for two coryneform actinomycetes found in the phyllosphere of Carex sp. and in the leaf gall induced by the plant-parasitic nematode Anguina graminis on Festuca rubra L., respectively. The strains of the novel species are typical of the genus Rathayibacter in their chemotaxonomic characteristics and fall into the Rathayibacter 16S rDNA phylogenetic cluster. They belong to two separate genomic species and differ markedly from current validly described species of Rathayibacter at the phenotypic level. The most striking feature differentiating Rathayibacter caricis sp. nov. from other species of the genus is the presence of fucose in its cell wall and Rathayibacter festucae sp. nov. can be easily recognized among other yellow-pigmented rathayibacters because of its rose-orange-coloured colonies.

  2. Nocardia farcinica abscess of the cerebellum in an immunocompetent patient: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Pascual-Gallego, María; Alonso-Lera, Pedro; Arribi, Ana; Barcia, Juan A.; Marco, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Nocardial brain abscesses are uncommon and rarely occur in patients without predisposing factors. They may be mistaken for gliomas or necrotic metastases, and surgical intervention may be required to make the diagnosis. We report the first case of Nocardia farcinica cerebellar abscess in a patient without immunosuppression. He presented to us with headache and instability beginning a week before. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a cystic lesion located at the right cerebellar hemisphere, hypointense in T1 and hyperintense in T2, with a fine wall that enhanced after injection of gadolinium. Image tests also showed a cavitated lesion at the upper lobule of the right lung. The patient underwent craniotomy and drainage of the cerebellar abscess. Initial post-operative treatment with linezolid produced a limited response. He was re-operated and vancomycin, imipenem and ciprofloxacin were added with an excellent outcome of the cerebellar and lung lesions. PMID:27695569

  3. In Vitro Activities of Tigecycline and Eight Other Antimicrobials against Different Nocardia Species Identified by Molecular Methods▿

    PubMed Central

    Cercenado, Emilia; Marín, Mercedes; Sánchez-Martínez, Mónica; Cuevas, Oscar; Martínez-Alarcón, José; Bouza, Emilio

    2007-01-01

    The in vitro activities of tigecycline and other antimicrobials against 51 isolates of Nocardia spp. were evaluated. MIC90s and MIC ranges were as follows: tigecycline, 4 and ≤0.06 to 8 mg/liter, respectively; minocycline, 2 and ≤0.06 to 2 mg/liter, respectively; linezolid, 1 and ≤0.06 to 2 mg/liter, respectively; moxifloxacin, 2 and ≤0.06 to >64 mg/liter, respectively; ertapenem, 32 and ≤0.06->64 mg/liter, respectively; imipenem, 2 and ≤0.06 to >64 mg/liter, respectively; meropenem, 8 and ≤0.06 to >64 mg/liter, respectively; amikacin, 1 and ≤0.06 to 32 mg/liter, respectively; and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 1/19 and ≤0.5/9.5 to >2/38 mg/liter, respectively. PMID:17194827

  4. Multicenter Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Study for Identification of Clinically Relevant Nocardia spp.

    PubMed Central

    Blosser, Sara J.; Drake, Steven K.; Andrasko, Jennifer L.; Henderson, Christina M.; Kamboj, Kamal; Antonara, Stella; Mijares, Lilia; Conville, Patricia; Frank, Karen M.; Harrington, Susan M.; Balada-Llasat, Joan-Miquel

    2016-01-01

    This multicenter study analyzed Nocardia spp., including extraction, spectral acquisition, Bruker matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) identification, and score interpretation, using three Nocardia libraries, the Bruker, National Institutes of Health (NIH), and The Ohio State University (OSU) libraries, and compared the results obtained by each center. A standardized study protocol, 150 Nocardia isolates, and NIH and OSU Nocardia MALDI-TOF MS libraries were distributed to three centers. Following standardized culture, extraction, and MALDI-TOF MS analysis, isolates were identified using score cutoffs of ≥2.0 for species/species complex-level identification and ≥1.8 for genus-level identification. Isolates yielding a score of <2.0 underwent a single repeat extraction and analysis. The overall score range for all centers was 1.3 to 2.7 (average, 2.2 ± 0.3), with common species generally producing higher average scores than less common ones. Score categorization and isolate identification demonstrated 86% agreement between centers; 118 of 150 isolates were correctly identified to the species/species complex level by all centers. Nine strains (6.0%) were not identified by any center, and six (4.0%) of these were uncommon species with limited library representation. A categorical score discrepancy among centers occurred for 21 isolates (14.0%). There was an overall benefit of 21.2% from repeat extraction of low-scoring isolates and a center-dependent benefit for duplicate spotting (range, 2 to 8.7%). Finally, supplementation of the Bruker Nocardia MALDI-TOF MS library with both the OSU and NIH libraries increased the genus-level and species-level identification by 18.2% and 36.9%, respectively. Overall, this study demonstrates the ability of diverse clinical microbiology laboratories to utilize MALDI-TOF MS for the rapid identification of clinically relevant Nocardia spp. and to implement MALDI-TOF MS

  5. Efficient Transformation of the Cephamycin C Producer Nocardia lactamdurans and Development of Shuttle and Promoter-Probe Cloning Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, C. Vasant; Coque, Juan-Jose R.; Martín, Juan F.

    1994-01-01

    A high transformation efficiency (1 × 105 to 7 × 105 transformants per μg of DNA) of Nocardia lactamdurans LC411 was obtained by direct treatment of mycelium with polyethylene glycol 1000 and cesium chloride. A variety of vectors from Streptomyces lividans, Brevibacterium lactofermentum, Rhodococcus fascians, and a Nocardia (Amycolatopsis) sp. were tested; transformants could be obtained only with vectors derived from an endogenous plasmid of the Amycolatopsis sp. strain DSM 43387. Vectors carrying the kanamycin resistance gene (kan) as a selective marker were constructed. The transformation procedure has been optimized by using one of these vectors (pULVK1) and studying the influence of the age of the culture, concentrations of cesium chloride and polyethylene glycol, amount of plasmid DNA, and nutrient supplementations of the growth medium. Versatile shuttle cloning vectors (pULVK2 and pULVK3) have been developed by subcloning the pBluescript KS(+) multiple cloning site or a synthetic polylinker containing several unique restriction sites (EcoRV, DraI, BamHI, SstI, EcoRI, and HindIII). A second marker, the apramycin resistance gene (amr) has been added to the vectors (pULVK2A), allowing insertional inactivation of one of the markers while using the second one for selection. An alternative marker, the amy gene of Streptomyces griseus (pULAM2), which is easily detected by the release of extracellular amylase in transformants of N. lactamdurans carrying this vector, has been added. Two promoter-probe plasmids, pULVK4 and pULVK5, have been constructed, with the promoterless xylE gene as a reporter, for utilization in N. lactamdurans. Images PMID:16349436

  6. Characterization and functional expression of a rubber degradation gene of a Nocardia degrader from a rubber-processing factory.

    PubMed

    Linh, Dao Viet; Huong, Nguyen Lan; Tabata, Michiro; Imai, Shunsuke; Iijima, Sou; Kasai, Daisuke; Anh, To Kim; Fukuda, Masao

    2017-04-01

    A rubber-degrading bacterial consortium named H2DA was obtained from an enrichment culture with natural rubber latex and rubber-processing factory waste in Vietnam. Gel permeation chromatography analysis revealed that only the strain NVL3 degraded synthetic poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) into low-molecular-weight intermediates among the three strains found in the H2DA. The 16S-rRNA gene sequence of NVL3 showed the highest identity with that of Nocardia farcinica DSM 43665(T). NVL3 accumulated aldehyde intermediates from synthetic poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) on a rubber-overlay plate as indicated by Schiff's staining. NVL3 also degraded deproteinized natural rubber into low-molecular-weight aldehyde intermediates. A latex-clearing protein (lcp) gene ortholog was identified within the genome sequence of NVL3, and it showed a moderate amino-acid identity (54-75%) with the lcp genes from previously reported rubber degraders. The heterologous expression of the NVL3 lcp in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) allowed us to purify the 46.8-kDa His-tagged lcp gene product (His-Lcp). His-Lcp degraded synthetic poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) and accumulated aldehyde intermediates from deproteinized natural rubber suggesting the functional expression of the lcp gene from a Nocardia degrader in E. coli. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR analysis indicated the strong transcriptional induction of the lcp gene in NVL3 in the presence of synthetic poly(cis-1,4-isoprene). These results suggest the involvement of the lcp gene in rubber degradation in NVL3.

  7. Anti-proliferative and Apoptotic Effects of Basella rubra (L.) Against 1, 2-Dimethyl Hydrazine-induced Colon Carcinogenesis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Kilari, Bhanu Priya; Kotakadi, Venkata Subbaiah; Penchalaneni, Josthna

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a very prevalent diagnosed cancer. The current study was performed in order to examine the role of BRAE (Basella rubra aqueous extract) in regulating aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation, cell proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis in a colon carcinogenesis model in male Wistar rats. Rats were randomly allocated into six groups. Group I served as control, and group II acted as a drug control administered BRAE (250mg/kg b.w.) orally for 30 weeks. Rats in group III-VI were given subcutaneous injections of DMH (25mg/kg b.w. weekly) for 15 weeks to initiate colon carcinogenesis. Those in group IV and VI were administered BRAE along with DMH injections. Rats in group V were administered with BRAE after cessation of DMH injection. After 30 weeks of experimental period colons were obtained from experimental groups and analyzed for ACF incidence, argyrophilic nucleolar organizing region- associated proteins (AgNOR) count, histopathological and immunohistochemical changes. Only in DMH exposed groups were ACF and AgNOR numbers increased. Administration of BRAE appreciably decreased the numbers of ACF and AgNOR in BRAE treated groups. Histopathological findings revealed a high level of dysplastic changes with decreased number of goblet cells found only in only DMH injected rats. Administration of BRAE in treated group rats reversed these changes. Expression markers for cell proliferation (PCNA and Ki67) were elevated in DMH treated rats, but reduced with BRAE treatement. This expression was reversed with apoptosis markers (p53 and Caspase-3). Thus the results results of the present study were found to be significant and confirmed the potential efficacy of BRAE against colon carcinogenesis.

  8. Detection of QTL for growth rate in the blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra Leach) using selective DNA pooling.

    PubMed

    Baranski, M; Rourke, M; Loughnan, S; Hayes, B; Austin, C; Robinson, N

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify QTL for growth rate in the blacklip abalone Haliotis rubra using selective DNA pooling. Three full-sibling families of H. rubra derived from crosses of wild broodstock were used. DNA was extracted from the largest and smallest 10% of progeny and combined into two pools for each phenotypic tail. The DNA pools were typed with 139 microsatellites, and markers showing significant differences between the peak height ratios of alleles inherited from the parents were individually genotyped and analysed by interval mapping. A strong correlation (r = 0.94, P < 0.001) was found between the t-values from the analysis of pools and the t-values from the analysis of individual genotypes. Based on the interval mapping analysis, QTL were detected on nine linkage groups at a chromosome-wide P < 0.01 and one linkage group at a chromosome-wide P < 0.05. The study demonstrated that selective DNA pooling is efficient and effective as a first-pass screen for the discovery of QTL in an aquaculture species.

  9. The effect of induced heat waves on Pinus taeda and Quercus rubra seedlings in ambient and elevated CO2 atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Ameye, Maarten; Wertin, Timothy M; Bauweraerts, Ingvar; McGuire, Mary Anne; Teskey, Robert O; Steppe, Kathy

    2012-10-01

    Here, we investigated the effect of different heat-wave intensities applied at two atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) on seedlings of two tree species, loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and northern red oak (Quercus rubra). Seedlings were assigned to treatment combinations of two levels of [CO2] (380 or 700 μmol mol(-1)) and four levels of air temperature (ambient, ambient +3°C, or 7-d heat waves consisting of a biweekly +6°C heat wave, or a monthly +12°C heat wave). Treatments were maintained throughout the growing season, thus receiving equal heat sums. We measured gas exchange and fluorescence parameters before, during and after a mid-summer heat wave. The +12°C heat wave, significantly reduced net photosynthesis (Anet) in both species and [CO2] treatments but this effect was diminished in elevated [CO2]. The decrease in Anet was accompanied by a decrease in Fv'/Fm' in P. taeda and ΦPSII in Q. rubra. Our findings suggest that, if soil moisture is adequate, trees will experience negative effects in photosynthetic performance only with the occurrence of extreme heat waves. As elevated [CO2] diminished these negative effects, the future climate may not be as detrimental to plant communities as previously assumed.

  10. [Research of the essential oil of Plumeria rubra var. actifolia from Laos by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xin-Yu; Cui, Long-Hai; Zhou, Xin-Xin; Wu, Yan; Ge, Fa-Huan

    2011-05-01

    The orthogonal test and the supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction were used for optimizing the extraction of the essential oil from Plumeria rubra var. actifolia for the first time. Compared with the steam distillation, the optimal operation parameter of extraction was as follows: extraction pressure 25 MPa, extraction temperature 45 degrees C; separator I pressure 12 MPa, separator I temperature 55 degrees C; separator II pressure 6 MPa, separator II temperature 30 degrees C. Under this condition the yield of the essential oil was 5.8927%. The components were separated and identified by GC-MS. 53 components of Plumeria rubra var. actifolia measured by SFE method were identified and determined by normalization method. The main components were 1, 6, 10-dodecatrien-3-ol, 3, 7, 11-trimethyl, benzoic acid, 2-hydroxy-, phenylmethyl ester, 1, 2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis(2-methylpropyl) ester,etc.. 1, 2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis (2-methylpropyl) este. took up 66.11% of the total amount, and there was much difference of the results from SD method.

  11. [Differences between cold and hot natures of processed Radix ginseng rubra and Panax quinquefolius L. based upon mice temperature tropism].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue-Ru; Zhao, Yan-Ling; Wang, Jia-Bo; Zhou, Can-Ping; Liu, Ta-Si; Zhao, Hai-Ping; Ren, Yong-Shen; Yan, Dan; Xiao, Xiao-He

    2009-07-28

    To establish an objective method to estimate the disparity between the cold and hot natures on the basis of an intrinsic correlation between temperature tropism of mice and the cold and hot natures of Chinese medicines. Male KM mice were randomly divided into 7 groups of 6 each, namely the normal group (NM), the weak model group (WM), the strong model group (SM), the weak model plus Radix ginseng rubra group (WM + RG), the weak model plus Panax quinquefolius L. group (WM + PQ), the strong model plus Radix ginseng rubra group (SM + RG) and the strong model plus Panax quinquefolius L. group (SM +PQ). The specific herbal drugs were administered intragastricly. To induce the weak model, mice were fed with a limited supply of feed and forced to swim in cold water until almost drowning while the strong model induced by feeding a high-protein diet with an unlimited feed access. The doses of Radix ginseng rubra and Panax quinquefolius L. were 35 mg/g of body weight per day (counted by the quantity of crude material) and lasting for seven days. The NM and model groups without dosing were intragastricly administered with physiological saline of the same volume to the dosing groups. The percentage of the remaining time of mouse on a high temperature (40 degrees C) pad to the total monitoring time was recorded by a self-designed intelligent animal behavior monitoring system. Meanwhile, the drinking volume of mice in each group was measured. Immediately after experiment, the activities of Na(+)K(+)-ATPase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver tissue were measured by assay kits of phosphorus and xanthine oxidase methods respectively. The features of deficient and cold symptom, such as fatigue, stagnant weight growth, decreased water intake, cold limbs and tail etc, were observed in WM group. And the features of heat symptom, such as increased weight and water intake, hyperactivity etc, were observed in SM group. The percentage of time that the mouse remained on 40 degrees C

  12. Rapid identification of clinically significant species and taxa of aerobic actinomycetes, including Actinomadura, Gordona, Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Streptomyces, and Tsukamurella isolates, by DNA amplification and restriction endonuclease analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Steingrube, V A; Wilson, R W; Brown, B A; Jost, K C; Blacklock, Z; Gibson, J L; Wallace, R J

    1997-01-01

    A previously described PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) identification schema for Nocardia that used an amplified 439-bp segment (amplicon) of the 65-kDa heat shock protein gene was evaluated for potential use with isolates of all clinically significant aerobic actinomycetes. The study included 28 reference (American Type Culture Collection) strains and 198 clinical isolates belonging to 20 taxonomic groups. Of these 198 isolates, 188 could be differentiated by this PCR-RFLP method. Amplicons from all aerobic actinomycete isolates lacked BstEII recognition sites, thereby distinguishing them from those of mycobacteria that contain one or more such sites. Of 29 restriction endonucleases, MspI plus HinfI produced RFLP patterns that differentiated 16 of the 20 taxa. A single RFLP pattern was observed for 15 of 20 taxa that included 65% of phenotypically clustered isolates. Multiple patterns were seen with Gordona bronchialis, Nocardia asteroides complex type VI, Nocardia otitidiscaviarum, Nocardia transvalensis, and Streptomyces spp. Streptomyces RFLP patterns were the most heterogeneous (five patterns among 19 isolates), but exhibited a unique HinfI fragment of > 320 bp. RFLP patterns that matched those from type strains of Streptomyces albus, Streptomyces griseus, or Streptomyces somaliensis were obtained from 14 of 19 Streptomyces isolates. Only 10 of 28 isolates of N. otitidiscaviarum failed to yield satisfactory amplicons, while only 6 of 188 (3.2%) clinical isolates exhibited patterns that failed to match one of the 21 defined RFLP patterns. These studies extended the feasibility of using PCR-RFLP analysis as a rapid method for the identification of all clinically significant species and taxa of aerobic actinomycetes. PMID:9157134

  13. Rapid identification of clinically significant species and taxa of aerobic actinomycetes, including Actinomadura, Gordona, Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Streptomyces, and Tsukamurella isolates, by DNA amplification and restriction endonuclease analysis.

    PubMed

    Steingrube, V A; Wilson, R W; Brown, B A; Jost, K C; Blacklock, Z; Gibson, J L; Wallace, R J

    1997-04-01

    A previously described PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) identification schema for Nocardia that used an amplified 439-bp segment (amplicon) of the 65-kDa heat shock protein gene was evaluated for potential use with isolates of all clinically significant aerobic actinomycetes. The study included 28 reference (American Type Culture Collection) strains and 198 clinical isolates belonging to 20 taxonomic groups. Of these 198 isolates, 188 could be differentiated by this PCR-RFLP method. Amplicons from all aerobic actinomycete isolates lacked BstEII recognition sites, thereby distinguishing them from those of mycobacteria that contain one or more such sites. Of 29 restriction endonucleases, MspI plus HinfI produced RFLP patterns that differentiated 16 of the 20 taxa. A single RFLP pattern was observed for 15 of 20 taxa that included 65% of phenotypically clustered isolates. Multiple patterns were seen with Gordona bronchialis, Nocardia asteroides complex type VI, Nocardia otitidiscaviarum, Nocardia transvalensis, and Streptomyces spp. Streptomyces RFLP patterns were the most heterogeneous (five patterns among 19 isolates), but exhibited a unique HinfI fragment of > 320 bp. RFLP patterns that matched those from type strains of Streptomyces albus, Streptomyces griseus, or Streptomyces somaliensis were obtained from 14 of 19 Streptomyces isolates. Only 10 of 28 isolates of N. otitidiscaviarum failed to yield satisfactory amplicons, while only 6 of 188 (3.2%) clinical isolates exhibited patterns that failed to match one of the 21 defined RFLP patterns. These studies extended the feasibility of using PCR-RFLP analysis as a rapid method for the identification of all clinically significant species and taxa of aerobic actinomycetes.

  14. Roles of gibberellins and abscisic acid in dormancy and germination of red bayberry (Myrica rubra) seeds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shun-Ying; Kuo, Shing-Rong; Chien, Ching-Te

    2008-09-01

    Intact seeds from freshly harvested fruits of Myrica rubra (Sieb et Zucc.) were dormant and required 8 weeks of warm stratification followed by 12 weeks of cold stratification for germination. Exogenous application of gibberellic acid (GA(3)) to intact fresh seeds was effective in breaking dormancy, with > 70% of seeds germinating when treated with 5.2 mM GA(3) and incubated at a day/night temperature of 30/20 degrees C for 20 weeks. Removing the hard endocarp or endocarp plus seed coat of fresh seeds promoted germination, and addition of GA(3) to the embryo accelerated germination. The gibberellins GA(1) and GA(4) were more effective than GA(3) in promoting germination of seeds with the endocarp removed. Endogenous contents of GA(1), GA(3), GA(4), GA(7) and GA(20) were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring in the endocarps, seed coats and embryos of fresh seeds treated with 5.2 mM GA(3). The content of GA(3) decreased in the endocarp during incubation, whereas GA(1) contents increased in the endocarp and seed coat. A high GA(1) content was detected in the endocarps and embryos of newly germinated seeds. We speculate that GA(3) was converted to GA(1) during incubation and that GA(1) is involved in seed germination. Endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) contents were measured in fresh seeds and in warm and cold stratified seeds. The ABA content in fresh seeds was distributed in the order endocarp > seed coat > embryo, with the content in the endocarp being about 132-fold higher than in the seed coat and embryo. Total ABA content of seeds subjected to warm or cold stratification, or both, was 8.7- to 14.0-fold lower than that of fresh seeds. Low contents of endogenous GA(1), GA(3), GA(7) and GA(20), but elevated contents of GA(4), were found in the seed coats and endocarps of warm plus cold stratified seeds and in the seed coats and embryos of newly germinated seeds. These observations, coupled with the finding that GA stimulated

  15. Detection of metabolites by frequency-pulsed electron capture gas-liquid chromatography in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of a patient with Nocardia infection.

    PubMed

    Brooks, J B; Kasin, J V; Fast, D M; Daneshvar, M I

    1987-02-01

    Serum (SR) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from a patient suspected of having tuberculous meningitis were submitted to our laboratory for analysis by frequency-pulsed electron capture gas-liquid chromatography (FPEC GLC). The samples were tested for the presence of carboxylic acids, alcohols, hydroxy acids, and amines by methods described previously (C. C. Alley, J. B. Brooks, and D. S. Kellogg, Jr., J. Clin. Microbiol. 9:97-102, 1977; J. B. Brooks, C. C. Alley, and J. A. Liddle, Anal. Chem. 46:1930-1934, 1974; J. B. Brooks, D. S. Kellogg, Jr., M. E. Shepherd, and C. C. Alley, J. Clin. Microbiol. 11:45-51, 1980; J. B. Brooks, D. S. Kellogg, Jr., M. E. Shepherd, and C. C. Alley, J. Clin. Microbiol. 11:52-58, 1980). The results were different from previous FPEC GLC profiles of SR and CSF from patients with known tuberculous meningitis. Both the SR and CSF contained several unidentified compounds that were not previously detected in tuberculous meningitis or any of our other studies of body fluids. Nocardia brasiliensis was later isolated from the patient. Detection of these metabolites by FPEC GLC could prove to be useful for rapid diagnosis of Nocardia disease, and their identification will provide a better understanding of metabolites produced by Nocardia sp. in vivo.

  16. Evaluation of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization−Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for Identification of Mycobacterium species, Nocardia species, and Other Aerobic Actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Buckwalter, S. P.; Olson, S. L.; Connelly, B. J.; Lucas, B. C.; Rodning, A. A.; Walchak, R. C.; Deml, S. M.; Wohlfiel, S. L.

    2015-01-01

    The value of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization−time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the identification of bacteria and yeasts is well documented in the literature. Its utility for the identification of mycobacteria and Nocardia spp. has also been reported in a limited scope. In this work, we report the specificity of MALDI-TOF MS for the identification of 162 Mycobacterium species and subspecies, 53 Nocardia species, and 13 genera (totaling 43 species) of other aerobic actinomycetes using both the MALDI-TOF MS manufacturer's supplied database(s) and a custom database generated in our laboratory. The performance of a simplified processing and extraction procedure was also evaluated, and, similar to the results in an earlier literature report, our viability studies confirmed the ability of this process to inactivate Mycobacterium tuberculosis prior to analysis. Following library construction and the specificity study, the performance of MALDI-TOF MS was directly compared with that of 16S rRNA gene sequencing for the evaluation of 297 mycobacteria isolates, 148 Nocardia species isolates, and 61 other aerobic actinomycetes isolates under routine clinical laboratory working conditions over a 6-month period. MALDI-TOF MS is a valuable tool for the identification of these groups of organisms. Limitations in the databases and in the ability of MALDI-TOF MS to rapidly identify slowly growing mycobacteria are discussed. PMID:26637381

  17. Effects of visual grading on northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings planted in two shelterwood stands on the Cumberland Plateau of Tennessee, USA

    Treesearch

    Stacy Clark; Scott Schlarbaum; Callie Schweitzer

    2015-01-01

    Artificial regeneration of oak has been generally unsuccessful in maintaining the oak component in productive upland forests of eastern North America. We tested visual grading effects on quality-grown northern red oak (Quercus rubra) seedlings planted in two submesic stands on the Cumberland Plateau escarpment of Tennessee, USA. Seedlings were grown for one year using...

  18. Influence of overstory density on ecophysiology of red oak (Quercus rubra) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum) seedlings in central Ontario shelterwoods

    Treesearch

    William C. Parker; Daniel C. Dey

    2008-01-01

    A field experiment was established in a secondgrowth hardwood forest dominated by red oak (Quercus rubra L.) to examine the effects of shelterwood overstory density on leaf gas exchange and seedling water status of planted red oak, naturally regenerated red oak and sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) seedlings during the first...

  19. Hybridization and introgression patterns between native red elm (Ulmus rubra Muhl.) and exotic, invasive Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L.) examined using species-specific microsatellite markers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ulmus pumila (Siberian elm) is an invasive elm species, non-native to the United States, which hybridizes with Ulmus rubra (red elm), a U.S. native. While Siberian elm is highly tolerant to Dutch elm disease (DED), red elm populations in North America have been decimated by DED. In order to study ...

  20. Growing, selecting, and establishing 1-0 Quercus rubra and Q alba seedlings for rapid growth and early acorn production on forested lands in the southeastern United States.

    Treesearch

    Paul P. Kormanik; Shi-Jean S. Sung; Taryn L. Kormanik

    2004-01-01

    Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L., NRO) and white oak (Q. alba L., WO) are among the most valuable oak species in the eastern Untied States and throughout the eastern provinces of Canada. They have a broad geographic distribution: yet no single regeneration mechanism can explain their presence in current stands. Both species...

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus pumilus Strain GM3FR, an Endophyte Isolated from Aerial Plant Tissues of Festuca rubra L.

    PubMed Central

    Hollensteiner, Jacqueline; Daniel, Rolf; Liesegang, Heiko; Vidal, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Bacillus pumilus GM3FR, an endophytic bacterium isolated from aerial plant tissues of Festuca rubra L. The draft genome consists of 3.5 Mb and harbors 3,551 predicted protein-encoding genes. The genome provides insights into the biocontrol potential of B. pumilus GM3FR. PMID:28360161

  2. Use of radiometric indices to evaluate Zn and Pb stress in two grass species (Festuca rubra L. and Vulpia myuros L.).

    PubMed

    Gómez, J; Yunta, F; Esteban, E; Carpena, R O; Zornoza, P

    2016-11-01

    Vegetation indices obtained from radiometric measurements have been used to estimate the stress response of plants grown in contaminated sites. The phytotoxicity of Pb and Zn in Festuca rubra L. and Vulpia myuros L. plants grown under hydroponic conditions was evaluated using vegetation indices obtained from radiometric measurements. The plants were supplied with 3 mM Zn (+Zn), 500 μM Pb (+Pb) and 500 μM Pb with EDTA (+PbEDTA) for 3 months. Significantly higher Zn concentrations in F. rubra shoots compared with V. myuros shoots were detected for Zn and Pb treatments. EDTA increased Pb transport to the shoots for both grasses, while Pb-treated plants retained Pb primarily in the roots. All vegetation indices tested showed the highest differences in F. rubra under +PbEDTA treatment and minor effects under +Zn, whereas the major variations for V. myuros corresponded to +Zn treatment, followed by +PbEDTA. Red edge normalized difference vegetation index, yellowness index and anthocyanin concentration index were the most sensitive indices to report Zn and Pb phytotoxicity in these grasses. According to the results obtained, both metal concentrations and radiometric indices suggested that Pb is more phytotoxic to F. rubra, which tolerates high Zn levels, whereas V. myuros was strongly affected by high Zn levels and markedly tolerant to Pb, even when applied in a mobile form (PbEDTA). Both species could be used in the phytostabilization of Zn- and Pb-contaminated soils. The abilities of F. rubra to accumulate Zn and V. myuros to accumulate Pb in the roots would facilitate a more efficient phytoremediation strategy when used in combination.

  3. Stabilization of metals in acidic mine spoil with amendments and red fescue (Festuca rubra L.) growth.

    PubMed

    Simon, László

    2005-12-01

    Stabilization of metals with amendments and red fescue (Festuca rubra, cv. Keszthelyi 2) growth was studied on an acidic and phytotoxic mine spoil (pH(KCl) 3.20-3.26; Cd 7.1 mg kg(-1), Cu 120 mg kg(-1), Pb 2154 mg kg(-1) and Zn 605 mg kg(-1)) from Gyöngyösoroszi, Hungary in a pot experiment. Raising the pH above 5.0 by lime (CaCO(3)), and supplementing with 40 mg kg(-1)nitrogen (NH(4)NO(3)) made this material suitable for plant growth. All cultures were limed with 0.5% (m/m) CaCO(3) (treatment 1), which was combined with 5% (m/m) municipal sewage sludge compost (treatment 2), 5% (m/m) peat (treatment 3), 7.5% (m/m) natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) (treatment 4), and 0.5 (m/m) KH(2)PO(4) (treatment 5). Treatments 1-5 were combined with each other (treatment 6). After 60 days of red fescue growth, pH of the limed mine spoil decreased in all cultures units. Application of peat caused the highest pH decrease (1.15), while decrease of pH was less than 0.23 in treatments 2, 5 or 6. Application of lime significantly reduced concentrations of metals in the 'plant available' fraction of mine spoil compared to non-limed mine spoil. Amendments added to limed mine spoil changed variously the ratio of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in exchangeable or 'plant available' fractions, differently influencing the phytoavailability of these metals. Most of the metals were captured in the roots of test plants. Treatment 2 caused the appearance of less Cd in shoots (<0.1 microg g(-1)) or roots (3.11 microg g(-1)), while treatment 5 resulted in the highest Cd concentration (2.13 microg g(-1)) in shoots. Treatments did not influence significantly the Cu accumulation in shoots. The Pb accumulation of roots (44.7 microg g(-1)) was most effectively inhibited by combined treatment, while the highest value (136 microg g(-1)) was found in the culture treated with potassium phosphate. Pb concentration in shoots was below the detection limit, except for treatments 5 and 6. Peat application resulted in higher

  4. Isospora cardellinae n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the red warbler Cardellina rubra (Swainson) (Passeriformes: Parulidae) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Salgado-Miranda, Celene; Medina, Juan Pablo; Zepeda-Velázquez, Andrea Paloma; García-Conejo, Michele; Galindo-Sánchez, Karla Patricia; Janczur, Mariusz Krzysztof; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo

    2016-10-01

    A new coccidian species (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) collected from the red warbler Cardellina rubra (Swainson) is reported from the Nevado de Toluca National Park, Mexico. Isospora cardellinae n. sp. has subspherical oöcysts, measuring on average 26.6 × 25.4 μm, with smooth, bi-layered wall, c.1.3 μm thick. Micropyle, oöcyst residuum, and polar granule are absent. Sporocysts are ovoidal, measuring on average 19.0 × 12.0 µm, with a knob-like Stieda body, a trapezoidal sub-Stieda body and sporocyst residuum composed of scattered spherules of different sizes. Sporozoites are vermiform with one refractile body and a nucleus. This is the fourth description of an isosporoid coccidian infecting a New World warbler.

  5. Evaluation of an onion extract, Centella asiatica, and hyaluronic acid cream in the appearance of striae rubra.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe Diana; Gold, Michael H; Kaur, Mandeep; Olayinka, Babajide; Grundy, Starr L; Pappert, Eric J; Hardas, Bhushan

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of an onion extract cream with Centella asiatica and hyaluronic acid in improving the appearance of striae rubra (SR). Women participants with bilateral, outer aspect of the thigh SR were randomized to apply a quarter-sized amount of the onion extract cream twice daily for 12 weeks to the randomized left or right, outer aspect of the thigh. No treatment was administered to the contralateral side. Participants were evaluated at weeks 2, 4, 8, and 12. Primary efficacy endpoints included color, texture, softness, and overall appearance of SR by the participant and investigator at week 12. The treated thigh demonstrated a statistically significant difference in the mean change in participant and investigator evaluations in overall appearance, texture, color, and softness compared with the untreated thigh at week 12. No adverse events occurred during the study. The onion extract cream was well tolerated and significantly improved the appearance of SR in women.

  6. Fungal Endophyte (Epichloë festucae) Alters the Nutrient Content of Festuca rubra Regardless of Water Availability

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-de-Aldana, Beatriz R.; García-Ciudad, Antonia; García-Criado, Balbino; Vicente-Tavera, Santiago; Zabalgogeazcoa, Iñigo

    2013-01-01

    Festuca rubra plants maintain associations with the vertically transmitted fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae. A high prevalence of infected host plants in semiarid grasslands suggests that this association could be mutualistic. We investigated if the Epichloë-endophyte affects the growth and nutrient content of F. rubra plants subjected to drought. Endophyte-infected (E+) and non-infected (E−) plants of two half-sib lines (PEN and RAB) were subjected to three water availability treatments. Shoot and root biomass, nutrient content, proline, phenolic compounds and fungal alkaloids were measured after the treatments. The effect of the endophyte on shoot and root biomass and dead leaves depended on the plant line. In the PEN line, E+ plants had a greater S:R ratio than E-, but the opposite occurred in RAB. In both plant lines and all water treatments, endophyte-infected plants had greater concentrations of N, P and Zn in shoots and Ca, Mg and Zn in roots than E- plants. On average, E+ plants contained in their shoots more P (62%), Zn (58%) and N (19%) than E- plants. While the proline in shoots increased in response to water stress, the endophyte did not affect this response. A multivariate analysis showed that endophyte status and plant line impose stronger differences in the performance of the plants than the water stress treatments. Furthermore, differences between PEN and RAB lines seemed to be greater in E- than in E+ plants, suggesting that E+ plants of both lines are more similar than those of their non-infected version. This is probably due to the endophyte producing a similar effect in both plant lines, such as the increase in N, P and Zn in shoots. The remarkable effect of the endophyte in the nutrient balance of the plants could help to explain the high prevalence of infected plants in natural grasslands. PMID:24367672

  7. Fungal endophyte (Epichloë festucae) alters the nutrient content of Festuca rubra regardless of water availability.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-de-Aldana, Beatriz R; García-Ciudad, Antonia; García-Criado, Balbino; Vicente-Tavera, Santiago; Zabalgogeazcoa, Iñigo

    2013-01-01

    Festuca rubra plants maintain associations with the vertically transmitted fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae. A high prevalence of infected host plants in semiarid grasslands suggests that this association could be mutualistic. We investigated if the Epichloë-endophyte affects the growth and nutrient content of F. rubra plants subjected to drought. Endophyte-infected (E+) and non-infected (E-) plants of two half-sib lines (PEN and RAB) were subjected to three water availability treatments. Shoot and root biomass, nutrient content, proline, phenolic compounds and fungal alkaloids were measured after the treatments. The effect of the endophyte on shoot and root biomass and dead leaves depended on the plant line. In the PEN line, E+ plants had a greater S:R ratio than E-, but the opposite occurred in RAB. In both plant lines and all water treatments, endophyte-infected plants had greater concentrations of N, P and Zn in shoots and Ca, Mg and Zn in roots than E- plants. On average, E+ plants contained in their shoots more P (62%), Zn (58%) and N (19%) than E- plants. While the proline in shoots increased in response to water stress, the endophyte did not affect this response. A multivariate analysis showed that endophyte status and plant line impose stronger differences in the performance of the plants than the water stress treatments. Furthermore, differences between PEN and RAB lines seemed to be greater in E- than in E+ plants, suggesting that E+ plants of both lines are more similar than those of their non-infected version. This is probably due to the endophyte producing a similar effect in both plant lines, such as the increase in N, P and Zn in shoots. The remarkable effect of the endophyte in the nutrient balance of the plants could help to explain the high prevalence of infected plants in natural grasslands.

  8. Larvicidal activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Plumeria rubra plant latex against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Patil, Satish V; Borase, Hemant P; Salunke, Bipinchandra K; Salunkhe, Rahul B

    2012-05-01

    In the present study activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Plumeria rubra plant latex against second and fourth larval instar of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi was determined. Range of concentrations of synthesized AgNps (10, 5, 2.5, 1.25, 0.625, 0.3125 ppm) and aqueous crude latex (1,000, 500, 250, 125, 62.50, 31.25 ppm) were tested against larvae of A. aegypti and A. Stephensi. The synthesized AgNps from P. rubra latex were highly toxic than crude latex extract in both mosquito species. The LC(50) values for second and fourth larval instars after 24 h of crude latex exposure were 1.49, 1.82 ppm against A. aegypti and 1.10, 1.74 ppm against A. stephensi respectively. These figures were 181.67, 287.49 ppm against A. aegypti and 143.69, 170.58 ppm against A. stephensi respectively for crude latex extract. The mortality rates were positively correlated with the concentration of AgNPs. The characterization studies of synthesized AgNPs by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Particle size analysis (PSA) and zeta potential confirmed the spherical shape and size (32-200 nm) of silver nanoparticles along with stability. Toxicity studies carried out against non-target fish species Poecilia reticulata, the most common organism in the habitats of A. aegypti and A. stephensi showed no toxicity at LC(50) and LC(90) doses of the AgNPs. This is the first report on mosquito larvicidal activity of latex synthesized nanoparticles.

  9. Identification, Molecular Cloning of IL-1β and Its Expression Profile during Nocardia seriolae Infection in Largemouth Bass, Micropterus salmoides

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Ping-Yueh; Byadgi, Omkar; Wang, Pei-Chyi; Tsai, Ming-An; Liaw, Li-Ling; Chen, Shih-Chu

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, IL-1β cDNA was identified and analyzed from largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Full length IL-1β mRNA was obtained using Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE), which contains 78 bp 3′-UTR, a 455 bp 5′-UTR, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 702 bp coding for 233 amino acid residues. The molecular weight and theoretical isoelectric point of largemouth bass IL-1β protein was predicted to be 26.7 kDa and 6.08 respectively. A largemouth bass IL-1β phylogenetic analysis showed a close relation to the IL-1βs of striped trumpeter (Latris lineata), Chinese perch (Siniperca chuatsi), and Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus). Peptidoglycan upregulated IL-1β in the spleen and head kidney, while lipopolysaccharide upregulated detectable levels of IL-1β in the spleen only. Largemouth bass, challenged with Nocardia seriolae (1.0 × 106 cfu/mL), showed a significant increase in IL-1β at 3 and 5 days post infection (dpi) in the spleen, while in the head kidney significant expression was found at 2 and 3 dpi, peaking at 3 dpi. Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) showed significantly higher expression in the spleen at 3 and 5 dpi, and in the head kidney at 1 and 3 dpi, with expression decreasing at 5 dpi in both tissues. PMID:27706080

  10. SUBTENON AMIKACIN INJECTION FOR THE TREATMENT OF NOCARDIA ASTEROIDES ORBITAL CELLULITIS IN A PATIENT WITH A HISTORY OF SCLERAL BUCKLING.

    PubMed

    Gursel Ozkurt, Zeynep; Demirci, Hakan

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the use of subtenon amikacin injection for the treatment of Nocardia asteroides orbital cellulitis in a patient with a history of scleral buckle surgery. Case report. A 79-year-old diabetic woman presented with an 8-month history of diplopia, discharge, and swelling around her left eye. She had a scleral buckle surgery in this eye about 15 years ago. Examination of the left eye showed a visual acuity of 20/80, swollen and ptotic upper eyelid, chemotic conjunctiva, and limited extraocular motility. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an abscess under the scleral buckle. The scleral buckle was removed, and the abscess under the scleral buckle was drained. N. asteroides grew on the culture. Despite 4 months of the systemic trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and the topical fortified amikacin therapy, her infection worsened. After 5 monthly subtenon amikacin injections, the infection regressed dramatically, and her vision improved to 20/70. She used the systemic trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole for 10 more months. After a 1-year follow-up, her external examination was normal, except for the left upper eyelid ptosis. Subtenon amikacin injection can be added to the regimen for N. asteroides orbital cellulitis, of which surgical drainage, systemic and topical antibiotic therapies are not enough to control infection.

  11. Complete Genome Sequence Analysis of Nocardia brasiliensis HUJEG-1 Reveals a Saprobic Lifestyle and the Genes Needed for Human Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Ortiz-Lopez, Rocio; Elizondo-Gonzalez, Ramiro; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is an important etiologic agent of mycetoma. These bacteria live as a saprobe in soil or organic material and enter the tissue via minor trauma. Mycetoma is characterized by tumefaction and the production of fistula and abscesses, with no spontaneous cure. By using mass sequencing, we determined the complete genomic nucleotide sequence of the bacteria. According to our data, the genome is a circular chromosome 9,436,348-bp long with 68% G+C content that encodes 8,414 proteins. We observed orthologs for virulence factors, a higher number of genes involved in lipid biosynthesis and catabolism, and gene clusters for the synthesis of bioactive compounds, such as antibiotics, terpenes, and polyketides. An in silico analysis of the sequence supports the conclusion that the bacteria acquired diverse genes by horizontal transfer from other soil bacteria, even from eukaryotic organisms. The genome composition reflects the evolution of bacteria via the acquisition of a large amount of DNA, which allows it to survive in new ecological niches, including humans. PMID:23755230

  12. Improved Rifamycin B Production by Nocardia mediterranei MTCC 14 under Solid-State Fermentation through Process Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Vastrad, Basavaraj M.; Neelagund, Shivayogeshwar E.; Iiger, Sudhir R.; Godbole, Ajeet M.; Kulkarni, Venkatrao

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of various production parameters using response surface methodology (RSM) was performed to assess maximum yield of rifamycin B from Nocardia mediterranei MTCC 14. Plackett-Burman design test was applied to determine the significant effects of various production parameters such as glucose, maltose, ribose, galactose, beef extract, peanut meal, ammonium chloride, ammonium sulphate, barbital, pH, and moisture content on production of rifamycin B. Among the eleven variables tested, galactose, ribose, glucose, and pH were found to have significant effect on rifamycin B production. Optimum levels of the significant variables were decided by using a central composite design. The most appropriate condition for production of rifamycin B was found to be a single step production at galactose (8% w/w), ribose (3% w/w), glucose (9% w/w), and pH (7.0). At these optimum production parameters, the maximum yield of rifamycin B obtained experimentally (9.87 g/kgds dry sunflower oil cake) was found to be very close to its predicted value of 10.35 g/kgds dry sunflower oil cake. The mathematical model developed was found to fit greatly with the experimental data of rifamycin B production. PMID:25371823

  13. Amy as a reporter gene for promoter activity in Nocardia lactamdurans: comparison of promoters of the cephamycin cluster.

    PubMed Central

    Chary, V K; de la Fuente, J L; Liras, P; Martin, J F

    1997-01-01

    Promoter probe vectors containing the pA origin of replication and the Streptomyces griseus promoterless amy gene (encoding alpha-amylase) as reporter have been constructed to study transcription initiation regions in Nocardia lactamdurans. In some of the promoter probe vectors the phage fd terminator has been introduced to avoid readthrough expression from upstream sequences. By using these vectors, four different transcription initiation regions of the cephamycin gene cluster have been studied in N. lactamdurans. The bla gene encoding a beta-lactamase has a relatively strong promoter. Two other separate promoters corresponding to the lat and cefD genes (encoding, respectively, lysine-6-aminotransferase and isopenicillin N-epimerase) showed weak transcription initiation ability. These two promoters are arranged in a bidirectional transcription initiation region located in the center of the cephamycin gene cluster. The cmcH gene (encoding 3-hydroxymethylcephem carbamoyltransferase) upstream region did not contain a functional promoter, suggesting that cmcH is transcribed as a part of a polycistronic mRNA. The native amy promoter is used very efficiently in N. lactamdurans, resulting in secretion of high levels of extracellular alpha-amylase. PMID:9251185

  14. Short communication: Molecular characteristics, antimicrobial susceptibility, and pathogenicity of clinical Nocardia cyriacigeorgica isolates from an outbreak of bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Liu, Yongxia; Barkema, Herman W; Gao, Jian; De Buck, Jeroen; Kastelic, John P; Liu, Gang; Ali, Tariq; Shahid, Muhammad; Han, Bo

    2017-10-01

    The occurrence of nocardial mastitis, mostly in the context of outbreaks, has been reported in many countries. However, there is a paucity of reports regarding detailed characterization of Nocardia cyriacigeorgica from bovine mastitis. Thus, herein we report characteristics, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, molecular identification, and pathogenicity of N. cyriacigeorgica isolated from an outbreak of clinical mastitis in a dairy herd in northern China. A total of 182 (80.2%) lactating cows had clinical mastitis with severe inflammation and firmness of the udder, reduced milk production, and anorexia, with no apparent clinical response to common antibiotics. Out of 22 mastitic milk samples submitted to our laboratory, 12 N. cyriacigeorgica were isolated and characterized using standard microbiological analysis, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR analysis, biochemical assays, and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Additionally, in vivo experiments were done to determine pathogenicity of these clinical mastitis isolates. All isolates were resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin, minocycline, rifampicin, and aminoglycosides (type VI pattern). Additionally, intramammary inoculation of mice with N. cyriacigeorgica caused chronic inflammatory changes, including hyperemia, edema, and infiltration of lymphocytes and neutrophils, as well as hyperplasia of lymph nodules in mammary glands. Therefore, we concluded that N. cyriacigeorgica was involved in the current outbreak of mastitis. To our best knowledge, this is the first report to characterize N. cyriacigeorgica isolated from cases of bovine mastitis in China. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification, Molecular Cloning of IL-1β and Its Expression Profile during Nocardia seriolae Infection in Largemouth Bass, Micropterus salmoides.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ping-Yueh; Byadgi, Omkar; Wang, Pei-Chyi; Tsai, Ming-An; Liaw, Li-Ling; Chen, Shih-Chu

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, IL-1β cDNA was identified and analyzed from largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Full length IL-1β mRNA was obtained using Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE), which contains 78 bp 3'-UTR, a 455 bp 5'-UTR, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 702 bp coding for 233 amino acid residues. The molecular weight and theoretical isoelectric point of largemouth bass IL-1β protein was predicted to be 26.7 kDa and 6.08 respectively. A largemouth bass IL-1β phylogenetic analysis showed a close relation to the IL-1βs of striped trumpeter (Latris lineata), Chinese perch (Siniperca chuatsi), and Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus). Peptidoglycan upregulated IL-1β in the spleen and head kidney, while lipopolysaccharide upregulated detectable levels of IL-1β in the spleen only. Largemouth bass, challenged with Nocardia seriolae (1.0 × 10⁶ cfu/mL), showed a significant increase in IL-1β at 3 and 5 days post infection (dpi) in the spleen, while in the head kidney significant expression was found at 2 and 3 dpi, peaking at 3 dpi. Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) showed significantly higher expression in the spleen at 3 and 5 dpi, and in the head kidney at 1 and 3 dpi, with expression decreasing at 5 dpi in both tissues.

  16. Yields of Bacterial Cells from Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Wodzinski, Richard S.; Johnson, Marvin J.

    1968-01-01

    A strain of Nocardia and one of Pseudomonas, both isolated on pristane (2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane), gave cell yields of approximately 100% on n-octadecane and pristane. Both organisms grew more rapidly on the n-octadecane than on the pristane. A mixed culture, isolated on 3-methylheptane, whose two components were identified as species of Pseudomonas and of Nocardia, gave approximately 100% cell yields and grew with generation times of about 5 hr on n-heptane, n-octane, and 2-methylheptane. The generation time on 3-methylheptane was 8.6 hr and the cell yield was only 79%. A strain of Pseudomonas isolated from naphthalene enrichments and one from phenanthrene enrichments both gave a cell yield of 50% on naphthalene. The phenanthrene isolate gave a cell yield of 40% on phenanthrene. A Nocardia species isolated on benzene gave a 79% cell yield on benzene. The generation times of the bacteria isolated on aromatic hydrocarbons were related to the solubility of the aromatic hydrocarbons on which they were grown; the more insoluble hydrocarbons gave slower growth. PMID:5726161

  17. Identification, Typing, and Phylogenetic Relationships of the Main Clinical Nocardia Species in Spain According to Their gyrB and rpoB Genes

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Gema; Garrido, Noelia; Villalón, Pilar; Medina-Pascual, Maria J.; Sáez-Nieto, Juan A.

    2013-01-01

    This study compares the identification, typing, and phylogenetic relationships of the most prevalent clinical Nocardia species in Spain, as determined via sequence analysis of their housekeeping genes gyrB and rpoB, with the results returned by the gold standard 16S rRNA method. gyrB and rpoB analyses identified Nocardia abscessus, N. cyriacigeorgica, N. farcinica, and the N. nova complex, species that together account for more than half of the human nocardiosis cases recorded in Spain. The individual discriminatory power of gyrB and rpoB with respect to intraspecies typing, calculated using the Hunter-Gaston discriminatory index (HGDI), was generally high (HGDI, 0.85 to 1), except for rpoB with respect to N. farcinica (HGDI, 0.71). Phylogenetically, different degrees of intra- and interspecies microheterogeneity were observed for gyrB and rpoB in a group of 119 clinical strains. A single 16S haplotype was obtained for each species, except for the N. nova complex (8 types), while gyrB and rpoB were more polymorphic: N. abscessus had 14 and 18 haplotypes, N. cyriacigeorgica had 17 and 12, N. farcinica had 11 and 5, and the N. nova complex had 26 and 29 haplotypes, respectively. A diversity gradient was therefore seen, with N. farcinica at the bottom followed by N. abscessus and N. cyriacigeorgica in the middle and N. nova complex at the top. The complexity of the N. nova complex is highlighted by its six variations in the GyrB 126AAAPEH motif. gyrB sequencing (with or without rpoB sequencing) offers a simple means for identifying the most prevalent Nocardia species in Spanish medical laboratories and for determining the intraspecific diversity among their strains. PMID:23966490

  18. Identification, typing, and phylogenetic relationships of the main clinical Nocardia species in spain according to their gyrB and rpoB genes.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Gema; Valdezate, Sylvia; Garrido, Noelia; Villalón, Pilar; Medina-Pascual, Maria J; Sáez-Nieto, Juan A

    2013-11-01

    This study compares the identification, typing, and phylogenetic relationships of the most prevalent clinical Nocardia species in Spain, as determined via sequence analysis of their housekeeping genes gyrB and rpoB, with the results returned by the gold standard 16S rRNA method. gyrB and rpoB analyses identified Nocardia abscessus, N. cyriacigeorgica, N. farcinica, and the N. nova complex, species that together account for more than half of the human nocardiosis cases recorded in Spain. The individual discriminatory power of gyrB and rpoB with respect to intraspecies typing, calculated using the Hunter-Gaston discriminatory index (HGDI), was generally high (HGDI, 0.85 to 1), except for rpoB with respect to N. farcinica (HGDI, 0.71). Phylogenetically, different degrees of intra- and interspecies microheterogeneity were observed for gyrB and rpoB in a group of 119 clinical strains. A single 16S haplotype was obtained for each species, except for the N. nova complex (8 types), while gyrB and rpoB were more polymorphic: N. abscessus had 14 and 18 haplotypes, N. cyriacigeorgica had 17 and 12, N. farcinica had 11 and 5, and the N. nova complex had 26 and 29 haplotypes, respectively. A diversity gradient was therefore seen, with N. farcinica at the bottom followed by N. abscessus and N. cyriacigeorgica in the middle and N. nova complex at the top. The complexity of the N. nova complex is highlighted by its six variations in the GyrB (126)AAAPEH motif. gyrB sequencing (with or without rpoB sequencing) offers a simple means for identifying the most prevalent Nocardia species in Spanish medical laboratories and for determining the intraspecific diversity among their strains.

  19. Screening the wetland plant species Alisma plantago-aquatica, Carex rostrata and Phalaris arundinacea for innate tolerance to zinc and comparison with Eriophorum angustifolium and Festuca rubra Merlin.

    PubMed

    Matthews, David J; Moran, Bridget M; Otte, Marinus L

    2005-03-01

    Several wetland plant species appear to have constitutive metal tolerance. In previous studies, populations from contaminated and non-contaminated sites of the wetland plants Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, Glyceria fluitans and Eriophorum angustifolium were found to be tolerant to high concentrations of metals. This study screened three other species of wetland plants: Alisma plantago-aquatica, Carex rostrata and Phalaris arundinacea for innate tolerance to zinc. The degree of tolerance was compared to known zinc-tolerant E. angustifolium and Festuca rubra Merlin. It was found that A. plantago-aquatica and P. arundinacea did not posses innate tolerance to zinc, but that C. rostrata was able to tolerate elevated levels of zinc, at levels comparable to those tolerated by E. angustifolium and F. rubra Merlin. The findings support the theory that some wetland angiosperm species tend to be tolerant to exposure to high levels of metals, regardless of their origin.

  20. Bruker Biotyper Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry System for Identification of Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Kocuria, Gordonia, Tsukamurella, and Listeria Species

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tai-Fen; Du, Shin-Hei; Teng, Shih-Hua; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Sheng, Wang-Hui; Teng, Lee-Jene

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated whether the Bruker Biotyper matrix-associated laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) system provides accurate species-level identifications of 147 isolates of aerobically growing Gram-positive rods (GPRs). The bacterial isolates included Nocardia (n = 74), Listeria (n = 39), Kocuria (n = 15), Rhodococcus (n = 10), Gordonia (n = 7), and Tsukamurella (n = 2) species, which had all been identified by conventional methods, molecular methods, or both. In total, 89.7% of Listeria monocytogenes, 80% of Rhodococcus species, 26.7% of Kocuria species, and 14.9% of Nocardia species (n = 11, all N. nova and N. otitidiscaviarum) were correctly identified to the species level (score values, ≥2.0). A clustering analysis of spectra generated by the Bruker Biotyper identified six clusters of Nocardia species, i.e., cluster 1 (N. cyriacigeorgica), cluster 2 (N. brasiliensis), cluster 3 (N. farcinica), cluster 4 (N. puris), cluster 5 (N. asiatica), and cluster 6 (N. beijingensis), based on the six peaks generated by ClinProTools with the genetic algorithm, i.e., m/z 2,774.477 (cluster 1), m/z 5,389.792 (cluster 2), m/z 6,505.720 (cluster 3), m/z 5,428.795 (cluster 4), m/z 6,525.326 (cluster 5), and m/z 16,085.216 (cluster 6). Two clusters of L. monocytogenes spectra were also found according to the five peaks, i.e., m/z 5,594.85, m/z 6,184.39, and m/z 11,187.31, for cluster 1 (serotype 1/2a) and m/z 5,601.21 and m/z 11,199.33 for cluster 2 (serotypes 1/2b and 4b). The Bruker Biotyper system was unable to accurately identify Nocardia (except for N. nova and N. otitidiscaviarum), Tsukamurella, or Gordonia species. Continuous expansion of the MALDI-TOF MS databases to include more GPRs is necessary. PMID:24759706

  1. Bruker biotyper matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry system for identification of Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Kocuria, Gordonia, Tsukamurella, and Listeria species.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Po-Ren; Lee, Tai-Fen; Du, Shin-Hei; Teng, Shih-Hua; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Sheng, Wang-Hui; Teng, Lee-Jene

    2014-07-01

    We evaluated whether the Bruker Biotyper matrix-associated laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) system provides accurate species-level identifications of 147 isolates of aerobically growing Gram-positive rods (GPRs). The bacterial isolates included Nocardia (n = 74), Listeria (n = 39), Kocuria (n = 15), Rhodococcus (n = 10), Gordonia (n = 7), and Tsukamurella (n = 2) species, which had all been identified by conventional methods, molecular methods, or both. In total, 89.7% of Listeria monocytogenes, 80% of Rhodococcus species, 26.7% of Kocuria species, and 14.9% of Nocardia species (n = 11, all N. nova and N. otitidiscaviarum) were correctly identified to the species level (score values, ≥ 2.0). A clustering analysis of spectra generated by the Bruker Biotyper identified six clusters of Nocardia species, i.e., cluster 1 (N. cyriacigeorgica), cluster 2 (N. brasiliensis), cluster 3 (N. farcinica), cluster 4 (N. puris), cluster 5 (N. asiatica), and cluster 6 (N. beijingensis), based on the six peaks generated by ClinProTools with the genetic algorithm, i.e., m/z 2,774.477 (cluster 1), m/z 5,389.792 (cluster 2), m/z 6,505.720 (cluster 3), m/z 5,428.795 (cluster 4), m/z 6,525.326 (cluster 5), and m/z 16,085.216 (cluster 6). Two clusters of L. monocytogenes spectra were also found according to the five peaks, i.e., m/z 5,594.85, m/z 6,184.39, and m/z 11,187.31, for cluster 1 (serotype 1/2a) and m/z 5,601.21 and m/z 11,199.33 for cluster 2 (serotypes 1/2b and 4b). The Bruker Biotyper system was unable to accurately identify Nocardia (except for N. nova and N. otitidiscaviarum), Tsukamurella, or Gordonia species. Continuous expansion of the MALDI-TOF MS databases to include more GPRs is necessary. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Comparison of agar dilution, broth microdilution, disk diffusion, E-test, and BACTEC radiometric methods for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of clinical isolates of the Nocardia asteroides complex.

    PubMed Central

    Ambaye, A; Kohner, P C; Wollan, P C; Roberts, K L; Roberts, G D; Cockerill, F R

    1997-01-01

    An evaluation was undertaken to determine the optimal method for the in vitro susceptibility testing of 26 Nocardia asteroides complex isolates to the following antimicrobial agents: amikacin, ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, imipenem, minocycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Five testing methods were studied including the agar dilution, broth microdilution, and disk diffusion methods, the epsilometer test (E-test), and the BACTEC radiometric method. Results for each antimicrobial agent and each testing method were interpreted as indicating susceptibility, intermediate susceptibility, or resistance according to current guidelines of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) for bacteria that grow aerobically and were then compared to a "gold standard" susceptibility test result. The gold standard result for each Nocardia isolate was established by a consensus of the results of the majority of testing methods used in the study. When the results were combined for all antimicrobial agents tested against all Nocardia isolates by all methods, the BACTEC radiometric method produced the highest level of agreement (97.9%) with the consensus results and had the fewest very major (n = 1), major (n = 2), and minor (n = 2) errors. In contrast, the results of the agar dilution method were in least agreement (93.2%) with the consensus results, and this method also produced the most very major (n = 8), major (n = 4), and, along with the disk diffusion method, minor (n = 6) errors. For all test methods, interpretive errors were most frequent when testing ampicillin or amoxicillin-clavulanate. Moreover, for all Nocardia nova isolates tested, ampicillin susceptibility results by any of the testing methods were not in agreement with the results of testing for beta-lactamase by the nitrocefin (Cefinase) disk method. We conclude that among the methods evaluated, the BACTEC radiometric method appeared to be the

  3. Phylogenetic utility, and variability in structure and content, of complete mitochondrial genomes among genetic lineages of the Hawaiian anchialine shrimp Halocaridina rubra Holthuis 1963 (Atyidae:Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Justice, Joshua L; Weese, David A; Santos, Scott Ross

    2016-07-01

    The Atyidae are caridean shrimp possessing hair-like setae on their claws and are important contributors to ecological services in tropical and temperate fresh and brackish water ecosystems. Complete mitochondrial genomes have only been reported from five of the 449 species in the family, thus limiting understanding of mitochondrial genome evolution and the phylogenetic utility of complete mitochondrial sequences in the Atyidae. Here, comparative analyses of complete mitochondrial genomes from eight genetic lineages of Halocaridina rubra, an atyid endemic to the anchialine ecosystem of the Hawaiian Archipelago, are presented. Although gene number, order, and orientation were syntenic among genomes, three regions were identified and further quantified where conservation was substantially lower: (1) high length and sequence variability in the tRNA-Lys and tRNA-Asp intergenic region; (2) a 317-bp insertion between the NAD6 and CytB genes confined to a single lineage and representing a partial duplication of CytB; and (3) the putative control region. Phylogenetic analyses utilizing complete mitochondrial sequences provided new insights into relationships among the H. rubra genetic lineages, with the topology of one clade correlating to the geologic sequence of the islands. However, deeper nodes in the phylogeny lacked bootstrap support. Overall, our results from H. rubra suggest intra-specific mitochondrial genomic diversity could be underestimated across the Metazoa since the vast majority of complete genomes are from just a single individual of a species.

  4. Frugivory and seed dispersal patterns of the red-ruffed lemur, Varecia rubra, at a forest restoration site in Masoala National Park, Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Barbara T; Razafindratsima, Onja H

    2014-01-01

    Frugivorous primates can play a critical role in the regeneration of degraded habitats by dispersing seeds of their food plants. We studied the diet and seed dispersal patterns of 3 groups of habituated red-ruffed lemurs (Varecia rubra) in a rain forest restoration site in Masoala National Park, Madagascar, to assess the species' seed dispersal effectiveness. Fruits accounted for 61% of the diet, with an average foraging time of 10 min per fruit patch per day. Seeds from 75% of the consumed fruit species were recovered in the collected V. rubra feces. We traced the potential parent plants of 20 dispersed-seed species to calculate a gut passage range (63-423 min; mean = 225, n = 35). The median seed dispersal distance from the potential parent plant was 48 m (mean = 83 m, range 0-568 m, n = 194). The home ranges of 2 of the 3 groups overlapped with the regenerating forest parcels. Although 92% of fecal samples with seeds were dispersed into the undisturbed forest, V. rubra fed on the fruits of the non-native pioneer shrub Clidemia hirta, while also dispersing native and non-native seed species into the regenerating forest parcels.

  5. Susceptibilities of Different Test Systems from Maize (Zea mays), Poa annua, and Festuca rubra to Herbicides That Inhibit the Enzyme Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase

    PubMed

    Herbert; Cole; Pallett; Harwood

    1996-06-01

    The susceptibilities of maize (Zea mays cv. Champ) and two graminicide-resistant grass species, Poa annua (annual meadow grass) and Festuca rubra (red fescue), to two aryloxyphenoxypropionates (quizalofop and fluazifop) and a cyclohexanedione (sethoxydim) graminicide were evaluated in leaf blades and isolated chloroplasts, and by assaying acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) in desalted leaf homogenates. The graminicide resistance of P. annua and F. rubra appeared to be at the level of ACCase. Festuca rubra ACCase was highly insensitive and P. annua ACCase was partially insensitive to the graminicides that were tested. Fatty acid synthesis in isolated maize chloroplasts was more susceptible to inhibition than was ACCase activity from whole leaves. There was a smaller difference in graminicide sensitivity between these two test systems in P. annua. The developmental pattern of ACCase specific activity and its inhibition by quizalofop was measured in maize and P. annua leaf blades. There was an age-dependent increase in the sensitivity of maize leaf ACCase activity to inhibition by quizalofop. Together with the greater susceptibility of chloroplasts compared with leaf homogenates this could imply that a graminicide-insensitive (extrachloroplastic) ACCase isoform is less highly expressed in older leaves. Poa annua ACCase did not significantly alter in sensitivity as leaves aged, consistent with the smaller difference in the level of inhibition between chloroplasts and leaf homogenates in this species. A small pyruvate carboxylase activity was detected in maize leaves after 9 days. By 38 days, when leaves were senescing, pyruvate carboxylase activity predominated over ACCase.

  6. Cellular Lipids of a Nocardia Grown on Propane and n-Butane

    PubMed Central

    Davis, J. B.

    1964-01-01

    Lipid fractions of propane- and n-butane-grown nocardial cells each contain a chloroform-soluble, ether-insoluble polymer not observed previously in liquid n-alkane-grown cells. The polymer in propane-grown cells is poly-β-hydroxybutyrate. The polymer in n-butane-grown cells apparently contains unsaturation in the molecule, and is identified tentatively as a co-polymer of β-hydroxybutyric and β-hydroxybutenoic (specifically 3-hydroxy 2-butenoic) acids. The other major component of the lipid fraction consists of triglycerides containing principally palmitic and stearic acids. There seems to be little qualitative distinction in the glycerides of propane- or n-butane-grown cells. Oxidative assimilation of n-butane is described. PMID:14199017

  7. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Differential Functional Gene Expression in Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides) after Challenge with Nocardia seriolae

    PubMed Central

    Byadgi, Omkar; Chen, Chi-Wen; Wang, Pei-Chyi; Tsai, Ming-An; Chen, Shih-Chu

    2016-01-01

    Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) are common hosts of an epizootic bacterial infection by Nocardia seriolae. We conducted transcriptome profiling of M. salmoides to understand the host immune response to N. seriolae infection, using the Illumina sequencing platform. De novo assembly of paired-end reads yielded 47,881 unigenes, the total length, average length, N50, and GC content of which were 49,734,288, 1038, 1983 bp, and 45.94%, respectively. Annotation was performed by comparison against non-redundant protein sequence (NR), non-redundant nucleotide (NT), Swiss-Prot, Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG), Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), Gene Ontology (GO), and Interpro databases, yielding 28,964 (NR: 60.49%), 36,686 (NT: 76.62%), 24,830 (Swissprot: 51.86%), 8913 (COG: 18.61%), 20,329 (KEGG: 42.46%), 835 (GO: 1.74%), and 22,194 (Interpro: 46.35%) unigenes. Additionally, 8913 unigenes were classified into 25 Clusters of Orthologous Groups (KOGs) categories, and 20,329 unigenes were assigned to 244 specific signalling pathways. RNA-Seq by Expectation Maximization (RSEM) and PossionDis were used to determine significantly differentially expressed genes (False Discovery Rate (FDR) < 0.05) and we found that 1384 were upregulated genes and 1542 were downregulated genes, and further confirmed their regulations using reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Altogether, these results provide information on immune mechanisms induced during bacterial infection in largemouth bass, which may facilitate the prevention of nocardiosis. PMID:27529219

  8. The first Korean case of disseminated mycetoma caused by Nocardia pseudobrasiliensis in a patient on long-term corticosteroid therapy for the treatment of microscopic polyangiitis.

    PubMed

    Seol, Chang-Ahn; Sung, Heungsup; Kim, Duck-Hee; Ji, Misuk; Chong, Yong-Pil; Kim, Mi-Na

    2013-05-01

    Nocardia pseudobrasiliensis is predominantly associated with invasive infections in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of disseminated mycetoma caused by N. pseudobrasiliensis in a 57-yr-old woman with microscopic polyangiitis, who was treated for 3 months with corticosteroids. The same organism was isolated from mycetoma cultures on the patient's scalp, right arm, and right leg. The phenotypic characteristics of the isolate were consistent with both Nocardia brasiliensis and N. pseudobrasiliensis, i.e., catalase and urease positivity, hydrolysis of esculin, gelatin, casein, hypoxanthine, and tyrosine, but no hydrolysis of xanthine. The isolate was identified as N. pseudobrasiliensis based on 16S rRNA and hsp65 gene sequencing. The patient was treated for 5 days with intravenous ampicillin/sulbactam, at which time both the mycetomas and fever had subsided and discharged on amoxicillin/clavulanate. This case highlights a very rare presentation of mainly cutaneous mycetoma caused by N. pseudobrasiliensis. This is the first reported case of N. pseudobrasiliensis infection in Korea.

  9. Creation of an In-House Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Corynebacterineae Database Overcomes Difficulties in Identification of Nocardia farcinica Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Dacko, Władysław; Sikora, Joanna; Gurlaga, Danuta; Pawlik, Krzysztof; Miękisiak, Grzegorz; Gamian, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Nocardiosis is a rare disease that is caused by Gram-positive actinobacteria of the Nocardia genus and affects predominantly immunocompromised patients. In its disseminated form, it has a predilection for the central nervous system and is associated with high mortality rates. Therefore, prompt identification of the pathogen is critical. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry is a relatively novel technique used for identification of microorganisms. In this work, an upgraded MALDI-TOF Biotyper database containing Corynebacterineae representatives of strains deposited in the Polish Collection of Microorganisms was created and used for identification of the strain isolated from a nocardial brain abscess, mimicking a brain tumor, in an immunocompetent patient. Testing with the API Coryne system initially incorrectly identified Rhodococcus sp., while chemotaxonomic tests, especially mycolic acid analysis, enabled correct Nocardia identification only at the genus level. Subsequent sequence analysis of 16S rRNA and secA1 genes confirmed the identification. To improve the accuracy of the results, an in-house database was constructed using optimized parameters; with the use of the database, the strain was eventually identified as Nocardia farcinica. Clinical laboratories processing various clinical strains can upgrade a commercial database to improve and to accelerate the results obtained. This is especially important in the case of Nocardia, for which valid microbial diagnosis remains challenging; reference laboratories are often required to identify and to survey these rare actinobacteria. PMID:26041903

  10. Identification of mycobacterium spp. and nocardia spp. from solid and liquid cultures by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS).

    PubMed

    Girard, Victoria; Mailler, Sandrine; Welker, Martin; Arsac, Maud; Cellière, Béatrice; Cotte-Pattat, Pierre-Jean; Chatellier, Sonia; Durand, Géraldine; Béni, Anne-Marie; Schrenzel, Jacques; Miller, Elizabeth; Dussoulier, Rahima; Dunne, W Michael; Butler-Wu, Susan; Saubolle, Michael A; Sussland, Den; Bell, Melissa; van Belkum, Alex; Deol, Parampal

    2016-11-01

    Identification of microorganisms by MALDI-TOF MS has been widely accepted in clinical microbiology. However, for Mycobacterium spp. and Nocardia spp. such identification has not yet reached the optimal level of routine testing. Here we describe the development of an identification tool for 49 and 15 species of Mycobacterium spp. and Nocardia spp., respectively. During database construction, a number of ambiguous reference identifications were revealed and corrected via molecular analyses. Eventually, more than 2000 individual mass spectra acquired from 494 strains were included in a reference database and subjected to bio-statistical analyses. This led to correct species identification and correct combination of species into several complexes or groups, such as the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. With the Advanced Spectrum Classifier algorithm, class-specific bin weights were determined and tested by cross-validation experiments with good results. When challenged with independent isolates, overall identification performance was 90% for identification of Mycobacterium spp. and 88% for Nocardia spp. However, for a number of Mycobacterium sp. isolates, no identification could be achieved and in most cases, this could be attributed to the production of polymers that masked the species-specific protein peak patterns. For the species where >20 isolates were tested, correct identification reached 95% or higher. With the current spectral database, the identification of Mycobacterium spp. and Nocardia spp. by MALDI-TOF MS can be performed in routine clinical diagnostics although in some complicated cases verification by sequencing remains mandatory.

  11. Permanent Improved High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Nocardia casuarinae Strain BMG51109, an Endophyte of Actinorhizal Root Nodules of Casuarina glauca

    SciTech Connect

    Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten; Beauchemin, Nicholas; Louati, Moussa; Nouioui, Imen; Ktari, Amir; Hezbri, Karima; Gueddou, Abdellatif; Chen, Amy; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Markowitz, Victor; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Pagani, Ioanna; Sen, Arnab; Wall, Luis; Woyke, Tanja; Gtari, Maher; Tisa, Louis S.

    2016-08-04

    Here, we report the first genome sequence of a Nocardia plant endophyte, N. casuarinae strain BMG51109, isolated from Casuarina glauca root nodules. The improved high-quality draft genome sequence contains 8,787,999 bp with a 68.90% GC content and 7,307 predicted protein-coding genes.

  12. The Incidence of Acantholysis in Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris-Histopathological Study Using Multiple-Step Sections and Clinicopathologic Correlations.

    PubMed

    Avitan-Hersh, Emily; Bergman, Reuven

    2015-10-01

    The classical histopathological findings in the epidermis of pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) do not include acantholysis; however, acantholysis was described in several case reports and a few series of PRP with variable frequencies. We sought to establish the incidence of acantholysis in biopsies from consecutively referred PRP cases using multiple-step sections and clinicopathologic correlations. Twenty-three biopsies from 12 consecutively referred patients with classical (type 1) PRP were studied histopathologically. Each specimen was completely step sectioned. The clinical files of the patients were also reviewed. Small foci of acantholysis were observed in some of the step sections of 5 of 23 (22%) biopsies obtained from 4 patients. Three biopsies showed suprabasal acantholysis, 1 of which also demonstrated mild dyskeratosis and 2 showed midepidermal acantholytic foci as well. The remaining 2 biopsies demonstrated midepidermal and subcorneal acantholysis, respectively. Small erosions were described in the physical examination of 2 of the 4 (50%) patients with acantholysis and in 1 of the 8 (12.5%) patients without acantholysis. The number of cases. Small foci of acantholysis may be found in the minority of PRP biopsies, and it may be related to small erosions clinically in some patients.

  13. Pseudorhabdosynochus regius n. sp. (Monogenea, Diplectanidae) from the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra (Teleostei) in the Mediterranean Sea and Eastern Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Chaabane, Amira; Neifar, Lassad; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2015-01-01

    Pseudorhabdosynochus regius n. sp. is described from the gills of the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra caught off Senegal, Tunisia and Libya (type-locality: off Dakar, Senegal). The species is distinguished from its congeners by the structure of its sclerotised vagina (length 26–35 μm), which exhibits a trumpet in continuity with the primary canal, a straight primary canal, and primary and secondary chambers included in a common sclerotised mass along the primary canal. The species is also characterised by small squamodiscs (length 20–40 μm) with 10–11 rows of rodlets. Its closest relatives (based on the structure of the sclerotised vagina) are species mostly found in the Mediterranean Sea and parasites on species of Mycteroperca. A second species of Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958 is reported from the same host and localities but not described. A list of diplectanids from groupers in the Mediterranean Sea is provided. We point out that a recent article was not compliant with the new Article 8.5.3 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature; for this reason, three species, P. nhatrangensis Dang, Bristow, Schander & Berland, 2013, P. vietnamensis Dang et al., 2013 and P. brunei Dang et al., 2013, are invalid. PMID:25674913

  14. Pseudorhabdosynochus regius n. sp. (Monogenea, Diplectanidae) from the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra (Teleostei) in the Mediterranean Sea and Eastern Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Chaabane, Amira; Neifar, Lassad; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2015-01-01

    Pseudorhabdosynochus regius n. sp. is described from the gills of the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra caught off Senegal, Tunisia and Libya (type-locality: off Dakar, Senegal). The species is distinguished from its congeners by the structure of its sclerotised vagina (length 26-35 μm), which exhibits a trumpet in continuity with the primary canal, a straight primary canal, and primary and secondary chambers included in a common sclerotised mass along the primary canal. The species is also characterised by small squamodiscs (length 20-40 μm) with 10-11 rows of rodlets. Its closest relatives (based on the structure of the sclerotised vagina) are species mostly found in the Mediterranean Sea and parasites on species of Mycteroperca. A second species of Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958 is reported from the same host and localities but not described. A list of diplectanids from groupers in the Mediterranean Sea is provided. We point out that a recent article was not compliant with the new Article 8.5.3 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature; for this reason, three species, P. nhatrangensis Dang, Bristow, Schander & Berland, 2013, P. vietnamensis Dang et al., 2013 and P. brunei Dang et al., 2013, are invalid. © A. Chaabane et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2015.

  15. Branch growth and leaf numbers of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) and red oak (Quercus rubra L.): response to defoliation.

    PubMed

    Heichel, G H; Turner, Neil C

    1984-04-01

    Branch growth and leaf formation from terminal and from lateral buds of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) and red oak (Quercus rubra L.) were measured in response to simulated insect defoliation. A single large branch representative of the crown of each tree was used for enumeration of growth and of bud numbers throughout three successive years of 0, 50, 75, and 100% leaf removal for the entire tree. Leaf number per tree for both species after the last year of defoliation was reduced in direct proportion to the severity of defoliation, in comparison to the predefoliation status of the trees. Bud number per tree for red maple, but not for red oak, was also reduced in proportion to severity of defoliation.Averaged over all defoliation treatments, defoliation reduced branch growth more than leaf production. Furthermore, the reduction in branch growth and leaf production was greater in red oak than in red maple. Three years of successive defoliation reduced the mean lateral plus terminal branch growth by 40% in red oak and by 23% in red maple, while leaf number was reduced 22% in red oak and remained unchanged in red maple. In red maple, 100% defoliation caused greater branch death than the 50 or 75% defoliation treatments, and the amount of death was greater after each successive year of defoliation. In contrast to red maple, undefoliated red oak incurred a substantial amount of branch death throughout the study which was little affected by defoliation treatment.

  16. Biomedical evaluation of free-ranging red ruffed lemurs (Varecia rubra) within the Masoala National Park, Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Christopher J; Junge, Randall E; Louis, Edward E

    2008-03-01

    Complete health assessments were performed on 22 adult red ruffed lemurs (Varecia rubra), comprising nine males and 13 females, found within the Masoala National Park in northeast Madagascar. Each animal was anesthetized using tiletamine and zolazepam and underwent a thorough physical examination, including measurement of its weight and vital signs; blood collection for hematology, plasma total protein concentration, serum chemistries, fat-soluble vitamins, trace minerals, assessment of iron metabolism, toxoplasmosis serology, viral serologies, and examination for hemoparasites; fecal collection for bacterial culture and parasite examination; and collection of a representative number of any ectoparasites. Comparison of blood values with those of captive lemurs demonstrated a number of significant differences thought to be associated with physiologic state (e.g., reproductive stage and stress), hydration, and diet. There was no evidence of serious infectious diseases, and hemoparasites were not detected. The enteric flora appeared unremarkable; however, results may have been skewed toward more cold-tolerant bacteria. The fecal parasite burden was low. Lemurostrongylus spp. was identified in two of the lemurs, and there were moderate numbers of Laelapidae mites present on approximately one third of the lemurs. This study demonstrated the substantial amount of data that can be collected from free-ranging populations, considered invaluable in the management of captive populations, in reducing the incidence of captivity-related diseases, and in the risk assessment associated with reintroduction programs.

  17. Reduced translocation of current photosynthate precedes changes in gas exchange for Quercus rubra seedlings under flooding stress.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Joshua L; Islam, M Anisul; Jacobs, Douglass F

    2016-01-01

    Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings are frequently planted on suboptimal sites in their native range in North America, subjecting them to environmental stresses, such as flooding, for which they may not be well adapted. Members of the genus Quercus exhibit a wide range of responses to flooding, and responses of northern red oak to flooding remain inadequately described. To better understand the physiological effects of root system inundation in post-transplant northern red oak seedlings and the effects of flooding on endogenous patterns of resource allocation within the plant, we observed the effects of short-term flooding initiated at the linear shoot growth stage on net photosynthetic rates, dark respiration, chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) and translocation of (13)C-labeled current photosynthate. Downward translocation of current photosynthate declined after 4 days of flooding and was the first measured physiological response to flooding; net photosynthetic rates decreased and dark respiration rates increased after 7 days of flooding. Short-term flooding did not affect maximal potential efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm). The finding that decreased downward translocation of (13)C-labeled current photosynthate preceded reduced net photosynthesis and increased dark respiration during flooding suggests the occurrence of sink-limited photosynthesis under these conditions.

  18. Intensity and importance of competition for a grass (Festuca rubra) and a legume (Trifolium pratense) vary with environmental changes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junyan; Cheng, Genwei; Yu, Feihai; Kräuchi, Norbert; Li, Mai-He

    2008-12-01

    How plant competition varies across environmental gradients has been a long debate among ecologists. We conducted a growth chamber experiment to determine the intensity and importance of competition for plants grown in changed environmental conditions. Festuca rubra and Trifolium pratense were grown in monoculture and in two- and/or three-species mixtures under three environmental treatments. The measured competitive variations in terms of growth (height and biomass) were species-dependent. Competition intensity for Festuca increased with decreased productivity, whilst competition importance displayed a humpback response. However, significant response was detected in neither competition intensity nor importance for Trifolium. Intensity and importance of competition followed different response patterns, suggesting that they may not be correlated along an environmental gradient. The biological and physiological variables of plants play an important role to determine the interspecific competition associated with competition intensity and importance. However, the competitive feature can be modified by multiple environmental changes which may increase or hinder how competitive a plant is.

  19. Ectomycorrhiza communities of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) of different age in the Lusatian lignite mining district, East Germany.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, S; Neubert, K; Wöllecke, J; Münzenberger, B; Hüttl, R F

    2007-06-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) communities were assessed on a 720 m(2) plot along a chronosequence of red oak (Quercus rubra) stands on a forest reclamation site with disturbed soil in the lignite mining area of Lower Lusatia (Brandenburg, Germany). Adjacent to the mining area, a red oak reference stand with undisturbed soil was investigated reflecting mycorrhiza diversity of the intact landscape. Aboveground, sporocarp surveys were carried out during the fruiting season in a 2-week interval in the years 2002 and 2003. Belowground, ECM morphotypes were identified by comparing sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions from nuclear rDNA with sequences from the GenBank database. Fifteen ECM fungal species were identified as sporocarps and 61 belowground as determined by morphological/anatomical and molecular analysis of their ectomycorrhizas. The number of ECM morphotypes increased with stand age along the chronosequence. However, the number of morphotypes was lower in stands with disturbed soil than with undisturbed soil. All stands showed site-specific ECM communities with low similarity between the chronosequence stands. The dominant ECM species in nearly all stands was Cenococcum geophilum, which reached an abundance approaching 80% in the 21-year-old chronosequence stand. Colonization rate of red oak was high (>95%) at all stands besides the youngest chronosequence stand where colonization rate was only 15%. This supports our idea that artificial inoculation with site-adapted mycorrhizal fungi would enhance colonization rate of red oak and thus plant growth and survival in the first years after outplanting.

  20. In vitro anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant properties of blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra) viscera hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul; Masci, Paul P; Addepalli, Rama; Chen, Wei; Gobe, Glenda C; Osborne, Simone A

    2017-07-01

    Abalone viscera contain sulphated polysaccharides with anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant activities. In this study, a hydrolysate was prepared from blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra) viscera using papain and bromelain and fractionated using ion exchange and size exclusion chromatography. Hydrolysates and fractions were investigated for in vitro thrombin inhibition mediated through heparin cofactor II (HCII) as well as anti-coagulant activity in plasma and whole blood. On the basis of sulphated polysaccharide concentration, the hydrolysate inhibited thrombin through HCII with an inhibitor concentration at 50% (IC50) of 16.5 μg/mL compared with 2.1 μg/mL for standard heparin. Fractionation concentrated HCII-mediated thrombin inhibition down to an IC50 of 1.8 μg/mL and improved anti-coagulant activities by significantly delaying clotting time. This study confirmed the presence of anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant molecules in blacklip abalone viscera and demonstrated that these activities can be enriched with a simple chromatography regime. Blacklip abalone viscera warrant further investigation as a source of nutraceutical or functional food ingredients. Graphical abstract Schematic showing preparation of bioactive extracts and fractions from blacklip abalone.

  1. Purification of a lectin from M. rubra leaves using immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography and its characterization.

    PubMed

    Sureshkumar, Thavamani; Priya, Sulochana

    2012-12-01

    Lectins represent a heterogeneous group of proteins/glycoproteins with unique carbohydrate specificity, with wide range of biomedical applications. The multi-step purification protocols generally used for purification of lectin result in a significant reduction in the final yield and activity. In the present study, Morus rubra lectin (MRL) was purified to homogeneity from the leaves using a single-step immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) procedure. The approximate molecular weight of purified MRL resolved as a single band on SDS-PAGE was 52 kDa. Final percentage yield of purified lectin by IMAC was calculated as 74.7 %. Purified MRL was specific to three sugars, galactose, D-galactosamine and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, and rendered haemagglutination (HA) activity towards different human blood group RBCs. MRL showed stability over a wide range of temperature (up to 80 °C) and pH (4-11). Chelation of the lectin with EDTA did not alter HA which indicates that metal ion is not required for activity. In the presence of Fe(2+), Ca(2+), Zn(2+), Ni(2+), Mn(2+), Na(+) and K(+), HA activity was reduced to 50 %, whereas the presence of trivalent metal ions (Fe3(+) and Al(3+)) and Cu(2+) did not affect the activity. In the presence of Mg(2+) and Hg(2+), only 25 % of HA activity remained.

  2. Severe, Disfiguring, Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris in a Woman in the Dominican Republic: Histopathologic Diagnosis and Response to Antiretroviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Lerebours-Nadal, Leonel; Beck-Sague, Consuelo M; Parker, Douglas; Gosman, Amanda; Saavedra, Arturo; Engel, Kristy; Dean, Andrew G

    2016-01-01

    Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) is a poorly understood dermatologic condition usually accompanied by keratoderma and intense erythroderma with islands of unaffected skin. The PRP categories include HIV-associated PRP VI. A 23-year-old HIV-infected, dark-skinned woman in the Dominican Republic developed an extremely severe, disfiguring process characterized first by a dry scaly rash involving her face, trunk, and extremities with hyperpigmentation and islands of spared skin and minimal erythroderma, followed by alopecia and development of a thick horny layer on the scalp and face. The condition, histologically proven to be PRP, was accompanied by fever, wasting, and decline in CD4 count. Initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) was followed by rapid and sustained resolution of PRP. Nine years after ART initiation, she remains well, with viral suppression and immune recovery, without PRP recurrence but with sparse hair regrowth and facial scarring. In some dark-skinned patients, severe PRP may not feature characteristic erythroderma but will respond to combination ART. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. The Preventive Effect on Ethanol-Induced Gastric Lesions of the Medicinal Plant Plumeria rubra: Involvement of the Latex Proteins in the NO/cGMP/KATP Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    de Alencar, Nylane Maria Nunes; Pinheiro, Rachel Sindeaux Paiva; de Figueiredo, Ingrid Samantha Tavares; Luz, Patrícia Bastos; Freitas, Lyara Barbosa Nogueira; de Souza, Tamiris de Fátima Goebel; do Carmo, Luana David; Marques, Larisse Mota; Ramos, Marcio Viana

    2015-01-01

    Plumeria rubra (Apocynaceae) is frequently used in folk medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, hepatitis, and tracheitis, among other infirmities. The aim of this study was to investigate the gastroprotective potential of a protein fraction isolated from the latex of Plumeria rubra (PrLP) against ethanol-induced gastric lesions and describe the underlying mechanisms. In a dose-dependent manner, the pretreatment with PrLP prevented ethanol-induced gastric lesions in mice after single intravenous administration. The gastroprotective mechanism of PrLP was associated with the involvement of prostaglandins and balance of oxidant/antioxidant factors. Secondarily, the NO/cGMP/KATP pathway and activation of capsaicin-sensitive primary afferents were also demonstrated as part of the mechanism. This study shows that proteins extracted from the latex of P. rubra prevent gastric lesions induced in experimental animals. Also, the results support the use of the plant in folk medicine. PMID:26788111

  4. The Preventive Effect on Ethanol-Induced Gastric Lesions of the Medicinal Plant Plumeria rubra: Involvement of the Latex Proteins in the NO/cGMP/K ATP Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    de Alencar, Nylane Maria Nunes; Pinheiro, Rachel Sindeaux Paiva; de Figueiredo, Ingrid Samantha Tavares; Luz, Patrícia Bastos; Freitas, Lyara Barbosa Nogueira; de Souza, Tamiris de Fátima Goebel; do Carmo, Luana David; Marques, Larisse Mota; Ramos, Marcio Viana

    2015-01-01

    Plumeria rubra (Apocynaceae) is frequently used in folk medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, hepatitis, and tracheitis, among other infirmities. The aim of this study was to investigate the gastroprotective potential of a protein fraction isolated from the latex of Plumeria rubra (PrLP) against ethanol-induced gastric lesions and describe the underlying mechanisms. In a dose-dependent manner, the pretreatment with PrLP prevented ethanol-induced gastric lesions in mice after single intravenous administration. The gastroprotective mechanism of PrLP was associated with the involvement of prostaglandins and balance of oxidant/antioxidant factors. Secondarily, the NO/cGMP/KATP pathway and activation of capsaicin-sensitive primary afferents were also demonstrated as part of the mechanism. This study shows that proteins extracted from the latex of P. rubra prevent gastric lesions induced in experimental animals. Also, the results support the use of the plant in folk medicine.

  5. Characterization of major betalain pigments -gomphrenin, betanin and isobetanin from Basella rubra L. fruit and evaluation of efficacy as a natural colourant in product (ice cream) development.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S Sravan; Manoj, P; Shetty, N P; Prakash, Maya; Giridhar, P

    2015-08-01

    Basella rubra L. (Basellaceae) commonly known as Malabar spinach is a leafy vegetable which accumulates pigments in its fruits. To find out the feasibility of utilizing pigment rich extracts of its fruit as natural food colourant, fruits at different stages were analysed for pigment profiling, carbohydrate content, physical dimensions and weight. Total betalains content increased rapidly from early (green) through intermediate (half-done red-violet) to matured stage (red-violet). Maximum pigment content was observed in ripened fruits (143.76 mg/100 g fresh weight). The major betalain pigment characterized was gomphrenin I in ripened fruits (26.06 mg), followed by intermediate fruits (2.15 mg) and least in early fruits (0.23 mg) in 100 g of fresh deseeded fruits. Total carbohydrates content and the chroma values (redness) were also increased during ontogeny of B. rubra fruits. The textural characters of developing fruits showed the smoothness of green fruits with lower rupture force (0.16 N/s) than ripe ones (0.38 N/s). The pigment-rich fruit extract was used as natural colourant in ice-cream, to evaluate its effect on physicochemical properties and acceptability of the product. After six months of storage at -20 °C, 86.63 % colour was retained in ice-cream. The ice-cream had good overall sensorial quality and was liked by consumers indicating that addition of B. rubra fruit extract did not alter the sensory quality of the product. The colour values also indicate that there was no significant decrease of this pigment-rich extracts of fruits for its incorporation in food products.

  6. The effect of red beet (Beta vulgaris var. rubra) fiber on alimentary hypercholesterolemia and chemically induced colon carcinogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Bobek, P; Galbavý, S; Mariássyová, M

    2000-06-01

    The effect of diet supplemented with 5% and 15% cellulose or with 15% fiber isolated from red beet (Beta vulgaris var. rubra) on the development of alimentary hypercholesterolemia and chemically induced colon carcinoma was studied in male Wistar rats. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by a diet containing 0.3% of cholesterol and colon carcinoma was induced by treatment with dimethylhydrazine (20 mg/kg, 12 doses applied s.c. in one-week intervals). Fibrous matter isolated from red beet contained 89% fiber, of which 9% was in water soluble form. Animals were killed 14 weeks after the application of dimethylhydrazine (i.e. 26 weeks after starting on the diets). Red beet fiber diet (and not the increased cellulose intake) caused a reduction of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels (by 30 and 40%, respectively) and a significant increase in the fraction of cholesterol carried in HDL. This diet induced also a significant decrease (almost by 30%) of cholesterol content in aorta. Higher cellulose content in the diet and even more so the administration of red beet fiber caused a significant reduction of conjugated dienes content in plasma, erythrocytes and in liver. Also observed were increases in the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in erythrocytes and in colon and activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase in liver. The presence of both higher cellulose content and red beet fiber in the diet significantly reduced the incidence of precancerous lesions--aberrant crypt foci--in the colon. The diet containing red beet fiber did not affect significantly the incidence of colon tumours although the number of animals bearing tumours was reduced by 30%.

  7. Phytochemical Characterization of Chinese Bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) of 17 Cultivars and Their Antioxidant Properties

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xianan; Huang, Huizhong; Zhang, Qiaoli; Fan, Fangjuan; Xu, Changjie; Sun, Chongde; Li, Xian; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-01-01

    In order to fully understand the variations of fruit quality-related phytochemical composition in Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.), mature fruit of 17 cultivars from Zhejiang and Jiangsu provinces was used for the investigation of fruit quality attributes, including fruit color, soluble sugars, organic acids, total phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant capacity, etc. Sucrose was the main soluble sugar, while citric acid was the main organic acid in bayberry fruit. The content of total phenolics and total flavonoids were positively correlated with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) antioxidant activity and 2,2ʹ-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity. Five anthocyanidins, i.e., delphinidin–hexoside (Dp–Hex), cyanidin-3–O-galactoside (C-3–Gal), cyanidin-3–O-glucoside (C-3–Glu), pelargonidin-3–O-glucoside (Pg-3–Glu) and peonidin-3-O-glucoside (Pn-3–Glu), and seven flavonols compounds, i.e., myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside (M-3–Rha), myricetin deoxyhexoside–gallate (M-DH–G), quercetin-3-O-galactoside (Q-3–Gal), quercetin-3–O-glucoside (Q-3–Glu), quercetin-3–O-rhamnoside (Q-3–Rha), kaempferol-3–O-galactoside (K-3–Gal) and kaempferol-3–O-glucoside (K-3–Glu), were identified and characterized among the cultivars. The significant differences in phytochemical compositions among cultivars reflect the diversity in bayberry germplasm, and cultivars of good flavor and/or rich in various health-promoting phytochemicals are good candidates for future genetic breeding of bayberry fruit of high quality. In conclusion, our results may provide important information for further breeding or industrial utilization of different bayberry resources. PMID:26042467

  8. Phytochemical Characterization of Chinese Bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) of 17 Cultivars and Their Antioxidant Properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianan; Huang, Huizhong; Zhang, Qiaoli; Fan, Fangjuan; Xu, Changjie; Sun, Chongde; Li, Xian; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-06-02

    In order to fully understand the variations of fruit quality-related phytochemical composition in Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.), mature fruit of 17 cultivars from Zhejiang and Jiangsu provinces was used for the investigation of fruit quality attributes, including fruit color, soluble sugars, organic acids, total phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant capacity, etc. Sucrose was the main soluble sugar, while citric acid was the main organic acid in bayberry fruit. The content of total phenolics and total flavonoids were positively correlated with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) antioxidant activity and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline- 6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity. Five anthocyanidins, i.e., delphinidin-hexoside (Dp-Hex), cyanidin-3-O-galactoside (C-3-Gal), cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C-3-Glu), pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside (Pg-3-Glu) and peonidin-3-O-glucoside (Pn-3-Glu), and seven flavonols compounds, i.e., myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside (M-3-Rha), myricetin deoxyhexoside-gallate (M-DH-G), quercetin-3-O-galactoside (Q-3-Gal), quercetin-3- O-glucoside (Q-3-Glu), quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (Q-3-Rha), kaempferol-3-O-galactoside (K-3-Gal) and kaempferol-3-O-glucoside (K-3-Glu), were identified and characterized among the cultivars. The significant differences in phytochemical compositions among cultivars reflect the diversity in bayberry germplasm, and cultivars of good flavor and/or rich in various health-promoting phytochemicals are good candidates for future genetic breeding of bayberry fruit of high quality. In conclusion, our results may provide important information for further breeding or industrial utilization of different bayberry resources.

  9. Effects of elevated ultraviolet radiation and endophytic fungi on plant growth and insect feeding in Lolium perenne, Festuca rubra, F. arundinacea and F. pratensis.

    PubMed

    McLeod, A R; Rey, A; Newsham, K K; Lewis, G C; Wolferstam, P

    2001-09-01

    Plants of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), red fescue (Festuca rubra L.), tall fescue (F. arundinacea Schreb.) and meadow fescue (F. pratensis Huds) were exposed at an outdoor facility located in Edinburgh, UK to modulated levels of UV-B radiation (280-315 nm) using banks of cellulose diacetate filtered UV-B fluorescent lamps that also produce UV-A radiation (315-400 nm). The plants were derived from a single clone of each species and were grown both with and without colonization by naturally-occurring fungal endophytes. The UV-B treatment was a 30% elevation above the ambient erythemally-weighted level of UV-B during July to October. Growth of treated plants was compared with plants grown under elevated UV-A radiation alone produced by banks of polyester filtered lamps and with plants grown at ambient levels of solar radiation under banks of unenergized lamps. At the end of the treatment period, sample leaves were collected for feeding trials with the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria (Forsk). The UV-B treatment produced no effects on the aboveground biomass of any of the four grasses. The UV-B treatment and the UV-A control exposure both increased plant height and the number of daughter plants formed by rhizome growth in F. rubra. There were significant effects of endophyte presence on the total fresh and dry weights of F. arundinacea and F. rubra, on fresh weight only in F. pratensis, and on the fresh and dry weights of inflorescence in F. arundinacea and L. perenne. There were no effects of UV treatments on the absolute amounts of leaf consumed or on the feeding preferences of locusts for leaves with or without endophyte in three species: F. rubra, F. arundinacea and L. perenne. In F. pratensis there was no effect of UV treatment on the weight of leaves consumed but a significant UV x endophyte interaction caused by a marked change in feeding preference between leaves with and without endophyte that differed between the UV-B treatment and UV-A control

  10. Comparison of sensitivity of grasses (Lolium perenne L. and Festuca rubra L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) exposed to water contaminated with microcystins.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Silvia; Saker, Martin L; Vale, Micaela; Vasconcelos, Vitor M

    2009-07-01

    The effects of aqueous extracts from Microcysts aeruginosa strains (both microcystin-producers and non-microcystin producers) on germination and root growth were investigated for three economically important plant species: Festuca rubra L., Lolium perenne L., and Lactuca sativa L. There was a clear inhibition of root growth for L. sativa exposed to strains containing microcystins (5.9-56.4 microg L(-1)). The strain that produced the most pronounced effects contained the lowest concentration of microcystin suggesting that other cellular compounds may also affect growth.

  11. A new genus and species of fish leeches Dolichobdella rubra, gen. n., sp. n., (Clitellata, Hirudinida, Piscicolidae) from the northern Sea ofJapan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utevsky, Serge Y.; Chernyshev, Alexei V.

    2013-02-01

    A new species of fish leeches, Dolichobdella rubra gen. n., sp. n., was found in samples collected by RV Akademik M.A. Lavrentyev in the northern Sea of Japan from 470-528 m during the joint Russian-German expedition SoJaBio (Sea of Japan Biodiversity Studies) in August 2010. The leech does not exceed 13 mm in length and has the following morphological characteristics: body elongated, smooth, lacking gills and pulsatile vesicles; eyes and ocelli absent; coloration reddish; female gonopore larger than male one; 6pairs of testisacs; accessory glands, conductive tissue and copulatory area present; ovisacs short; bursa long; coelomic system reduced.

  12. Rapid Inactivation of Mycobacterium and Nocardia Species before Identification Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Doing, Kirk; Miller, Elizabeth; Miller, Eric; Moreno, Erik; Baghli, Mehdi; Mailler, Sandrine; Girard, Victoria; van Belkum, Alex; Deol, Parampal

    2014-01-01

    The identification of mycobacteria outside biocontainment facilities requires that the organisms first be rendered inactive. Exposure to 70% ethanol (EtOH) either before or after mechanical disruption was evaluated in order to establish a safe, effective, and rapid inactivation protocol that is compatible with identification of Mycobacterium and Nocardia species using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). A combination of 5 min of bead beating in 70% EtOH followed by a 10-min room temperature incubation period was found to be rapidly bactericidal and provided high-quality spectra compared to spectra obtained directly from growth on solid media. The age of the culture, the stability of the refrigerated or frozen lysates, and freeze-thaw cycles did not adversely impact the quality of the spectra or the identification obtained. PMID:25078917

  13. The Nine Genes of the Nocardia lactamdurans Cephamycin Cluster Are Transcribed into Large mRNAs from Three Promoters, Two of Them Located in a Bidirectional Promoter Region

    PubMed Central

    Enguita, Francisco J.; Coque, Juan Jose R.; Liras, Paloma; Martin, Juan F.

    1998-01-01

    The nine biosynthesis genes of the Nocardia lactamdurans cephamycin cluster are expressed as three different mRNAs initiating at promoters latp, cefDp, and pcbABp, as shown by low-resolution S1 nuclease protection assays and Northern blotting analysis. Bidirectional expression occurred from divergent promoters (latp and cefDp) located in a 629-bp intergenic region that contains three heptameric direct repeats similar to those recognized by members of the SARP (Streptomyces antibiotic regulatory proteins) family. The lat gene is transcribed in a single monocistronic transcript initiating at latp. A second unusually long polycistronic mRNA (more than 16 kb) corresponding to six biosynthesis genes (pcbAB, pcbC, cmcI, cmcJ, cefF, and cmcH) started at pcbABp. A third polycistronic mRNA corresponding to the cefD and cefE genes started at cefDp. PMID:9765587

  14. [Synthesis of surfactants by Rhodococcus erythropolis IMV Ac-5017, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus IMV B-7241 and Nocardia vaccinii IMV B-7405 on industrial waste].

    PubMed

    Pirog, T P; Sofilkanich, A P; Pokora, K A; Shevchuk, T A; Iutinskaia, G A

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of surfactants by Rhodococcus erythropolis IMV Ac-5017, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus IMV B-7241 and Nocardia vaccinii IMV B-7405 on industrial waste (food and oil-processing industry, production of biodiesel) was investigated. The possibility of replacing the expensive substrates (n-hexadecane and ethanol) by industrial waste (oil and fat industry, fried sunflower oil, glycerol, liquid paraffin) for the surfactant biosynthesis was established. The conditional concentration of surfactants was maximal on oil containing substrates and exceeded those on n-hexadecane and ethanol 2-3 times. The highest rates of surfactants synthesis were observed on fried sunflower oil with the use of inoculum grown on carbohydrate substrates (glucose, molasses). It was established that the addition of glucose (0.1%) was accompanied by 2-4-fold intensification of surfactants synthesis by R. erythropolis IMV Ac-5017 and N. vaccinii IMV B-7405 on fried sunflower oil (2%).

  15. A method for red-violet pigments extraction from fruits of Malabar spinach (Basella rubra) with enhanced antioxidant potential under fermentation.

    PubMed

    Sravan Kumar, S; Manoj, P; Giridhar, P

    2015-05-01

    Basella rubra fruit juice with a total soluble solids content of 5 to 9 (0)Brix was fermented using the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. An 87.5 % of conversion of fermentable sugar was achieved. The TSS ((0)Brix) reduced from 0.60 (0)Brix to 0.17 (0)Brix (71.67 % decrease in TSS) upon performing fermentation of fruit juice water extract with Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain 2. There was 8 folds reduction in pigment quality as evidenced from fermentation. Besides, the potential increase of phenolics, thanks to a higher content of total betalains in general and betacyanins in particular when fermentation was carried out with S. cerevisiae strain 3. The DPPH (2, 2 -diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate) free radical scavenging potential (IC50) of fermented juice (1.9 mg.ml(-1)) was significant over control (2.4 mg.ml(-1)) extracts of B. rubra. The reducing power of fermented extracts was significantly high compared to control samples. The multiple antioxidant activity of fermented extract was also evident by significant reducing power assay when compared to its control samples.

  16. Therapeutic Efficacy and Safety of Paeoniae Radix Rubra Formulae in Relieving Hyperbilirubinemia Induced by Viral Hepatitis: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yin-Qiu; Ma, Xiao; Wang, Jian; Zhao, Yan-Ling; Wang, Jia-Bo; Chen, Zhe; Zhu, Yun; Shan, Li-Mei; Wei, Shi-Zhang; Wang, Ji; Xiao, Xiao-He

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Hyperbilirubinemia is one of the most devastating pathologies induced by various liver diseases. Formulae related to Paeoniae Radix Rubra (PRR) at high doses have been applied to treat hyperbilirubinemia in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to assess the efficacy and safety of formulae relevant to high-dose PRR in patients suffering from hyperbilirubinemia induced by viral hepatitis. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis of randomized-controlled clinical trials to evaluate the efficacy and safety of formulae that apply a high dose of PRR for hyperbilirubinemia. Seven databases were searched until April, 2015. All studies were included according to detailed criteria and assessed for methodological quality. The outcome measurements were recorded for further analysis using the RevMan 5.2.11 software. Results: Fifteen articles involving 1323 patients with hyperbilirubinemia were included. Formulae with high-dose PRR might promote the efficacy of either a combined application ([OR: 3.98, 95% CI (2.91, 5.43)]; P < 0.01) or a single application ([OR: 4.00, 95% CI (1.50, 10.68)]; P < 0.01) for hyperbilirubinemia. The indices of TBIL, ALT, and AST significantly decreased ([MD: –75.57, 95% CI (−94.88, −56.26)], [MD: −26.54, 95% CI (−36.19, −16.88)], and ([MD: −28.94, 95% CI (−46.26, −11.61)]; P < 0.01), respectively. In addition, formulae with high-dose PRR could enhance the treatment efficacy of hyperbilirubinemia triggered by hepatitis B ([OR: 2.98, 95% CI (1.75, 5.05)]; P < 0.01). Furthermore, the efficacy was enhanced with an increasing dosage of PRR. Two articles reported that no side effects occurred in clinical trials, and three studies noted that patients presented light digestive tract symptoms. Conclusion: Formulae relevant to high-dose PRR ameliorate hyperbilirubinemia and might constitute a promising therapeutic approach. For widespread acceptance by practitioners, more

  17. Therapeutic Efficacy and Safety of Paeoniae Radix Rubra Formulae in Relieving Hyperbilirubinemia Induced by Viral Hepatitis: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yin-Qiu; Ma, Xiao; Wang, Jian; Zhao, Yan-Ling; Wang, Jia-Bo; Chen, Zhe; Zhu, Yun; Shan, Li-Mei; Wei, Shi-Zhang; Wang, Ji; Xiao, Xiao-He

    2016-01-01

    Hyperbilirubinemia is one of the most devastating pathologies induced by various liver diseases. Formulae related to Paeoniae Radix Rubra (PRR) at high doses have been applied to treat hyperbilirubinemia in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to assess the efficacy and safety of formulae relevant to high-dose PRR in patients suffering from hyperbilirubinemia induced by viral hepatitis. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized-controlled clinical trials to evaluate the efficacy and safety of formulae that apply a high dose of PRR for hyperbilirubinemia. Seven databases were searched until April, 2015. All studies were included according to detailed criteria and assessed for methodological quality. The outcome measurements were recorded for further analysis using the RevMan 5.2.11 software. Fifteen articles involving 1323 patients with hyperbilirubinemia were included. Formulae with high-dose PRR might promote the efficacy of either a combined application ([OR: 3.98, 95% CI (2.91, 5.43)]; P < 0.01) or a single application ([OR: 4.00, 95% CI (1.50, 10.68)]; P < 0.01) for hyperbilirubinemia. The indices of TBIL, ALT, and AST significantly decreased ([MD: -75.57, 95% CI (-94.88, -56.26)], [MD: -26.54, 95% CI (-36.19, -16.88)], and ([MD: -28.94, 95% CI (-46.26, -11.61)]; P < 0.01), respectively. In addition, formulae with high-dose PRR could enhance the treatment efficacy of hyperbilirubinemia triggered by hepatitis B ([OR: 2.98, 95% CI (1.75, 5.05)]; P < 0.01). Furthermore, the efficacy was enhanced with an increasing dosage of PRR. Two articles reported that no side effects occurred in clinical trials, and three studies noted that patients presented light digestive tract symptoms. Formulae relevant to high-dose PRR ameliorate hyperbilirubinemia and might constitute a promising therapeutic approach. For widespread acceptance by practitioners, more rigorously designed multicenter, double-blind, randomized, and

  18. Presence of understory shrubs constrains carbon gain in sunflecks by advance-regeneration seedlings: evidence from Quercus Rubra seedling grouwing in understory forest patches with or without evergreen shrubs present

    Treesearch

    E.T. Nilsen; T.T. Lei; S.W. Semones

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether dynamic photosynthesis of understory Quercus rubra L. (Fagaceae) seedlings can acclimate to the altered pattern of sunflecks in forest patches with Rhododendron maximum L. (Ericaceae), an understory evergreen shrub. Maximum photosynthesis (A) and total CO2 accumulated during lightflecks was greatest for 400-s lightflecks, intermediate for 150-s...

  19. Improving qPCR methodology for detection of foaming bacteria by analysis of broad-spectrum primers and a highly specific probe for quantification of Nocardia spp. in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Asvapathanagul, P; Olson, B H

    2017-01-01

    To develop qPCR broad-spectrum primers combined with a Nocardia genus-specific probe for the identification of a broad spectrum of Nocardia spp. and to analyse the effects of using this developed primer and probe set on the ability to quantify Nocardia spp. in mixed DNA. The consequences of using a degenerative primer set and species-specific probe for the genus Nocardia on qPCR assays were examined using DNA extracts of pure cultures and activated sludge. The mixed DNA extracts where the target organism Nocardia flavorosea concentration ranged from 5 × 10(2) to 5 × 10(6) copies per reaction, while the background organism's DNA (Mycobacterium bovis) concentration was held at 5 × 10(6) copies per reaction, only produced comparable cycle threshold florescence levels when N. flavorosea concentration was greater than or equal to the background organism concentration. When concentrations of N. flavorosea were lowered in increments of 1 log, while holding M. bovis concentrations constant at 5 × 10(6) copies per reaction, all assays demonstrated delayed cycle threshold values with a maximum 34·6-fold decrease in cycle threshold at a ratio of 10(6) M. bovis: 10(2) N. flavorosea copies per reaction. The data presented in this study indicated that increasing the ability of a primer set to capture a broad group of organisms can affect the accuracy of quantification even when a highly specific probe is used. This study examined several applications of molecular tools in complex communities such as evaluating the effect of mispriming vs interference. It also elucidates the importance of understanding the community genetic make-up on primer design. Degenerative primers are very useful in amplifying bacterial DNA across genera, but reduce the efficiency of qPCR reactions. Therefore, standards that address closely related background species must be used to obtain accurate qPCR results. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Analysis of Expressed Sequence Tags from Chinese Bayberry Fruit (Myrica rubra Sieb. and Zucc.) at Different Ripening Stages and Their Association with Fruit Quality Development

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Changqing; Feng, Chao; Li, Xian; Xu, Changjie; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

    2013-01-01

    A total of 2000 EST sequences were produced from cDNA libraries generated from Chinese bayberry fruit (Myrica rubra Sieb. and Zucc. cv. “Biqi”) at four different ripening stages. After cluster and assembly analysis of the datasets by UniProt, 395 unigenes were identified, and their presumed functions were assigned to 14 putative cellular roles. Furthermore, a sequence BLAST was done for the top ten highly expressed genes in the ESTs, and genes associated with disease/defense and anthocyanin accumulation were analyzed. Gene-encoding elements associated with ethylene biosynthesis and signal transductions, in addition to other senescence-regulating proteins, as well as those associated with quality formation during fruit ripening, were also identified. Their possible roles were subsequently discussed. PMID:23377019

  1. Growth and gas exchange in field-grown and greenhouse-grown Quercus rubra following three years of exposure to enhanced UV-B radiation.

    PubMed

    Bassman, John H; Robberecht, Ronald

    2006-09-01

    Long-term effects of enhanced UV-B radiation were evaluated in field-grown and greenhouse-grown Quercus rubra L. (northern red oak), a species with a multiple flushing shoot growth habit. Seeds were germinated and grown in ambient, twice ambient (2x) or three times ambient (3x) biologically effective UV-B radiation from square-wave (greenhouse) or modulated (field) lamp systems for three growing seasons. Greenhouse plants in the 2x treatment had greater heights and diameters during the later part of the first year and into the second year, but by the third year there were no differences among treatments. There were no significant differences in growth among treatments for field plants. Enhanced UV-B radiation did not significantly reduce total biomass or distribution of biomass in either field or greenhouse plants. Net photosynthesis (3x), leaf conductance (2x and 3x) and water-use efficiency (3x) of greenhouse plants were greater in the enhanced UV-B radiation treatments in the second year but unaffected by the treatments in other years. None of the treatments affected these parameters in field plants. Dark respiration was increased by the 3x treatment in the first and third years in greenhouse plants, and by the 2x treatment during the second year in field plants. Enhanced UV-B had variable effects on apparent quantum yield and light compensation points. Chlorophylls were unaffected by enhanced UV-B radiation in both greenhouse and field conditions. Bulk methanol-extractable UV-absorbing compounds were increased only by the 3x treatment in greenhouse plants during the third year and by the 2x treatment in field plants during the second year. Overall, Q. rubra appears relatively resistant to potentially damaging enhanced UV-B radiation and is unlikely to be negatively impacted even in the predicted worst-case scenarios.

  2. Evaluation of in vitro antidiabetic and antioxidant characterizations of Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton (Zingiberaceae), Piper cubeba L. f. (Piperaceae), and Plumeria rubra L. (Apocynaceae).

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Afnan Sh; Ahmed, Qamaruddin; Saxena, Anil Kumar; Jamal, Parveen

    2017-01-01

    Inhibition of intestinal α-amylase and α-glucosidase is an important strategy to regulate diabetes mellitus (DM). Antioxidants from plants are widely regarded in the prevention of diabetes. Fruits of Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton (Zingiberaceae) and Piper cubeba L. f. (Piperaceae) and flowers of Plumeria rubra L. (Apocynaceae) are traditionally used to cure DM in different countries. However, the role of these plants has been grossly under reported and is yet to receive proper scientific evaluation with respect to understand their traditional role in the management of diabetes especially as digestive enzymes inhibitors. Hence, methanol and aqueous extracts of the aforementioned plants were evaluated for their in vitro α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition at 1 mg/mL and quantification of their antioxidant properties (DPPH, FRAP tests, total phenolic and total flavonoids contents). In vitro optimization studies for the extracts were also performed to enhance in vitro biological activities. The % inhibition of α-glucosidase by the aqueous extracts of the fruits of E. cardamomum, P. cubeba and flowers of P. rubra were 10.41 (0.03), 95.19 (0.01), and -2.92 (0.03), while the methanol extracts exhibited % inhibition 13.73 (0.02), 92.77 (0.01), and -0.98 (0.01), respectively. The % inhibition of α-amylase by the aqueous extracts were 82.99 (0.01), 64.35 (0.01), and 20.28 (0.02), while the methanol extracts displayed % inhibition 39.93 (0.01), 31.06 (0.02), and 39.40 (0.01), respectively. Aqueous extracts displayed good in vitro antidiabetic and antioxidant activities. Moreover, in vitro optimization experiments helped to increase the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of E. cardamomum. Our findings further justify the traditional claims of these plants as folk medicines to manage diabetes, however, through digestive enzymes inhibition effect.

  3. Nocardia abscess during treatment of brain toxoplasmosis in a patient with aids, utility of proton MR spectroscopy and diffusion-weighted imaging in diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Soto-Hernández, José Luis; Moreno-Andrade, Talía; Góngora-Rivera, Fernando; Ramírez-Crescencio, María Antonieta

    2006-07-01

    We report the case of a 30-year-old man with known HIV-positive status who developed, 4 months prior to admission, recurrent left partial motor seizures followed by left hemiparesis. At another hospital, contrasted CT scan of the head revealed right frontal hypodense lesion with mass effect and focal contrast enhancement. A small left occipital lesion was also present. HIV-associated brain toxoplasmosis was considered and phenytoin, pyrimethamine, clindamycin and antiretrovirals were administered. Hemiparesis improved but, 3 weeks prior to admission, he developed progressive headache and bilateral visual defects. Upon admission to our center, he was found with left homonymous hemianopsia, right hemiparesis and a large hypodense left occipital lesion on a head CT scan. Proton MR spectroscopy showed lactate at 1.3ppm, amino acids at 0.9ppm, and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) revealed hyperintensity at the lesion, suggesting a pyogenic abscess. Aspiration yielded purulent material and Nocardia asteroides grew in culture. The patient was treated with trimethoprim-sulfametoxazole and recovered with a mild visual field residual defect.

  4. Characterization of a SAM-dependent fluorinase from a latent biosynthetic pathway for fluoroacetate and 4-fluorothreonine formation in Nocardia brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Xudong

    2014-01-01

    Fluorination has been widely used in chemical synthesis, but is rare in nature. The only known biological fluorination scope is represented by the fl pathway from Streptomyces cattleya that produces fluoroacetate (FAc) and 4-fluorothreonine (4-FT). Here we report the identification of a novel pathway for FAc and 4-FT biosynthesis from the actinomycetoma-causing pathogen Nocardia brasiliensis ATCC 700358. The new pathway shares overall conservation with the fl pathway in S. cattleya. Biochemical characterization of the conserved domains revealed a novel fluorinase NobA that can biosynthesize 5’-fluoro-5’-deoxyadenosine (5’-FDA) from inorganic fluoride and S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM). The NobA shows similar halide specificity and characteristics to the fluorination enzyme FlA of the fl pathway. Kinetic parameters for fluoride ( K m 4153 μM, k cat 0.073 min -1) and SAM ( K m 416 μM, k cat 0.139 min -1) have been determined, revealing that NobA is slightly (2.3 fold) slower than FlA. Upon sequence comparison, we finally identified a distinct loop region in the fluorinases that probably accounts for the disparity of fluorination activity. PMID:24795808

  5. [Destruction of oil in the presence of Cu2+ and surfactants of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus IMV B-7241, Rhodococcus erythropolis IMV Ac-5017 and Nocardia vaccinii IMV B-7405].

    PubMed

    Pirog, T P; Konon, A D; Sofilkanich, A P; Shevchuk, T A; Iutinska, G O

    2015-01-01

    The effect of copper cations (0.01-1.0 mM) and surface-active agents (surfactants) of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus IMV B-7241, Rhodococcus erythropolis IMV Alc-5017 and Nocardia vaccinii IMV B-7405 in the form of culture liquid on the destruction of oil in water (3.0-6.0 g/L) and soil (20 g/kg), including in the presence of Cd2+ and Pb2+ (0.01-0.5 mM), was investigated. It was shown that the degree of oil degradation in water and soil after 20 days in the presence of low concentrations of Cu2+ (0.01-0.05 mM) and culture liquid of strains IMV B-7241, IMV Ac-5017, and IMV B-7405 was 15 - 25% higher than without copper cations. The activating effect of Cu2+ on the decomposition of complex oil and Cd2+ and Pb2+ pollution was established: after treatment with surfactant of A. calcoacelicus IMV B-7241 and R. erythropolis IMV Ac-5017 destruction of oil in water and soil was 85-95%, and after removal of the copper cations decreased to 45-70%. Intensification of oil destruction in the presence of copper cations may be due to their stimulating effect on the activity of alkane hydroxylases as in surfactant-producing strains, and natural (autochthonous) oxidizing microbiota.

  6. Cloning of the Nocardia corallina polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase gene and production of poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) and poly-(3-hydroxyvalerate-co-3-hydroxyheptanoate).

    PubMed

    Hall, B; Baldwin, J; Rhie, H G; Dennis, D

    1998-07-01

    The polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase gene (phaCNc) from Nocardia corallina was identified in a lambda library on a 6-kb BamHI fragment. A 2.8-kb XhoII subfragment was found to contain the intact PHA synthase. This 2.8-kb fragment was subjected to DNA sequencing and was found to contain the coding region for the PHA synthase and a small downstream open reading frame of unknown function. On the basis of DNA sequence, phaCNc is closest in homology to the PHA synthases (phaCPaI and phaCPaII) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (approximately 41% identity and 55% similarity). The 2.8-kb XhoII fragment containing phaCNc was subcloned into broad host range mobilizable plasmids and transferred into Escherichia coli, Klebsiella aerogenes (both containing a plasmid bearing phaA and phaB from Ralstonia eutropha), and PHA-negative strains of R. eutropha and Pseudomonas putida. The recombinant strains were grown on various carbon sources and the resulting polymers were analyzed. In these strains, the PHA synthase from N. corallina was able to mediate the production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) containing high levels of 3-hydroxyhexanoate when grown on hexanoate and larger even-chain fatty acids and poly(3-hydroxyvalerate-co-3-hydroxyheptanoate) containing high levels of 3-hydroxyheptanoate when grown on heptanoate or larger odd-chain fatty acids.

  7. Enzymic synthesis of 3'-O- and 6'-O-N-acetylglucosaminyl-N-acetyllactosaminide glycosides catalyzed by beta-N-acetyl-D-hexosaminidase from Nocardia orientalis.

    PubMed

    Murata, T; Tashiro, A; Itoh, T; Usui, T

    1997-06-06

    beta-N-acetyl-D-hexosaminidase from Nocardia orientalis catalyzed the synthesis of beta-D-GlcNAc-(1 --> 3)-beta-D-Gal-(1 --> 4)-beta-D-GlcNAc-OC6H4NO2-p (1) and beta-D-GlcNAc-(1 --> 6)-beta-D-Gal-(1 --> 4)-beta-D-GlcNAc-OC6H4NO2-p (2) with its isomer beta-D-Gal-(1 --> 4)-[beta-D-GlcNAc-(1 --> 6)]-beta-D-GlcNAc-OC6H4NO2-p (3) through N-acetylglucosaminyl transfer from N-,N'-diacetylchitobiose to p-nitrophenyl beta-N-acetyllactosaminide. The enzyme formed a mixture of trisaccharides 1, 2, and 3 in a ratio of 11:33:56. In the case, when an inclusion complex of p-nitrophenyl beta-N-acetyllactosaminide with alpha-CD was used, compounds 1, 2, and 3 were formed in a molar ratio of 24:63:13. The regioselectivity of glycosidase-catalyzed formation of the trisaccharide glycosides was substantially changed. It resulted not only in a significant increase of the proportion of the desired compounds 1 and 2 but also in the substantial increase of the overall yield of transfer products.

  8. First description of the gravid female of Philometra rubra (Leidy, 1856) (Nematoda: Philometridae), a parasite of the abdominal cavity of temperate basses Morone Spp. (Moronidae: Perciformes) in North America.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; de Buron, Isaure; Measures, Lena

    2013-06-01

    Gravid females of the little-known nematode species Philometra rubra ( Leidy, 1856 ) (Philometridae) are described from specimens from the abdominal cavity of the striped bass, Morone saxatilis (Walbaum), in South Carolina and Canada. The specimens were studied with the use of light and scanning electron microscopy. This species is mainly characterized by the distribution and different sizes of cephalic papillae from the external circle, which is a unique feature compared to other philometrids. Other characteristic features are the shape of the posterior end of body, size and location of caudal projections, and the presence of a well-developed anterior esophageal inflation. The morphology of the male of P. rubra and the life cycle of this nematode are still unknown.

  9. In Vitro Activity of ACH-702, a New Isothiazoloquinolone, against Nocardia brasiliensis Compared with Econazole and the Carbapenems Imipenem and Meropenem Alone or in Combination with Clavulanic Acid ▿

    PubMed Central

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Campos-Rivera, Mayra Paola; Escalante-Fuentes, Wendy G.; Pucci, Michael J.; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Welsh, Oliverio

    2010-01-01

    The in vitro activities of ACH-702 and other antimicrobials against 30 Nocardia brasiliensis isolates were tested. The MIC50 (MIC for 50% of the strains tested) and MIC90 values of ACH-702 were 0.125 and 0.5 μg/ml. The same values for econazole were 2 and 4 μg/ml. The MIC50 and MIC90 values of imipenem and meropenem were 64 and >64 μg/ml and 2 and 8 μg/ml, respectively; the addition of clavulanic acid to the carbapenems had no effect. PMID:20308390

  10. Pharmacokinetic Comparison of 20(R)- and 20(S)-Ginsenoside Rh1 and 20(R)- and 20(S)-Ginsenoside Rg3 in Rat Plasma following Oral Administration of Radix Ginseng Rubra and Sheng-Mai-San Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan; Zhu, Danni

    2017-01-01

    Ginsenosides Rh1 and Rg3, as the main bioactive components from Ginseng, are effective for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Sheng-Mai-San (SMS), a classical complex prescription of traditional Chinese medicines, is composed of Radix Ginseng Rubra, Fructus Schisandrae, and Radix Ophiopogonis. In this research, a sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric method was developed and validated for stereoselective determination and pharmacokinetic studies of 20(R)- and 20(S)-ginsenoside Rh1 and 20(R)- and 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 epimers in rat plasma after oral administration of Radix Ginseng Rubra or SMS extracts. The main pharmacokinetic parameters including Tmax, Cmax, t1/2, and AUC were calculated by noncompartment model. Compared with Radix Ginseng Rubra, SMS could significantly increase the content of ginsenosides Rh1 and Rg3 in the decocting process. Ginsenosides Rh1 and Rg3 following SMS treatment displayed higher Cmax, AUC(0–t), and AUC(0–∞) and longer t1/2 and tmax except for 20(R)-Rh1 in rat plasma. The results indicated SMS compound compatibility could influence the dissolution in vitro and the pharmacokinetic behaviors in vivo of ginsenosides Rh1 and Rg3, suggesting pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions between ginsenosides Rh1 and Rg3 and other ingredients from Fructus Schisandrae and Radix Ophiopogonis. This study would provide valuable information for drug development and clinical application of SMS. PMID:28620420

  11. Pharmacokinetic Comparison of 20(R)- and 20(S)-Ginsenoside Rh1 and 20(R)- and 20(S)-Ginsenoside Rg3 in Rat Plasma following Oral Administration of Radix Ginseng Rubra and Sheng-Mai-San Extracts.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiaomei; Xu, Yan; Zhu, Danni; Ji, Yibing

    2017-01-01

    Ginsenosides Rh1 and Rg3, as the main bioactive components from Ginseng, are effective for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Sheng-Mai-San (SMS), a classical complex prescription of traditional Chinese medicines, is composed of Radix Ginseng Rubra, Fructus Schisandrae, and Radix Ophiopogonis. In this research, a sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric method was developed and validated for stereoselective determination and pharmacokinetic studies of 20(R)- and 20(S)-ginsenoside Rh1 and 20(R)- and 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 epimers in rat plasma after oral administration of Radix Ginseng Rubra or SMS extracts. The main pharmacokinetic parameters including Tmax, Cmax, t1/2, and AUC were calculated by noncompartment model. Compared with Radix Ginseng Rubra, SMS could significantly increase the content of ginsenosides Rh1 and Rg3 in the decocting process. Ginsenosides Rh1 and Rg3 following SMS treatment displayed higher Cmax, AUC(0-t), and AUC(0-∞) and longer t1/2 and tmax except for 20(R)-Rh1 in rat plasma. The results indicated SMS compound compatibility could influence the dissolution in vitro and the pharmacokinetic behaviors in vivo of ginsenosides Rh1 and Rg3, suggesting pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions between ginsenosides Rh1 and Rg3 and other ingredients from Fructus Schisandrae and Radix Ophiopogonis. This study would provide valuable information for drug development and clinical application of SMS.

  12. Temperature effects on biomass, geosmin, and 2-methylisoborneol production and cellular activity by Nocardia spp. and Streptomyces spp. isolated from rainbow trout recirculating aquaculture systems.

    PubMed

    Schrader, Kevin K; Harries, Marcuslene D; Page, Phaedra N

    2015-05-01

    Isolates of Nocardia cummidelens, Nocard ia fluminea, Streptomyces albidoflavus, and Streptomyces luridiscabiei attributed as the cause of "earthy-musty" off-flavor in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) raised in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) were evaluated for the effect of temperature (10-30 °C) on biomass, geosmin, and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) production and cellular activity. Cultures of these isolates were monitored over 7 days by measuring culture dry weight, geosmin, and MIB production using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS), and ATP production via a luminometer. Compared to the other isolates, S. luridiscabiei had significantly (P < 0.05) higher biomass (8.17 ± 0.35 mg/mL) at 15 °C (water temperature in the RAS) after 7 days incubation. In addition, S. luridiscabiei produced significantly (P < 0.05) higher geosmin (69,976 ± 15,733 ng/L) at 15 °C. At 25 °C and 30 °C, S. albidoflavus produced significantly (P < 0.05) higher geosmin (182,074 ± 60,272 ng/L and 399,991 ± 102,262 ng/L, respectively). All isolates produced MIB at 15 °C, but S. luridiscabiei produced significantly (P < 0.05) higher MIB (97,143 ± 28,972 ng/L) and ATP after 7 days. Therefore, S. luridiscabiei appears to be a likely contributor of geosmin and MIB in the RAS.

  13. Sickle cell anemia in an American white boy of Greek ancestry.

    PubMed

    Campbell, J J; Oski, F A

    1977-02-01

    A 7-year-old American white boy of Greek ancestry had sickle cell anemia. The disease in this patient was not accompanied by painful episodes or recognizable hematologic complications, although he did demonstrate considerable delay in skeletal maturation. The patient sought medical attention for a dermatologic problem that was ultimately diagnosed as pityriasis rubra pilaris. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstrated example of sickle cell anemia in a white male described in the United States.

  14. Application of anthocyanins as natural dye extracted from Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra: dyeing studies of wool and silk  fibres.

    PubMed

    Haddar, Wafa; Ben Ticha, Manel; Meksi, Nizar; Guesmi, Ahlem

    2017-06-28

    Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra (Red Cabbage) dye is composed mainly of natural pigment called anthocyanins used as a natural colourant. Wool and silk fibres were dyed with the aqueous extract obtained from red cabbage. The dyeing process was investigated and the combined effects of dyeing conditions on the colour yield parameter (K/S) were studied. Resulted fastness to wash, rubbing and light of the dyed fabrics were evaluated. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5) of the residual effluent were measured. Best dyeing conditions were found to be: 50 g/100 mL, pH 2, 60 min and 100 °C, respectively, for the red cabbage weight, pH, dyeing duration and temperature. Good fastnesses properties were found in both cases: for wool and silk fabrics. It was found also that the calculated biodegradability ratio (COD/BOD5) of the residual bath of dyeing wool and silk with red cabbage extract are lower than 1.5 which means that these baths are biodegradable.

  15. Comparison of metal tolerant and non-tolerant varieties of Festuca rubra for use in the direct hydraulic seeding of metalliferous fluorspar mine tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Morrey, D.R.; Johnson, M.S.; Cooke, J.A.

    1984-09-01

    The germination and growth of metal tolerant and non-tolerant cultivars of Festuca rubra were compared on metalliferous fluorspar tailings in laboratory and field conditions. The effects of wood pulp mulch and alginate stabilizer on germination and establishment were also assessed in the field experiments. Both cultivars germinated satisfactorily, although the laboratory experiment suggested restricted root development in the non-tolerant cultivar. Both experiments, however, showed that the overall shoot growth and cover of the non-tolerant cultivar were not affected. In fact, in the field experiment, contrary to expectation, the non-tolerant cultivar performed better than the metal tolerant cultivar and showed no pathological symptoms of metal toxicity after 12 months. The advantages of using wood pulp as a mulch were clearly demonstrated. However, the application of an alginate stabilizer had no benefit under these particular experimental conditions. The results suggest that the use of carefully selected non-tolerant cultivars in the revegetation of such calcareous metalliferous wastes is possible, even where the zinc content is as high as 1%.

  16. Growth response of four species of Eastern hardwood tree seedlings exposed to ozone, acidic precipitation, and sulfur dioxide. [Prunus serotina, Acer rubrum, Quercus rubra, Liriodendron tulipifera

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, D.D. Skelly, J.M. )

    1992-03-01

    In 1987 a study was conducted in controlled environment chambers to determine the foliar sensitivity of tree seedlings of eight species to ozone and acidic precipitation, and to determine the influence of leaf position on symptom severity. Jensen and Dochinger conducted concurrent similar studies in Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) chambers with ten species of forest trees. Based on the results of these initial studies, four species representing a range in foliar sensitivity to ozone were chosen: black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.). These species were also chosen because of their ecological and/or commercial importance in Pennsylvania. Seedlings were exposed in growth chambers simulated acid rain. In addition acute exposures to sulfur dioxide were conducted in a regime based on unpublished monitoring data collected near coal-fired power plants. The objective of this study was to determine if the pollutant treatments influenced the growth and productivity of seedlings of these four species. This information will help researchers and foresters understand the role of air pollution in productivity of eastern forests.

  17. Draft Genome of Scalindua rubra, Obtained from the Interface Above the Discovery Deep Brine in the Red Sea, Sheds Light on Potential Salt Adaptation Strategies in Anammox Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Speth, Daan R; Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Wang, Yong; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Dutilh, Bas E; Jetten, Mike S M

    2017-07-01

    Several recent studies have indicated that members of the phylum Planctomycetes are abundantly present at the brine-seawater interface (BSI) above multiple brine pools in the Red Sea. Planctomycetes include bacteria capable of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox). Here, we investigated the possibility of anammox at BSI sites using metagenomic shotgun sequencing of DNA obtained from the BSI above the Discovery Deep brine pool. Analysis of sequencing reads matching the 16S rRNA and hzsA genes confirmed presence of anammox bacteria of the genus Scalindua. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that this Scalindua sp. belongs to a distinct group, separate from the anammox bacteria in the seawater column, that contains mostly sequences retrieved from high-salt environments. Using coverage- and composition-based binning, we extracted and assembled the draft genome of the dominant anammox bacterium. Comparative genomic analysis indicated that this Scalindua species uses compatible solutes for osmoadaptation, in contrast to other marine anammox bacteria that likely use a salt-in strategy. We propose the name Candidatus Scalindua rubra for this novel species, alluding to its discovery in the Red Sea.

  18. Discrimination and chemical characterization of different Paeonia lactifloras (Radix Paeoniae Alba and Radix Paeoniae Rubra) by infrared macro-fingerprint analysis-through-separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Wang, Ping; Xu, Changhua; Sun, Suqin; Zhou, Qun; Shi, Zhe; Li, Jin; Chen, Tao; Li, Zheng; Cui, Weili

    2015-11-01

    Paeonia lactiflora, a commonly used herbal medicine (HM) in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), mainly has two species, Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA) and Radix Paeoniae Rubra (RPR), for different clinical applications in TCM. For expounding the chemical profile of RPA and RPR and ensuring the clinical efficacy and safety, an infrared macro-fingerprint analysis-through-separation method integrated with statistical pattern recognition was developed to analyze and discriminate the two Paeonia lactifloras. In IR spectra, the major difference between the two was in the range of 1200-900 cm-1: the strongest peak of RPA was at 1024 cm-1, while that of RPR was 1049 cm-1. The difference was magnified in second derivative spectra. The findings were further verified by investigating the separation process of total glucosides, stepwisely monitored by both of IR and UPLC-MS/MS. Simultaneously, the aqueous extracts of RPA and RPR had been separated continuously to acquire the comprehensively hierarchical chemical characteristics for undoubtedly identification and subsequently discrimination of the two herbs. Moreover, 60 batches of the two HMs (30 for each) were objectively classified by principal component regression (PCR) model based on IR macro-fingerprints.

  19. Inter-sectional hybrids obtained from reciprocal crosses between Begonia semperflorens (section Begonia) and B. 'Orange Rubra' (section Gaerdita × section Pritzelia).

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Ming; Mii, Masahiro

    2012-06-01

    Inter-sectional hybrids were successfully obtained by the reciprocal crosses between 11 cultivars (including 6 diploids and 5 tetraploids) of Begonia semperflorens (SS & SSSS genomes) and B. 'Orange Rubra' (RR genome) with the aid of in vitro culture of mature or immature seeds on MS medium containing 0.1 mg l(-1) α-naphthylacetic acid, 0.1 mg l(-1) 6-benzyladenine, 10 mg l(-1) gibberellic acid, 30 g l(-1) sucrose and 2.5 g l(-1) gellan gum. Embryo rescue as ovary culture with immature seeds 12(th)-16(th) day after pollination (DAP) generally gave higher efficiency of plantlet formation, but in some cross combinations, culture of mature seeds (30 DAP) resulted in higher yield of plantlets. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that they were consisted of the plants with various genomic combinations (RS, RR, RSS, RRS, RRSS and RRRRSS) as estimated by the DNA contents of both parents. Hybridity of these plants with various genomic combinations including RR was confirmed by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. These results suggested that unreduced gamete formation and spontaneous chromosome doubling were involved in the hybrid formation of various ploidy levels and genomic combinations. These hybrids showed various levels of intermediate traits between both parents according to the genomic compositions, and some of them had desirable characters of both parents.

  20. Chemical and Cellular Assays Combined with In Vitro Digestion to Determine the Antioxidant Activity of Flavonoids from Chinese Bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Chen, Shiguo; Wei, Chaoyang; Gong, Hui; Li, Lanqi; Ye, Xingqian

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is highly associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases and cancer and has drawn great attention. Natural products suggest a potential role in prevention of these disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and anti-cancer properties of Chinese bayberry leaves (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) flavonoids (BLF) comprehensively through the combination of in vitro digestion, chemical and cellular antioxidant assays. Based on the LC/MS data, the major flavonoids of BLF were myricitrin and quercetin 3-rhamnoside. BLF owned strong chemical and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) with its CAA value at 4253.884 ± 435.366 μmol of QE/100 g DW. After the in vitro digestion, the total flavonoids content, myricitrin and quercetin 3-rhamnoside decreased significantly (P < 0.05). Lower levels of the total flavonoid content and cellular uptake of myricitrin and quercetin 3-rhamnoside might contribute to the lower CAA value of digested BLF (DBLF). However, DBLF still owns considerable chemical antioxidant activities and CAA compared with many plants. Furthermore, both BLF and DBLF exhibited dose-dependent relationship against HepG2 proliferation. Taken together, BLF has a great potential to be developed as a natural antioxidant for promoting public health. PMID:27911932

  1. Occurrence of Encephalitozoon intestinalis in the Red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra) and the Ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) housed in the Poznan Zoological Garden, Poland.

    PubMed

    Słodkowicz-Kowalska, Anna; Majewska, Anna C; Trzesowska, Ewa; Skrzypczak, Łukasz

    2012-01-01

    Encephalitozoon intestinalis is one of the most common microsporidial species found in humans worldwide but it has rarely been identified in animals. The presence of this pathogen has been detected in a few species of domestic, captive and wild mammals as well as in three species of birds. The aim of the present study was to examine fecal samples obtained from mammals housed in the Poznan Zoological Garden, Poland, for the presence of potentially human-infectious microsporidia. A total of 339 fresh fecal samples collected from 75 species of mammals belonging to 27 families and 8 orders were examined for the presence of microsporidian spores. Microsporidian spores were identified in 3 out of 339 (0.9%) examined fecal samples. All samples identified as positive by chromotrope 2R and calcofluor white M2R were also positive by the FISH assay. Using multiplex FISH in all 3 fecal samples, only spores of E. intestinalis were identified in 2 out of 14 Ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) and in one out of 17 Red ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata rubra). To our knowledge this is the first diagnosis of E. intestinalis in Ring-tailed and Red ruffed lemurs. It should be mentioned that both lemur species are listed by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Although the lemurs were asymptomatically infected, the possibility of widespread infection or death of these animals remains in the event of an elevated stress or a decrease in their immunological functions.

  2. Contrasting patterns of population connectivity between regions in a commercially important mollusc Haliotis rubra: integrating population genetics, genomics and marine LiDAR data.

    PubMed

    Miller, A D; van Rooyen, A; Rašić, G; Ierodiaconou, D A; Gorfine, H K; Day, R; Wong, C; Hoffmann, A A; Weeks, A R

    2016-08-01

    Estimating contemporary genetic structure and population connectivity in marine species is challenging, often compromised by genetic markers that lack adequate sensitivity, and unstructured sampling regimes. We show how these limitations can be overcome via the integration of modern genotyping methods and sampling designs guided by LiDAR and SONAR data sets. Here we explore patterns of gene flow and local genetic structure in a commercially harvested abalone species (Haliotis rubra) from southeastern Australia, where the viability of fishing stocks is believed to be dictated by recruitment from local sources. Using a panel of microsatellite and genomewide SNP markers, we compare allele frequencies across a replicated hierarchical sampling area guided by bathymetric LiDAR imagery. Results indicate high levels of gene flow and no significant genetic structure within or between benthic reef habitats across 1400 km of coastline. These findings differ to those reported for other regions of the fishery indicating that larval supply is likely to be spatially variable, with implications for management and long-term recovery from stock depletion. The study highlights the utility of suitably designed genetic markers and spatially informed sampling strategies for gaining insights into recruitment patterns in benthic marine species, assisting in conservation planning and sustainable management of fisheries.

  3. Protective effect of flavonoid extract from Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) fruit on alcoholic liver oxidative injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hesheng; Qi, Xiangyang; Cao, Shaoqian; Li, Peipei

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the beneficial effects of Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) flavonoid extract (CBFE) on chronic alcohol-induced liver oxidative injury in mice, experimental mice were pretreated with different doses of CBFE (50-200 mg/kg) for 4 weeks by gavage feeding. Biochemical markers and enzymatic antioxidants from serum, liver tissue, mitochondria and microsomes were examined. Our results showed that the activities of TC, TG, L-DLC in serum, the activity of CYP2E1 in microsomes, and the levels of MDA in liver tissue and mitochondria, decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in the CBFE-treated group compared with the alcohol group. On the contrary, the activities of ALT, AST, and H-DLC in serum, enzymatic antioxidants GSH-Px, SOD and GST in liver tissue and mitochondria, and HO-1 in microsomes rose markedly (P < 0.05). Histopathological examination revealed that CBFE (200 mg/kg) pretreatment noticeably prevented alcohol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and fatty degeneration. It was suggested that the hepatoprotective effects exhibited by CBFE on alcohol-induced liver oxidative injury may be due to its potent antioxidant properties.

  4. Colonization by nitrogen-fixing Frankia bacteria causes short-term increases in herbivore susceptibility in red alder (Alnus rubra) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Ballhorn, Daniel J; Elias, Jacob D; Balkan, M A; Fordyce, Rachel F; Kennedy, Peter G

    2017-06-01

    Carbon allocation demands from root-nodulating nitrogen-fixing bacteria (NFB) can modulate the host plant's chemical phenotype, with strong bottom-up effects on herbivores. In contrast to well-studied rhizobia, the effects of other important NFB on plant chemistry and herbivory are much less understood. Here, combining field surveys in the Oregon Coast Range, USA with laboratory experiments, we analyzed how N2-fixing Frankia bacteria influenced plant growth, chemistry, and herbivory on Alnus rubra (red alder) seedlings. In the field, we quantified Frankia nodulation, herbivore damage, and plant size. In the laboratory, we grew seedlings with Frankia (F+), Frankia-free but nitrogen-fertilized (N+), or both uncolonized and unfertilized (F-N-) and assessed growth and leaf chemistry. We further conducted choice trials with black slugs, Arion rufus, a natural red alder herbivore. In the field, Frankia nodulation was significantly positively correlated with herbivory and negatively with seedling height. In contrast, in the lab, F+ as well as N+ seedlings were significantly taller than the F-N- controls. Seedlings from both treatments also had significantly increased leaf protein concentration compared to controls, whereas carbon-based nutritive compounds (carbohydrates) as well as leaf palatability-decreasing condensed tannins, lignin, and fiber were decreased in F+ but not in N+ treatments. In the choice assays, slugs preferred leaf material from F+ seedlings, but the effects were only significant in young leaves. Our study indicates that colonization by Frankia causes short-term ecological costs in terms of susceptibility to herbivory. However, the ubiquity of this symbiosis in natural settings suggests that these costs are outweighed by benefits beyond the seedling stage.

  5. A comparative study of physiological and morphological seedling traits associated with shade tolerance in introduced red oak (Quercus rubra) and native hardwood tree species in southwestern Germany.

    PubMed

    Kuehne, Christian; Nosko, Peter; Horwath, Tobias; Bauhus, Jürgen

    2014-02-01

    Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), a moderately shade-tolerant tree species, is failing to regenerate throughout its native North American range, while successful recruitment in Central Europe has been observed since its introduction. To examine whether comparative photosynthetic performance could explain the regeneration success of this non-native species in Central Europe, we compared the physiological and morphological seedling traits of red oak with three co-occurring tree species under three canopy types in southwestern Germany. Native species included a moderately shade-tolerant native oak (Quercus robur L.) and two shade-tolerant species (Acer pseudoplatanus L. and Carpinus betulus L.). The photosynthetic traits of non-native red oak seedlings were similar to those reported for this species in the native range, where shade-tolerant competitors readily outperform red oak under low light conditions. However, compared with native shade-tolerant species in Europe, red oak seedlings photosynthesized efficiently, especially under closed canopies and in small canopy gaps, exhibiting high photosynthetic capacity, low leaf dark respiration and leaf-level light compensation points that were similar to the more shade-tolerant species. The superior net carbon gain of red oak seedlings at low and moderate light levels was likely facilitated by high leaf areas and reflected by seedling dry masses that were greater than the observed native European species. A competitive advantage for red oak was not evident because relative height growth was inferior to seedlings of co-occurring species. In North America, the inability of seedlings to compete with shade-tolerant tree species in deeply shaded understories is central to the problem of poor oak recruitment. Our study suggests that the ability of non-native red oak to perform equally well to native shade-tolerant species under a variety of light conditions could contribute to the consistent success of red oak regeneration

  6. Influence of overstory density on ecophysiology of red oak (Quercus rubra) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum) seedlings in central Ontario shelterwoods.

    PubMed

    Parker, William C; Dey, Daniel C

    2008-05-01

    A field experiment was established in a second-growth hardwood forest dominated by red oak (Quercus rubra L.) to examine the effects of shelterwood overstory density on leaf gas exchange and seedling water status of planted red oak, naturally regenerated red oak and sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) seedlings during the first growing season following harvest. Canopy cover of uncut control stands and moderate and light shelterwoods averaged 97, 80 and 49%, respectively. Understory light and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) strongly influenced gas exchange responses to overstory reduction. Increased irradiance beneath the shelterwoods significantly increased net photosynthesis (P(n)) and leaf conductance to water vapor (G(wv)) of red oak and maple seedlings; however, P(n) and G(wv) of planted and naturally regenerated red oak seedlings were two to three times higher than those of sugar maple seedlings in both partial harvest treatments, due in large part to decreased stomatal limitation of gas exchange in red oak as a result of increased VPD in the shelterwoods. In both species, seedling water status was higher in the partial harvest treatments, as reflected by the higher predawn leaf water potential and seedling water-use efficiency in seedlings in shelterwoods than in uncut stands. Within a treatment, planted and natural red oak seedlings exhibited similar leaf gas exchange rates and water status, indicating little adverse physiological effect of transplanting. We conclude that the use of shelterwoods favors photosynthetic potential of red oak over sugar maple, and should improve red oak regeneration in Ontario.

  7. Aqueous seed extract of Cola nitida rubra reduces serum reproductive hormone concentrations and sperm count in adult male albino Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Umoh, I. O.; Emmanuel, O. A.; Nna, V. U.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Following the high rate of consumption of Cola nitida (cola nut) among the male population in Nigeria, this study seeks to determine the effects of consumption of Cola nitida on serum reproductive hormones and sperm count, which are major determinants of male fertility. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two male albino wistar rats weighing 180-220 g were used for this study and were divided into 4 groups of eight animals each. Group 1 served as control, group 2 received 2 mg/kg Cola nitida extract (Test 1), group 3 received 6 mg/kg Cola nitida extract (Test 2) and group 4 received 10 mg/kg Cola nitida extract (Test 3). After 6 weeks of treatment, reproductive hormonal assay was carried out using the rat serum. Epididymal spermatozoa were collected and sperm count determined. Results: Serum concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in test 2 and 3, compared with control. Sperm count was significantly lower in test group 1 (P < 0.05), 2 (P < 0.001) and 3 (P < 0.001) compared with control, with test 3 significantly (P < 0.05) lower compared with test 1. There was no significant difference in testicular and epididymis weight in the different experimental groups studied. Conclusion: Aqueous seed extract of Cola nitida rubra resulted in reduced serum reproductive hormone concentrations and sperm count in male wistar rats, and may therefore be detrimental to reproductive health, hence the need for regulation of its consumption. PMID:25538361

  8. Evaluation of the grass mixture (Faestuca Rubra, Cynodon Dactylon, Lolium Multiflorum and Pennisetum sp.) as Sb phyto-stabilizer in tailings and Sb-rich soils.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurora Armienta, M.; Beltrán-Villavicencio, Margarita; Ruiz-Villalobos, Carlos E.; Labastida, Israel; Ceniceros, Nora; Cruz, Olivia; Aguayo, Alejandra

    2017-04-01

    Green house experiments were carried out to evaluate the growth and Sb assimilation of a grass assemblage: Faestuca Rubra, Cynodon Dactylon, Lolium Multiflorum and Pennisetum sp, in tailings and Sb-rich soils. Tailings and soil samples were obtained at the Mexican historical mining zone of Zimapán, Central México. More than 6 tailings impoundments are located at the town outskirts and constitute a contamination source from windblown and waterborne deposit on soils, besides acid mine drainage. Four substrates were used in the experiments: 100% tailings, 20% tailings + 80% soil, 50% tailings + 50% soil , and a soil sample far from tailings as a background. Concentrations of Sb ranged from 310 mg/kg to 413 mg/kg in tailings. A pH of 7.43, 1.27% organic matter, and high concentrations of N, K and P indicated adequate conditions for plant growth. The grass assemblage was raised during 21 days as indicated by OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) Guideline 208 Terrestrial Plant Test: Seedling Emergence and Seedling Growth Test. The highest Sb concentrations were measured in plants grown on tailings with 139 mg/kg in the aerial part and 883 mg/kg in roots. Concentrations of Sb decreased as the proportion of tailings diminished with 22.1 mg/kg in the aerial part and 10 mg/kg in roots corresponding to the plants grown in the 20 % tailings + 80% soil . Bioaccumulation (BAC) and bioconcentration factors (BF) of plants grown on tailings (BAC= 0.42, BCF=3.93) indicated their suitability as a phyto-stabilization option. The grass mixture may be thus applied to control windblown particulate tailings taking advantage to their tolerance to high Sb levels.

  9. Antioxidant and inhibitory effect of red ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Rubra) and white ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on Fe(2+) induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain in vitro.

    PubMed

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Akinyemi, Ayodele J; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O

    2012-01-01

    Neurodegerative diseases have been linked to oxidative stress arising from peroxidation of membrane biomolecules and high levels of Fe have been reported to play an important role in neurodegenerative diseases and other brain disorder. Malondialdehyde (MDA) is the end-product of lipid peroxidation and the production of this aldehyde is used as a biomarker to measure the level of oxidative stress in an organism. The present study compares the protective properties of two varieties of ginger [red ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Rubra) and white ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)] on Fe(2+) induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain in vitro. Incubation of the brain tissue homogenate in the presence of Fe caused a significant increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) contents of the brain. However, the aqueous extract from both varieties of ginger caused a significant decrease in the MDA contents of the brain in a dose-dependent manner. However, the aqueous extract of red ginger had a significantly higher inhibitory effect on both Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation in the rat brain homogenates than that of white ginger. This higher inhibitory effect of red ginger could be attributed to its significantly higher phytochemical content, Fe(2+) chelating ability, OH scavenging ability and reducing power. However, part of the mechanisms through which the extractable phytochemicals in ginger (red and white) protect the brain may be through their antioxidant activity, Fe(2+) chelating and OH scavenging ability. Therefore, oxidative stress in the brain could be potentially managed/prevented by dietary intake of ginger varieties (red ginger and white ginger rhizomes).

  10. Astragalus and Paeoniae radix rubra extract inhibits liver fibrosis by modulating the transforming growth factor‑β/Smad pathway in rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weijuan; Li, Lin; Tian, Xiaopeng; Yan, Jinjin; Yang, Xinzheng; Wang, Xinlong; Liao, Guozhen; Qiu, Genquan

    2015-02-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that Astragalus and Paeoniae radix rubra extract (APE) had a protective effect against liver fibrosis in mice. The present study aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of APE on CCl4‑induced hepatic fibrosis in rats. Liver fibrosis was induced in male Sprague‑Dawley rats by intraperitoneal injection of 50% CCl4 twice a week for eight weeks. Organ coefficients, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), hexadecenoic acid (HA), laminin (LN), procollagen type III (PCIII), hydroxyproline (Hyp), glutathione (GSH‑Px), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF‑β1) levels were measured in rats with hepatic fibrosis. Histopathological changes in affected livers were studied using hematoxylin‑eosin and Masson's trichrome staining. The expression of transforming growth factor‑β/Smad pathway proteins, α‑smooth muscle actin (α‑SMA), collagen I and collagen III was observed in fibrotic livers using western blot analysis. The present study observed significant reductions in serum levels of AST, ALT, HA, LN, PCIII and Hyp in APE‑treated (2.6 and 5.2 g/kg) rats, indicating the significant hepatoprotective effects of APE. Furthermore, the depletion of GSH‑Px and SOD, in addition to the accumulation of MDA in liver tissue was suppressed by APE (2.6 and 5.2 g/kg). Pathological assessment of CCl4‑induced fibrotic livers revealed a significant reduction of liver injury and development of hepatic fibrosis in rats treated with APE (2.6 and 5.2 g/kg). Moreover, APE (2.6 and 5.2 g/kg) decreased the elevation of TGF‑β1, α‑SMA, collagen I and collagen III expression, inhibited Smad2/3 phosphorylation as well as elevated the expression of the TGF‑β1 inhibitor Smad7. These results suggested that APE may protect against liver damage and inhibit the progression of CCl4‑induced hepatic fibrosis. The mechanism of action of APE is

  11. CO2 assimilation of primary and regrowth foliage of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) and red oak (Quercus rubra L.): response to defoliation.

    PubMed

    Heichel, G H; Turner, N C

    1983-03-01

    The CO2 assimilation of primary foliage of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) and red oak (Quercus rubra L.), and of regrowth foliage produced in response to simulated insect defoliation, was measured throughout the season by infrared gas analysis: parallel measurements of leaf conductance were obtained by ventilated diffusion porometry. The rate of net photosynthesis, measured at a quantum flux density of 1,150 μmol m(-2)s(-1), of primary foliage of both species increased from slightly negative values to about 5 μmol m(-2)s(-1) by early June. Thereafter the rate of photosynthesis of maple slowly declined to about 4 μmol m(-2)s(-1) before onset of a senescent decline in early September, while that of oak slowly increased to about 8 μmol m(-2)s(-1) before onset of senescence. Manual defoliation to simulate insect attack in mid-June elicited refoliation proportional to the severity of defoliation in early July. After 100% defoliation, fully expanded regrowth foliage of maple, but not of oak, had a rate of net photosynthesis from mid-July through September that was about 50% higher than in the primary foliage of undefoliated trees. A 30 to 60% enhancement of photosynthesis of residual primary foliage remaining on 50 and 75% defoliated trees during July was also observed. The seasonal patterns of CO2 exchange of primary and regrowth foliage, and the enhancement of CO2 assimilation in residual foliage, was paralleled by similar changes in leaf conductance to water vapour.Carbon budgets of leaf canopies of each species showed that the net assimilation of the leaf canopy of both species ranged from 19 to 67% more than what would have been expected solely from replacement of leaf area. This response was greater in maple than in oak, presumably a reflection of the high rate of CO2 assimilation of regrowth maple foliage compared with that of the undefoliated control in maple.The increased CO2 assimilation of regrowth maple foliage and the increases in CO2 assimilation of

  12. The effect of heat waves, elevated [CO2 ] and low soil water availability on northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Bauweraerts, Ingvar; Wertin, Timothy M; Ameye, Maarten; McGuire, Mary Anne; Teskey, Robert O; Steppe, Kathy

    2013-02-01

    The frequency and intensity of heat waves are predicted to increase. This study investigates whether heat waves would have the same impact as a constant increase in temperature with the same heat sum, and whether there would be any interactive effects of elevated [CO2 ] and soil moisture content. We grew Quercus rubra seedlings in treatment chambers maintained at either ambient or elevated [CO2 ] (380 or 700 μmol CO2 mol(-1) ) with temperature treatments of ambient, ambient +3 °C, moderate heat wave (+6 °C every other week) or severe heat wave (+12 °C every fourth week) temperatures. Averaged over a 4-week period, and the entire growing season, the three elevated temperature treatments had the same average temperature and heat sum. Half the seedlings were watered to a soil water content near field capacity, half to about 50% of this value. Foliar gas exchange measurements were performed morning and afternoon (9:00 and 15:00 hours) before, during and after an applied heat wave in August 2010. Biomass accumulation was measured after five heat wave cycles. Under ambient [CO2 ] and well-watered conditions, biomass accumulation was highest in the +3 °C treatment, intermediate in the +6 °C heat wave and lowest in the +12 °C heat wave treatment. This response was mitigated by elevated [CO2 ]. Low soil moisture significantly decreased net photosynthesis (Anet ) and biomass in all [CO2 ] and temperature treatments. The +12 °C heat wave reduced afternoon Anet by 23% in ambient [CO2 ]. Although this reduction was relatively greater under elevated [CO2 ], Anet values during this heat wave were still 34% higher than under ambient [CO2 ]. We concluded that heat waves affected biomass growth differently than the same amount of heat applied uniformly over the growing season, and that the plant response to heat waves also depends on [CO2 ] and soil moisture conditions. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. UPLC-Q-TOF/MS coupled with multivariate statistical analysis as a powerful technique for rapidly exploring potential chemical markers to differentiate between radix paeoniae alba and radix paeoniae rubra.

    PubMed

    Luo, Nian-Cui; Ding, Wen; Wu, Jing; Qian, Da-Wei; Li, Zhen-Hao; Qian, Ye-Fei; Guo, Jian-Ming; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2013-04-01

    To explore rapidly the potential chemical markers for differentiating Radix Paeoniae Alba and Radix Paeoniae Rubra, a method is proposed based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) coupled with multivariate statistical analysis. Batches of commercial samples were analyzed by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS. The datasets of t(R)-m/z pair, ion intensities and sample codes were further processed with orthogonal partial least squared discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) to compare holistically the difference between these two kinds of samples. Then statistics were used to generate an S-plot, in which the variables (t(R)-m/z pair) contributing most to the difference were clearly depicted as points at the two ends of "S", and the components correlated to these ions should be regarded as the chemical markers. The identities of the most changed markers can be identified by comparing the mass/UV spectra and retention times with those of reference compounds and/or tentatively assigned by matching empirical molecular formulae with those of known compounds published in the literature. Using this proposed approach, albflorin, paeoniflorin, oxypaeoniflorin, benzoylpaeoniflorin, galloylalbiflorin and paeoniflorigenone were found to be the differentiating components for discrimination of Radix Paeoniae Alba and Radix Paeoniae Rubra. Moreover, paeoniflorin sulfonate and its isomer, isomaltopaeoniflorin sulfonate, were found to be the characteristic markers for all Radix Paeoniae Alba samples that were processed by sulfurdioxide gas fumigation. The results suggested that this newly established approach could be used to explore rapidly the potential chemical markers for herbs with similar chemical characteristics.

  14. Taxonomy and evolution of bacteriochlorophyll a-containing members of the OM60/NOR5 clade of marine gammaproteobacteria: description of Luminiphilus syltensis gen. nov., sp. nov., reclassification of Haliea rubra as Pseudohaliea rubra gen. nov., comb. nov., and emendation of Chromatocurvus halotolerans.

    PubMed

    Spring, Stefan; Riedel, Thomas; Spröer, Cathrin; Yan, Shi; Harder, Jens; Fuchs, Bernhard M

    2013-05-24

    Aerobic gammaproteobacteria affiliated to the OM60/NOR5 clade are widespread in saline environments and of ecological importance in several marine ecosystems, especially the euphotic zone of coastal areas. Within this group a close relationship between aerobic anoxygenic photoheterotrophs and non-phototrophic members has been found. Several strains of aerobic red-pigmented bacteria affiliated to the OM60/NOR5 clade were obtained from tidal flat sediment samples at the island of Sylt (North Sea, Germany). Two of the novel isolates, Rap1red and Ivo14(T), were chosen for an analysis in detail. Strain Rap1red shared a 16S rRNA sequence identity of 99% with the type strain of Congregibacter litoralis and was genome-sequenced to reveal the extent of genetic microheterogeneity among closely related strains within this clade. In addition, a draft genome sequence was obtained from the isolate Ivo14(T), which belongs to the environmental important NOR5-1 lineage that contains so far no cultured representative with a comprehensive description. Strain Ivo14(T) was characterized using a polyphasic approach and compared with other red-pigmented members of the OM60/NOR5 clade, including Congregibacter litoralis DSM 17192(T), Haliea rubra DSM 19751(T) and Chromatocurvus halotolerans DSM 23344(T). All analyzed strains contained bacteriochlorophyll a and spirilloxanthin as photosynthetic pigments. Besides a detailed phenotypic characterization including physiological and chemotaxonomic traits, sequence information based on protein-coding genes and a comparison of draft genome data sets were used to identify possible features characteristic for distinct taxa within this clade. Comparative sequence analyses of the pufLM genes of genome-sequenced representatives of the OM60/NOR5 clade indicated that the photosynthetic apparatus of these species was derived from a common ancestor and not acquired by multiple horizontal gene transfer from phylogenetically distant species. An affiliation

  15. A gene encoding lysine 6-aminotransferase, which forms the beta-lactam precursor alpha-aminoadipic acid, is located in the cluster of cephamycin biosynthetic genes in Nocardia lactamdurans.

    PubMed Central

    Coque, J J; Liras, P; Laiz, L; Martín, J F

    1991-01-01

    A gene (lat) encoding lysine 6-aminotransferase was found upstream of the pcbAB (encoding alpha-aminoadipylcysteinyl-valine synthetase) and pcbC (encoding isopenicillin N synthase) genes in the cluster of early cephamycin biosynthetic genes in Nocardia lactamdurans. The lat gene was separated by a small intergenic region of 64 bp from the 5' end of the pcbAB gene. The lat gene contained an open reading frame of 1,353 nucleotides (71.4% G + C) encoding a protein of 450 amino acids with a deduced molecular mass of 48,811 Da. Expression of DNA fragments carrying the lat gene in Streptomyces lividans led to a high lysine 6-aminotransferase activity which was absent from untransformed S. lividans. The enzyme was partially purified from S. lividans(pULBS8) and showed a molecular mass of 52,800 Da as calculated by Sephadex gel filtration and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. DNA sequences which hybridized strongly with the lat gene of N. lactamdurans were found in four cephamycin-producing Streptomyces species but not in four other actinomycetes which are not known to produce beta-lactams, suggesting that the gene is specific for beta-lactam biosynthesis and is not involved in general lysine catabolism. The protein encoded by the lat gene showed similarity to ornithine-5-aminotransferases and N-acetylornithine-5-aminotransferases and contained a pyridoxal phosphate-binding consensus amino acid sequence around Lys-300 of the protein. The evolutionary implications of the lat gene as a true beta-lactam biosynthetic gene are discussed. Images PMID:1917857

  16. Osmotic adjustment in five tree species under elevated CO sub 2 and water stress. [Platanus occidentalis L. ; Liquidambar styraciflua L. ; Quercus rubra L. ; Acer saccharum Marsh; Liriodendron tulipifera L

    SciTech Connect

    Tschaplinski, T.J.; Hanson, P.J.; Norby, R.J. ); Stewart, D.B. )

    1991-05-01

    Since osmotic adjustment to water stress requires carbon assimilation during stress, the stimulation of photosynthesis by elevated CO{sub 2} may enhance osmotic adjustment. Osmotic adjustment of American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), and northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) to water stress was assessed under ambient and elevated CO{sub 2} (ambient +300 {mu}L L{sup {minus}1}), with seedlings grown in 8-L pots in four open-top chambers, fitted with rain exclusion canopies. Trees were subjected to repeated water stress cycles over a six-week period. Well-watered trees were watered daily to maintain a soil matric potential > {minus}0.3 MPa, whereas stressed trees were watered when soil matric potential declined to < {minus}0.9 MPa. Gas exchange and water relations were monitored at the depth of stress and after rewatering. All species displayed an increase in leaf-level water-use efficiency (net photosynthesis/transpiration). Leaves of sycamore and sweetgum displayed an adjustment in osmotic potential at saturation (pressure-volume analysis) of 0.3 MPa and 0.6 MPa, respectively. Elevated CO{sub 2} did not enhance osmotic adjustment in leaves of any of the species studied. Studies to characterize organic solute concentrations in roots are ongoing to determine if osmotic adjustment occurred in the roots.

  17. Comparison of the lipase activity in hydrolysis and acyl transfer reactions of two latex plant extracts from babaco (Vasconcellea x Heilbornii Cv.) and Plumeria rubra: Effect of the Aqueous microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Cambon, Emmanuelle; Gouzou, Fanny; Pina, Michel; Barea, Bruno; Barouh, Nathalie; Lago, Regina; Ruales, Jenny; Tsai, Shau-Wei; Villeneuve, Pierre

    2006-04-05

    The enzymatic properties of Plumeria rubra latex have been evaluated for the first time, showing a high activity in both hydrolysis and synthesis reactions, and compared to the biocatalytic behavior of babaco (Vasconcellea x Heilbornii cv.) latex. Both biocatalysts have been optimized by studying the various parameters that influence reaction kinetics. The optimum temperatures for hydrolysis reactions were 50 and 55 degrees C for babaco and Plumeria, respectively. The optimum pH for babaco latex was 7, whereas for Plumeria latex, two optimal pH values (4 and 7) were observed. With regard to esterification and acyl transfer reactions such as alcoholysis and interesterification, the influence of thermodynamic water activity on reaction yields was determined and correlated with water sorption and desorption isotherms. When babaco latex is used as a biocatalyst, optimal synthesis reaction yields are obtained when the enzymatic extract is stabilized at a water activity value of 0.38, which corresponds to a water content of 5.7%. This optimal level of hydration is located on the linear portion of the biocatalyst's sorption isotherm, where the water molecules exhibit high-energy interactions with the protein network. In synthesis reactions (esterification, alcoholysis, and interesterification) biocatalyzed by Plumeria latex, correlation between best reaction yields and water activity cannot be done. Indeed, the sorption isotherm plot has an atypical shape, indicating that water might be trapped in the latex matrix and, consequently, that the water content of the biocatalyst is highly dependent on the hydration history of the latex.

  18. [The role of motivation in the performance of a conditioned switching-over of the maze habit in ants Myrmica rubra after a change in the quality of the food reinforcement].

    PubMed

    Udalova, G P; Karas', A Ia

    2005-01-01

    Active foragers Myrmica rubra were trained in a maze under conditions of different levels of colony need in food with carbohydrate (sugar syrup) or protein (ants Lasius niger pupae) reinforcement. Acquisition of the maze habit was better under conditions of reinforcement with pupae, especially by its time indices. Ants were able to modify the acquired habit when the reinforcement quality was changed. It was shown that learning was possible only when the colony and after a change pupae for the syrup was "hungry". Under these conditions, after a change of the syrup for pupae or visa versa the previously acquired optimum habit was transferred. Several hours later, with satiation of the colony, food reactions learned with protein reinforcement switched-over to "stochastic" non-optimized behavior with the dominance of exploratory reactions. Thus, it was shown that higher social insects ants were capable for conditioned switching-over. Different forms of this phenomenon depended on the level of the colony need in food and, consequently, on the level of the social food motivation of foragers ants.

  19. Approach to the study of C-glycosyl flavones acylated with aliphatic and aromatic acids from Spergularia rubra by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection/electrospray ionization multi-stage mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ferreres, Federico; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Vinholes, Juliana; Grosso, Clara; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B

    2011-03-30

    The use of mass spectrometry (MS) coupled to liquid chromatography (LC) as working tool for the study of the C-glycosyl flavones acylated with aliphatic and aromatic acids has allowed the tentative characterization of these compounds in Spergularia rubra and the establishment of the position of the acylation on the sugar moiety of the C-glycosylation by use of MS data. The combination of retention time (Rt), ultraviolet (UV) and MS(n) data of the compounds revealed their C-glycosyl flavone nature, being luteolin, apigenin and chrysoeriol derivatives. Ten non-acylated flavones were identified, from which six are described for the first time (one 7-O-glycosyl-6,8-diC-glycosyl flavone, four 6,8-diC-glycosyl flavones and one 2"-O-glycosyl-6-C-glycosyl flavone). Twenty-six acylated derivatives were also found for the first time. These compounds are grouped in three classes, namely, C-glycosyl flavones acylated with aliphatic acids, with aromatic acids or with a mixed acylation. The first group is characterized by the presence of one 6,8-diC-(acetyl)glycosyl flavone, four 6,8-diC-(malonyl)glycosyl flavones and two 7-O-glycosyl-6,8-diC-(malonyl)glycosyl flavones, while in the second one twelve 6,8-diC-(acyl)glycosyl flavones and two 7-O-glycosyl-6,8-diC-(acyl)glycosyl flavones are described. The last class contained five 6,8-diC-(malonyl,acyl)glycosyl flavones. No previous work has described the presence of C-glycosyl flavones acylated with aliphatic acids in this genus.

  20. Effects of flavonoid-rich Chinese bayberry (Morella rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) fruit extract on regulating glucose and lipid metabolism in diabetic KK-A(y) mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianan; Lv, Qiang; Jia, Sheng; Chen, Yanhong; Sun, Chongde; Li, Xian; Chen, Kunsong

    2016-07-13

    In the present study, male diabetic KK-A(y) mice were used to investigate the antidiabetic effect of bayberry fruit extract (BFE, 200 mg kg(-1)) by gavage for 5 weeks. BFE significantly lowered fasting blood glucose, improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in KK-A(y) mice. It significantly reduced serum concentrations of glucose, lipids, inflammation, and liver function markers, including insulin, glucagon, leptin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein, interleukin-1β, and alanine transferase in KK-A(y) mice. Liver weight and liver lipid accumulation were also markedly reduced by BFE in mice. The hypoglycemic effect of BFE appeared to be partially mediated through the inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis, which was supported by the reduced PPARγ coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) mRNA expressions in the liver of KK-A(y) mice and by the decreased glucose production, increased glycolysis as well as the reduced gene expression levels of PGC-1α, PEPCK, and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) in HepG2 cells. Gene expressions of hepatic lipid metabolism and inflammatory markers were also down-regulated by BFE in the liver of KK-A(y) mice. Furthermore, BFE promoted hepatic phosphorylation of AMPKα (Thr172) both in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, the activation of the AMPK pathway may play an important role in the antidiabetic effects of BFE, and red Chinese bayberry fruits may be an effective dietary food for the management of type 2 diabetes and its complications.

  1. Microbial Aromatization of Steroids into Equilin

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, S. N.; Vézina, Claude

    1970-01-01

    This report describes the bioconversion of 19-hydroxy-androsta-4, 7-diene-3, 17-dione into equilin with Nocardia rubra. Through mutation and improvement of medium and of conditions, the bioconversion could be improved to yield 40% equilin for a substrate concentration of 1 g/liter. Aromatization of several other 19-hydroxy and 19-nor substrates of the androstene series is reported, and the influence of various substitutions of the substrate molecule on aromatization is discussed. PMID:5492438

  2. Parenchyma cell respiration and survival in secondary xylem: does metabolic activity decline with cell age?

    PubMed

    Spicer, R; Holbrook, N M

    2007-08-01

    Sapwood respiration often declines towards the sapwood/heartwood boundary, but it is not known if parenchyma metabolic activity declines with cell age. We measured sapwood respiration in five temperate species (sapwood age range of 5-64 years) and expressed respiration on a live cell basis by quantifying living parenchyma. We found no effect of parenchyma age on respiration in two conifers (Pinus strobus, Tsuga canadensis), both of which had significant amounts of dead parenchyma in the sapwood. In angiosperms (Acer rubrum, Fraxinus americana, Quercus rubra), both bulk tissue and live cell respiration were reduced by about one-half in the oldest relative to the youngest sapwood, and all sapwood parenchyma remained alive. Conifers and angiosperms had similar bulk tissue respiration despite a smaller proportion of parenchyma in conifers (5% versus 15-25% in angiosperms), such that conifer parenchyma respired at rates about three times those of angiosperms. The fact that 5-year-old parenchyma cells respired at the same rate as 25-year-old cells in conifers suggests that there is no inherent or intrinsic decline in respiration as a result of cellular ageing. In contrast, it is not known whether differences observed in cellular respiration rates of angiosperms are a function of age per se, or whether active regulation of metabolic rate or positional effects (e.g. proximity to resources and/or hormones) could be the cause of reduced respiration in older sapwood.

  3. Inactivation of nocardiophages phi C and phi EC by extracts of bacteriophage-attachable cells.

    PubMed

    Brownell, G H; Crockett, J K

    1971-12-01

    Cultures of several species of Nocardia, including N. erythropolis Mat-Ce and Mat-cE mating strains, were extracted with solvents in an attempt to isolate an inactivating complex for nocardiophages phiC and phiEC. Ethanol was the only solvent found effective in solubilizing an inhibitory substance. Inactivating extracts were obtained from the cells of all species to which the phage were able to attach. After extraction of whole cells or cell wall preparations, the phage could not effectively attach to them. Both phages phiC and phiEC were inactivated by the same complex. However, phage phiEC inactivation was 10-fold greater than phiC inactivation. The velocity of inactivation was about 4.1 x 10(2) plaque-forming units per microgram per minute for phiC and 1.1 x 10(3) plaque-forming units per microgram per minute for phage phiEC. The cell extracts required divalent cations for phage inactivation. The inhibitory capacity of the cell extracts was reduced or lost by the activity of proteolytic enzymes, Tween 80, 2-mercaptoethanol, thymol, and sodium lauryl sulfate. Boiling the extract for 10 min did not alter its activity. The inactivating substance was postulated to be a lipoprotein of considerable complexity, unique in the ease with which it is solubilized from host cells by ethanol.

  4. Generalized leukaemia cutis from a small cell variant of T-cell prolymphocytic leukaemia presenting with exfoliative dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Ki-Heon; Lew, Bark-Lynn; Sim, Woo-Young

    2009-01-01

    T-cell prolymphocytic leukaemia (T-PLL) is a rare, aggressive neoplasm of mature T lymphocytes. The small cell variant occurs in approximately 20% of T-PLL patients. The skin findings of leukaemia consist of leukaemia-specific skin lesions, which are infiltrated by leukaemia cells, and non-specific lesions. The former type of lesion signifies leukaemia cutis. Leukaemia cutis presents clinically as tumours, nodules, or patches on the scalp, face and trunk. We report here an 82-year-old Korean male patient who presented with erythema, erosion, vesicles, and scales on his entire body with no clear underlying cause. He had been treated with oral retinoids, steroids, and phototherapy for the diagnoses of drug eruption, pityriasis rubra pilaris, and exfoliative dermatitis at other hospitals. We suspected a hidden malignancy and diagnosed small cell variant T-PLL through blood and bone marrow examination. A skin biopsy specimen showed dense infiltration of small lymphocytes in the dermis. Most of the atypical lymphocytes stained positively with CD markers such as CD2, CD3, CD4, CD5, CD7 and CD8, thereby confirming the presence of leukaemia cells. To our knowledge, this is the first case of generalized leukaemia cutis from small cell variant of T-PLL presenting with exfoliative dermatitis over the whole body.

  5. Visualization of mycobacterial membrane dynamics in live cells

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacteria are endowed with a highly impermeable mycomembrane that confers intrinsic resistance to many antibiotics. Several unique mycomembrane glycolipids have been isolated and structurally characterized, but the underlying organization and dynamics of glycolipids within the cell envelope remain poorly understood. We report here a study of mycomembrane dynamics that was enabled by trehalose–fluorophore conjugates capable of labeling trehalose glycolipids in live actinomycetes. We identified fluorescein–trehalose analogues that are metabolically incorporated into the trehalose mycolates of representative Mycobacterium, Corynebacterium, Nocardia, and Rhodococcus species. Using these probes, we studied the mobilities of labeled glycolipids by time-lapse microscopy and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments and found that mycomembrane fluidity varies widely across species and correlates with mycolic acid structure. Finally, we discovered that treatment of mycobacteria with ethambutol, a front-line tuberculosis (TB) drug, significantly increases mycomembrane fluidity. These findings enhance our understanding of mycobacterial cell envelope structure and dynamics and have implications for development of TB drug cocktails. PMID:28075574

  6. Toll-Like Receptor 2 and Mincle Cooperatively Sense Corynebacterial Cell Wall Glycolipids.

    PubMed

    Schick, Judith; Etschel, Philipp; Bailo, Rebeca; Ott, Lisa; Bhatt, Apoorva; Lepenies, Bernd; Kirschning, Carsten; Burkovski, Andreas; Lang, Roland

    2017-07-01

    Nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Corynebacterium ulcerans cause invasive disease in humans and animals. Host sensing of corynebacteria is largely uncharacterized, albeit the recognition of lipoglycans by Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) appears to be important for macrophage activation by corynebacteria. The members of the order Corynebacterineae (e.g., mycobacteria, nocardia, and rhodococci) share a glycolipid-rich cell wall dominated by mycolic acids (termed corynomycolic acids in corynebacteria). The mycolic acid-containing cord factor of mycobacteria, trehalose dimycolate, activates the C-type lectin receptor (CLR) Mincle. Here, we show that glycolipid extracts from the cell walls of several pathogenic and nonpathogenic Corynebacterium strains directly bound to recombinant Mincle in vitro Macrophages deficient in Mincle or its adapter protein Fc receptor gamma chain (FcRγ) produced severely reduced amounts of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and of nitric oxide (NO) upon challenge with corynebacterial glycolipids. Consistently, cell wall extracts of a particular C. diphtheriae strain (DSM43989) lacking mycolic acid esters neither bound Mincle nor activated macrophages. Furthermore, TLR2 but not TLR4 was critical for sensing of cell wall extracts and whole corynebacteria. The upregulation of Mincle expression upon encountering corynebacteria required TLR2. Thus, macrophage activation by the corynebacterial cell wall relies on TLR2-driven robust Mincle expression and the cooperative action of both receptors. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. Biologically active components from mycobacterial cell walls. III. Production of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in guinea-pigs.

    PubMed

    Meyer, T J; Azuma, I; Ribi, E E

    1975-02-01

    The efficacy of various fractions of mycobacterial cell walls in producing experimental ahlergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) has been evaluated. BCG (Bacillus-Calmette-Buérin) cell walls were effective in producing EAE in all animals at dose levels as low as 40 mug. Study of subfractions of these cell walls revealed the following: (1) wax D was active, but required larger doses than BCG cell walls; (2) the chloroform-methanol-soluble (CMS) portion of wax D and P3 (a mycolic acid-trehalose ester contained therein) were inactive; (3) the chloroform-methanol-insoluble (CMI) portion of wax D was active; (4) exhaustively delipidated cell wass skeletons of BCG, Nocardia asteroides, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Corynebacterium diphtheriae and M. kansaii were active; (5) two water-soluble adjuvants prepared from mycobacteria were active. These results suggest that the mycobacterial structure responsible for EAE adjuvanticity is present in the organic solvent-insoluble cell wall skeleton framework. The activity of wax D may be due to the presence of cell-wall skeleton constituents which are found in varying quanity in most wax D preparations. Wax D components soluble in a solution of chloroform:methanol (diluted 2:1 v/v) do not produce EAE.

  8. Pharmacological induction of leukotriene B4-12-hydroxydehydrogenase suppresses the oncogenic transformation of human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lai; Liu, Jie; Le, X Chris; Han, Yifan; Tong, Yao; Lau, Allan S Y; Rong, Jianhui

    2011-09-01

    Leukotriene B4-12-hydroxydehydrogenase (LTB4DH) is characterized as a chemopreventive and tumor suppressor gene. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmaco-logical induction of LTB4DH and potential anticancer activity. Using HepG2 cells as a cellular detector, we successfully isolated the active compounds from the herbs Radix Astragali and Radix Paeoniae Rubra through a bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure. Using various analytical techniques including electronic spray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gallic acid (GA) was identified as the active compound from Radix Paeoniae Rubra whereas the active compound from Radix Astragali, designated as RA-C, was also purified to the extent that it is now suitable for further identifi-cation. We found that the active compounds from these two different herbs synergistically induced LTB4DH expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. A key finding was that commercial GA in combination with purified RA-C attenuated the focus formation and anchorage-independent growth, two indexes of in vitro oncogenic transformation, of HepG2 cells via the induction of LTB4DH expression. Moreover, the combination of GA and purified RA-C significantly induced G2/M cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells. Our results demon-strated for the first time that GA and purified RA-C suppress the in vitro oncogenic transformation of HepG2 cells via the induction of LTB4DH expression. Importantly, pharmaco-logical induction of LTB4DH represents a potential alternative strategy for the therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  9. Degradation of aflatoxin B(1) by cell-free extracts of Rhodococcus erythropolis and Mycobacterium fluoranthenivorans sp. nov. DSM44556(T).

    PubMed

    Teniola, O D; Addo, P A; Brost, I M; Färber, P; Jany, K-D; Alberts, J F; van Zyl, W H; Steyn, P S; Holzapfel, W H

    2005-11-25

    Biological degradation of aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) by Rhodococcus erythropolis was examined in liquid cultures and in cell-free extracts. Dramatic reduction of AFB(1) was observed during incubation in the presence of R. erythropolis cells (17% residual AFB(1) after 48 h and only 3-6% residual AFB(1) after 72 h). Cell-free extracts of four bacterial strains, R. erythropolis DSM 14,303, Nocardia corynebacterioides DSM 12,676, N. corynebacterioides DSM 20,151, and Mycobacterium fluoranthenivorans sp. nov. DSM 44,556(T) were produced by disrupting cells in a French pressure cell. The ability of crude cell-free extracts to degrade AFB(1) was studied under different incubation conditions. Aflatoxin B(1) was effectively degraded by cell free extracts of all four bacterial strains. N. corynebacterioides DSM 12,676 (formerly erroneously classified as Flavobacterium aurantiacum) showed the lowest degradation ability (60%) after 24 h, while >90% degradation was observed with N. corynebacterioides DSM 20,151 over the same time. R. erythropolis and M. fluoranthenivorans sp. nov. DSM 44,556(T) have shown more than 90% degradation of AFB(1) within 4 h at 30 degrees C, whilst after 8 h AFB(1) was practicably not detectable. The high degradation rate and wide temperature range for degradation by R. erythropolis DSM 14,303 and M. fluoranthenivorans sp. nov. DSM 44,556(T) indicate potential for application in food and feed processing.

  10. Former poison gas workers and cancer: incidence and inhibition of tumor formation by treatment with biological response modifier N-CWS.

    PubMed Central

    Yamakido, M; Ishioka, S; Hiyama, K; Maeda, A

    1996-01-01

    Mustard gas is known to have mutagenic and carcinogenic effects on animal and human cells. In this report, 1,632 male Japanese who worked in poison gas factories at some time between the years 1927 and 1945 were studied to determine comparative risk for development of cancer, the reference population being data on Japanese males overall. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for lung cancer in workers directly and indirectly involved in the production of mustard gas was significantly elevated. In addition, SMR for lung cancer in worker who had worked for more than 5 years was also significantly elevated. Thus, poison gas workers who had engaged in the production of mustard gas or related work for more than 5 years are a high-risk group for lung cancer. Under the cancer preventive program, Nocardia rubra cell-wall skeleton (N-CWS) was administered to 146 former poison gas workers. During a 4.5 year observation period, development of cancers was found in 7 treated workers and 17 untreated controls. After elimination of the influence of smoking level, a significant suppression of development of cancers was noted in the N-CWS-treated workers as compared to the untreated controls. Although the molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis in former poison gas workers remains unclear, our study proposes the possible effect of biological response modifiers in the prevention of cancer development in high-risk human subjects. PMID:8781369

  11. Humus bacteria of Norway spruce stands: plant growth promoting properties and birch, red fescue and alder colonizing capacity.

    PubMed

    Elo; Maunuksela; Salkinoja-Salonen; Smolander; Haahtela

    2000-02-01

    We studied the potential of the humus layer of the Norway spruce stands to supply beneficial rhizobacteria to birch (Betula pendula), alder (Alnus incana) and fescue grass (Festuca rubra), representatives of pioneer vegetation after clear-cutting of the coniferous forest. Axenically grown seedlings of these species were inoculated with the acid spruce humus, pH 3.7-5.3. Actinorhizal propagules, capable of nodulating alder, were present in high density (10(3) g(-1)) in humus of long-term limed plots, whereas plots with nitrogen fertilization contained almost none (Nocardia, Rhodococcus and Pseudomonas, independently of prior liming or fertilization of the plots. The taxa found in the seedling roots differed from that in humus by the prevalence of the Gram-negative genera Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes and Comamonas. Enrichment cultures of the roots on nitrogen-free media yielded Paenibacillus and Rhodococcus species. Nitrogen-fixing R. erythropolis and a novel Paenibacillus, closest by full sequence of 16S rDNA to P. durus, represented new classes of nitrogen-fixing rhizosphere bacteria. In addition, nitrogen-fixing R. fascians was found in the humus. The rhizoflora and humus contained high proportions of bacteria antagonistic towards plant pathogenic Rhizoctonia sp., Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium culmorum. The antagonistic isolates also commonly produced siderophores and/or cell wall degrading enzymes.

  12. Effect of mercury and organomercurials on cellular glucose utilization: a study using resting mercury-resistant yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, S K; Chaudhuri, J; Gachhui, R; Mandal, A; Ghosh, S

    2007-02-01

    Mercury compounds are highly toxic to all types of living cells. Isolated yeast strains of Rhodotorula rubra showed high and low resistance pattern towards mercury and organomercurial compounds. To investigate the basis of differential sensitivity of these two types of strains, glucose utilization was measured in the presence of mercury compounds. Glucose utilization process remained unaffected in resting cells of highly Hg(2+)-resistant strain in the presence of HgCl(2) but not in the presence of phenylmercuric acetate and thimerosal. However, HgCl(2) significantly affected glucose utilization in the case of low-resistant cells. The Hg-retaining ability of the cell wall of highly Hg(2+)-resistant yeast strain was greater than that of the weakly Hg(2+)-resistant strain. The spheroplast-bound Hg(2+) was also significantly less in the highly Hg(2+)-resistant strain than in the weakly Hg(2+)-resistant strain. Glucose uptake machinery was not affected in the presence of toxic metal ions in the case of high-resistant strains. But in the case of low Hg(2+)-resistant strain, glucose transport system may be affected either by inactivation of sensor proteins containing -SH group associated with glucose uptake. Cell wall of mercury-resistant yeast cells may play an important role in heavy metal bioremediation process.

  13. Nontuberculous mycobacterial infection in hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Doucette, Karen; Fishman, Jay A

    2004-05-15

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous environmental organisms. In immunocompetent hosts, they are a rare cause of disease. In immunocompromised hosts, disease due to NTM is well documented. Reports of NTM disease have increased in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) and solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. This increase may reflect increased numbers of transplants, intensification of immune suppressive regimens, prolonged survival of transplant recipients, and/or improved diagnostic techniques. The difficulty of diagnosis and the impact associated with infections due to NTM in HSCT and SOT recipients necessitates that, to ensure prompt diagnosis and early initiation of therapy, a high level of suspicion for NTM disease be maintained. The most common manifestations of NTM infection in SOT recipients include cutaneous and pleuropulmonary disease, and, in HSCT recipients, catheter-related infection. Skin and pulmonary lesions should be biopsied for histologic examination, special staining, and microbiologic cultures, including cultures for bacteria, Nocardia species, fungi, and mycobacteria. Mycobacterial infections associated with catheters may be documented by tunnel or blood (isolator) cultures. Susceptibility testing of mycobacterial isolates is an essential component of optimal care. The frequent isolation of NTM other than Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) from transplant recipients limits the extrapolation of therapeutic data from human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals to the population of transplant recipients. Issues involved in the management of NTM disease in transplant recipients are characterized by a case of disseminated infection due to Mycobacterium avium complex in a lung transplant recipient, with a review of the relevant literature.

  14. Improvement of the production efficiency of L-(+)-tartaric acid by heterogeneous whole-cell bioconversion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ziqiang; Wang, Yunshan; Shi, Hong; Su, Zhiguo

    2014-04-01

    An Escherichia coli-engineered bacterium with cis-epoxysuccinate hydrolase (ESH) activity was used to catalyze the stereospecific hydrolysis of cis-epoxysuccinic acid to L-(+)-tartaric acid. The effect of the substrate composition on the production efficiency of L-(+)-tartaric acid was investigated. Based on the sodium-type homogeneous substrate system, a heterogeneous substrate system, composed of 1.2 M sodium-type substrate and 1.8 M calcium-type substrate, was designed to improve ESH catalytic efficiency. After process optimization, a catalytic efficiency of 9.37 × 10(-3) g U(-1) h(-1) was obtained with fed-batch mode in the heterogeneous substrate system, about a twofold increase compared to the traditional bioconversion process with Nocardia tartaricans cells. The scale-up tests were carried out in a 15-m(3) stirred tank reactor, which indicated that the heterogeneous substrate system had great application prospect for the L-(+)-tartaric acid industrial production.

  15. Betalains increase vitexin-2-O-xyloside cytotoxicity in CaCo-2 cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Farabegoli, F; Scarpa, E S; Frati, A; Serafini, G; Papi, A; Spisni, E; Antonini, E; Benedetti, S; Ninfali, P

    2017-03-01

    Vitexin-2-O-xyloside (XVX) from Beta vulgaris var. cicla L. (BVc) seeds, betaxanthin (R1) and betacyanin (R2) fractions from Beta vulgaris var. rubra L. (BVr) roots were combined and tested for cytotoxicity in CaCo-2 colon cancer cells. XVX was the most cytotoxic molecule, but the combination of XVX with R1 and R2 significantly prolonged its cytotoxicity. Cytotoxicity was mediated by the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, as shown by an increase in Bcl2-like protein 4, cleaved Poly ADP-Ribosyl Polymerase 1 and cleaved Caspase 3 levels with a parallel decrease in anti-apoptotic protein B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 levels. R1 and R2, used alone or in combination, reduced oxidative stress triggered by H2O2 in CaCo-2 cells. Betalains dampened cyclooxygenase-2 and interleukin-8 mRNA expression after lipopolysaccharide induction in CaCo-2, showing an anti-inflammatory action. Our results support the use of a cocktail of R1, R2 and XVX as a chemopreventive tool against colon cancer.

  16. Microsatellite markers for northern red oak (Fagaceae: Quercus rubra)

    Treesearch

    Preston R. Aldrich; Charles H. Michler; Weilin Sun; Jeanne Romero-Severson

    2002-01-01

    We provide primer sequences for 14 (GA)n microsatellite loci developed from northern red oak, an important timber species. We screened loci using two sets of samples. A parent-offspring set included DNA from seven acorns collected from one mother tree along with maternal DNA, to determine that all progeny carried a maternal allele at each locus....

  17. Biocatalytic Synthesis of Vanillin

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Rosazza, John P. N.

    2000-01-01

    The conversions of vanillic acid and O-benzylvanillic acid to vanillin were examined by using whole cells and enzyme preparations of Nocardia sp. strain NRRL 5646. With growing cultures, vanillic acid was decarboxylated (69% yield) to guaiacol and reduced (11% yield) to vanillyl alcohol. In resting Nocardia cells in buffer, 4-O-benzylvanillic acid was converted to the corresponding alcohol product without decarboxylation. Purified Nocardia carboxylic acid reductase, an ATP and NADPH-dependent enzyme, quantitatively reduced vanillic acid to vanillin. Structures of metabolites were established by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectral analyses. PMID:10653736

  18. Synthesis of chiral 2-alkanols from n-alkanes by a P. putida whole-cell biocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Tieves, Florian; Erenburg, Isabelle N; Mahmoud, Osama; Urlacher, Vlada B

    2016-09-01

    The cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP154A8 from Nocardia farcinica was previously found to catalyze hydroxylation of linear alkanes (C7 -C9 ) with a high regio- and stereoselectivity. The objective of this study was to integrate CYP154A8 along with suitable redox partners into a whole-cell system for the production of chiral 2-alkanols starting from alkanes. Both recombinant Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas putida whole-cell biocatalysts tested for this purpose showed the ability to produce chiral alkanols, but a solvent tolerant P. putida strain demonstrated several advantages in the applied biphasic reaction system. The optimized P. putida whole-cell system produced ∼16 mM (S)-2-octanol with 87% ee from octane, which is more than sevenfold higher than the previously described system with isolated enzymes. The achieved enantiopurity of the product could further be increased up to 99% ee by adding an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) to the alkane-oxidizing P. putida whole-cell systems. By using this setup for the individual conversions of heptane, octane or nonane, 2.6 mM (S)-2-heptanol with 91% ee, 5.4 mM (S)-2-octanol with 97% ee, or 5.5 mM (S)-2-nonanol with 97% ee were produced, respectively. The achieved concentrations of chiral 2-alkanols are the highest reported for a P450-based whole-cell system so far. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1845-1852. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Paeoniflorin inhibits imiquimod-induced psoriasis in mice by regulating Th17 cell response and cytokine secretion.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingxia; Di, Tingting; Wang, Yan; Wang, Ying; Liu, Xin; Liang, Daiying; Li, Ping

    2016-02-05

    Paeoniflorin (PF) is the main active ingredients of radix paeoniae rubra and radix paeoniae alba, which are used widely in Traditional Chinese Medicine. This study aimed to assess the capacity of PF to inhibit imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis. Mice treated with IMQ were divided into four groups and administered 240mg/kg/day or 120mg/kg/day of PF, 1mg/kg/day of methotrexate (MTX), or normal saline intragastrically. Weight-matched mice treated with vaseline were used as controls. Morphology, structural features, keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation, inflammatory cell infiltration, levels of Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg cytokine mRNA, and phosphorylation of Th17 differentiation-related proteins were assessed. Mouse spleen cells were incubated under Th17 polarizing conditions, then with PF (2, 20, and 200μg/ml) and cell viability, Th17 differentiation, and Th17 cytokines and the orphan nuclear receptor (RORγt) mRNA levels were assessed. PF alleviated IMQ-induced keratinocyte proliferation and inflammatory cell infiltration, and reduced mRNA levels of Th17 cytokines at day 4 and phosphorylation of Th17 differentiation-related proteins. However, 2, 20, or 200μg/ml PF did not affect spleen cell viability, and 2 and 20μg/ml PF reduced IL-17 secretion under Th17 polarizing conditions. Finally, 2 and 20μg/ml PF inhibited mRNA expression of Th17 cytokines and phosphorylation of Stat3 in spleen cells under Th17 polarizing conditions. These results suggest that PF inhibits IMQ-induced psoriasis by regulating Th17 cell response and cytokine secretion via phosphorylation of Stat3.

  20. Novel CARD11 Mutations in Human Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Lead to Aberrant NF-κB Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Stephen A.; Purdie, Karin J.; den Breems, Nicoline Y.; Dimon, Michelle; Arron, Sarah T.; McHugh, Angela T.; Xue, Dylan J.; Dayal, Jasbani H.S.; Proby, Charlotte M.; Harwood, Catherine A.; Leigh, Irene M.; South, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    NF-κB signaling plays a crucial role in regulating proliferation and differentiation in the epidermis. Alterations in the NF-κB pathway can lead to skin pathologies with a significant burden to human health such as psoriasis and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC). Caspase recruitment domain (CARD)-containing scaffold proteins are key regulators of NF-κB signaling by providing a link between membrane receptors and NF-κB transcriptional subunits. Mutations in the CARD family member, CARD14, have been identified in patients with the inflammatory skin diseases psoriasis and pityriasis rubra pilaris. Here, we describe that the gene coding for another CARD scaffold protein, CARD11, is mutated in more than 38% of 111 cSCCs, and show that novel variants outside of the coiled-coil domain lead to constitutively activated NF-κB signaling. CARD11 protein expression was detectable in normal skin and increased in all cSCCs tested. CARD11 mRNA levels were comparable with CARD14 in normal skin and CARD11 mRNA was increased in cSCC. In addition, we identified CARD11 mutations in peritumoral and sun-exposed skin, suggesting that CARD11-mediated alterations in NF-κB signaling may be an early event in the development of cSCC. PMID:26212909